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Title: Key and Guide to Native Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of Dallas County
Author: Stillwell, Norma J.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Key and Guide to Native Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of Dallas County" ***

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    [Illustration: Floral decoration]



 KEY AND GUIDE TO NATIVE TREES, SHRUBS AND WOODY VINES OF DALLAS COUNTY


                                   by
                            NORMA STILLWELL
                             Dallas, Texas
                              April, 1939

                               PRINTED BY
                     PROCTOR-ADAMS PRINTING SERVICE
                             DALLAS, TEXAS

    [Illustration: Floral decoration]



                                PREFACE


This simple key and guide to the woody plants—trees, shrubs and woody
vines—which grow naturally in Dallas County, Texas, has been prepared to
help beginners of any age in getting better acquainted with these leafy
neighbors and friends. Woody plants offer one of the best places to
begin a study of nature: first because there are but few kinds to learn
in comparison with many other living forms—about 90 of these plants
against estimated numbers for the county of about 300 birds, 500 to 1000
other flowering plants and over 25,000 insects; second, woody plants
remain in one place, freely available for observation at any hour or
season and year after year—if they escape human interference. And what
more helpful link toward acquaintance with other interesting forms of
natural life can be found than an intimate friendship with their mutual
friends, the trees!

The distinctions between trees and shrubs or between shrubs and woody
vines are often purely arbitrary, depending in part on age. A plant
which grows at least twenty feet tall and usually (not always) has just
one woody, self-supporting stem at the ground is considered a tree. A
plant which rarely grows taller than twenty feet, in a given region, and
usually has more than one woody stem rising from the ground is
considered a shrub. The separation of herbs from woody plants divides
those plants which usually die down to the ground each winter from those
having woody stems which persist above ground year after year. Some
ninety different woody plants are distinguished from one another and
briefly described in this key and guide. Each description represents a
single species with the exception of the cactus, yucca, red oaks and red
haws; the differences between the various species of these plants are
too complex for this brief manual.

Scientific names are included here, not with any thought that they
should be memorized or that they need be used in ordinary conversation,
but to avoid the possibility of misunderstandings such as often arise
from some common names which are used by different persons to designate
different plants. Many plants have more than one common name and often
one common name is used for two or more quite unlike plants. Common
names listed first are the ones considered more suitable.

The first part of the scientific name represents the genus (plural,
genera), a degree of relationship or grouping smaller than the family
but more inclusive than the species. The second name represents the
species or specific kind of plant; species are occasionally divided into
varieties (var.). The abbreviation following the scientific name stands
for the name of the botanist who first described or named the plant,
scientifically. L. stands for Linnaeus, “the father of modern botany”,
who first used this double-name (binomial) system of scientific
classification.

More extended descriptions and further information about these plants
may be found in some of the reference books listed in the back of this
booklet; many, if not all of them, are available in the Dallas Public
Library. Only the more necessary technical words have been used and
these are defined or illustrated herein. Although this booklet endeavors
to include all the woody plants growing naturally in Dallas County, no
doubt omissions and errors will be found and the author will be glad to
be informed of them.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to Dr. W. M. Longnecker and Dr. E. P.
Cheatum of the Department of Biology, Southern Methodist University, and
to Dr. B. C. Tharp of the Department of Botany and Bacteriology,
University of Texas, for their most helpful suggestions and criticisms.
Although this booklet is based upon the field observations of the author
and her husband, Jerry E. Stillwell, who assisted her in many ways, she
has made free use of such technical information as was needed from the
volumes listed in the bibliography.

The illustrations used in this publication were drawn for it by Alice
Ferguson.

                                                        NORMA STILLWELL,
                                                          Dallas, Texas.


                     Copyright 1939 by the author.



                           HOW TO USE THE KEY


This key is based chiefly on leaves and twigs, as they offer the easiest
clues for identification, especially in this climate where leaves are
present about three-fourths of the year. The best method of study is to
carry this booklet to the woody plant or plants you want to know. If
this is not convenient, have at least a leafy twig in hand. When
collecting specimens for study (a large-paged magazine will do for
carrying and pressing), notes should include the date and location, any
peculiarities of the bark, nature of thorns if not on the specimen
taken, color of twigs or any other features which might change in
drying, flowers or seeds or any such extra clues which might help to
find the right name for the plant. Small specimens of leafy twigs may be
taken in suitable locations without endangering or damaging woody plants
provided they are always cut, never torn from the branches.

The sizes as well as shapes of leaves are usually more typical on older
plants or on the higher branches of trees. When either leaves or twigs
are described as opposite, this condition will be found to be true for
both, although sometimes the opposite member is missing; but leaflets
(leaf-like units of a compound leaf) may sometimes be opposite when the
complete leaves are not—the position of leaves, not leaflets, is used in
this key. The terms rare, common or abundant are used to apply solely to
Dallas County.

Begin with the numbers 1 in the key and decide which of these fits the
woody plant whose name you are seeking. Turn to the key number following
the 1 you have chosen and again choose between the two descriptions
bearing the same number. Continue this process until you have reached
the name of a plant. This name will be followed by some number above
200; turn to this number in the guide and see whether this more complete
description fits. If each of your choices in the key has been correct
you now know the name of your plant. If this description in the guide
does not fit your plant, go over the key again, selecting this time the
other choice at any number where you may have been in doubt.

Whenever it has been necessary to use an obscure or variable
characteristic an effort has been made so to arrange the key that the
right answer will be reached whichever the choice. That is why some
plant names appear more than once in the key. If the following points
are noted any careful observer should be successful in identifying the
native woody plants of Dallas County by the use of this key. It will be
found helpful in other regions where the native plants are similar to
those of Dallas County.

1. Look carefully for thorns or prickles.

2. Notice anything unusual about the bark of trunk and branches—knotty,
flaky, peeling, color, etc.

3. Try to choose mature leaves of typical shapes and sizes rather than
the unusual ones.

4. Look for flowers, fruits or seeds on or under a tree or other woody
plant. These may furnish just the confirmation you need to feel sure of
the right name.



                                GLOSSARY


axil: the angle where a leaf stem joins a twig.

deciduous: losing its leaves in winter, not evergreen.

dioecious: bearing staminate, or male, flowers on separate plants from
      the pistillate, or fruit-bearing flowers; hence some plants of
      certain species never bear fruits or seeds.

fruit: that part of any plant which contains the seeds.

lenticel: air pore in the bark.

monoecious: bearing the two kinds of flowers on the same plant.

opaque: not admitting or transmitting light.

perfect: having both stamens and pistils in one flower, as most showy
      flowers have.

pistillate: possessing a pistil or pistils and lacking stamens; female,
      or fruit-bearing.

staminate: possessing stamens and lacking a pistil; male, or
      pollen-bearing.

translucent: admitting some light but not clear or transparent.

    [Illustration: FLOWERS and TWIGS]

  Spike
  Cyme
  Umbel
  Panicle
  Catkin
  Twigs
    Opposite
      winter bud
      leaf scar
    Alternate
  Flower Parts
    anther
    pistil
    stamen
    sepal
    petal
  Pea Shaped Flower

    [Illustration: TYPES OF SIMPLE LEAVES]

  Elliptical
    Acute Tip
    Coarsely Serrate (toothed) Margin
  Lobed
    Rounded
    Pointed
  Oblong
    Crenate Margin
    Midrib
  Ovate
    Acuminate Tip
    Notched Margin
    Truncate Base
  Linear
  Heart
    Serrate Margin
    More than one main vein at the base
  Sickle
  Obovate
    Doubly Serrate Margin
    veins united near margin

    [Illustration: COMPOUND LEAVES]

  Pinnate
    odd leaflet
  Palmate
  Twice Pinnate
    leaflet



              KEY TO NATIVE WOODY PLANTS OF DALLAS COUNTY
                     _Based Principally On Leaves_


                  _Numbers below 200 refer to the key,
                     above 200 to the guide (p. 20)._

  1. Leaves evergreen                                                  2
  1. Leaves deciduous                                                  7

  2. Leaves pinnately compound                                        71
  2. Leaves not pinnately compound                                     3

  3. Plants with very thick, fleshy, flattened, leaf-like stems, usually
      covered with many prickles                 prickly-pear cactus 269
  3. Leaves not very thick and fleshy and not prickly except at tips   4

  4. Leaves in large rosette close to ground                           5
  4. Leaves needle-like, not in rosettes                               6

  5. Leaves sword-shaped                                       yucca 205
  5. Leaves fan-shaped                               palmetto (rare) 203

  6. Inner bark yellowish brown, berries light blue        red cedar 201
  6. Inner bark darker brown, berries larger and darker, purplish
                                               mountain cedar (rare) 202

  7. Leaves simple                                                     8
  7. Leaves compound                                                  67

  8. Leaves and twigs alternate                                        9
  8. Leaves and twigs opposite                                        54


                     _Leaves Simple and Alternate_

  9. Leaves linear (long and narrow)                                  11
  9. Leaves not linear                                                10

  10. Leaves smooth and very glossy on both sides, broadly truncate at
      base, stems flattened                               cottonwood 207
  10. Leaves not possessing all three characteristics as given in 10
      above                                                           12

  11. Leaves usually less than ¾ inch wide, midrib yellowish and
      prominent on both sides                                 willow 206
  11. Leaves usually more than ¾ inch wide, midrib not yellowish nor
      prominent on both sides                                  peach 239

