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Title: Index of The Project Gutenberg Works of Benjamin Franklin
Author: Franklin, Benjamin
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Index of The Project Gutenberg Works of Benjamin Franklin" ***

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WORKS OF

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN



CONTENTS


##  THE COMPLETE WORKS FRANKLIN, Vol. 1

##  THE COMPLETE WORKS FRANKLIN, Vol. 2

##  THE COMPLETE WORKS FRANKLIN, Vol. 3

##  MEMOIRS OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, Vol. 1

##  MEMOIRS OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, Vol. 2

##  AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

##  BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, SELECTIONS

##  AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

FRANKLIN'S AUTOBIOGRAPHY

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: FIRST BALLOONS

EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS ON ELECTRICITY

FRANKLIN'S WAY TO WEALTH



TABLES OF CONTENTS OF VOLUMES



THE COMPLETE WORKS,
OF THE LATE DR. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
Now First Collected And Arranged: With Memoirs Of His Early Life,
Written By Himself. In Three Volumes.
Vol. I. (of III)
1806
CONTENTS
	Page.
LIFE of Dr. FRANKLIN 	1

LETTERS AND PAPERS ON ELECTRICITY.
Introductory Letter. 	169
Wonderful effect of points.\x97Positive and negative electricity.\x97Electrical kiss.\x97Counterfeit spider.\x97Simple and commodious electrical machine. 	170
Observations on the Leyden bottle, with experiments proving the different electrical state of its different surfaces. 	179
Further experiments confirming the preceding observations.\x97Leyden bottle analysed.\x97Electrical battery.\x97Magical Picture.\x97Electrical wheel or jack.\x97Electrical feast. 	187
Observations and suppositions, towards forming a new hypothesis, for explaining the several phenomena of thunder-gusts. 	203
Introductory letter to some additional papers. 	216
Opinions and conjectures, concerning the properties and effects of the electrical matter, and the means of preserving buildings, ships, &c. from lightning, arising from experiments and observations made at Philadelphia, 1749.\x97Golden fish.\x97Extraction of effluvial virtues by electricity impracticable. 	217
Additional experiments: proving that the Leyden bottle has no more electrical fire in it when charged, than before: nor less when discharged: that in discharging, the fire does not issue from the wire and the coating at the same time, as some have thought, but that the coating always receives what is discharged by the wire, or an equal quantity: the outer surface being always in a negative state of electricity, when the inner surface is in a positive state. 	245
[xii] Accumulation of the electrical fire proved to be in the electrified glass.\x97Effect of lightning on the needle of compasses, explained.\x97Gunpowder fired by the electric flame. 	247
Unlimited nature of the electric force. 	250
The terms, electric per se, and non-electric, improper.\x97New relation between metals and water.\x97Effects of air in electrical experiments.\x97Experiment for discovering more of the qualities of the electric fluid. 	252
Mistake, that only metals and water were conductors, rectified.\x97Supposition of a region of electric fire above our atmosphere.\x97Theorem concerning light.\x97Poke-weed a cure for cancers. 	256
New experiments.\x97Paradoxes inferred from them.\x97Difference in the electricity of a globe of glass charged, and a globe of sulphur.\x97Difficulty of ascertaining which is positive and which negative. 	261
Probable cause of the different attractions and repulsions of the two electrified globes mentioned in the two preceding letters. 	264
Reasons for supposing, that the glass globe charges positively, and the sulphur negatively.\x97Hint respecting a leather globe for experiments when travelling. 	ibid.
Electrical kite. 	267
Hypothesis, of the sea being the grand source of lightning, retracted.\x97Positive, and sometimes negative, electricity of the clouds discovered.\x97New experiments and conjectures in support of this discovery.\x97Observations recommended for ascertaining the direction of the electric fluid.\x97Size of rods for conductors to buildings.\x97Appearance of a thunder-cloud described. 	269
