Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of Alexis De Tocqueville
Author: Tocqueville, Alexis de
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of Alexis De Tocqueville" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



WORKS OF

ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE



CONTENTS

##  DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA, Vol 1

##  DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA, Vol 2

##  AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS

##  THE RECOLLECTIONS OF TOQUEVILLE

##  SOCIETY IN FRANCE BEFORE THE REVOLUTION OF 1789



TABLES OF CONTENTS OF VOLUMES

DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA
By Alexis De Tocqueville
Translated by Henry Reeve


CONTENTS
Book One
Introduction
Hon. John T. Morgan
Introductory Chapter
Chapter I: Exterior Form Of North America
Chapter Summary
Chapter II: Origin Of The Anglo-Americans 	Part I
Chapter Summary
Chapter II: Origin Of The Anglo-Americans 	Part II
Chapter III: Social Conditions Of The Anglo-Americans
Chapter Summary
Chapter IV: The Principle Of The Sovereignty Of The People In America
Chapter Summary
Chapter V: Necessity Of Examining The Condition Of The States 	Part I
Chapter V: Necessity Of Examining The Condition Of The States 	Part II
Chapter V: Necessity Of Examining The Condition Of The States 	Part III
Chapter VI: Judicial Power In The United States
Chapter Summary
Chapter VII: Political Jurisdiction In The United States
Chapter Summary
Chapter VIII: The Federal Constitution 	Part I
Chapter Summary
Summary Of The Federal Constitution
Chapter VIII: The Federal Constitution 	Part II
Chapter VIII: The Federal Constitution 	Part III
Chapter VIII: The Federal Constitution 	Part IV
Chapter VIII: The Federal Constitution 	Part V
Chapter IX: Why The People May Strictly Be Said To Govern In The United
Chapter X: Parties In The United States
Chapter Summary
Parties In The United States
Chapter XI: Liberty Of The Press In The United States
Chapter Summary
Chapter XII: Political Associations In The United States
Chapter Summary
Chapter XIII: Government Of The Democracy In America 	Part I
Chapter XIII: Government Of The Democracy In America 	Part II
Chapter XIII: Government Of The Democracy In America 	Part III
Chapter XIV: Advantages American Society Derive From Democracy 	Part I
Chapter XIV: Advantages American Society Derive From Democracy 	Part II
Chapter XV: Unlimited Power Of Majority, And Its Consequences 	Part I
Chapter Summary
Chapter XV: Unlimited Power Of Majority, And Its Consequences 	Part II
Chapter XVI: Causes Mitigating Tyranny In The United States 	Part I
Chapter Summary
Chapter XVI: Causes Mitigating Tyranny In The United States 	Part II
Chapter XVII: Principal Causes Maintaining The Democratic Republic 	Part I
Chapter XVII: Principal Causes Maintaining The Democratic Republic 	Part II
Chapter XVII: Principal Causes Maintaining The Democratic Republic 	Part III
Chapter XVII: Principal Causes Maintaining The Democratic Republic 	Part IV
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races In The United States 	Part I
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races 	Part II
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races 	Part III
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races 	Part IV
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races 	Part V
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races 	Part VI
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races 	Part VII
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races 	Part VIII
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races 	Part IX
Chapter XVIII: Future Condition Of Three Races 	Part X
Conclusion

DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA
By Alexis De Tocqueville
Translated by Henry Reeve
Volume II.