  12. Trunks or twigs with thorns or spines                           13
  12. Trunks and twigs without thorns or spines                       18

  13. Thorny vines                                        greenbrier 204
  13. Thorny trees or shrubs                                          14

  14. Leaf margins entire (smooth)                                    17
  14. Leaf margins not entire, variously serrate or toothed           15

  15. Leaves either blunt at tip or shallowly lobed or cut, primary
      veins usually straight to margins, often doubly serrate   red haws
                                                                     232
  15. Leaves pointed at tip, serrate, not cut or lobed, veins united or
      curving near margins                                            16

  16. Leaf width more than half the length, leaf flat, glands, if
      present on leaf-stem near leaf, dark          wild plum (tree) 237
  16. Leaf width less than half the length, tending to fold lengthwise,
      usually two bright red glands on leaf-stem near leaf
                                                          dwarf plum 238

  17. Leaf smooth or glossy, tip pointed, juice of stem milky       bois
                                               d’arc or Osage orange 226
  17. Leaf wooly on under side, especially when young, usually rather
      blunt at tip, juice of stem not milky  wooly bumelia, chittam wood
                                                      or gum elastic 272

  18. Leaves either lobed or coarsely toothed                         33
  18. Leaves neither lobed nor coarsely toothed, sometimes doubly
      toothed                                                         19

  19. Leaf margin serrate or crenate or doubly toothed                20
  19. Leaf margin smooth or wavy                                      47

  20. Vines                                                   rattan 261
  20. Not vines                                                       21

  21. Leaf margins doubly toothed (large and small teeth)             22
  21. Leaf margins not doubly toothed                                 25

  22. Leaves 3 to 7 inches long, twigs not corky winged               23
  22. Leaves 1 to 3 inches long, twigs sometimes corky winged         24

  23. Inner bark mucilaginous (“slippery” when chewed), leaves rough
      above, downy below                         red or slippery elm 220
  23. Inner bark not mucilaginous, leaves rather smooth above and downy
      below                                    white or American elm 221

  24. Leaves 1 to 2½ inches long, rather blunt tips, flowers in fall
                                                           cedar elm 222
  24. Leaves 1½ to 3 inches long, tapering point, flowers in spring
                                                   winged elm (rare) 223

  25. Bark of trunk with warty or knotty projections        rough-leaved
                                                           hackberry 224
  25. Bark of trunk without warty projections                         26

  26. Leaf length more than 4 times width                      peach 239
  26. Leaf length less than 3 times width                             27

  27. Larger twigs with whitish cross-streaks, flowers and fruit in
      catkin-like racemes                         wild cherry (rare) 236
  27. Twigs without whitish cross-streaks, flowers and fruits not in
      racemes                                                         28

  28. Lowest pair of primary leaf veins much longer than others      New
                                                          Jersey tea 260
  28. Lowest pair of primary leaf veins not much, if any, longer than
      others                                                          29

  29. Leaf veins and midrib yellowish and prominent on under side,
      primary veins closely and evenly spaced          Indian cherry 259
  29. Leaf veins and midrib not yellowish, if prominent on under side
      not closely and evenly spaced                                   30

  30. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long (rarely much larger), sometimes
      mitten-shaped or, on young shoots, intricately lobed, margins
      rather coarsely serrate or toothed                red mulberry 227
  30. Leaves 1 to 3½ inches long, margins finely serrate or crenate, not
      lobed                                                           31

  31. Leaves 1 to 2 inches long, margins crenate, veinlets not
      conspicuous, twigs pale gray                       swamp holly 253
  31. Leaves 2 to 3½ inches long, margins serrate, veinlets netted and
      conspicuous below, twigs purplish or reddish                    32

  32. Width of leaves more than half their length, flat, glands on
      leaf-stem dark                              wild plum (tree)   237
  32. Width of leaves less than half their length, tending to fold
      lengthwise, usually 2 bright red glands on leaf-stem near leaf
                                                          dwarf plum 238

  33. Lobed or coarsely toothed leaves on vines                       34
  33. Lobed or coarsely toothed leaves not on vines                   38

  34. Leaf margins smooth, though sometimes slightly lobed            35
  34. Leaf margins deeply lobed or coarsely toothed or both           36

  35. Leaves 2 to 4 inches long     Carolina moonseed (sarsaparilla) 229
  35. Leaves 4 to 10 inches long         Canada moonseed (very rare) 230

  36. Leaf surfaces not downy or wooly                                37
  36. At least lower leaf surfaces somewhat wooly     grapes 266 and 267

  37. Leaves mostly 3-divided or deeply lobed or cut, fleshy    cow-itch
                                                                vine 264
  37. Leaves coarsely toothed, not divided or deeply lobed, grapelike
      except thin and smooth, or nearly smooth     Cissus ampelopsis 265

  38. Leaves as broad as long                               sycamore 231
  38. Leaves not as broad as long                                     39

  39. Leaves toothed, not tough, rough above, not broader toward tip,
      often lobed on young trees                        red mulberry 227
  39. Leaves tough, not rough above, lobed or notched                 40

  40. Leaves regularly notched but not deeply lobed                   44
  40. Leaves deeply lobed or else broader toward tip, not regularly
      notched                                                         41

  41. Lobes few and shallow or sharp-pointed at tips                  42
  41. Lobes not sharp-pointed at tips                                 45

  42. Lobes, if any, few and shallow and near tip, leaves decidedly
      broader toward tip                                              43
  42. Leaves with several to many sharp-pointed lobes, some of them
      always fairly deep, variously shaped, (more than one species)  red
                                                                oaks 219

  43. Leaves 4 to 10 inches long                      black jack oak 218
  43. Leaves 2 to 3 inches long       water oak, duck oak or pin oak 217

  44. Leaf notches pointed                            chinquapin oak 216
  44. Leaf notches rounded                        swamp chestnut oak 215

  45. Leaves 6 to 12 inches long                             bur oak 214
  45. Leaves less than 6 inches long                                  46

  46. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long                             post oak 212
  46. Leaves less than 3 inches long                       scrub oak 213


          _Leaf Margins Smooth or Wavy, Not Lobed or Toothed_

  47. Vines                                                           48
  47. Not vines                                                       50

  48. Leaves 2 to 4 inches long                    Carolina moonseed 229
  48. Leaves 4 to 10 inches long                                      49

  49. Leaves deeply heart-shaped at base, wooly, leaf margin not
      extending beyond base of stem, not angled or lobed  wooly pipevine
                                                                     228
  49. Leaves not always deeply heart-shaped at base, not wooly, leaf
      margin extending slightly beyond base of stem, leaves often angled
      or shallowly lobed                 Canada moonseed (very rare) 230

  50. Leaves broad, at least nearly as broad as long, more than one main
      vein at base                                   redbuds 240 and 241
  50. Leaves decidedly longer than wide, one main vein at base        51

  51. Leaves smooth or shiny above                                    52
  51. Leaves not smooth, or shiny above           southern hackberry 225

  52. Leaf midrib and veins yellow and very prominent beneath, primary
      veins closely and evenly spaced, not branched    Indian cherry 259
  52. Leaf veins not very prominent beneath, not yellow, not evenly
      spaced                                                          53

  53. Leaves broader toward tip, sometimes lobed                      43
  53. Leaves not broader toward tip, not lobed             persimmon 273


                      _Leaves Simple and Opposite_

  54. Upper pairs of leaves often united around stem                  55
  54. Upper pairs of leaves not united around stem                    56

  55. A vine, leaves evergreen              coral honeysuckle (rare) 282
  55. A shrub, though some of stems long and straggling             bush
                                                         honeysuckle 283

  56. Leaf margins entire or wavy                                     57
  56. Leaf margins serrate or coarsely toothed                        63

  57. Leaves ½ to 1½ inches long                                      58
  57. Leaves 1½ to 10 inches long                                     59

  58. Leaves light yellowish green, glossy, narrowly oblong-obovate  St.
                                         Andrew’s cross (sandy land) 268
  58. Leaves dark green above, lighter and downy beneath, not glossy,
      ovate                                           Indian currant 284

  59. Leaves glossy above, often in whorls of three or sometimes more,
      midrib broad and yellow                            button bush 281
  59. Leaves not glossy above, not in whorls, midrib not yellow       60

  60. Leaves 7 to 10 inches long        catalpa or cigar tree (rare) 279
  60. Leaves less than 6 inches long                                  61

  61. Twigs dark, with conspicuous light dots, primary veins not
      prominent below nor indented above, usually less than 2½ inches
      long                                              swamp privet 277
  61. Twigs without conspicuous light dots, primary veins prominent
      below and indented above, usually over 2½ inches long           62

  62. Leaves smooth but not glossy above, tending to cluster towards
      ends of twigs                         flowering dogwood (rare) 270
  62. Leaves rough above, distributed along branchlets          dwarf or
                                                rough-leaved dogwood 271

  63. Twigs bright green, often 4-sided or ridged, leaves smooth but not
      glossy, acuminate tips                                  waahoo 254
  63. Twigs neither green nor 4-sided                                 64

  64. Leaves very glossy above                             black haw 285
  64. Leaves not glossy above                                         65

  65. Leaves 3 to 5 inches long, rather coarsely toothed          French
                                                            mulberry 278
  65. Leaves ¾ to 3 inches long, finely serrate or crenate            66