Additional proofs of the positive and negative state of electricity in the clouds.\x97New method of ascertaining it. 	284
Electrical experiments, with an attempt to account for their several phenomena, &c. 	286
Experiments made in pursuance of those made by Mr. Canton, dated December 6, 1753; with explanations, by Mr. Benjamin Franklin. 	294
Turkey killed by electricity.\x97Effect of a shock on the operator in making the experiment. 	299
Differences in the qualities of glass.\x97Account of Domien, an electrician and traveller.\x97Conjectures respecting the pores of glass.\x97Origin of the author's idea of drawing down lightning.\x97No satisfactory hypothesis respecting the manner in which clouds become electrified.\x97Six men knocked down at once by an electrical shock.\x97Reflections on the spirit of invention. 	301
[xiii] Beccaria's work on electricity.\x97Sentiments of Franklin on pointed rods, not fully understood in Europe.\x97Effect of lightning on the church of Newbury, in New England.\x97Remarks on the subject. 	309
Notice of another packet of letters. 	313
Extract of a letter from a gentleman in Boston, to Benjamin Franklin, Esq. concerning the crooked direction, and the source of lightning, and the swiftness of the electric fire. 	314
Observations on the subjects of the preceding letter.\x97Reasons for supposing the sea to be the grand source of lightning.\x97Reasons for doubting this hypothesis.\x97Improvement in a globe for raising the electric fire. 	320
Effect of lightning on captain Waddel's compass, and the Dutch church at New York. 	324
Proposal of an experiment to measure the time taken up by an Electric spark, in moving through any given space. 	327
Experiments on boiling water, and glass heated by boiling water.\x97Doctrine of repulsion in electrised bodies doubted.\x97Electricity of the atmosphere at different heights.\x97Electrical horse-race.\x97Electrical thermometer.\x97In what cases the electrical fire produces heat.\x97Wire lengthened by electricity.\x97Good effect of a rod on the house of Mr. West, of Philadelphia. 	331
Answer to some of the foregoing subjects.\x97How long the Leyden bottle may be kept charged.\x97Heated glass rendered permeable by the electric fluid.\x97Electrical attraction and repulsion.\x97Reply to other subjects in the preceding paper.\x97Numerous ways of kindling fire.\x97Explosion of water.\x97Knobs and points. 	343
Accounts from Carolina (mentioned in the foregoing letter) of the effects of lightning on two of the rods commonly affixed to houses there, for securing them against lightning. 	361
Mr. William Maine's account of the effects of the lightning on his rod, dated at Indian Land, in South Carolina, Aug. 28, 1760. 	362
On the electricity of the tourmalin. 	369
New observation relating to electricity in the atmosphere. 	373
Flash of lightning that struck St. Bride's steeple. 	374
Best method of securing a powder magazine from lightning. 	375
Of lightning, and the methods (now used in America) of securing buildings and persons from its mischievous effects. 	377
St. Bride's steeple.\x97Utility of electrical conductors to Steeples.\x97Singular kind of glass tube. 	382
Experiments, observations, and facts, tending to support the opinion [xiv] of the utility of long pointed rods, for securing buildings from damage by strokes of lightning. 	383
On the utility of electrical conductors. 	400
On the effects of electricity in paralytic cases. 	401
Electrical experiments on amber. 	403
On the electricity of the fogs in Ireland. 	405
Mode of ascertaining, whether the power, giving a shock to those who touch either the Surinam eel, or the torpedo, be electrical. 	408
On the analogy between magnetism and electricity. 	410
Concerning the mode of rendering meat tender by electricity. 	413
Answer to some queries concerning the choice of glass for the Leyden experiment. 	416
Concerning the Leyden bottle. 	418
APPENDIX.
No. 1. Account of experiments made in electricity at Marly. 	420
A more particular account of the same, &c. 	422
Letter of Mr. W. Watson, F. R. S. to the Royal Society, concerning the electrical experiments in England upon thunder-clouds. 	427
No. 2. Remarks on the Abb\xE9 Nollet's Letters to Benjamin Franklin, Esq. of Philadelphia, on electricity. 	430
LIST OF THE PLATES
PLATE I. 	Electrical Experiments 	facing page 182
PLATE II. 	Electrical Air Thermometer 	336
PLATE III. 	Cavendish Experiment 	348
PLATE IV. 	Lightning Rod Experiments 	388