CONTENTS
Book Two: Influence Of Democracy On Progress Of Opinion
De Tocqueville's Preface To The Second Part
Section I: Influence of Democracy on the Action of Intellect
Chapter I: Philosophical Method Among the Americans
Chapter II: Of The Principal Source Of Belief Among Democratic Nations
Chapter III: Why The Americans Display More Readiness And More Taste
Chapter IV: Why The Americans Have Never Been So Eager As The French
Chapter V: Of The Manner In Which Religion In The United States Avails
Chapter VI: Of The Progress Of Roman Catholicism In The United States
Chapter VII: Of The Cause Of A Leaning To Pantheism
Chapter VIII: The Principle Of Equality Suggests To The Americans
Chapter IX: The Example Of The Americans Does Not Prove
Chapter X: Why The Americans Are More Addicted To Practical
Chapter XI: Of The Spirit In Which The Americans Cultivate The Arts
Chapter XII: Why The Americans Raise Some Monuments So Insignificant
Chapter XIII: Literary Characteristics Of Democratic Ages
Chapter XIV: The Trade Of Literature
Chapter XV: The Study Of Greek And Latin Literature Peculiarly Useful
Chapter XVI: The Effect Of Democracy On Language
Chapter XVII: Of Some Of The Sources Of Poetry
Chapter XVIII: Of The Inflated Style Of American Writers And Orators
Chapter XIX: Some Observations On The Drama
Chapter XX: Characteristics Of Historians In Democratic Ages
Chapter XXI: Of Parliamentary Eloquence In The United States
Section 2: Influence of Democracy on the Feelings of Americans
Chapter I: Why Democratic Nations Show A More Ardent And Enduring Love
Chapter II: Of Individualism In Democratic Countries
Chapter III: Individualism Stronger
Chapter IV: That The Americans Combat The Effects Of Individualism
Chapter V: Of The Use Which The Americans Make Of Public Associations
Chapter VI: Of The Relation Between Public Associations And Newspapers
Chapter VII: Connection Of Civil And Political Associations
Chapter VIII: The Americans Combat Individualism
Chapter IX: That The Americans Apply The Principle Of Interest Rightly
Chapter X: Of The Taste For Physical Well-Being In America
Chapter XI: Peculiar Effects Of The Love Of Physical Gratifications
Chapter XII: Causes Of Fanatical Enthusiasm In Some Americans
Chapter XIII: Causes Of The Restless Spirit Of Americans
Chapter XIV: Taste For Physical Gratifications United In America
Chapter XV: That Religious Belief Sometimes Turns The Thoughts
Chapter XVI: That Excessive Care Of Worldly Welfare
Chapter XVII: That In Times Marked By Equality Of Conditions
Chapter XVIII: That Amongst The Americans All Honest Callings
Chapter XIX: That Almost All The Americans Follow Industrial Callings
Chapter XX: That Aristocracy May Be Engendered By Manufactures
Book Three: Influence Of Democracy On Manners, Properly So Called
Chapter I: That Manners Are Softened As Social Conditions Become
Chapter II: That Democracy Renders The Habitual Intercourse
Chapter III: Why The Americans Show So Little Sensitiveness
Chapter IV: Consequences Of The Three Preceding Chapters
Chapter V: How Democracy Affects the Relation Of Masters And Servants
Chapter VI: That Democratic Institutions And Manners Tend To Raise Rents
Chapter VII: Influence Of Democracy On Wages
Chapter VIII: Influence Of Democracy On Kindred
Chapter IX: Education Of Young Women In The United States
Chapter X: The Young Woman In The Character Of A Wife
Chapter XI: That The Equality Of Conditions Contributes
Chapter XII: How The Americans Understand The Equality Of The Sexes
Chapter XIII: That The Principle Of Equality Naturally Divides
Chapter XIV: Some Reflections On American Manners
Chapter XV: Of The Gravity Of The Americans
Chapter XVI: Why The National Vanity Of The Americans Is More Restless
Chapter XVII: That The Aspect Of Society In The United States
Chapter XVIII: Of Honor In The United States And In Democratic
Chapter XIX: Why So Many Ambitious Men And So Little Lofty Ambition
Chapter XX: The Trade Of Place-Hunting In Certain Democratic Countries
Chapter XXI: Why Great Revolutions Will Become More Rare
Chapter XXII: Why Democratic Nations Are Naturally Desirous Of Peace
Chapter XXIII: Which Is The Most Warlike And Most Revolutionary Class
Chapter XXIV: Causes Which Render Democratic Armies Weaker
Chapter XXV: Of Discipline In Democratic Armies
Chapter XXVI: Some Considerations On War In Democratic Communities
Book Four: Influence Of Democratic Opinions On Political Society
Chapter I: That Equality Naturally Gives Men A Taste For Freedom
Chapter II: That The Notions Of Democratic Nations On Government
Chapter III: That The Sentiments Of Democratic Nations Accord
Chapter IV: Of Certain Peculiar And Accidental Causes
Chapter V: That Amongst The European Nations Of Our Time
Chapter VI: What Sort Of Despotism Democratic Nations Have To Fear
Chapter VII: Continuation Of The Preceding Chapters
Chapter VIII: General Survey Of The Subject
Appendix to Parts I. and II.
Part I.
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D
Appendix E
Appendix F
Part II.
Appendix G
Appendix H
Appendix I
Appendix K
Appendix L
Appendix M
Appendix N
Appendix O
Appendix P
Appendix Q
Appendix R
Appendix S
Appendix T
Appendix U
Appendix V
Appendix W
Appendix X
Appendix Y
Appendix Z
Constitution Of The United States Of America
Article I
Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested
Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed
Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed
Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections
Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections
Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation
Section 7. All Bills for Raising Revenue shall originate in the House
Section 8. The Congress shall have Power to lay and collect Taxes
Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons
Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance
Article II
Section 1. The Executive Power shall be vested in a President
Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army
Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information
Section 4. The President, Vice-President and all civil Officers
Article III
Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States shall be vested
Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all cases
Section 3. Treason against the United States shall consist
Article IV
Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State
Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled
Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union
Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State
Article V
Article VI
Article VII
Bill Of Rights

AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR INFLUENCE.
By Alexis De Tocqueville.
With Notes, by Hon. John C. Spencer.



CONTENTS
ADVERTISEMENT.
PREFACE TO THE AMERICAN EDITION.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION.
AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS.
CHAPTER I. 	CHAPTER II. 	CHAPTER III.
CHAPTER IV. 	CHAPTER V. 	CHAPTER VI.
CHAPTER VII. 	CHAPTER VIII. 	CHAPTER IX.
CHAPTER X. 	CHAPTER XI. 	CHAPTER XII.
CHAPTER XIII. 	CHAPTER XIV. 	CHAPTER XV.
CHAPTER XVI. 	CHAPTER XVII. 	CHAPTER XVIII.
CONCLUSION. 	APPENDICES

THE RECOLLECTIONS OF ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE
Translated Into English By Alexander Teixeira De Mattos



CONTENTS

PART THE FIRST


CHAPTER I
PAGE
Origin and Character of these Recollections—General aspect of the period preceding the Revolution of 1848—Preliminary symptoms of the Revolution3

CHAPTER II

The Banquets—Sense of security entertained by the Government—Anxiety of Leaders of the Opposition—Arraignment of Ministers19

CHAPTER III

Troubles of the 22nd of February—The Sitting of the 23rd—The New Ministry—Opinions of M. Dufaure and M. de Beaumont33

CHAPTER IV

The 24th of February—The Ministers' Plan of Resistance—The National Guard—General Bedeau44

CHAPTER V

The Sitting of the Chamber—Madame la Duchesse D'Orléans—The Provisional Government56


PART THE SECOND


CHAPTER I

My Explanation of the 24th of February, and my views as to its effects upon the future79

CHAPTER II[xii]

Paris on the morrow of the 24th of February and the next days—The socialistic character of the New Revolution90

CHAPTER III

Vacillation of the Members of the Old Parliament as to the attitude they should adopt—My own reflections on my mode of action, and my resolves102