  66. Leaves blunt at tip                              spring herald 276
  66. Leaves tapering at both ends                      swamp privet 277

  67. Compound leaves alternate                                       68
  67. Compound leaves opposite                                        91


                    _Leaves Compound and Alternate_

  68. Trunks or twigs with spines or thorns                           69
  68. Trunks and twigs without spines or thorns                       74

  69. Low shrubs, 6 inches to 2 feet high               pasture rose 234
  69. Not low shrubs                                                  70

  70. Leaves with 3 to 5 leaflets                                     71
  70. Leaves with more than 5 leaflets                                72

  71. Stems trailing, usually on the ground               dewberries 235
  71. Stems climbing                             prairie rose (rare) 233

  72. Thorns long, often branched                       honey locust 243
  72. Thorns or prickles short                                        73

  73. Leaflets ovate and with odd leaflet at tip         prickly ash 246
  73. Leaflets oblong and without odd leaflet at tip        mesquite 240

  74. Vines                                                           75
  74. Not vines                                                       78

  75. Leaves twice-pinnately compound                    pepper vine 263
  75. Leaves palmately compound or with 3 leaflets                    76

  76. Three leaflets                                                  77
  76. Five or more leaflets                         Virginia creeper 262

  77. Leaves succulent (thick and juicy), sometimes three-lobed instead
      of parted                                 cow-itch vine (rare) 264
  77. Leaves not succulent, leaflets always fully parted, plant often
      shrubby when young                    poison oak or poison ivy 251

  78. Leaves twice-pinnately compound                     chinaberry 248
  78. Leaves not twice-pinnate                                        79

  79. Three leaflets (sometimes 5 on wafer ash)                       80
  79. More than 3 leaflets                                            82

  80. Leaflets less than 2 inches long aromatic or ill-scented sumac 252
  80. Leaflets 2 to 5 inches long                                     81

  81. All leaflets stemless, twigs glossy           wafer ash (rare) 247
  81. Terminal leaflet longer stemmed than other two, twigs not glossy
                                            poison oak or poison ivy 251

  82. Leaflets rounded toward tips                                    83
  82. Leaflets acute or acuminate                                     84

  83. Twigs dark green, leaflets not gland-dotted     Eve’s necklace 244
  83. Twigs not green, leaflets dotted with tiny amber glands      river
                                                              locust 245

  84. Leaf margins smooth or nearly so                               84A
  84. Leaf margins distinctly toothed or serrate                      86

  84A. Leaves 1 to 3 feet long, 13 to 41 leaflets, twigs very stout
                                              tree of Heaven (rare) 248A
  84A. Leaves less than 1 foot long, 8 to 21 leaflets, twigs not very
      stout                                                           85

  85. Leafy wings along stems between leaflets with odd leaflet at tip
                                               winged or dwarf sumac 250
  85. Leaf stem not or rarely winged between leaflets without odd
      leaflet at tip                     soapberry (wild chinaberry) 257

  86. Leaflets 5 to 7                                                 87
  86. Leaflets 9 to 31                                                88

  87. Terminal leaflet usually broader toward tip and at least twice as
      large as lowest pair                                   hickory 211
  87. Terminal leaflet not broader toward tip and not much larger than
      others                                Spanish or Texas buckeye 256

  88. Twigs reddish or purplish, a shrub                smooth sumac 249
  88. Twigs neither reddish nor purplish, trees                       89

  89. Pith of twigs dark and chambered                  black walnut 208
  89. Pith of twigs not dark, continuous                              90

  90. Nut nearly cylindric, seed sweet                         pecan 209
  90. Nut 4-angled, seed bitter                  bitter pecan (rare) 210


                     _Leaves Compound and Opposite_

  91. Vines                                                           92
  91. Not vines                                                       94

  92. Leaves palmately compound (alternate)         Virginia creeper 262
  92. Leaves not palmately compound                                   93

  93. Twice-pinnately compound (alternate)               pepper vine 263
  93. Once-pinnate                                   trumpet creeper 280

  94. Palmately compound                       fetid or Ohio buckeye 258
  94. Not palmately compound                                          95

  95. With terminal leaflet                                           96
  95. Without terminal leaflet                              mesquite 240

  96. Twice-pinnately compound (alternate)                chinaberry 248
  96. Once-pinnate                                                    97

  97. Leaflets 5 to 11, usually 7, twigs not bright green             98
  97. Leaflets 3 to 5 (rarely 7 or 9), twigs bright green  box elder 255

  98. Twigs brownish gray, lenticels obscure, flowers and fruits in
      cymes, shrubs                                       elderberry 286
  98. Twigs greenish gray or gray, whitish lenticels noticeable, flowers
      and fruits in panicles, trees                                   99

  99. Leaves bright or yellowish green on both sides, leaf-scar of twig
      straight or nearly so on upper edge                  green ash 275
  99. Leaves dark green above, paler below, leaf-scar of twig concave or
      notched on upper edge                                white ash 274

    [Illustration: about ½ natural size]

  260 New Jersey tea; fruit
  276 spring herald
  261 rattan vine
  268 St. Andrew’s cross
  252 aromatic sumac
  264 cow-itch vine
  284 Indian current
  253 swamp holly

    [Illustration: about ¼ natural size]

  254 waahoo
  265 _Cissus ampelopsis_
  285 black haw
  278 French mulberry
  271 dwarf dogwood
  283 bush honeysuckle
  282 coral honeysuckle
  277 swamp privet

    [Illustration: about ¼ natural size]

  280 trumpet creeper
  244 Eve’s necklace
  246 prickly ash
  245 river locust
  249 smooth sumac
  256 Texas buckeye

    [Illustration: about ¼ natural size]

  248 chinaberry
  262 Virginia creeper
  250 winged sumac
  263 pepper vine
  257 soapberry
  258 Ohio buckeye

    [Illustration: about ¼ natural size]

  247 wafer ash
  251 poison ivy
  230 Canada moonseed
  259 Indian cherry
  286 elderberry
  255 box elder
  229 Carolina moonseed
  228 wooly pipevine



             GUIDE TO NATIVE WOODY PLANTS OF DALLAS COUNTY


 _Capital letters and page numbers following the descriptions of a few
  of these plants refer to the bibliography at the end of this guide._


                              PINE FAMILY

201. RED CEDAR (_Juniperus virginiana_ L.) abundant tree of medium
height. Habitat: all soils, especially limestone hills in southwestern
part of county. Leaves: small, thick, scale-like or like short needles.
Bark: thin, reddish brown, shreddy, inner layers yellowish brown. Twigs:
of young shoots bear the sharper-pointed leaves. Flowers: dioecious, in
February or March; staminate minute, numerous, rusty; pistillate
purplish, inconspicuous. Fruit: light blue, spherical, ¼ inch diameter.
Wood: reddish at heart, sapwood light, used for cedar chests, rustic
work, and fence posts; for the last inferior only to bois d’arc as it is
very lasting in contact with the soil.

202. MOUNTAIN CEDAR (_Juniperus mexicana_ Spreng.) rare tree except at
Camp Wisdom and vicinity. Habitat: dry uplands, this about its eastern
limit but abundant westward. Leaves: similar to red cedar. Inner bark:
darker brown than on red cedar. Fruit: larger and darker than red cedar,
purplish. Wood: light brown, hard and close-grained but weak, used for
fuel, fence posts, poles and landscape planting.


                              PALM FAMILY

203. DWARF PALMETTO (_Sabal minor_ Pers.) low shrub of the river bottom,
rare. Leaves: 15 to 20 inches long, spreading, fan-shaped, from an
underground stem; browsed by cattle and mostly destroyed when Bois d’Arc
Island was cleared for cultivation. Flowers: whitish, small, from a
slightly branched central stalk. Fruit: black, spherical, smooth, dry,
about ¼ inch across. L (p. 223) (_S. glabra_). M (p. 240.)


                              LILY FAMILY

204. GREENBRIER (_Smilax bona nox_ L.) abundant vine; locally called
stretchberry, saw-brier, cat-brier. Habitat: woodlands and thickets,
becoming especially obnoxious in heavily pastured woodlands. Leaves: 1½
to 4½ inches long, ½ to 3 wide, alternate, oval or somewhat
heart-shaped, margins entire; smooth, thick, shining, many remaining
green and some mottled with brown in winter; all primary veins running
lengthwise of leaf. Stems: long, evergreen, often very prickly, climbing
by tendrils. Flowers: small, inconspicuous, yellowish or greenish,
dioecious, in umbels, six “petals”. Fruit: black, shining or covered
with a bloom, round or nearly so, size of small peas. This vine’s
greatest virtue seems to be that it offers food and shelter to the
birds.

205. YUCCA, bear-grass, Spanish dagger (_Yucca_ species) more than one
species in the county; abundant in meadows and along roadsides. Leaves:
grasslike but large, thick and tough, in rosettes, often with white
threads on margins; sharp-pointed. Woody stem: very short in our
species. Flowers: greenish white or creamy, many along a central stalk
two or three feet tall; each cupped flower about an inch or two long,
fertilized by a small white moth which lays its egg inside. Fruit: a
short, thick, cylindrical pod containing layers of flat, black seeds.


