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Title: Character Sketches of Romance, Fiction, and the Drama, Vol 2 (of 4)
Author: Brewer, Ebenezer Cobham
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                          Transcriber’s Note:

This version of the text cannot represent certain typographical effects.
Italics are delimited with the ‘_’ character as _italic_. The topic
headings were printed in =boldface= type, and are delimited with ‘_’.

The original volume promised many illustrations. However, the edition
used here had none of them. The List of Illustrations is retained;
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Minor errors, attributable to the printer, have been corrected. Please
see the transcriber’s note at the end of this text for details regarding
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The following less-common characters are found in this book: ă (a with
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                       A REVISED AMERICAN EDITION
                        OF THE READER’S HANDBOOK


                    THE REV. E. COBHAM BREWER, LL.D.

                               EDITED BY

                             MARION HARLAND


                               VOLUME II

[Illustration: colophon]


        NEW YORK              SELMAR HESS              PUBLISHER




                          Copyright, 1892, by
                              SELMAR HESS.

       HESS PRESS.

                         LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.


                               VOLUME II.



          _Illustration_                 _Artist_
 LA CIGALE (_colored_)             E. METZMACHER         _Frontispiece_
 FATES (THE)                       PAUL THUMANN                       6
 GABRIEL AND EVANGELINE            FRANK DICKSEE                     56
 GANYMEDE                          F. KIRCHBACH                      64
                                   DAGNAN-BOUVERET                  140
 HAMLET AND HIS FATHER’S GHOST     E. VON HOFFTEN                   142
 HERODIAS                          BENJAMIN CONSTANT                172
 LORELEI (THE)                     W. KRAY                          340


 FALSTAFF AND MRS. FORD.                                              2
 FARIA ENTERS DANTES’S CELL        JANET LANGE                        4
 FATIMA AND ANNA                   GUSTAVE DORÉ                       8
 FATINITZA                         ADRIEN MARIE                      10
 FATMÉ                             N. SICHEL                         12
 FAUNTLEROY (LITTLE LORD)          F. M. SPIEGLE                     14
 FITZJAMES AND RODERICK DHU        J. B. MCDONALD                    22
   BACON;—JOHN GILPIN              THOMAS STOTHARD                   24
 FLAVIO AND HILARIA                                                  26
 FLORESTAN SAVED BY LEONORA        EUGEN KLIMSCH                     30
   BAMBERG                         CARL BECKER                       46
 FRITHIOF AND INGEBORG             R. BENDEMANN                      50
   RING                            FERD. LEEKE                       52
 FROU-FROU                         GEORGES CLAIRIN                   54
 GAMP (SAIREY)                     FREDERICK BARNARD                 60
   SISTER                          FREDERICK BARNARD                 62
   AUX CAMÉLIAS                                                      68
 GAVROCHE                          E. BAYARD                         70
 GILDA AND RIGOLETTO               HERMANN KAULBACH                  86
 GLAUCUS AND NYDIA                 W. E. LOCKHART                    94
 GOBBO (LAUNCELOT)                                                   98
 GODIVA                            J. VON LERIUS                    100
 GRACCHI (THE MOTHER OF THE)       SCHOPIN                          108
 GRASSHOPPER (THE) AND THE ANT     J. G. VIBERT                     112
 GULLIVER CHAINED                  J. G. VIBERT                     130
 GUNTHER (KING)                    B. GUTH                          132
   EKKEHARD BRINGING               CARL VON BLAAS                   134
 HAIDÉE                                                             136
 HALIFAX (JOHN) SAVING THE BANK    J. NASH                          138
 HARLOWE (CLARISSA)                C. LANDSEER                      144
   OF)                                                              146
   MERRILEES                       J.B. MCDONALD                    150
 HEBE                              CANOVA                           154
 HECTOR AND ANDROMACHE             A. MAIGNAN                       156
 HEEP (URIAH)                      FREDERICK BARNARD                158
 HELEN (THE ABDUCTION OF)          R. VON DEUTSCH                   160
 HELOISE                           GLEYRE                           163
 HERMANN AND DOROTHEA              W. VON KAULBACH                  166
 HERMIONE                                                           168
 HERO AND LEANDER                  FERDINAND KELLER                 170
 HETTY (DINAH AND)                                                  174
 HIPPOLYTUS (DEATH OF)             RUBENS                           176
 HOP-O’-MY-THUMB                   GUSTAVE DORÉ                     182
 HORATII (THE OATH OF THE)         L. DAVID                         184
 HYPATIA                           A. SEIFERT                       198
 IANTHE                                                             200
 ILSE IN THE FARM-STABLE           PAUL MEYERHEIM                   202
 IMMO AND HILDEGARD                HERMANN KAULBACH                 204
 IMOGEN IN THE CAVE                T. GRAHAM                        206
 INGOMAR (PARTHENIA AND)           G. H. SWINSTEAD                  212
 IPHIGENIA                         EDMUND KANOLDT                   214
 IRENE AND KLEA                    E. TESCHENDORFF                  216
 ISABELLA AND THE POT OF BASIL     HOLMAN HUNT                      218
   BURGUNDY (INTERVIEW BETWEEN)    A. ELMORE                        220
 JINGLE (ALFRED)                   FREDERICK BARNARD                240
 JOAN OF ARC                       EMMANUEL FRÉMIET                 242
 JOHN OF LEYDEN                    FERDINAND KELLE                  248
 JOURDAIN (MONSIEUR) AND NICOLE    C.R. LESLIE                      250
 JUAN (DON) IN THE BARQUE          EUGÈNE DELACROIX                 252
 KÄGEBEIN AND BODINUS              CONRAD BECKMANN                  256
 LALLA ROOKH                       A. DE VALENTINE                  292
 LANCELOT AND ELAINE                                                294
 LANTENAC AT THE STONE PILLAR      G. BRION                         296
 LEAR (KING) AND THE FOOL          GUSTAV SCHAUER                   310
 LEIGH (SIR AMYAS)                 C. J. STANILAND                  314
 LEONORA AND FERDINANDO            J. B. DUFFAUD                    318
 LOHENGRIN (ELSA AND)                                               336
 LOUIS XI                          M. BAFFIER                       342
 LOUISE, THE GLEE-MAIDEN           ROBERT HERDMAN                   344


An American reprint of “_The Reader’s Handbook of allusions, references,
plots and stories, by the Rev. E. Cobham Brewer, LL.D., of Trinity Hall,
Cambridge_,” has been for several years in the hands of cis-Atlantic

Too much praise cannot be awarded to the erudition and patient diligence
displayed in the compilation of this volume of nearly twelve hundred
pages. The breadth of range contemplated by the learned editor is best
indicated in his own words:

“The object of this _Handbook_ is to supply readers and speakers with a
lucid, but very brief account of such names as are used in allusions and
references, whether by poets or prose writers;—to furnish those who
consult it with the plot of popular dramas, the story of epic poems, and
the outline of well-known tales. The number of dramatic plots sketched
out is many hundreds. Another striking and interesting feature of the
book is the revelation of the source from which dramatists and romancers
have derived their stories, and the strange repetitions of historic
incidents. It has been borne in mind throughout that it is not enough to
state a fact. It must be stated attractively, and the character
described must be drawn characteristically if the reader is to
appreciate it, and feel an interest in what he reads.”

All that Dr. Brewer claims for his book is sustained by examination of
it. It is nevertheless true that there is in it a mass of matter
comparatively unattractive to the American student and to the general
reader. Many of his “allusions” are to localities and neighborhood
traditions that, however interesting to English people, seem to us
trivial, verbose and inopportune, while he, whose chief object in the
purchase of the work is to possess a popular encyclopædia of literature,
is rather annoyed than edified by even an erudite author when his “talk
is of oxen,” fish, flesh and fowl.

Furthermore, the _Handbook_ was prepared so long ago that the popular
literature of the last dozen years is unrecorded; writers who now occupy
the foremost places in the public eye not being so much as named.

In view of these and other drawbacks to the extended usefulness of the
manual, the publishing-house whose imprint is upon the title-page of the
present work, taking the stanch foundation laid by Dr. Brewer, have
caused to be constructed upon it a work that, while retaining all of the
original material that can interest and aid the English-speaking
student, gives also “characters and sketches found in _American_ novels,
poetry and drama.”

It goes without saying that in the attempt to do this, it was necessary
to leave out a greater bulk of entertaining matter than could be wrought
in upon the original design. The imagination of the compiler, to whose
reverent hands the task was entrusted, recurred continually, while it
was in progress, to the magnificent hyperbole of the sacred
narrator—“The which, if they should be written, every one, I suppose
that even the world itself could not contain the books that should be
written.” Appreciation of the honor put upon her by the commission
deepened into delight as the work went on—prideful delight in the
richness and variety of our national literature. To do ample justice to
every writer and book would have been impossible, but the leading works
of every author of note have the honorable place. It is hoped that the
company of “characters” introduced among _dramatis personæ_ of English
and foreign classics, ancient and modern, will enliven pages that are
already fascinating. Many names of English authors omitted from the
_Handbook_ for the reason stated awhile ago, will also be found in their
proper positions.

The compiler and editor of this volume would be ungrateful did she not
express her sense of obligation for assistance received in the work of
collecting lists of writers and books from “_The Library of American
Literature_,” prepared by Mr. Edmund Clarence Stedman and Miss Ellen

Besides this, and a tolerable degree of personal familiarity with the
leading literature of her own land, her resort has been to the public
libraries in New York City—notably, to _The Astor_ and _The Mercantile_.
For the uniform courtesy she has received from those in charge of these
institutions she herewith makes acknowledgement in the publisher’s name
and in her own.

                                                     MARION HARLAND.


                        FICTION, AND THE DRAMA.

=Falkland=, an aristocratic gentleman, of a noble, loving nature, but
the victim of false honor and morbid refinement of feeling. Under great
provocation, he was goaded on to commit murder, but being tried was
honorably acquitted, and another person was executed for the crime.
Caleb Williams, a lad in Falkland’s service, accidently became
acquainted with these secret facts, but, unable to live in the house
under the suspicious eyes of Falkland, he ran away. Falkland tracked him
from place to place, like a blood-hound, and at length arrested him for
robbery. The true statement now came out, and Falkland died of shame and
broken spirit. —W. Godwin, _Caleb Williams_ (1794).

⁂ This tale has been dramatized by G. Colman, under the title of _The
Iron Chest_, in which Falkland is called “Sir Edward Mortimer,” and
Caleb Williams is called “Wilford.”

=False One= (_The_), a tragedy by Beaumont and Fletcher (1619). The
subject is the amours of Julius Caesar and Cleopat´ra.

=Falsetto= (_Signor_), a man who fawns on Fazio in prosperity, and turns
his back on him when fallen into disgrace.—Dean Milman, _Fazio_ (1815).

=Falstaff= (_Sir John_), in _The Merry Wives of Windsor_, and in the two
parts of _Henry IV._, by Shakespeare. In _Henry V._, his death is
described by Mrs. Quickly, hostess of an inn in Eastcheap. In the
comedy, Sir John is represented as making love to Mrs. Page, who “fools
him to the top of his bent.” In the historic plays, he is represented as
a soldier and a wit, the boon companion of “Mad-cap Hal” (the prince of
Wales). In both cases, he is a mountain of fat, sensual, mendacious,
boastful, and fond of practical jokes.

In the king’s army, “Sir John” was Captain, “Peto” Lieutenant, “Pistol”
ancient [ensign], and “Bardolph” Corporal.

C.R. Leslie says: “Quin’s ‘Falstaff’ must have been glorious. Since
Garrick’s time there have been more than one ‘Richard,’ ‘Hamlet,’
‘Romeo,’ ‘Macbeth,’ and ‘Lear;’ but since Quin [1693-1766] only one
'Falstaff,' John Henderson [1747-1786].”

Falstaff, unimitated, inimitable, Falstaff, how shall I describe thee?
Thou compound of sense and vice: of sense which may be admired, but not
esteemed; of vice which may be despised, but hardly detested. “Falstaff
” is a character loaded with faults, and with those faults which
naturally produce contempt. He is a thief and a glutton, a coward and a
boaster, always ready to cheat the weak and prey upon the poor, to
terrify the timorous and insult the defenceless. At once obsequious and
malignant—yet the man thus corrupt, thus despicable, makes himself
necessary to the prince by perpetual gaiety, and by unfailing power of
exciting laughter.—Dr. Johnson.

=Fanciful= (_Lady_), a vain, conceited beauty, who calls herself “nice,
strangely nice,” and says she was formed “to make the whole creation
uneasy.” She loves Heartfree, a railer against women, and when he
proposes marriage to Belinda, a rival beauty, spreads a most impudent
scandal, which, however, reflects only on herself. Heartfree, who at one
time was partly in love with her, says to her:

“Nature made you handsome, gave you beauty to a miracle, a shape without
a fault, wit enough to make them relish ... but art has made you become
the pity of our sex, and the jest of your own. There’s not a feature in
your face but you have found the way to teach it some affected
convulsion. Your feet, your hands, your very finger-ends, are directed
never to move without some ridiculous air, and your language is a
suitable trumpet to draw people’s eyes upon the raree-show” (act ii.
1).—Vanbrugh, _The Provoked Wife_ (1697).

=Fan-Fan=, _alias_ =Phelin O’Tug=, “a lolly-pop maker, and manufacturer
of maids of honor to the court.” This merry, shy, and blundering elf,
concealed in a bear-skin, makes love to Christine, the faithful
attendant on the Countess Marie. Phelin O’Tug says his mother was too
bashful ever to let him know her, and his father always kept in the
back-ground.—E. Stirling, _The Prisoner of State_ (1847).

=Fang=, a bullying, insolent magistrate, who would have sent Oliver
Twist to prison, on suspicion of theft, if Mr. Brownlow had not
interposed on the boy’s behalf.—C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

The original of this ill-tempered, bullying magistrate was Mr. Laing, of
Hatton Garden, removed from the bench by the home secretary.—John
Foster, _Life of Dickens_, iii. 4.

=Fang and Snare=, two sheriff’s officers.—Shakespeare, _2 Henry IV_

=Fanny= (_Robin_). Country girl seduced under promise of marriage by
Sergeant Troy. She dies with her child and is buried by Troy’s
betrothed, who learns after her marriage the tale of Fanny’s wrongs.—T.
Hardy, _Far from the Madding Crowd_ (1874).

_Fanny_ (_Lord_). So John Lord Hervey was usually called by the wits of
the time, in consequence of his effeminate habits. His appearance was
that of a “half-wit, half-fool, half-man, half-beau.” He used rouge,
drank ass’s milk, and took Scotch pills (1694-1743).

Consult Lord Fanny, and confide in Curll [_publisher_]. Byron, _English
Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

_Fanny_ (_Miss_), younger daughter of Mr. Sterling, a rich City
merchant. She was clandestinely married to Lovewell. “Gentle-looking,
soft-speaking, sweet-smiling, and affable,” wanting “nothing but a crook
in her hand and a lamb under her arm to be a perfect picture of
innocence and simplicity.” Every one loved her, and as her marriage was
a secret, Sir John Melvil and Lord Ogleby both proposed to her. Her
marriage with Lovewell being ultimately made known, her dilemma was
removed.—Colman and Garrick, _The Clandestine Marriage_ (1766).

=Fan´teries= (3 _syl._), foot-soldiers, infantry.

Five other bandes of English fanteries. G. Gascoigne, 1535-1577, _The
Fruites of Warre_ (1575)

=Fantine=. Parisian girl, deserted by her lover and left to support her
child as best she can. Her heroic self-devotion is one of the most
interesting episodes of _Les Miserables_, a romance by Victor Hugo.

=Faquir´=, a religious anchorite, whose life is spent in the severest
austerities and mortification.

He diverted himself, however ... especially with the Brahmins, faquirs,
and other enthusiasts who had travelled from the heart of India, and
halted on their way with the emir.—W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1786).

=Farçeur= (_The_), Angelo Beolco, the Italian farce-writer. Called
_Ruzzante_ in Italian, from _ruzzare_, “to play the fool” (1502-1542).

=Farina´ta= [DEGLI UBERTI], a noble Florentine, leader of the Ghibeline
faction, and driven from his country in 1250 by the Guelfs (1 _syl._).
Some ten years later by the aid of Manfred of Naples, he beat the
Guelfs, and took all the towns of Tuscany and Florence. Danté conversed
with him in the city of Dis, and represents him as lying in a fiery tomb
yet open, and not to be closed till the last judgment day. When the
council agreed to raze Florence to the ground, Farinata opposed the
measure, and saved the city. Dantê refers to this:

      Lo! Farinata ... his brow
      Somewhat uplifted, cried ...
      “In that affray [i.e. _at Montaperto, near the river Arbia_]
      I stood not singly ...
      But singly there I stood, when by consent
      Of all, Florence had to the ground been razed,—
      The one who openly forbade the deed.”
                     Dante, _Inferno_, x. (1300).
          Like Farinata from his fiery tomb.
                     Longfellow, _Dante_.


         “Over the hill the farm-boy goes,
         His shadow lengthens along the land,
             A giant staff in a giant hand.
         In the poplar tree above the spring
         The katydid begins to sing;
             The early dews are falling.
            *       *       *       *       *
         And home to the woodland fly the crows,
         While over the hill the farm-boy goes,
             Cheerily calling,
         ‘Co’ boss! co’ boss! co’! co’! co’!’”
                J.T. Trowbridge, _Evening at the Farm_ (1857).

=Farmer Finch=, girl who works her invalid father’s farm for him and
makes it pay.—Sarah Orne Jewett, _Farmer Finch_.

=Farm-house= (_The_). Modely and Heartwell, two gentlemen of fashion,
come into the country and receive hospitality from old Farmer Freehold.
Here they make love to his daughter Aura and his niece Flora. The girls,
being high-principled, convert the flirtation of the two guests into
love, and Heartwell marries the niece, while Modely proposes to Aura,
who accepts him, provided he will wait two months and remain constant to
her.—John Philip Kemble.

=Farmer George=, George III.; so called because he was like a farmer in
dress, manners, and tastes (1738-1820).

=Farmer’s Wife= (_The_), a musical drama by C. Dibdin (1780).
Cornflower, a benevolent, high-minded farmer, having saved Emma Belton
from the flames of a house on fire, married her, and they lived together
in love and peace till Sir Charles Courtly took a fancy to Mrs.
Cornflower, and abducted her. She was soon tracked, and as it was
evident that she was no _particeps criminis_, she was restored to her
husband, and Sir Charles gave his sister to Mrs. Cornflower’s brother in
marriage as a peace-offering.

=Farnese Bull= [_Far.nay´.ze_], a colossal group of sculpture,
attributed to Apollõnius and Tauriscus of Trallês, in Asia Minor. The
group represents Dircê bound by Zethus and Amphi´on to the horns of a
bull, for ill-using their mother. It was restored by Bianchi, in 1546,
and placed in the Farnesê palace, in Italy.

=Farnese He´rcules= [_Far.nay´.ze_], a name given to Glykon’s copy of
the famous statue by Lysippos (a Greek sculptor in the time of Alexander
“the Great”). It represents Hercules leaning on his club, with one hand
on his back. The Farnesê family became extinct in 1731.

=Fashion= (_Sir Brilliant_), a man of the world, who “dresses
fashionably, lives fashionably, wins your money fashionably, loses his
own fashionably, and does everything fashionably.” His fashionable
asservations are, “Let me perish, if ...!” “May fortune eternally frown
on me, if ...!” “May I never hold four by honors, if ...!” “May the
first woman I meet strike me with a supercilious eyebrow, if ...!” and
so on.—A. Murphy, _The Way to Keep Him_ (1760).

_Fashion_ (_Tom_), or “Young Fashion,” younger brother of Lord
Foppington. As his elder brother did not behave well to him, Tom
resolved to outwit him, and to this end introduced himself to Sir
Tunbelly Clumsy and his daughter, Miss Hoyden, as Lord Foppington,
between whom and the knight a negotiation of marriage had been carried
on. Being established in the house, Tom married the heiress, and when
the veritable lord appeared, he was treated as an impositor. Tom,
however, explained his ruse, and as his lordship treated the knight with
great contempt and quitted the house, a reconciliation was easily
effected.—Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_ (1777).

=Fashionable Lover= (_The_). Lord Abberville, a young man of 23 years of
age, promises marriage to Lucinda Bridgemore, the vulgar, spiteful,
purse-proud daughter of a London merchant, living in Fish Street Hill.
At the house of this merchant Lord Abberville sees a Miss Aubrey, a
handsome, modest, lady-like girl, with whom he is greatly smitten. He
first tries to corrupt her, and then promises marriage; but Miss Aubrey
is already engaged to a Mr. Tyrrel. The vulgarity and ill-nature of
Lucinda being quite insurmountable, “the fashionable lover” abandons
her, The chief object of the drama is to root out the prejudice which
Englishmen at one time entertained against the Scotch, and the chief
character is in reality Colin or Cawdie Macleod, a Scotch servant of
Lord Abberville.—R. Cumberland (1780).

=Fastolfe= (_Sir John_), in _1 Henry VI_. This is not the “Sir John
Falstaff” of huge proportions and facetious wit, but the
Lieutenant-general of the duke of Bedford, and a knight of Garter.

          Here had the conquest fully been sealed up
          If Sir John Fastolfe had not played the coward:
          He being in the vanward ...
          Cowardly fled, not having struck one stroke.
               Shakespeare, _1 Henry VI_. act i. sc. 1 (1589).

From this battell [_of Pataie, in France_] departed without anie stroke
striken, Sir John Fastolfe.... The duke of Bedford tooke from him the
image of St. George and his garter.—Holinshed, ii. 601.

=Fastra´da= or FASTRADE, daughter of Count Rudolph and Luitgarde. She
was one of the nine wives of Charlemagne.

            Those same soft bells at even-tide
              Rang in the ears of Charlemagne,
            As seated by Fastrada’s side,
            At Ingelheim, in all his pride,
              He heard their sound with secret pain.
                           Longfellow, _Golden Legend_, vi.

=Fat= (_The_). Alfonso II. of Portugal (1185, 1212-1223). Charles II.
(_le Gros_) of France (832-882). Louis VI. (_le Gros_) of France (1078,

Edward Bright of Essex weighed 44 stone (616 lbs.) at death (1720-1750).
David Lambert of Leicester weighed above 52 stone (739 lbs.) at death

=Fata Alci´na=, sister of Fata Morga´na. She carried off Astolfo on the
back of a whale to her isle, but turned him into a myrtle tree when she
tired of him.—Bojardo, _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495); Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

=Fata Ar´gea= (“_le reina della Fata_”), protectress Floridantê.

=Fata Falsire´na=, an enchantress in the _Adonê_ of Marini (1623).

=Fata della Fonti=, an enchantress, from whom Mandricardo obtained the
arms of Hector.—Bojardo, _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495).

=Fata Morga´na=, sister of Arthur, and pupil of Merlin. She lived at the
bottom of a lake, and dispensed her treasures to whom she willed. This
fairy is introduced by Bojardo in his _Orlando Innamorato_, first as
“Lady Fortune,” but subsequently as an enchantress. In Tasso her three
daughters (Morganetta, Nivetta, and Carvilia) are introduced.

⁂ “Fata Morgana” is the name given to a sort of mirage occasionally seen
in the Straits of Messi´na.

=Fata Nera and Fata Bianca=, protectresses of Guido´nê and
Aquilantê.—Bojardo, _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495).

=Fata Silvanella=, an enchantress in _Orlando Innamorato_, by Bojardo

=Fatal Curiosity=, an epilogue in _Don Quixote_ (pt. I. iv. 5, 6). The
subject of this tale is the trial of a wife’s fidelity. Anselmo, a
Florentine gentleman, had married Camilla, and wishing to rejoice over
her incorruptible fidelity, induced his friend Lothario to put it to the
test. The lady was not trial-proof, but eloped with Lothario. The end
was that Anselmo died of grief, Lothario was slain in battle, and
Camilla died in a convent (1605).

_Fatal Curiosity_, by George Lillo. Young Wilmot, supposed to have
perished at sea, goes to India, and having made his fortune, returns to
England. He instantly visits Charlotte, whom he finds still faithful and
devotedly attached to him, and then in disguise visits his parents, with
whom he deposits a casket. Agnes Wilmot, out of curiosity, opens the
casket, and when she discovers that it contains jewels, she and her
husband resolve to murder the owner, and secure the contents of the
casket. Scarcely have they committed the fatal deed, when Charlotte
enters, and tells them it is their own son whom they have killed,
whereupon old Wilmot first stabs his wife and then himself. Thus was the
“curiosity” of Agnes fatal to herself, her husband, and her son (1736).

=Fatal Dowry= (_The_), a tragedy by Philip Massinger (1632). Rowe has
borrowed much of his _Fair Penitent_ from this drama.

=Fatal Marriage= (_The_), a tragedy by Thomas Southern (1659-1746).
Isabella, a nun, marries Biron, the eldest son of Count Baldwin. The
count disinherits his son for this marriage, and Biron, entering the
army, is sent to the siege of Candy, where he is seen to fall, and is
reported dead. Isabella, reduced to the utmost poverty, after seven
years of “widowhood,” prays Count Baldwin to do something for her child,
but he turns her out of doors. Villeroy (2 _syl._) proposes marriage to
her, and her acceptance of him was “the fatal marriage,” for the very
next day Biron returns and is set upon by ruffians in the pay of his
brother Carlos, who assassinate him. Carlos accuses Villeroy of the
murder, but one of the ruffians confesses, and Carlos is apprehended. As
for Isabella, she stabs herself and dies.

=Fat Boy= (_Jo._). Obese page, or foot-boy of Mr. Wardell in _Pickwick
Papers_.—Charles Dickens.

=Fates.= _The three Fatal Sisters_ were Clo´tho, Lachesis
[_Lak´.e.sis_]. and At´ropos. They dwelt in the deep abyss of
Demogorgon, “with unwearied fingers drawing out the threads of life.”
Clotho held the spindle or distaff; Lachesis drew out the thread; and
Atropos cut it off.

         Sad Clotho held the rock, the whiles the thread
           By grisly Lachesis was spun with pain,
         That cruel Atropos eftsoon undid,
           With cursëd knife cutting the twist in twain.
                        Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 2. (1595).

=Father—Son.= It is a common observation that a father above the common
rate of men has usually a son below it. Witness King John son of Henry
II.; Edward II. son of Edward I.; Richard II. son of the Black Prince;
Henry VI. son of Henry V.; Lord Chesterfield’s son, etc. So in French
history: Louis VIII. was the son of Philippe _Auguste_; Charles _the
Idiot_ was the son of Charles _le Sage_; Henri II. of François I. Again,
in German history: Heinrich VI. was the son of Barbarossa; Albrecht I.
of Rudolf; and so on, in all directions. _Heroum filii noxæ_ is a Latin

                                  My trust,
       Like a good parent, did beget of him
       A falsehood, in its contrary as great
       As my trust was.
                 Shakespeare, _The Tempest_, act i. sc. 2 (1609).

=Father Suckled by His own Daughter.= Euphrasia, called “The Grecian
Daughter,” thus preserved the life of her father Evander in prison. (SEE

Xantippê thus preserved the life of her father Cimonos in prison.

=A Father’s Head Nursed by a Daughter after Death.= Margaret Roper
“clasped in her last trance her murdered father’s head.” (SEE DAUGHTER.)

=Father of His Country.=

CICERO, who broke up the Catiline conspiracy (B.C. 106-43).

⁂ The Romans offered the same title to Marĭus after his annihilation of
the Teutŏnês and Cimbri, but he would not accept it.

JULIUS CÆSAR, after he had quelled the Spanish insurrection (B.C.
100-44). AUGUSTUS, _P_ (B.C. 63-31 to A.D. 14).

COSMO DE MEDICI (1389-1464).

ANDREA DOREA; called so on his statue at Genoa (1468-1560).

ANDRONI´CUS PALÆOL´OGUS assumed the title (1260-1332).

GEORGE WASHINGTON, “Defender and Paternal Counseller of the American
States” (1732-1799).

=Father of the People=.

LOUIS XII. of France (1462, 1498-1515).

HENRI IV. of France, “The Father and Friend of the People” (1553,

LOUIS XVIII. of France (1755, 1814-1824).

GABRIEL DU PINEAU, a French lawyer, (1573-1644).

CHRISTIAN III. of Denmark (1502, 1534-1559).

⁂ For other “Fathers,” see under the specific name or vocation, as

=Fathers= (_Last of the_), St. Bernard (1091-1153).

⁂ The “Fathers of the Church” were followed by “the Schoolmen.”

=Fatherless=. Merlin never had a father; his mother was a nun, the
daughter of the king of Dimetia.

=Fathom= (_Ferdinand Count_), a villain who robs his benefactors,
pillages any one, and finally dies in misery and despair.—T. Smollett,
_The Adventures of Ferdinand Count Fathom_ (1754).

(The gang being absent, an old beldame conveys the count to a rude
apartment to sleep in. Here he found the dead body of a man lately
stabbed and concealed in some straw; and the account of his sensations
during the night, the horrid device by which he saved his life (by
lifting the corpse into his own bed), and his escape, guided by the hag,
is terrifically tragic).

=Fatima=, daughter of Mahomet, and one of the four perfect women. The
other three are Khadîjah, the prophet’s first wife; Mary, daughter of
Imrân; and Asia, wife of that Pharaoh who was drowned in the Red Sea.

_Fat´ima_, a holy woman of China, who lived a hermit’s life. There was
“no one affected with headache whom she did not cure by simply laying
her hands on them.” An African magician induced this devotee to lend him
her clothes and stick, and to make him the fac-simile of herself. He
then murdered her, and got introduced into the palace of Aladdin.
Aladdin, being informed of the trick, pretended to have a bad headache,
and when the false Fatima approached, under the pretence of curing it,
he plunged a dagger into the heart of the magician and killed
him.—_Arabian Nights_ (“Aladdin or the Wonderful Lamp”).

_Fat´ima_, the mother of Prince Camaral´zaman. Her husband was
Schah´zaman, Sultan of the “Isle of the Children of Khal´edan, some
twenty days’ sail from the coast of Persia, in the open sea.”—_Arabian
Nights_ (“Camaralzaman and Badoura”).

_Fat´ima_, the last of Bluebeard´s wives. She was saved from death by
the timely arrival of her brothers with a party of friends.—C. Perrault,
_Contes de Fées_ (1697).

=Fat´imite= (3 _syl._). _The Third Fatimite_, the Caliph Hakem
B’amr-ellah, who professed to be incarnate deity, and the last prophet
who had communication between God and man. He was the founder of the
Druses (_q.v._).

       What say you does this wizard style himself—
       Hakeem Biamrallah, the Third Fatimite?
                  Robt. Browning, _The Return of the Druses_, v.

=Fatme=. Beautiful sultana, who, looking down from her lattice into the
courtyard wept to see a lamb slaughtered, yet turned from the window to
ask in eager hope if the poison administered to her rival had produced
the desired effect.—_Heine_.

=Faulconbridge= (_Philip_), called “the Bastard,” natural son of
King Richard I. and Lady Robert Faulconbridge. An admirable
admixture of greatness and levity, daring and recklessness. He was
generous and open-hearted, but hated foreigners like a true-born
islander.—Shakespeare, _King John_ (1596).

=Faulkland=, the over-anxious lover of Julia [_Melville_], always
fretting and tormenting himself about her whims, spirit, health, life.
Every feature in the sky, every shift of the wind was a source of
anxiety to him. If she was gay, he fretted that she should care so
little for his absence; if she was low-spirited, he feared she was going
to die; if she danced with another, he was jealous; if she didn´t, she
was out of sorts.—Sheridan, _The Rivals_ (1775).

=Faultless Painter= (_The_), Andrea del Sarto (1488-1630).—R. Browning,
_Andrea del Sarto_.

=Fauntleroy= (_Little Lord_). The story of Cedric Errol, heir to his
grandfather, Lord Fauntleroy, by Frances Hodgson Burnett, has been
dramatized, Elsie Leslie, a child of rare promise, taking the part of
Cedric, and Kathryn Kidder that of his mother. (See ERROL).

=Faun=. Tennyson uses this sylvan deity of the classics as the symbol of
a drunkard.

                                    Arise and fly
             The reeling Faun, the sensual feast.
                                      _In Memoriam_, cxviii

=Faust=, a famous magician of the sixteenth century, a native of Suabia.
A rich uncle having left him a fortune, Faust ran to every excess, and
when his fortune was exhausted, made a pact with the devil (who assumed
the name of Mephistoph´elês, and the appearance of a little grey monk)
that if he might indulge his propensities freely for twenty-four years,
he would at the end of that period consign to the devil both body and
soul. The compact terminated in 1550, when Faust disappeared. His
sweetheart was Margheri´ta [_Margaret_], whom he seduced, and his
faithful servant was Wagner.

Goethê has a noble tragedy entitled _Faust_ (1798); Gounod an opera
called _Faust e Margherita_ (1859) (See FAUSTUS.)

=Faustus= (_Dr._), the same as Faust; but Marlowe, in his admirable
tragedy, makes the doctor sell himself to Lucifer and Mephistophilis.

=Favor= (_Anna_). Young Anna Favor, married to Ezra Dalton, conceives
the insane idea that her baby is a changeling, and asks her husband to
rake open the coals that she may lay it upon them, and the witch shall
have her own.

                 “She’ll come when she hears it crying,
                 In the shape of an owl or bat,
                 And she’ll bring us our darling Anna
                 In place of her screeching brat.”

The delusion is removed and her senses restored in answer to the prayer
of her husband.

              “Now, mount and ride, my goodman,
              As thou lovest thy own soul!
              Woe’s me if my wicked fancies
              Be the death of Goodwife Cole!”
                         J.G. Whittier, _The Changeling_.

W. Bayle Bernard, of Boston, Mass., has a tragedy on the same subject.

=Favori´ta= (_La_), Leonora de Guzman, “favorite” of Alfonzo XI. of
Castile. Ferdinando fell in love with her; and the king, to save himself
from excommunication, sanctioned the marriage. But when Ferdinando
learned that Leonora was the king’s mistress, he rejected the alliance
with indignation, and became a monk. Leonora also became a novice in the
same monastery, saw Ferdinando, obtained his forgiveness, and
died.—Donizetti, _La Favorita_ (an opera, 1842).

=Faw= (_Tibbie_), the ostler’s wife, in Wandering Willie’s tale.—Sir W.
Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Faw´nia=, the lady beloved by Dorastus.—R. Greene, _Pandosto, The
Triumph of Time_ (1588).

⁂ Shakespeare founded his _Winter’s Tale_ on Greene’s romance.

=Fazio=, a Florentine, who first tried to make a fortune by alchemy, but
being present when Bartoldo died, he buried the body secretly, and stole
the miser’s money-bags. Being now rich he passed his time with the
Marchioness Aldabella in licentious pleasure, and his wife Bianca, out
of jealousy, accused him to the duke of being privy to Bartoldo’s death.
For this offence Fazio was condemned to die; and Bianca, having tried in
vain to save him, went mad with grief, and died of a broken heart.—Dean
Milman, _Fazio_ (1815).

=Fea= (_Euphane_), the old house-keeper of the old udaller at
Burgh-Westra. (A “udaller” is one who holds land by allodial
tenure.)—Sir W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Fear Fortress=, near Saragossa. An allegorical bogie fort, conjured up
by fear, which vanishes as it is courageously approached and boldly

  If a child disappeared, or any cattle were carried off, the frightened
  peasants said: “The Lord of Fear Fortress has taken them.” If a fire
  broke out anywhere, it was the Lord of Fear Fortress who must have lit
  it. The origin of all accidents, mishaps, and disasters, was traced to
  the mysterious owner of this invisible castle.—L’Epine,
  _Croquemitaine_, iii. 1.

=Fearless= (_The_), Jean duc de Bourgoigne, called _Sans Peur_

=Featherhead= (_John_), Esq., an opponent of Sir Thomas Kittlecourt,
M.P.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Fedalina=. Daughter of the gypsy chief and heroine of _The Spanish
Gypsy_, by George Eliot.

=Fee= and =Fairy=. Fee is the more general term, including the latter.
_The Arabian Nights_ are not all fairy tales, but they are all fee tales
or _contes des fées_. So again, the Ossianic tales, Campbell’s _Tales of
the West Highlands_, the mythological tales of the Basques, Irish,
Scandinavians, Germans, French, etc., may all be ranged under fee tales.

=Feeble= (_Francis_), a woman’s tailor, and one of the recruits of Sir
John Falstaff. Although a thin, starveling yard-wand of a man, he
expresses great willingness to be drawn. Sir John compliments him as
“courageous Feeble,” and says to him, “Thou wilt be as valiant as the
wrathful dove, or most magnanimous mouse.... most forcible
Feeble.”—Shakespeare, _2 Henry IV_. act iii. sc. 2 (1598).

=Feeder= (_Mr._), B.A., usher in the school of Dr. Blimber of Brighton.
He was “a kind of human barrel-organ, which played only one tune.” He
was in the habit of shaving his head to keep it cool. Mr. Feeder married
Miss Blimber, the doctor’s daughter, and succeeded to the school.—C.
Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

=Feenix=, nephew of the Hon. Mrs. Skewton (mother of Edith, Mr. Dombey’s
second wife), Feenix was a very old gentleman, patched up to look as
much like a young fop as possible.

  Cousin Feenix was a man about town forty years ago; but he is still so
  juvenile in figure and manner that strangers are amazed when they
  discover latent wrinkles in his lordship’s face, and crow’s feet in
  his eyes. But cousin Feenix getting up at half-past seven, is quite
  another thing from cousin Feenix got up.—C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_,
  xxxi. (1846).

=Feignwell= (_Colonel_) the suitor of Anne Lovely, an heiress. Anne
Lovely had to obtain the consent of her four guardians before she could
marry. One was an old beau, another a virtuoso, a third a broker on
’Change, and the fourth a canting quaker. The colonel made himself
agreeable to all, and carried off his prize.—Mrs. Centlivre, _A Bold
Stroke for a Wife_ (1717).

=Feinai´gle= (_Gregory de_), a German mnemonist (1765-1820). He obtained
some success by his aids to memory, but in Paris he was an object of

  Her memory was a mine ... For her Feinaigle’s was a useless art Byron,
  _Don Juan_, i. 11 (1819).

=Felice=, wife of Sir Guy Warwick, said to have “the same high forehead
as Venus.”

=Felic´ian= (_Father_), a catholic priest and schoolmaster of Grand Pré,
in Acadia (now called _Nova Scotia_). He accompanied Evangeline in part
of her wanderings to find Gabriel, her affianced husband.—Longfellow,
_Evangeline_ (1849).

=Felicians= (_The_), the happy nation. The Felicians live under a free
sovereignty, where the laws are absolute. Felicia is the French
“Utopia.”—Mercier de la Rivière, _L’Heureuse Nation_ (1767).

=Feliciano de Sylva=, Don Quixote’s favorite author. The two following
extracts were, in his opinion, unsurpassed and unsurpassable:—

  The reason, most adored one, of your unreasonable unreasonableness
  hath so unreasonably unseated my reason, that I have no reasonable
  reason for reasoning against such unreasonableness.

  The bright heaven of your divinity that lifts you to the stars, most
  celestial of women, renders you deserving of every desert which your
  charms so deservedly deserve.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i. 8

=Félicie=, happy French girl, the daughter of Jean and Gabrielle Waldo.
Her mother gives her poison by mistake, from the effects of which she is
relieved by John of Lugio, summoned from his home many leagues away, “IN
HIS NAME.”—Edward Everett Hale, _In His Name_ (1887).

=Felix=, a monk who listened to the singing of a milk-white bird for a
hundred years; which length of time seemed to him “but a single hour,”
so enchanted was he with the song.—Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_. (See
also _Hildesheim_.)

_Felix_ (_Don_), son of Don Lopez. He was a Portuguese nobleman, in love
with Violante; but Violante’s father, Don Pedro, intended to make her a
nun. Donna Isabella, having fled from home to avoid a marriage
disagreeable to her, took refuge with Violante; and when Colonel Briton
called at the house to see Donna Isabella, her brother Don Felix was
jealous, believing that Violante was the object of his visits. Violante
kept “her friend’s secret,” even at the risk of losing her lover; but
ultimately the mystery was cleared up, and a double marriage took
place.—Mrs. Centlivre, _The Wonder_ (1714).

_Felix Holt_ (See Holt).

_Felix_ (_M. Minucius_), a Roman lawyer, who flourished A.D. 230; he
wrote a dialogue entitled _Octavius_, which occupies a conspicuous place
among the early Apologies of Christianity.

  Like Menucius Felix, she believed that evil demons hid themselves in
  the marbles [_statues_].—Ouida, _Ariadnê_, i. 9.

_Felix_ (_St._), of Burgundy, who converted Sigbert (Sigebert or Sabert)
king of the East Saxons, (A.D. 604).—Ethelwerd, _Chronicles_, v.

      So Burgundy to us three men most reverend bare ...
      Of which way Felix first, who in th’ East Saxon reign
      Converted to the faith King Sigbert. Him again
      Ensueth Anselm ... and Hugh ... [_bishop of Lincoln_].
                              Drayton _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

=Fe´lixmar´te= (4 _syl._) of Hyrcania, son of Flo´risan and Martedi´na,
the hero of a Spanish romance of chivalry. The curate in _Don Quixote_
condemned this work to the flames.—Melchior de Orteza, _Caballera de
Ubĕda_ (1566).

=Felix= (_Varian_). The Adonis of his circle, who falls in love with a
beautiful woman, already the wife of another man. He flies from
temptation and does not return until she is the other man’s widow; then
woos and weds her.—Miriam Coles Harris, _A Perfect Adonis_ (1875).

=Fell= (_Dr._). Tom Brown, being in disgrace, was sent by Dr. Fell, dean
of Christ Church (1625-1686), to translate the thirty-third epigram of

              Non amo te, Zabidi, nec possum dicere quare;
              Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te.

Which he rendered thus:

                  I do not like thee, Dr. Fell—
                  The reason why I cannot tell;
                  But this I know, and know full well,
                  I do not like thee, Dr. Fell.

=Feltham= (_Black_), a highwayman with Captain Colepepper or Peppercull
(the Alsatian bully).—Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James

=Femmes Savantes= (_Les_), women who go in for women’s rights, science,
and philosophy, to the neglect of domestic duties and wifely amenities.
The “blue-stockings” are (1) Philaminte (3 _syl._) the mother of
Henriette, who discharges one of her servants because she speaks
ungrammatically; (2) Armande (2 _syl._) sister of Henriette, who
advocates platonic love and science; and (3) Bélise, sister of
Philaminte, who sides with her in all things, but imagines that every
one is in love with her. Henriette, who has no sympathy with these
“lofty flights,” is in love with Clitandre, but Philaminte wants her to
marry Trissotin, a _bel esprit_. However, the father loses his property
through the “savant” proclivities of his wife, Trissotin retires, and
Clitandre marries Henriette, the “perfect” or thorough woman.—Moliere,
_Les Femmes Savantes_ (1672).

=Fenella=, _alias_ Zarah (daughter of Edward Christian), a pretended
deaf and dumb fairy-like attendant on the countess of Derby. The
character seems to have been suggested by that of Mignon, the Italian
girl in Goethê’s _Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship._—Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

         Let be _tableaux vivants_, and I will appear as
                 Percy Fitzgerald, _Parvenu Family_, iii. 224.

_Fenella_, a deaf and dumb girl, sister of Masaniello the fisherman. She
was seduced by Alfonso, son of the Duke of Arcos; and Masaniello
resolved to kill him. He accordingly headed an insurrection, and met
with such great success that the mob made him chief magistrate of
Portici, but afterwards shot him. Fenella, on hearing of her brother’s
death, threw herself into the crater of Vesuvius.—Auber, _Masaniello_
(an opera, 1831).

=Fenris=, the demon wolf of Niflheim. When he gapes one jaw touches the
earth and the other heaven. This monster will swallow up Odin at the day
of doom. (Often but incorrectly written FENRIR.)—_Scandinavian

=Fenton=, clever fellow who makes caricatures while Browning is read,
and when called upon for the substance of his notes by the president of
the Club, rises with perfect coolness and pronounces opinion upon the
poem.—Arlo Bates, _The Philistines_ (1889).

_Fenton_, the lover of Anne Page, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Page,
gentle-folks living at Windsor. Fenton is of good birth, and seeks to
marry a fortune to “heal his poverty.” In “sweet Anne Page” he soon
discovers that which makes him love her for herself more than for her
money.—Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of Windsor_, act iii, sc. 4 (1601).

=Ferad-Artho,= son of Cairbre and only surviving descendant of the line
of Conar (the first king of Ireland.) On the death of Cathmor (brother
of the rebel Cairbar) in battle, Ferad-Artho was placed by Fingal on the
throne as “king of Ireland.” The race was thus: (1) Conar (a
Caledonian); (2) Cormac I., his son; (3) Cairbre, his son; (4) Artho,
his son; (5) Cormac II., his son, (a minor); (6) Ferad-Artho, his
cousin.—Ossian, _Temora_, vii.

=Fer´amorz,= the young Cashmerian poet who relates poetical tales to
Lalla Rookh on her journey from Delhi to Lesser Bucharĭa. Lalla is going
to be married to the young sultan, but falls in love with the poet. On
the wedding morn she is led to her bridegroom, and finds with
unspeakable joy that the poet is the sultan himself.—T. Moore, _Lalla
Rookh_ (1817).

=Ferda=, son of Damman, chief of a hundred hills in Albion. Ferda was
the friend of Cuthullin, general of the Irish forces in the time of king
Cormac I. Deuga´la (spouse of Cairbar) loved the youth, and told her
husband if he would not divide the herd she would no longer live with
him. Cuthullin, being appointed to make the division, enraged the lady
by assigning a snow-white bull to the husband, whereupon Duegala induced
her lover to challenge Cuthullin to mortal combat. Most unwillingly the
two friends fought, and Ferda fell. “The sunbeam of battle fell—the
first of Cuthullin’s friends. Unhappy [_unlucky_] is the hand of
Cuthullin since the hero fell.”—Ossian, _Fingal_, ii.

=Ferdinand=, king of Navarre. He agreed with three young lords to spend
three years in severe study, during which time no woman was to approach
his court; but no sooner was the agreement made than he fell in love
with the princess of France. In consequence of the death of her father,
the lady deferred the marriage for twelve months and a day.

        ... the sole inheritor
       Of all perfections that a man may owe [_own_]
       Matchless Navarre.
                      Shakespeare, _Love’s Labor’s Lost_ (1594).

_Fer´dinand,_ son of Alonso, king of Naples. He falls in love with
Miranda, daughter of Prospero, the exiled duke of Milan.—Shakespeare,
_The Tempest_ (1609).

                                    Haply so
            Miranda’s hope had pictured Ferdinand
            Long ere the gaunt wave tossed him on the shore.

_Ferdinand_, a fiery young Spaniard, in love with Leonora.—Jephson, _Two
Strings to your Bow_ (1792).

_Ferdinand_ (_Don_), the son of Don Jerome of Seville, in love with
Clara d’Almanza, daughter of Don Guzman.—Sheridan, _The Duenna_ (1773).

=Ferdinan´do,= a brave soldier who having won the battle of Tari´fa, in
1340, was created Count of Zamo´ra and Marquis of Montreal. The king,
Alfonso XI., knowing his love for Leonora de Guzman, gave him the bride
in marriage; but no sooner was this done than Ferdinando discovered that
she was the king’s mistress, so he at once repudiated her, restored his
ranks and honors to the king, and retired to the monastry of St. James
de Compostella. Leonora entered the same monastery as a novice, obtained
the pardon of Ferdinando, and died.—Donizetti, _La Favori´ta_ (1842).

=Fergus= (_Derrick_). Engineer in the coalpits of Lancashire. “A young
son of Anak, brains and muscle evenly balanced and fully developed.” Is
interested in Joan Lowrie and at last wins her to a promise “to work an’
strive to make herself worthy of the man she loves.”—Frances Hodgson
Burnett, _That Lass of Lowrie’s_ (1877).

_Fergus_, fourth son of Fingal, and the only one that had issue at the
death of his father. Ossian, the eldest brother, had a son named Oscar,
but Oscar was slain at a feast by Cairbar “Lord of Atha;” and of the
other two brothers, Fillan was slain before he had married, and Ryno,
though married, died without issue.

According to tradition, Fergus (son of Fingal) was the father of Congal;
Congal of Arcath; and Arcath of Fergus II., with whom begins the real
history of the Scots.—Ossian.

_Fergus_, son of Rossa, a brave hero in the army of Cuthullin, general
of the Irish tribes.

Fergus first in our joy at the feast; son of Rossa; arm of
death.—Ossian, _Fingal_, i.

=Fern= (_Fanny_) the pseudonym of Sarah Payson Willis, sister of N.P.
Willis. She married James Parton, the author. (1811-1872).

_Fern_ (_Will_), a poor fellow who, being found asleep in a shed, is
brought before Alderman Cute. He says emphatically “he must be put
down.” The poor fellow takes charge of his brother’s child, and is both
honest and kind, but, alas! he dared to fall asleep in a shed, an
offence which must be “put down.”— C. Dickens, _The Chimes_, third
quarter (1844).

=Fernan Calbal´lero,= the pseudonym of Cecilia Böhl de Faber, a Spanish
novelist (1797-1877).

=Fernando=, son of John of Procĭda, and husband of Isoline (3 _syl._),
daughter of the French governor of Messina. The butchery of the Sicilian
Vespers occurred the night after their espousals. Fernando was among the
slain, and Isoline died of a broken heart.—S. Knowles, _John of Procida_

_Fernando_ (_Don_), youngest son of the Duke Ricardo. Gay, handsome,
generous, and polite; but faithless to his friend Cardenio, for,
contrary to the lady’s inclination, and in violation of every principle
of honor, he prevailed on Lucinda’s father to break off the betrothal
between his daughter and Cardenio, and to bestow the lady on himself. On
the wedding day Lucinda was in a swoon, and a letter informed the
bridegroom that she was married already to Cardenio; she then left the
house privately, and retired to a convent. Don Fernando, having entered
the convent, carries her off, but stopping at an inn, found there
Dorothea his wife, with Cardenio the husband of Lucinda, and the two
parties paired off with their respective spouses.—Cervantes, _Don
Quixote_, I. iv. (1605).

_Fernan´do,_ a Venetian captain, servant to Annophel (daughter of the
governor of Candy).—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Laws of Candy_ (1647).

_Fernan´do_ [FLORESTAN], a State prisoner of Seville, married to
Leonora, who (in boy’s attire and under the name of Fidēlio) became the
servant of Rocco the jailer. Pizarro, governor of the jail, conceived a
hatred to the State prisoner, and resolved to murder him, so Rocco and
Leonora were sent to dig his grave. The arrival of the minister of State
put an end to the infamous design, and Fernando was set at
liberty.—Beethoven, _Fidelio_ (1791).

=Ferney= (_The Patriarch of_), Voltaire; so called because he lived in
retirement at Ferney, near Geneva (1694-1778).

=Ferquhard Day=, the absentee from the Clan Chattan at the combat.—Sir
W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Fer´racute,= a giant who had the strength of forty men, and was
thirty-six feet high. He was slain by Orlando, who wounded him in the
navel, his only vulnerable part.—Turpin, _Chronicle of Charlemagne_.

⁂ Ferracute is the prototype of Pulci’s “Morgante,” in his serio-comic
poem entitled _Morgante Maggiore_ (1494).

=Fer´ragus=, the Portuguese giant, who took Bellisant under his care
after her divorce from Alexander, emperor of Constantinople.—_Valentine
and Orson_ (fifteenth century).

             My sire’s tall form might grace the part
             Of Ferragus or Ascapart.
                                             Sir W. Scott.

=Fer´ramond= (_Sir_), a knight, whose lady-love was Lucĭda.

=Ferrand de Vaudemont= (_Count_), duc de Lorraine, son of René, king of
Provence. He first appears disguised as Laurence Neipperg.—Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Ferrardo= [GONZAGA], reigning duke of Mantua in the absence of his
cousin Leonardo. He was a villain, and tried to prove Mariana (the bride
of Leonardo) guilty of adultery. His scheme was this: He made Julian St.
Pierre drunk with drugged wine, and in his sleep conveyed him to the
duke’s bed, throwing his scarf under the bed of the duchess, which was
in an adjoining chamber. He then revealed these proofs of guilt to his
cousin Leonardo, but Leonardo refused to believe in his wife’s guilt,
and Julian St. Pierre exposed the whole scheme of villainy, amply
vindicating the innocence of Mariana, who turned out to be Julian’s
sister.—S. Knowles, _The Wife_ (1833).

=Ferrau=, a Saracen, son of Landfu´sa. Having dropped his helmet in a
river, he vowed never to wear another till he won that worn by Orlando.
Orlando slew him by a wound in the navel, his only vulnerable
part.—Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Ferraugh= (_Sir_), introduced in bk. iii. 8, but without a name, as
carrying off the false Florimel from Braggadoccio. In bk. iv. 2, the
name is given. He is there overthrown by Sir Blandamour, who takes away
with him the false Florimel, the lady of snow and wax.—Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_ (1590, 1596).

=Ferret=, an avaricious, mean-spirited slanderer, who blasts by
innuendoes, and blights by hints and cautions. He hates young Heartall,
and misinterprets all his generous acts, attributing his benevolence to
hush-money. The rascal is at last found out and foiled.—Cherry, _The
Soldier’s Daughter_ (1804).

=Ferrex=, eldest son of Gorboduc, a legendary king of Britain. Being
driven by his brother Porrex from the kingdom, he returned with a large
army, but was defeated and slain by Porrex.—_Gorboduc_, a tragedy by
Thom. Norton and Thom. Sackville (1561).

=Ferris= (_Henry_). Artist and American consul at Venice. In love with
Florida Vervain, but believes her infatuated by an Italian priest who
longs to leave his vocation. He learns the truth at the priest’s
death-bed. Finds Florida in New York, explains, receives absolution and
is married.—W.D. Howells, _A Foregone Conclusion_ (1874).

=Ferrol=. Northern man of letters who makes “a study” of Louisiana and
Louisiana’s father. The honest planter surveys him with curiosity as “‘a
littery man. I had an idee that thar was only one on ye now an’
ag’in—jest now an’ ag’in.’ Ferrol did not smile at all. His manner was
perfect—so full of interest that Mr. Rogers quite warmed and expanded
under it.”—Frances Hodgson Burnett, _Louisiana_ (1880).

=Fetnab= (“_a tormentor of hearts_”), the favorite of the Caliph
Haroun-al-Raschid. While the caliph was absent in his wars, Zobeidê (3
_syl._), the caliph’s wife, out of jealousy, ordered Fetnab to be buried
alive. Ganem happened accidentally to see the interment, rescued her,
and took her home to his own private lodgings in Bagdad. The caliph, on
his return, mourned for Fetnab; but receiving from her a letter of
explanation, he became jealous of Ganem, and ordered him to be put to
death. Ganem, however, contrived to escape. When the fit of jealousy was
over, the caliph heard the facts plainly stated, whereupon he released
Fetnab, and gave her in marriage to Ganem, and appointed the young man
to a very lucrative post about the court.—_Arabian Nights_, (“Ganem, the
slave of Love”).

=Fe´zon,= daughter of Savary, duke of Aquitaine. The Green Knight, who
was a pagan, demanded her in marriage, but Orson (brother of Valentine),
called “The Wild Man of the Forest,” overthrew the pagan and married
Fezon.—_Valentine and Orson_ (fifteenth century).

=Fiammetta,= a lady beloved by Boccaccio, supposed to be Maria, daughter
of Robert, king of Naples. (Italian, fiammetta, a little flame).

=Fib,= an attendant on Queen Mab.—Drayton, _Nymphidia_.

=Fiction.= _Father of Modern Prose Fiction_, Daniel Defoe (1663-1731).

=Fiddler= (_Oliver’s_). Sir Roger l’Estrange was so called, because at
one time he was playing a fiddle or viole in the house of John Hingston,
where Cromwell was one of the guests (1616-1704).

=Fiddler Joss,= Mr. Joseph Poole, a reformed drunkard, who subsequently
turned preacher in London, but retained his former sobriquet.

=Fide´le= (3 _syl._), the name assumed by Imogen, when, attired in boy’s
clothes, she started for Milford Haven to meet her husband
Posthŭmus.—Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

⁂ Collins has a beautiful elegy on “Fidele.”

=Fidelia,= “the foundling.” She is in reality Harriet, the daughter of
Sir Charles Raymond, but her mother dying in childbirth, she was
committed to the charge of a governante. The governante sold the child,
at the age of 12, to one Villiard, and then wrote to Sir Charles to say
that she was dead. One night, Charles Belmont, passing by, heard cries
of distress, and going to the rescue took the girl home as a companion
to his sister. He fell in love with her: the governante, on her
death-bed, told the story of her birth; and Charles married the
foundling.—Ed. Moore, _The Foundling_ (1748).

=Fide´lio,= Leono´ra, wife of Fernando Florestan. She assumed the name
of Fidelio, and dressed in male attire when her husband was a state
prisoner, that she might enter the service of Rocco the jailer, and hold
intercourse with her husband.—Beethoven, _Fidelio_ (1791).

=Fides= (2 _syl._), mother of John of Leyden. Believing that the
prophet-ruler of Westphalia had caused her son’s death, she went to
Munster to curse him. Seeing the ruler pass, she recognized in him her
own son; but the son pretended not to know his mother, and Fidês, to
save him annoyance, professed to have made a mistake. She was put into a
dungeon, where John visited her, and when he set fire to his palace,
Fidês rushed into the flames, and both perished together.—Meyerbeer, _Le
Prophete_ (1849).

=Fidessa,= the companion of Sansfoy; but when the Red Cross Knight slew
that “faithless Saracen,” Fidessa told him she was the only daughter of
an emperor of Italy; that she was betrothed to a rich and wise king; and
that her betrothed being slain, she had set forth to find the body, in
order that she might decently inter it. She said that in her wanderings
Sansfoy had met her and compelled her to be his companion: but she
thanked the knight for having come to her rescue. The Red Cross Knight,
wholly deluded by this plausible tale, assured Fidessa of his sympathy
and protection: but she turned out to be Duessa, the daughter of
Falsehood and Shame. The sequel must be sought under the word
DUESSA.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. 2 (1590).

=Fido,= Faith personified, the foster-son of Acŏë (“hearing,” _Rom._ x.
17); his foster-sister is Meditation. Fully described in canto ix. of
_The Purple Island_ (1633), by Phineas Fletcher. (Latin, _fidês_,

=Field of the Forty Footsteps,= at the back of the British Museum, once
called Southampton Fields. The tradition is that two brothers, in the
Monmouth rebellion, took different sides, and engaged each other in
fight. Both were killed, and forty impressions of their feet were
traceable in the field for years afterwards.

⁂ The Misses Porter wrote a novel called _The Field of the Forty
Footsteps_, and the Messrs. Mayhew took the same subject for a

=Fielding= (_Mrs._), a little querulous old lady with a peevish face,
who, in consequence of having once been better off, or of laboring under
the impression that she might have been, if something in the indigo
trade had happened differently, was very genteel and patronizing indeed.
When she dressed for a party, she wore gloves, and a cap of state
“almost as tall, and quite as stiff as a mitre.”

_May Fielding_, her daughter, very pretty and innocent. She was engaged
to Edward Plummer, but heard that he had died in South America, and
consented to marry Tackleton the toy merchant. A few days before the day
fixed for the wedding, Edward Plummer returned, and they were married.
Tackleton gave them as a present the cake he had ordered for his own
wedding feast.—C. Dickens, _The Cricket on the Hearth_ (1845).

=Fielding of the Drama,= George Farquhar, author of _The Beaux’
Stratagem_, etc. (1678-1707).

=Fielding’s Proverbs.= These were in reality compiled by W. Henry
Ireland, the Shakespeare impostor, who published _Miscellaneous Papers
and Instruments, under the hand and seal of William Shakespeare,
including the tragedy of King Lear and a small fragment of Hamlet, from
the original_, 1796, folio, £4 4_s_. The whole was a barefaced forgery.

=Fierabras= (_Sir_) [_Fe.ā´.ra.brah_], a Saracen of Spain, who made
himself master of Rome, and carried away the crown of thorns and the
balsam with which the Lord had been embalmed. His chief exploit was to
slay the giant who guarded the bridge of Mantible, which had thirty
arches, all of black marble. Bal´and of Spain assumed the name of Sir

_Balsam of Fierabras_, the balsam used in embalming the body of Christ,
stolen by Sir Fierabras. It possessed such virtues that one single drop,
taken internally, sufficed to heal the most malignant wound.

=Fierabras of Alexandria,= the greatest giant that ever walked the
earth. He possessed all Babylon, even to the Red Sea, was seigneur of
Russia, lord of Cologne, master of Jerusalem, and of the Holy Sepulchre.
This huge giant ended his days in the odor of sanctity, “meek as a lamb,
and humble as he was meek.”

=Fierce= (_The_), Alexander I. of Scotland, so called from the
impetuosity of his temper (*, 1107-1124).

=Fiesco,= the chief character of Schiller’s tragedy so called. The poet
makes Fiesco to be killed by the hand of Verri´na the republican; but
history says his death was the result of a stumble from a plank (1783).

=Fig´aro=, a barber of extraordinary cunning, dexterity, and
intrigue.—Beaumarchais, _Barbier de Séville_ (1775).

_Fig´aro_, a valet, who outwits every one by his dexterity and
cunning.—Beaumarchais, _Mariage de Figaro_ (1784).

⁂ Several operas have been founded on these two comedies: _e.g._
Mozart’s _Nozze di Figaro_ (1786); Paisiello’s _Il Barbiere di Siviglia_
(1810); Rossini’s _Il Barbiere di Siviglia_ (1816).

_Fig´aro,_ the sweetheart of Susan (favorite waiting-woman of the
Countess Almaviva). Figaro is never so happy as when he has two or three
plots in hand.—T. Holcroft, _The Follies of a Day_ (1745-1809).

=Fighting Prelate= (_The_), Henry Spencer, bishop of Norwich. He opposed
the rebels under Wat Tyler with the temporal sword, absolved them, and
then sent them to the gibbet. In 1383 he went to assist the burghers of
Ghent in their contest with the count of Flanders.

The bishop of Norwich, the famous “Fighting Prelate,” had led an army
into Flanders.—Lord Campbell.

=Filch=, a lad brought up as a pick-pocket. Mrs. Peachum says, “He hath
as fine a hand at picking a pocket as a woman, and is as nimble-fingered
as a juggler. If an unlucky session does not cut the rope of thy life, I
pronounce, boy, thou wilt be a great man in history” (act i. 1).—Gay,
_The Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

=Fi´ler=, a lean, churlish man, who takes poor Toby Veck’s tripe,
and delivers him a homily on the sinfulness of luxury and
self-indulgence.—C. Dickens, _The Chimes_ (1844).

=Filia Doloro´sa=, the Duchess d’Angoulême, daughter of Louis XVI. Also
called “The Modern Antig´onê” (1778-1851).

=Fillan=, son of Fingal and Clatho, the most highly finished character
in the poem of _Tem´ora_. Fillan was younger than his nephew Oscar, and
does not appear on the scene until after Oscar’s death. He is rash and
fiery, eager for military glory, and brave as a lion. When Fingal
appointed Gaul to command for the day, Fillan had hoped his father’s
choice might have fallen to his own lot. “On his spear stood the son of
Clatho ... thrice he raised his eyes to Fingal; his voice thrice failed
him as he spoke ... He strode away; bent over a distant stream ... the
tear hung in his eye. He struck at times the thistle’s head with his
inverted spear.” Yet showed he no jealousy, for when Gaul was in danger,
he risked his own life to save him. Next day was Fillan’s turn to lead,
and his deeds were unrivalled in dash and brilliancy. He slew Foldath,
the general of the opposing army, but when Cathmor, “Lord of Atha,” the
commander-in-chief, came against him, Fillan fell. His modesty was then
as prominent as his bravery. “Lay me,” he said to Ossian, “in that
hollow rock. Raise no stone above me ... I am fallen in the first of my
fields, fallen without renown.” Every incident of Fillan’s life is
beautiful in the extreme.—Ossian, _Temora_, v.

=Filippo= (_Don_). In love with Camilla, heroine of _Signor Monaldini’s
Niece_. His wife is insane, and he suffers himself to become enamored of
this young girl, who repels him with holy, heroic words. His conscience
comes to his aid when she appeals to him. While he hesitates to speak
the words of parting, she springs into a pool beside them, and is to all
appearance drowned. While she lies unconscious, a telegram is brought,
saying that his wife is dead. Camilla revives, after a long period of
insensibility, and all is well.—Mary Agnes Tincker, _Signor Monaldini’s
Niece_, (1879).

=Fillpot= (_Toby_), a thirsty old soul, who “among jolly topers bore off
the bell.” It chanced as in dog-days he sat boosing in his arbor, that
he died “full as big as a Dorchester butt.” His body turned to clay, and
out of the clay a brown jug was made, sacred to friendship, mirth, and
mild ale.

          His body, when long in the ground it had lain,
          And time into clay had resolved it again,
          A potter found out in its covert so snug,
          And with part of fat Toby he formed this brown jug,
          Now sacred to friendship, to mirth, and mild ale.
          So here’s to my lovely sweet Nan of the vale.
                             Rev. Francis Fawkes (1721-1777).

⁂ The two best drinking songs in the language were both by clergymen.
The other is, _I Cannot Eat but Little Meat_, by John Still, bishop of
Bath and Wells (1534-1607).

=Filome´na= (_Santa_). At Pisa the church of San Francisco contains a
chapel lately dedicated to Santa Filomena. Over the altar is a picture
by Sabatelli, which represents Filomena as a nymph-like figure floating
down from heaven, attended by two angels bearing the lily, the palm, and
a javelin. In the fore-ground are the sick and maimed, healed by her

                Nor ever shall be wanting here
                The palm, the lily, and the spear:
                      The symbols that of yore
                      St. Filomena bore
                             Longfellow, _St. Filomena_.

⁂ Longfellow calls Florence Nightingale “St. Filomena” (born at
Florence, 1820).

=Finality John,= Lord John Russell (afterwards “Earl Russell”), who
maintained that the Reform Bill of 1832 was a _finality_ (1792-1878).

=Finch= (_Margaret_), queen of the gypsies, who died aged 109, a.d.
1740. She was born at Sutton, in Kent, and was buried at Beckenham, in
the same county.

_Finch_ (_Lucilla_). Blind girl whose sight is restored for a little
while. The man she has loved while blind has received injuries that make
him repulsive to the eye. His crafty brother contrives that the girl
shall mistake him for her betrothed. A series of complications has a
climax in the return of Miss Finch’s blindness, after which matters
resume the former course and she marries the right man.—Wilkie Collins,
_Poor Miss Finch_.

=Fine-ear,= one of the seven attendants of Fortunio. He could hear the
grass grow, and even the wool on the sheep’s back.—Comtesse D’Aunoy,
_Fairy Tales_ (“Fortunio,” 1682).

⁂ In Grimm’s _Goblin’s_ is the same fairy tale (“Fortunio”).

=Fin´etor,= a necromancer, father of the Enchantress Damsel.—Vasco de
Lobeira, _Amadis de Gaul_ (thirteenth century).

=Finetta,= “the cinder girl,” a fairy tale by the Comtesse D’Aunoy
(1682). This is merely the old tale of Cinderella slightly altered.
Finetta was the youngest of three princesses, despised by them, and put
to all sorts of menial work. The two sisters went to balls, and left
Finetta at home in charge of the house. One day she found a gold key,
which opened a wardrobe full of most excellent dresses; so arraying
herself in one, she followed her sisters to the ball, but she was so
fine that they knew her not, and she ran home before them. This occurred
two or three times, but at last, in running home, she lost one of her
slippers. The young prince resolved to marry her whose foot fitted the
slipper, and Finetta became his wife. Finetta was also called Auricula
or “Fine-ear.”

=Fingal= (or _Fion na Gael_).

His _father_ was Comhal or Combal, and his _mother_ Morna.

(Comhal was the son of Trathal, king of Morven, and Morna was the
daughter of Thaddu.)

His first _wife_ was Roscrana, mother of Ossian. His second was Clatho,
mother of Fillan, etc.

(Roscrana was the daughter of Cormac I. third king of Ireland).

His _daughter_ was Bosmi´na, and his _sons_ Ossian, Fillan, Ryno, and
Fergus. (The son of Ossian was Oscar.)

(Fillan was younger than his nephew Oscar, and both, together with Ryno,
were slain in battle before Fingal died.)

His _bard_ and _herald_ was Ullin. His _sword_ Luno, so called from its
maker, Luno of Locklin (_Denmark_).

His _kingdom_ was Morven (_The northwest coast of Scotland_); his
_capital_ Semo; his _subjects_ were Caledonians or Gaels.

After the restoration of Ferad-Artho to the throne of Ireland, Fingal
“resigned his spear to Ossian,” and died A.D. 283.

_Fingal_, an epic in six books, by Ossian. The subject is the invasion
of Ireland by Swaran, king of Lochlin (_Denmark_) during the reign of
Cormac II. (a minor), and its deliverance by the aid of Fingal, king of
Morven (_northwest coast of Scotland_). The poem opens with the
overthrow of Cuthullin, general of the Irish forces, and concludes with
the return of Swaran to his own land.

=Finger.= “Little finger tell me true.” When M. Argan wishes to pump his
little daughter Louison, respecting a young gentleman who pays
attentions to her elder sister, he says to the child, “Prenez-y bien
garde au moins; car voilà un petit doigt, qui sait tout, qui me dira si
vous mentez.” When the child has told him all she knows, he puts his
little finger to his ear and says, “Voilà mon petit doigt pourtant qui
gronde quelque chose. Attendez! Hé! Ah, ah! Oui? Oh, oh! voila mon petit
doigt, qui me dit quelque chose que vous avez vu et que vous ne m’avez
pas dit.” To which the child replies, “Ah! mon papa, votre petit doigt
est un menteur.”—Molière, _Le Malade Imaginaire_, ii. 11 (1673).

=Finis Poloniæ.= These words are attributed (but without sufficient
authority) to Koscziusko the Pole, when he lay wounded by the balls of
Suwaroff’s troops on the field of Maciejowieze (October 10, 1794).

  Percé de coups, Koscziusko s’écria en tombant “Finis
  Poloniæ.”—Michaud, _Biographie Universelle_.

=Finlayson= (_Luckie_), landlady of the lodgings in the Canongate of
Edinburgh.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Fin´niston= (_Duncan_), a tenant of the laird of Gudgeonford.

_Luckie Finniston_, wife of Duncan.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time,
George II.).

=Fion= (son of Comnal), an enormous giant, who could place one foot on
Mount Cromleach, in Ulster, and the other on Mount Crommal, close by,
and then dip his hand in the river Lubar, which ran between.

      With one foot on the Crommal set and one on Mount Cromleach,
      The waters of the Lubar stream his giant hand could reach.
                           _Translation of the Gaelic._

=Fiona,= a series of traditionary old Irish poems on the subject of Fion
M’Comnal and the heroes connected with him.

=Fionnua´la,= daughter of Lir. Being transformed into a swan, she was
doomed to wander over the lakes and rivers of Ireland till the Irish
became Christians, but the sound of the first mass bell in the island
was to be the signal of her release.

    Silent, O Moyle, be the roar of thy water [_County Tyrone_] ...
    While murmuring mournfully Lir’s lonely daughter
      Tells to the night-star her tale of woes.
    When shall the “Swan,” her death-note singing,
      Sleep with wings in darkness furled?
    When will heaven, its sweet “bell” ringing,
      Call my spirit from this stormy world?
    T. Moore, _Irish Melodies_, iv. (“The Song of Fionnuala”).

=Fips= (_Mr_.), a sedate, mysterious personage, living in an office in
Austin Friars (London). He is employed by some unknown benefactor
(either John Westlock or old Martin Chuzzlewit) to engage Tom Pinch at a
weekly salary as librarian to the Temple Library.—C. Dickens, _Martin
Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Fir-bolg= (_i.e._ _bowmen_, from _bolg_, “a quiver”), a colony of Belgæ
from Britain, led by Larthon to Ireland and settled in the southern
parts of the island. Their chief was called “lord of Atha” (a country of
Connaught), and thence Ireland was called Bolga. Somewhat later a colony
of Caledonians from the western coast of Scotland settled in the
northern parts of Ireland, and made Ulster their headquarters. When
Crotha was “lord of Atha” he carried off Conlama (daughter of the Cael
chief) by force, and a general war between the two races ensued. The
Cael were reduced to the last extremity, and sent to Trathal
(grandfather of Fingal) for aid. Trathal accordingly sent over Conar
with an army, and on his reaching Ulster he was made “king of the Cael”
by acclamation. He utterly subdued the Fir-bolg, and assumed the title
of “king of Ireland;” but the Fir-bolg often rose in insurrection, and
made many attempts to expel the race of Conar.—Ossian.

=Fire-Brand of France= (_The_) John duke of Bedford, regent of France

John, duke of Bedford, styled the “Firebrand of France.”

                                    Drayton, _Polyolbion_ xviii. (1613.)

=Firouz Schah=, son and heir of the king of Persia. One New Year’s Day
an Indian brought to the king an enchanted horse, which would convey the
rider almost instantaneously anywhere he might wish to go to; and asked
as the price thereof, the king’s daughter for his wife. Prince Firouz,
mounting the horse to try it, was carried to Bengal, and there fell in
love with the princess, who accompanied him back to Persia on the horse.
When the king saw his son arrive safe and sound he dismissed the Indian
discourteously; but the Indian caught up the princess, and, mounting the
horse, conveyed her to Cashmere. She was rescued by the sultan of
Cashmere, who cut off the Indian’s head and proposed marriage himself to
the princess. To avoid this alliance, the princess pretended to be mad.
The sultan sent for his physicians, but they could suggest no cure. At
length came one who promised to cure the lady; it was Prince Firouz in
disguise. He told the sultan that the princess had contracted
enchantment from the horse and must be set on it to disenchant her.
Accordingly, she was set on the horse, and while Firouz caused a thick
cloud of smoke to rise, he mounted with the lady through the air, saying
as he did so, “Sultan of Cashmere, when you would espouse a princess who
craves your protection, first learn to obtain her consent.”—_Arabian
Nights_ (“The Enchanted Horse”).

=First Gentleman of Europe=, George IV. (1762, 1820-1830).

Louis d’Artois of France was so called also.

The “First Gentleman of Europe” had not yet quite lost his once elegant
figure.—E. Yates, _Celebrities_ xvii.

=First Grenadier of France.= Latour d’Auverge was so called by Napoleon

=First Love=, a comedy by Richard Cumberland (1796.) Frederick Mowbray’s
first love, being dowerless, marries the wealthy Lord Ruby, who soon
dies leaving all his fortune to his widow. In the meantime, Frederick
goes abroad, and at Padua falls in with Sabina Rosny, who nurses him
through a severe sickness, for which he thinks he is bound in honor to
marry her. She comes with him to England, and is placed under the charge
of Lady Ruby. Sabina tells Lady Ruby she cannot marry Frederick, because
she is married already to Lord Sensitive, and even if it were not so,
she could not marry him, for all his affections are with Lady Ruby; this
she discovers in the delirium of the young man, when his whole talk was
about her ladyship. In the end Lord Sensitive avows himself the husband
of Sabina, and Frederick marries his first love.


_He eats no fish_, that is “he is no papist,” “he is an honest man or
one to be trusted.” In the reign of Queen Elizabeth papists were the
enemies of the government, and hence one who did not eat fish, like a
papist, on fast days was considered a Protestant and a friend of the

I do profess ... to serve him truly that will put me in trust ... and to
eat no fish.—Shakespeare, _King Lear_, act i. sc. 4 (1605).

=Fish and the Ring=.

1. Polycrătês, being too fortunate, was advised to cast away something
he most highly prized, and threw into the sea an engraved gem of great
value. A few days afterwards a fish came to his table, and in it was
this very gem.—_Herodotus_, iii. 40.

2. A certain queen, having formed an illicit attachment to a soldier,
gave him a ring which had been the present of her husband. The king,
being apprised thereof, got possession of the ring while the soldier was
asleep, threw it into the sea, and then asked his queen to bring it him.
In great alarm, she went to St. Kentigern and told him everything. The
saint went to the Clyde, caught a salmon with the ring in its mouth, and
gave it to the queen, who thus saved her character and her husband. This
legend is told about the Glasgow arms.

3. The arms of dame Rebecca Berry, wife of Sir Thomas Elton,
Stratford-le-Bow, to be seen at St. Dunstan’s Church, Stepney. The tale
is that a knight, hearing the cries of a woman in labor, knew that the
infant was destined to become his wife. He tried to elude his destiny,
and, when the infant had grown to womanhood, threw a _ring_ into the
sea, commanding the damsel never to see his face again till she could
produce the ring which he had cast away. In a few days a _cod-fish_ was
caught, and the ring was found in its mouth. The young woman producing
the ring, the marriage was duly solemnized.—_Romance of London_.

=Fisher= (_Ralph_), assistant of Roland Græme, at Avenel Castle.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Fishers_ (_The_). Grandpa and Grandma Fisher live with daughter-in-law
and two grandchildren in “The Ark” at Cedar-swamp. Grandpa is a retired
sea-captain with a talent for tedious stories and a temper that is
occasionally frayed. Grandma’s face has, “besides large physical
proportions, generosity, whole-heartedness and a world of sympathy.”
Both sleep in church, but grandma wakes up first, and arouses her
husband with an adroit pin. He starts and looks guilty. She “opens her
eyes at regular intervals,” as though she had merely been closing them
to engage in a few moments of silent prayer.—Sally Pratt McLean Green,
_Cape Cod Folks_ (1881).

=Fitz-Boo´dle= (_George_), a pseudonym assumed by Thackeray in _Frazer’s
Magazine_ (1811-1863).

=Fitz-Fulke= (_Hebe, duchess of_), a “gracious graceful, graceless
grace” (canto xvi. 49), staying with Lord and Lady Amundeville (4
_syl._), while Don Juan “the Russian envoy” was their guest. Don Juan
fancied he saw in the night the apparition of a monk, which produced
such an effect on his looks and behavior as to excite attention. When
the cause of his peturbation was known, Lady Adeline sang to him a tale
purporting to explain the apparition; but “her frolic grace” at night
personated the ghost to carry on the joke. She was, however, discovered
by Don Juan, who was resolved to penetrate the mystery. With this
discovery the sixteenth and last book of _Don Juan_ ends.—Byron, _Don
Juan_ (1824).

=Fitzurse= (_Lord Wildemar_), a baron in the suite of Prince John of
Anjou (brother of Richard Cœur de Lion).—Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time,
Richard I.).

=Five Kings of France=, the five directors (1795).

The five kings of France sit in their curule chairs with their
flesh-colored breeches and regal mantles.—_Atalier du Lys_, ii.

=Flaccus=, Horace the Roman poet, whose full name was Quintus Horātius
Flaccus (B.C. 65-8).

=Fladdock= (_General_), a friend of the Norris family in America, and,
like them, devoted to titles, and aristocracy.—C. Dickens, _Martin
Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Flam´berge= (2 _syl._), the sword which Maugis took from Anthe´nor the
Saracen admiral, when he attacked the castle of Oriande la Fée. The
sword was made by Weyland, the Scandinavian Vulcan.—_Romance of Maugis
d’Aygremont et de Vivian son Frère_.

=Flamborough= (_Solomon_), farmer. A talkative neighbor of Dr. Primrose,
vicar of Wakefield. Moses Primrose marries one of his daughters.

_The Misses Flamborough_, daughters of the farmer. Their homeliness
contrasts well with the flashy pretenders to fashion introduced by
Squire Thornhill.—Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_ (1766).

=Flame= (_Lord_), Johnson the jester and dramatist, author of
_Hurlo-Thrumbo,_ an extravaganza (1729).

=Flammer= (_The Hon. Mr. Frisk_), a Cantab, nephew to Lord Totterly. He
is a young gentleman with a vivid imagination, small income, and large
debts.—C. Selby, _The Unfinished Gentleman_.

=Flammock= (_Wilkin_), a Flemish soldier and burgess at the Castle of
Garde Doloureuse.

_Rose or Roschen Flammock_, daughter of Wilkin Flammock, and attendant
on Lady Eveline.—Sir. W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Flanders= (_Moll_), a woman of extraordinary beauty, born in Old
Bailey. She was twelve years a harlot, five years a wife, twelve years a
thief, and eight years a convict in Virginia; but ultimately she became
rich, lived honestly, and died a penitent in the reign of Charles
II.—Defoe, _The Fortunes of Moll Flanders_.

=Flash= (_Captain_), a blustering, cowardly braggart, “always talking of
fighting and wars.” In the Flanders war he pretended to be shot, sneaked
off into a ditch, and thence to England. When Captain Loveit met him
paying court to Miss Biddy Bellaw, he commanded the blustering coward to
“deliver up his sword,” and added:

“Leave this house, change the color of your clothes and fierceness of
your looks; appear from top to toe the very wretch thou art!”—D.
Garrick, _Miss in Her Teens_ (1753).

=Fla´vius,= the faithful, honest steward of Timon the
man-hater.—Shakespeare, _Timon of Athens_ (1600).

=Fle´ance,= in Shakespeare’s Macbeth, is the son of Banquo, one of
Duncan’s trusted generals, and beloved and honored by Macbeth until the
witches’ prophecy promises him the crown for which Macbeth has murdered
the king. Macbeth resolves to destroy Banquo and his son, but while the
father is murdered the son escapes, and the death-blow is given to
Macbeth’s hope of an undisputed succession. Thus far the play; the
chronicle makes Fleance become in time the Lord High Steward (Stewart,
Stuart) of Scotland, and the ancestor of the House of Stuart which gave
James I. to the English throne. James was very proud of this descent
from Shakespeare’s Banquo, whose character was evidently drawn to
flatter the king, since the Banquo of Holinshed’s Chronicle, from which
the main of the play is drawn, is Macbeth’s partner in the murder of

=Flecknoe= (_Richard_), poet-laureate to Charles II., author of dramas,
poems, and other works. As a poet his name stands on a level with Bavius
and Mævius. Dryden says of him:

                   ... he reigned without dispute
        Thro’ all the realms of nonsense absolute.
                                    Dryden, _M’Flecnoe_ (1682).

(It was not Flecknoe but Shadwell that Dryden wished to castigate in
this satire. The offence was that Dryden was removed from the post of
laureate, and Shadwell appointed in his place. The angry ex-laureate
says, with more point than truth, that, “Shadwell never deviates into

=Fleda.= A winning child who grows into the lovely heroine of Susan
Warner’s novel _Queechy_ (1852). Her simple faith and unaffected piety
lead Mr. Carleton, a skeptical Englishman, into the right path. After
many years and vicissitudes the two meet again in New York and are
married in England.

=Fledge´by= (2 _syl._), an over-reaching, cowardly sneak, who conceals
his dirty bill-broking under the trade name of Pubsey and Co. He is
soundly thrashed by Alfred Lammle, and quietly pockets the affront.—C.
Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1864).

=Fleecebump´kin= (3 _syl._), bailiff of Mr. Ireby, the country
squire.—Sir W. Scott, _The Two Drovers_ (time, George III.).

=Fleece´em= (_Mrs._), meant for Mrs. Rudd, a smuggler, thief, milliner,
matchmaker and procuress.—Sam. Foote, _The Cozeners_.

=Fleetwood= or _The New Man of Feeling_, the hero of a novel so named by
W. Godwin (1805).

=Flemings= (_The Farmer_). Yeoman-farmer of Kent, dull, honest plodder.

_Dahlia_. Lovely girl, who goes off with _Edward Blancove_, believing
herself married to him. Discovering the deception, she returns to the
farm, and resumes her old life. When the penitent lover seeks her and
would marry her, she refuses. “She has left her heart among the ashes of
the fire” that consumed her youth and honor.

_Rhoda._ Devoted sister who seeks Dahlia until she is found, and
cherishes her tenderly through life. Rhoda marries a farmer, and Dahlia
lives for seven years as her housemate. George Meredith, _Rhoda Fleming_

_Flem´ing_ (_Archdeacon_), the clergyman to whom old Meg Murdockson made
her confession.—Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

_Fleming_ (_Sir Malcolm_), a former suitor of Lady Margaret de
Hautlieu.—Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

_Fleming_ (_Lady Mary_), one of the maids of honor to Mary Queen of
Scots.—Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Fleming_ (_Rose_), niece of Mrs. Maylie. Rose marries her cousin Harry

She was past 17. Cast in so slight and exquisite a mould, so mild and
gentle, so pure and beautiful, that earth seemed not her element, nor
its rough creatures her fit companions. The very intelligence that shone
in her deep blue eye ... seemed scarcely ... of the world, and yet the
changing expression of sweetness and good-humor, the thousand lights
that played about the face ... above all the smile, the cheerful, happy
smile, were made for home and fireside peace and happiness.—C. Dickens,
_Oliver Twist_, xxix. (1837).

=Flemish School= (_The_), a school of painting commencing in the
fifteenth century, with the brothers Van Eyck. The chief _early_ masters
were Memling, Van der Weyden, Matsys, and Mabuse. The chief of the
_second_ period were Rubens, Vandyck, Snyders, Jordæns, Gaspar de Crayer
and the younger Teniers.

=Flemming= (_Paul_), scholarly hero of Longfellow’s _Hyperion_. Among
the storied ruins of the Old World, he wins his bride by weaving to her
stories from his own imagination (1839).

=Fleshly School= (_The_), a class of British poets of which Swinburne,
Rossetti, Morris, etc., are exponents; so called from the sensuous
character of their poetry.

⁂ It was Thomas Maitland [_i.e._ R. W. Buchanan] who first gave them
this appellation in the _Contemporary Review_.

=Fletcher= (_Dick_), one of the crew of a pirate vessel.—Sir W. Scott,
_The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

_Fletcher_ (_Philip_), fine gentleman, suitor of Christie, in Louisa M.
Olcot’s novel “_Work_.”

=Fleur de Marie=, the betrothed of Captain Phœbus.—Victor Hugo, _Notre
Dame de Paris_ (1831).

=Fleurant=, an apothecary. He flies into a rage because Bérald (2
_syl._) says to his brother, “Remettez cela à une fois, et demeurez un
peu en repos.” The apothecary flares out, “De quoi vous mêlez vous de
vous opposer aux ordonnance de la medicine ... je vais dire à Monsieur
Purgon comme on m’a empêché d’executer ses ordres.... Vous verrez, vous
verrez.”—Molière, _La Malade Imaginaire_ (1673).

=Flib´bertigib´bet=, the fiend that gives man the squint eye and
harelip, sends mildews and blight, etc.

This is the foul fiend Flibbertigibbet ... he gives the web and the pin
[_diseases of the eye_], squints the eye, and makes the hare-lip;
mildews the white heat, and hurts the poor creature of earth.—_King
Lear_, act iii. sec. 4 (1605).

⁂ Shakespeare got this name from bishop Harsnett’s _Declaration of
Popish Impostures_, where Flibberdigibet is one of the fiends which the
Jesuits cast out of Mr. Edmund Peckham.

_Flib´bertigib´bet_, or “Dickie Sludge,” the dwarf grandson of Gammer
Sludge (landlady of Erasmus Holiday, the schoolmaster in the vale of
Whitehorse). In the entertainment given by the earl of Leicester to
Queen Elizabeth, Dickon Sludge acts the part of an imp.—Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Flint= (_Lord_), chief minister of state to one of the sultans of
India. He had the enviable faculty of a very short memory when he did
not choose to recollect. “My people know, no doubt, but I cannot
recollect,” was his stock phrase. Mrs. Inchbald, _Such Things Are_

_Flint_, jailer in _The Deserter_, a musical drama by Dibdin (1770).

_Flint_ (_Sir Clement_), a very kind-hearted, generous old bachelor, who
“trusts no one,” and though he professes his undoubted belief to be
“that self is the predominant principle of the human mind,” is never so
happy as when doing an unselfish and generous act. He settles £2000 a
year on the young Lord Gayville, his nephew, that he may marry Miss
Alton, the lady of his choice; and says, “To reward the deserving, and
make those we love happy, is self-interest in the extreme.”—General
Burgoyne, _The Heiress_ (1781).

=Flint Jack=, Edward Simpson, who used to tramp the kingdom, vending
spurious flint arrow-heads, celts, and other imitation antiquities. In
1867 he was imprisoned for theft.

=Flippan´ta=, an intriguing lady’s-maid. Daughter of Mrs. Cloggit. She
is in the service of Clarissa, and aids her in all her follies.—Sir John
Vanbrugh, _The Confederacy_ (1695).

=Flite= (_Miss_), a poor crazed, good-hearted woman, who has lost her
wits through the “law’s delay.” She is always haunting the Courts of
Chancery with “her documents,” hoping against hope that she will receive
a judgment.—C. Dickens, _Bleak House_, iv. (1852).

=Flock´hart= (_Widow_), landlady of the lodgings in the Canongate where
Waverley and M’Ivor dine with the baron of Bradwardine (3 _syl._).—Sir
W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Flogged by Deputy.= The Marquis de Leganez forbade the tutor of his son
to use rigor or corporal punishment of any kind, so the tutor hit upon
this device to intimidate the boy: he flogged a lad named Raphael,
brought up with young Leganez as a playmate, whenever that young
nobleman deserved punishment. This produced an excellent effect; but
Raphael did not see its justice and ran away.—Lesage, _Gil Blas_, v. i.

=Flollo= or =Flollio=, a Roman tribune, who held the province of Gaul
under the Emperor Leo. When King Arthur invaded Gaul, the tribune fled
to Paris, which Arthur besieged, and Flollo proposed to decide the
quarrel by single combat. To this Arthur agreed, and cleft with his
sword Caliburn both the helmet and head of his adversary. Having made
himself master of all Gaul, King Arthur held his court at
Paris.—Geoffrey, _British History_, ix. 11 (1142).

  And after these ...
  At Paris, in the lists [_Arthur_] with Flollio fought;
  The emperor Leon’s power to raise his siege that brought.
                                   Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

=Flor and Blancheflor=, the title of a minnesong by Conrad Fleck, at one
time immensely popular. It is the story of two children who fall in love
with each other. There is a good deal of grace and tenderness in the
tale, with an abundance of trash. Flor, the son of Feinix, a pagan king,
is brought up with Blancheflor (an _enfant volé_). The two children love
each other, but Feinix sells Blancheflor to some Eastern merchants. Flor
goes in quest of Blancheflor, whom he finds in Babylon, in the palace of
the sultan, who is a sorcerer. He gains access to the palace, hidden in
a basket of roses; but the sultan discovers him, and is about to cast
both into the flames, when, touched with human gentleness and love, he
sets them free. They then return to Spain, find Feinix dead, and marry
(fourteenth century).

=Flo´ra=, goddess of flowers. In natural history all the flowers and
vegetable productions of a country and locality are called its flora,
and all its animal productions its fauna.

_Flora_, the waiting-woman of Donna Violante. In love with Lissado, the
valet of Don Felix.—Mrs. Centlivre, _The Wonder_ (1714).

Mrs. Mattocks’s was the most affecting theatrical leave taking we ever
witnessed. The part she chose was “Flora,” to Cook’s “Don Felix,” which
she played with all the freshness and spirit of a woman in her
prime.—_The New Monthly_ (1826).

_Flora_, the niece of old Farmer Freehold. She is a great beauty, and
captivates Heartwell, who marries her. The two are so well assorted that
their “best love is after their espousals.”—John Philip Kemble, _The

=Floranthe= (_Donna_), a lady beloved by Octavian. Octavian goes mad
because he fancies Floranthê is untrue to him, but Roque, a blunt,
kind-hearted servitor, assures him he is mistaken, and persuades him to
return home.—G. Colman, _Octavian_ (1824).

=Flor´delice= (3 _syl._), the mistress of Bran´dimart (king of the
Distant Islands).—Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Flordespi´na=, daughter of Marsiglio.—Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_

=Florence= (_Vane_). The lost love eulogized in Philip Pendleton Cooke’s
poem of that name.

                “Thou wast lovelier than the roses
                  In their prime;
                Thy voice excelled the closes
                  Of sweetest rhyme;
                Thy heart was as a river
                  Without a main.
                Would I had loved thee never,
                  Florence Vane!”

=Florence=, Mrs. Spenser Smith, daughter of Baron Herbert, the Austrian
ambassador in England. She was born at Constantinople, during her
father’s residence in that city. Byron made her acquaintance in Malta,
but Thomas Moore thinks his devotion was more imaginary than real. In a
letter to his mother, his lordship says, he “finds her [_Florence_] very
pretty, very accomplished, and extremely eccentric.”

             Thou mayst find a new Calypso there
       Sweet Florence, could another ever share
       This wayward, loveless heart, it would be thine.
                           Byron, _Childe Harold_, ii. 30 (1810).

_Florence_ (_The German_), Dresden, also called “The Florence of the

_Florence_ (_Weir_). A beautiful girl committed to the care of a young
man who expects to meet a child. Although hardly released from an
engagement to another girl he falls in love with his charge, when his
former flame recalls him, but generously resigns him to her younger
rival.—Ellen Olney Kirk, _One too Many_ (1889).

=Florent=, the nephew of “the emperor,” is condemned to death, but is
offered his life if he can solve a certain riddle. An old deformed hag
promises him the solution if he will agree to marry her afterward. He
keeps faith with his deliverer, and on the wedding-night she is
transformed into a beautiful woman.—Gower, _Confessio Amantis_, I.

Chaucer puts this story into the mouth of “The Wife of Bath,”
_Canterbury Tales_. He does not name the hero, but makes him a bachelor
of King Artour’s court. The story is much older than Gower, and is found
in the legends of several countries, but Chaucer probably borrowed it
from him while changing it in details.

=Florentine Diamond= (_The_), the fourth largest cut diamond in the
world. It weighs 139-1/2 carats, and was the largest diamond belonging
to Charles “the Bold,” duke of Burgundy. It was picked up by a Swiss
peasant, who sold it to a priest for half a crown. The priest sold it
for £200 to Bartholomew May, of Berne. It subsequently came into the
hands of Pope Julius II., and the pope gave it to the Emperor of
Austria. (See DIAMONDS.)

=Flores= or Isle of Flowers, one of the Azores (2 _syl._). It was
discovered in 1439 by Vanderburg, and is especially celebrated because
it was near this isle that Sir Richard Grenville, in the reign of Queen
Elizabeth, fought his famous sea-fight. He had only one ship with a
hundred men, and was opposed by the Spanish fleet of fifty-three
men-of-war. For some hours victory was doubtful, and when Sir Richard
was severely wounded, he wanted to sink the ship; but the Spaniards
boarded it, complimented him on his heroic conduct, and he died. As the
ship (_The Revenge_) was on its way to Spain, it was wrecked, and went
to the bottom, so it never reached Spain after all. Tennyson has a poem
on the subject (1878).

_Flo´res_ (2 _syl._), the lover of Blanchefleur.—Boccaccio, _Il
Filocopo_ (1340)

⁂ Boccaccio has repeated the tale in his _Decameron_, x. 5 (1352), in
which Flores is called “Ansaldo,” and Blanchefleur “Diano´ra.” Flores
and Blanchefleur, before Boccaccio’s time, were noted lovers, and are
mentioned as early as 1288 by Matfre Ermengaud de Beziers, in his
_Breviaire d’Amour_.

Chaucer has taken the same story as the basis of the _Frankeleine’s
Tale_, and Bojardo has introduced it as an episode in his _Orlando
Innamorato_, where the lover is “Prasildo” and the lady “Tisbina.” (See

             The chroniclers of Charlemagne,
             Of Merlin, and the Mort d’Arthure,
             Mingled together in his brain,
             With tale of Flores and Blanchefleur.

=Flores´ki= (_Count_), a Pole, in love with Princess Lodois´ka (4
_syl._). At the opening of the play he is travelling with his servant
Verbel to discover where the princess has been placed by her father
during the war. He falls in with the Tartar chief Kera Khan, whom he
overpowers in fight, but spares his life, and thus makes him his friend.
Floreski finds the princess in the castle of Baron Lovinski, who keeps
her a virtual prisoner, but the castle being stormed by the Tartars the
baron is slain, and the princess marries the count.—J.P. Kemble,

=Flo´rez=, son of Gerrard, king of the beggars. He assumes the name of
Goswin, and becomes, in Bruges, a wealthy merchant. His mistress is
Bertha, the supposed daughter of Vandunke the burgomaster.—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Beggars’ Bush_ (1622).

=Flor´ian=, the “foundling of the forest,” discovered in infancy by the
Count De Valmont, and adopted as his own son. Florian is light-hearted
and volatile, but with deep affection, very brave, and the delight of
all who know him. He is betrothed to his cousin, Lady Geraldine, a ward
of Count De Valmont.—W. Dimond, _The Foundling of the Forest_.

=Florida= (_Vervain_), American girl with her mother in Venice. She
takes Italian lessons from Don Ippolito, a young priest, who has
mistaken his calling. The girl’s pity for him and her desire to see him
freed from a false position and in a different profession in America are
misunderstood by her lover, Henry Ferris. Separation and sorrow ensue.
Ippolito’s death-bed confession to Ferris clears up the mystery.

“If it is a little shocking, it is nevertheless true, and true to human
nature that they spoke of Don Ippolito as if he were a part of their
love.”—W.D. Howells, _A Foregone Conclusion_, (1874).

=Flor´imel=, “the Fair,” courted by Sir Sat´yrane, Sir Per´idure, and
Sir Cal´idore (each 3 _syl._), but she herself “loved none but
Mar´inel,” who cared not for her. When Marinel was overthrown by
Britomart and was reported to be dead, Florimel resolved to search into
the truth of this rumor. In her wanderings, she came weary to the hut of
a hag, but when she left the hut the hag sent a savage monster to bring
her back. Florimel, however, jumped into a boat and escaped, but fell
into the hands of Proteus (2 _syl._), who kept her in a dungeon “deep in
the bottom of a huge great rock.” One day, Marinel and his mother went
to a banquet given by Proteus to the sea-gods; and as Marinel was
loitering about, he heard the captive bemoaning her hard fate, and all
“for love of Marinel.” His heart was touched; he resolved to release the
prisoner, and obtained from his mother a warrant of release, signed by
Neptune himself. Proteus did not dare to disobey, the lady was released,
and became the happy bride of her liberator.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
iii. 4, 8, and iv. 11, 12 (1590-1596).

⁂The name Florimel means “honey-flower.”

_Florimel_ (_The False_), made by a witch of Riphæ´an snow and virgin
wax, with an infusion of vermilion. Two burning lamps in silver sockets
served for eyes, fine gold wire for locks, and for soul “a sprite that
had fallen from heaven.” Braggadoccio, seeing this false Florimel,
carried “her” off as the veritable Florimel; but when he was stripped of
his borrowed plumes, this waxen Florimel vanished into thin air, leaving
nothing behind except the “golden girdle that was about her
waist.”—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. 8, and v.3 (1590-1596).

=Florimel’s Girdle=, a girdle which gave to those who wore it, “the
virtue of chaste love and wifehood true;” if any woman not chaste or
faithful put it on, it immediately “loosed or tore asunder.” It was once
the cestus of Venus, but when that queen of beauty wantoned with Mars,
it fell off and was left on the “Acidalian mount.”—Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, iv. 2 (1596).

One day Sir Cambel, Sir Triamond, Sir Paridel, Sir Blandamour, and Sir
Ferramont agreed to give Florimel’s girdle to the most beautiful lady;
when the previous question was moved, “Who was the most beautiful?” Of
course, each knight, as in duty bound, adjudged his own lady to be the
paragon of women, till the witch’s image of snow and wax, made to
represent Florimel, was produced, when all agreed that it was without a
peer, and so the girdle was handed to “the false Florimel.” On trying it
on, however, it would in no wise fit her; and when by dint of pains it
was at length fastened, it instantly loosened and fell to the ground. It
would fit Amoret exactly, and of course Florimel, but not the witch’s
thing of snow and wax.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 5 (1596).

⁂ Morgan la Fée sent King Arthur a _horn_, out of which no lady could
drink “who was not to herself or to her husband true.” Ariosto’s
_enchanted cup_ possessed a similar spell.

A boy showed King Arthur a _mantle_ which no wife not leal could wear.
If any unchaste wife or maiden put it on, it would either go to shreds
or refuse to drape decorously.

At Ephesus was a _grotto_ containing a statue of Diana. If a chaste wife
or maiden entered, a reed there (presented by Pan) gave forth most
melodious sounds; but if the unfaithful or unchaste entered, the sounds
were harsh and discordant.

Alasnam’s _mirror_ remained unsullied when it reflected the unsullied,
but became dull when the unchaste stood before it. (See CARADOC, p.

=Florin´da=, daughter of Count Julian, one of the high lords in the
Gothic court of Spain. She was violated by King Roderick; and the count,
in his indignation, renounced the Christian religion and called over the
Moors, who came to Spain in large numbers and drove Roderick from the
throne. Orpas, the renegade archbishop of Sev´ille, asked Florinda to
become his bride, but she shuddered at the thought. Roderick, in the
guise of a priest, reclaimed Count Julian as he was dying, and as
Florinda rose from the dead body:

       Her cheek was flushed, and in her eyes there beamed
       A wilder brightness. On the Goth [_Roderick_] she gazed.
       While underneath the emotions of that hour
       Exhausted life gave way.... Round his neck she threw
       Her arms, and cried “My Roderick; mine in heaven!”
       Groaning, he claspt her close, and in that act
       And agony her happy spirit fled.
                         Southey, _Roderick, etc._, xxiv. (1814).

=Flo´ripes= (3 _syl._), sister of Sir Fierabras [_Fe.ā´.ra.brah_],
daughter of Laban, and wife of Guy, the nephew of Charlemagne.

=Florisan´do= (_The exploits and adventures of_), part of the series of
_Le Roman des Romans_, or those pertaining to Am´adis of Gaul. This part
(from bk. vi. to xiv.) was added by Paez de Ribēra.

=Florise=, (_The lady_), attendant on Queen Berengaria.—Sir W. Scott,
_The Talisman_, (time, Richard I.)

=Flor´isel of Nice’a= (_The exploits and adventures of_), part of the
series called _Le Roman des Romans_, pertaining to Am´adis of Gaul. This
part was added by Feliciano de Silva.

=Flor´ismart=, one of Charlemagne’s paladins, and the bosom friend of

=Florival= (_Mdlle._), daughter of a French physician in Belleisle. She
fell in love with Major Belford, while nursing him in her father’s house
during a period of sickness. Her marriage however was deferred, from the
great aversion of the major’s father to the French, and he went to
Havana. In due time he returned to England and Colonel Tamper with him.
Now Colonel Tamper was in love with Emily, and wishing to try the
strength of her affection, pretended to be severely mutilated in the
wars. Florival was a guest of Emily at the time, and, being apprised of
the trick, resolved to turn the tables on the colonel, so when he
entered the room as a maimed soldier, he found there Florival, dressed
as an officer, and, under the name of Captain Johnson, flirting most
desperately with Emily. The colonel was mad with jealousy, but in the
very whirlwind of his rage, Major Belford recognized Mdlle. Florival,
saw through the trick, and after a hearty good laugh at the colonel all
ended happily.—Colman, sen., _The Deuce is in Him_ (1762).

=Flor´izel=, son of Polixenês, king of Bohemia. In a hunting expedition,
he saw Perdita (the supposed daughter of a shepherd), fell in love with
her, and courted her under the assumed name of Dor´icles. The king
tracked his son to the shepherd’s house, and told Perdita that if she
gave countenance to this foolery he would order her and the shepherd to
be put to death. Florizel and Perdita then fled from Bohemia, and took
refuge in Sicily. Being brought to the court of King Leontês, it soon
became manifest that Perdita was the king’s daughter. Polixenês, in the
mean time, had tracked his son to Sicily, but when he was informed that
Perdita was the king’s daughter, his objection to the marriage ceased,
and Perdita became the happy bride of Prince Florizel.—Shakespeare, _The
Winter’s Tale_ (1604).

_Florizel_, the name assumed by George IV. in his correspondence with
Mrs. Robinson (actress and poetess), generally known as Per´dita, that
being the character in which she first attracted his attention when
prince of Wales.

⁂ George IV. was generally nicknamed “Prince Florizel.”

=Flower of Chivalry=, Sir William Douglas, knight of Liddesdale
(*-1353). Sir Philip Sidney, statesman, poet, and soldier, was also
called “The Flower of Chivalry” (1554-1586). So was the Chevalier de
Bayard, _le Chevalier sans Peur et sans Reproche_ (1476-1514).

=Flower of Kings.= Arthur is so called by John of Exeter (sixth

=Flower of Poets=, Geoffrey Chaucer (1328-1400).

=Flower of the Levant´.= Zantê is so called from its great beauty and

                     Zante! Zante! flor di Levanti.

=Flower of Yarrow= (_The_), Mary Scott, daughter of Sir William Scott of

=Flowers= (_The Death of the_). In the poem bearing this title William
Cullen Bryant thus names the American flowers that have been called “the
crown-jewels of the year.”

         “On the hill the golden-rod
         And the aster in the wood,
         And the yellow sunflower by the brook,
         In autumn beauty stood,
         Till fell the frost from the clear, cold heaven
         As falls the plague on men
         And the brightness of their smile was gone
         From upland, glade and glen.”
                        _The Death of the Flowers_ (1821-1834).

=Flowerdale= (_Sir John_), father of Clarissa, and the neighbor of
Colonel Oldboy.—Bickerstaff, _Lionel and Clarissa_.

=Floyd= (_Ireson_).

              “Old Floyd Ireson, for his hard heart
              Tarred and feathered, and carried in a cart
              By the women of Marblehead.”

The punishment was inflicted because he had refused succor to a leaking
ship, lost in consequence of his inhumanity.—J.G. Whittier, _Skipper
Ireson’s Ride_ (1877).

_Floyds_ (_The_). Artist and wife summering in Broughton, Mass. He is
self-indulgent and careless of her; she proud, passionate and morbid.
Convinced that her husband is weary of her, and beset by the
importunities of another man, she drowns herself.—Bliss Perry, _The
Broughton House_ (1890).

=Fluel´len=, a Welsh captain and great pedant, who, amongst other
learned quiddities, drew this parallel between Henry V. and Alexander
the Great: One was born in Monmouth and the other in Macedon, both which
places begin with M, and in both a river flowed.—Shakespeare, _Henry V._
act iv. sc. 7 (1599).

=Flur=, the bride of Cassivelaun, “for whose love the Roman Cæsar first
invaded Britain.”—Tennyson, _Idylls of the King_ (“Enid”).

=Flute= (_The Magic_), a flute which has the powers of inspiring love.
When given by the powers of darkness, the love it inspires is sensual
love; but when bestowed by the powers of light, it becomes subservient
to the very holiest ends. In the opera called _Die Zauberflöte_, Tami´no
and Pami´na are guided by it through all worldly dangers to the
knowledge of divine truth (or the mysteries of Isis.)—Mozart, _Die
Zauberflöte_ (1791).

=Flutter=, a gossip, fond of telling a good story, but, unhappily,
unable to do so without a blunder. “A good-natured, insignificant
creature, admitted everywhere, but cared for nowhere” (act i. 3).—Mrs.
Cowley, _The Belle’s Stratagem_ (1780).

=Fly.= Dainty butterfly of fashion who falls heir to the heroine’s
rejected lover in Elizabeth Stuart Phelps’s novel, _The Silent Partner_.

=Fly-gods=, Beelzebub, a god of the Philistines, supposed to ward off
flies. Achor was worshipped by the Cyrēneads for a similar object. Zeus
Apomy´ios was the fly-god of the Greeks.

           On the east side of your shop, aloft,
           Write Mathlai, Tarmael, and Baraborat;
           Upon the north part, Rael, Velel, Thiel.
           They are the names of those mercurial sprites
           That do fright flies from boxes.
                       B. Jonson, _The Alchemist_, i. (1610).

=Flying Dutchman= (_The_), a phantom ship, seen in stormy weather off
the Cape of Good Hope, and thought to forebode ill luck. The legend is
that it was a vessel laden with precious metal, gained by murder and
piracy on the high seas. In punishment, the plague broke out among the
crew; no port would admit them, and the ship must sail the seas till

Another legend is, that a Dutch captain, homeward-bound, driven back by
continued storms off the Cape, swore that he would double the Cape if he
sailed till the day of doom. Taken at his word, he must now sail the
seas forever.—Captain Marryat, _The Phantom Ship_.

Richard Wagner’s opera, _Der Fliegende Holländer_, adds a loftier motive
to the legend. The doomed captain cannot find rest until some woman
consents to share his fate. Elsa, moved by pity, makes the sacrifice and
saves him from perdition.

=Flying Highwayman.= William Harrow, who leaped his horse over turn-pike
gates as if it had been furnished with wings. He was executed in 1763.

=Flynn= (Tom), of Virginia.

           “Thar in the drift, back to the wall,
           He held the timbers ready to fall
           Then, in the darkness I heard him call:—
           “Run for your life, Jake! run for your wife’s sake
           Don’t wait for me!”
           And that was all
           Heard in the din,
           Heard of Tom Flynn,—
           Flynn of Virginia!”

Story told by the miner whose life he saved.—Bert Harte, _In the Tunnel_

=Flyter= (_Mrs._), landlady of the lodgings occupied by Frank
Osbaldistone in Glasgow.—Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Fog= (_Amos_). Dreamy fisherman, hunter and wrecker, builder and owner
of _Castle Nowhere_, in Constance Fennimore Woolson’s tale of that name.

=Foible=, the intriguing lady’s maid of Lady Wishfort, and married to
Waitwell (lackey of Edward Mirabell). She interlards her remarks with
“says he,” “he says, says he,” “she says, says she,” etc.—W. Congreve,
_The Way of the World_ (1700).

=Foi´gard= (_Father_), one of a gang of thieves. He pretends to be a
French priest, but “his French shows him to be English, and his English
shows him to be Irish.”—Farquhar, _The Beaux’ Stratagem_ (1705).

=Folair=´ (2 _syl._), a pantomimist at the Portsmouth Theatre, under the
management of Mr. Vincent Crummles.—C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_

=Foldath=, general of the Fire-bolg or Belgæ in the south of Ireland. In
the epic called _Tem´ora_, Cathmor is the “lord of Atha,” and Foldath is
his general. He is a good specimen of the savage chieftain; bold and
daring, but presumptuous, overbearing, and cruel. “His stride is
haughty, and his red eye rolls in wrath.” He looks with scorn on
Hidalla, a humane and gentle officer in the same army, for his delight
is strife, and he exults over the fallen. In counsel Foldath is
imperious, and contemptuous to those who differ from him. Unrelenting in
revenge; and even when he falls with his death-wound dealt by Fillan the
son of Fingal, he feels a sort of pleasure that his ghost would hover in
the blast, and exult over the graves of his enemies. Foldath had one
child, a daughter, the blue-eyed Dardu-Le´na, the last of the
race.—Ossian, _Temora_.

=Fon´dlewife=, an uxorious banker.—Congreve, _The Old Bachelor_ (1693).

When Mrs. Jefferson [1733-1776] was asked in what characters she
excelled the most, she innocently replied,—“In old men, like
‘Fondlewife’ and ‘Sir Jealous Traffic.’”

⁂ “Sir Jealous Traffic” is in _The Busy-Body_, by Mrs. Centlivre.

=Fondlove= (_Sir William_), a vain old baronet of 60, who fancies
himself a schoolboy, capable of playing boyish games, dancing, or doing
anything that young men do. “How marvellously I wear! What signs of age
have I? I’m certainly a wonder for my age. I walk as well as ever. Do I
stoop? Observe the hollow of my back. As now I stand, so stood I when a
child, a rosy, chubby boy. My arm is as firm as ’twas at 20. Oak, oak,
isn’t it? Think you my leg is shrunk?—not in the calf a little? When
others waste, ’tis growing-time with me. Vigor, sir, vigor, in every
joint. Could run, could leap. Why shouldn’t I marry?” So thought Sir
William of Sir William, and he married the Widow Green, a buxom dame of
40 summers.—S. Knowles, _The Love-Chase_ (1837).

=Fool.= James I. of Great Britain was called by Henri IV. of France,
“The Wisest Fool in Christendom” (1566-1625).

_Fool_ (_The_), in the ancient morris-dance, represented the
court-jester. He carried in his hand a yellow bauble, and wore on his
head a hood with ass’s ears, the top of the hood rising into the form of
a cock’s neck and head, with a belt at the extreme end. The hood was
blue, edged with yellow and scolloped, the doublet red, edged with
yellow, the girdle yellow, the hose of one leg yellow and of the other
blue, shoes red. (See MORRIS-DANCE.)

=Fool’s Prayer= (_The_). A king calls upon his jester to “kneel down and
make a prayer!” The fool obeys in words so full of pregnant truth that—

      “The room was hushed. In silence rose
      The King and sought his gardens cool,
      And walked apart, and murmured low
      ‘Be merciful to me, a fool!’”
                 Edward Rowland Sill, _The Fool’s Prayer_ (1883).

=Fools, Jesters and Mirthmen.= Those in italics were mirthmen, but not
licensed fools or jesters.

ADELSBURN (_Burkard Kasper_), jester to George I. He was not only a
fun-maker, but also a ghostly adviser of the Hanoverian.

AKSAKOFF, the fool of Czarina Elizabeth of Russia (mother of Peter II.).
He was a stolid brute, fond of practical jokes.

ANGÉLY (_L._) jester to Louis XIV., and last of the licensed fools of
France. He is mentioned by Boileau in _Satires_ i. and viii.

AOPI (_Monsignore_), who succeeded Soglia as the merryman of Pope
Gregory XVI.

ARMSTRONG (_Archie_), jester in the courts of James I. and Charles I.
One of the characters in Scott’s novel, _The Fortunes of Nigel._ Being
condemned to death by King James for sheep-stealing, Archie implored
that he might live till he had read his Bible through for his soul’s
weal. This was granted, and Archie rejoined, with a sly look, “Then
de’il tak’ me ’gin I ever read a word on’t!”

BERDIC, “joculator” to William the Conqueror. Three towns and five
caracutes in Gloucestershire were given him by the king.

BLUET D’ARBÉRES (seventeenth century), fool to the duke of Mantua.
During a pestilence he conceived the idea of offering his life as a
ransom for his countrymen, and actually starved himself to death to stay
the plague.

BONNY (_Patrick_), jester to the regent Morton.

_Borde_ (_Andrew_), usually called “Merry Andrew,” physician to Henry
VIII. (1500-1549).

BRUSQUET. Of this court fool Brantôme says: “He never had his equal in
repartee” (1512-1563).

_Caillet_ (_Guillaume_), who flourished about 1490. His likeness is
given in the frontispiece of the _Ship of Fools_ (1497).

CHICOT, jester of Henri III. and Henri IV. Alexandre Dumas has a novel
called _Chicot the Jester_ (1553-1591).

COLQUHOUN (_Jemmy_), predecessor of James Geddes, jester in the court of
Mary queen of Scots.

_Coryat_, “prince of non-official jesters and coxcombs.” Kept by Prince
Henry, brother of Charles I.

COULON, doctor and jester to Louis XVIII. He was the very prince of
mimics. He sat for the portraits of Thiers, Molé, and Comte Joseph de
Villèle (died 1858).

DA´GONET (_Sir_), jester to King Arthur. He was knighted by the king

DERRIE, a court jester to James I. Contemporary with Thom.

DUFRESNOY, poet, playwright, actor, gardener, glass-manufacturer,
spendthrift, wit, and honorary fool to Louis XIV. His jests are the “Joe
Millers” of France.

GEDDES (_James_), jester in the court of Mary, queen of Scots. He was
daft, and followed Jemmy Colquhoun in the motley.

GLORIEUX (_Le_), jester of Charles _le Hardi_ of Burgundy.

GONELLA, domestic jester of the duke of Ferrara. His jests are in print.
Gonella used to ride a horse all skin and bone, which is spoken of in
_Don Quixote_.

HAFOD (_Jack_), a retainer in the house of Mr. Bartlett, of
Castlemorton, Worcestershire. He died at the close of the eighteenth
century, and has given birth to the expression “As big a fool as Jack
Hafod.” He was the _ultimus scurrarum_ in Great Britain.

HEYWOOD (_John_) author of numerous dramatic works (1492-1565).

_Jean_ (_Seigni_), or “Old John;” so called to distinguish him from Jean
or Johan, called _Le Fol de Madame_, (fl. 1380).

JOHAN, _Le Fol de Madame_ mentioned by Marot in his epitaphs.

_Johnson_ (_S._), familiarly known as “Lord Flame,” the character he
played in his own extravaganza of _Hurlo-Thrumbo_ (1729).

_Kgaw_ (_General_), a Saxon general, famous for his broad jests.

KILLIGREW (_Thomas_), called “King Charles’s jester” (1611-1682).

LONGELY, jester to Louis XIII.

NARR (_Klaus_), jester to Frederick, “the Wise,” elector of Prussia.

PATCH, court fool of Elizabeth, wife of Henry VII.

PATCHE, Cardinal Woolsey’s jester. The cardinal made Henry VIII. a
present of this “wise fool,” and the king returned word that “the gift
was a most acceptable one.”

PATISON, licensed jester to Sir Thomas More. He is introduced by Hans
Holbein in his famous picture of the lord chancellor’s family.

_Paul_ (_Jacob_), Baron Gundling. This merryman was laden with titles in
ridicule by Frederick William I. of Prussia.

PEARCE (_Dickie_), fool of the earl of Suffolk. Dean Swift wrote an
epitaph on him.

RAYÈRE, court jester to Henry I. of England.

ROSEN (_Kunz von der_), private jester to the emperor Maximilian I.

SCOGAN, court jester to Edward IV.

SOGLIA (_Cardinal_), the fun-maker of Pope Gregory XVI. He was succeeded
by Aopi.

SOMERS (_Will_), court jester to Henry VIII. The effigy of this jester
is at Hampton Court. And in Old Fish Street was once a public-house
called Will Somers’s tavern (1490-1560).

STEHLIN (_Professor_), in the household of czarina Elizabeth of Russia.
He was teacher of mathematics and history to the grand-duke (Peter II.),
and was also his licensed buffoon.

_Tarleton_, (_Richard_), the famous clown, and jester in the reign of
Queen Elizabeth, but not attached either to the court or to any nobleman

THOM, one of the court jesters of James I. Contemporary with Derrie.

TRIBOULET, court jester to Louis XII. and François I. (1487-1536).
Licinio, the rival of Titian, took his likeness, which is still extant.

WALLETT (_W.F._), court jester to Queen Victoria. He styles himself “the
queen’s jester,” but doubtless has no warrant for the title from the
Lord Chamberlain.

WALTER, jester to Queen Elizabeth.

WILL, “my lord of Leicester’s jesting player;” but who this “Will” was
is not known. It might be Will Johnson, Will Sly, Will Kimpe, or even
Will Shakespeare.

YORICK, jester in the court of Denmark. Referred to by Shakespeare in
his _Hamlet_, act v. sc. 1.

(Dr. Doran published _The History of Court Fools_, in 1858).

=Fools’ Paradise=, unlawful pleasure; illicit love; vain hopes; the
_limbus fatuorum_ or paradise of fools.

If ye should lead her into a fool’s paradise, it were a gross ...
behavior.—Shakespeare, _Romeo and Juliet,_ act ii. sc. 4 (1597).

=Foot-breadth=, the sword of Thoralf Skolinson “the Strong” of Norway.

               Quern-biter of Hakon the Good,
               Wherewith at a stroke he hewed
                 The millstone thro’ and thro’;
               And foot-breadth of Thoralf “the Strong!”
               Were not so broad, nor yet so long.
                 Nor was their edge so true.

=Fopling Flutter= (_Sir_), “the man of mode,” and chief character of a
comedy by Sir George Etherege, entitled _The Man of Mode or Sir Fopling
Flutter_ (1676).

=Foppery.= Vespasian the Roman emperor had a contempt for foppery. When
certain young noblemen came to him smelling of perfumes, he said to
them, “You would have pleased me more if you had smelt of garlic.”

Charlemagne had a similar contempt of foppery. One day, when he was
hunting, the rain poured down in torrents, and the fine furs and silks
of his suite were utterly spoilt. The king took this occasion to rebuke
the court beaux for their vanity in dress and advised them in future to
adopt garments more simple and more serviceable.

=Foppington= (_Lord_),an empty-headed coxcomb, intent only on dress and
fashion. His favorite oaths, which he brings out with a drawl, are:
“Strike me dumb!” “Split my windpipe!” and so on. When he loses his
mistress, he consoles himself with this reflection: “Now, for my part, I
think the wisest thing a man can do with an aching heart is to put on a
serene countenance; for a philosphical air is the most becoming thing in
the world to the face of a person of quality.”—Sir John Vanbrugh, _The
Relapse_ (1697).