CHAPTER IV

My candidature of the department of la Manche—The aspect of the country—The General Election114

CHAPTER V

The First Sitting of the Constituent Assembly—The appearance of this Assembly129

CHAPTER VI

My relations with Lamartine—His Subterfuges145

CHAPTER VII

The 15th of May 1848156

CHAPTER VIII

The Feast of Concord and the preparations for the Days of June174

CHAPTER IX

The Days of June187

CHAPTER X

The Days of June—(continued)215

CHAPTER XI

The Committee for the Constitution233


PART THE THIRD[xiii]


CHAPTER I

My return to France—Formation of the Cabinet263

CHAPTER II

Aspect of the Cabinet—Its first Acts until after the insurrectionary attempts of the 13th of June278

CHAPTER III

Our domestic policy—Internal quarrels in the Cabinet—Its difficulties in its relations with the Majority and the President301

CHAPTER IV

Foreign Affairs325


APPENDIX

I

Gustave de Beaumont's version of the 24th of February379

II

Barrot's version of the 24th of February(10 October 1850)385

III

Some incidents of the 24th of February 1848389

1

M. Dufaure's efforts to prevent the Revolution of February—Responsibility of M. Thiers, which renders them futile389

2

Dufaure's conduct on the 24th of February 1848392

IV[xiv]

My conversation with Berryer, on the 21st of June, at an appointment which I had given him at my house. We were both Members of the Committee for the revision of the Constitution394

Index399
INDEX
Abdul Medjid, Sultan of Turkey (1823-1861), on question of Hungarian refugees, 373.

d'Adelsward, in the National Assembly, 162.

Ampère, Jean Jacques (1800-1864), character of, 87.

Andryane, in the Chamber of Deputies, 72.

Arago, Étienne, on the barricades, 387.

Austria, her relations with Hungary and Russia, 335.
—— Tsar's views on, 337.

Austrians, in Italy, 333.
—— submits to the influence of Russia, 352 (foot-note).
—— and Piedmont, 353.
—— demands Hungarian refugees from Turkey, 361.


B

Baden, revolution put down in, 342.
—— Tocqueville interferes on behalf of the rebels (foot-note), 342.

Banquets, the, affair of, 18.

Banquet in Paris, forbidden by Government, 30.
—— Rivet's statement in regard to, 390

Barbès, Armand (1810-1870), in the National Assembly, 164.
—— goes to the Hôtel de Ville, 168.
—— impeached by the Assembly, 173.

Barricades, the, construction of, 47.

Barrot, Camille Hyacinthe Odilon (1791-1873), alliance of, with Thiers, 19.
—— replies to Hébert in Chamber of Deputies, 28.

Barrot, recoils from Banquet in Paris, 31.

Barrot, sent for by Louis-Philippe, 45.
—— on the Revolution, 59.
—— and the barricades, 74.
—— in Committee of Constitution, 243, 246, 250, 255.
—— tries to form a new Cabinet, 267.
—— succeeds, 277.
—— with Beaumont, &c., 379.
—— his version of the abdication of Louis-Philippe, 385.

Bastide, gets the Assembly to appoint Cavaignac Military Dictator, 204.

Beaumont, Gustave de la Bonninière de (1802-1866), Tocqueville's conversation with, 41.
—— is sent for by Louis-Philippe, 45.
—— tells Tocqueville of abdication of Louis-Philippe, 58.
—— meets Tocqueville, 74.
—— sits with Tocqueville in National Assembly, 142.
—— in Committee of the Constitution, 252.
—— his interview with Tocqueville and political friends, 267.
—— sent as Ambassador to Vienna, 321.
—— letter of Tocqueville to, on the Hungarian refugees, 370.
—— his account of the abdication of Louis-Philippe, 379.

Beaumont, Madame de, notice of, 41.

Bedeau, General Marie Alphonse (1804-1863), on the Place Louis XV, 51.
—— character of, 52.
—— nearly killed in Insurrection, 227.
—— his interview with Tocqueville and his political friends, 267.

Berlin, Persigny sent to, 323.

Berryer, Pierre Antoine (1790-1868), his discussion with Tocqueville on the proposed Constitution, 394.

[402]Billault, Auguste Adolphe Marie (1805-1863), in the Chamber of Deputies, 74.
—— and banquets, 390.

Blanc, Jean Joseph Louis (1811-1882), in the National Assembly, 166.

Blanqui, Louis Auguste (1805-1881), in the National Assembly, 163.

Blanqui, Adolphe Jérôme (1798-1854), anecdote of, 197.

Bloomfield, John Arthur Douglas Bloomfield, Lord (1802-1879), British Minister at St Petersburg, 374.
—— snubbed by Nesselrode, idem.

Broglie, Achille Charles Léonce Victor Duc de (1785-1870), his seclusion, 106.
—— and foreign affairs, 330.

Buchez, Philippe Benjamin Joseph (1769-1865), in the National Assembly, 162.

Bugeaud, Thomas Robert Marshal, Marquis de la Piconnerie, Duc d'Isly (1784-1849), in favour of the Duchesse d'Orléans, 72.
—— dying of cholera, 290.
—— his ambition, 380.

Buffel, Minister of Agriculture, 276.


C

Cabinet, Members of the, 278.

Cavaignac, General Louis Eugène (1802-1857), in the Insurrection of June, 195.
—— made Military Dictator, 204.
—— Tocqueville votes for, 263.
—— speech of, 297.

Chamber of Deputies, the, state of in 1848, 10.
—— Tocqueville's speech in, on 27th January 1848, 14.
—— Speeches in, by Hébert and Barrot, 28.
—— state of, on 22nd February, 33.
—— state of, on 23rd February, 36.
—— Guizot in, 36.
—— state of, on 24th February, 56.
—— Tocqueville's estimate of its utility, 58.
—— Duchesse d'Orléans in, 60.
—— invaded by the people, 62.