                             WILLOW FAMILY

206. WILLOW (_Salix nigra_ Marsh.) the black willow is probably the only
native species growing in the county. The weeping willow (_Salix
babylonica_) has not been observed growing in the county except where
planted. Willows grow close to water or in low ground, are very common
and grow very rapidly where they have an abundant supply of water; very
valuable in checking soil erosion as their roots help to hold the soil
in place. Leaves: simple, alternate, 3 to 6 inches long, ⅛ to ¾ wide,
acuminate, with fine, incurved serrations. Bark: rough, shaggy on old
trees, usually light brown. Twigs: conspicuously yellowish orange in
winter, smooth or glossy, very slender. Flowers: in catkins, yellowish,
dioecious. Fruit: cottony-covered seeds. Wood: soft, light, weak, used
for a special charcoal in manufacturing gunpowder, some species for
artificial limbs.

207. COTTONWOOD (_Populus deltoides_ var. _virginiana_ Sudw.) common,
large tree, also called Carolina poplar. Habitat: prefers lowlands and
stream banks although will grow in dry soil. Leaves: simple, alternate,
3 to 5 inches each way, commonly glossy on both sides, broad and
straight across at the base, coarsely toothed or crenate, stems
flattened. Bark: thick, light gray, deeply furrowed on trunks to smooth
and yellowish green on branches. Twigs: stout, greenish yellow to pale
gray, smooth; lenticels large, pale, lengthwise; buds large, scales very
sticky-resinous. Flowers: staminate are red catkins, pistillate greenish
yellow, dioecious. Fruit: cottony-covered seeds. Wood: soft, light
weight, warps easily but cheap because of rapid growth of tree; new
methods of rapid kiln-drying have lessened warping.


                             WALNUT FAMILY

208. BLACK WALNUT (_Juglans nigra_ L.) tree, common in rich bottomlands.
Leaves: alternate, pinnately compound, one to two feet long, 15 to 23
leaflets, each about 3 inches long, tapering and toothed; with a
characteristic odor when crushed. Bark: thick, dark, rough. Twigs: have
dark, chambered pith shown by splitting lengthwise through center.
Flowers: greenish, male in catkins, female inconspicuous, both kinds on
the same tree. Fruit: green to black husk does not split, round; shell
rough, very hard, dark; nut rich and sweet. Wood: hard, strong, rich
brown color, very valuable for gunstocks, furniture, etc.

209. PECAN (_Carya pecan_ Engl. & Graebn.) abundant, the state tree.
Habitat: rich bottomlands preferred. Leaves: similar to black walnut but
average fewer leaflets, 9 to 17. Twigs: do not have dark, chambered
pith. Bark: somewhat variable in appearance but generally lighter in
color than walnut and not as flaky as soapberry both of which it
resembles. Fruit: very valuable crop in Texas, many cultivated varieties
tending toward larger size of nuts and thinner shell. Wood: not
valuable, hard but brittle and not strong.

210. BITTER PECAN (_Carya texana_ Schn.) rare tree of low woodlands. The
nuts are 4-angled and the seeds bitter. Wood tough and strong.

211. HICKORY (_Carya buckleyi_ Durand) uncommon in this county. Observed
in sandy woods. Leaves: pinnately compound, of 5 to 9 leaflets, the
terminal 4 to 6 inches long, 2 to 2¼ wide, twice as large as the lowest,
obovate and tapering at each end. Bark: dark, rough, close. Fruit:
resembles pecan but broader; shell thick, somewhat wrinkled, light in
color; seed sweet. Wood: hard, brittle, little used except for fuel.


                              BEECH FAMILY

  White Oak Group: _Fruit requires 1 year to mature; leaves without
  sharp points to lobes_ (_except chinquapin oak leaves_). Bark:
  _usually lighter gray than on black or red oaks_.

212. POST OAK (_Quercus stellata_ Wang) most abundant tree of dry,
sandy, upland woods. Leaves: 3 to 5 inches long, with 5 rounded lobes
wider toward the outer end; like bur oak but smaller; dead leaves often
cling in winter, especially on young trees. Flowers: as in other oaks,
male in catkins, female inconspicuous, both kinds on same tree. Fruit:
an oval acorn, ½ to 1 inch long in a rather shallow cup. Bark: rough,
with deep grooves. Twigs: very fuzzy when young. Wood: hard, durable in
soil but difficult to season, used mainly for fuel, fence posts and
crossties.

213. SCRUB OAK: or dwarf post oak (probably a variety of _Q. stellata_).
Habitat: on limestone hills where common. Leaves: similar to post oak
but less than 3 inches long and less deeply lobed. Bark: thin, light
gray, with loose scales. Sometimes attains tree size though usually
shrubby and growing in dense thickets, typically not over 20 feet high.

214. BUR OAK or mossy-cup oak (_Quercus macrocarpa_ Michx.) common large
tree of lowlands; heavy, thick branches make it the sturdiest looking of
our oaks. Leaves: 6 to 12 inches long, deeply 5 to 7 lobed with the
lobes rounded and larger toward the tip, upper lobe largest and wavy
margined or shallowly lobed. Acorns: large, 2 inches or more in
diameter, the cup usually deep and heavily fringed. Wood: for
cabinetmaking and all sorts of construction, shipbuilding, etc.

215. SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK or basket oak (_Quercus prinus_ L.) Habitat:
rich bottomlands, not common. Leaves: obovate, margins deeply wavy or
with small, regularly rounded notches, downy beneath, 3 to 8 inches
long. Bark: light gray, with broad flakes. Acorns: about 1½ inches long
by 1 inch wide, shiny brown, with a shallow cup, eaten by cows (cow
oak). Wood: used for lumber, veneer, cooperage, wheels, implements, and
baskets.

216. CHINQUAPIN OAK or chestnut oak (_Quercus muehlenbergii_ Engelm.)
Habitat: various, prefers limestone soil, common. Leaves: similar to
preceding species but more sharply notched. Bark: thick, usually silvery
gray, large, loose scales on surface. Acorns: smaller than preceding and
have very short stems. Branches: typically fewer, larger and more
irregular than preceding. Wood: hard, strong, close-grained, durable,
used for cooperage, furniture, crossties, fuel.

  Black or Red Oak Group: _Fruit requires two years to mature, leaves
  have sharp points on lobes._

217. WATER OAK, duck oak, or pin oak (_Quercus nigra_ L.) Habitat: low,
sandy land, rare. Leaves: usually about 2½ inches long and 1½ wide,
narrow toward base, usually broader toward tip, shallowly lobed toward
tip or entire, smooth and dark green above, tardily deciduous. Bark:
rather smooth, reddish brown. Fruit: acorns usually solitary, very
short-stalked, light brown, ½ to ⅔ inch long. Wood: heavy, hard, strong,
little used except for fuel and crossties.

218. BLACK JACK OAK (_Quercus marilandica_ Muench.) Habitat: dry, upland
woods, sandy soil, with post oaks where few other trees grow, common.
Leaves: 4 to 10 inches long, very wide at tip, narrow toward base, only
very shallowly lobed, dark above, leathery, dead leaves often clinging
to young trees in winter. Bark: rough, dark, broken into small, hard
flakes. Fruit: an acorn about ¾ inch long with a cup enclosing about
half the nut which is yellowish brown and often striped. Wood: heavy,
hard and strong but little used except as fuel.

219. RED OAK (_Quercus_ species). Several species of red oak are not
easily distinguished except by specialists and the problem is
complicated by the fact that many species interbreed readily, thus
producing many variations from the typical forms. Probably _Q.
shumardii_ var. _schneckii_ is the most common red oak around Dallas.
The leaves are similar in shape to the black oak but are thinner and
lack the prominent rusty hairs in the forks of the veins; lobes are
usually from 5 to 7 and vary greatly as to length and width. The Texas
red oak (_Q. texana_ Buckley) is a closely related smaller tree of dry
uplands. The Spanish oak (_Q. rubra_ L.) is another red oak of dry
uplands; it is easily recognized when the leaves assume one typical form
which is narrow and rounded at the base with the three or more narrow
lobes occurring near the tip. For more complete descriptions of these
trees the reader is referred to the latest edition of Sargent’s “Manual
of the Trees of North America.”


                             NETTLE FAMILY

220. RED OR SLIPPERY ELM (_Ulmus fulva_ Michx.) Habitat: principally in
rich soil on low hillsides or stream banks, a common tree. Leaves:
doubly toothed, unequal at the base, 3 to 7 inches long, rough on both
sides. Twigs: somewhat mucilaginous or “slippery” when chewed; buds
covered with rusty hairs. Inner BARK: very mucilaginous, used in
medicine; outer BARK: grayish brown with flat ridges. Flowers: small,
inconspicuous, appearing very early in spring, before the leaves; in
clusters, each flower on a long drooping stalk. Fruit: green-winged
seeds, disk-shaped, notched at tip but without incurved tips. Wood:
close-grained, tough, heavy, hard, used for fence posts, crossties,
implements, ribs for small boats, etc.

221. WHITE OR AMERICAN ELM (_Ulmus americana_ L.) Habitat: similar to
red elm, less common. Leaves: similar except usually rather smooth above
and downy below, veins prominent below and parallel from midrib to leaf
edge. Twigs: brownish and smoother, buds without rusty hairs, not, or
very slightly, mucilaginous. Cross section of BARK shows alternate
layers of brown and white; surface dark gray with irregular, flat-topped
ridges. Flowers: very short-stalked. Seed: wings notched, with incurving
tips. Wood: hard, strong, tough, difficult to split, coarse-grained,
used for wheel-hubs, saddletrees, floors, boats.