The shoemaker in _The Relapse_ tells Lord Foppington that his lordship
is mistaken in supposing that his shoe pinches.—Macaulay.

_Foppington_ (_Lord_), a young married man about town, most intent upon
dress and fashion, whose whole life is consumed in the follies of play
and seduction. His favorite oaths are: “Sun, burn me!” “Curse, catch
me!” “Stop my breath!” “Let me blood!” “Run me through!” “Strike me
stupid!” “Knock me down!” He is reckoned the king of all court
fops.—Colley Cibber, _The Careless Husband_ (1704).

_Foppington_ (_Lord_), elder brother of Tom Fashion. A selfish coxcomb,
engaged to be married to Miss Hoyden, daughter of Sir Tunbelly Clumsy,
to whom he is personally unknown. His brother Tom, to whom he did not
behave well, resolved to outwit him; and passing himself off as Lord
Foppington, got introduced to the family, and married the heiress. When
his lordship appeared, he was treated as an impostor, till Tom explained
his ruse; and Sir Tunbelly, being snubbed by the coxcomb, was soon
brought to acquiesce in the change, and gave his hand to his new
son-in-law with cordiality. The favorite oaths of Lord Foppington are:
“Strike me dumb!” “Strike me ugly!” “Stap my vitals!” “Split my
windpipe!” “Rat me!”, etc.; and, in speaking, his affectation is to
change the vowel “o” into _a_, as _rat_, _naw_, _resalve_, _waurld_,
_ardered_, _manth_, _paund_, _maunth_, _lang_, _philasapher_, _tarture_,
and so on.—Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_ (1777).

⁂ This comedy is _The Relapse_, slightly altered and curtailed.

=Forbes= (_Paul_), A travelled man who thinks himself blasé, but finds,
to his surprise, new sensations in America. The leading excitement (and
surprise) is his falling in love with a rich and beautiful girl and a
poor and pretty one at the same time. Miriam, the rich beauty, divines
the truth and her plan for freeing him is thus described by Edward
Jasper, whom she married out of hand one evening.

“She was not happy—she resolved to throw herself into the abyss. _I_ am
the abyss.”

Forbes replies: “Since at this hour yesterday I had the honor to
consider myself engaged to Miss Reese, who is now your wife, the most
graceful act on my part is apparently, to efface myself. Accordingly, I
efface myself.”—Ellen Olney Kirk, _Sons and Daughters_ (1887).

=Ford=, a gentleman of fortune living at Windsor. He assumes the name of
Brook, and being introduced to Sir John Falstaff, the knight informs him
“of his whole course of wooing,” and how at one time he eluded Mrs.
Ford’s jealous husband by being carried out before his eyes in a
buck-basket of dirty linen.—Act iii. sc. 5.

_Mrs. Ford_, wife of Mr. Ford. Sir John Falstaff pays court to her, and
she pretends to accept his protestations of love, in order to expose and
punish him. Her husband assumes for the nonce the name of Brook, and Sir
John tells him from time to time the progress of his suit, and how he
succeeds in duping her fool of a husband.—Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of
Windsor_ (1596).

=Forde´lis= (3 _syl._), wife of Bran´dimart (Orlando’s intimate friend).
When Brandimart was slain, Fordelis dwelt for a time in his sepulchre in
Sicily, and died broken-hearted. (See FOURDELIS.)—Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1615).

=Fore´sight= (2 _syl._), a mad superstitious old man, who “consulted the
stars, and believed in omens, portents, and predictions.” He referred
“man’s goatish disposition to the charge of a star,” and says he himself
was “born when the Crab was ascending, so that all his affairs in life
have gone backwards.”

I know the signs, and the planets, and their houses; can judge of
motions, direct and retrograde, of sextiles, quadrates, trines, and
oppositions, fiery trigons and aquatic trigons. Know whether life shall
be long or short, happy or unhappy; whether diseases are curable or
incurable; if journeys shall be prosperous, undertakings successful, or
stolen goods recovered.—H. Congreve, _Love for Love_, ii. (1695).

=Forester= (_Sir Philip_), a libertine knight. He goes in disguise to
Lady Bothwell’s ball on his return from the Continent, but being
recognized, decamps.

_Lady Jemima Forester_, wife of Sir Philip, who goes with her sister
Lady Bothwell to consult “the enchanted mirror,” in which they discover
the clandestine marriage and infidelity of Sir Philip.—Sir W. Scott,
_Aunt Margaret’s Mirror_ (time, William III).

=Forgeries= (_Literary_).

BERTRAM (_C. Julius_), professor of English at Copenhagen, professed to
have discovered, in 1747, the _De Situ Britanniæ_ of Richardus
Corinensis, in the library of that city; and in 1757 he published it
with two other treatises, calling the whole _The Three Writers on the
Ancient History of the British Nations_ (better known as _Scriptores
Tres_). His forgery was exposed by J.E. Mayor, in his preface to
_Ricardi de Cirencestria Speculum Historiale_.

CHATTERTON (_Thomas_), in 1777, published certain poems, which he
affirmed were written in the fifteenth century by Thomas Rowley, a monk.
The poets Gray and Mason detected the forgery.

His other literary forgeries were: (1) _The Pedigree of Burgum_ (a
Bristol pewterer), professed to have been discovered in the
muniment-room of St. Mary’s Church, Redcliffe. He accordingly printed a
history of the “De Bergham” family, with a poem called _The Romaunt of
the Cnyghte_, by John de Bergham (fourteenth century). (2) A forged
account of the opening of the old bridge, signed “Dunhelmus
Bristoliensis,” and professing to have been copied from an old MS. (3)
_An Account of Bristol_, by Turgotus, “translated out of Saxon into
English, by T. Rowley.” This forgery was made for the use of Mr.
Catcott, who was writing a history of Bristol.

IRELAND (_S. W. H._) published, in folio, 1796, _Miscellaneous Papers
and Instruments, under the hand and seal of William Shakespeare,
including the tragedy of King Lear and a small fragment of Hamlet, from
the original_, price £4 4_s_. He actually produced MSS. which he had
forged, and which he pretended were original.

On April 2, 1796, the play of _Vortigern and Rowena_, “from the pen of
Shakespeare,” was announced for representation. It drew a most crowded
house; but the fraud was detected, and Ireland made a public declaration
of his impositions, from beginning to end.

MENTZ, who lived in the ninth century, published fifty-nine decretals,
which he asserted were by Isidore of Seville, who lived three centuries
previously. The object of these forged letters was to exalt the papacy
and to corroborate certain dogmas.

At Bremen, in 1837, were printed nine books of SANCHONI´ATHON, and it
was said that the MSS. had been discovered in the convent of St. Maria
de Merinhâo by a Colonel Pereira in the Portuguese army; but it was
ascertained that there was no such convent, nor any such colonel, and
that the paper of this “ancient” MS. bore the water-mark of Osnabrück

=Forgive, Blest Shade= ... This celebrated epitaph in Brading
Churchyard, Isle of Wight, is an altered version, by the Rev. John Gill
(curate of Newchurch), of one originally composed by Mrs. Anne Steele,
daughter of a Baptist minister at Bristol.

=Fornar´ina= (_La_), so called because she was the daughter of a baker
(Fornajo), is the name under which Raphael’s mistress is known. Her name
is said to have been Margherita. Raphael painted several portraits of
this woman, the most famous being in the Uffizi Gallery at Florence, and
her face appears to have suggested many of his most beautiful faces in
other works.

=Forrest= (_George_), Esq., M.A., the _nom de plume_ of the Rev. J. G.
Wood, author of _Every Boy’s Book_ (1855), etc.

=Forsythe= (_Dick_), Man of the world who comes to spend a few weeks in
a country town with his invalid mother, astonishes and fascinates the
natives of Ashwist, and falls in love with Lois Howe, the rector’s
daughter. She has the bad taste to prefer a plainer man.—Margaret
Deland, _John Ward, Preacher_ (1888).

=Fortescue= (_Ellen_). Orphan niece adopted by Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton,
shy, gentle, timid, and affectionate. Upon her death-bed Ellen’s mother
has charged the child to shield her brother from blame everywhere and
always. Performance of her promise to do this bring upon the sister a
weight of suspicion that humbles her to the dust and nearly breaks her
heart. She is cleared by her brother’s confession of his own wrong
doing.—Grace Aguilar, _Home Influence_ (1850).

=For´tinbras=, prince of Norway.—Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

=Fortuna´tus=, a man on the brink of starvation, on whom Fortune offers
to bestow either wisdom, strength, riches, health, beauty, or long life.
He chooses riches, and she gives him an inexhaustible purse.
Subsequently, the sultan gives him a wishing-cap, which as soon as he
puts on his head, will transport him to any spot he likes. These gifts
prove the ruin of Fortunatus and his sons.

⁂This is one of the Italian tales called _Nights_, by Straparo´la. There
is a German version, and a French one, as far back as 1535. The story
was dramatized in 1553 by Hans Sachs; and in 1600 by Thomas Dekker,
under the title of _The Pleasant Comedie of old Fortunatus_. Ludwig
Tieck also had a drama upon the same subject.

The purse of Fortunatus could not supply you.—Holcroft, _The Road to
Ruin_, i. 3.

_Fortunatus’s Purse_, a purse which was inexhaustible. It was given to
Fortunatus by Fortune herself.

_Fortunatus’s Wishing-cap_, a cap given by the sultan to Fortunatus. He
had only to put it on his head and wish, when he would find himself
transported to any spot he liked.

=Fortune= (_Emerson_). Sharp spinster aunt of Ellen Montgomery in Susan
Warner’s _Wide, Wide World_. She rules her house, her mother and niece
with a hand of iron until she marries her farmer, phlegmatic Van Brunt.

=Fortune’s Frolic=, a farce by Allingham. Lord Lackwit died suddenly,
and the heir of his title and estates was Robin Roughhead, a poor
laborer, engaged to Dolly, a cottager’s daughter. The object of the
farce is to show the pleasure of doing good, and the blessings which a
little liberality can dispense. Robin was not spoilt by his good
fortune, but married Dolly, and became the good genius of the cottage

=Fortunes of Nigel=, a novel by Sir. W. Scott (1822). This story gives
an excellent picture of the times of James I., and the account of
Alsatia is wholly unrivalled. The character of King James, poor, proud
and pedantic, is a masterly historic sketch.

=Fortunio=, one of the three daughters of an old lord, who at the age of
four-score was called out to join the army levied against the emperor of
Matapa´. Fortunio put on military costume, and went in place of her
father. On her way, a fairy gave her a horse named Comrade, not only of
incredible swiftness, but all-knowing and endowed with human speech; she
also gave her an inexhaustible Turkey-leather trunk, full of money,
jewels and fine clothes. By the advice of Comrade she hired seven gifted
servants, named Strongback, Lightfoot, Marksman, Fine-ear, Boisterer,
Trinquet, and Grugeon. After performing several marvelous feats by the
aid of her horse and servants, Fortunio married Alfurite (3 _syl._), the
king of her country. Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (1682).

⁂ This tale is reproduced in Grimm’s _Goblins_.

_Fortunio’s Horse_, Comrade, which not only possessed incredible speed,
but knew all things, and was gifted with human speech.

_Fortunio’s Attendants_.

Trinquet drank up the lakes and ponds, and thus caught for his master
[_sic_] most delicate fish. Lightfoot hunted down venison, and caught
hares by the ears. As for Marksman, he gave neither partridge or
pheasant any quarter, and whatever amount of game Marksman shot,
Strongback would carry without inconvenience.—Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy
Tales_ (“Fortunio,” 1682).

_Fortunio’s Sisters_. Whatever gifts Fortunio sent her sisters their
touch rendered them immediately worthless. Thus the coffers of jewels
and gold “became only cut glass and false pistoles” the moment the
jealous sisters touched them.

_Fortunio’s Turkey-leather Trunk_, full of suits of all sorts, swords,
jewels, and gold. The fairy told Fortunio “she needed but to stamp with
her foot, and call for the Turkey-leather trunk, and it would always
come to her, full of money and jewels, fine linen and laces.”—Comtesse
D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_, (1682).

=Forty Thieves=, also called the tale of “Ali Baba.” These thieves lived
in a vast cave, the door of which opened and shut at the words, “Open,
Sesamê!” “Shut, Sesamê!” One day, Ali Baba, a wood-monger, accidentally
discovered the secret, and made himself rich by carrying off gold from
the stolen hoards. The captain tried several schemes to discover the
thief, but was always outwitted by Morgia´na, the wood-cutter’s female
slave, who, with boiling oil, killed the whole band, and at length
stabbed the captain himself with his own dagger.—_Arabian Nights_ (“Ali
Baba or the Forty Thieves”).

=Forwards= (_Marshal_). Blucher is so called for his dash and readiness
to attack in the campaign of 1813 (1742-1819).

Fosca´ri (_Francis_), doge of Venice for thirty-five years. He saw three
of his sons die, and the fourth, named Jac´opo, was banished by the
Council of Ten for taking bribes from his country’s enemies. The old
doge also was deposed at the age of 84. As he was descending the “Giant
Staircase” to take leave of his son, he heard the bell announce the
election of his successor, and he dropped down dead.

_Jac´opo Foscari_, the fourth and only surviving son of Francis Foscari,
the doge of Venice. He was banished for taking bribes of foreign
princes. Jacopo had been several times tortured, and died soon after his
banishment to Candia.—Byron, _The Two Foscari_ (1820).

=Fosco= (_Count_), the airy, witty, unconscionable villain of Wilkie
Collins’ _Woman in White_. Gallant, audacious and fat.

=Foss= (_Corporal_), a disabled soldier, who served many years under
Lieutenant Worthington, and remained his ordinary when the lieutenant
retired from the service. Corporal Foss loved his master and Miss Emily,
the lieutenant’s daughter, and he gloried in his profession. Though
brusque in manner, he was tender-hearted as a child.—G. Colman, _The
Poor Gentleman_ (1812).

⁂ Corporal Foss is modelled from “Corporal Trim,” in Sterne’s _Tristram
Shandy_ (1759).

=Foster= (_Captain_), on guard at Tully Veolan ruin.—Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

_Foster_, the English champion.—Sir W. Scott, _The Laird’s Jock_ (time,

_Foster_ (_Anthony_) or “Tony-fire-the-Faggot,” agent of the earl of
Leicester at Cumnor Place.—Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Foster_ (_Sir John_), the English warden.—Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_
(time Elizabeth).

_Foster_ (_Dr. James_), a dissenting minister, who preached on Sunday
evenings for above twenty years, from 1728-1748, in Old Jewry (died

               Let modest Foster, if he will, excel
               Ten metropolitans in preaching well.

_Foster_ (_Silas_), the bucolic master of the house that shelters the
reformers of The Blithedale Romance. He gulps his tea, helps himself to
dip-toast with the flat of his own knife, and perpetrates terrible
enormities with the butter-plate, “behaving less like a sensible
Christian than the worst kind of an ogre.”—Nathaniel Hawthorne, _The
Blithedale Romance_ (1852).

=Foul-weather Jack=, Commodore Byron (1723-1786.)

=Foundling= (_The_), Harriet Raymond, whose mother died in childbirth,
was committed to the charge of a _gouvernante_, who announced to her
father (Sir Charles Raymond) that the child was dead. This, however, was
not true, for the _gouvernante_ changed the child’s name to Fidelia, and
sold her at the age of 12 to one Villiard. One night, Charles Belmont,
passing Villiard’s house, heard the cries of a girl for help; he rescued
her and took her to his own home, where he gave her in charge to his
sister Rosetta. The two girls became companions and friends, and Charles
fell in love with the “foundling.” The _gouvernante_, on her death-bed,
revealed the secret to Sir Charles Raymond, the mystery was cleared up,
and Fidelia became the wife of Charles Belmont. Rosetta gave her hand to
Fidelia’s brother, Colonel Raymond.—Edward Moore, _The Foundling_

=Fountain, Bellamore, and Hare´brain=, suitors to Lady Hartwell, a
widow. They are the chums of Valentine the gallant, who would not be
persuaded to keep his estate.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _Wit without Money_

=Fountain of Life=, Alexander Hales, “the Irrefragible Doctor” (*-1245).

=Fountain of Oblivion.= The student, Hieronymous, is told to seek out a
certain fountain and cast a scroll into it, “and he shall find peace.”
He obeys, and sees mirrored there his own life, and himself as boy and
man, and beside him a maiden whose face is like that of the woman he

“And the name was no longer Hermione, but was changed to Mary; and the
student, Hieronymous, is lying at your feet!”—Henry Wadsworth
Longfellow, _Hyperion_ (1839).

=Fountain of Youth=, a marvellous fountain in the island of Bim´ini (one
of the Baha´ma group). It had the virtue of restoring the aged to youth
again. In the middle ages it was really believed to exist, and Juan
Ponce de Leon, among other Spanish navigators, went in serious quest of
this fountain.

=Four Kings= (_The_) of a pack of cards are Charlemagne (_the
Franco-German king_), David (_the Jewish king_), Alexander (_the
Macedonian king_), and Cæsar (_the Roman king_). These four kings are
representatives of the four great monarchies.

=Four Masters= (_The_). (1) Michael O’Clerighe, (2) Cucoirighe
O’Clerighe; (3) Maurice Conry; (4) Fearfeafa Conry. These four masters
were the authors of the _Annals of Donegal_.

⁂ O’Clerighe is sometimes Anglicized into _Clerkson_, and Cucoirighe
into _Peregrine_.

=Fourberies de Scapin= (_Les_), by Molière (1671). Scapin is the valet
of Lèandre, son of seignior Gèronte (2 _syl._), who falls in love with
Zerbinette, supposed to be a gypsy, but in reality the daughter of
seignior Argante (2 _syl._), stolen by the gypsies in early childhood.
Her brother Octave (2 _syl._) falls in love with Hyacinthe, whom he
supposes to be Hyacinthe Pandolphe of Tarentum, but who turns out to be
Hyacinthe Gèronte, the sister of Lèandre. Now, the gypsies demand £1500
as the ransom of Zerbinette, and Octave requires £80 for his marriage
with Hyacinthe. Scapin obtains both these sums from the fathers under
false pretences, and at the end of the comedy is brought in on a litter,
with his head bound as if on the point of death. He begs forgiveness,
which he readily obtains; whereupon the “sick man” jumps from the litter
to join the banqueters. (See SCAPIN.)

=Fourde´lis=, personification of France, called the true love of Burbon
(_Henri IV._), but enticed away from him by Grantorto (_rebellion_).
Talus (_power_ or _might_) rescues her, but when Burbon catches her by
her “ragged weeds,” she starts back in disdain. However, the knight
lifts her on his steed, and rides off with her,—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
v. 2 (1596).

=Fou´rierism=, a communistic system; so called from François Charles
Fourier of Besançon (1772-1837).

=Fourolle= (2 _syl._), a Will-o’-the-wisp, supposed to have the power of
charming sinful human beings into the same form. The charm lasted for a
term of years only, unless it chanced that some good Catholic, wishing
to extinguish the wandering flame, made to it the sign of the cross, in
which case the sinful creature became a fourolle every night, by way of

=Fourteen=, the name of a young man who could do the work of fourteen
men, but had also the appetite of fourteen men. Like Christoph´erus, he
carried our Lord across a stream, for which service the Saviour gave him
a sack, saying, “Whatever you wish for will come into this sack, if you
only say ‘Artchila murtchila!’” (_i.e._ “come (_or_ go) into my sack”).
Fourteen’s last achievement was this: He went to paradise, and being
refused admission, poked his sack through the keyhole of the door; then
crying out “Artchila murtchila!” (“get into the sack”), he found himself
on the other side of the door, and, of course, in paradise.—Rev. W.
Webster, _Basque Legends_, 195 (1877).

_Fourteen._ This number plays a very conspicuous part in French history,
especially in the reigns of Henri IV. and Louis XIV. For example:

14th May, 1029, the _first_ Henri was consecrated, and 14th May, 1610,
the _last_ Henri was assassinated.

14 letters compose the name of _Henri de Bourbon_, the 14th king of
France and Navarre.

14th December, 1553 (14 _centuries_, 14 _decades_, and 14 _years from
the birth of Christ_), Henri IV. was born, and 1553 added together = 14.

14th May, 1554, Henri II. ordered the enlargement of the Rue de la
Ferronnerie. This order was carried out, and 4 times 14 years later
Henri IV. was assassinated there.

14th May, 1552, was the birth of Margaret de Valois, first wife of Henri

14th May, 1588, the Parisians revolted against Henri III., under the
leadership of Henri de Guise.

14th March, 1590, Henri IV. gained the battle of Ivry.

14th May, 1590, Henri IV. was repulsed from the faubourgs of Paris.

14th November, 1590, “The Sixteen” took oath to die rather than serve
the Huguenot king Henri IV.

14th November, 1592, the Paris _parlement_ registered the papal bull
which excluded Henry IV. from reigning.

14th December, 1599, the Duke of Savoy was reconciled to Henri IV.

14th September, 1606, the dauphin (Louis XIII.), son of Henri IV., was

14th May, 1610, Ravaillac murdered Henri IV. in the Rue de la
Ferronnerie. Henri IV. lived 4 times 14 years, 14 weeks, and 4 times 14
days, _i.e._ 56 years and 5 months.

14 May, 1643, died Louis XIII., son of Henri IV. (the same day and month
as his father). And 1643 added together=14; just as 1553 (_the birth of
Henri IV._)=14.

Louis XIV. mounted the throne 1643, which added together=14.

Louis XIV. died 1715, which added together=14.

Louis XIV. lived 77 years, which added together=14.

Louis XV. mounted the throne 1715, which added together=14.

Louis XV. died 1774 (the two extremes are 14, and the two means 77=14.)

Louis XVI. published the edict for the convocation of the states-general
in the 14th year of his reign (September 27, 1788).

Louis XVIII. was restored to the throne, Napoleon abdicated, the “Peace
of Paris” was signed, and the “Congress of Vienna” met in 1814; and
these figures added together=14.

In 1832=14, was the death of the Duc de Reichstadt (only son of Napoleon

In 1841=14, the law was passed for the fortification of Paris.

In 1850=14, Louis Phillippe died.

=Fox= (_That_), Herod Antipas (B.C. 4 to A.D. 39).

Go ye, and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils.—_Luke_ xiii. 32.

_Fox_ (_The Old_), Marshal Soult (1769-1851).

=Foxley= (_Squire Matthew_), a magistrate who examines Darsie Latimer
[_i.e._ Sir Arthur Darsie Redgauntlet], after he had been attacked by
the rioters.—Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Fracasse= (_Capitaine_), the French Bombastes Furioso.—Theophile

=Fra Diavolo=, the sobriquet of Michel Pozza, a Calabrian insurgent and
brigand chief. In 1799 Cardinal Ruffo made him a colonel in the
Neapolitan army, but in 1806 he was captured by the French, and hanged
at Naples. Auber has a comic opera so entitled, the libretto of which
was written by Scribe, but nothing of the true character of the brigand
chief appears in the opera.

=Fradu´bio= [_i.e. Brother Doubt_]. In his youth he loved Frælissa, but
riding with her one day they encountered a knight accompanied by Duessa
(_false faith_), and fought to decide which lady was the fairer. The
stranger knight fell, and both ladies being saddled on the victor,
Duessa changed her rival into a tree. One day Fradubio saw Duessa
bathing, and was so shocked at her deformity that he determined to
abandon her, but the witch anointed him during sleep with herbs to
produce insensibility, and then planted him as a tree beside Frælissa.
The Red Cross Knight plucked a bough from this tree, and seeing with
horror that blood dripped from the rift, was told this tale of the
metamorphosis.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. 2 (1590).

=Frail= (_Mrs._), a demirep. Scandal says she is a mixture of “pride,
folly, affectation, wantonness, inconstancy, covetousness,
dissimulation, malice and ignorance, but a celebrated beauty” (act i.).
She is entrapped into marriage with Tattle.—W. Congreve, _Love for Love_

=Frampton= (_Major_), the great man of the little village of
Hillsborough, and a connoisseur in peach-brandy. Losing money, horses,
wagons, and all his negroes except his body-servant, at cards, he blows
out his brains in a convenient pine thicket.—Joel Chandler Harris,
_Georgian Sketches_ (1888).

=Francatelli=, a _chef de cuisine_ at Windsor Castle, Crockford’s, and
at the Freemasons’ Tavern. He succeeded Ude at Crockford’s.

=Frances=, daughter of Vandunke (2 _syl._), burgomaster of
Bruges.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Beggars’ Bush_ (1622).

=France= (_Everidge_), the unworldly daughter of a worldly mother.—A. D.
T. Whitney’s story, _Odd or Even?_ (1880).

=Francesea=, daughter of Guido da Polenta (lord of Ravenna). She was
given by her father in marriage to Lanciotto, son of Malatesta, lord of
Rimini, who was deformed. His brother Paolo, who was a handsome man, won
the affections of Francesca; but being caught in adultery, both of them
were put to death by Lanciotto. Francesca told Dantê that the tale of
Lancelot and Guinever caused her fall. The tale forms the close of
Dantê’s _Hell_, v., and is alluded to by Petrarch in his _Triumph of
Love_, iii.

⁂ Leigh Hunt has a poem on the subject, and Silvio Pellico has made it
the subject of a tragedy.

George H. Boker’s play under the same title is also founded upon Dante’s
story. Lawrence Barrett as Lanciotto, Louis James as _Pepe_ and Marie
Wainwright as _Francesca_ will long be recollected by American

_Francesca_, a Venetian maiden, daughter of old Minotti, governor of
Corinth. Alp, the Venetian commander of the Turkish army in the siege of
Corinth, loved her; but she refused to marry a renegade. Alp was shot in
the siege, and Francesca died of a broken heart.—Byron, _Siege of
Corinth_ (1816).

Medora, Neuha, Leila, Francesca, and Theresa, it has been alleged, are
but children of one family, with differences resulting from climate and
circumstances.—Finden, _Byron Beauties_.

⁂ “Medora” in _The Corsair_; “Neuha” in _The Island_; “Leila” in _The
Giaour_; and “Theresa,” in _Mazeppa_.

=Francesco=, the “Iago” of Massinger’s _Duke of Milan_; the Duke Sforza
“the More” being Othello; and the cause of hatred being that Sforza had
seduced “Eugenia” Francesco’s sister. As Iago was Othello’s favorite and
ancient, so Francesco was Sforza’s favorite and chief minister. During
Sforza’s absence with the camp, Francesco tried to corrupt the duke’s
beautiful young bride Marcelia, and being repulsed, accused her to the
duke of wishing to play the wanton with him. The duke believed his
favorite minister, and in his mad jealously ran upon Marcelia and slew
her. He was then poisoned by Eugenia, whom he had seduced.—Massinger,
_The Duke of Milan_ (1622). (See FRANCISCO.)

=Francis=, the faithful, devoted servant of “the stranger.” Quite
impenetrable to all idle curiosity.—Benj. Thompson, _The Stranger_

_Francis_ (_Ayrault_), a visionary who living in the dream-world he has
evoked, neglects his nearest of kin, and lets opportunities of
happiness, usefulness and patriotic service go by unimproved.—Thomas
Wentworth Higginson, _The Monarch of Dreams_ (1887).

_Francis_ (_Father_), a Dominican monk, the confessor of Simon
Glover.—Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

_Francis_ (_Le Baron_). Young French nobleman who renounces king and
country. Is shipwrecked in New England, marries Molly Wilder and settles
in Plymouth as a physician. He is the father of Lazarus le Baron.—“Round
Robin Series,” _A Nameless Nobleman_.

_Francis_ (_Father_), a monk of the convent at Namur.—Sir W. Scott,
_Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Franciscans.= So called from St. Francis, of Assisi, their founder, in
1208. Called “Min´orites” (_or Inferiors_), from their professed
humility; “Gray Friars,” from the color of their coarse clothing;
“Mendicants,” because they obtained their daily food by begging;
“Observants,” because they observed the rule of poverty. Those who lived
in convents were called “Conventual Friars.”

=Franciscan Sisters= were called “Clares,” “Poor Clares,” “Minoresses,”
“Mendicants,” and “Urbanites” (3 _syl._)

=Francis´co=, the son of Valentine. Both father and son are in love with
Cellide (2 _syl._), but the lady naturally prefers the son.—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _Mons. Thomas_ (1619).

_Francis´co_, a musician, Antonio’s boy in _The Chances_, a comedy by
Beaumont and Fletcher (1620).

_Francisco_, younger brother of Valentine (the gentleman who will not be
persuaded to keep his estate). (See FRANCESCO.)—Beaumont and Fletcher,
_Wit Without Money_ (1639).

=Frank=, sister to Frederick; passionately in love with Captain Jac´omo
the woman-hater.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Captain_ (1613).

=Frankenstein= (3 _syl._), a student, who constructed, out of the
fragments of bodies picked from churchyards and dissecting-rooms, a
human form without a soul. The monster had muscular strength, animal
passions, and active life, but “no breath of divinity.” It longed for
animal love and animal sympathy, but was shunned by all. It was most
powerful for evil, and being fully conscious of its own defects and
deformities, sought with persistency to inflict retribution on the young
student who had called it into being,—Mrs. Shelley, _Frankenstein_

In the summer of 1816, Lord Byron and Mr. and Mrs. Shelley resided on
the banks of the lake of Geneva ... and the Shelleys often passed their
evenings with Byron, at his house at Diodati. During a week of rain,
having amused themselves with reading German ghost stories, they agreed
to write something in imitation of them. “You and I,” said Lord Byron to
Mrs. Shelley. “will publish ours together.” He then began his tale of
the _Vampire_ ... but the most memorable part of this story-telling
compact was Mrs. Shelley’s wild and powerful romance of
_Frankenstein_.—T. Moore, _Life of Byron_.

=Frankford= (_Mr._ and _Mrs._). Mrs. Frankford proved unfaithful to her
marriage vow, and Mr. Frankford sent her to reside on one of his
estates. She died of grief; but on her death-bed her husband went to see
her, and forgave her.—John Heywood, _A Woman Killed by Kindness_

=Frankland= (_Harry_), Englishman saved from death, when buried in the
ruins of Lisbon, by the exertions of the woman he has wronged and
deserted.—Edwin Lasseter Bynner, _Agnes Surriage_ (1886).

=Franklin= (_Lady_), the half-sister of Sir John Vesey, and a young
widow. Lady Franklin had an angelic temper, which nothing disturbed, and
she really believed that “whatever is is best.” She could bear with
unruffled feathers even the failure of a new cap or the disappointment
of a new gown. This paragon of women loved and married Mr. Graves, a
dolorous widower, for ever sighing over the superlative excellences of
his “sainted Maria,” his first wife.—Lord E. Bulwer Lytton, _Money_

_Frank´lin_ (_The Polish_), Thaddeus Czacki (1765-1813).

=Franklin’s Tale= (_The_), in Chaucer’s _Canterbury Tales_, is that of
“Dorigen and Arvir´agus.” Dorigen, a lady of rank, married Arviragus,
out of pity for his love and meekness. One Aurelius tried to corrupt
her, but she said she would never listen to his suit till “on these
coasts there n’is no stone y-seen.” Aurelius contrived by magic to clear
the coast of stones, and Arviragus insisted that Dorigen should keep
troth with him. When Aurelius heard thereof, and saw the deep grief of
the lady, he said he would rather die than injure so true a wife and so
noble a gentleman.

⁂ This tale is taken from _The Decameron_, x. 5. (See DIANORA.) There is
also a similar one in Boccaccio’s _Filocopo_.

=Frankly= (_Charles_), a lighted-hearted, joyous, enthusiastic young
man, in love with Clarinda, whom he marries.—Dr. Hoadley, _The
Suspicious Husband_ (1747).

=Frank= (_Warrington_), a young teacher who goes out into the world to
seek her fortune as a governess. She wins the affections of the eldest
son of her employers, and, although preferring at heart an earlier
lover, marries the gay handsome heir secretly. When the truth is
revealed, the bridegroom is killed in a duel by the brother of a woman
to whom he had been betrothed. Frank Warrington, humbler and wiser,
returns to her country home, and eventually marries her first
love.—Mirian Coles Harris, _Frank Warrington_ (1863).

=Franval= (_Madame_), born of a noble family, is proud as the proudest
of the old French _noblesse_. Captain St. Alme, the son of a merchant,
loves her daughter; but the haughty aristocrat looks with disdain on
such an alliance. However, her daughter Marianne is of another way of
thinking, and loves the merchant’s son. Her brother intercedes in her
behalf, and madame makes a virtue of necessity, with as much grace as
possible.—Th. Holcroft, _The Deaf and Dumb_ (1785).

=Fra´teret´to=, a fiend, who told Edgar that Nero was an angler in the
Lake of Darkness.—Shakespeare, _King Lear_ (1605).

=Fraud=, seen by Dantê between the sixth and seventh circles of the

          His face the semblance of a just man’s wore
          (So kind and gracious was its outward cheer).
          The rest was serpent all.
                                 Dantê, _Hell_, xvii. (1300).

=Fred= or Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales, father of George III. It was
of this prince that the following epitaph was written:

                         Here lies Fred,
                   Who was alive, and is dead.
                       Had it been his father,
                       I had much rather;
                       Had it been his brother,
                       Still better than another;
                       Had it been his sister,
                       No one would have missed her;
                   Had it been the whole generation,
                       Still better for the nation;
                       But, since ’tis only Fred
                       Who was alive, and is dead,
                         There’s no more to be said!

=Frederick=, the usurping duke, father of Celia and uncle of Rosalind.
He was about to make war upon his banished brother, when a hermit
encountered him, and so completely changed him that he not only restored
his brother to his dukedom, but retired to a religious house, and passed
the rest of his life in penitence and acts of devotion.—Shakespeare, _As
You Like It_ (1598).

_Frederick_, the unnatural and licentious brother of Alphonso, king of
Naples, whose kingdom he usurped. He tried to seduce Evanthé (3 _syl._),
the chaste wife of Valerio, but not succeeding in his infamous design,
he offered her as a concubine for one month to any one who, at the end
of that period, would yield his head to the block. As no one would
accept the terms, Evanthê was restored to her husband.—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _A Wife for a Month_ (1624).

_Frederick_ (_Don_), a Portuguese merchant, the friend of Don
Felix.—Mrs. Centlivre, _The Wonder_ (1714).

=Frederick the Great in Flight=. In 1741 was the battle of Molwitz, in
which the Prussians carried the day, and the Austrians fled; but
Frederick, who commanded the cavalry, was put to flight early in the
action, and thinking that all was lost, fled with his staff many miles
from the scene of action.

            Frederick the Great from Molwitz deigned to run.
                         Byron, _Don Juan_, viii. 22 (1824.)

_Frederick_ (_Olyphant_). Young man who has incurred the enmity of one
of the Brotherhood of the Sea. In consequence, he is abducted upon the
threshold of a friend’s house, and put on board a vessel with directions
to the Brotherhood never to allow him to land. He gains his liberty
through the accidental drowning of his jailor, and returns to New York,
where his absence had excited the wildest alarm among his friends and
the most fanciful speculations among acquaintances.—Brander Matthews,
_The Last Meeting_.

_Frederick_ (_Owen_). Rector and friend of the Major’s family, in
Constance Fenimore Woolson’s novel, _For the Major_.

=Freeborn John=, John Lilburne, the republican (1613-1657).

=Freedom= (_Wheeler_). Hard-headed Yankee whose determination that one
of his children shall bear his name is thwarted by circumstances until
he gives up and “lets the Lord have His way.”—Rose Terry Cooke, _Freedom
Wheeler’s Controversy_ (1881).

=Freehold=, a grumpy, rusty, but soft-hearted old gentleman farmer, who
hates all new-fangled notions, and detests “men of fashion.” He lives in
his farm-house with his niece and daughter.

_Aura Freehold_, daughter of Freehold. A pretty, courageous,
high-spirited lass, who wins the heart of Modely, a man of the world and
a libertine.—John Philip Kemble, _The Farm-house_.

=Freelove= (_Lady_), aunt to Harriot [Russet]. A woman of the world, “as
mischievous as a monkey, and as cunning too” (act i. 1).—George Colman,
_The Jealous Wife_ (1761).

=Freeman= (_Charles_), the friend of Lovel, whom he assists in exposing
the extravagance of his servants.—Rev. J. Townley, _High Life Below
Stairs_ (1763).

_Freeman_ (_Sir Charles_), brother of Mrs. Sullen and friend of
Aimwell.—George Farquhar, _The Beaux’ Stratagem_ (1705).

_Freeman_ (_Mrs._), a name assumed by the duchess of Marlborough in her
correspondence with Queen Anne, who called herself “Mrs. Morley.”

=Freemason= (_The lady_), the Hon. Miss Elizabeth St. Leger (afterwards
Mrs. Aldworth), daughter of Arthur, lord of Doneraile. In order to
witness the proceedings of a lodge held in her father’s house, she hid
herself in an empty clock-case; but, on being discovered, she was
compelled to become a member of the craft.

=Free Joe=, negro manumitted by his master, the latter committing
suicide immediately afterward. Joe has an easy time until his wife’s
master refuses to let a “free nigger” hang about his place. He consorts
with “poor white folks” in order to see “Lucinda,” meeting her secretly.
At length she does not come for a month to the trysting-place, and he
consults a fortune-teller who shows him that her master has taken her
out of the county. Still he awaits her at the appointed rendezvous many
days and nights, always sure that she will come, and laughing when
others doubt it. One morning his friends, the poor whites, find him
there dead.—Joel Chandler Harris, _Free Joe_ (1888).

=Free´port= (_Sir Andrew_), a London merchant, industrious, generous,
and of sound good sense. He was one of the members of the hypothetical
club under whose auspices the _Spectator_ was enterprised.

=Freiherr von Guttingen=, having collected the poor of his neighborhood
in a great barn, burnt them to death, and mocked their cries of agony.
Being invaded by a swarm of mice, he shut himself up in his castle of
Güttingen, in the lake of Constance; but the vermin pursued him, and
devoured him alive. The castle then sank in the lake, and may still be
seen there. (See Hatto.)

=Freischütz= (_Der_), a legendary German archer, in league with the
devil. The devil gave him seven balls, six of which were to hit with
certainty any mark he aimed at; but the seventh was to be directed
according to the will of the giver.—Weber, _Der Freischütz_ (an opera,

⁂ The libretto is by F. Kind, taken from Apel’s _Gespensterbuch_ (or
ghost book). A translation of Apel’s story may be found in De Quincey’s

=Freron= (_Jean_), the person bitten by a mad dog, referred to by
Goldsmith in the lines:

                  The man recovered of the bite
                  The dog it was that died.
                                      _Elegy on a Mad Dog_.
           Un serpent mordit Jean Freron, eh bien?
           Le serpent en mourut.
           Gibbon, _Decline and Fall, etc._, vii. 4 (Milman’s

=Freston=, an enchanter, introduced in the romance of _Don Belia´nis of

_Freston_, the enchanter, who bore Don Quixote especial ill-will. When
the knight’s library was destroyed, he was told that some enchanter had
carried off the books and the cupboard which contained them. The niece
thought the enchanter’s name was Munaton; but the don corrected her, and
said, “You mean Freston.” “Yes, yes,” said the niece, “I know the name
ended in _ton_.”

“That Freston,” said the knight, “is doing me all the mischief his
malevolence can invent; but I regard him not.”—Ch. 7.

“That cursed Freston,” said the knight, “who stole my closet and books,
has transformed the giants into windmills” (ch. 8).—Cervantes, _Don
Quixote._ I. i. (1605).

=Friars.= The four great religious orders were Dominicans, Franciscans,
Augustines, and Car´melites (3 _syl._). Dominicans are called _black_
friars, Franciscans _grey_ friars, and the other two _white_ friars. A
fifth order was the Trinitarians or Crutched friars, a later foundation.
The Dominicans were furthermore called _Frates Majores_, and the
Franciscans _Frates Minores_.

(For friars famed in fable or story, see under each respective name or

=Friar= (_Lawrence_). Ecclesiastic, who performs the marriage ceremony
between Romeo and Juliet in Shakespeare’s play of that name.

=Friar’s Tale= (_The_), by Chaucer, in _The Canterbury Tales_ (1388). An
archdeacon employed a sumpnor as his secret spy to find out offenders,
with the view of exacting fines from them. In order to accomplish this
more effectually, the sumpnor entered into a compact with the devil,
disguised as a yeoman. Those who imprecated the devil were to be dealt
with by the yeoman-devil, and those who imprecated God were to be the
sumpnor’s share. They came in time to an old woman “of whom they knew no
wrong,” and demanded twelve pence “for cursing.” She pleaded poverty,
when the sumpnor exclaimed, “The foul fiend fetch me if I excuse thee!”
and immediately the foul fiend at his side did seize him, and made off
with him, too.

=Fribble=, a contemptible molly-coddle, troubled with weak nerves. He
“speaks like a lady for all the world, and never swears.... He wears
nice white gloves, and tells his lady-love what ribbons become her
complexion, where to stick her patches, who is the best milliner, where
they sell the best tea, what is the best wash for the face, and the best
paste for the hands. He is always playing with his lady’s fan, and
showing his teeth.” He says when he is married:

“All the domestic business will be taken from my wife’s hands. I shall
make the tea, comb the dogs, and dress the children myself.”—D. Garrick,
_Miss in Her Teens_, ii. (1753).

=Friday= (_My man_), a young Indian, whom Robinson Crusoe saved from
death on a Friday, and kept as his servant and companion on the desert
island.—Defoe, _Robinson Crusoe_ (1709).

=Friend= (_The Poor Man’s_), Nell Gwynne (1642-1691).

=Friend of Man= (_The_), the Marquis de ÈMirabeau; so called from one of
his books, entitled _L’Ami des Hommes_ (1715-1789).


_Frenchmen_: Montaigne and Etienne de la Boëtie.

_Germans_: Goethe and Schiller.

_Greeks_: Achillês and Patroc´les; Diomēdês and Sthen´alos; Epaminondas
and Pelop´idas; Harmo´dius and Aristogi´ton; Herculês and Iola´os;
Idomeneus (4 _syl._) and Merĭon; Pyl´adês and Ores´tês; Septim´ios and
Alcander; Theseus (2 _syl._) and Pirith´oös.

_Jews_: David and Jonathan.

_Syracusans_: Damon and Pythias; Sacharissa and Amŏret.

_Trojans_: Nisus and Euryalus.

Of _Feudal History_: Amys and Amylion.

=Friendly= (_Sir Thomas_), a gouty baronet living at Friendly Hall.

_Lady Friendly_, wife of Sir Thomas.

_Frank Friendly_, son of Sir Thomas and fellow-collegian with Ned

_Dinah Friendly_, daughter of Sir Thomas. She marries Edward
Blushington, “the bashful man.”—W. T. Moncrieff, _The Bashful Man_.

=Frithiof= [_Frit.yof_], a hero of Icelandic story. He married Ingëborg
[_In.ge.boy´e_] daughter of a petty Norwegian king, and the widow of
Hring. His adventures are recorded in an ancient Icelandic saga of the
thirteenth century.

⁂ Bishop Tegnor has made this story the groundwork for his poem entitled
_Frithiof’s Saga_.

_Frithiof’s Sword_, Angurva´del.

⁂ _Frithiof_ means “peace-maker,” and _Angurvadel_ means “stream of

=Fritz= (_Old_), Frederick II. “the Great,” king of Prussia (1712,

_Fritz_, a gardener, passionately fond of flowers, the only subject he
can talk about.—E. Stirling, _The Prisoner of State_ (1847).

=Frog= (_Nic._), the linen-draper. The Dutch are so called in
Arbuthnot’s _History of John Bull_.

Nic. Frog was a cunning, sly rogue, quite reverse of John [_Bull_] in
many particulars; covetous, frugal; minded domestic affairs; would pinch
his belly to save his pocket; never lost a farthing by careless servants
or bad debts. He did not care much for any sort of diversions, except
tricks of high German artists and legerdemain; no man exceeded Nic. in
these. Yet it must be owned that Nic. was a fair dealer, and in that way
acquired immense riches.—Dr. Arbuthnot, _History of John Bull_, v.

=Frollo= (_Claude_), an archdeacon, absorbed in a search after the
philosopher’s stone. He has a great reputation for sanctity, but
entertains a base passion for Esmeralda, the beautiful gypsy girl.
Quasimodo flings him into the air from the top of Notre Dame, and dashes
him to death.—Victor Hugo, _Notre Dame de Paris_ (1831).

=Fronde War= (_The_), a political squabble during the ministry of
Maz´arin in the minority of Louis XIV. (1648-1653).

=Frondeur=, a “Mrs. Candor,” a backbiter, a railer, a scandal-monger;
any one who flings stones at another. (French, _frondeur_, “a slinger,”
_fronde_, “a sling.”)

“And what about Diebitsch?” began another frondeur.—_Véra_, 200.

=Frondeurs=, the malcontents in the Fronde war.

=Front de Bœuf= (_Sir Reginald_), a follower of Prince John of Anjou,
and one of the knight’s challengers.—Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time,
Richard I.).

=Frontaletto=, the name of Sa´cripant’s horse. The word means “Little
head.”—Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Fronti´no,= the horse of Bradaman´tê (4 _syl._). Roge´ro’s horse bore
the same name. The word means “Little head.”—Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_

The renowned Frontino, which Bradamantê purchased at so high a price,
could never be thought thy equal [i.e. _Rosinantês equal_].—Cervantes,
_Don Quixote_ (1605).

=Frost= (_Jack_), Frost personified.

         Jack Frost looked forth one still, clear night,
         And he said, “Now I shall be out of sight,
         So over the valley and over the height
               In silence I’ll take my way.”
                                              Hannah F. Gould.

=Froth= (_Master_), a foolish gentleman. Too shallow for great crime and
too light for virtue.—Shakespeare, _Measure for Measure_ (1603).

_Froth_ (_Lord_), a good boon companion; but he vows that “he laughs at
nobody’s jests but his own or a lady’s.” He says, “Nothing is more
unbecoming a man of quality than a laugh; ’tis such a vulgar expression
of the passion; every one can laugh.” To Lady Froth he is most gallant
and obsequious, though her fidelity to her liege lord is by no means

_Lady Froth_, a lady of letters, who writes songs, elegies, satires,
lampoons, plays, and so on. She thinks her lord the most polished of all
men, and his bow the pattern of grace and elegance. She writes an heroic
poem called _The Syllabub_, the subject of which is Lord Froth’s love
for herself. In this poem she calls her lord “Spumoso” (_Froth_), and
herself “Biddy” (her own name). Her conduct with Mr. Brisk is most
blamable.—W. Congreve, _The Double Dealer_ (1700).

=Frothal=, king of Sora, and son of Annir. Being driven by tempest to
Sarno, one of the Orkney Islands, he was hospitably entertained by the
king, and fell in love with Coma´la, daughter of Starno, king of
Inistore or the Orkneys. He would have carried her off by violence, but
her brother Cathulla interfered, bound Frothal, and, after keeping him
in bonds for three days, sent him out of the island. When Starno was
gathered to his fathers, Frothal returned and laid siege to the palace
of Cathulla; but Fingal, happening to arrive at the island, met Frothal
in single combat, overthrew him, and would have slain him, if Utha, his
betrothed (disguised in armor), had not interposed. When Fingal knew
that Utha was Frothal’s sweetheart, he not only spared the foe, but
invited both to the palace, where they passed the night in banquet and
song.—Ossian, _Carric-Thura_.

=Fudge Family= (_The_), a family supposed by T. Moore to be visiting
Paris after the peace. It consists of Phil Fudge, Esq., his son Robert,
his daughter Biddy, and a poor relation named Phelim Connor (an ardent
Bonapartist and Irish patriot), acting as bear-leader to Bob. These four
write letters to their friends in England. The skit is meant to satirize
the _parvenu_ English abroad.

_Phil Fudge, Esq._, father of Bob and Biddy Fudge; a hack writer devoted
to legitimacy and the Bourbons. He is a secret agent of Lord Castlereagh
[_Kar.´sl.ray_], to whom he addresses letters ii. and ix. and points out
to his lordship that Robert Fudge will be very glad to receive a snug
Government appointment, and hopes that his lordship will not fail to
bear him in mind. Letter vi. he addresses to his brother, showing how
the Fudge family is prospering, and ending thus:

                Should we but still enjoy the sway
                Of Sidmouth and of Castlereagh,
                I hope ere long to see the day
                When England’s wisest statesmen, judges,
                Lawyers, peers, will all be—FUDGES.

_Miss Biddy Fudge_, a sentimental girl of 18, in love with “romances,
high bonnets, and Mde. le Roy.” She writes letters i., v., x., and xi.,
describing to her friend Dolly or Dorothy the sights of Paris, and
especially how she becomes acquainted with a gentleman whom she believes
to be the king of Prussia in disguise, but afterwards she discovers that
her disguised king calls himself “Colonel Calicot.” Going with her
brother to buy some handkerchiefs, her visions of glory are sadly dashed
when “the hero she fondly had fancied a king” turns out to be a common
linen-draper. “There stood the vile treacherous thing, with the
yard-measure in his hand.” “One tear of compassion for your poor
heart-broken friend. P.S.—You will be delighted to know we are going to
hear Brunel to-night, and have obtained the governor’s box; we shall all
enjoy a hearty good laugh, I am sure.”

_Bob_ or _Robert Fudge_, son of Phil Fudge, Esq., a young exquisite of
the first water, writes letters iii. and viii. to his friend Richard.
These letters describe how French dandies dress, eat, and kill time.—T.
Moore (1818).

⁂ A sequel, called _The Fudge Family in England_, was published.

=Fulgentio=, a kinsman of Roberto (king of the two Sicilies). He was the
most rising and most insolent man in the court. Cami´ola calls him “a
suit-broker,” and says he had the worse report among all good men for
bribery and extortion. This canker obtained the king’s leave for his
marriage with Camiŏla, and he pleaded his suit as a right, not a favor;
but the lady rejected him with scorn, and Adoni killed the arrogant
“sprig of nobility” in a duel.—Massinger, _The Maid of Honor_ (1637).

=Fulkerson=, Western man who removes to New York, and sets up a magazine
founded upon “the greatest idea that has been struck since—the creation
of man. I don’t want to claim too much, and I draw the line at the
creation of man. But if you want to ring the morning stars into the
prospectus, all right!”

He makes a success of it, as he has a habit of making of everything;
marries a Southern girl, and goes to live over “the office.” “In New
York you may do anything.” He violates all sorts of conventionalities,
talks slang and loudly, yet is everybody’s friend and most people’s
favorite.—W.D. Howells, _A Hazard of New Fortunes_ (1889).

=Fulmer=, a man with many shifts, none of which succeed. He says:

“I have beat through every quarter of the compass ... I have blustered
for prerogative; I have bellowed for freedom; I have offered to serve my
country; I have engaged to betray it ... I have talked treason, writ
treason ... And here I set up as a bookseller, but men leave off
reading; and if I were to turn butcher, I believe ... they’d leave off

_Patty Fulmer_, an unprincipled, flashy woman, living with Fulmer, with
the brevet rank of wife. She is a swindler, a scandal-monger, anything,
in short, to turn a penny by; but her villainy brings her to
grief.—Cumberland, _The West Indian_ (1771).

=Fum=, George IV. The Chinese _fum_ is a mixture of goose, stag, and
snake, with the beak of a cock; a combination of folly, cowardice,
malice, and conceit.

         And where is Fum the Fourth, our royal bird?
                              Byron, _Don Juan_, xi. 78 (1824).

=Fum-Hoam=, the mandarin who restored Malek-al-Salem, king of Georgia,
to his throne, and related to the king’s daughter Gulchenraz [Gundogdi]
his numerous metamorphoses; he was first Piurash, who murdered Siamek
the usurper; then a flea; then a little dog; then an Indian maiden named
Massouma; then a bee; then a cricket; then a mouse; then Abzenderoud the
imaum´; then the daughter of a rich Indian merchant, the Jezdad of
Iolcos, the greatest beauty of Greece; then a foundling found by a dyer
in a box; then Dugmê, queen of Persia; then a young woman named Hengu;
then an ape; then a midwife’s daughter of Tartary; then the only son of
the sultan of Agra; then an Arabian physician; then a wild man named
Kolao; then a slave; then the son of a cadi of Erzerûm; then a dervise;
then an Indian prince; and lastly Fum-Hoam.—T.S. Gueulette, _Chinese
Tales_ (1723).

_Fum-Hoam_, first president of the ceremonial academy of
Pekin.—Goldsmith, _Citizen of the World_ (1764).

=Funk= (_Peter_), auctioneer whose business is to cheat the unwary.
Having been branded by a placard placed before his door, “_Beware of
Mock Auctions!_” he concerts a scheme for labeling other places of
business and general resort, including newspaper offices and
churches.—Charles Frederick Briggs, _The Knickerbocker Magazine_ (1846).

=Fungo´so=, a character in Ben Jonson’s drama, _Every Man in His Humour_

              Unlucky as Fungoso in the play.
                  Pope, _Essay on Criticism_, 328 (1711).

=Furor= (_intemperate anger_), a mad man of great strength, the son of
Occasion. Sir Guyon, the “Knight of Temperance,” overcomes both Furor
and his mother, and rescues Phaon from their clutches.—Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, ii. 4 (1590).

=Fusber´ta=, the sword of Rinaldo.—Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Fus´bos=, minister of state to Artaxam´is, king of Uto´pia. When the
king cuts down the boots which Bombastês has hung defiantly on a tree,
the general engages the king in single combat, and slays him. Fusbos
then coming up, kills Bombastês, “who conquered all but Fusbos, Fusbos
him.” At the close of the farce, the slain ones rise one after the other
and join the dance, promising “to die again tomorrow,” if the audience
desires it.—W.B. Rhodes, _Bombastês Furioso_.

_Fusbos_, a _nom de plume_ of Henry Plunkett, one of the first
contributors to _Punch_.

=Fy´rapel= (_Sir_), the leopard, the nearest kinsman of King Lion, in
the beast epic of _Reynard the Fox_ (1498).

=Gabble Rechet=, a cry like that of hounds, heard at night, foreboding
trouble. Said to be the souls of unbaptized children wandering through
the air till the day of judgment.—Charles Reade, _Put Yourself in His

=Gabor=, a Hungarian who aided Ulric in saving Count Stral´enheim from
the Oder, and was unjustly suspected of being his murderer.—Bryon,
_Werner_ (1822).

=Ga´briel= (2 or 3 _syl._), according to Milton is called “chief of the
angelic guards” _(Paradise Lost_, iv. 549); but in bk. vi. 44, etc.,
Michael is said to be “of celestial armies prince,” and Gabriel “in
military prowess next.”

        Go, Michael of celestial armies prince;
        And thou in military prowess next,
        Gabriel; lead forth to battle these my sons
                  Milton, _Paradise Lost_, vi. 44, etc, (1665).

⁂ Gabriel is so called “The Messenger of the Messiah,” because he was
sent by the Messiah to execute his orders on the earth. He is referred
to in _Daniel_ viii. 16, ix. 21; and in _Luke_ i. 19, 26.

_Gabriel_ (according to the _Korân_ and Sale’s notes):

1. It is from this angel that Mahomet professes to have received the
_Korân_; and he acts the part of the Holy Ghost in causing believers to
receive the divine revelation.—Ch. ii.

2. It was the angel Gabriel that won the battle of Bedr. Mahomet’s
forces were 319, and the enemy’s a _thousand_; but Gabriel (1) told
Mahomet to throw a handful of dust in the air, and so doing the eyes of
the enemy were “confounded;” (2) he caused the army of Mahomet to appear
twice as many as the army opposed to it; (3) he brought from heaven 3000
angels, and, mounted on his horse Haïzûm, led them against the foe.—Ch.

3. Gabriel appeared twice to Mahomet in his angelic form: first “in the
highest part of the horizon,” and next “by the lote tree,” on the right
hand of the throne of God.—Ch. liv.

5. Gabriel’s horse is called Haïzûm, and when the golden calf was made,
a little of the dust from under this horse’s feet being thrown into its
mouth, the calf began to low, and received life.—Ch. ii.

_Gabriel_ (according to other legends):

The Persians call Gabriel “the angel of revelations,” because he is so
frequently employed by God to carry His messages to man.

The Jews call Gabriel their enemy and the messenger of wrath; but
Michael they call their friend, and the messenger of all good tidings.

In mediæval romance, Gabriel is the second of the seven spirits which
stand before the throne of God, and he is frequently employed to carry
the prayers of man to heaven, or bring the messages of God to man.

Longfellow, in the _Golden Legend_, makes Gabriel “the angel of the
moon,” and says that he “brings to man the gift of hope.”

=Gabriel Lajeunesse=, son of Basil the blacksmith of Grand Pré, in
Acadia (now _Nova Scotia_). He was legally plighted to Evangeline,
daughter of Benedict Bellefontaine (the richest farmer of the village);
but next day all the inhabitants were exiled by order of George II., and
their property confiscated. Gabriel was parted from his troth-plight
wife, and Evangeline spent her whole life in trying to find him. After
many wanderings, she went to Philadelphia, and became a sister of mercy.
The plague visited this city, and in the almshouse the sister saw an old
man stricken down by the pestilence. It was Gabriel. He tried to whisper
her name, but died in the attempt. He was buried, and Evangeline lies
beside him in the grave.—Longfellow, _Evangeline_ (1849).

=Gabrielle= (_Charmante_), or _La Belle Gabrielle_, daughter of Antoine
d’Estrèes (grand-master of artillery and governor of the Ile de France).
Henri IV. (1590) happened to stay for the night at the chateau de
Cœuvres, and fell in love with Gabrielle, then 19 years old. To throw a
veil over his intrigue, he gave her in marriage to Damerval de
Liancourt, created her duchess of Beaufort, and took her to live with
him at court.

The song beginning “Charmante Gabrielle ...” is ascribed to Henri VI.

=Gabrielle= (_von Dohna_). Brought up by her widowed father in
singleness of heart and happiness until when she is over twenty he is
again betrothed, and his _fiancée_ persuades him to send his daughter to
visit a relative, the Countess von Kronfels. She is a selfish old woman
who adores her dog, and slights her invalid son. Gabrielle is dutiful to
the old countess, and an angel of mercy to her son, although for awhile
she dislikes and fears him. Finally, she tells the crippled man:

“You are a greater hero in my eyes than if you were leading men to
battle. You may send me away if you will, but you will break my heart.”

He loves her too well to let her go.—Blanche Willis Howard, _The Open
Door_ (1889).

=Gabri´na=, wife of Arge´o, baron of Servia, tried to seduce Philandre,
a Dutch knight; but Philandre fled from the house, where he was a guest.
She then accused him to her husband of a wanton insult, and Argeo,
having apprehended him, confined him in a dungeon. One day, Gabrina
visited him there, and implored him to save her from a knight who sought
to dishonor her. Philandre willingly espoused her cause, and slew the
knight, who proved to be her husband. Gabrina then told her champion
that if he refused to marry her, she would accuse him of murder to the
magistrates. On this threat he married her, but ere long was killed by
poison. Gabrina now wandered about the country as an old hag, and being
fastened on Odori´co, was hung by him to the branch of an elm.—Ariosto,
_Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Gabriolet´ta,= governess of Brittany, rescued by Am´adis de Gaul from
the hands of Balan (“the bravest and strongest of all giants”).—Vasco de
Lobeira, _Amadis de Gaul_, iv. 129 (fourteenth century.)

=Gadshill=, a companion of Sir John Falstaff. This thief receives his
name from a place called Gadshill, on the Kentish road, notorious for
the many robberies committed there.—Shakespeare, 1 _Henry IV._ act ii.
sc. 4 (1597).

=Ga´heris= (_Sir_), son of Lot (king of Orkney) and Morgause (King
Arthur’s sister). Being taken captive by Sir Turquine, he was liberated
by Sir Launcelot du Lac. One night, Sir Gaheris caught his mother in
adultery with Sir Lamorake, and, holding her by the hair, struck off her

=Gaiour= [_Djow.´r_], emperor of China, and father, of Badour´a (the
“most beautiful woman ever seen upon earth”). Badoura married
Camaral´zaman, the most beautiful of men.—_Arabian Nights_
(“Camaralzaman and Badoura”). (See GIAOUR).

=Gal´ahad= (_Sir_), the chaste son of Sir Launcelot and the fair Elaine
(King Pelles’s daughter, pt. iii. 2), and thus was fulfilled a prophecy
that she should become the mother of the noblest knight that was ever
born. Queen Guenevere says that Sir Launcelot “came of the eighth degree
from our Saviour, and Sir Galahad is of the ninth ... and, therefore, be
they the greatest gentlemen of all the world” (pt. iii. 35). His sword
was that which Sir Balin released from the maiden’s scabbard (see
BALIN), and his shield belonged to King Euelake [_Evelake_], who
received it from Joseph of Arimathy. It was a snow-white shield, on
which Joseph had made a cross with his blood (pt. iii. 39). After divers
adventures, Sir Galahad came to Sarras, where he was made king, was
shown the sangraal by Joseph of Arimathy, and “took the Lord’s body
between his hands,” and died. Then suddenly “a great multitude of angels
bear his soul up to heaven,” and “sithence was never no man that could
say he had seen the sangraal” (pt. iii. 103).

Sir Galahad was the only knight who could sit in the “Siege Perilous,” a
seat in the Round Table reserved for the knight destined to achieve the
quest of the holy graal, and no other person could sit in it without
peril of his life (pt. iii. 32). He also drew from the iron and marble
rock the sword which no other knight could release (pt. iii. 33). His
great achievement was that of the Holy Graal.

           Sometimes on lonely mountain-meres
               I find a magic bark;
           I leap on board: no helmsman steers
               I float till all is dark.
           A gentle sound, an awful light!
               Three angels bear the holy Grail
           With folded feet, in stoles of white
               On sleeping wings they sail.
           Ah, blessed vision! blood of God!
               My spirit beats her mortal bars,
           As down dark tides the glory slides
               And star-like mingles with the stars.
                                    Tennyson, _Sir Galahad_.

Then the bishop took a wafer, which was made in the likeness of bread,
and at the lifting up [_the elevation of the host]_ there came a figure
in the likeness of a child, and the visage was as red and as bright as
fire; and he smote himself into that bread; so they saw that the bread
was formed of a fleshly man, and then he put it into the holy vessel
again ... then he took the holy vessel and came to Sir Galahad as he
kneeled down, and there he received his Saviour ... then went he and
kissed Sir Bors ... and kneeled at the table and made his prayers; and
suddenly his soul departed ... and a great multitude of angels bear his
soul to heaven.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, iii. 101-103

⁂ Sir Galahalt, the son of Sir Brewnor, must not be confounded with Sir
Galahad, the son of Sir Launcelot.

=Galahalt= (_Sir_), called “The Haut Prince,” son of Sir Brewnor. He was
one of the knights of the Round Table.

=Gal´antyse= (3 _syl._), the steed given to Graunde Armoure by King

    And I myselfe shall give you a worthy stede,
    Called Galantyse, to helpe you in your nede.
        Stephen Hawes, _The Passe-tyme of Plesure_, xxviii. (1515).

=Ga´laor= (_Don_), brother of Am´adis de Gaul. A _desultor amoris_, who,
as Don Quixote says, “made love to every pretty girl he met.” His
adventures form a strong contrast to those of his more serious
brother.—_Amadis de Gaul_ (fourteenth century).

A barber in the village insisted that none equalled “The Knight of the
Sun” [i.e. _Amadis_], except Don Galaor his brother.—Cervantes, _Don
Quixote,_ I. 1 (1605).

=Gal´apas=, a giant of “marvellous height” in the army of Lucius, king
of Rome. He was slain by King Arthur.

[_King Arthur_] slew a great giant named Galapas ... He shortened him by
smiting off both his legs at the knees, saying, “Now art thou better of
a size to deal with than thou wert.” And after, he smote off his
head.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, I. 115 (1470).

=Gal´aphron= or GALLAPHRONE (3 _syl._), a king of Cathay, father of
Angelica.—Bojardo, _Orlando Innamorato_ (1495); Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_ (1516).

      When Agrican ... besieged Albracca ...
      The city of Gallaphrone, whence to win
      The fairest of her sex, Angelica.
                        Milton, _Paradise Regained_, iii. (1671).

=Galasp=, or rather George Gillespie, mentioned by Milton in _Sonnet_,
x., was a Scottish writer against the independents, and one of the
“Assembly of Divines” (1583-1648). See Colkitto.

=Galatea.= Lovely statue, made by Pygmalion, and endued with life by
Venus at the prayer of the sculptor-lover.

=Galate´a=, a sea-nymph, beloved by Polypheme (3 _syl._) She herself had
a heartache for Acis. The jealous giant crushed his rival under a huge
rock, and Galatēa, inconsolable at the loss of her lover, was changed
into a fountain. The word Galatea is used poetically for any rustic

⁂ Handel has an opera called _Acis and Galatea_ (1710).

_Galatea_, a wise and modest lady attending on the princess in the drama
of _Philaster_ or _Love Lies a-bleeding,_ by Beaumont and Fletcher

=Gala´tine= (3 _syl._), the sword of Sir Gaw´ain, King Arthur’s
nephew.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 93 (1470).

=Galbraith= (_Miss Lucy_), a young lady who finds herself _en
tête-a-tête_ with her _çi-devant_ lover in a parlor-car. Conversation
ensues and a quarrel. Upon attempting to leave the car, she discovers
that it is uncoupled and solitary upon the track. In the fright of the
alarm caused by what she assumes to be peril, she falls into her lover’s
arms entreating forgiveness. The reconciliation is complete by the time
they arrive safely at Schenectady.—W. D. Howells, _The Parlor Car, A
Farce_ (1876).

=Galbraith= (_Major Duncan_), of Garschattachin, a militia officer.—Sir
W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Ga´len=, an apothecary, a medical man (in disparagement). Galen was the
most celebrated physician of ancient Greece, and had a greater influence
on medical science than any other man before or since (A. D. 130-200).

            Unawed, young Galen bears the hostile brunt,
            Pills in his rear, and Cullen in his front.
                             Wm. Falconer, _The Midshipman_.

Dr. William Cullen, of Hamilton, Lanarkshire, author of _Nosology_,

=Gal´enist=, a herb doctor.

       The Galĕnist and Paracelsian
                           S. Butler, _Hudibras_, iii. 3 (1678).

=Galeotti Martivalle=, (_Martius_), astrologer of Louis XI. Being asked
by the superstitious king if he knew the day of his own death, the
crafty astrologer replied that he could not name the exact day, but he
had learnt thus much by his art—that it would occur just twenty-four
hours before the decease of his majesty (ch. xxix.).—Sir W. Scott,
_Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

⁂ Thrasullus the soothsayer made precisely the same answer to Tibe´rius,
emperor of Rome.

=Galera´na= is called by Ariosto the wife of Charlemagne; but the nine
wives of that emperor are usually given as Hamiltrude (3 _syl._),
Desidera´ta, Hil´degarde (3 _syl._), Fastrade (2 _syl._), Luitgarde,
Maltegarde, Gersuinde, Regi´na, and Adalin´da.—Ariosto, _Orlando
Furioso_, xxi. (1516).

=Galère= (2 _syl._). _Que diable allait-il faire dans cette galère?_
Scapin wants to get from Géronte (a miserly old hunks) £1500, to help
Leandre, the old man’s son, out of a money difficulty. So Scapin vamps
up a cock-and-bull story about Leandre being invited by a Turk on board
his galley, where he was treated to a most sumptuous repast; but when
the young man was about to quit the galley, the Turk told him he was a
prisoner, and demanded £1500 for his ransom within two hours’ time. When
Géronte hears this, he exclaims, “Que diable allait-il faire dans cette
galère?” and he swears he will arrest the Turk for extortion. Being
shown the impossibility of so doing, he again exclaims, “Que diable
allait-il faire dans cette galère?” and it flashes into his mind that
Scapin should give himself up as surety for the payment of the ransom.
This of course Scapin objects to. The old man again exclaims, “Que
diable allait-il faire dans cette galère?” and commands Scapin to go and
tell the Turk that £1500 is not to be picked off a hedge. Scapin says
the Turk does not care a straw about that, and insists on the ransom.
“Mais, que diable allait-il faire dans cette galère?” cries the old
hunks; and tells Scapin to go and pawn certain goods. Scapin replies
there is no time, the two hours are nearly exhausted. “Que diable,”
cries the old man again, “allait-il faire dans cette galère?” and when
at last he gives the money, he repeats the same words, “Mais, que diable
allait-il faire dans cette galère?”—Molière, _Les Fourberies de Scapin_.
ii. 11 (1671).

=Gal´gacus=, chief of the Caledonians, who resisted Agricŏla with great
valor. In A. D. 84 he was defeated, and died on the field. Tacĭtus puts
into his mouth a noble speech, made to his army before the battle.

                           Galgacus, their guide,
       Amongst his murthered troops there resolutely died.
                            Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

=Galia´na=, a Moorish princess, daughter of Gadalfe, king of Tolēdo. Her
father built for her a palace on the Tagus, so splendid that “a palace
of Galiana” has become a proverb in Spain.

=Galien Restored=, a mediæval romance of chivalry. Galien was the son of
Jaqueline (daughter of Hugh, king of Constantinople). His father was
Count Oliver of Vienne. Two fairies interested themselves in Jaqueline’s
infant son; one, named Galienne, had the child named after her, Galien;
and the other insisted that he should be called “Restored,” for that the
boy would _restore_ the chivalry of Charlemagne.—Author unknown.

=Galile´o= [GALILEI], born at Pisa, but lived chiefly in Florence. In
1633 he published his work on the Copernican system, showing that “the
earth moved and the sun stood still.” For this he was denounced by the
Inquisition of Rome, and accused of contradicting the Bible. At the age
of 70 he was obliged to abjure his system, in order to gain his liberty.
After pronouncing his abjuration, he said, in a stage whisper, _E pur si
muove_ (“It does move, though”). This is said to be a romance

=Galinthia=, daughter of Prœtus, king of Argos. She was changed by the
Fates into a cat, and in that shape was made by Hecate her high
priestess.—Antonius Liberalis, _Metam_, xxix.

=Gallegher=, audacious errand-boy in the office of a daily newspaper. He
outwits police and sporting-men, and shows detective genius unequalled
by a “professional,” becoming the means of arresting a noted murderer,
and driving into town after midnight with the news of this event and of
a big prize-fight, sinking exhausted on the office floor with the
exclamation, “I beat the town!”—Richard Harding Davis, _Gallegher_

=Gallegos= [_Gal´.le.goze_], the people of Galacia (once a province of

=Gallice´næ=, priestesses of Gallic mythology, who had power over the
winds and waves. There were nine of them, all virgins.

=Galligan´tus=, the giant who lived with Hocus-Pocus, the conjuror. When
Jack the Giant-killer blew the magic horn, both the giant and conjuror
were overthrown.—_Jack the Giant-killer._

=Gallo-ma´nia=, a _furor_ for everything French. Generally applied to
that vile imitation of French literature and customs which prevailed in
Germany in the time of Frederick II. of Prussia. It is very conspicuous
in the writings of Wieland (1733-1813).

=Galloping Dick=, Richard Ferguson, the highwayman, executed in 1800.

=Galloway= (_The Fair Maid of_), Margaret, only daughter of Archibald,
fifth earl of Douglas. She married her cousin William, to whom the
earldom passed in 1443. After the death of her first husband, she
married his brother James (the last earl of Douglas).

=Gallowglasses=, heavy-armed foot-soldiers of Ireland and the western
isles; the light-armed troops were called kernes.

         ——  the merciless Macdonwald
         ——  from the western isles
         Of kernes and gallowglasses is supplied.
                         Shakespeare’s _Macbeth_, act i. sc. 2.

=Gallura’s Bird=, the cock, the emblem of Gallura in Sardinia, ruled by
Nino di Gallura de’Visconti. Dante meets Nino in purgatory, who sends a
message to his daughter, but reproaches the mother with her marriage
after his death, to Galeazzo de’Visconti of Milan, whose emblem was a

        For her so fair a burial will not make
        The viper which calls Milan to the field,
        As had been made by shrill Gallura’s bird.
                                     Dante, _Purgatorio_, viii.

=Gal´way Jury=, an independent jury, neither to be brow-beaten nor led
by the nose. In 1635, certain trials were held in Ireland, respecting
the right of the Crown to the counties of Ireland. Leitrim, Roscommon,
Sligo, and Mayo gave judgment for the Crown, but Galway stood out,
whereupon each of the jury was fined £4000.

=Ga´ma= (_Vasco da_), the hero of Camoëns’s _Lusiad_. Sagacious,
intrepid, tender-hearted, pious, and patriotic. He was the first
European navigator who doubled the Cape of Good Hope (1497).

         Gama, captain of the venturous band,
         Of bold emprise, and born for high command,
         Whose martial fires, with prudence close allied,
         Ensured the smiles of fortune on his side.
                                  Camoens, _Lusiad_, i. (1569).

⁂ Gama is also the hero of Meyerbeer’s posthumous opera called
_L’Africaine_ (1865).

=Gam´elyn= (3 _syl._), youngest of the three sons of Sir Johan di
Boundys, who, on his death-bed, left “five plowes of land” to each of
his two elder sons, and the residue of his property to the youngest. The
eldest son took charge of Gamelyn, but treated him shamefully. On one
occasion he said to him, “Stand still, gadelyng, and hold thy peace.” To
which the proud boy retorted, “I am no gadelyng, but the lawful son of a
lady and true knight.” On this, the elder brother sent his servants to
chastise him, but he drove them off “with a pestel.” At a wrestling
match young Gamelyn threw the champion, and carried off the prize ram;
but on reaching home found the door closed against him. He at once
kicked the door down, and threw the porter into a well. The elder
brother now bound the young madcap to a tree, and left him two days
without food; but Adam the spencer, unloosed him; and Gamelyn fell upon
a party of ecclesiastics, who had come to dine with his brother, and
“sprinkled holy water on them with a stout oaken cudgel.” The sheriff
sent to apprehend the young spitfire, but he fled with Adam into the
woods, and came upon a party of foresters sitting at meat. The captain
gave him welcome, and Gamelyn in time became “king of the outlaws.” His
brother being sheriff, would have put him to death, but Gamelyn hanged
his brother on a forest tree. After this the king appointed him chief
ranger, and he married.—The Coke’s _Tale of Gamelyn_, formerly
attributed to Chaucer.

⁂ Lodge has made this tale the basis of his romance entitled _Rosalynd_
or _Eupheus’ Golden Legacye_ (1590); and from Lodge’s novel Shakespeare
has borrowed the plot, with some of the character and dialogue, of _As
You Like It_.

=Gamelyn de Guar´dover= (_Sir_), an ancestor of Sir Arthur Wardour.—Sir
W. Scott, _Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Gamester= (_The_), a tragedy by Ed. Moore (1753). The name of the
gamester is Beverley, who in despair commits suicide; and the object of
the play is to show the great evils of gambling.

_Gamester (The)_, by Mrs. Centlivre (1705). The hero is Valere, to whom
Angelica gives a picture, which she enjoins him not to lose on pain of
forfeiting her hand. Valere loses it in play, and Angelica, in disguise,
is the winner. After much tribulation, Valere is cured of his vice, the
picture is restored, and the two are happily united in marriage.

=Gammer Gurton’s Needle=, by Mr. S., Master of Arts. It was in
existence, says Warton, in 1551 (_English Poetry_, iv. 32). Sir Walter
Scott says; “It was the supposed composition of John Still, M.A.,
afterwards bishop of Bath and Wells;” but in 1551 John Still was a boy
not nine years old. The fun of this comedy turns on the loss and
recovery of a _needle_, with which Gammer Gurton was repairing the
breeches of her man Hodge. The comedy contains the famous drinking song,
“I cannot eat but little Meat.”

=Gamp= (_Sarah_), a monthly nurse, residing in Kingsgate Street, High
Holborn. Sarah was noted for her gouty umbrella, and for her perpetual
reference to an hypothetical Mrs. Harris, whose opinions were a
confirmation of her own. She was fond of strong tea and strong
stimulants. “Don’t ask me,” she said, “whether I won’t take none, or
whether I will, but leave the bottle on the chimley piece, and let me
put my lips to it when I am so dispoged.” When Mrs. Prig “her pardner,”
stretched out her hand to the teapot [_filled with gin_], Mrs. Gamp
stopped the hand and said with great feeling, “No, Betsy! drink fair,
wotever you do.” (See HARRIS.)—C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_, xlix.

⁂ A big, pawky umbrella is called a _Mrs. Gamp_, and in France, _un
Robinson_, from Robinson Crusoe’s umbrella.

⁂ Mrs. Gamp and Mrs. Harris have Parisian sisters in Mde. Pochet and
Mde. Gibou, creations of Henri Monnier.

=Gan.= (See GANELON.)

=Gan´dalin=, earl of the Firm Island, and ’squire of Am´adis de Gaul.

Gandalin, though an earl, never spoke to his master but cap in hand, his
head bowing all the time, and his body bent after the Turkish
manner.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iii. 6 (1605).

=Gan´elon= (2 _syl._), count of Mayence, the “Judas” of Charlemagne’s
paladins. His castle was built on the Blocksberg, the loftiest peak of
the Hartz Mountains. Charlemagne was always trusting this base knight,
and was as often betrayed by him. Although the very business of the
paladins was the upholding of Christianity, Sir Ganelon was constantly
intriguing for its overthrow. No doubt jealousy of Sir Roland made him a
traitor, and he basely planned with Marsillus (the Moorish king), the
attack of Roncesvallês. The character of Sir Ganelon was marked with
spite, dissimulation, and intrigue, but he was patient, obstinate and
enduring. He was six feet and a half in height, had large glaring eyes
and fiery red hair. He loved solitude, was very taciturn, disbelieved in
the existence of moral good, and has become a by-word for a false and
faithless friend. Dantê has placed him in his “Inferno.” (Sometimes
called GAN.)

The most faithless spy since the days of Ganelon.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Abbot_, xxiv. (1820).

=Ganem=, “The Slave of Love.” The hero and title of one of the _Arabian
Nights_ tales. Ganem was the son of a rich merchant of Damascus, named
Abou Aibou. On the death of his father he went to Bagdad, to dispose of
the merchandise left, and accidentally saw three slaves secretly burying
a chest in the earth. Curiosity induced him to disinter the chest, when
lo! it contained a beautiful woman, sleeping from the effects of a
narcotic drug. He took her to the lodgings, and discovered that the
victim was Fetnab, the caliph’s favorite, who had been buried alive by
order of the sultana, out of jealousy. When the caliph heard thereof, he
was extremely jealous of the young merchant, and ordered him to be put
to death, but he made good his escape in the guise of a waiter, and lay
concealed till the angry fit of the caliph had subsided. When
Haroun-al-Raschid (the caliph) came to himself, and heard the
unvarnished facts of the case, he pardoned Ganem, gave to him Fetnab for
a wife, and appointed him to a lucrative post about the court.

=Gan´esa=, goddess of wisdom, in Hindû mythology.

      Then Camdeo _[Love]_ bright and Ganesa sublime
      Shall bless with joy their own propitious clime.
                        Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1799).

=Ganlesse= (_Richard_), _alias_ SIMON CANTER, _alias_ EDWARD CHRISTIAN,
one of the conspirators.—Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time,
Charles II.).

=Ganna=, the Celtic prophetess, who succeeded Velle´da. She went to
Rome, and was received by Domitian with great honor.—Tacitus, _Annals_,

=Ganor=, Gano´ra, Geneura, Ginevra, Genievre, Guinevere, Guenever, are
different ways of spelling the name of Arthur’s wife; called by Geoffrey
of Monmouth, Guanhuma´ra or Guan´humar; but Tennyson has made Guenevere
the popular English form.

=Gants Jaunes= (_Des_), dandies, men of fashion.

=Gan´ymede= (3 _syl._), a beautiful Phrygian boy, who was carried up to
Olympos on the back of an eagle, to become cup-bearer to the gods
instead of Hebê. At the time of his capture he was playing a flute while
tending his father’s sheep.

            There fell a flute when Ganymede went up—
            The flute that he was wont to play upon.
                               Jean Ingelow, _Honours_, ii.

(Jupiter compensated the boy’s father for the loss of his son, by a pair
of horses.)

Tennyson, speaking of a great reverse of fortune from the highest glory
to the lowest shame, says:

                  They mounted _Ganymedes_,
            To tumble _Vulcans_ on the second morn.
                                       _The Princess_, iii.

_The Birds of Ganymede_, eagles. Ganymede is represented as sitting on
an eagle, or attended by that bird.

            To see upon her shores her foul and conies feed,
            And wantonly to hatch the birds of Ganymede.
                         Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

⁂ Ganymede is the constellation _Aquarius_.

=Garagan´tua=, a giant, who swallowed five pilgrims with their staves in
a salad.—Rabelais, _The History of Garagantua_ (1533).

“You must borrow me Garagantua’s mouth first: ’tis a word too great for
any mouth of this age’s size.”—Shakespeare, _As You Like It_, act iii.
sc. 2.

=Gar´cias=. _The soul of Peter Garcias_, money. Two scholars, journeying
to Salamanca, came to a fountain, which bore this inscription; “Here is
buried the soul of the licentiate Peter Garcias.” One scholar went away
laughing at the notion of a buried _soul_, but the other, cutting with
his knife, loosened a stone, and found a purse containing 100
ducats.—Lesage, _Gil Blas_ (to the reader, 1715).

=Garcilas´o=, surnamed “the Inca,” descended on the mother’s side from
the royal family of Peru (1530-1568). He was the son of Sebastian
Garcilaso, a lieutenant of Alvarado and Pizarro. Author of _Commentaries
on the Origin of the Incas, their Laws and Government_.

_Garcilaso_ [DE LA VEGA], called “The Petrarch of Spain”, born at Toledo
(1503-1536). His poems are eclogues, odes, and elegies of great
_naïveté_, grace, and harmony.

            Sometimes he turned to gaze upon his book,
            Boscan or Garcilasso [_sic_].
                             Byron, _Don Juan_ i. 95 (1819).

=Garda= (_Thorne_). Beautiful, untaught and utterly unreasonable girl,
whom everybody pets and who always gets her own way. She fascinates men
and outwits women, defies all authority, and never loses her temper. In
a lazy way she falls in love with one man after another, and is most
constant to the least worthy. The best and kindest woman among her
friends suffers in reputation from her escapades, and Garda accepts the
sacrifice as a matter of course. The incarnation of sensuous
selfishness.—Constance Fennimore Woolson, _East Angels_ (1886).

=Gardening= (_Father of Landscape_), Lenotre (1613-1700).

=Gar´diner= (_Richard_), porter to Miss Seraphine Arthuret and her
sister Angelica.—Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Gardiner (Colonel)_, colonel of Waverley’s Regiment.—Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Gareth= (_Sir_), according to Ancient romance, was the youngest son of
Lot, king of Orkney and Morgawse, Arthur’s [half] sister. His mother, to
deter him from entering Arthur’s court, said, jestingly, she would
consent to his so doing if he concealed his name and went as a scullion
for twelve months. To this he agreed, and Sir Kay, the king’s steward,
nicknamed him “Beaumains,” because his hands were unusually large. At
the end of the year he was knighted, and obtained the quest of Linet,
who craved the aid of some knight to liberate her sister Lionês, who was
held prisoner by Sir Ironside in Castle Perilous. Linet treated Sir
Gareth with great contumely, calling him a washer of dishes and a
kitchen knave; but he overthrew the five knights and liberated the lady,
whom he married. The knights were—first, the Black Knight of the Black
Lands _or_ Sir Pere´ard (2 _syl._), the Green Knight _or_ Sir Pertolope,
the Red Knight _or_ Sir Perimo´nês, the Blue Knight _or_ Sir Persaunt of
India (four brothers), and lastly, the Red Knight of the Red Lands or
Sir Ironside.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 120-153

⁂ According to Tennyson, Sir Gareth was “the last and tallest son of
Lot, king of Orkney, and of Bellicent his wife.” He served as kitchen
knave in King Arthur’s hall a twelvemonth and a day, and was nicknamed
“Fair-hands” (_Beaumains_). At the end of twelve months he was knighted,
and obtained leave to accompany Lynette to the liberation of her sister
Lyonors, who was held captive in Castle Perilous by a knight called
Death or Mors. The passages to the castle were kept by four brothers,
called by Tennyson, Morning Star _or_ Phos´phorus, Noonday Sun _or_
Meridies, Evening Star _or_ Hespĕrus, and Night _or_ Nox, all of whom he
overthrew. At length Death leapt from the cleft skull of Night, and
prayed the knight not to kill him, seeing that what he did his brothers
had made him do. At starting, Lynette treated Gareth with great
contumely, but softened to him more and more after each victory, and at
last married him.

     He that told the tale in olden times
     Says that Sir Gareth wedded Lyonors;
     But he that told it later says Lynette.
             Tennyson, _Idylls of the King_ (“Gareth and Lynette”).

_Gareth and Linet´_ is in reality an allegory, a sort of Bunyan’s
_Pilgrim’s Progress_, describing the warfare of a Christian from birth
to his entrance into glory. The “Bride” lived in Castle Perilous, and
was named Lionês; Linet´ represents the “carnal world,” which, like the
inhabitants of the City of Destruction, jest and jeer at everything the
Christian does. Sir Gareth fought with four knights, keepers of the
roads “to Zion” or Castle Perilous, viz., Night, Dawn, Midday, and
Evening, meaning the temptations of the four ages of man. Having
conquered in all these, he had to encounter the last enemy, which is
Death, and then the bride was won—the bride who lived in Castle Perilous
or Mount Zion.

⁂ Tennyson, in his version of this beautiful allegory, has fallen into
several grave errors, the worst of which is his making Gareth marry
Linet instead of the true bride. This is like landing his Pilgrim in the
City of Destruction, after having finished his journey and passed the
flood. Gareth’s _brother_ was wedded to the world (_i.e._ Linet), but
Gareth himself was married to the “true Bride,” who dwelt in Castle
Perilous. Another grave error is making Death crave of Gareth not to
kill him, as what he did he was compelled to do by his elder brothers. I
must confess that this to me is quite past understanding.—See _Notes and
Queries_, January 19, February 16, March 16, 1878.

=Gar´gamelle= (3 _syl._), wife of Grangousier and daughter of the
Parpaillons. On the day that she gave birth to Gargantua, she ate 16
qrs. 2 bush. 3 pecks and a pipkin of dirt, the mere remains left in the
tripe which she had for supper, although the tripe had been cleaned with
the utmost care.—Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 4 (1533).

⁂ Gargamelle is an allegorical skit on the extravagance of queens, and
the dirt is their pin-money.

=Gargan´tua=, son of Grangousier and Gargamelle. It needed 17,913 cows
to supply the babe with milk. Like Garagantua (_q.v._), he ate in his
salad lettuces as big as walnut trees, in which were lurking six
pilgrims from Sebastian. He founded and endowed the abbey of Theleme (2
_syl._), in remembrance of his victory over Picrochole (3
_syl._).—Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 7 (1533).

⁂ Of course, Gargantua is an allegorical skit on the allowance accorded
to princes for their maintenance.

_Gargantua’s Mare._ This mare was as big as six elephants, and had feet
with fingers. On one occasion, going to school, the “boy” hung the bells
of Notre Dame de Paris on his mare’s neck, as jingles; but when the
Parisians promised to feed his beast for nothing, he restored the peal.
This mare had a terrible tail “every whit as big as the steeple of St.
Mark’s,” and on one occasion being annoyed by wasps, she switched it
about so vigorously that she knocked down all the trees in the vicinity.
Gargantua roared with laughter, and cried, “Je trouve beau ce!” where
upon the locality was called “Beauce.”—Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 16

⁂ Of course this “mare” is an allegorical skit on the extravagance of
court mistresses, and the “tail” is the suite in attendance on them.

=Gargan´tuan Curriculum=, a course of studies including all languages,
all sciences, all the fine arts, with all athletic sports and
calisthenic exercises.—Grangousier wrote to his son, saying:

“There should not be a river in the world, no matter how small, thou
dost not know the name of, with the nature and habits of all fishes, all
fowls of the air, all shrubs and trees, all metals, minerals, gems and
precious stones. I would, furthermore, have thee study the Talmudists
and Cabalists, and get a perfect knowledge of man, together with every
language, ancient and modern, living or dead.”—Rabelais, _Pantag´ruel´_
ii. 8 (1533).

=Gar´gery= (_Mrs. Joe_), Pip’s sister. A virago, who kept her husband
and Pip in constant awe.

_Joe Gargery_, a blacksmith, married to Pip’s sister. A noble-hearted
simple-minded man who loved Pip sincerely. Though uncouth in manners and
ungainly in appearance, Joe Gargery was one of nature’s gentlemen.—C.
Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Gargouille= (2 _syl._), the great dragon that lived in the Seine,
ravaged Rouen, and was slain by St. Roma´nus in the seventh century.

=Garlic.= The purveyor of the sultan of Casgar says he knew a man who
lost his thumbs and great toes from eating garlic. The facts were these:
A young man was married to the favorite of Zobeidê, and partook of a
dish containing garlic; when he went to his bride, she ordered him to be
bound, and cut off his two thumbs and two great toes, for presuming to
appear before her without having purified his fingers. Ever after this
he always washed his hands 120 times with alkali and soap after
partaking of garlic in a ragout.—_Arabian Nights_ (“The Purveyor’s

=Gar´rat= (_The mayor of_). Garrat is a village between Wandsworth and
Tooling. In 1780 the inhabitants associated themselves together to
resist any further encroachments on their common, and the chairman was
called the _Mayor_. The first “mayor” happened to be chosen on a general
election, and so it was decreed that a new mayor should be appointed at
each general election. This made excellent capital for electioneering
squibs, and some of the greatest wits of the day have ventilated
political grievances, gibbeted political characters, and sprinkled holy
water with good stout oaken cudgels under the mask of “addresses by the
mayors of Garrat.”

_The Mayor of Garrat_, a farce by S. Foote (1762).

=Garrick.= Cool-headed, cool-hearted Federal agent who runs all sorts of
dangers to bear into camp dispatches found upon a dead comrade, and
marries a woman many degrees too noble for one whose ideals of morality
are lower than becomes a man so brave in other matters.—Rebecca Harding
Davis, _Waiting for the Verdict_ (1866).

=Garter.= According to legend, Joan, countess of Salisbury, accidentally
dropped her garter at a court ball. It was picked up by her royal
partner, Edward III., who gallantly diverted the attention of the guests
from the lady by binding the blue band round his own knee, saying, as he
did so,“Honi soit qui mal y pense.”

        The earl’s greatest of all grandmothers
        Was grander daughter still to that fair dame
        Whose garter slipped down at the famous ball.
             Robert Browning, _A Blot on the ’Scutcheon_, i., 3.

=Gartha=, sister of Prince Oswald of Vero´na. When Oswald was slain in
single combat by Gondibert (a combat provoked by his own treachery),
Gartha used all her efforts to stir up civil war; but Hermegild, a man
of great prudence, who loved her, was the author of wiser counsel, and
diverted the anger of the camp by a funeral pageant of unusual splendor.
As the tale is not finished, the ultimate lot of Gartha is unknown.—Sir
William Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1668).

=Garth= (_Sip_), woman of the people, who “puts” everything “honest” to
people. Shrewd, deep of heart and almost fierce of will, girding at her
limitations, yet profoundly in sympathy with her fellow-sufferers, she
becomes a valuable ally to her high-bred friend, Perley Kelso, in her
efforts to bring comfort and beauty into the dwellings of the
poor.—Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, _The Silent Partner_ (1871).

_Garth_ (_Caleb_), surveyor and land-agent. Excellent man, but better at
lending than keeping money.

_Mary Garth_, his daughter; sensible and true woman, with few graces of
person and no affectations.—George Eliot, _Middlemarch._

=Gas´abal,= the ’squire of Don Galaor.

Gasabal was a man of such silence that the author names him only once in
the course of his voluminous history.—_Don Quixote_, I. iii. 6 (1605).

=Gascoigne= (_Sir William_). Shakespeare says that Prince Henry “struck
the chief justice in the open court;” but it does not appear from
history that any blow was given. The fact is this:

One of the gay companions of the prince being committed for felony, the
prince demanded his release, but Sir William told him the only way of
obtaining a release would be to get from the king a free pardon. Prince
Henry now tried to rescue the prisoner by force, when the judge ordered
him out of court. In a towering fury, the prince flew to the judgment
seat, and all thought he was about to slay the judge; but Sir William
said very firmly and quietly. “Syr, remember yourselfe. I kepe here the
place of the kynge, your sovereigne lorde and father, to whom you owe
double obedience; wherefore I charge you in his name to desyste of your
wylfulnes.... And nowe for your contempte goo you to the pryson of the
Kynges Benche, whereunto I commytte you, and remayne ye there prisoner
untyll the pleasure of the kynge be further known.” With which words the
prince being abashed, the noble prisoner departed and went to the King’s
Bench.—Sir Thomas Elyot, _The Governour_ (1531).

=Gashford=, secretary to Lord George Gordon. A detestable, cruel sneak,
who dupes his half-mad master, and leads him to imagine he is upholding
a noble cause in plotting against the English Catholics. To wreak
vengeance on Geoffrey Haredale, he incites the rioters to burn “The
Warren,” where Haredale resided. Gashford commits suicide.—C. Dickens,
_Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

=Gaspar= or Casper (“_the white one_”), one of the three Magi or kings
of Cologne. His offering to the infant Jesus was _frankincense_, in
token of divinity.

⁂ The other two were Melchior (“king of light”), who offered _gold_,
symbolical of royalty; and Balthazar (“lord of treasures”), who offered
_myrrh_, to denote that Christ would die. Klopstock, in his _Messiah_,
makes the number of the Magi _six_, not one of which names agrees with
those of Cologne Cathedral.

=Gaspard=, the steward of Count De Valmont, in whose service he had been
for twenty years, and to whom he was most devotedly attached.—W. Dimond,
_The Foundling of the Forest_.

=Gas´pero=, secretary of state, in the drama called _The Laws of Candy_,
by Beaumont and Fletcher (1647).

=Gathe´ral= (_Old_), steward to the duke of Buckingham.—Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Gath´erill= (_Old_), bailiff to Sir Geoffrey Peveril of the Peak.—Sir
W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Gauden´tio di Lucca=, the hero and title of a romance by Simon
Berington. He makes a journey to Mezzoramia, an imaginary country in the
interior of Africa.

=Gau´difer=, a champion in the romance of _Alexander_.

=Gaudio´sa= (_Lady_), wife of Pelayo; a wise and faithful counsellor,
high-minded, brave in danger, and a real helpmate.—Southey, _Roderick,
Last of the Goths_ (1814).

=Gaudissart=, the droll French bagman.

=Gaul=, son of Morni of Strumon. He was betrothed to Oith´ona, daughter
of Nuäth, but before the day of marriage he was called away by Fingal to
attend him on an expedition against the Britons. At the same time Nuäth
was at war, and sent for his son Lathmon; so Oithona was left
unprotected in her home. Donrommath, lord of Uthal (or Cuthal) seized
this opportunity to carry her off, and concealed her in a cave in the
desert island of Trom´athon. When Gaul returned to claim his betrothed,
he found she was gone, and was told by a vision in the night where she
was hidden. Next day, with three followers, Gaul went to Tromathon, and
the ravisher coming up, he slew him and cut off his head. Oithona, armed
as a combatant, mingled with the fighters and was wounded. Gaul saw what
he thought a youth dying, and went to offer assistance, but found it was
Oithona, who forthwith expired. Disconsolate, he returns to Dunlathmon,
and thence to Morven. Ossian, _Oithona_.

=Gaunt´grim=, the wolf, in Lord Lytton’s _Pilgrims of the Rhine_ (1834).

Bruin is always in the sulks, and Gauntgrim always in a passion.—Ch.

=Gavar´ni=, the pseudonym of Sulpice Paul Chevalier, the great
caricaturist of the French _Charivari_ (1803-1896).

=Gavroche= (_2 syl._), type of the Parisian street arab.—Victor Hugo,
_Les Misèrables_ (1862).

=Gawain= [_Gaw´’n_], son of King Lot and Morguase (Arthur’s sister). His
brothers were Agravain, Ga´heris, and Ga´reth. The traitor Mordred was
his half-brother, being the adulterous offspring of Morgause and Prince
Arthur. Lot was king of Orkney. Gawain was the second of the fifty
knights created by King Arthur; Tor was the first, and was dubbed the
same day (pt. i. 48). When the adulterous passion of Sir Launcelot for
Queen Guenever came to the knowledge of the king, Sir Gawain insisted
that the king’s honor should be upheld. Accordingly, King Arthur went in
battle array to Benwicke (_Brittany_), the “realm of Sir Launcelot,” and
proclaimed war. Here Sir Gawain fell, according to the prophecy of
Merlin, “With this sword shall Launcelot slay the man that in this world
he loved the best” (pt. i. 44). In this same battle the king was told
that his bastard son Mordred had usurped his throne, so he hastened back
with all speed, and in the great battle of the West received his mortal
wound (pt. iii. 160-167).—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_

Of Arthurian knights, Gawain is called the “Courteous,” Sir Kay the
“Rude and Boastful,” Mordred the “Treacherous,” Launcelot the
“Chivalrous,” Galahad the “Chaste,” Mark the “Dastard,” Sir Palomides
(_3 syl._) the “Saracen,” _i.e._ unbaptized, etc.

=Gawky= (_Lord_), Richard Grenville (1711-1770).

=Gaw´rey=, a flying woman, whose wings served the double purpose of
flying and dress.—R. Pultock, _Peter Wilkins_ (1750).

=Gay= (_Walter_), in the firm of Dombey and Son; an honest, frank, and
ingenuous youth, who loved Florence Dombey, and comforted her in her
early troubles. Walter Gay was sent in the merchantman called _The Son
and Heir_, as junior partner, to Barbadoes, and survived a shipwreck.
After his return from Barbadoes, he married Florence.—C. Dickens,
_Dombey and Son_ (1846).

=Gayless= (_Charles_), the penniless suitor of Melissa. His valet is
Sharp.—Garrick, _The Lying Valet_ (1741).

=Gaylords= (_The_). Village family in good circumstances.

_Squire Gaylord_, shrewd lawyer, with one tender place in his heart—his
love for his only child.

_Mrs. Gaylord_, a calvinistic invalid, in awe of her imperious lord.

_Marcia Gaylord_, headstrong village beauty, who elopes with Bartley
Hubbard, a newspaper man; goes with him to Boston; shares his capricious
fortunes; adores and is madly jealous of him and goes home to nurse her
sick mother, without her husband’s consent. He sues for a divorce,
prevented by her father’s arrival prepared to give the other side of the
question.—W. D. Howells, _A Modern Instance_.

=Gay´ville= (_Lord_), the affianced husband of Miss Alscrip “the
heiress,” whom he detests; but he ardently loves Miss Alton, her
companion. The former is conceited, overbearing, and vulgar, but very
rich; the latter is modest, retiring, and lady-like, but very poor. It
turns out that £2000 a year of “the heiress’s” property was entailed on
Sir William Charleton’s heirs, and therefore descended to Mr. Clifford
in right of his mother. This money Mr. Clifford settles on his sister,
Miss Alton (whose real name is Clifford). Sir Clement Flint tears the
conveyance, whereby Clifford retains the £2000 a year, and Sir Clement
settles the same amount on Lord Gayville, who marries Miss Alton,
_alias_ Miss Clifford.

_Lady Emily Gayville_, sister of Lord Gayville. A bright, vivacious, and
witty lady, who loves Mr. Clifford. Clifford also greatly loves Lady
Emily, but is deterred from proposing to her because he is poor and
unequal to her in a social position. It turns out that he comes into
£2000 a year in right of his mother, Lady Charlton; and is thus enabled
to offer himself to the lady, by whom he is accepted.—General Burgoyne,
_The Heiress_ (1781).

=Gayworthys’= (_The_), New England household.

_Dr. Gayworthy._ Excellent man and physician. His heart is bound up in
his step-grandson in whose favor he makes a will.

_Johanna and Rebecca Gayworthy_; one round, laughing and fair; the
other, slight, brown, delicate, serious-eyed. Each has a lover and each
her disappointment and victory.

_Mrs. Vorse_ or “Sister Prue,” step-daughter, a widow with one
son—_Gershom_, who is wild for sea-life, and gets it.

_Mrs. Gair_, née Gayworthy; the town-sister, diplomatic and suave. She
secretes the doctor’s will and manœuvres Gershom off to sea.

_Sadie, or Say Gair_; upright little girl, who grows into a
sound-hearted woman, and brings crooked things straight after many days
and much striving, by marrying Gershom.—A.D.T. Whitney, _The Gayworthys_

=Gaz´ban=, the black slave of the old fire-worshipper, employed to
sacrifice the Mussulmans to be offered on the “mountain of
fire.”—_Arabian Nights_ (“Amgiad and Assad”).

=Gazette= (_Sir Gregory_), a man who delights in news, without having
the slightest comprehension of politics.—Samuel Foote, _The Knights_.

=Ge´ber=, an Arabian alchemist, born at Thous, in Persia (eighth
century). He wrote several treatises on the “art of making gold,” in the
usual mystical jargon of the period; and hence our word _gibberish_
(“senseless jargon”).

            This art the Arabian Geber taught ...
            The Elixir of Perpetual Youth.
                           Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.

=Geddes= (_Joshua_), the quaker.

_Rachael Geddes_, sister of Joshua.

_Philip Geddes_, grandfather of Joshua and Rachael Geddes.—Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Geierstein= [_Gi´.er.stine_], Arnold, count of.

_Count Albert of Geierstein_, brother of Arnold Biederman, disguised (1)
as the black priest of St. Paul’s; (2) as president of the secret
tribunal; (3) as monk at Mont St. Victoire.

_Anne of Geierstein_, called “The Maiden of the Mist,” daughter of Count
Albert, and baroness of Arnheim.

_Count Heinrich of Geierstein_, grandfather of Count Arnold.

_Count Williewald of Geierstein_, father of Count Arnold.—Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Geislaer= (_Peterkin_), one of the insurgents at Liège [_Le.aje_].—Sir
W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Geith= (_George_), a model of untiring industry, perseverance, and
moral courage. Undaunted by difficulties, he pursued his onward way, and
worked as long as breath was left him.—Mrs. Trafford [Riddell], _George

=Gelert=, Llewellyn’s favorite hound. One day, Llewellyn returned from
hunting, when Gêlert met him smeared with gore. The chieftain felt
alarmed, and instantly went to look for his baby son. He found the
cradle overturned, and all around was sprinkled with gore and blood. He
called his child, but no voice replied, and thinking the hound had eaten
it, he stabbed the animal to the heart. The tumult awoke the baby boy,
and on searching more carefully, a huge wolf was found under the bed,
quite dead. Gêlert had slain the wolf and saved the child.

       And now a gallant tomb they raise,
         With costly sculpture decked;
       And marbles, storied with his praise.
         Poor Gêlert’s bones protect.
             Hon. W.R. Spencer, _Beth Gêlerts_ (“Gêlerts Grave”).

⁂ This tale, with a slight difference, is common to all parts of the
world. It is told in the _Gesta Romanorum_ of Follicŭlus, a knight, but
the wolf is a “serpent,” and Folliculus, in repentance, makes a
pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In the sanskrit version, given in the
_Pantschatantra_ (A.D. 540), the tale is told of the brahmin Devasaman,
an “ichneumon” and “black snake” taking the places of the dog and the
wolf. In the Arabic version by Nasr-Allah (twelfth century), a “weasel”
is substituted for the dog; in the Mongolian _Uligerun_ a “polecat;” in
the Persian _Sindibadnâmeh_, a “cat;” and in the _Hitopadesa_ (iv. 3),
an “otter.” In the Chinese _Forest of Pearls from the Garden of the
Law_, the dog is an “ichneumon,” as in the Indian version (A.D. 668). In
Sandabar, and also in the Hebrew version, the tale is told of a dog. A
similar tale is told of Czar Piras of Russia; and another occurs in the
_Seven Wise Masters_.

=Gel´latly= (_Davie_) idiot servant of the baron of Bradwardine (3

_Old Janet Gellatly_, the idiot’s mother.—Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_
(time, George II.).

⁂ In some editions the word is spelt “Gellatley.”

=Geloi´os.= Silly laughter personified. Geloios is slain by Encra´tês
(_temperance_) in the battle of Mansoul. (Greek, _gĕloios_,

=Gem of Normandy=, Emma, daughter of Richard “the Fearless,” duke of
Normandy. She first married Ethelred II. of England, and then Canute,
but survived both, and died in 1052.

=Gems emblems of the Twelve Apostles.=

ANDREW, the bright blue _sapphire_, emblematic of his heavenly faith.

BARTHOLOMEW, the red _carnelian_, emblematic of his martyrdom.

JAMES, the white _chalcedony_, emblematic of his purity.

JAMES THE LESS, the _topaz_, emblematic of delicacy.

JOHN, the _emerald_, emblematic of his youth and gentleness.

MATTHEW, the _amethyst_, emblematic of sobriety. Matthew was once a
“publican,” but was “sobered” by the leaven of Christianity.

MATTHIAS, the _chrysolite_, pure as sunshine.

PETER, the _jasper_, hard and solid as the rock of the Church.

PHILIP, the friendly _sardonyx_.

SIMEON of Cana, the pink _hyacinth_, emblematic of sweet temper.

THADDEUS, the _chrysoprase_, emblematic of serenity and trustfulness.

THOMAS, the _beryl_, indefinite in lustre, emblematic of his doubting

=Gems symbolic of the Months.=

_January_, the jacinth or hyacinth, symbolizing constancy and fidelity.

_February_, the amethyst, symbolizing peace of mind and sobriety.

_March_, the blood-stone or jasper, symbolizing courage and success in
dangerous enterprise.

_April_, the sapphire and diamond, symbolizing repentance and innocence.

_May_, the emerald, symbolizing success in love.

_June_, the agate, symbolizing long life and health.

_July_, the carnelian, symbolizing cure of evils resulting from

_August_, the sardonyx or onyx, symbolizing conjugal felicity.

_September_, the chrysolite, symbolizing preservation from folly, or its

_October_, the aqua-marine, opal, or beryl, symbolizing hope.

_November_, the topaz, symbolizing fidelity and friendship.

_December_, the turquoise or ruby, symbolizing brilliant success.

⁂ Some doubt exists between May and June, July and August. Thus some
give the _agate_ to May, and the _emerald_ to June; the _carnelian_ to
August, and the _onyx_ to July.

=Gem´ini= (“_the twins_”). Castor and Pollux are the two principal stars
of this constellation; the former has a bluish tinge, and the latter a
damask red.

        As heaven’s high twins, whereof in Tyrian blue
        The one revolveth; through his course immense
        Might love his fellow of the damask hue.
                                     Jean Ingelow, _Honours_, i.

_Gemini._ Mrs. Browning makes Eve view in the constellation _Gemini_ a
symbol of the increase of the human race, and she loved to gaze on
it.—E. B. Browning, _A Drama of Exile_ (1850).

=Geneu´ra.= (See GINEURA).

⁂ Queen Guinever or Guenever is sometimes called “Geneura,” or

=Gene´va Bull= (_The_), Stephen Marshall, a Calvinistic preacher.

=Geneviève= (_St._) the patron saint of Paris, born at Nanterre. She was
a shepherdess, but went to Paris when her parents died, and was there
during Attila’s invasion (A.D. 451). She told the citizens that God
would spare the city, and “her prediction came true.” At another time,
she procured food for the Parisians suffering from famine. At her
request, Clovis built the church of St. Pierre et St. Paul, afterwards
called Ste. Geneviève. Her day is January 3. Her relics are deposited in
the Panthèon now called by her name (419-512).

=Genii= or =Ginu=, an intermediate race between angels and men. They
ruled on earth before the creation of Adam—D’Herbelot, _Bibliothèque
Orientale_, 357 (1697). Also spelt Djinn and Jinn.

⁂ Solomon is supposed to preside over the whole race of genii. This
seems to have arisen from a mere confusion of words of somewhat similar
sound. The chief of the genii was called a suleyman, which got corrupted
into a proper name.

=Genius and Common Sense=, T. Moore says that Common Sense and Genius
once went out together on a ramble by moonlight. Common Sense went
prosing on his way, arrived home in good time, and went to bed; but
Genius, while gazing at the stars, stumbled into a river, and died.

⁂ This story is told of Thalês, the philosopher, by Plato. Chaucer has
also an allusion thereto in his _Miller’s Tales_.

       So ferde another clerk with ’stronomye:
       He walkêd in the feeldês for to prye
       Upon the sterrês, what ther shuld befall,
       Til he was in a marlê pit i-fall,
                            Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_, (1388).

=Genna´ro= the natural son of Lucrezia di Borgia (daughter of Pope
Alexander VI.) before her marriage with Alfonso, duke of Ferra´ra. He
was brought up by a Neapolitan fisherman. In early manhood he went to
Venice, heard of the scandalous cruelty of Lucrezia, and with the
heedless petulance of youth, mutilated the duke’s escutcheon by striking
out the B, thus converting Borgia into Orgia (_orgies_). Lucrezia
demanded vengeance, and Gennaro was condemned to death by poison. When
Lucrezia discovered that the offender was her own son, she gave him an
antidote to the poison, and set him free. Not long after this, at a
banquet given by Negro´ni Lucrezia revealed herself to Gennaro as his
mother, and both expired of poison in the banquet hall.—Donizetti,
_Lucrezia di Borgia_ (1834).

=Gennil= (_Ralph_), a veteran in the troop of Sir Hugo de Lacy.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Genove´va,= wife of Siegfried, count palatine of Brabant. Being
suspected of infidelity, she was driven into the forest of Ardennes,
where she gave birth to a son, who was suckled by a white doe. After a
time Siegfried discovered his error, and both mother and child were
restored to their proper home.—_German Popular Stories._

Tieck and Müller have popularized the tradition, and Raupach has made it
the subject of a drama.

=Gentle Shepherd= (_The_), George Grenville. In one of his speeches he
exclaimed in the House, “Tell me where!” when Pitt hummed the line of a
popular song, “Gentle Shepherd, tell me where!” and the House was
convulsed with laughter (1712-1770).

_Gentle Shepherd_ (_The_), the title and chief character of Allan
Ramsay’s pastoral (1725).

=Gentleman of Europe= (_The First_), George IV. (1762, 1820-1830).

It was the “first gentleman in Europe” in whose high presence Mrs.
Rawdon passed her examination, and took her degree in reputation; so it
must be flat disloyalty to doubt her virtue. What a noble appreciation
of character must there not have been in Vanity Fair when that august
sovereign was invested with the title of _Premier Gentilhomme_ of all
Europe!—Thackeray, _Vanity Fair_ (1843).

_Gentleman of Europe_ (_First_), Louis d’Artois.

=Gentleman Smith=, William Smith, actor, noted for his gentlemanly
deportment on the stage (1730-1790).

=Geoffrey=, archbishop of York.—Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time,
Richard I.).

_Geoffrey_, the old ostler of John Mengs (inn-keeper at Kirchhoff).—Sir
W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Geoffrey Crayon=, the hypothetical name of the author of the
_Sketch-Book_ by Washington Irving (1818-1820).

=George= (_Honest_). General Monk, George, duke of Albemarle, was so
called by the votaries of Cromwell (1608-1670).

_George_ (_Mr._), a stalwart, handsome, simple-hearted fellow, son of
Mrs. Rouncewell, the housekeeper at Chesney Wold. He was very wild as a
lad, and ran away from his mother to enlist as a soldier; but on his
return to England he opened a shooting-gallery in Leicester Square,
London. When Sir Leicester Dedlock, in his old age, fell into trouble,
George became his faithful attendant.—C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

_George_ (_St._), the patron saint of England. He was born at Lydda, but
brought up in Cappadocia, and suffered martyrdom in the reign of
Diocletian, April, 23, A.D. 303. Mr. Hogg tells us of a Greek
inscription at Ezra, in Syria, dated 346, in which the martyrdom of St.
George is referred to. At this date was living George, bishop of
Alexandria, with whom Gibbon, in his _Decline and Fall_, has confounded
the patron saint of England; but the bishop died in 362, or fifty-nine
years after the prince of Cappadocia. (See RED CROSS KNIGHT.)

⁂ Mussulmans revere St. George under the name of “Gherghis.”

_St. George’s Bones_ were taken to the church in the City of

_St. George’s Head._ One of his heads was preserved at Rome. Long
forgotten, it was rediscovered in 751, and was given in 1600 to the
church of Ferrara. Another of his heads was preserved in the church of
Mares-Moutier, in Picardy.

_St. George’s Limbs._ One of his arms fell from heaven upon the altar of
Pantaleon, at Cologne. Another was preserved in a religious house of
Barala, and was transferred thence in the ninth century to Cambray. Part
of an arm was presented by Robert of Flanders to the City of Toulouse;
another part was given to the abbey of Auchin, and another to the
Countess Matilda.

=George and the Dragon= (_St._). St. George, son of Lord Albert of
Coventry, was stolen in infancy by “the weird lady of the woods,” who
brought the lad up to deeds of arms. His body had three marks; a dragon
on the breast, a garter round one of the legs, and a blood-red cross on
the right arm. When he grew to manhood, he fought against the Saracens.
In Libya he heard of a huge dragon, to which a damsel was daily given
for food, and it so happened that when he arrived the victim was Sabra,
the king’s daughter. She was already tied to the stake when St. George
came up. On came the dragon; but the knight, thrusting his lance into
the monster’s mouth, killed it on the spot. Sabra, being brought to
England, became the wife of her deliverer, and they lived happily in
Coventry till death.—Percy, _Reliques_ III. iii. 2.

_St. George and the Dragon_, on old guinea-pieces, was the design of
Pistrucci. It was an adaptation of a didrachm of Tarentum, B.C. 250.

⁂ The encounter between George and the dragon took place at Berytus

The tale of St. George and the dragon is told in the _Golden Legends_ of
Jacques de Voragine.—See S. Baring-Gould, _Curious Myths of The Middle

=George I. and the duchess of Kendal= (1719). The duchess was a German,
whose name was Erangard Melrose de Schulemberg. She was created duchess
of Munster, in Ireland, baroness Glastonbury, Countess of Feversham, and
duchess of Kendal (died 1743).

=George II.= His favorite was Mary Howard, duchess of Suffolk.

George II., when angry, vented his displeasure by kicking his hat about
the room. We are told that Xerxes vented his displeasure at the loss of
his bridges by ordering the Hellespont to be fettered, lashed with 300
stripes, and insulted.

=George III., and the Fair Quakeress.= When George III. was about 20
years of age he fell in love with Hannah Lightfoot, daughter of a
linen-draper in Market Street, St. James’s. He married her in Kew
Church, 1759, but of course the marriage was not recognized. (See

⁂ The following year (September, 1760), he married the Princess
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Hannah Lightfoot married a Mr.
Axford, and passed out of public notice.

=George IV. and Mrs. Mary Robinson=, generally called Perdita. Mary
Darby, at the age of 15, married Mr. Robinson, who lived a few months on
credit, and was then imprisoned for debt. Mrs. Robinson sought a
livelihood on the stage, and George IV., then Prince of Wales and a mere
lad, saw her as “Perdita,” fell in love with her, corresponded with her
under the assumed name of “Florizel,” and gave her a bond for £20,000,
subsequently cancelled for an annuity of £500 (1758-1800).

⁂ George IV. was born 1762, and was only 16 in 1778, when he fell in
love with Mrs. Robinson. The young prince suddenly abandoned her, and
after two other love affairs, privately married, at Carleton House (in
1785), Mrs. Fitzherbert, a lady of good family, and a widow, seven years
his senior. The marriage being contrary to the law, he married the
Princess Caroline of Brunswick, in 1795; but still retained his
connection with Mrs. Fitzherbert, and added a new favorite, the Countess
of Jersey.

=George= [DE LAVAL], a friend of Horace de Brienne (2 _syl._). Having
committed forgery, Carlos (_alias_ Marquis d’Antas), being cognizant of
it, had him in his power; but Ogarita (_alias_ Martha) obtained the
document, and returned it to George.—E. Stirling, _Orphan of the Frozen
Sea_ (1856).

=George-a-Green=, the pinner or pound-keeper of Wakefield, one of the
chosen favorites of Robin Hood.

             Veni Wakefield peramænum,
             Ubi quærens Georgium Greenum,
             Non inveni, sed in lignum,
             Fixim reperi Georgii signum,
             Ubi allam bibi feram,
             Donec Georgio fortior eram.
                                    _Drunken Barnaby_ (1640).

           Once in Wakefield town, so pleasant,
           Sought I George-a-Green, the peasant;
           Found him not, but spied instead, sir,
           On a sign, “The George’s Head,” sir:
           Valiant grown with ale like nectar.
           What cared I for George or Hector?

⁂ Robert Green has a drama entitled _George-a-Green, the Pinner of
Wakefield_ (1589).

=Georgian Women= (_The_) Allah, wishing to stock his celestial harem,
commissioned an imaum to select for him forty of the loveliest women he
could find. The imaum journeyed into Frankistan, and from the country of
the Ingliz carried off the king’s daughter. From Germany he selected
other maidens; but when he arrived at Gori (north-west of Tiflis) he
fell in love with one of the beauties, and tarried there. Allah punished
him by death, but the maidens remained in Gori, and became the mothers
of the most beautiful race of mortals in the whole earth.—_A Legend._

=Georgina [Vesey]=, daughter of Sir John Vesey. Pretty, but vain and
frivolous. She loved, as much as her heart was susceptible of such a
passion, Sir Frederick Blount, but wavered between her liking and the
policy of marrying Alfred Evelyn, a man of great wealth. When she
thought the property of Evelyn was insecure, she at once gave her hand
to Sir Frederick.—Lord E. Bulwer Lytton, _Money_ (1840).

=Geraint´= (_Sir_) of Devon, one of the knights of the Round Table. He
was married to E´nid, only child of Yn´iol. Fearing lest Enid should be
tainted by the queen, Sir Geraint left the court, and retired to Devon.
Half sleeping and half waking, he overheard part of Enid’s words, and
fancying her to be unfaithful to him, treated her for a time with great
harshness; but Enid nursed him when he was wounded with such wifely
tenderness that he could no longer doubt her fealty, and a complete
understanding being established, “they crowned a happy life with a fair
death.”—Tennyson, _Idylls of the King_ (“Geraint and Enid”).

=Ger´aldin= (_Lord_), son of the earl of Glenallen. He appears first as
William Lovell, and afterwards as Major Neville. He marries Isabella
Wardour (daughter of Sir Arthur Wardour).

_Sir Aymer de Geraldin_, an ancestor of Lord Geraldin.—Sir W. Scott,
_the Antiquary_ (time, George III.)

=Ger´aldine= (3 _syl._), a young man who comes home from his travels to
find his playfellow (who should have been his wife) married to old
Wincott, who receives him hospitably as a friend of his father’s, takes
delight in hearing tales of his travels, and treats him most kindly.
Geraldine and the wife mutually agree not in any wise to wrong so noble
and confiding an old gentleman.—John Heywood, _The English Traveller_

_Geraldine_ (_Lady_), an orphan, the ward of her uncle Count de Valmont,
and the betrothed of Florian (“the foundling of the forest,” and the
adopted son of the count). This foundling turns out to be his real son,
who had been rescued by his mother and carried into the forest to save
him from the hands of Longueville, a desperate villain.—W. Dimond, _The
Foundling of the Forest_.

_Geraldine_ (_The Fair_), the lady whose praises are sung by Henry
Howard, earl of Surrey. Supposed to be Elizabeth Fitzgerald, daughter of
Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth earl of Kildare. She married the earl of

=Gerard= (_John_), an English botanist (1545-1607), who compiled the
_Catalogus Arborum, Fruticum, et Plantorum, tam Indigenarum quam
Exoticarum, in Horto Johanis Gerardi_. Also author of the _Herbal or
General History of Plants_ (1597).

     Of these most helpful herbs yet tell we but a few,
     To those unnumbered sorts of simples here that grew...
     Not skillful Gerard yet shall ever find them all.
                               Drayton, _Polyolbion_ xiii. (1613).

_Gerard_, attendant of Sir Patrick Charteris (provost of Perth).—Sir W.
Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Gerhard the Good=, a merchant of Cologne, who exchanges his rich
freight for a cargo of Christian slaves, that he may give them their
liberty. He retains only one, who is the wife of William, king of
England. She is about to marry the merchant’s son, when the king
suddenly appears, disguised as a pilgrim. Gerhard restores the wife,
ships both off to England, refuses all recompense, and remains a
merchant as before.—Rudolf of Ems (a minnesinger), _Gerhard the Good_
(thirteenth century).

=Ger´ion.= So William Browne, in his _Britannia’s Pastorals_ (fifth
song), calls Philip of Spain. The allusion is to Geryon of Gadês
(_Cadiz_), a monster with three bodies (or, in other words, a king over
three kingdoms) slain by Herculês.