Chambers, one or two? debate on, in the Committee of the Constitution, 242.

Changarnier, General Nicolas Anne Théodule (1793-1877), Rulhière's jealousy of, 279.
—— sent for, 295.
—— puts down insurrection, 298.

Champeaux, his relation with Lamartine, 147.
—— his relation with Tocqueville, 149.

Charles X., King of France and Navarre (1757-1836), flight of, in 1830, 85.

Chateaubriand, François René, Vicomte de (1768-1848), death of, 230.

Committee for the Constitution, appointed, 233.
—— proceedings of, 235.

Considérant, Victor, appointed on Committee of the Constitution, 233.
—— escapes after insurrection, 299.

Constituent Assembly, prohibits Government from attacking Rome, 288.

Coquerel, Athanase Laurent Charles (1795-1875), in the Committee of the Constitution, 246.

Corbon, on the Committee of the Constitution, 257.

Corcelles, with Lanjuinais and Tocqueville on the boulevards, 48.
—— sits with Tocqueville in National Assembly, 142.
—— in the Insurrection of June, 191.
—— his interview with Tocqueville and his political friends, 267.

Cormenin, Louis Marie de la Haye, Vicomte de (1788-1868), appointed a Commissioner for Paris, 206.
—— appointed on the Committee of the Constitution, 232.
—— in the Committee of the Constitution, 247, 257.

Council General, the, meets at Saint-Lô, 125.

Courtais, General, in the National Assembly, 171.
—— impeached by Assembly, 173.

Crémieux, Isaac Adolphe (1796-1880), in the Chamber of Deputies, 65.
—— appointed a Commissioner for Paris, 206.
—— what Janvier said of him, 210.


D

Degousée, in the National Assembly, 159.

Dembinski, General Henry (1791-1864), flees to the Turks, 361.

[403]Dornès, appointed on the Committee of the Constitution, 235.

Dufaure, Jules Armand Stanislas (1798-1881), Tocqueville's conversation with, 17.
—— character of, 40.
—— tells Tocqueville of his interview with Louis-Philippe, 47.
—— sits with Tocqueville in National Assembly, 142.
—— converses with Tocqueville, Thiers, Barrot, Rémusat, and Lanjuinais, 203.
—— appointed on the Committee of the Constitution, 233.
—— conduct of, in the Committee, 243, 255.
—— his interview with Tocqueville and his political friends, 267.
—— made Minister of the Interior, 272.
—— with the President, 296.
—— rupture with Falloux, 307.
—— speech in Assembly, 310.
—— character of, 313.
—— with the President, 322.
—— and banquets, 390.
—— his conduct on 24th February 1848, 393.

Duchâtel, Charles Marie Tannequi, Comte (1803-1867), Minister of the Interior, character of and conversation with, 23.
—— want of tact in his speech on the banquets, 27.
—— flight of, 136.

Dupin, André Marie Jean Jacques (1783-1865), speech of, in the Chamber of Deputies, 62.
—— in the Committee of the Constitution, 243.

Duvergier de Hauranne, Prosper (1798-1881), interview with, 22.
—— with Beaumont, &c., 379.
—— refuses to compromise on the banquet, 392.

Duvivier, killed in Insurrection, 227.


E

England, Tocqueville's estimate of the policy of, 359.
—— on question of Hungarian refugees in Turkey, 366.


F

Falloux, Alfred Frédéric Pierre, Comte de (1811-1886), proposes the dissolution of the National Workshops, 193.
—— Minister of Public Instruction, 273.
—— leader of majority in the Cabinet, 281.
—— his influence with Louis Napoleon, 303.
—— intercourse with Tocqueville, 305.
—— rupture with Dufaure, 307.
—— with the President, 322.
—— on the question of the Hungarian refugees, 369.

Faucher, Léon (1803-1854), Minister of the Interior, 266.

Feast of Concord, the, proposal to hold, and celebration of, 174.

France, state of, when Tocqueville becomes Minister of Foreign Affairs, 339.

Frederic William IV., King of Prussia (1795-1861), the Tsar's opinion of, 337.
—— his character and his aims for Germany, 346.
—— his coquetting with revolt, 351.
—— submits to the influence of Russia, 352 (foot-note).


G

General Election, the, antecedents of, 105.
—— new, 265.

Germany, state of, 333.
—— Confederation of States in, 347.
—— views of Baron Pfordten in regard to, 348.
—— views of Tocqueville in regard to, 349.
—— views of Tsar in regard to, 350, 353.

Goudchaux, Michel (1797-1862), appointed a Commissioner for Paris, 206.
—— his conduct in that capacity, 213.

Guizot, François Pierre Guillaume (1787-1874), opinion of, 9.
—— in Chamber of Deputies, 36.
—— resigns Government, 36.
—— opinion of, on the Revolution, 79.
—— flight of, 136.


[404]H

Havin, Léonor Joseph (1799-1868), chairs meeting for Tocqueville, 122.
—— and Barrot, 389.

Hébert, Minister of Justice, character of and speech by, 28.

Houghton, Richard Monckton Milnes, Lord (1809-1885), Tocqueville breakfasts with, 184.

Huber, in National Assembly, 167.

Hungary, revolting against Austria, 335.
—— Tsar's views on, 337.
—— Tocqueville's instructions concerning, 360.


I

Insurrection of June, nature of narrative of, 187.

Italy, the Tsar's views on, 338.


K

Kossuth, Louis (1802-1894), flees to the Turks, 361.


L

Lacordaire, Jean Baptiste Henri Dominique (1802-1861), in the National Assembly, 161.

Lacrosse, character of, 280.