222. CEDAR ELM (_Ulmus crassifolia_ Nutt.) Habitat: varied, our most
abundant elm, resists drouth and root rot, hence recommended as a shade
tree. Leaves: 1 to 2 inches long, usually blunt tipped. Young TWIGS:
reddish and slightly downy, sometimes have corky wings. Flowers and
Fruit: in late summer and early autumn. Branches: relatively short and
numerous, making dense shade in spite of small size of leaves. Wood:
brittle, sometimes used for hubs, furniture and fencing; mostly for fuel
and charcoal.

223. WINGED ELM (_Ulmus alata_ Michx.) Usually found on low, sandy land;
not common. Leaves: 1½ to 3 inches long, pointed at the tip. Twigs:
usually with many broad, corky wings, though sometimes absent. Flowers:
in spring. Wood: similar to other elms.

224. ROUGH-LEAVED HACKBERRY (_Celtis occidentalis_ var. _crassifolia_
Gray). Habitat: varied, more common on rich soil. Leaves: ovate, toothed
at least toward the long point, 2 to 4 inches long. Fruit: a roundish,
dark purple berry ripening in early fall, often clinging to the tree
through the winter and forming a popular food for many birds; about ¼
inch in diameter. Bark: of trunk usually conspicuous with its
characteristic warty projections. Wood: heavy but soft and weak, decays
rapidly when exposed, little used except for fuel. The characteristic
brown gall on the twigs is almost a mark of recognition in winter, when
trees are too small to show the typical warty bark.

225. SOUTHERN HACKBERRY (_Celtis laevigata_ Willd.) Less common than
previous species. Distinguished by the smooth margins of the slightly
longer and narrower LEAVES and by the orange or yellowish color of the
FRUIT. Both trees are widely planted for shade as they are resistant to
root rot.

226. BOIS D’ARC OR OSAGE ORANGE (_Maclura pomifera_ Schn.) also called
horse-apple. Abundant in rich bottomland. Leaves: entire, dark green and
glossy, oval, pointed at tip, 3 to 5 inches long. The yellowish-brown
BARK distinguishes it from any other thorny tree, contains tannin and
that of root a yellow dye. Flowers: monoecious, the female in a rounded
ball, male in an elongated cluster. Fruit: resembles a very rough,
large, bright green orange. Wood: bright orange in color, most durable
in contact with the soil, used principally for posts.

227. RED MULBERRY (_Morus rubra_ L.) Common in rich lowlands, often in
the shade of larger trees. Leaves: 3 to 5 inches long or rarely much
larger in dense shade, toothed, ovate, pointed at tip, rounded or
heart-shaped at base; on young trees often mitten-shaped or deeply and
variously lobed, rough above. Flowers: monoecious or dioecious, in
drooping catkins, the female shorter. Fruit: red to black, resembles
blackberry, ripens through May, very attractive to many birds,
especially the migrating thrushes. Bark: thin, dark grayish brown,
breaking into long scales. Twigs: slender, somewhat zigzag, with milky
juice. Wood: light, soft, weak, used for fence posts, cooperage and boat
building.


                            BIRTHWORT FAMILY

228. WOOLY PIPEVINE (_Aristolochia tomentosa_ Sims.) or Dutchman’s pipe.
Habitat: low, rich woods, not abundant. Leaves: large, round-heart
shaped, downy, soft, margins entire. Stems: slender, very high climbing.
Flowers: tube u-curved like a Dutchman’s pipe, with lobes turned back;
small yellowish, inconspicuous flowers not to be confused with the
leather flower (Viorna) which is also sometimes called pipevine; Viorna
has four thick, leathery, purplish petals shaped like the bowl of a
pipe. Fruit: many flat, black, shiny, pie-shaped seeds packed in a
six-angled, cylindrical seed case about 1 to 2 inches in diameter and 2
to 3 inches long. A closely related cultivated vine is often planted
where a dense screen is desired. B (Vol. I, p. 646).

    [Illustration: 228 wooly pipevine]


                            MOONSEED FAMILY

229. CAROLINA MOONSEED (_Cocculus carolinus_ (L) DC.) also called wild
sarsaparilla or coral vine. Habitat: hedgerows and thickets, edges of
woods, a common vine. Leaves: variable, oval to slightly heart-shaped,
usually blunt or rounded at the tip, usually about 2 or 3 inches long.
Stems: slender, green and somewhat fuzzy when young. Flowers: dioecious,
small, greenish, 6-parted. Fruits: size of small peas, soft, scarlet,
one-seeded, in small, dense clusters; very decorative in winter and
excellent bird attraction.

    [Illustration: 229 Carolina moonseed]

230. CANADA MOONSEED (_Menispermum canadense_ L.) very rare vine of low
woods. Stems: 6 to 12 feet long. Leaves: 3 to 7-angled or shallowly
lobed, broader than long, 4 inches or much more. Flowers: small, white,
6-8 petals, 12-24 stamens. Fruit: black with a bloom, resembling small
grapes; seed spirally curved. B (Vol. II, p. 131).

    [Illustration: 230 Canada moonseed]


                           PLANE TREE FAMILY

231. SYCAMORE or buttonwood (_Platanus occidentalis_ L.) a common tree,
along stream banks and in low woods, often the largest tree in its
locality as it grows rapidly. Bark: thin, smooth, greenish gray, flaking
off in large patches and exposing the under bark which is whitish like
that on limbs, especially conspicuous in winter woods. Leaves: 4 to 7
inches long and about as broad, very coarsely toothed, often shallowly 3
or 5-lobed, light green above, paler below. Twigs: slender, rather shiny
and zigzag; bud with a single, cap-like scale, enclosed by the base of
the leaf-stalk. Fruit: a compact ball about 1 inch across, remaining on
its drooping stem all winter, composed of many seeds which separate and
are blown away in spring. Often planted as street tree because of rapid
growth and resistance to drouth, but the large leaves and flaking bark
cause unsightly litter. Wood: coarse-grained, hard, not strong, heavy,
hard to split; used for butchers’ blocks, furniture, interior trim, and
tobacco boxes.


                              ROSE FAMILY

232. RED HAW or hawthorn (_Crataegus_ species) probably about four
species in the county. Three are easily distinguished by the shapes of
the leaves and the size of the fruits:

(a) Leaves: very wooly when young, broad near base and nearly as broad
as long, doubly toothed and often shallowly lobed; especially
susceptible to the cedar rust. Fruit: red, resembling large rose hips,
edible, mealy, about ¾ inch across, ripening in September and falling
early. Grows in the vicinity of White Rock Creek and Lake. Leaves and
flowers in early April.

(b) Leaves: usually obovate, tapering at base and somewhat blunt at tip,
darker and smoother than (a). Fruit: about ½ inch or less across,
ripening October or November, clinging late into winter. Flowers and
leaves both smaller and appearing later than (a). Same region.

(c) Leaves: deeply and sharply cut. Fruit: ¼ inch or less across, many
in a drooping cluster. River bottoms in southeastern part of county.

A fourth species is distinctive for its loose, flaky bark.

Wood: tough and hard but all trees in this region too small to be of
commercial importance.

233. PRAIRIE ROSE (_Rosa setigera_ Michx.) rare, climbing or trailing,
vine-like shrub of low sandy land. Leaves: compound leaflets; mostly
three, or five. Stems: green, with stout, scattered prickles, sometimes
20 feet long, usually much less. Flowers: bright pink, styles united
into a column. Fruit: rounded, red in autumn, nearly ½ inch in diameter.
 B (Vol. II, p. 283.)

234. PASTURE ROSE (_Rosa foliolosa_ Nutt.) a common, very low shrub.
Habitat: meadows, roadsides, open woods, White Rock Lake, etc. Flowers:
white or pale pink, solitary, sweet-scented. Stem: 6 to 12 inches tall,
reddish, slender, with few prickles. Fruits: red, haw-like, in fall and
winter. Leaves: pinnately compound, small leaflets 7 to 11, red in
autumn or green and tardily deciduous. D (p. 106.)

235. DEWBERRY (_Rubus trivialis_) abundant trailing “shrub” of woods,
roadsides, thickets and ditches. Leaves: compound, 3 to 5 leaflets,
rose-like, evergreen or nearly so. Stems: green, prickly, usually lying
on the ground, several feet long. Flowers: white, 5 petals, like small
single roses. Fruit: black, many-seeded, juicy, ripe April-May, popular
with birds, boys and redbugs.

236. WILD BLACK CHERRY (_Prunus serotina_ Ehr.) a rare, small tree
observed in low, sandy woods. Leaves: oval or longer, pointed at tip,
finely serrate, dark red glands at base; glossy above, paler below. 2-6
inches long. Flowers: in grape-like clusters, drooping, white, in late
March. Fruit: resembling small grapes, bitter but edible. Bark: of
branches and young trunks glossy, reddish brown, marked with white,
horizontal lines, finally becomes rough and broken into irregular
plates. Wood: is second in value only to black walnut, reddish brown,
fine grained, used for furniture, and interiors. Fruit: used to flavor
rum, the bark in medicines.