THE COMPLETE WORKS,
OF THE LATE DR. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
Now First Collected And Arranged: With Memoirs Of His Early Life, Written By Himself. In Three Volumes.
VOL. II. (of III)



CONTENTS
LETTERS AND PAPERS ON PHILOSOPHICAL SUBJECTS.
Physical and meteorological observations, conjectures and suppositions 	1
On water-spouts 	11
The same subject continued 	13
Water-spouts and whirlwinds compared 	19
Description of a water-spout at Antigua 	34
Shooting stars 	36
Water-spouts and whirlwinds 	37
Observations on the meteorological paper; by a gentleman in Connecticut 	45
Observations in answer to the foregoing, by B. Franklin 	49
Observations on the meteorological paper; sent by a gentleman in New York to B. Franklin 	51
Answer to the foregoing observations, by B. Franklin 	55
Gentleman of New York in reply 	58
Account of a whirlwind at Maryland 	61
On the north east storms in North America 	63
Meteorological imaginations and conjectures 	66
Suppositions and conjectures towards forming an hypothesis, for the explanation of the aurora borealis 	69
On cold produced by evaporation 	75
On the same subject 	83
Concerning the light in sea-water 	88
On the saltness of sea-water 	91
On the effect of air on the barometer, and the benefits derived from the study of insects 	92
[iv] On the Bristol waters, and the tide in rivers 	95
On the same subject 	102
Salt-water rendered fresh by distillation.\x97Method of relieving thirst by sea-water 	103
Tendency of rivers to the sea.\x97Effect of the sun's rays on cloth of different colours 	105
On the vis inertiæ of matter 	110
On the different strata of the earth 	116
On the theory of the earth 	117
New and curious theory of light and heat 	122
Queries and conjectures relating to magnetism and the theory of the earth 	125
On the nature of sea coal 	125
Effect of vegetation on noxious air 	129
On the inflammability of the surface of certain rivers in America 	130
On the different quantities of rain which fall at different heights over the same ground 	133
Slowly sensible hygrometer proposed, for certain purposes 	135
Curious instance of the effect of oil on water 	142
Letters on the stilling of waves by means of oil 	144
Extract of a letter from Mr. Tengnagel to Count Bentinck, dated at Batavia, the 5th of January, 1770 	154
On the difference of navigation in shoal and deep water 	158
Sundry maritime observations 	162
Remarks upon the navigation from Newfoundland to New-York, in order to avoid the Gulph Stream on one hand, and on the other the shoals that lie to the southward of Nantucket and of St. George's Banks 	197
Observations of the warmth of the sea-water, &c. by Fahrenheit's Thermometer, in crossing the Gulph Stream; with other remarks made on board the Pensylvania packet, Capt. Osborne, bound from London to Philadelphia, in April and May, 1775 	199
Observations of the warmth of the sea-water, &c. by Fahrenheit's thermometer; with other remarks made on board the Reprisal, Capt. Wycks, bound from Philadelphia to France, in October and November, 1776 	200
A journal of a voyage from the Channel between France and England towards America 	202
On the art of swimming 	206
On the same subject, in answer to some enquiries of M. Dubourg 	210
[v] On the free use of air 	213
On the causes of colds 	214
Dr. Stark, and Dr. Letsom 	215
Number of deaths in Philadelphia by inoculation 	ibid
Answer to the preceding 	217
On the effects of lead upon the human constitution 	219
Observations on the prevailing doctrines of life and death 	222
An account of the new-invented Pensylvanian fire-places 	225
On the causes and cure of smoky chimneys 	256
Description of a new stove for burning of pitcoal, and consuming all its smoke 	296
Method of contracting chimneys.\x97Modesty in disputation 	317
Covering houses with copper 	318
On the same subject 	320
Paper referred to in the preceding letter 	322
Magical square of squares 	324
Magical circle 	328
New musical instrument composed of glasses 	330
Best mediums for conveying sound 	335
On the harmony and melody of the old Scotch tunes 	338
On the defects of modern music 	343
Description of the process to be observed in making large sheets of paper in the Chinese manner, with one smooth surface 	349
On modern innovations in the English language and in printing 	351
A scheme for a new alphabet and reformed mode of spelling; with remarks and examples concerning the same; and an enquiry into its uses, in a correspondence between Miss S\x97\x97 and Dr. Franklin, written in the characters of the alphabet 	357
Rules for a club formerly established in Philadelphia 	366
Questions discussed by the Junto forming the preceding club 	369
Sketch of an English school; for the consideration of the trustees of the Philadelphia Academy 	370
Advice to youth in reading 	378

PAPERS ON SUBJECTS OF GENERAL POLITICS.
Observations concerning the increase of mankind, peopling of countries, &c 	383
Remarks on some of the foregoing observations, showing particularly the effect which manners have on population 	392
Plan by Messieurs Franklin and Dalrymple, for benefiting distant unprovided countries 	403
[vi] Concerning the provision made in China against famine 	407
Positions to be examined, concerning national wealth 	408
Political fragments, supposed either to be written by Dr. Franklin, or to contain sentiments nearly allied to his own 	411
On the price of corn, and management of the poor 	418
On luxury, idleness, and industry 	424
On smuggling, and its various species 	430
Observations on war 	435
Notes copied from Dr. Franklin's writing in pencil in the margin of Judge Foster's celebrated argument in favour of the impressing of seamen 	437
On the criminal laws, and the practice of privateering 	441
A parable against persecution, in imitation of scripture language 	450
A letter concerning persecution in former ages, the maintenance of the clergy, American bishops, and the state of toleration in Old England and New England compared 	452
On the slave trade 	459
Account of the highest court of judicature in Pensylvania, viz. The court of the press 	463


LIST OF THE PLATES
PLATE V. 	Water-Spouts 	facing page 16
PLATE VI. 	Maritime Observations 	163
PLATE VII. 	A Chart of the Gulph Stream 	197
PLATE VIII. 	Pensylvania Fire-Place 	235
PLATE VIII*. 	Profile of the Pensylvania Chimnie 	238
PLATE IX. 	Remedies for Smoky Chimnies 	269
PLATE X. 	Stove for Burning Pit-Coal 	297
PLATE XI. 	A Magic Square of Squares 	327
PLATE XII. 	A Magic Circle of Circles 	328