⁂ The three kingdoms over which Philip reigned were Spain, Germany and
the Netherlands.

=Gerlinda= or =Girlint=, the mother of Hartmuth, king of Norway. When
Hartmuth carried off Gudrun the daughter of Hettel (_Attila_), who
refused to marry him, Gerlinda put her to the most menial work, such as
washing the dirty linen. But her lover, Herwig, king of Heligoland,
invaded Norway, and having gained a complete victory, put Gerlinda to
death.—_An Anglo-Saxon Poem_ (thirteenth century).

=German Literature= (_Father of_), Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781).

=Germany=, formerly called Tongres. The name was changed (according to
fable) in compliment to Ger´mana, sister of Julius Cæsar, and wife of
Salvius Brabon, duke of Brabant.—Jehan de Maire, _Illustrations de
Gaule_, iii. 20-23.

Geoffrey of Monmouth says that Ebraucus, one of the descendants of
Brute, king of Britain, had twenty sons, all of whom, except the eldest,
settled in Tongres which was then called Germany, because it was the
land of the _germans_ or brothers.

        These germans did subdue all Germany,
        Of whom it hight.
                          Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 10 (1590).

=Geron´imo,= the friend of Sganarelle (3 _syl._). Sganarelle asks him if
he would advise his marrying. “How old are you?” asks Geronimo; and
being told that he is 63, and the girl under 20, says, “No.” Sganarelle,
greatly displeased at his advice, declares he is hale and strong, that
he loves the girl, and has promised to marry her. “Then do as you like,”
says Geronimo.—Molière, _Le Mariage Force_ (1664).

⁂ This joke is borrowed from Rabelais. Panurge asks Pantagruel whether
he advises him to marry. “Yes,” says the prince; whereupon Panurge
states several objections. “Then don’t,” says the prince. “But I wish
to marry,” says Panurge. “Then do it by all means,” says the prince.
Every time the prince advises him to marry, Panurge objects; and every
time the prince advises the contrary, the advice is equally
unacceptable.—_Pantagruel_, iii. 9 (1545).

=Géronte´= (2 _syl._), father of Léandre and Hyacinthe; a miserly old
hunks. He has to pay Scapin £1500 for the “ransom” of Léandre, and after
having exhausted every evasion, draws out his purse to pay the money,
saying, “The Turk is a villain!” “Yes,” says Scapin. “A rascal!” “Yes,”
says Scapin. “A thief!” “Yes,” says Scapin. “He would wring from me
£1500! would he?” “Yes,” says Scapin. “Oh, if I catch him, won’t I pay
him out?” “Yes,” says Scapin. Then putting his purse back into his
pocket, Géronte´ walks off, saying, “Pay the ransom, and bring back the
boy.” “But the money; where’s the money?” says Scapin. “Oh, didn’t I
give it you?” “No,” says Scapin. “I forgot,” says Géronte, and he pays
the money (act ii. 11).—Molière, _Les Fourberies de Scapin_ (1671).

In the English, version called _The Cheats of Scapin_, by Otway, Géronte
is called “Gripe” Hyacinthe is called “Clara,” Léandre is Anglicized
into “Leander,” and the sum of money borrowed is £200.

_Geronte_ (2 _syl._), the father of Lucinde (2 _syl._). He wanted his
daughter to marry Horace, but as she loved Léandre, in order to avoid a
marriage she detested she pretended to have lost the power of articulate
speech, and only answered, “Han, hi, hon!” “Han, hi, hon, han!”
Sganarelle, “le médecin malgré lui,” seeing that this jargon was put on,
and ascertaining that Léandre was her lover, introduced him as an
apothecary, and the young man soon effected a perfect cure with “pills
matrimoniac.”—Molière, _Le Médecin Malgré Lui_ (1666).

=Ger´rard=, king of the beggars, disguised under the name of Clause. He
is the father of Florez, the rich merchant of Bruges.—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Beggars’ Bush_ (1622).

=Ger´trude= (2 _syl._), Hamlet’s mother. On the death of her husband,
who was king of Denmark, she married Claudius, the late king’s brother.
Gertrude was accessory to the murder of her first husband, and Claudius
was principal. Claudius prepared poisoned wine, which he intended for
Hamlet; but the queen not knowing it was poisoned drank it and died;
Hamlet, seeing his mother fall dead, rushed on the king and killed
him.—Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

⁂ In the _Historie of Hamblett_, Gertrude is called “Geruth.”

_Gertrude_, daughter of Albert, patriarch of Wy´oming. One day an Indian
brought to Albert a lad (nine years old) named Henry Waldegrave (2
_syl._), and told the patriarch he had promised the boy’s mother, at her
death, to place her son under his care. The lad remained at Wyoming for
three years, and was then sent to his friends. When grown to manhood,
Henry Waldegrave returned to Wyoming, and married Gertrude; but three
months afterwards Brandt, at the head of a mixed army of British and
Indians attacked the settlement, and both Albert and Gertrude were shot.
Henry Waldegrave then joined the army of Washington, which was fighting
for American independence.—Campbell, _Gertrude of Wyoming_ (1809).

_Gertrude._ Brave heroine of Maria S. Cummins’s _Lamplighter_. She
raises herself by sheer force of energy and talent from the lowly
station in which she was born to a position of highest respectability
and influence (1853).

=Gerun´dio= (_Fray_), _i.e._ Friar Gerund, the hero and title of a
Spanish romance, by the Jesuit De l’Isla. It is a satire on the
absurdities and bad taste of the popular preachers of the time (1758).

=Ge´ryon’s Sons=, the Spaniards; so called from Geryon, an ancient king
of Spain, whose oxen were driven off by Her´culês. This task was one of
the hero’s “twelve labors.” Milton uses the expression in _Paradise
Lost_, xi. 410 (1665).

=Geryon´eo=, a human monster with three bodies. He was of the race of
giants, being the son of Geryon, the tyrant who gave all strangers “as
food to his kine, the fairest and the fiercest kine alive.” Geryoneo
promised to take the young widow Belgê (2 _syl._) under his protection;
but it was like the wolf protecting the lamb, for “he gave her children
to a dreadful monster to devour.” In her despair she applied to King
Arthur for help, and the British king, espousing her cause, soon sent
Geryoneo “down to the house of dole.”—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 10, 11

⁂ “Geryoneo” is the house of Austria, and Philip of Spain in particular.
“King Arthur” is England, and the earl of Leicester in particular. The
“Widow Belgê” is the Netherlands; and the monster that devoured her
children the inquisition, introduced by the duke of Alva. “Geryoneo” had
three bodies, for Philip ruled over three kingdoms—Spain, Germany and
the Netherlands. The earl of Leicester, sent in 1585 to the aid of the
Netherlands, broke off the yoke of Philip.

=Ges´mas=, the impenitent thief crucified with our Lord. In the
apocryphal _Gospel of Nicodemus_, he is called Gestas. The penitent
thief was Dismas, Dysmas, Demas, or Dumacus.

         Three bodies on three crosses hang supine;
         Dismas and Gesmas and the power Divine.
         Dismas seeks heaven, Gesmas his own damnation.
         The Mid-one seeks our ransom and salvation.
                                _Translation of a Latin Charm._

=Gessler= (_Albrecht_), the brutal and tyrannical governor of
Switzerland, appointed by Austria over the three forest cantons. When
the people rose in rebellion, Gessler insulted them by hoisting his cap
on a pole, and threatening death to any one who refused to bow down to
it in reverence. William Tell refused to do so, and was compelled to
shoot at an apple placed on the head of his own son. Having dropped an
arrow by accident, Gessler demanded why he had brought a second. “To
shoot you,” said the intrepid mountaineer, “if I fail in my task.”
Gessler then ordered him to be cast into Kusnacht Castle, “a prey to the
reptiles that lodged there.” Gessler went in the boat to see the order
executed, and as the boat neared land, Tell leapt on shore, pushed back
the boat, shot Gessler, and freed his country from Austrian
domination.—Rossini, _Guglielmo Tell_ (1829).

=Geta,= according to Sir Walter Scott, the representative of a stock
slave and rogue in the new comedy of Greece and Rome (? _Getês_).

The principal character, upon whose devices and ingenuity the whole plot
usually turns, is the _Geta_ of the piece—a witty, roguish, insinuating,
and malignant slave, the confidant of a wild and extravagant son, whom
he aids in his pious endeavors to cheat a suspicious, severe, and
griping father.—Sir Walter Scott, _The Drama_.

=Ghengis Khan=, a title assumed by Tamerlane or Timour the Tartar

=Giaffir= [_Djaf.fir_], pacha of Aby´dos, and father of Zuleika
[_Zu.lee´.kah_]. He tells his daughter he intends her to marry the
governor of Magne´sia, but Zuleika has given her plight to her cousin
Selim. The lovers take to flight; Giaffir pursues and shoots Selim;
Zuleika dies of grief; and the father lives on, a broken-hearted old
man, calling to the winds, “Where is my daughter?” and echo answers,
“Where?”—Byron, _Bride of Abydos_ (1813).

=Giam´schid= [_Jam.shid_], suleyman of the Peris. Having reigned seven
hundred years, he thought himself immortal; but God, in punishment, gave
him a human form, and sent him to live on earth, where he became a great
conqueror, and ruled over both the East and West. The bulwark of the
Peris’ abode was composed of green chrysolite, the reflection of which
gives to the sky its deep blue-green hue.

                Soul beamed forth in every spark
                That darted from beneath the lid,
                Bright as the jewel of Giamschid,
                             Byron, _The Giaour_ (1813).

She only wished the amorous monarch had shown more ardor for the
carbuncle of Giamschid.—W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1786).

=Giants of Mythology and Fable.= Strabo makes mention of the skeleton of
a giant 60 cubits in height. Pliny tells us of another 46 cubits.
Boccaccio describes the body of a giant from bones discovered in a cave
near Trapani, in Sicily, 200 cubits in length. One tooth of this “giant”
weighed 200 ounces; but Kircher says the tooth and bones were those of a

AC´AMAS, one of the Cyclops.—_Greek Fable._

ADAMASTOR, the giant Spirit of the Cape. His lips were black, teeth
blue, eyes shot with livid fire, and voice louder than thunder.—Camoëns,
_Lusiad_, v.

ÆGÆON, the hundred-handed giant. One of the Titans.—_Greek Fable._

AG´ROIS, one of the giants called Titans. He was killed by the
Parcæ.—_Greek Fable._

ALCYONEUS [_Al´.sĭ.ŏ.nuce_] or AL´CION, brother of Porphyrĭon. He stole
some of the Sun’s oxen, and Jupiter sent Herculês against him, but he
was unable to prevail, for immediately the giant touched the earth he
received fresh vigor. Pallas, seizing him, carried him beyond the moon,
and he died. His seven daughters were turned into halcyons, or
kingfishers.—Apollonios of Rhodes, _Argonautic Expedition_, i. 6.

AL´GEBAR´. The giant Orīon is so called by the Arabs.

ALIFANFARON or ALIPHARNON, emperor of Trapoban.—_Don Quixote._

ALOE´OS, (4 _syl._), son of Titan and Terra.—_Greek Fable_.

ALOI´DES (4 _syl._), sons of Alēĕus (4 _syl._), named Otos and Ephialtês

AM´ERANT, a cruel giant slain by Guy of Warwick.—Percy, _Reliques_.

ANGOULAFFRE, the Saracen giant. He was 12 cubits high, his face measured
3 feet in breadth, his nose was 9 inches long, his arms and legs 6 feet.
He had the strength of thirty men, and his mace was the solid trunk of
an oak tree, 300 years old. The tower of Pisa lost its perpendicularity
by the weight of this giant leaning against it to rest himself. He was
slain in single combat by Roland, at Fronsac.—L’Epine, _Croquemitaine_.

ANTÆOS, 60 cubits (85 feet) in height.—Plutarch.

ARGES (2 _syl._), one of the Cyclops.—_Greek Fable._

ASCHAPART, a giant 30 feet high, and with 12 inches between his eyes.
Slain by Sir Bevis of Southampton.—_British Fable._

ATLAS, the giant of the Atlas Mountains, who carries the world on his
back. A book of maps is called an “atlas” from this giant.—_Greek

BALAN, “bravest and strongest of the giant race.”—_Amădis of Gaul_.

BELLE, famous for his three leaps, which gave names to the places called
Wanlip, Burstall, and Bellegrave.—_British Fable_.

BELLE´RUS, the giant from whom Cornwall derived its name
“Bellerium.”—_British Fable_. Milton: Lycidas.

BLUNDERBORE (3 _syl._), the giant who was drowned because Jack scuttled
his boat.—_Jack the Giant-killer_.

BRIARE´OS (4 _syl._), a giant with a hundred hands. One of the
Titans.—_Greek Fable_.

BROBDINGNAG, a country of giants, to whom an ordinary-sized man was “not
half so big as a round little worm pricked from the lazy finger of a
maid.”—Swift, _Gulliver’s Travels_.

BRONTES (2 _syl._), one of the Cyclops.—_Greek Fable_.

BURLONG, a giant mentioned in the romance of _Sir Tryamour_.

CACUS, of Mount Aventine, who dragged the oxen of Hereculês into his
cave tail foremost.—_Greek Fable_.

CALIG´ORANT, the Egyptian giant, who entrapped travellers with an
invisible net.—Ariosto.

CARACULIAMBO, the giant that Don Quixote intended should kneel at the
foot of Dulcin´ea.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_.

CEUS or CŒUS, son of Heaven and Earth. He married Phœbê, and was the
father of Latōna.—_Greek Fable_.

CHALBROTH, the stem of all the giant race.—Rabelais, _Pantagruel_.

CHRISTOPHERUS, or ST. CHRISTOPHER, the giant who carried Christ across a
ford, and was well-nigh borne down with the “child’s” ever-increasing
weight.—_Christian Legend_.

CLYTIOUS, one of the giants who made war upon the gods. Vulcan killed
him with a red-hot iron mace.—_Greek Fable_.

COLBRAND, the Danish giant slain by Guy of Warwick.—_British Fable_.

CORFLAMBO, a giant who was always attended by a dwarf.—Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, iv. 8.

CORMORAN´, the Cornish giant who fell into a pit twenty feet deep, dug
by Jack and filmed over with a thin layer of grass and gravel.—_Jack the

CORMORANT, a giant discomfited by Sir Brian.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, vi.

COULIN, the British giant pursued by Debon, and killed by falling into a
deep chasm.—_British Fable_.

CYCLOPS, giants with only one eye, and that in the middle of the
forhead. They lived in Sicily, and were blacksmiths.—_Greek Fable_.

DESPAIR, of Doubting Castle, who found Christian and Hopeful asleep on
his grounds, and thrust them into a dungeon. He evilly entreated them,
but they made their escape by the key “Promise.”—Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s
Progress_, i.

DONDASCH, a giant contemporary with Seth. “There were giants in the
earth in those days.”—_Oriental Fable_.

ENCEL´ADOS, “most powerful of the giant race.” Overwhelmed under Mount
Etna.—_Greek Fable_.

EPHIALTES (4 _syl_.), a giant who grew nine inches every month.—_Greek

ERIX, son of Goliah [_si_.] and grandson of Atlas. He invented
legerdemain.—Duchat, _Œuvres de Rabelais_ (1711).

EU´RYTOS, one of the giants that made war with the gods. Bacchus killed
him with his thyrsus.—_Greek Fable_.

FERRACUTE, a giant 36 feet in height, with the strength of forty
men.—_Turpin’s Chronicle_.

FERRAGUS, a Portuguese giant.—_Valentine and Orson_.

FIERABRAS, of Alexandria, “the greatest giant that ever walked the
earth.”—_Mediæval Romance_.

FION, son of Comnal, an enormous giant, who could place his feet on two
mountains, and then stoop and drink from a stream in the valley
between.—_Gaelic Legend_.

FIORGWYN, the gigantic father of Frigga.—_Scandinavian Mythology_.

FRACASSUS, father of Ferrăgus, and son of Morgantê.

 Primus erat quidam Fracassus prole gigantis,
 Cujus stirps olim Morganto venit ab illo.
 Qui bacchioconem campanæ ferre solebat,
 Cum quo mille hominum colpos fracasset in uno Merlin Cocaius [_i.e._
    Théophile Folengo],
                     _Histoire Macaronique_ (1606).

GABBARA, the father of Goliah [_sic_] of Secondille, and inventor of the
custom of drinking healths.—Duchat, _Œuvres de Rabelais_ (1711).

GALAPAS, the giant slain by King Arthur.—Sir T. Malory, _History of
Prince Arthur_.

GALLIGANTUS, the giant who lived with Hocus-Pocus the conjuror.—_Jack
the Giant-killer_.

GARAGANTUA, same as Gargantua (_q.v._).

GARGANTUA, a giant so large that it required 900 ells of linen for the
_body_ of his shirt, and 200 more for the _gussets_; 406 ells of velvet
for his shoes, and 1100 cow-hides for their soles. His toothpick was an
elephant’s tusk, and 17,913 cows were required to give him milk. This
was the giant who swallowed five pilgrims, with their staves, in a
salad.—Rabelais, _Gargantua_.

GEMMAGOG, son of the giant Oromedon, and inventor of Poulan shoes,
_i.e._ shoes with a spur behind, and turned-up toes fastened to the
knees. These shoes were forbidden by Charles V. of France, in 1365, but
the fashion revived again.—Duchat, _Œuvres de Rabelais_ (1711).

GERYON´EO, a giant with three bodies [_Philip II. of Spain_].—Spenser,
_Faëry Queen_, v. 11.

GIRALDA, the giantess. A statue of victory on the top of an old Moorish
tower in Seville.

GODMER, son of Albion, a British giant slain by Canu´tus, one of the
companions of Brute.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 10.

GOEM´AGOT, the Cornish giant who wrestled with Cori´neus (3 _syl._), and
was hurled over a rock into the sea. The place where he fell was called
“Lam Goëmagot.”—Geoffrey, _British History_.

GOGMAGOG, king of the giant race of Albion when Brute colonized the
island. He was slain by Cori´neus. The two statues of Guildhall
represent Gogmagog and Corineus. The giant carries a pole-axe and spiked
balls. This is the same as Goëmagot.

GRANGOUSIA, the giant king of Utopia.—Rabelais, _Pantagruel_.

GRANTORTO, the giant who withheld the inheritance of Ire´na.—Spenser,
_Faëry Queen_, v.

GRIM, the giant slain by Greatheart, because he tried to stop pilgrims
on their way to the Celestial City.—Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, ii.

GRUM´BO, the giant up whose sleeve Tom Thumb crept. The giant, thinking
some insect had crawled up his sleeve, gave it a shake, and Tom fell
into the sea, when a fish swallowed him.—_Tom Thumb_.

GYGES, who had fifty heads and a hundred hands. He was one of the
Titans.—_Greek Fable_.

HAPMOUCHE, the giant “fly-catcher.” He invented the drying and smoking
of neats’ tongues.—Duchat, _Œuvres de Rabelais_ (1711).

HIPPOL´YTOS, one of the giants who made war with the gods. He was killed
by Hermês.—_Greek Fable_.

HRASVELG, the giant who keeps watch over the Tree of Life, and devours
the dead.—_Scandinavian Mythology_.

HURTALI, a giant in the time of the Flood. He was too large of stature
to get into the ark, and therefore rode straddle-legs on the roof. He
perpetuated the giant race. Atlas was his grandson.

INDRACITTRAN, a famous giant of Indian mythology.

JOTUN, the giant of Jötunheim or Giant-land, in Scandinavian story.

JULIANCE, a giant of Arthurian romance.

KIFRI, the giant of atheism and infidelity.

KOTTOS, a giant with a hundred hands. One of the Titans.—_Greek Fable_.

MALAMBRU´NO, the giant who shut up Antonoma´sia and her husband in the
tomb of the deceased queen of Candaya.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II.
iii. 45.

MARGUTTE (3 _syl._), a giant 10 feet high, who died of laughter when he
saw a monkey pulling on his boots.—Pulci, _Morgante Maggiore_.

MAUGYS, the giant warder with whom Sir Lybius does battle.—_Libeaux_.

MAUL, the giant of sophistry, killed by Greatheart, who pierced him
under the fifth rib.—Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, ii.

MONT-ROGNON, one of Charlemagne’s paladins.

MORGANTE (3 _syl._), a ferocious giant, who died by the bite of a
crab.—Pulci, _Morgante Maggiore_.

MUGILLO, a giant famous for his mace with six balls.

OFFERUS, the pagan name of St. Christopher, whose body was 12 ells in
height.—_Christian Legend_.

OGIAS, an antediluvain giant, mentioned in the apocrypha condemned by
Pope Gelasius I. (492-496).

ORGOGLIO, a giant thrice the height of an ordinary man. He takes captive
the Red Cross Knight, but is slain by King Arthur.—Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, i.

ORI´ON, a giant hunter, noted for his beauty. He was slain by Diana, and
made a constellation.—_Greek Fable_.

OTOS, a giant, brother of Ephialtês. They both grew nine inches every
month. According to Pliny, he was 46 cubits (66 feet) in height.—_Greek

PALLAS, one of the giants called Titans. Minerva flayed him, and used
his skin for armor; hence she was called Pallas Minerva.—_Greek Fable_.

PANTAG´RUEL, son of Gargantua, and last of the race of giants.

POLYBO´TES (4 _syl._), one of the giants who fought against the gods.
The sea-god pursued him to the island of Cos, and, tearing away a part
of the island, threw it on him and buried him beneath the mass.—_Greek

POLYPHE´MOS, king of the Cyclops. His skeleton was found at Trapa´ni, in
Sicily, in the fourteenth century, by which it is calculated that his
height was 300 feet.—_Greek Fable_.

PORPHYR´ION, one of the giants who made war with the gods. He hurled the
island of Delos against Zeus; but Zeus, with the aid of Herculês,
overcame him.—_Greek Fable_.

PYRAC´MON, one of the Cyclops.—_Greek Fable_.

RITHO, the giant who commanded King Arthur to send his beard to complete
the lining of a robe.—_Arthurian Romance_.

SLAY-GOOD, a giant slain by Greatheart. Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_,

STER´OPES (3 _syl._), one of the Cyclops.—_Greek Fable_.

TARTARO, the Cyclops of Basque legendary lore.

TEUTOBOCH´US, a king, whose remains were discovered in 1613, near the
river Rhone. His tomb was 30 feet long.—Mazurier, _Histoire Véritable du
Géant Teutobochus_ (1618).

THAON, one of the giants who made war with the gods. He was killed by
the Parcæ.—Hesiod, _Theogony_.

TITANS, a race of giants.—_Greek Fable_.

TIT´YOS, a giant whose body covered nine acres of land. He tried to
defile Latōna, but Apollo cast him into Tartarus, where a vulture fed on
his liver, which grew again as fast as it was devoured.—_Greek Fable_.

TYPHŒUS, a giant with a hundred heads, fearful eyes, and most terrible
voice. He was the father of the Harpies. Zeus [Jupiter] killed him with
a thunderbolt, and he lies buried under Mount Etna.—Hesiod, _Theogony_.

TYPHON, son of Typhœus, a giant with a hundred heads. He was so tall
that he touched heaven with his head. His offspring were Gorgon, Geryon,
Cerberos, and the hydra of Lernê. He lies buried under Mount
Etna.—Homer, _Hymns_.

WIDENOSTRILS, a huge giant, who lived on windmills, and died from eating
a lump of fresh butter.—Rabelais, _Pantagruel_ iv. 17.

YOHAK, the giant guardian of the caves of Babylon.—Southey, _Talaba_, v.

⁂ Those who wish to pursue this subject further, should consult the
notes of Duchat, bk. ii. 1 of his _Œuvres de Rabelais_.

=Giants in Real Life.=

ANAK, father of the Anakim. The Hebrew spies said they themselves were
mere grasshoppers in comparison to these giants.—_Josh._ xv. 14;
_Judges_ i. 20; _Numb._ xiii. 33.

ANAK, 7 feet 8 inches at the age of 26. Exhibited in London, 1862-5.
Born at Ramonchamp, in the Vosges (1 _syl._), 1840. His real name was
Joseph Brice.

ANDRON´ICUS II., 10 feet. Grandson of Alexius Comnēnus. Nicetas asserts
that he had seen him.

BAMFORD (_Edward_), 7 feet 4 inches. Died in 1768, and was buried in St.
Dunstan’s Churchyard.

BATES (_Captain_), 7 feet 11 inches; of Kentucky. Exhibited in London,

BLACKER (_Henry_), 7 feet 4 inches, and most symmetrical. Born at
Cuckfield, Sussex, in 1724. Generally called “The British Giant.”

BRADLEY, 7 feet 8 inches at death. Born at Market Weighton, in
Yorkshire. His right hand is preserved in the museum of the College of
Surgeons (1798-1820).

BRICE (_Joseph_), 7 feet 8 inches. His hand could span 15½ inches.

BUSBY (_John_), 7 feet 9 inches; of Darfield. His brother was about the
same height.

CHANG-WOO-GOO, 7 feet 6 inches; of Fychou. The Chinese giant. Exhibited
in London, 1865-6.

CHARLEMAGNE, 8 feet nearly. He could squeeze together three horse-shoes
at once with his hands.

COTTER (_Patrick_), 8 feet 7½ inches. The Irish giant. A cast of his
hand is preserved in the museum of the College of Surgeons (died 1802).

ELEA´ZER, 7 cubits (10 feet 6 inches). The Jewish giant mentioned by
Josephus. He lived in the reign of Vitellius.

ELEIZEGUE (_Joachim_), 7 feet 10 inches. The Spanish giant. Exhibited in

EVANS (_William_), 8 feet at death. Porter to Charles I. (died 1632).

FRANK (_Big_), 7 feet 8 inches; weight 22 stone; girth round the chest,
58 inches. He was an Irishman, whose name was Francis Sheridan (died

FRENZ (_Louis_), 7 feet 4 inches. The French giant.

GABARA, 9 feet 9 inches. An Arabian giant. Pliny says he was the tallest
man seen in the days of Claudius.

GILLY, 8 feet. A Swede; exhibited as a show in the early part of the
nineteenth century.

GOLI´ATH, 6 cubits and a span (? 9 feet 4 inches).—1 _Sam._ xvii. 4,
etc. His “brother” was also a giant.—2 _Sam._ xxi. 19; 1 _Chron._ xx. 5.

GORDON (_Alice_), 7 feet. An Essex giantess (died 1737).

HALE (_Robert_), 7 feet 6 inches; born at Somerton. Generally called
“The Norfolk Giant” (1820-1862).

HAR´DRADA (_Harold_), “5 ells of Norway in height” (nearly 8 feet). The
Norway giant.

LA PIERRE, 7 feet 1 inch; of Stratgard, in Denmark.

LOUIS, 7 feet 4 inches. The French giant. His left hand is preserved in
the museum of the College of Surgeons.

LOUSHKIN, 8 feet 5 inches. The Russian giant, and drum-major of the
Imperial Guards.

M’DONALD (_James_), 7 feet 6 inches; of Cork (died 1760).

M’DONALD (_Samuel_), 6 feet 10 inches. A Scotchman; usually called “Big
Sam” (died 1802).

MAGRATH (_Cornelius_), 7 feet 8 inches. He was an orphan, reared by
Bishop Berkley, and died at the age of 20 (1740-1760).

MAXIMI´NUS, 8 feet 6 inches. The Roman emperor (235-238).

MELLON (_Edmund_), 7 feet 6 inches. Born at Port Leicester, Ireland

MIDDLETON (_John_), 9 feet 3 inches. “His hand was 17 inches long, and
8½ inches broad.” He was born at Hale, in Lancashire, in the reign of
James I.—Dr. Plott, _History of Staffordshire_.

MILLER (_Maximilian Christopher_), 8 feet. His hand measured 12 inches,
and his fore-finger 9 inches long. The Saxon giant. Died in London

MURPHY, 8 feet 10 inches. An Irish giant, contemporary with O’Brien.
Died at Marseilles.

O’BRIEN or _Charles Byrne_, 8 feet 4 inches. The Irish giant. His
skeleton is preserved in the museum of the College of Surgeons

OG, king of Bashan. “His bed was 9 cubits by 4 cubits” (? 13½ feet by 6
feet).—_Deut._ iii. 11.

⁂ The Great Bed of Ware is 12 feet by 12 feet.

OSEN (_Heinrich_), 7 feet 6 inches; weight, 300 lbs. or 37-1/4 stone.
Born in Norway.

PORUS, an Indian king who fought against Alexander near the river
Hydaspês (B.C. 327). He was a giant “5 cubits in height” [7½ feet], with
strength in proportion.—Quintus Curtius, _De rebus gestis Alexandri

RIECHART (_J. H._), 8 feet 3 inches, of Friedberg. His father and mother
were both giants.

SALMERON (_Martin_), 7 feet 4 inches. A Mexican.

SAM (_Big_), 6 feet 10 inches. (See “M’Donald.”)

SHERIDAN (_Francis_), 7 feet 8 inches. (See “Frank.”)

SWAN (_Miss Anne Hanen_), 7 feet 11 inches; of Nova Scotia.

⁂ In 1682, a giant 7 feet 7 inches was exhibited in Dublin. A Swede 8
feet 6 inches was in the body-guard of a king of Prussia. A human
skeleton 8 feet 6 inches is preserved in the museum of Trinity College,

Becanus says he had seen a man nearly 10 feet high, and a woman fully 10
feet. Gasper Bauhin speaks of a Swiss 8 feet in height. Del Rio says he
saw a Piedmontes in 1572 more than 9 feet in stature. C.S.F. Warren,
M.A., says (in _Notes and Queries_, August 14, 1875) that his father
knew a lady 9 feet high; “her head touched the ceiling of a good-sized
room.” Vanderbrook says he saw a black man, at Congo, 9 feet high.

=Giant of Literature=, Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1783).

=Giant’s Leap= (_Lam Goëmagot_) or “Goëmagot’s Leap.” Now called Haw,
near Plymouth. The legend is that Cori´neus (3 _syl._) wrestled with
Goëmagot, king of the Albion giants, heaved the monster on his shoulder,
carried him to the top of a high rock, and cast him into the sea.

At the beginning of the encounter, Corineus and the giant, standing
front to front, held each other strongly in their arms, and panted aloud
for breath; but Goëmagot presently grasping Croineus with all his might,
broke three of his ribs, two on the right side and one on his left.
Corineus, highly enraged, roused up his whole strength, snatched up the
giant, ran with him on his shoulders to the neighboring cliff, and
heaved him into the sea.... The place where he fell is called Lam
Goëmagot to this day.—Geoffrey, _British History_, i. 16 (1142).

=Giaour= [_djow´.er_]. Byron’s tale called _The Giaour_ is supposed to
be told by a Turkish fisherman who had been employed all the day in the
gulf of Ægi´na, and landed his boat at night-fall on the Piræ´us, now
called the harbor of Port Leonê. He was eye-witness of all the
incidents, and in one of them a principal agent (see line 352: “I hear
the sound of coming feet....”). The tale is this: Leilah, the beautiful
concubine of the Caliph Hasson, falls in love with a giaour, flees from
the seraglio, is overtaken by an emir, put to death, and cast into the
sea. The giaour cleaves Hassan’s skull, flees for his life, and becomes
a monk. Six years afterwards he tells his history to his father
confessor on his death-bed, and prays him to “lay his body with the
humblest dead, and not even to inscribe his name on his tomb.”
Accordingly, he is called “the Giaour,” and is known by no other name

=Giauha´re= (4 _syl._), daughter of the king of Saman´dal, the mightiest
of the undersea empires. When her father was made captive by king Saleh,
she emerged for safety to a desert island, where she met Bed´er, the
young king of Persia, who proposed to make her his wife; but Griauharê
“spat on him,” and changed him “into a white bird with red beak and red
legs.” The bird was sold to a certain king, and, being disenchanted,
resumed the human form. After several marvellous adventures, Beder again
met the under-sea princess, proposed to her again, and she became his
wife and queen of Persia.—_Arabian Nights_ (“Beder and Griauharê”).

=Gibbet=, a foot-pad and a convict, who “left his country for his
country’s good.” He piqued himself on being “the best-behaved man on the

’Twas for the good of my country I should be abroad.—George Farquhar,
_The Beaux’ Stratagem_, iii. 3 (1707).

I thought it rather odd ... and said to myself, as Gibbet said when he
heard that Aimwell had gone to church, “That looks suspicious.”—James

_Gibbet_ (Master), secretary to Martin Joshua Bletson (parliamentary
commissioner).—Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Gib´bie= (_Guse_), a half-witted lad in the service of Lady
Bellenden.—Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

Like Goose Gibbie of famous memory, he first kept the turkeys, and then,
as his years advanced, was promoted to the more important office of
minding the cows.—Keightley.

=Gibby=, a Scotch Highlander in attendance on Colonel Briton. He marries
Inis, the waiting-woman of Isabella.—Mrs. Centlivre, _The Wonder_

=Gibou=, (_Madame_), a type of feminine vulgarity. A hard-headed,
keen-witted, coarsely clever, and pragmatical _maîtresse femme_, who
believes in nothing but a good digestion and money in the Funds.—Henri
Monnier, _Scènes Populaires_ (1852.)

Mde. Pochet and Mde. Gibou are the French “Mrs. Gamp and Mrs. Harris.”

=Gibson= (_Janet_), a young dependent on Mrs. Margaret Bertram of
Singleside.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Gifford= (_John_). This pseudonym has been adopted by three authors:
(1) John Richards Green, _Blackstone’s Commentaries Abridged_, 1823; (2)
Edward Foss, _An Abridgment of Blackstone’s Commentaries_ (1821); (3)
Alexander Whellier, _The English Lawyer_.

_Gifford_ (_William_), author of _The Baviad_, a poetical satire, which
annihilated the Delia Crusca school of poets (1794). In 1796, Gifford
published _The Mœviad_, to expose the low state of dramatic authorship.

He was a man with whom I had no literary sympathies.... He had, however,
a heart full of kindness for all living creatures except authors: _them_
he regarded as a fishmonger regards eels, or as Izaak Walton did

=Giggleswick Fountain= ebbs and flows eight times a day. The tale is
that Giggleswick was once a nymph living with the Oreads on Mount
Craven. A satyr chanced to see her, and resolved to win her; but
Giggleswick fled to escape her pursuer, and praying to the “topic gods”
(the local genii), was converted into a fountain, which still pants with
fear. The tale is told by Drayton, in his _Polyolbion_, xxviii. (1622).

=Gilbert=, butler to Sir Patrick Charteris, provost of Perth.—Sir W.
Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

_Gilbert_ (_Miss_), an ambitious girl with a taste for literary
celebrity. She writes one book which is a slight success, another which
“takes.” Petted from her childhood, and spoiled by the tolerable measure
of adulation she receives subsequently, she needs the discipline of
mortification and schooling to tone her down to what an originally fine
nature was designed to become. She becomes the happy wife of a self-made
man who has done his work well.—Josiah Gilbert Holland, _Miss Gilbert’s
Career_ (1859).

_Gilbert_ (_Sir_), noted for the sanative virtue of his sword and
cere-cloth. Sir Launcelot touched the wounds of Sir Meliot with Sir
Gilbert’s sword and wiped them with a cere-cloth, and “anon a wholer man
was he never in all his life”—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_,
i. 116 (1470).

=Gilbert with the White Hand=, one of the companions of Robin Hood,
mentioned often in _The Lyttell Geste of Robyn Hode_ (fytte v. and

           Thair saw I Maitlaind upon auld Beird Gray
           Robene Hude and Gilbert “with the quhite hand,”
           Quhom Hay of Nauchton slew in Madin-land.
                                    _Scottish Poems_, i. 122.

=Gil´bertscleugh=, cousin to Lady Margaret Bellenden.—Sir W. Scott, _Old
Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Gil Blas=, son of Blas of Santilla´ne, ’squire or “escudero” to a lady,
and brought up by his uncle, Canon Gil Perês. Gil Blas went to Dr.
Godinez’s school, of Oviedo [_O.ve.á.do._] and obtained the reputation
of being a great scholar. He had fair abilities, a kind heart, and good
inclinations, but was easily led astray by his vanity. Full of wit and
humor, but lax in his morals. Duped by others at first, he afterwards
played the same devices on those less experienced. As he grew in years,
however, his conduct improved, and when his fortune was made he became
an honest, steady man.—Lesage, _Gil Blas_ (1715).

(Lesage has borrowed largely from the romance of Espinel, called _Vida
del Escudero Marcos de Obregon_ (1618), from which he has taken his
prologue, the adventure of the parasite (bk. i. 2), the dispersion of
the company of Cacabelos by the muleteer (bk. i. 3),the incident of the
robber’s cave (bk. i. 4, 5), the surprise by the corsairs, the
contributions levied by Don Raphael and Ambrose (bk. i. 15, 16), the
service with the duke of Lerma, the character of Sangrado (called by
Espinel _Sagredo_), and even the reply of Don Matthias de Silva when
asked to fight a duel early in the morning, “As I never rise before one,
even for a party of pleasure, it is unreasonable to expect that I should
rise at six to have my throat cut,” bk. iii. 8.)

=Gilda=, beautiful daughter of the jester, Rigoletto. She is beloved by
his master, the duke, who abducts her, Rigoletto conniving at the deed
under the impression that the wife of his enemy occupies the chamber
given without his knowledge to Gilda.—Verdi, _Rigoletto_.

=Gildas de Ruys= (_St._) near Vannes, in France. This monastery was
founded in the sixth century, by St. Gildas, “The Wise” (516-565).

           For some of us knew a thing or two
           In the abbey of St. Gildas de Ruys.
                             Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.

=Gil´deroy=, a famous robber. There were two of the name, both handsome
Scotchmen, both robbers and both were hanged. One lived in the
seventeenth century and “had the honor” of robbing Cardinal Richelieu
and Oliver Cromwell. The other was born in Roslin, in the eighteenth
century, and was executed in Edinburgh for “stealing sheep, horses and
oxen.” In the Percy _Reliques_, I. iii. 12, is the lament of Gilderoy’s
widow at the execution of her “handsome” and “winsome” Gilderoy; and
Campbell has a ballad on the same subject. Both are entitled “Gilderoy,”
and refer to the latter robber; but in Thomson’s _Orpheus Caledonius_,
ii, is a copy of the older ballad.

⁂ Thomson’s ballad places Gilderoy in the reign of Mary, “queen of
Scots,” but this is not consistent with the tradition of his robbing
Richelieu and Cromwell. We want a third Gilderoy for the reign of Queen
Mary—one living in the sixteenth century.

=Gilding a Boy.= A naked boy was gilded all over, to adorn a pageant
when Leo X. was made Pope, and died of suffocation.—Vasari, _Life of

=Gildip´pe= (3 _syl._) wife of Edward, an English baron, who accompanied
her husband to Jerusalem, and performed prodigies of valor in the war
(bk. ix.). Both she and her husband were slain by Solyman (bk.
xx.).—Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

=Giles=, a farmer in love with Patty, “the maid of the mill” and
promised to him by her father; but Patty refuses to marry him.
Ultimately, “the maid of the mill” marries Lord Aimworth. Giles is a
blunt, well-meaning, working farmer, with no education, no refinement,
no notion of the amenities of social life.—Bickerstaff, _The Maid of the

_Giles_ (1 _syl._), serving-boy to Claud Halcro.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Pirate_ (time William III.).

_Giles_ (1 _syl._), warder of the Tower.—Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of
Nigel_ (time, James I.).

_Giles_ (1 _syl._), jailer of Sir Reginald Front de Bœuf.—Sir W. Scott,
_Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

_Giles (Will)_, apprentice of Gibbie Girder, the cooper at Wolf’s Hope
village.—Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time,f William III.).

_Giles_, the “farmer’s boy,” “meek, fatherless, and poor,” the hero of
Robert Bloomfield’s principal poem, which is divided into “Spring,”
“Summer,” “Autumn,” and “Winter” (1798).

=Giles of Antwerp=, Giles Coignet, the painter (1530-1600).

=Gillfillan= (_Habakkuk_), called “Gifted Gilfillan,” a Camero´nian
officer and enthusiast.—Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Gill= (_Harry_), a farmer, who forbade old Goody Blake to carry home a
few sticks, which she had picked up from his land, to light a wee-bit
fire to warm herself by. Old Goody Blake cursed him for his meanness,
saying he should never from that moment cease from shivering with cold;
and, sure enough, from that hour, a-bed or up, summer or winter, at home
or abroad, his teeth went “chatter, chatter, chatter still.” Clothing
was of no use, fires of no avail, for, spite of all, he muttered, “Poor
Harry Gill is very cold.”—Wordsworth, _Goody Blake and Harry Gill_

_Gill_ (_Mrs. Peter_). Bustling matron with a genius for innovation. She
conducts her household affairs according to sanitary and sanatory
principles; discovers that condiments are pernicious and that beans are
excellent for the complexion; is bent upon a water-cure, and finds out
and invents so many “must bes” and “don’ts” as to ruin the comfort of
husband and children.—Robert B. Roosevelt, _Progressive Petticoats_

=Gil´lamore= (3 _syl._) or =Guillamur=, king of Ireland, being slain in
battle by Arthur, Ireland was added by the conqueror to his own

       How Gillamore again to Ireland he pursued ...
       And having slain the king, the country waste he laid.
                               Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

=Gil´lian=, landlady of Don John and Don Frederic.—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Chances_ (1620).

_Gillian (Dame)_, tirewoman to Lady Eveline, and wife of Raoul the
huntsman.—Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Gilliflowers.= A nosegay of these flowers was given by the fairy
Amazo´na to Carpil´lona in her flight. The virtue of this nosegay was,
that so long as the princess had it about her person, those who knew her
before would not recognize her.—Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_
(“Princess Carpillona,” 1682).

=Gills= (_Solomon_), ship’s instrument maker. A slow, thoughtful old
man, uncle of Walter Gay, who was in the house of Mr. Dombey, merchant.
Gills was very proud of his stock-in-trade, but never seemed to sell
anything.—C. Dickens, _Dombey and Son_ (1846).

=Gilpin= (_John_), a linen-draper and train-band captain, living in
London. His wife said to him, “Though we have been married twenty years,
we have taken no holiday;” and at her advice the well-to-do linen-draper
agreed to make a family party, and dine at the Bell, at Edmonton. Mrs.
Gilpin, her sister, and four children went in the chaise, and Gilpin
promised to follow on horseback. As madam had left the wine behind,
Gilpin girded it in two stone bottles to his belt, and started on his
way. The horse, being fresh, began to trot, and then to gallop; and
John, being a bad rider, grasped the mane with both his hands. On went
the horse, off flew John Gilpin’s cloak, together with his hat and wig.
The dogs barked, the children screamed, the turnpike men (thinking he
was riding for a wager) flung open their gates. He flew through
Edmonton, and never stopped till he reached Ware, when his friend the
calender gave him welcome, and asked him to dismount. Gilpin, however,
declined, saying his wife would be expecting him. So the calender
furnished him with another hat and wig, and Gilpin harked back again,
when similar disasters occurred, till the horse stopped at his house in
London.—W. Cowper, _John Gilpin_ (1786).

⁂ John Gilpin was a Mr. Beyer, of Paternoster Row, who died in 1791, and
it was Lady Austin who told the anecdote to the poet. The marriage
adventure of Commodore Trunnion in _Peregrine Pickle_ is a similar

=Gines de Passamonte=, one of the galley-slaves set free by Don Quixote.
Gines had written a history of his life and adventures. After being
liberated, the slaves set upon the knight; they assaulted him with
stones, robbed him and Sancho of everything they valued, broke to pieces
“Mambrino’s helmet,” and then made off with all possible speed, taking
Sancho’s ass with them. After a time the ass was recovered (pt. I. iv.

“Hark ye, friend,” said the galley-slave, “Gines is my name, and
Passamonte the title of my family.”—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iii. 8

⁂ This Gines re-appears in pt. II. ii. 7 as “Peter the showman,” who
exhibits the story of “Melisendra and Don Gayferos.” The helmet also is
presented whole and sound at the inn, where it becomes a matter of
dispute whether it is a basin or a helmet.

=Gineura=, the troth-plight bride of Ariodantês, falsely accused of
infidelity, and doomed to die unless she found within a month a champion
to do battle for her honor. The duke who accused her felt confident that
no champion would appear, but on the day appointed Ariodantês himself
entered the lists. The duke was slain, the lady vindicated, and the
champion became Gineura’s husband.—Arisoto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

Shakespeare, in _Much Ado about Nothing_, makes Hero falsely accused of
infidelity, through the malice of Don John, who induces Margaret (the
lady’s attendant) to give Borachio a rendezvous at the lady’s chamber
window. While this was going on, Claudio, the betrothed lover of Hero,
was brought to a spot where he might witness the scene, and, believing
Margaret to be Hero, was so indignant, that next day at the altar he
denounced Hero as unworthy of his love. Benedict challenged Claudio for
slander, but the combat was prevented by the arrest and confession of
Borachio. Don John, finding his villainy exposed, fled to Messina.

Spencer has introduced a similar story in his _Faëry Queen_, v. 11 (the
tale of “Irena,” _q.v._).

=Gin´evra=, the young Italian bride who, playing hide-and-seek, hid
herself in a large trunk. The lid accidentally fell down, and was held
fast by a spring-lock. Many years afterwards the trunk was sold and the
skeleton discovered.—Rogers, _Italy_ (1792).

T. Haynes Bayley wrote a ballad called _The Mistletoe Bough_, on the
same tradition. He calls the bridegroom “young Lovell.”

A similar narrative is given by Collet, in his _Causes Célèbres_.

Marwell Old Hall, once the residence of the Seymours, and subsequently
of the Dacre family, has a similar tradition attached to it, and “the
very chest is now the property of the Rev. J. Haygarth, rector of
Upham.”—_Post-Office Directory_.

Bramshall, Hampshire, has a similar tale and chest.

The same tale is also told of the great house at Malsanger, near

=Gingerbread= (_Giles_), the hero of an English nursery tale.

_Jack the Giant-killer_, _Giles Gingerbread_, and _Tom Thumb_ will
flourish in wide-spreading and never-ceasing popularity.—Washington

=Ginn or Jân= (singular _masculine_ Jinnee, _feminine_ Jinniyeh), a
species of beings created long before Adam. They were formed of
“smokeless fire” or fire of the simoom, and were governed by monarchs
named suleyman, the last of whom was Jân-ibn-Jân or Gian-ben-Gian, who
“built the pyramids of Egypt.” Prophets were sent to convert them, but
on their persistent disobedience, an army of angels drove them from the
earth. Among the Ginn was one named Aza´zel. When Adam was created, and
God commanded the angels to worship him, Azazel refused, saying, “Why
should the spirits of fire worship a creature made of earth?” Whereupon
God changed him into a devil, and called him Iblis or Eblis (“despair”).
Spelt also Djinn.

=Gi´ona=, a leader of the anabaptists, once a servant of Comte
d’Oberthal, but discharged from his service for theft. He joined the
rebellion of the anabaptists, but, with the rest of the conspirators,
betrayed the “prophet-king,” John of Leyden, when the emperor arrived
with his army.—Meyerbeer, _Le Prophète_ (1849).

=Giovan´ni= (_Don_), a Spanish libertine of the aristocratic class. His
valet, Leporello, says, “He had 700 mistresses in Italy, 800 in Germany,
91 in France and Turkey, and 1003 in Spain.” When the measure of his
iniquity was full, a legion of foul fiends carried him off to the
devouring gulf.—Mozart’s opera, _Don Giovanni_ (1787).

(The libretto of this opera is by Lorenzo da Ponte).

⁂ The origin of this character was Don Juan Teno´rio, of Seville, who
lived in the fourteenth century. The traditions concerning him were
dramatized by Tirso de Mo´lina; thence passed into Italy and France.
Glück has a musical ballad called _Don Juan_ (1765); Molière, a comedy
on the same subject (1665); and Thomas Corneille (brother of the _Grand
Corneille_) brought out, in 1673, a comedy on the same subject, called
_Le Festin de Pierre_, which is the second title of Molière’s _Don
Juan_. Goldoni, called “The Italian Molière,” has also a comedy on the
same favorite hero.

=Gipsey=, the favorite greyhound of Charles I.

One evening his [_Charles I._] dog scraping at the door, he commanded me
[_Sir Philip Warwick_] to let in Gipsey.—_Memoirs_, 329.

=Gypsey Ring=, a flat gold ring, with stones _let into it_, at given
distances. So called because the stones were originally Egyptian
pebbles—that is, agate and jasper.

⁂ The tale is, that the gypsies are wanderers because they refused to
shelter the Virgin and Child in their flight into Egypt.—Aventinus,
_Annales Boiorum_, viii.

=Giralda= of Seville, called by the Knight of the Mirrors a giantess,
whose body was of brass, and who, without ever shifting her place, was
the most unsteady and changeable female in the world. In fact, this
Giralda was no other than the brazen statue on a steeple in Seville,
serving for a weathercock.

“I fixed the changeable Giralda ... I obliged her to stand still; for
during the space of a whole week no wind blew but from the
north.”—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. i. 14 (1615).

=Girder= (_Gibbie_, _i.e._ Gilbert), the cooper at Wolf’s Hope village.

_Jean Girder_, wife of the cooper.—Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_
(time, William III.).

=Girdle= (_Armi´da’s_), a cestus worn by Armi´da, which, like that of
Venus, possessed the magical charm of provoking irresistible
love.—Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

_Girdle_ (_Flor´imel’s_), the prize of a grand tournament, in which Sir
Sat´yrane (3 _syl._), Sir Brianor, Sir Sanglier, Sir Artĕgal, Sir
Cambel, Sir Tri´amond, Brit´omart, and others took part. It was
accidentally dropped by Florimel in her flight (bk. iii. 7, 31), picked
up by Sir Satyrane, and employed by him for binding the monster which
frightened Florimel to flight, but afterwards came again into Sir
Satyrane’s possession, when he placed it for safety in a golden coffer.
It was a gorgeous girdle, made by Vulcan for Venus, and embossed with
pearls and precious stones; but its chief merit was

              It gave the virtue of chaste love
            And wifehood true to all that it did bear;
            But whosoever contrary doth prove,
            Might not the same about her middle wear,
            But it would loose, or else asunder tear.
                      Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. 7 (1590).

_Girdle_ (_Venus’s_), a girdle on which was embroidered the passions,
desires, joys, and pains of love. It was usually called a cestus, which
means “embroidered,” and was worn lower down than the cin´gulum or
matron’s girdle, but higher up than the zone or maiden’s girdle. It was
said to possess the magical power of exciting love. Homer describes it

          In this was every art, and every charm,
          To win the wisest, and the coldest warm;
          Fond love, the gentle vow, the gay desire,
          The kind deceit, the still reviving fire,
          Persuasive speech, and more persuasive sighs,
          Silence that spoke, and eloquence of eyes.
                                          Pope, _Iliad_, xiv.

=Girdle of Opakka=, foresight and prudence.

“The girdle of Opakka, with which Kifri the enchanter is endued, what is
it,” said Shemshelnar, “but foresight and prudence—the best ‘girdle’ for
the sultans of the earth?”—Sir G. Morell [_i.e_. J. Ridley], _Tales of
the Genii_ (“History of Mahoud,” tale vii., 1751).

=Girdles=, impressed with mystical characters, were bound with certain
ceremonies round women in gestation, to accelerate the birth and
alleviate the pains of labor. It was a Druid custom, observed by the
Gaels, and continued in practice till quite modern times.

Aldo offered to give Erragon “a hundred steeds, children of the rein; a
hundred hawks with fluttering wing, ... and a hundred girdles to bind
high-bosomed maids, friends of the births of heroes.”—Ossian, _The
Battle of Lora._

=Girnington= (_The laird of_), previously Frank Hayston, laird of
Bucklaw, the bridegroom of Lucy Ashton. He is found wounded by his bride
on the wedding night, recovers and leaves the country; but the bride
goes mad and dies.—Sir W. Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William

=Giulia= (_Donna_), suspected wife of Don Alonzo in Richard Mansfield’s
play _Don Juan_. She becomes the fast friend of the youthful lovers,
although forced by her husband’s brutality to decoy Juan into the trap
set for him by Alonzo (1891).

=Gjallar=, Heimdall’s horn, which he blows to give the gods notice when
any one approaches the bridge Bifröst.—_Scandinavian Mythology_.

=Gladiator= (_The Dying_). This famous statue, found at Nettuno (the
ancient _Antium_), was the work of Agasĭas, a sculptor of Ephesus.

=Glads´moor= (_Mr._), almoner of the earl of Glenallan, at Glenallan
House.—Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Glamorgan=, according to British fable, is _gla_ or _glyn_ Morgan
(valley or glen of Morgan). Cundah´ and Morgan (says Spenser) were sons
of Goneril and Regan, the two elder daughters of King Leyr. Cundah
chased Morgan into Wales, and slew him in the glen which perpetuates his

         Then gan the bloody brethren both to raine:
         But fierce Cundah gan shortly to envy
         His brother Morgan ...
         Raisd warre, and him in batteill overthrew;
         Whence as he to those woody hilles did fly,
         Which hight of him Gla-morgan, there him slew.
                     Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 10, 33 (1590).

This is not quite in accordance with Geoffrey’s account:

Some restless spirits ... inspired Margan with vain conceits, ... who
marched with an army through Cunedagius’s country, and began to burn all
before him; but he was met by Cunedagius, with all his forces, who
attacked Margan ... and, putting him to flight, ... killed him in a town
of Kambria, which since his death has been called Margan to this
day.—_British History_, ii. 15 (1142).

=Glasgow= (_The Bishop of_).—Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_, xix.
(time, Henry I.).

=Glasgow Arms=, an oak tree with a bird above it, and a bell hanging
from one of the branches; at the foot of the tree a salmon with a ring
in its mouth. The legend is that St. Kentigern built the city and hung a
bell in an oak tree to summon the men to work. This accounts for the
“oak and bell.” Now for the rest: A Scottish queen, having formed an
illicit attachment to a soldier, presented her paramour with a ring, the
gift of her royal husband. This coming to the knowledge of the king, he
contrived to abstract it from the soldier while he was asleep, threw it
into the Clyde, and then asked his queen to show it him. The queen, in
great alarm, ran to St. Kentigern, and confessed her crime. The father
confessor went to the Clyde, drew out a salmon with the ring in its
mouth, handed it to the queen, and by this means both prevented a
scandal and reformed the repentant lady.

A similar legend is told of Dame Rebecca Berry, wife of Thomas Elton of
Stratford Bow, and relict of Sir John Berry, 1696. She is the heroine of
the ballad called _The Cruel Knight_. The story runs thus: A knight,
passing by a cottage, heard the cries of a woman in labor. By his
knowledge of the occult sciences, he knew that the infant was doomed to
be his future wife; but he determined to elude his destiny. When the
child was of a marriageable age, he took her to the seaside, intending
to drown her, but relented, and, throwing a ring into the sea, commanded
her never to see his face again, upon pain of death, till she brought
back that ring with her. The damsel now went as cook to a noble family,
and one day, as she was preparing a cod-fish for dinner, she found the
ring in the fish, took it to the knight, and thus became the bride of
Sir John Berry. The Berry arms show a fish, and in the dexter chief a

=Glass= (_Mrs._), a tobacconist, in London, who befriended Jeanie Deans
while she sojourned in town, whither she had come to crave pardon from
the queen for Effie Deans, her half-sister, lying under sentence of
death for the murder of her infant born before wedlock.—Sir W. Scott,
_Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Glass Armor.= When Cherry went to encounter the dragon that guarded the
singing apple, he arrayed himself in glass armor, which reflected
objects like a mirror. Consequently, when the monster came against him,
seeing its reflection in every part of the armor, it fancied hundreds of
dragons were coming against it, and ran away in alarm into a cave, which
Cherry instantly closed up, and thus became master of the
situation.—Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Princess Fairstar,” 1682).

=Glasse= (_Mrs._), author of a cookery-book immortalized by the saying,
“First catch [_skin_] your hair, then cook it.” Mrs. Glasse is the _nom
de plume_ of Dr. John Hill (1716-1775).

=Glas´tonbury=, in Arthurian romance, was the burial place of King
Arthur. Selden, in his _Illustrations of Drayton_, gives an account of
Arthur’s tomb “betwixt two pillars,” and says that “Henry II. gave
command to Henry de Bois (then abbot of Glastonbury) to make great
search for the body of the British king, which was found in a wooden
coffin some 16 foote deepe, and afterwards they found a stone on whose
lower side was fixed a leaden cross with the name inscribed.”

_Glastonbury Thorn._ The legend is that Joseph of Arimatheēa stuck his
staff into the ground in “the sacred isle of Glastonbury,” and that this
thorn blossoms “on Christmas Day” every year. St. Joseph was buried at

     Not great Arthur’s tomb, nor holy Joseph’s grave,
     From sacrilege had power their sacred bones to save ...
     [_Here_] trees in winter bloom and bear their summer’s green.
                          Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iii. (1612).

=Glatisant=, the questing beast. It had the head of a serpent, the body
of a libbard, buttocks of a lion, foot of a hart, and in its body “there
was a noise like that of thirty couple of hounds questing” (_i.e._ in
full cry). Sir Palomi´dês the Saracen was forever following this
beast.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, ii. 52, 53, 149

=Glau´ce= (2 _syl._), nurse of the Princess Brit´omart. She tried by
charms to “undo” her lady’s love for Sir Artegal, “but love that is in
gentle heart begun, no idle charm can remove.” Finding her sorcery
useless, she took the princess to consult Merlin, and Merlin told her
that by marrying Artegal she would found a race of kings from which
would arise “a royal virgin that shall shake the power of Spain.” The
two now started in quest of the knight, but in time got separated.
Glaucê became “the squire” of Sir Scu´damore, but re-appears (bk. iii.
12) after the combat between Britomart and Artegal, reconciles the
combatants, and the princess consents “to be the love of Artegal, and to
take him for her lord” (bk. iv. 5, 6).—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_ (1590,

=Glaucus=, accomplished young Athenian, whose house in Pompeii is a
marvel of beauty and taste. He loves Ione, and is beloved by Nydia, the
blind flower-girl. He is rescued from a terrible fate in the ampitheatre
by the eruption of Vesuvius, escapes from the city, guided by Nydia, and
weds Ione.—E. L. Bulwer, _Last Days of Pompeii_ (1834).

_Glaucus_, a fisherman of Boæ´tia. He observed that all the fish which
he laid on the grass received fresh vigor, and immediately leaped into
the sea. This grass had been planted by Kronos, and when Glaucus tasted
it, he also leaped into the sea, and became a prophetic marine deity.
Once a year he visited all the coasts of Greece, to utter his
predictions. Glaucus is the sailors’ patron deity.

            [_By_] old soothsaying Glaucus’ spell.
                              Milton, _Comus_, 874 (1634).

            As Glaucus, when he tasted of the herb
            That made him peer among the ocean gods.
                              Dante, _Paradise_, i. (1311).

_Glaucus_, son of Hippolytus. Being smothered in a tub of honey, he was
restored to life by [a] dragon given him by Escula´pios (probably a
medicine so called.)—Apollodorus, _Bibliotheca_, 23.

_Glaucus_, of Chios, inventor of the art of soldering metal. Pausanias,
_Itinerary of Greece._

_A second Glaucus_, one who ruins himself by horses. This refers to
Glaucus, son of Sis´yphos, who was killed by his horses. Some say he was
trampled to death by them, and some that he was eaten by them.

_Glauci et Diomēdis permutatio_, a very foolish exchange. Homer
(_Iliad_, vi.) tells us that Glaucus changed his golden armor for the
iron one of Diomēdês. The French say, _C’est le troc de Glaucus et de
Diomede_. This Glaucus was the grandson of Bellerophon. (In Greek,

=Glegg= (_Mrs._),one of the Dodson sisters in George Eliot’s _Mill on
the Floss_, and the least amiable. When displeased or thwarted she takes
to her bed, reads _Baxter’s Saints’ Rest_, and lives on water-gruel.

=Glenallan= (_Joscelind, dowager countess of_), whose funeral takes
place by torchlight in the Catholic chapel.

_The earl of Glenallan_, son of the dowager countess.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Glenalvon=, heir of Lord Randolph. When young Norval, the son of Lady
Randolph, makes his unexpected appearance, Glenalvon sees in him a
rival, whom he hates. He pretends to Lord Randolph that the young man is
a suitor of Lady Randolph’s, and, having excited the passion of
jealousy, contrives to bring his lordship to a place where he witnesses
their endearments. A fight ensues, in which Norval slays Glenalvon, but
is himself slain by Lord Randolph, who then discovers too late that the
supposed suitor was his wife’s son.—Home, _Douglas_ (1757).

=Glencoe= (2 _syl._), the scene of the massacre of M’Ian and
thirty-eight of his glenmen, in 1692. All Jacobites were commanded to
submit to William III. by the end of December, 1691. M’Ian was detained
by a heavy fall of snow, and Sir John Dalrymple, the master of Stair,
sent Captain Campbell to make an example of “the rebel.”

⁂ Talfourd has a drama entitled _Glencoe, or the Fall of the M’Donalds_.

=Glendale= (_Sir Richard_), a papist conspirator with Redgauntlet.—Sir
W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Glendin´ning= (_Elspeth_) or ELSPETH BRYDONE (2 _syl._), widow of Simon
Glendinning, of the Tower of Glendearg.

_Halbert_ and _Edward Glendinning_, sons of Elspeth Glendinning.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Glendinning (Sir Halbert)_, the knight of Avenel, husband of Lady Mary
of Avenel (2 _syl._).—Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Glendoveer´=, plu. _Glendoveers_, the most beautiful of the good
spirits of Hindû mythology.

        ... the glendoveers.
        The loveliest of all of heavenly birth.
                       Southey, _Curse of Kehama_, vi, 2 (1809.)

=Glendow´er= (_Owen_), a Welsh nobleman, descended from Llewellyn
(last of the Welsh kings). Sir Edmund Mortimer married one of his
daughters. Shakespeare makes him a wizard, but very highly
accomplished.—Shakespeare, 1 _Henry IV_. (1597).

=Glengar´ry.= So M’Donald of Glengarry (who gave in his adhesion to
William III.) is generally called.

=Glenpro´sing= (_The old lady_), a neighbor of old Jasper Yellowley.—Sir
W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Glenthorn= (_Lord_), the hero of Miss Edgeworth’s novel called _Ennui_.
Spoiled by indolence and bad education, he succeeds, by a course of
self-discipline, in curing his mental and moral faults, and in becoming
a useful member of society (1809).

The history of Lord Glenthorn affords a striking picture of _ennui_, and
contains some excellent delineations of character.—Chambers, _English
Literature_, ii. 569.

=Glenvar´loch= (_Lord_), or Nigel Olifaunt, the hero of Scott’s novel
called _The Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Glinter=, the palace of Foresti “the peace-maker,” son of Balder. It
was raised on pillars of gold, and had a silver roof.

=Gloria´na=, “the greatest glorious queen of Faëry-land.”

By Gloriana I mean [_true_] Glory in my general intention, but in
my particular I conceive the most excellent and glorious person of
our sovereign the queen [_Elizabeth_], and her kingdom is
Faerye-land.—Spenser, _Introduction to The Faëry Queen_ (1590).

=Glorious John=, John Dryden (1631-1701).

=Glorious Preacher= (_The_), St. John Chrysostom (i.e. _John
Goldenmouth_, 354-407).

=Glory= (_Old_), Sir Francis Burdett (1770-1844).

_Glory_ (_Mc Whirk_). Irish girl rescued from wretched dependence by a
benevolent woman, and made at home in a comfortable dwelling. She has a
big, warm heart that yearns over everything helpless and hurt, and,
whereas, in her childhood, she mourned over “the good times” she was
“not in,” she comes to rejoice constantly in the blessed truth that she
is “in” them all.—A.D.T. Whitney, _Faith Gartney’s Girlhood_ (1863).

=Glossin= (_Mr. Gilbert_), a lawyer, who purchases the Ellangowan
estate, and is convicted by Counsellor Pleydell of kidnapping Henry
Bertram, the heir. Both Glossin and Dirk Hatteraick, his accomplice, are
sent to prison, and in the night Hatteraick first strangles the lawyer
and then hangs himself.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George

=Gloucester= (_The duke of_), brother of Charles II.—Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

_Gloucester (Richard, duke of)_, in the court of King Edward IV.—Sir W.
Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.)

_Gloucester, (The earl of)_, in the court of King Henry II.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Glover= (_Simon_), the old glover of Perth, and father of the “fair

_Catharine Glover_, “the fair maid of Perth,” daughter of Simon the
glover, and subsequently bride of Henry Smith the armorer.—Sir W. Scott,
_Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

_Glover (Heins)_, the betrothed of Trudchen [_i.e. Gertrude_] Pavillon,
daughter of the syndic’s wife.—Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time,
Edward IV.).

=Glowrowrum= (_The old lady_), a friend of Magnus Troil.—Sir W. Scott,
_The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Glück=, a German musical composer, greatly patronized by Marie
Antoinette. Young France set up against him the Italian Piccini. Between
1774 and 1780 every street, coffee-house, school and drawing-room in
Paris canvassed the merits of these two composers, not on the score of
their respective talents, but as the representatives of the German and
Italian schools of music. The partisans of the German school were called
Glückists, and those of the Italian school Piccinists.

                   Est-ce Glück, est-ce Puccini,
                   Que doit couronner Polymnie?
                   Donc entre Glück et Puccini
                   Tout le Parnasse est désuni.
                   L’un soutient ce que l’autre nie,
                   Et Clio veut battre Uranie,
                   Pour moi, qui crains toute manie,
                   Plus irrésolu que Babouc
                   N’épeusant Piccini ni Glück,
                   Je n’y connais rien: ergo Glück.

⁂ A similar contest raged in England between the Bononcinists and
Handelists. The prince of Wales was the leader of the Handel or German
party, and the duke of Marlborough of the Bononcini or Italian school.

=Glumdalca=, queen of the giants, captive in the court of King Arthur.
The king cast love-glances at her, and made Queen Dollallolla jealous;
but the giantess loved Lord Grizzle, and Lord Grizzle loved the Princess
Huncamunca, and Huncamunca loved the valiant Tom Thumb.—_Tom Thumb_, by
Fielding the novelist (1730), altered by O’Hara, author of _Midas_

=Glum-dal´clitch=, a girl nine years old “and only forty feet high.”
Being such a “little thing,” the charge of Gulliver was committed to her
during his sojourn in Brobdingnag.—Swift, _Gulliver’s Travels_.

            Soon as Glumdalclitch missed her pleasing care,
            She wept, she blubbered, and she tore her hair.

=Glumms=, the male population of the imaginary country Nosmnbdsgrsutt,
visited by Peter Wilkins. The Glumms, like the females, called gawreys
(_q.v._), had wings, which served both for flying and dress—R. Pultock,
_Peter Wilkins_ (1750).

=Glutton= (_The_), Vitellius, the Roman emperor (born a.d. 15, reigned
69, died 69). Visiting the field after the battle of Bedriac, in Gaul,
he exclaimed, “The body of a dead enemy is a delightful perfume.”

⁂ Charles IX. of France, when he went in grand procession to visit the
gibbet on which Admiral Coligny was hanging, had the wretched
heartlessness to exclaim, in doggerel verse;

                    Fragrance sweeter than the rose
                    Rises from our slaughtered foes.

_Glutton (The)_, Gabius Apicius, who lived during the reign of Tiberius.
He spent £800,000 on the luxuries of the table, and when only £80,000 of
his large fortune remained, he hanged himself, thinking death preferable
to “starvation on such a miserable pittance.”

=Glynn= (_The Marshes of_). Title of a poem by Sidney Lanier,
descriptive of a marsh on the Southern coast.

    The creeks overflow; a thousand riverlets run
    Twixt the roots of the sod; the blades of the marsh-grass stir,
    Passeth a hurrying sound of wings that westward whir;
    Passeth, and all is still, and the currents cease to run,
    And the sea and the marsh are one.
                                   Poems, by Sidney Lanier (1884).

=Gna=, the messenger of Frigga.—_Scandinavian Mythology._

=Goats.= _The Pleiades_ are called in Spain _The Seven Little Goats_.

So it happened that we passed close to the Seven Little
Goats.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. iii. 5 (1615).

⁂ Sancho Panza affirmed that two of the goats were of a green color, two
carnation, two blue, and one motley; “but,” he adds, “no he-goat or
cuckold ever passes beyond the horns of the moon.”

=Goatsnose=, a prophet, born deaf and dumb, who uttered his predictions
by signs.—Rabelais, _Pantag´ruel_, iii. 20 (1545).

=Gobbo= (_Old_), the father of Launcelot. He was stone blind.

_Launcelot Gobbo_, son of Old Gobbo. He left the service of Shylock the
Jew for that of Bassa´nio, a Christian. Launcelot Gobbo is one of the
famous clowns of Shakespeare.—Shakespeare, _Merchant of Venice_ (1698).

=Gob´ilyve= (_Godfrey_), the assumed name of False Report. He is
described as a dwarf, with great head, large brows, hollow eyes, crooked
nose, hairy cheeks, a pied beard, hanging lips, and black teeth. His
neck was short, his shoulders awry, his breast fat, his arms long, his
legs “kewed,” and he rode “brigge-a-bragge on a little nag.” He told Sir
Graunde Amoure he was wandering over the world to find a virtuous wife,
but hitherto without success. Lady Correction met the party, and
commanded Gobilyve (3 _syl._) to be severely beaten for a lying
varlet.—Stephen Hawes, _The Passe-tyme of Plesure_, xxix., xxxi., xxxii.

=Gobseck=, a grasping money-lender, the hero and title of one of
Balzac’s novels.


_Full of the god_, full of wine, partly intoxicated.

_God made the country, and man made the town._—Cowper’s _Task_ (“The
Sofa”). Varro, in his _De Re Rustica_, has: “Divina Natura agros dedit,
ars humana ædificavit urbes.”

_God sides with the strongest._ Napoleon I. said, “Le bon Dieu est
toujours du coté des gros bataillons.” Julius Cæsar made the same

=Godam=, a nickname applied by the French to the English, in allusion to
a once popular oath.

=Godfrey= (_de Bouillon_), the chosen chief of the allied crusaders, who
went to wrest Jerusalem from the hands of the Saracens. He was calm,
circumspect, prudent, and brave. Godfrey despised “worldly empire,
wealth, and fame.”—Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

_Godfrey_ (_Sir Edmondbury_), a magistrate killed by the papists. He was
very active in laying bare their nefarious schemes, and his body was
found pierced with his own sword, in 1678.—Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the
Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

⁂ Dryden calls Sir Edmondbury “Agag,” and Dr. Titus Otes he calls

         Corah might for Agag’s murder call,
         In terms as coarse as Samuel used to Saul.
                           _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1681).

_Godfrey_ (_Miss_), an heiress, daughter of an Indian governor.—Sam.
Foote, _The Liar_ (1761).

=God´inez= (_Doctor_), a schoolmaster, “the most expert flogger in
Oviedo” [_Ov.e.a.´do_]. He taught Gil Blas, and “in six years his worthy
pupil understood a little Greek, and was a tolerable Latin
scholar.”—Lesage, _Gil Blas_, i. (1716).

=Godi´va= or =Godgifu=, wife of Earl Leofric. The tale is that she
begged her husband to remit a certain tax which oppressed the people of
Coventry. Leofric said he would do so only on one condition—that she
would ride naked through the city at midday. So the lady gave orders
that all people should shut up their windows and doors; and she rode
naked through the town, and delivered the people from the tax. The tale
further says that all the people did as the lady bade them except
Peeping Tom, who looked out, and was struck blind.

⁂ This legend is told at length by Drayton in his _Polyolbion_, xiii.

=Godless Florins=, English two-shilling pieces issued by Shiel when
master of the mint. He was a Roman Catholic, and left out F.D.
(_defender of the faith_) from the legend. They were issued and called
in the same year (1849).

=Godmanchester Hogs and Huntingdon Sturgeon.=

During a very high flood in the meadows between Huntingdon and
Godmanchester, something was seen floating, which the Godmanchester
people thought was a black hog, and the Huntingdon folk declared was a
sturgeon. When rescued from the waters, it proved to be a young
donkey.—Lord Braybrooke (Pepys, _Diary_, May 22, 1667).

=Godmer=, a British giant, son of Albion, slain by Canu´tus, one of the
companions of Brute.

            Those three monstrous stones...
            Which that huge son of hideous Albion,
            Great Godmer, threw in fierce contention
            At bold Canutus; but of him was slain.
                      Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 10 (1590).

=Goëmot= or =Goëmagot=, a British giant, twelve cubits high, and of such
prodigious strength that he could pull up a full-grown oak at one tug.
Same as Gogmagog (_q.v._).

On a certain day, when Brutus was holding a solemn festival to the gods
... this giant, with twenty more of his companions, came in upon the
Britons, among whom he made a dreadful slaughter; but the Britons at
last ... killed them every one but Goëmagot ... him Brutus preserved
alive, out of a desire to see a combat between the giant and Corineus,
who took delight in such encounters.... Corineus carried him to the top
of a high rock, and tossed him into the sea.—Geoffrey, _British
History_, i. 16 (1142).

_Goëmagot’s Leap_, or “Lam Goemagot,” now called Haw, near Plymouth; the
place where the giant fell when Corin’eus (3 _syl._) tossed him down the
craggy rocks, by which he was mangled to pieces.—Geoffrey, _British
History_, i. 16 (1142).

⁂ Southey calls the word _Lan-gœ-mā-gog_. (See GOGMAGOG).

=Goer´vyl=, sister of Prince Madoc, and daughter of Owen, late king of
North Wales. She accompanied her brother to America, and formed one of
the colony of Caer-madoc, south of the Missouri (twelfth
century).—Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

=Goetz von Berlichingen=, or _Gottfried of the Iron Hand_, a famous
German burgrave, who lost his right hand at the siege of Landshut. The
iron hand which replaced the one he had lost is still shown at
Jaxthausen, the place of his birth. Gottfried took a prominent part in
the wars of independence against the electors of Brandenberg and
Bavaria, in the sixteenth century (1480-1562).

⁂ Goethe has made this the title and subject of an historical drama.

=Goffe= (_Captain_), captain of the pirate vessel.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Pirate_ (time, William III.).

=Gog=, according to _Ezek._ xxxviii., xxxix., was “prince of Magog”, (a
country or people). Calmet says Camby´sês, king of Persia, is meant; but
others think Antiochus Epiph´anês is alluded to.

_Gog_, in _Rev._ xx. 7-9, means Antichrist. Gog and Magog, in
conjunction, mean all princes of the earth who are enemies of the
Christian Church.

⁂ Sale says Gog is a Turkish tribe.—_Al Korân_, xviii. note.

=Gog and Magog.= Prester John in his letter to Manuel Comnēnus, emperor
of Constantinople, speaks of Gog and Magog as two separate nations
tributary to him. These, with thirteen others, he says, are now shut up
behind inaccessible mountains, but at the end of the world they will be
let loose, and overrun the whole earth.—Albericus Trium Fontium,
_Chronicles_ (1242).

Sale tells us that Gog and Magog are called by the Arabs “Yajui” and
“Ma-jûj,” which are two nations or tribes descended from Japhet, son of
Noah. Gog, according to some authorities, is a Turkish tribe; and Magog
is the tribe called “Gilân” by Ptolemy, and “Geli” or “Gelæ” by
Strabo.—_Al Korân_, xviii. note.

Respecting the re-appearance of Gog and Magog, the _Korân_ says: “They
[_the dead_] shall not return ... till Gog and Magog have a passage
opened for them, and they [_the dead_] shall hasten from every high
hill,” _i.e._ the resurrection (ch. xxi.).

_Gog and Magog._ The two statues of Guildhall so called are in reality
the statues of Gogmagog or Goëmagot and Corineus, referred to in the
next article. (See also CORINEUS.) The Albion giant is known by his
pole-axe and spiked ball. Two statues so called stood on the same spot
in the reign of Henry V.; but those now seen were made by Richard
Saunders, in 1708, and are fourteen feet in height.

In Hone’s time, children and country visitors were told that every day,
when the giants heard the clock strike twelve, they came down to
dinner.—_Old and New London_, i. 387.

Another tale was that they then fell foul of each other in angry combat.

=Gog´magog=, king of the Albion giants, eighteen feet in height, killed
by Corin in a wrestling match, and flung by him over the Hoe or Haw of
Plymouth. For this achievement, Brute gave his follower _all_ that
_horn_ of land now called Cornwall, Cor´n[w]all, a contraction of
Corinall. The contest is described by Drayton in his _Polyolbion_, i.

                E’en thus unmoved
            Stood Corineus, the sire of Guendolen,
            When, grappling with his monstrous enemy,
            He the brute vastness held aloft, and bore,
            And headlong hurled, all shattered, to the sea,
            Down from the rock’s high summit, since that day
            Called Lan´-gæma´gog.
                          Southey, _Joan of Arc_, viii. 395.

Cornwall means _Cornu Galliæ_ or _Walliæ_—_the horn of Gallia_ or
_Wallia_ (g and w being convertible letters,) and Gaul and Wales
different forms of the same word.

=Gog´magog Hill=, the higher of the two hills some three miles
south-east of Cambridge. It once belonged to the Balsham Hills, but,
“being rude and bearish, regarding neither God nor man,” it was named in
reproach Gogmagog. The legend is that this Gogmagog Hill was once a huge
giant, who fell in love with the nymph Granta, and, meeting her alone,
told her all his heart, saying:

        “Sweeting mine, if thou mine own wilt be,
        I’ve many a pretty gaud I keep in store for thee:
        A nest of broad-faced owls, and goodly urchins too
        (Nay, nymph, take heed of me, when I begin to woo);
        And better far than that, a bulchin two years old,
        A curled-pate calf it is, and oft could have been sold:
        And yet besides all this, I’ve goodly bear-whelps tway,
        Full dainty for my joy when she’s disposed to play
        And twenty sows of lead to make our wedding-ring;”

but the saucy nymph only mocked the giant, and told his love story to
the Muses, and all made him their jest and sport and laughter.—Drayton,
_Polyolbion_, xxi. (1622).

=Gold of Tolo´sa= (_The_), ill gains, which never prosper. The reference
is to Cæpio, the Roman consul, who, on his march to Gallia Narbonensis,
stole from Tolosa (_Toulouse_) the gold and silver consecrated by the
Cimbrian Druids to their gods. He was utterly defeated by the Cimbrians,
and some 112,000 Romans were left dead on the field of battle (B.C.

=Gold Poured down the Throat.= Marcus Licin´ius Crassus, surnamed “The
Rich,” one of the first Roman triumvirate, tried to make himself master
of Parthia, but being defeated and brought captive to Oro´dês, king of
Parthia, he was put to death by having molten gold poured down his
throat. “Sate thy greed with this,” said Orodês.

Manlius Nepos Aquilius tried to restore the kings of Bithynia and
Cappado´cia, dethroned by Mithridātês, but being unsuccessful and made
prisoner, he was put to death by Mithridātês by molten gold poured down
his throat.

In hell, the avaricious are punished in the same way, according to the
_Shephearde’s Calendar_.

               And ladles full of melted gold
               Were poured adown their throats.
                            _The Dead Man’s Song_ (1579).

=Gol´demar= (_King_), a house-spirit, sometimes called King Vollmar. He
lived three years with Neveling von Hardenberg, on the Hardenstein at
the Ruhr, and the chamber in which he lived is still called Vollmar’s
chamber. This house-spirit, though sensible to the touch, was invisible.
It played beautifully on the harp, talked freely, revealed secrets, and
played dice. One day, a person determined to discover its whereabouts,
but Goldemar cut him to pieces and cooked the different parts. Never
after this was there any trace of the spirit. The roasted fragments
disappeared in the Lorrain war in 1651, but the pot in which the man’s
head was boiled was built into the kitchen wall of Neveling von
Hardenberg, where it remains to this day.—Von Steinen, _German
Mythology_, 477.

=Golden Ass= (_The_), a romance in Latin, by Apule´ius (4 _syl._). It is
the adventures of Lucian, a young man who had been transformed into an
ass, but still retained his human consciousness. It tells us the
miseries which he suffered at the hands of robbers, eunuchs,
magistrates, and so on, till the time came for him to resume his proper
form. It is full of wit, racy humor, and rich fancy, and contains the
exquisite episode of Cupid and Psy´chê (bks. iv., v., vi.).

=Golden Dragon of Bruges= (_The_), The golden dragon was taken in one of
the crusades from the church of St. Sophia, at Constantinople, and
placed on the belfry of Bruges, but Philip van Artevelde (2 _syl._)
transported it to Ghent, where it still adorns the belfry.

     Saw great Artevelde victorious scale the Golden Dragon’s nest.
              Longfellow, _The Belfry of Bruges_.

=Golden Fleece= (_The_), the fleece of the ram which transported Phryxos
to Colchis. When Phryxos arrived there, he sacrificed the ram and gave
the fleece to King Æētês, who hung it on a sacred oak. It was stolen by
Jason, in his “Argonautic expedition.”

_The Golden Fleece of the North._ Fur and peltry of Siberia is so

=Golden Gate.= The gate of mercy before which one of the ten foolish
virgins waits when her companions have returned to their evil courses.

           “When the night falls, who knows what mercy waits
             To pardon guilt and sin?
           Perchance the Lord Himself unbarred the gates
             And led the wanderer in.”
                     Walter Learned, _Between Times_ (1889).

=Golden Legend= (_The_), a collection of hagiology, made in the
thirteenth century, by James de Voragine, a Dominican. The Legend
consists of 177 sections, each of which is devoted to a particular saint
or festival, arranged in the order of the calendar.

=Golden Mouth=, St. Chrysostom (347-407). The name is the Greek _chrusos
stŏma_, “gold mouth.”

=Golden Stream= (_The_), Joannes Damascēnus (died 756).

=Golden-tongued= (_The_), St. Peter, of Ravenna (433-450). Our
equivalent is a free translation of the Greek _chrysol´ogos_ (_chrusos
logos_, “gold discourse”).

=Goldfinch= (_Charles_), a vulgar, horse fellow, impudent and insolent
in manner, who flirts with Widow Warren, and conspires with her and the
Jew Silky to destroy Mr. Warren’s will. By this will the widow was left
£600 a year, but the bulk of the property went to Jack Milford, his
natural son, and Sophia Freelove, the daughter of Widow Warren by a
former marriage. (See BEAGLE.)

Father was a sugar-baker, grandfather a slop-seller, I’m a
gentleman.—Holcroft, _The Road to Ruin_, ii. 1 (1792).

=Goldiebirds= (_Messrs._), creditors of Sir Arthur Wardour.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Gold-mine= (_The_) or =Miller of Grenoble=, a drama by E. Stirling
(1854). (For the plot, see SIMON.)

=Gold-mines= (_King of the_), a powerful, handsome prince, who was just
about to marry the Princess All-Fair, when Yellow Dwarf claimed her as
his betrothed, and carried her to Steel Castle on a Spanish cat. A good
siren gave the betrothed king a diamond sword to secure All-Fair’s
deliverance; but after overcoming every obstacle, he was so delighted at
seeing her that he dropped his sword. In a moment Yellow Dwarf snatched
it up, and stabbed his rival to the heart. The king of the Gold-mines
and All-Fair were both changed into two palm trees.—Comtesse D’Aunoy,
_Fairy Tales_ (“The Yellow Dwarf,” 1682).

=Goldsmith= (_Oliver_).

         Here lies Nolly Goldsmith, for shortness called Noll,
         Who wrote like an angel, and talked like poor poll.
                                              David Garrick.

_Goldsmith_ (_Rev. J._), one of the many pseudonyms adopted by Sir
Richard Phillips, in a series of school books. Some other of his false
names were the Rev. David Blair, James Adair, Rev. C. Clarke, etc., with
noted French names for educational French books.

=Gol´thred= (_Lawrence_), mercer, near Cumnor Place.—Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time Elizabeth).

=Gold´y.= Oliver Goldsmith was so-called by Dr. Johnson (1728-1774).

=Gol´gotha= (“_the place of a skull_”), a small elevated spot north-west
of Jerusalem, where criminals were executed. Used in poetry to signify a
battle-field or place of great slaughter.

           Except they meant to bathe in reeking wounds,
           Or memorize another Golgotha.
               Shakespeare, _Macbeth_, act i. sc. 2. (1606).

⁂ In the University of Cambridge, the dons’ gallery in Great St. Mary’s
is called “Golgotha” because the _heads_ of the colleges sit there.

_Golgotha_ (_The City_), Temple Bar, London; so called because the heads
of traitors, etc., used at one time to be exposed there after
decapitation. This was not done from any notion of punishment, but
simply to advertise the fact as a warning to evil-doers. Temple Bar was
taken away from the Strand in 1878.

=Golightly= (_Mr._), the fellow who wants to borrow 5_s._ in _Lend me
Five Shillings_, a farce by J.M. Morton.

=Goltho=, the friend of Ul´finore (3 _syl._). He was in love with
Birtha, daughter of Lord As´tragon, the sage; but Birtha loved the Duke
Gondibert. The tale being unfinished, the sequel of Goltho is not
known.—Sir William Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1668).

=Gomer= or =Godmer=, a British giant, slain by Canu´tus, one of the
companions of Brute. (See GOEMOT.)

            Since Gomer’s giant brood inhabited this isle.
                         Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xiv. (1613.)

=Gomez=, a rich banker, 60 years of age, married to Elvi´ra, a young
wife. He is mean, covetous, and jealous. Elvira has a liaison with
Colonel Lorenzo, which Dominick, her father confessor, aids and abets;
but the amour is constantly thwarted, and it turns out that Lorenzo and
Elvira are brother and sister.—Dryden, _The Spanish Fryar_ (1680).

=Gond´ibert= (_Duke_), of the royal line of Lombardy. Prince Oswald of
Verona, out of jealousy, stirs up a faction fight against him, which is
limited by agreement to four combatants on each side. Oswald is slain by
Gondibert, and Gondibert is cured of his wounds by Lord As´tragon, a
philosopher and sage. Rhodalind, the only child of Aribert, king of
Lombardy, is in love with Gondibert, and Aribert hopes that he will
become his son-in-law and heir, but Gondibert is betrothed to Birtha.
One day while walking with his affianced Birtha, a messenger from the
king comes post haste to tell him that Aribert had publicly proclaimed
him his heir, and that Rhodalind was to be his bride. Gondibert still
told Birtha he would remain true to her, and gave her an emerald ring,
which would turn pale if his love declined. As the tale was never
finished, the sequel cannot be given.—Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died

=Gon´eril=, eldest daughter of King Lear, and wife of the duke of
Albany. She treated her aged father with such scant courtesy, that he
could not live under her roof; and she induced her sister Regan to
follow her example. Subsequently both the sisters fell in love with
Edmund, natural son of the earl of Gloucester, whom Regan designed to
marry when she became a widow. Goneril, out of jealousy, now poisoned
her sister, and “after slew herself.” Her name is proverbial for “filial
ingratitude.”—Shakespeare, _King Lear_ (1605).

=Gonin=, a buffoon of the sixteenth century, who acquired great renown
for his clever tricks, and gave rise to the French phrase, _Un tour de
maître Gonin_ (“a trick of Master Gonin’s”).

=Gonnella=, domestic jester to the Margrave Nicolo d’Este, and to his
son Borso, duke of Ferrara. The horse he rode on was _ossa atque pellis
totus_, and like Rosinantê, has become proverbial. Gonnella’s jests were
printed in 1506.

=Gonsalez= [_Gon.zalley_], Fernan Gonsalez or Gonsalvo, a Spanish hero
of the tenth century, whose life was twice saved by his wife Sancha. His
adventures have given birth to a host of ballads.

(There was a Hernandez Gonsalvo of Cordŏva, called “The great Captain”
(1443-1515), to whom some of the ballads refer, and this is the hero of
Florian’s historical novel entitled _Gonzalve de Cordoue_ (1791),
borrowed from the Spanish romance called _The Civil Wars of Granada_, by
Gines Perez de la Hita).

=Gonza´lo=, an honest old counsellor of Alonso, King of
Naples.—Shakespeare, _The Tempest_ (1609).

_Gonzalo_, an ambitious but politic lord of Venice.—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Laws of Candy_ (1647.)

=Good Earl= (_The_), Archibald, eighth earl of Angus, who died in 1588.

=Good Regent= (_The_), James Stuart, earl of Murray, regent of Scotland
after the imprisonment of Queen Mary, his half-sister. (Born 1533,
regent 1567, assassinated 1570).

=Goodfellow= (_Robin_), son of King Oberon. When six years old, he was
so mischievous that his mother threatened to whip him, and he ran away;
but falling asleep, his father told him he should have anything he
wished for, with power to turn himself into any shape, so long as he did
harm to none but knaves and queens.

His first exploit was to turn himself into a horse, to punish a churl,
whom he conveyed into a great plash of water and left there, laughing,
as he flew off “Ho, ho, ho!” He afterwards went to a farm-house, and
taking a fancy to a maid, does her work during the night. The maid,
watching him, and observing him rather bare of clothes, provides him
with garments, which he puts out, laughing “Ho, ho, ho!” He next changes
himself into a Will-o-the-wisp, to mislead a party of merry-makers, and
having misled them all night, he left them at daybreak, with a “Ho, ho,
ho!” At another time, seeing a fellow ill-using a maiden, he changed
himself into a hare, ran between his legs, and then growing into a
horse, tossed him into a hedge, laughing, “Ho, ho, ho!”—_The Mad Pranks
and Merry Jests of Robin Goodfellow_ (1580). (Percy Society, 1841).

_Goodfellow_ (_Robin_), a general name for any domestic spirit, as imp,
urchin, elf, hag, fay, Kit-wi’-the-can´stick, spoorn, man-i’-the-oak,
Puck, hobgoblin, Tom-tumbler, bug, bogie, Jack-o’-lantern, Friar’s
lantern, Will-o’-the-wisp, Ariel, nixie, kelpie, etc., etc.

A bigger kind than these German kobolds is that called with us Robin
Goodfellows, that would in those superstitious times grind corn for a
mess of milk, cut wood, or do any manner of drudgery work.... These have
several names ... but we commonly call them Pucks.—Burton, _Anatomy of
Melancholy_, 47.

⁂ The Goodfellows, being very numerous, can hardly be the same as Robin,
son of Oberon, but seem to obtain the name because their character was
similar, and, indeed, Oberon’s son must be included in the generic name.

=Goodman of Ballengeich=, the assumed name of James V. of Scotland when
he made his disguised visits through the districts round Edinburgh and

⁂ Haroun-al-Raschid, Louis XI., Peter “The Great,” etc., made similar
visits in disguise, for the sake of obtaining information by personal

=Good´man Grist=, the miller, a friend of the smugglers.—Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Goodricke= (_Mr._), a Catholic priest at Middlemas.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

=Goodsire= (_Johnnie_), a weaver, near Charles’s Hope farm.—Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time George II.).

=Goodwill=, a man who had acquired £10,000 by trade, and wished to give
his daughter Lucy in marriage to one of his relations, in order to keep
the money in the family: but Lucy would not have any one of the boobies,
and made choice instead of a strapping footman. Goodwill had the good
sense to approve of the choice.—Fielding, _The Virgin Unmasked_.

=Goody Blake=, a poor old woman detected by Harry Gill picking up sticks
from his farm-land. The farmer compelled her to leave them, and
threatened to punish her for trespass. Goody Blake turned on the lusty
yeoman, and said never from the moment should he know the blessing of
warmth; and sure enough, neither clothing, fire, nor summer sun ever did
make him warm again.

        No word to any man he utters,
          A bed or up, to young or old;
        But ever to himself he mutters,
          “Poor Harry Gill is very cold.”
               Wordsworth, _Goody Blake and Harry Gill_ (1798).

=Goody Palsgrave=, a name of contempt given to Frederick V., elector
palatine. He is also called the “Snow King” and the “Winter King,”
because the Protestants made him king of Bohemia in the autumn of 1619,
and he was set aside in the autumn of 1620.

=Goody Two-shoes=, a nursery tale supposed to be by Oliver Goldsmith,
written in 1765 for Newbery, the bookseller of St. Paul’s Churchyard.

=Goose Gibbie=, a half-witted lad, first entrusted to “keep the
turkeys,” but afterwards “advanced to the more important office of
minding the cows.”—Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Goosey Goderich=, Frederick Robinson, created viscount Goderich in
1827. So called by Cobbett, for his incapacity as a statesman (premier

=Gor´boduc=, GORBODUG, or GORBOGUD, a mythical British king, who had two
sons (Ferrex and Porrex). Ferrex was driven by his brother out of the
kingdom, and on attempting to return with a large army, was defeated by
him and slain. Soon afterwards, Porrex himself was murdered in his bed
by his own mother, Widen, who loved Ferrex the better.—Geoffrey,
_British History_, ii. 16 (1142).

_Gorboduc_, the first historical play in the language. The first three
acts by Thomas Norton, and the last two by Thomas Sackville, afterwards
Lord Buckhurst (1562). It is further remarkable as being the father of
Iambic ten-syllable blank verse.

           Those who last did tug
           In worse than civil war, the sons of Gorbodug.
                         Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

=Gor´brias=, lord-protector of Ibe´ria, and father of King Arba´ces (3
_syl._).—Beaumont and Fletcher, _A King or No King_ (1611).

=Gor´dius=, a Phrygian peasant, chosen by the Phrygians for their king.
He consecrated to Jupiter his wagon, and tied the yoke to the
draught-tree so artfully that the ends of the cord could not be
discovered. A rumor spread abroad that he who untied this knot would be
king of Asia, and when Alexander the Great was shown it, he cut it with
his sword, saying, “It is thus we loose our knots.”

=Gordon= (_The Rev. Mr._), chaplain in Cromwell’s troop.—Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

_Gordon_ (_Lord George_), leader of the “No Popery riots” of 1779. Half
mad, but really well-intentioned, he countenanced the most revolting
deeds, urged on by his secretary, Gashford. Lord George Gordon died in
jail, 1793.—C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

=Gordo´nius= or =Gordon= (_Bernard_), a noted physician of the
thirteenth century in the Rouergue (France), author of _Lilium Medicinœ,
de Morborum prope Omnium Curatione, septem Particulis Distributum_
(Naples, 1480).

               And has Gordonius “the divine,”
               In his famous _Lily of Medicine_ ...
               No remedy potent enough to restore you?
                         Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_.

=Gor´gibus=, an honest, simple-minded citizen of middle life, father of
Madelon and uncle of Cathos. The two girls have their heads turned by
novels, but are taught by a harmless trick to discern between the easy
manners of a gentleman and the vulgar pretentions of a lackey.—Molière,
_Les Précieuses Ridicules_ (1659).

_Gorgibus_, father of Célie. He is a headstrong, unreasonable old man,
who tells his daughter that she is forever reading novels, and filling
her mind with ridiculous notions about love. “Vous parlez de Dieu bien
moins que de Lélie,” he says, and insists on her giving up Lélie for
Valère, saying, “S’il ne l’est amant, il le sera mari,” and adds,
“L’amour est souvent un fruit du mariage.”

    Jetez-moi dans le feu tous ces méchants écrits [i.e. _romances_]
    Qui gatent tous les jours tant de jeunes esprits;
    Lisez moi, comme il faut, an lieu de ces sornettes,
    _Les Quatrains_ de Pibrac, et les doctes _Tablettes_
    Du conseiller Matthieu; l’ouvrage est de valeur.
    Et plein de beaux dictons à réciter par cœur.
                        Molière, _Sganarelle_ (1660).

=Gor´loïs= (3 _syl._), said by some to be the father of King Arthur. He
was lord of Tintag´il Castle, in Cornwall; his wife was Igrayne (3
_syl._) or Igerna, and one of his daughters (Bellicent) was, according
to some authorities, the wife of Lot, king of Orkney.

⁂ Gorloïs was not the father of Arthur, although his wife (Igrayne or
Igerna) was his mother.

Then all the kings asked Merlin, “For what cause is that beardless boy
Arthur made king?” “Sirs,” said Merlin, “because he is King Uther’s son,
born in wedlock ... More than three hours after the death of Gorlois,
did the king wed the fair Igrayne.”—Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_,
i. 2, 6 (1470).

[_Uther_] was sorry for the death of Gorlois, but rejoiced that Igerna
was now at liberty to marry again ... they continued to live together
with much affection, and had a son and daughter, whose names were Arthur
and Anne.—Geoffrey, _British History_, iii. 20 (1142).

⁂ It is quite impossible to reconcile the contradictory accounts of
Arthur’s sister and Lot’s wife. Tennyson says Bellicent, but the tales
compiled by Sir T. Malory all give Margawse. Thus in _La Mort d’Arthur_,
i. 2, we read: “King Lot of Lothan and of Orkeney wedded Margawse
[_Arthur’s sister_]” (pt. i. 36), “whose sons were Gawaine, Agravaine,
Gaheris, and Gareth;” but Tennyson says Gareth was “the last tall son of
Lot and Bellicent.”

=Gosh=, the Right Hon. Charles Arbuthnot, the most confidential friend
of the duke of Wellington, with whom he lived.

=Gosling= (_Giles_), landlord of the Black Bear inn, near Cumnor place.

_Cicely Gosling_, daughter of Giles.—Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time,

=Gospel Doctor= (_The_), John Wycliffe (1324-1384).

=Gospeller= (_The Hot_), Dr. R. Barnes, burnt at Smithfield, 1540.

=Gossips= (_Prince of_), Samuel Pepys, noted for his gossiping _Diary_,
commencing January 1, 1659, and continued for nine years (1632-1703).

=Goswin=, a rich merchant of Bruges, who is in reality Florez, son of
Gerrard, king of the beggars. His mistress, Bertha, the supposed
daughter of Vandunke, the burgomaster of Bruges, is in reality the
daughter of the duke of Brabant.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Beggar’s
Bush_ (1622).

=Goths= (_The last of the_), Roderick, the thirty-fourth of the
Visigothic line of kings in Spain. He was the son of Cor´dova, who had
his eyes put out by Viti´za, the king of the Visigoths, whereupon
Roderick rose against Vitiza and dethroned him; but the sons and
adherents of Vitiza applied to the Moors, who sent over Tarik with
90,000 men, and Roderick was slain at the battle of Xerres, A.D. 711.

⁂ Southey has an epic poem called _Roderick, the Last of the Goths_. He
makes “Rusilla” to be the mother of Roderick.

=Gothland= or =Gottland=, an island called “The eye of the Baltic.”
Geoffrey of Monmouth says that when King Arthur had added Ireland to his
dominions, he sailed to Iceland, which he subdued, and then both
“Doldavius, king of Gothland, and Gunfasius, king of the Orkneys,
voluntarily became his tributaries.”—_British History_, ix. 10 (1142).

         To Gothland now again this conqueror maketh forth ...
         Where Iceland first he won, and Orkney after got.
                      Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

=Gottlieb= [_Got.leeb_], a cottage farmer, with whom Prince Henry of
Hoheneck went to live after he was struck with leprosy. The cottager’s
daughter Elsie volunteered to sacrifice her life for the cure of the
prince, and was ultimately married to him.—Hartmann von der Aue, _Poor
Henry_ (twelfth century); Longfellow, _Golden Legend_.

=Gour´lay= (_Ailsie_), a privileged fool or jester.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

_Gourlay_ (_Ailsie_), an old sibyl at the death of Alice Gray.—Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

=Gourmaz= (_Don_), a national portrait of the Spanish nobility.—Pierre
Corneille, _The Cid_ (1636).

The character of Don Gourmaz, for its very excellence, drew down the
censure of the French Academy.—Sir W. Scott, _The Drama_.

=Go´vernale= (3 _syl._), first the tutor and then the attendant of Sir
Tristram de Lionês.

=Gow= (_Old Niell_), the fiddler.

_Nathaniel Grow_, son of the fiddler.—Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s Well_
(time, George III.).

_Gow_ (_Henry_) or HENRY SMITH, also called “Gow Chrom” and “Hal of the
Wynd,” the armorer. Suitor of Catharine Glover “the fair maid of Perth,”
whom he marries.—Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Gowk-thrapple= (_Maister_), a covenanting preacher.—Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

A man of coarse, mechanical, perhaps rather intrinsically
feeble intellect, with the vehemence of some pulpit-drumming

=Graaf= (_Count_), was a great speculator in corn. One year a sad famine
prevailed, and he expected, like Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to make an
enormous fortune by his speculation, but an army of rats, pressed by
hunger, invaded his barns, and then swarming into the castle, fell on
the old baron, worried him to death, and then devoured him. (See HATTO).

=Graal= (_Saint_) or ST. GREAL, is generally said to be the vessel or
platter used by Christ at the last supper, in which Joseph of Arimathea
caught the blood of the crucified Christ. In all descriptions of it in
the Arthurian romances, it is simply the visible “presence” of Christ,
or realization of the Catholic idea that the wafer, after consecration,
is changed into the very body of the Saviour, and when Sir Galahad
“achieved the quest of the Holy Graal,” all that is meant is that he saw
with his bodily eyes the visible Saviour into which the holy wafer had
been transmuted.

Then the bishop took a wafer, which was made in the likeness of bread,
and at the lifting up [_the elevation of the host_] there came a figure
in the likeness of a child, and the visage was as red and as bright as
fire, and he smote himself into that bread: so they saw that the bread
was formed of a fleshly man, and then he put it into the holy vessel
again ... then [_the bishop_] took the holy vessel and came to Sir
Galahad as he kneeled down, and there he received his Saviour.—Pt. iii.
101, 102.

King Pelles and Sir Launcelot caught a sight of the St. Graal; but did
not “achieve it,” like Galahad.

When they went into the castle to take their repast ... there came a
dove to the window, and in his bill was a little censer of gold, and
there withall was such a savor as if all the spicery of the world had
been there ... and a damsel, passing fair, bare a vessel of gold between
her hands, and thereto the king kneeled devoutly and said his prayers
... “Oh mercy!” said Sir Launcelot, “what may this mean?”... “This,”
said the king, “is the holy Sancgreall which ye have seen.”—Pt. iii. 2.

When Sir Bors de Ganis went to Corbin, and saw Galahad, the son of Sir
Launcelot, he prayed that the boy might prove as good a knight as his
father, and instantly the white dove came with the golden censer, and
the damsel bearing the Sancgraal, and told Sir Bors that Galahad would
prove a better knight than his father, and would “achieve the
Sancgreall;” then both dove and damsel vanished.—Pt. iii. 4.

Sir Percival, the son of Sir Pellinore, king of Wales, after his combat
with Sir Ector de Maris (brother of Sir Launcelot), caught a sight of
the Holy Graal, and both were cured of their wounds thereby. Like Sir
Bors, he was with Sir Galahad when the quest was achieved (pt. iii. 14).
Sir Launcelot was also miraculously cured in the same way (pt. iii. 18).

King Arthur, the queen, and all the 150 knights saw the Holy Graal as
they sat at supper when Galahad was received into the fellowship of the
Round Table:

First they heard a crackling and crying of thunder ... and in the midst
of the blast entered a sun-beam more clear by seven times than ever they
saw day, and all were lighted of the grace of the Holy Ghost ... then
there entered the hall the Holy Greal [_consecrated bread_] covered with
white samite; but none might see it, nor who bare it ... and when the
Holy Greal had been borne thro’ the hall, the vessel suddenly
departed.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, iii. 35 (1470).

⁂ The chief romances of the St. Graal are: _Parceval le Gallois_, by
Chrétien de Troyes, in verse, and _Roman des Diverses Quêtes de St.
Graal_, by Walter Mapes, in prose, both written in the latter part of
the twelfth century; _Titurel, or the Guardian of the Holy Graal_, by
Wolfram von Eschenbach; _the Romance of Parzival_, by the same—partly
founded upon the poem of Chrétien—and the _Life of Joseph of Arimathēa_,
by Robert de Borron, all belonging to the early part of the thirteenth
century; _The Holy Grail_, by Tennyson.

=Gracchi= (_The_). Caius and Tiberius Gracchus, sons of the Roman
matron, Cornelia, and leaders of the populace in several revolutions.

=Grace= (_Lady_), a sister of Lady Townly, and the engaged wife of Mr.
Manly. The very opposite of a lady of fashion. She says:

“In summer I could pass my leisure hours in reading, walking, ... or
sitting under a green tree: in dressing, dining, chatting with an
agreeable friend; perhaps hearing a little music, taking a dish of tea,
or a game at cards; managing my family, looking into its accounts,
playing with my children ... or in a thousand other innocent
amusements.”—Vanbrugh and Cibber, _The Provoked Husband_, iii. (1728).

“No person,” says George Colman, “has ever more successfully performed
the elegant levities of ‘Lady Townly’ upon the stage, or more happily
practiced the amiable virtues of ‘Lady Grace’ in the circles of society,
than Miss Farren (the countess of Dirby, 1759-1829).”

=Grace-be-here Humgudgeon=, a corporal in Cromwell’s troop.—Sir W.
Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Grace= (_Rev. Paul_), mild, nervous little Oxonian curate who yet does
good parish-work among colliers and peasants.—Frances Hodgson Burnett,
_That Lass o’ Lowrie’s_, (1877).

_Grace Pelham_, accomplished and good daughter of the Colonel who plays
a prominent part in the army novels of Captain Charles King.—Charles
King, U.S.A., _The Colonel’s Daughter_.

=Gracio´sa=, a lovely princess, who is the object of a step-mother’s
most implacable hatred. The step-mother’s name is Grognon, and the tale
shows how all her malicious plots are thwarted by Percinet, a fairy
prince, in love with Graciosa.

=Gracio´so=, the licensed fool of Spanish drama. He has his coxcomb and
truncheon, and mingles with the actors without aiding or abetting the
plot. Sometimes he transfers his gibes from the actors to the audience,
like our circus clowns.

=Gradas´so=, king of Serica´na, “bravest of the pagan knights.” He went
against Charlemagne with 100,000 vassals in his train, “all discrowned
kings,” who never addressed him but on their knees.—Bojardo, _Orlando
Innamorato_ (1495); Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

=Grad´grind= (_Thomas_), a man of facts and realities. Everything about
him is square; his forehead is square, and so is his fore-finger, with
which he emphasizes all he says. Formerly he was in the wholesale
hardware line. In his greatness he becomes M.P. for Coketown, and he
lives at Stone Lodge, a mile or so from town. He prides himself on being
eminently practical; and though not a bad man at heart, he blights his
children by his hard, practical way of bringing them up.

_Mrs. Gradgrind_, wife of Thomas Gradgrind. A little thin woman, always
taking physic, without receiving from it any benefit. She looks like an
indifferently executed transparency without light enough behind the
figure. She is always complaining, always peevish, and dies soon after
the marriage of her daughter Louisa.

_Tom Gradgrind_, son of the above, a sullen young man, much loved by his
sister, and holding an office in the bank of his brother-in-law, Josiah
Bounderby. Tom robs the bank, and throws suspicion on Stephen Blackpool,
one of the hands in Bounderby’s factory. When found out, Tom takes
refuge in the circus of the town, disguised as a black servant, till he
effects his escape from England.

_Louisa Gradgrind_, eldest daughter of Thomas Gradgrind, M.P. She
marries Josiah Bounderby, banker and mill-owner. Louisa has been so
hardened by her bringing up, that she appears cold and indifferent to
everything, but she dearly loves her brother Tom.—C. Dickens, _Hard
Times_, (1854).

=Græme= (_Roland_), heir of Avenel (2 _syl._). He first appears as page
to the lady of Avenel, then as page to Mary Queen of Scots.

_Magdalen Græme_, dame of Heathergill, grandmother of Roland Græme. She
appears to Roland disguised as Mother Nicneven, an old witch at
Kinross.—Sir W. Scott, _The Abbott_ (time Elizabeth).

_Græme_ (_William_), the red riever [_free-booter_] at Westburnflat.—Sir
W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

=Grævius= or _J.G. Græfe_ of Saxony, editor of several of the Latin
classics (1632-1703).

Believe me, lady, I have more satisfaction in beholding you than I
should have in conversing with Grævius and Gronovius.—Mrs. Cowley,
_Who’s the Dupe?_ i. 3.

(Abraham Gronovius was a famous philologist, 1694-1775.)

=Gra´hame= (_Colonel John_), of Claverhouse, in the royal army under the
duke of Monmouth. Afterwards viscount of Dundee.

_Cornet Richard Grahame_, the colonel’s nephew, in the same army.—Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Grahams=, nicknamed “Of the Hen.” The reference is this: The Grahams,
having provided for a great marriage feast, found that a raid had been
made upon their poultry by Donald of the Hammer (_q.v._). They went in
pursuit, and a combat took place; but as the fight was for “cocks and
hens,” it obtained for the Grahams the nickname of _Gramoch an Garrigh_.

=Gram=, Siegfried’s sword.

=Grammarians= (_Prince of_), Apollonios, of Alexandria. Priscian called
him _Grammaticorum Princeps_ (second century B.C.)

=Grammont= (_The Count of_). He promised marriage to la belle Hamilton,
but left England without performing the promise; whereupon the brothers
followed him and asked him if he had not forgotten something. “True,
true,” said the count, “excuse my short memory;” and returning with the
brothers, he made the young lady countess of Grammont.

=Grand Jument=, meant for Diana, of Poitiers.—Rabelais, _Gargantua and

=Grand Monarque= [_mo.nark´_], Louis XIV. (1638, 1643-1715).

=Grandison=, (_Sir Charles_), the hero of a novel by S. Richardson,
entitled _The History of Sir Charles Grandison_. Sir Charles is the beau
ideal of a perfect hero, the union of a good Christian and perfect
English gentleman; but such a “faultless monster the world ne’er saw.”
Richardson’s ideal of this character was Robert Nelson, reputed author
of the _Whole Duty of Man_ (1753).

Like the old lady mentioned by Sir Walter Scott, who chose _Sir Charles
Grandison_ because she could go to sleep for half an hour at any time
during its reading, and still find the personages just where she left
them, conversing in the cedar parlor.—_Encyc. Brit._, Art. “Romance.”

Grandison is the English _Emile_, but an Emile completely instructed.
His discourses are continual precepts, and his actions are examples.
Miss Byron is the object of his affection.—_Editor of Arabian Nights
Continued_, iv. 72.

=Grandmother.= Lord Byron calls the _British Review_ “My Grandmother’s
Review,” and jestingly says he purchased its favorable criticism of _Don

        For fear some prudish readers should grow skittish,
        I’ve bribed “My Grandmother’s Review,” _The British_;
        I sent it in a letter to the editor,
        Who thanked me duly by return of post....
        And if my gentle Muse he please to roast....
        All I can say is—that he had the money.
                          Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 209, 210 (1819).

=Grane= (2 _syl._), Siegfried’s horse, whose speed outstripped the wind.

=Grane´angowl= (_Rev. Mr._), chaplain to Sir Duncan Campbell, at
Ardenvohr Castle.—Sir W. Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time Charles I.).

=Granger= (_Captain_), in love with Elizabeth Doiley, daughter of a
retired slop-seller. The old father resolves to give her to the best
scholar, himself being judge. Gradus, an Oxford pedant, quotes two lines
of Greek, in which the word _panta_ occurs four times. “Pantry!” cries
old Doiley; “no, no; you can’t persuade me that’s Greek.” The captain
talks of “refulgent scintillations in the ambient void opake; crysalic
spheroids, and astifarous constellations;” and when Gradus says, “It is
a rant in English,” the old man boils with indignation. “Zounds!” says
he; “d’ye take me for a fool? D’ye think I don’t know my own mother
tongue? ’Twas no more like English than I am like Whittington’s cat!”
and he drives off Gradus as a vile impostor.—Mrs. Cowley, _Who’s the

_Granger._ (See EDITH.)

=Grangousier=, father of Gargantua, “a good sort of a fellow in his
younger days, and a notable jester. He loved to drink neat, and would
eat salt meat” (bk. i. 3). He married Gargamelle (3 _syl._) daughter of
the king of the Parpaillons, and had a son named Gargantua.—Rabelais,
_Gargantua_, i. 3 (1533).

⁂ “Grangousier” is meant for John d’Albret, king of Navarre;
“Gargamelle” for Catherine de Foix, queen of Navarre; and “Gargantua”
for Henri d’Albert, king of Navarre. Some fancy that “Grangousier” is
meant for Louis XII., but this cannot be, inasmuch as he is distinctly
called a “heretic for declaiming against the saints” (ch. xlv.).

=Grantam= (_Miss_), a friend of Miss Godfrey, engaged to Sir James
Elliot.—Sam. Foote, _The Liar_ (1761).

=Grant´mesnil= (_Sir Hugh de_), one of the knights challengers at the
tournament.—Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

=Grantorto=, the personification of rebellion in general, and of the
evil genius of the Irish rebellion of 1580 in particular. Grantorto is
represented as a huge giant, who withheld from Irēna [i.e. _Iernê_ or
_Ireland_] her inheritance. Sir Artĕgal [_Arthur, Lord Grey of Wilton_],
being sent to destroy him, challenged him to single combat, and having
felled him to the earth with his sword Chrysa´or, “reft off his head to
ease him of his pain.”—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 12 (1596).

=Grass= (_Cronos_), a grass which gives those who taste it an
irresistible desire for the sea. Glaucus, the Bœo´tian fisherman,
observed that all the fishes which he laid on the grass instantly leaped
back into the water, whereupon he also tasted the grass, and was seized
with the same irresistible desire. Leaping into the sea, he became a
minor sea-god, with the gift of prophecy.

=Gra´tian= (_Father_), the begging friar at John Mengs’s inn at
Kirchhoff.—Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Gratia´no,= one of Antonio’s friends. He “talked an infinite deal of
nothing, more than any man in all Venice.” Gratiano married Nerissa, the
waiting-gentlewoman of Portia.—Shakespeare, _Merchant of Venice_ (1598).

_Gratiano_, brother of Brabantio, and uncle of Desdemona.—Shakespeare,
_Othello_ (1611).

=Graunde Amoure= (_Sir_), walking in a meadow, was told by Fame of a
beautiful lady named La belle Pucell, who resided in the Tower of
Musyke. He was then conducted by Gouvernance and Grace to the Tower of
Doctrine, where he received instruction from the seven Sciences:—Gramer,
Logyke, Rethorike, Arismetricke, Musyke, Geometry, and Astronomy. In the
Tower of Musyke he met La belle Pucell, with whom he fell in love, but
they parted for a time. Graunde Amoure went to the Tower of Chivalry to
perfect himself in the arts of knighthood, and there he received his
degree from King Melyz´yus. He then started on his adventures, and soon
encountered False Report, who joined him and told him many a lying tale;
but Lady Correction, coming up, had False Report soundly beaten, and the
knight was entertained at her castle. Next day he left, and came to a
wall where hung a shield and horn. On blowing the horn, a three-headed
monster came forth, with whom he fought, and cut off the three heads,
called, Falsehood, Imagination, and Perjury. He passed the night in the
house of Lady Comfort, who attended to his wounds; and next day he slew
a giant fifteen feet high and with seven heads. Lastly, he slew the
monster Malyce, made by enchantment of seven metals. His achievements
over, he married La belle Pucell, and lived happily till he was arrested
by Age, having for companions Policye and Avarice. Death came at last to
carry him off, and Remembrance wrote his epitaph.—Stephen Hawes, _The
Passe-tyme of Plesure_ (1515).

_Graunde Amoure’s Steed_, Galantyse, the gift of King Melyz´yus when he
conferred on him the degree of knighthood.

  I myselfe shall give you a worthy stede,
  Called Galantyse, to helpe you in your nede.
          Stephen Hawes, _The Passe-tyme of Plesure_, xxviii. (1515).

_Graunde Armoure’s sword_, Clare Prudence.

     Drawing my swerde, that was both faire and bright,
     I clippëd Clare Prudence.
       Stephen Hawes, _The Passe-tyme of Plesure_, xxxiii. (1515).

=Grave´airs= (_Lady_), a lady of very dubious virtue, in _The Careless
Husband_, by Colley Cibber (1704).

Mrs. Hamilton [1730-1788], upon her entrance, was saluted with a storm
of hisses, and advancing to the footlights said, “Gemmen and ladies, I
s’pose as how you hiss me because I wouldn’t play ‘Lady Graveairs’ last
night at Mrs. Bellamy’s benefit. I would have done so, but she said as
how my audience stunk, and were all tripe people.” The pit roared with
laughter, and the whole house shouted “Mrs. Tripe!” a title which the
fair speechifier retained ever after.—_Memoir of Mrs. Hamilton_ (1803.)

=Gray=, (_Old Alice_), a former tenant of the Ravenswood family.—Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

_Gray_ (_Dr. Gideon_), the surgeon at Middlemas.

_Mrs. Gray_, the surgeon’s wife.

_Menie Gray_, the “surgeon’s daughter,” taken to India and given to
Tippoo Saib as an addition to his harem, but, being rescued by Hyder
Ali, was restored to Hartley; after which she returned to her
country.—Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

_Gray_ (_Daniel_). A Christian of the olden type; Puritan by ancestry,
rigid in creed, austere in manner. Supposed to be a portrait of the
author’s father.

              “He could see naught but vanity in beauty
              And naught but weakness in a fond caress,
              And pitied men whose views of Christian duty
              Allowed indulgence in such foolishness.”

Yet so true of heart and faithful in duty to _God_ and man that—

        “If I ever win the home in heaven
        For whose sweet rest I ever hope and pray,
        In the great company of the forgiven
        I shall be sure to find old Daniel Gray.”
              Josiah Gilbert Holland, _Old Daniel Gray_ (1879).

_Gray_ (_Duncan_) wooed a young lass called Maggie, but as Duncan looked
asklent, Maggie “coost her head” and bade Duncan behave himself. “Duncan
fleeched, and Duncan prayed,” but Meg was deaf to his pleadings; so
Duncan took himself off in dudgeon. This was more than Maggie meant, so
she fell sick and like to die. As Duncan “could na be her death,” he
came forward manfully again, and then “they were crouse [_merry_] and
canty bath. Ha, ha! the wooing o’t.”—R. Burns, _Duncan Gray_ (1792).

_Gray_ (_Mary_), daughter of a country gentleman of Perth. When the
plague broke out in 1668, Mary Gray and her friend Bessy Bell retired to
an unfrequented spot called Burn Braes, where they lived in a secluded
cottage and saw no one. A young gentleman brought them food, but he
caught the plague, communicated it to the two ladies, and all three
died.—Allan Ramsay, _Bessy Bell and Mary Gray_.

_Gray_ (_Auld Robin_). Jennie, a Scotch lass, was loved by young Jamie;
“but saving a crown, he had naething else besides.” To make that crown a
pound, young Jamie went to sea, and both were to be for Jennie. He had
not been gone many days when Jennie’s mother fell sick, her father broke
his arm, and their cow was stolen; then auld Robin came forward and
maintained them both. Auld Robin loved the lass, and “wi’ tears in his
’ee,” said, “Jennie, for their sakes, oh, marry me!” Jennie’s heart said
“nay,” for she looked for Jamie back; but her father urged her, and the
mother pleaded with her eye, and so she consented. They had not been
married above a month when Jamie returned. They met; she gave him one
kiss, and though she “gang like a ghaist,” she made up her mind, like a
brave good lassie, to be a gude wife, for auld Robin was very kind to
her (1772).

This ballad was composed by Lady Anne Lindsay, daughter of the earl of
Balcarres (afterwards Lady Barnard). It was written to an old Scotch
tune called _The Bridegroom Grat when the Sun went down_. Auld Robin
Gray was her father’s herdsman. When Lady Anne was writing the ballad,
and was piling distress on Jennie, she told her sister that she had sent
Jamie to sea, made the mother sick, and broken the father’s arm, but
wanted a fourth calamity. “Steal the cow, sister Anne,” said the little
Elizabeth; and so “the cow was stolen awa’,” and the song completed.

=Grayson= (_Mrs._). Brave wife who, weaponless and alone, when an Indian
tries to enter the block-house by an upper window, clamps his wrist to
the window sill in such a way that, as his foot slips, he is suspended
by it. He hangs thus for a moment, and the wrist breaks. She lets him
go, and he falls to ground without.—William Gilmore Simms, _The
Yemassee_ (1835).

=Graysteel=, the sword of Kol, fatal to its owner. It passed into
several hands, and always brought ill-luck with it.—_Icelandic Edda._

=Gray Swan=. Ship in which a sailor-boy sails away, not to return for
twenty years, when he comes back to his mother and incites her to
defence of the missing son by feigning to blame him for his twenty
years’ silence. Her spirited vindication of her darling causes him to
discover himself to her.—Alice Cary, _Poems_ (1876).

=Great Captain= (_The_), Gonsalvo de Cor´dova, _el Gran Capitan_

Manuel I. [Comnēnus], emperor of Trebizond, is so called also (1120,

=Great Cham of Literature=, Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784).

=Great Commoner= (_The_), William Pitt (1759-1806).

=Great Dauphin= (_The_), Louis, the son of Louis XIV. (1661-1711).