237. WILD PLUM (_Prunus mexicana_ S. Watson) common tree in woodlands,
especially in low, rich ground. Leaves: oval, finely toothed, 2 to 3
inches long, downy or smooth but not shiny. Flowers: white,
sweet-scented, in February and March. Fruit: oval, about 1 inch
diameter, red, with a bloom; makes a delicious, tart jelly; different
trees ripen from August into October. Winter TWIGS: smooth, dark
purplish, the smaller ones often thorny-tipped. Bark: smooth on branches
but peeling, finally rough and dark gray. J (p. 565.)

238. DWARF PLUM (_Prunus angustifolia_ var. _varians_ Wight & Hedr.) a
shrub, often flowering when 1 or 2 feet high, rarely a very small tree,
common on dry hillsides, meadows and fence rows, often forming thickets.
Leaves: slightly narrower than those of the tree plum, smooth or shiny
above, often tending to fold together lengthwise. Flowers: small, white,
in March. Fruit: about ½ inch in diameter, bright red, ripe in
midsummer. Twigs: very glossy and dark reddish purple, with sharp
thorns. J (p. 570.)

239. PEACH (_Prunus persica_ (L.) Sieb & Zucc.) an uncommon escape from
cultivation, growing readily from seeds along roadsides, etc. These
trees usually bear small, hard, flavorless fruit but may be used as
parent stock on which to graft desirable cultivated varieties. Flowers:
showy, pink.


                               PEA FAMILY

240. MESQUITE (_Prosopis glandulosa_ Torr.) an abundant small tree with
a short trunk and open, spreading crown. Habitat: hilly pastures west of
the Trinity River. Flowers: tiny, yellow, in catkins, blooming about May
first and often again after summer rains. Pods: 4 to 9 inches long,
somewhat constricted between the seeds, containing a sweet pulp as well
as 10 to 20 seeds; valuable as food for livestock. Leaves:
Twice-pinnately compound, alternate, 8 to 10 inches long, composed of
one or two pairs of primary divisions each bearing 12 to 20 leaflets
usually much less than two inches long. Twigs: have spines, usually in
pairs at the leaf-axils. Wood: heavy, hard, closegrained, durable in
soil, used for fence posts, underpinnings of buildings and fuel. The
roots are large and heavy, giving rise to the saying that West Texans
dig for their wood.

241. REDBUD (_Cercis canadensis_ L.) a medium or small tree common in
woodlands. Leaves: heart-shaped or truncate at base and blunt or
slender-pointed at tip, 3 to 5 inches long and wide, smooth above,
margin entire. Twigs: smooth, dark reddish brown, slender. Bark: of
larger trunks finally divided into long, narrow plates, the surface
separating into thin scales. Flowers: pea-shaped, pink with a red calyx,
½ inch long, in clusters close to the branches and sometimes even down
on the trunk. Fruit: reddish brown pods 2 to 4 inches long, about ½ inch
wide, flattened, often persistent into winter. Wood: dark brown, hard
but weak, not valued commercially. The tree is common in cultivation
because of its attractive early-blooming flowers; it is easily grown
from seed.

242. REDBUD (_Cercis reniformis_ Engl.) a small tree or tall shrub of
limestone ridges southwest of Dallas. Leaves: kidney-shaped, not
pointed, generally more glossy above than _C. canadensis_, “Mountain
Redbud.”

243. HONEY LOCUST (_Gleditsia triacanthos_ L.) a very thorny tree common
in a variety of soils. Leaves: some once-pinnately compound and some
twice, both kinds on the same tree, leaflets numerous, 1 to 1½ inches
long and ½ wide, nearly entire, turning yellow in autumn. Twigs:
slender, shining, usually reddish brown, distinctive for the large,
pronged thorns which they bear in the second year and retain for many
years. Bark: of trunk becoming rough, its broad ridges with thick,
recurved edges, highly variable as to the number of thorns retained.
Flowers: tiny, yellow, in catkins, very sweet-scented. Fruit: flat,
reddish brown pods, 10 to 18 inches long, usually twisted, containing a
sweetish pulp between the hard seeds; they are widely scattered by many
animals which relish the pulp but fail to digest the seeds. Wood: hard,
strong, coarse-grained, durable in the soil, bright red-brown, used for
fence posts, wheel hubs and in construction. This tree is very resistant
to drouth but gives scanty shade and causes much litter.

244. EVE’S NECKLACE (_Sophora affinis_ Torr. & Gray) a small, slender
tree becoming almost vine-like when crowded by other trees, common on
stream borders, limestone hills, or prairie ravines. Leaves: pinnately
compound of 13 to 19 pointed or blunt leaflets about 1½ in. long and 1
wide with entire or slightly wavy margins. Twigs: dull or glossy green
becoming mottled with gray, sometimes zigzag. Bark: thin, gray, finally
breaking into many, loose, oblong scales. Flowers: ½ in. long, white to
lavender rose, in drooping clusters, pea-shaped. Fruit: dull black pods
1 to 4 inches long, tightly constricted between the seeds, often
clinging to the tree with the flowers of the following spring. Wood:
light red with 10 or 12 layers of bright yellow sapwood, heavy, hard and
strong but too small to be of commercial importance. This little tree is
native only to eastern and central Texas and the borders of adjacent
states. K (p. 147.)

    [Illustration: 244 Eve’s necklace]

245. RIVER LOCUST (_Amorpha fruticosa_ L.) or false indigo: a tall shrub
fairly common in low, moist ground, more common in sun than shade.
Leaves: pinnately compound, of 9 to 25 leaflets, oblong or elliptical, ½
to 1½ in. long, gland-dotted. Flowers: in dense, erect clusters, each
floret consisting of one dark purple petal wrapped around the ten
gold-tipped stamens and the style. Fruit: pods about ¼ in. long heavily
dotted with amber-colored glands. K (p. 160.)

    [Illustration: 245 river locust]


                               RUE FAMILY

                     (Citrus Fruits In This Family)

246. PRICKLY ASH (_Xanthoxylum clava-herculis_ L.) also called
tear-blanket or toothache tree: a rather small tree common in rich
lowlands, “of its largest size on the rich intervale lands of the
streams flowing into the Trinity River”. Leaves: pinnately compound of 3
to 9 pairs of leaflets, usually ovate with acute or acuminate tips, 1 to
2½ in. long, shiny above, dull beneath, margins crenate-serrate,
aromatic and tingling-spicy as are the fruit and bark. Twigs: have
scattered, hooked spines, often black on young shoots. Bark: smooth,
bluish gray, conspicuous for its corky, cone-shaped knobs which are
sometimes still tipped with sharp spines; bark of root is especially
stimulating and tonic, used by negroes for toothache and rheumatism.
Flowers: small, white or greenish, in small cymes, opening after the
leaves. Fruit: ¼ inch long, and nearly round, pitted capsules split in
early autumn to reveal the shiny black seeds; relished by many birds.
Wood: light weight, close-grained, light brown with yellow sapwood, not
valued as much as the bark.

    [Illustration: 246 prickly ash]

247. WAFER ASH (_Ptelea trifoliata_ L.) or hop tree: a rare, small tree
or shrub of low woodlands. Leaves: pinnately compound, usually composed
of three, rarely five leaflets, 2 to 5 inches long, 1 to 3 wide, the
terminal generally larger and more tapering toward the base than the
others, margins entire or finely serrate, dark and shiny above,
gland-dotted beneath. Twigs: dark, glossy, resembling cherry; winter
buds rounded, whitish. Bark: of branches resembles cherry, dark and
shining but cracks and curls, becoming rough; bitter, tonic. Flowers:
greenish white, compound terminal cymes; in midsummer; disagreeable
odor. Fruit: winged seed disks similar to those of elm but larger,
nearly 1 inch; the drooping clusters conspicuous on winter branches;
occasionally used in place of hops in beer brewing. Wood: heavy, hard
and close-grained.

    [Illustration: 247 wafer ash]


                            MAHOGANY FAMILY

248. CHINABERRY (_Melia azederach_ L.) a familiar cultivated tree
occasionally escaped from cultivation; a native of China much planted
for shade in the southern states; sometimes found in remote woods where
birds must have dropped the seeds. Leaves: alternate, twice-pinnately
compound, dark green above, margins of leaflets often shallowly lobed or
wavy. Twigs: thick, upright, dark. Bark: dark, somewhat smooth on
branches. Flowers: lavender, in large, loose clusters on wood of the
previous year, scented, in April or May. Fruit: Opaque, yellow, size of
marbles, remaining into winter. Wood: light and brittle, color resembles
mahogany but the grain is much coarser and does not polish well. I (p.
353.)

    [Illustration: 248 chinaberry]


                             QUASSIA FAMILY

248A. TREE OF HEAVEN, Chinese sumac, (_Ailanthus glandulosa_ Desf.)
Several sprouts of this tree were observed in Kessler Park woodlands
after this booklet had been set in type. The 1 to 3 foot, pinnately
compound LEAVES and very stout TWIGS are ready marks of identification.
Flowers: greenish, in large panicles, the staminate ill-scented. Fruit:
winged seeds rusty colored. Wood: soft and weak. An escape from
cultivation, undesirable because of its numerous root-suckers.