La Fayette, Edmond de, and his life-preserver, 175.

Lamartine, Alphonse Marie Louis Prat de (1790-1869), in the Chamber of Deputies, 62, 66.
—— reads out the list of the Provisional Government, 70.
—— gets embarrassed in the Chamber of Deputies, 71.
—— his conduct and character, 145.
—— Tocqueville's relations with, 147.
—— his connexion with Champeaux, 147.
—— his speech in the Assembly, 151.
—— his sudden departure from the Assembly, 159.
—— reappears in National Assembly, 171.

Lamartine, at the Feast of Concord, 180.
—— shot at in the Insurrection of June, 194.

Lamartine, Madame de, notice of, 154.

Lamennais, Hugues Félicité Robert de (1782-1855), appointed on Committee of the Constitution, 233.

Lamoricière, General Christophe Léon Louis Juchault de (1806-1865), character of, 91.
—— in Insurrection of June, 192, 220.
—— his interview with Tocqueville and his political friends, 267.
—— sent as Ambassador to Russia, 303.
—— letter about the Tsar of Russia, 336.
—— instructions of Tocqueville to, 360.
—— letter of, to Tocqueville, 364.
—— letter of Tocqueville to, on Hungarian refugees, 370.
—— conduct of, in regard to them, 372.

Lanjuinais, Victor Ambroise de (1802-1869), Tocqueville in company of, 42.
—— with Tocqueville and Corcelles on the boulevards, 46.
—— sits with Tocqueville in the National Assembly, 142.
—— his interview with Tocqueville and his political friends, 267.
—— joins the Council, 274.
—— on the question of the Hungarian refugees, 369.

Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre Auguste (1807-1874), in the Chamber of Deputies, 65, 71.
—— character of, 150.
—— in the National Assembly, 163.
—— has to escape from the National Assembly, 173.
—— demands the indictment of Louis Napoleon, 292.
—— escapes after the Insurrection, 299.

Legitimists, views and condition of, 302.

Lepelletier d'Aunay, Tocqueville meets, 213.

Louis Napoleon, Prince President of the French Republic (1808-1873), elected to the National Assembly, 183.
—— President of the Republic, 270.
—— character of, 283.
—— orders the attack on Rome, 289.
—— attacked in Assembly, 292.
—— puts down Insurrection, 298.
—— intrigues with Thiers and Molé, 315.
—— in connexion with Tocqueville, 317.
[405]—— with Beaumont, Dufaure and Passy, 321-2.
—— his general ignorance, 331.
—— wishes to take Savoy, 332.
—— Tocqueville and Berryer's discussion about the powers of, 394.

Louis-Philippe, King of the French (1773-1850), Tocqueville's interview with, 7.
—— his opinion of Lord Palmerston, idem.
—— of the Tsar Nicholas, idem.
—— refers to Queen Victoria, idem.
—— influence of, 10.
—— on the Banquets, 26.
—— Sallandrouze, conversation with, 35.
—— sends for Molé, 37.
—— sends for Beaumont, 45.
—— abdicates, 58.
—— character of, and of his Government, 81.
—— finally disappears from France, 105.
—— Beaumont's account of abdication of, 379.

Lyons, insurrection in, 298.


M

Manche, la, department of, 114.
—— proceedings in election of, 117.
—— election of Tocqueville for, 263.

Marrast, Armand (1780-1852), and the Provisional Government, 71.
—— suggests costume for National Representatives, 135.
—— as Mayor of Paris, 227.
—— appointed on the Committee of the Constitution, 233.
—— conduct of, in the Committee, 241, 247, 255.
—— appointed Secretary of the Committee, 256.

Martin, on the Committee of the Constitution, 254.

Middle Class, the, government of, 5.
—— despair of, 133.

Molé, Matthieu Louis, Comte (1781-1855), sent for by Louis-Philippe, 37.
—— declines office, 45.
—— opinion of, on the Revolution, 79.
—— on General Election, 107.
—— elected to the National Assembly, 182.
—— refuses to take office, 267.
—— intrigues with the President, 315.
—— on Foreign Affairs, 330.
—— and abdication of Louis-Philippe, 385.
—— with Rivet and Dufaure, 393.

Montagnards, the description of, 137.
—— separation of, from the Socialists, 154.
—— crushed, 231.
—— strengthened at the new election, 263.
—— supporters of, 266.
—— feelings towards the President, 292.

Montalembert, Charles Forbes René, Comte de (1810-1870), opposes the Government scheme on railways, 190.

Montpensier, Antoine d'Orléans, Duc de (1824-1890), at the abdication of Louis-Philippe, 384.


N

National Assembly, the, meets on 4th of May, 133.
—— description of, 133.
—— Tocqueville's opinion of, 142.
—— speech of Lamartine in, 151.
—— invaded by the mob, 160.
—— breaks up, 168.
—— National Guards take possession of, 170.
—— addresses from provinces, in support of, 182.
—— agrees to pension families of men killed in putting down the Insurrection, 206.
—— threatened, 228.
—— state of the new Assembly, 265, 270, 291.

National Guard, the, invited by Radical party to the banquet in Paris, 30.
—— on the morning of the 24th February, 44.
—— shouting "Reform," 49.
—— Detachment of, in the Chamber of Deputies, 61, 72.
—— disappearance of, 94.
—— take possession of National Assembly, 170.
—— at Feast of Concord, 178.
—— in Insurrection of June, 200.
—— shout "Long live the National Assembly," 207.
—— eager to put down the Insurrection, 213.
—— wounded of, being carried away, 226.
[406]—— surrounded, 294.
—— three regiments of, cashiered, 309.

National Workshops, the, create anxiety in the Assembly, 181.
—— Falloux proposes dissolution of, 193.
—— supply weapons to insurgents in June, 198.