⁂ The “Little Dauphin” was the duke of Bourgoyne, son of the Great or
Grand Dauphin. Both died before Louis XIV.

=Great Duke= (_The_), the duke of Wellington (1769-1852).

         Bury the Great Duke
           With an empire’s lamentation;
         Let us bury the Great Duke
           To the noise of the mourning of a mighty nation.

=Great-Head= or CANMORE, Malcolm III. of Scotland (* 1057-1093).

=Great Heart=. The valiant guide reappears in George Wood’s satire.
_Modern Pilgrims_, published in 1855.

=Great-heart= (_Mr._), the guide of Christiana and her family to the
Celestial City. Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s Progress_, ii. (1685).

=Great Magician= (_The_) or _The Great Magician of the North_, Sir
Walter Scott. So called by Professor John Wilson (1771-1832).

=Great Marquis= (_The_), James Graham, marquis of Montrose (1612-1650).

             I’ve told thee how we swept Dundee,
               And tamed the Lindsays’ pride;
             But never have I told thee yet
               How the Great Marquis died.

_Great Marquis_ (_The_), Dom Sebastiano Jose de Carvalho, Marquis de
Pombal, greatest of all the Portuguese statesmen (1699-1782).

=Great Moralist= (_The_), Dr. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784).

=Great Unknown= (_The_), Sir Walter Scott, who published his _Waverley
Novels_ anonymously (1771-1832).

=Great Unwashed= (_The_). The artisan class were first so called by Sir
W. Scott.

=Greaves= (_Sir Launcelot_), a well-bred young English squire of the
George II. period; handsome, virtuous, and enlightened, but
crack-brained. He sets out, attended by an old sea-captain, to detect
fraud and treason, abase insolence, mortify pride, discourage slander,
disgrace immodesty, and punish ingratitude. Sir Launcelot, in fact, is a
modern Don Quixote, and Captain Crow is his Sancho Panza. T. Smollet,
_The Adventures of Sir Launcelot Greaves_ (1760).

Smollett became editor of the _Critical Review_, and an attack in that
journal on Admiral Knowles led to a trial for libel. The author was
sentenced to pay a fine of £100, and suffer three months imprisonment.
He consoled himself in prison by writing his novel of _Launcelot
Greaves_.—Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 65.

=Grecian Daughter= (_The_), Euphrasia, daughter of Evander, a Greek who
dethroned Dionysius the Elder, and became king of Syracuse. In his old
age he was himself dethroned by Dionysius the Younger, and confined in a
dungeon in a rock, where he was saved from starvation by his daughter,
who fed him with “the milk designed for her own babe.” Timoleon having
made himself master of Syracuse, Dionysius accidentally encountered
Evander, his prisoner, and was about to kill him, when Euphrasia rushed
forward and stabbed the tyrant to the heart.—A. Murphy, _The Grecian
Daughter_ (1772).

⁂ As an historical drama, this plot is much the same as if the writer
had said that James I. (of England) abdicated and retired to St.
Germain, and when his son James II. succeeded to the crown, he was
beheaded at White hall; for Murphy makes Dionysius the Elder to have
been dethroned, and going to Corinth to live (act i.), and Dionysius the
Younger to have been slain by the dagger of Euphrasia; whereas Dionysius
the Elder never was dethroned, but died in Syracuse at the age of 63;
and Dionysius the Younger was not slain in Syracuse, but being
dethroned, went to Corinth, where he lived and died in exile.

=Greedy= (_Justice_), thin as a thread paper, always eating and always
hungry. He says to Sir Giles Overreach (act iii. 1), “Oh, I do much
honor a chine of beef! Oh, I do reverence a loin of veal!” As a justice,
he is most venial—the promise of a turkey will buy him, but the promise
of a haunch of venison will out-buy him.—Massinger, _A New Way to Pay
Old Debts_ (1628).

=Greek Church= (_Fathers of the_): Eusebius, Athana´sius, Basil “the
great,” Gregory Nazianze´nus, Gregory of Nyssa, Cyril of Jerusalem,
Chrys´ostom, Epipha´nius, Cyril of Alexandria, and Ephraim, deacon of

=Greeks= (_Last of the_) Philopœ´men of Megalop´olis, whose great object
was to infuse into the Achæans a military spirit, and establish their
independence (B.C. 252-183).

_Greeks joined Greeks._ Clytus said to Alexander that Philip was the
greater warrior:

                I have seen him march,
          And fought beneath his dreadful banner, where
          The boldest at this table would have trembled.
          Nay, frown not, sir, you cannot look me dead;
          When Greeks joined Greeks, then was the tug of
                  N. Lee, _Alexander the Great, iv. 2_ (1678).

⁂ Slightly altered into _When Greek meets Greek, then comes the tug of
war_. This line of Nathaniel Lee has become a household phrase.

_To play the Greek_, to act like a harlot. When Cressid says of Helen,
“Then she’s a merry Greek indeed,” she means that Helen is no better
than a _fille publique_. Probably Shakespeare had his eye upon “fair
Hiren,” in Peel’s play called _The Turkish Mahomet and Hyren the Fair
Greek._ “A fair Greek” was at one time a euphemism for a courtezan.

=Green= (_Mr. Paddington_), clerk at Somerset House.

_Mrs. Paddington Green_, his wife.—T.M. Morton, _If I had a Thousand a

_Green_ (_Verdant_), a young man of infinite simplicity, who goes to
college, and is played upon by all the practical jokers of _alma mater_.
After he has bought his knowledge by experience, the butt becomes the
“butter” of juveniles greener than himself. Verdant Green wore
spectacles, which won for him the nickname of “Gig-lamps.”—Cuthbert Bede
[Rev. Edw. Bradley], _Verdant Green_ (1860).

_Green_ (_Widow_), a rich, buxom dame of 40, who married first for
money, and intended to choose her second husband “to please her vanity.”
She fancied Waller loved her, and meant to make her his wife, but Sir
William Fondlove was her adorer. When the politic widow discovered that
Waller had fixed his love on another, she gave her hand to the old beau,
Sir William; for if the news got wind of her love for Waller, she would
become the laughing-stock of all her friends.—S. Knowles, _The
Love-Chase_ (1837).

_Green Bird_ (_The_), a bird that told one everything it was asked. An
oracular bird, obtained by Fairstar after the failure of Cherry and her
two brothers. It was this bird who revealed to the king that Fairstar
was his daughter and Cherry his nephew. Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_
(“Fairstar and Prince Cherry,” 1682).

=Green Horse= (_The_), the 5th Dragoon Guards (_not_ the 5th Dragoons).
So called from their green velvet facings.

=Green Howard=, (_The_), the 19th Foot. So called from the Hon. Charles
Howard, their colonel from 1738 to 1748.

=Green Knight= (_The_), Sir Pertolope (3 _syl_.), called by Tennyson
“Evening Star” or “Hesperus.” He was one of the four brothers who kept
the passages of Castle Perilous, and was overthrown by Sir Gareth.—Sir
T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 127 (1470); Tennyson, _Idylls_
(“Gareth and Lynette”).

⁂ Tennyson in his “Gareth and Lynette” chooses to call the _Green_
Knight “Evening Star,” and the _Blue_ Knight “Morning Star.” In the old
romance the combat with the “Green Knight” was at _dawn_, and with the
“Blue Knight” at _sunset_.—See _Notes_ and _Queries_ (February 16,

_Green Knight_ (_The_), a pagan knight, who demanded Fezon in marriage,
but being overcome by Orson, was obliged to resign his claim.—_Valentine
and Orson_ (fifteenth century).

=Green Linnets=, the 39th Foot. Their facings are green.

=Green Man= (_The_). The man who used to let off fireworks was so called
in the reign of James I.

Have you any squibs, any green man in your shows?—John Kirke [R.
Johnson], _The Seven Champions of Christendom_ (1617).

_Green Man_ (_The_), a gentleman’s gamekeeper, at one time clad in

             But the green man shall I pass by unsung?...
             A squire’s attendant clad in keeper’s green.
                                  Crabbe, _Borough_ (1810).

=Greenhalgh=, messenger of the earl of Derby.—Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of
the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Greenhorn= (_Mr. Gilbert_), an attorney, in partnership with Mr.
Gabriel Grinderson.

_Mr. Gernigo Greenhorn_, father of Mr. Gilbert.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Greenleaf= (_Gilbert_), the old archer at Douglas Castle.—Sir W. Scott,
_Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

=Gregory=, a faggot-maker of good education, first at a charity school,
then as waiter on an Oxford student, and then as the fag of a travelling
physician. When compelled to act the doctor, he says the disease of his
patient arises from “propria quæ maribus tribuuntur mascula dicas, ut
sunt divorum, Mars, Bacchus, Apollo, virorum.” And when Sir Jasper says,
“I always thought till now that the heart is on the left side and the
liver on the right,” he replies, “Ay, sir, so they were formerly, but we
have changed all that.” In Molière’s comedy, _Le Médecin Malgré Lui,_
Gregory is called “Sganarelle,” and all these jokes are in act ii.
6.—Henry Fielding, _The Mock Doctor_.

_Gregory_, father and son, hangmen in the seventeenth century. In the
time of the Gregorys, hangmen were termed “esquires.” In France,
executioners were termed “monsieur,” even to the breaking out of the

=Gregson= (_Widow_), Darsie Latimer’s landlady at Shepherd’s Bush.—Sir
W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Gregson_ (_Gilbert_), the messenger of Father Buonaventura.—Sir W.
Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Gre´mio,= an old man who wishes to marry Bianca, but the lady prefers
Lucentio, a young man.—Shakespeare, _Taming of the Shrew_ (1594).

=Grendel=, the monster from which Beowulf delivered Hrothgar, king of
Denmark. It was half monster, half man, whose haunt was the marshes
among “a monster race.” Night after night it crept stealthily into the
palace called Heorot, and slew sometimes as many as thirty of the
inmates. At length Beowulf, at the head of a mixed band of warriors,
went against it and slew it.—_Beowulf_, an Anglo-Saxon epic (sixth

=Grenville= (_Sir Richard_), the commander of _The Revenge_, in the
reign of Queen Elizabeth. Out of his crew, ninety were sick on shore,
and only a hundred able-bodied men remained on board. _The Revenge_ was
one of the six ships under the command of Lord Thomas Howard. While
cruising near the Azores, a Spanish fleet of fifty-three ships made
towards the English, and Lord Howard sheered off, saying, “My ships are
out of gear, and how can six ships-of-the-line fight with fifty-three?”
Sir Richard Grenville, however, resolved to stay and encounter the foe,
and “ship after ship the whole night long drew back with her dead; some
were sunk, more were shattered;” and the brave hundred still fought on.
Sir Richard was wounded and his ship riddled, but his cry was still
“Fight on!” When resistance was no longer possible, he cried, “Sink the
ship, master gunner! sink her! Split her in twain, nor let her fall into
the hands of the foe!” But the Spaniards boarded her and praised Sir
Richard for his heroic daring. “I have done my duty for my queen and
faith,” he said, and died. The Spaniards sent the prize home, but a
tempest came on, and _The Revenge_, shot-shattered, “went down, to be
lost evermore in the main.”—Tennyson, _The Revenge_, a ballad of the
fleet (1878).

Froude has an essay on the subject. Canon Kingsley, in _Westward Ho_!
has drawn Sir Richard Grenville, and alludes to the fight. Arber
published three small volumes on Sir Richard’s noble exploit. Gervase
Markham has a long poem on the subject. Sir Walter Raleigh says: “If
Lord Howard had stood to his guns, the Spanish fleet would have been
annihilated.” Probably Browning’s _Hervé Riel_ was present to the mind
of Tennyson when he wrote the ballad of _The Revenge_.

=Gresham and the Pearl.= When Queen Elizabeth visited the Exchange, Sir
Thomas Gresham pledged her health in a cup of wine containing a precious
stone crushed to atoms, and worth £15,000.

 Here £15,000 at one clap goes
 Instead of sugar; Gresham drinks the pearl
 Unto his queen and mistress. Pledge it lords.
                Heywood, _If You Know not Me, You Know Nobody_.

⁂ It is devoutly to be hoped that Sir Thomas was above such absurd
vanity. Very well for Queen Cleopatra, but more than ridiculous in such
an imitation.

_Gresham and the Grasshopper._ There is a vulgar tradition that Sir
Thomas Gresham was a foundling, and that the old beldame who brought him
up was attracted to the spot where she found him, by the loud chirping
of a grasshopper.

⁂ This tale arose from the grasshopper, which forms the crest of Sir

_To Sup with Sir Thomas Gresham_, to have no supper. Similarly, “to dine
with Duke Humphrey,” is to have nowhere to dine. The Royal Exchange was
at one time a common lounging-place for idlers.

          Tho’ little coin thy purseless pockets line,
            Yet with great company thou’rt taken up;
          For often with Duke Humphrey thou dost dine,
            And often with Sir Thomas Gresham sup.
              Hayman, _Quidlibet_ (Epigram on a loafer, 1628).

=Gretchen.= Viragoish wife of _Rip Van Winkle,_ in Washington Irving’s
story of that name.

_Gretchen_, a German diminutive of Margaret; the heroine of Goethe’s
_Faust_. Faust meets her on her return from church, falls in love with
her, and at last seduces her. Overcome with shame, Gretchen destroys the
infant to which she gives birth, and is condemned to death. Faust
attempts to save her; and, gaining admission to the dungeon, finds her
huddled on a bed of straw, singing wild snatches of ballads, quite
insane. He tries to induce her to flee with him, but in vain. At
daybreak Gretchen dies, and Faust is taken away.

Gretchen is a perfect union of homeliness and simplicity, though her
love is strong as death; yet is she a human woman throughout, and never
a mere abstraction. No other character ever drawn takes so strong a hold
on the heart.

=Greth´el= (_Gammer_), the hypothetical narrator of the tales edited by
the brothers Grimm.

⁂ Said to be Frau Viehmänin, wife of a peasant in the suburbs of Hessê
Cassel, from whose mouth the brothers transcribed the tales.

=Grey= (_Lady Jane_), a tragedy by N. Rowe, (1715).

In _French_, Laplace (1745), Mde. de Staël (1800), Ch. Brifaut (1812),
and Alexandre Soumet (1844), produced tragedies on the same subject.
Paul Delaroche has a fine picture called “Le Supplice de Jane Grey”

=Gribouille=, the wiseacre who threw himself into a river that his
clothes might not get wetted by the rain.—_A French Proverbial Saying._

=Gride= (_Arthur_), a mean old usurer, who wished to marry Madeline
Bray, but Madeline loved Nicholas Nickleby, and married him. Gride was
murdered.—C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Grier= (_Mrs._), straight-laced pietist, who says “if she didn’t think
the heathen would be lost she wouldn’t see the use of the plan of
salvation.”—Margaret Deland, _John Ward, Preacher_.

=Grieux= (_le chevalier de_), the hero of a French novel by the Abbé
Antoine François Prévost (1697-1763). The passionate love of the hero,
the Chevalier de Grieux, for Manon, leads him into a hundred dangers,
the consequences of her frivolity and inconstancy. But he dares and
suffers all for her sake, and at last, when she is sent into shameful
exile by the authorities, he follows her, shares her privations, and
remains with her till she dies.

=Grieve= (_Jackie_), landlord of an ale-house near Charlie’s Hope.—Sir
W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Griffin= (_Allan_), landlord of the Griffin inn, at Perth.—Sir W.
Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Griffin-feet=, the mark by which the Desert Fairy was known in all her
metamorphoses.—Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The Yellow Dwarf,”

=Griffiths= (_Old_), steward of the earl of Derby.—Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time Charles II.).

_Griffiths_ (_Samuel_), London agent of Sir Arthur Darsie
Redgauntlet.—Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time George III.).

=Griflet= (_Sir_), knighted by King Arthur at the request of Merlin, who
told the king that Sir Griflet would prove “one of the best knights of
the world, and the strongest man of arms.”—Sir T. Malory, _History of
Prince Arthur_, i. 20 (1470).

=Griggsby’s Station.= Old home of a newly-made rich family, for which
they pine,—

      “In a great big house with cyarpets on the stairs
      And the pump right in the kitchen.”

      “Let’s go a-visitin’ back to Griggsby Station.
      Back where they’s nothin’ aggervatin’ any more,
      Shet away safe in the woods around the old location,
      Back where we ust to be so happy an’ so pore.”
                     James Whitcomb Reilly, _Afterwhiles_ (1888).

=Grildrig=, a mannikin.

She gave me the name “Grildrig,” which the family took up, and
afterwards the whole kingdom. The word imports what the Latin calls
_manunculus_ the Italian _homunceletion_, and the English
_mannikin_.—Dean Swift, _Gulliver’s Travels_ (“Voyage to Brobdingnag,”

=Grim=, a fisherman who rescued, from a boat turned adrift, an infant
named Habloc, whom he adopted and brought up. This infant was the son of
the king of Denmark, and when restored to his royal father, the
fisherman, laden with rich presents, built the village, which he called
after his own name, _Grims-by_ or “Grim’s town.”

⁂ The ancient seal of the town contained the names of “Gryme” and

_Grim (Giant,)_ a huge giant, who tried to stop pilgrims on their way to
the Celestial City. He was slain by Mr. Greatheart.—Bunyan, _Pilgrim’s
Progress_, ii. (1684).

=Grimalkin=, a cat, the spirit of a witch. Any witch was permitted to
assume the body of a cat nine times. When the “first Witch” (in
_Macbeth_) hears a cat mew, she says, “I come, Grimalkin” (act i. sc.

=Grime=, the partner of Item the usurer. It is to Grime that Item
appeals when he wants to fudge his clients. “Can we do so, Mr. Grime?”
brings the stock answer, “Quite impossible, Mr. Item.”—Holcroft, _The
Deserted Daughter_ (1784), altered into _The Steward_.

=Grimes= (_Peter_) the drunken thievish son of a steady fisherman. He
had a boy, whom he killed by ill-usage, and two others he made away
with; but escaped conviction through defect of evidence. As no one would
live with him, he turned mad, was lodged in the parish poor-house,
confessed his crimes in delirium, and died.—Crabbe, _Borough_, xxii,

=Grimes´by= (_Gaffer_), an old farmer at Marlborough.—Sir. W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Grimwig=, an irascible old gentleman, who hid a very kind heart under a
rough exterior. He was Mr. Brownlow’s great friend, and was always
declaring himself ready to “eat his head” if he was mistaken on any
point on which he passed an opinion.—C. Dickens, _Oliver Twist_ (1837).

=Grinderson= (_Mr. Gabriel_), partner of Mr. Greenhorn. They are the
attorneys who press Sir Arthur Wardour for the payment of debts. Sir. W.
Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Grip=, the clever raven of Barnaby Rudge. During the Gordon riots it
learnt the cry of “No Popery!” Other of its phrases were: “I’m a devil!”
“Never say die!” “Polly, put the kettle on!” etc.—C. Dickens, _Barnaby
Rudge_ (1841).

=Gripe= (_1 syl._), a scrivener, husband of Clarissa, but with a
_tendre_ for Araminta, the wife of his friend Moneytrap. He is a
miserly, money-loving, pig-headed hunks, but is duped out of £250 by his
foolish liking for his neighbors wife.—Sir John Vanbrugh, _The
Confederacy_ (1695).

_Gripe_ (_1 syl._), the English name of Géronte, in Otway’s version of
Molière’s comedy of _Les Fourberies de Scapin_. His daughter, called in
French, Hyacinthe, is called “Clara,” and his son Leandre is Anglicized
into “Leander.”—Th. Otway, _The Cheats of Scapin_.

_Gripe (Sir Francis)_, a man of 64, guardian of Miranda, an heiress, and
father of Charles. He wants to marry his ward for the sake of her money,
and as she cannot obtain her property without his consent to her
marriage, she pretends to be in love with him, and even fixes the day of
espousals. “Grady,” quite secure that he is the man of her choice, gives
his consent to her marriage, and she marries Sir George Airy, a man of
24. The old man laughs at Sir George, whom he fancies he is duping, but
he is himself the dupe all through.—Mrs. Centlivre, _The Busy Body_

December 2, 1790, Munden made his bow to the Covent Garden audience as
Sir Francis Gripe.”—_Memoir of J.S. Munden_ (1832).

=Gripus=, a stupid, venal judge, uncle of Alcmēna, and the betrothed of
Phædra (Alcmena’s waiting-maid), in Dryden’s comedy of _Amphitryon_.
Neither Gripus nor Phædra is among the _Dramatis personæ_ of Molière’s
comedy of _Amphitryon_.

=Grisilda= or =Griselda=, the model of patience and submission, meant to
allegorize the submission of a holy mind to the will of God. Grisilda
was the daughter of a charcoal-burner, but became the wife of Walter,
marquis of Saluzzo. Her husband tried her, as God tried Job, and with
the same result: (1) He took away her infant daughter, and secretly
conveyed it to the queen of Pa´via to be brought up, while the mother
was made to believe that it was murdered. (2) Four years later she had a
son, which was also taken from her, and was sent to be brought up with
his sister. (3) Eight years later, Grisilda was divorced, and sent back
to her native cottage, because her husband, as she was told, intended to
marry another. When, however, Lord Walter saw no indication of murmuring
or jealousy, he told Grisilda that the supposed rival was her own
daughter, and her patience and submission met with their full
reward.—Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Clerk’s Tale,” 1388).

=Griskinis´sa=, wife of Artaxaminous, king of Utopia. The king felt in
doubt, and asked his minister of state this knotty question:

                 Shall I my Griskiniss’s charms forego,
                 Compel her to give up the royal chair,
                 And place the rosy Distaffina there?

The minister reminds the king that Distaffina is betrothed to his

          And would a king his general supplant?
          I can’t advise, upon my soul I can’t.
                      W.B. Rhodes, _Bombastes Furioso_ (1790).

=Grissel= or =Grizel=. Octavia, the wife of Mark Antony, and sister of
Augustus, is called the “patient Grizel of Roman story.” Forms of the
name Griselda.

     For patience she will prove a second Grissel.
         Shakespeare, _Taming of the Shrew_, act iii. sc. 1 (1594).

=Griz´el Dal´mahoy= (_Miss_), the seamstress.—Sir W. Scott, _Heart of
Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Griz´zie,= maid-servant to Mrs. Saddletree.—Sir W. Scott, _Heart of
Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

_Grizzie_, one the servants of the Rev. Josiah Gargill.—Sir W. Scott,
_St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Griz´zle=, chambermaid at the Golden Arms inn, at Kippletringan.—Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

_Grizzle (Lord)_, the first peer of the realm in the court of King
Arthur. He is in love with the Princess Huncamunca, and as the lady is
promised in marriage to the valiant Tom Thumb, he turns traitor, and
“leads his rebel rout to the palace gate.” Here Tom Thumb encounters the
rebels, and Glumdalca, the giantess, thrusts at the traitor, but misses
him. Then the “pigmy giant-killer” runs him through the body. The black
cart comes up to drag him off, but the dead man tells the carter he need
not trouble himself, as he intends “to bear himself off,” and so he
does.—_Tom Thumb_, by Fielding the novelist (1730), altered by Kane
O’Hara, author of _Midas_ (1778).

=Groat´settar= (_Miss Clara_), niece of the old lady Glowrowrum, and one
of the guests at Burgh Westra.

_Miss Maddie Groatsettar_, niece of the old lady Glowrowrum, and one of
the guests at Burgh Westra.—Sir W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William

=Groffar´ius=, king of Aquitania, who resisted Brute, the mythical
great-grandson of Æneas, who landed there on his way to Britain.—M.
Drayton, _Polyolbion_, i. (1612).

=Gronovius=, father and son, critics and humanists (father, 1611-1671;
son, 1645-1716).

I have more satisfaction in beholding you than I should have in
conversing with Grævius and Gronovius. I had rather possess your
approbation than that of the elder Scaliger.—Mrs. Cowley, _Who’s the
Dupe?_ i. 3.

(Scaliger, father (1484-1558), son (1540-1609), critics and humanists).

=Groom= (_Squire_), “a downright, English, Newmarket, stable-bred
gentleman-jockey, who, having ruined his finances by dogs, grooms,
cocks, and horses ... thinks to retrieve his affairs by a matrimonial
alliance with a City fortune.” (canto i. 1). He is one of the suitors of
Charlotte Goodchild; but, supposing the report to be true that she has
lost her money, he says to her guardian:

“Hark ye! Sir Theodore; I always make my match according to the weight
my thing can carry. When I offered to take her into my stable, she was
sound and in good case; but I hear her wind is touched. If so, I would
not back her for a shilling. Matrimony is a long course, ... and it
won’t do.”—C. Macklin, _Love â la Mode_ ii. 1 (1779).

This was Lee Lewes’s great part [1740-1803]. One morning at rehearsal,
Lewes said something not in the play. “Hoy, hoy!” cried Macklin; “what’s
that? what’s that?” “Oh,” replied Lewes, “’tis only a bit of my
nonsense.” “But,” said Macklin, gravely, “I like my nonsense, Mr. Lewes,
better than yours.”—J. O’Keefe.

=Grotto of Eph´esus.= Near Ephesus was a grotto containing a statue of
Diana, to which was attached a pipe of reeds. If a young woman, charged
with dishonor, entered this grotto, and the reed gave forth _musical_
sounds, she was declared to be a pure virgin; but if it gave forth
_hideous noises_, she was denounced and never seen more. Corinna put the
grotto to the test, at the desire of Glaucon of Lesbos, and was never
seen again by the eye of man.—E. Bulwer Lytton, _Tales of Milētus_, iii.
(See CHASTITY, for other tests.)

=Groveby= (_Old_), of Gloomstock Hall, aged 65. He is the uncle of Sir
Harry Groveby. Brusque, hasty, self-willed, but kind-hearted.

_Sir Harry Groveby_, nephew of old Groveby, engaged to Maria “the maid
of the Oaks.”—J. Burgoyne, _The Maid of the Oaks_.

=Groves= (_Jem_), landlord of the Valiant Soldier, to which was attached
“a good dry skittle-ground.”—C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_, xxix.

=Grub= (_Jonathan_), a stock broker, weighted with the three plagues of
life—a wife, a handsome marriageable daughter, and £100,000 in the
Funds, “any one of which is enough to drive a man mad; but all three to
be attended to at once is too much.”

_Mrs. Grub_, a wealthy city woman, who has moved from the east to the
fashionable west quarter of London, and has abandoned merchants and
tradespeople for the gentry.

_Emily Grub_, called _Milly_, the handsome daughter of Jonathan. She
marries Captain Bevil of the Guards.—O’Brien, _Cross Purposes_.

=Grub´binol=, a shepherd who sings with Bumkinet a dirge on the death of

        Thus wailed the louts in melancholy strain,
        Till bonny Susan sped across the plain;
        They seized the lass, in apron clean arrayed,
        And to the ale-house forced the willing maid;
        In ale and kisses they forgot their cares,
        And Susan, Blouzelinda’s loss repairs.
                                    Gay, _Pastoral_, v. (1714).

(An imitation of Virgil’s _Ecl._, v. “Daphnis.”)

=Gru´dar and Bras´solis.= Cairbar and Grudar both strove for a spotted
bull “that lowed on Golbun Heath,” in Ulster. Each claimed it as his
own, and at length fought, when Grudar fell. Cairbar took the shield of
Grudar to Brassolis, and said to her, “Fix it on high within my hall;
’tis the armor of my foe;” but the maiden, “distracted, flew to the
spot, where she found the youth in his blood,” and died.

Fair was Brassolis on the plain. Stately was Grudar on the hill.—Ossian,
_Fingal_, I.

=Grueby= (_John_), servant to Lord George Gordon. An honest fellow, who
remained faithful to his master to the bitter end. He twice saved
Haredale’s life; and, although living under Lord Gordon and loving him,
detested the crimes into which his master was betrayed by bad advice and
false zeal.—C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

=Grugeon=, one of Fortunio’s seven attendants. His gift was that he
could eat any amount of food without satiety. When Fortunio first saw
him, he was eating 60,000 loaves for his breakfast.—Comtesse D’Aunoy,
_Fairy Tales_ (“Fortunio,” 1682).

=Grum´ball= (_The Rev. Dr._), from Oxford, a papist conspirator with
Redgauntlet.—Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.)

=Grumbo=, a giant in the tale of _Tom Thumb_. A raven having picked up
Tom Thumb, dropped him on the flat roof of the giant’s castle. When old
Grumbo went there to sniff the air, Tom crept up his sleeve; the giant,
feeling tickled, shook his sleeve, and Tom fell into the sea below. Here
he was swallowed by a fish, and the fish, being caught, was sold for
King Arthur’s table. It was thus that Tom got introduced to the great
king, by whom he was knighted.

=Grumio=, one of the servants of Petruchio.—Shakespeare, _Taming of the
Shrew_ (1594).

=Grundy= (_Mrs._). Dame Ashfield, a farmer’s wife, is jealous of a
neighboring farmer named Grundy. She tells her husband that Farmer
Grundy got five shillings a quarter more for his wheat than they did;
that the sun seemed to shine on purpose for Farmer Grundy; that Dame
Grundy’s butter was the crack butter of the market. She then goes into
her day-dreams, and says, “If our Nelly were to marry a great baronet, I
wonder what Mrs. Grundy would say?” Her husband makes answer:

“Why dan’t thee letten Mrs. Grundy alone? I do verily think when thee
goest to t’other world, the vurst question thee’ll ax ’ill be, if Mrs.
Grundy’s there?”—Th. Morton, _Speed the Plough_, i. 1 (1798).

=Gryll=, one of those changed by Acras´ia into a hog. He abused Sir
Guyon for disenchanting him; whereupon the palmer said to the knight,
“Let Gryll be Gryll, and have his hoggish mind.”—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
ii. 12 (1590).

       Only a target light upon his arm
         He careless bore, on which old Gryll was drawn,
       Transformed into a hog.
                Phin. Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, vii. (1633).

=Gryphon=, a fabulous monster, having the upper part like a vulture or
eagle, and the lower part like a lion. Gryphons were the supposed
guardians of goldmines, and were in perpetual strife with the
Arimas´pians, a people of Scythia, who rifled the mines for the
adornment of their hair.

         As when a gryphon thro’ the wilderness,
         With winged course, o’er hill or moory dale,
         Pursues the Arimaspian, who, by stealth,
         Had from his wakeful custody purloined
         The guarded gold.
                Milton, _Paradise Lost_, ii. 943, etc. (1665).

_The Gryphon_, symbolic of the divine and human union of Jesus Christ.
The fore part of the gryphon is an eagle, and the hinder part a lion.
Thus Dantê saw in purgatory the car of the Church drawn by a
gryphon.—Dantê, _Purgatory_, xxix. (1308).

=Guadia´na=, the ’squire of Durandartê, changed into a river of the same
name. He was so grieved at leaving his master that he plunged
instantaneously under ground, and when obliged to appear “where he might
be seen, he glided in sullen state to Portugal.”—Cervantes, _Don
Quixote_, II. ii. 6 (1615).

=Gualber´to= (_St._), heir of Valdespe´sa, and brought up with the
feudal notion that he was to be the avenger of blood. Anselmo was the
murderer he was to lie in wait for, and he was to make it the duty of
his life to have blood for blood. One day, as he was lying in ambush for
Anselmo, the vesper bell rang, and Gualberto (3 _syl._) fell in prayer,
but somehow could not pray. The thought struck him that if Christ died
to forgive sin, it could not be right in man to hold it beyond
forgiveness. At this moment Anselmo came up, was attacked, and cried for
mercy. Gualberto cast away his dagger, ran to the neighboring convent,
thanked God he had been saved from blood-guiltiness, and became a hermit
noted for his holiness of life.—Southey, _St. Gualberto_.

=Gua´rini= (_Philip_), the ’squire of Sir Hugo de Lacy.—Sir W. Scott,
_The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Guari´nos= (_Admiral_), one of Charlemagne’s paladins, taken captive at
Roncesvallês. He fell to the lot of Marlo´tês, a Moslem, who offered him
his daughter in marriage, if he would become a disciple of the Arabian
prophet. Guarinos refused, and was kept in a dungeon for seven years,
when he was liberated, that he might take part in a joust. The admiral
then stabbed the Moor to his heart, and, vaulting on his gray horse,
Treb´ozond, escaped to France.

=Gu´drun=, a lady married to Sigurd by the magical arts of her mother;
and on the death of Sigurd to Atli, (_Attila_), whom she hated for his
fierce cruelty, and murdered. She then cast herself into the sea, and
the waves bore her to the castle of King Jonakun, who became her third
husband.—_Edda_ of Sämund Sigfusson (1130).

_Gudrun_, a model of heroic fortitude and pious resignation. She was the
daughter of King Hettel (_Attila_), and the betrothed of Herwig, king of
Heligoland, but was carried off by Harmuth, king of Norway, who killed
Hettel. As she refused to marry Harmuth, he put her to all sorts of
menial work. One day, Herwig appeared with an army, and having gained a
decisive victory, married Gudrun, and at her intercession pardoned
Harmuth the cause of her great misery.—_A North-Saxon Poem_ (thirteenth

=Gud´yill= (_Old John_), butler to Lady Bellenden.—Sir W. Scott, _Old
Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Guelph´o= (3 _syl._), son of Actius IV. Marquis d’Este and of Cunigunda
(a German). Guelpho was the uncle of Rinaldo, and next in command to
Godfrey. He led an army of 5000 men from Carynthia, in Germany, to the
siege of Jerusalem, but most of them were cut off by the Persians.
Guelpho was noted for his broad shoulders and ample chest.—Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_, iii. (1575).

=Guen´dolen= (3 _syl._), a fairy whose mother was a human being. King
Arthur fell in love with her, and she became the mother of Gyneth. When
Arthur deserted the frail fair one, she offered him a parting cup; but
as he took it in his hands, a drop of the liquor fell on his horse and
burnt it so severely that it “lept twenty feet high,” ran mad, and died.
Arthur dashed the cup on the ground, whereupon it set fire to the grass
and consumed the fairy palace. As for Guendolen, she was never seen
afterwards.—Sir W. Scott, _The Bridal of Triermain_, i. 2 (“Lyulph’s
Tales,” 1813).

=Guendolϫna,= wife of Locrin (eldest son of Brute, whom he succeeded),
and daughter of Cori´neus (3 _syl._). Being divorced, she retired to
Cornwall, and collected an army, which marched against Locrin, who “was
killed by the shot of an arrow.” Guendolœna now assumed the reins of
government, and her first act was to throw Estrildis (her rival) and her
daughter Sabre, into the Severn, which was called Sabri´na or Sabren
from that day.—Geoffrey, _British History_, ii. 4, 5 (1142.)

=Guenever= or =Guinever=, a corrupt form of _Guanhuma´ra_ (4 _syl._),
daughter of King Leodegrance, of the land of Camelyard. She was the most
beautiful of women, was the wife of King Arthur, but entertained a
criminal attachment for Sir Launcelot du Lac. Respecting the latter part
of the queen’s history, the greatest diversity occurs. Thus Geoffrey

King Arthur was on his way to Rome ... when news was brought him that
his nephew Mordred, to whose care he had entrusted Britain had ... set
the crown upon his own head; and that the queen Guanhumara had wickedly
married him.... When King Arthur returned and put Mordred and his army
to flight ... the queen fled from York to the City of Legions [_Newport
in South Wales_], where she resolved to lead a chaste life among the
nuns of Julius the martyr.—_British History_, xi. 1 (1142).

Another version is, that Arthur, being informed of the adulterous
conduct of Launcelot, went with an army to Bentwick (_Brittany_), to
punish him. That Mordred (his son by his own sister), left as regent,
usurped the crown, proclaimed that Arthur was dead, and tried to marry
Guenever, the queen; but she shut herself up in the Tower of London,
resolved to die rather than marry the usurper. When she heard of the
death of Arthur, she “stole away” to Almesbury, “and there she let make
herself a nun, and wore white cloaths and black.” And there lived she
“in fasting, prayers and almsdeeds, that all marvelled at her virtuous
life.”—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, iii, 161-170 (1470).

⁂ For Tennyson’s version, see GUINEVERE.

=Guene´vra= (3 _syl._), wife of Necetaba´nus, the dwarf, at the cell of
the hermit of Engaddi.—Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Guenn.= Beautiful Breton peasant, haughty and gay, who refuses to sit
as a model to the artists who haunt the region, until Hamor prevails
over her scruples. Up to now, her love for her deformed brother has been
the strongest passion of her strong nature. The love she learns to feel
for Hamor masters all else, and when convinced that it is hopeless she
grows desperate. She is “found drowned.”—Blanche Willis Howard, _Guenn_.

=Guer´in= or =Gueri´no=, son of Millon, king of Alba´nia. On the day of
his birth his father was dethroned, but the child was rescued by a Greek
slave, who brought it up and surnamed it _Meschi´no_ or “the Wretched.”
When grown to man’s estate Guerin fell in love with the princess
Elizena, sister of the Greek emperor, who held his court at
Constantinople.—_An Italian Romance._

=Guesclin’s Dust a Talisman.= Guesclin, or rather Du Guesclin, constable
of France, laid siege to Châteauneuf-de-Randan, in Auvergne. After
several assaults the town promised to surrender if not relieved within
fifteen days. Du Guesclin died in this interval, but the governor of the
town came and laid the keys of the city on the dead man’s body, saying
he resigned the place to the hero’s ashes (1380).

        France ... demands his bones [_Napoleon’s_],
        To carry onward in the battle’s van,
        To form, like Guesclin’s dust, her talisman.
                             Byron, _Age of Bronze_, iv. (1821).

=Gugner=, Odin’s spear, which never failed to hit. It was made by the
dwarf Eitri.—_The Eddas_.

=Guide´rius=, eldest son of Cym´beline, (3 _syl._), king of Britain, and
brother of Arvir´agus. They were kidnapped in infancy by Belarius, out
of revenge for being unjustly banished, and were brought up by him in a
cave. When grown to manhood, Belarius introduced them to the king and
told their story; whereupon Cymbeline received them as his sons, and
Guiderius succeeded him on the throne.—Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

Geoffrey calls Cymbeline “Kymbelinus, son of Tenuantius;” says that he
was brought up by Augustus Cæsar, and adds, “In his days was born our
Lord Jesus Christ.” Kymbeline reigned ten years, when he was succeeded
by Guiderius. The historian says that Kymbeline _paid_ the tribute to
the Romans, and that it was Guiderius who refused to do so, “for which
reason Claudius the emperor marched against him, and he was killed by
Hamo.”—_British History_, iv. 11, 12, 13 (1142).

=Guido,= “the Savage,” son of Amon and Constantia. He was the younger
brother of Rinaldo. Being wrecked on the coast of the Am´azons, he was
compelled to fight their ten male champions, and having slain them all,
to marry ten of the Amazons. From this thraldom Guido made his escape,
and joined the army of Charlemagne.—Ariosto, _Orlando Furioso_ (1516).

_Guido_ [FRANCESCHINI], a reduced nobleman, who tried to repair his
fortune by marrying Pompilia, the putative child of Pietro and Violantê.
When the marriage was accomplished, and the money secure, Guido
ill-treated the putative parents; and Violantê, in revenge, declared
that Pompilia was not their child at all, but the offspring of a Roman
wanton. Having made this declaration, she next applied to the law-courts
for the recovery of the money. When Guido heard this tale, he was
furious, and so ill-treated his child-wife that she ran away, under the
protection of a young canon. Guido pursued the fugitives, overtook them,
and had them arrested; whereupon the canon was suspended for three
years, and Pompilia sent to a convent. Here her health gave way, and as
the birth of a child was expected, she was permitted to leave the
convent and live with her putative parents. Guido, having gained
admission, murdered all three, and was himself executed for the
crime.—R. Browning, _The Ring and the Book_.

=Guild= (_Engineer_), who, in passing through Providence at night, was
wont to give a signal to his wife which meant—

                             “To my trust true,
                              So, love to you!
                    Working or waiting, good night!”

One night the whistle was not heard.

“Guild lay under his engine dead.”—Francis Bret Harte, _Guild’s Signal_.

=Guil´denstern=, one of Hamlet’s companions, employed by the king and
queen to divert him, if possible, from his strange and wayward
ways.—Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are favorable examples of the
thorough-paced time-serving court knave ... ticketed and to be hired for
any hard or dirty work.—Cowden Clarke.

=Guillotine= (3 _syl._). So named from Joseph Ignace Guillotin, a French
physician, who proposed its adoption, to prevent unnecessary pain. Dr.
Guillotin did not invent the guillotine, but he improved the Italian
machine (1791). In 1792 Antoine Louis introduced further improvements,
and hence the instrument is sometimes called _Louisette, or Louison_.
The original Italian machine was called _mannaja_; it was a clumsy
affair, first employed to decapitate Beatrice Cenci, in Rome, A.D. 1600.

It was the popular theme for jests. It was [called _La mère
Guillotine_], the “sharp female,” the “best cure for headache.” It
“infallibly prevented the hair from turning grey.” It “imparted a
peculiar delicacy to the complexion.” It was the “national razor,” which
shaved close. Those “who kissed the guillotine, looked through the
little window and sneezed into the sack.” It was the sign of “the
regeneration of the human race.” It “superseded the cross.” Models were
worn[_as ornaments_].—C. Dickens, A _Tale of Two Cities_, iii. 4 (1859).

=Guinart= (_Roque_), whose true name was Pedro Rocha Guinarda, chief of
a band of robbers who levied black mail in the mountainous districts of
Catalonia. He is introduced by Cervantes in his tale of _Don Quixote._

=Guinea= (_Adventures of a_), a novel by Charles Johnstone (1761). A
guinea, as it passes into different hands, is the historian of the
follies and vices of its master for the time being; and thus a series of
scenes and personages is made to pass before the reader, somewhat in the
same manner as in _The Devil upon Two Sticks_ and in _The Chinese

=Guin´evere= (_3 syl._). So Tennyson spells the name of Arthur’s queen
in his _Idylls_. He tells us of the liaison between her and “Sir
Lancelot,” and says that Mordred, having discovered this familiarity,
“brought his creatures to the basement of the tower for testimony.” Sir
Lancelot flung the fellow to the ground, and instantly took to horse;
while Guinevere fled to the nunnery at Almesbury. Here the king took
leave of her; and when the abbess died, the queen was appointed her
successor, and remained head of the establishment for three years, when
she also died.

⁂ It will be seen that Tennyson departs from the _British History_, by
Geoffrey, and the _History of Prince Arthur_ as edited by Sir T. Malory.

=Guiomar=, mother of the vain-glorious Duar´te.—Beaumont and Fletcher,
_The Custom of the Country_ (1647).

=Guiscardo=, the ’squire, but previously the page, of Tancred, king of
Salerno. Sigismunda, the king’s daughter, loved him, and clandestinely
married him. When Tancred discovered it, he ordered the young man to be
waylaid and strangled. He then went to his daughter’s chamber, and
reproved her for loving a base-born “slave.” Sigismunda boldly defended
her choice, but next day received a human heart in a golden casket. It
needed no prophet to tell her what had happened, and she drank a draught
of poison. Her father entered just in time to hear her dying request
that she and Guiscardo might be buried in the same tomb. The royal

        Too late repented of his cruel deed,
        One common sepulchre for both decreed;
        Intombed the wretched pair in royal state,
        And on their monument inscribed their fate.
            Dryden, _Sigismunda and Guiscardo_ (from Boccaccio).

=Guise= (_Henri de Lorraine, duc de_) commenced the Massacre of St.
Bartholomew by the assassination of Admiral Coligny [_Co.leen´.ye_].
Being forbidden to enter Paris, by order of Henri III., he disobeyed the
injunction, and was murdered (1550-1588).

⁂ Henri de Guise has furnished the subject of several tragedies. In
_English_ we have _Guise, or the Massacre of France_, by John Webster
(1620); _The Duke of Guise_, by Dryden and Lee. In _French_ we have
_Etats de Blois (the Death of Guise)_, by François Raynouard (1814).

=Guis´la= (2 _syl._). sister of Pelayo, in love with Numac´ian, a
renegade. “She inherited her mother’s leprous taint.” Brought back to
her brother’s house by Adosinda, she returned to the Moor, “cursing the
meddling spirit that interfered with her most shameless love.”—Southey,
_Roderick, Last of the Goths_ (1814).

=Gui´zor= (2 _syl._), groom of the Saracen Pollentê. His “scalp was
bare, betraying his state of bondage.” His office was to keep the bridge
on Pollentê’s territory, and to allow no one to pass without paying “the
passage penny.” This bridge was full of trap-doors, through which
travellers were apt to fall into the river below. When Guizor demanded
toll of Sir Artĕgal, the knight gave him a “stunning blow, saying, ‘Lo!
there’s my hire;’” and the villain dropped down dead.—Spenser, _Faëry
Queen_, v. 2 (1596).

⁂ Upton conjectures that “Guizor” is intended for the Duc de Guise, and
his master “Pollentê” for Charles IX. of France, both notorious for the
St. Bartholomew Massacre.

=Gulbey´az,= the sultana. Having seen Juan amongst Lambro’s captives,
“passing on his way to sale,” she caused him to be purchased, and
introduced into the harem in female attire. On discovering that he
preferred Dudù, one of the attendant beauties, to herself, she commanded
both to be sewed up in a sack, and cast into the Bosphorus. They
contrived, however, to make their escape.—Byron, _Don Juan_, vi. (1824).

=Gul´chenraz=, surnamed “Gundogdi” (“morning”), daughter of
Malek-al-salem, king of Georgia, to whom Fum-Hoam, the mandarin, relates
his numerous and extraordinary transformations, or rather
metempsychoses.—T. S. Gueulette, _Chinese Tales_, (1723).

=Gul´chenrouz=, son of Ali Hassan (brother of the Emir´ Fakreddin); the
“most delicate and lovely youth in the whole world.” He could “write
with precision, paint on vellum, sing to the lute, write poetry, and
dance to perfection; but could neither hurl the lance nor curb the
steed.” Gulchenrouz was betrothed to his cousin Nouron´ihar, who loved
“even his faults;” but they never married, for Nouronihar became the
wife of the Caliph Vathek.—W. Beckford, _Vathek_ (1784).

Even beggars, in soliciting alms, will give utterance to some
appropriate passage from the _Gulistan_.—J. J. Grandville.

=Gul´liver= (_Lemuel_), first a surgeon, then a sea-captain of several
ships. He gets wrecked on the coast of Lilliput, a country of pygmies.
Subsequently he is thrown among the people of Brobdingnag, giants of
tremendous size. In his next voyage he is driven to Lapu´ta, an empire
of quack pretenders to science and knavish projectors. And in his fourth
voyage he visits the Houyhnhnms [_Whin´.nms_], where horses are the
dominant powers.—Dean Swift, _Travels in Several Remote Nations_ ... _by
Lemuel Gulliver_ (1726).

=Gulna´rê= (3 _syl._), daughter of Faras´chê (3 _syl._), whose husband
was king of an under-sea empire. A usurper drove the king, her father,
from his throne, and Gulnarê sought safety in the Island of the Moon.
Here she was captured, made a slave, sold to the king of Persia, and
became his favorite, but preserved a most obstinate and speechless
silence for twelve months. Then the king made her his wife, and she told
him her history. In due time a son was born, whom they called Beder
(“the full moon”).

Gulnarê says that the under-sea folk are never wetted by the water, that
they can see as well as we can, that they speak the language “of
Solomon’s seal,” and can transport themselves instantaneously from place
to place.—_Arabian Nights_ (“Beder and Giauharê”).

_Gulnare_ (2 _syl._), queen of the harem, and the most beautiful of all
the slaves of Seyd [_Seed_]. She was rescued by Conrad the corsair from
the flames of the palace; and, when Conrad was imprisoned, she went to
his dungeon, confessed her love, and proposed that he should murder the
sultan and flee. As Conrad refused to assassinate Seyd, she herself did
it, and then fled with Conrad to the “Pirate’s Isle.” The rest of the
tale is continued in _Lara_, in which Gulnare assumes the name of Kaled,
and appears as a page.—Byron, _The Corsair_ (1814).

=Gulvi´gar= (“_weigher of gold_”), the Plutus of Scandinavian mythology.
He introduced among men the love of gain.

=Gum´midge= (_Mrs._), the widow of Dan’el Peggotty’s partner. She kept
house for Dan’el, who was a bachelor. Old Mrs. Gummidge had a craze that
she was neglected and uncared for, a waif in the wide world, of no use
to any one. She was always talking of herself as the “lone lorn
cre’tur’.” When about to sail for Australia, one of the sailors asked
her to marry him, when “she ups with a pail of water and flings it at
his head.”—C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849.)

=Gundof´orus=, an Indian king for whom the Apostle Thomas built a palace
of sethym wood, the roof of which was ebony. He made the gates of the
horn of the “horned snake,” that no one with poison might be able to
pass through.

=Gungnir=, Odin’s spear.—_Scandinavian Mythology_.

=Günther=, king of Burgundy, and brother of Kriemhild (2 _syl._). He
resolved to wed Brunhild, the martial queen of Issland, and won her by
the aid of Siegfried; but the bride behaved so obstreperously that the
bridegroom had again to apply to his friend for assistance. Siegfried
contrived to get possession of her ring and girdle, after which she
became a submissive wife. Günther, with base ingratitude, was privy to
the murder of his friend, and was himself slain in the dungeon of Etzel
by his sister Kriemhield.—_The Nibelungen Lied._

⁂ In history, Günther is called “Güntacher,” and Etzel “Attila.”

=Gup´py= (_Mr._), clerk in the office of Kenge and Carboy. A weak,
commonplace youth, who has the conceit to propose to Esther Summerson,
the ward in Chancery.—C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

=Gurgus´tus=, according to Drayton, son of Belīnus. This is a mistake,
as Gurgustus, or rather Gurgustius, was son of Rivallo; and the son of
Belīnus was Gurgiunt Brabtruc. The names given by Geoffrey, in his
_British History_, run thus; Leir (_Lear_), Cunedag, his grandson,
Rivallo, his son, Gurgustius, his son, Sisillius, his son, Jago,
nephew of Gurguitius, Kinmarc, son of Sisillius, then Gorbogud. Here
the line is broken, and the new dynasty begins with Molmutius of
Cornwall, then his son Belinus, who was succeeded by his son Gurgiunt
Brabtruc, whose son and successor was Guithelin, called by Drayton
“Guynteline.”—Geoffrey, _British History,_ ii., iii. (1142).

         In greatness next succeeds Belinus’ worthy son
         Gurgustus, who soon left what his great father won
         To Guynteline his heir
                        M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

=Gurney= (_Gilbert_), the hero and title of a novel by Theodore Hook.
This novel is a spiced autobiography of the author himself (1835).

_Gurney_ (_Thomas_), shorthand writer, and author of a work on the
subject called _Brachygraphy_ (1705-1770).

          If you would like to see the whole proceedings...
          The best is that in shorthand ta’en by Gurney,
          Who to Madrid on purpose made a journey.
                             Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 189 (1819).

_Gurney._ City visitor to Cedarswamp, making fishing and flirting his
business while there. Deserts a country girl, “Lett,” to make love to
the new teacher, Miss Hungerford.—Sally Pratt McLean, _Cape Cod Folks_

=Gurth=, the swine-herd and thrall of Cedric of Rotherwood.—Sir W.
Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

=Gurton= (_Gammer_), the heroine of an old English comedy. The plot
turns upon the loss of a needle by Gammer Gurton, and its subsequent
discovery sticking in the breeches of her man Hodge.—Mr. J. S., Master
of Arts (1561).

=Guse Gibbie=, a half-witted lad in the service of Lady Bellenden.—Sir
W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Gushington= (_Angelina_), the _nom de plume_ of Lady Dufferin.

=Gusta´vus Vasa= (1496-1560), having made his escape from Denmark, where
he had been treacherously carried captive, worked as a common laborer
for a time in the copper-mines of Dalecarlia [_Da´.le.karl´.ya_]; but
the tyranny of Christian II. of Denmark induced the Dalecarlians to
revolt, and Gustavus was chosen their leader. The rebels made themselves
masters of Stockholm; Christian abdicated, and Sweden henceforth became
an independent kingdom.—H. Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

=Gus´ter=, the Snagsbys’ maid-of-all-work. A poor, overworked drudge,
subject to fits.—C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

=Gusto Picaresco= (“_taste for roguery_”). In romance of this school the
Spaniards especially excel, as Don Diego de Mondo´za’s _Lazarillo de
Tormes_ (1553); Mateo Aleman’s _Guzman d’Alfarache_ (1599); Guevedo’s
_Gran Tacano_, etc.

=Guthrie= (_John_), one of the archers of the Scottish guard in the
employ of Louis XI—Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.)

=Gutter Lyrist= (_The_), Robert Williams Buchanan; so called from his
poems on the loves of costermongers and their wenches (1841- ).

=Guy Carleton.= Wealthy young Englishman who is converted from
skepticism by the gentle leadings of the child Fleda, and never forgets
her. He meets her eight or nine years afterward and marries her.—Susan
Warner, _Queechy_ (1852).

=Guy Morville.= High-spirited, generous youth, whose religious faith
helps him to overcome a fiery temper. He dies, while on his bridal tour
of fever contracted in nursing his cousin Philip, his rival and
enemy.—C. M. Yonge, _The Heir of Redclyffe_.

Guy (_Thomas_), the miser and philanthropist. He amassed an immense
fortune in 1720 by speculations in South Sea stock, and gave £238,292 to
found and endow Guy’s hospital (1644-1724).

=Guy, earl of Warwick=, an English knight. He proposed marriage to
Phelis or Phillis, who refused to listen to his suit till he had
distinguished himself by knightly deeds. He first rescued Blanch,
daughter of the emperor of Germany, then fought against the Saracens,
and slew the doughty Coldran, Elmage, king of Tyre, and the Soldan
himself. Then, returning to England, he was accepted by Phelis and
married her. In forty days he returned to the Holy Land, when he
redeemed Earl Jonas out of prison, slew the giant Am´erant, and
performed many other noble exploits. Again he returned to England, just
in time to encounter the Danish giant Colebrond (_2 syl._) or Colbrand,
which combat is minutely described by Drayton, in his _Polyolbion_, xii.
At Windsor he slew a boar “of passing might.” On Dunsmore Heath he slew
the dun cow of Dunsmore, a wild and cruel monster. In Northumberland he
slew a winged dragon, “black as any cole,” with the paws of a lion, and
a hide which no sword could pierce (_Polyolbion_, xiii.). After this he
turned hermit, and went daily to crave bread of his wife Phelis, who
knew him not. On his death-bed he sent her a ring, and she closed his
dying eyes (890-958).

=Guy Fawkes=, the conspirator, went under the name of John Johnstone,
and pretended to be the servant of Mr. Percy (1577-1606).

=Guy Mannering=, the second of Scott’s historical novels, published in
1815, just seven months after _Waverley_. The interest of the tale is
well sustained; but the love scenes, female characters, and Guy
Mannering himself, are quite worthless. Not so the character of Dandy
Dinmont, the shrewd and witty counsellor Pleydell, the desperate
sea-beaten villainy of Hatteraick, the uncouth devotion of that gentlest
of all pedants, poor Domine Sampson, and half-crazed, but noble-hearted,
Meg Merrilies, the true heroine of the novel.

_Guy Mannering_ was the work of six weeks about Christmas time,
and marks of haste are visible both in the plot and in its
development.—Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 586.

=Guyon Guerndale.= Sensitive, imaginative young man, “forever looking
for this year’s birds in the nests of the last.” He carries in a locket
with him an heirloom diamond said to have been wrested from the rightful
owner by a wicked ancestor. Guerndale loves a woman who marries his
friend; he seeks glory and is wounded at Plevna. He “had started by
believing in three things, truth, love, and friendship,” and he never
recants. While in the hospital, news comes of “Annie’s” death. He
determines to cast away the diamond he had once meant for her. It is an
evil stone. He wrenches open the locket, reopens his wound, and bleeds
to death. His friend, finding him dead, picks up the historic stone.

“The diamond was only a crystal after all.” Frederic Jesup Stimson,
_Guerndale_ (1881).

=Guyn´teline= or =Guithtlin=, according to Geoffrey, son of Gurgiun´e
Brabtrue (_British History_, iii. 11, 12, 13); but, according to
Drayton, son of Gurgustus, an early British king. (See GURGUSTUS). His
queen was Martia, who codified what are called the Martian Laws,
translated into Anglo-Saxon by King Alfred. (See MARTIAN LAWS.)

          Gurgustus ... left what his great father won
          To Guynteline his heir, whose queen ...
          To wise Mulmutius laws her Martian first did frame.
                          Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

=Guyon=, (_Sir_), the personification of “temperance.” The victory of
temperance over intemperance is the subject of bk. ii. of the _Faëry
Queen_. Sir Guyon first lights on Amavia (intemperance of _grief_), a
woman who kills herself out of grief for her husband; and he takes her
infant boy and commits it to the care of Medi´na. He next meets
Braggadoccio (intemperance of the _tongue_), who is stripped bare of
everything. He then encounters Furor (intemperance of _anger_), and
delivers Phaon from his hands. Intemperance of _desire_ is discomfited
in the persons of Pyr´oclês and Cym´oclês; then intemperance of
_pleasure_, or wantonness, in the person of Phædria. After his victory
over wantonness, he sees Mammon (intemperance of _worldly wealth and
honor_); but he rejects all his offers, and Mammon is foiled. His last
and great achievement is the destruction of the “Bower of Bliss,” and
the binding in chains of adamant the enchantress Acrasia (or
_intemperance_ generally). This enchantress was fearless against Force,
but Wisdom and Temperance prevail against her.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_,
ii. 12 (1500).

=Guyot= (_Bertrand_), one of the archers in the Scottish guard attached
to Louis XI.—Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Guzman d’Alfara´che= (_4 syl._), hero of a Spanish romance of roguery.
He begins by being a dupe, but soon becomes a knave in the character of
stable-boy, beggar, swindler, pander, student, merchant, and so
on.—Mateo Aleman (1599).

=Guzman.= The priest who brings up _Don Juan_ in Mansfield’s play of
that name. He tries to train the boy aright; failing in this, he screens
him and palliates his offences; makes a desperate effort to save his
life when he is menaced by Don Alonzo, frustrated by the youth’s
chivalric self-devotion, and is with the hapless prisoner at the moment
of his death.—Richard Mansfield, _Don Juan_ (1891).

=Gwenhid´wy=, a mermaid. The white foamy waves are called her sheep, and
the ninth wave her ram.

Take shelter when you see Gwenhidwy driving her flock ashore.—_Welsh

                ... they watched the great sea fall,
            Wave after wave, each mightier than the last;
            Till, last a ninth one, gathering half the deep,
            And full of voices, slowly rose and plunged,
            Roaring, and all the wave was in a flame.
                               Tennyson, _The Holy Grail_.

=Gwilt= (_Miss_), plotter and betrayer, in Wilkie Collins’s novel,

=Gwynne= (_Nell_), one of the favorites of Charles II. She was an
actress, but in her palmy days was noted for her many works of
benevolence and kindness of heart. The last words of King Charles were,
“Don’t let poor Nellie starve!”—Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_
(time, Charles II.).

=Gyas and Cloan´thus=, two companions of Æne´as, generally mentioned
together as “fortis Gyas fortisque Cloanthus.” The phrase has become
proverbial for two very similar characters.—Virgil, _Æneid_.

The “strong Gyas” and the “strong Cloanthus” are less distinguished by
the poet than the strong Percival and the strong Osbaldistones were by
outward appearance.—Sir W. Scott.

=Gyges= (_2 syl._), one of the Titans. He had fifty heads and a hundred

_Gyges_, a king of Lydia, of whom Apollo said he deemed the poor
Arcadian Ag´laos more happy than the King Gyges, who was proverbial for
his wealth.

_Gyges_ (_2 syl._), who dethroned Candaulês (_3 syl._), king of Lydia,
and married Nyssia, the young widow. Herodotos says that Candaulês
showed Gyges the queen naked, and the queen, indignant at this
impropriety, induced Gyges to kill the king and marry her (bk. i. 8). He
reigned B.C. 716-678.

_Gyges’s Ring_ rendered the wearer invisible. Plato says that Gyges
found the ring in the flanks of a brazen horse, and was enabled by this
talisman to enter the king’s chamber unseen, and murder him.

    Why did you think that you had Gyges’ ring,
    Or the herb [_fern seed_] that gives invisibility?
        Beaumont and Fletcher, _Fair Maid of the Inn_, i. 1 (1647).

=Gyneth=, natural daughter of Guendŏlen and King Arthur. The king
promised to give her in marriage to the bravest knight in a tournament
in which the warder was given to her to drop when she pleased. The
haughty beauty saw twenty knights fall, among whom was Vanoc, son of
Merlin. Immediately Vanoc fell, Merlin rose, put an end to the jousts,
and caused Gyneth to fall into a trance, from which she was never to
wake till her hand was claimed in marriage by some knight as brave as
those who had fallen in the tournament. After the lapse of 500 years, De
Vaux undertook to break the spell, and had to overcome four temptations,
viz., fear, avarice, pleasure, and ambition. Having succeeded in these
encounters, Gyneth awoke and became his bride.—Sir W. Scott, _Bridal of
Triermain_ (1813).

=Gyp=, the college servant of Blushington, who stole his tea and sugar,
candles, and so on. After Blushington came into his fortune he made Gyp
his chief domestic and private secretary.—W.T. Moncrieff, _The Bashful

=Gyptian= (_Saint_), a vagrant.

     Percase [_perchance_] sometimes St. Gyptian’s pilgrymage
     Did carie me a month (yea, sometimes more)
     To brake the bowres [_to reject the food provided_],
     Bicause they had no better cheere in store.
             G. Gascoigne, _The Fruites of Warre_, 100 (died 1557).

=H. B.=, the initials adopted by Mr. Doyle, father of Richard Doyle, in
his _Reform Caricatures_ (1830).

=H. H.=, Pen-name of Helen Hunt Jackson, authoress of _Ramona, A Century
of Dishonor_, etc.

=Hackburn= (_Simon of_), a friend of Hobbie Elliott, farmer at the
Heugh-foot.—Sir W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

=Hackum= (_Captain_), a thick-headed bully of Alsatia, once a sergeant
in Flanders. He deserted his colors, fled to England, took refuge in
Alsatia, and assumed the title of captain.—Shadwell, _Squire of Alsatia_

=Hadad=, one of the six Wise Men of the East led by the guiding star to
Jesus. He left his beloved consort, fairest of the daughters of
Bethu´rim. At his decease she shed no tear, yet was her love exceeding
that of mortals.—Klopstock, _The Messiah_, v. (1771).

=Had´away= (_Jack_), a former neighbor of Nanty Ewart, the
smuggler-captain.—Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Ha´des= (_2 syl_.), the god of the unseen world; also applied to the
grave, or the abode of departed spirits.

⁂ In the _Apostles’ Creed_, the phrase “descended into hell” is
equivalent to “descended into hadês.”

=Hadgi= (_Abdallah el_), the soldan’s envoy.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Hadoway= (_Mrs._), Lovel’s landlady at Fairport.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Hafed=, a gheber or fire-worshipper, in love with Hinda, the emir’s
daughter. He was the leader of a band sworn to free their country or die
in the attempt. His rendezvous was betrayed, but when the Moslem came to
arrest him, he threw himself into the sacred fire, and was burnt to
death.—T. Moore, _Lalla Rookh_ (“The Fire-Worshippers,” 1817).

=Haf´edal=, the protector of travellers, one of the four gods of the
Adites (_2 syl._).

=Hafiz=, the _nom de plume_ of Mr. Stott in the _Morning Press_. Byron
calls him “grovelling Stott,” and adds, “What would be the sentiment of
the Persian Anacreon ... if he could behold his name assumed by one
Stott of Dromore, the most impudent and execrable of literary
poachers?”—_English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_ (1809).

=Hafod.= _As big a fool as Jack Hafod._ Jack Hafod was a retainer of Mr.
Bartlett, of Castlemore, Worcestershire, and the _ultimus scurrarum_ of
Great Britain. He died at the close of the eighteenth century.

=Hagan=, son of a mortal and a sea-goblin, the Achillês of German
romance. He stabbed Siegfried while drinking from a brook, and laid the
body at the door of Kriemhild, that she might suppose he had been killed
by assassins. Hagan, having killed Siegfried, then seized the “Nibelung
hoard,” and buried it in the Rhine, intending to appropriate it.
Kriemhild, after her marriage with Etzel, king of the Huns, invited him
to the court of her husband, and cut off his head. He is described as
“well grown, strongly built, with long sinewy legs, deep broad chest,
hair slightly gray, of terrible visage, and of lordly gait” (stanza
1789).—_The Nibelungen Lied_ (1210).

=Ha´garenes= (3 _syl._), the descendants of Hagar. The Arabs and the
Spanish Moors are so called.

Often he [_St. James_] hath been seen conquering and destroying the
Hagarenes.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. iv. 6 (1615).

=Hagenbach= (_Sir Archibald von_), governor of La Frette.—Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Hahlreiner= (_Fraulein_). The Münich landlady who accompanies H.H. as
maid in her travels through Germany. During the jaunt she learns so much
of other landlord’s ways and manners that “I fear me from this time
henceforth, the lodgers in my dear Fraulein’s house will not find it
such a marvel of cheap comfort as we did.”—Helen Hunt Jackson, _Bits of
Travel_ (1872).

=Haiatal´nefous= (_5 syl._), daughter and only child of Ar´manys, king
of the “Isle of Ebony.” She and Badoura were the two wives of Prince
Camaral´zaman, and gave birth at the same time to two princes. Badoura
called her son Amgiad (“the most glorious”), and Haiatalnefous called
her’s Assad (“the most happy”).—_Arabian Nights_ (“Camaralzaman and

=Haidée=, “the beauty of the Cycladês,” was the daughter of Lambro, a
Greek pirate, living in one of the Cycladês. Her mother was a Moorish
maiden of Fez, who died when Haidee was a mere child. Being brought up
in utter loneliness, she was wholly Nature’s child. One day, Don Juan
was cast on the shore, the only one saved from a shipwrecked crew,
tossed about for many days in the long-boat. Haidée lighted on the lad,
and, having nursed him in a cave, fell in love with him. A report being
heard that Lambro was dead, Don Juan gave a banquet, but in the midst of
the revelry, the old pirate returned, and ordered Don Juan to be seized
and sold as a slave. Haidée broke a blood-vessel from grief and fright,
and, refusing to take any nourishment, died.—Byron, _Don Juan_, ii. 118;
iii., iv. (1819, 1821).

=Haimon= (_The Four Sons of_), the title of a minnesong in the
degeneracy of that poetic school, which rose in Germany with the house
of Hohenstaufen, and went out in the middle of the thirteenth century.

=Hair.= Every three days, when Cor´sina combed the hair of Fairstar and
her two brothers, “a great many valuable jewels were combed out, which
she sold at the nearest town.”—Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_
(“Princess Fairstar,” 1682).

“I suspected,” said Corsina, “that Cherry is not the brother of
Fairstar, for he has neither a star nor collar of gold as Fairstar and
her brothers have.” “That’s true,” rejoined her husband; “but jewels
fall out of his hair, as well as out of the others.”—_Princess

_Hair._ Mrs. Astley, an actress of the last century, wife of “Old
Astley,” could stand up and cover her feet with her flaxen hair.

She had such luxuriant hair that she could stand upright and it covered
her to her feet like a veil. She was very proud of these flaxen locks;
and a slight accident by fire having befallen them, she resolved ever
after to play in a wig. She used, therefore, to wind this immense
quantity of hair round her head, and put over it a capacious caxon, the
consequence of which was that her head bore about the same proportion to
the rest of her figure that a whale’s skull does to its body.—Philip
Astley (1742-1814).

_Hair._ Mdlle. Bois de Chêne, exhibited in London in 1852-3, had a most
profuse head of hair, and also a strong black beard, large whiskers, and
thick hair on her arms and legs.

Charles XII. had in his army a woman whose beard was a yard and a half
long. She was taken prisoner at the battle of Pultowa, and presented to
the Czar in 1724.

Johann Mayo, the German painter, had a beard which touched the ground
when he stood up.

Master George Killingworthe, in the court of Ivan “the Terrible” of
Russia, had a beard five feet two inches long. It was thick, broad, and
of a yellowish hue.—Hakluyt (1589).

=Hair Cut Off.= It was said by the Greeks and Romans that life would not
quit the body of a devoted victim till a lock of hair had first been cut
from the head of the victim and given to Proserpine. Thus, when Alcestis
was about to die as a voluntary sacrifice for the life of her husband,
Than´atos first cut off a lock of her hair for the queen of the
infernals. When Dido immolated herself, she could not die till Iris had
cut off one of her yellow locks for the same purpose.—Virgil, _Æneid_,
iv. 693-705.

Iris cut the yellow hair of unhappy Dido, and broke the charm.—O. W.
Holmes, _Autocrat of the Breakfast Table_.

=Hair, Sign of Rank.=

The Parthians and ancient Persians of high rank wore long flowing hair.

Homer speaks of “the long-haired Greeks” by way of honorable
distinction. Subsequently the Athenian cavalry wore long hair, and all
Lacedæmonian soldiers did the same.

The Gauls considered long hair a notable honor, for which reason Julius
Cæsar obliged them to cut off their hair in token of submission.

The Franks and ancient Germans considered long hair a mark of noble
birth. Hence Clodion, the Frank, was called “The Long-Haired,” and his
successors are spoken of as _les rois chevelures_.

The Goths looked on long hair as a mark of honor, and short hair as a
mark of thraldom.

For many centuries long hair was in France the distinctive mark of kings
and nobles.

=Haïz´um= (_3 syl._), the horse on which the archangel Gabriel rode when
he led a squadron of 3000 angels against the Koreishites (_3 syl._) in
the famous battle of Bedr.

=Hakem´ or Hakeem=, chief of the Druses, who resides at Deir-el-Kamar.
The first hakem was the third Fatimite caliph, called B’amr-ellah, who
professed to be incarnate deity, and the last prophet who had personal
communication between God and man. He was slain on Mount Mokattam, near
Cairo (Egypt).

       Hakem the khalif vanished erst,
       In what seemed death to uninstructed eyes,
       On red Mokattam’s verge.
                  Robert Browning, _The Return of the Druses_, i.

=Hakim= _(Adonbec el_), Saladin in the disguise of a physician. He
visited Richard Cœur de Lion in sickness; gave him a medicine in which
the “talisman” had been dipped, and the sick king recovered from his
fever.—Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Halcro= (_Claud_), the old bard of Magnus Troil, the udaller of
Zetland.—Sir W. Scott, _The Pirate_ (time, William III.).

⁂ A udallar is one who holds his land by allodial tenure.

=Halden or Halfdene= (_2 syl._), a Danish king, who with Basrig or
Bagsecg, another Scandinavian king, made (in 871) a descent upon Wessex,
and in that one year nine pitched battles were fought with the
islanders. The first was Englefield, in Berkshire, in which the Danes
were beaten; the second was Reading, in which the Danes were victorious;
the third was the famous battle of Æscesdun or Ashdune, in which the
Danes were defeated with great loss, and King Bagsecg was slain. In 909,
Halfdene was slain in the battle of Wodnesfield (Staffordshire).

         Reading ye regained....
         Where Basrig ye outbraved, and Halden sword to sword.
                            Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. (1613).

=Hal´dimund= (_Sir Ewes_), a friend of Lord Dalgarno.—Sir W. Scott,
_Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

Hales (_John_), called “The Ever-Memorable” (1584-1656).

The works of John Hales were published after his death, in 1659, under
the title of _The Golden Remains of the Ever-Memorable Mr. John Hales of
Eton College_ (three vols.).

=Halifax= (_John_), noble character, rising from poverty to affluence
and honor by his own exertions, and winning for himself the name written
by his mother in his Bible, “_John Halifax, Gentleman._”—Dinah Maria
Muloch, Mrs. Craik.

=Halkit= (_Mr._), a young lawyer in the introduction of Sir W. Scott’s
_Heart of Midlothian_ (1818).

=Hall= (_Sir Christopher_), an officer in the army of Montrose.—Sir W.
Scott, _Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

=Hall= (_Ruth_), vivacious woman, who is happily married, then widowed,
reduced to poverty, and wins fortune and fame by her pen. Supposed to be
the author’s own life under a thin veil of fiction.—Sarah Payson Willis
(Fanny Fern), _Ruth Hall_ (184-).

=Haller= (_Mrs._). At the age of 16, Adelaid [Mrs. Haller] married the
Count Waldbourg, from whom she eloped. The count then led a roving life,
and was known as “the stranger.” The countess, repenting of her folly,
assumed (for three years) the name of Mrs. Haller, and took service
under the countess of Wintersen, whose affection she won by her
amiability and sweetness of temper. Baron Steinfort fell in love with
her, but hearing her tale, interested himself in bringing about a
reconciliation between Mrs. Haller and “the stranger,” who happened, at
the time, to be living in the same neighborhood. They met and bade
adieu, but when their children were brought forth, they relented, and
rushed into each other’s arms.—Benj. Thompson, _The Stranger_ (1797).
Adapted from Kotzebue.

=Halliday= (_Tom_), a private in the royal army.—Sir W. Scott, _Old
Mortality_ (time Charles II.).

=Hamarti´a=, Sin personified, offspring of the red dragon and Eve. “A
foul deformed” monster, “more foul deformed the sun yet never saw.” “A
woman seemed she in the upper part,” but “the rest was in serpent form,”
though out of sight. Fully described in canto xii. of _The Purple
Island_ (1633), by Phineas Fletcher. (Greek _hamartia_, “sin.”)

=Hamet=, son of Mandānê and Zamti (a Chinese mandarin). When the infant
prince, Zaphimri, called “the orphan of China,” was committed to the
care of Zamti, Hamet was sent to Corea, and placed under the charge of
Morat; but when grown to manhood, he led a band of insurgents against
Ti´murkan´ the Tartar, who had usurped the throne of China. He was
seized and condemned to death, under the conviction that he was
Zaphimri, the prince. Etan (who was the real Zaphimri) now came forward
to acknowledge his rank, and Timurkan, unable to ascertain which was the
true prince, ordered them both to execution. At this juncture a party of
insurgents arrived, Hamet and Zaphimri were set at liberty, Timurkan was
slain, and Zaphimri was raised to the throne of his forefathers.—Murphy,
_The Orphan of China_.

_Hamet_, one of the black slaves of Sir Brian de Bois Guilbert,
preceptor of the Knights Templars.—Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time,
Richard I.).

_Hamet_, (_the Cid_) or THE CID HAMET BENENGEL´I, the hypothetical
Moorish chronicler who is fabled by Cervantês to have written the
adventures of “Don Quixote.”

       O Nature’s noblest gift my gray goose quill!...
       Our task complete, like Hamet’s shall be free.
                     Byron, _English Bards and Scotch Reviewers_

The shrewd Cid Hamet, addressing himself to his pen, says, “And now my
slender quill, whether skillfully cut or otherwise, here from this rack,
suspended by a wire, shalt thou peacefully live to distant times, unless
the hand of some rash historian disturb thy repose by taking thee down
and profaning thee.”—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_ (last chap., 1615).

=Hamilton= (_Lady Emily_), sister of Lord Evandale.—Sir W. Scott, _Old
Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

_Hamilton_ (_Mrs._), model Christian mother, whose character and modes
of government are delineated in _Home Influence_ and _The Mother’s
Recompense_.—Grace Aquilar (185-).

=Hamiltrude= (_3 syl._), a poor Frenchwoman, the first of Charlemagne’s
nine wives. She bore him several children.

Her neck was tinged with a delicate rose.... Her locks were bound about
her temples with gold and purple bands. Her dress was looped up with
ruby clasps. Her coronet and her purple robes gave her an air of
surpassing majesty.—L’Epine, _Croquemitaine_, iii.

=Hamlet=, prince of Denmark, a man of mind, but not of action; nephew of
Claudius, the reigning king, who had married the widowed queen. Hamlet
loved Ophelia, daughter of Polo´nius, the lord chamberlain; but feeling
it to be his duty to revenge his father’s murder, he abandoned the idea
of marriage and treated Ophelia so strangely that she went mad, and,
gathering flowers from a brook, fell into the water and was drowned.
While wasting his energy in speculation, Hamlet accepted a challenge
from Laertês of a friendly contest with foils; but Laertês used a
poisoned rapier, with which he stabbed the young prince. A scuffle
ensued, in which the combatants changed weapons, and Laertês being
stabbed, both died.—Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

“The whole play,” says Schlegel, “is intended to show that calculating
consideration which exhausts ... the power of action.” Goethe is of the
same opinion, and says that “Hamlet is a noble nature, without the
strength of nerve which forms a hero. He sinks beneath a burden which he
cannot bear, and cannot [_make up his mind to_] cast aside.”

⁂ In the _History of Hamblet_, Hamlet’s father is called “Horvendille.”

=Hammer= (_The _),Judas Asamonæus, surnamed _Maccabæus_, “the hammer”
(B.C. 166-136).

Charles Martel (689-741).

On prétend qu’on lui donna le surnom de _Martel_ parcequ’il avait écrasé
comme avec un marteau les Sarrasins qui, sous la conduite d’Abdérame,
avaient envahi la France.—Bouillet.

=Hammer and Scourge of England=, Sir William Wallace (1270-1305).

=Hammer of Heretics=.

1. PIERRE D’AILLY, president of the council which condemned John Huss

2. ST. AUGUSTINE, “the pillar of truth and hammer of heresies”

3. JOHN FABER. So called from the title of one of his works, _Malleus
Hereticorum_ (1470-1541).

=Hammer of Scotland=, Edward I. His son inscribed on his tomb: “Edwardus
Longus Scotorum Malleus hic est” (1239, 1272-1307).

=Hammerlein= (_Claus_), the smith, one of the insurgents at Liège.—Sir
W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Hamond,= captain of the guard of Rollo (“the bloody brother” of Otto,
and duke of Normandy). He stabs the duke, and Rollo stabs the captain;
so that they kill each other.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Bloody
Brother_ (1639).

=Hamor= (_Everett_), artist to whom Gwenn consents to sit as a model,
and who reciprocates the favor by stealing her heart, his own fancy
being enthralled, while he knows that he cannot marry her.

While she dances—a breathing poem, her clear eyes seeking Hamor’s with a
kind of proud pleading—“Your smile, too, O my master,” they pleaded;
“your smile to crown my joy,”—he is talking of art to a young Danish
woman, also an artist, and not seeing Gwenn.—Blanche Willis Howard,
_Gwenn_ (1883).

=Hampden= (_John_), was born in London, but after his marriage lived as
a country squire. He was imprisoned in the gatehouse for refusing to pay
a tax called ship-money, imposed without the authority of parliament.
The case was tried in the Exchequer Chamber, in 1638, and given against
him. He threw himself heart and soul into the business of the Long
Parliament, and commanded a troop in the parliamentary army. In 1643 he
fell in an encounter with Prince Rupert; but he has ever been honored as
a patriot, and the defender of the rights of the people (1597-1643).

        [_Shall_] Hampden no more, when suffering Freedom calls,
        Encounter Fate, and triumph as he falls?
                    Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1790).

            Some village Hampden, that with dauntless breast,
            The little tyrant of his fields withstood.
                                        Grey, _Elegy_ (1749).

=Hamzu-ben-Ahmud=, who, on the death of Hakeem. B’amr-ellah (called the
incarnate deity and last prophet), was the most zealous propagator of
the new faith, out of which the semi-Mohammedan sect, called Druses,
subsequently arose.

N.B.—They were not called “Druses” till the eleventh century, when one
of their “apostles,” called Durzi, led them from Egypt to Syria, and the
sect was called by his name.

=Handel’s Monument=, in Westminster Abbey, is by Roubillac. It was the
last work executed by this sculptor.

=Han= (_Sons of_), the Chinese, so called from Hân, the village in which
Lieou-pang was chief. Lieou-pang conquered all who opposed him, seized
the supreme power, assumed the name of Kao-hoâng-tee and the dynasty,
which lasted 422 years, was “the fifth imperial dynasty, or that of
Hân.” It gave thirty emperors, and the seat of government was Yn. With
this dynasty the modern history of China begins (B.C. 202 to A.D. 220).

=Handsome Englishman= (_The_). The French used to call John Churchill,
duke of Marlborough, _Le Bel Anglais_ (1650-1722).

=Handsome Swordsman= (_The_). Joachim Murat was popularly called _Le
Beau Sabreur_ (1767-1815).

=Handy Andy=, (See ANDY).

=Handy= (_Sir Abel_), a great contriver of inventions which would not
work, and of retrograde improvements. Thus “his infallible axletree”
gave way when it was used, and the carriage was “smashed to pieces.” His
substitute for gunpowder exploded, endangered his life, and set fire to
the castle. His “extinguishing powder” might have reduced the flames,
but it was not mixed, nor were his patent fire-engines in workable
order. He said to Farmer Ashfield:

“I have obtained patents for tweezers, toothpicks, and tinder-boxes ...
and have now on hand two inventions, ... one for converting saw-dust
into deal boards, and the other for cleaning rooms by steam-engines.”

_Lady Nelly Handy_ (his wife), formerly a servant in the house of Farmer
Ashfield. She was full of affectations, overbearing, and dogmatical.
Lady Nelly tried to “forget the dunghill whence she grew, and thought
herself the Lord knows who.” Her extravagance was so great that Sir Abel
said his “best coal-pit would not find her in white muslin, nor his
India bonds in shawls and otto of roses.” It turned out that her first
husband, Gerald, who had been absent twenty years, reappeared and
claimed her. Sir Abel willingly resigned his claim, and gave Gerald
£5000 to take her off his hands.

_Robert Handy_ (always called _Bob_), son of Sir Abel by his first wife.
He fancied he could do everything better than any one else. He taught
the post boy to drive, but broke the horse’s knees. He taught Farmer
Ashfield how to box, but got knocked down by him at the first blow. He
told Dame Ashfield he had learned lace-making at Mechlin, and that she
did not make it in the right way; but he spoilt her cushion in showing
her how to do it. He told Lady Handy (his father’s bride) she did not
know how to use the fan, and showed her; he told her she did not know
how to curtsey, and showed her. Being pestered by this popinjay beyond
endurance, she implored her husband to protect her from further insults.
Though light-hearted, Bob was “warm, steady, and sincere.” He married
Susan, the daughter of Farmer Ashfield.—Th. Morton, _Speed the Plough_

=Hanging Judge= (_The_), Sir Francis Page (1718-1741).

The earl of Norbury, who was chief justice of the Common Pleas in
Ireland from 1820 to 1827, was also stigmatized with the same unenviable

=Hannah.= The friend of the Quaker widow in the garden after her
husband’s funeral—“the single heart that comes at need.”—Bayard Taylor,
_The Quaker Widow_.

_Hannah_, housekeeper to Mr. Fairford, the lawyer.—Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Hannah Thurston.= A country girl, a Quaker by birth and breeding, whose
Madonna face and nobility of character win the regard of a wealthy
citizen of the world, a travelled man who yet does not sympathize with
Hannah’s “progressive” ideas on the subject of woman’s suffrage, etc. He
marries her and converts her.—Bayard Taylor, _Hannah Thurston_, (1868.)

=Hans=, a simple-minded boy of five and twenty, in love with Esther, but
too shy to ask her in marriage. He is a “Modus” in a lower social grade;
and Esther is a “cousin Helen,” who laughs at him, loves him, and
teaches him how to make love to her and win her.—S. Knowles, _The Maid
of Mariendorpt_ (1838).

_Hans_, the pious ferryman on the banks of the Rhine.—Sir W. Scott,
_Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

_Hans_ (_Adrian_), a Dutch merchant killed at Boston.—Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Hans of Iceland=, a novel by Victor Hugo (1824). Hans is a stern,
savage, Northern monster, ghastly and fascinating.

=Hans von Rippach= [_Rip.pak_], _i.e._ Jack of Rippach. Rippach is a
village near Leipsic. This Hans von Rippach is is a “Mons.
Nong-tong-pas,” that is, a person asked for, who does not exist. The
“joke” is to ring a house up at some unseasonable hour, and ask for Herr
Hans von Rippach or Mons. Nongtongpas.

=Hanson= (_Neil_), a soldier in the castle of Garde Doloureuse.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Hanswurst=, the “Jack Pudding” of old German comedy, but almost
annihilated by Gottsched, in the middle of the eighteenth century. He
was clumsy, huge in person, an immense gourmand, and fond of vulgar
practical jokes.

⁂ The French “Jean Potage,” the Italian “Macaroni,” and the Dutch
“Pickel Herringe,” were similar characters.

=Hapmouche= (_2 syl._), _i.e_. “fly-catcher,” the giant who first hit
upon the plan of smoking pork and neats’ tongues.—Rabelais,
_Pantagruel_, ii. 1.

=Happer= or =Hob=. the miller who supplies St. Mary’s Convent.

_Mysie Happer_, the miller’s daughter. Afterwards, in disguise, she acts
as the page of Sir Piercie Shafton, whom she marries.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Happuck=, a magician, brother of Ulin, the enchantress. He was the
instigator of rebellion, and intended to kill the Sultan Misnar at a
review, but Misnar had given orders to a body of archers to shoot the
man who was left standing when the rest of the soldiers fell prostrate
in adoration. Misnar went to the review, and commanded the army to give
thanks to Allah for their victory, when all fell prostrate except
Happuck, who was thus detected, and instantly despatched.—Sir C. Morell
[James Ridley], _Tales of the Genii_ (“The Enchanter’s Tale,” vi.,

Have we prevailed against Ulin and Happuck, Ollomand and Tasnar, Ahaback
and Desra; and shall we fear the contrivance of a poor vizier?—_Tales of
the Genii_, vii. (1751).

=Har´apha=, a descendant of Anak, the giant of Gath. He went to mock
Samson in prison, but durst not venture within his reach.—Milton,
_Samson Agonistes_ (1632).

=Harbor= (_In_).

        “I know it is over, over!
           I know it is over at last!
         Down sail! the sheathed anchor uncover,
           For the stress of the voyage has passed.
         Life, like a tempest of ocean,
           Hath outbreathed its ultimate blast;
         There’s but a faint sobbing seaward,
           While the calm of the tide deepens leeward;
         And, behold! like the welcoming quiver
           Of heart-pulses throbbed through the river.
         Those lights in the harbor at last;
           The heavenly harbor at last!”
                                    Paul Hamilton Hayne (1882).

=Har´bothel= (_Master Fabian_), the squire of Sir Aymer de Valence.—Sir
W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

=Hard Times,= a novel by C. Dickens (1854), dramatized in 1867 under the
titlef of _Under the Earth_ or _The Sons of Toil_. Bounderby, a street
Arab, raised himself to banker and cotton prince. When 55 years of age,
he proposed marriage to Louisa, daughter of Thomas Gradgrind, Esq.,
J.P., and was accepted. One night the bank was robbed of £150, and
Bounderby believed Stephen Blackpool to be the thief, because he had
dismissed him, being obnoxious to the mill hands; but the culprit was
Tom Gradgrind, the banker’s brother-in-law, who lay _perdu_ for a while,
and then escaped out of the country. In the dramatized version, the bank
was not robbed at all, but Tom merely removed the money to another
drawer for safe custody.

=Hardcastle= (_Squire_), a jovial, prosy, but hospitable country
gentleman of the old school. He loves to tell his long-winded stories
about Prince Eugene and the duke of Marlborough. He says, “I love
everything that’s old—old friends, old times, old manners, old books,
old wine,” and he might have added, “old stories.”

_Mrs. Hardcastle_, a very “genteel” lady indeed. Mr. Hardcastle is her
second husband, and Tony Lumpkin her son by her former husband. She is
fond of “genteel” society, and the last fashions. Mrs. Hardcastle says,
“There’s nothing in the world I love to talk of so much as London and
the fashions, though I was never there myself.” She, foolishly mistaking
her husband for a highwayman, and imploring him on her knees to take
their watches, money, all they have got, but to spare their lives:
“Here, good gentleman, whet your rage upon me, take my money, my life,
but spare my child!” is infinitely comic.

The princess, like Mrs. Hardcastle, was jolted to a jelly.—Lord W.P.
Lennox, _Celebrities_, i. 1.

_Miss Hardcastle_, the pretty, bright-eyed, lively daughter of Squire
Hardcastle. She is in love with young Marlow, and “stoops” to a
pardonable deceit “to conquer” his bashfulness and win him.—Goldsmith,
_She Stoops to Conquer_ (1773).

=Hardie= (_Mr._), a young lawyer, in the introduction of Sir W. Scott’s
_Heart of Midlothian_ (1818).

_Hardie_ (_Alfred_), lover of Julia Dodd, in Charles Reade’s _Very Hard
Cash_. His father, _Richard Hardie_, wealthy and fraudulent banker,
cheats _David Dodd_, Julia’s father, of £14,000, and hinders his son’s
marriage to the daughter of his victim by every means in his power,
going so far as to shut him up in an insane asylum on what was to have
been his wedding-day.—Charles Reade, _Very Hard Cash_.

=Hardouin= (_2 syl._). Jean Hardouin, the jesuit, was librarian to Louis
XIV. He doubted the truth of all received history; denied that the
_Æne´id_ was the work of Virgil, or the _Odes_ of Horace the production
of that poet; placed no credence in medals and coins; regarded all
councils before that of Trent as chimerical; and looked on all
Jansenists as infidels (1646-1729).

=Hardy= (_Mr._), father of Letitia. A worthy little fellow enough, but
with the unfortunate gift of “foreseeing” everything (act v. 4).

_Letitia Hardy_, his daughter, the _fiancée_ of Dor´icourt. A girl of
great spirit and ingenuity, beautiful and clever. Doricourt dislikes her
without knowing her, simply because he has been betrothed to her by his
parents; but she wins him by stratagem. She first assumes the airs and
manners of a raw country hoyden, and disgusts the fastidious man of
fashion. She then appears at a masquerade, and wins him by her many
attractions. The marriage is performed at midnight, and, till the
ceremony is over, Doricourt has no suspicion that the fair masquerader
is his affianced, Miss Hardy.—Mrs. Cowley, _The Belle’s Stratagem_

=Harding= (_Mr._), gentle warden of Barchester almshouse; precentor and
rector of St. Cuthbert’s. Harried nearly out of his sober wits by
newspaper persecution.—Anthony Trollope, _The Warden_ and _Barchester

=Haredale= (_Geoffrey_), brother of Reuben, the uncle of Emma Haredale.
He was a papist, and incurred the malignant hatred of Gashford (Lord
George Gordon’s secretary) by exposing him in Westminster Hall. Geoffrey
Haredale killed Sir John Chester in a duel, but made good his escape,
and ended his days in a monastery.

_Reuben Haredale_, (_2 syl._), brother of Geoffrey, and father of Emma
Haredale. He was murdered.

_Emma Haredale_, daughter of Reuben, and niece of Geoffrey, with whom
she lived at “The Warren.” Edward Chester entertained a _tendresse_ for
Emma Haredale.—C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

=Harefoot= (_Harold_). So Harold I. was called because he was swift of
foot as a hare (1035-1040).

=Hargrave=, a man of fashion. The hero and title of a novel by Mrs.
Trollope (1843).

=Harley=, “the man of feeling.” A man of the finest sensibilities and
unbounded benevolence, but bashful as a maiden.—Mackenzie, _The Man of
Feeling_ (1771).

The principal object of Mackenzie is ... to reach and sustain a tone of
moral pathos by representing the effect of incidents ... upon the human
mind, ... especially those which are just, honorable, and
intelligent.—Sir W. Scott.

=Harlot= (_The Infamous Northern_), Elizabeth Petrowna, empress of
Russia (1709-1761).

=Har´lowe= (_Clarissa_), a young lady, who, to avoid a marriage to which
her heart cannot consent, but to which she is urged by her parents,
casts herself on the protection of a lover, who most scandalously abuses
the confidence reposed in him. He afterwards proposes marriage; but she
rejects his proposal, and retires to a solitary dwelling, where she
pines to death with grief and shame.—S. Richardson, _The History of
Clarissa Harlowe_ (1749).

The dignity of Clarissa under her disgrace ... reminds us of the saying
of the ancient poet, that a good man struggling with the tide of
adversity, and surmounting it, is a sight upon which the immortal gods
might look down with pleasure.—Sir W. Scott.

The moral elevation of this heroine, the saintly purity which she
preserves amidst scenes of the deepest depravity and the most seductive
gaiety, and the never-failing sweetness and benevolence of her temper,
render Clarissa one of the brightest triumphs of the whole range of
imaginative literature.—Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 161.

=Harmon= (_John_), _alias_ JOHN ROKESMITH, Mr. Boffin’s secretary. He
lodged with the Wilfers, and ultimately married Bella Wilfer. He is
described as “a dark gentleman, 30 at the utmost, with an expressive,
one might say, a handsome face.”—C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1864).

⁂ For explanation of the mystery see vol. I. ii. 13.

=Harmo´nia’s Necklace=, an unlucky possession, something which brings
evil to its possessor. Harmonia was the daughter of Mars and Venus. On
the day of her marriage with King Cadmus, she received a necklace made
by Vulcan for Venus. This unlucky ornament afterwards passed to Sem´elê,
then to Jocasta, then Eriphy´lê, but it was equally fatal in every case.
(See LUCK.)—Ovid, _Metaph._, iv. 5; Statius, _Thebaid_, ii.

=Harmonious Blacksmith.= It is said that the sound of hammers on an
anvil suggested to Handel the “theme” of the musical composition to
which he has given this name.—See SCHOELCHER, _Life of Handel_, 65.

A similar tale is told of Pythagoras.

=Harmony= (_Mr._), a general peace-maker. When he found persons at
variance, he went to them separately, and told them how highly the other
spoke and thought of him or her. If it were man and wife, he would tell
the wife how highly her husband esteemed her, and would apply the “oiled
feather” in a similar way to the husband. “We all have our faults,” he
would say, “and So-and-so-knows it, and grieves at his infirmity of
temper; but though he contends with you, he praised you to me this
morning in the highest terms.” By this means he succeeded in smoothing
many a ruffled mind.—Inchbald, _Every One has His Fault_ (1794).

=Harold= “the Dauntless,” son of Witikind, the Dane. “He was rocked on a
buckler, and fed from a blade.” Harold married Eivir, a Danish maid, who
had waited on him as a page.—Sir W. Scott, _Harold the Dauntless_

_Harold_ (_Childe_), a man of good birth, lofty bearing, and peerless
intellect, who has exhausted by dissipation the pleasures of youth, and
travels. Sir Walter Scott calls him “Lord Byron in a fancy dress.” In
canto i. the childe visits Portugal and Spain (1809); in canto ii.,
Turkey in Europe (1810); in canto iii., Belgium and Switzerland (1816);
in canto iv., Venice, Rome, and Florence (1817).

⁂ Lord Byron was only 21 when he began _Childe Harold_, and 28 when he
finished it.

=Haroun-al-Raschid=, caliph, of the Abbasside race, contemporary with
Charlemagne, and, like him, a patron of literature and the arts. The
court of this caliph was most splendid, and under him the caliphate
attained its greatest degree of prosperity (765-809).

⁂ Many of the tales in the _Arabian Nights_ are placed in the caliphate
of Haroun-al-Raschid, as the histories of “Am´inê,” “Sindbad the
Sailor,” “Aboul-hasson and Shemselnihar,” “Noureddin,” “Codadad and his
Brothers,” “Sleeper Awakened,” and “Cogia Hassan.” In the the third of
these the caliph is a principal actor.

=Har´pagon=, the miser, father of Cléante (_2 syl._) and Elise (_2
syl._). Both Harpagon and his son desire to marry Mariane (_3 syl._);
but the father, having lost a casket of money, is asked which he
prefers—his casket or Mariane, and as the miser prefers the money,
Cléante marries the lady. Harpagon imagines that every one is going to
rob him, and when he loses his casket, seizes his own arm in the frenzy
of passion. He proposes to give his daughter in marriage to an old man
named Anselme, because no “dot” will be required; and when Valère (who
is Elise’s lover) urges reason after reason against the unnatural
alliance, the miser makes but one reply, “sans dot.” “Ah,” says Valère,
“il est vrai cela ferme la bouche à tout, _sans dot_.” Harpagon, at
another time, solicits Jacques (_1 syl._) to tell him what folks say of
him: and when Jacques replies he cannot do so, as it would make him
angry, the miser answers, “Point de tout, au contraire, c’est me faire
plaisir.” But when told that he is called a miser and a skinflint, he
towers with rage, and beats Jacques in his uncontrolled passion.

“Le seigneur Harpagon est de tous les humains l’humain le moins humain,
le mortel de tous les mortels le plus dur et le plus serré” (ii. 5).
Jacques says to him, “Jamais on ne parle de vous que sous les noms
d’avare, de ladre, de vilain, et de fesse-Matthiæ” (iii. 5).—Molière,
_L’Avare_ (1667).

=Harpax=, centurion of the “Immortal Guard.”—Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert
of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Harpê= (_2 syl._), the cutlass with which Mercury killed Argus, and
with which Perseus (_2 syl._) subsequently cut off the head of Medusa.

=Harper=, a familiar spirit of mediæval demonology.

         Harper cries, “’Tis time, ’tis time!”
                 Shakespeare, _Macbeth_, act iv. sc. 1 (1606).

=Harpoc´rates= (_4 syl._), the god of silence. Cupid bribed him with a
rose not to divulge the amours of Venus. Harpocratês is generally
represented with his second finger on his mouth.

He also symbolized the sun at the end of winter, and is represented with
a cornucopia in one hand and a lotus in the other. The lotus is
dedicated to the sun, because it opens at sunrise and closes at sunset.

I assured my mistress she might make herself quite easy on that score
[i.e. _my making mention of what was told me_], for I was the
Harpocrates of trusty valets.—Lesage, _Gil Blas_, iv. 2 (1724).

=Harriet=, the elder daughter of Sir David and Lady Dunder, of Dunder
Hall. She was in love with Scruple, whom she accidentally met at Calais;
but her parents arranged that she should marry Lord Snolts, a stumpy,
“gummy” old nobleman of five-and-forty. To prevent this hateful
marriage, Harriet consented to elope with Scruple; but the flight was
intercepted by Sir David, who, to prevent a scandal, consented to the
marriage, and discovered that Scruple, both in family and fortune, was a
suitable son-in-law.—G. Colman, _Ways and Means_ (1788).

=Harriet= [=Mowbray=], the daughter of Colonel Mowbray, an orphan
without fortune, without friends, without a protector. She marries
clandestinely Charles Eustace.—J. Poole, _The Scapegoat_.

=Harriot= [RUSSET], the simple, unsophisticated daughter of Mr. Russet.
She loves Mr. Oakly, and marries him, but becomes “a jealous wife,”
watching her husband like a lynx, to find out some proof of infidelity,
and distorting every casual remark as evidence thereof. Her aunt, Lady
Freelove, tries to make her a woman of fashion, but without success.
Ultimately, she is cured of her idiosyncrasy.—George Colman, _The
Jealous Wife_ (1761).

=Harriet= (_Shattuck_), superannuated tailoress who, with her blind
sister, lives in the little house in which she was born. It leaks and
shakes in the wind, and they are often hungry, but when they are removed
to a “Home,” they steal away and walk fourteen miles back to the old
house.—Mary E. Wilkins, _A Humble Romance_ (1887.)

=Harris= (_Mrs._), a purely imaginary character, existing only in the
brain of Mrs. Sarah Gamp, and brought forth on all occasions to
corroborate the opinions and trumpet the praises of Mrs. Gamp, the
monthly nurse.

_Harris_, one of the trio of invalids who go up the Thames in quest of
health. Their adventures are the theme of Jerome K. Jerome’s _Three Men
in a Boat_ (1889).

=Harrises= (_The_), family who live and die in the faith that, to be a
born Harris is a career in itself. They are not rich, or learned, or
accomplished, but eminently respectable, and clad in simple egotism as
with a garment.—Annie Sheldon Coombs, _As Common Mortals_ (1886).

=Harrison= (_Dr._), the model of benevolence, who nevertheless takes in
execution the goods and person of his friend Booth, because Booth, while
pleading poverty, was buying expensive and needless jewelery.—Fielding,
_Amelia_ (1751).

_Harrison_ (_Major-General_), one of the parliamentary
commissioners.—Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

_Harrison_, the old stewart of Lady Bellenden, of the Tower of
Tillietudlem.—Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Har´rowby= (_John_), of Stock’s Green, a homely, kind-hearted, honest
Kentish farmer, with whom Lieutenant Worthington and his daughter Emily
take lodgings. Though most desirous of showing his lodger kindness, he
is constantly wounding his susceptibilities from blunt honesty and want
of tact.

_Dame Harrowby_, wife of Farmer Harrowby.

_Stephen Harrowby_, son of Farmer Harrowby, who has a mania for
soldiering, and calls himself “a perspiring young hero.”

_Mary Harrowby_, daughter of Farmer Harrowby.—G. Colman, _The Poor
Gentleman_ (1802).

=Harringtons= (_The_), Melchisedec. Fashionable tailor; “a grand man,
despite his calling.” Of him and _Mrs. Harrington_ it was said that she
“had a Port, and Melchisedec a Presence.”

_Caroline_, married to Major Strike.

_Harriet_, married to Mr. Andrew Cogglesby.

_Louisa_, married to Señor Silva Diaz, Conde de Saldar.

_Evan_, the only son, brought up in polite circles, hates the name and
trade of “tailor,” but bound in honor to pay his father’s debts. After
many struggles and divers reverses, the contest between tradesman and
diplomatist within him ends in his marriage to an heiress long beloved
by him, and the appointment to the position of attaché to the Naples
Embassy.—George Meredith, _Evan Harrington_ (1888).

=Harry= (_Sir_), the servant of a baronet, who assumed the airs and
title of his master, and was addressed as “Baronet,” or “Sir Harry.” He
even quotes a bit of Latin: “O tempora! O Moses!”—Rev. James Townley,
_High Life Below Stairs_ (1759).

_Harry_ (_Blind_), the minstrel, friend of Henry Smith.—Sir. W. Scott,
_Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

_Harry_ (_The Great_), or _Henri Grace à Dieu_, a man-of-war built in
the reign of Henry VII.

        Towered the _Great Harry_, crank and tall.
                         Longfellow, _The Building of the Ship_.

=Harry Paddington=, a highwayman in the gang of Captain Macheath.
Peachum calls him “a poor, petty-larceny rascal, without the least
genius;” and says, “even if the fellow were to live six months, he would
never come to the gallows with credit.”—Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_

=Hart´house= (_2 syl._) a young man who begins life as a cornet of
dragoons, but, being bored with everything, coaches himself up in
statistics, and comes to Coketown to study facts. He falls in love with
Louisa [_née_ Gradgrind], wife of Josiah Bounderby, banker and
mill-owner, but, failing to induce the young wife to elope with him, he
leaves the place.—C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

=Hartley= (_Adam_), afterwards Dr. Hartly. Apprentice to Dr. Gray.—Sir
W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

=Hartwell= (_Lady_), a widow, courted by Fountain, Bellamore, and
Harebrain.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _Wit without Money_ (1639).

=Harût and Marût=, two angels sent by Allah to administer justice upon
earth, because there was no righteous judgment among men. They acted
well till Zoha´ra, a beautiful woman, applied to them, and then they
both fell in love with her. She asked them to tell her the secret name
of God, and immediately she uttered it, she was borne upwards into
heaven, where she became the planet Venus. As for the two angels, they
were imprisoned in a cave near Babylon.—Sale’s _Korân_, ii.

                  Allah bade
        That two untempted spirits should descend,
        Judges on earth. Haruth and Maruth went,
        The chosen sentencers. They fairly heard
        The appeals of men ... At length,
        A woman came before them; beautiful
        Zohara was, etc.
                   Southey, _Talaba the Destroyer_, iv. (1797).

=Hassan=, caliph of the Ottoman empire, noted for his splendor and
hospitality. In his seraglio was a beautiful young slave named Leila (_2
syl_.), who had formed an attachment to “the Giaour” (_2 syl_.). Leila
is put to death by the emir, and Hassan is slain near Monut Parnassus by
the giaour [_djow´.er_].—Byron, _The Giaour_ (1813).

_Hassan_, the story-teller, in the retinue of the Arabian physician.—Sir
W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

_Hassan_ (_Al_), the Arabian emir of Persia, father of Hinda. He won the
battle of Cadessia, and thus became master of Persia.—T. Moore, _Lalla
Rookh_ (“the Fire-Worshippers,” 1817).

_Hassan_ surnamed _Al Habbal_ (“the rope-maker”), and subsequently
_Cogia_ (“merchant”); his full name was then Cogia Hassan Alhabbal. Two
friends, named Saad and Saadi, tried an experiment on him. Saadi gave
him 200 pieces of gold in order to see if it would raise him from
extreme poverty to affluence. Hassan took ten pieces for immediate use,
and sewed the rest in his turban; but a kite pounced on his turban and
carried it away. The two friends, after a time, visited Hassan again,
but found him in the same state of poverty; and, having heard his tale,
Saadi gave him another 200 pieces of gold. Again he took out ten pieces,
and, wrapping the rest in a linen rag, hid it in a jar of bran. While
Hassan was at work, his wife exchanged this jar of bran for fuller’s
earth, and again the condition of the man was not bettered by the gift.
Saad now gave the rope-maker a small piece of lead, and this made his
fortune thus: A fisherman wanted a piece of lead for his nets, and
promised to give Hassan for Saad’s piece whatever he caught in his first
draught. This was a large fish, and in it the wife found a splendid
diamond, which was sold for 100,000 pieces of gold. Hassan now became
very rich, and when the two friends visited him again, they found him a
man of consequence. He asked them to stay with him, and took them to his
country house, when one of his sons showed him a curious nest, made out
of a turban. This was the very turban which the kite had carried off,
and the money was found in the lining. As they returned to the city,
they stopped and purchased a jar of bran. This happened to be the very
jar which the wife had given in exchange, and the money was discovered
wrapped in linen at the bottom. Hassan was delighted, and gave the 180
pieces to the poor.—_Arabian Nights_ (“Cogia Hassan Alhabbal”).

_Hassan_ (_Abou_), the son of a rich merchant of Bagdad, and the hero of
the tale called “The Sleeper Awakened” (_q.v._).—_Arabian Nights_.

=Hassan Aga=, an infamous renegade, who reigned in Algiers, and was the
sovereign there when Cervantes (author of _Don Quixote_) was taken
captive by a Barbary corsair in 1574. Subsequently, Hassan bought the
captive for 500 ducats, and he remained a slave till he was redeemed by
a friar for 1000 ducats.

Every day this Hassan Aga was hanging one, impaling another, cutting off
the ears or breaking the limbs of a third ... out of mere
wantonness.—Cervantes (1605).

=Hassan ben Sabah=, the old man of the mountain, founder of the sect
called the Assassins.

Dr. Adam Clark has supplemented Rymer’s _Fœdera_ with two letters by
this sheik. This is not the place to point out the want of judgment in
these addenda.

=Hastie= (_Robin_), the smuggler and publican at Annan.—Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Hastings=, the friend of young Marlow, who entered with him the house
of Squire Hardcastle, which they mistook for an inn. Here the two young
men met Miss Hardcastle and Miss Neville. Marlow became the husband of
the former, and Hastings, by the aid of Tony Lumpkins, won the
latter.—Goldsmith, _She Stoops to Conquer_ (1773).

_Hastings_, one of the court of King Edward IV.—Sir W. Scott, _Anne of
Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Haswell=, the benevolent physician who visited the Indian prisons, and
for his moderation, benevolence, and judgment, received the sultan’s
signet, which gave him unlimited power.—Mrs. Inchbald, _Such Things Are_

=Hat= (_Gessler’s_). The governor of the Swiss cantons in the reign of
Albert I. set up his hat at Altorf, requiring the Swiss to salute it in
passing. William Tell refused, and was sentenced to shoot an apple from
the head of his son. Tell from this became prominent in achieving the
liberties of Switzerland.

_Hat_ (_A White_), used to be a mark of radical proclivities, because
orator Hunt, the great demagogue, used to wear a white hat during the
Wellington and Peel administration.

=Hat worn in the Royal Presence.= Lord Kingsdale acquired the right of
wearing his hat in the presence of royalty by a grant from King John.
Lord Forester is possessed of the same right, from a grant confirmed by
Henry VIII.

=Hats and Caps=, two political factions of Sweden in the eighteenth
century. The “Hats” were partisans in the French interest, and were so
called because they wore French _chapeaux_. The “Caps” were partisans in
the Russian interest, and were so called because they wore the Russian
caps as a badge of their party.

=Hatchway= (_Lieutenant Jack_), a retired naval officer on half pay,
living with Commodore Trunnion as a companion.—Smollett, _The Adventures
of Peregrine Pickle_ (1751).

Who can read the calamities of Trunnion and Hatchway, when run away with
by their mettled steed ... without a good hearty burst of honest
laughter.—Sir W. Scott.

=Hatef= (_i.e. the deadly_), one of Mahomet’s swords, confiscated from
the Jews when they were exiled from Medi´na.

=Hatim= (_Generous as_), an Arabian expression. Hatim was a Bedouin
chief, famous for his warlike deeds and boundless generosity. His son
was contemporary with Mahomet the prophet.

=Hathaway= (_Richard_). Young farmer whose “silent side” is imperfectly
understood by his wife, Anstis Dolbeare, until a mutual sorrow brings
them into sympathy each with the other.—A. D. T. Whitney, _Hitherto_

=Hatteraick= (_Dirk_), _alias_ JANS JANSON, a Dutch smuggler-captain,
and accomplice of lawyer Glossin in kidnapping Henry Bertrand. Meg
Merrilies conducts young Hazelwood and others to the smuggler’s cave,
when Hatteraick shoots her, is seized, and imprisoned. Lawyer Glossin
visits the villain in prison, when a quarrel ensues, in which Hatteraick
strangles the lawyer, and then hangs himself.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy
Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Hatto=, archbishop of Mentz, was devoured by mice in the Mouse-tower,
situated in a little green island in the midst of the Rhine, near the
town of Bingen. Some say he was eaten of rats, and Southey, in his
ballad called _God’s Judgment on a_ _Wicked Bishop_, has adopted the
latter tradition.

This Hatto, in the time of the great famine of 914, when he saw the poor
exceedingly oppressed by famine, assembled a great company of them
together into a barne at Kaub, and burnt them ... because he thought the
famine would sooner cease if those poor folks were despatched out of the
world, for like mice they only devour food, and are of no good
whatsoever.... But God ... sent against him a plague of mice, ... and
the prelate retreated to a tower in the Rhine as a sanctuary; ... but
the mice chased him continually, ... and at last he was most miserably
devoured by those sillie creatures.—Coryat, _Crudities_, 571, 572.

⁂ Giraldus Cambrensis, in his _Itinerary_, xi. 2, says: “the larger sort
of mice are called _rati_.” This may account for the substitution of
rats for mice in the legend.

The legend of Hatto is very common, as the following stories will

_Widerolf_, bishop of Strasburg (997), was devoured by mice in the
seventeenth year of his episcopate, because he suppressed the convent of
Seltzen, on the Rhine.

_Bishop Adolf_, of Cologne, was devoured by mice or rats in 112.

_Freiherr von Güttingen_ collected the poor in a great barn, and burnt
them to death, mocking their cries of agony. He, like Hatto, was invaded
by mice, ran to his castle of Güttingen, in the lake of Constance,
whither the vermin pursued him, and ate him alive. The Swiss legend says
the castle sank in the lake, and may still be seen. Freiherr von
Güttingen had three castles, one of which was Moosburg.

_Count Graaf_, in order to enrich himself, bought up all the corn. One
year a sad famine prevailed, and the count expected to reap a rich
harvest by his speculation; but an army of rats, pressed by hunger,
invaded his barns, and, swarming into his Rhine tower, fell on the old
baron, worried him to death, and then devoured him.—_Legends of the

A similar story is told by William of Malmesbury, _History_, ii. 313
(Bohn’s edit.).

⁂ Some of the legends state that the “mice” were in reality “the souls
of the murdered people.”

=Hatton= (_Sir Christopher_), “the dancing chancellor.” He first
attracted the attention of Queen Elizabeth by his graceful dancing at a
masque. He was made by her chancellor and knight of the Garter.

⁂ M. de Lauzun, the favorite of Louis XVI., owed his fortune also to the
manner in which he danced in the king’s quadrille.

You’ll know Sir Christopher by his turning out his toes,—famous, you
know, for his dancing.—Sheridan, _The Critic_, ii. 1 (1779).

=Hautlieu= (_Sir Artavan de_), in the introduction of Sir W. Scott’s
_Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

_Hautlieu_ (_The Lady Margaret de_), first disguised as sister Ursula,
and afterwards affianced to Sir Malcolm Fleming.—Sir W. Scott, _Castle
Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

=Have´lok= (_2 syl._), or =Hablok=, the orphan son of Birkabegn, king of
Denmark, was exposed at sea through the treachery of his guardians. The
raft drifted to the coast of Lincolnshire, where it was discovered by
Grim, a fisherman, who reared the young foundling as his own son. It
happened that some twenty years later certain English nobles usurped the
dominions of an English princess, and, to prevent her gaining any access
of power by a noble alliance, resolved to marry her to a peasant. Young
Havelok was selected as the bridegroom, but having discovered the story
of his birth, he applied to his father Birkabegn for aid in recovering
his wife’s possessions. The king afforded him the aid required, and the
young foundling became in due time both king of Denmark and king of that
part of England which belonged to him in right of his wife.—_Havelok the
Dane_ (by the trouveurs).

=Havisham= (_Miss_), an old spinster, who dressed always in her bridal
dress, with lace veil from head to foot, white shoes, bridal flowers in
her white hair, and jewels on her hands and neck. She was the daughter
of a rich brewer, engaged to Compeyson, a young man, who deserted her on
the wedding morning; from which moment she became fossilized (ch.
xxii.). She fell into the fire, and died from the shock.

_Estella Havisham_, the adopted child of Miss Havisham, by whom she was
brought up. She was proud, handsome, and self-possessed. Pip loved her,
and probably she reciprocated his love, but she married Bentley Drummle,
who died, leaving Estella a young widow. The tale ends with these words:

I [_Pip_] took her hand in mine, and we went out of the ruined place. As
the morning mists had risen ... when I first left the forge, so the
evening were rising now; and ... I saw no shadow of another parting from
her.—C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Haw´cabite= (_3 syl._), a street bully. After the Restoration, we had a
succession of these disturbers of the peace; first came the Muns, then
followed the Tityre Tus, the Hectors, the Scourers, the Nickers, the
Hawcabites, and after them the Mohawks, the most dreaded of all.

=Hawk= (_Sir Mulberry_), the bear-leader of Lord Frederick Verisopht. He
is a most unprincipled _roué_, who sponges on his lordship, snubs him,
and despises him. “Sir Mulberry was remarkable for his tact in ruining
young gentlemen of fortune.”

=Hawk-Eye.= Name given by frontiermen to Natty Bumppo, who is also
called by the French, _La Longue Carbine_.—James Fenimore Cooper, _The
Last of the Mohicans._

_To know a hawk from a handsaw_, a corruption of “from a hernshaw” (i.e.
_a heron_), meaning that one is so ignorant, he does not know a hawk
from a heron: the bird of prey from the game flown at. The Romans had a
proverb, _Ignorat quid distent ara lupinis_ (“he does not know money
from lupines,” or beans); lupines were used on the Roman stage as money.
We have a proverb, “He doesn’t know beans,” which may be descended from
the Roman saying.

=Hawthorn=, a jolly, generous old fellow, of jovial spirit, and ready to
do any one a kindness; consequently, everybody loves him. He is one of
those rare, unselfish beings, who “loves his neighbor better than
himself.”—I. Bickerstaff, _Love in a Village._

=Haworth.= A starving lad, found in the snow at a foundry-door, becomes
in time master of the works. He is imperious and greedy of power, making
few friends and many foes. One human being believes in him—his
mother—and when his ambition overvaults itself and he is ruined and in
danger of being mobbed, she goes away with him into the
darkness.—Frances Hodgson Burnett, _Haworths_ (1879).

=Hay= (_Colonel_), in the king’s army.—Sir W. Scott, _Legend of
Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

_Hay_ (_John_), fisherman, near Ellangowan.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy
Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Haydn= could never compose a single bar of music unless he could see on
his finger the diamond ring given him by Frederick II.

=Hayle= (_Maverick_). Betrothed of Perley Kelso in _The Silent Partner_,
by Elizabeth Stuart Phelps. He cannot sympathize with her religious and
philanthropic views, and, recognizing the truth that she has outgrown
him, acquiesces in her wish for a dissolution of the engagement. He
marries dainty, feather-headed “Fly.”

=Hayston= (_Frank_), laird of Bucklaw and afterwards of Girnington. In
order to retrieve a broken fortune, a marriage was arranged between
Hayston and Lucy Ashton. Lucy, being told that her plighted lover
(Edgar, master of Ravenswood) was unfaithful, assented to the family
arrangement, but stabbed her husband on the wedding night, went mad and
died. Frank Hayston recovered from his wound and went abroad.—Sir W.
Scott, _Bride of Lammermoor_ (time, William III.).

⁂ In Donizetti’s opera, Hayston is called “Arturio.”

=Hazelwood= (_Sir Robert_), the old baronet of Hazelwood.

_Charles Hazelwood_, son of Sir Robert. In love with Lucy Bertram, whom
he marries.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Head´rigg= (_Cuddie_), a ploughman in Lady Bellenden’s service.
(Cuddie-Cuthbert.)—Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Headstone= (_Bradley_), a school-master of very determined character
and violent passion. He loves Lizzie Hexam with an irresistible, mad
love, and tries to kill Eugene Wrayburn out of jealousy. Grappling with
Rogue Riderhood on Plashwater Bridge, Riderhood falls backward into the
smooth pit, and Headstone over him. Both of them perish in the grasp of
a death-struggle.—C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1864).

=Hearn= (_Frank_), lieutenant in U.S.A., against whom a charge is
brought of refusing to pay just debts. He asserts that the account was
paid, and the tradesman produces a ledger to prove the opposite. Joined
to other evidence this seems conclusive, until _Georgia Marshall_, with
whom Hearn is in love, catches sight of the ledger, and scribbles a note
to her lover from the other side of the room. He raises a leaf of the
ledger between the light and himself and discovers a water-mark—a
date—that establishes the fact of perjury.—Charles King, _An Army
Portia_ (1890).

=Heart of Midlothian=, the old jail or tolbooth of Edinburgh, taken down
in 1817.

Sir Walter Scott has a novel so called (1818), the plot of which is as
follows:—Effie Deans, the daughter of a Scotch cow-feeder, is seduced by
George Staunton, son of the rector of Willingham; and Jeanie is cited as
a witness on the trial which ensues, by which Effie is sentenced to
death for child murder. Jeanie promises to go to London and ask the king
to pardon her half-sister, and after various perils, arrives at her
destination. She lays her case before the duke of Argyll, who takes her
in his carriage to Richmond, and obtains for her an interview with the
queen, who promises to intercede with his majesty (George II.) on her
sister’s behalf. In due time the royal pardon is sent to Edinburgh,
Effie is released, and marries her seducer, now Sir George Staunton; but
some years after the marriage Sir George is shot by a gypsy boy, who is
in reality his illegitimate son. On the death of her husband, Lady
Staunton retires to a convent on the continent. Jeanie marries Reuben
Butler, the Presbyterian minister. The novel opens with the Porteous

=Heartall= (_Governor_), an old bachelor, peppery in temper, but with a
generous heart and unbounded benevolence. He is as simple minded as a
child, and loves his young nephew almost to adoration.

_Frank Heartall_, the governor’s nephew, impulsive, free-handed and
free-hearted, benevolent and frank. He falls in love with the Widow
Cheerly, the daughter of Colonel Woodley, whom he sees first at the
opera. Ferret, a calumniating rascal, tries to do mischief, but is
utterly foiled.—Cherry, _The Soldier’s Daughter_ (1804).

=Heartfree= (_Jack_), a railer against women and against marriage. He
falls half in love with Lady Fanciful, on whom he rails, and marries
Belinda.—Vanbrugh, _The Provoked Wife_ (1693).

=Heartwell=, a friend of Modeley’s, who falls in love with Flora, a
niece of old Farmer Freehold. They marry and are happy.—John Philip
Kemble, _The Farm-house._

=Heatherblutter= (_John_), gamekeeper of the baron of Bradwardine (_3
syl._) at Tully Veolan.—Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Heaven-sent Minister= (_The_), William Pitt (1759-1806).

=Hebe= (_2 syl._), goddess of youth, and cup-bearer of the immortals
before Ganymede superseded her. She was the wife of Herculês, and had
the power of making the aged young again. (See PLOUSINA.)

        Hebês are they to hand ambrosia, mix
        The nectar.
                                  Tennyson, _The Princess_, iii.