THE COMPLETE WORKS
OF THE LATE DR. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN,
Now First Collected And Arranged: With Memoirs Of His Early Life, Written By Himself.
IN THREE VOLUMES
VOL. III. (of III)



CONTENTS
PAPERS ON AMERICAN SUBJECTS BEFORE THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES.
	Page.
Albany papers; containing, I. reasons and motives on which the plan of union for the colonies was formed;\x97II. reasons against partial unions;\x97III. and the plan of union drawn by B. F. and unanimously agreed to by the commissioners from New Hampshire, Massachusett's Bay, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Maryland, and Pensylvania, met in congress at Albany, in July 1754, to consider of the best means of defending the king's dominions in America, &c. a war being then apprehended; with the reasons or motives for each article of the plan 	3
Albany papers continued. I. letter to Governor Shirley, concerning the imposition of direct taxes upon the colonies, without their consent 	30
II. Letter to the same; concerning direct taxes in the colonies imposed without consent, indirect taxes, and the Albany plan of union 	31
III. Letter to the same, on the subject of uniting the colonies more intimately with Great Britain, by allowing them representatives in parliament 	37
Plan for settling two Western colonies in North America, with reasons for the plan, 1754 	41
Report of the committee of aggrievances of the assembly of Pensylvania, dated Feb. 22, 1757 	50
An historical review of the constitution and government of Pensylvania, from its origin; so far as regards the several points of controversy [iv]which have, from time to time, arisen between the several governors of that province, and their several assemblies. Founded on authentic documents 	59
The interest of Great Britain considered, with regard to her colonies, and the acquisitions of Canada and Guadaloupe 	89
Remarks and facts relative to the American paper-money 	144
To the freemen of Pensylvania, on the subject of a particular militia-bill, rejected by the proprietor's deputy or governor 	157
Preface by a member of the Pensylvanian assembly (Dr. Franklin) to the speech of Joseph Galloway, Esq. one of the members for Philadelphia county; in answer to the speech of John Dickinson, Esq. delivered in the house of the assembly of the province of Pensylvania, May 24, 1764, on occasion of a petition drawn up by order, and then under the consideration of the house, praying his majesty for a royal, in lieu of a proprietary government 	163
Remarks on a late protest against the appointment of Mr. Franklin as agent for this province (of Pensylvania) 	203
Remarks on a plan for the future management of Indian affairs 	216
PAPERS ON AMERICAN SUBJECTS DURING THE REVOLUTIONARY TROUBLES.
Causes of the American discontents before 1768 	225
Letter concerning the gratitude of America, and the probability and effects of an union with Great Britain; and concerning the repeal or suspension of the stamp act 	239
Letter from Governor Pownall to Dr. Franklin, concerning an equal communication of rights, privileges, &c. to America by Great Britain 	243
Minutes to the foregoing, by Dr. Franklin 	244
The examination of Dr. Franklin before the English house of commons, in February, 1766, relative to the repeal of the American stamp act 	245
Attempts of Dr. Franklin for conciliation of Great Britain with the colonies 	286
Queries from Mr. Strahan 	287
Answer to the preceding queries 	290
State of the constitution of the colonies, by Governor Pownall; with remarks by Dr. Franklin 	299
Concerning the dissentions between England and America 	310
A Prussian edict, assuming claims over Britain 	311
[v]Preface by the British editor (Dr. Franklin) to "The votes and proceedings of the freeholders, and other inhabitants of the town of Boston, in town-meeting assembled according to law (published by order of the town), &c." 	317
Account of governor Hutchinson's letters 	322
Rules for reducing a great empire to a small one, presented to a late minister, when he entered upon his administration 	334
State of America on Dr. Franklin's arrival there 	346
Proposed vindication and offer from congress to parliament, in 1775 	347
Reprobation of Mr. Strahan's parliamentary conduct 	354
Conciliation hopeless from the conduct of Great Britain to America 	355
Account of the first campaign made by the British forces in America 	357
Probability of a separation 	358
Letter to Monsieur Dumas, urging him to sound the several courts of Europe, by means of their ambassadors at the Hague, as to any assistance they may be disposed to afford America in her struggle for independence 	360
Letter from Lord Howe to Dr. Franklin 	365
Dr. Franklin's answer to Lord Howe 	367
Comparison of Great Britain and America as to credit, in 1777 	372
PAPERS, DESCRIPTIVE OF AMERICA, OR RELATING TO THAT COUNTRY, WRITTEN SUBSEQUENT TO THE REVOLUTION.
Remarks concerning the savages of North America 	383
The internal state of America; being a true description of the interest and policy of that vast continent 	391
Information to those who would remove to America 	398
Concerning new settlements in America 	409
A comparison of the conduct of the ancient Jews, and of the Antifederalists in the United States of America 	410
Final speech of Dr. Franklin in the late federal convention 	416
PAPERS ON MORAL SUBJECTS AND THE ECONOMY OF LIFE.
The busy-body 	421
The way to wealth, as clearly shown in the preface of an old Pensylvania almanack, intitled, Poor Richard Improved 	453
Advice to a young tradesman 	463
Necessary hints to those that would be rich 	466
The way to make money plenty in every man's pocket 	467
New mode of lending money 	468
[vi]An economical project 	469
On early marriages 	475
Effect of early impressions on the mind 	478
The whistle 	480
A petition to those who have the superintendency of education 	483
The handsome and deformed leg 	485
Morals of chess 	488
The art of procuring pleasant dreams 	493
Dialogue between Franklin and the gout 	499
On the death of relatives 	507
The ephemera an emblem of human life 	508
APPENDIX, NO. I.\x97CONTAINING PAPERS PROPER FOR INSERTION, BUT OMITTED IN THE PRECEDING VOLUMES.
Letter to Sir Hans Sloane 	513
Letter to Michael Collinson, Esq. 	514
Letter respecting captain Cook 	515
An address to the public, from the Pensylvania society for promoting the abolition of slavery, and the relief of free negroes, unlawfully held in bondage 	517
Plan for improving the condition of the free blacks 	519
Paper: a poem 	523
Plain truth; or, serious considerations on the present state of the city of Philadelphia, and province of Pensylvania 	524
Four letters to Mr. Whetley 	543*
APPENDIX, NO. II.\x97CONTAINING LETTERS BY SEVERAL EMINENT PERSONS, ILLUSTRATIVE OF DR. FRANKLIN'S MANNERS AND CHARACTER.
Letter from the late Dr. Price to a gentleman in America 	543
Letter from Mr. Thomas Jefferson to the late Dr. William Smith, of Philadelphia 	545
Letter from the late Dr. Joseph Priestly 	547