                             CASHEW FAMILY

249. SMOOTH SUMAC (_Rhus glabra_ L.) abundant tall shrub, in woods or
fields, prefers lowlands but also common in shallow depressions of
uplands. Leaves: pinnately compound, 6 to 12 inches long, leaflets
toothed, dark and smooth above; turning bright scarlet in early autumn.
Twigs: smooth, reddish brown or with a whitish bloom; stout; buds
entirely encircled by leaf stem or scar, juice milky. Flowers:
dioecious, staminate in large, loose clusters of small, creamy flowers;
pistillate clusters more compact and soon showing tinge of red. Fruit:
dark red, fuzzy, acid skins cover each dry seed, retain color nearly all
winter; may be used to make a substitute for lemonade. Wood: too scanty
to be of value, center pithy.

    [Illustration: 249 smooth sumac]

250. WINGED OR DWARF SUMAC (_Rhus copallina_ L.) a tall shrub or rarely
a small tree, abundant on limestone hills and bluffs. Leaves: pinnately
compound, 6 to 8 inches long, leaflets not or remotely serrate on
margins, leafy wings along stem between leaflets. Twigs: slightly
pubescent (fuzzy), buds not entirely encircled by leaf scar, juice
watery. Flowers: similar to R. glabra but later, in August. Fruit:
clusters do not retain their bright color as late. Wood: light and soft,
greenish brown.

    [Illustration: 250 winged sumac]

251. POISON IVY, POISON OAK (_Rhus toxicodendron_ L.) an abundant,
woody, high-climbing vine, often appearing shrubby when young, or in the
absence of a support; preferring woodlands, but also in open places.
Leaves: compound, of three leaflets 2 to 5 inches long, coarsely toothed
or lobed or more rarely entire. Bark: noticeable for numerous aerial
rootlets on large specimens. Branches: extending at right angles from
main stem. Flowers: inconspicuous, whitish. Fruit: white, in small,
loose clusters. All parts of the plant very poisonous to the touch: the
apparent immunity of some persons may be lost at any time and those who
have suffered previous attacks seem more subject to the poison
thereafter.

    [Illustration: 251 poison ivy]

252. AROMATIC OR ILL-SCENTED SUMAC (_Rhus trilobata_ and var.
_aromatica_) or skunk bush: a spreading, low to medium shrub common in
dry upland woods. Leaves: compound, of three leaflets, teeth or lobes
usually rounded, ½ to 1½ inches long; both plants and opinions vary as
to whether leaves are aromatic or ill-scented when crushed. Twigs: are
noticeable in winter for their cone-shaped buds. Flowers: in March,
small, yellow. Fruit: small clusters of red stone fruits covered with
white hairs, ripe in midsummer, decorative. K (p. 204-5.)

    [Illustration: 252 aromatic sumac]


                              HOLLY FAMILY

253. SWAMP HOLLY (_Ilex decidua_ Walt.) or possum haw, a common small
tree or shrub thriving best in lowlands, but also grows on dry limestone
bluffs. Leaves: 1 to 2 inches long, usually blunt at the tip, margins
with small, rounded teeth. Twigs: light gray, the short stems often
densely covered with fruit scars, resembling tiny cones; alternate on
the branches. Bark: pale gray often mottled, smooth. Flowers: dioecious,
white, very inconspicuous. Fruit: round, scarlet or orange, close to the
branches, singly or few together, on wood of the previous year, often
remain through winter. Wood: heavy, close-grained, creamy-white. This
tree suffers from vandals, especially near Christmas, although not
evergreen like its spiny-leaved relative, _Ilex opaca_ which is grown
commercially and is also a native of East Texas. Youpon (_Ilex
vomitoria_) is another native of East Texas which resembles our swamp
holly even more closely except that its leaves are evergreen, and its
fruit more pulpy.

    [Illustration: 253 swamp holly]


                           STAFF-TREE FAMILY

254. WAAHOO or burning bush (_Evonymus atropurpureus_ Jacq.) a medium to
tall shrub or small tree of low woodlands, not very common. Leaves:
opposite, simple, 2 to 5 inches long, tapering at both ends, finely
serrate, light green and often turning pinkish in autumn. Twigs: green
with gray stripes, often more or less 4-angled. Bark: smoothish, mottled
gray. Flowers: small, very dark red, 4-lobed, in May. Fruit: crimson,
not more than one in each lobe of 4-lobed rosy pod hanging from red,
threadlike stem, in winter. Wood: heavy, hard and close-grained. The
climbing bittersweet, native of Oklahoma and East Texas, is a member of
this family.

    [Illustration: 254 waahoo]


                              MAPLE FAMILY

255. BOX ELDER (_Acer negundo_ L.) a medium-sized tree fairly common in
low woods and along stream banks. This is the only member of the family
native to Dallas County. Leaves: pinnately compound, opposite, usually 5
leaflets, sometimes 3 or 7, 2½ to 5 in. long, light green, coarsely
toothed. Twigs: usually green, smooth. Bark: gray, with regular, shallow
furrows. Flowers: dioecious, very small, staminate forming green, silky
tassels. Fruit: seeds with elongated wings, in pairs forming v’s, ripen
and fall in autumn although their stems cling until spring. Wood: light,
soft, close-grained; used for woodenware, interior finish and paper
pulp. Sugar can be made from the sap. This tree grows rapidly in a moist
situation but is short-lived.

    [Illustration: 255 box elder]


                            SOAPBERRY FAMILY

256. SPANISH or TEXAS BUCKEYE (_Ungnadia speciosa_ Endl.) a tall shrub
or small tree, not very common, in upland woods; native only to Texas,
New Mexico and northern Mexico; Dallas County about its northeastern
limit. Leaves: pinnately compound, ash-like but alternate, leaflets 1 to
3 inches long, wrinkled undersurface. Twigs: light brown. Bark: light
gray, thin, with numerous shallow fissures. Flowers: color of redbud,
slightly larger and averaging two weeks later, 4 or 5 slender petals and
red stamens often curving in opposite directions. Fruit: 3 or rarely 4
round, black, shiny seeds, smaller than true buckeyes but having the
pale “eye-spot”; leathery brown pods usually crack open and drop the
seeds in October or November, themselves remaining through the winter.
The seeds are powerful emetics and reputed to be poisonous. Wood: heavy,
close-grained, soft but brittle, reddish brown. K (p. 215.)

    [Illustration: 256 Texas buckeye]

257. SOAPBERRY or wild chinaberry (_Sapindus drummondii_ H. & A.) a
medium-sized tree, fairly common in lowlands, a tree of the
southwest-central states. Leaves: pinnately compound of 4 to 9 pairs of
sickle-shaped leaflets about 2½ inches long with entire margins; lack
the odd terminal leaflet of walnuts and pecans. Twigs: slender, the
outer branches often drooping. Bark: light gray, rough and loosely
scaly. Flowers: small, creamy white, showy because of large size of the
terminal clusters, in May or June. Fruit: golden, or amber, translucent,
size of marbles, drooping from tips of branches, remain until spring
when they sometimes turn black. Wood: heavy, strong and splits easily
between annual rings, hence used for basket splints.

    [Illustration: 257 soapberry]

258. FETID or OHIO BUCKEYE (_Aesculus glabra_ Willd.) medium shrub or
rarely small tree in this region, low or upland woods but nowhere
common. Leaves: opposite, palmately compound, of 7 to 9 slender, toothed
leaflets, 2½ to 4½ inches long, 1 to 2 wide, conspicuous in early spring
as they are among the first to open. Twigs: stout, with large opposite
buds, the terminal one containing leaves as well as flower clusters;
branches usually divide into twos. Flowers: in April, pale yellow
clusters, stamens slightly longer than the petals. Fruit: brown, glossy
seeds, flattened on one side, with a large, pale “eye-spot”; two or
three in a leathery, rounded husk, 1 to 2 inches across, covered with
short, scattered prickles. The seed was once believed to be a cure for
rheumatism when carried in the pocket. Wood: light, close-grained,
tough; used for artificial limbs, splints, woodenware and paper pulp;
ill-scented.

    [Illustration: 258 Ohio buckeye]


                            BUCKTHORN FAMILY

259. INDIAN CHERRY (_Rhamnus caroliniana_ Walt.) or yellow buckthorn, a
shrub or small tree, fairly common in rich, low woods and limestone
slopes. Leaves: glossy, dark green, 2 to 5 in. long and 1 to 2 in. wide,
rounded at base and acute or acuminate at tip, margins obscurely
serrate, veins yellow, evenly spaced and prominent on the under side;
turning dark purple or yellow in autumn, tardily deciduous on young
trees. Twigs: with naked winter buds small and pointed. Flowers: in May,
inconspicuous, usually dioecious. Fruit: size of small peas, containing
2 to 4 seeds; scattered, on short stems; red in summer, turning black in
autumn. Wood: hard, light brown, close-grained and brittle.

    [Illustration: 259 Indian cherry]

260. NEW JERSEY TEA (_Ceanothus ovatus_ Desf.) or RED-ROOT; a shrub 1 to
3 feet high, common on dry uplands of woods, meadows and roadsides.
Leaves: veins depressed above and prominent beneath as in the other two
local members of this family, lowest pair longest, not dark and glossy
above, 1 or 2 in. long, less than half as wide. Twigs: slender,
retaining stems and whitish fruit “cups” in winter. Flowers: tiny,
white, fragrant, in small, dense, rather cone-shaped clusters; the 5
petals and 5 sepals all white and incurved, petals forming a hood from
which anthers project; in April. Fruit: small, three-lobed, white,
ripening in summer. K (p. 216.)