=Hebron=, in the first part of _Absalom and Achitophel_, by Dryden,
stands for Holland; but in the second part, by Tate, it stands for
Scotland. Hebronite similarly means in one case a Hollander, and in the
other a Scotchman.

=Hec´ate= (_2 syl._), called in classic mythology _Hec´.a.te_ (_3
syl._); a triple deity, being _Luna_ in heaven, _Dian’a_ on earth, and
_Proserpine_ (_3 syl._) in hell. Hecate presided over magic and
enchantments, and was generally represented as having the head of a
horse, dog or boar, though sometimes she is represented with three
bodies, and three heads looking different ways. Shakespeare introduces
her in his tragedy of _Macbeth_ (act iii. sc. 5), as queen of the
witches; but the witches of Macbeth have been largely borrowed from a
drama called _The Witch_, by Thom. Middleton (died 1626). The following
is a specimen of this indebtedness:—

     _Hecate._ Black spirits and white, red spirits and grey.
                    Mingle, mingle, mingle, you that mingle may....
     _1st Witch._ Here’s the blood of a bat.
     _Hecate._ Put in that, oh, put in that.
     _2nd Witch._ Here’s libbard’s bane.
     _Hecate._ Put in again, etc., etc.
                                 Middleton, _The Witch_.

        And yonder pale-faced Hecate there, the moon,
        Doth give consent to that is done in darkness.
                       Thom. Kyd, _The Spanish Tragedy_ (1597).

=Hector=, one of the sons of Priam, king of Troy. This bravest and
ablest of all the Trojan chiefs was generalissimo of the allied armies,
and was slain in the last year of the war by Achillês, who, with
barbarous fury, dragged the dead body insultingly thrice round the tomb
of Patroclos and the walls of the beleagured city.—Homer, _Iliad_.

=Hector de Mares= (_1 syl._) or Marys, a knight of the Round Table,
brother of Sir Launcelot du Lac.

       The gentle Gaw´ain’s courteous love,
       Hector de Mares, and Pellinore.
             Sir W. Scott, _Bridal of Triermain_, ii. 13 (1813).

=Hector of Germany=, Joachim II., elector of Brandenburg (1514-1571).

=Hector of the Mist=, an outlaw, killed by Allan M’Aulay.—Sir W. Scott,
_Legend of Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

=Hectors=, street bullies. Since the Restoration, we have had a
succession of street brawlers, as the Muns, the Tityre Tus, the Hectors,
the Scourers, the Nickers, the Hawcabites, and, lastly, the Mohawks,
worst of them all.

=Heeltap= (_Crispin_), a cobbler, and one of the corporation of Garratt,
of which Jerry Sneak is chosen mayor,—S. Foote, _The Mayor of Garratt_

=Heep= (_Uriah_), a detestable sneak, who is everlastingly forcing on
one’s attention that he is so _’umble._ Uriah is Mr. Wickfield’s clerk,
and, with all his ostentatious ’umility, is most designing, malignant,
and intermeddling. His infamy is dragged to light by Mr. Micawber.

=Herr Piper=, “representative in New Swedeland of the Great Gustavus,
the bulwark of the Protestant Religion,” and a mighty stickler for forms
and ceremonies appertaining to the office.—James Kirke Paulding,
_Königsmarke_ (1823).

=Heidelberg= (_Mrs._), the widow of a wealthy Dutch merchant, who kept
her brother’s house (Mr. Sterling, a city merchant). She was very
vulgar, and “knowing the strength of her purse, domineered on the credit
of it.” Mrs. Heidelberg had most exalted notions “of the quality,” and a
“perfect contempt for everything that did not smack of high life.” Her
English was certainly faulty, as the following specimens will
show:—_farden_, _wolgar_, _spurrit_, _pertest_, _Swish_, _kivers_,
_purliteness_, etc. She spoke of a _pictur by Raphael-Angelo_, a
_po-shay_, _dish-abille_, _parfect naturals_ [idiots], _most
genteelest_, and so on. When thwarted in her overbearing ways, she
threatened to leave the house and go to Holland to live with her
husband’s cousin, Mr. Vanderspracken.—Colman and Garrick, _The
Clandestine Marriage_ (1766).

=Heimdall= (_2 syl._), in Celtic mythology, was the son of nine virgin
sisters. He dwelt in the celestial Fort Himinsbiorg, under the extremity
of the rainbow. His ear was so acute that he could hear “the wool grow
on the sheep’s back, and the grass in the meadows.” Heimdall was the
watch or sentinel of Asgard (_Olympus_), and even in his sleep was able
to see everything that happened (See FINE-EAR).

_Heimdall’s Horn._ At the end of the world, Heimdall will wake the gods
with his horn, when they will be attacked by Muspell, Loki, the wolf
Fenris, and the serpent Jormunsgandar.

        And much he talked of...
        And Heimdal’s horn and the day of doom.
                Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_ (interlude, 1631).

=Heinrich= (_Poor_), or “Poor Henry,” the hero and title of a poem by
Hartmann von der Aue [_Our_]. Heinrich was a rich nobleman, struck with
leprosy, and was told he would never recover till some virgin of
spotless purity volunteered to die on his behalf. As Heinrich neither
hoped nor even wished for such a sacrifice, he gave the main part of his
possessions to the poor, and went to live with a poor tenant farmer, who
was one of his vassals. The daughter of this farmer heard by accident on
what the cure of the leper depended, and went to Salerno to offer
herself as the victim. No sooner was the offer made than the lord was
cured, and the damsel became his wife (twelfth century).

⁂ This tale forms the subject of Longfellow’s _Golden Legend_ (1851).

=Heir-at-Law.= Baron Dubeley being dead, his “heir-at-law” was Henry
Morland, supposed to be drowned at sea, and the next heir was Daniel
Dowlas, a chandler of Gosport. Scarcely had Daniel been raised to his
new dignity, when Henry Morland, who had been cast on Cape Breton, made
his appearance, and the whole aspect of affairs was changed. That Dowlas
might still live in comfort, suitable to his limited ambition, the heir
of the barony settled on him a small life annuity.—G. Colman,
_Heir-at-law_, (1797).

=Hel´a=, queen of the dead. She is daughter of Loki and Angurbo´da (a
giantess). Her abode, called Helheim, was a vast castle in Niflheim, in
the midst of eternal snow and darkness.

            Down the yawning steep he rode,
            That leads to Hela’s drear abode.
                            Gray, _Descent of Odin_ (1757).

=Helen=, wife of Menelāos of Sparta. She eloped with Paris, a Trojan
prince, while he was the guest of the Spartan king. Menelaos, to avenge
this wrong, induced the allied armies of Greece to invest Troy; and
after a siege of ten years, the city was taken and burnt to the ground.

⁂ A parallel incident occurred in Ireland. Dervorghal, wife of Tiernan
O’Ruark, an Irish chief who held the county of Leitrim, eloped with
Dermod M’Murchad, prince of Leinster. Tiernan induced O’Connor, king of
Connaught, to avenge this wrong. So O’Connor drove Dermod from his
throne. Dermod applied to Henry II. of England, and this was the
incident which brought about the conquest of Ireland (1172).—Leland,
_History of Ireland_ (1773).

_Helen_, the heroine of Miss Edgeworth’s novel of the same name. This
was her last and most popular tale (1834).

_Helen_, cousin of Modus, the bookworm. She loved her cousin, and taught
him there was a better “art of love” than that written by Ovid.—S.
Knowles, _The Hunchback_ (1831).

_Helen Lorrington._ Accomplished young widow, Anne Douglas’s intimate
friend. She is the semi-betrothed of _Ward Heathcote_, who nevertheless
considers himself free to woo Anne. After many complications, Heathcote,
believing Anne already married becomes Helen’s husband. The latter is
murdered a year or two later under circumstances that cast suspicion
upon Heathcote. Through Anne’s efforts and testimony he is acquitted,
and finally marries her.—Constance Fennimore Woolson, _Anne_ (1882).

_Helen_ (_Lady_), in love with Sir Edward Mortimer. Her uncle insulted
Sir Edward in a county assembly, struck him down, and trampled on him.
Sir Edward, returning home, encountered the drunken ruffian and murdered
him. He was tried for the crime, and acquitted “without a stain upon his
character;” but the knowledge of the deed preyed upon his mind so that
he could not marry the niece of the murdered man. After leading a life
of utter wretchedness, Sir Edward told Helen that he was the murderer of
her uncle, and died.—G. Colman, _The Iron Chest_ (1796).

_Helen_ [MOWBRAY], in love with Walsingham. “Of all grace the
pattern—person, feature, mind, heart, everything as nature had essayed
to frame a work where none could find a flaw.” Allured by Lord Athunree
to a house of ill-fame, under pretence of doing a work of charity, she
was seen by Walsingham as she came out, and he abandoned her as a
wanton. She then assumed male attire, with the name of Eustace.
Walsingham became her friend, was told that Eustace was Helen’s brother,
and finally discovered that Eustace was Helen herself. The mystery being
cleared up, they became man and wife.—S. Knowles, _Woman’s Wit, etc._

=Helen’s Fire= (_feu d’Hélène_), a comazant called “St. Helme’s” or “St.
Elmo’s fire” by the Spaniards; the “fires of St. Peter and St. Nicholas”
by the Italians; and “Castor and Pollux” by the ancient Romans. This
electric light will sometimes play about the masts of ships. If only one
appears, foul weather may be looked for; but if two or more flames
appear, the worst of the storm is over.

_Helen_ (_Rolleston_), heroine of Charles Reade’s novel, _Foul Play_.
She is betrothed to Wardlaw, chief villain of the story, and sets out on
a sea-voyage to restore her health; is shipwrecked and cast on an island
with Herbert Penfold. After their return to England, she rights the
wronged Penfold, and punishes Wardlaw.

_Helen_, wife of _John Ward, Preacher_. Her husband is a Calvinist of a
pronounced type; she a believer in Universal Salvation. The spiritual
agonies to which they are subjected by the difference in creeds,
separate them for a while and are the moving cause of John Ward’s death.
He passes away, convinced that “his death is to be the climax of GOD’S
plans for her.”—Margaret Deland, _John Ward, Preacher_ (1888).

=Hel´ena= (_St._), daughter of Coel, duke Colchester, and afterwards
king of Britain. She married Constantius (a Roman senator, who succeeded
“Old King Cole”), and became the mother of Constantine the Great.
Constantius died at York (a.d. 306). Helena is said to have discovered
at Jerusalem the sepulchre and cross of Jesus Christ.—Geoffrey, _British
History_ v. 6 (1142).

⁂ This legend is told of the Colchester arms, which consist of a cross
and three crowns (two atop and one at the foot of the cross).

At a considerable depth beneath the surface of the earth were found
three crosses which were instantly recognized as those on which Christ
and the two thieves had suffered death. To ascertain which was the _true
cross_, a female corpse was placed on all three alternately; the two
first tried produced no effect, but the third instantly reanimated the
body.—J. Brady, _Clavis Calendaria_, 181.

        Herself in person went to seek that holy cross
        Whereon our Saviour died, which found, as it was sought;
        From Salem unto Rome triumphantly she brought.
                    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, viii. (1612).

_Helena_, only daughter of Gerard de Narbon, the physician. She was left
under the charge of the countess of Rousillon, whose son Bertram she
fell in love with. The king sent for Bertram to the palace, and Helena,
hearing the king was ill, obtained permission of the countess to give
him a prescription left by her late father. The medicine cured the king,
and the king, in gratitude, promised to make her the wife of any one of
his courtiers that she chose. Helena selected Bertram, and they were
married; but the haughty count, hating the alliance, left France, to
join the army of the duke of Florence. Helena, in the mean time, started
on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Jacques le Grand, carrying with her
a letter from her husband, stating that he would never see her more
“till she could get the ring from off his finger.” On her way to the
shrine, she lodged at Florence with a widow, the mother of Diana, with
whom Bertram was wantonly in love. Helena was permitted to pass herself
off as Diana, and received his visits, in one of which they exchanged
rings. Both soon after this returned to the Countess de Rousillon, where
the king was, and the king, seeing on Bertram’s finger the ring which he
gave to Helena, had him arrested on suspicion of murder. Helena now
explained the matter, and all was well, for all ended well.—Shakespeare,
_All’s Well that ends Well_ (1598).

Helena is a young woman, seeking a man in marriage. The ordinary laws of
courtship are reversed, the habitual feelings are violated; yet with
such exquisite address this dangerous subject is handled that Helena’s
forwardness loses her no honor. Delicacy dispenses with her laws in her
favor.—C. Lamb.

_Helena_, a young Athenian lady, in love with Demētrius. She was the
playmate of Her´mia, with whom she grew up, as “two cherries on one
stalk.” Egēus (_3 syl._), the father of Hermia, promised his daughter in
marriage to Demetrius; but when Demetrius saw that Hermia loved
Lysander, he turned to Helena, who loved him dearly, and married
her.—Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s Dream_ (1592).

=Hel´inore= (_Dame_), wife of Malbecco, who was jealous of her, and not
without cause. When Sir Paridel, Sir Sat´yrane (_3 syl._), and Britomart
(as the squire of Dames) took refuge in Malbecco’s house, Dame Helinore
and Sir Paridel had many “false belgardes” at each other, and talked
love with glances which needed no interpreter. Helinore, having set fire
to the closet where Malbecco kept his treasures, eloped with Paridel,
while the old miser stopped to put out the fire. Paridel soon tired of
the dame, and cast her off, leaving her to roam whither she listed. She
was taken up by the satyrs, who made her their dairy-woman, and crowned
her queen of the May.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iii. 9, 10 (1590).

Viridi colore est gemma helitropion, non ita acuto sed nubilo magis et
represso, stellis puniceis superspersa. Causa nominis de effectu lapidis
est et potestate. Dejecta in labris æneis radios solis mutat sanguineo
repercussu, utraque aqua splendorem aëris abjicit et avertit. Etiam
illud posse dicitur, ut _herba_ ejusdem nominis mixta et
præcantationibus legitimis consecrata eum, a quocunque gestabitur,
subtrahat visibus obviorum.—Solinus, _Geog._, xl.

=Helisane de Crenne=, contemporary with Pâquier. She wrote her own
biography, including the “history of her own death.”—_Angoisses
Doloureuses_ (Lyons, 1546).

=Hel Keplein=, a mantle of invisibility, belonging to the dwarf-king
Laurin. (See Invisibility.)—_The Heldenbuch_ (thirteenth century).

=Hell=, according to Mohammedan belief is divided into seven
compartments: (1) for Mohammedans, (2) for Jews, (3) for Christians, (4)
for Sabians, (5) for Magians, (6) for idolaters, (7) for hypocrites. All
but idolaters and unbelievers will be in time released from torment.

_Hell_, Dantê says, is a vast funnel divided into eight circles, with
ledges more or less rugged. Each circle, of course, is narrower that the
one above, and the last goes down to the very centre of the earth.
Before the circles begin, there is a neutral land and a limbo. In the
neutral land wander those not bad enough for hell nor good enough for
heaven; in the limbo, those who knew no sin but were not baptized
Christians. Coming then to hell proper, circle 1, he says, is compassed
by the river Achĕron, and in this division of inferno dwell the spirits
of the heathen philosophers. Circle 2 is presided over by Minos, and
here are the spirits of those guilty of carnal and sinful love. Circle 3
is guarded by Cerbĕrus, and this is the region set apart for gluttons.
Circle 4, presided over by Plutus, is the realm of the avaricious.
Circle 5 contains the Stygian Lake, and here flounder in deep mud those
who in life put no restraint on their anger. Circle 6 (in the city of
Dis) is for those who did violence to man by force or fraud. Circle 7
(in the city of Dis) is for suicides. Circle 8 (also in the city of Dis)
is for blasphemers and heretics. After the eight circles comes the ten
pits or chasms of Malebolgê (_4 syl._), the last of which is the centre
of the earth, and here he says is the frozen river of Cocy´tus. (See

=Hellespont.= Leander used to swim across the Hellespont to visit Hero,
a priestess of Sestos. Lord Byron and Lieutenant Ekenhead repeated the
feat and accomplished it in seventy minutes, the distance being four
miles (allowing for drifting).

           He could perhaps have passed the Hellespont,
           As once (a feat on which ourselves we prided)
           Leander, Mr. Ekenhead, and I did.
                           Byron, _Don Juan_, ii. 105 (1819).

=Hellica´nus=, the able and honest minister of Per´iclês, to whom he
left the charge of Tyre during his absence. Being offered the crown,
Hellicānus nobly declined the offer, and remained faithful to the prince
throughout.—Shakespeare, _Pericles, Prince of Tyre_ (1608).

=Helmet of Invisibility.= The helmet of Perseus (_2 syl._) rendered the
wearer invisible. This was in reality the “Helmet of Ha´dès,” and after
Perseus had slain Medu´sa he restored it, together with the winged
sandals and magic wallet. The “gorgon’s head” he presented to Minerva,
who placed it in the middle of her ægis. (See INVISIBILITY.)

⁂ Mambrīno’s helmet had the same magical power, though Don Quixote, even
in his midsummer madness, never thought himself invisible when he donned
the barber’s basin.

=Heloise.= _La Nouvelle Héloïse_, a romance by Jean Jacques Rousseau

=He´mera=, sister of Prince Memnon, mentioned by Dictys Cretensis.
Milton, in his _Il Penseroso_, speaks of “Prince Memnon’s sister”

=Hem´junah=, princess of Cassimir´, daughter of the Sultan Zebene´zer;
betrothed at the age of 13 to the prince of Georgia. As Hemjunah had
never seen the prince, she ran away to avoid a forced marriage, and was
changed by Ulin, the enchanter, into a toad. In this form she became
acquainted with Misnar, sultan of India, who had likewise been
transformed into a toad by Ulin. Misnar was disenchanted by a dervise,
and slew Ulin; whereupon the princess recovered her proper shape, and
returned home. A rebellion broke out in Cassimir, but the “angel of
death” destroyed the rebel army, and Zebenezer was restored to his
throne. His surprise was unbounded when he found that the prince of
Georgia and the sultan of India were one and the same person; and
Hemjunah said, “Be assured, O Sultan, that I shall not refuse the hand
of the prince of Georgia, even if my father commands my obedience.”—Sir
C. Morell [J. Ridly] _Tales of the Genii_ (“Princess of Cassimir,” vii.,

=Hemlock.= Socratês _the Wise_ and Phocion _the Good_ were both by the
Athenians condemned to death by hemlock juice, Socratês at the age of 70
(B.C. 399) and Phocion at the age of 85 (B.C. 317).

=Hemps´kirke= (_2 syl._), a captain serving under Wolfort, the usurper
of the earldom of Flanders.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Beggar’s Bush_

=Henderson= (_Rodney syl._), representative American who makes money by
unscrupulous operations in stocks.—Charles Dudley Warner, _A Little
Journey in the World_ (1889).

_Henderson (Elias) syl._, chaplain at Lochleven Castle.—Sir W. Scott,
_The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Henneberg= (_Count syl._). One day a beggar-woman asked Count
Henneberg’s wife for alms. The countess twitted her for carrying twins,
whereupon the woman cursed her, with the assurance that “her ladyship
should be the mother of 365 children.” The legend says that the countess
bore them at one birth, but none of them lived any length of time. All
the girls were named _Elizabeth_, and all the boys _John_. They are
buried, we are told, at the Hague.

=Henrietta Maria=, widow of King Charles I., introduced in Sir W.
Scott’s _Peveril of the Peak_ (1823).

=Henrietta Street=, Cavendish Square, London, is so called in compliment
to Henrietta Cavendish, daughter of John Holles, duke of Newcastle, and
wife of Edward, second earl of Oxford and Mortimer. From these come
“Edward Street,” “Henrietta Street,” “Cavendish Square,” and “Holles

=Henriette= (_3 syl._), daughter of Chrysale (_2 syl._) and Philaminte
(_3 syl._). She is in love with Clitandre, and ultimately becomes his
wife. Philaminte, who is a blue-stocking, wants Henriette to marry
Trissotin, a _bel esprit_; and Armande the sister, also a _bas bleu_,
thinks that Henriette ought to devote her life to science and
philosophy; but Henriette loves woman’s work far better, and thinks that
her natural province is domestic life, with wifely and motherly duties.
Her father Chrysale takes the same views of woman’s life as his daughter
Henriette, but he is quite under the thumb of his strong-minded wife.
However love at last prevails, and Henriette is given in marriage to the
man of her choice. The French call Henriette “the type of a perfect
woman,” _i.e._, a thorough woman.—Molière, _Les Femmes Savantes_ (1672).

=Henrique= (_Don_), an uxorious lord, cruel to his younger brother Don
Jamie. Don Henrique is the father of Asca´nio, and the supposed husband
of Violan´te (_4 syl._).—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Spanish Curate_

=Henri=, boy, four years old, who, finding his friend “the doctor” bound
naked to a trestle to which he was strapped by pirates, follows his
directions and gnaws asunder the strips of raw hide tying the victim
down, and frees him.—Henry Augustus Wise, U.S.N., _Captain Brand of the
Schooner Centipede_ (1864).

=Henry=, a soldier engaged to Louisa. Some rumors of gallantry to
Henry’s disadvantage having reached the village, he is told that Louisa
is about to be married to another. In his despair he gives himself up as
a deserter, and is condemned to death. Louisa now goes to the king,
explains to him the whole matter, obtains her sweetheart’s pardon, and
reaches the jail just as the muffled drum begins to beat the death
march.—Dibdin, _The Deserter_ (1770).

_Henry_, son of Sir Philip Blandford’s brother. Both the brothers loved
the same lady, but the younger marrying her, Sir Philip, in his rage,
stabbed him, as it was thought, mortally. In due time, the young “widow”
had a son (Henry) a very high-minded, chivalrous young man, greatly
beloved by every one. After twenty years, his father re-appeared under
the name of Morrington, and Henry married his cousin Emma
Blandford.—Thom. Morton, _Speed the Plough_ (1798).

_Henry_ (_Poor_), prince of Hoheneck, in Bavaria. Being struck with
leprosy, he quitted his lordly castle, gave largely to the poor, and
retired to live with a small cottage farmer named Gottlieb [_Got.leeb_],
one of his vassals. He was told that he would never be cured till a
virgin, chaste and spotless, offered to die on his behalf. Elsie, the
farmer’s daughter, offered herself, and after great resistance, the
prince accompanied her to Salerno to complete the sacrifice. When he
arrived at the city, either the exercise, the excitement, or the charm
of some relic, no matter what, had effected an entire cure, and when he
took Elsie into the cathedral, the only sacrifice she had to make was
that of her maiden name for Lady Alicia, wife of Prince Henry of
Hoheneck.—Hartmann von der Aue (minnesinger), _Poor Henry_ (twelfth

⁂ This tale is the subject of Longfellow’s _Golden Legend_ (1851).

_Henry_ (_Patrick_), Virginian orator, who, in the House of Burgesses,
first raised the cry of “Liberty or Death” in the struggle of the
American Colonies for Independence.

Patrick Henry’s first legal triumph was in November, 1763, in the since
famous _Parson’s Cause_.

“In the language of those who heard him on this occasion, ‘he made their
blood run cold, and their hair to rise on end ...’”

“The jury seem to have been so completely bewildered, that, thoughtless
even of the admitted right of the plaintiff, they had scarcely left the
bar when they returned with a verdict of _one penny_ damages.”—William
Wirt, _Life of Patrick Henry_ (1818).

_Henry_ (_Prince_), Bernardine du Born, arraigned for treason, replies
to King Henry’s questions,

                “Hath reason quite forsook thy breast?”


                 “My reason failed, my gracious liege,
                 The year Prince Henry died.”

The king, smitten by memories of his son, whose chosen intimate
Bernardine was, forgives the offender:—

           “For the dear sake of the dead
           Go forth—unscathed and free.”
                     Lydia Huntley Sigourney, _Poems_ (1836).

=Henry II.=, king of England, introduced by Sir W. Scott, both in _The
Betrothed_ and in _The Talisman_ (1825).

=Henry V.=, Shakespeare’s drama, founded on _The Famous Victories of
Henry V.: containing the Honorable Battle of Agincourt. As it is plaide
by the Queenes Magesties players_, 1598. Shakespeare’s play appeared in
print in 1600 (quarto).

=Henry VI.=, Shakespeare’s dramas of this reign are founded on _The
First Part of the Contention betwixt the two Famous Houses of Yorke and
Lancaster, with the Death of the Good Duke Humphrey, etc. As it was
sundry times acted by the Right Honorable the Earle of Pembroke his
Servants_, 1600.

Another. _The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of Yorke, and the Death of
Good Henri VI., etc. As it was sundry times acted ..._ (as above).

=Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn.= Anne Boleyn was the second wife of Henry
VIII. He divorced Katharine of Aragon in order to marry Anne; wearied of
her in turn, and had her beheaded in 1536.

=He´par=, the Liver personified, the arch-city in _The Purple Island_,
by Phineas Fletcher. Fully described in canto iii. (1633).

=Hephæs´tos=, the Greek name for Vulcan. The Vulcanic period of geology
is that unknown period before the creation of man, when the molten
granite and buried metals were upheaved by internal heat, through the
overlying strata, sometimes even to the very surface of the earth.

        The early dawn and dusk of Time.
        The reign of dateless old Hephæstus.
                        Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

=Hepzibah= (_Pyncheon_), gentlewoman, reduced to the necessity of
keeping a small shop in the ancient homestead. She idolizes her brother
_Clifford_, a melancholy, refined man, who, terrified by an empty threat
of his cousin, Judge Pyncheon, flees the house. Hepzibah goes with him.
Recovering from their panic, they return in time to avoid the suspicion
of having caused the Judge’s sudden death, which makes them
rich.—Nathaniel Hawthorne, _House of the Seven Gables_ (1851).

=Herbert= (_Sir William_), friend of Sir Hugo de Lacy.—Sir W. Scott,
_The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Her´culês= shot Nessus for offering insult to his wife Dei´-j-a-nī-ra,
and the dying centaur told Deijanira that if she dipped in his blood her
husband’s shirt, she would secure his love forever. Herculês, being
about to offer sacrifice, sent Lichas for the shirt; but no sooner was
it warmed by the heat of his body than it caused such excruciating agony
that the hero went mad, and seizing Lichas, he flung him into the sea.

_Herculés Mad_ is the subject of a Greek tragedy by Eurip´idês, and of a
Latin one by Sen´eca.

         As when Alcīdês ... felt the envenomed robe, and tore,
         Thro’ pain, up by the roots Thessalian pines,
         And Lichas from the top of Œta [_a mount_] threw
         Into the Euboic Sea [_The Archipelago_].
                Milton, _Paradise Lost_, ii. 542, etc. [1665].

⁂ Diodōrus says there were three Herculêses; Cicero recognizes six
(three of which were Greeks, one Egyptian, one Cretan, and one Indian);
Varro says there were forty-three.

_Herculés’s Choice_. When Herculês was a young man, he was accosted by
two women, Pleasure and Virtue, and asked to choose which he would
follow. Pleasure promised him all carnal delights, but Virtue promised
him immortality. Herculês gave his hand to the latter, and hence led a
life of great toil, but was ultimately received amongst the

⁂ Mrs. Barbauld has borrowed this allegory, but instead of Herculês has
substituted Melissa, “a young girl,” who is accosted by Dissipation and
Housewifery. While she is somewhat in doubt which to follow,
Dissipation’s mask falls off, and immediately Melissa beholds such a
“wan and ghastly countenance,” that she turns away in horror, and gives
her hand to the more sober of the two ladies.—_Evenings at Home_, xix.

_Herculês’s Horse_, Arion, given him by Adrastos. It had the gift of
human speech, and its feet on the right side were those of a man.

_Herculês’s Pillars_, Calpê and Ab´yla, one at Gibraltar and the other
at Ceuta (_3 syl._). They were torn asunder by Alcīdês on his route to
Gadês (_Cadiz_).

_Herculês’s Ports_: (1) “Herculis Corsani Portus” (now called
_Porto-Ercolo_, in Etruria); (2) “Herculis Liburni Portus” (now called
_Livorno_, _i.e._ Leghorn); (3) “Herculis Monœci-Portus” (now called
_Monaco_, near Nice).

_Herculês (The Attic)_, Theseus (_2 syl._), who went about, like
Herculês, destroying robbers, and performing most wonderful exploits.

_Herculês (The Cretan)._ All the three Idæan Dactyls were so called:
viz., Kelmis (“the smelter”), Damnamĕneus (“the hammer”), and Acmon
(“the anvil”).

_Herculês (The Egyptian)_, Sesostris (fl. B.C. 1500). Another was Som or
Chon, called by Pausanias, Macĕris, son of Amon.

_Herculês (The English)_, Guy, earl of Warwick (890-958).

           Warwick ... thou English Herculês.
                        Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xiii. (1613).

_Herculês (The Farnesê)_, a statue, the work of Glykon, copied from one
by Lysip´pos, called Farnesê, because formerly in the Farnesê palace in
Rome with the Farnesê Bull, the Flora, and the Gladiator. All but the
Gladiator are now in the Naples Museum. The Gladiator is in the British
Museum. The “Farnesê Herculês” represents the hero exhausted by toil,
leaning on his club; and in his left hand, which rests on his back, he
holds one of the apples of the Hesperĭdês.

⁂ A copy of this famous statue stands in the Tuileries gardens of Paris.
An excellent description of the statue is given by Thomson, in his
_Liberty_, iv.

_Herculês_ (_The Indian_), Dorsănês, who married Pandæa, and became the
progenitor of the Indian kings. Belus is sometimes called “The Indian

_Herculês_ (_The Jewish_), Samson (died B.C. 113).

_Herculês_ (_The Russian_), Rustum.

_Herculês_ (_The Swedish_), Starchatĕrus (first Christian century).

=Hercules of Music=, Christoph von Glück (1714-1787).

=Herculês Secundus.= Commŏdus, the Roman emperor, gave himself this
title. He was a gigantic idiot, who killed 100 lions, and overthrew 1000
gladiators in the amphitheatre (161, 180-195).

=Heren-Suge= (_The_), a seven-headed hydra of Basque mythology, like the
Deccan cobras.

=Heretics= (_Hammer of_), Pierre d’Ailly (1350-1425).

John Faber is also called “The Hammer of Heretics,” from the title of
one of his works (*-1541).

_Heretics_ (_Scientific_).

_Feargal_, bishop of Saltzburg, an Irishman, was denounced as a heretic
for asserting the existence of antipodês (*-784).

_Galileo_, the astronomer, was cast into prison for maintaining the
“heretical opinion” that the earth moved round the sun (1564-1642).

_Giordano Bruno_ was burnt alive for maintaining that matter is the
mother of all things (1550-1600).

=Her´eward= (_3 syl._), one of the Varangian guard of Alexius Comnēnus,
emperor of Greece.—Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Hereward the Wake= (or _Vigilant_), lord of Born, in Lincolnshire. He
plundered and burnt the abbey of Peterborough (1070); established his
camp in the Isle of Ely, where he was joined by Earl Morcar (1071); he
was blockaded for three months by William I., but made his escape with
some of his followers. This is the name and subject of one of Kingsley’s

=Her´iot= (_Master George_), goldsmith to James I.; guardian of Lady
Hermionê.—Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Herman=, a deaf and dumb boy, jailer of the dungeon of the Giant’s
Mount. Meeting Ulrica, he tries to seize her, when a flash of lightning
strikes the bridge on which he stands, and Herman is thrown into the
torrent.—E. Stirling, _The Prisoner of State_ (1847).

_Herman (Sir)_, of Goodalicke, one of the perceptors of the Knights
Templars.—Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

=Hermann=, the hero of Goethe’s poem _Hermann and Dorothea_. Goethe
tells us that the object of this poem is to “show as in a mirror, the
great movements and changes of the world’s stage.”

=Hermaph´rodite= (_4 syl._), son of Venus and Mercury. At the age of 15,
he bathed in a fountain of Caria, when Sal´macis, the fountain nymph,
fell in love with him, and prayed the gods to make the two one body. Her
prayers being heard, the two became united into one, but still preserved
the double sex.

         Not that bright spring where fair Hermaphrodite
         Grew into one with wanton Salmacis ...
         ... may dare compare with this.
                Phin. Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, v. (1633).

=Hermegild or Hermyngyld=, wife of the lord-constable of Northumberland.
She was converted by Constance, but was murdered by a knight whose suit
had been rejected by the young guest, in order to bring her into
trouble. The villainy being discovered, the knight was executed, and
Constance married the king, whose name was Alla. Hermegild, at the
bidding of Constance, restored sight to a blind Briton.—Chaucer,
_Canterbury Tales_ (“Man of Law’s Tale,” 1388).

(The word is spelt “Custaunce” 7 times, “Constance” 15 times, and
“Constaunce” 17 times, in the tale.)

_Hermegild_, a friend of Oswald, in love with Gartha (Oswald’s sister).
He was a man in the middle age of life, of counsel sage, and great
prudence. When Hubert (the brother of Oswald) and Gartha wished to stir
up a civil war to avenge the death of Oswald, who had been slain in
single combat with Prince Gondibert, Hermegild wisely deterred them from
the rash attempt, and diverted the anger of the camp by funeral
obsequies of a most imposing character. The tale of Gondibert being
unfinished, the sequel is not known.—Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died

=Her´mês= (_2 syl._), son of Maia; patron of commerce. Akenside makes
Hermês say to the Thames, referring to the merchant ships of England:

            By you [_ships_] my function and my honored name
            Do I possess; while o’er the Bætic vale,
            Or thro’ the towers of Memphis, or the palms
            By sacred Ganges watered, I conduct
            The English merchant.
                      Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_ (1767).

(The Bætis is the Guadalquiver, and the Bætic vale Granāda and

_Her´mês_ (_2 syl._), the same as Mercury, and applied both to the god
and to the metal. Milton calls quicksilver “volatil Hermês.”

               So when we see the liquid metal fall,
               Which chemists by the name of Hermes call.
                               Hoole’s _Ariosto_, viii.

_Hermês (St.)_, same as St. Elmo, Suerpo Santo, Castor and Pollux, etc.
A comazant or electric light, seen occasionally on ship’s masts.

“They shall see the fire which saylors call St. Hermes, fly uppon their
shippe, and alight upon the toppe of the mast.”—De Loier, _Treatise of
Spectres,_ 67 (1605).

=Hermês Trismegis´tus= (_Hermês “thrice-greatest”_), the Egyptian Thoth,
to whom is ascribed a host of inventions: as the art of writing in
hieroglyphics, the first Egyptian code of laws, the art of harmony, the
science of astrology, the invention of the late and lyre, magic, etc.
(twentieth century B.C.).

          The school of Hermês Trismegistus,
          Who uttered his oracles sublime
          Before the Olympiads.
                      Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

=Her´mesind= (_3 syl._), daughter of Pelayo and Gaudio´sê. She was
plighted to Alphonso, son of Lord Pedro of Cantabria. Both Alphonso and
Hermesind at death were buried in the cave of St. Antony, in Covadonga.

=Her´mia=, daughter of Ege´us (_3 syl._) of Athens, and promised by him
in marriage to Demētrius. As Hermia loved Lysander, and refused to marry
Demetrius, her father summoned her before the duke, and requested that
the “law of the land” might be carried out, which was death or perpetual
virginity. The duke gave Hermia four days to consider the subject, at
the expiration of which time she was either to obey her father or lose
her life. She now fled from Athens with Lysander. Demetrius went in
pursuit of her, and Helĕna, who doted on Demetrius, followed. All four
came to a wood, and falling asleep from weariness, had a dream about the
fairies. When Demetrius woke up, he came to his senses, and seeing that
Hermia loved another, consented to marry Helena; and Egēus gladly gave
the hand of his daughter to Lysander.—Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s
Dream_ (1592).

=Herm´ion=, the young wife of Damon “the Pythagore´an” and senator of
Syracuse.—J. Banium, _Damon and Pythias_ (1825).

_Hermionê_ (_4 syl._) or Harmo´nia, wife of Cadmus. Leaving Thebes,
Cadmus and his wife went to Illyr´ia, and were both changed into
serpents for having killed a serpent sacred to Mars.—Ovid,
_Metamorphoses_, iv. 590, etc.

                Never since of serpent-kind
        Lovelier, not those that in Illyria changed—
        Hermionê and Cadmus.
                  Milton, _Paradise Lost_, ix. 505, etc. (1665).

_Hermionê_, (_4 syl._), wife of Leontês, king of Sicily. The king, being
jealous, sent her to prison, where she gave birth to a daughter, who, at
the king’s command, was to be placed on a desert shore and left to
perish. The child was driven by a storm to the “coast” of Bohemia, and
brought up by a shepherd who called her Per´dĭta. Florĭzel, the son of
Polixenês, king of Bohemia, fell in love with her, and they fled to
Sicily to escape the vengeance of the angry king. Being introduced to
Leontês, it was soon discovered that Perdita was his lost daughter, and
Polixenês gladly consented to the union he had before objected to.
Pauli´na (a lady about the court) now asked the royal party to her house
to inspect a statue of Hermionê, which turned out to be the living queen
herself.—Shakespeare, _The Winter’s Tale_ (1594).

_Hermionê_, (_4 syl._), only daughter of Helen and Menelā´os (_4 syl._)
king of Sparta. She was betrothed to Orestês, but after the fall of Troy
was promised by her father in marriage to Pyrrhus, king of Epirus.
Orestes madly loved her, but Hermione as madly loved Pyrrhus. When
Pyrrhus fixed his affections on Androm´achê (widow of Hector, and his
captive), the pride and jealousy of Hermione were roused. At this
crisis, an embassy led by Orestês arrived at the court of Pyrrhus, to
demand the death of Asty´anax, the son of Andromachê and Hector, lest
when he grew to manhood he might seek to avenge his father’s death.
Pyrrhus declined to give up the boy, and married Andromachê. The passion
of Hermionê was now goaded to madness; and when she heard that the Greek
ambassadors had fallen on Pyrrhus and murdered him, she stabbed herself
and died.—Ambrose Philips, _The Distressed Mother_ (1712).

This was a famous part with Mrs. Porter (*-1762), and with Miss Young,
better known as Mrs. Pope (1740-1797).

_Hermionê_ (_4 syl._), daughter of Dannischemend, the Persian sorcerer,
mentioned in Donnerhugel’s narrative.—Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_
(time, Edward IV.).

_Hermionê_ (_The Lady_), or Lady Ermin´ia Pauletti, privately married to
Lord Dalgarno.—Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Hermit=, the pseudonym of the poet Hayley, the friend of Cowper.

_Hermit_ (_The English_), Roger Crab, who subsisted on three farthings a
week, his food being bran, herbs, roots, dock leaves, and mallows

_Hermit_ (_Peter the_), the instigator of the first crusade (1050-1115).

=Hermit and the Youth= (_The_). A hermit, desirous to study the ways of
Providence, met with a youth, who became his companion. The first night,
they were most hospitably entertained by a nobleman, but at parting the
young man stole his entertainer’s golden goblet. Next day, they obtained
with difficulty of a miser shelter from a severe storm, and at parting
the youth gave him the golden goblet. Next night, they were modestly but
freely welcomed by one of the middle class, and at parting the youth
“crept to the cradle where an infant slept, and wrung its neck.” It was
the only child of their kind host. Leaving the hospitable roof, they
lost their way, and were set right by a guide, whom the youth pushed
into a river, and he was drowned. The hermit began to curse the youth,
when lo! he turned into an angel, who thus explained his acts:

“I stole the goblet from the rich lord to teach him not to trust in
uncertain riches. I gave the goblet to the miser to teach him that
kindness always meets its reward. I strangled the infant because the man
loved it better than he loved God. I pushed the guide into the river
because he intended at night-fall to commit a robbery.” The hermit bent
his head and cried, “The ways of the Lord are past finding out! but He
doeth all things well. Teach me to say with faith, ‘Thy will be
done?’”—Parnell. (1679-1717).

In the _Talmud_ is a similar and better allegory. Rabbi Jachanan
accompanied Elijah on a journey, and they came to the house of a poor
man, whose only treasure was a cow. The man and his wife ran to meet and
welcome the strangers, but next morning the poor man’s cow died. Next
night they were coldly received by a proud, rich man, who fed them only
with bread and water; and next morning Elijah sent for a mason to repair
a wall which was falling down, in return for the hospitality received.
Next night they entered a synagogue, and asked, “Who will give a night’s
lodging to two travellers!” but none offered to do so. At parting,
Elijah said, “I hope you will all be made presidents.” The following
night they were lodged by the members of another synagogue in the best
hotel of the place, and at parting Elijah said, “May the Lord appoint
over you but one president.” The rabbi, unable to keep silence any
longer, begged Elijah to explain the meaning of his dealings with men;
and Elijah replied:

“In regard to the poor man who received us so hospitably, it was decreed
that his wife was to die that night, but, in reward of his kindness, God
took the cow instead of the wife. I repaired the wall of the rich miser
because a chest of gold was concealed near the place, and if the miser
had repaired the wall he would have discovered the treasure. I said to
the inhospitable synagogue, ‘May each member be president,’ because no
one can serve two masters. I said to the hospitable synagogue, ‘May you
have but one president,’ because with one head there can be no divisions
of counsel. Say not, therefore, to the Lord, ‘What doest Thou?’ but say
in thy heart, ‘Must not the Lord of all the earth do right’”—_The
Talmud_ (“Trust in God”).

=Hermite= (_Tristan l’_) or “Tristan of the Hospital,” provost-marshal
of France. He was the main instrument in carrying out the nefarious
schemes of Louis XI, who used to call him his “gossip.” Tristan was a
stout, middle-sized man, with a hang-dog visage and most repulsive
smile.—Sir W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ and _Anne of Geierstein_ (time,
Edward IV.).

=Hero=, daughter of Leonāto, governor of Messi´na. She was of a quiet,
serious disposition, and formed a good contrast to the gay, witty
rattle-pate, called Beatrice, her cousin. Hero was about to be married
to Lord Claudio, when Don John played on her a most infamous practical
joke, out of malice. He bribed Hero’s waiting-woman to dress in Hero’s
clothes, and to talk with him by moonlight from the chamber balcony; he
then induced Claudio to hide himself in the garden, to overhear what was
said. Claudio, thinking the person to be Hero, was furious, and next day
at the altar rejected the bride with scorn. The priest, convinced of
Hero’s innocence, gave out that she was dead, the servant confessed the
trick, Don John took to flight, and Hero married Claudio, her
betrothed.—Shakespeare, _Much Ado about Nothing_ (1600).

_Hero_, [SUTTON], niece of Sir William Sutton, and beloved by Sir
Valentine de Grey. Hero “was fair as no eye ever fairer saw, of noble
stature, head of antique mould, magnificent as far as may consist with
softness, features full of thought and moods, wishes and fancies, and
limbs the paragon of symmetry.” Having offended her lover by waltzing
with Lord Athunree, she assumed the garb of a quakeress, called herself
“Ruth,” and got introduced to Sir Valentine, who proposed marriage to
her, and then discovered that Hero was Ruth and Ruth was Hero.—S.
Knowles, _Woman’s Wit, etc._ (1838).

=Hero and Leander= (_3 syl._). Hero, a priestess of Venus, fell in love
with Leander, who swam across the Hellespont every night to visit her.
One night he was drowned in so doing, and Hero in grief threw herself
into the same sea.—Musæus, _Leander and Hero_.

=Hero of Fable= (_The_), the duc de Guise. Called by the French _L’Hero
de la Fable_ (1614-1664).

=Hero of History= (_The_), the duc d’Enghien, Prince of Condé. Called by
the French _L’Hero de l’Histoire_. This was Le grand Condé (1621-1687).

=Hero of Modern Italy=, Garibaldi (1807-1882).

=Herodias.= Divorced wife of Herodius Philippus, afterward married to
Herod Antipas, Mother of Salome and murderer of John the Baptist.

=Her´on= (_Sir George_), of Chip-chace, an officer with Sir John
Foster.—Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Heros´tratos= or EROSTRATOS, the Ephesian who set fire to the temple of
Ephesus (one of the seven wonders of the world) merely to immortalize
his name. The Ephesians made it penal even to mention his name.

        Herostratus shall prove vice governes fame.
        Who built that church he burnt hath lost his name.
              Lord Brooke, _Inquisition upon Fame_ (1554-1628).

=Herrick.= Overseer on a Virginia plantation, whose only daughter is
burned to death trying to save a favorite horse of the man she loves
hopelessly.—Amelia C. Rives-Chanler, _Virginia of Virginia_, (1888).

=Herries= (_Lord_), a friend of Queen Mary of Scotland, and attending on
her at Dundrennan.—Sir W. Scott, _The Abbott_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Herschel= (_Sir F. Wm._) discovered the eighth planet, at first called
the _Georgium sidus,_ in honor of George III., and now called _Saturn_.
In allusion to this, Campbell says he

              Gave the lyre of heaven another string.
                          _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1799.)

=Hertford= (_The marquis of_), in the court of Charles II.—Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Her Trippa=, meant for Henry Cornelius Agrippa, of Nettesheim,
philosopher and physician. “Her” is a contraction of _He´ricus_, and
“Trippa” a play on the words _Agrippa_ and _tripe_.—Rabelais,
_Pantag´ruel_, iii. 25 (1545).

=Herwig=, king of Hel´igoland, betrothed to Gudrun, daughter of King
Hettel (_Attila_). She was carried off by Hartmuth, king of Norway, and
as she refused to marry him, was put to the most menial work. Herwig
conveyed an army into Norway, utterly defeated Hartmuth, liberated
Gudrun, and married her.—_Gudrun_, a German epic of the thirteenth

=Her´zog= (_Duke_), commander-in-chief of the ancient Teutons
(_Germans_). The herzog was elected by the freemen of the tribe, but in
times of war and danger, when several tribes united, the princes
selected a leader, who was called also “herzog,” similiar to the Gaulish
“brennus” or “bren,” and the Celtic “pendragon” or head chief.

=Heskett= (_Ralph_), landlord of the village ale-house where Robin Oig
and Harry Wakefield fought.

_Dame Heskett_, Ralph’s wife.—Sir. W. Scott, _The Two Drovers_ (time,
George III.).

=Hesper´ides= (_4 syl._) _The Hesper´ian Field._ The Hesperidês were the
women who guarded the golden apples which Earth gave to Herê at her
marriage with Zeus (_Jove_). They were assisted by the dragon Ladon. The
_Hesperian Fields_ are the orchards in which the golden apples grew. The
Island is one of the Cape Verd Isles, in the Atlantic.

=Hesperus=, the knight called by Tennyson “Evening Star;” but called in
the _History of Prince Arthur_, “the Green Knight” _or_ Sir Pertolope
(_3 syl._). One of the four brothers who kept the passages of Castle
Perilous.—Tennyson, _Idylls_ (“Gareth and Lynette”); Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 127 (1470).

⁂ It is a manifest blunder to call the _Green_ Knight “Hesperus the
Evening Star,” and the _Blue_ Knight the “Morning Star.” The old romance
makes the combat with the “Green Knight” at _dawn_, and with the “Blue
Knight” at _sunset_. The error has arisen from not bearing in mind that
our forefathers began the day with the preceding eve, and ended it at

=Hetherford= (_Reuben_), stupid suitor of Molly Wilder. He will not
relinquish her, although assured that she is to marry another man, and
when the news comes that her husband has been drowned, renews his suit,
only to be again rejected.—Jane Goodwin Austin, _A Nameless Nobleman_

=Hettly= (_May_), an old servant of Davie Deans.—Sir W. Scott, _Heart of
Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Heyward= (_Duncan_). A major in the English army in America, sent to
escort the Munro sisters to their father, and sharer in the perils
incurred by them in their journey by stream and forest. He is beloved by
both sisters and marries Alice.—James Fennimore Cooper, _Last of the

=Heukbane= (_Mrs._), the butcher’s wife at Fairport, and a friend of
Mrs. Mailsetter.—Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Hew=, son of Lady Helen of “Merryland town” (_Milan_), enticed by an
apple presented to him by a Jewish maiden, who then “stabbed him with a
penknife, rolled the body in lead, and cast it into a well.” Lady Helen
went in search of her child, and its ghost cried out from the bottom of
the well:

                The lead is wondrous heavy, mither;
                  The well is wondrous deep:
                A keen penknife sticks in my heart;
                  A word I dounae speik.
                                Percy, _Reliques_, i. 3.

=Hewit= (_Godfrey Bertram_), natural son of Mr. Godfrey Betram.—Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Hezekiah Grumbles=, intended by nature for a farmer; intended by
parents for a clergyman; makes a soldier of himself in the Civil War
1861-65.—William M. Baker, _The Making of a Man_ (1881).

=Hezekiah Bedott=, easy-going, meek and slow-spoken husband of Priscilla
Bedott. “Wonderful hand to moralize, specially after he begun to enjoy
poor health.”—Frances Miriam Twitcher, _The Widow Bedott Papers_ (1856).

=Hiawa´tha=, the prophet teacher, son of Mudjekee´wis (_the west wind_)
and Weno´nah, daughter of Noko´mis. He represents the progress of
civilization among the North American Indians. Hiawatha first wrestled
with Monda´min (_maize_), and, having subdued it, gave it to man for
food. He then taught man navigation; then he subdued Mishe Nah´ma (_the
sturgeon_), and taught the Indians how to make oil therefrom for winter.
His next exploit was against the magician Megissog´non, the author of
disease and death; having slain this monster, he taught man the science
of medicine. He then married Minneha´ha (_laughing water_), and taught
man to be the husband of one wife, and the comforts of domestic peace.
Lastly, he taught man picture-writing. When the white men came with the
gospel, Hiawatha ascended to the kingdom of Pone´mah, the land of the
hereafter.—Longfellow, _Hiawatha_.

_Hiawatha’s Moc´casins._ When Hiawatha put on his moccasins, he could
measure a mile at a single stride.

               He had moccasins enchanted,
               Magic moccasins of deer-skin;
               When he bound them round his ankles
               At each stride a mile he measured.
                             Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, iv.

_Hiawatha’s Great Friends_, Chibia´bos (the sweetest of all musicians)
and Kwa´sind (the strongest of all mortals).—Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, vi.

=Hick´athrift= (_Tom or Jack_), a poor laborer in the time of the
Conquest, of such enormous strength that he killed, with an axletree and
cartwheel, a huge giant, who lived in a marsh at Tylney, in Norfolk. He
was knighted, and made governor of Thanet. Hickathrift is sometimes
called _Hickafric_.

When a man sits down to write a history, though it be but the history of
Jack Hickathrift, ... he knows no more than his heels what lets ... he
is to meet with in his way.—Sterne.

=Hick´ory= (_Old_), General Andrew Jackson. He was first called “Tough,”
then “Tough as Hickory,” and, lastly, “Old Hickory.” Another story is
that in 1813, when engaged in war with the Creek Indians, he fell short
of supplies, and fed his men on hickory nuts (1767-1845).

=Hicks=, short, slight young man ... with an air at once amiable and
baddish, whose father sends him on a sea-voyage to cure him of
drunkenness.—William Dean Howells, _The Lady of the Aroostook_ (1879).

=Hi´erocles= (_4 syl._), the first person who compiled jokes and _bon
mots_. After a life-long labor, he got together twenty-one, which he
left to the world as his legacy. Hence arose the phrase, _An Hieroc´lean
legacy_, no legacy at all, or a legacy of empty promises, or a legacy of
no worth.

One of his anecdotes is that of a man who wanted to sell his house, and
carried about a brick to show as a specimen of it.

=Hieron´imo=, the chief character of Thomas Kyd’s drama in two parts,
pt. i. being called _Hieronimo_, and pt. ii. _The Spanish Tragedy_, or
_Hieronimo is Mad Again_. In the latter play, Horatio, only son of
Hieronimo, sitting with Belimpe´ria in an alcove, is murdered by his
rival, Balthazar, and the lady’s brother, Lorenzo. The murderers hang
the dead body on a tree in the garden, and Hieronimo, aroused by the
screams of Belimperia, rushing into the garden, sees the dead body of
his son, and goes raving mad (1588).

=Higden= (_Mrs. Betty_), an old woman nearly four score, very poor, but
hating the union-house more than she feared death. Betty Higden kept a
mangle, and “minded young children” at four-pence a week. A poor
workhouse lad named Sloppy helped her to turn the mangle. Mrs. Boffin
wished to adopt Johnny, Betty’s infant grandchild, but he died in the
Children’s Hospital.

She was one of those old women, was Mrs. Betty Higden, who, by dint of
an indomitable purpose and a strong constitution, fight out many years;
an active old woman, with a bright dark eye and a resolute face, yet
quite a tender creature, too.—C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_, i. 16

=Higg=, “the son of Snell,” the lame witness at the trial of
Rebecca.—Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

=Higgen, Prigg, Snapp, and Ferret=, knavish beggars in _The Beggar’s
Bush_, a drama by Beaumont and Fletcher (1622).

=High and Low Heels=, two factions in Lilliput. So called from the high
and low heels of their shoes, badges of the two factions. The high heels
(_tories and the high-church party_) were friendly to the ancient
constitution of the empire, but the emperor employed the Low-heels
(_whigs and low-churchmen_) as his ministers of state.—Swift,
_Gulliver’s Travels_ (“Lilliput,” 1726).

=High Life Below Stairs=, a farce by the Rev. James Townley. Mr. Lovel,
a wealthy commoner, suspects his servants of “wasting his substance in
riotous living;” so, pretending to go to his country seat in Devonshire,
he assumes the character of a country bumpkin from Essex, and places
himself under the charge of his own butler, to learn the duties of a
gentleman servant. As the master is away, Philip (the butler) invites a
large party to supper, and supplies them with the choicest wines. The
servants all assume their masters’ titles, and address each other as “My
lord duke,” “Sir Harry,” “My Lady Charlotte,” “My Lady Bab,” etc., and
mimic the airs of their employers. In the midst of the banquet, Lovel
appears in his true character, breaks up the party, and dismisses his
household, retaining only one of the lot, named Tom, to whom he entrusts
the charge of the silver and plate (1759).

=Highland Mary=, immortalized by Robert Burns, is generally thought to
be Mary Campbell; but it seems more likely to be Mary Morison, “one of
the poet’s youthful loves.” Probably the songs, _Will ye go to the
Indies, my Mary?_ _Highland Mary_, _Mary Morison_, and _To Mary in
Heaven_, were all written on one and the same Mary, although some think
_Highland Mary_ and _Mary in Heaven_ refer to Mary Campbell, who, we are
told, was the poet’s first love.

=Highwaymen= (_Noted_).

CLAUDE DUVAL (*-1670). Introduced in _White Friars_, by Miss Robinson.

JAMES WHITNEY (1660-1594), aged 34.

JONATHAN WILD of Wolverhampton (1682-1725), aged 43. Hero and title of a
novel by Fielding (1744).

JACK SHEPPARD of Spitalfields (1701-1724), aged 24. Hero and title of a
novel by Defoe (1724); and of one by H. Ainsworth (1839).

DICK TURPIN, executed at York (1711-1739). Hero of a novel by H.

GALLOPING DICK, executed at Aylesbury in 1800.

CAPTAIN GRANT, the Irish highwayman, executed at Maryborough, in 1816.

SAMUEL GREENWOOD, executed at Old Bailey, 1822.

WILLIAM REA, executed at Old Bailey, 1828.

=Hilda=. Art student in Rome, beloved by Kenyon, another artist, and
friend of Miriam. Hilda is the accidental witness of the homicide
committed by Donatello, and the horror of the secret drives her almost
mad.—Nathaniel Hawthorne, _The Marble Faun_.

_Hilda_. Wife of _Herluf_, who has excited his father—the “Judge’s”
wrath. The old man strikes his son while Hilda’s arms are about her
husband, and Herluf, maddened, leaves home and wife for America. Letters
from New York tell his father of his successes there, and he at last
begs Hilda to bring him home. She obeys, and the two men embrace with
tears.—Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen, _A Child of the Age_ (1889).

_Hilda’s Little Hood_. Tale of a scarlet hood (with a pretty face within
it) that won a man’s heart.—Hjalmar Hjorth Boyesen’s _Idylls of Norway_

=Hilarius= (_Brother_), refectioner at St. Mary’s.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Hildebrand=, Pope Gregory VII. (1013, 1073-1085). He demanded for the
Church the right of “investiture” or presentation to all ecclesiastical
benefices, the superiority of the ecclesiastical to the temporal
authority, enforced the celibacy of all clergymen, resisted simony, and
greatly advanced the domination of the popes.

            We need another Hildebrand to shake
            And purify us.
                    Longfellow, _The Golden Legend_ (1851).

_Hil´debrand_ (_Meister_), the Nestor of German romance, a magician and

⁂ Maugis, among the paladins of Charlemagne, sustained a similar twofold

=Hil´debrod= (_Jacob_, _duke_), president of the Alsatian Club.—Sir W.
Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Hil´desheim=. The monk of Hildesheim, doubting how a thousand years
with God could be “only one day,” listened to the melody of a bird in a
green wood, as he supposed, for only three minutes, but found that he
had in reality been listening to it for a hundred years.

=Hill= (_Dr. John_), whose pseudonym was “Mrs. Glasse.” Garrick said of

           For physic and farces,
           His equal there scarce is.
         For his farces are physic, and his physic a farce is.

=Hil´lary= (_Tom_), apprentice of Mr. Lawford, the town clerk.
Afterwards Captain Hillary.—Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_
(time, George II.).

=Hinch´up= (_Dame_), a peasant, at the execution of Meg Murdockson.—Sir
W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Hin´da=, daughter of Al Hassan, the Arabian emir of Persia. Her lover,
Hafed, a gheber or fire-worshipper, was the sworn enemy of the emir. Al
Hassan sent Hinda away, but she was taken captive by Hafed’s party.
Hafed, being betrayed to Al Hassan, burnt himself to death in the sacred
fire, and Hinda cast herself headlong into the sea.—T. Moore, _Lalla
Rookh_ (“The Fire-Worshippers,” 1817).

=Hinzelmann=, the most famous house-spirit or kobold of German legend.
He lived four years in the old castle of Hudemühlen, and then
disappeared for ever (1588).

=Hippol´ito=. So Browning spells the name of the son of Theseus (2
_syl._) and An´tiopê. Hippolito fled all intercourse with woman. Phædra,
his mother-in-law, tried to seduce him, and when he resisted her
solicitations, accused him to her husband of attempting to dishonor her.
After death he was restored to life under the name of Virbius
(_vir-bis_, “twice a man”). (See HIPPOLYTOS).

              Hippolito, a youth who never knew a woman.

=Hippol´yta=, queen of the Am´azons, and daughter of Mars. She was
famous for a girdle given her by the war-god, which Herculês had to
obtain possession of as one of his twelve labors.

⁂ Shakespeare has introduced Hippolyta in his _Midsummer Night’s Dream_,
and betroths her to Theseus (2 _syl._) duke of Athens; but according to
classic fable, it was her sister An´tiopê (4 _syl._) who married

_Hippolyta_, a rich lady wantonly in love with Arnoldo. By the cross
purposes of the plot, Leopold, a sea-captain, is enamoured of Hippolyta,
Arnoldo is contracted to the chaste Zeno´cia, and Zenocia is
dishonorably pursued by the Governor Count Clo´dio.—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Custom of the Country_ (1647).

=Hippolytos= (in Latin, _Hippolytus_), son of Theseus. He provoked the
anger of Venus by disregarding her love, and Venus, in revenge, made
Phædra (his mother-in-law) fall in love with him, and when Hippolytos
repulsed her advances, she accused him to her husband of seeking to
dishonor her. Theseus prayed Neptune to punish the young man, and the
sea-god, while the young man was driving in his chariot, scared the
horses with sea-calves. Hippolytos was thrown from the chariot and
killed, but Diana restored him to life again. (See HIPPOLITO.)

      Hippolytus himself would leave Diana
      To follow such a Venus.
          Massinger, _A New Way to Pay Old Debts_, iii. 1 (1628).

=Hippom´enes= (4 _syl._), a Grecian prince who outstripped Atalanta in a
foot-race, by dropping three golden apples, which she stopped to pick
up. By this conquest he won Atalanta to wife.

            E’en here, in this region of wonders, I find
            That light-footed Fancy leaves Truth far behind;
            Or, at least, like Hippomenês, turns her astray
            By the golden illusions he flings in her way.
                                                 T. Moore.

=Hippot´ades= (4 _syl._), Eŏlus, the wind-god, son of Hippota.

            [_He_] questioned every gust of rugged winds
            That blows from off each beaked promontory:
            They knew not of his story;
            And sage Hippotadês, their answer brings,
            That not a blast was from his dungeon strayed.
                                   Milton, _Lycidas_ (1638).

=Hiren=, a strumpet. From Peele’s play _The Turkish Mahomet and Hyren
the Fair Greek_ (1584).

In Italian called a _courtezan_; in Spain a _margarite_; in French _une
putaine_; in English...a punk.

“There be Sirens in the sea of the world. Syrens? _Hirens_, as they are
now called. What a number of these sirens [_Hirens_], cockatrices,
courteghians, in plain English, harlots, swimme amongst us!”—Adams,
_Spiritual Navigator_ (1615).

=Hiroux= (_Jean_), the French “Bill Sikes,” with all the tragic elements

 _Pres._ Where do you live? _Jean._ Haven’t got any.
 _Pres._ Where were you born? _Jean._ At Galard.
 _Pres._ Where is that? _Jean._ At Galard.
 _Pres._ What department? _Jean._ Galard.
         Henri Monnier, _Popular Scenes drawn with Pen and Ink_ (1825).

=Hislop= (_John_), the old carrier at Old St. Ronan’s.—Sir W. Scott,
_St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Histor´icus=, the _nom de plume_ of the Hon. E. Vernon Harcourt, for
many years the most slashing writer in the _Saturday Review_, and a
writer in the _Times_.

=History= (_Father of_). Herod´otos, the Greek historian, is so called
by Cicero (B.C. 484-408).

_History_ (_Father of Ecclesiastical_), Polygnotos of Thaos (fl. B. C.
463-435). The Venerable Bede is so called sometimes (672-735).

_History_ (_Father of French_), Andre Duchesne (1584-1640).

=Histrio-mastix=, a tirade against theatrical exhibitions, by William
Prynne (1632).

=Ho´amen=, an Indian tribe settled on a south branch of the Missouri,
having Az´tlan for their imperial city. The Az´tecas conquered the
tribe, deposed the queen, and seized their territory by right of
conquest. When Madoc landed on the American shore, he took the part of
the Hoamen, and succeeded in restoring them to their rights. The Aztecas
then migrated to Mexico (twelfth century).—Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

=Hob Miller= of Twyford, an insurgent.—Sir W. Scott, _The Betrothed_
(time, Henry II.).

=Hob or Happer=, miller at St. Mary’s Convent.

_Mysie Happer_, the miller’s daughter. She marries Sir Piercie
Shafton.—Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Hob´bididance= (_4 syl._), the prince of dumbness, and one of the five
fiends that possessed “poor Tom.”—Shakespeare, _King Lear_, act iv. sc.
1 (1605).

⁂ This name is taken from Harsnett’s _Declaration of Egregious
Popish-Impostures_ (1561-1631).

=Hobbie O’Sorbie´trees,= one of the huntsmen near Charlie’s Hope
farm.—Sir. W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.)

=Hob´bima= (_The English_), John Crome, of Norwich, whose last words
were: “O Hobbima, Hobbima, how I do love thee!” (1769-1821).

_Hob´bima (The Scotch)_, P. Nasmyth (1831- ).

⁂ Minderhout Hobbima, a famous landscape painter of Amsterdam

=Hobbinol.= (See HOBINOL).

=Hobbler= or CLOPINEL, Jehan de Meung, the French poet, who was lame
(1260-1320). Meung was called by his contemporaries _Père de

⁂ Tyrtæus, the Greek elegiac poet, was called “Hobbler” because he
introduced the alternate pentameter verse, which is one foot shorter
than the old heroic metre.

_Hobbler (The Rev. Dr.)_, at Ellieslaw Castle, one of the Jacobite
conspirators with the laird of Ellieslaw.—Sir W. Scott _The Black Dwarf_
(time, Anne).

=Hobby-horse= (_The_), one of the masquers at Kennaquhair Abbey.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Abbot_ (time Elizabeth).

=Hobinol= or =Hobbinol= is Gabriel Harvey, physician, LL.D., a friend
and college chum of Edmund Spenser, the poet. Spenser, in his ecl. iv.,
makes Thenot inquire, “What gars thee to weep?” and Hobinol replies it
is because his friend Colin, having been flouted by Rosalind (ecl. i.),
has broken his pipe and seems heart-broken with grief. Thenot then begs
Hobinol to sing to him one of Colin’s own songs, and Hobinol sings the
lay of “Elisa, queen of the shepherds” (_Queen Elizabeth_), daughter of
Syrinx and Pan (_Anne Boleyn_ and _Henry VIII._). He says Phœbus thrust
out his golden head to gaze on her, and was amazed to see a sun on earth
brighter and more dazzling than his own. The Graces requested she might
make a fourth grace, and she was received amongst them and reigned with
them in heaven. The shepherds then strewed flowers to the queen, and
Elisa dismissed them, saying that at the proper season she would reward
them with ripe damsons (ecl. iv.) Ecl. ix. is a dialogue between Hobinol
and Diggon Davie, upon Popish abuses. (See DIGGON DAVIE).—Spenser,
_Shephearde’s Calendar_ (1572.)

=Hobnel´ia=, a shepherdess, in love with Lubberkin, who disregarded her.
She tried by spells to win his love, and after every spell she said:

          With my sharp heel I three times mark the ground,
          And turn me thrice around, around, around.
                                  Gay, _Pastoral_, iv. (1717).

=Hob´son= (_Thomas_), a carrier who lived at Cambridge in the
seventeenth century. He kept a livery stable, but obliged the university
students to take his hacks in rotation. Hence the term _Hobson’s choice_
came to signify “this or none.” Milton (in 1660) wrote two humorous
poems on the death of the old carrier.

=Hochspring´en= (_The young duke of_), introduced in Donnerhugel’s
narrative.—Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Hocus= (_Humphry_), “the attorney” into whose hands John Bull and his
friends put the law-suit they carried on against Lewis Baboon (_Louis
XIV_.). Of course, Humphry Hocus is John Churchill, duke of Mariborough,
who commanded the army employed against the Grand Monarque.

Hocus was an old cunning attorney; and though this was the first
considerable suit he was ever engaged in, he showed himself superior in
address to most of his profession. He always kept good clerks. He loved
money, was smooth-tongued, gave good words, and seldom lost his
temper.... He provided plentifully for his family; but he loved himself
better than them all. The neighbors reported that he was henpecked,
which was impossible by such a mild-spirited woman as his wife was [_his
wife was a desperate termagant_].—Dr. Arbuthnot, _History of John Bull_,
v. (1712).

=Hodei´rah= (_3 syl._), husband of Zei´nab (_2 syl._) and father of
Thalaba. He died while Thalaba was a mere lad.—Southey, _Thalaba the
Destroyer_, i. (1797).

=Hodeken= (_i.e. little hat_), a German kobold or domestic fairy, noted
for his little felt hat.

=Hö´der=, the Scandinavian god of darkness, typical of night. He is
called the blind old god. Balder is the god of light, typical of day.
According to fable Höder killed Balder with an arrow made of mistletoe,
but the gods restored him to life again.

               Höder, the blind old god,
               Whose feet are shod with silence.
                           Longfellow, _Tegner’s Death_.

=Hodge=, Gammer Gurton’s goodman, whose breeches she was repairing when
she lost her needle.—Mr. S., Master of Arts, _Gammer Gurton’s Needle_

⁂ Mr. S. is said to be J. Still, afterwards bishop of Bath and Wells,
but in 1551 he was only eight years old.

=Hodges= (_John_), one of Waverley’s servants.—Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_
(time, George II.).

_Hodges (Joe)_, landlord of Bertram, by the lake near Merwyn Hall.—Sir
W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Hodge´son= (_Gaffer_), a puritan.—Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_
(time, Charles II.).

=Hoel= (_2 syl._), king of the Armorican Britons, and nephew of King
Arthur. Hoel sent an army of 15,000 men to assist his uncle against the
Saxons (501). In 509, being driven from his kingdom by Clovis, he took
refuge in England; but in 513 he recovered his throne, and died in 545.

         [_Arthur_], calling to his aid
   His kinsman Howel, brought from Brittany, the less,
   Their armies they unite.... [_and conquer the Saxons at Lincoln_].
                   Drayton, _Polyolbion_, iv. (1612).

_Ho´el_, son of Prince Hoel and Lla´ian. Prince Hoel was slain in battle
by his half-brother David, king of North Wales, and Llaian, with her
son, followed the fortunes of Prince Madoc, who migrated to North
America. Young Hoel was kidnapped by Ocell´opan, an Az´tec, and carried
to Az´tlan for a propitiatory sacrifice to the Aztecan gods. He was
confined in a cavern without food; but Co´atel, a young Aztecan wife,
took pity on him, visited him, supplied him with food, and assisted
Madoc to release him.—Southey, _Madoc_ (1805).

=Ho´garth= (_William_), called “The Juvenal of Painters” (1695-1764).

_Hogarth (The Scottish)_, David Allan (1744-1796).

=Hogarth of Novelists=, Henry Fielding (1707-1754).

=Hold´enough= (_Master Nehemiah_), a Presbyterian preacher, ejected from
his pulpit by a military preacher.—Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time,

=Holgrave=, daguerreotypist, who rents a room from Miss Hepzibah
Pyncheon, falls in love with and marries Phœbe Pyncheon.—Nathaniel
Hawthorne, _The House of the Seven Gables_ (1851).

=Holiday= (_Erasmus_), schoolmaster in the Vale of Whitehorse.—Sir W.
Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Holipher´nes= (_4 syl._), called “English Henry,” one of the Christian
knights in the allied army of Godfrey, in the first crusade. He was
slain by Dragu´tês (_3 syl._). (See HOLOPHERNES).—Tasso, _Jerusalem
Delivered_, ix. (1575).

=Hollingsworth=. Big, one-ideaed philanthropist, and a leader in the
Blithedale farm project. “He had taught his benevolence to pour its warm
tide exclusively through one channel, so that there was nothing to spare
for other great manifestations of love to man, nor scarcely for the
nutriment of individual attachments, unless they could minister, in some
way, to the terrible egotism which he mistook for an angel of GOD.”

He is beloved by _Zenobia_, and gives what love he can spare from
himself and his Idea to weak, silly _Priscilla_.—Nathaniel Hawthorne,
_The Blithedale Romance_ (1852).

=Holman= (_Lieutenant James_), the blind traveller (1787-1857).

=Hol´opherne= (_Thubal_), the great sophister, who, in the course of
five years and three months, taught Gargantua to say his ABC
backwards.—Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 14 (1533).

=Holopher´nes= (_4 syl._). a pedantic schoolmaster, who speaks like a
dictionary. The character is meant for John Florio, a teacher of Italian
in London, who published, in 1598, a dictionary called _A World of
Words_. He provoked the retort by condemning wholesale the English
dramas, which, he said, were “neither right comedies nor right
tragedies, but perverted histories without decorum.” The following
sentence is a specimen of the style in which Shakespeare caricatured his

The deer was...in _sanguis_ (blood), ripe as a pomewater who now hangeth
like a jewel in the ear of _cœlo_ (the sky, the welkin, the heaven); and
anon falleth like a crab on the face of _terra_ (the soil, the land, the
earth).—Shakespeare, _Love’s Labor’s Lost_, act iv. sc. 2 (1594).

⁂ _Holophernes_ is an imperfect anagram of “Joh´nes Florio,” the first
and last letters being omitted, F=ph.

=Holt= (_Felix_). A collarless radical who sets a neighborhood by the
ears, and stultifies himself by wooing a gentlewoman.—George Eliot,
_Felix Holt_ (_Radical_).

=Holy Bottle= (_The Oracle of the_), the object of Pantag´ruel’s search.
He visited various lands with his friend Panurge (2 _syl._), the last
place being the island of Lantern-land, where the “bottle” was kept in
an alabaster fount in a magnificent temple. When the party arrived at
the sacred spot, the priestess threw something into the fount; whereupon
the water began to bubble, and the word “Drink” issued from the
“bottle.” So the whole party set to drinking Falernian wine, and, being
inspired with drunkenness, raved with prophetic madness; and so the
romance ends.—Rabelais, _Pantagruel_ (1545).

Like Pantagruel and his companions in quest of the “Oracle of the

=Holy Brotherhood= (_The_), in Spain called _Santa Hermandad_, was an
association for the suppression of highway robbery.

The thieves,...believing the Holy Brotherhood was coming...got up in a
hurry, and alarmed their companions.—Lesage, _Gil Blas_, i. 6 (1715).

=Holy Maid of Kent=, Elizabeth Barton, who incited the Roman Catholics
to resist the progress of the Reformation, and pretended to act under
divine inspiration. She was executed in 1534 for “predicting” that the
king (Henry VIII.) would die a sudden death if he divorced Queen
Katharine and married Anne Boleyn. At one time she was thought to be
inspired with a prophetic gift, and even the lord chancellor, Sir Thomas
More, was inclined to think so.

=Home, Sweet Home=. The words of this popular song are by John Howard
Payne, an American. It is introduced in his melodrama called _Clari_, or
_The Maid of Milan_. The music is by Sir Henry Bishop, and was
originally sung in 1823 by Miss M. Tree.

=Homer= (_The British_). Milton is so called on Gray’s monument in
Westminster Abbey.

              No more the Grecian muse unrivalled reigns;
                To Britain let the nations homage pay:
              She felt a Homer’s fire in Milton’s strains,
                A Pindar’s rapture in the lyre of Gray.

_Homer_ (_The Casket_), an edition of _Homer_ corrected by Aristotle,
which Alexander the Great carried about with him, and placed in the
golden casket richly studded with gems, found in the tent of Darīus.
Alexander said there was but one thing in the world worthy to be kept in
so precious a casket, and that was Aristotle’s _Homer_.

_Homer_ (_The Celtic_), Ossian, son of Fingal, king of Morven.

_Homer_ (_The Oriental_), Ferdusi, the Persian poet, who wrote the _Shâh
Nâmeh_, or history of the Persian kings. It contains 120,000 verses, and
was the work of thirty years (940-1020).

_Homer_ (_The Prose_). Henry Fielding, the novelist, is called by Byron
“The Prose Homer of Human Nature” (1707-1764).

_Homer_ (_The Scottish_), William Wilkie, author of _The Epigon´iad_

=Homer of our Dramatic Poets= (_The_). So Shakespeare is called by
Dryden (1564-1616).

Shakespeare was the Homer or father of our dramatic poets; Jonson was
the Virgil. I admire rare Ben, but I love Shakespeare.—Dryden.

=Homer of Ferra´ra= (_The_). Ariosto was called by Tasso, _Omero
Ferraresê_ (1474-1533).

=Homer of the Franks= (_The_), Angilbert was so called by Charlemagne
(died 814).

=Homer of the French Drama= (_The_). Pierre Corneille was so called by
Sir Walter Scott (1606-1684).

=Homer of Philosophers= (_The_), Plato (B. C. 429-347).

=Homer the Younger=, Philiscos, one of the seven Pleiad poets of
Alexandria, in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphos.

=Homeric Characters.=

AGAMEMNON, haughty and imperious; ACHILLES, brave, impatient of command,
and relentless; DIOMED, brave as Achilles, but obedient to authority;
AJAX _the Greater_, a giant in stature, fool-hardy, arrogant, and
conceited; NESTOR, a sage old man, garrulous on the glories of his
youthful days; ULYSSES, wise, crafty, and arrogant; PATROCLOS, a gentle
friend; THERSITES, a scurrilous demagogue.

HECTOR, the protector and father of his country, a brave soldier, an
affectionate husband, a wise counsellor, and a model prince; SARPEDON,
the favorite of the gods, gallant and generous; PARIS, a gallant and a
fop; TROILUS, “the prince of chivalry;” PRIAM, a broken-spirited old

HELEN, a heartless beauty, faithless, and fond of pleasure; ANDROM´ACHÊ,
a fond young mother and affectionate wife; CASSANDRA, a querulous,
croaking prophetess; HECUBA, an old she-bear robbed of her whelps.

=Homespun= (_Zekiel_), a farmer of Castleton. Being turned out of his
farm, he goes to London to seek his fortune. Though quite illiterate, he
has warm affections, noble principles, and a most ingenious mind. Zekiel
wins £20,000 by a lottery ticket, bought by his deceased father.

_Cicely Homespun_, sister of Zekiel, betrothed to Dick Dowlas (for a
short time the Hon. Dick Dowlas). When Cicely went to London with her
brother, she took a situation with Caroline Dormer. Miss Dormer married
“the heir-at-law” of Baron Duberly, and Cicely married Dick Dowlas.—G.
Colman, _The Heir-at Law_ (1797).

=Hominy= (_Mrs._), philosopher and authoress, wife of Major Hominy, and
“mother of the modern Gracchi,” as she called her daughter, who lived at
New Thermopylæ, three days this side of “Eden,” in America. Mrs. Hominy
was considered by her countrymen a “very choice spirit.”—C. Dickens,
_Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Homo Sum.= A story by George Ebers, telling of the life, temptations,
and victories of certain anchorites living on Mt. Sinai.

=Honest George.= General George Monk, duke of Albemarle, was so called
by the Cromwellites (1608-1670).

=Honest Man.= Diogenês, being asked one day what he was searching for so
diligently that he needed the light of a lantern in broad day, replied,
“An honest man.”

           Searched with lantern-light to find an honest man.
                     Southey, _Roderick, etc._, xxi. (1814).

           Still will he hold his lantern up to scan
           The face of monarchs for an honest man.
                     Byron, _Age of Bronze_, x. (1821).

=Honest Thieves= (_The_). The “thieves” are Ruth and Arabella, two
heiresses, brought up by Justice Day, trustee of the estates of Ruth and
guardian of Arabella. The two girls wish to marry Colonel Careless and
Captain Manly, but do not know how to get possession of their property,
which is in the hands of Justice Day. It so happens that Day goes to pay
a visit, and the two girls, finding the key of his strong box, help
themselves to the deeds, etc., to which they are respectively entitled.
Mrs. Day, on her return, accuses them of robbery; but Manly says,
“Madam, they have taken nothing but what is their own. They are honest
thieves, I assure you.”—T. Knight (a farce).

⁂ This is a mere _rifacimento_ of _The Committee_ (1670), by the Hon.
Sir R. Howard. Most of the names are identical, but “Captain Manly” is
substituted for Colonel Blunt.

=Honey.= Glaucus, son of Minos, was smothered in a cask of honey.

=Honeycomb= (_Will_), a fine gentleman, the great authority on the
fashions of the day. He was one of the members of the imaginary club
from which the _Spectator_ issued.—_The Spectator_ (1711-1713).

=Honeycombe= (_Mr._), the uxorious husband of Mrs. Honeycombe, and
father of Polly. Self-willed, passionate, and tyrannical. He thinks to
bully Polly out of her love-nonsense, and by locking her in her chamber
to keep her safe, forgetting that “love laughs at locksmiths,” and
“where there’s a will there’s a way.”

_Mrs. Honeycombe_, the dram-drinking, maudling, foolish wife of Mr.
Honeycombe, always ogling him, calling him “lovey,” “sweeting,” or
“dearie,” but generally muzzy, and obfuscated with cordials or other

_Polly Honeycombe_, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Honeycombe; educated by
novels, and as full of romance as Don Quixote. Mr. Ledger, a stock
broker, pays his addresses to her; but she hates him, and determines to
elope with Mr. Scribble, an attorney’s clerk, and nephew of her nurse.
This folly, however, is happily interrupted.—G. Colman, the elder,
_Polly Honeycombe_ (1760).

=Honeyman= (_Charles_), a free-and-easy clergyman, of social habits and
fluent speech,—Thackeray, _The Newcomes_ (1855).

=Honeymoon= (_The_), a comedy by J. Tobin (1804). The general scheme
resembles that of the _Taming of the Shrew_, viz., breaking-in an unruly
colt of high mettle to the harness of wifely life. The duke of Aranza
marries the proud, overbearing, but beautiful Juliana, eldest daughter
of Balthazar. After marriage, he takes her to a mean hut, and pretends
he is only a peasant, who must work for his daily bread, and that his
wife must do the household drudgery. He acts with great gentleness and
affection; and by the end of the month, Juliana, being thoroughly
reformed, is introduced to the castle, where she finds that her husband
after all is the duke, and that she is the duchess of Aranza. It is an
excellent and well written comedy.

=Honeywood=, “the good-natured man,” whose property is made the prey of
swindlers. His uncle, Sir William Honeywood, in order to rescue him from
sharpers, causes him to be seized for a bill to which he has lent his
name “to a friend who absconded.” By this arrest the young man is taught
to discriminate between real friends and designing knaves. Honeywood
dotes on Miss Richland, but fancies she loves Mr. Lofty, and therefore
forbears to avow his love; eventually, however, all comes right.
Honeywood promises to “reserve his pity for real distress, and his
friendship for real merit.”

_Sir William Honeywood_, uncle of Mr. Honeywood “the good-natured man.”
Sir William sees with regret the faults of his nephew, and tries to
correct them. He is a dignified and high-minded gentleman.—Goldsmith,
_The Good-natured Man_ (1767).

=Hono´ra=, daughter of General Archas, “the loyal subject” of the
great-duke of Moscovia, and sister of Viola.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The
Loyal Subject_ (1618).

=Hono´ria=, a fair but haughty dame, greatly loved by Theodore of
Ravenna; but the lady “hated him alone,” and, “the more he loved the
more she disdained.” One day she saw the ghost of Guido Cavalcanti
hunting with two mastiffs a damsel who despised his love and who was
doomed to suffer a year for every month she had tormented him. Her
torture was to be hunted by dogs, torn to pieces, disemboweled, and
restored to life again every Friday. This vision so acted on the mind of
Honoria, that she no longer resisted the love of Theodore, but, “with
the full consent of all, she changed her state.”—Dryden, _Theodore and
Honoria_ (a poem).

⁂ This tale is from Boccaccio, _Decameron_ (day v. 8).

=Honour= (_Mrs._), the waiting gentlewoman of Sophia Western.—Fielding,
_Tom Jones_ (1749).

This is worse than Sophy Western and Mrs. Honour about Tom Jones’s
broken arm.—Prof. J. Wilson.

=Honour and Glory Griffiths.= Captain Griffiths, in the reign of William
IV., was so called because he used to address his letters to the
Admiralty, to “Their Honours and Glories at the Admiralty.”

Honor is often personified by the poets. Emerson said of Judge Hoar,
“When he sat upon the bench, Honor came and sat beside him.”

=Honors= (_Crushed by His_ or _Her_).

Tarpeia (3 _syl._), daughter of Tarpeius (governor of the citadel of
Rome), promised to open the gates to Tatius, if his soldiers would give
her the ornaments they wore on their arms. As the soldiers entered the
gate, they threw on her their shields, and crushed her to death, saying,
“These are the ornaments we Sabines wear on our arms.”

Draco, the Athenian legislator, was crushed to death in the theatre of
Ægīna by the number of caps and cloaks showered on him by the audience,
as a mark of honor.

Elagab´alus, the Roman emperor, invited the leading men of Rome to a
banquet, and, under pretense of showing them honor, rained roses upon
them till they were smothered to death.

=Hood= (_Riley_), smart boy who is willing that his grandmother “may pit
Gener’l Washington an’ the old man Noah agin one ’nother right at the
door of the ark,” provided his father does not compel him to
authenticate her stories or be thrashed.—Richard Malcolm Johnston,
_Other Georgia Folk_ (1887).

_Hood_ (_Robin_), a famous English outlaw. Stow places him in the reign
of Richard I., but others make him live at divers periods between Cœur
de Lion and Edward II. His chief haunt was Sherwood Forest, in
Nottinghamshire. Ancient ballads abound with anecdotes of his personal
courage, his skill in archery, his generosity, and great popularity. It
is said that he robbed the rich, but gave largely to the poor, and
protected women and children with chivalrous magnanimity. The ballad,
“The Death of Robin Hood,” says that he was treacherously bled to death
by his sister, the Prioress of the Abbey of Kirklees.

Stukeley asserts that Robin Hood was Robert Fitzooth, earl of
Huntingdon; and it is probable that his name _hood_, like _capet_ given
to the French king of the Hugues, refers to the cape or hood which he
usually wore.

⁂ The chief incidents of his life are recorded by Stow. Ritson has
collected a volume of songs, ballads, and anecdotes called _Robin Hood
... that Celebrated English Outlaw_ (1795). Sir W. Scott has introduced
him in his famous novel _Ivanhoe_, which makes the outlaw contemporary
with Cœur de Lion.

_Robin Hood’s Men._ The most noted of his followers were Little John,
whose surname was Nailor; his chaplain, Friar Tuck; William Scarlet,
Scathelooke (2 _syl._), or Scadlock, sometimes called two brothers; Will
Stutly or Stukely; Mutch, the miller’s son; and the maid Marian.

=Hookem= (_Mr._), partner of lawyer Clip-purse at Waverley Honor.—Sir.
W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Hooker= (_Thomas_). In his eulogy upon Master Thomas Hooker, Cotton
Mather “invites the reader to behold at once the wonders of New England,
and it is in one Thomas Hooker that he shall behold them.”—Cotton
Mather, D. D., _Magnolia Christi Americana_ (1702).

=Hop= (_Robin_), the hop plant.

            Get into thy hop-yard, for now it is time
            To teach Robin Hop on his pole how to climb.
                    T. Tusser, _Five Hundred Points of Good
                    Husbandry_, xli. 17 (1557).

=Hope.= The name of the first woman, according to Grecian mythology, was
Pandôra, made by Hephæstos (_Vulcan_) out of earth. She was called
Pandôra (“all-gifted”) because all the deities contributed something to
her charms. She married Epime´theus (4 _syl._), in whose house was a box
which no mortal might open. Curiosity induced Pandôra to peep into it,
when out flew all the ills of humanity, and she had just time to close
the lid to prevent the escape of Hope also.

           When man and nature mourned their first decay ...
           All, all forsook the friendless, guilty mind,
           But Hope—the charmer lingered still behind.
                   Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1799).

_Hope_ (_The Bard of_), Thomas Campbell, who wrote _The Pleasures of
Hope_, in two parts (1777-1844).

_Hope_ (_Dorothy_). An ingenuous, dimpled village girl, who attracts the
fancy and satisfies the heart of a world-weary man.—Ellen Olney Kirk,
_Daughter of Eve_ (1889).

_Hope_ (_The Cape of Good_), originally called “The Cape of Storms”.

Similarly, the Euxine (_i.e._ “hospitable”) Sea was originally called by
the Greeks, the Axine (_i.e._ “the inhospitable”) Sea.

=Hope Diamond= (_The_), a blue brilliant, weighing 44-1/4 carats.

It is supposed that this diamond is the same as the blue diamond bought
by Louis XIV. in 1608, of Tavernier. It weighed in the rough 112-1/4
carats, and after being cut 67-1/8 carats. In 1792 it was lost. In 1830
Mr. Daniel Eliason came into possession of a blue diamond without any
antecedent history. This was bought by Mr. Henry Thomas Hope, and is
called “The Hope Diamond.”

=Hope of Troy= (_The_), Hector.

          [_He_] stood against them, as the Hope of Troy
          Against the Greeks.
              Shakespeare, 3 _Henry VI._ act ii. sc. 1 (1592).

=Hopeful=, a companion of Christian after the death of Faithful at
Vanity Fair.—Bunyan, _The Pilgrim’s Progress_, i, (1678).

=Hope-on-High Bomby=, a puritanical character, drawn by Beaumont and

“Well,” said Wildrake, “I think I can make a Hope-on-High Bomby as well
as thou canst.”—Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_, vii.

=Hopkins= (_Matthew_), of Manningtree, Essex, the witch-finder. In one
year he caused sixty persons to be hanged as reputed witches.

Between three and four thousand persons suffered death for witchcraft
between 1643 and 1661.—Dr. Z. Grey.

_Hopkins_ (_Nicholas)_, a Chartreux friar, who prophesied “that neither
the king [_Henry VIII._] nor his heirs should prosper, but that the duke
of Buckingham should govern England.”

     _1st Gent._ That devil-monk, Hopkins, hath made this mischief.
     _2nd Gent._ That was he that fed him with his prophecies.
             Shakespeare, _Henry VIII._ act ii. sc. 1 (1601).

=Hop-o’-my-Thumb=, a character in several nursery tales. Tom Thumb and
Hop-o’-my-thumb are not the same, although they are often confounded
with each other. Tom Thumb was the son of peasants, knighted by King
Arthur, and was killed by a spider; but Hop-’o-my-thumb was a nix, the
same as the German _daumling_, the French _le petit pouce_, and the
Scotch _Tom-a-lin_ or Tamlane. He was not a human dwarf, but a fay of
usual fairy proportions.

             Yon Stump-o’-the-gutter, yon Hop-o’-my-thumb,
             Your husband must from Lilliput come.
                     Kane O’Hara, _Midas_ (1778).

=Horace=, son of Oronte (2 _syl._) and lover of Agnes. He first sees
Agnes in a balcony, and takes off his hat in passing. Agnes returns his
salute, “pour ne point manquer à la civilité.” He again takes off his
hat, and she again returns the compliment. He bows a third time, and she
returns his “politeness” a third time. “Il passe, vient, repasse, et
toujours me fait a chaque fois révérence, et moi nouvelle révérence
aussi je lui rendois.” An intimacy is soon established, which ripens
into love. Oronte tells his son he intends him to marry the daughter of
Enrique (2 _syl._), which he refuses to do; but it turns out that Agnes
is in fact Enrique’s daughter, so that love and obedience are easily
reconciled.—Molière, _L’école des Femmes_ (1662).

_Horace_ (_The English_). Ben Jonson is so called by Dekker the
dramatist (1574-1637).

Cowley was preposterously called by George, duke of Buckingham “The
Pindar, Horace, and Virgil of England” (1618-1667).

_Horace_ (_The French_), Jean Macrinus or Salmon (1490-1557).

Pierre Jean de Béranger is called “The Horace of France,” and “The
French Burns” (1780-1857).

_Horace_ (_The Portuguese_), A. Ferreira (1528-1569).

_Horace_ (_The Spanish_). Both Lupercio Argen´sola and his brother
Bartolome are so called.

=Horace de Brienne= (2 _syl._), engaged to Diana de Lascours; but after
the discovery of Ogari´ta [_alias_ Martha, Diana’s sister], he falls in
love with her, and marries her with the free consent of his former
choice.—E. Stirling, _The Orphan of the Frozen Sea_ (1856).

=Horatia=, daughter of Horatius, “the Roman father.” She was engaged to
Caius Curiatius, whom her surviving brother slew in the well-known
combat of the three Romans and three Albans. For the purpose of being
killed, she insulted her brother Publius in his triumph, and spoke
disdainfully of his “patriotic love,” which he preferred to filial and
brotherly affection. In his anger he stabbed his sister with his
sword.—Whitehead, _The Roman Father_ (1741).

=Hora´tio=, the intimate friend of Prince Hamlet.—Shakespeare, _Hamlet,
Prince of Denmark_ (1596).

_Horatio_, the friend and brother-in-law of Lord Al´tamont, who
discovers by accident that Calista, Lord Altamont’s bride, has been
seduced by Lothario, and informs Lord Altamont of it. A duel ensues
between the bridegroom and the libertine, in which Lothario is killed;
and Calista stabs herself.—N. Rowe, _The Fair Penitent_ (1703).

=Horatius=, “the Roman father.” He is the father of the three Horatii
chosen by the Roman Senate to espouse the cause of Rome against the
Albans. He glories in the choice, preferring his country to his
offspring. His daughter, Horatia, was espoused to one of the Curiatii,
and was slain by her surviving brother for taunting him with murder
under the name of patriotism. The old man now renounced his son, and
would have given him up to justice, but king and people interposed in
his behalf.

_Publius Horatius_, the surviving son of “the Roman father.” He
pretended flight, and as the Curiatii pursued, “but not with equal
speed,” he slew them one by one as they came up.—Whitehead, _The Roman
Father_, (1741).

=Horatius= [=Cocles=], captain of the bridge-gate over the Tiber. When
Por´sĕna brought his host to replace Tarquin on the throne, the march on
the city was so sudden and rapid that the consul said, “The foe will be
upon us before we can cut down the bridge.” Horatius exclaimed, “If two
men will join me, I will undertake to give the enemy play till the
bridge is cut down.” Spurius Lartius and Herminius volunteered to join
him in this bold enterprise. Three men came against them and were cut
down. Three others met the same fate. Then the lord of Luna came with
his brand, “which none but he could wield,” but the Tuscan was also
despatched. Horatius then ordered his two companions to make good their
escape, and they just crossed the bridge as it fell in with a crash. The
bridge being down, Horatius threw himself into the Tiber and swam safe
to shore, amidst the applauding shouts of both armies.—Lord Macaulay,
_Lays of Ancient Rome_ (“Horatius,” 1842).

=Horn= (_King_), hero of a French metrical romance, the original of our
_Childe Horne_ or _The Geste of Kyng Horn_. The French romance is
ascribed to Maistre Thomas; and Dr. Percy thinks the English romance is
of the twelfth century, but this is probably at least a century too

=Horn of Chastity and Fidelity=.

Morgan la Faye sent King Arthur a drinking-horn, from which no lady
could drink who was not true to her husband, and no knight who was not
feal to his liege lord. Sir Lamorake sent this horn as a taunt to Sir
Mark, king of Cornwall.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_,

Ariosto’s enchanted cup.

_The cuckold’s drinking-horn_, from which “no cuckold could drink
without spilling the liquor.”

=Horner= (_Jack_), the little boy who sat in a corner to eat his
Christmas pie, and thought himself wondrously clever because he
contrived to pull out a plum with his thumb.

               Little Jack Horner sat in a corner,
                 Eating a Christmas pie;
               He put in his thumb and pulled out a plum,
                 Saying, “What a good boy am I!”
                       _Nursery Rhyme_.

In _Notes and Queries_, xvi. 156, several explanations are offered,
ascribing a political meaning to the words quoted—Jack Horner being
elevated to a king’s messenger or king’s steward, and “the plum” pulled
out so cleverly being a valuable deed which the messenger abstracted.

=Horse.= The first to ride and tame a horse for the use of man was
Melizyus, king of Thessaly. (See MELIZYUS).

_Horse_ (_The Black_), the 7th Dragoon Guards (_not_ the 7th Dragoons).
They have black velvet facings, and their plume is black and white. At
one time they rode black horses.

_Horse_ (_The Green_), the 5th Dragoon Guards. (These are called “The
Princess Charlotte of Wales’s ...”). Facings dark green velvet, but the
plume is red and white.

_Horse_ (_The White_), the 3d Dragoon Guards. (These are called “The
Prince of Wales’s ...”).

⁂ All the Dragoon Guards have _velvet_ facings, except the 6th (or
“Carabiniers”), which have white _cloth_ facings. By facings are meant
the collar and cuffs.

N.B.—“The white horse within the Garter” is _not_ the heraldic insignia
of the White Horse Regiment or 3d Dragoon Guards, but of the 3d Hussars
(or “The King’s Own”), who have also a white plume. This regiment used
to be called “The 3d Light Dragoons.”

_Horse_ (_The Royal_), the Blues.

_Horse_ (_The Wooden_), a huge horse constructed by Ulysses and Diomed,
for secreting soldiers. The Trojans were told by Sinon it was an
offering made by the Greeks to the sea-god, to ensure a safe
home-voyage, adding that the blessing would pass from the Greeks to the
Trojans if the horse were placed within the city walls. The credulous
Trojans drew the monster into the city; but at night Sinon released the
soldiers from the horse and opened the gates to the Greek army. The
sentinels were slain, the city fired in several places, and the
inhabitants put to the sword. The tale of the “Wooden Horse” forms no
part of Homer’s _Iliad_, but is told by Virgil in his _Æne´id_. Virgil
borrowed the tale from Arctīnos of Milētus, one of the Cyclic poets, who
related the story of the “Wooden Horse” and the “burning of Troy.”

⁂ A very similar strategem was employed in the seventh century A.D. by
Abu Obeidah in the siege of Arrestan, in Syria. He obtained leave of the
governor to deposit in the citadel some old lumber which impeded his
march. Twenty boxes (filled with soldiers) were accordingly placed
there, and Abu, like the Greeks, pretended to march homewards. At night
the soldiers removed the sliding bottoms of the boxes, killed the
sentries, opened the city gates, and took the town.—Ockley, _History of
the Saracens_, i. 185.

The capture of Sark was affected by a similar trick. A gentleman of the
Netherlands, with one ship, asked permission of the French to bury one
of his crew in the chapel. The request was granted, but the coffin was
full of arms. The pretended mourners, being well provided with arms,
fell on the guards and took the island by surprise.—Percy, _Anecdotes_,

_Horse_ (_Merlin’s Wooden_), Clavilēno. This was the horse on which Don
Quixote effected the disenchantment of the infanta Antonomāsia and

_Horse_ (_The Enchanted_), a wooden horse with two pegs. By turning one
the horse rose into the air, and by turning the other it descended where
and when the rider listed. It was given by an Indian to the shah of
Persia, as a New Year’s gift.—_Arabian Nights_ (“The Enchanted Horse”),
and Chaucer (“The Squire’s Tale”).

_Horse_ (_The Fifteen points of a good_).

A good horse sholde have three propyrtees of a man, three of a woman,
three of a foxe, three of a haare, and three of an asse. Of a _man_,
bolde, prowde, and hardye. Of a _woman_, fayre-breasted, faire of heere,
and easy to move. Of a _foxe_, a fair taylle, short eers, with a good
trotte. Of a _haare_, a grate eye, a dry head, and well rennynge. Of an
_asse_, a bygge chynn, a flat legge, and a good hoof.—_Wynkyn de Worde_

=Horse Neighing=. On the death of Smerdis, the several competitors for
the Persian crown agreed that he whose horse neighed first should be
appointed king. The horse of Darius neighed first and Darius was made
king. Lord Brooke calls him a Scythian; he was son of Hystaspês, the

             The brave Scythian
           Who found more sweetness in his horse’s neighing
           Than all the Phrygian, Dorian, Lydian playing.
                                                Lord Brooke.

=Horse Painted=. Apellês of Cos painted Alexander’s horse so wonderfully
well that a real horse seeing it, began to neigh at it, supposing it to
be alive.

Myron, the statuary, made a cow so true to life that it was said to have
deceived men and animals.

Valasquez painted a Spanish admiral so true to life that Philip IV.,
mistaking it for the officer himself, reproved him sharply for wasting
his time in a painter’s studio, when he ought to have been with his

Xeuxis painted some grapes so admirably that birds flew at them,
thinking them real fruit.

Parrhasios of Ephesus painted a curtain so inimitably that Xeuxis
thought it to be a real curtain, and bade the artist draw it aside that
he might see the painting behind.

Quintin Matsys of Antwerp painted a bee on the outstretched leg of a
fallen angel so naturally that when old Mandyn, the artist, returned to
the studio, he tried to frighten it away with his pocket-handkerchief.

=Horse of Brass= (_The_), a present from the king of Araby and Ind to
Cambuscan´, king of Tartary. A person whispered in its ear where he
wished to go, and having mounted, turned a pin, whereupon the brazen
steed rose in the air as high as the rider wished, and within
twenty-four hours landed him at the end of his journey.

     This steed of brass, that easily and well
     Can, in the space of a day natural....
     Bearen your body into every place
     To which your heartè willeth for to pace.
           Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Squire’s Tale,” 1388).

=Horse Shoe Robinson=. A daring American trooper, who captures five
English soldiers without other assistance than a small boy and a horse.
When surprised reconnoitering the enemy’s camp from a cliff, he drops
upon his knees and “is digging up sassafras roots.”—John Pendleton
Kennedy, _Horse Shoe Robinson_ (1852).

=Horste= (_Conrade_), one of the insurgents at Liège.—Sir W. Scott,
_Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Hortense´= (2 _syl._), the vindictive French maid-servant of Lady
Dedlock. In revenge for the partiality shown by Lady Dedlock to Rosa,
the village beauty, Hortense murdered Mr. Tulkinghorn, and tried to
throw the suspicion of the crime on Lady Dedlock.—C. Dickens, _Bleak
House_ (1853).

=Horten´sio=, a suitor to Bianca, the younger sister of Katharina, “the
Shrew.” Katharina and Bianca are the daughters of Baptista.—Shakespeare,
_Taming of the Shrew_ (1594).

_Hortensio_, noted for his chivalrous love and valor.—Massinger, _The
Bashful Lover_ (1636).

=Hosier’s Ghost= (_Admiral_), a ballad by Richard Glover (1739). Admiral
Hosier was sent with twenty sail to the Spanish West Indies, to block up
the galleons of that country. He arrived at the Bastimentos, near
Portobello, but had strict orders not to attack the foe. His men
perished by disease but not in fight, and the admiral himself died of a
broken heart. After Vernon’s victory, Hosier and his 3000 men rose, “all
in dreary hammocks shrouded, which for winding-sheets they wore,” and
lamented the cruel orders that forbade them to attack the foe, for “with
twenty ships he surely could have achieved what Vernon did with only

=Hotspur.= So Harry Percy was called from his fiery temper, over which
he had no control.—Shakespeare, _1 Henry IV._ (1597).

William Bensley [1738-1817] had the true poetic enthusiasm.... None that
I remember possessed even a portion of that fine madness which he threw
out in Hotspur’s fine rant about glory. His voice had the dissonance and
at times the inspiring effect of the trumpet.—C. Lamb.

=Hotspur of Debate= (_The_), Lord Derby, called by Maccaulay “The Rupert
of Debate” (1799-1869).

=Houd= (_1 syl._), a prophet sent to preach repentance to the Adites (_2
syl._), and to reprove their King Shedad for his pride. As the Adites
and their king refused to hear the prophet, God sent on the kingdom
first a drought of three years’ duration, and then the Sarsar or icy
wind for seven days, so that all the people perished. Houd is written
“Hûd” in Sale’s _Korân_, i.

       Then stood the prophet Houd and cried,
       “Woe! woe to Irem! woe to Ad!
       Death is gone up into her palaces!
       Woe! woe! a day of guilt and punishment!
               A day of desolation!”
                Southey, _Thalaba, the Destroyer_, i. 41 (1797).

=Hough´ton= (_Sergeant_), in Waverley’s regiment.—Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Hounds= (_Gen. Custer’s_). “His pack of hounds was an endless source of
delight to the general. He had about forty, the stag-hounds that run by
sight, and are on the whole, the fleetest and most enduring dogs in the
world, and the fox-hounds that follow the trail with their noses close
to the ground. The first rarely bark, but the latter are very noisy. We
used to listen with amusement to their attempts to strike the key-note
of the bugler when he sounded the calls summoning the men to
guard-mount, stables, or retreat.”—Elizabeth Bacon Custer, _Boots and
Saddles_, (1885).

=Hounslow=, one of the gang of thieves that conspire to break into Lady
Bountiful’s house.—Farquhar, _The Beaux’ Stratagem_ (1705).

=Houri=, plu. =Houris=, the virgins of paradise; so called from their
large black eyes (_hûr al oyûn_). According to Mohammedan faith,
intercourse with these lovely women is to constitute the chief delight
of the faithful in the “world to come.”—_Al Korân_.

=House that Jack Built= (_The_), a cumulative nursery story, in which
every preceding statement is repeated after the introduction of a new
one; thus;

    1. [_This is_] the house that Jack built.
    2. [_This is_] the malt that lay in ...
    3. [_This is_] the rat that ate ...
    4. [_This is_] the cat that killed ...
    5. [_This is_] the dog that worried ...
    6. [_This is_] the cow with the crumpled horn, that tossed ...
    7. [_This is_] the maiden all forlorn, that milked ...
    8. [_This is_] the man all tattered and torn, that kissed ...
    9. This is the priest all shaven and shorn, that married ...

A similar accumulation occurs in another nursery tale, with this
difference—the several clauses are repeated twice: once by entreaty of
the old woman to perform some service to get her pig to cross over a
bridge that she may get home; and then the reverse way, when each begins
the task requested of them. It begins with a statement that an old woman
went to market to buy a pig; they came to a bridge, which the pig would
not go over, so the old woman called to a stick, and said:

    1. [_Stick, stick, beat pig, for_] pig won’t go over the bridge, and
      I shan’t get home to-night.
    2. [_Fire, fire_] burn stick, stick won’t beat pig ...
    3. [_Water, water_] quench fire, fire won’t ...
    4. [_Ox, ox_] drink water, water won’t ...
    5. [_Butcher, butcher_] kill ox, ox won’t ...
    6. [_Rope, rope_] hang butcher, butcher won’t ...
    7. [_Rat, rat_] gnaw rope, rope won’t ...
    8. [_Cat, cat_] kill rat, rat won’t ...

Then the cat began to kill the rat, and the rat began to gnaw the rope,
and the rope began ... etc., and the pig went over the bridge, and so
the old woman got home that night.

Dr. Doran gave the following Hebrew “parable” in _Notes and Queries_:—

    1. [_This is_] the kid that my father bought for two zuzim
    2. [_This is_] the cat that ate ...
    3. [_This is_] the dog that bit ...
    4. [_This is_] the stick that beat ...
    5. [_This is_] the fire that burnt ...
    6. [_This is_] the water that quenched ...
    7. [_This is_] the ox that drank ...
    8. [_This is_] the butcher that killed ...
    9. This is the angel, the angel of death, that slew ...

=Hous´sain= (_Prince_), the elder brother of Prince Ahmed. He possessed
a carpet of such wonderful powers that if any one sat upon it it would
transport him in a moment to any place he liked. Prince Houssain bought
this carpet at Bisnagar, in India.—_Arabian Nights_ (“Ahmed and

⁂ Solomon’s carpet (_q. v._) possessed the same locomotive power.

=Houyhnhnms= [_Whin´.ims_], a race of horses endowed with human reason,
and bearing rule over the race of man.—Swift, _Gulliver’s Travels_

“True, true, ay, too true,” replied the Domine, his houyhnhnms laugh
sinking into an hysterical giggle.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (1815).

=Hover= (_Paul_), bee-hunter in _Last of the Mohicans_, in love with
Ellen Wade.—James Fennimore Cooper.

=Howard=, in the court of Edward IV.—Sir W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_
(time, Edward IV.).

=How´atson= (_Luckie_), midwife at Ellangowan.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy
Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Howden= (_Mrs._), a saleswoman.—Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_
(time, George II.).

=Howe= (_Miss_), the friend of Clarissa Harlowe, to whom she presents a
strong contrast. She has more worldly wisdom and less abstract
principle. In questions of doubt, Miss Howe would suggest some practical
solution, while Clarissa was mooning about hypothetical contingencies.
She is a girl of high spirit, disinterested friendship, and sound common
sense.—Richardson, _Clarissa Harlowe_ (1749).

=Howel= or =Hoel=, king of the West Welsh in the tenth century, surnamed
“the Good.” He is a very famous king, especially for his code of laws.
This is not the Howel or Hoel of Arthurian romance, who was the duke of
Armorica in the sixth century.

          What Mulmutian laws, or Martian, ever were
          More excellent than those which our good Howel here
          Ordained to govern Wales?
                       Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ix. (1612).

=Howie= (_Jamie_), bailie to Malcolm Bradwardine (_3 syl._), of
Inchgrabbit.—Sir W. Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Howlaglass= (_Master_), a preacher. Friend of Justice Maulstatute.—Sir
W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Howle´glas= (_Father_), the abbot of Unreason, in the revels held at
Kennaquhair Abbey.—Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Howleglass= (_2 syl._), a clever rascal, so called from the hero of an
old German jest-book, popular in England in Queen Elizabeth’s reign.—See

=Hoyden= (_Miss_), a lively, ignorant, romping country girl.—Vanbrugh,
_The Relapse_ (1697).

_Hoyden_ (_Miss_), daughter of Sir Tunbelly Clumsy, a green,
ill-educated, country girl, living near Scarborough. She is promised in
marriage to Lord Foppington, but as his lordship is not personally
known, either by the knight or his daughter, Tom Fashion, the nobleman’s
younger brother, passes himself off as Lord Foppington, is admitted into
the family, and marries the heiress.—Sheridan, _A Trip to Scarborough_

⁂ Sheridan’s comedy is _The Relapse_ of Vanbrugh (1697), abridged,
recast, and somewhat modernized.

=Hrasvelg=, the giant who keeps watch on the North side of the root of
the Tree of the World, to devour the dead. His shape is that of an
eagle. Winds and storms are caused by the movement of his
wings.—_Scandinavian Mythology._

=Hrimfax´i=, the horse of Night, from whose bit fall the rime-drops that
every morning bedew the earth.—_Scandinavian Mythology._

=Hrothgar=, king of Denmark, whom Beowulf delivered from the monster
Grendel. Hrothgar built Heorot, a magnificent palace, and here he
distributed rings (treasure), and held his feasts; but the monster,
Grendel, envious of his happiness, stole into the hall after a feast,
and put thirty of the thanes to death in their sleep. The same ravages
were repeated night after night, till Beowulf, at the head of a mixed
band of soldiers, went against him and slew him.—_Beowulf_ (an
Anglo-Saxon epic poem, sixth century).

=Hry´mer=, pilot of the ship _Nagelfar_ (made of the “nails of the
dead”).—_Scandinavian Mythology._

=Hubba and Ingwar=, two Danish chiefs, who, in 870, conquered East
Anglia and wintered at Thetford, in Norfolk. King Edmund fought against
them, but was beaten and taken prisoner. The Danish chiefs offered him
his life and kingdom if he would renounce Christianity and pay them
tribute; but as he refused to do so, they tied him to a tree, shot at
him with arrows, and then cut off his head. Edmund was therefore called
“St. Edmund.” Alu´red fought seven battles with Hubba, and slew him at
Abington, in Berkshire.

      Alured ...
      In seven brave foughten fields their champion Hubba chased,
      And slew him in the end at Abington [_sic_].
                          Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xii. (1613).

=Hubbard= (_Mother_). _Mother Hubbard’s Tale_, by Edmund Spenser, is a
satirical fable in the style of Chaucer, supposed to be told by an old
woman (Mother Hubbard) to relieve the weariness of the poet during a
time of sickness. The tale is this: An ape and a fox went into
partnership to seek their fortunes. They resolved to begin their
adventures as beggars, so Master Ape dressed himself as a broken
soldier, and Reynard pretended to be his dog. After a time they came to
a farmer, who employed the ape as shepherd, but when the rascals had so
reduced the flock that detection was certain, they decamped. Next they
tried the Church, under advice of a priest; Reynard was appointed rector
to a living, and the ape was his parish clerk. From this living they
were obliged also to remove. Next they went to court as foreign
potentates, and drove a splendid business, but came to grief ere long.
Lastly, they saw King Lion asleep, his skin was lying beside him, with
his crown and sceptre. Master Ape stole the regalia, dressed himself as
King Lion, usurped the royal palace, made Reynard his chief minister,
and collected round him a band of monsters, chiefly amphibious, as his
guard and court. In time Jupiter sent Mercury to rouse King Lion from
his lethargy; so he awoke from sleep, broke into his palace, and bit off
the ape’s tail, with a part of its ear.

          Since which, all apes but half their ears have left,
          And of their tails are utterly bereft.

As for Reynard, he ran away at the first alarm, and tried to curry favor
with King Lion; but the king only exposed him and let him go (1591).

_Hubbard (Old Mother)_ went to her cupboard to get a bone for her dog,
but, not finding one, trotted hither and thither to fetch sundry
articles for his behoof. Every time she returned she found Master Doggie
performing some extraordinary feat, and at last, having finished all her
errands, she made a grand curtsey to Master Doggie. The dog, not to be
outdone in politeness, made his mistress a profound bow; upon which the
dame said, “Your servant!” and the dog replied, “Bow, wow!”—_Nursery

=Hubble= (_Mr._), wheelwright; a tough, high-shouldered, stooping old
man, of a sawdusty fragrance, with his legs extraordinarily wide apart.

_Mrs. Hubble_, a little, curly, sharp-edged person, who held a
conventionally juvenile position, because she had married Mr. Hubble
when she was much younger than he.—C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_

=Hubert=, “the keeper” of young Prince Arthur. King John conspired with
him to murder the young prince, and Hubert actually employed two
ruffians to burn out both the boy’s eyes with red-hot irons. Arthur
pleaded so lovingly with Hubert to spare his eyes, that he relented;
however, the lad was found dead soon afterwards, either by accident or
foul play.—Shakespeare, _King John_, (1596).

⁂ This “Hubert” was Hubert de Burgh, justice of England and earl of

One would think, had it been possible, that Shakespeare, when he made
King John excuse his intentions of perpetrating the death of Arthur by
his comment on Hubert’s face, by which he saw the assassin in his mind,
had Sanford in idea, for he was rather deformed, and had a most
forbidding countenance.—C. Dibdin, _History of the Stage_.

_Hubert_, an honest lord, in love with Jac´ulin, daughter of Gerrard,
king of the beggars.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Beggar’s Bush_ (1622).

_Hubert_, brother of Prince Oswald, severely wounded by Count Hurgonel,
in the combat provoked by Oswald, against Gondibert, his rival for the
love of Rhodalind, the heiress of Aribert, king of Lombardy.—Sir W.
Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1568).

_Hubert_, an archer in the service of Sir Philip de Malvoisin.—Sir W.
Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

_Hubert (St)_, patron saint of huntsmen. He was son of Bertrand, duc
d’Acquitaine, and cousin of King Pepin.

=Huddibras= (_Sir_), a man “more huge in strength than wise in works,”
the suitor of Perissa (_extravagance_).—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 2

=Hudibras=, the hero and title of a rhyming political satire, by S.
Butler. Sir Hudibras is a Presbyterian justice in the Commonwealth, who
sets out with his squire, Ralph (an independent), to reform abuses, and
enforce the observance of the laws for the suppression of popular sports
and amusements (1663, 1664, 1678).

=Hudjadge=, a shah of Persia, suffered much from sleeplessness, and
commanded Fitead, his porter and gardener, to tell him tales to while
away the weary hours. Fitead declared himself wholly unable to comply
with this request. “Then find some one who can,” said Hudjadge, “or
suffer death for disobedience.” On reaching home, greatly dejected, he
told his only daughter, Moradbak, who was motherless, and only 14 years
old, the shah’s command, and she undertook the task. She told the shah
the stories called _The Oriental Tales_, which not only amused him, but
cured him, and he married her.—Comte de Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (1743).

=Hudson= (_Sir Geoffrey_), the famous dwarf, formerly page to Queen
Henrietta Maria. Sir Geoffrey tells Julian Peveril how the late queen
had him enclosed in a pie and brought to table. Sir W. Scott, _Peveril
of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

⁂ Vandyke has immortalized Sir Geoffrey by his brush; and some of his
clothes are said to be preserved in Sir Hans Sloane’s museum.

_Hudson_ (_Tam_), gamekeeper.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time,
George II.).

=Hugh=, blacksmith at Ringleburn; a friend of Hobbie Elliott, the
Heughfoot farmer.—Sir W. Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

_Hugh_, servant at the Maypole Inn. This giant in stature and ringleader
in the “No Popery riots,” was a natural son of Sir John Chester and a
gypsy. He loved Dolly Varden, and was very kind to Barnaby Rudge, the
half-witted lad. Hugh was executed for his participation in the “Gordon
riots.”—C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_ (1841).

_Hugh_ (_Langmuir_), young man from the country, who comes to New York
to seek his fortune and gets a clerkship. He becomes attached to an
ambitious, but well-meaning girl, and to hasten their marriage, he
embezzles one thousand dollars. He confesses it to her and attempts
suicide. She pays the money out of her own savings and marries him. They
begin the world together humbly and wisely.—Charlotte Dunning, _A Step
Aside_ (1886).

=Hugh, Count of Vermandois=, a crusader.—Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of
Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Hugh de Brass= (_Mr._), in _A Regular Fix_, by J.M. Morton.

=Hugh of Lincoln=, a boy eight years old, said to have been stolen,
tortured and crucified by Jews in 1255. Eighteen of the wealthiest Jews
of Lincoln were hanged for taking part in this affair, and the boy was
buried in state.

⁂ There are several documents in Rymer’s _Fœdera_ relative to this
event. The story is told in the _Chronicles_ of Matthew Paris. It is the
subject of the _Prioress’s Tale_ in Chaucer, and Wordsworth has a
modernized version of Chaucer’s tale.

A similar story is told of William of Norwich, said to have been
crucified by the Jews in 1137.

Percy, in his _Reliques_, i. 3, has a ballad about a boy named Hew,
whose mother was “Lady Hew of Merryland” (_? Milan_). He was enticed by
an apple, given him by a Jewish damsel, who “stabbed him with a
penknife, rolled him in lead, and cast him into a well.”

Werner is another boy said to have been crucified by the Jews. The place
of this alleged murder was Bacharach.

=Hugo=, count of Vermandois, brother of Phillippe I. of France, and
leader of the Franks in the first crusade. Hugo died before Godfrey was
appointed general-in-chief of the allied armies (bk. i.), but his spirit
appeared to Godfrey when the army went against the Holy City (bk.
xviii.).—Tasso, _Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

_Hugo_, brother of Arnold; very small of stature, but brave as a lion.
He was slain in the faction fight stirred up by Prince Oswald against
Duke Gondibert, his rival in the love of Rhodalind, daughter and only
child of Aribert, king of Lombardy.

        Of stature small, but was all over heart,
        And tho’ unhappy, all that heart was love.
                Sir W. Davenant, _Gondibert_, i. 1 (died 1668).

_Hugo_, natural son of Azo, chief of the house of Este (2 _syl._) and
Bianca, who died of a broken heart, because, although a mother, she was
never wed. Hugo was betrothed to Parisina, but his father, not knowing
it, made Parisina his own bride. One night Azo heard Parisina in her
sleep confess her love for Hugo, and the angry marquis ordered his son
to be beheaded. What became of Parisina “none knew, and none can ever
know.”—Byron, _Parisina_ (1816).

=Hugo Hugonet=, minstrel of the earl of Douglas.—Sir W. Scott, _Castle
Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

=Hugo von Kronfels=. At the age of twenty-two or three, a handsome man
with the world before him, has a fall that cripples him hopelessly. He
becomes a bitter-thoughted recluse, more feared than beloved by the few
who see him, until the sunshine of a young girl’s society and the
wholesome talk of a man of the people change the tenor of thought and
feeling, teaching him that to live is nobler than to cast away the
existence GOD has given.—Blanche Willis Howard, _The Open Door_ (1889).

=Hugon= (_King_), the great nursery ogre of France.

=Huguenot Pope= (_The_). Philippe de Mornay, the great supporter of the
French Huguenots, is called _Le Pape des Huguenots_ (1549-1623).

⁂ Of course, Philippe de Mornay was not one of the “popes of Rome.”

=Huguenots= (_Les_), an opera by Meyerbeer (1836). The subject of this
opera is the massacre of the French Huguenots or Protestants, planned by
Catharine de Medicis on St. Bartholomew’s Day (August 24, 1572), during
the wedding festivities of her daughter Margherita (_Marguerite_) and
Henri le Bearnais (afterwards Henri IV. of France).

=Hul´sean Lectures=, certain sermons preached at Great St. Mary’s
Church, Cambridge, and paid for by a fund, the gift of the Rev. John
Hulse, of Cheshire, in 1777.

⁂ Till the year 1860, the Hulsean Lecturer was called “The Christian

=Hull=, (_Dr._). Person of imposing deportment and plausible speech,
business-manager of Mrs. Legrand, a spiritualistic medium and
imposter.—Edward Bellamy, _Miss Luddington’s Sister_ (1884).

=Humber= or =Humbert=, mythical king of the Huns, who invaded England
during the reign of Locrin, some 1000 years B.C. In his flight, he was
drowned in the river Abus, which has ever since been called the
Humber.—Geoffrey, _British History_, ii. 2; Milton, _History of

=Humgud´geon= (_Grace-be-here_), a corporal in Cromwell’s troop.—Sir W.
Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Humm= (_Anthony_), chairman of the “Brick Lane Branch of the United
Grand Junction Ebenezer Temperance Association.”—C. Dickens, _The
Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

=Humma=, a fabulous bird, of which it was said that “the head over which
the shadow of its wings passes will assuredly wear a crown.”—Wilkes,
_South of India_, v. 423.

            Belike he thinks
          The humma’s happy wings have shadowed him,
          And, therefore, Fate with royalty must crown
          His chosen head.
                    Southey, _Roderick, etc._, xxiii. (1814).

=Humming-bird=. John James Audubon’s story of the Loves of the
Hummingbirds reads like romantic fiction rather than fact. The male,
when wooing his bride, feeds her with honey, and fans her with his wings
while she sips it. After marriage and during incubation, his tender
assiduities are redoubled instead of abated. By John James Audubon,
_Ornithological Biography_ (1831).

=Humorous Lieutenant= (_The_), the chief character and title of a comedy
by Beaumont and Fletcher (1647). The lieutenant has no name.