MEMOIRS OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN; WRITTEN BY HIMSELF
With His Most Interesting Essays, Letters, And Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, And Philosophical.
IN TWO VOLUMES.
VOL. I. (of II)
CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME
PART I.
  	Page
Life of Dr. Franklin, written by himself 	13

PART II.

Letter from Mr. Abel James 	91
Letter from Mr. Benjamin Vaughan 	92
Continuation of Life, begun at Passy, near Paris, 1784 	98
Memorandum 	115

PART III.

Life of Franklin, continued by Dr. Stuber 	191
Extracts from Franklin's Will 	227

WRITINGS OF FRANKLIN.

The Examination of Dr. Franklin before the British House of Commons, relative to the Repeal of the American Stamp-act 	237
Narrative of the Massacre of Friendly Indians in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1764 	264
Introduction to Historical Review of the Constitution and Government of Pennsylvania 	282
Dr. Franklin's Motion for Prayers in the Convention at Philadelphia, 1787, to revise the then existing Articles of Confederation 	286



MEMOIRS OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN; WRITTEN BY HIMSELF.
With His Most Interesting Essays, Letters, And Miscellaneous Writings; Familiar, Moral, Political, Economical, And Philosophical.
IN TWO VOLUMES
VOL. II. (of II)



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME
ESSAYS
  	Page
The Way to Wealth; as clearly shown in the practice of an old Pennsylvania Almanac, entitled, "Poor Richard Improved" 	5
On True Happiness 	14
Public Men 	16
The Waste of Life 	22
Self-denial not the Essence of Virtue 	25
On the Usefulness of the Mathematics 	27
The Art of procuring Pleasant Dreams 	31
Advice to a young Tradesman 	37
Rules of Health 	39
The Ephemera; an Emblem of Human Life. To Madame Brillon, of Passy 	40
The Whistle. To Madame Brillon 	42
On Luxury, Idleness, and Industry 	45
On Truth and Falsehood 	50
Necessary Hints to those that would be Rich 	53
The Way to make Money plenty in every Man's Pocket 	54
The Handsome and Deformed Leg 	55
On Human Vanity 	58
On Smuggling, and its various Species 	62
Remarks concerning the Savages of North America 	66
On Freedom of Speech and the Press 	71
On the Price of Corn and the Management of the Poor 	82
Singular Custom among the Americans, entitled Whitewashing 	86
On the Criminal Laws and the Practice of Privateering 	94
Letter from Anthony Afterwit 	102
LETTERS
To Mrs. Abiah Franklin 	107
To Miss Jane Franklin 	108
To the same 	109
To Mr. George Whitefield 	110
To Mrs. D. Franklin 	112
To the same 	113
To Mrs. Jane Mecom 	114
To the same 	115
To the same 	116
To Miss Stevenson 	119
To Lord Kames 	120
To the same 	121
To the same 	128
To John Alleyne 	130
To Governor Franklin 	132
To Dr. Priestley 	134
To the same 	136
To Mr. Mather 	137
To Mr. Strahan 	138
To Dr. Priestley 	138
To Mrs. Thompson 	139
To Mr. Lith 	142
Answer to a Letter from Brussels 	144
To Dr. Price 	151
To Dr. Priestley 	152
To General Washington 	154
To M. Court de Gebelin 	156
To Francis Hopkinson 	158
To Francis Hopkinson 	159
To Samuel Huntingdon, President of Congress 	160
To the Bishop of St. Asaph 	162
To Miss Alexander 	163
To Benjamin Vaughan 	164
To Mrs. Hewson 	166
To David Hartley 	167
To Dr. Percival 	168
To Sir Joseph Banks 	169
To Robert Morris, Esq. 	171
To Dr. Mather 	172
To William Strahan, M.P. 	174
To George Wheatley 	178
To David Hartley 	181