Négrier, killed in the Insurrection, 227.

Nemours, Louis Charles Philippe Raphael d'Orléans, Duc de (1814-1896), thought of as Regent, 383.
—— and Barrot, 388.

Nesselrode, Charles Robert, Count (1780-1862), snubs Lord Palmerston, 374.

Nicholas I., Tsar of all the Russias (1796-1855), supports Austria against Hungary, 335.
—— his general policy, 336.
—— Lamoricière's letter about, 336.
—— his family affection, 339.
—— the real support of his power, 339.
—— views of, on an United Germany, 350.
—— demands Hungarian refugees from Turkey, 364.
—— his irritation about Hungarian refugees, 373.

Normanby, Constantine Henry Phipps, Marquess of (1797-1863), Ambassador in Paris, 368.

Novara, Battle of, 323.


O

D'Orléans, Hélène, Duchesse (1814-1858), in the Chamber of Deputies, 60.
—— and the abdication of Louis-Philippe, 384.
—— and Barrot, 389.

Oudinot, General Nicolas Charles Victor, Duc de Reggio (1791-1863), in the Chamber of Deputies, 72.


P

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, Viscount (1784-1865) on Piedmont and Austria, 359.
—— snubbed by Nesselrode, 374.

Paris, Louis Philippe d'Orléans, Comte de (1838-1894), in the Chamber of Deputies, 60.

Passy, character of, 272.
—— with the President, 322.

Paulmier, Tocqueville dines with, on the 22nd February, 34.

Persigny, Jean Gilbert Victor Fialin, Duc de (1808-1872), sent to Berlin and Vienna, 323.

Piedmont and Austria, 353.

Portalis, character of, 42.

Presidency, condition of, discussed in the Committee of the Constitution, 246.

Provisional Government, the, proclaimed, 59.
—— Lamartine reads list of, in the Chamber of Deputies, 70.
—— appoints a costume for National Representatives, 134.
—— reports its proceedings to the National Assembly, 135.


R

Radetzky, Field-Marshal Johann Joseph Wenzel Anton Franz Carl, Count (1766-1858), and Piedmont, 355.

Radical Party, state of the, in January 1848, 25.

Raspail, François Vincent (1794-1878), in the National Assembly, 162.

Revolutionaries, description of the, 137.
—— in the National Assembly, 158.

Rivet, his conversation with Tocqueville, 389.
—— consultation of, with Liberals, on the subject of the banquets, 390.
—— another conversation with Tocqueville, 392.
—— with Molé and Dufaure, 393.

Rome, the French Army at, 263.
—— difficulties about, 269.
—— secret order to the army to attack, 291.

Rulhière, character of, 279.


S

Saint-Lô, meeting of the Council General at, 125.

Sallandrouze de Lamornaix meets Tocqueville at dinner at Paulmier's, 35.
—— snubbed by Louis-Philippe, idem.

Sand, George (1804-1876), Tocqueville's conversation with, 183.

Sauzet, President of the Chamber of Deputies, 57.

[407]Savoy, Louis Napoleon wishes to seize, 332.

Schwarzenberg, Felix Ludwig Johann Friedrich, Prince von (1808-1852), and Tocqueville, 358.

Sénard, President of the Assembly, 214.

Sicily, state of, 333.

Sobrier, in National Assembly, 167.

Socialism, influence of theories of, 97.
—— Dufaure's conflict with, 312.

Socialists, the, description of, 137.
—— separation of, from Montagnards, 154.

Switzerland, Tocqueville's correspondence with, on the subject of the refugees, 343.


T

Talabot, and Thiers, 75.

Thiers, Louis Adolphe (1797-1877), alliance of, with Barrot, 19.
—— sent for by Louis-Philippe, 45.
—— wandering round Paris, 74.
—— opinion of, on the Revolution, 79.
—— on the General Election, 106.
—— defeated at the General Election, 136.
—— elected to the National Assembly, 182.
—— addresses Barrot, Dufaure, Rémusat, Lanjuinais and Tocqueville in private, 202.
—— with Lamoricière, 225.
—— refuses to take office, 267.
—— with the President, 296.
—— intrigues with the President, 315.
—— on foreign affairs, 330.
—— with Beaumont, &c., 379.
—— advises Louis-Philippe to abdicate, 383.
—— his interview with Barrot, 385.
—— refuses to compromise on the banquets, 392.