=Humpback= (_The_). Andrea Sola´ri, the Italian painter, was called _Del
Gobbo_ (1470-1527).

Geron´imo Amelunghi was also called _Il Gobbo di Pisa_ (sixteenth

=Humphrey= (_Master_), the hypothetical compiler of the tale entitled
“Barnaby Rudge” in _Master Humphrey’s Clock_, by Charles Dickens (1840).

_Humphrey_ (_Old_), pseudonym of George Mogridge.

⁂ George Mogridge has also issued several books under the popular name
of “Peter Parley,” which was first assumed by S.G. Goodrich, in 1828.
Several publishers of high standing have condescended to palm books on
the public under this _nom de plume_, some written by William Martin,
and others by persons wholly unknown.

_Humphrey_ (_The good duke_), Humphrey Plantagenet, duke of Gloucester,
youngest son of Henry IV., murdered in 1446.

_Humphrey_ (_To dine with duke_), to go without dinner. To stay behind
in St. Paul’s aisles, under pretence of finding out the monument of Duke
Humphrey, while others more fortunate go home to dinner.

⁂ It was really the monument of John Beauchamp that the “dinnerless”
hung about, and not that of Duke Humphrey. John Beauchamp died in 1359,
and Duke Humphrey in 1446.

=Huncamunca= (_Princess_), daughter of King Arthur and Queen
Dollallolla, beloved by Lord Grizzle and Tom Thumb. The king promises
her in marriage to the “pigmy giant-queller.” Huncamunca kills
Frizaletta “for killing her mamma.” But Frizaletta killed the queen for
killing her sweetheart Noodle, and the queen killed Noodle because he
was the messenger of ill news.—_Tom Thumb_, by Fielding, the novelist
(1730), altered by O’Hara, author of _Midas_ (1778).

=Hunchback= (_The_). Master Walter, “the hunchback,” was the guardian of
Julia, and brought her up in the country, training her most strictly in
knowledge and goodness. When grown to womanhood, she was introduced to
Sir Thomas Clifford, and they plighted their troth to each other. Then
came a change. Clifford lost his title and estates, while Julia went to
London, became a votary of fashion and pleasure, abandoned Clifford, and
promised marriage to Wilford, earl of Rochdale. The day of espousals
came. The love of Julia for Clifford revived, and she implored her
guardian to break off the obnoxious marriage. Master Walter now showed
himself to be the earl of Rochdale, and the father of Julia; the
marriage with Wilford fell through, and Julia became the wife of Sir
Thomas Clifford.——S. Knowles, (1831).

⁂ Similarly, Maria, “the maid of the Oaks,” was brought up by Oldworth
as his ward, but was in reality his motherless child.—J. Burgoyne, _The
Maid of the Oaks_.

_Hunchback_ (_The Little_), the buffoon of the sultan of Casgar. Supping
with a tailor, the little fellow was killed by a bone sticking in his
throat. The tailor, out of fear, carried the body to the house of a
physician, and the physician, stumbling against it, knocked it
downstairs. Thinking he had killed the man, he let the body down a
chimney into the store-room of his neighbor, who was a purveyor. The
purveyor, supposing it to be a thief, belabored it soundly; and then,
thinking he had killed the little humpback, carried the body into the
street, and set it against a wall. A Christian merchant, reeling home,
stumbled against the body, and gave it a blow with his fist. Just then
the patrol came up, and arrested the merchant for murder. He was
condemned to death; but the purveyor came forward and accused himself of
being the real offender. The merchant was accordingly released, and the
purveyor condemned to death; but then the physician appeared, and said
he had killed the man by accident, having knocked him downstairs. When
the purveyor was released, and the physician led away to execution, the
tailor stepped up, and told his tale. All were then taken before the
sultan, and acquitted; and the sultan ordered the case to be enrolled in
the archives of his kingdom amongst the _causes célèbres_.—_Arabian
Nights_ (“The Little Hunchback”).

=Hundebert=, steward to Cedric of Rotherwood.—Sir. W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_.

=Hundred Fights= (_Hero of a_), Conn, son of Cormac, king of Ireland.
Called in Irish “Conn Keadcahagh.”

Arthur Wellesley, Lord Wellington.

               For this is England’s greatest son,
               He who gained a hundred fights
               And never lost an English gun.—_Tennyson_.
                           Admiral Horatio, Lord Nelson.

=Hundred-Handed= (_The_). Briar´eos (4 _syl._) or Ægæon, with his
brothers Gygês and Kottos, were all hundred-handed giants.

Homer makes Briareos 4 _syl._; but Shakespeare writes it in the Latin
form, “Briareus,” and makes it 3 _syl._

    Then, called by thee, the monster Titan came,
    Whom gods Briareös, men Ægēon name.
                    Pope, _Iliad_, 1 (1715).

    He is a gouty Briareus. Many hands,
    And of no use.
         Shakespeare, _Troilus and Cressida_, act, i. sc. 2 (1602).

=Hundwolf=, steward to the old lady of Baldringham.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Hunia´des= (4 _syl._), called by the Turks “The Devil.” He was surnamed
“Corvīnus,” and the family crest was a crow (1400-1456).

The Turks employed the name of Huniadês to frighten their perverse
children. He was corruptly called “Jancus Lain.”—Gibbon, _Decline and
Fall, etc._, xii. 166 (1776-88).

=Hunsdon= (_Lord_), cousin of Queen Elizabeth.—Sir W. Scott,
_Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Hunter= (_Mr._ and _Mrs. Leo_), persons who court the society of any
celebrity, and consequently invite Mr. Pickwick and his three friends to
an entertainment in their house. Mrs. Leo Hunter wrote an “Ode to an
Expiring Frog,” considered by her friends a most masterly
performance.—C. Dickens, _The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

                  Can I view thee panting, lying
                  On thy stomach, without sighing;
                  Can I unmoved see thee dying
                    On a log, expiring frog!

                  Say, have fiends in shape of boys,
                  With wild halloo, and brutal noise,
                  Hunted thee from marshy joys,
                    With a dog, expiring frog!
                                          _Ch. xv._

_Hunter_ (_The Mighty_), Nimrod; so called in _Gen._ x. 9.

           Proud Nimrod first the bloody chase [_war_] began,
           A mighty hunter, and his prey was man.
                               Pope, _Windsor Forest_ (1713).

=Huntingdon= (_Robert, earl of_), generally called “Robin Hood.” In 1601
Anthony Munday and Henry Chettle produced a drama entitled _The Downfall
of Robert, Earl of Huntingdon_ (attributed often to T. Heywood). Ben
Jonson began a beautiful pastoral drama on the subject of Robin Hood
(_The Sad Shepherd or A Tale of Robin Hood_), but left only two acts of
it when he died (1637). We have also _Robin Hood and His Crew of
Souldiers_, a comedy acted at Nottingham, and printed 1661; _Robin
Hood_, an opera (1730). J. Ritson edited, in 1795, _Robin Hood: a
Collection of Poems, Songs and Ballads relative to that Celebrated
English Outlaw_.

_Huntingdon_ (_the earl of_), in the court of Queen Elizabeth.—Sir W.
Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Huntingdon_ (_David, earl of_), prince royal of Scotland. He appears
first as Sir Kenneth, knight of the Leopard, and afterwards as Zohauk,
the Nubian slave.—Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Huntinglen= (_The earl of_), an old Scotch nobleman.—Sir W. Scott,
_Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Huntley= (_Earl_), George of Gordon was killed in battle with the
troops of the Regent Murray. His body was taken to Holyrood and tried
for high treason.

               “No word he spake, though thrice adjured;
               Then came the sentence drear:
               Foul traitor to thy queen and realm,
               Our laws denounce thee here.”
                  *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *   *
                 “Light thing to him that earthly doom,
                 Or man’s avenging rod,
                 Who in the land of souls doth bide
                 The audit of his God.”

Lydia Huntley Sigourney, _The Western Home and Other Poems_ (1854).

=Huntly= (_The Marquis of_), a royalist.—Sir W. Scott, _Legend of
Montrose_ (time, Charles I.).

=Huon=, a serf, secretary and tutor of the Countess Catherine, with whom
he falls in love. He reads with music in his voice, talks enchantingly,
writes admirably, translates “dark languages,” is “wise in rare
philosophy,” is master of the hautboy, lute, and viol, “proper in trunk
and limb and feature;” but the proud countess, though she loves him,
revolts from the idea of marrying a serf. At length it comes to the ears
of the duke that his daughter loves Huon, and the duke commands him, on
pain of death, to marry Catherine, a freed serf. He refuses until the
countess interferes; he then marries and rushes to the wars. Here he
greatly distinguishes himself, and is created a prince, when he learns
that the Catherine he has wed is not Catherine, the freed serf, but
Catherine the countess.—S. Knowles, _Love_ (1840.)

=Huon de Bordeaux= (_Sir_), who married Esclairmond, and, when Oberon
went to paradise, succeeded him as “king of all Faëry.”

In the second part, Huon visits the terrestrial paradise, and encounters
Cain, the first murderer, in performance of his penance.—_Huon de

⁂ An abstract of this romance is in Dunlop’s _History of Fiction_. See
also Keightley’s _Fairy Mythology_. It is also the subject of Wieland’s
_Oberon_, which has been translated by Sotheby.

=Hur al Oyûn=, the black-eyed daughters of paradise, created of pure
musk. They are free from all bodily weakness, and are ever young. Every
believer will have seventy-two of these girls as his household
companions in paradise, and those who desire children will see them grow
to maturity in an hour.—_Al Korân_, Sale’s notes.

=Hurgonel= (_Count_), the betrothed of Orna, sister of Duke
Gondibert.—Sir Wm. Davenant, _Gondibert_, iii. (died 1668).

=Hurry=, servant of Oldworth, of Oldworth Oaks. He is always out of
breath, wholly unable to keep quiet or stand still, and proves the truth
of the proverb, “The more haste the worse speed.” He fancies everything
must go wrong if he is not bustling about, and he is a constant
fidget.—J. Burgoyne, _The Maid of the Oaks_.

_Hurry_ (_Harry_), _alias_ Hurry Skurry. Gigantic backwoodsman and
hunter, friend of _Deerslayer_, and enamoured of Judith Hutter.—James
Fenimore Cooper, _The Deerslayer_.

=Hurtali=, a giant who reigned in the time of the Flood.

The Massorets affirm that Hurtali, being too big to get into the ark,
sat astride upon it, as children stride a wooden horse—Rabelais,
_Pantagruel_, ii. 1.

(According to Menage, the rabbins say that it was Og, not Hurtali, who
thus outrode the Flood.—See Le Pelletier, chap. XXV. of his _Noah’s

=Hush´ai= (2 _syl._), in Dryden’s satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, is
Hyde, earle of Rochester. As Hushai was David’s friend and wise
counsellor, so was Hyde the friend and wise counsellor of Charles II. As
the counsel of Hushai rendered abortive that of Achitophel, and caused
the plot of Absalom to miscarry, so the counsel of Hyde rendered
abortive that of Lord Shaftesbury, and caused the plot of Monmouth to

            Hushai, the friend of David in distress;
            In public storms of manly steadfastness;
            By foreign treaties he informed his youth,
            And joined experience to his native truth.
                Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, I. (1681).

=Hut´cheon=, the auld domestic in Wandering Willie’s tale.—Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

_Hutcheon_, one of Julian Avenel’s retainers.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Hutter= (_Tom_). A trapper, with two handsome daughters, who has built
a house upon a long shoal extending far into the _Glimmerglass_ (Lake
George). Wary, stolid, old fellow, with a reputation for cunning and
skill among the Indians.

_Hutter_ (_Hetty_). “Feeble-minded, but right-thinking and right-feeling
girl,” daughter of “Old Tom.” She is hurt by a chance ball in a fight
between whites and Indians, and dies, seeing her “mother and bright
beings” around her.—James Fenimore Cooper, _The Deer-slayer_.

=Hutin= (_Le_), Louis X. of France; so called from his expedition
against the Hutins, a seditious people of Navarre and Lyons (1289,

=Hy´acinth=, son of Amyclas, the Spartan king. He was playing quoits
with Apollo, when the wind drove the quoit of the sun-god against the
boy’s head, and killed him on the spot. From the blood grew the flower
called hyacinth, which bears on its petals the words, “AI! AI!” (“alas!
alas!”).—_Grecian Fable_.

=Hyacinthe= (3 _syl._), the daughter of Seigneur Géronte (2 _syl._). who
passed into Tarentum under the assumed name of Pandolphe (2 _syl._).
When he quitted Tarentum, he left behind him his wife and daughter
Hyacinthe. Octave (2 _syl._), son of Argante (2 _syl._) fell in love
with Hyacinthe (supposing her surname to be Pandolphe), and Octave’s
father wanted him to marry the daughter of his friend, Seigneur Géronte.
The young man would not listen to his father, and declared that
Hyacinthe, and Hyacinthe alone, should be his wife. It was then
explained to him that Hyacinthe Pandolphe was the same person as
Hyacinthe Géronte, and that the choice of father and son were in exact
accord.—Molière, _Les Fourberies de Scapin_ (1671).

(In _The Cheats of Scapin_, Otway’s version of this play, Hyacinthe is
called “Clara,” her father, Géronte, “Gripe,” and Octave is Anglicized
into “Octavian.”).

_Hyacinthe_ (_Father_), Charles Loyson, a celebrated pulpit orator and
French theologian (1827-).

=Hyder= (_El_), chief of the Ghaut Mountains; hero and title of a
melodrama by Barrymore.

=Hyder Ali Khan Behauder=, the nawaub of Mysore (2 _syl._), disguised as
the Sheik Hali.—Sir W. Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George

=Hydra= or _Dragon of the Hesperian Grove_. The golden apples of the
Hesperian field were guarded by women called the Hesperĭdês, assisted by
the hydra or dragon named Ladon.

              Her flowery store
          To thee nor Tempê shall refuse, nor watch
          Of wingéd hydra guard Hesperian fruits
          From thy free spoil.
             Akenside, _Pleasures of Imagination_, i. (1744).

=Hydropsy=, personified by Thomson:

            On limbs enormous, but withal unsound,
            Soft, swoln and wan, here lay pale Hydropsy—
            Unwieldy man; with belly monstrous round,
            For ever fed with watery supply,
            For still he drank, and yet was ever dry.
                        _Castle of Indolence_, i. 73 (1748).

=Hymbercourt= (_Baron d’_), one of the duke of Burgundy’s officers.—Sir
W. Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Hymen=, god of marriage; the personification of the bridal song;

           Till Hymen brought his love-delighted hour,
           There dwelt no joy in Eden’s rosy bower...
           The world was sad, the garden was a wild,
           And man, the hermit, sighed—till woman smiled.
                   Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

=Hyndman= (_Master_), usher to the council-chamber at Holyrood.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Abbott_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Hypatia=. Beautiful and learned pagan, whose school of philosophy was
celebrated in Alexandria in 415 A. D. She was torn to pieces in a church
by a Christian mob, in the flower of her youth and beauty.—Charles
Kingsley, _Hypatia_ (1853).

=Hyperi´on=, the sun. His parents were Cælum and Tellus (_heaven_ and
_earth_). Strictly speaking, he was the father of the sun, but Homer
uses the word for the sun itself.

              When the might
          Of Hyperi´on from his noon-tide throne
          Unbends their languid pinions [i.e. _of the winds_].
                      Akenside, _Hymn to the Naiads_ (1767).

          Blow, gentle Africus,
          Play on our poops, when Hyperion’s son
          Shall couch in west.
                     _Fuimus Troes_.

          Placat equo Persis radiis Hyperīone sinctum.
                     Ovid, _Fasti_, i, 385.

Shakespeare throws the accent on the antepenult: “Hype´rion to a satyr”
(_Hamlet_, act i. sc. 2). In this he is followed by almost all English
poets, but as shown above, Akenside returns to the classical accent.

⁂ Keats has left the fragment of a poem entitled _Hyperion_, of which
Byron says: “It seems inspired by the Titans, and is as sublime as

=Hypnos=, god of sleep, brother of Oneiros (_dreams_) and Thanătos

In every creature that breathes, from the conqueror, resting on a field
of blood, to the nest-bird cradled in its bed of leaves, Hypnos holds a
sovereignty which nothing mortal can long resist.—Ouida, _Folle-Farine_,
iii. 11.

=Hypochondria=, personified by Thomson:

        And moping here, did Hypochondria sit,
        Mother of spleen, in robes of various dye...
        And some her frantic deemed, and some her deemed a wit.
                        _Castle of Indolence_, i. 75 (1748).

=Hyp´ocrite= (_The_), Dr. Cantwell, in the English comedy by Isaac
Bickerstaff, and Tartuffe in the French comedy by Molière. He pretends
to great sanctity, but makes his “religion” a mere trade for getting
money, advancing his worldly prospects, and for the better indulgence of
his sensual pleasures. Dr. Cantwell is made the guest of Sir John
Lambert (in French, “Orgon”), who looks on him as a saint, and promises
him his daughter in marriage; but his mercenary views and his
love-making to Lady Lambert being at length exposed, Sir John forbids
him to remain in the house, and a tipstaff arrests him for a felonious
fraud (1768).

=Hyp´ocrites= (_The_). Abdallah ibn Obba and his partisans were so
called by Mahomet.

_Hypocrites_ (_The prince of_), Tiberius Cæsar (B. C. 42, 14 to A. D.

=Hyppolito=. (See HIPPOLYTUS.)

=Iachimo= [_Eák´.ĭ.mo_], an Italian libertine. When Posthu´mus, the
husband of Imogen, was banished for marrying the king’s daughter, he
went to Rome, and in the house of Philario the conversation fell on the
fidelity of wives. Posthumus bet a diamond ring that nothing could
change the fidelity of Imogen, and Iachimo accepted the wager. The
libertine contrived to get into a chest in Imogen’s chamber, made
himself master of certain details, and took away with him a bracelet
belonging to Imogen. With these vouchers, Iachimo easily persuaded
Posthumus that he had won the bet, and Posthumus handed over to him the
ring. A battle subsequently ensued, in which Iachimo and other Romans,
with Imogen disguised as a page, were made prisoners, and brought before
King Cymbeline. Imogen was set free, and told to ask a boon. She asked
that Iachimo might be compelled to say how he came by the ring which he
had on his finger, and the whole villainy was brought to light.
Posthumus was pardoned, and all ended happily—Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_

⁂ The tale of _Cymbeline_ is from the _Decameron_ of Boccaccio (day ii.
9), in which Iachimo is called “Ambrose,” Imogen is “Zineura,” her
husband, Bernard “Lomellin,” and Cymbeline is the “sultan.” The assumed
name of Imogen is “Fidelê,” but in Boccaccio it is “Sicurano da Finale.”

=Ia´go= (3 _syl._), ancient of Othello, commander of the Venetian army,
and husband of Emilia. Iago hated Othello, both because Cassio (a
Florentine) was promoted to the lieutenancy over his head, and also from
a suspicion that the Moor had tampered with his wife; but he concealed
his hatred so artfully that Othello felt confident of his “love and
honesty.” Iago strung together such a mass of circumstantial evidence in
proof of Desdemona’s love for Cassio, that the Moor killed her out of
jealousy. One main argument was that Desdemona had given Cassio the very
handkerchief which Othello had given her as a love-gift; but in reality
Iago had induced his wife Emilia to purloin the handkerchief. When this
villainy was brought to light, Othello stabbed Iago; but his actual
death is no incident of the tragedy.—Shakespeare, _Othello_ (1611).

The cool malignity of Iago, silent in his resentment, subtle in his
designs, and studious at once of his interest and his vengeance,...are
such proofs of Shakespeare’s skill in human nature as it would be vain
to seek in any modern writer.—Dr. Johnson.

⁂ Bryon, speaking of John P. Kemble, says: “Was not his ’Iago’
perfection—particularly the last look? I was close to him, and I never
saw an English countenance half so expressive.”

=Iambic Verse= (_The Father of_), Achil´ochos of Paros (B. C. 714-676).

=Ianthe= (3 _syl._), in _The Siege of Rhodes_, by Sir William Davenant.

Mrs. Betterton was called “Ianthe” by Pepys, in his _Diary_, as having
performed that character to his great approval. The old gossip greatly
admired her, and praised her “sweet voice and incomparable acting.”—W.C.
Russell, _Representative Actors_.

_Ianthe_ (3 _syl._), to whom Lord Byron dedicated his _Childe Harold_,
was Lady Charlotte Harley, who was only eleven years old at the time

=Ibe´ria’s Pilot=. Christopher Columbus. Spain is called “Iberia” and
the Spaniards the “Ibe´ri.” The river _Ebro_ is a corrupt form of the
Latin word Ibe´rus.

         Launched with Iberia’s pilot from the steep,
       To worlds unknown, and isles beyond the deep.
                   Campbell, _The Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

=Iblis= (“_despair_”), called Aza´zil before he was cast out of heaven.
He refused to pay homage to Adam, and was rejected by God.—_Al Korân_.

“We created you, and afterwards formed you, and all worshipped except
Eblis.” ... And God said unto him, “What hindered you from worshipping
Adam, since I commanded it?” He answered, “I am more excellent than he.
Thou hast created me of fire, but him of clay.” God said, “Get thee
down, therefore, from paradise ... thou shalt be one of the
contemptible.”—_Al Korân_, vii.

=Ib´rahim= or =L’Illustre Bassa=, an heroic romance of Mdlle. de Scudéri

=Ice´ni= (_3 syl._), the people of Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, and
Huntingdonshire. Their metropolis was Venta (_Caistar near
Norwich_).—Richard of Cirencester, _Chronicle_, vi. 30.

       The Angles, ... allured with ... the fitness of the place
       Where the Iceni lived, did set their kingdom down ...
       And the East Angles’ kingdom those English did instile.
                 Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xvi. (1613).

=Ida Slater=, daughter of a charlatan calling himself Dr. Hull. She
lends herself to his scheme of imposing her upon a rich, superstitious
spinster as the materialization of her dead sister until the adopted
mother’s kindness and the girl’s love for the dupe’s nephew impel her to
confession.—Edward Bellamy, _Miss Luddington’s Sister_ (1884).

=Idalia=, Venus; so called from _Idălĭum_, a town in Cyprus, where she
was worshipped.

=Iden= (_Alexander_), a poor squire of Kent, who slew Jack Cade, the
rebel, and brought the head to King Henry VI., for which service the
king said to him:

        Iden, kneel down. Rise up a knight.
        We give thee for reward a thousand marks;
        And will that thou henceforth attend on us.
                Shakespeare, _2 Henry VI._ act v. sc. 1 (1591).

=Idenstein= (_Baron_), nephew of General Kleiner, governor of Prague. He
marries Adolpha, who turns out to be the sister of Meeta, called “The
Maid of Mariendorpt.”—S. Knowles, _The Maid of Mariendorpt_ (1838).

=Idiot= (_The Inspired_), Oliver Goldsmith. So called by Horace Walpole

=Idleness= (_The Lake of_). Whoever drank thereof grew instantly “faint
and weary.” The Red Cross Knight drank of it, and was readily made
captive by Orgoglio.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. (1590).

=Idom´eneus= [_I.dom´.e.nuce_], king of Crete. He made a vow when he
left Troy, if the gods would vouchsafe him a safe voyage, to sacrifice
to them the first living being that he encountered in his own kingdom.
The first living object he met was his own son, and when the father
fulfilled his vow, he was banished from his country as a murderer.

⁂ The reader will call to mind Jephthah’s rash vow.—_Judges_ xi.

Agamemnon vowed to Diana to offer up in sacrifice to her the most
beautiful thing that came into his possession within the next twelve
months. This was an infant daughter named Iphigeni´a; but Agamemnon
deferred the offering till she was full grown. The fleet, on its way to
Troy, being wind-bound at Aulis, the prophet Calchas told Agamemnon that
it was because the vow had not been fulfilled; accordingly Iphigenia was
laid on the altar for sacrifice, but Diana interposed, carried the
victim to Tauris, and substituted a hind in her place. Iphigenia in
Tauris became a priestess of Diana.

⁂ Abraham, being about to sacrifice his son to Jehovah, was stayed by a
voice from heaven, and a ram was substituted for the lad Isaac.—_Gen._

=Idwal=, king of North Wales, and son of Roderick the Great. (See

=Idyl= (_An Old Man’s)._ The old man dreams over a checquered life,
since the golden days of the beautiful early summer weather, to the time

           “We sit by our household fires together,
           Dreaming the dreams of long ago;
           Then it was balmy summer weather,
           And now the valleys are laid in snow;
           Icicles hang from the slippery eaves;
           The wind blows cold—’tis growing late;
           Well, well! we have garnered all our sheaves,
           I and my darling, and we can wait.”
                                        Richard Realf (1866).

=Iger´na, Igerne= (_3 syl._), or =Igrayne= (_3 syl._), wife of Gorloïs,
duke of Tintag´il, in Cornwall. Igerna married Uther, the pendragon of
the Britons, and thus became the mother of Prince Arthur. The second
marriage took place a few hours after the duke’s death, but was not made
public till thirteen days afterwards.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince
Arthur_ (1470).

=Igna´ro=, foster-father of Orgoglio. The old dotard walked one way and
looked another. To every question put to him, his invariable answer was,
“I cannot tell.”—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_ i. (1590).

⁂ Lord Flint, chief minister of state to one of the sultans of India,
used to reply to every disagreeable question, “My people know, no doubt;
but I cannot recollect.”—Mrs. Inchbald, _Such Things Are_ (1786).

The Italian witnesses summoned on the trial of Queen Charlotte, answered
to almost every question, “non mi ricordo.”

⁂ The “Know-Nothings” of the United States, replied to every question
about their secret society, “I know nothing about it.”

=Igna´tius= (_Brother_), Joseph Leycester Lyne, monk of the order of St.

_Ignatius (Father)_, the Hon. and Rev. George Spencer, superior of the
order of Passionists (1799-1864).

=Ig´noge= (_3 syl._), daughter of Pan´drasus of Greece, given as wife to
Brute, mythical king of Britain. Spenser calls her “Inogene” (_3 syl._),
and Drayton “Innogen.”—Geoffrey, _British History_, i. 11 (1142).

=I.H.S.= In German, =I= [esus], =H= [eiland], =S= [eligmacher], i.e.
_Jesus_, _Saviour_, _Sanctifier_. In Greek, =Ι= [ησους], =Ἡ= [μετερος]
=Σ= [οτηρ], i.e. _Jesus, our Saviour_. In Latin, =I= [esus], =H=
[ominum], =S= [alvator], i.e. _Jesus, Men’s Saviour_. Those who would
like an English equivalent may adopt =J= [esus], =H= [eavenly] =S=

The Latin equivalent is attributed to St. Bernardine of Sienna (1347).

=Ilderton= (_Miss Lucy and Miss Nancy_), cousins to Miss Vere.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

=Il´iad= (_3 syl._), the tale of the siege of Troy, an epic poem in
twenty-four books, by Homer. Menelāos, king of Sparta, received as a
guest, Paris, a son of Priam, king of Troy. Paris eloped with Helen, his
host’s wife, and Menelaos induced the Greeks to lay siege to Troy, to
avenge the perfidy. The siege lasted ten years, when Troy was taken and
burned to the ground. Homer’s poem is confined to the last year of the

Book I. opens with a pestilence in the Grecian camp, sent by the sun-god
to avenge his priest, Chrysês. The case is this: Chrysês wished to
ransom his daughter, whom Agamemnon, the Greek commander-in-chief, kept
as a concubine, but Agamemnon refused to give her up; so the priest
prayed to Apollo for vengeance, and the god sent a pestilence. A council
being called, Achillês upbraids Agamemnon as the cause of the divine
wrath, and Agamemnon replies he will give up the priest’s daughter, but
shall take instead Achillês’ concubine. On hearing this, Achillês
declares he will no longer fight for such an extortionate king, and
accordingly retires to his tent and sulks there.

II. Jupiter, being induced to take the part of Achillês, now sends to
Agamemnon a lying dream, which induces him to believe that he shall take
the city at once; but in order to see how the soldiers are affected by
the retirement of Achillês, the king calls them to a council of war,
asks them if it would not be better to give up the siege and return
home. He thinks the soldiers will shout “no” with one voice; but they
rush to their ships, and would set sail at once if they were not
restrained by those privy to the plot.

III. The soldiers, being brought back, are then arrayed for battle.
Paris proposes to decide the contest by single combat, and Menelaos
accepts the challenge. Paris, being overthrown, is carried off by Venus,
and Agamemnon demands that the Trojans shall give up Troy in fulfillment
of the compact.

IV. While Agamemnon is speaking, Pandărus draws his bow at Menelaos and
wounds him, and the battle becomes general.

V. Pandarus, who had violated the truce, is killed by Diomed.

VI. Hector, the general of the Trojan allied armies, recommends that the
Trojan women in a body should supplicate the gods to pardon the sin of
Pandarus, and in the meantime he and Paris make a sally from the city

VII. Hector fights with Ajax in single combat, but the combatants are
parted by the heralds, who declare it a drawn battle; so they exchange
gifts and return to their respective tents.

VIII. The Grecian host, being discomfitted, retreats; and Hector
prepares to assault the enemy’s camp.

IX. A deputation is sent to Achillês, but the sulky hero remains

X. A night attack is made on the Trojans by Diomed and Ulyssês;

XI. And the three Grecian chiefs (Agamemnon, Diomed, and Ulyssês) are
all wounded.

XII. The Trojans force the gates of the Grecian ramparts.

XIII. A tremendous battle ensues in which many on both sides are slain.

XIV. While Jupiter is asleep, Neptune interferes in the quarrel in
behalf of the Greeks;

XV. But Jupiter rebukes him, and Apollo, taking the side of the Trojans,
puts the Grecians to a complete rout. The Trojans, exulting in their
success, prepare to set fire to the Grecian camp.

XVI. In this extremity, Patroclos arrays himself in Achillês’ armor, and
leads the Myrmĭdons to the fight; but he is slain by Hector.

XVII. Achillês is told of the death of his friend,

XVIII. Resolves to return to the battle;

XIX. And is reconciled to Agamemnon.

XX. A general battle ensues, in which the gods are permitted to take

XXI. The battle rages with great fury, the slaughter is frightful; but
the Trojans, being routed, retreat into their town, and close the gates.

XXII. Achillês slays Hector before he is able to enter the gates, and
the battle is at an end. Nothing now remains but

XXIII. To burn the body of Patroclos, and celebrate the funeral games.

XXIV. Old Priam, going to the tent of Achillês, craves the body of his
son Hector; Achillês gives it up, and the poem concludes with the
funeral rites of the Trojan hero.

⁂ Virgil continues the tale from this point. Shows how the city was
taken and burnt, and then continues with the adventures of Æne´as, who
escapes from the burning city, makes his way to Italy, marries the
king’s daughter, and succeeds to the throne. (See ÆNEID).

_Iliad (The French), The Romance of the Rose (q.v.)._

_Iliad (The German), The Nibelungen Lied (q.v.)._

_Iliad (The Portuguese), The Lusiad (q.v.)._

_Iliad (The Scotch), The Epigoniad_, by William Wilkie (_q.v._).

=Iliad of Old English Literature=, “The Knight’s Tale” of Palămon and
Arcite (_2 syl._) in Chaucer’s _Canterbury Tales_ (1388).

=Illuminated Doctor= (_The_), Raymond Lully (1235-1315).

John Tauler, the German mystic, is so called also (1294-1361).

=Imis=, the daughter and only child of an island king. She was enamoured
of her cousin Philax. A fay named Pagan loved her, and, seeing she
rejected his suit, shut up Imis and Philax in the “Palace of Revenge.”
This palace was of crystal, and contained everything the heart could
desire except the power of leaving it. For a time Imis and Philax were
happy enough, but after a few years they longed as much for a separation
as they had once wished to be united.—Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_
(“Palace of Revenge,” 1682).

=Imlac of Goiama=, near the mouth of the Nile; the son of a rich
merchant. Imlac was a great traveller and a poet, who accompanied
Rasselas in his rambles, and returned with him to the “happy
valley.”—Dr. Johnson, _Rasselas_ (1759).

=Immo and Hildegard.= As the sun went down, it threw its golden light
over the heights on which the Idisburg stands. The old tower glowed,
bathed in the many-colored light, and the branches of the bramble-berry
overspread the low wall of the castle with a net work of purple and
gold. In the lower portion of the enclosed court, the children of the
townspeople, brought there by their parents, were shouting and calling
in their play. On the highest point within the castle wall, stands a
linden tree, that makes a thick arbor, with its broad leaves reaching
nearly to the ground. It was a lovely spot. Wild hare-bells bloomed in
its light shade, and little butterflies fluttered here and there. The
birds gathered their young ones together in the sheltering branches of
the tree, and the crickets chirped in chorus to the note of the
feathered songsters. Here sat Hildegard, the count’s daughter, her hands
folded in her lap as she looked down into the valley, over the fields of
heather, over the forest trees, and over the rolling hills, far into the
distance, where earth and sky seemed to melt together in the evening
glow. At a respectful distance, some old servingmen, who had been sent
up there for her protection, were lying on the ground, but their backs
were turned to the maiden as they looked down to the Main, and pointed
out to one another the border towns of the enemy, descried under the
light clouds. Where Hildegard sat all was still; only a few sounds from
the bustling camp made their way up to her. From one side came the
lowing of the cows, and every now and then a hoof drew nearer, and the
leaves of her tree were pulled about, and there was a crackling and a
rustling in the branches. Hildegard turned and scared away the
intruders, but they came back again, and the maiden at last forgot in
her dreaming her dainty-mouthed visitors.

Her lips stirred, and softly sounded the words of a holy hymn, as she

                      Audi, benigne Conditor,
                      Nostras preces cum fletibus
                      Hear, Kind Creator,
                      Our prayers and our weeping.

But, in her singing, her thoughts dwelt less on the Creator than on a
certain suppliant who, only a few weeks before, had repeated these same
words to her in jest. And while she sang, and with clear eyes looked
straight before her, it seemed to her that her song was echoed from
above her in the tree. She stopped singing; then there was a rustling in
the branches, and through the whispering of the leaves, she heard the
same air repeated above her head, but to other words; and she heard from
the height:

                         Rana coaxit suaviter
                         In foliis viridibus.

                         The frog croaks softly
                         In the green herbage.

Hildegard sat motionless; a smile hovered about her mouth, and a deep
blush suffused her cheek; but she dared not risk looking up, for fear
lest the pleasant dream should be ended. “Is it thou, my comrade?” she
softly murmured. But hardly had she spoken before she repented the too
familiar speech.

“I am lying here above thee, in the green leaves,” sounded back to her
from overhead. “Right comfortable is my bed on the strong branch; look
upward, if so please thee, that I may once more see those large eyes of
thine, since it is they that have brought me hither.”

The maiden sprang lightly up, and turned toward the branch. In the same
instant Immo thrust his head quickly out, and clinging to the branch
with one hand he threw the other round her neck, and kissed her on the
mouth. “Good day, comrade,” he said. “That is what I made up my mind to
do, and I have done it!” He looked out once more from his hiding-place,
and gazed tenderly upon her blushing cheek.—Gustav Freytag, _The Wrens’

=Immortal Four of Italy= (_The_): Dantê (1265-1321), Petrarch
(1304-1374), Ariosto (1474-1533), and Tasso (1544-1595).

           The poets read he o’er and o’er,
           And most of all the Immortal Four
           Of Italy.
                   Longfellow, _The Wayside Inn_, (prelude).

=Imogen=, daughter of Cym´beline (3 _syl._), king of Britain, married
clandestinely Posthumus Leonātus; and Posthumus, being banished for
the offence, retired to Rome. One day, in the house of Philario, the
conversation turned on the merits of wives, and Posthumus bet his
diamond ring that nothing could tempt the fidelity of Imogen. Iachimo
accepted the wager, laid his plans, and after due time induced
Posthumus to believe that Imogen had played false, showing, by the way
of proof, a bracelet, which he affirmed she had given him; so
Posthumus handed over to him the ring given him by Imogen at parting.
Posthumus now ordered his servant Pisanio to inveigle Imogen to
Milford Haven, under pretence of seeing her husband, and to murder her
on the road; but Pisanio told Imogen his instructions, advised her to
enter the service of Lucius, the Roman general in Britain, as a page,
and promised that he would make Posthumus believe that she was dead.
This was done; and not long afterwards a battle ensued, in which the
Romans were defeated, and Lucius, Iachimo, and Imogen were taken
prisoners. Posthumus also took part in the battle, and obtained for
his services the royal pardon. The captives being brought before
Cymbeline, Lucius entreated the king to liberate Imogen. The petition
was not only granted, but Imogen was permitted, at the same time, to
ask a boon of the British king. She only begged that Iachimo should
inform the court how he came by the ring he was wearing on his finger.
The whole villainy was thus revealed, a reconciliation took place, and
all ended happily. (See ZINEURA.)—Shakespeare, _Cymbeline_ (1605).

=Im´ogine= (_The Fair_), the lady betrothed to Alonzo “the Brave,” and
who said to him, when he went to the wars: “If ever I marry another, may
thy ghost be present at the bridal feast, and bear me off to the grave.”
Alonzo fell in battle; Imogine married another; and, at the marriage
feast, Alonzo’s ghost, claiming the fulfilment of the compact, carried
away the bride.—M. G. Lewis, _Alonzo the Brave and the Fair Imogine_

_Imogine_ (_The lady_), wife of St. Aldobrand. Before her marriage she
was courted by Count Bertram, but the attachment fell through, because
Bertram was outlawed and became the leader of a gang of thieves. It so
happened one day that Bertram, being shipwrecked off the coast of
Sicily, was conveyed to the castle of Lady Imogine, and the old
attachment revived on both sides. Bertram murdered St. Aldobrand;
Imogine, going mad, expired in the arms of Bertram; and Bertram killed
himself.—C. Maturin, _Bertram_ (1816).

=Imoin´da= (3 _syl._), daughter of a white man who went to the court of
Angola, changed his religion, and grew great as commander of the forces.
His daughter was married to Prince Oroonoko. Soon afterwards the young
prince was trapanned by Captain Driver, taken to Surinam, and sold for a
slave. Here he met his young wife, whom the lieutenant-governor wanted
to make his mistress, and Oroonoko headed a rising of the slaves. The
end of the story is that Imoinda slew herself; and Oroonoko, having
stabbed the lieutenant-governor, put an end to his own life.—Thomas
Southern, _Oroonoko_ (1696).

=Impertinent= (_The Curious_), an Italian, who, to make trial of his
wife’s fidelity, persuades his friend to try and seduce her. The friend
succeeds in winning the lady’s love, and the impertinent curiosity of
the husband is punished by the loss of his friend and wife
too.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iv. 5 (an episode, 1605).

=Impostors= (_Literary_).

1. BERTRAM (_Dr. Charles Julius_), professor of English at Copenhagen.
He gave out that he had discovered, in 1747, in the library of that
city, a book entitled _De Situ Britanniæ_, by Richardus Corinensis. He
published this with two other treatises (one by Gildas Badon´icus, and
the other by Nennius Banchorensis) in 1757. The forgery was exposed by
J. E. Mayor, in his preface to _Ricardi de Cirencestria Speculum

2. CHATTERTON (_Thomas_), published in 1777 a volume of poems, which he
asserted to be from the pen of Thomas Rowley, a monk of the fifteenth
century. The forgery was exposed by Mason and Gray.

3. IRELAND (_Samuel William Henry_), published, in 1796, a series of
papers which he affirmed to be by Shakespeare, together with the tragedy
of _Lear_ and a part of _Hamlet_. Dr. Parr, Dr. Valpy, James Boswell,
Herbert Croft, and Pye, the laureate, signed a document certifying their
convictions that the collection was genuine; but Ireland subsequently
confessed the forgery. He also wrote a play entitled _Vortigern and
Rowena_, which he asserted was by Shakespeare; but Malone exposed the

4. LAUDER (_William_), published, in 1751, false quotations from
Masenius, a Jesuit of Cologne, Taubman, a German, Staphorstius, a
learned Dutchman, and others, to “prove Milton a gross plagiarist.” Dr.
Douglas demonstrated that the citations were incorrect, and that often
several lines had been foisted in to make the parallels. Lauder
confessed the fact afterwards (1754).

5. MENTZ, who lived in the ninth century, published fifty-nine
decretals, which he ascribed to Isadore of Seville, who died in the
sixth century. The object of these letters was either to exalt the
papacy, or to enforce some law assuming such exaltation. Among them is
the decretal of St. Fabian, instituting the rite of the chrism, with the
decretals of St. Anaclētus, St. Alexander, St. Athanasius, and so on.
They have all been proved to be barefaced forgeries.

6. PEREIRA (_Colonel_), a Portuguese, professed to have discovered in
the convent of St. Maria de Merinhâo, nine books of Sanchoni´athon,
which he published in 1837. It was found that the paper of the MS. bore
the water-mark of the Osnabrück paper-mills.

7. PSALMANAZAR (_George_), who pretended to be a Japanese, published, in
1705, an _Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa, an Island
belonging to the Empire of Japan_. He was an Englishman, born in London,
name unknown (died 1763).

8. SMITH (_Joseph_), professed that his _Book of Mormon_, published in
1830, was a direct revelation to him by the angel Mormon; but it was
really the work of a Rev. Solomon Spalding. Smith was murdered in
Carthage jail in 1844.

9. SURTEES (_Robert_), sent Sir Walter Scott several ballads, which were
inserted in good faith in the _Border Minstrelsy_, but were in fact
forgeries. For example, a ballad on _A Feud between the Ridleys and the
Featherstones_, said to be taken down from the mouth of an old woman on
Alston Moor (1806); _Lord Ewrie_, said to be taken down from the mouth
of Rosa Smith of Bishop Middleham, æt. 91 (1807); and _Barthram’s Dirge_

The _Korân_ was said by Mahomet to be revealed to him by the angel
Gabriel, but it was in reality the work of a Persian Jew, a Jacobite and
a Nestorian. The detached parts of the _Korân_ were collected into a
volume by Abû Bekr in 634. Mahomet died in 632.


ACCOLTI (_Bernardo_), of Arezzo, called the _Unico Areti´no_

AQUILANO (_Serafino_), born at Aquila (1466-1500).

BANDETTINI (_Teresa_), (1756-*). Marone, Quercio, and Silvio ANTONIANO
(eighteenth century).

BERONICIUS (_P. J._), who could convert extempore into Latin or Greek
verse a Dutch newspaper or anything else which he heard (died 1676).

CORILLA (_Maria Magdalena_), of Pistoia. Mde. de Staël has borrowed her
Corinne from this improvisatrix. Crowned at Rome in 1766 (1740-1800).

GIANNI (_Francis_), an Italian, made imperial poet by Napoleon, whose
victories he celebrated in verse (1759-1823).

JEHAN (_Núr_), of Bengal, during the sultanship of Jehánger. She was the
inventor of the otto of roses (died 1645).

KARSCH (_Anne Louisa_), of Germany.

MAZZEI (_Signora_), the most talented of all improvisators.

METASTASIO (_Pietro B._), of Assisi, who developed, at the age of ten, a
wonderful talent for extemporizing in verse (1698-1782).

PERFETTI (_Bernardino_), of Sienna, who received a laurel crown in the
capitol, an honor conferred only on Petrarch and Tasso (1681-1747).

PETRARCH (_Francesco_), who introduced the amusement of improvisation

ROSSI, beheaded at Naples in 1799.

SERAFINO D’AQUILA. (See above, “Aquilano.”)

SERIO, beheaded at Naples in 1799.

SGRICCI (_Tommaso_), of Tuscany (1788-1832). His _Death of Charles I._,
_Death of Mary Queen of Scots_, and _Fall of Missolonghi_ are very

TADDEI (_Rosa_), (1801-   ).

ZUCCO (_Marc Antonio_), of Verona (*-1764).

To these add Cicconi, Bindocci, Sestini, the brothers Clercq of Holland,
Wolfe of Altŏna, Langenschwarz of Germany, Eugène de Pradel of France,
and Thomas Hood (1798-1845).

=Inconstant= (_The_), a comedy by G. Farquhar (1702). “The inconstant”
is young Mirabel, who shilly-shallies with Oria´na till she saves him
from being murdered by four bravoes in the house of Lamorce (2 _syl._).

This comedy is a _réchauffé_ of the _Wild-goose Chase_.—Beaumont and
Fletcher (1652).

=Incorruptible= (_The_). Maximilian Robespierre was so called by his
friends in the Revolution (1756-1794).

“William Shippen,” says Horace Walpole, “is the only man proof against a

⁂ Fabricius, the Roman hero, could not be corrupted by bribes, nor
influenced by threats. Pyrrhus declared it would be as easy to divert
the sun from its course as Fabricius from the path of duty.—_Roman

=In´cubus=, a spirit half human and half angelic, living in mid-air
between the moon and our earth.—Geoffrey, _British History_, vi. 18

=Indra=, god of the elements. His palace is described by Southey in _The
Curse of Kehama_, vii. 10 (1809).

=Inesilla de Cantarilla=, daughter of a Spanish lute-maker. She had the
unusual power of charming the male sex during the whole course of her
life, which exceeded 75 years. Idolized by the noblemen of the old
court, she saw herself adored by those of the new. Even in her old age
she had a noble air, an enchanting wit, and graces peculiar to herself
suited to her years.—Lesage, _Gil Blas_, viii. 1 (1735).

=I´nez= of Cadiz, addressed in _Childe Harold_, i. (after stanza 84).
Nothing known of her.

_Inez (Donna)_, mother of Don Juan. She trained her son according to
prescribed rules with the strictest propriety, and designed to make him
a model of all virtues. Her husband was Don José, whom she worried to
death by her prudery and want of sympathy. Donna Inez was a
“blue-stocking,” learned in all the sciences, her favorite one being
“the mathematical.” She knew every European language, “a little Latin
and less Greek.” In a word, she was “perfect as perfect is,” according
to the standard of Miss Edgeworth, Mrs. Trimmer, and Hannah More, but
had “a great opinion of her own good qualities.” Like Tennyson’s “Maud,”
this paragon of women was, to those who did not look too narrowly,
“faultily faultless, icily regular, splendidly null.”—Bryon, _Don Juan_,
i. 10-30 (1819).

=Inez de Castro=, crowned six years after her death. The tale is this:
Don Pedro, son of Alfonso IV. of Portugal, privately married, in 1345,
the “beauty of Castile,” and Alfonso was so indignant that he commanded
her to be put to death (1355). Two years afterwards, Don Pedro succeeded
to the crown, and in 1361 had the body of Inez exhumed and crowned.

Camoens, the Portuguese poet, has introduced this story in his _Lusiad_.
A. Ferreira, another Portuguese poet, has a tragedy called _Inez de
Castro_ (1554); Lamotte produced a tragedy with the same title (1723);
and Guiraud another in 1826. (See next art).

_Inez de Castro_, the bride of Prince Pedro, of Portugal, to whom she
was clandestinely married. The King Alfonso and his minister Gonzalez,
not knowing of this marriage, arranged a marriage for the young prince
with a Spanish princess, and when the prince refused his consent,
Gonzalez ferreted out the cause, and induced Inez to drink poison. He
then put the young prince under arrest, but as he was being led away,
the announcement came that Alfonso was dead and Don Pedro was his
successor. The tables were now turned, for Pedro was instantly released,
and Gonzalez led to execution.—Ross Neil, _Inez de Castro_ or _The Bride
of Portugal_. (See previous art).

=Inez Morse.= A New England woman, determined to pay off the mortgage
left by her dead father upon the farm. She sells all her honey to help
on this object; “When the mortgage is paid off, we’ll have warm biscuit
and honey for supper,” she says, half-jestingly. She holds off a suitor
for years, until the mortgage is paid. She promised her father it should
be done. The day the last payment is made, she hears that “Willy” has
married another girl. They have warm biscuits and honey for tea that
night.—Mary E. Wilkin’s _A Taste of Honey_ (1887).

=Infant Endowed with Speech.= The Imâm Abzenderoud excited the envy of
his confraternity by his superior virtue and piety, so they suborned a
woman to father a child upon him. The imâm prayed to Mahomet to reveal
the truth, whereupon the new-born infant told in good Arabic who his
father was, and Abzenderoud was acquitted with honor.—T. S. Gueulette,
_Chinese Tales_ (“Imâm Abzenderoud,” 1723).

=Infant of Luback=, Christian Henry Heinecken. At one year old he knew
the chief events of the Pentateuch!! at thirteen months he knew the
history of the Old Testament!! at fourteen months he knew the history of
the New Testament!! at two and a half years he could answer any ordinary
question of history or geography!! and at three years old he knew
German, French, and Latin!!

=Inferno= (_The_), in thirty-four cantos, by Dantê [Alighieri] (1300).
While wandering through a wood (_this life_), the poet comes to a
mountain (_fame_), and begins to climb it, but first a panther
(_pleasure_), then a lion (_ambition_), and then a she-wolf (_avarice_),
stand in his path to slay him. The appearance of Virgil (_human
wisdom_), however, encourages him (canto i.), and the Mantuan tells him
he is sent by three ladies [Beatrice (_faith_), Lucia (_grace_), and
Mercy] to conduct him through the realms of hell (canto ii.). On they
proceed together till they come to a portal bearing this inscription:
ALL HOPE ABANDON YE WHO ENTER HERE; they pass through, and come to that
neutral realm where dwell the spirits of those not good enough for
heaven nor bad enough for hell, “the praiseless and the blameless dead.”
Passing through this border-land, they command old Charon to ferry them
across the Achĕron to Limbo (canto iii.), and here they behold the
ghosts of the unbaptized, “blameless of sin,” but not members of the
Christian Church. Homer is here, Horace, Ovid, and Lucan, who enroll
Dantê “sixth of the sacred band.” On leaving Limbo, our adventurer
follows his guide through the seven gates which lead to the inferno, an
enormous funnel-shaped pit, divided into stages. The outer, or first
“circle,” is a vast meadow, in which roam Electra (mother of Dardănus,
the founder of Troy), Hector, Æne´as, and Julius Cæsar; Camilla and
Penthesile´a; Latīnus and Junius Brutus; Lucretia, Marcia (Cato’s wife),
Julia (Pompey’s wife), and Cornelia; and here “a part retired,” they see
Saladin, the rival of Richard the Lion-heart. Linos is here and Orpheus;
Aristotle, Socratês, and Plato; Democrĭtos, who ascribed creation to
blind chance, Diogĕnês, the cynic, Heraclītos, Emped´oclês, Anaxag´oras,
Thalĕs, Dioscor´idês, and Zeno; Cicero and Senĕca, Euclid and Ptolemy,
Hippocrătês and Galen, Avĭcen, and Averroês, the Arabian translator and
commentator of Aristotle (canto iv.). From the first stage they descend
to the second, where Minos sits in judgment on the ghosts brought before
him. He indicates what circle a ghost is to occupy by twisting his tail
round his body: two twists signify that the ghost is to be banished to
the second circle; three twists that it is to be consigned to the third
circle, and so on. Here, says the poet, “light was silent all,” but
shrieks and groans and blasphemies were terrible to hear. This circle is
the hell of carnal and sinful love, where Dante recognizes Semirămis,
Dido, Cleopatra, and Helen; Achillês and Paris; Tristan, the lover of
his uncle’s wife, Isoldê; Lancelot, the lover of Queen Guinever; and
Francesca, the lover of Paolo, her brother-in-law (canto v.). The third
circle is a place of deeper woe. Here fall in ceaseless showers, hail,
black rain, and sleety flaw; the air is cold and dun; and a foul stench
arises from the soil. Cerbĕrus keeps watch here, and this part of the
inferno is set apart for gluttons, like Ciacco (2 _syl._). From this
stage the two poets pass on to the “fourth steep ledge,” presided over
by Plutus (canto vi.), a realm which “hems in all the woe of all the
universe.” Here are gathered the souls of the avaricious, who wasted
their talents, and made no right use of their wealth. Crossing this
region, they come to the “fifth steep,” and see the Stygian Lake of inky
hue. This circle is a huge bog in which “the miry tribe” flounder, and
“gulp the muddy lees.” It is the abode of those who put no restraint
upon their anger (canto vii.). Next comes the city of Dis, where the
souls of heretics are “interred in vaults” (cantos viii., ix.). Here
Dantê recognizes Farina´ta (a leader of the Ghibelline faction), and is
informed that the Emperor Frederick II. and Cardinal Ubaldini are
amongst the number (canto x.). The city of Dis contains the next three
circles (canto xi.), through which Nessus conducts them; and here they
see the Minotaur and the Centaurs, as Chiron, who nursed Achillês and
Pholus the passionate. The first circle of Dis (the sixth) is for those
who by force or fraud have done violence to _man_, as Alexander the
Great, Dionysius of Syracuse, Attila, Sextus, and Pyrrhus (canto xii.).
The next (the seventh circle) is for those who have done violence to
_themselves_, as suicides; here are the Harpies, and here the souls are
transformed to trees (canto xiii.). The eighth circle is for the souls
of those who have done violence to _God_, as blasphemers and heretics;
it is a hell of burning, where it snows flakes of fire. Here is
Cap´aneus (3 _syl._) (canto xiv.), and here Dantê held converse with
Brunetto, his old schoolmaster (canto xv.). Having reached the confines
of the realm of Dis, Ger´yon carries Dantê into the region of Malêbolgê
(4 _syl._), a horrible hell, containing ten pits or chasms (canto
xvii.): In the first is Jason; the second is for harlots (canto xviii.);
in the third is Simon Magus, “who prostituted the things of God for
gold;” in the fourth, Pope Nicholas III. (canto xix.); in the fifth the
ghosts had their heads “reversed at the neckbone,” and here are
Amphiarāos, Tirēsias, who was first a woman and then a man, Michael
Scott, the magician, with all witches and diviners (canto xx.); in the
sixth, Caïaphas and Annas, his father-in-law (canto xxiii.); in the
seventh, robbers of churches, as Vanni Fucci, who robbed the sacristy of
St James’ in Pistoia, and charged Venni della Nona with the crime, for
which she suffered death (canto xxiv.); in the eighth, Ulyssês and
Diomed, who were punished for the stratagem of the Wooden Horse (cantos
xxvi., xxvii.); in the ninth, Mahomet and Ali, “horribly mangled” (canto
xxviii.); in the tenth, alchemists (canto xxix.), coiners and forgers,
Potiphar’s wife, Sinon the Greek, who deluded the Trojans (canto xxx.),
Nimrod, Ephialtés, and Antæus, with other giants (canto xxxi.). Antæus
carries the two visitors into the nethermost gulf, where Judas and
Lucifer are confined. It is a region of thick-ribbed ice, and here they
see the frozen river of Cocy´tus (canto xxxii.). The last persons the
poet sees are Brutus and Cassius, the murderers of Julius Cæsar (canto
xxxiv.). Dantê and his conductor, Virgil, then make their exit on the
“southern hemisphere,” where once was Eden, and where the “moon rises
when here evening sets.” This is done that the poet may visit Purgatory,
which is situated in mid-ocean, somewhere near the antipodes of Judea.

⁂ Canto xvi. opens with a description of Fraud, canto xxxiii. contains
the tale of Ugoli´no, and canto xxxiv. the description of Lucifer.

=Ingeborg.= Daughter of a Norwegian king. She is loved as child and
woman by Frithiof, who finally marries her.—_Frithiof Saga._

=Ingelram= (_Abbot_), formerly superior of St. Mary’s Convent.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Inglewood= (_Squire_), a magistrate near Osbaldistone Hall.—Sir W.
Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Inglis= (_Corporal_), in the royal army under the leadership of the
duke of Monmouth.—Sir W. Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Ingo=, the son of Ingbert, king of the Vandals. Driven from his throne
by his uncle, he seeks refuge among the Thuringians, where he loves and
marries Irmgard. They are both slain in a siege, leaving one son, an

=Ingoldsby= (_Thomas_), the Rev. Richard Harris Barham, author of
_Ingoldsby Legends_ (1788-1845).

=Ingraban=, a descendant of the child of Ingo and Irmgard, a wild,
untamed young Pagan, who is finally converted to Christianity under
Bishop Winfried, or Boniface.

=Ini=, =Ine=, or =Ina=, king of Wessex; his wife was Æthelburh; both
were of the royal line of Cerdic. After a grand banquet, King Ini set
forth to sojourn in another of his palaces, and his queen privately
instructed his steward to “fill the house they quitted with rubbish and
offal, to put a sow and litter of pigs in the royal bed, and entirely
dismantle the room.” When the king and queen had gone about a mile or
so, the queen entreated her husband to return to the house they had
quitted, and great was his astonishment to behold the change. Æthelburh
then said, “Behold what vanity of vanities is all earthly greatness!
Where now are the good things you saw here but a few hours ago? See how
foul a beast occupies the royal bed. So will it be with you unless you
leave earthly things for heavenly.” So the king abdicated his kingdom,
went to Rome, and dwelt there as a pilgrim for the rest of his life.

              ... in fame great Ina might pretend
          With any king since first the Saxons came to shore.
                  Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xi. (1613).

=Inkle and Yar´ico=, hero and heroine of a story by Sir Richard Steele,
in the _Spectator_ (No. 11). Inkle is a young Englishman who is lost in
the Spanish main. He falls in love with Yarico, an Indian maiden, with
whom he consorts; but no sooner does a vessel arrive to take him to
Barbadoes than he sells Yarico as a slave.

George Colman has dramatized this tale (1787).

=Innocents= (_The_), the babes of Bethlehem cut off by Herod the Great.

⁂ John Baptist Marino, an Italian poet, has a poem on _The Massacre of
the Innocents_ (1569-1625).

=Innogen= or INOGENE (3 _syl._), wife of Brute (1 _syl._), mythical king
of Britain. She was daughter of Pan´drasos of Greece.

          Thus Brute this realme unto his rule subdewd ...
          And left three sons, his famous progeny,
          Born of fayre Inogene of Italy.
                  Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, ii. 10 (1590).

          And for a lasting league of amity and peace,
          Bright Innogen, his child, for wife to Brutus gave.
                  M. Drayton, _Polyolbion_, I. (1612).

=Insane Root= (_The_), hemlock. It is said that those who eat hemlock
can see objects otherwise invisible. Thus when Banquo had encountered
the witches, who vanished as mysteriously as they appeared, he says to
Macbeth, “Were such things [_really_] here ... or have we eaten
[_hemlock_] of the insane root, that takes the reason prisoner,” so that
our eyes see things that are not?—Macbeth, act i. sc. 3 (1606).

=Interpreter= (_Mr._), in Bunyan’s _Pilgrim’s Progress_, means the Holy
Ghost as it operates on the heart of a believer. He is lord of a house a
little beyond the Wicket Gate.—Pt. i. (1678).

=Inveraschal´loch=, one of the Highlanders at the Clachan of
Aberfoyle.—Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Invin´cible Doctor= (_The_), William of Occam; also called _Doctor
Singulāris_ (1270-1347).

=Invisible Knight= (_The_), Sir Garlon, brother of King Pellam (nigh of
kin to Joseph of Arimathy).

“He is Sir Garlon,” said the knight, “he with the black face, he is the
marvellest knight living, for he goeth invisible.”—Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, i. 39 (1470).

=Invisibility= is obtained by amulets, dress, herbs, rings, and stones.

_Amulets_: as the capon-stone called “Alectoria,” which rendered those
invisible who carried it about their person.—_Mirror of Sornes._

_Dress_: as Alberich’s cloak called “Tarnkappe” (2 _syl._) which
Siegfried got possession of (_The Nibelungen Lied_); the mantle of Hel
Keplein (_q.v._); and Jack the Giantkiller had a cloak of invisibility
as well as a cap of knowledge. The helmet of Perseus of Hadês (_Greek
Fable_) and Mambrino’s helmet rendered the wearers invisible. The _moros
musphonon_ was a girdle of invisibility.—Mrs. Centlivre, _A Bold Stroke
for a Wife_.

_Herbs_: as fern-seed, mentioned by Shakespeare and Beaumont and

_Rings_: as Gyges’s ring, taken from the flanks of a brazen horse. When
the stone was turned inwards, the wearer was invisible (Plato). The ring
of Otnit, king of Lombardy, according to _The Heldenbuch_, possessed a
similar virtue. Reynard’s wonderful ring had three colors, one of which
(the green) caused the wearer to be invisible (_Reynard the Fox_, 1498);
this was the gem called heliotrope.

_Stones_: as heliotrope, mentioned by Boccaccio in his _Decameron_ (day
viii. 3). It is of a green hue. Solīnus attributes this power to the
_herb_ heliotrope: “Herba ejusdem nominis ... eum, a quocumque
gestabitur, suptrahit visibus obviorum.”—_Geog._, xl.

=Invulnerability.= Stones taken from the cassan plant, which grows in
Pauten, will render the possessor invulnerable.—Odoricus, _In Hakluyt_.

A dip in the river Styx rendered Achillês invulnerable.

Medea rendered Jason proof against wounds and fire by anointing him with
the Promethe´an unguent.—_Greek Fable._

Siegfried was rendered invulnerable by bathing his body in dragon’s
blood.—_Niebelungen Lied._

=Ion=, the title and hero of a tragedy by T. N. Talfourd (1835). The
oracle of Delphi had declared that the pestilence which raged in Argos
was sent by way of punishment for the misrule of the race of Argos, and
that the vengeance of the gods could be averted only by the extirpation
of the guilty race. Ion, the son of the king, offered himself a willing
sacrifice, and as he was dying, Irus entered and announced that “the
pestilence was abating.”

=Io´na’s Saint=, St. Columb, seen on the top of the church spires, on
certain evenings every year, counting the surrounding islands, to see
that none of them have been sunk by the power of witchcraft.

       As Iona’s saint, a giant form,
 Throned on his towers conversing with the storm ...
 Counts every wave-worn isle and mountain hoar
 From Kilda to the green Ierne’s shore [_from the Hebrides to Ireland_].
         Campbell, _The Pleasures of Hope_, ii. (1799).

=I-pal-ne-mo´-ani= (i.e. _He by whom we live_), a title of God, used by
the ancient Mexicans.

                    “We know him,” they reply,
              “The great ‘Forever-One,’ the God of gods,
              Ipalnemoani.”—Southey, _Madoc_, i. 8 (1805).

=Iphigeni´a=,daughter of Agamemnon, king of Argos. Agamemnon vowed to
offer up to Artĕmis the best possession that came into his hands during
the ensuing twelve months. This happened to be an infant daughter, to
whom he gave the name of Iphigenīa, but he forbore to fulfil his vow.
When he went on his voyage to Troy, the fleet was wind-bound at Aulis,
and Kalchas, the priest, said it was because Agamemnon had not carried
out his vow; so Iphigenia, then in the pride of womanhood, was bound to
the altar. Artemis, being satisfied, carried the maiden off to Tauris,
where she became a priestess, and substituted a hind in her place.

For parallel instances, such as Abraham and Isaac, Jephthah and his
daughter, Idomeneus and his son, etc., see IDOMENEUS.

              When a new Iphigene, she went to Tauris.
                          Byron, _Don Juan_, x. 49 (1821).

=Iphis=, the woman who was changed to a man. The tale is this: Iphis was
the daughter of Lygdus and Telethusa of Cretê. Lygdus gave orders that
if the child about to be born was a girl, it was to be put to death. It
happened to be a girl; but the mother, to save it, brought it up as a
boy. In due time, the father betrothed Iphis to Ianthê, and the mother,
in terror, prayed to Isis for help. Her prayer was heard, for Isis
changed Iphis into a man on the day of espousals.—Ovid, _Metaph._, ix.
12; xiv. 699.

⁂ Cæneus [_Se.nuce_] was born of the female sex, but Neptune changed her
into a man. Ænēas found her in hadês changed back again.

Tirēsias, the Theban prophet, was converted into a girl for striking two
serpents, and married. He afterwards recovered his sex.

=Ippolito= (_Don_), Italian priest, who should never have taken orders.
He is handsome, sensitive and susceptible, and has for a pupil Florida
Vervain, an American girl. He loves her and tells her so. She pities
him, advises him to break the shackles of his priesthood and go to
America. When she departs, he succumbs to despair and Roman fever. On
his death-bed he disabuses Florida’s American lover of the impression
that the girl loved the priest.—W. D. Howells, _A Foregone Conclusion_

=Iras=, a female attendant on Cleopatra. When Cleopatra had arrayed
herself with robe and crown, prior to applying the asps, she said to her
two female attendants, “Come take the last warmth of my lips. Farewell,
kind Charmian! Iras, farewell!” And having kissed them, Iras fell down
dead, either broken-hearted or else because she had already applied an
asp to her arm, as Charmian did a little later.—Shakespeare, _Antony and
Cleopatra_ (1608).

=Ireby= (_Mr_), a country squire.—Sir W. Scott, _Two Drovers_ (time,
George III.).

=Ireland= (_S. W. H._), a literary forger. His chief forgery is
_Miscellaneous Papers and Instruments, under the hand and seal of
William Shakespeare, including the tragedy of King Lear, and a small
fragment of Hamlet, from the original_, folio, £6 4_s._ (1795).

His most impudent forgery was the production of a new play, which he
tried to palm off as Shakespeare’s. It was called _Vortigern and
Rowena_, and was actually represented at Drury Lane Theatre, in 1796.

                  Weeps o’er false Shakesperian lore
              Which sprang from Maisterre Ireland’s store,
              Whose impudence deserves the rod
              For having aped the Muse’s god.

_Ireland_ (_The Fair Maid of_), the ignis fatuus.

He had read ... of ... the _ignis fatuus_, ... by some called
“Will-with-the-whisp” or “Jack-with-the-lantern,” and likewise ... “The
Fair Maid of Ireland.”—R. Johnson, _The Seven Champions of Christendom_,
i. 7. (1617).

=Ireland’s Three Saints.= The three great saints of Ireland are St.
Patrick, St. Columb, and St. Bridget.

=Ireland’s Three Tragedies=: (1) _The Death of the Children of Touran_;
(2) _The Death of the Children of Lir_; and (3) _The Death of the
Children of Usnach_.—O’Flannagan, _Transactions of the Gaelic Society of
Dublin_, i.

=Irem= (_The Garden of_), mentioned in the _Korân_, lxxxix. It was the
most beautiful of all earthly paradises, laid out for Shedad´, king of
Ad; but no sooner was it finished than it was struck with the
lightning-wand of the death-angel, and was never after visible to the
eye of man.

           The paradise of Irem this ...
           A garden more surpassing fair
           Than that before whose gate
       The lightning of the cherub’s fiery sword
           Waves wide to bar access.
                  Southey, _Thalaba the Destroyer_, i. 22 (1797).

=Ire´na=, Ireland personified. Her inheritance was withheld by Grantorto
(_rebellion_), and Sir Artegal was sent by the queen of Faëry-land to
succor her. Grantorto being slain Irena was restored, in 1588, to her
inheritance.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. (1596).

=Ire´ne= (3 _syl._), daughter of Horush Barbarossa, the Greek renegade
and corsair-king of Algiers. She was rescued in the siege of Algiers by
Selim, son of the Moorish king, who fell in love with her. When she
heard of the conspiracy to kill Barbarossa, she warned her father; but
it was too late; the insurgents succeeded, Barbarossa was slain by
Othman, and Selim married Irenê.—J. Browne, _Barbarossa_ (1742).

_Irene_ (3 _syl._), wife of Alexius Comne´nus, emperor of Greece.—Sir W.
Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Irene Lapham.= Second daughter of a self-made man; wonderfully
beautiful, unsophisticated, and beginning to have social ambitions,
founded upon acquaintance with the Bromfield Coreys. She is quite sure
and naively glad that Tom Corey admires, perhaps loves her, until
undeceived by his declaration to her sister. Then she gives him up and
goes away for a while. Hearing of her father’s failure in business, she
rushes back and takes her place in the family as an energetic spinster.
William Dean Howells, _The Rise of Silas Lapham_ (1884).

=Ire´nus.= Peaceableness personified. (Greek, _eirênê_, “peace”).
Phineas Fletcher, _The Purple Island_, x. (1633).

=Iris=, a messenger, a go-between. Iris was the messenger of Juno.

          Wheresoe’er them art in this world’s globe,
          I’ll have an Iris that shall find thee out.
              Shakespeare, _2 Henry VI_, act v. sc. 2 (1591).

=Iris and the Dying.= One of the duties of Iris was to cut off a lock of
hair (claimed by Proserpine) from those devoted to death, and till this
was done, Death refused to accept the victim. Thus, when Dido mounted
the funeral pile, she lingered in suffering till Iris was sent by Juno
to cut off a lock of her hair as an offering to the black queen, but
immediately this was done her spirit left the body. Than´atos did the
same office to Alcestis when she gave her life for that of her husband.
In all sacrifices, a forelock was first cut from the head of the victim
an an offering to Proserpine.—See Euripides, _Alcestis_; Virgil,
_Æneid_, iv.

_Iris._ Daughter of an old Latin tutor. Of her mother it is said—“Seated
with her companion at the chess-board of matrimony, she had but just
pushed forward her one little white pawn upon an empty square, when the
Black Knight, who cares nothing for castles, or kings or queens, swooped
down upon her and swept her from the larger board of life.” The child’s
father lingered but a little while longer, and the little Iris lived
with a village spinster and went to a village school. All the same, the
artistic principle grew and prevailed with her, and she became painter
and poet.—Oliver Wendell Holmes, _The Professor at the Breakfast-Table_

=Irish Whiskey Drinker= (_The_), John Sheehan, a barrister, who with
“Everard Olive of Tipperary Hall,” wrote a series of pasquinades in
verse, which were published in _Bentley’s Miscellany_, in 1846, and
attracted considerable attention.

=Irish Widow= (_The_), a farce by Garrick (1757). Martha Brady, a
blooming young widow of 23, is in love with William Whittle, the nephew
of old Thomas Whittle, a man 63 years of age. It so happens that William
cannot touch his property without his uncle’s consent, so the lovers
scheme together to obtain it. The widow pretends to be in love with the
old man, who proposes to her and is accepted; but she now comes out in a
new character, as a loud, vulgar, rollicking, extravagant low
Irishwoman. Old Whittle is thoroughly frightened, and not only gets his
nephew to take the lady off his hands, but gives him £5000 for doing so.

=Irol´do=, the friend of Prasildo, of Babylon. Prasildo falls in love
with Tisbi´na, his friend’s wife, and, to escape infamy, Iroldo and
Tisbina take “poison.” Prasildo, hearing from the apothecary that the
supposed poison is innocuous, goes and tells them so, whereupon Iroldo
is so struck with his friend’s generosity that he quits Babylon, leaving
Tisbina to Prasildo. Subsequently Iroldo’s life is in peril, and
Prasildo saves his friend at the hazard of his own life.—Bojardo,
_Orlando Innamorato_ (1495).

=Irolit´a=, a princess, in love with Prince Parcĭnus, her cousin. The
fairy Dan´amo wanted Parcinus to marry her daughter Az´ira, and
therefore tried to marry Irolita to Brutus; but her plans were thwarted,
for Parcinus married Irolita, and Brutus married Azira.—D’Aunoy,
_Perfect Love_.

=Iron Arm.= Captain François de Lanoue, a Huguenot, was called _Bras de
Fer_. He died at the siege of Lamballe (1531-1591).

=Iron Chest= (_The_), a drama by G. Colman, based on W. Godwin’s novel
of _Caleb Williams_. Sir Edward Mortimer kept in an iron chest certain
documents relating to a murder for which he had been tried and honorably
acquitted. His secretary, Wilford, out of curiosity, was prying into
this box, when Sir Edward entered and threatened to shoot him; but on
reflection, spared the young man’s life, and told him all about the
murder, and swore him to secrecy. Wilford, unable to endure the watchful
and suspicious eye of his master, ran away; but Sir Edward dogged him
like a bloodhound, and at length accused him of robbery. The charge
could not be substantiated, so Wilford was acquitted. Sir Edward
confessed himself a murderer, and died (1796).

=Iron Duke= (_The_), the duke of Wellington (1769-1852).

=Iron Emperor= (_The_), Nicholas of Russia (1796, 1826-1855).

=Iron Hand=, Goetz von Berlichingen, who replaced his right hand, which
he lost at the siege of Landshut, by an iron one (sixteenth century).

⁂ Goethe has made this the subject of an historical drama.

=Iron Mask= (_The Man in the_). This mysterious man went by the name of
Lestang, but who he was is as much in _nubibus_ as the author of the
_Letters of Junius_. The most general opinion is that he was Count
Er´colo Antonio Matthioli, a senator of Mantua and private agent of
Ferdinand Charles, duke of Mantua; and that his long imprisonment of
twenty-four years was for having deceived Louis XIV. in a secret treaty
for the purchase of the fortress of Casale. M. Loiseleur utterly denies
this solution of the mystery.—See _Temple Bar_, 182-4, May, 1872.

⁂ The tragedies of Zschokke in German (1795), and Fournier, in French,
are based on the supposition that the man in the mask was Marechal
Richelieu, a twin-brother of the _Grand Monarque_, and this is the
solution given by the Abbé Soulavie.

=Irons.= “A man over whom vulgar prosperity had, in forming him, left
everywhere her finger-marks to be seen.... He had a general air of
insisting upon his immense superiority to all the world.” His
self-complacency does not prevent his meddling offensively in other
people’s affairs, and his success gives him the opportunity to ruin the
man he hates as his intellectual and moral superior.—Arlo Bates, _The
Philistines_ (1888).

=Ironside= (_Sir_), called “The Red Knight of the Red Lands.” Sir
Gareth, after fighting with him from dawn to dewy eve, subdued him.
Tennyson calls him Death, and says that Gareth won the victory with a
single stroke. Sir Ironside was the knight who kept the Lady Lionês
(called by Tennyson “Lyonors”) captive in Castle Perilous.—Sir T.
Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 134-137 (1470).

_Ironside._ Edmund II., king of the Anglo-Saxons, was so called from his
iron armor (989, 1016-1017).

Sir Richard Steele signed himself “Nester Ironside” in the _Guardian_

=Ironsides.= So were the soldiers of Cromwell called, especially after
the battle of Marston Moor, where they displayed their iron resolution

_Ironsides (Captain)_, uncle of Belfield (_Brothers_), and an old friend
of Sir Benjamin Dove. He is captain of a privateer, and a fine specimen
of an English naval officer.

He’s true English oak to the heart of him, and a fine old seaman-like
figure he is.—Cumberland, _The Brothers_, i. 1 (1769).

=Iron Tooth=, Frederick II., elector of Bradenburg (_Dent de Fer_),
(1657, 1688-1713).

=Irrefragable Doctor= (_The_), Alexander Hales, founder of the
Scholastic theology (*-1245).

=I´rus=, the beggar of Ithâca, who ran errands for Penelopê’s suitors.
When Ulyssês returned home dressed as a beggar, Irus withstood him, and
Ulyssês broke his jaw with a blow. So poor was Irus that he gave birth
to the proverbs, “As poor as Irus,” and “Poorer than Irus” (in French,
_Plus pauvre qu’ Irus_).

=Irving= (_Washington_). N. P. Willis said of Irving’s reputation in
England fifty years ago: “The first questions on the lips of every one
to whom I am introduced as an American are of him and Cooper.” Horace
Smith, the author of “Rejected Addresses” pronounced him “a delightful
fellow.”—N. P. Willis, _Pencilings by the Way_ (1835).

=Irwin= (_Mr_), the husband of Lady Eleanor, daughter of Lord Norland.
His lordship discarded her for marrying against his will, and Irwin was
reduced to the verge of starvation. In his desperation Irwin robbed his
father-in-law on the high road, but relented and returned the money. At
length the iron heart of Lord Norland was softened, and he relieved the
necessities of his son-in-law.

_Lady Eleanor Irwin_, wife of Mr. Irwin. She retains her love for Lord
Norland, even through all his relentlessness, and when she hears that he
has adopted a son, exclaims, “May the young man deserve his love better
than I have done! May he be a comfort to his declining years, and never
disobey him!”—Inchbald, _Every One has His Fault_ (1794).

_Irwin (Hannah)_, former _confidante_ of Clara Mowbray.—Sir W. Scott,
_St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Isaac [Mendoza]=, a rich Portuguese Jew, short in stature, with a snub
nose, swarthy skin, and huge beard; very conceited, priding himself upon
his cunning, loving to dupe others but woefully duped himself. He
chuckles to himself, “I’m cunning, I fancy; a very cunning dog, ain’t I?
a sly little villain, eh? a bit roguish; he must be very wide awake who
can take Isaac in.” This conceited piece of goods is always duped by
every one he encounters. He meets Louisa, whom he intends to make his
wife, but she makes him believe she is Clara Guzman. He meets his rival,
Antonio, whom he sends to the supposed Clara, and he marries her. He
mistakes Louisa’s duenna for Louisa, and elopes with her. So all his wit
is outwitted.—Sheridan, _The Duenna_ (1775).

=Isaac of York=, the father of Rebecca. When imprisoned in the dungeon
of Front de Bœuf’s castle, Front de Bœuf comes to extort money from him,
and orders two slaves to chain him to the bars of slow fire, but the
party is disturbed by the sound of a bugle. Ultimately, both the Jew and
his daughter leave England and go to live abroad.—Sir W. Scott,
_Ivanhoe_ (time, Richard I.).

=Isaacs= (_Mr._). A mysterious man, whose majestic beauty,
accomplishments, prowess and loves form the staple of the novel bearing
his name.—F. Marion Crawford, _Mr. Isaacs_ (1882).

=Isabel.= A child-love, whose image is recalled by the old man in his
wayside musing—

                       “Poor, unknown,
             By the wayside, on a mossy stone.”
                                  Ralph Hoyt, _Old_ (1859).

_Isabel._ A refined girl, with lofty ideals and aspirations, who marries
a widower with one child. She believes him a true man who will uplift
her, and finds him a refined voluptuary, coldly calculating upon the
advantages to be gained from her fortune. Still faithful to herself,
Isabel repels the love of a man who thoroughly appreciates her, and
flies from him and temptation.—Henry James, Jr., _Portrait of a Lady_

_Isabel_, called the “She-wolf of France,” the adulterous queen of
Edward II., was daughter of Philippe IV. (_le bel_), of France.
According to one tradition, Isabel murdered her royal husband by
thrusting a hot iron into his bowels, and tearing them from his body.

=Isabell=, sister of Lady Hartwell, in the comedy of _Wit without
Money_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1639).

=Isabella= or =Isabelle=, a pale brown or buff color, similar to that of
a hare. It is so called from the princess Isabella of Austria, daughter
of Philip II. The tale is, that while besieging Ostend, the princess
took an oath that she would not change her body-linen before the town
was taken. The siege, however, lasted three years, and her linen was so
stained that it gave name to the color referred to (1601-1604).

The same story is related of Isabella of Castile at the siege of
Grena´da (1483).

The horse that Brightsun was mounted on was as black as jet, that of
Felix was grey, Cherry’s was as white as milk, and that of the Princess
Fairstar an Isabella.—Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“Princess
Fairstar,” 1682).

_Isabella_, daughter of the king of Galicia, in love with Zerbi´no, but
Zerbino could not marry her because she was a pagan. Her lament at the
death of Zerbino is one of the best parts of the whole poem (bk. xii.).
Isabella retires to a chapel to bury her lover, and is there slain by
Rodomont.—Ariosto, _Orlanda Furioso_ (1516).

_Isabella_, sister of Claudio, insulted by the base passion of An´gelo,
deputy of Vienna, in the absence of Duke Vincentio. Isabella is
delivered by the duke himself, and the deputy is made to marry Mariana,
to whom he was already betrothed.—Shakespeare, _Measure for Measure_

_Isabella_, wife of Hieronimo, in _The Spanish Tragedy_, by Thomas Kyd

_Isabella_, mother of Ludov´ico Sforza, duke of Milan.—Massinger, _The
Duke of Milan_ (1622).

_Isabella_, a nun who marries Biron, eldest son of Count Baldwin, who
disinherits him for this marriage. Biron enters the army, and is sent to
the siege of Candy, where he falls, and (it is supposed) dies. For seven
years Isabella mourns her loss, and is then reduced to the utmost want.
In her distress she begs assistance of her father-in-law, but he drives
her from the house as a dog. Villeroy (2 _syl._) offers her marriage,
and she accepts him; but the day after her espousals Biron returns.
Carlos, hearing of his brother’s return, employs ruffians to murder him,
and then charges Villeroy with the crime; but one of the ruffians
impeaches, and Carlos is apprehended. Isabella goes mad, and murders
herself in her distraction.—Thomas Southern, _The Fatal Marriage_

_Isabella_, the coadjutor of Zanga in his scheme of revenge against Don
Alonzo.—Young, _The Revenge_ (1721).

_Isabella_, princess of Sicily, in love with Roberto il Diavolo, but
promised in marriage to the prince of Grana´da, who challenges Roberto
to mortal combat, from which he is allured by Bertram, his fiend-father.
Alice tells him that Isabella is waiting for him at the altar, when a
struggle ensues between Bertram and Alice, one trying to drag him into
hell, and the other trying to reclaim him to the ways of virtue. Alice
at length prevails, but we are not told whether or not Roberto marries
the princess.—Meyerbeer, _Roberto il Diavolo_ (1831).

_Isabella (Donna)_, daughter of Don Pedro, a Portuguese nobleman, who
designs to marry her to Don Guzman, a gentleman of large fortune. To
avoid this hateful marriage, she jumps from a window, with a view of
escaping from the house, and is caught by a Colonel Briton, an English
officer, who conducts her to the house of her friend, Donna Violantê.
Here the colonel calls upon her, and Don Felix, supposing Violantê to be
the object of his visits, becomes furiously jealous. After a
considerable embroglio, the mystery is cleared up, and a double wedding
takes place.—Mrs. Centlivre, _The Wonder_ (1714).

_Isabella (The countess)_, wife of Roberto. After a long series of
crimes of infidelity to her husband, and of murder, she is brought to
execution.—John Marston, _The Wonder of Women_, or _Sophonisba_ (1605).

_Isabella_ (_The lady_), a beautiful young girl, who accompanied her
father on a chase. Her step-mother requested her to return and tell the
cook to prepare the milk-white doe for dinner. Lady Isabella did as she
was told, and the cook replied, “Thou art the doe that I must dress.”
The scullion-boy exclaimed, “Oh, save the lady’s life, and make thy pies
of me!” But the cook heeded him not. When the lord returned and asked
for his daughter, the scullion-boy made answer, “If my lord would see
his daughter, let him cut the pasty before him.” The father, horrified
at the whole affair, adjudged the step-mother to be burnt alive, and the
cook to stand in boiling lead, but the scullion-boy he made his
heir.—Percy, _Reliques_ iii. 2.

=Isabelle=, sister of Léonor, an orphan; brought up by Sganarelle
according to his own notions of training a girl to make him a good wife.
She was to dress in serge, and keep to the house, to occupy herself in
domestic affairs, to sew, knit, and look after the linen, to hear no
flattery, attend no places of public amusement, never to be left to her
own devices, but to run in harness like a mill-horse. The result was
that she duped Sganarelle and married Valère. (See LÉONOR).—Molière,
_L’école des Maris_ (1661).

=Isabinda=, daughter of Sir Jealous Traffick, a merchant. Her father is
resolved she shall marry Don Diego Barbinetto, but she is in love with
Charles Gripe; and Charles, in the dress of a Spaniard, passing himself
off as the Spanish don, and marries her.—Mrs. Centlivre, _The Busy Body_

=Isadore=, wife, fondly lamented in Albert Pike’s lines beginning:

       “Thou art lost to me forever! I have lost thee, Isadore!”
                                Albert Pike, _Poems_ (183-).

=Isenbras= (_Sir_), a hero of mediæval romance. Sir Isenbras was at
first proud and presumptous, but adversity made him humble and
pentitent. In this stage he carried two children of a poor wood-cutter
across a ford on his horse.

=I´sengrin= (_Sir_) or SIR ISENGRIM, the wolf, afterwards created the
earl of Pitwood, in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_. Sir Isengrin
typifies the _barons_, and Reynard the _Church_. The gist of the tale is
to show how Reynard over-reaches his uncle Wolf (1498).

=Ishah=, the name of Eve before the Fall; so called because she was
taken out of _ish_, _i.e._ “man” (_Gen._ ii. 23); but after the
expulsion from paradise, Adam called his wife Eve or Havah, _i.e._ “the
mother of all living” (_Gen._ iii. 20).

=Ishban=, meant for Sir Robert Clayton. There is no such name in the
Bible as Ishban; but Tate speaks of “extorting Ishban,” pursued by
“bankrupt heirs.” He says he had occupied himself long in cheating, but
then undertook to “reform the state.”

      Ishban of conscience suited to his trade,
      As good a saint as usurer e’er made ...
      Could David ... scandalize our peerage with his name ...
      He’d e’en turn loyal to be made a peer.
                      Tate, _Absalom and Achitophel_, ii. (1682).

=Ish´bosheth=, in Dryden’s satire of _Absalom and Achitophel_, is meant
for Richard Cromwell, whose father, Oliver, is called “Saul.” As
Ishbosheth was the only surviving son of Saul, so Richard was the only
surviving son of Cromwell. As Ishbosheth was accepted king on the death
of his father by all except the tribe of Judah, so Richard was
acknowledged “protecter” by all except the royalists. As Ishbosheth
reigned only a few months, so Richard, after a few months, retired into
private life.

          They who, when Saul was dead, without a blow
          Made foolish Ishbosheth the crown forego.
                  Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1681).

=I´sidore= (_3 syl._), a Greek slave, the concubine of Don Pèdre, a
Sicilian nobleman. This slave is beloved by Adraste (_2 syl._) a French
gentleman, who plots to allure her away. He first gets introduced as a
portrait-painter, and reveals his love. Isidore listens with pleasure,
and promises to elope with him. He then sends his slave Zaïde to
complain to Don Pèdre of ill-treatment, and to crave protection. Don
Pèdre promises to stand her friend, and at this moment Adraste appears
and demands that she be given up to the punishment she deserves. Pèdre
intercedes; Adraste seems to relent; and the Sicilian calls to the young
slave to appear. Instead of Zaïde, Isidore comes forth in Zaïde’s veil.
“There” says Pèdre, “I have arranged everything. Take her and use her
well.” “I will do so,” says the Frenchman, and leads off the Greek
slave.—Molière, _Le Sicilien ou L’Amour Peindre_ (1667).

=Isis=, the moon. The sun is Osi´ris. _Egyptian Mythology_.

      They [_the priests_] wore rich mitres shapèd like the moon,
      To show that Isis doth the moon portend,
      Like as Osiris signifies the sun.
                   Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, v. 7 (1596).

=Iskander Beg==_Alexander the Great_, George Castriot (1414-1467). (See

=Iskander with the Two Horns=, Alexander the Great.

This Friday is the 18th day of the moon of Safar, in the year 653 [i.e.
_of the heg´ira, or_ A.D. 1255] since the retreat of the great prophet
from Mecca to Medi´na; and in the year 7320 of the epoch of the great
Iskander with the two horns.—_Arabian Nights_ (“The Tailor’s Story”).

=Island of the Seven Cities=, a kind of Dixie’s land, where seven
bishops, who quitted Spain during the dominion of the Moors, founded
seven cities. The legend says that many have visited the island, but no
one has ever quitted it.

=Islands of the Blest=, called by the Greeks “Happy Islands,” and by the
Latins “Fortunate Islands;” imaginary islands somewhere in the West,
where the favorites of the gods are conveyed at death, and dwell in
everlasting joy.

              Their place of birth alone is mute
              To sounds that echo further West
              Than your sire’s Islands of the Blest.

=Isle of Lanterns=, an imaginary country, inhabited by pretenders to
knowledge, called “Lanternois.”—Rabelais, _Pantag´ruel_, v. 32, 33

⁂ Lucien has a similar conceit, called _The City of Lanterns_; and Dean
Swift, in his _Gulliver’s Travels_, makes his hero visit Laputa, which
is an empire of quacks, false projectors, and pretenders to science.

=Islington= (_The marquis of_), one of the companions of Billy Barlow,
the noted archer. Henry VIII. jocosely created Barlow “duke of
Shoreditch”, and his two companions “earl of Pancras” and “marquis of

=Ismael= “the infidel,” one of the Immortal Guard.—Sir W. Scott, _Count
Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

=Ismene.= Daughter of Œdipus and Jocasta, and sister to Antigone. She
insists upon sharing her sister’s punishment for having buried their
brother Cleon in defiance of their father’s prohibition.—Sophocles’

=Isme´ne and Isme´nias=, a love story in Greek by Eustathius, in the
twelfth century. It is puerile in its delineation of character, and full
of plagiarisms; but many of its details have been copied by D’Urfé,
Montemayor, and others. Ismenê is the “dear and near and true” lady of

⁂ Through the translation by Godfrey of Viterbo, the tale of _Ismenê and
Ismenias_ forms the basis of Gower’s _Confessio Amantis_, and
Shakespeare’s _Pericles, Prince of Tyre_.

=Isme´no=, a magician, once a Christian, but afterwards a renegade to
Islam. He was killed by a stone hurled from an engine.—Tasso, _Jerusalem
Delivered_, xviii. (1575).

=Isoc´rates= (_The French_), Esprit Fléchier, bishop of Nismes

=Isoline= (3 _syl._), the high-minded and heroic daughter of the French
governor of Messi´na, and bride of Fernando (son of John of Procĭda).
Isoline was true to her husband, and true to her father, who had
opposite interests in Sicily. Both fell victims to the butchery called
the “Sicilian Vespers” (March 30, 1282), and Isoline died of a broken
heart.—S. Knowles., _John of Procida_ (1840).

=Isolt= (_Isolde, Iseult_). There are two ladies connected with
Arthurian romance of this name: one, Isolt “the Fair,” daughter of
Anguish, king of Ireland; and the other Isolt “or the White Hands,”
daughter of Howell, king of Brittany. Isolt _the Fair_ was the wife of
Sir Mark, king of Cornwall, but Isolt _of the White Hands_ was the wife
of Sir Tristram. Sir Tristram loved Isolt _the Fair_; and Isolt hated
Sir Mark, her husband, with the same measure that she loved Sir
Tristram, her nephew-in-law. Tennyson’s tale of the death of Sir
Tristram is so at variance with the romance, that it must be given
separately. He says that Sir Tristram was one day dallying with Isolt
_the Fair_, and put a ruby carcanet round her neck. Then, as he kissed
her throat:

        Out of the dark, just as the lips had touched.
        Behind him rose a shadow and a shriek—
        “Mark’s way,” said Mark, and clove him thro’ the brain.
                Tennyson, _The Last Tournament_. (See ISOND.)

=Isond=, called _La Beale Isond_, i.e. _La Belle Isond_, daughter of
Anguish, king of Ireland. When Sir Tristram vanquished Sir Marhaus, he
went to Ireland to be cured of his wounds. La Beale Isond was his leech,
and fell in love with him; but she married Sir Mark, the dastard king of
Cornwall. This marriage was very unhappy, for Isond hated Mark as much
as she loved Sir Tristram, with whom she eloped and lived in Joyous
Guard Castle, but was in time restored to her husband, and Tristram
married Isond the _Fair-handed_. In the process of time, Tristram, being
severely wounded, sent for La Beale Isond, who alone could cure him, and
if the lady consented to come the vessel was to hoist a white flag. The
ship hove in sight, and Tristram’s wife, out of jealousy, told him it
carried a _black_ flag at the mast-head. On hearing this Sir Tristram
fell back on his bed and died. When La Beale Isond landed, and heard
that Sir Tristram was dead, she flung herself on the body, and died
also. The two were buried in one grave, on which a rose and vine were
planted, which grew up and so intermingled their branches that no man
could separate them.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, ii.

⁂ Sir Palamedes, the Saracen (_i.e._ unbaptized) also loved La Beale
Isond, but met with no encouragement. Sir Kay Hedius died for love of
her.—_History of Prince Arthur_, ii. 172.

_Isond le Blanch Mains_, daughter of Howell, king of Britain (_i.e._
Brittany). Sir Tristram fell in love with her for her name’s sake; but
though he married her, his love for La Beale Isond, wife of his Uncle
Mark, grew stronger and stronger. When Sir Tristram was dying and sent
for his uncle’s wife, it was Isond _le Blanch Mains_ who told him the
ship was in sight, but carried a _black_ flag at the mast head, on
hearing which Sir Tristram bowed his head and died.—Sir T. Malory,
_History of Prince Arthur_, ii. 35, etc. (1470).

=Is´rael=, in Dryden’s _Absalom and Achitophel_, means England. As David
was king of Israel, so Charles II. was king of England. Of his son, the
duke of Monmouth, the poet says:

          Early in foreign fields he won renown
          With kings and states allied to Israel’s crown.
                  Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1681).

=Is´rafîl=, the angel who will sound the “Resurrection blast.” Then
Gabriel and Michael will call together the “dry bones” to judgement.
When Israfil puts the trumpet to his mouth the souls of the dead will be
cast into the trumpet, and when he blows out will they fly like bees,
and fill the whole space between earth and heaven. Then will they enter
their respective bodies, Mahomet leading the way.—Sale, _Korân_
(Preliminary discourse, iv.).

⁂ Israfil, the angel of melody in paradise. It is said that his
ravishing songs, accompanied by the daughters of paradise and the
clanging of bells, will give delight to the faithful.

=Israfel=. Edgar Allan Poe thus spells the name of the angel “whose
heart strings are a lute.”

                     “If I could dwell
                     Where Israfel
                 Hath dwelt, and he where I,
                 He might not sing so wildly well
                   A mortal melody,
               While a bolder note than this might swell
               From my lyre within the sky.”
                       Edgar Allan Poe, _Poems_ (1845).


        “We parted in the streets of Ispahan,
        I stopped my camel at the city gate.
        Why did I stop? I left my heart behind.

           *     *     *     *     *

      I meet the caravans when they return.
      ´What news?’ I ask. The drivers shake their heads.
      We parted in the streets of Ispahan.”
             Richard Henry Stoddard, _The Book of the East_ (1871)

=Is´sachar=, in Dryden’s _Absalom and Achitophel_, is meant for Thomas
Thynne, of Longleate Hall, a friend to the duke of Monmouth. There seems
to be a very slight analogy between Thomas Thynne and Issachar, son of
Jacob. If the _tribe_ (compared to an ass overburdened) is alluded to,
the poet could hardly have called the rich commoner “_wise_ Issachar.”

Mr. Thynne and Count Koningsmark both wished to marry the widow of Henry
Cavendish, earl of Ogle. Her friends contracted her to the rich
commoner, but before the marriage was celebrated, he was murdered. Three
months afterwards the widow married the duke of Somerset.

          Hospitable treats did most commend
          Wise Issachar, his wealthy western friend.
                  Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1681).

=Isumbras= (_Sir_) or Ysumbras. (See ISENBRAS).

=Itadach= (_Colman_), surnamed “The Thirsty.” In consequence of his
rigid observance of the rule of St. Patrick, he refused to drink one
single drop of water; but his thirst in the harvest time was so great
that it caused his death.

=Item=, a money-broker. He was a thorough villain, who could “bully,
cajole, curse, fawn, flatter, and filch.” Mr. Item always advised his
clients not to sign away their money, but at the same time stated to
them the imperative necessity of so doing. “I would advise you strongly
not to put your hand to that paper, though Heaven knows how else you can
satisfy these duns and escape imprisonment.”—Holcroft, _The Deserted
Daughter_ (altered into _The Steward_).

=Itha´can Suitors=. During the absence of Ulyssês, king of Itaca, in the
Trojan war, his wife Penelopê was pestered by numerous suitors, who
assumed that Ulyssês, from his long absence, must be dead. Penelope put
them off by saying she would finish a certain robe which she was making
for Laërtês, her father-in-law, before she gave her final answer to any
of them; but at night she undid all the work she had woven during the
day. At length Ulyssês returned and relieved her of her perplexity.

            All the ladies, each at each,
          Like the Ithacensian suitors in old time,
          Stared with great eyes and laughed with alien lips.
                        Tennyson, _The Princess_, iv.

=Ith´oclês= (3 _syl._), in love with Calantha, princess of Sparta.
Ithoclês induces his sister Penthēa to break the matter to the princess,
and in time she not only becomes reconciled to his love, but also
requites it, and her father consents to the marriage. During a court
festival, Calantha is informed by a messenger that her father has
suddenly died, by a second that Penthea has starved herself to death,
and by a third that Ithoclês has been murdered. The murderer was
Or´gilus, who killed him out of revenge.—John Ford, _The Broken Heart_

=Ithu´riel= (4 _syl._), a cherub sent by Gabriel to find out Satan. He
finds him squatting like a toad beside Eve as she lay asleep, and brings
him before Gabriel. (The word means “God’s discovery.”)—Milton,
_Paradise Lost_, iv. 788 (1665).

_Ithuriel’s Spear_, the spear of the angel Ithuriel, whose slightest
touch exposed deceit. Hence, when Satan squatted like a toad “close to
the ear of Eve,” Ithuriel only touched the creature with his spear, and
it resumed the form of Satan.

                ...for no falsehood can endure
              Touch of celestial temper, but returns
              Of force to its own likeness.
                      Milton, _Paradise Lost_ iv. (1665).

_Ithuriel_, the guardian angel of Judas Iscariot. After Satan entered
into the heart of the traitor, Ithuriel was given to Simon Peter as his
second angel.—Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iii. and iv. (1748, 1771).

=Ivan the Terrible=, Ivan IV. of Russia, a man of great energy, but
infamous for his cruelties. It was he who first adopted the title of
czar (1529, 1533-1584).

=I´vanhoe= (3 _syl._), a novel by Sir W. Scott (1820). The most
brilliant and splendid romance in any language. Rebecca, the Jewess, was
Scott’s favorite character. The scene is laid in England, in the reign
of Richard I., and we are introduced to Robin Hood in Sherwood Forest,
banquets in Saxon hall, tournaments, and all the pomp of ancient
chivalry. Rowena, the heroine, is quite thrown into the shade by the
gentle, meek, yet high-spirited Rebecca.

_Ivanhoe_ (_Sir Wilfred, knight of_), the favorite of Richard I., and
the disinherited son of Cedric of Rotherwood. Disguised as a palmer, he
goes to Rotherwood, and meets there Rowena, his father’s ward, whom he
has long loved; but we hear little more of him except as the friend of
Rebecca and her father, Isaac of York, to both of whom he shows repeated
acts of kindness, and completely wins the affections of the beautiful
Jewess. In the grand tournament, Ivanhoe [_I´.van.ho_] appears as the
“Desdichado” _or_ the “Disinherited Knight,” and overthrows all comers.
King Richard pleads for him to Cedric, reconciles the father to his son,
and the young knight marries Rowena.—Sir W. Scott, _Ivanhoe_ (time,
Richard I.).

=Ivan´ovitch= (_Son of Ivan_ or _John_), the popular name of a Russian.
Similar in construction to our “John-son,” the Danish “Jan-sen,” and the
Scotch “Mac-Ina.”

⁂ The popular name of the English as a people is John Bull; of the
Germans, Cousin Michael; of the French, Jean Crapaud; of the Chinese,
John Chinaman; of the Americans, Brother Jonathan; of the Welsh, Taffy;
of the Scotch, Sandy; of the Swiss, Colin Tampon; of the Russians,
Ivanovitch, etc.

=Iverach= (_Allan_), or steward of Inveraschalloch, with Gallraith, at
the Clachan of Aberfoyle.—Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Ivory Shoulder=. Demēter ate the shoulder of Pelops, served up by
Tan´talos; so when the gods restored the body to life, Demeter supplied
the lacking shoulder by one made of ivory.

Pythag´oras had a golden thigh, which he showed to Ab´aris, the
Hyperborĕan priest.

         Not Pelops’ shoulder, whiter than her hands,
         Nor snowy swans that jet on Isca’s sands.
             Wm. Browne, _Britannia’s Pastorals_, ii. 3 (1613).

=I´wein=, a knight of the Round Table. He slays the possessor of an
enchanted fountain, and marries the widow, whose name is Laudine.
Gawein, or Gawain urges him to new exploits, so he quits his wife for a
year, in quest of adventures, and as he does not return at the stated
time, Laudine loses all love for him. On his return, he goes mad, and
wanders in the woods, where he is cured by three sorcerers. He now helps
a lion fighting against a dragon, and the lion becomes his faithful
companion. He goes to the enchanted fountain, and there finds Lunet´
prisoner. While struggling with the enchanted fountain, Lunet aids him
with her ring, and he in turn saves her life. By the help of his lion,
Iwein kills several giants, delivers three hundred virgins, and on his
return to King Arthur’s court, marries Lunet.—Hartmann von der Aue
(thirteenth century).

=Ixi´on=, king of the Lap´ithæ, attempted to win the love of Hērê
(_Juno_); but Zeus substituted a cloud for the goddess, and a centaur
was born.

⁂ Browning rhymes the name cleverly:

      “—‘joys prove cloudlets:
      Men are the merest Ixions’—
      Here the King whistled aloud, ‘Let’s
      —Heigho ... go look at our lions!’”
                     R. Browning, _Dramatic Lyrics_, “The Glove.”

=J= (In _Punch_), the signature of Douglas Jerrold, who first
contributed to No. 9 of the serial (1803-1858).

=Jaafer=, who carried the sacred banner of the prophet at the battle of
Muta. When one hand was lopped off, he clutched the banner with the
other; this hand being also lost, he held it with his two stumps. When,
at length, his head was cleft from his body, he contrived so to fall as
to detain the banner till it was seized by Abdallah, and handed to

CYNÆGEROS, in the battle of Marăthon, seized one of the Persian ships
with his right hand. When this was lopped off, he laid hold of it with
his left; and when this was also cut off, he seized it with his teeth,
and held on till he lost his head.

ADMIRAL BENBOW, in an engagement with the French, near St. Martha, in
1701, was carried on deck on a wooden frame after both his legs and
thighs were shivered into splinters by chain-shot.

ALMEYDA, the Portuguese governor of India, had himself propped against
the mainmast after both his legs were shot off.

=Jabos= (_Jock_), postillion at the Golden Arms inn, Kippletringan, of
which Mrs. M’Candlish was landlady.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time,
George II.).

=Ja´chin=, the parish clerk, who purloined the sacramental money, and
died disgraced.—Crabbe, _Borough_ (1810).

=Jacinta=, a first-rate cook, “who deserved to be housekeeper to the
patriach of the Indies,” but was only cook to the licentiate Sedillo of
Valladŏlid.—Ch. ii. I.

The cook, who was no less dexterous than Dame Jacinta, was assisted by
the coachman, in dressing the victuals.—Lesage, _Gil Blas_, iii. 10

=Jacin´tha=, the supposed wife of Octavio, and formerly contracted to
Don Henrique (2 _syl._) an uxorious Spanish nobleman.—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Spanish Curate_ (1622).

_Jacintha_, the wealthy ward of Mr. Strickland; in love with Bellamy.
Jacintha is staid but resolute, and though “she elopes down a ladder of
rope” in boy’s costume, has plenty of good sense and female modesty.—Dr.
Hoadly, _The Suspicious Husband_ (1747).

=Jack= (_Colonel_), the hero of Defoe’s novel entitled _The History of
the Most Remarkable Life and Extraordinary Adventures of the truly Hon.
Colonel Jacque, vulgarly called Colonel Jack_. The colonel (born a
gentleman and bred a pick-pocket) goes to Virginia, and passes through
all the stages of colonial life, from that of “slavie” to that of an
owner of slaves and plantation.

The transition from their refined Oron´datês and Stati´ras, to the
society of Captain [_sic_] Jack and Moll Flanders...is (to use a phrase
of Sterne) like turning from Alexander the Great to Alexander the
coppersmith.—_Encyc. Brit._, Art. “Romance.”

=Jack Amend-all=, a nickname given to Jack Cade, the rebel, who promised
to remedy all abuses (*-1450). As a specimen of his reforms, take the
following examples:—

I, your captain, am brave, and vow reformation. There shall be in
England seven half-penny loaves sold for a penny, the three hooped pot
shall have ten hoops; and I will make it felony to drink small beer....
When I am king, there shall be no money; all shall eat and drink on my
score; and I will apparel all in one livery.—Shakespeare, _2 Henry VI._
act iv. sc. 2 (1591).

=Jack Hamlin=. Professional gambler and lady-killer, has an engagement
to elope with the wife of Brown, of Calaveras. Brown, ignorant of the
friend’s treachery, confides to him his love for the woman who, he
knows, is preparing to leave him with “somebody.” Moved by the man’s
distress, Jack takes horse and rides away _alone_.—Bret Harte, _Luck of
Roaring Camp, etc._ (1872).

=Jack and Jill=, said to be the Saxon and Norman stocks united.

                 Jack and Jill went up the hill,
                   To fetch a pail of water;
                 Jack fell down and cracked his crown,
                   And Jill came tumbling after.
                             _Nursery Rhyme_.

Or thus:

                  ’Twas not on Alpine ice or snow,
                    But homely English soil:
                  “Excelsior!” their motto was;
                    They spared nor time nor toil;
                  They did not go for fame or wealth,
                    But went at duty’s call;
                  And tho’ united in their aim,
                    Were severed in their fall.

=Jack and the Bean-Stalk=. Jack was a very poor lad, sent by his mother
to sell a cow, which he parted with to a butcher for a few beans. His
mother, in her rage, threw the beans away; but one of them grew during
the night as high as the heavens. Jack climbed the stalk, and, by the
direction of a fairy, came to a giant’s castle, where he begged food and
rest. This he did thrice, and in his three visits stole the giant’s red
hen which laid golden eggs, his money-bags, and his harp. As he ran off
with the last treasure, the harp cried out, “Master! master!” which woke
the giant, who ran after Jack; but the nimble lad cut the bean-stalk
with an axe, and the giant was killed in his fall.

⁂ This is said to be an allegory of the Teutonic Al-fader: the “red hen”
representing the all-producing sun, the “money-bags” the fertilizing
rain, and the “harp” the winds.

=Jack-in-the-Green=, one of the May-day mummers.

⁂ Dr. Owen Pugh says that Jack-in-the-Green represents Melvas, king of
Somersetshire, disguised in green boughs, and lying in ambush for Queen
Guenever, the wife of King Arthur, as she was returning from a hunting

=Jack-o’-Lent=, a kind of Aunt Sally set up during Lent to be pitched
at; hence puppet, a sheepish booby, a boy-page, a scarecrow. Mrs. Page
says to Robin, Falstaff’s page:

 You little Jack-a-Lent? have you been true to us?—
         Shakespeare, _Merry Wives of Windsor_, act iii. sc. 3 (1603).

=Jack of Newbury=, John Winchcomb, the greatest clothier of the world in
the reign of Henry VIII. He kept a hundred looms in his own house at
Newbury, and equipped at his own expense a hundred of his men to aid the
king against the Scotch in Flodden Field (1513).

=Jack Robinson=. This famous comic song is by Hudson, tobacconist, No.
98 Shoe Lane, London, in the early part of the nineteenth century. The
last line is, “And he was off before you could say ‘Jack Robinson.’” The
tune to which the words are sung is the _Sailors’ Hornpipe_. Halliwell
quotes these two lines from an “old play:”

             A warke is ys as easie to be doone
             As ’tys to saye, _Jacke! robys on_,
                                     _Archaic Dictionary_.

=Jack Sprat=, of nursery rhymes.

                    Jack Sprat could eat no fat,
                      His wife could eat no lean?
                    And so betwixt ’em both,
                      They licked the platter clean.

=Jack the Giant-Killer=, a series of nursery tales to show the mastery
of skill and wit over brute strength. Jack encounters various giants,
but outwits them all. The following would illustrate the sort of combat:
Suppose they came to a thick iron door, the giant would belabor it with
his club hour after hour without effect; but Jack would apply a delicate
key, and the door would open at once. This is not one of the stories,
but will serve to illustrate the sundry contests. Jack was a “valiant
Cornishman,” and his first exploit was to kill the giant Cormoran, by
digging a deep pit, which he filmed over with grass, etc. The giant fell
into the pit, and Jack knocked him on the head with a hatchet. Jack
afterwards obtained a coat of invisibility, a cap of knowledge, a
resistless sword, and shoes of swiftness; and, thus armed, he almost rid
Wales of its giants.

=Jack-with-a-Lantern=. This meteoric phenomenon, when seen on the
ground or a little above it, is called by sundry names, as
Brenning-drake, Burning candle, Corpse candles, Dank Will,
Death-fires, Dick-a-Tuesday, Elf-fire, the Fair maid of Ireland,
Friar’s lantern, Gillion-a-burnt-tail, Gyl Burnt-tail, Ignis fatuus,
Jack-o’-lantern, Jack-with-a-lantern, Kit-o’-the-canstick,
Kitty-wi’-a-wisp, Mad Crisp, Peg-a-lantern, Puck, Robin Goodfellow,
Shot stars, Spittle of the stars, Star jelly, a Sylham lamp, a Walking
fire, Wandering fires, Wandering wild-fire, Will-with-a-wisp.

Those led astray by these “fool-fires” are said to be Elf-led, Mab-led,
or Puck-led.

When seen on the tips of the fingers, the hair of the head, mast-tops,
and so on, the phenomenon is called Castor and Pollux (if double),
Cuerpo Santo (Spanish), Corpusanse, Dipsas, St. Elmo _or_ Fires of St.
Elmo (Spanish), St. Ermyn, Feu d’Hélène (French), Fire-drakes, Fuole
_or_ Looke Fuole, Haggs, Helen (if single), St. Hel´ena, St. Helme’s
fires, Leda’s twins, St. Peter and St. Nicholas (Italian), _or_ Fires of
St. Peter and St. Nicholas.

=Jacks= (_The Two Genial_), Jack Munden and Jack Dowton. Planché says:
“They were never called anything else.” The former was Joseph Munden
(1758-1832), and the latter, William Dowton (1764-1851)—Planché,
_Recollections etc._, i. 28.

=Jackson Reed=, aged light-house keeper. Believes in special providences
and personal deliverances. Part of his religion is to keep the “light”
burning. One afternoon he is detained by an upset on the road, and a
storm arises. His skeptical wife, almost bed-ridden with rheumatism,
bethinks herself that her nephew is on the sea, and the light is not
kindled. After hours of agony she drags herself up the stairs, praying
as she goes, and finds the _lamp lighted_, she believes, miraculously.
Her husband coming home, guesses that a girl once beloved by the nephew,
was his guardian angel.

“Abbey Weaver lit that lamp; but _Sarah needn’t know_!”—Mary E. Wilkins,
_The Bar Light-House_ (1887).

=Jacob, the Scourge of Grammar=, Giles Jacob, master of Romsey, in
Southamptonshire, brought up for an attorney. Author of a _Law
Dictionary, Lives and Characters of English Poets_, etc. (1686-1744).

=Jac´omo=, an irascible captain and a woman-hater. Frank (the sister of
Frederick) is in love with him.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Captain_

=Jacques= (1 _syl._), one of the domestic men-servants of the duke of
Aranza. The duke, in order to tame down the overbearing spirit of his
bride, pretends to be a peasant, and deputes Jacques to represent the
duke for the nonce. Juliana, the duke’s bride, lays her grievance before
“duke” Jaques, but of course receives no redress, although she learns
that if a Jaques is “duke,” the “peasant” Aranza is a better man.—J.
Tobin, _The Honeymoon_ (1804).

_Jacques_ (_Pauvre_), the absent sweet-heart of a love-lorn maiden.
Marie Antoinette sent to Switzerland for a lass to attend the dairy of
her “Swiss village” in miniature, which she arranged in the Little
Trianon (Paris). The lass was heard sighing for _pauvre Jacques_, and
this made a capital sentimental amusement for the court idlers. The
swain was sent for, and the marriage celebrated.

            Pauvre Jacques, quand j’etais près de loi
              Je ne sentais pas ma misère;
            Mais à présent que tu vis loin de moi
              Je manque de tout sur la terre.
                    Marquise de Travanet, _Pauvre Jacques_.

_Jacques_. (See JAQUES.)

=Jac´ulin=, daughter of Gerrard, king of the beggars, beloved by Lord
Hubert.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Beggar’s Bush_ (1622).

=Jael Dence=, sturdy, beautiful daughter of the people, maid and beloved
companion of Grace Garden. From afar off, Jael loves Henry Little, yet
it is through her intrepidity and loyalty that he is restored to her
mistress.—Charles Reade, _Put Yourself in His Place_.

=Jaffier=, a young man befriended by Priuli, a proud Venetian senator.
Jaffier rescued the senator’s daughter, Belvidera, from shipwreck, and
afterwards married her clandestinely. The old man now discarded both,
and Pierre induced Jaffier to join a junto for the murder of the
senators. Jaffier revealed the conspiracy to his wife, and Belvidera, in
order to save her father, induced her husband to disclose it to Priuli,
under promise of free pardon to the conspirators. The pardon, however,
was limited to Jaffier, and the rest were ordered to torture and death.
Jaffier now sought out his friend Pierre, and, as he was led to
execution, stabbed him to prevent his being broken on the wheel, and
then killed himself. Belvidera went mad and died.—T. Otway, _Venice
Preserved_ (1682).

=Jaga-naut=, the seven-headed idol of the Hindûs, described by Southey
in the _Curse of Kehama_, xiv. (1809).

=Jaggers=, a lawyer of Little Britain, London. He was a burly man, of an
exceedingly dark complexion, with a large head and large hand. He had
bushy black eyebrows that stood up bristling, sharp suspicious eyes set
very deep in his head, and strong black dots where his beard and
whiskers would have been if he had let them. His hands smelt strongly of
scented soap, he wore a very large watch-chain, was in the constant
habit of biting his fore-finger, and when he spoke to any one, he threw
his fore-finger at him pointedly. A hard logical man was Mr. Jaggers,
who required an answer to be “yes” or “no,” allowed no one to express an
opinion, but only to state facts in the fewest possible words. Magwitch
appointed him Pip’s guardian, and he was Miss Havisham’s man of
business.—C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

=Jairus’s Daughter=, restored to life by Jesus, is called by Klopstock
Cidli.—Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iv. (1771).

=Jalût=, the Arabic name for Goliath.—Sale, _Al Korân_, xvii.

=James= (_Prince_), youngest son of King Robert III. of Scotland,
introduced by Sir W. Scott in _The Fair Maid of Perth_ (1828).

=James I.= of England, introduced by Sir W. Scott in _The Fortunes of
Nigel_ (1822).

=Ja´mie= (_Don_), younger brother of Don Henrique (_2 syl._), by whom he
is cruelly treated.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Spanish Curate_ (1622).

=Jamie Duffs.= Weepers are so called, from a noted Scotchman of the
eighteenth century, whose craze was to follow funerals in deep mourning
costume.—Kay, _Original Portraits_, i. 7; ii. 9. 17, 95.

=Ja´mieson= (_Bet_), nurse at Dr. Grey’s, surgeon at Middlemas.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

=Jamshid=, king of the Genii, famous for a golden cup filled with the
elixir of life. The cup was hidden by the genii, but found when digging
the foundations of Persep´olis.

     I know, too, where the genii hid
     The jewelled cup of their King Jamshid,
     With life’s elixir sparkling high.
           T. Moore, _Lalla Rookh_ (“Paradise and the Peri,” 1817).

=Jane Eyre=, heroine of a novel so called by Currer Bell.

=Jane=, early and lost love of Ralph Hoyt’s nonogenarian.

               “I am fleeing!—all I loved are fled;
             Yon green meadow was our place for playing;
               That old tree can tell of sweet things said,
             When round it Jane and I were straying.

                         She is dead!
               I am fleeing!—all I loved are fled!”
                                 Ralph Hoyt, _Old_ (1859).

=Jan´at=, the Scotch laundress of David Ramsay, the watchmaker.—Sir W.
Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Jan´et of Tomahourich= (_Muhme_), aunt of Robin Oig M’Combich, a
Highland drover.—Sir W. Scott, _The Two Drovers_ (time, George III.).

=Janey Briarley.= Twelve-year-old girl, her mother’s assistant in
rearing the other children. Since her third year she has done with the
follies of youth. She is given to grave speculations and sage counsels
and her sharp eyes do notable service to her friends.—Frances Hodgson
Burnett, _Haworth’s_ (1879).

=Jannekin= (_Little_), apprentice of Henry Smith, the armorer.—Sir W.
Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Jannie Duff=, with her little sister and brother, were sent to gather
broom, and were lost in the bush (Australia). The parents called in the
aid of the native blacks to find them, and on the ninth day they were
discovered. “Father,” cried the little boy, “why didn’t you come before?
We cooed quite loud, but you never came.” The sister only said, “cold!”
and sank in stupor. Jannie had stripped herself to cover little Frank,
and had spread her frock over her sister to keep her warm, and there all
three were found almost dead, lying under a bush.

=January and May.= January is an old Lombard baron, some 60 years of
age, who marries a girl named May. This young wife loves Damyan, a young
squire. One day, the old baron found them in close embrace; but May
persuaded her husband that his eyes were so dim he had made a mistake,
and the old baron, too willing to believe, allowed himself to give
credit to the tale.—Chaucer, _Canterbury Tales_ (“The Merchant’s Tale,”

⁂ Modernized by Ogle (1714).

=Jaquemart=, the automata of a clock, consisting of a man and woman who
strike the hours on a bell. So called from Jean Jacquemart, of Dijon, a
clockmaker, who devised this piece of mechanism. Menage erroneously
derives the word from _jaccomarchiardus_ (“a coat of mail”), “because
watchmen watched the clock of Dijon fitted with a jacquemart.”

=Jaquenetta=, a country wench, courted by Don Adriano de
Armado.—Shakespeare, _Love’s Labor’s Lost_ (1594).

=Jaques= (_1 syl._), one of the lords attendant on the banished duke,
in the forest of Arden. A philosophic idler, cynical, sullen,
contemplative, and moralizing. He could “suck melancholy out of a
song, as a weazel sucks eggs.” Jaques resents Orlando’s passion for
Rosalind, and quits the duke as soon as he is restored to his
dukedom.—Shakespeare, _As You Like It_ (1598).

Shakespeare always makes two syllables of the name Jaques; Sir Walter
Scott makes one syllable of it, but Charles Lamb two. For example:

            Whom humorous Jaques with envy viewed (_1
                                              Sir W. Scott.

Where Jaques fed his solitary vein (_2 syl._).—C. Lamb.

The “Jaques” of [_Charles M. Young_, 1777-1856], is indeed most musical,
most melancholy, attuned to the very wood-walks among which he
muses.—_New Monthly Magazine_ (1822).

_Jaques_ (_1 syl._), the miser in a comedy by Ben Jonson, entitled _The
Case is Altered_ (1584-1637).

_Jaques_ (_1 syl._), servant to Sulpit´ia, a bawd. (See
JACQUES.)—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Custom of the Country_ (1647).

=Jarley= (_Mrs._), a kind-hearted woman, mistress of a travelling
wax-work exhibition, containing “one hundred figures the size of life;”
the “only stupendous collection of real wax-work in the world;” “the
delight of the nobility and gentry, the royal family, and crowned heads
of Europe.” Mrs. Jarley was kind to little Nell, and employed her as a
decoy-duck to “Jarley’s unrivalled collection.”—C. Dickens, _Old
Curiosity Shop_.

=Jarnac= (_Coup de_), a cut which severs the ham-string. So called from
a cut given by Jarnac to La Chateigneraie in a duel fought in the
presence of Henri II., in 1547.

=Jarn´dyce= _v._ =Jarn´dyce= ( _2 syl._), a Chancery suit “never ending,
still beginning,” which had dragged its slow length along over so many
years that it had blighted the prospects and ruined the health of all
persons interested in its settlement.—C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

_Jarndyce_ (_Mr._), client in the great Chancery suit of “Jarndyce _v._
Jarndyce,” and guardian of Esther Summerson. He concealed the tenderest
heart under a flimsy churlishness of demeanor, and could never endure to
be thanked for any of his numberless acts of kindness and charity. If
anything went wrong with him, or his heart was moved to melting, he
would say, “I am sure the wind is in the east.”—C. Dickens, _Bleak
House_ (1853).

=Jarvie= (_Bailie Nicol_), a magistrate at Glasgow, and kinsman of Rob
Roy. He is petulant, conceited, purse proud, without tact, and intensely
prejudiced, but kind-hearted and sincere. Jarvie marries his maid. The
novel of _Rob Roy_ has been dramatized by J. Pocock, and Charles Mackay
was the first to appear in the character of “Bailie Nicol Jarvie.”
Talfourd says (1829): “Other actors are sophisticate, but Macay is the
thing itself.”—Sir W. Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

The character of Bailie Nicol Jarvie is one of the author’s happiest
conceptions, and the idea of carrying him to the wild, rugged mountains,
among outlaws and desperadoes—at the same time that he retained a keen
relish of the comforts of the Saltmarket of Glasgow, and a due sense of
his dignity as a magistrate—complete the ludicrous effect of the
picture.—Chambers, _English Literature_, ii. 587.