To the Bishop of St. Asaph 	181
To Mrs. Hewson 	184
To M. Veillard 	185
To Mr. Jordain 	187
To Miss Hubbard 	189
To George Wheatley 	190
To B. Vaughan 	192
To the President of Congress 	193
To Mrs. Green 	196
To Dr. Price 	197
To B. Vaughan 	198
To Dr. Rush 	199
To Miss Catharine Louisa Shipley 	199
To * * * 	200
Copy of the last Letter written by Dr. Franklin 	201
PHILOSOPHICAL SUBJECTS
To the Abb\xE9 Soulavie.\x97Theory of the Earth 	203
To Dr. John Pringle.\x97On the different Strata of the Earth 	207
To Mr. Bowdoin.\x97Queries and Conjectures relating to Magnetism and the Theory of the Earth 	208
To M. Dubourg.\x97On the Nature of Seacoal 	211
Causes of Earthquakes 	212
To David Rittenhouse.\x97New and Curious Theory of Light and Heat 	224
Of Lightning; and the Methods now used in America for the securing Buildings and Persons from its mischievous Effects 	227
To Peter Collinson.\x97Electrical Kite 	231
Physical and Meteorological Observations, Conjectures, and Suppositions 	232
To Dr. Perkins.\x97Water-spouts and Whirlwinds compared 	240
To Alexander Small.\x97On the Northeast Storms in North America 	254
To Dr. Lining.\x97On Cold produced by Evaporation 	256
To Peter Franklin.\x97On the Saltness of Seawater 	263
To Miss Stephenson.\x97Salt Water rendered fresh by Distillation.\x97Method of relieving Thirst by Seawater 	264
To the same.\x97Tendency of Rivers to the Sea.\x97Effects of the Sun's Rays on Cloths of different Colours 	266
To the same.\x97On the Effect of Air on the Barometer, and the Benefits derived from the Study of Insects 	270
To Dr. Joseph Priestley.\x97Effect of Vegetation on Noxious Air 	273
To Dr. John Pringle.\x97On the Difference of Navigation in Shoal and Deep Water 	274
To Oliver Neale.\x97On the Art of Swimming 	277
To Miss Stephenson.\x97Method of contracting Chimneys.\x97Modesty in Disputation 	281
To M. Dubourg.\x97Observations on the prevailing Doctrines of Life and Death 	282
Lord Brougham's Portrait of Dr. Franklin 	285



A U T O B I O G R A P H Y      OF     B E N J A M I N     F R A N K L I N
With Illustrations By E. Boyd Smith
CONTENTS
Introduction

vii
The Autobiography

1
I.

Ancestry and Early Life in Boston


3
II.

Beginning Life as a Printer


21
III.

Arrival in Philadelphia


41
IV.

First Visit to Boston


55
V.

Early Friends in Philadelphia


69
VI.

First Visit to London


77
VII.

Beginning Business in Philadelphia


99
VIII.

Business Success and First Public Service


126
IX.

Plan for Attaining Moral Perfection


146
X.

Poor Richard's Almanac and Other Activities


169
XI.

Interest in Public Affairs


188
XII.

Defense of the Province


201
XIII.

Public Services and Duties


217
XIV.

Albany Plan of Union


241
XV.

Quarrels with the Proprietary Governors


246
XVI.

Braddock's Expedition


253
XVII.

Franklin's Defense of the Frontier


274
XVIII.

Scientific Experiments


289
XIX.

Agent of Pennsylvania in London


296
Appendix


Electrical Kite


327


The Way to Wealth


331


The Whistle


336


A Letter to Samuel Mather


340
Bibliography

343
ILLUSTRATIONS

Franklin at the Court of Louis XVI


Frontispiece



Page

Portrait of Franklin


vii

Pages 1 and 4 of The Pennsylvania Gazette, Number XL, the first number after Franklin took control


xxi

First page of The New England Courant of December 4-11, 1721


33

"I was employed to carry the papers thro' the streets to the customers"