Tocqueville, Charles Alexis Henri Maurice Clérel de (1805-1859), his purpose in writing these memoirs, 3.
—— his intercourse with Louis-Philippe, 7.
—— his estimate of the state of France in January 1848, 9.
—— picture of the state of the Chamber of Deputies in 1847, 12.
—— his speech in the Chamber of Deputies, 29th January 1848, 14.
—— remarks on this speech by Dufaure and others, 17.
—— his position on the affair of the banquets, 19.
—— his estimate of Duchâtel, Minister of the Interior, 23.
—— his thoughts on the policy of the Radical party, 25.
—— his knowledge of how the affair of the banquets passed into an insurrection, 30.
—— his estimate of the selfishness of both sides, 39.
—— private conversation with Dufaure, 40.
—— private conversation with Beaumont, 41.
—— private conversation with Lanjuinais, 42.
—— hears of the firing in the streets on 24th February 1848, 44.
—— sees preparations for barricades, 46.
—— meets a defeated party of National Guards on the boulevards, and hears shouts of "Reform," 49.
—— reflections which this occasions, 50.
—— goes to Chamber of Deputies on 24th February, 51.
—— recognises Bedeau on his way, 52.
—— character of Bedeau and condition on that day, 53.
—— appearance presented by the Chamber of Deputies, 56.
—— sees the Duchesse d'Orléans and the Comte de Paris there, 60.
—— tries to get Lamartine to speak, 63.
—— his interest in the Duchess and her son, 69.
—— seeks to protect them, 69.
—— leaves the Chamber and meets Oudinot and Andryane, 72.
—— contradicts an assertion of Marshal Bugeaud, 72.
—— converses with Talabot about the movements of Thiers, 75.
—— his reflections on the fate of the Monarchy, 80.
—— spends the evening with Ampère, 87.
[408]—— goes to inquire about his nephews on the 25th February, 90.
—— walks about Paris in the afternoon, 92.
—— reflections on what he sees, 93.
—— keeps in retirement for some days, 102.
—— further reflections on the Revolution, 103.
—— his own individual feelings and intentions, 107.
—— resolves to seek re-election, 113.
—— visits the Department of la Manche, 114.
—— makes Valognes his head-quarters, 117.
—— publishes his address to the electors, 118.
—— meets the electors at Valognes, 120.
—— addresses workmen at Cherbourg, 122.
—— goes to Saint-Lô to the General Council, 125.
—— his reflections on a visit to Tocqueville, 126.
—— returns to Paris and finds himself elected, 129.
—— his view of the state of politics and of Paris, 130.
—— National Assembly meets, 133.
—— his opinion of the Montagnards, 138.
—— his estimate of the Assembly, 141.
—— his character of Lamartine, 146.
—— his intercourse with Champeaux, 149.
—— his observation of the popular mind, 161.
—— his interview with Trétat, 168.
—— at the Feast of Concord, 175.
—— conversation with Carnot, 176.
—— anticipations of the Insurrection of June, 183.
—— conversation with Madame Sand, 183.
—— sees barricades of the Insurrection, 190.
—— interview with Lamoricière, 192.
—— goes about Paris in time of insurrection, 197.
—— describes the Assembly, 198.
—— writes to his wife, 203.
—— protests against Paris being declared in a state of siege, 205.
—— elected a Commissioner for Paris, 206.
—— as such, walks through Paris, 208.
—— his scene with his porter, 215.
—— his scene with his man-servant, 217.
—— in the streets in the Insurrection, 219.
—— on his way to the Hôtel de Ville, 225.
—— his account of the Montagnards, Socialists, &c., 231.
—— appointed on the Committee of the Constitution, 233.
—— his narrative of its proceedings, 234.
—— on the duality of the Chambers, 242.
—— on the conditions of the Presidency, 246.
—— re-elected for la Manche, 263.
—— leaves his wife ill at Bonn, 264.
—— his opinion of the new Assembly, 264.
—— his interview with Dufaure, &c., 267.
—— ought he to enter the Ministry?, 268.
—— accepts the Foreign Office, 273.
—— intimacy with Lanjuinais, 275.
—— his opinion of his colleagues, 278.
—— his opinion of France and the Republic, 281.
—— his opinion of Louis Napoleon, 284.
—— speech in Assembly on the Roman expedition, 293.
—— his letters to and from Considérant, 299.
—— his view of affairs after the Insurrection, 301.
—— sends Lamoricière to Russia, 303.
—— his difficulties with Falloux and Dufaure, 306.
—— his advice to Louis Napoleon, 317.
—— sends Beaumont to Vienna, 321.
—— his view of Foreign and Domestic Affairs when he became Foreign Minister, 325.
—— his despatch to the French Minister in Bavaria (foot-note), 342.
—— his dealings with Switzerland about the refugees, 344.
—— his observations on the Revolution in Germany, 345.
—— his intervention between Austria and Piedmont, 353.
—— his interposition in support of Turkey on the Hungarian refugees question, 361.
[409]—— his instruction to Lamoricière and Beaumont, 371.
—— narrative of Beaumont to, on the abdication, 379.
—— narrative of Barrot to, on the abdication, 385.
—— Rivet and De Tocqueville's efforts to prevent Revolution, 389.
—— discussion of, with Berryer on the Constitution, 394.

Tocqueville, Madame de, née Mottley, her report of firing in Paris, 196.
—— taken ill at Bonn, 264.

Tocqueville, Manor of, Tocqueville visits, 126.

Tracy, character of, 279.

Trétat, and Tocqueville, 168.

Turkey, refuses to surrender the Hungarian refugees, 362.


V

Valognes, town of, head-quarters in Tocqueville's election, 117.

Valognes, Tocqueville at, 130.

Vaulabelle, appointed on the Committee of the Constitution, 235.

Victor Emmanuel II., King of Piedmont (1820-1878), ascends the throne on the abdication of Charles Albert, 333.

Vieillard speaks at the meeting for the election of Tocqueville, 123.

Vienna, Beaumont sent as Ambassador to, 321.
—— Persigny sent to, 323.

Vivien appointed on the Committee of the Constitution, 233.
—— in the Committee of Constitution, 253.
—— his interview with Tocqueville and his political friends, 267.


W

Wolowski, Louis (1810-1876), in the National Assembly on 15th May, 158.
INDEX OF AUTHORS