=Jarvis=, a faithful old servant, who tries to save his master, Beverly,
from his fatal passion of gambling.—Edward Moore, _The Gamester_ (1753).

_Jarvis (Warner)._ Cynical traveller who comes to Castle Nowhere, and
loses his heart to Silver.—Constance Fennimore Woolson, _Castle

=Jason.= King of Thessaly, commander of Argonautic expedition, and
unfaithful husband of Medea.

=Jaspar= was poor, heartless, and wicked; he lived by highway robbery,
and robbery led to murder. One day he induced a poor neighbor to waylay
his landlord; but the neighbor relented, and said, “Though dark the
night, there is One above who sees in darkness.” “Never fear!” said
Jaspar; “for no eye above or below can pierce this darkness.” As he
spoke an unnatural light gleamed on him, and he became a confirmed
maniac.—R. Southey, _Jaspar_ (a ballad).

=Jasper= (_Old_), a ploughman at Glendearg Tower.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

_Jasper (Sir)_, father of Charlotte. He wants her to marry a Mr. Dapper;
but she loves Leander, and, to avoid a marriage she dislikes, pretends
to be dumb. A mock doctor is called in who discovers the facts of the
case, and employs Leander as his apothecary. Leander soon cures the lady
with “pills matrimoniac.” In Molière’s _Le Médecin Malgré Lui_ (from
which this play is taken) Sir Jasper is called “Géronte” (_2 syl._).—H.
Fielding, _The Mock Doctor_.

=Jasper Packlemerton=, of atrocious memory, one of the chief figures in
Mrs. Jarley’s wax work exhibition.

“Jasper courted and married fourteen wives, and destroyed them all by
tickling the soles of their feet when they were asleep. On being brought
to the scaffold and asked if he was sorry for what he had done, he
replied he was only sorry for having let them off so easy. Let this,”
said Mrs. Jarley, “be a warning to all young ladies to be particular in
the character of the gentleman of their choice. Observe his fingers are
curled as if in the act of tickling, and there is a wink in his
eyes.”—C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_, xxviii. (1840).

=Jasper Western=, otherwise _Eau Douce_. Gallant young captain of a
small schooner cruising among the Thousand Islands, the fast friend of
Pathfinder, and unwittingly his rival for the hand of Mabel Dunham, who
becomes Mrs. Western.—James Fennimore Cooper, _The Pathfinder_ (1840).

=Jaup= (_Alison_), an old woman at Middlemas village.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Surgeons’ Daughter_ (time, George II.).

_Jaup (Saunders)_, a farmer at Old St. Ronan’s.—Sir. W. Scott, _St.
Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Javan= lost his father on the day of his birth, and was brought up in
the “patriarch’s glen” by his mother, till she also died. He then
sojourned for ten years with the race of Cain, and became the disciple
of Jubal, the great musician. He then returned to the glen and fell in
love with Zillah; but the glen being invaded by giants, Zillah and
Javan, with many others, were taken captives. Enoch reproved the giants;
and, as he ascended up to heaven, his mantle fell on Javan, who released
the captives, and conducted them back to the glen. The giants were
panic-struck by a tempest, and their king was killed by some unknown
hand.—James Montgomery, _The World Before the Flood_ (1812).

=Javan’s Issue,= the Ionians and Greeks generally (_Gen._ x. 2). Milton
uses the expression in _Paradise Lost_, i. 508.

⁂ In _Isaiah_ lxvi. 19, and in _Ezek._ xxvii. 13, the word is used for
Greeks collectively.

=Javert=, an officer of police, the impersonation of inexorable
law.—Victor Hugo, _Les Miserables_.

Jay (_John_), sarcastic artist and man of the world, who seeks solitude
at Misery Landing, and falls in love with little Marthy, a backwoods
maiden.—Constance Fennimore Woolson, _Misery Landing_ (1875).

=Ja´zer=, a city of Gad, personified by Isaiah. “Moab shall howl for
Moab, every one shall howl ... I will bewail, with the weeping of
Jazer, the vine of Sibmah; I will water thee with my tears, O
Heshbon.”—_Isaiah_ xvi. 7-9.

It did not content the congregation to weep all of them; but they howled
with a loud voice, weeping with the weeping of Jazer.—_Kirkton_, 150.

=Jealous Traffick= (_Sir_), a rich merchant, who fancies everything
Spanish is better than English, and intends his daughter, Isabinda, to
marry Don Diego Barbinetto, who is expected to arrive forthwith.
Isabinda is in love with Charles [Gripe], who dresses in a Spanish
costume, passes himself off as Don Diego Barbinetto, and is married to
Isabinda. Sir Jealous is irritable, headstrong, prejudiced, and wise in
his own conceit.—Mrs. Centlivre, _The Busy Body_ (1709).

=Jealous Wife= (_The_), a comedy by George Colman (1761). Harriet Russet
marries Mr. Oakly, and becomes “the jealous wife;” but is ultimately
cured by the interposition of major Oakly, her brother-in-law.

⁂ This comedy is founded on Fielding’s _Tom Jones_.

=Jeames de la Pluche=, a flunky. Jeames means the same thing.—Thackeray,
_Jeames’s Diary_ (1849).

=Jean des Vignes=, a French expression for a drunken blockhead, a
good-for-nothing. The name Jean is often used in France, as synonymous
with clown or fool, and _etre dans les vignes_ is a popular euphuism,
meaning “to be drunk.” A more fanciful explanation of the term refers
its origin to the battle of Poietiers, fought by King John, among the
vines. _Un mariage de Jean des Vignes_, means an illicit marriage, or,
in the English equivalent, “a hedge marriage.”

=Jean Folle Farine=, a merry Andrew, a poor fool, a Tom Noodle. So
called because he comes on the stage like a great loutish boy, dressed
all in white, with his face, hair, and hands thickly covered with flour.
Scaramouch is a sort of Jean Folle Farine.

Ouida has a novel called _Folle Farine_, but she uses the phrase in
quite another sense.

=Jean Jacques.= So J. J. Rousseau is often called (1712-1778).

That is almost the only maxim of Jean Jacques, to which I can ...
subscribe.—Lord Lytton.

=Jean Paul.= J. P. Friedrich Richter, is generally so called

=Jeanne of Alsace=, a girl ruined by Dubosc, the highwayman. She gives
him up to justice, in order to do a good turn to Julie Lesurques (_2
syl._), who had befriended her.—E. Stirling, _The Courier of Lyons_

=Jeddler= (_Dr._), “a great philosopher.” The heart and mystery of his
philosophy was to look upon the world as a gigantic practical
joke—something too absurd to be considered seriously by any rational
man. A kind and generous man by nature, was Dr. Jeddler, and though he
had taught himself the art of turning good to dross, and sunshine into
shade, he had not taught himself to forget his warm benevolence and
active love. He wore a pigtail, and had a streaked face like a winter
pippin, with here and there a dimple “to express the peckings of the
birds;” but the pippin was a tempting apple, a rosy, healthy apple after

_Grace_ and _Marion Jeddler_, daughters of the doctor, beautiful,
graceful, and affectionate. They both fell in love with Alfred
Heathfield; but Alfred loved the younger daughter. Marion, knowing the
love of Grace, left her home clandestinely one Christmas Day, and all
supposed she had eloped with Michael Warden. In due time, Alfred married
Grace, and then Marion made it known to her sister that she had given up
Alfred, out of love to her, and had been living in concealment with her
Aunt Martha. Report says she subsequently married Michael Warden, and
became the pride and honor of his country mansion.—C. Dickens, _The
Battle of Life_ (1846).

=Jed´ida and Benjamin=, two of the children that Jesus took into His
arms and blessed.

“Well I remember,” said Benjamin, “when we were on earth, with what
loving fondness He folded us in His arms; how tenderly He pressed us to
His heart. A tear was on His cheek, and I kissed it away. I see it
still, and shall ever see it.” “And I, too,” answered Jedida, “remember
when His arms were clasped around me, how He said to our mothers,
‘Unless ye become as little children, ye cannot enter the kingdom of
heaven.’”—Klopstock, _The Messiah_, i. (1748).

=Jehoi´achim=, the servant of Joshua Geddes, the quaker.—Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Je´hu=, a coachman, one who drives at a rattling pace.

The driving is like the driving of Jehu, the son of Nimshi; for he
driveth furiously.—2 _Kings_ ix. 20.

_Jehu (Companions of)_. The “Chouans” were so called, from a fanciful
analogy between their self-imposed task and that appointed to Jehu, on
his being set over the kingdom of Israel. As Jehu was to cut off Ahab
and Jezebel, with all their house; so the Chouans were to cut off Louis
XVI., Marie Antoinette and all the Bourbons.

=Jekyll= (_Doctor_). He discovers the secret of transformation, by means
of a potent elixir, into the embodiment of his worse nature. As Dr.
Jekyll, he is beneficent and beloved. As Edward Hyde, he is a monster of
vice and cruelty. Finally, the baser elements prevail, and he is forced
to remain Hyde—a horror that drives him to madness and death.—Robert
Louis Stevenson, _Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde_.

=Jel´licot= (_Old Goody_), servant at the under-keeper’s hut, Woodstock
Forest.—Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Jel´lyby= (_Mrs._), a sham philanthropist, who spends her time, money,
and energy on foreign missions, to the neglect of her family and home
duties. Untidy in dress, living in a perfect litter, she has a habit of
looking “a long way off,” as if she could see nothing nearer to her than
Africa. Mrs. Jellyby is quite overwhelmed with business correspondence
relative to the affairs of Borrioboola Gha.—C. Dickens _Bleak House_,
iv. (1852).

=Jemlikha=, the favorite Greek slave of Dakiānos of Ephesus. Nature had
endowed him with every charm, “his words were sweeter than the honey of
Arabia, and his wit sparkled like a diamond.” One day, Dakianos was
greatly annoyed by a fly, which persisted in tormenting the king,
whereupon Jemlikha said to himself, “If Dakianos cannot rule a fly, how
can he be the creator of heaven and earth?” This doubt he communicated
to his fellow-slaves, and they all resolved to quit Ephesus, and seek
some power superior to that of the arrogator of divine honors.—Comte
Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (“Dakianos and the Seven Sleepers,” 1743).

=Jemmie Duffs=, weepers. (See JAMIE DUFFS).

=Jemmy.= This name, found on engravings of the eighteenth century, means
James Worsdale (died 1767).

=Jemmy Twitcher=, a cunning and treacherous highwayman.—Gay, _The
Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

⁂ Lord Sandwich, member of the Kit-Kat Club, was called “Jemmy Twitcher”

=Jenkin=, the servant of George-a-Green. He says a fellow ordered him to
hold his horse, and see that it took no cold. “No, no,” quoth Jenkin,
“I’ll lay my cloak under him.” He did so, but “mark you,” he adds, “I
cut four holes in my cloak first, and made his horse stand on the bare
ground.”—Robert Greene, _George-a-Green, the Pinner of Wakefield_

_Jenkin_, one of the retainers of Julian Avenel (_2 syl._), of Avenel
Castle.—Sir W. Scott, _The Monastery_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Jencks= (_Mr._). Tall, well-mannered young Englishman, appointed
professor in a rising fresh-water university in America. On ship-board
he falls in love with Lily Floyd-Curtis, whose mother is a society
leader—or would be. Jencks rises faster even than his university but
fate and Floyd-Curtisism award Lily to Lord Melrose, _malgré_ his
spotted reputation.—Constance Cary Harrison, _The Anglomaniacs_ (1890).

=Jenkins= (_Mrs. Winifred_), Miss Tabitha Bramble’s maid, noted for her
bad spelling, misapplication of words, and ludicrous misnomers. Mrs.
Winifred Jenkins is the original of Mrs. Malaprop.—Smollett, _The
Expedition of Humphry Clinker_ (1771).

_Jenkins_, a vulgar lick-spittle of the aristocracy, who retails their
praises and witticisms, records their movements and deeds, gives flaming
accounts of their dresses and parties, either _viva voce_ or in
newspaper paragraphs: “Lord and Lady Dash attended divine service last
Sunday, and were very attentive to the sermon” (wonderful!). “Lord and
Lady Dash took a drive _or_ walk last Monday in their magnificent park
of Snobdoodleham. Lady Dash wore a mantle of rich silk, a bonnet with
ostrich feathers, and shoes with rosettes.” The name is said to have
been first given by Punch to a writer in the _Morning Post_.

=Jenkinson= (_Ephraim_), a green old swindler, whom Dr. Primrose met in
a public tavern. Imposed on by his venerable appearance, apparent
devoutness, learned talk about “cosmogony,” and still more so by his
flattery of the doctor’s work on the subject of monogamy, Dr. Primrose
sold the swindler his horse, Old Blackberry, for a draft upon Farmer
Flamborough. When the draft was presented for payment, the farmer told
the vicar that Ephraim Jenkinson “was the greatest rascal under heaven,”
and that he was the very rogue who had sold Moses Primrose the
spectacles. Subsequently the vicar found him in the county jail, where
he showed Dr. Primrose great kindness, did him valuable service, became
a reformed character, and probably married one of the daughters of
Farmer Flamborough.—Goldsmith, _Vicar of Wakefield_ (1765).

=Jenness= (_Captain_). Master of the _Aroostook_, in which Lydia Blood
(unchaperoned) takes passage for Venice. Has “a girl just about her age
up at Deer Isle.”

“Good land! I know what girls are, I hope!”

After which, the young lady needs no duenna, although she is the only
woman on board.—W.D. Howells, _The Lady of the Aroostook_ (1879).

=Jennie=, housekeeper to the old laird of Dumbiedikes.—Sir W. Scott,
_Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Jenny= [DIVER]. Captain Macheath says, “What, my pretty Jenny! as prim
and demure as ever? There’s not a prude, though ever so high bred, hath
a more sanctified look, with a more mischievous heart.” She pretends to
love Macheath, but craftily secures one of his pistols, that his other
“pals” may the more easily betray him into the hands of the constables
(act ii. 1.).—J. Gay, _The Beggar’s Opera_ (1727).

=Jenny l’Ouvrière=, the type of a hard-working Parisian needle-woman.
She is contented with a few window-flowers which she terms “her garden,”
a caged bird which she calls “her songster,” and when she gives the
fragments of her food to some one poorer than herself, she calls it “her

            Entendez-vous un oiseau familier?
            C’est le chanteur de Jenny l’Ouvrière,
              Au cœur content, content de peu
            Elle pourrait être riche, et préfére
              Ce qui vient de Dieu.
                                     Emile Barateau (1847).

=Jeph´thah’s Daughter.= When Jephthah went forth against the Ammonites,
he vowed that if he returned victorious he would sacrifice, as a burnt
offering, whatever first met him on his entrance into his native city.
He gained a splendid victory, and at the news thereof his only daughter
came forth dancing to give him welcome. The miserable father rent his
clothes in agony, but the noble-spirited maiden would not hear of his
violating his vow. She demanded a short respite, to bewail upon the
mountains her blighted hope of becoming a mother, and then submitted to
her fate.—_Judges_, xi.

An almost identical tale is told of Idomeneus, king of Crete. On his
return from the Trojan war, he made a vow in a tempest that, if he
escaped, he would offer to Neptune the first living creature that
presented itself to his eye on the Cretan shore. His own son was there
to welcome him home, and Idomeneus offered him up a sacrifice to the
sea-god, according to his vow. Fénelon has introduced this legend in his
_Télémaque_, v.

Agamemnon vowed to Diana, if he might be blessed with a child, that he
would sacrifice to her the dearest of all his possessions. Iphigenīa,
his infant daughter, was, of course, his “dearest possession;” but he
refused to sacrifice her, and thus incurred the wrath of the goddess,
which resulted in the detention of the Trojan fleet at Aulis. Iphigenia
being offered in sacrifice, the offended deity was satisfied, and
interposed at the critical moment, by carrying the princess to Tauris
and substituting a stag in her stead.

The latter part of this tale cannot fail to call to mind the offering of
Abraham. As he was about to take the life of Isaac, Jehovah interposed,
and a ram was substituted for the human victim.—_Gen._ xxii.

                [_Be_] not bent as Jephthah once,
            Blindly to execute a rash resolve;
            Whom better it had suited to exclaim,
            “I have done ill!” than to redeem his pledge
            By doing worse. Not unlike to him
            In folly that great leader of the Greeks—
            Whence, on the altar, Iphigenia mourned
            Her virgin beauty.
                              Dantê, _Paradise_, v. (1311).

⁂ Euripides wrote two plays: _Iphigenia in Aulis_, and _Iphigenia in

⁂ Jephthah’s daughter has often been dramatized. Thus we have in English
_Jephtha his Daughter_, by Plessie Morney, _Jephtha_ (1546), by
Christopherson; _Jephtha_, by Buchanan; and _Jephthah_ (an opera, 1752),
by Handel.

=Jepson= (_Old_), a smuggler.—Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George

=Jeremi´ah= (_The British_), Gildas, (A. D. 516-570), author of _De
Exidio Britanniæ_, a book of lamentations over the destruction of
Britain. He is so called by Gibbon.

=Jer´emy= (_Master_), head domestic of Lord Saville.—Sir W. Scott,
_Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Jeremy Diddler=, an adept at raising money on false pretenses.—Kenney,
_Raising the Wind_.

=Jerningham= (_Master Thomas_), the duke of Buckingham’s gentleman.—Sir
W. Scott, _Peveril of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Jerome= (_Don_), father of Don Ferdinand and Louisa; pig-headed,
passionate, and mercenary, but very fond of his daughter. He insists on
her marrying Isaac Mendoza, a rich Portuguese Jew, but Louisa, being in
love with Don Antonio, positively refuses to do so. She is turned out of
the house by mistake, and her duenna is locked up, under the belief that
she is Louisa. Isaac, being introduced to the duenna, elopes with her,
supposing her to be Don Jerome’s daughter; and Louisa, taking refuge in
a convent, gets married to Don Antonio. Ferdinand, at the same time,
marries Clara, the daughter of Don Guzman. The old man is well content,
and promises to be the friend of his children, who, he acknowledges,
have chosen better for themselves than he had done for them.—Sheridan,
_The Duenna_ (1775).

_Jerome_ (_Father_), abbot at St. Bride’s Convent.—Sir W. Scott, _Castle
Dangerous_ (time, Henry I.).

=Jeron´imo=, the principal character in _The Spanish Tragedy_, by Thomas
Kyd (1597). On finding his application to the king ill-timed, he says to
himself, “Go by! Jeronimo;” which so tickled the fancy of the audience
that it became a common street jest.

=Jerry=, manager of a troupe of dancing dogs. He was a tall,
black-whiskered man, in a velveteen coat.—C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity
Shop_, xviii. (1840).

=Jerry Sneak=, a hen-pecked husband.—Foote, _Mayor of Garrat_ (1763).

=Jeru´salem=, in Dryden’s _Absalom and Achitophel_, means London;
“David” is Charles II., and “Absalom” the duke of Monmouth, etc.

_Jerusalem_. Henry IV. was told “he should not die but in Jerusalem.”
Being in Westminster Abbey, he inquired what the chapter-house was
called, and when he was told it was called the “Jerusalem Chamber,” he
felt sure that he would die there “according to the prophecy,” and so he

Pope SYLVESTER II. was told the same thing, and died as he was saying
mass in a church so called at Rome.—Brown, _Fasciculus_.

CAMBYSES, son of Cyrus, was told that he should die in Ecbat´ana, which
he supposed meant the capital of Medĭa; but he died of his wounds in a
place so called in Syria.

=Jerusalem Delivered=, an epic poem in twenty books, by Torquato Tasso

The crusaders, having encamped on the plains of Torto´sa, choose Godfrey
for their chief. The overtures of Argantês being declined, war is
declared by him in the name of the king of Egypt. The Christian army
reaches Jerusalem, but it is found that the city cannot be taken without
the aid of Rinaldo, who had withdrawn from the army because Godfrey had
cited him for the death of Girnando, whom he had slain in a duel.
Godfrey sends to the enchanted island of Armi´da to invite the hero
back, and on his return Jerusalem is assailed in a night attack. The
poem concludes with the triumphant entry of the Christians into the Holy
City, and their adoration at the Redeemer’s tomb.

The two chief episodes are the loves of Olindo and Sophronia, and of
Tancred and Corinda.

=Jervis= (_Mrs._), the virtuous housekeeper of young Squire B. Mrs.
Jervis protects Pam´ela when her young master assails her.—Richardson,
_Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded_ (1740).

=Jessamy=, the son of Colonel Oldboy. He changed his name in compliment
to Lord Jessamy, who adopted him and left him his heir. Jessamy is an
affected, conceited prig, who dresses as a fop, carries a muff to keep
his hands warm, and likes old china better than a pretty girl. This
popinjay proposes to Clarissa Flowerdale; but she despises him, much to
his indignation and astonishment.—Bickerstaff, _Lionel and Clarissa_

           He’s a coxcomb, a fop, a dainty milksop,
           Who essenced and dizened from bottom to top,
           And looked like a doll from a milliner’s shop...
           He shrugs and takes snuff, and carries a muff,
           A minickin, finicking, French powdered puff.
                                                   Act i. 1.

=Jessamy Bride= (_The_), Mary Horneck, with whom Goldsmith fell in love
in (1769).

=Jes´sica=, daughter of Shylock, the Jew. She elopes with
Lorenzo.—Shakespeare, _Merchant of Venice_ (1597).

Jessica cannot be called a sketch, or, if a sketch, she is dashed off in
glowing colors from the rainbow palette of a Rubens. She has a rich tint
of Orientalism shed over her.—Mrs. Jameson.

=Jesters=. (See FOOLS.)

=Jests= (_The Father of_), Joseph _or_ Joe Miller, an English comic
actor, whose name has become a household word for a stale joke
(1684-1738). The book of jests which goes by his name was compiled by
Mr. Mottley, the dramatist (1739). Joe Miller himself never uttered a
jest in his life, and it is a _lucus a non lucendo_ to father them on
such a taciturn, commonplace dullard.

=Jesus Christ and the Clay Bird=. _The Korân_ says: “O Jesus, son of
Mary, remember ... when thou didst create of clay the figure of a bird
... and did breathe thereon, and it became a bird!”—Ch. v.

The allusion is to a legend that Jesus was playing with other children
who amused themselves with making clay birds, but when the child Jesus
breathed on the one He had made, it instantly received life and flew
away.—Hone, _Apocryphal New Testament_ (1820).

=Jew= (_The_), a comedy by R. Cumberland (1776), written to disabuse the
public mind of unjust prejudices against a people who have been long
“scattered and peeled.” The Jew is Sheva, who was rescued at Cadiz from
an _auto da fe_, by Don Carlos, and from a howling London mob by the son
of Don Carlos, called Charles Ratcliffe. His whole life is spent in
unostentatious benevolence, but his modesty is equal to his
philanthropy. He gives £10,000 as a marriage portion to Ratcliffe’s
sister, who marries Frederick Bertram, and he makes Charles the heir of
all his property.

_Jew_ (_The_).

                         This is the Jew.
                         That Shakespeare drew

This couplet was written by Pope, and refers to the “Shylock” of Charles
Macklin (1690-1797).

_Jew_ (_The Wandering_).

1. _Of Greek tradition_. ARIS´TEAS, a poet who continued to appear and
disappear alternately for above 400 years, and who visited all the
mythical nations of the earth.

2. _Of Jewish story_. Tradition says that CARTAPH´ILOS, the door-keeper
of the judgment hall, in the service of Pontius Pilate, struck our Lord
as he led Him forth, saying, “Get on! Faster, Jesus!” Whereupon the Man
of Sorrows replied “I am going; but tarry thou till I come [_again_].”
This man afterwards became a Christian, and was baptized by Ananias
under the name of Joseph. Every hundred years he falls into a trance,
out of which he rises again at the age of 30.

⁂ The earliest account of the Wandering Jew, is in the _Book of the
Chronicles of the Abbey of St. Alban’s_, copied and continued by Matthew
Paris (1228). In 1242 Philip Mouskes, afterwards bishop of Tournay,
wrote the “rhymed chronicles.”

Another legend is that Jesus, pressed down by the weight of His cross,
stopped to rest at the door of a cobbler, named AHASUE´RUS, who pushed
him away, saying, “Get off! Away with you! away!” Our Lord replied,
“Truly, I go away, and that quickly; but tarry thou till I come.”

⁂ This is the legend given by Paul von Eitzen, bishop of Schleswig, in
1547. *—Greve, _Memoirs of Paul von Eitzen_ (1744).

A third legend says that it was the cobbler Ahasue´rus who haled Jesus
to the judgment seat; and that, as the Man of Sorrows stayed to rest
awhile on a stone, he pushed Him, saying, “Get on, Jesus! Here you shall
not stay!” Jesus replied, “I truly go away, and go to rest; but thou
shalt go away, and never rest till I come.”

3. _In German legend_, the Wandering Jew is associated with JOHN
BUTTADÆUS, seen at Antwerp in the thirteenth century, again in the
fifteenth, and again in the sixteenth centuries. His last appearance was
in 1774, at Brussels.

⁂ Leonard Doldius, of Nürnberg, in his _Praxis Alchymiæ_ (1604), says
that the Jew, Ahasue´rus, is sometimes called “Buttadæus.”

Signor GUALDI, who had been dead 130 years, appeared in the latter half
of the eighteenth century, and had his likeness taken by Titian. One day
he disappeared as mysteriously as he had come.—_Turkish Spy_, ii.

4. _The French legend_. The French call the Wandering Jew ISAAC
LAKE´DION or Laquedem.—Mitternacht, _Dissertatio in Johan._, xxxi. 19.

5. _Of Dr. Croly’s novel_. The name given to the Wandering Jew by Dr.
Croly is SALATHIEL BEN SADI, who appeared and disappeared towards the
close of the sixteenth century, at Venice, in so sudden a manner as to
attract the attention of all Europe.

⁂ Dr. Croly, in his novel called _Salathiel_ (1827), traces the course
of the Wandering Jew; so does Eugène Sue, in _Le Juif Errant_ (1845);
but in these novels the Jew makes no figure of importance.

G Doré, in 1861, illustrated the legend of the Wandering Jew in folio
wood engravings.

6. It is said in legend that GYPSIES are doomed to be everlasting
wanderers, because they refused the Virgin and Child hospitality in
their flight into Egypt.—Adventinus, _Annalium Boiorum, libri septem_
vii. (1554).

The legend of the Wild Huntsman, called by Shakespeare “Herne, the
Hunter,” and by Father Matthieu “St Hubert,” is said to be a Jew who
would not suffer Jesus to drink from a horse-trough, but pointed out to
Him some water in a hoof-print, and bade Him go there and drink.—Kuhn
von Schwarz, _Nordd. Sagen_, 499.

=Jews= (_The_), in Dryden’s _Absalom and Achitophel_, means those
English who were loyal to Charles II. called “David” in the the satire

=Jewkes= (_Mrs._), a detestable character in Richardson’s _Pamela_

=Jez´ebel= (_A Painted_), a flaunting woman, of brazen face, but loose
morals. So called from Jezebel, the wife of Ahab, king of Israel.

=Jim=, the boy of Reginald Lowestoffe, the young Templar. Sir W. Scott,
_Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Jin Vin=, _i.e._ Jenkin Vincent, one of Ramsay’s apprentices, in love
with Margaret Ramsay.—Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James

=Jin´gle= (_Alfred_), a strolling actor, who, by his powers of amusing
and sharp-wittedness, imposes for a time on the members of the Pickwick
Club, and is admitted to their intimacy; but being found to be an
impostor, he is dropped by them. The generosity of Mr. Pickwick in
rescuing Jingle from the Fleet, reclaims him, and he quits England.
Alfred Jingle talks most rapidly and flippantly, but not without much
native shrewdness; and he knows a “hawk from a handsaw.”—C. Dickens,
_The Pickwick Papers_ (1836).

=Jingo=, a corruption of Jainko, the Basque Supreme Being. “By Jingo!”
or “By the living Jingo!” is an appeal to deity. Edward I. had Basque
mountaineers conveyed to England to take part in his Welsh wars, and the
Plantagenets held the Basque provinces in possession. This Basque oath
is a land-mark of these facts.

=Jingoes= (_The_), the anti-Russians in the war between Russia and
Turkey; hence the English war party. The term arose (1878) from a
popular music-hall song, beginning thus:

   We don’t want to fight; but, by Jingo, if we do,
   We’ve got the ships, we’ve got the men, we’ve got the money, too.

(This song has also furnished the words _jingoism_ (bragging war spirit,
Bobadilism) and the adjective _jingo_).

=Jiniwin= (_Mrs._), a widow, the mother of Mrs. Quilp. A shrewd,
ill-tempered old woman, who lived with her son-in-law in Tower
Street.—C. Dickens, _The Old Curiosity Shop_ (1840).

=Jinker= (_Lieutenant Jamie_), horse-dealer at Doune.—Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Jinn=, plu. of =Jinnee=, a sort of fairy in Arabian mythology, the
offspring of fire. The jinn propagate their species like human beings,
and are governed by kings called suleymans. Their chief abode is the
mountain Kâf, and they appear to men under the forms of serpents, dogs,
cats, etc., which become invisible at pleasure. Evil jinn are hideously
ugly, but good jinn are exquisitely beautiful.

⁂ Jinnistan means the country of the jinn. The connection of Solomon
with the jinn is a mere blunder, arising from the similarity of suleyman
and Solomon.

=J.J.=, in Hogarth’s “Gin Lane,” written on a gibbet, is Sir Joseph
Jekyll, obnoxious for his bill for increasing the duty on gin.

⁂ Jean Jacques [Rousseau] was often referred to by these initials in the
eighteenth century.

=Jo=, a poor little outcast, living in one of the back slums of London,
called “Tom All-alone.” The little human waif is hounded about from
place to place, till he dies of want.—C. Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

=Jo March=. The author-sister of _Little Women_, by Louisa M. Alcott. Jo
has much originality and more prankishness, writes blood-and-thunder
stories because they pay, and ceases to write them when they pay best,
because her conscience has awakened. Supposed to be drawn as the
author’s own character.—Louisa M. Alcott, _Little Women_ (1867).

=Joan=. Cromwell’s wife was always called Joan by the cavaliers,
although her real name was Elizabeth.

_Joan_, princess of France, affianced to the duke of Orleans.—Sir W.
Scott, _Quentin Durward_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Joan of Arc=, surnamed _La Pucelle_, born in a village upon the marches
of Barre, called Domremy, near Vaucouleurs. Her father was James of Arc,
and her mother Isabel, poor country-folk, who brought up their children
to keep their cattle. Joan professed to be inspired to liberate France
from the English, and actually raised the siege of Orleans, after which
Charles II. was crowned (1402-1431).

A young wench of an eighteene years old; of favor was she counted
likesome, of person stronglie made and manlie, of courage great, hardie
and stout, withall ... she had great semblance of chastitie both of body
and behavor.—Holinshed, _Chronicles_, 600 (1577).

             ... there was no bloom of youth
           Upon her cheek; yet had the loveliest hues
           Of health, with lesser fascination, fixed
           The gazer’s eye; for wan the maiden was,
           Of saintly paleness, and there seemed to dwell,
           In the strong beauties of her countenance,
           Something that was not earthly.
                               Southey, _Joan of Arc_ (1795).

⁂ Schiller has a tragedy on the subject, _Jungfrau von Orleans_ (1801);
Soumet another, _Jeanne d’Arc_ (1825). Besides Southey’s epic, we have
one by François Cazaneaux; another by Chapelain, called _La Pucelle_
(1656), on which he labored for thirty years. Casimir Delavigne has an
admirable elegy on _The Maid_ (1816), and Voltaire a burlesque.
Shakespeare introduces her in the First Part of Henry VI.

=Joanna=, the “deserted daughter” of Mr. Mordent. Her father abandoned
her in order to marry Lady Anne, and his money-broker placed her under
the charge of Mrs. Enfield, who kept a house of intrigue. Cheveril fell
in love with Joanna, and described her as having “blue eyes, auburn
hair, aquiline nose, ivory teeth, carnation lips, a ravishing mouth,
enchanting neck, a form divine, and the face of an angel.”—Holcroft,
_The Deserted Daughter_ (altered into _The Steward_).

=Job and Elspat=, father and mother of Sergeant Houghton.—Sir W. Scott,
_Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Job’s Wife=. Some call her Rahmat, daughter of Ephraim, son of Joseph;
and others call her Makhir, daughter of Manasses.—Sale, _Korân_, xxi.

=Joblillies= (_The_), the small gentry of a village, the squire being
the Grand Panjandrum.

There were present the Picninnies and the Joblillies and the Garyulies,
and the Grand Panjandrum himself.—S. Foote, _The Quarterly Review_, xcv.

=Jobling=, medical officer to the “Anglo-Bengalee Company.” Mr. Jobling
was a portentous and most carefully dressed gentleman, fond of a good
dinner, and said by all to be “full of anecdote.” He was far too shrewd
to be concerned with the Anglo-Bengalee bubble company, except as a paid
functionary.—C. Dickens, _Martin Chuzzlewit_ (1844).

=Jobson= (_Joseph_), clerk to Squire Inglewood, the magistrate.—Sir W.
Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

_Jobson_ (_Zekel_), a very masterful cobbler, who ruled his wife with a
rod of iron.

_Neil Jobson_, wife of Zekel, a patient, meek, sweet-tempered woman.—C.
Coffey, _The Devil to Pay_ (died, 1745).

=Jocelyn= (_Martin_). Man who yields gradually to the opium-habit,
beggars his family, and blasts his reputation by it. Once and again he
reforms for a few months, then relapses, and finally blows out his
brains in a paroxysm of despairing remorse.—Edward Payson Roe, _Without
a Home_ (1881).

=Jock o’ Dawston Cleugh=, the quarrelsome neighbor of Dandie Dinmont, of
Charlie’s Hope.

_Jock Jabos_, postilion to Mrs. M’Candlish, the landlady of the Golden
Arms inn, Kippletringan.

_Slounging Jock_, one of the men of M’Guffog, the jailer.—Sir W. Scott,
_Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Jock o’ Hazeldean=, the young man beloved by a “ladye fair.” The lady’s
father wanted her to marry Frank, “the chief of Errington and laird of
Langley Dale,” rich, brave and gallant; but “aye she let the tears down
fa’ for Jock of Hazeldean.” At last the wedding morn arrived, the kirk
was gaily decked, the priest and bridegroom, with dame and knight, were
duly assembled; but no bride could be seen; she had crossed the border
and given her hand to Jock of Hazeldean.

This ballad, by Sir W. Scott, is a modernized version of an ancient
ballad entitled _Jock o’ Hazelgreen_.

=Jockey of Norfolk=, Sir John Howard, a firm adherent of Richard III. On
the night before the battle of Bosworth Field, he found in his tent this
warning couplet:

              Jockey of Norfolk, be not too bold,
              For Dickon, thy master, is bought and sold.

=Jodelet=, valet of Du Croisy. In order to reform two silly girls, whose
heads have been turned by novels, Du Croisy and his friend La Grange get
their lackeys introduced to them, as the “Viscount of Jodelet,” and the
“Marquis of Mascarille.” The girls are delighted with their
“aristocratic visitors;” but when the game has gone far enough, the
masters step in and unmask the trick. The two girls are taught a most
useful lesson, but are saved from serious ill consequences.—Molière,
_Les Précieuses Ridicules_ (1659).

=Joe=. Sick boy, to whom his brother brings a bouquet he has begged for
him; and tells him of the country Joe has never seen.

            “Flowers in Heaven? ’M— I s’pose so;
          Dunno much about it, though;
            Aint as fly as what I might be
          On them topics, little Joe.
                 *       *       *       *       *
            ——Don’t you have no fear.
          Heaven was made fur such as you is—
            Joe! what makes you look so queer?
          Here! wake up! Oh, don’t look that way!
            Here’s yer flowers—you dropped ’em—Joey,
          Oh, my God! can Joe be dead?”
                David Law Proudfit, _Poor Little Joe_ (1883).

_Joe_, “the fat boy,” page in the family of Mr. Wardle. He has an
unlimited capacity for eating and sleeping.—C. Dickens, _The Pickwick
Papers_ (1836).

=Joe Gargery=, a smith. He was a fair man, with curls of flaxen hair on
each side of his smooth face, and with eyes of “such very undecided
blue, that they seemed to have got mixed with their own whites. He was a
mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered, easy-going, foolish, dear fellow. A
Herculês in strength, and in weakness also.” He lived in terror of his
wife, but loved Pip, whom he brought up. His great word was
“meantersay.” Thus: “What I meantersay, if you come a-badgering me, come
out. Which I meantersay as sech, if you’re a man, come on. Which I
meantersay that what I say I meantersay and stand to it” (ch. xviii.).
His first wife was a shrew; but soon after her death he married Biddy, a
young woman wholly suited to him.

_Mrs. Joe Gargery_, the smith’s first wife; a “rampageous woman,” always
“on the ram-page.” By no means good-looking was Mrs. Joe, with her black
hair and fierce eyes, and prevailing redness of skin, looking as if “she
scrubbed herself with a nutmeg-grater instead of soap and flannel.” She
“was tall and bony, and wore a coarse apron fastened over her figure
behind with two loops, and having a square bib in front, stuck full of
needles and pins.” She brought up Pip, but made his home as wretched as
she could, always keeping a rod called “Tickler” ready for immediate
use. Mrs. Joe was a very clean woman, and cleanliness is next to
godliness; but Mrs. Joe had the art of making her cleanliness as
disagreeable to every one as many people do their godliness. She died
after a long illness.—C. Dickens, _Great Expectations_ (1860).

=John=, a proverbially unhappy name for royalty.—See _Dictionary of
Phrase and Fable_, 461.

We shall see, however, that this poor king [_Robert II._] remained as
unfortunate as if his name had still been John [_He changed it from John
to Robert_].—Sir W. Scott, _Tales of a Grandfather_, i. 17.

_John_, a Franciscan friar.—Shakespeare, _Romeo and Juliet_ (1598).

_John_, the bastard brother of Don Pedro.—Shakespeare, _Much Ado about
Nothing_ (1600).

_John_, the driver of the Queen’s Ferry diligence.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

_John Andruss_. Clever fellow, but weak in principles, who becomes once
and again a tool in the hands of designing men and silly women, rallying
after each fall, to attempt a better life. Drowned at last in rescuing a
fellow-bather from the surf, the bather being the “Anna” of his early
idolatry, now the fat, ruddy wife of another man.—Rebecca Harding Davis,
_John Andruss_.

_John_ (_Don_), brother of Leonato, governor of Messina, whom he hates.
In order to torment the governor, Don John tries to mar the happiness of
his daughter Hero, who is about to be married to Lord Claudio. Don John
tells Claudio that his _fiancée_ has promised him a rendezvous by
moonlight, and if Claudio will hide in the garden, he may witness it.
The villain had bribed the waiting-woman of Hero to dress up in her
mistress’s clothes and to give him this interview. Claudio believes the
woman to be Hero, and when the bride appears at the altar next morning,
he rejects her with scorn. The truth, however, comes to light; Don John
takes himself to flight; and Hero is married to Lord Claudio, the man of
her choice.—Shakespeare, _Much Ado about Nothing_ (1600).

I have seen the great Henderson [1747-1785].... His “Don John” is a
comic “Cato,” and his “Hamlet” a mixture of tragedy, comedy, pastoral,
farce, and nonsense.—David Garrick 1775.

_John_ (_Friar_), a tall, lean, wide-mouthed, long-nosed friar of
Seville, who despatched his matins and vigils quicker than any of his
fraternity. He swore like a trooper, and fought like a Trojan. When the
army from Lernê pillaged the convent vineyard, Friar John seized the
staff of a cross and pummelled the rogues without mercy, beating out
brains, smashing limbs, cracking ribs, gashing faces, breaking jaws,
dislocating joints, in the most approved Christian fashion, and never
was corn so mauled by the flail as were these pillagers by “the baton of
the cross.”—Rabelais, _Gargantua_, i. 27 (1533).

⁂ Of course, this is a satire of what are called Christian or religious

_John Humphreys_. Pious and priggish hero of _The Wide, Wide World_. He
is the brother of _Alice Humphreys_, the adopted sister of _Ellen
Montgomery_, the little heroine of the story. He trains and molds Ellen
from childhood, and finally marries her.—Susan Warner, _The Wide, Wide
World_ (1851).

_John_ (_King_), a tragedy by Shakespeare (1508). This drama is founded
on _The First and Second Parts of the Troublesome Raigne of John, King
of England, etc. As they were sundry times publickly acted by the
Queenes Majesties players in the Honourable Citie of London_ (1591).

In “Macbeth,” “Hamlet,” “Wolsey,” “Coriolanus,” and “King John,” he
[_Edmund Kean_, 1787-1833] never approached within any measurable
distance of the learned, philosophical, and majestic Kemble.—_Quarterly
Review_ (1835).

W.C. Macready [1793-1873], in the scene where he suggests to “Hubert”
the murder of “Arthur,” was masterly, and his representation of death by
poison, was true, forcible, and terrific.—Talfourd.

⁂ _Kynge Johan_, a drama of the transition state between the moralities
and tragedy. Of the historical persons introduced, we have King John,
Pope Innocent, Cardinal Pandulphus, Stephen Langton, etc.; and of
allegorical personages, we have Widowed Britannia, Imperial Majesty,
Nobility, Clergy, Civil Order, Treason, Verity, and Sedition. This play
was published in 1838 by the Camden Society, under the care of Mr.
Collier (about 1550).

_John_ (_Little_), one of the companions of Robin Hood.—Sir W. Scott,
_The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

_John_ (_Prester_). According to Mandeville, Prester John was a lineal
descendant of Ogier, the Dane. This Ogier penetrated into the north of
India, with fifteen barons of his own country, among whom he divided the
land. John was made sovereign of Teneduc, and was called _Prester_,
because he converted the natives.

Another tradition says he had seventy kings for his vassals, and was
seen by his subjects only three times a year.

Marco Polo says that Prester John was the Khan Ung, who was slain in
battle by Jenghiz Khan, in 1202. He was converted by the Nestorians, and
his baptismal name was John. Gregory Bar-Hebræus says that God forsook
him because he had taken to himself a wife of the Zinish nation, called

Otto, of Freisingen, is the first author who makes mention of Prester
John. His chronicle is brought down to the year 1156, and in it we are
assured that this most mysterious personage was of the family of the
Magi, and ruled over the country of these Wise Men. “He used” (according
to Otto) “a sceptre made of emeralds.”

Bishop Jordānus, in his description of the world, sets down Abyssinia as
the kingdom of Prester John. At one time Abyssinia went by the name of
Middle India.

Maimonidês mentions Prester John, and calls him Preste-Cuan. The date of
Maimonidês is 1135-1204.

⁂ Before 1241 a letter was addressed by Prester John to Manuel
Comne´nus, emperor of Constantinople. It is to be found in the
_Chronicle_ of Albericus Trium Fontium, who gives the date as 1165.

In Ariosto’s _Orlando Furioso_, xvii., Prester John is called Sena´pus,
king of Ethiopia. He was blind. Though the richest monarch of the world,
he pined “in plenty with endless famine,” because harpies carried off
his food whenever the table was spread; but this plague was to cease
“when a stranger came to his kingdom on a flying horse.” Astolpho came
on a flying griffin, and with his magic horn chased the harpies into

_John_ (_Prince_), son of Henry II., introduced by Sir W. Scott in _The
Betrothed_ (1825).

_John_ (_Prince_), brother of Richard I., introduced by Sir W. Scott in
_The Talisman_ (1825).

=John and the abbot of Canterbury=. King John, being jealous of the
state kept by the abbot of Canterbury, declared he should be put to
death unless he answered these three questions: (1) “How much am I
worth? (2) How long would it take me to ride round the world? (3) What
are my thoughts?” The king gave the abbot three weeks for his answers. A
shepherd undertook to disguise himself as the abbot, and to answer the
questions. To the first he said, “The king’s worth is twenty-nine pence,
for the Saviour Himself was sold for thirty pence, and his majesty is
mayhap a penny worse than He.” To the second question he answered, “If
you rise with the sun and ride with the sun, you will get round the
world in twenty-four hours.” To the third question he replied, “Your
majesty thinks me to be the abbot, but I am only his servant.”—Percy,
_Reliques_, II. iii. 6.

=John Blunt=, a person who prides himself on his brusqueness, and in
speaking unpleasant truths in the rudest manner possible. He not only
calls a spade a spade, but he does it in an offensive tone and manner.

=John Bull=, the national name for an Englishman, (See BULL).

=John Chinaman=, a Chinese.

=John Company=, the old East India Company.

In old times, John Company employed nearly 4000 men in warehouses.—_Old
and New London_, ii (185).

=John Grueby=, the honest, faithful servant of Lord George Gordon, who
wished “the blessed old creatur, named Bloody Mary, had never been
born.” He had the habit of looking “a long way off.” John loved his
master, but hated his religious craze.

“Between Bloody Marys, and blue cockades, and glorious Queen Besses, and
no poperys, and Protestant associations,” said Grueby to himself, “I
believe my lord’s half off his head.”—Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_, xxxvi.

=John of Bruges=, (1 _syl._) John Van Eyck, the Flemish painter

=John o’ Groat=, a Dutchman, who settled in the most northerly part of
Scotland, in the reign of James IV. He is immortalized by the way he
settled an open dispute among his nine sons respecting precedency. He
had nine doors made to his cottage, one for each son, and they sat at a
round table.

_From John o’ Groat’s house to the Land’s End_, from furthest north to
furthest south of the island, _i. e._ through its entire length.

=John of Hexham=, Johannes Hagustaldensis, a chronicler (twelfth

=John of Leyden=, John Bockhold _or_ Boccold, a fanatic (1510-1536).

In the opera he is called “the prophet.” Being about to marry Bertha,
three anabaptists meet him, and observe in him a strong likeness to a
picture of David in Munster Cathedral. Having induced him to join the
rebels, they take Munster, and crown him “Ruler of Westphalia.” His
mother meets him while he is going in procession, but he disowns her;
subsequently, however, he visits her in prison, and is forgiven. When
the emperor arrives the anabaptists fall off, and John, setting fire to
the banquet-room of the palace, perishes with his mother in the
flames.—Meyerbeer, _Le Prophète_ (1849).

=John with the Leaden Sword=. The duke of Bedford, who acted as regent
for Henry VI. in France, was so called by Earl Douglas (surnamed

=Johnny=, the infant son of Mrs. Betty Higden’s “daughter’s daughter.”
Mrs. Boffin wished to adopt the child, and to call him John Harmon, but
it died. During its illness, Bella Wilfer went to see it, and the child
murmured, “Who is the boofer lady?” The sick child was placed in the
Children’s Hospital, and, just at the moment of death, gave his toys to
a little boy with a broken leg in an adjoining bed, and sent “a kiss to
the boofer lady.”—C. Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1864).

=Johnny Crapaud=. A Frenchman was so called by English sailors in the
time of Napoleon I. The Flemings called the French “Crapaud Franchos.”
The allusion is to the toads borne in the ancient arms of France.

=John Ridd=, herculean hero of Exmoor, and lover of _Lorna Doone_. By
various exploits, he achieves knighthood, and marries Lorna.—R. D.
Blackmore, _Lorna Doone_.

=Johnson= (_Dr. Samuel_), lexicographer, essayist, and poet (1709-1784).

         I own I like not Johnson’s turgid style,
         That gives an inch th’ importance of a mile:
         Casts of manure a wagon-load around,
         To raise a simple daisy from the ground;
         Uplifts the club of Hercules—for what?
         To crush a butterfly or brain a gnat;
         Creates a whirlwind from the earth, to draw
         A goose’s feather or exalt a straw;
         Bids ocean labor with tremendous roar,
         To heave a cockle-shell upon the shore.
         Alike in every theme his pompous art,
         Heaven’s awful thunder or a rumbling cart.
                        Peter Pindar [Dr. John Wolcot] (1816).

=Johnstone= (_Auld Willie_), an old fisherman, father to Peggy, the
laundry-maid at Woodburne.

_Young Johnstone_, his son.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George

=Joliffe= (2 _syl._), footman to Lady Penfeather.—Sir W. Scott, _St.
Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

_Joliffe_ (_Joceline_), under-keeper of Woodstock Forest.—Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

=Joliquet= (_Bibo_), the _garçon_ of the White Lion Inn, held by Jerome
Lesurgues (2 _syl._).—Edward Stirling, _The Courier of Lyons_ (1852).

=Jollup= (_Sir Jacob_), father of Mrs. Jerry Sneak and Mrs. Bruin.
Jollup is the vulgar, pomposo landlord of Garratt, who insists on being
always addressed as “Sir Jacob.”

=Jolter=. In the agony of terror, on hearing the direction given to put
on the headlights in a storm off Calais, Smollett tells us that Jolter
went through the steps of a mathematical proposition with great fervor
instead of a prayer.

=Jonas=, the name given in _Absalom and Achitophel_, to Sir William
Jones, judge of the Irish Court of Common Pleas under James I. It is a
pun on the name.—Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1681).

_Jonas_, “smart,” capable and somewhat priggish factotum of the Holliday
family. _Sui generis_ as regards learning, when one reflects that he
entered his employer’s service as a tramp. Equally remarkable as to
virtue. Rollo’s mentor; a New England _Harry Sandford_.—Jacob Abbott,
_The Rollo Books_.

=Jonathan=, a sleek old widower. He was a parish orphan, whom Sir
Benjamin Dove apprenticed, and then took into his family. When Jonathan
married, the knight gave him a farm, rent-free and well stocked. On the
death of his wife, he gave up the farm, and entered the knight’s service
as butler. Under the evil influence of Lady Dove, this old servant was
inclined to neglect his kind master; but Sir Benjamin soon showed him
that, although the lady was allowed to peck him, the servants were
not.—R. Cumberland, _The Brothers_ (1769).

_Jonathan_, one of the servants of General Harrison.—Sir W. Scott,
_Woodstock_ (time, Commonwealth).

_Jonathan_, an attendant on Lord Saville.—Sir W. Scott, _Peveril of the
Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

_Jonathan_ (_Brother_), a national nickname for an American of the
United States. In the Revolutionary war, Washington used to consult his
friend, Jonathan Trumbull, governor of Connecticut, in all his
difficulties. “We must ask brother Jonathan,” was so often on his lips,
that the phrase became synonymous with the good genius of the States,
and was subsequently applied to the North Americans generally.

=Jones= (_Tom_), the hero of a novel by Fielding, called _The History of
Tom Jones, a Foundling_ (1749). Tom Jones is a model of generosity,
openness, and manly spirit, mingled with thoughtless dissipation. With
all this, he is not to be admired; his reputation is flawed, he sponges
for a guinea, he cannot pay his landlady, and he lets out his honor to

_Jones_ (_Mrs._), the waiting-woman of Lady Penfeather.—Sir. W. Scott,
_St. Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Jonson= (_Ben_), the poet, introduced by Sir Walter Scott in his
_Woodstock_. Shakespeare is introduced in the same novel.

=Jopson= (_Jacob_), farmer at the village near Clifton.

_Cicely Jopson_, Jacob’s daughter. She marries Ned Williams.—Sir W.
Scott, _Waverley_ (time, George II.).

=Jordan= (_Mrs._), the actress, who lived with the duke of Clarence, was
Miss Dorothea Bland. She called herself Dora, first appeared in York as
Miss Francis, and changed her name at the request of an aunt who left
her a little property. When the change of name was debated between her
and the manager, Tate suggested “Mrs. Jordan,” and gave this very
pertinent reason:

“You have crossed the water,” said Tate, “so I’ll call you ‘Jordan.’”

=Jorkins=, the partner of Mr. Spenlow, in Doctor’s Commons. Mr. Jorkins
is really a retiring, soft-hearted man, but to clients he is referred to
by Spenlow as the stern martinet, whose consent will be most difficult
to obtain.—C. Dickens, _David Copperfield_ (1849).

=Jorworth-ap-Jevan=, envoy of Gwenwyn, prince of Powys-land.—Sir W.
Scott, _The Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=Josaphat=, a young Indian prince, of whom it had been predicted that he
would embrace Christianity and become a devotee. His father tried to
seclude him from all knowledge of misery and evil, and to attach him
only to pleasurable pursuits. At length the young prince took three
drives, in one of which he saw Old Age, in another sickness, and in the
third Death. This had such an effect upon him that he became a hermit,
and at death was canonized both by the Eastern and Western
Churches.—Johannes Damascenus, _Balaam and Josaphat_ (eight century).

=Josceline= (_Sir_), an English knight and crusader in the army of
Richard I.—Sir W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=José= (_Don_), father of Don Juan, and husband of Donna Inez. He was
henpecked and worried to death by his wife’s “proprieties.” To the world
they were “models of respectability,” but at home they were “cat and
dog.” Donna Inez tried to prove him mad, in order to obtain a divorce,
and “kept a journal where all his faults were noted.” “She witnessed his
agonies with great magnanimity;” but, while seeking a divorce, Don José
died.—Byron _Don Juan_, i. 26, 33 (1819).

=Joseph=, the old gardener at Shaw’s Castle.—Sir W. Scott, _St. Ronan’s
Well_ (time, George III.).

_Joseph_, a Jew of the noblest type; with unbounded benevolence and most
excellent charity. He sets a splendid example of “Christian ethics” to
those who despised him for not believing the “Christian creed.” Joseph
the Jew was the good friend of the Christian minister of Mariendorpt.—S.
Knowles, _The Maid of Mariendorpt_ (1838).

_Joseph Frowenfeld_, apothecary of German extraction, settled in
Louisiana, and patronized by the Grandissimes. “As hard to move as a cow
in the moonlight,” Dr. Keene says of him, “and knows just about as much
of the world.” Yet Dr. Keene trusts him where simple loyality and true
manliness are required, and it is a heart worth the keeping that
Professor Frowenfeld gives into the care of Clotilde Nuncanou.—George W.
Cable, _The Grandissimes_ (1880).

_Joseph_ (_A_), a young man not to be seduced from his continency by any
temptation. The reference is to Joseph in Potiphar’s house (_Gen._

_Joseph_ (_St._) of Arimathe´a, said to have brought to Glastonbury in a
mystic vessel some of the blood which trickled from the wounds of Christ
at the Crucifixion, and some of the wine left at the Last Supper. This
vessel plays a very prominent part in the Arthurian legends.

          Next holy Joseph came....
          The Saviour of mankind in sepulchre that laid;
          That to the Britons was th’ apostle. In his aid
          St. Duvian, and with him St. Fagan, both which were
          His scholars.
                        Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv. (1622).

⁂ He also brought with him the spear of Longinus, the Roman soldier who
pierced the side of Jesus.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i.
40 (1470).

=Jos´ephine= (3 _syl._), wife of Werner, and mother of Ulric. Josephine
was the daughter of a decayed Italian exile of noble blood.—Byron,
_Werner_ (1822).

=Jos´ian=, daughter of the king of Armenia, and wife of Sir Bevis, of
Southampton. It was Josian who gave the hero his sword, “Morglay” and
his steed “Arundel.”—Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

=Josse= (1 _syl._) a jeweller. Lucinde (2 _syl._), the daughter of
Sganarelle, pined and fell away, and the anxious father asked his
neighbors what they would advise him to do. Mon. Josse replied:

“Pour moi, je tiens que la braverie, que l’adjustement est la chose qui
réjouit le plus les filles; et si j’étoit que de vous, je lui achéterois
dès aujourd’ hui une belle garniture de diamants, ou de rubis, ou

Sgnarelle made answer:

“Vous êtes orfèvre, Monsieur Josse; et votre conseil sent son homme qui
a envie de se défaire de sa marchandise.”—Molière, _L’Amour Médicin_, i.
1 (1665).

_Vous êtes orfèvre, Mon Josse_ (“You are a jeweller, Mon. Josse, and are
not disinterested in your advice”). (See above).

=Jo´tham=, the person who uttered the parable of “The Trees choosing a
King,” when the men of Shechem made Abimelech king. In Dryden’s _Absalom
and Achitophel_, it stands for George Saville, marquis of Halifax.

           Jotham, of piercing wit and pregnant thought,
           Endued by nature, and by learning taught
           To move assemblies ... turned the balance, too;
           So much the weight of one brave man can do.
                 Dryden, _Absalom and Achitophel_, i. (1681).

=Jour, king of Mambrant=, the person who carried off Jos´ian, the wife
of Sir Bevis, of Southampton, his sword “Morglay,” and his steed
“Ar´undel.” Sir Bevis, disguised as a pilgrim, recovered all
three.—Drayton, _Polyolbion_, ii. (1612).

=Jourdain= (_Mons._), an elderly tradesman, who has suddenly fallen into
a large fortune, and wishes to educate himself up to his new position in
society. He employs masters of dancing, fencing, philology, and so on;
and the fun of the drama turns on the ridiculous remarks that he makes,
and the awkward figure he cuts as the pupil of these professors. One
remark is especially noted: he says he had been talking prose all his
life, and never knew it till his professor told him.—Molière, _Le
Bourgeois Gentilhomme_ (1870).

=Journalists=. Napoleon I. said:

A journalist is a grumbler, a censurer, a giver of advice, a regent of
sovereigns, a tutor of nations. Four hostile newspapers are more
formidable than a thousand bayonets.

=Jovian=, emperor of Rome, was bathing one day, when a person stole his
clothes, and passed himself off as the emperor. Jovian, naked and
ashamed, went to a knight, said he was emperor, and begged the loan of a
few garments for the nonce; but the knight called him an impostor, and
had him scourged from the gate. He next went to a duke, who was his
chief minister; but the duke had him confined, and fed on bread and
water as a vagrant and a madman. He then applied at the palace, but no
one recognized him there. Lastly, he went to his confessor, and humbled
himself, confessing his sins. The priest took him to the palace, and the
sham emperor proved to be an angel sent to reform the proud monarch. The
story says that Jovian thenceforth reigned with mercy and justice till
he died.—_Evenings with the Old Story-tellers_.

=Joyeuse= (2 _syl._), Charlemagne’s sword, which bore the inscription:
_Decem præceptorum custos Carŏlus_. It was buried with the king, as
Tizo´na (the Cid’s sword) was buried with the Cid.

=Joyeuse-Garde= or =Garde-Joyeuse=, the estate given by King Arthur to
Sir Launcelot du Lac, for defending the queen’s honor against Sir Mador.
Here Sir Launcelot was buried.

=Juan= (_Don_), a hero of the sixteenth century, a natural son of
Charles-quint, born at Ratisbonne, in 1545. He conquered the Moors of
Grana´da, won a great naval victory over the Turks at Lepanto, made
himself master of Tunis, and put down the insurgents of the Netherlands

This is the Don Juan of C. Delavigne’s drama entitled _Don Juan
d’Autriche_ (1835).

_Juan_ (_Don_), son of Don Louis Tenorio, of Sicily, a heartless _roué_.
His valet says of him:

“Tu vois en don Juan le plus grand scélérat que la terre ait jamais
porté, un enragé, un chien, un démon, un Turc, un hérétique qui ne croit
ni ciel, ni enfer, in diable, qui passe cette vie en véritable bête
brute, un pourceau d’Epicure, un vrai Sardanapale; qui ferme l’oreille à
toutes les remontrances qu’on lui peut faire, et traite de bille-vesées
tout ce que nous croyons.”—Molière, _Don Juan_, i. 1 (1665).

_Juan_ (_Don_), a native of Seville, son of Don Josê and Donna Inez (a
blue stocking). When Juan was 16 years old, he got into trouble with
Donna Julia, and was sent by his mother (then a widow) on his travels.
His adventures form the story of a poem so called; but the tale is left
incomplete.—Lord Byron, _Don Juan_ (1819-21).

_Juan_ (_Don_). The hero of Richard Mansfield’s play bearing this title,
is a gay youth, wild with the joys of liberty to which he is
unaccustomed; saucy, audacious and winning, bent upon getting for
himself all the pleasure life offers the young. He is tender,
inconstant, brave, chivalric, irresponsible, and gains dignity by dying
heroically (1891).

_Juan_ (_Don_), or Don Giovanni, the prince of libertines. The original
of this character was Don Juan Tenorio, of Seville, who attempted the
seduction of the governor’s daughter; and the father, forcing the
libertine to a duel, fell. A statue of the murdered father was erected
in the family vault; and one day when Don Juan forced his way into the
vault, he invited the statue to a banquet. The statue accordingly placed
itself at the board, to the amazement of the host, and, compelling the
libertine to follow, delivered him over to devils, who carried him off

Dramatized first by Gabriel Tellez (1626). Molière (1665) and Thomas
Corneille, in _Le Festin de Pierre_, both imitated from the Spanish
(1673), have made it the subject of French comedies; Goldoni (1765), of
an Italian comedy; Glück, of a musical ballet (1765); Mozart, of an
opera called _Don Giovanni_ (1787), a princely work.

=Juan Fernandez=, a rocky island in the Pacific Ocean, near the coast of
Chili. Here Alexander Selkirk, a buccaneer, resided in solitude for four
years. Defoe is supposed to have based his tale of _Robinson Crusoe_ on
the history of Alexander Selkirk.

⁂ Defoe places the island of his hero “on the _east coast_ of South
America,” somewhere near Dutch Guiana.

=Juba=, prince of Numidia, warmly attached to Cato while he lived at
Utica (in Africa), and passionately in love with Marcia, Cato’s
daughter. Sempro´nius, having disguised himself as Juba, was mistaken
for the Numidian prince by Marcia; and, being slain, she gave free vent
to her grief, thus betraying the state of her affection. Juba overheard
her, and as it would have been mere prudery to deny her love after this
display, she freely confessed it, and Juba took her as his betrothed and
future wife.—J. Addison, _Cato_ (1713).

=Jubal=, son of Lamech and Adah. The inventor of the lyre and
flute.—_Gen_. iv. 19-21.

      Then when he [_Javan_] heard the voice of Jubal’s lyre,
      Instinctive genius caught the ethereal fire.
          J. Montgomery, _The World before the Flood_, i. (1812).

=Judas=, in pt. ii. of _Absalom and Architophel_, most of which was
written by Tate, is meant for Mr. Furgueson, a nonconformist, who joined
the duke of Monmouth, and afterwards betrayed him.

           Shall that false Hebronite escape our curse—
           Judas, that keeps the rebels’ pension-purse;
           Judas, that pays the treason-writer’s fee;
           Judas, that well deserves his namesake’s tree?
                       _Absalom and Achitophel_, ii. (1682).

=Judas Iscariot.= Klopstock says that Judas Iscariot had a heart formed
for every virtue, and was in youth unpolluted by crime, insomuch that
the Messiah thought him worthy of being one of the twelve. He, however,
was jealous of John, because Jesus loved him more than He loved the rest
of the apostles; and this hatred towards the beloved disciple made him
hate the lover of “the beloved.” Judas also feared (says Klopstock) that
John would have a higher post than himself in the kingdom, and perhaps
be made treasurer. The poet tells us that Judas betrayed Jesus under the
expectation that it would drive Him to establish His kingdom at once,
and rouse Him into action.—Klopstock, _The Messiah_, iii. (1748).

=Judith Hutter.= Handsome daughter of a frontier trapper, whose ruse of
arraying herself in a court-dress, heretofore kept as a curiosity, and,
resplendent in brocade and laces, passing herself off as an English
stranger of rank, would have effected the release of the prisoners but
for her weak-witted sister’s avowal of her identity. She has been a
favorite with more than one man, yet never loved until she knows
_Deerslayer_. Her offer to marry him is refused gently and simply, and
in shame she quits her accustomed haunts for what career we are left to
conjecture.—James Fennimore Cooper, _The Deerslayer_.

_Judith._ Child-heroine of Marion Harland’s novel of that name.

_Judith_, a beautiful Jewess of Bethu´lia, who assassinated Holofernês,
the general of Nebuchadnezzar, to save her native town. When Judith
showed the head of the general to her countrymen, they rushed on the
invading army, and put it to a complete rout.—_Judith_, one of the books
of the Apocrypha.

_Judith (Aunt)_, sister to Master George Heriot, the king’s
goldsmith.—Sir W. Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Judy=, the wife of Punch. Master Punch, annoyed by the cries of the
baby, gives it a knock, which kills it, and, to conceal his crime from
his wife, throws the dead body out of the window. Judy comes to inquire
about the child, and, hearing of its death, upbraids her lord stoutly,
and tries on him the “reproof of blows.” This leads to a quarrel, in
which Judy is killed. The officers of justice, coming to arrest the
domestic tyrant, meet the same fate as his child and wife; but at last
the devil outwits him, he is hanged, and carried off to the place of all

=Juel= (_Nils_), a celebrated Danish admiral, who received his training
under Tromp and De Ruyter. He defeated the Swedes in 1677 in several

             Nils Juel gave heed to the tempest’s roar ...
             “Of Denmark’s Juel who can defy
             The power?”
                          Longfellow, _King Christian_ [V.]

=Julet´ta=, the witty, sprightly attendant of Alinda.—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _The Pilgrim_ (1621).

=Julia=, a lady beloved by Proteus. Her waiting-woman is
Lucetta.—Shakespeare, _Two Gentlemen of Verona_ (1594).

_Julia_, the “ward” of Master Walter, “the hunchback.” She was brought
up by him most carefully in the country, and at a marriageable age was
betrothed to Sir Thomas Clifford. Being brought to London, she was
carried away in the vortex of fashion, and became the votary of pleasure
and dissipation, abandoned Clifford, and promised to marry the earl of
Rochdale. As the wedding day drew nigh, her love for Clifford returned,
and she implored her guardian to break off her promise of marriage to
the earl. Walter now showed himself to be the real earl of Rochdale, and
father of Julia. Her nuptials with the supposed earl fell to the ground,
and she became the wife of Sir Thomas Clifford.—S. Knowles, _The
Hunchback_ (1831).

_Julia_ (_Donna_), a lady of Sev´ille, of Moorish origin, a married
woman, “charming, chaste, and twenty-three.” Her eye was large and dark,
her hair glossy, her brow smooth, her cheek “all purple with the beam of
youth,” her husband 50, and his name Alfonso. Donna Julia loved a lad of
16, named Don Juan, “not wisely but too well,” for which she was
confined in a convent.—Byron, _Don Juan_, i. 59-188 (1819).

Tender and impassioned, but possessing neither information to occupy her
mind, nor good principles to regulate her conduct, Donna Julia is an
illustration of the women of Seville, “whose minds have but one idea,
and whose life business is intrigue.” The slave of every impulse ... she
now prostrates herself before the altar of the Virgin, making the
noblest efforts “for honor, pride, religion, virtue’s sake,” and then,
“in the full security of innocence,” she seeks temptation, and finds
retreat impossible.—Finden, _Byron Beauties._

=Julia Dodd.= English girl in love with _Alfred Hardie_, her brother’s
college mate. Alfred is abducted on the eve of their wedding-day, by
order of his father, who has his own reasons for opposing the match.
Julia goes to the church to meet him, and returns home unmarried. After
many and curious _contretemps_ and some disasters, the young couple are
re-united.—Charles Reade, _Very Hard Cash_.

=Julia Melville=, a ward of Sir Anthony Absolute; in love with
Faulkland, who saved her life when she was thrown into the water by the
upsetting of a boat.—Sheridan, _The Rivals_ (1775).

=Julian= (_Count_), a powerful lord of the Spanish Goths. When his
daughter Florinda was violated by King Roderick, the count was so
indignant that he invited over the Moors to come and push Roderick from
the throne, and even turned renegade the better to effect his purpose.
The Moors succeeded, but condemned Count Julian to death, “to punish
treachery, and prevent worse ill.” Julian, before he died, sent for
“Father Maccabee,” and said:

                                  “I would fain
            Die in the faith wherein my fathers died.
            I feel that I have sinned, and from my soul
            Renounce the impostor’s faith, which in my soul
            No place obtained.”
                    Southey, _Roderick, etc_., xxiv. (1814).

_Julian_ (_St._), patron saint of hospitality. An epicure, a man of

     An householder and that a gret was he;
     Seint Julian he was in his countré.
               Chaucer, _Introduction to Canterbury Tales_ (1388).

=Julian St. Pierre=, the brother of Mariana (_q. v._).—S. Knowles, _The
Wife_ (1833).

=Juliana=, eldest daughter of Balthazar. A proud, arrogant, overbearing
“Katharine,” who marries the duke of Aranza, and intends to be lady
paramount. The duke takes her to a poor hut, which he calls his home,
gives her the household duties to perform, and pretends to be a
day-laborer. She chafes for a time; but his manliness, affection, and
firmness, get the mastery; and when he sees that she loves him for
himself, he announces the fact that after all he is the duke, and she
the duchess of Aranza.—J. Tobin, _The Honeymoon_ (1804).

=Ju´liance=, a giant.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 98

=Julian West.= Young man, who, after a sleep of years, awakens to the
new order of things depicted in _Looking Backward_.—Edward Bellamy.

=Julie= (_2 syl._), the heroine of Molière’s comedy entitled _Mons. de
Pourceaugnac_ (1669).

_Julie_ (_2 syl._), the heroine of J. J. Rousseau’s novel entitled
_Julie, ou la Nouvelle Héloïse_ (1760). The prototype was the Comtesse
d’Houdetot. Julie had a pale complexion, a graceful figure, a profusion
of light brown hair, and her near-sightedness gave her “a charming
mixture of _gaucherie_ and grace.” Rousseau went every morning to meet
her, that he might receive of her that single kiss with which
Frenchwomen salute a friend. One day, when Rousseau told her that she
might innocently love others besides her husband, she näively replied,
“Je pourrais done aimer mon pauvre St. Lambert.” Lord Byron has made her
familiar to English readers.

                    His love was passion’s essence ...
          This breathed itself to life in Julie; this
          Invested her with all that’s wild and sweet;
          This hallowed, too, the memorable kiss
          Which every morn his fevered lip would greet
          From her’s, who but with friendship his would meet.
                    Byron, _Childe Harold_, iii. 79 (1816).

=Julie de Mortemar=, an orphan, ward of Richelieu, and loved by King
Louis XIII., Count Baradas, and Adrien de Mauprat, the last of whom she
married. After many hair-breadth escapes and many a heart-ache, the king
allowed the union, and blessed the happy pair.—Lord Lytton, _Richelieu_

=Ju´liet=, daughter of Lady Cap´ulet, of Verona, in love with Ro´meo,
son of Montague (_3 syl._), a rival house. As the parents could not be
brought to sanction the alliance, the whole intercourse was clandestine,
as was their marriage. In order to prevent the threatened marriage with
Count Paris, by the advice of Friar Laurence she took a sleeping
draught, and was carried to the family vault. The intention was that on
waking, she should elope with Romeo; but Romeo, seeing her in the vault,
killed himself from grief; and when Juliet awoke and found Romeo dead,
she killed herself also.—Shakespeare, _Romeo and Juliet_ (1598).

C.H. Wilson says of Mrs. Baddeley (1742-1780) that her “‘Juliet’ was
never surpassed.” W. Donaldson, in his _Recollections,_ says that “Miss
O’Neill made her first appearance in Covent Garden Theatre in 1815 as
‘Juliet,’ and never was such an impression made before by any actress
whatsoever.” Miss Fanny Kemble and Miss Helen Faucit were both excellent
in the same character. The youngest Juliet was Miss Rosa Kenney (under
18), who made her _dêbut_ in this character at Drury Lane, in 1879.

The doating fondness and silly peevishness of the nurse tends to relieve
the soft and affectionate character of “Juliet,” and to place her before
the audience in a point of view which those who have seen Miss O’Neill
perform “Juliet,” know how to appreciate.—Sir W. Scott, _The Drama_.

_Juliet_, the lady beloved by Claudio, brother of Isabella.—Shakespeare,
_Measure for Measure_ (1603).

=Ju´lio=, a noble gentleman, in love with Lelia, a wanton
widow.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Captain_ (1613).

=Julio of Harancour=, “the deaf and dumb” boy, ward of Darlemont, who
gets possession of Julio’s inheritance and abandons him in the streets
of Paris. Julio is rescued by the Abbé De l’Epée, who brings him up, and
gives him the name of Theodore. Julio grows up a noble-minded and
intelligent young man, is recognized by the Franval family, and
Darlemont confesses that “the deaf and dumb” boy is the count of
Harancour.—Th. Holcroft, _The Deaf and Dumb_ (1785).

=Julius= (_St._) a British martyr of Caerleon or the City of Legions
(_Newport_, in South Wales). He was torn limb from limb by Maximia´nus
Herculius, general of the army of Diocle´tian, in Britain. Two churches
were founded in the City of Legions, one in honor of St Julius, and one
in honor of St. Aaron, his fellow-martyr.

       ... two other ... sealed their doctrine with their blood;
       St. Julius, and with him St. Aaron, have their room.
       At Carleon, suffering death by Diocletian’s doom,
                       Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxiv (1622).

=Jumps= (_Jemmy_), in _The Farmer_. One of the famous parts of Jos.
Munden (1758-1832).


           “Under some old apple-tree
           Jes’ a-restin’ through and through,
           I could git along without
           Nothin’ else at all to do,
           Only jest a wishin’ you
           Was a-gitten’ there like me,
           And June was Eternity?”
                  James Whitcomb, _Knee-deep in June_ (1888).


         “What is so rare as a day in June?
         Then, if ever come perfect days;
         Then Heaven tries the earth if it be in tune,
         And over it softly her warm ear lays.”
             James Russell Lowell, _The Vision of Sir Launfal_.

=Juno’s Birds.= Juno is represented in works of art as drawn through
fields of air by a pair of peacocks harnessed to her chariot.

=Jupe= (_Signor_), clown in Sleary’s circus, passionately attached to
his daughter Cecilia. Signor Jupe leaves the circus suddenly, because he
is hissed, and is never heard of more.

_Cecilia Jupe_, daughter of the clown. After the mysterious
disappearance of her father, she is adopted and educated by Thomas
Gradgrind, Esq., M.P.—C. Dickens, _Hard Times_ (1854).

=Just= (_The_).

ARISTI´DES, the Athenian (died B.C. 468).

BA´HARAM, called _Shah endeb_ (“the just king”). He was the fifth of the
Sassan´idês (276-296).

CASSIMIR II. of Poland (1117, 1177-1194).

FERDINAND I. of Arragon (1373, 1412-1416).

HAROUN-AL-RASCHID (“_the just_”), the greatest of the Abbasside caliphs
(765, 786-808).

JAMES II. of Arragon (1261, 1285-1326).

KHOSRU or CHOSROES I., called by the Arabs _Molk al Adel_ (“the just
king”). He was the twenty-first of the Sassanidês (*, 531-579).

MORAN, counsellor of Feredach, an early king of Ireland.

PEDRO I. of Portugal (1320, 1357-1367).

=Justin´ian= (_The English_), Edward I. (1239, 1272-1307).

=Ju´venal= (_The English_), John Oldham (1653-1683.)

_Juvenal (The Young)_. [Dr.] Thomas Lodge is so called by Robert Green
(1555-1625).—_A Groat’sworth of Wit, bought with a Million of

=Ju´venal of Painters= (_The_), William Hogarth (1697-1794).

=J’y suis et j’y reste= (“Here am I placed, and here I mean to remain”).
This was said by Marshal de MacMahon, and shows the character of the
marshal-president of the French better than a volume (1877). But he
resigned in 1879.

=Kail=, a prince of Ad, sent to Mecca to pray for rain. Three clouds
appeared, a white one, a red one, and a black one, and Kail was bidden
to make his choice. He chose the last, but when the cloud burst, instead
of rain it cast out lightning, which killed him.—Sale, _Al Korân_, vii.

=Kail´yal= (_2 syl._), the lovely and holy daughter of Ladur´lad,
persecuted relentlessly by Ar´valan; but virtue and chastity, in the
person of Kailyal, always triumphed over sin and lust. When Arvalan “in
the flesh” attemped to dishonor Kailyal, he was slain by Ladurlad; but
he then continued his attacks “out of the flesh.” Thus, when Kailyal was
taken to the Bower of Bliss by a benevolent spirit, Arvalan borrowed the
dragon-car of the witch Lor´rimite (_3 syl._) to drag him thence; the
dragons, however, unable to mount to paradise, landed him in a region of
thick-ribbed ice. Again, Kailyal, being obliged to quit the Bower, was
made the bride of Jaga-naut, and when Arvalan presented himself before
her again, she set fire to the pagoda, and was carried from the flames
by her father, who was charmed from fire as well as water. Lastly, while
waiting for her father’s return from the submerged city, whither he had
gone to release Ereen´ia (_3 syl._), Arvalan once more appeared, but was
seized by Baly, the governor of hell, and cast into the bottomless pit.
Having descended to hell, Kailyal quaffed the water of immortality, and
was taken by Ereenia to his Bower of Bliss, to dwell with him forever in
endless joy.—Southey, _Curse of Kehama_ (1809).

=Kaimes= (_Lord_), one of the two judges in Peter Peebles’s lawsuit.—Sir
W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Kalas´rade= (_3 syl._), the virtuous wife of Sadak, persecuted by the
Sultan Am´urath. (See Sadak).—Ridley, _Tales of the Genii_, xi. (1751).

=Kaled=, Gulnare (_2 syl._), disguised as a page, in the service of
Lara. After Lara is shot, she haunts the spot of his death as a crazed
woman, and dies at length of a broken heart.

            Light was _his_ form, and darkly delicate
            That brow whereon _his_ native sun had sate ...
            And the wild sparkle of _his_ eye seemed caught
            From high, and lightened with electric thought;
            Tho’ its black orb those long low lashes’ fringe
            Had tempered with a melancholy tinge.
                               Byron, _Lara_ (1814).

=Kalemberg= (_The curé of_), a _recueil_ of facetiæ. The escapades of a
young student made a chaplain in the Austrian court. He sets at defiance
and torments every one he encounters, and ends in being court fool to
Otho the Gay, grandson of Rudolf of Hapsburg.—_German Poem_ (fifteenth

=Kalyb=, “the Lady of the Woods,” who stole St. George from his nurse,
brought him up as her own child, and endowed him with gifts. St. George
enclosed her in a rock, where she was torn to pieces by spirits.
Johnson.—_Seven Champions of Christendom_, i. (1617).

=Kâ´ma=, the Hindû god of love. He rides on a sparrow, the symbol of
lust; holds in his hand a bow of sugar-cane strung with bees; and has
five arrows, one for each of the five senses.

=Kanchen.= In _Overland through Asia_ Thomas Wallace Knox gives a
thrilling story of a wolf-hunt with his host, Kanchen. Ivan, a servant,
attended them, and a live pig was fastened to the back of the sledge as
a bait. Instead of a single wolf a large pack was drawn by the squealing
of the pig, which was cut loose and left in the road by Kanchen’s order.
The race for life was interrupted by an upset that threw the servant
out. Kanchen and his guest kept hold of the sledge and left him to his
fate. It was the only hope of life. The master’s hair turned gray that
night, and he lived ever afterward in seclusion (1870).

=Karûn=, son of Yeshar and Izhar, uncle of Moses, the most beautiful and
wealthy of all the Israelites.

_Riches of Karûn_, an Arabic and Jewish proverb. The Jews say that Karûn
had a large palace, the doors of which were of solid gold.—Sale,
_Korân_, xxviii.

⁂ This Karûn is the Korah of the Pentateuch.

=Kate= [PLOWDEN], niece of Colonel Howard of New York, in love with
Lieutenant Barnstable, of the British navy, but promised by the colonel
in marriage to Captain Boroughcliff, a vulgar, conceited Yankee.
Ultimately, it is discovered that Barnstable is the colonel’s son, and
the marriage is arranged amicably between Barnstable and Kate.—E.
Fitzball, _The Pilot_.

_Kate Lancaster._ Charming hostess of the Brandon house, a legacy from
her name-aunt. She chooses her dearest girl friend for her companion,
and the two go down from Boston to spend the summer in the seaside
town.—Sara Orne Jewett, _Deephaven_ (1877).

=Kath´arina=, the elder daughter of Baptista, of Padua. She was of such
an ungovernable spirit and fiery temper, that she was nicknamed “The
Shrew.” As it was very unlikely any gentleman would select such a
spitfire for his wife, Baptista made a vow that his younger daughter,
Bianca, should not be allowed to marry before her sister. Petruchio
married Katharina and tamed her into a most submissive wife, insomuch
that when she visited her father a bet was made by Petruchio and two
other bridegrooms on their three brides. First Lucentio sent a servant
to Bianca to desire her to come into the room; but Bianca sent word that
she was busy. Hortensio next sent the servant “to entreat” his bride to
come to him; but she replied that Hortensio had better come to her if he
wanted her. Petruchio said to the servant, “Tell your mistress I command
her to come to me at once;” she came at once, and Petruchio won the
bet.—Shakespeare, _Taming of the Shrew_ (1594).

=Katharine=, a lady in attendance on the princess of France. Dumain, a
young lord in the suite of Ferdinand, king of Navarre, asks her hand in
marriage, and she replies:

                      A twelvemonth and a day
          I’ll mark no words that smooth-faced wooers say.
          Come then ...
          And if I have much love, I’ll give you some.
                    Shakespeare, _Love’s Labor’s Lost_ (1594).

_Katharine_ (_Queen)_, the divorced wife of Henry VIII. Shakespeare,
_Henry VIII._ (1601).

The following actresses are celebrated for their impersonations of this
character:—Mrs. Pritchard (1711-1768); Margaret [Peg] Woffington
(1718-1760); Mrs. Siddons (1755-1831); Mrs. Barley (1785-1850).

=Katharine de Medici of China=, Voochee, widow of King Tae-tsông. She
was most imperious and cruel, but her energy was irresistible (684-705).

=Katin´ka=, a Georgian, “white and red, with great blue eyes, a lovely
hand and arm, and feet so small they scarce seemed made to tread, but
rather skim the earth.” She was one of the three beauties of the harem,
into which Don Juan was admitted in female disguise. The other two were
Lolah and Dudù.—Byron, _Don Juan_, vi. 40, 41 (1824).

=Katmîr´=, the dog of the seven sleepers. It spoke with a human voice,
and said to the young men who wanted to drive it out of the cave, “I
love those who love God. Go to sleep, masters, and I will keep guard.”
The dog kept guard over them for 309 years, and neither slept nor ate.
At death it was taken up into paradise.—Sale, _Al Korân_, xviii. notes.

⁂ Katmîr, in the _Oriental Tales_, is called “Catnier.”

_He wouldn’t give a bone to Katmîr_, or _He wouldn’t throw a bone to the
dog of the seven sleepers_, an Arabic proverb, applied to a very
niggardly man.

=Kay= (_Sir_), son of Sir Ector, and foster-brother of Prince Arthur,
who made him his seneschal or steward. Sir Kay was ill-tempered,
mean-spirited, boastful, and overbearing. He had not strength of mind
enough to be a villain like Hagen, nor strength of passion enough to be
a traitor like Ganelon and Mordred; but he could detract and calumniate,
could be envious and spiteful, could annoy and irritate. His wit
consisted in giving nicknames: Thus he called young Gareth “Big
Hands”(_Beaumains_), “because his hands were the largest that ever
anyone had seen.” He called Sir Brewnor “The Shocking Bad Coat”(_La Cote
Male-tailé_), because his doublet fitted him so badly, and was full of
sword-cuts.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 3, 4, 120,
etc. (1470). (See KEY).

=Kayward=, the name of the hare in the beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_

=Kecksey=, a wheezy old wittol, who pretends to like a termagant wife
who can flirt with other men—ugh, ugh!—he loves high spirits—ugh,
ugh!—and to see his wife—ugh, ugh! happy and scampering about—ugh,
ugh!—to theatres and balls—ugh, ugh!—he likes to hear her laugh—ugh,
ugh!—and enjoy herself—ugh, ugh! Oh! this troublesome cough!—ugh,
ugh!—Garrick, _The Irish Widow_ (1757).

=Ke´derli=, the St. George of Mohammedan mythology. Like St. George, he
slew a monstrous dragon to save a damsel exposed to its fury, and,
having drunk of the water of life, rode through the world to aid those
who were oppressed.

=Keelavine= (_Mr._), a painter at the Spa hotel—Sir W. Scott, _St.
Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Keenan’s Charge= at Chancellorsville, May 2, 1863, where part of a
cavalry regiment, barely 300 in number, held 10,000 men in check until
the last cavalry man fell, deserves to rank with the Charge of the Six
Hundred, and the fight at Thermopylæ.

It is the theme of a poem by George Parsons Lathrop.

             “As Keenan fought with his men side by side,
             So they rode ’till there were no more to ride,
             But over them lying-there, shattered and mute
             What deep echo rolls? ’Tis a death salute
             From the cannon in place; for heroes ye braved
             Your fate not in vain; the army was saved.”
                                _Keenan’s Charge_ (1881).

=Keene= (_Abel_), a village schoolmaster, afterwards a merchant’s clerk.
Being led astray, he lost his place and hanged himself.—Crabbe,
_Borough_, xxi. (1810).

=Keepers=, of Piers Plowman’s visions, the Malvern Hills. Piers Plowman
(W. or R. Langland, 1362) supposes himself fallen asleep on the Malvern
Hills, and in his dream he sees various visions of an allegorical
character pass before him. These “visions” he put into poetry, the whole
containing 15,000 verses, divided into twenty parts, each part being
called a _passus_ or separate vision.

  Keepers of Piers Plowman’s vision, thro’ the sunshine and the snow.
                       Mrs. Browning, _The Lost Bower_.

=Keha´ma=, the almighty rajah of earth, and all-powerful in Swerga, or
heaven. After a long tyranny, he went to Pan´dalon (_hell_) to claim
domination there also. Kehama demanded why the throne of Yamen (or
Pluto) was supported by only three persons, and was told that he himself
must be the fourth. He paid no heed to this prophecy, but commanded the
amreeta-cup or draught of immortality to be brought to him, that he
might quaff it and reign forever. Now there are two immortalities: the
immortality of life for the good, and the immortality of death for the
wicked. When Kehama drank the amreeta, he drank immortal death, and was
forced to bend his proud neck beneath the throne of Yamen, to become the
fourth supporter.—Southey, _Curse of Kehama_ (1809).

⁂ Ladurlad was the person subjected to the “curse of Kehama,” and under
that name the story will be found.

=Keltie= (_Old_), innkeeper at Kinross.—Sir W. Scott, _The Abbot_ (time,

=Kempfer-Hausen=, Robert Pearce Gillies, one of the speakers in the
“Noctês Ambrosianæ.”—_Blackwood’s Magazine._

=Kendah=, an Arabian tribe, which used to bury alive their female
children as soon as they were born. The _Korân_ refers to them in ch.

=Kenge= (1 _syl._), of the firm of Kenge and Carboy, Lincoln’s Inn,
generally called “Conversation Kenge,” loving above all things to hear
“the dulcet tones of his own voice.” The firm is engaged on the side of
Mr Jarndyce, in the great Chancery suit of “Jarndyce _v._ Jarndyce.”—C.
Dickens, _Bleak House_ (1853).

=Kenelm= (_St._) was murdered at Clente-in-Cowbage, near Winchelcumb, in
Gloucestershire; but the murder “was miraculously notified at Rome by a
white dove,” which alighted on the altar of St. Peter’s, bearing in his
beak a scroll with these words:

         In Clent cow-pasture under a thorn,
         Of head bereft, lies Kenelm king-born.
                   Roger de Wendover, _Chronicles_ (died 1237).

=Kenilworth=, a novel by Sir W. Scott (1821). For interest it comes next
to _Ivanhoe_, and the portrait of Queen Elizabeth is life-like and
correct. That of Queen Mary is given in _The Abbot_. The novel is full
of courtly gaieties and splendor, but contains the unhappy tale of the
beautiful Amy Robsart, which cannot fail to excite our sympathy and

=Kenna=, daughter of King Obĕron, who fell in love with Albion, son of
the island king. Obĕron drove the prince from his empire, and when
Albion made war on the fairy king, he was slain. Kenna then poured the
juice of mōly over him, and the dead body was converted into a snowdrop.
According to this fable, “Kensington Gardens” is a corruption of
Kenna’s-town-garden.—Tickell, _Kensington Garden_ (died 1740).

=Kennedy= (_Frank_), an excise officer, who shows Mr. G. Godfrey
Bertram, the laird of Ellangowan (magistrate), the smuggler’s vessel
chased by a war sloop. The smugglers afterwards murder him.—Sir W.
Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Kenneth= (_Sir_), “Knight of the Leoppard,” a disguise assumed by
David, earl of Huntingdon, prince royal of Scotland.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Talisman_ (time, Richard I.).

=Kenneth= (=Kincaid=), promising architect, with his way to make in the
world. He marries pretty, engaging _Rosamond Holabird_.—A.D.T. Whitney,
_The Other Girls_.

=Kenrick= (_Felix_), the old foster-father of Caroline Dormer. His wife
Judith was her nurse. Kenrick, an Irishman, clings to his mistress in
all her misfortunes, and proves himself a most attached, disinterested,
and faithful old servant.—G. Colman, _The Heir-at-Law_ (1797).

=Kensington=, according to Tickell’s fables, is so called from the fairy
Kenna, daughter of King Obĕron. The tale is that Prince Albion was
stolen by Milkah, the fairy, and carried to Kensington. When 19 years
old, he fell in love with Kenna; but Obĕron was so angry at this
engagement, that he drove Albion out of the garden, and compelled Kenna
to marry Azuriel, a fairy from Holland Park. Albion laid his complaint
before Neptune, who sent Oriel with a fairy army against Oberon. In this
battle Albion was slain, and Neptune, in revenge, utterly destroyed the
whole empire. The fairies, being dispersed, betook themselves to the
hills and dales, the caves and mines. Kenna poured juice of the herb
mōly over the dead body of Albion, and the unhappy prince was changed
thus into a snowdrop.—Tickell, _Kensington Garden_ (died 1740).

=Kent.= According to fable, Kent is so called from Can´ute, one of the
companions of Brute the Trojan wanderer, who, according to Geoffrey’s
_British History_, settled in England, and founded a dynasty of kings.
Canute had that part of the island assigned to him which was called
Canutium, contracted into Can´tium, and again into Cant or Kent.

            But Canute had his portion from the rest,
            The which he called Canutium, for his hire,
            New Cantium, which Kent we commonly inquire.
                  Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, II. x. 12 (1590).

_Kent_ (_earl of_), under the assumed name of Caius, attended upon the
old King Lear, when his two elder daughters refused to entertain him
with his suite. He afterwards took him to Dover Castle. When the old
king was dying, he could not be made to understand how Caius and Kent
could be the same person.—Shakespeare, _King Lear_ (1605).

_Kent_ (_The Fair Maid of_), Joan, only daughter of Edmund Plantaganet,
earl of Kent. She married thrice: (1) William de Montacute, earl of
Salisbury, from whom she was divorced; (2) Sir Thomas Holland; and (3)
her second cousin, Edward, the Black Prince, by whom she became the
mother of Richard II.

_Kent_ (_Margaret_), a handsome, proud woman, whose husband deserts her
and lives in South America with a mistress, leaving her to support
herself and child. He comes back poor and not penitent, and she
considers it her duty to live with and to support him, although while
she was believed by most of her acquaintances to be a widow she was
beloved and wooed by Dr. Walton, a man worthy of her.

_Robert Kent_, the husband, is a queer compound of fascinating and
repulsive traits. He takes his wife’s hard-earned money as his due, and
cajoles his little girl into giving “poor papa” the contents of her
savings bank.—Ellen Olney Kirke, _The Story of Margaret Kent_ (1886.).

=Kenwigs= (_Mr._), a turner in ivory, and “a monstrous genteel man.” He
toadies Mr. Lillyvick, his wife’s uncle, from whom he has

_Mrs. Kenwigs_, wife of the above, considered “quite a lady,” as she has
an uncle who collects the water-rates, and sends her daughter Morleena
to a day school.

_The Misses Kenwigs_, pupils of Nicholas Nickleby, remarkable for
wearing their hair in long braided tails down their backs, the ends
being tied with bright ribbons.—C. Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Kera Kahn=, a gallant and generous Tartar chief in a war between the
Poles and the Tartans.—J. P. Kemble, _Lodoiska_ (a melodrama).

=Kerns=, light-armed Irish foot-soldiers. The word (_Kigheyren_) means
“a hell shower;” so called because they were hellrakes or the “devil’s
black-guard.” (See GALLOWGLASSES).—Stanihurst, _Description of Ireland_,
viii. 28.

=Kesche´tiouch=, the shepherd who joined the six Greek slaves of
Ephesus, and was one of the “seven sleepers.”

_Keschetiouch’s Dog_, Catnier, called by Sale, in his notes to the
_Korân_, “Katmîr.”—Comte de Caylus, _Oriental Tales_ (“History of
Dakinos,” 1743).

=Kettledrummle= (_Gabriel_), a covenanter preacher.—Sir W. Scott, _Old
Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Kevin= (_St._), a young man who went to live on a solitary rock at
Glendalough, in Wicklow. This he did to flee from Kath´leen, who loved
him, and whose eyes he feared his heart would not be able to resist.
Kathleen tracked him, and while he slept “bent over him;” but, starting
from his sleep, the “holy man” cast the girl from the rock into the sea,
which her ghost haunted amidst the sounds of sweet music.—T. Moore,
_Irish Melodies_, iv. (“By that Lake....” 1814).

=Kew= (_Mrs._), wife of the lighthouse keeper at _Deephaven_.—Sara Orne
Jewett, _Deephaven_ (1877).

=Key= (_Sir_), son of Sir Ector, the foster-father of Prince Arthur. He
was Arthur’s seneschal, and is represented as rude and boastful. Sir
Gaw´ain is the type of courtesy, Sir Launcelot of chivalry, Sir Mordred
of treachery, Sir Galahad of chastity, Sir Mark of cowardice. (See KAY.)

=Keyne= [_Keen_] or ST. KEYNA, daughter of Braga´nus, prince of
Garthmatrin or Brecon, called “Keyna, the Virgin.” Her sister Melaria
was the mother of St. David. Many nobles sought her in marriage, but she
refused them all, being resolved to live and die a virgin. She retired
to a spot near the Severn, which abounded with serpents, but at her
prayer they were all turned into _Ammonites_, and “abide to this day.”
Subsequently she removed to Mount St. Michael, and by her prayer a
spring of healing waters burst out of the earth, and whoever drinks
first of this water after marriage will become the dominant house-power.
“Now,” says Southey, “a Cornishman took his bride to church, and the
moment the ring was on ran up to the mount to drink of the mystic water.
Down he came in full glee to tell his bride; but the bride said, ‘My
good man, I brought a bottle of the water to church with me, and drank
of it before you started.’”—Southey, _The Well of St. Keyne_ (1798).

=Khadijah=, daughter of Khowailed; Mahomet’s first wife, and one of the
four perfect women. There other three are Fatima, the prophet’s
daughter; Mary, daughter of Imrân; and Asia, wife of the Pharaoh who was
drowned in the Red Sea.

=Khawla=, one of the sorceresses in the caves of Dom-Daniel, “under the
roots of the ocean.” She is called “the woman-fiend,” “fiercest of the
enchanter brood.” She had heard that one of the race of Hodei´rah (3
_syl._) would be their destruction, so Okba was sent forth to cut off
the whole race. He succeeded in killing eight, but one named Thal´aba
escaped. Abdaldar was chosen to hunt him up and kill him. He found the
boy in an Arab’s tent, and raised the dagger, but ere the blow fell, the
murderer himself was killed by the death-angel.—Southey, _Thalaba, the
Destroyer_ (1797).

=Khid´ir= or CHIDDER, the tutelary god of voyagers; his brother Elias is
the tutelary god of travellers. The two brothers meet once a year at
Mina, near Mecca.—Mouradgea d’Ohsson, _History of the Ottoman Empire_

=Khorassan= (_The Veiled Prophet of_), Mokanna, a prophet-chief, who
wore a veil under pretence of shading the dazzling light of his
countenance. The truth is, he had lost an eye, and his face was
otherwise disfigured in battle. Mokanna assumed to be a god, and
maintained that he had been Adam, Noah, and other representative men.
When the Sultan Mahadi environed him so that escape was impossible, the
prophet poisoned all his followers at a banquet, and then threw himself
into a burning acid, which wholly consumed his body.—T. Moore, _Lalla
Rookh_ (“The Veiled Prophet, etc.,” 1817).

=Kifri=, a giant and enchanter, the impersonation of atheism and
blasphemy. After some frightful blasphemies, he hurls into the air a
huge rock, which falls on himself and kills him, “for self-murderers are
generally infidels or atheists.”—Sir C. Morell [J. Ridley], _Tales of
the Genii_ (“The Enchanter’s Tale,” vi., 1751).

=Kildare= (2 _syl._), famous for the fire of St. Bridget, which was
never allowed to go out. St. Bridget returns every twentieth year to
tend to the fire herself. Part of the chapel of St. Bridget still
remains, and is called “The Fire-house.”

     Like the bright lamp that shone in Kildare’s holy fane,
     And burned through long ages of darkness and storm.
           T.Moore, _Irish Melodies_, iii. (“Erin, O Erin!” 1814).

Apud Kildariam occurrit ignis Sanctæ Brigidæ quern inextinguebilem
vocant.—Giraldus Cambrensis, _Hibernia_, ii. 34 (1187).

=Kilderkin= (_Ned_), keeper of an eating-house at Greenwich.—Sir W.
Scott, _Fortunes of Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Kilian= (_St._), an Irish missionary who suffered martyrdom at
Würzburg, in 689. A cathedral was erected to his memory in the eighth

=Kilian of Kersberg=, the squire of Sir Archibald von Hagenbach.—Sir W.
Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Killing no Murder.= Carpentier de Marigny, the enemy of Mazarin,
issued, in 1658, a tract entitled _Tuer un Tyran n’est par un Crime_.

Sexby wrote a tract entitled _Killing no Murder_, generally thought to
have been the production of William Allan. The object of the book was to
show that it would be no crime to murder Cromwell.

=Kilmansegg= (_Miss_), an heiress with great expectations, and an
artificial leg of solid gold.—Thomas Hood, _A Golden Legend_ (1828).

=King=, a title of sovereignty or honor. At one time, crown tenants were
called kings or dukes, at the option of the sovereign; thus, Frederick
_Barbarossa_ made one of his brothers a king-vassal, and another a
duke-vassal, simply by the investiture of a sword. In English history,
the lord of Man was styled “king;” so was the lord of the Isle of Wight,
and the lord of Connaught, as clearly appears in the grants of John and
Henry III. Several examples might be quoted of earls conferring the
title of “king” on their vassals.—See Selden’s _Titles of Honor_, iii.

_King_ (_Arthur_). See ARTHUR.

_King_ (_Like a_). When Porus, the Indian prince, was taken prisoner,
Alexander asked him how he expected to be treated. “Like a king,” he
replied; and Alexander made him his friend.

_King_ (_The Factory_), Richard Oastler, of Bradford, the successful
advocate of the “Ten Hours Bill” (1789-1861).

_King_ (_The Railway_), George Hudson; so called by the Rev. Sydney
Smith (1800-1871).

_King_ (_The Red_), the king of Persia; so called from his red turban.

Credo ut Persam nunc propter rubea tegumenta capitis _Rubeum Caput_
vocant, ita reges Moscoviæ, propter alba tegumenta _Albos Reges_

_King_ (_The Snow_), Gustavus Adolphus, of Sweden, killed in the “Thirty
Years’ War” at the battle of Lützen, 1632.

In Vienna he was called “The Snow King” in derision. Like a snow-ball,
he was kept together by the cold, but as he approached a warmer soil he
melted away and disappeared.—Dr. Crichton, _Scandinavia_, ii. 61 (1838).

_King_ (_The White_). The ancient kings of Muscovy were so called from
the white robe which they used to wear. Solomon wore a white robe; hence
our Lord, speaking of the lilies of the field, says that “Solomon in all
his glory was not arrayed like one of these” (_Luke_ xii. 27).

Principem Moscoviæ _Album Regem_ nuncupant.... Credo ut Persam nunc
propter rubea tegumenta capitis _Rubeum Caput_ vocant, ita reges
Moscoviæ, propter alba tegumenta _Albos Reges_ appellari.—Sigismund.

⁂ Another explanation may be suggested; Muscovy was called “White
Russia,” as Poland was called “Black Russia.”

_King_ (_Tom_), “the choice spirit of the day for a quiz, a hoax, a
joke, a jest, a song, a dance, a race, or a row. A jolly dog, a rare
blood, a prime buck, rum soul, and funny fellow.” He drives M. Morbleu,
a French barber, living in the Seven Dials, London, almost out of his
senses by inquiring over and over again for Mr. Thompson.—Moncrieff,
_Mon. Tonson_.

(There is a _Mon. Tonson_ by Taylor, 1768).

_King_ (surnamed _the Affable_), Charles VIII. of France (1470,

_King_ (surnamed _the Amorous_), Philippe I. of France (1052,

_King_ (surnamed _Augustus_), Philippe II. of France. So called because
he was born in August (1165, 1180-1223).

Sigismund II. of Poland; born in the month of August (1520, 1548-1572).

_King_ (surnamed _the Avenger_), Alphonso XI. of Leon and Castile (1310,

_King_ (surnamed _the Bad_), Charles II. of Navarre (1332, 1349-1387).

William I. of the Two Sicilies (*, 1154-1166).

_King_ (surnamed _the Bald_), Charles I., _la Chauve_ of France (823,

_King_ (surnamed _Barbarossa_ or _Red Beard_), Frederick II. of Germany
(1121, 1152-1190).

_King_ (surnamed _the Battler_), Alphonso I. of Aragon (*, 1104-1135).

_King_ (surnamed _the Bearded_), Baldwin IV., earl of Flanders, _The
Handsome Beard_ (1160-1186).

Constantine IV. _Pogonātus_, emperor of Rome (648, 668-685).

_King_ (surnamed _Beauclerk_), Henry I. of England (1068, 1100-1135).

_King_ (surnamed _the Bellicose_), Henri II. _le Belliqueux_ (1519,

_King_ (surnamed _the Black_), Heinrich III. of Germany (1017,

_King_ (surnamed _the Bold_), Boleslaus II. of Poland (1042, 1058-1090).

_King_ (surnamed _Bomba_), Ferdinand II. of the Two Sicilies (1751,

Francis II., _Bombalīno_ (1860).

_King_ (surnamed _the Brave_), Alphonso VI. of Leon and Castile (1030,

Alphonso IV. of Portugal (1290, 1324-1357).

_King_ (surnamed _the Catholic_), Alphonso I. of Asturias (693,

Ferdinand II. of Aragon (1452, 1474-1516).

Isabella, queen of Castile (1450, 1474-1504).

_King_ (surnamed _the Ceremonious_), Peter IV. of Aragon (1317,

_King_ (surnamed _the Chaste_), Alphonso II. of Leon, etc. (758,

_King_ (surnamed _the Confessor_), Edward _the Confessor_, of England
(1004, 1042-1066).

_King_ (surnamed _the Conqueror_), Alexander the Great, _Conqueror of
the World_ (B.C. 356, 336-323).

Alphonso of Portugal (1094, 1137-1185).

Aurungzebe the Great, _Alemgir_, the Great Mogul (1618, 1659-1707).

Francisco Pizarro, _Conquistador_, of Peru (1475-1541).

James I. of Aragon (1206, 1213-1276).

Othman or Osman I. of Turkey (1259, 1299-1326).

William I. of England (1027, 1066-1087).

_King_ (surnamed _the Cruel_), Pedro of Castile (1334, 1359-1360).

Pedro of Portugal (1320, 1357-1367).

_King_ (surnamed _the Desired_), Louis XVIII. of France (1755,

_King_ (surnamed _the Fair_), Charles IV. (1294, 1322-1326).

Philippe IV. _le Bel_, of France (1268, 1285-1314).

_King_ (surnamed _the Fat_), Alphonso II. of Portugal (1185, 1212-1223).

Charles III. of France (832, 884-888).

Louis VI., _le Gros_, of France (1078, 1108-1137).

Olaus II. of Norway (992, 1000-1030).

_King_ (surnamed _the Father of Letters_), François I. of France (1494,

_King_ (surnamed _the Father of His People_), Louis XII. of France
(1462, 1498-1515).

Christian III. of Denmark (1502, 1534-1559).

_King_ (surnamed _the Fearless_), John, duke of Burgundy, _Sanspeur_
(1371-1419). Richard I., _Sanspeur_, duke of Normandy (932, 942-996).

_King_ (surnamed _the Fierce_), Alexander I. of Scotland (*, 1107-1124).

_King_ (surnamed _the Gallant_), an Italian, _Re Galantuomo_, Victor
Emmanuel of Italy (1820, 1849-1878).

_King_ (surnamed _the Good_), Alphonso VIII. of Leon and Castile (1155,

John II. of France, _le Bon_ (1319, 1350-1364).

John III., duke of Brittany (1286, 1312-1341).

John V. duke of Brittany (1388, 1399-1442).

Philippe III., _le Bon_, duke of Burgundy (1396, 1419, 1467).

Réné, titular king of Naples (1409-1452).

Richard II., duke of Normandy (*, 996-1026.)

William II. of the Two Sicilies (*, 1166-1189).

_King_ (surnamed _the great_), Abbas I. of Persia (1557, 1585-1628).

Alexander of Macedon (B.C. 356, 340-323).

Alfred of England (849, 871-901).

Alphonso III. of Asturias, etc. (848, 866-912).

Alphonso V., count of Savoy (1249, 1285-1323).

Boleslaus I. of Poland (*, 992-1025).

Canute of England (995, 1014-1035).

Casimir III. of Poland (1309, 1333-1370).

Charlemagne (742, 768-814).

Charles III., duke of Lorraine (1543, 1547-1608).

Charles Emmanuel I., duke of Savoy (1562, 1580-1630).

Constantine I., emperor of Rome (272, 306-337).

Cosmo de’ Medici, grand duke of Tuscany (1519, 1537-1574).

Ferdinand I. of Castile, etc., (*, 1034-1065).

Frederick II. of Prussia (1712, 1740-1786).

Frederick William, the Great Elector (1620, 1640-1688).

Gregory I., pope (544, 590-604).

Henri IV. of France (1553, 1589-1610).

Herod I. of the Jews (b.c. 73, 47-4).

Herod Agrippa I., the tetrarch (*, *-44).

Hiao-wen-tee of China (B.C. 206, 179-157).

John II. of Portugal (1455, 1481-1495).

Justinian I., emperor of the East (483, 527-565).

Khosrou or Chosroës I. of Persia (*, 531-579).

Leo I., pope (390, 440-461).

Louis XIV. of France (1638, 1643-1715).

Ludwig of Hungary (1326, 1342-1381).

Mahomet II. of Turkey (1430, 1451-1481).

Matteo Visconti, lord of Milan (1250, 1295-1322).

Maximilian, duke of Bavaria (1573-1651).

Napoleon I. of France (1769, 1804-1814, died 1821).

Nicholas I., pope (*, 858-867).

Otto I. of Germany (912, 936-973).

Pedro III. of Aragon (1239, 1276-1285).

Peter I. of Russia (1672, 1689-1725).

Sapor II. of Persia (310, 308-380).

Sigismund I. of Poland (1466, 1506-1548).

Theoderic of the Ostrogoths (454, 475-526).

Theodosius I., emperor (346, 378-395).

Vladimir, grand-duke of Russia (*, 973-1014).

Waldemar I. of Denmark (1131, 1157-1181).

_King_ (surnamed _the Illustrious_), Albert V., emperor of Austria
(1398, 1404-1439).

Jam-schid of Persia (B.C. 840-800).

Kien-lông of China (1736-1796).

Nicomedês II., _Epiphanes_, of Bithynia (*, 149-191).

Ptolemy V., _Epiphanes_, of Egypt (B.C. 210, 205-181).

_King_ (surnamed _the Infant_), Ludwig IV. of Germany (893, 900-911).

Otto III. of Germany (980, 983-1002).

_King_ (surnamed _Ironside_), Edmund II. of England (989, 1016-1017).

Frederick II., elector of Brandenburg was called “Iron Tooth” (1657,

Nicholas of Russia was called “The Iron Emperor” (1796, 1826-1852).

_King_ (surnamed _the Just_), Baharam of Persia (276-296).

Casimir II. of Poland (1117, 1177-1194).

Ferdinand I. of Aragon (1373, 1412-1416).

Haroun-al-Raschid (765, 786-808).

James II. of Aragon (1261, 1285-1327).

Khosrou or Chosroës I. of Persia (*, 531-579).

Louis XIII. of France (1601, 1610-1643).

Pedro I. of Portugal (1320, 1357-1367).

_King_ (surnamed _the Lame_), Agesilaös of Sparta (B.C. 444, 398-360).

Albert II. of Austria (1289, 1330-1358), duke of Austria.

Charles II. of Naples (1248, 1289-1309).

Heinrich II. of Germany (972, 1002-1024).

_King_ (surnamed _the Lion_), Alep Arslan (_the Valiant Lion_), son of
Togrul Beg, the Perso-Turkish monarch (*, 1063-1072).

Arioch, called “The Lion King of Assyria” (B.C. 1927-1897).

Damelowiez, prince of Haliez, who founded Lemburg (“the lion city” in

Gustavus Adolphus, called “The Lion of the North” (1594, 1611-1632).

Heinrich, duke of Bavaria and Saxony (1129-1195).

Louis VIII. of France (1187, 1223-1226).

Richard I. of England, _Cœur de Lion_ (1157, 1189-1199).

William of Scotland; so called because he chose for his cognizance _a
red lion rampant_ (*, 1165-1214).

_King_ (surnamed _the Little_), Charles III. of Naples (1345,

_King_, (surnamed _the Long-legged_), Edward I., _Longshanks_, of
England (1239, 1272-1307).

Philippe V., _le Long_, of France (1294, 1317-1322).

_King_ (surnamed _the Magnanimous_), Alphonso V. of Aragon and Naples
(1385, 1416-1458).

Khosrou or Chosroës of Persia, _Noushirwan_ (*, 531-579).

_King_ (surnamed _the Magnificent_), Soliman I., sultan (1493,

_King_ (surnamed _the Martyr_), Charles I. of England (1600, 1625-1649).

Edward _the Martyr_, of England (961, 975-979).

Louis XVI. of France (1754, 1774-1793).

Martin I., pope (*, 649-655).

_King_ (surnamed _the Minion_), Henri III. of France (1551, 1574-1589).

_King_ (surnamed _the Noble_), Alphonso VIII., of Leon and Castile
(1155, 1158-1214).

Charles III. of Navarre (*, 1387-1425).

Soliman, called _Tchelibi_, Turkish prince at Adrianople (died 1410).

_King_ (surnamed _the Pacific_), Amadeus VIII., count of Savoy (1383,

Frederick III. of Germany (1415, 1440-1493).

Olaus III. of Norway (*, 1030-1093).

_King_ (surnamed _the Patient_), Albert IV., duke of Austria (1377,

_King_ (surnamed _the Philosopher_), Frederick the Great, called “The
Philosopher of Sans Souci” (1712, 1740-1786).

Leo VI., emperor of the East (866, 886-911).

Marcus Aurelius Antonīnus of Rome (121, 161-180).

_King_ (surnamed _the Pious_), Edward VI. of England (1537, 1547-1553).

Eric IX. of Sweden (*, 1155-1161).

Ernst I., founder of the house of Gotha (1601-1674).

Robert, _le Pieux_, of France (971, 996-1031).

_King_, (surnamed _the Prodigal_), Albert VI. of Austria (1418,

_King_, (surnamed _the Rash_), Charles, _le Temeraire_, of Burgundy
(1433, 1467-1477), duke.

_King_ (surnamed _the Red_), Amadeus VII., count of Savoy (1360,

Otto II. of Germany (955, 973-983).

William II., _Rufus_, of England (1057, 1087-1100).

_King_ (surnamed _Red Beard_), Frederick I., kaiser of Germany, called
_Barbarossa_ (1121, 1152-1190).

Horush or Horuc, sultan of Algiers (1474, 1516-1518).

Khair Eddin, sultan of Algiers (*, 1518-1546).

_King_ (surnamed _the Saint_), Boniface I., pope (*, 418-422).

Boniface IV., pope (*, 607-615).

Celestine I., pope (*, 422-432).

Celestine V., pope (1215, 1294-1296).

Charles the Good, count of Flanders (*, 1119-1127).

David of Scotland (*, 1124-1153).

Eric IX. of Sweden (*, 1155-1160).

Ethelred I. of Wessex (*, 866-871).

Eugenius I., pope (*, 654-657).

Felix I., pope (*, 269-274).

Ferdinand III. of Castile and Leon (1200, 1217-1252).

Heinrich II. of Germany (972, 1002-1024).

Julius I., pope (*, 337-352).

Kâng-he of China (*, 1661-1722).

Ladislaus I. of Hungary (1041, 1077-1095).

Leo IX., pope (1002, 1049-1054).

Louis IX., of France (1215, 1226-1270).

Martin I., pope (*, 649-655).

Olaus II. of Norway (992, 1000-1030).

Stephen I. of Hungary (979, 997-1038).

_King_ (surnamed _the Salic_), Conrad II. of Germany (*, 1024-1039).

_King_ (surnamed _the Severe_), Peter I. of Portugal (1320, 1357-1367).

_King_ (surnamed _the Silent_), Anastasius I., emperor of the East (430,

William I., Stadtholder (1533, 1544-1584).

_King_ (surnamed _the Simple_), Charles III. of France (879, 893-929).

_King_ (surnamed _the Stammerer_), Louis II., _le Bégue_, of France
(846, 877-879).

Michael II., emperor of the East (*, 820-829).

_King_ (surnamed _the Terrible_), Ivan II. of Russia (1529, 1533-1584).

_King_ (surnamed _the Thunderbolt_). Ptolemy, king of Macedon, eldest
son of Ptolemy Sotêr I., was so called from his great impetuosity
(B.C.*, 285-279).

_King_ (surnamed _the Thunderer_), Stephen II. of Hungary (1100,

_King_ (surnamed _the Unready_), Ethelred II. of England (*, 978-1016).
Unready, in this case, does not mean unprepared, but unwise, lacking
_rede_ (“wisdom or counsel”).

_King_ (surnamed _the Valiant_), John IV., duke of Brittany (1338,

_King_ (surnamed _the Victorious_), Charles VII. of France (1403,

_King_ (surnamed _the Well-beloved),_ Charles VI. of France (1368,

Louis XV. of France (1710, 1715-1774).

_King_ (surnamed _the Wise_), Albert II., duke of Austria (1289,

Alphonso X. of Leon and Castile (1203, 1252-1284).

Charles V. of France, _le Sage_ (1337, 1364-1380).

Che-tsou of China (*, 1278-1295).

Frederick, elector of Saxony (1463, 1544-1554).

James I., _Solomon_, of England (1566, 1603-1625).

John V., duke of Brittany (1389, 1399-1442).

_King_ (surnamed _the Wonder of the World_), Frederick II. of Germany
(1194, 1215-1250).

Otto III. of Germany (980, 983-1002).

_King_ (surnamed _the Young_), Dagobert II. of France (652, 656-679).

Leo II., pope (470, 474-474).

Louis VII., _le Jeune_, of France (1120, 1137-1180).

Ludwig II. of Germany (822, 855-875).

Romanus II., emperor of the East (939, 959-963).

=King Franco´ni=, Joachim Murat; so called because his dress was so
exceedingly showy that he reminded one of the fine dresses of Franconi,
the mountebank (1767-1815).

=King Log=, a _roi fainéant_, an allusion to Æsop’s fable of the _Frogs
asking for a King_. Jupiter threw a log into the pond for their first
king, and a stork for their second. The one was too passive, the other
was a “devourer of his people.”

=King Maker= (_The_), Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, who fell in the
battle of Barnet (1420-1471). So called, because when he espoused the
Yorkists, Edward IV. was set up king; and when he espoused the
Lancastrian side, Henry VI. was restored.

           Thus fortune to his end the mighty Warwick brings,
           This puissant setter-up and plucker-down of kings.
                    Drayton, _Polyolbion_, xxii. (1622).

=King Pétaud=, a king whose subjects are all his equals. _The court of
King Pétaud_ is a board where no one pays any attention to the chairman;
a meeting of all talkers and no hearers. The king of the beggars is
called King Pétaud, from the Latin, _peto_, “I beg.”

=King Stork=, a tyrant who devours his subjects and makes them
submissive from fear. The allusion is to Æsop’s fable of the _Frogs
asking for a King_. Jupiter first sent them a log, but they despised the
passive thing; he then sent them a stork, who devoured them.

=King and the Locusts.= A king made a proclamation that, if any man
would tell him a story which should last forever, he would make him his
heir and son-in-law; but if anyone undertook to do so and failed, he
should lose his head. After many failures, came one, and said: “A
certain king seized all the corn of his kingdom, and stored it in a huge
granary; but a swarm of locusts came, and a small cranny was descried,
through which one locust could contrive to creep. So one locust went in,
and carried off one grain of corn; and then another locust went in, and
carried off another grain of corn; and then another locust went in,”
etc.; and so the man went on, day after day, and week after week, “and
so another locust went in, and carried off another grain of corn.” A
month passed; a year passed. In six months more, the king said, “How
much longer will the locusts be?” “Oh, your majesty,” said the
story-teller, “they have cleared at present only a cubit, and there are
many thousand cubits in the granary.” “Man, man!” cried the king; “you
will drive me mad. Take my daughter, take my kingdom, take everything I
have: only let me hear no more of these intolerable locusts!”—_Letters
from an Officer in India_ (edited by the Rev. S. A. Pears).

=King and the Beggar.= It is said that King Copethua or Cophetua of
Africa fell in love with a beggar-girl, and married her. The girl’s name
was Penel´ophon; called by Shakespeare Zenel´ophon (_Love’s Labor’s
Lost_, act iv. sc. 1, 1594).

=King and the Cobbler.= The interview between Henry VIII. and a merry
London cobbler, is the subject of one of the many popular tales in which
Bluff Hal is represented as visiting an humble subject in disguise.

=King of Bark=, Christopher III. of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. So
called because, in a time of scarcity, he had the bark of birchwood
mixed with meal for food (died 1448).

=King of Bath=, Beau Nash, who was for fifteen years master of the
ceremonies of the bath-rooms in that city, and conducted the balls with
great splendor and judgment (1674-1761.)

=King of England.= This title was first assumed by Egbert in 828.

=King of Exeter ’Change=, Thomas Clark, friend of the famous Abraham
Newland (1737-1817).

=King of France.= This title was first assumed by Louis VII. (1171). It
was changed into “King of the French” by the National Assembly in 1789.
Louis XVIII. resumed the title “king of France” in 1814; and Louis
Phillipe again resumed the more Republican title “king of the French”

_King of France._ Edward III. of England assumed the title in 1337; but
in 1801 it was relinquished by proclamation (time, George III.).

=King of Ireland.= This title was first assumed by Henry VIII. in 1542.
The title previously assumed by the kings of England was “lord of

=King of Painters=, a title assumed by Parrhasĭos. Plutarch says he wore
a purple robe and a golden crown (fl. B. C. 400).

=King of Preachers=, Louis Bourdaloue, a French clergyman (1632-1704).

=King of Rome=, a title conferred by Napoleon I. on his son the very day
he was born; but he was generally called the duke of Reichstadt.

It is thought that this title was given in imitation of Charlemagne. If
so, it was a blunder; Charlemagne was never “_king_ of Rome,” but he was
“patrician of Rome.” In the German empire, the heir-apparent was “king
of the Romans,” not “king of Rome.” This latter title was expressly
conferred on the German kings, and sometimes on their heirs, by a
coronation at Milan. The German title equivalent to “dauphin,” or
“prince of Wales,” was “king of the Romans.”

=King of Ships=, Carausius, who assumed the purple in A. D. 287, and,
seizing on Britain, defeated the emperor Maximian Herculius in several
naval engagements (250, 287-293).

=King of Yvetot= [_Ev-to_], a king of name only; a mockery king; one who
assumes mighty honors without the wherewithal to support them. Yvetot,
near Rouen, was a seigneurie, on the possessor of which Clotaire I.
conferred the title of king in 534, and the title continued till the
fourteenth century.

                  Il était un roi d’Yvetot,
                    Peu connu dans l’histoire;
                  Se levant tard, se couchant tôt,
                    Dormant fort bien sans gloire.

=King of the Beggars=, Bampfylde Moore Carew (1693-1770). He succeeded
Claus Patch, who died 1730, and was therefore king of the beggars for
forty years (1730-1770).

=King of the World=, the Roman emperor.

=King Sat on the Rocky Brow= (=_A_=). The reference is to Xerxes viewing
the battle of Salmis from one of the declivities of mount Ægăl´ĕos.

      A king sat on the rocky brow
        Which looks o’er sea-born Salamis;
      And ships by thousands, lay below.
            Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. (“The Isles of Greece,” 1820).