36

"She, standing at the door, saw me, and thought I made, as I certainly did, a most awkward, ridiculous appearance"


48

"I took to working at press"


88

"I see him still at work when I go home from club"


120

Two pages from Poor Richard's Almanac for 1736


171

"I regularly took my turn of duty there as a common soldier"


204

"In the evening, hearing a great noise among them, the commissioners walk'd out to see what was the matter"


224

"Our axes ... were immediately set to work to cut down trees"


278

"We now appeared very wide, and so far from each other in our opinions as to discourage all hope of agreement"


318

"You will find it stream out plentifully from the key on the approach of your knuckle"


328

Father Abraham in his study


330



BENJAMIN FRANKLIN
Representative Selections, With Introduction, Bibliography, And Notes
By Frank Luther Mott
CONTENTS
I. 	Franklin's Milieu: The Age of Enlightenment, xiii
II. 	Franklin's Theories of Education, xxxii
III. 	Franklin's Literary Theory and Practice, xlvi
IV. 	Franklin as Printer and Journalist, lvii
V. 	Franklin's Economic Views, lxiv
VI. 	Franklin's Political Theories, lxxxii
VII. 	Franklin as Scientist and Deist, cx
Chronological Table, cxlii
Selected Bibliography
I. 	Works, cli
II. 	Collections and Reprints, cliii
III. 	Biographies, clv
IV. 	Biographical and Critical Studies, clviii
V. 	The Age of Franklin, clxxiv
VI. 	Bibliographies and Check Lists, clxxxvi
From the Autobiography, 3
Dogood Papers, No. I (1722), 96
Dogood Papers, No. IV (1722), 98
Dogood Papers, No. V (1722), 102
Dogood Papers, No. VII (1722), 105
Dogood Papers, No. XII (1722), 109
Editorial Preface to the New England Courant (1723), 111
A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain (1725), 114
Rules for a Club Established for Mutual Improvement (1728), 128
Articles of Belief and Acts of Religion (1728), 130
The Busy-Body, No. 1 (1728/9), 137
The Busy-Body, No. 2 (1728/9), 139
The Busy-Body, No. 3 (1728/9), 141
The Busy-Body, No. 4 (1728/9), 145
Preface to the Pennsylvania Gazette (1729), 150
A Dialogue between Philocles and Horatio (1730), 152
A Second Dialogue between Philocles and Horatio (1730), 156
A Witch Trial at Mount Holly (1730), 161
An Apology for Printers (1731), 163
Preface to Poor Richard (1733), 169
A Meditation on a Quart Mugg (1733), 170
Preface to Poor Richard (1734), 172[x]
Preface to Poor Richard (1735), 174
Hints for Those That Would Be Rich (1736), 176
To Josiah Franklin (April 13, 1738), 177
Preface to Poor Richard (1739), 179
A Proposal for Promoting Useful Knowledge among the British Plantations in America (1743), 180
Shavers and Trimmers (1743), 183
To the Publick (1743), 186
Preface to Logan's Translation of "Cato Major" (1743/4), 187
To John Franklin, at Boston (March 10, 1745), 188
Preface to Poor Richard (1746), 189
The Speech of Polly Baker (1747), 190
Preface to Poor Richard (1747), 193
To Peter Collinson (August 14, 1747), 194
Preface to Poor Richard Improved (1748), 195
Advice to a Young Tradesman (1748), 196
To George Whitefield (July 6, 1749), 198
Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania (1749), 199
Idea of the English School (1751), 206
To Cadwallader Colden Esq., at New York (1751), 213
Exporting of Felons to the Colonies (1751), 214
Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, Etc. (1751), 216
To Peter Collinson (October 19, 1752), 223
Poor Richard Improved (1753)\x97facsimile reproduction, 225
To Joseph Huey (June 6, 1753), 261
Three Letters to Governor Shirley (1754), 263
To Miss Catherine Ray, at Block Island (March 4, 1755), 270
To Peter Collinson (August 25, 1755), 272
To Miss Catherine Ray (September 11, 1755), 274
To Miss Catherine Ray (October 16, 1755), 277
To Mrs. Jane Mecom (February 12, 1756), 278
To Miss E. Hubbard (February 23, 1756), 278
To Rev. George Whitefield (July 2, 1756), 279
The Way to Wealth (1758), 280
To Hugh Roberts (September 16, 1758), 289
To Mrs. Jane Mecom (September 16, 1758), 291
To Lord Kames (May 3, 1760), 293