Abbott, Angus Evan, 414

Alison, William, 413


Basile, Giovanni Battista, 415

Bate, Francis, 414

Beerbohm, Max, 414

Burton, Sir Richard, K.C.M.G., 414, 415


Cobban, J. MacLaren, 416

Common, Thomas, 415

Connell, F. Norreys, 414

Creswick, Paul, 414

Dearmer, Mrs Percy, 414

Dobson, Austin, 414

Donovan, Major C.H.W., 416

Dowson, Ernest, 414


Farrar, Evelyn L., 416

Farrar, Very Rev. Dean F.W., 416

Field, Michael, 414


Garnett, Dr Richard, 414

Gosse, Edmund, 414

Gray, John, 414, 415

Guiffrey, Jules J., 413


Haussmann, William A., Ph.D., 415

Herrick, Robert, 414

Hobbes, John Oliver, 414

Housman, Lawrence, 414

Hoytema, Th. van, 416


Image, Selwyn, 414


Jepson, Edgar, 414

Johnson, Lionel, 414

Jones, Alfred, 414


Langley, Hugh, 416

Le Gallienne, Richard, 414


MacColl, D.S., 414

Maeterlinck, Maurice, 414

Mann, Mary E., 414, 416

Marriott Watson, Rosamond, 414

Molesworth, Mrs., 414

Moore, T. Sturge, 414

Muther, Richard, 413


Nietzsche, Friedrich, 415


Oudinot, Maréchale, Duchesse de Reggio, 413


Pain, Barry, 414

Plarr, Victor, 414

Powell, F. York, 414

Purcell, Edward, 414


Ricketts, Charles, 414

Rubens, Paul, 414

Ruvigny et Raineval, Marquis de, 416


Scull, W. Delaplaine, 414

Shannon, Charles Hazelwood, 414

Spalding, Thomas Alfred, 416

Stiegler, Gaston, 413

Strange, E.F., 414

Strange, Captain H.B., 414


Teixeira de Mattos, Alexander, 413

Tille, Alexander, Ph.D., 415


Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, Comte, 414

Volz, Johanna, 415


White, Gleeson, 414

Widdrington, George, 416

Wood, Starr, 414


Zimmern, Helen, 415

THE STATE OF SOCIETY IN FRANCE
BEFORE THE
REVOLUTION OF 1789
AND THE CAUSES WHICH LED TO THAT EVENT
By Alexis De Tocqueville



CONTENTS.
	PAGE
Translator’s Preface to the Second Edition 	[5]
Preliminary Notice 	[9]
BOOK I.
CHAPTER
I. 	Opposing Judgments passed on the French Revolution at its Origin 	1
II. 	The Fundamental and Final Object of the Revolution was not, as
has been supposed, the destruction of Religious Authority and
the weakening of Political Power 	5
III. 	Showing that the French Revolution was a Political Revolution
which followed the course of Religious Revolutions, and for what
Reasons 	9
IV. 	Showing that nearly the whole of Europe had had precisely
the same Institutions, and that these Institutions were everywhere
falling to pieces 	12
V. 	What was the peculiar scope of the French Revolution 	16
BOOK II.
I. 	Why Feudal Rights had become more odious to the People in
France than in any other country 	19
II. 	Showing that Administrative Centralisation is an Institution
anterior in France to the Revolution of 1789, and not the product of
the Revolution or of the Empire, as is commonly said 	28
III. 	Showing that what is now called Administrative Tutelage was an
Institution in France anterior to the Revolution 	36
IV. 	Administrative Jurisdiction and the Immunity of Public Officers
are Institutions of France anterior to the Revolution 	45
V. 	Showing how Centralisation had been able to introduce itself
among the ancient Institutions of France, and to supplant
without destroying them 	50
VI. 	The Administrative Habits of France before the Revolution 	54
VII. 	Of all European Nations France was already that in which the
Metropolis had acquired the greatest preponderance over the
Provinces, and had most completely absorbed the whole Empire 	63
VIII. 	France was the Country in which Men had become the most alike 	67
IX. 	Showing how Men thus similar were more divided than ever into
small Groups, estranged from and indifferent to each other 	71
[4]X. 	The Destruction of Political Liberty and the Estrangement of
Classes were the causes of almost all the disorders which led to
the Dissolution of the Old Society of France 	84
XI. 	Of the Species of Liberty which existed under the Old Monarchy,
and of the Influence of that Liberty on the Revolution 	94
XII. 	Showing that the Condition of the French Peasantry,
notwithstanding the progress of Civilisation, was sometimes worse in
the Eighteenth Century than it had been in the Thirteenth 	105
XIII. 	Showing that towards the Middle of the Eighteenth Century Men
of Letters became the leading Political Men of France, and of
the effects of this occurrence 	119
XIV. 	Showing how Irreligion had become a general and dominant
passion amongst the French of the Eighteenth Century, and
what influence this fact had on the character of the Revolution 	128
XV. 	That the French aimed at Reform before Liberty 	136
XVI. 	Showing that the Reign of Louis XVI. was the most prosperous
epoch of the old French Monarchy, and how this very prosperity
accelerated the Revolution 	146
XVII. 	Showing that the French People were excited to revolt by the
means taken to relieve them 	155
XVIII. 	Concerning some practices by which the Government completed the
Revolutionary Education of the People of France 	162
XIX. 	Showing that a great Administrative Revolution had preceded the
Political Revolution, and what were the consequences it
produced 	166
XX. 	Showing that the Revolution proceeded naturally from the existing
State of France 	175
SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER.
On the Pays d’États, and especially on the Constitutions of Languedoc 	182
BOOK III.
I. 	Of the violent and undefined Agitation of the Human Mind at the
moment when the French Revolution broke out 	192
II. 	How this vague perturbation of the Human Mind suddenly became
in France a positive passion, and what form this passion at first
assumed 	201
III. 	How the Parliaments of France, following precedent, overthrew the
Monarchy 	205
IV. 	The Parliaments discover that they have lost all Authority, just
when they thought themselves masters of the Kingdom 	224
V. 	Absolute Power being subdued, the true spirit of the Revolution
forthwith became manifest 	229
VI. 	The preparation of the instructions to the Members of the
States-General drove the conception of a Radical Revolution home
to the mind of the People 	240
VII. 	How, on the Eve of the Convocation of the National Assembly, the
mind of the Nation was more enlarged, and its spirit raised 	243
Notes and Illustrations 	247





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of Alexis De Tocqueville" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home