(“Ships by thousands” is a gross exaggeration. The original fleet was
only 1,200 sail, and 400 were wrecked off the coast of Sêpias before the
sea-fight of Salamis commenced, thus reducing the number to 800 at

=Kings should Die Standing= (_A_), Vespasian said so, and Louis XVIII.
of France repeated the same conceit. Both died standing.

=King’s Cave= (_The_), opposite to Campbeltown (Argyllshire); so called
because King Robert Bruce, with his retinue, lodged in it.—_Statistical
Account of Scotland_, v. 167.

=Kings.= Many lines of kings have taken the name of some famous
forefather or some founder of a dynasty as a titular name.—See Selden,
_Titles of Honor_, v.

  Alban kings, called _Silvius_.
  Amalekite kings, _Agag_.
  Bithynian kings, _Nicomēdés_.
  Constantinopolitan kings, _Constantine_.
  Egyptian kings, (ancient), _Pharaoh_.
       ”       ”    (mediæval), _Ptolemy_.
  Indian kings, called _Palibothrie_ (from the City of Palibothra).
  Parthian kings, _Ar´săcês_.
  Roman emperors, _Cæsar_.
  Servian kings, _Lazar_, _i.e._ Eleazar Bulk or _Bulk-ogar_, sons of
  Upsala kings, called _Drott_.
  _Royal patronymics._—Athenian, Cecrop´idæ, from _Cecrops_.
  Danish, Skiold-ungs, from _Skiold_.
  Persian, Achmen´-idæ, from _Achmenês_.
  Thessalian, Aleva-dæ, from _Alevas_; etc., etc.

=Kings of Cologne= (_The Three_), the three Magi who came from the East
to offer gifts to the infant Jesus. Their names are Melchior, Gaspar,
and Belthazar. The first offered _gold_, symbolic of kingship; the
second, _frankincense_, symbolic of divinity; the third, _myrrh_,
symbolic of death, myrrh being used in embalming the dead. (See

=Kings of England.= Since the Conquest, not more than three successive
sovereigns have reigned without a crisis:

  William I, William II., Henry I.
    Stephen, usurper.
  Henry II., Richard I., John.
    The pope gives the crown to the dauphin.
  Henry III., Edward I., Edward II.
    Edward II. murdered.
  Edward III., Richard II.
    Richard II. deposed.
  Henry IV., V., VI.
    Lancaster changed to York.
  Edward IV., V., Richard III.
    Dynasty changed.
  Henry VII., VIII., Edward VI.
    Lady Jane Grey.
  Mary, Elizabeth.
    Dynasty changed.
  James I., Charles I.

    Charles I. beheaded.

  Charles II., James II.
    James II. dethroned.
  William III., Anne.
    Dynasty changed.
  George I., II., III.
  George IV., William IV., Victoria (indirect successions).

_Kings of England._ Except in one instance (that of John), we have never
had a _great-grandchild_ sovereign in direct descent. The exception is
not creditable, for in John’s reign the kingdom was given away twice;
his son, Henry III., was imprisoned by Leicester; and his
great-grandson, Edward II., was murdered. In two other instances a
_grand-child_ has succeeded, viz., Henry VI., whose reign was a
continued civil war; and Edward VI., the sickly son of Jane Seymour.
Stephen was a grandchild of William I., but a usurper; Richard II. was a
grandchild of Edward III., and George III. was a grandson of George II.;
but their fathers did not succeed to the throne.

William I.; his sons, William II., Henry I.

Stephen (a usurper).

Henry II.; his sons, Richard I., John (discrowned).

From John, in regular succession, we have Henry III. (imprisoned),
Edward I., Edward II. (murdered), Edward III.

Richard II., son of the Black Prince, and without offspring.

Henry IV., Henry V., Henry VI., (civil wars).

Edward IV., Edward V.

Richard III. (no offspring).

Henry VII., Henry VIII., Edward VI.

Mary, Elizabeth (daughters of Henry VIII.).

James I., Charles I.

Cromwell (called lord protector).

Charles II., James II. (two brothers).

William III.


George I., George II.

George III. (great-grandson of George I., but not in direct descent),
George IV.

William IV. (brother of George IV.).

Victoria (the niece of William IV. and George IV.).

_Kings of England._ Three seems to be a kind of ruling number in our
English sovereigns. Besides the coincidences mentioned above, connected
with the number, may be added the following:—(1) That of the four kings
who married French princesses, three of them suffered violent deaths,
viz., Edward II., Richard II., and Charles I. (2) The three longest
reigns have been three threes, viz., Henry III., Edward III., and George
III. (3) We have no instance, as in France, of three brothers succeeding
each other.

=Kings of France.= The French have been singularly unfortunate in their
choice of royal surnames, when designed to express anything except some
personal quality, as _handsome_, _fat_, of which we cannot judge the
truth. Thus, Louis VIII., a very feeble man in mind and body, was
surnamed _the Lion_; Philippe II., whose whole conduct was overreaching
and selfish, was _the Magnanimous_; Philippe III., the tool of Labrosse,
was _the Daring_; Philippe VI., the most unfortunate of all the kings of
France, was surnamed _the Lucky_; Jean, one of the worst of all the
kings, was called _the Good_; Charles VI., an idiot, and Louis XV., a
scandalous debauchee, were surnamed _the Well-beloved_; Henri II., a man
of pleasure, wholly under the thumb of Diane de Poitiers, was called
_the War-like_; Louis XIII., most unjust in domestic life, where alone
he had any freedom of action, was called _the Just_; Louis XIV., a man
of mere ceremony and posture, who lost battle after battle, and brought
the nation to absolute bankruptcy, was surnamed _the Great King_. (He
was little in stature, little in mind, little in all moral and physical
faculties; and _great_ only in such littlenesses as posturing, dressing,
ceremony and gormandizing). And Louis XVIII., forced on the nation by
conquerors, quite against the general will, was called _the Desired_.

_Kings of France._ The succession of three brothers has been singularly
fatal in French monarchism. The Capetian dynasty terminated with three
brothers, sons of Philippe, _le Bel_ (viz., Louis X., Philippe V., and
Charles IV.). The Valois dynasty came to an end by the succession of the
three brothers, sons of Henri II. (viz., François II., Charles IX., and
Henri III.). The next or Bourbon dynasty terminated in the same manner
(Louis XVI., Louis XVIII., and Charles X.).

After Charles IV. (the third brother of the Capetian dynasty), came
Phillipe de Valois, a collateral descendant; after Henri III. (the third
brother of the Valois dynasty), came Henry de Bourbon, a collateral
descendant; and after Charles X. (the third brother of the Bourbon
dynasty), came Louis Philippe, a collateral descendant. With the third
of the third the monarchy ended.

=Kings Playing with their Children.=

[F1: not a paragraph line break?]The fine painting of J. D. Ingres,
represents Henri IV. (of France) carrying his children pickaback, to the
horror of the Spanish ambassador.

Plutarch tells us that Agesiläos was one day discovered riding
cock-horse on a walking-stick, to please and amuse his children.

George III. was on one occasion, discovered on all fours, with one of
his children riding astride his back. He is also well remembered by the
painting of “George III. Playing at Ball with the Princess Amelia.”

=Kingsale= (_Lord_), allowed to wear his hat in the presence of royalty.
In 1203, Hugh de Lacie treacherously seized Sir John de Courcy, lord of
Kingsale, and King John condemned him to perpetual imprisonment in the
Tower. When he had been there about a year, King John and Philippie
_Auguste_ of France agreed to determine certain claims by combat. It was
then that John applied to de Courcy to be his champion; and, as soon as
the giant knight entered the lists, the French champion ran away
panic-struck. John now asked his champion what reward he could give him
for his service. “Titles and estates I have enow,” said de Courcy; and
then requested that, after having paid obeisance, he and his heirs might
stand covered in the presence of the king, and his successors.

Lord Forester had the same right confirmed to him by Henry VIII.

John Pakington, ancestor of Lord Hampton, had a grant made him in the
20th Henry VIII. “of full liberty during his life to wear his hat in the
royal presence.”

=Kingship= (_Disqualifications for_). Any personal blemish disqualified
a person from being king during the semi-barbarous stage of society;
thus, putting out the eyes of a prince, to disqualify him from reigning,
was by no means uncommon. It will be remembered that Hubert designed to
put out the eyes of Prince Arthur with this object. Witi´za, the
Vizigoth, put out the eyes of Theodofred, “inhabilitandole pāra la
monarchia,” says Ferraras. When Albuquerque took possession of Ormuz, he
deposed fifteen kings of Portugal, and, instead of killing them, put out
their eyes.

Yorwerth, son of Owen Gwynedh, was set aside from the Welsh throne
because he had a broken nose.

Count Oliba of Barcelona was set aside because he could not speak till
he had stamped thrice with his foot, like a goat.

The son of Henry V. was to be received as king of France, only on
condition that his body was without defect, and was not
stunted.—Monstrelet, _Chroniques_, v. 190 (1512).

          Un Conde de Gallicia que fuera valiado,
          Pelayo avie nombre, ome fo desforzado,
          Perdio la vision, andaba embargado,
          Ca ome que non vede, nom debie seer nado.
               Gonzalez de Berceo, _S. Dom_, 388 (died 1266).

=Kinmont Willie=, William Armstrong of Kinmonth. This notorious
freebooter, who lived in the part latter of the sixteenth century, is
the hero of a famous Scotch ballad.

=Kinney= (_Elder_). A good man, married to a pure, good woman. They work
together in their home and parish, a benefaction to one another and to
their little world, until the husband and pastor is called home by a
fatal accident. His wife’s hair turns white under the shock, yet she
rallies her strong heart to read her husband’s sermons to his people
until they will hear of no other spiritual leader.—Draxy Miller’s Dowry,
_Saxe Holm Stories_ (1886).

=Kirk= (_Mr. John_), foreman of the jury on Effie Deans’s trial.—Sir W.
Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Kirkcaldy= (Scotland), a corruption of Kirk-Culdee, one of the churches
founded in 563 by St. Colomb, and his twelve brethren, when they
established the Culdee institutions. The doctrines, discipline and
government of the Culdees resembled Presbyterianism.

=Kirkrapine= (3 _syl._), a sturdy thief, “wont to rob churches of their
ornaments and poor men’s boxes.” All he could lay hands on he brought to
the hut of Abessa, daughter of Corce´ca. While Una was in the hut,
Kirkrapine knocked at the door, and as it was not immediately opened,
knocked it down; whereupon the lion sprang on him, “under his lordly
foot did him suppress,” and then “rent him in thousand pieces small.”

The meaning is that popery was reformed by the British lion, which slew
Kirkrapine or put a stop to the traffic in spiritual matters. Una
represents truth of the Reformed Church.—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, i. 3

=Kit= [NUBBLES], the lad employed to wait on little Nell, and do all
sorts of odd jobs at the “curiosity shop” for her grandfather. He
generally begins his sentences with “Why then.” Thus, “’Twas a long way,
wasn’t it, Kit!” “Why then, it was a goodish stretch,” returned Kit.
“Did you find the house easily?” “Why then, not over and above,” said
Kit. “Of course you have come back hungry?” “Why then, I do think I am
rather so.” When the “curiosity shop” was broken up by Quilp, Kit took
service under Mr. Garland, Abel Cottage, Finchley.

=Kit Carson’s Ride= tells how he, his newly-made bride, and Revels, his
comrade, rode before a prairie fire, entangled in a herd of frightened,
savage buffaloes, until Revels dropped dead, and the red flames snatched
his bride from him, and his horse bore him senseless, into safety.

         “Sell Paché! You buy him! A bag full of gold
         You show him! Tell of him the tale I have told!
         Why he bore me through fire, is blind and is old.”
                 Joaquin Miller, _Songs of the Sierras_ (1871).

=Kite= (_Sergeant_), the “recruiting officer.” He describes his own
character thus:

“I was born a gypsy, and bred among that crew till I was 10 years old;
there I learnt _canting_ and _lying_. I was bought from my mother by a
certain nobleman for three pistoles, who ... made me his page; there I
learnt _impudence_ and _pimping_. Being turned off for wearing my lord’s
linen, and drinking my lady’s ratafia, I turned bailiff’s follower;
there I learnt _bullying_ and _swearing_. I at last got into the army,
and there I learnt ... _drinking_. So that ... the whole sum is:
canting, lying, impudence, pimping, bullying, swearing, drinking, and a
halberd.”—G. Farquhar, _The Recruiting Officer_, iii. 1 (1705).

Sergeant Kite is an original picture of low life and humor, rarely
surpassed.—R. Chambers, _English Literature_, i. 599.

The original “Sergeant Kite” was R. Eastcourt (1668-1713).

=Kitely= (2 _syl._), a rich City merchant, extremely jealous of his
wife.—Ben Jonson, _Every Man in His Humor_ (1598).

=Kit-Kat Club,= held in Shire Lane, now called Lower Serle’s Place
(London). The members were whig “patriots” who, at the end of William
III.’s reign, met to secure the Protestant succession. Joseph Addison,
Steele, Congreve, Garth, Vanbrugh, Mainwaring, Walpole, Pulteney, etc.,
were members.

=Kitt Henshaw=, boatman to Sir Patrick Charteris, of Kidfauns, provost
of Perth.—Sir W. Scott, _Fair Maid of Perth_ (time, Henry IV.).

=Kittlecourt= (_Sir Thomas_), M.P., neighbor of the laird of
Ellangowan.—Sir W. Scott, _Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.).

=Kitty=, one of the servants of Mr. Peregrine Lovel. She spoke French
like a native, because she was once “a half boarder at Chelsea.” Being
asked if she had read Shakespeare: “Shikspur, Shikspur!” she replied.
“Who wrote it? No, I never read that book; but I promise to read it over
one afternoon or other.”—Rev. James Townley, _High Life Below Stairs_

_Kitty_, younger daughter of Sir David and Lady Dunder, of Dunder Hall,
near Dover. She is young, wild, and of exuberant spirits, “her mind full
of fun, her eyes full of fire, her head full of novels, and her heart
full of love.” Kitty fell in love with Random, at Calais, and agreed to
elope with him, but the fugitives were detected by Sir David during
their preparations for flight, and, to prevent scandal, the marriage was
sanctioned by the parents, and duly solemnized at Dunder Hall.—G.
Colman, _Ways and Means_ (1788).

=Kitty Ellison.= Young woman from Eriecreek, who travels up the
Saguenay, and into Canada, with Boston cousins, and meets _en route_ Mr.
Arbuton, a Bostonian of the Bostonians. He cannot help loving her, and
incidentally saves her life, yet is ashamed of her plain travelling-gown
when they encountered certain Boston women. Kitty sees it, and proudly
dismisses him.

“I couldn’t alter both our whole lives or make myself over again, and
you couldn’t change yourself. Perhaps you would try, and I know I would,
but it would be a wretched failure and disappointment as long as we
lived.”—W. D. Howells, _A Chance Acquaintance_ (1873).

=Kitty Pry=, the waiting-maid of Melissa. Very impertinent, very
inquisitive, and very free in her tongue. She has a partiality to
Timothy Sharp, “the lying valet.”—Garrick, _The Lying Valet_ (1741).

=Kitty Willis=, a loose woman, employed by Saville to attend a
masquerade in the same costume as Lady Francis, in order to dupe
Courtall.—Mrs. Cowley, _The Belles’ Stratagem_ (1780).

=Klabot´ermann,= a ship-kobold of the Baltic, sometimes heard, but
rarely seen. Those who have seen him say he sits on the bowsprit of a
phantom ship, called _Carmilhan_, dressed in yellow, wearing a
night-cap, and smoking a cutty pipe.

=Kläs= (_Kaiser_), a nickname given to Napoleon I. (1769, 1804-1814,

                 Hort mâl lüd, en bitgen still,
                 Hort wat ick vertellen will,
                 Van den gröten Kaiser Kläs,
                 Dat wär mal en fixen Bäs,
                 Ded von Korsika her tën
                 Wall de welt mal recht besehm.

                 Helena de Jumfer is
                 Nu sîn Brüt, sin Paradis;
                 Kläs geit mit ër op de Jagd
                 Drömt nich mehr von krieg un Schlacht,
                 Un het he mâl Langewil
                 Schleit he Rötten d’ôt mil’n Bil.
                                         _Kaiser Kläs_.

=Klaus= (_Doctor_), hero and title of a comedy by Herr Adolph l’Arronge
(1878). Dr. Klaus is a gruff, but noble-minded and kind-hearted man,
whose niece (a rich jeweller’s daughter) has married a poor nobleman of
such extravagant notions that the wife’s property is soon dissipated;
the young spendthrift is reformed. The doctor has a coachman, who
invades his master’s province, and undertakes to cure a sick peasant.

_Klaus_ (_Peter_), the prototype of Rip van Winkle. Klaus _[Klows]_ is a
goatherd of Sittendorf, who was one day accosted by a young man, who
beckoned him to follow. Peter obeyed, and was led into a deep dell,
where he found twelve knights playing skittles, no one of whom uttered a
word. Gazing around, he noticed a can of wine, and, drinking some of its
contents, was overpowered with sleep. When he awoke, he was amazed at
the height of the grass, and when he entered the village everything
seemed strange to him. One or two companions encountered him, but those
whom he knew as boys were grown middle-aged men, and those whom he knew
as middle-aged were gray-beards. After much perplexity he discovered he
had been asleep for twenty years (See SLEEPERS).

Your Epimenidês, your somnolent Peter Klaus, since named “Rip van
Winkle.”—T Carlyle.

=Kleiner= (_General_), governor of Prague, brave as a lion, but
tender-hearted as a girl. It was Kleiner who rescued the infant daughter
of Mahldenau at the siege of Magdeburg. A soldier seized the infant’s
nurse, but Kleiner smote him down, saved the child, and brought it up as
his own daughter. Mahldenau being imprisoned in Prague as a spy, Meeta,
his daughter, came to Prague to beg for his pardon, and it then came to
light that the governor’s adopted daughter was Meeta’s sister.—S.
Knowles, _The Maid of Mariendorpt_ (1838).

=Knag= (_Miss_), forewoman of Mde. Mantalini, milliner, near Cavendish
Square, London. After doting on Kate Nickleby for three whole days, this
spiteful creature makes up her mind to hate her for ever.—C. Dickens,
_Nicholas Nickleby_, xviii. (1838).

=Knickerbocker= (_Diedrich_), _nom de plume_ of Washington Irving, in
his _History of New York_ (1809).

=Knight of Arts and Industry=, the hero of Thomson’s _Castle of
Indolence_ (canto ii. 7-13, 1748).

=Knight of La Mancha=, Don Quixote de la Mancha, the hero of Cervantes’
novel called _Don Quixote, etc._ (1605-1615).

=Knight of the Blade=, a bully; so called because when swords were worn,
a bully was for ever asserting his opinions, by an appeal to his sword.

=Knight of the Ebon Spear=, Britŏmart. In the great tournament she
“sends Sir Artegal over his horse’s tail,” then disposes of Cambel,
Tri´amond, Blan´damour, and several others in the same summary way, for
“no man could bide her enchanted spear.”—Spenser, _Faëry Queen_, iv. 4

=Knight of the Fatal Sword=, Emedōrous of Grana´da. Known for his love
of the incomparable Alzay´da.

“Sir,” said the lady, “your name is so celebrated in the world, that I
am persuaded nothing is impossible for your arm to execute.”—Comtesse
D’Aunoy, _Fairy Tales_ (“The Knights-Errant,” 1682).

=Knight of the Invincible Sword.= So Am´adis de Gaul styled
himself.—Vasco de Lobeira, _Amadis de Gaul_ (fourteenth century).

=Knight of the Leopard.= David, earl of Huntingdon, prince royal of
Scotland, assumed the name and disguise of Sir Kenneth, “Knight of the
Leopard,” in the crusade.—Sir. W. Scott, _The Talisman_ (time, Richard

=Knight of the Lions=, the appellation assumed by Don Quixote after his
attack upon the van containing two lions sent by the general of Oran as
a present to the king of Spain.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. i. 17

=Knight of the Pestle=, an apothecary or druggist.

=Knight of the Post=, one who haunted the purlieus of the courts, ready
to be hired to swear anything. So called because these mercenaries hung
about the post to which the sheriffs affixed their announcements.

   I’ll be no knight of the post, to sell my soul for a bribe;
   Tho’ all my fortunes be crossed, yet I scorn the cheater’s tribe.
                      _Ragged and Torn and True_ (a ballad).

Also a man in the pillory, or one that has been publicly tied to a post
and whipped.

=Knight of the Rainbow=, a footman; so called from his gorgeous raiment.

=Knight of the Roads=, a foot-pad or highwayman; so termed by a pun on
the military order entitled “The Knights of Rhodes.”

=Knight of the Rueful Countenance=, Don Quixote de la Mancha, the hero
of Cervantes’ novel, is so called by Sancho Panza, his squire.

=Knight of the Shears=, a tailor. Shires (_counties_), pronounced
_shears_, gives birth to the pun.

=Knight of the Sun=, Almanzor, prince of Tunis. So called because the
sun was the device he bore on his shield.—Comtesse D’Aunoy, _Fairy
Tales_ (“Princess Zamea,” 1682).

=Knight of the Swan=, Lohengrin, son of Parsival. He went to Brabant in
a ship drawn by a swan. Here he liberated the Princess Elsa, who was a
captive, and then married her, but declined to tell his name. After a
time he joined an expedition against the Hungarians, and, after
performing miracles of valor, returned to Brabant covered with glory.
Some of Elsa’s friends laughed at her for not knowing her husband’s
name, so she implored him to tell her of his family; but no sooner was
the question asked than the white swan re-appeared and conveyed him
away.—Wolfram von Eschenbach (a minnesinger), _Lohengrin_ (thirteenth

=Knight of the Tomb= (_The_), Sir James Douglas, usually called “The
Black Douglas.”—Sir W. Scott, _Castle Dangerous._ In the episode of
_Argalus and Parthenia_ in Sidney’s _Arcadia_. Parthenia, to avenge her
husband’s death, disguises herself as “The Knight of the Tomb.”

=Knight of the White Moon=, the title assumed by Samson Carrasco, when
he tilted with Don Quixote, on the condition that if the don were
worsted in the encounter he should quit knight-errantry and live
peaceably at home for twelve months.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, II. iv.
12-14 (1615).

=Knight of the Woeful Countenance=, Don Quixote de la Mancha.

=Knight with Two Swords=, Sir Balin, _le Savage_, brother of Sir
Balan.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 27, 33 (1470).

=Knights=. The three bravest of King Arthur’s knights were Sir Launcelot
du Lac, Sir Tristram de Lionês or Lyonês and Sir Lamorake de Galis (_i.
e._ Wales).—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i. 132 (1470).

⁂ The complement of the knights of the Round Table was 150 (ditto, i.
120). But in _Lancelot of the Lake_, ii. 81, they are said to have
amounted to 250.

_Knights_ (_’Prentice_), a secret society established to avenge the
wrongs of apprentices on their “tyrant masters.” Mr. Sim Tappertit was
captain of this “noble association,” and their meetings were held in a
cellar in Stagg’s house, in the Barbican. The name was afterwards
changed into “The United Bull-dogs,” and the members joined the
anti-popery rout of Lord George Gordon.—C. Dickens, _Barnaby Rudge_,
viii. (1841).

=Knights of Alcan´tara=, a military order of Spain, which took its name
from the city of Alcantara, in Estremadura. These knights were
previously called “Knights of the Pear Tree,” and subsequently “Knights
of St. Julian.” The order was founded in 1156 for the defence of
Estremadura against the Moors. In 1197 Pope Celestine III. raised it to
the rank of a religious order of knighthood.

=Knights of Calatra´va=, a military order of Spain, instituted by Sancho
III. of Castile. When Sancho took the strong fort of Calatrava from the
Moors, he gave it to the Knights Templars, who, wanting courage to
defend it, returned it to the king again. Then Don Reymond, of the
Cistercian order, with several cavelleros of quality, volunteered to
defend the fort, whereupon the king constituted them “Knights of

=Knights of Christian Charity=, instituted by Henri III. of France, for
the benefit of poor military officers and maimed soldiers. This order
was founded at the same time as that of the “Holy Ghost,” which was
meant for princes and men of distinction. The order was completed by
Henri IV., and resembled our “Poor Knights of Windsor,” now called “The
Military Knights of Windsor.”

=Knights of Malta=, otherwise called “Hospitallers of St. John of
Jerusalem,” a religious military order, whose residence was in the
island of Malta. Some time before the journey of Godfrey of Bouillon
into the Holy Land, some Neapolitan merchants built a house for those of
their countrymen who came thither on pilgrimage. Afterwards they built a
church to St. John, and an hospital for the sick, whence they took the
name of “Hospitallers.” In 1104 the order became military, and changed
the term “Hospitallers” into that of “Knights Hospitallers.” In 1310
they took Rhodes, and the order was then called “The Knights of Rhodes.”
In 1523 they were expelled from Rhodes by the Turks, and took up their
residence in Malta.

=Knights of Montesa=, a Spanish order of knighthood, instituted by James
II. of Aragon, in 1317.

=Knights of Nova Scotia=, in the West Indies, created by James I. of
Great Britain. These knights wore a ribbon of an orange tawny color.

=Knights of Our Lady of Mount Carmel= (_Chevaliers de l’Ordre de Notre
Dame du Mont Carmel_), instituted by Henri IV. of France, in 1607, and
consisting of a hundred French gentlemen.

N. B.—These knights must not be confounded with the _Carmelites_ or
_L’Ordre des Carmes_, founded by Bertholde, count of Limoges, in 1156;
said by legend to have been founded by the prophet Elijah, and to have
been revived by the Virgin Mary. The religious house of Carmel was
founded in 400 by John, patriarch of Jerusalem, in honor of Elijah, and
this gave rise to the legend.

=Knights of Rhodes=. The “Knights of Malta” were so called between 1310
and 1523. (See KNIGHTS OF MALTA).

=Knights of St. Andrew=, instituted by Peter the Great, of Moscovy, in
1698. Their badge is a gold medal, having St. Andrew’s cross on one
side, with these words, _Cazar Pierre monarque de tout le Russie_.

=Knights of St. Genette= (_Chevaliers de l’Ordre de St Genette_), the
most ancient order of knighthood in France, instituted by Charles
Martel, after his victory over the Saracens, in 782, where a vast number
of _genets_, like Spanish cats (_civet cats_), were found in the enemy’s

=Knights of St. George=. There are several orders so called:

1. St. George of Alfama, founded by the kings of Aragon.

2. St. George of Austria and Corinthia; instituted by the Emperor
Frederick III., first archduke of Austria.

3. Another founded by the same emperor in 1470, to guard the frontiers
of Bohemia and Hungary against the Turks.

4. St. George, generally called “Knights of the Garter” (_q. v._).

5. An order in the old republic of Genoa.

6. The Teutonic knights were originally called “Knights of St. George.”

=Knights of St. Jago=, a Spanish order, instituted under Pope Alexander
III., the grand-master of which is next in rank to the sovereign. St.
Jago or James (the Greater) is the patron saint of Spain.

=Knights of St. John at Jerusalem=, instituted in 1120. This order took
its name from John, patriarch of Alexandria, and from the place of their
abode(_Jerusalem_.) These knights subsequently resided at Rhodes
(between 1310 and 1523). Being driven out by the Turks in 1523, they
took up their abode in Malta, and were called “Knights of Malta.”

=Knights of St. Lazare= (2 _syl._), a religious and military order of
Knights Hospitallers, established in the twelfth century, and confirmed
by the pope in 1255. Their special mission was to take care of lepers.
The name is derived from Lazarus, the beggar, who lay at the gate of
Divês. The order was introduced into France under Louis VII., and was
abolished in the first Revolution.

=Knights of St. Magdalene= (3 _syl._), a French order, instituted by St.
Louis (IX.) to suppress duels.

=Knights of St. Maria de Mercede= (3 _syl._), a Spanish order, for the
redemption of captives.

=Knights of St. Michael the Archangel= (_Chevaliers de l’Ordre de St.
Michel_), a French order, instituted by Louis XI. in 1469. The king was
at the head of the order. M. Bouillet says: “St. Michel est regardé
comme le protecteur et l’ange tutélaire de la France.”

=Knights of St. Patrick=, instituted in 1783. The ruling sovereign of
Great Britain and Ireland, and the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, are
_ex-officio_ members of this order. The order is named after St.
Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.

=Knights of St. Salvador=, in Aragon, instituted by Alphonso I. in 1118.

=Knights of Windsor=, formerly called “Poor Knights of Windsor,” but now
entitled “The Military Knights of Windsor,” a body of military
pensioners, who have their residence within the precincts of Windsor

=Knights of the Bath=, an order of knighthood derived from the ancient
Franks, and so termed because the members originally “bathed” before
they performed their vigils. The last knights created in this ancient
form were at the coronation of Charles II., in 1661.

G. C. B. stands for _Grand Cross of the Bath_ (the first class); K. C.
B. for _Knight Commander of the Bath_ (the second class); and C. B. for
_Companion of the Bath_ (the third class).

=Knights of the Blood of Our Saviour=, an order of knighthood in Mantua,
instituted by Duke Vincent Gonzaga, in 1608, on his marriage. It
consisted of twenty Mantuan dukes. The name originated in the belief
that in St. Andrew’s Church, Mantua, certain drops of our Saviour’s
blood are preserved as a relic.

=Knights of the Broom Flower= (_Chevaliers de l’Ordre de la Geneste_),
instituted by St. Louis (IX.) of France, on his marriage. The collar was
decorated with broom flowers, intermixed with _fleurs de lys_ in gold.
The motto was _Exaltat Humĭlês_.

=Knights of the Carpet= or CARPET KNIGHTS, _i. e._ non-military or civil
knights, such as mayors, lawyers, authors, artists, physicians, and so
on, who receive their knighthood kneeling on a _carpet_, and not in the
tented field.

=Knights of the Chamber= or CHAMBER KNIGHTS, knights bachelors made in
times of peace in _the presence chamber_, and not in the camp. These are
always military men, and therefore differ from “Carpet Knights,” who are
always civilians.

=Knights of the Cock and Dog=, founded by Philippe I., _Auguste_, of

=Knights of the Crescent=, a military order, instituted by Renatus, of
Anjou, king of Sicily, etc., in 1448. So called from the badge, which is
a crescent of gold enamelled. What gave rise to this institution was
that Renatus took for his device a crescent, with the word _loz_
(“praise”), which, in the style of _rebus_, makes _loz in crescent_, _i.
e._ “by advancing in virtue one merits praise.”

=Knights of the Dove=, a Spanish order, instituted in 1379, by John I.,
of Castile.

=Knights of the Dragon=, created by the emperor Sigismond, in 1417, upon
the condemnation of Huss and Jerome, of Prague, “the heretics.”

=Knights of the Ermine= (_Chevaliers de l’Ordre de l’Epi_), instituted
in 1450 by François I., duc de Bretagne. The collar was of gold,
composed of _ears of corn_ in saltier, at the end of which hung an
_ermine_, with the legend _à ma vie_. The order expired when the dukedom
was annexed to the crown of France.

=Knights of the Garter=, instituted by Edward III. of England, in 1344.
According to Selden, “it exceeds in majesty, honor, and fame, all
chivalrous orders in the world.” The story is that Joan, countess of
Salisbury, while dancing with the king, let fall her garter, and the
gallant Edward, perceiving a smile on the face of the courtiers, picked
it up, bound it round his own knee, and exclaimed, “Honi soit qui mal y
pense.” The blue garter and the motto of the order are thus accounted

=Knights of the Golden Fleece=, a military order of knighthood,
instituted by Philippe, _le Bon_, of Burgundy, in 1429. It took its name
from a representation of the golden fleece on the collar of the order.
The king of Spain is grand-master, and the motto is _Ante feret quam
flamma micet_.

=Knights of the Golden Shield=, an order instituted by Louis II., of
France, for the defence of the country. The motto is _Allons_ (_i. e._
“Let us go in defence of our country”).

=Knights of the Hare=, an order of twelve knights, instituted by Edward
III. while he was in France. The French raised a tremendous shout, and
Edward thought it was the cry of battle, but it was occasioned by a hare
running between the two armies. From this incident the knights created
on the field after this battle were termed “Knights of the Order of the

=Knights of the Holy Ghost= (_Chevalier de l’Ordre du Saint Esprit_),
instituted by Henri III., of France, on his return from Poland. Henri
III. was both born and crowned on Whit-Sunday, and hence the origin of
the order.

=Knights of the Holy Sepulchre=, an order of knighthood founded by St.
Hel´ena, when she visited Jerusalem, at the age of 80, and found (as it
is said) the cross on which Christ was crucified, in a cavern under the
temple of Venus, A. D. 328. This order was confirmed by Pope Pascal II.
in 1114.

=Knights of the Lily=, an order of knighthood in Navarre, founded by
Garcia, in 1048.

=Knights of the Order of Fools=, established November, 1381, and
continued to the beginning of the sixteenth century. The insignia was a
jester or fool embroidered on the left side of their mantles, cap and
bells, yellow stockings, a cup of fruit in the right hand, and a gold
key in the left. It resembled the “Odd Fellows” of more modern times.

=Knights of the Porcupine= (_Chevaliers de l’Ordre du Porcépic_), a
French order of knighthood. The original motto was _Cominus et eminus_,
changed by Louis XII. into _Ultus avos Trojæ_.

=Knights of the Red Staff=, an order instituted by Alfonso XI. of
Castile and Leon, in 1330.

=Knights of the Round Table=. King Arthur’s knights were so called,
because they sat with him at a round table made by Merlin, for King
Leodegraunce. This king gave it to Arthur on his marriage with Guinever,
his daughter. It contained seats for 150 knights, 100 of which King
Leodegraunce furnished when he sent the table.

=Knights of the Shell=. The argonauts of St. Nicholas were so called
from the shells worked on the collar of the order.

=Knights of the Ship=, an order of knighthood founded by St. Louis IX.,
of France, in his expedition to Egypt.

=Knights of the Star= (_Chevaliers de l’Ordre de l’Etoile_), an ancient
order of knighthood in France. The motto of the order was _Monstrant
regibus astra viam_.

=Knights of the Swan= (_Chevalier de l’Ordre du Cygne_), an order of
knighthood founded in 1443 by the elector Frederick II., of Brandenburg,
and restored in 1843 by Frederick William IV., of Prussia. Its object is
the relief of distress generally. The king of Prussia is grand-master.
The motto is _Gott mit uns_ (“God be with you”); and the collar is of
gold. The white swan is the badge of the house of Cleves (Westphalia).

Lord Berners has a novel called _The Knight of the Swan_ (sixteenth

=Knights of the Thistle=, said to be founded by Archaicus, king of the
Scots, in 809; revived in 1530 by James V., of Scotland; again in 1687
by James II., of Great Britain; and again by Queen Anne, who placed the
order on a permanent footing. The decoration consists of a collar of
enamelled gold, composed of sixteen thistles interlaced with sprigs of
rue, and a small golden image of St. Andrew within a circle. The motto
is _Nemo me impune lacessit_. The members are sometimes called “Knights
of St Andrew.”

The _rue_ mixed with the thistles is a pun on the word “Andrew”
_thistles And-rue_.

⁂ There was at one time a French “Order of the Thistle” in the house of
Bourbon, with the same decoration and motto.

=Knights of the Virgin’s Looking-Glass=, an order instituted in 1411 by
Ferdinand of Castile.

=Knights Teutonic=, originally called “Knights of St. George,” then
“Knights of the Virgin Mary,” and lastly “Teutonic Knights of the
Hospital of St. Mary the Virgin.” This order was instituted by Henry,
king of Jerusalem, in compliment to the German volunteers who
accompanied Frederick Barbarossa on his crusade. The knights were soon
afterwards placed under the tutelage of the Virgin, to whom a hospital
had been dedicated for the relief of German Pilgrims; and in 1191, Pope
Celestine III. confirmed the privileges, and changed the name of the
order into the “Teutonic Knights,” etc. Abolished by Napoleon in 1809.

=Knights of To-day=, under this caption Charles Barnard has given us
stories of engineers, mechanics, inventors, and other followers of
peaceful arts that make for the enduring prosperity of the race, and
call into practice nobler virtues than the trade of war and greed of

=Knighton=, groom of the duke of Buckingham.—Sir. W. Scott, _Fortunes of
Nigel_ (time, James I.).

=Knockwinnock= (_Sybil_), wife of Sir Richard of the Redhand, and mother
of Malcolm Misbegot.—Sir W. Scott, _The Antiquary_ (time, George III.).

=Koh-i-noor= (“_mountain of light_”), a diamond once called “The Great
Mogul.” Held in the fourteenth century by the rajah of Malwa. Later it
fell into the hands of the sultans of Delhi, after their conquest of
Malwa. It belonged in the seventeenth century, to Aurungzebe the Great.
The Schah Jihan sent it to Hortensio Borgio to be cut, but the Venetian
lapidary re-reduced it from 793-5/8 carats to 186, and left it dull and
lustreless. It next passed into the hands of Aurungzebe’s
great-grandson, who hid it in his turban. Nadir Schah invited the
possessor to a feast, and insisted on changing turbans, “to cement their
love,” and thus it fell into Nadir’s hands, who gave it the name of
“Koh-i-noor.” It next passed into the hands of Ahmed Shah, founder of
the Cabûl dynasty; was extorted from Shah Shuja by Runjet Singh, who
wore it set in a bracelet. After the murder of Shu Singh, it was
deposited in the Lahore treasury, and after the annexation of the
Punjaub, was presented to Queen Victoria, in 1850. It has been recut,
and, though reduced to 106 carats, is supposed to be worth £140,000.

⁂ There is another diamond of the same name belonging to the shah of

=Kohlhass= (_Michael_), an excellent historical novel of the Lutheran
period, by Henry Kleist, a German (1776-1811).

=Kolao,= the wild man of Misanichis. He had a son who died in early
youth, and he went to Pat-Koot-Parout to crave his son’s restoration to
life. Pat-Koot-Parout put the soul of the dead body in a leather bag,
which he fastened with packthread, and hung round the neck of Kolao,
telling him to lay the body in a new hut, put the bag near the mouth,
and so let the soul return to it, but on no account to open the bag
before everything was ready. Kolao placed the bag in his wife’s hands
while he built the hut, strictly enjoining her not to open it; but
curiosity led her to open the bag, and out flew the soul to the country
of Pat-Koot-Parout again.—T. S. Gueulette, _Chinese Tales_ (“Kolao, the
Wild Man,” 1723).

⁂ Orpheus, having lost his wife, Eurydĭcê, by the bite of a serpent,
obtained permission of Pluto for her restoration, provided he looked not
back till he reached the upper world. He had got to the end of his
journey, when he turned round to see if Pluto had kept his word. As he
turned he just caught sight of Eurydicê, who was instantly caught back
again to the infernal regions.

=Korigans= or _Korrigans_, nine fays of Brittany, who can predict future
events, assume any shape, and move from place to place as quick as
thought. They do not exceed two feet in height, sing like syrens, and
comb their long hair like mermaids. They haunt fountains, and flee at
the sound of bells, and their breath is deadly.—_Breton Mythology._

=Kosciusko= (_Thaddœus_), the Polish general who contended against the
allied army of Russia under the command of Suwarrow, in 1794. He was
taken prisoner and sent to Russia, but in 1796 was set at liberty by the

         Hope for a season bade the world farewell,
         And Freedom shrieked—as Kosciusko fell.
                     Campbell, _Pleasures of Hope_, i. (1799).

=Kriemhild= [_Kreem.hild_], daughter of Dancrat, and sister of Günther,
king of Burgundy. She first married Siegfried, king of the
Netherlanders, who was murdered by Hagan. Thirteen years afterwards, she
married Etzel (_Atilla_), king of the Huns. Some time after her
marriage, she invited Günther, Hagan, and others to visit her, and Hagan
slew Etzel’s young son. Kriemhild now became a perfect fury, and cut off
the head of both Günther and Hagan with her own hand, but was herself
slain by Hildebrand. Till the death of Siegfried, Kriemhild was gentle,
modest, and lovable, but afterwards she became vindictive, bold and
hateful.—_The Nibelungen Lied_ (by the German minnesingers, 1210).

=Kriss Kringle.= (See ST. NICHOLAS, SANTA CLAUS, etc.)

=Krook,= proprietor of a rag and bone warehouse, where everything seems
to be bought and nothing sold. He is a grasping drunkard, who eventually
dies of spontaneous combustion. Krook is always attended by a large cat,
which he calls “Lady Jane,” as uncanny as her master.—C. Dickens, _Bleak
House_ (1852).

=Kruitz´ner,= or the “German’s Tale,” in Miss H. Lee’s _Canterbury
Tales_. Lord Byron founded his tragedy of _Werner_ on this tale.

The drama [_of Werner_] is taken entirely from the “German’s Tale”
[_Kruitzner_], published in Lee’s _Canterbury Tales_, written by two
sisters.... I have adopted the characters, plan, and even the language
of many parts of the story.—Lord Byron, _Preface to Werner_ (1822).

=Kubla Kahn.= Coleridge says that he composed the poem in a dream,
immediately after reading in Purchas’s _Pilgrimage_ a description of the
Khan Kubla’s palace, and he wrote it down on awaking, in its present
fragmentary state.

=Kudrun,= called the German _Odyssey_ (thirteenth century); divided into
three parts called _Hagen_, _Hilde_ (_2 syl._), and _Kudrun_—same as
_Gudrun_ (_q. v._).

_Hagen_ is the son of Siegebrand, king of Ireland, and is carried off by
a griffin to a distant island, where three princesses take charge of
him. In due time a ship touches on the island, takes all the four to
Ireland, and Hagen marries Hilda, the youngest of the three sisters.

_Hilda._ In due time Hilda has a daughter, who is called by the same
name, and at a marriageable age she becomes the wife of Hedel, king of

_Kudrun._ Hilda has two children, Otwein [_Ot.vine_] a son, and Kudrun,
a daughter. Kudrun is affianced to Herwig, but, while preparing the
wedding dresses, is carried off by Hartmut, son of Ludwig, king of
Normandy. Her father goes in pursuit, but is slain by Ludwig. On
reaching Normandy, Gerlinde (3 _syl._), the queen-mother, treats Kudrun
with the greatest cruelty, and puts her to the most menial work, because
she refuses to marry her son. At length, succor is at hand. Her lover
and brother arrive and slay Ludwig. Gerlinde is just about to put Kudrun
to death, when Watt Long-beard rushes in, slays the queen, and rescues
Kudrun, who is forthwith married to Herwig, her affianced lover.—Author
unknown (some of the minnesingers).

=Kwa´sind,= the strongest man that ever lived, the Herculês of the North
America Indians. He could pull up cedars and pines by the roots, and
toss huge rocks about like playthings. His wondrous strength was “seated
in his crown,” and there of course lay his point of weakness, but the
only weapon which could injure him was the “blue cone of the fir tree,”
a secret known only to the pygmies or Little-folk. This mischievous
race, out of jealousy, determined to kill the strong man, and one day,
finding him asleep in a boat, pelted him with fir cones till he died;
and now, whenever the tempest rages through the forests, and the
branches of the trees creak and groan and split, they say “Kwasind is
gathering in his firewood.”

           Dear, too, unto Hiawatha
           Was the very strong man Kwasind;
           He the strongest of all mortals.
                       Longfellow, _Hiawatha_, vi. and xviii.

=Kyrie Elyson de Montalban= (_Don_) or “Don Quirieleyson de Montalvan,”
brother of Thomas de Montalban, in the romance called _Tirante le
Blanc_.—Author unknown.

⁂ Dr. Warburton, in his essay on the old romances, falls into the
strange error of calling this character an “early romance of chivalry.”
As well might he call Claudius, king of Denmark, a play of
Shakespeare’s, instead of a character in the tragedy of _Hamlet_.

A large quarto dropped at the barber’s feet ... it was the history of
that famous knight _Tirante le Blanc_. “Pray let me look at that
book,” said the priest; “we shall find in it a fund of amusement. Here
shall we find the famous knight Don Kyrie Elyson of Montalban, and his
brother Thomas.... This is one of the most amusing books ever
written.”—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. i. 6 (1605).

=Lab´arum=, the imperial standard carried before the Roman emperors in
war. Constantine, having seen a luminous cross in the sky the night
before the battle of Saxa Rubra, added the sacred monogram XP
(_Christos_).—Gibbon, _Decline and Fall, etc._, xx. note (1788).

R. Browning erroneously calls the word _labā´rum_.

                ... stars would write his will in heaven,
              As once when a labarum was not deemed
              Too much for the old founder of these walls
                          R. Browning, _Paracelsus_, ii.

=Labe= (2 syl.), the sorceress-queen of the Island of Enchantments. She
tried to change Beder, the young king of Persia, into a halting,
one-eyed hack; but Beder was forewarned, and changed Labê herself into a
mare.—_Arabian Nights_ (“Beder and Giauharê”).

=Labe´rius,= a Roman writer of mimes contemporary with Julius Cæsar.

Laberius would be always sure of more followers than Sophoclês.—J.
Macpherson, _Dissertation on Ossian_.

=La Creevy= (_Miss_), a little talkative, bustling, cheery
miniature-painter. Simple-minded, kind-hearted, and bright as a lark.
She marries Tim Linkinwater, the old clerk of the brothers Cheeryble.—C.
Dickens, _Nicholas Nickleby_ (1838).

=Lackitt= (_Widow_), the widow of an Indian planter. This rich, vulgar
widow falls in love with Charlotte Weldon, who assumes the dress of a
young man, and calls herself Mr. Welden. Charlotte even marries the
widow, but then informs her that she is a girl in male apparel, engaged
to Mr. Stanmore. The widow consoles herself by marrying Jack
Stanmore.—Thomas Southern, _Oroonoko_ (1696).

=Lacy= (_Sir Hugo de_), constable of Chester, a crusader.

_Sir Damian de Lacy_, nephew of Sir Hugo. He marries Lady Eveline.

_Randal de Lacy_, Sir Hugo’s cousin, introduced in several disguises, as
a merchant, a hawk-seller, and a robber-captain.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Betrothed_ (time, Henry II.).

=La´das,= Alexander’s messenger, noted for his swiftness of foot.

=Ladislaus,= a cynic, whose humor is healthy and amusing.—Massinger,
_The Picture_ (1629).

=Ladon,= the dragon or hydra that assisted the Hesperidês in keeping
watch over the golden apples of the Hesperian grove.

            So oft th’ unamiable dragon hath slept,
            That the garden’s imperfectly watched after all.
                          T. Moore, _Irish Melodies_ (1814).

=Ladur´lad,= the father of Kail´yal (_2 syl._). He killed Ar´valan for
attempting to dishonor his daughter, and thereby incurred the “curse of
Keha´ma” (Arvalan’s father). The curse was that water should not wet him
nor fire consume him, that sleep should not visit him nor death release
him, etc. After enduring a time of agony, these curses turned to
blessings. Thus, when his daughter was exposed to the fire of the
burning pagoda, he was enabled to rescue her, because he was “charmed
from fire.” When her lover was carried by the witch Lorrimite (_3 syl._)
to the city of Baly, under the ocean, he was able to deliver the
captive, because he was “charmed from water, the serpent’s tooth, and
all beasts of blood.” He could even descend to the infernal regions to
crave vengeance against Kehama, because “he was charmed against death.”
When Kehama drank the cup of “immortal death,” Ladurlad was taken to
Paradise.—Southey, _The Curse of Kehama_ (1809).

=Lady= (_A_), authoress of _A New System of Domestic Cookery_ (1808), is
Mrs. Rundell.

_Lady_ (_A_), authoress of _The Diary of an Ennuyée_ (1826), is Mrs.
Anna Jameson.

Several other authoresses have adopted the same signature, as Miss Gunn
of Christchurch, _Conversations on Church Polity_ (1833); Mrs. Palmer,
_A Dialogue in the Devonshire Dialect_ (1837); Miss S. Fenimore Cooper,
_Rural Hours_ (1854); Julia Ward, _Passion-flowers_, _etc._, (1854);
Miss E. M. Sewell, _Amy Herbert_ (1865); etc.

=Lady of the Aroostook.= A young girl educated in a provincial town,
wishes to visit relatives in Italy, and takes passage in a
sailing-vessel, not knowing that there was to be no other woman on
board. She is treated with chivalric respect by all on board.—W. D.
Howells, _Lady of the Aroostook_ (1879).

=Lady Bountiful= (_A_). The benevolent lady of a village is so called,
from “Lady Bountiful” in the _Beaux’ Stratagem_, by Farquhar. (See
BOUNTIFUL, p. 125).

=Lady of Castelnore.= _Châtelaine_ of Bretagne, sought by many in
marriage, but reputed haughtily cold up to the day of her death. One
November morning a long delayed ship brought home her lover to weep “too
late” over her grave.

 “And they called her cold. God knows! underneath the winter snows,
 The invisible hearts of flowers grow ripe for blossoming!
 And the lives that look so cold, if their stories could be told,
 Would seem cast in gentler mould, would seem full of love and spring.”
     T. B. Aldrich, _The Lady of Castelnore_ (1856).

=Lady Freemason,= the Hon. Miss Elizabeth St. Leger, daughter of Lord
Doneraile. The tale is that, in order to witness the proceedings of a
Freemason’s lodge, she hid herself in an empty clock-case when the lodge
was held in her father’s house; but, being discovered, she was compelled
to submit to initiation as a member of the craft.

=Lady Magistrate,= Lady Berkley, made justice of the peace for
Gloucestershire by Queen Mary. She sat on the bench at assizes and
sessions girt with a sword.

=Lady Margaret,= mother of Henry VII. She founded a professorship of
divinity in the University of Cambridge, 1502; and a preachership in
both universities.

=Lady in the Sacque.= The apparition of this hag forms the story of the
_Tapestried Chamber_, by Sir W. Scott.

=Lady of England,= Maud, daughter of Henry I. The title of _Domina
Anglorum_ was conferred upon her by the council of Winchester, held
April 7, 1141.—See Rymer’s _Fœdera_, i. (1703).

=Lady of Lyons= (_The_), Pauline Deschappelles, daughter of a Lyonese
merchant. She rejected the suits of Beauseant, Glavis, and Claude
Melnotte, who therefore combined on vengeance. To this end, Claude, who
was a gardener’s son, aided by the other two, passed himself off as
Prince of Como, married Pauline, and brought her home to his mother’s
cottage. The proud beauty was very indignant, and Claude left her to
join the French army. In two years and a half he became a colonel and
returned to Lyons. He found that his father-in-law was on the eve of
bankruptcy, and that Beauseant had promised to satisfy the creditors if
Pauline would consent to marry him. Pauline was heart-broken; Claude
revealed himself, paid the money required, and carried home Pauline as
his loving and true-hearted wife.—L. B. Lytton, _Lady of Lyons_ (1838).

=Lady of Mercy= (_Our_), an order of knighthood in Spain, instituted in
1218 by James I., of Aragon, for the deliverance of Christian captives
amongst the Moors. As many as 400 captives were rescued in six years by
these knights.

=Lady of Shalott=, a maiden who died for love of Sir Lancelot of the
Lake. Tennyson has a poem so entitled.

⁂ The story of Elaine, “the lily maid of Astolat,” in Tennyson’s _Idylls
of the King_, is substantially the same.

=Lady of the Bleeding Heart,= Ellen Douglas. The cognizance of the
Douglas family is a “bleeding heart.”—Sir W. Scott, _Lady of the Lake_

=Lady of the Lake= (_A_), a harlot. (Anglo-Saxon, _lác_, “a present.”) A
“guinea-fowl” or “guinea-hen” is a similar term.

              But for the difference marriage makes
              ’Twixt wives and “ladies of the lake.”
                      S. Butler, _Hudibras_, iii. 1 (1668)

_Lady of the Lake (The),_ Nimue [_sic_], one of the damsels of the lake,
that King Pellinore took to his court. Merlin, in his dotage, fell in
love with her, when she wheedled him out of all his secrets, and
enclosed him in a rock, where he died. Subsequently, Nimue married Sir

⁂ Tennyson, in his _Idylls of the King_ (“Merlin and Vivien”), makes
Vivien the enchantress who wheedled old Merlin out of his secrets; and
then, “in a hollow oak,” she shut him fast, and there “he lay as dead,
and lost to life and use, and name, and fame.”

Tennyson takes a poet’s privilege, and varies the old legend at

_Lady of the Lake (The)_, Nineve. The name of the Lady of the Lake is
variously spelled in the old editions of the _Mort d’ Arthur_. We find:
1, Nimue; 2, Nineve; 3, Vivien; 4, Vivienne. 4 is the French of 3; 1 is
probably a misprint for Ninve; and 1, 2, 3 are probably anagrams.

_Lady of the Lake_ (_The_). Vivienne (_3 syl._) is called _La Dame du
Lac_, and dwelt _en la marche de la petite Bretaigne_. She stole
Lancelot in his infancy, and plunged with him into her home lake; hence
was Lancelot called _du Lac_. When her _protégé_ was grown to manhood,
she presented him to King Arthur.

_Lady of the Lake_ (_The_), Ellen Douglas, once a favorite of King
James; but when her father fell into disgrace, she retired with him into
the vicinity of Loch Katrine.—Sir W. Scott, _Lady of the Lake_ (1810).

=Lady of the Lake and Arthur’s Sword.= The lady of the Lake gave to King
Arthur the sword “Excalibur.” “Well,” said she, “go into yonder barge
and row yourself to the sword, and take it.” So Arthur and Merlin came
to the sword that a hand held up, and took it by the handles, and the
arm and hand went under the lake again (pt. i. 23).

The Lady of the Lake asked in recompense, the head of Sir Balin, because
he had slain her brother; but the king refused the request. Then said
Balin, “Evil be ye found! Ye would have my head; therefore ye shall lose
thine own.” So saying, with his sword he smote off her head in the
presence of King Arthur.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, i.
28 (1470).

=Lady of the Mercians,= Æthelflæd or El´flida, daughter of King Alfred.
She married Æthelred, chief of that portion of Mercia not claimed by the

=Lady of the Sun,= Alice Perrers (or Pierce), a mistress of Edward III.,
of England. She was a married woman, and had been lady of the
bed-chamber to Queen Philippa. Edwin lavished on her both riches and
honors; but when the king was dying, she stole his jewels, and even the
rings from his fingers.

=Lady or the Tiger?= (_The_). A princess is beloved by a subject, and
for this crime he is condemned to die by the king. Two doors open from
the amphitheatre. Behind one crouches a tiger; behind the other smiles a
woman whom the condemned is to marry. The princess, who loves the doomed
man madly, knows which door conceals death, and which marriage, and by
preconcert with her lover, gives him a secret signal which to open. He
walks directly to the door on the right and opens it.

“Did the tiger come out of the door, or did the lady?”—Francis Richard
Stockton, _The Lady or the Tiger?_ (1884).

=Lady with a Lamp,= Florence Nightingale (1820-     ).

                In England’s annals ...
                A lady with a lamp shall stand ...
                    A noble type of good,
                    Heroic womanhood.
                           Longfellow, _Santa Filomena_.

=Laer´tes= (_3 syl._), son of Polōnius, lord chamberlain of Denmark, and
brother of Ophelia. He is induced by the king to challenge Hamlet to a
“friendly” duel, but poisons his own rapier. He wounds Hamlet; and in
the scuffle which ensues, the combatants change swords, and Hamlet
wounds Laertês, so that both die.—Shakespeare, _Hamlet_ (1596).

_Laertes_ (_3 syl._), a Dane, whose life Gustavus Vasa had spared in
battle. He becomes the trusty attendant of Christi´na, daughter of the
king of Sweden, and never proves ungrateful to the noble Swede.—H.
Brooke, _Gustavus Vasa_ (1730).

=Laer´tes’s Son,= Ulysses.

           But when his strings with mournful magic tell
           What dire distress Laertês’ son befell,
           The streams meandering thro’ the maze of woe,
           Bid sacred sympathy the heart o’erflow.
                   Falconer, _The Shipwreck_, iii. 1 (1756).

=Lafeu=, an old French lord, sent to conduct Bertram, count of
Rousillon, to the king of France, by whom he was invited to the royal
court.—Shakespeare, _All’s Well that Ends Well_ (1598).

=Lafontaine= (_The Danish_), Hans Christian Andersen (1805-1875).

=Lafontaine of the Vaudeville.= So C. F. Panard is called (1691-1765).

=Lag´ado,= capital of Balnibarbi, celebrated for its grand school of
projectors, where the scholars have a technical education, being taught
to make pincushions from softened granite, to extract from cucumbers the
sunbeams which ripened them, and to convert ice into gunpowder.—Swift,
_Gulliver’s Travels_ (“Voyage to Lapu´ta,” 1726).

=La Grange= and his friend Du Croisy pay their addresses to two young
ladies whose heads have been turned by novels. The girls think their
manners too natural to be aristocratic, so the gentlemen send to them
their lackeys, as “the marquis of Mascarille” and “the viscount of
Jodelet.” The girls are delighted with their “aristocratic visitors;”
but when the game has been played far enough, the masters enter and
unmask the whole trick. By this means the girls are taught a most useful
lesson, without suffering any serious ill consequences.—Molière, _Les
Précieuses Ridicules_ (1659).

=Laider= (_Donald_), one of the prisoners at Portanferry.—Sir W. Scott,
_Guy Mannering_ (time, George II.)

=Laidley= (_Genevieve_). An _ingénue_, whose sentimental heroics and
tearful blandishments nearly dupe her fifty year old guardian (rich and
distinguished) into a proposal.—Frank Lee Benedict, _My Daughter Elinor_

=Lai´la= (_2 syl._), a Moorish maiden, of great beauty and purity, who
loved Manuel, a youth worthy of her. The father disapproved of the
match; and they eloped, were pursued, and overtaken near a precipice on
the Gruádalhorcê (_4 syl._). They climbed to the top of the precipice,
and the father bade his followers discharge their arrows at them. Laila
and Manuel, seeing death to be inevitable, threw themselves from the
precipice, and perished in the fall. It is from this incident that the
rock was called “The Lovers’ Leap.”

                  And every Moorish maid can tell
                  Where Laila lies, who loved so well;
                  And every youth who passes there,
                  Says for Manuel’s soul a prayer.

Southey, _The Lovers’ Rock_ (a ballad, 1798, taken from Mariana, _De la
Pena de los Enamorados_.)

_Laila_, daughter of Okba, the sorcerer. It was decreed that either
Laila or Thalaba must die. Thalaba refused to redeem his own life by
killing Laila; and Okba exultingly cried, “As thou hast disobeyed the
voice of Allah, God hath abandoned thee, and this hour is mine.” So
saying, he rushed on the youth; but Laila, intervening to protect him,
received the blow, and was killed. Thalaba lived on, and the spirit of
Laila, in the form of a green bird, conducted him to the simorg
(_q.v._), which he sought, that he might be directed to Dom-Daniel, the
cavern “under the roots of the ocean.”—Southey, _Thalaba the Destroyer_,
x. (1797).

=La´is= (_2 syl._), a generic name for a courtezan. Laïs was a Greek
hetæra who sold her favors for £200 English money. When Demosthenês was
told the amount of the fee, he said he had “no mind to buy repentance at
such a price.” One of her great admirers was Diog´enês, the cynic.

          This is the cause
          That Lais leads a lady’s life aloft.
                  G. Gascoigne, _The Steele Glas_ (died 1577).

=Lake Poets= (_The_), Wordsworth, Southey, and Coleridge, who lived
about the lakes of Cumberland. According to Mr. Jeffrey, the conductor
of the _Edinburgh Review_, they combined the sentimentality of Rousseau
with the simplicity of Kotzebue and the homeliness of Cowper. Of the
same school were Lamb, Lloyd, and Wilson. Also called “Lakers” and

=Laked´ion= (_Isaac_), the name given in France to the Wandering Jew

=Lalla Rookh=, the supposed daughter of Aurungzebe, emperor of Delhi.
She was betrothed to Alĭris, sultan of Lesser Bucharia. On her journey
from Delhi to Cashmere, she was entertained by Fer´amorz, a young
Persian poet, with whom she fell in love, and unbounded was her delight
when she discovered that the young poet was the sultan to whom she was
betrothed.—T. Moore, _Lalla Rookh_ (1817).

=Lambert= (_General_), parliamentary leader.—Sir W. Scott, _Woodstock_
(time, Commonwealth).

_Lambert_ (_Sir John_), the dupe of Dr. Cantwell, “the hypocrite.” He
entertains him as his guest, settles on him £400 a year, and tries to
make his daughter Charlotte marry him, although he is 59 and she under
20. His eyes are opened at length by the mercenary and licentious
conduct of the doctor. Lady Lambert assists in exposing him, but old
lady Lambert remains to the last a believer in the “saint.” In Molière’s
comedy, “Orgon” takes the place of Lambert, “Mde. Parnelle” of the old
lady, and “Tartuffe” of Dr. Cantwell.

_Lady Lambert_, the gentle, loving wife of Sir John. By a stratagem, she
convinces her husband of Dr. Cantwell’s true character.

_Colonel Lambert_, son of Sir John and Lady Lambert. He assists in
unmasking “the hypocrite.”

_Charlotte Lambert_, daughter of Sir John and Lady Lambert. A pretty,
bright girl, somewhat giddy, and fond of teasing her sweetheart, Darnley
(see act i. 1).—I. Bickerstaff, _The Hypocrite_ (1769).

=Lambourne= (_Michael_), a retainer of the earl of Leicester.—Sir W.
Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time Elizabeth).

=Lambro=, a Greek pirate, father of Haidée (_q.v._).—Bryon, _Don Juan_,
iii. 26, etc. (1820).

⁂ The original of this character was Major Lambro, who was captain
(1791) of a Russian piratical squadron, which plundered the islands of
the Greek Archipelago, and did great damage. When his squadron was
attacked by seven Algerine corsairs, Major Lambro was wounded, but
escaped. The incidents referred to in canto vi., etc., are historical.

=Lamderg and Gelchossa.= Gelchossa was beloved by Lamderg and Ullin, son
of Cairbar. The rivals fought, and Ullin fell. Lamderg, all bleeding
with wounds, just reached Gelchossa to announce the death of his rival,
and expired also. “Three days Gelchossa mourned, and then the hunters
found her cold,” and all three were buried in one grave.—Ossian,
_Fingal_, ii.

=Lame= (_The_).

Jehan de Meung, called “Clopinet,” because he was lame, and hobbled.

Tyrtæus, the Greek poet, was called the lame or hobbling poet, because
he introduced the pentameter verse alternately with the hexameter. Thus
his distich consisted of one line with six feet and one line with only

_The Lame King_, Charles II., of Naples, _Boiteux_ (1248, 1289-1309).

=Lamech’s Song.= “Ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have
slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt! If Cain shall be
avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.”—_Gen._ iv. 23,

As Lamech grew old, his eyes became dim, and finally all sight was taken
from them, and Tubal-Cain, his son, led him by the hand when he walked
abroad. And it came to pass ... that he led his father into the fields
to hunt, and said to his father: “Lo! yonder is a beast of prey; shoot
thine arrow in that direction.” Lamech did as his son had spoken, and
the arrow struck Cain, who was walking afar off, and killed him.... Now
when Lamech ... saw [_sic_] that he had killed Cain, he trembled
exceedingly ... and being blind, he saw not his son, but struck the
lad’s head between his hands, and killed him.... And he cried to his
wives, Ada and Zillah, “Listen to my voice, ye wives of Lamech.... I
have slain a man to my hurt, and a child to my wounding!”—_The Talmud_,

=Lamia.= Libyan Queen, wronged by Jupiter and hated by Juno. Robbed of
her children, she became a child murderess and a monster.—_Greek and
Roman Mythology._


                “I kissed her hand, I called her blest,
                  I held her leal and fair—
                She turned to shadow on my breast
                  And melted into air!
                And lo! about me, fold on fold,
                  A writhing serpent hung—
                An eye of jet, a skin of gold,
                  A garnet for a tongue.”
                        Thomas Bailey Aldrich, _Lamia_.

_Lamia._ Beautiful woman, with a serpent’s nature and much of the
serpent’s glittering, sinuous charm. A seductive creature who lures men
only to destroy.—_Lamia_, poem by John Keats (1820).

=Lamin´ak.= Basque fairies, little folk, who live under ground, and
sometimes come into houses down the chimney, in order to change a fairy
child for a human one. They bring good luck with them, but insist on
great cleanliness, and always give their orders in words the very
opposite of their intention. They hate church bells. Every Basque
Laminak is named Guïllen (William). (See SAY AND MEAN).

=Lamington,= a follower of Sir Geoffrey Peveril.—Sir W. Scott, _Peveril
of the Peak_ (time, Charles II.).

=Lami´ra,= wife of Champernel, and daughter of Vertaigné (_2 syl._), a
nobleman and a judge.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Little French Lawyer_

=Lamkin= (_Mrs. Alice_), companion to Mrs. Bethune Baliol.—Sir W. Scott,
_The Highland Widow_ (time, George II.).

=Lammeter= (_Nancy_), fair, good and sensible girl, who marries Geoffrey
Cass, in _Silas Warner_, and when she learns that the waif brought up by
Silas is her husband’s child, would gladly adopt her.—George Eliot,
_Silas Marner_.

=Lammikin,= a blood-thirsty builder, who built and baptized his castle
with blood. He was long a nursery ogre, like Lunsford.—_Scotch Ballad._

=Lammle= (_Alfred_), a “mature young gentleman with too much nose on his
face, too much ginger in his whiskers, too much torso in his waistcoat,
too much sparkle in his studs, his eyes, his buttons, his talk, his
teeth.” He married Miss Akershem, thinking she had money, and she
married him under the same delusion; and the two kept up a fine
appearance on nothing at all. Alfred Lammle had many schemes for making
money; one was to oust Rokesmith from his post of secretary to Mr.
Boffin, and get his wife adopted by Mrs. Boffin in the place of Bella
Wilfer; but Mr. Boffin saw through the scheme, and Lammle, with his
wife, retired to live on the Continent. In public they appeared very
loving and amiable to each other, but led at home a cat-and-dog life.

_Sophronia Lammle_, wife of Alfred Lammle. “A mature young lady, with
raven locks, and complexion that lit up well when well powdered.”—C.
Dickens, _Our Mutual Friend_ (1864).

=Lamoracke= (_Sir_), LAMEROCKE, LAMORAKE, LAMOROCK, or LAMARECKE, one of
the knights of the Round Table, and one of the three most noted for
deeds of prowess. The other two were Sir Launcelot and Sir Tristram. Sir
Lamoracke’s father was King Pellinore of Wales, who slew King Lot. His
brothers were Sir Aglavale and Sir Percival; Sir Tor, whose mother was
the wife of Aries, the cowherd, was his half-brother (pt. ii. 108). Sir
Lamoracke was detected by the sons of King Lot in adultery with their
mother, and they conspired his death.

Sir Gawain and his three brethren, Sir Agrawain, Sir Gahĕris, and Sir
Modred, met him [_Sir Lamoracke_] in a privy place, and there they slew
his horse; then they fought with him on foot for more than three hours,
both before him and behind his back, and all-to hewed him in pieces.—Sir
T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, ii. 144 (1470).

Roger Ascham says: “The whole pleasure of _La Mort d’Arthur_ standeth in
two special poyntes: in open manslaughter and bold bawdye, in which
booke they are counted the noblest knights that doe kill most men
without any quarrell, and commit foulest adulteries by sutlest shiftes;
as Sir Launcelote, with the wife of King Arthur, his master, Sir
Tristram, with the wife of King Marke, his uncle, and Sir Lamerocke with
the wife of King Lote, that was his aunt.”—_Works_, 254 (fourth edit.).

=Lamorce´= (_2 syl._), a woman of bad reputation, who inveigles young
Mirabel into her house, where he would have been murdered by four
bravoes, if Oriana, dressed as a page, had not been by.—G. Farquhar,
_The Inconstant_ (1702).

=Lamourette’s Kiss= (_A_), a kiss of peace when there is no peace; a
kiss of apparent reconciliation, but with secret hostility. On July 7,
1792, the Abbé Lamourette induced the different factions of the
Legislative Assembly of France to lay aside their differences; so the
deputies of the Royalists, Constitutionalists, Girondists, Jacobins, and
Orleanists, rushed into each others’ arms, and the king was sent for,
that he might see “how these Christians loved one another;” but the
reconciliation was hardly made when the old animosities burst forth more
furiously than ever.

=Lampad´ion,= a lively, petulant courtezan. A name common in the later
Greek comedy.

=Lampe´do,= of Lacedæmon. She was daughter, wife, sister, and mother of
a king. Agrippina was granddaughter, wife, sister, and mother of a
king.—Tacitus, _Annales_, xii. 22, 37.

⁂ The wife of Raymond Ber´enger (count of Provence), was grandmother of
four kings, for her four daughters married four kings; Margaret married
Louis IX., king of France; Eleanor married Henry III., king of England;
Sancha married Richard, king of the Romans; and Beatrice married Charles
I., king of Naples and Sicily.

_Lampedo_, a country apothecary-surgeon, without practice; so poor and
ill-fed that he was but “the sketch and outline of a man.” He says of

           Altho’ to cure men be beyond my skill,
           ’Tis hard, indeed, if I can’t keep them ill.
                   J. Tobin, _The Honeymoon_, iii. 3 (1804).

=Lamplugh= (_Will_), a smuggler.—Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time,
George III.).

=Lance= (_1 syl._), falconer and ancient servant to the father of
Valentine, the gallant, who would not be persuaded to keep his
estate.—Beaumont and Fletcher, _Wit Without Money_ (1622).

=Lancelot= or LAUNCELOT GOBBO, servant of Shylock. He assists Jessica,
Shylock’s daughter, in running away from her father, and accompanies her
in her flight.—Shakespeare, _Merchant of Venice_ (1598).

=Lancelot du Lac,= by Ulrich of Zazikoven, the most ancient poem of the
Arthurian series. It tells the adventures of a young knight, gay and
joyous, with animal spirits and light-heartedness. (See LAUNCELOT.)—_One
of the minnesongs of Germany_ (twelfth century).

=Lancelot du Lac and Tarquin.= Sir Lancelot, seeking adventures, met
with a lady who prayed him to deliver certain knights of the Round Table
from the power of Tarquin. Coming to a river, he saw a copper basin hung
on a tree for gong, and he struck it so hard that it broke. This brought
out Tarquin, and a furious combat ensued, in which Tarquin was slain.
Sir Lancelot then liberated three score and four knights, who had been
made captives by Tarquin. (See LAUNCELOT.)—Percy, _Reliques_, I. ii. 9.

=Lancelot of the Laik,= a Scotch metrical romance, taken from the French
_Launcelot du Lac_. Galiot, a neighboring king, invaded Arthur’s
territories, and captured the castle of Lady Melyhalt among others. When
Sir Lancelot went to chastise Galiot, he saw Queen Guinevere, and fell
in love with her. The French romance makes Galiot submit to King Arthur;
but the Scotch tale terminates with his capture. (See LAUNCELOT.)

=Lanciotto Da Rimini.= The brave, deformed victim of a state-marriage.
Loving his wife and brother best of created things, he is deceived by
both, and goaded to fury by the discovery and the taunts of the spy,
Pepe, seeks to wash out his dishonor in blood.—George Henry Boker,
_Francesca Da Rimini; A Tragedy_ (1856).

=Landois= (_Peter_), the favorite minister of the Duc de Bretagne.—Sir.
W. Scott, _Anne of Geierstein_ (time, Edward IV.).

=Landscape Gardening= (_Father of_), Lenôtre (1613-1700).

=Lane= (_Mr._). The victim of another man’s dishonesty. Retires from the
world and lives in Ivy Lane, London, in rags and poverty, lamenting “a
lost life.” Meeting him to whom he owes his ruin, he pursues him,
overtakes him at the river, seizes him and sinks with him to rise no

“When the victim recovered _his_ life, what did his tempter and
oppressor recover?”—Walter Besant; _Children of Gibeon_, (1890).

_Lane_ (_Jane_), daughter of Thomas, and sister of Colonel John Lane. To
save King Charles II. after the battle of Worcester, she rode behind him
from Bentley, in Staffordshire, to the house of her cousin, Mrs. Norton,
near Bristol. For this act of loyalty, the king granted the family the
following armorial device: A strawberry horse saliant (couped at the
flank), bridled, bitted, and garnished, supporting between its feet a
royal crown proper. Motto: _Garde le roy_.

=Laneham= (_Master Robert_), clerk of the council-chamber door.

_Sybil Laneham_, his wife, one of the revellers at Kenilworth
Castle.—Sir W. Scott, _Kenilworth_ (time, Elizabeth).

=Langcale= (_The laird of_), a leader in the covenanters’ army.—Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Langley= (_Sir Frederick_), a suitor to Miss Vere, and one of the
Jacobite conspirators with the laird of Ellieslaw.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Black Dwarf_ (time, Anne).

=Langosta= (_Duke of_), the Spanish nickname of Aosta, the elected king
of Spain. The word means “a locust” or “plunderer.”

=Language:= (_The Primeval_).

Psammetichus, king of Egypt, desiring to learn what was the original
language, shut up two infants with a goat to suckle them, in a place
where they could hear no human voice, and gave orders to report to him
the first word they should utter. At the end of two years they cried
“Bekos,” and as this resembled the Phrygian word for “bread,”
Psammetichus decided that the Phrygians were older than the Egyptians.
The word was really the echo of the cry of the goat.

=Languish= (_Lydia_), a romantic young lady, who is for ever reading
sensational novels, and molding her behavior on the characters which she
reads of in these books of fiction. Hence she is a very female Quixote
in romantic notions of a sentimental type (see act i. 2).—Sheridan, _The
Rivals_ (1775).

=Lantern-Land=, the land of authors, whose works are their lanterns. The
inhabitants, called “Lanterners” (_Lanternois_), are bachelors and
masters of arts, doctors, and professors, prelates and divines of the
council of Trent, and all other wise ones of the earth. Here are the
lanterns of Aristotle, Epicūros, and Aristophănês; the dark earthen
lantern of Epictētos, the duplex lantern of Martial, and many others.
The sovereign was a queen when Pantag´ruel visited the realm to make
inquiry about the “Oracle of the Holy Bottle.”—Rabelais, _Pantagruel_,
v. 32, 33 (1545).

=Lanternois=, pretenders to science, quacks of all sorts, and authors
generally. They are the inhabitants of Lantern-land,¤ and their literary
productions are “lanterns.”—Rabelais, _Pantagruel_, v. 32, 33 (1545).

=Laocoon= [_La.ok´.o.on_], a Trojan priest, who, with his two sons, was
crushed to death by serpents. Thomson, in his _Liberty_, iv., has
described the group, which represents these three in their death agony.
It was discovered in 1506, in the baths of Titus, and is now in the
Vatican. This exquisite group was sculptured at the command of Titus by
Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus, in the fifth century B.C.—Virgil,
_Æneid_, ii. 201-227.

=Laodami´a=, wife of Protesila´os, who was slain at the siege of Troy.
She prayed that she might be allowed to converse with her dead husband
for three hours, and her request was granted; but when her husband
returned to hadês, she accompanied him thither.

⁂ Wordsworth has a poem on this subject, entitled _Laodamia_.

=Laodice´a=, now _Lataki´a,_ noted for its tobacco and sponge.—See
_Rev._ iii. 14-18.

=Lapet= (_Mons._), a model of poltroonery, the very “Ercles’ Vein” of
fanatical cowardice. M. Lapet would fancy the world out of joint if no
one gave him a tweak of the nose or lug of the ear. He was the author of
a book on the “punctilios of duelling.”—Beaumont and Fletcher, _Nice
Valour_ or _The Passionate Madman_ (1647).

=Lapham= (_Silas_). Boston man who has made a fortune, and means to
enjoy it. His future son-in-law thus hits him off: “Simple-hearted and
rather wholesome. He could be tiresome, and his range of ideas is
limited. But he is a force, and not a bad one. He hasn’t got over being
surprised at the effect of rubbing his lamp.” His most attractive
qualities are his appreciation of his faithful wife, _Persis_, and
prideful fondness for his pretty daughters. He is honest, too, through
and through, and sacrifices much to sturdy integrity.—W. D. Howells,
_The Rise of Silas Lapham_ (1885).

=Lappet,= the “glory of all chambermaids.”—H. Fielding, _The Miser_.

=Lapraick= (_Laurie_), friend of Steenie Steenson, in Wandering Willie’s
tale.—Sir W. Scott, _Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Laprel=, the rabbit, in the beast-epic entitled _Reynard the Fox_

=Lara=, the name assumed by Conrad, the corsair, after the death of
Medo´ra. On his return to his native country, he was recognized by Sir
Ezzelin, at the table of Lord Otho, and charged home by him. Lara
arranged a duel for the day following, but Sir Ezzelin disappeared
mysteriously. Subsequently, Lara headed a rebellion, and was shot by
Otho.—Byron, _Lara_ (1814).

_Lara_ (_The Seven Sons of_), sons of Gonzalez Gustios de Lara, a
Castilian hero, brother of Ferdinand Gonzalez, count of Castile. A
quarrel having arisen between Gustios and Rodrigo Velasquez, his
brother-in-law, Rodrigo caused him to be imprisoned in Cor´dova, and
then allured his seven nephews into a ravine, where they were all slain
by an ambuscade, after performing prodigies of valor. While in prison,
Zaïda, daughter of Almanzor, the Moorish prince, fell in love with
Gustios, and became the mother of Mudarra, who avenged the death of his
seven brothers (A.D. 993).

⁂ Lope de Vega has made this the subject of a Spanish drama, which has
several imitations, one by Mallefille, in 1835.—See Ferd. Denis,
_Chroniques Chevaleresques d’Espagne_ (1839).

=Larder= (_The Douglas_), the flour, meal, wheat, and malt of Douglas
Castle, emptied on the floor by good Lord James Douglas, in 1307, when
he took the castle from the English garrison. Having staved in all the
barrels of food, he next emptied all the wine and ale, and then, having
slain the garrison, threw the dead bodies into this disgusting mess, “to
eat, drink, and be merry.”—Sir W. Scott, _Tales of a Grandfather_, ix.

_Wallace’s Larder_ is a similar mess. It consisted of the dead bodies of
the garrison of Ardrossan, in Ayrshire, cast into the dungeon keep. The
castle was surprised by him in the reign of Edward I.

=Lardoon= (_Lady Bab_), a caricature of fine life, the “princess of
dissipation,” and the “greatest gamester of the times.” She becomes
engaged to Sir Charles Dupely, and says, “to follow fashion where we
feel shame, is the strongest of all hypocrisy, and from this moment I
renounce it.”—J. Burgoyne, _The Maid of the Oaks_.

=La Roche=, a Swiss pastor, travelling through France with his daughter
Margaret, was taken ill, and like to die. There was only a wayside inn
in the place, but Hume, the philosopher, heard of the circumstance, and
removed the sick man to his own house. Here, with good nursing, La Roche
recovered, and a strong friendship sprang up between the two. Hume even
accompanied La Roche to his manse in Berne. After the lapse of three
years, Hume was informed that Mademoiselle was about to be married to a
young Swiss officer, and hastened to Berne to be present at the wedding.
On reaching the neighborhood, he observed some men filling up a grave,
and found on inquiry that Mademoiselle had just died of a broken heart.
In fact, her lover had been shot in a duel, and the shock was too much
for her. The old pastor bore up heroically, and Hume admired the faith
which could sustain a man in such an affliction.—H. Mackenzie, “Story of
La Roche” (in _The Mirror_).

=Lars=, the emperor or over-king of the ancient Etruscans. A khedive,
satrap, or under-king, was called _lŭcŭmo_. Thus the king of Prussia, as
emperor of Germany, is _lars_, but the king of Bavaria is a _lucumo_.

            There be thirty chosen prophets.
              The wisest of the land,
            Who alway by lars Por´sena,
              Both morn and evening stand.
                      Lord Macaulay, _Lays of Ancient Rome_
                           (“Horatius,” ix. 1842).

=Larthmor=, petty king of Ber´rathon, one of the Scandinavian islands.
He was dethroned by his son, Uthal, but Fingal sent Ossian and Toscar to
his aid. Uthal was slain in single combat, and Larthmor was restored to
his throne.—Ossian, _Berrathon_.

=Larthon=. the leader of the Fir-bolg or Belgæ of Britain, who settled
in the southern parts of Ireland.

Larthon, the first of Bolga’s race who travelled in the winds. White
bosomed spread the sails of the king towards streamy Inisfail
[_Ireland_]. Dun night was rolled before him, with its skirts of mist.
Unconstant blew the winds and rolled him from wave to wave.—Ossian,
_Temora_, vii.

=Lascaris=, a citizen. Sir W. Scott, _Count Robert of Paris_ (time,

=Las-Ca´sas=, a noble old Spaniard, who vainly attempted to put a stop
to the barbarities of his countrymen, and even denounced them (act i.
1).—Sheridan, _Pizarro_ (1799, altered from Kotzebue).

=Lascelles= (_Lady Caroline_), supposed to be Miss M. E.
Braddon.—_Athenæum_, 2073, _p._ 82 (C. R. Jackson).

=Last Man= (_The_), Charles I.; so called by the parliamentarians,
meaning _the last man who would wear a crown in Great Britain_. Charles
II. was called “The son of the Last man.”

=Last of the Fathers=, St. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux (1091-1153).

=Last of the Goths=, Roderick, the thirty-fourth and last of the
Visigothic line of kings in Spain (414-711). He was dethroned by the
African Moors.

⁂ Southey has an historical tale in blank verse, entitled _Roderick, the
Last of the Goths_.

=Last of the Greeks=, (_The_), Philopœmen of Arcadia (B.C. 253-183).

=Last of the Knights=, Maximilian I., _the Penniless_, emperor of
Germany (1459, 1493-1519).

=Last of the Mo´hicans.=, Uncas, the Indian chief, is so called by J. F.
Cooper, in his novel of that title.

⁂ The word ought to be pronounced _Mo.hic.´kanz_, but custom has ruled
it otherwise.

=Last of the Romans=, Marcus Junius Brutus, one of the assassins of
Cæsar (B.C. 85-42).

Caius Cassius Longīnus is so called by Brutus (B.C.*-42).

Aëtius, a general who defended the Gauls against the Franks, and
defeated Attila in 451, is so called by Proco´pius.

Congreve is called by Pope, _Ultimus Romanus_ (1670-1729).

Horace Walpole is called _Ultimus Romanorum_ (1717-1797).

François Joseph Terasse Desbillons was called _Ultimus Romanus_, from
his elegant and pure Latinity (1751-1789).

=Last of the Tribunes=, Cola di Rienzi (1313-1354).

⁂ Lord Lytton has a novel so entitled (1835).

=Last of the Troubadors=, Jacques Jasmin, of Gascony (1798-1864).

=Last who Spoke Cornish= (_The_), Doll Pentreath (1686-1777).

=Last Words,= (SEE DYING SAYINGS).

=Lath´erum=, the barber at the Black Bear inn, at Darlington.—Sir W.
Scott, _Rob Roy_ (time, George I.).

=Lathmon=, son of Nuäth, a British prince. He invades Morven while
Fingal is in Ireland with his army; but Fingal returns unexpectedly. At
dead of night, Ossian (Fingal’s son) and his friend Gaul, the son of
Morni, go to the enemy’s camp, and “strike the shield” to arouse the
sleepers, then rush on, and a great slaughter ensues in the panic.
Lathmon sees the two opponents moving off, and sends a challenge to
Ossian; so Ossian returns, and the duel begins. Lathmon flings down his
sword, and submits; and Fingal, coming up, conducts Lathmon to his
“feast of shells.” After passing the night in banquet and song, Fingal
dismisses his guest next morning, saying, “Lathmon, retire to thy place;
turn thy battles to other lands. The race of Morven are renowned, and
their foes are the sons of the unhappy.”—Ossian, _Lathmon_.

⁂ In _Oithona_ he is again introduced, and Oithona is called Lathmon’s

[_Donrommath_] feared the returning Lathmon, the brother of unhappy
Oithona.—Ossian, _Oithona_.

=Lat´imer= (_Mr. Ralph_), the supposed father of Darsie Latimer, _alias_
Sir Arthur Darsie Redgauntlet.

_Darsie Latimer_, _alias_ Sir Arthur Darsie Redgauntlet, supposed to be
the son of Ralph Latimer, but really the son of Sir Henry Darsie
Redgauntlet, and grandson of Sir Redwald Redgauntlet.—Sir W. Scott,
_Redgauntlet_ (time, George III.).

=Latin Church= (_Fathers of the_): Lactantius, Hilăry, Ambrose, of
Milan, Jer´ome, Augustin of Hippo, and St. Bernard, “Last of the

=Lati´nus=, king of the Laurentians, who first opposed Æne´as, but
afterwards formed an alliance with him, and gave him his daughter
Lavinia in marriage.—Virgil, _Æneid_.

_Latinus_, an Italian, who went with his five sons to the siege of
Jerusalem. His eldest son was slain by Solyman; the second son,
Aramantês, running to his brother’s aid, was next slain; then the third
son, Sabi´nus; and lastly, Picus and Laurentës, who were twins. The
father, having lost his five sons, rushed madly on the soldan, and was
slain also. In one hour fell the father and his five sons.—Tasso,
_Jerusalem Delivered_ (1575).

=Latmian Swain= (_The_), Endym´ion. So called because it was on Mount
Latmos, in Caria, that Cynthia (_the moon_) descended to hold converse
with him.

           Thou dids’t not, Cynthia, scorn the Latmian swain.
                           Ovid, _Art of Love_, iii.

=Lato´na=, mother of Apollo (_the sun_) and Diana (_the moon_). Some
Lycian hinds jeered at her as she knelt by a fountain in Delos to drink,
and were changed into frogs.

          As when those hinds that were transformed to frogs,
          Railed at Latona’s twin-born progeny,
          Which after held the sun and moon in fee.
                                 Milton, _Sonnets_.

=Latorch=, Duke Rollo’s “earwig,” in the tragedy called _The Bloody
Brother_, by Beaumont and Fletcher (1639).

=Latro= (_Marcus Porcius_), a Roman rhetorician in the reign of
Augustus; a Spaniard by birth.

I became as mad as the disciples of Porcius Latro, who, when they had
made themselves as pale as their master by drinking decoctions of cumin,
imagined themselves as learned.—Lesage, _Gil Blas_, vii. 9 (1735).

=Laud= (_Archbishop_). One day, when the archbishop was about to say
grace before dinner, Archie Armstrong, the royal jester, begged
permission of Charles I. to perform the office instead. The request
being granted, the wise fool said, “All _praise_ to the Lord, and little
_Laud_ to the devil!” the point of which is much increased by the fact
that the archbishop was a very small man.

=Lauderdale= (_The Duke of_), president of the privy council.—Sir W.
Scott, _Old Mortality_ (time, Charles II.).

=Laugh= (_Jupiter’s_). Jupiter, we are told, laughed incessantly for
seven days after he was born.—Ptol. Hephæstion, _Nov. Hist._, vii.

=Laughing Philosopher= (_The_), Democ´rītos, of Abde´ra (B.C. 460-357).

⁂He laughed or jeered at the feeble powers of man so wholly in the hands
of fate, that nothing he did or said was uncontrolled. The “Weeping
Philosopher” was Heraclitos.

Dr. Jeddler, the philosopher, who looked upon the world as a “great
practical joke, something too absurd to be considered seriously by any
rational man.”—C. Dickens, _The Battle of Life_ (1846).

=Laughter= (_Death from_). A fellow in rags told Chalchas, the
soothsayer, that he would never drink the wine of the grapes growing in
his vineyard; and added, “If these words do not come true, you may claim
me for your slave.” When the wine was made, Chalchas made a feast, and
sent for the fellow to see how his prediction had failed; and when he
appeared, the soothsayer laughed so immoderately at the would-be prophet
that he died.—Lord Lytton, _Tales of Miletus_, iv.

Somewhat similar is the tale of Ancæos. This king of the Lelĕgês, in
Samos, planted a vineyard, but was warned by one of his slaves that he
would never live to taste the wine thereof. Wine was made from the
grapes, and the king sent for his slave, and said, “What do you think of
your prophecy now?” The slave made answer, “There’s many a slip ’twixt
the cup and the lip;” and the words were scarcely uttered, when the king
rushed from table to drive out of his vineyard a boar which was laying
waste the vines, but was killed in the encounter.—Pausanias.

Crassus died from laughter on seeing an ass eat thistles. Margutte, the
giant, died of laughter on seeing an ape trying to pull on his boots.
Philemon or Philomēnês died of laughter on seeing an ass eat the figs
provided for his own dinner (_Lucian_, i. 2). Zeuxis died of laughter at
sight of an old woman he had painted.

=Launay= (_Vicomte de_), pseudonym of Mde. Emile de Girardin (_née_
Delphine Gay).

=Launce=, the clownish servant of Proteus, one of the two “gentlemen
of Verona.” He is in love with Julia. Launce is especially famous
for soliloquies to his dog, Crab, “the sourest-natured dog that
lives.” Speed is the serving-man of Valentine, the other
“gentleman.”—Shakespeare, _The Two Gentlemen of Verona_ (1594).

=Launcelot=, bard to the Countess Brenhilda’s father.—Sir W. Scott,
_Count Robert of Paris_ (time, Rufus).

_Launcelot_ (_Sir_), originally called Galahad, was the son of Ban, king
of Benwick (_Brittany_), and his wife, Elein (pt. i. 60). He was stolen
in infancy by Vivienne, the Lady of the Lake, who brought him up till he
was presented to King Arthur and knighted. In consequence, he is usually
called Sir Launcelot du Lac. He was in “the eighth degree [_or
generation_] of our Saviour” (pt. iii. 35); was uncle to Sir Bors de
Ganis (pt. iii. 4); his brother was Sir Ector de Maris (pt. ii. 127);
and his son, by Elaine, daughter of King Pelles, was Sir Galahad, the
chastest of the 150 knights of the Round Table, and therefore allotted
to the “Siege Perilous” and the quest of the Holy Graal, which he
achieved. Sir Launcelot had from time to time a glimpse of the Holy
Graal; but in consequence of his amours with Queen Guenever, was never
allowed more than a distant and fleeting glance at it (pt. iii. 18, 22,

Sir Launcelot was the strongest and bravest of the 150 knights of the
Round Table; the two next were Sir Tristram and Sir Lamoracke. His
adultery with Queen Guenever was directly or indirectly the cause of the
death of King Arthur, the breaking up of the Round Table, and the death
of most of the knights. The tale runs thus: Mordred and Agravain hated
Sir Launcelot, told the king he was too familiar with the queen, and, in
order to make good their charge, persuaded Arthur to go a-hunting. While
absent in the chase, the queen sent for Sir Launcelot to her private
chamber, when Mordred, Agravain, and twelve other knights beset the
door, and commanded him to come forth. In coming forth he slew Sir
Agravain and the twelve knights; but Mordred escaped and told the king,
who condemned Guenever to be burned to death. She was brought to the
stake, but rescued by Sir Launcelot, who carried her off to Joyous
Guard, near Carlisle. The king besieged the castle, but received a bull
from the pope, commanding him to take back the queen. This he did, but
refused to be reconciled to Sir Launcelot, who accordingly left the
realm and went to Benwick. Arthur crossed over with an army to besiege
Benwick, leaving Mordred regent. The traitor, Mordred, usurped the
crown, and tried to make the queen marry him; but she rejected his
proposal with contempt. When Arthur heard thereof, he returned, and
fought three battles with his nephew, in the last of which Mordred was
slain, and the king received from his nephew his death-wound. The queen
now retired to the convent of Almesbury, where she was visited by Sir
Launcelot; but as she refused to leave the convent, Sir Launcelot turned
monk, died “in the odor of sanctity,” and was buried in Joyous Guard
(pt. iii. 143-175).

“Ah! Sir Launcelot,” said Sir Ector; “thou were [_sic_] head of all
Christian knights.” “I dare say,” said Sir Bors, “that Sir Launcelot
there thou liest, thou were never matched of none earthly knight’s hand;
and thou were the courteoust knight that ever bare shield; and thou were
the truest friend to thy lover that ever bestrode horse; and thou were
the truest lover of sinfull man that ever loved woman; and thou were the
kindest man that ever struck with sword; and thou were the goodliest
person that ever came among press of knights; and thou were the meekest
man and the gentlest that ever eat in hall among ladies; and thou were
the sternest knight to thy mortal foe that ever put spear in rest.”—Sir
T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_, iii. 176 (1470).

N. B.—The Elaine above referred to is not the Elaine of Astolat, the
heroine of Tennyson’s _Idyll_. Sir Ector de Maris is not Sir Ector, the
foster-father of King Arthur; and Sir Bors de Ganis must be kept
distinct from Sir Bors of Gaul, and also from Sir Borre or Sir Bors, a
natural son of King Arthur, by Lyonors, daughter of the Earl Sanam (pt.
i. 15).

_Sir Launcelot and Elaine._ The Elaine of Tennyson’s _Idyll_, called the
“fair maid of Astolat,” was the daughter of Sir Bernard, lord of
Astolat, and her two brothers were Sir Tirre (not _Sir Torre_, as
Tennyson writes the word) and Lavaine (pt. iii. 122). The whole tale and
the beautiful picture of Elaine propelled by the old dumb servitor down
the river to the king’s palace, is all borrowed from Sir T. Malory’s
compilation. “The fair maid of Astolat” asked Sir Launcelot to marry
her, but the knight replied, “Fair damsel, I thank you, but certainly
cast me never to be married;” and when the maid asked if she might be
ever with him without being wed, he made answer, “Mercy defend me, no!”
“Then,” said Elaine, “I needs must die for love of you;” and when Sir
Launcelot quitted Astolat, she drooped and died. But before she died she
called her brother, Sir Tirre (not _Sir Lavaine_, as Tennyson says,
because Sir Lavaine went with Sir Launcelot as his squire), and dictated
the letter that her brother was to write, and spake thus:

“While my body is whole, let this letter be put into my right hand, and
my hand bound fast with the letter until that I be cold, and let me be
put in a fair bed, with all my richest clothes.... and be laid in a
chariot to the next place, whereas the Thames is, and there let me be
put in a barge, and but one man with me ... to steer me thither, and
that my barge be covered with black samite.”... So her father granted
... that all this should be done ... and she died. And so, when she was
dead, the corpse and the bed ... were put in a barge ... and the man
steered the barge to Westminster.—Pt. iii. 123.

The narrative then goes on to say that King Arthur had the letter read,
and commanded the corpse to be buried right royally, and all the knights
then present made offerings over her grave. Not only the tale, but much
of the antique flavor of the original is preserved in the version of the
laureate.—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_ (1470).

_Launcelot and Guenever._ Sir Launcelot was chosen by King Arthur to
conduct Guenever (his bride) to court; and then began that disloyalty
between them which lasted to the end. Gottfried, the German minnesinger
(twelfth century), who wrote the tale of Sir Tristan [our _Tristram_],
makes King Mark send Tristan to Ireland, to conduct Yseult to Cornwall,
and then commenced that disloyalty between Sir Tristram and his uncle’s
wife, which also lasted to the end, and was the death of both.

_Launcelot Mad._ Sir Launcelot, having offended the queen, was so vexed,
that he went mad for two years, half raving and half melancholy. Being
partly cured by a vision of the Holy Graal, he settled for a time in
Joyous Isle, under the assumed name of _La Chevalier Mal-Fet_. His deeds
of prowess soon got blazed abroad, and brought about him certain knights
of the Round Table, who prevailed on him to return to court. Then
followed the famous quest of the Holy Graal. The quest of the graal is
the subject of a minnesong by Wolfram (thirteenth century), entitled
_Parzival_. (In the _History of Prince Arthur_, complied by Sir T.
Malory, it is Galahad, son of Sir Launcelot, not Percival, who
accomplished the quest).

⁂ The madness of Orlando, by Ariosto, resembles that of Sir Launcelot.

_Launcelot a Monk._ When Sir Launcelot discovered that Guenever was
resolved to remain a nun, he himself retired to a monastery, and was
consecrated a hermit by the bishop of Canterbury. After twelve months,
he was miraculously summoned to Almesbury, to remove to Glastonbury the
queen, who was at the point of death. Guenever died half an hour before
Sir Launcelot arrived, and he himself died soon afterwards (pt. iii.
174). The bishop in attendance on the dying knight affirmed that “he saw
angels heave Sir Launcelot up to heaven, and the gates of paradise open
to receive him” (pt. iii. 175). Sir Bors, his nephew, discovered the
dead body in the cell, and had it buried with all honors at Joyous Guard
(pt. iii. 175).—Sir T. Malory, _History of Prince Arthur_ (1470), and
also Walter Mapes.

When Sir Bors and his fellows came to his (Sir Launcelot’s) bed, they
found him stark dead, and he lay as he had smiled, and the sweetest
savor about him that ever they smelled.—Sir T. Malory, _History of
Prince Arthur_, iii. 175 (1470).

N.B.—Sir Launcelot intended, when he quitted the court of Arthur, and
retired to Benwick, to found religious houses every ten miles between
Sandwich and Carlisle, and to visit every one of them barefoot; but King
Arthur made war upon him, and put an end to this intention.

⁂ _Other particulars of Sir Launcelot._ The tale of Sir Launcelot was
first composed in monkish Latin, and was translated by Walter Mapes
(about 1180). Robert de Borron wrote a French version, and Sir T. Malory
took his _History of Prince Arthur_ from the French, the third part
being chiefly confined to the adventures and death of this favorite
knight. There is a metrical romance called _La Charrette_, begun by
Chrestiens de Troyes (twelfth century), and finished by Geoffrey de

_Launcelot_, the man of Mons. Thomas. (See LANCELOT.)—Beaumont and
Fletcher, _Mons. Thomas_ (1619).

=Launfal= (_Sir_), steward of King Arthur. Detesting Queen Gwennere, he
retired to Carlyoun, and fell in love with a lady named Tryamour. She
gave him an unfailing purse, and told him if he ever wished to see her,
all he had to do was to retire into a private room, and she would be
instantly with him. Sir Launfal now returned to court, and excited much
attention by his great wealth. Gwennere made advances to him, but he
told her she was not worthy to kiss the feet of the lady to whom he was
devoted. At this repulse, the angry queen complained to the king, and
declared to him that she had been most grossly insulted by his steward.
Arthur bade Sir Launfal produce this paragon of woman. On her arrival,
Sir Launfal was allowed to accompany her to the isle of Ole´ron; and no
one ever saw him afterwards.—Thomas Chestre, _Sir Launfal_ (a metrical
romance, time, Henri VI.).

⁂ James Russell Lowell has a poem entitled _The Vision of Sir Launfal_.

=Laura=, niece of Duke Gondibert, loved by two brothers, Arnold and
Hugo, the latter dwarfed in stature. Laura herself loved Arnold; but
both brothers were slain in the faction fight stirred up by Prince
Oswald against Duke Gondibert, his rival in the love of Rhodalind, only
child of Aribert, king of Lombardy. On the death of Arnold and Hugo,
Laura became attached to Tybalt. As the tale was never finished, we have
no key to the poet’s intention respecting Laura and Tybalt.—Sir Wm.
Davenant, _Gondibert_ (died 1668).

_Laura_, a Venetian lady, who married Beppo. Beppo being taken captive,
turned Turk, joined a band of pirates, and grew rich. He then returned
to his wife, made himself known to her, and “had his claim allowed.”
Laura is represented as a frivolous mixture of millinery and religion.
She admires her husband’s turban, and dreads his new religion. “Are you
really, truly, now a Turk?” she says. “Well, that’s the prettiest shawl!
Will you give it me? They say you eat no pork. Bless me! Did I ever? No,
I never saw a man grown so yellow! How’s your liver?” and so she rattles
on.—Byron, _Beppo_ (1820).

=Laura Fairlie=, innocent victim of the machinations of _Sir Percival
Glyde_ and _Count Tosco_. The former marries her for her fortune, then
imprisons her in an insane asylum, and announces her death. In the end
she becomes a widow, and weds Walter Harbright, who has long loved
her.—Wilkie Collins, _The Woman in White_.

=Laura and Petrarch.= Some say _La belle Laure_ was only an hypothetical
name used by the poet to hang the incidents of his life and love on. If
a real person, it was Laura de Noves, the wife of Hugues de Sade, of
Avignon, and she died of the plague in 1348.

            Think you, if Laura had been Petrarch’s wife,
            He would have written sonnets all his life?
                          Byron, _Don Juan_, iii. 8 (1820).

=Laurana=, the lady-love of Prince Parismus of Bohemia.—Emanuel Foord,
_The History of Parismus_ (1598).

=Laureate of the Gentle Craft=, Hans Sachs, the cobbler poet of

=Laurence= (_Friar_), the good friar who promises to marry Romeo and
Juliet. He supplies Juliet with the sleeping draught, to enable her to
quit her home without arousing scandal or suspicion. (See
LAWRENCE).—Shakespeare, _Romeo and Juliet_ (1597).

_Laurence_, baby-boy whose brief life is the theme of Rossiter Johnson’s
poem bearing that caption:

            “The newness of love at his coming,
            The freshness of grief when he went,
            The pitiless pain of his absence,
            The effort at argued content,
            The dim eye forever retracing
            The few little footprints he made,
            The quick thought forever recalling
            The visions that never can fade—
            For these but one comfort, one answer
            In faith’s or philosophy’s roll;—
            Came to us for a pure little body
            Went to GOD for a glorified soul.”
                  Rossiter Johnson, _Idler and Poet_ (1883).

=Laurie,= favorite playfellow of _Little Women_, and when they are no
longer “little,” the husband of Amy.—L.M. Alcott, _Little Women_.

=Laurringtons= (_The_), a novel by Mrs. Trollope, a satire on “superior
people,” the bustling Bothebys of society (1843).

=Lauzun= (_The duke de_), a courtier in the court of Louis XIV.
Licentious, light-hearted, unprincipled and extravagant. To promote his
own fortune, he supplanted La Vallière by Mde. de Montespan in the
king’s favor. Montespan thought he loved her; but when he proposed to La
Vallière, the discarded favorite, Mde. de Montespan dismissed him. The
duke, in revenge, persuaded the king to banish the lady, and when La
Vallière took the veil, the king sent Mde. de Montespan this cutting

 We do not blame you; blame belongs to love,
 And love had nought with you.
 The duke de Lauzun, of these lines the bearer,
 Confirms their purport. From our royal court
 We do excuse your presence.
        Lord E.L.B. Lytton, _The Duchess de la Vallière_, v. 5 (1836).

=Lavaine= (_Sir_), brother of Elaine, and son of the lord of As´tolat.
Young, brave and knightly. He accompanied Sir Lancelot when he went to
tilt for the ninth diamond.—Tennyson, _Idylls of the King_ (“Elaine”).

=Lavalette= (3 _syl._), condemned to death for sending to Napoleon
secret intelligence of Government despatches. He was set at liberty by
his wife, who took his place in prison, but became a confirmed lunatic.

Lord Nithsdale escaped in a similar manner from the Tower of London. His
wife disguised him as her maid, and he passed the sentries without being

=La Vallière= (_Louise, duchess de_), betrothed to the Marquis de
Bragelonê (4 _syl._), but in love with Louis XIV., whose mistress she
became. Conscience accused her, and she fled to a convent; but the king
took her out, and brought her to Versailles. He soon forsook her for
Mde. de Montespan, and advised her to marry. This message almost broke
her heart, and she said, “I will choose a bridegroom without delay.”
Accordingly she took the veil of a Carmelite nun, and discovered that
Bragelonê was a monk. Mde. de Montespan was banished from the court by
the capricious monarch. Lord E.L.B. Lytton, _The Duchess de la Vallière_

=Liavin´ia,= daughter of Latīnus, betrothed to Turnus, king of the
Rutuli. When Æne´as landed in Italy, Latinus made an alliance with him,
and promised to give him Lavinia to wife. This brought on a war between
Turnus and Æneas, that was decided by single combat, in which Æneas was
the victor.—Virgil, _Æneid_.

_Lavinia_, daughter of Titus Andron´icus, a Roman general employed
against the Goths. She was betrothed to Bassia´nus, brother of
Saturnius, emperor of Rome. Being defiled by the sons of Tam´ora, queen
of the Goths, her hands were cut off and her tongue plucked out. At
length her father, Titus, killed her, saying, “I am as woeful as
Virginius was, and have a thousand times more cause than he to do this
outrage.”—(?) Shakespeare, _Titus Andron´icus_ (1593).

In the play, Andronicus is always called _An.dron´.i.kus_, but in
classic authors it is _An.dro.nī.kus_.

_Lavinia_, sister of Lord Al´tamont, and wife of Horatio.—N. Rowe, _The
Fair Penitent_ (1703).

=Lavinia and Pale´mon.= Lavinia was the daughter of Acasto, patron of
Palemon, from whom his “liberal fortune took its rise.” Acasto lost his
property, and dying, left a widow and daughter in very indigent
circumstances. Palemon often sought them out, but could never find them.
One day, a lovely, modest maiden came to glean in Palemon’s fields. The
young squire was greatly struck with her exceeding beauty and modesty,
but did not dare ally himself with a pauper. Upon inquiry, he found that
the beautiful gleaner was the daughter of Acasto; he proposed marriage,
and Lavinia “blushed assent.”—Thomson, _Seasons_, (“Autumn,” 1730).

⁂ The resemblance between this tale and the Bible story of Ruth and Boaz
must be obvious to every one.

=Law of Athens= (_The_). By Athenian law, a father could dispose of his
daughter in marriage as he liked. Egēus pleaded this law, and demanded
that his daughter Hermia should marry Demētrius, or suffer the penalty
of the law; if she will not

  Consent to marry with Demetrius,
  I beg the ancient privilege of Athens;
  As she is mine, I may dispose of her:
  Which shall be either to this gentleman,
  Or to her death; according to our law.
          Shakespeare, _Midsummer Night’s Dream_, act i. sc. 1 (1592).

=Law of Flanders= (_The_). Charles “the Good,” earl of Flanders, made a
law that a serf, unless legally emancipated, was always a serf, and that
whoever married a serf became a serf. S. Knowles has founded his tragedy
called _The Provost of Bruges_ on this law (1836).

=Law of Lombardy= (_The_).

               We have a law peculiar to this realm,
               That subjects to a mortal penalty
               All women nobly born ... who, to the shame
               Of chastity, o’erleap its thorny bounds,
               To wanton in the flowery path of pleasure.
                                           Act. ii. 2.

On this law Robert Jephson has founded the following tragedy: The Duke
Bire´no, heir to the crown, falsely charges the Princess Sophia of
incontinence. The villainy of the duke being discovered, he is slain in
combat by a Briton named Paladore, and the victor marries the princess

=Lawrence= (_Steven_). Big yeoman, whose travels in America have added a
touch of the backwoodsman to the English rustic. Handsome, wholesome and
sensible, but unsophisticated. He is trapped into a marriage by a
scheming woman, while he loves another. A series of unhappy years
follow. His wife is shallow of heart and head, vain and ambitious; he
resolute, upright, and tender of heart. After her death, he meets and
marries the genuine woman of his first love.—Annie Edwards, _Steven
Lawrence, Yeoman_.

=Law’s Bubble,= the famous Mississippi scheme, devised by John Law

=Law’s Tale= (_The Man of_), the tale tells of Custance, daughter of the
emperor of Rome, affianced to the sultan of Syria. On the wedding night
the sultan’s mother murdered all the bridal party for apostacy, except
Custance, whom she turned adrift in a ship. The ship stranded on the
shores of Britain, where Custance was rescued by the lord-constable of
Northumberland, whose wife, Hermegild, became much attached to her. A
young knight wished to marry Custance, but she declined his suit;
whereupon he murdered Hermegild, and then laid the knife beside
Custance, to make it appear that she had committed the deed. King Alla,
who tried the case, soon discovered the truth, executed the knight, and
married Custance. Now was repeated the same infamy as occurred to her in
Syria; the queen-mother, Donegild, disapproved of the match, and, during
the absence of her son in Scotland, embarked Custance and her infant son
in the same ship, which she turned adrift. After floating about for five
years, it was taken in tow by the Roman fleet on its return from Syria,
and Custance was put under the charge of a Roman senator. It so happened
that Alla was at Rome at the very time on a pilgrimage, met his wife,
and they returned to Northumberland together.

This story is found in Gower, who probably took it from the French
chronicle of Nicholas Trivet.

A similar story forms the outline of _Emaărê_ (3 _syl._), a romance in
Ritson’s collection.

The knight murdering Hermegild, etc., resembles an incident in the
French _Roman de la Violette_, the English metrical romance of _Le Bone
Florence of Rome_ (in Ritson), and also a tale in the _Gesta Romanorum_,

=Lawford= (_Mr._), the town clerk of Middlemas.—Sir W. Scott, _The
Surgeon’s Daughter_ (time, George II.).

=Lawrence= (_Friar_), a Franciscan who clandestinely marries Romeo and
Juliet. (See LAURENCE).

_Lawrence_ (_Tom_), _alias_ “Tyburn Tom” or Tuck, a highwayman. (See
LAURENCE).—Sir W. Scott, _Heart of Midlothian_ (time, George II.).

=Lawrence Arbuthnot=, dilettante society man, who disguises a kindly and
generous nature under a careless manner.—Frances Hodgson Burnett,
_Through One Administration_ (1883).

=La Writ=, a little, wrangling French advocate.—Beaumont and Fletcher,
_The Little French Lawyer_ (1647).

=Lawson= (_Sandie_), landlord of the Spa hotel—Sir W. Scott, _St.
Ronan’s Well_ (time, George III.).

=Lay of the Last Minstrel.= Ladye Margaret [Scott], of Branksome Hall,
the “flower of Teviot,” was beloved by Baron Henry, of Cranstown, but a
deadly feud existed between the two families. One day an elfin page
allured Ladye Margaret’s brother (the heir of Branksome Hall) into a
wood, where he fell into the hands of the Southerners. At the same time
an army of 3000 English marched to Branksome Hall to take it, but,
hearing that Douglas, with 10,000 men, was on the march against them,
the two chiefs agreed to decide the contest by single combat. The
English champion was Sir Richard Musgrave, the Scotch champion called
himself Sir William Deloraine. Victory fell to the Scotch, when it was
discovered that “Sir William Deloraine” was in reality Lord Cranstown,
who then claimed and received the hand of Ladye Margaret, as his
reward.—Sir W. Scott, _Lay of the Last Minstrel_ (1805).

=Lazarillo=, a humorsome valet, who serves two masters, “Don Felix” and
Octavio. Lazarillo makes the usual quota of mistakes, such as giving
letters and money to the wrong master; but it turns out that Don Felix
is Donna Clara, the _fiancée_ of Octavio, and so all comes
right.—Jephson, _Two Strings to your Bow_ (1792).

Joseph Munden [1758-1832] was the original Lazarillo.—_Memoir of J.S.
Munden_ (1832).

=Lazarillo de Tormes=, the hero of a romance of roguery, by Don Diego de
Mendo´za (1553). Lazarillo is a compound of poverty and pride, full of
stratagems and devices. The “hidalgo” walks the streets (as he says)
“like the duke of Arcos,” but is occupied at home “to procure a crust of
dry bread, and, having munched it, he is equally puzzled how to appear
in public with due decorum. He fits out a ruffle so as to suggest the
idea of a shirt, and so adjusts a cloak as to look as if there were
clothes under it.” We find him begging bread, “not for food,” but simply
for experiments. He eats it to see “if it is digestible and wholesome;”
yet he is gay withal, and always rakish.

=Lazarus and Dives.= Lazarus, a beggar whose fate is contrasted with
that of Dives, _i.e._ a rich man (Latin). At their death Lazarus goes to
heaven, the rich man goes to hell and begs that Lazarus may bring him a
drop of water to cool his tongue.—_Luke_, xvi. 19-31.

⁂ Lazarus is the only proper name given in any of the New Testament
parables. The rich man is not named.

=Lazy Lawrence of Lubber-Land=, the hero of a popular tale. He served
the schoolmaster, the squire’s cook, the farmer, and his own wife, all
which was accounted treason in Lubber-land.

=Lea=, one of the “daughters of men,” beloved by one of the “sons of
God.” The angel who loved her ranked with the least of the spirits of
light, whose post around the throne was in the outermost circle. Sent to
earth on a message, he saw Lea bathing, and fell in love with her; but
Lea was so heavenly minded that her only wish was to “dwell in purity
and serve God in singleness of heart.” Her angel lover, in the madness
of his passion, told Lea the spell-word that gave him admittance into
heaven. The moment Lea uttered it, her body became spiritual, rose
through the air, and vanished from sight. On the other hand, the angel
lost his ethereal nature, and became altogether earthly, like a child of
clay.—T. Moore, _Loves of the Angels_, i. (1822).

=League= (_The_), a league formed at Péronne in 1576, to prevent the
accession of Henri IV. to the throne of France, because he was of the
reformed religion. This league was mainly due to the Guises. It is
occasionally called “The Holy League;” but the “Holy League” strictly so
called is quite another thing, and it is better not to confound
different events by giving them the same name. (See LEAGUE, HOLY).

_League, (The Achæan)_, B.C. 281-146. The old league consisted of the
twelve Achæan cities confederated for self-defence from the remotest
times. The league properly so called was formed against the Macedonians.

_League (The Ætolian)_, formed some three centuries B.C., when it became
a formidable rival to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achæan League.

_League (The Grey)_, 1424, called _Lia Grischa_ or _Graubünd_, from the
grey homespun dress of the confederate peasants, the Grisons, in
Switzerland. This league combined with the League Caddee (1401), and the
League of the Ten Jurisdictions (1436), in a perpetual alliance in 1471.
The object of these leagues was to resist domestic tyranny.

_League_ (_The Hans_ or _Hanseatic_), 1241-1630, a great commercial
confederation of German towns, to protect their merchandise against the
Baltic pirates, and defend their rights against the German barons and
princes. It began with Hamburg and Lubeck, and was joined by Bremen,
Bruges, Bergen, Novogorod, London, Cologne, Brunswick, Danzig; and
afterwards, by Dunkerque, Anvers, Ostend, Dordrecht, Rotterdam,
Amsterdam, etc.; still later by Calais, Rouen, St. Malo, Bordeaux,
Bayonne, Marseilles, Barcelona, Seville, Cadiz, and Lisbon; and lastly
by Messina, Naples, etc.; in all, eighty cities.

_League_ (_The Holy_). Several leagues are so denominated, but that
emphatically so called is the league of 1511 against Louis XII., formed
by Pope Julius II., Ferdinand “the Catholic,” Henry VIII., the
Venetians, and the Swiss. Gaston de Foix obtained a victory over the
league at Ravenna in 1512, but died in the midst of his triumph.

_League_ (_The Solemn_), 1638, formed in Scotland against the Episcopal
government of the Church.

=League Caddee= (_The_), or _Ligue de la Maison de Dieu_ (1401), a
confederation of the Grisons for the purpose of resisting domestic
tyranny. (See LEAGUE, GREY).

=League of Augsburg= (1686), a confederation of the house of Austria
with Sweden, Saxony, Bavaria, the circles of Swabia and Franconia, etc.,
against Louis XIV. This league was the beginning of that war which
terminated in the peace of Ryswick (1698).

=League of Cambray= (1508), formed by the Emperor Maximilian I., Louis
XII., of France, Ferdinand “the Catholic,” and Pope Julius II., against
the republic of Venice.

=League of Ratisbonne= (1524), by the Catholic powers of Germany against
the progress of the Reformation.

=League of Smalkalde= (December 31, 1530), the Protestant states of
Germany leagued against Charles the Fifth. It was almost broken up by
the victory obtained over it at Mühlberg in 1547.

=League of Wurtzburg= (1610), formed by the Catholic states of Germany
against the “Protestant Union” of Hall. Maximilian I., of Bavaria, was
at its head.

=League of the Beggars= (1560), a combination formed against the
Inquisition in Flanders.

=League of the Cities of Lombardy= (1167), under the patronage of Pope
Alexander III., against Frederick Barbarossa, emperor of Germany. In
1225, the cities combined against Frederick II., of Germany.

=League of the Public Weal= (_Ligue du Bien Public_), 1464, a league
between the dukes of Burgundy, Brittany, Bourbon, and other princes,
against Louis XI., of France.

=Leah Holland.= Handsome granddaughter of an English farmer. Michael
Standish, an artist lodger, paints her portrait and falls in love with
her. His mother and friends oppose the match, and Leah, in proper pride,
eludes his pursuit. In the end, he weds a girl in his own rank, and Leah
becomes a useful and contented trained nurse.—Georgiana M. Craik, _A
Daughter of the People_.

=Lean´der= (_3 syl._), a young man of Aby´dos, who swam nightly across
the Hellespont to visit his lady-love, Hero, a priestess of Sestos. One
night he was drowned in his attempt, and Hero leaped into the Hellespont
and died also.

The story is told by Musæus in his poem called _Hero and Leander_.
Schiller has made it the subject of a ballad.

⁂ Lord Byron and Lieutenant Ekenhead repeated the feat of Leander, and
accomplished it in 1 hr. 10 min.; the distance (allowing for drifting)
would be about four miles.

_Leander_, a young Spanish scholar, smitten with Leonora, a maiden under
the charge of Don Diego, and whom the Don wished to make his wife. The
young scholar disguised himself as a minstrel to amuse Mungo, the slave,
and with a little flattery and a few gold pieces lulled the vigilance of
Ursula, the duenna, and gained admittance to the lady. As the lovers
were about to elope, Don Diego unexpectedly returned; but being a man of
60, and, what is more, a man of sense, he at once perceived that Leander
was a more suitable husband for Leonora than himself, and accordingly
sanctioned their union and gave the bride a handsome dowry.—I.
Bickerstaff, _The Padlock_.

=Leandra=, daughter of an opulent Spanish farmer, who eloped with
Vincent de la Rosa, a heartless adventurer, who robbed her of all her
money, jewels, and other valuables, and then left her to make her way
home as best she could. Leandra was placed in a convent till the scandal
had blown over.—Cervantes, _Don Quixote_, I. iv. 20 (“The Goat-herd’s
Story,” 1605).

=Léandre= (_2 syl._), son of Géronte (_2 syl._). During the absence of
his father, he fell in love with Zerbinette, whom he supposed to be a
young gypsy, but who was in reality the daughter of Argante (_2 syl._),
his father’s friend. Some gypsies had stolen the child when only four
years old, and required £1500 for her ransom—a sum of money which Scapin
contrived to obtain from Léandre’s father under false pretences. When
Géronte discovered that his son’s bride was the daughter of his friend
Argante, he was quite willing to excuse Scapin for the deceit practiced
on him.—Molière, _Les Fourberies de Scapin_ (1671).

(In Otway’s version of this comedy, called _The Cheats of Scapin_,
Léandre is Anglicized into “Leander;” Géronte is called “Gripe;”
Zerbinette is “Lucia;” Argante is “Thrifty;” and the sum of money £200).

_Léandre_, the lover of Lucinde, daughter of Géronte (_2 syl._). Being
forbidden the house, Lucinde pretended to be dumb, and Léandre, being
introduced in the guise of an apothecary, effects a cure by “pills
matrimoniac.”—Molière, _Le Médecin Malgré Lui_ (1666).

=Lean´dro=, a gentleman who wantonly loves Amaranta (the wife of
Bar´tolus, a covetous lawyer).—Beaumont and Fletcher, _The Spanish
Curate_ (1632).

=Lean´dro the Fair= (_The Exploits and Adventures of_), part of the
series called _Le Roman des Romans_, pertaining to “Am´adis of Gaul.”
This part was added by Pedro de Lujan.

=Lear=, mythical king of Britain, son of Bladud. He had three daughters,
and when four score years old, wishing to retire from the active duties
of sovereignty, resolved to divide his kingdom between them in
proportion to their love. The two elder said they loved him more than
their tongue could express, but Cordelia, the youngest, said she loved
him as it became a daughter to love her father. The old king, displeased
with her answer, disinherited Cordelia, and divided his kingdom between
the other two, with the condition that each alternately, month by month,
should give him a home, with a suite of a hundred knights. He spent the
first month with his eldest daughter, who showed him scant hospitality.
Then going to the second, she refused to entertain so large a suite;
whereupon the old man would not enter her house, but spent the night
abroad in a storm. When Cordelia, who had married the king of France,
heard of this, she brought an army over to dethrone her sisters, but was
taken prisoner and died in jail. In the meantime the elder sister
(Goneril) first poisoned her younger sister from jealousy, and
afterwards put an end to her own life. Lear also died.—Shakespeare,
_King Lear_ (1605).

(The stage _Lear_ is a corrupt version by Nahum Tate (Tate and Brady);
as the stage _Richard III_. is Colley Cibber’s travesty.)

⁂ Percy, in his _Reliques of Ancient English Poetry_, has a ballad about
“King Leir and His Three Daughters” (series I. ii.).

The story is given by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his _British History_.
Spenser has introduced the tale in his _Faëry Queen_ (i