To Miss Mary Stevenson (June 11, 1760), 295
To Mrs. Deborah Franklin (June 27, 1760), 298
To Jared Ingersoll (December 11, 1762), 300
To Miss Mary Stevenson (March 25, 1763), 301
To John Fothergill, M.D. (March 14, 1764), 304
To Sarah Franklin (November 8, 1764), 307
From A Narrative of the Late Massacres in Lancaster County (1764), 308[xi]
To the Editor of a Newspaper (May 20, 1765), 315
To Lord Kames (June 2, 1765), 318
Letter Concerning the Gratitude of America (January 6, 1766), 321
To Lord Kames (April 11, 1767), 325
To Miss Mary Stevenson (September 14, 1767), 330
On the Labouring Poor (1768), 336
To Dupont de Nemours (July 28, 1768), 340
To John Alleyne (August 9, 1768), 341
To the Printer of the London Chronicle (August 18, 1768), 343
Positions to be Examined, Concerning National Wealth (1769), 345
To Miss Mary Stevenson (September 2, 1769), 347
To Joseph Priestley (September 19, 1772), 348
To Miss Georgiana Shipley (September 26, 1772), 349
To Peter Franklin (undated), 351
On the Price of Corn, and Management of the Poor (undated), 355
An Edict by the King of Prussia (1773), 358
Rules by Which a Great Empire May Be Reduced to a Small One (1773), 363
To William Franklin (October 6, 1773), 371
Preface to "An Abridgment of the Book of Common Prayer" (1773), 374
A Parable against Persecution, 379
A Parable on Brotherly Love, 380
To William Strahan (July 5, 1775), 381
To Joseph Priestley (July 7, 1775), 382
To a Friend in England (October 3, 1775), 383
To Lord Howe (July 30, 1776), 384
The Sale of the Hessians (1777), 387
Model of a Letter of Recommendation (April 2, 1777), 389
To \x97\x97 (October 4, 1777), 390
To David Hartley (October 14, 1777), 390
A Dialogue between Britain, France, Spain, Holland, Saxony and America, 394
To Charles de Weissenstein (July 1, 1778), 397
The Ephemera (1778), 402
To Richard Bache (June 2, 1779), 404
Morals of Chess (1779), 406
To Benjamin Vaughan (November 9, 1779), 410
The Whistle (1779), 412
The Lord's Prayer (1779?), 414
The Levée (1779?), 417
Proposed New Version of the Bible (1779?), 419
To Joseph Priestley (February 8, 1780), 420
To George Washington (March 5, 1780), 421
To Miss Georgiana Shipley (October 8, 1780), 422[xii]
To Richard Price (October 9, 1780), 423
Dialogue between Franklin and the Gout (1780), 424
The Handsome and Deformed Leg (1780?), 430
To Miss Georgiana Shipley (undated), 432
To David Hartley (December 15, 1781), 434
Supplement to the Boston Independent Chronicle (1782), 434
To John Thornton (May 8, 1782), 443
To Joseph Priestley (June 7, 1782), 443
To Jonathan Shipley (June 10, 1782), 445
To James Hutton (July 7, 1782), 447
To Sir Joseph Banks (September 9, 1782), 448
Information to Those Who Would Remove to America (1782?), 449
Apologue (1783?), 458
To Sir Joseph Banks (July 27, 1783), 459
To Mrs. Sarah Bache (January 26, 1784), 460
An Economical Project (1784?), 466
To Samuel Mather (May 12, 1784), 471
To Benjamin Vaughan (July 26, 1784), 472
To George Whately (May 23, 1785), 479
To John Bard and Mrs. Bard (November 14, 1785), 481
To Jonathan Shipley (February 24, 1786), 481
To \x97\x97 (July 3, 1786?), 484
Speech in the Convention; On the Subject of Salaries (1787), 486
Motion for Prayers in the Convention (1787), 489
Speech in the Convention at the Conclusion of Its Deliberations (1787), 491
To the Editors of the Pennsylvania Gazette (1788), 493
To Rev. John Lathrop (May 31, 1788), 496
To the Editor of the Federal Gazette (1788?), 496
To Charles Carroll (May 25, 1789), 500
An Account of the Supremest Court of Judicature in Pennsylvania, viz. the Court of the Press (1789), 501
An Address to the Public (1789), 505
To David Hartley (December 4, 1789), 506
To Ezra Stiles (March 9, 1790), 507
On the Slave-Trade (1790), 510
Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America, 513
An Arabian Tale, 519
A Petition of the Left Hand (date unknown), 520
Some Good Whig Principles (date unknown), 521
The Art of Procuring Pleasant Dreams, 523
Notes, 529





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