    [Illustration: 260 New Jersey tea; fruit]

261. RATTAN VINE or SUPPLE-JACK (_Berchemia scandens_ Trel.) a fairly
common, high-climbing, woody vine of low woods. Leaves: similar to
Indian cherry except much smaller, 1 to 2 in. long. Stems: smooth,
greenish, pliable, tough, very slender when young, becoming several
inches thick in old age. Flowers: small, greenish-white, in small
panicles. Fruit: oval, blackish, about ¼ in. long, containing one seed.
B (Vol. II, p. 502).

    [Illustration: 261 rattan vine]


                          VINE (GRAPE) FAMILY

262. VIRGINIA CREEPER (_Psedera quinquefolia_ Greene) (_Parthenocissus
q._ Planch.) or woodbine: common woodland vine preferring lowlands,
climbing tall trees or covering stumps. Leaves: alternate, palmately
compound, of 5 to 7 leaflets, irregularly toothed, tapering at each end,
2 to 4 in. long; turning bright scarlet in early fall. Flowers:
clustered, inconspicuous. Fruit: bluish, round, like tiny grapes,
popular with birds. More than one species but not readily distinguished.
Some have adhesive disks at the tips of tendrils. Often but needlessly
confused with poison ivy.

    [Illustration: 262 Virginia creeper]

263. PEPPER VINE (_Cissus arborea_ Des Moulins) a fairly common vine in
river bottoms and low, sandy soils. Leaves: alternate, twice-pinnately
compound, dark green, reddish when young and in autumn; resembling
chinaberry; decorative. Stems: slender. Flowers: whitish, small. Fruit:
like small grapes but glossy black, inedible, ripe in August. K (p.
223).

    [Illustration: 263 pepper vine]

264. COW-ITCH VINE (_Cissus incisa_ Des Moulins) a rather rare vine
preferring open, sandy woods. Leaves: fleshy, sometimes palmately
compound, or deeply 3-lobed or 3-parted. Stems: somewhat fleshy.
Flowers: small, in compound umbels, usually 4 spreading petals. Fruit:
small, grape-like, blackish. K (p. 222).

    [Illustration: 264 cow-itch vine]

265. (_CISSUS AMPELOPSIS_ Pers.) no common name; a rare vine of low
woods. Leaves: grape-like, but smooth and thin, broadly oval, or
heart-shaped, coarsely toothed. Fruit: bluish, inedible, like small
grapes. Main STEM: sometimes with many short, leafy branches. B (Vol.
II, p. 509).

    [Illustration: 265 _Cissus ampelopsis_]

266. MUSTANG GRAPE (_Vitis candicans_ Engelm.) abundant vine of roadside
thickets and woods. Leaves: large, angled, shallow-toothed, very wooly
beneath; the leaves of young shoots are usually deeply, many-lobed in
marked contrast to the older. Flowers: small, whitish, fragrant, in
drooping clusters. Fruit: large as marbles, acid, but palatable,
blackish, ripe July. K (p. 220).

267. SUMMER GRAPE (_Vitis species_) a vine of woods and roadside
thickets. Leaves: large, unlobed to deeply lobed, wooly when young.
Fruit: small, pleasant, ripe in autumn.


                         ST. JOHN’SWORT FAMILY

268. ST. ANDREW’S CROSS (_Ascyrum hypericoides_ L.) low shrub of low,
sandy woods, rather rare. Leaves: ½ to 1½ inches long, opposite, many
remaining green through mild winters. Flowers: yellow, about ½ inch
across, of four petals, falling early; two of four sepals larger,
leaflike, clasping bud or seed-pod between them. Fruit: several small
seeds in each disk-like pod, tardily deciduous. B (Vol. II, p. 528).

    [Illustration: 268 St. Andrew’s cross]


                             CACTUS FAMILY

269. PRICKLY PEAR CACTUS (_Opuntia_ Sp.) a shrub, common in meadows and
dry woods. Branches (joints): broad, flat, green, spiny and somewhat
leaflike. True LEAVES: small, fleshy, thick scales, early deciduous.
Flowers: 2 to 5 inches across, having many glossy, yellow petals and
numerous stamens. Fruit: reddish, prickly, about an inch across and
slightly longer. This shrub is a valued forage crop in many parts of
western Texas, after the spines have been burned off with a blow torch.


                             DOGWOOD FAMILY

270. FLOWERING DOGWOOD (_Cornus florida_ L.) shrub or small tree, very
rare; usually in rocky or sandy woods, often with cedar. Leaves: simple,
2 to 5 inches long, 1¼ to 2 wide, opposite, mostly in clusters at the
ends of branches; entire or nearly so, veins prominent beneath. Twigs:
distinguished in winter by the pale “flat turnip-shaped” flower buds;
bright red or yellowish green, slender. Bark: furrowed and breaking into
somewhat rectangular plates; astringent and aromatic, used in medicine.
Branches: usually horizontally spreading and upcurved at tips. Flowers:
greenish yellow, small, in dense heads surrounded by 4 large, white,
notched, petal-like bracts; in March and April. Fruit: dense clusters of
glossy, scarlet, oval berries, about ½ inch long. Wood: heavy, hard,
strong, very close-grained; for turnery, tool handles, forms for
metal-spinners for which last it is sold by the pound.

271. DWARF or ROUGH-LEAF DOGWOOD (_Cornus asperifolia_ Michx.) a large
shrub, or rarely a small tree, common and widespread, preferring
lowlands. Leaves: simple, opposite, nearly entire, rough above, paler
and downy beneath, 2 to 4 inches long, ovate or oblong. Twigs: bright
red in winter, rough or with whitish pubescence. Bark: thin, narrowly
ridged, with close, dark red-brown scales. Flowers: small, white, in
flat-topped clusters, in April or May following black haw flowers which
they resemble. Fruit: small, white, on reddish stems, ripe late summer
and fall. Wood: heavy, hard, strong, fine-grained; adapted for turnery.

    [Illustration: 271 dwarf dogwood]


                            SAPODILLA FAMILY

272. WOOLY BUMELIA, CHITTAM WOOD, or GUM ELASTIC (_Bumelia lanuginosa_
Pers.) a common tree of widespread and varied habitat. Leaves: mostly
blunt at apex, entire, 1 to 2½ inches long, dark and smooth above,
whitish or sometimes rusty, wooly beneath, especially when young;
tardily deciduous. Twigs: with small, scattered spines usually tipping
the smallest twigs. Flowers: in July, whitish, inconspicuous. Fruit:
ripe Sept. and Oct., oval, black, few or solitary; sweetish, with a
single, dark brown, shining seed about ¼ inch across. Wood: hard, heavy,
tough, smooth-grained.


                              EBONY FAMILY

273. PERSIMMON (_Diospyros virginiana_ L.) a common small or rarely
large tree, on dry, open ground, old fields or sometimes rich bottom
lands. Leaves: ovate, entire, 4 to 6 inches long, dark and shining
above, paler beneath. Twigs: slender, light brown or ashy gray, with a
thick pith cavity. Bark: dark, divided into nearly square blocks.
Flowers: dioecious, pistillate solitary bell-shaped about ¾ inch deep
and ½ inch wide; staminate shorter and tubular clustered in 2’s or 3’s;
both creamy colored, opening in May. Fruit: soft, round, orange-brown,
about 1 to 2 inches across, containing many large, flat, smooth seeds;
edible, ripe in fall and winter, whenever the calyx separates readily
from the fruit. Wood: hard, dense, strong; brown or black heartwood,
wide sapwood white or yellowish; used for shuttles, golf-stick heads,
but not commercially valuable.


                              OLIVE FAMILY

274. WHITE ASH (_Fraxinus americana_ L.) a common, rather large tree of
widespread and various habitat. Leaves: opposite, pinnately compound, 5
to 9 but usually 7 leaflets, entire or with obscure or rounded teeth, 3
to 5 inches long and 1½ to 3 wide, dark green above and paler beneath.
Twigs: stout, gray or light brown in winter, with large, roundish
leaf-scars concave or notched on upper side. Bark: dark brown or gray,
broken by many narrow fissures. Flowers: dioecious, the staminate
clusters often mistaken for seeds when they harden and cling through
winter, a condition caused by the sting of an insect mite. Fruit: nearly
cylindrical seed with a thin wing attached, oar-shaped, 1 to 2½ inches
long, in dense clusters. Wood: heavy, hard, tough, strong, brown;
valuable for tool handles, oars, furniture and interiors; valued as a
shade tree.

275. GREEN ASH (_Fraxinus pennsylvanica_ var. _lanceolata_ Sarge.)
prefers bottom lands. Leaves: differ from white ash in the leaf color
which is light or bright green on both sides, margins more sharply
serrate and serrations extending nearly to the base, leaflets narrower.
Fruit: wings extend more than half way along two sides of the seed
portion. Twigs: leaf-scar straight or nearly so on upper side. Since
this tree often hybridizes with the white ash, the species are sometimes
hard to distinguish.

276. SPRING HERALD (_Adelia pubescens_ Nutt.) spring goldenglow, or
devil’s elbow; an abundant shrub of medium height, widespread but
preferring upland woods. Leaves: simple, opposite, ¾ to 1½ inches long,
blunt, with fine, rounded teeth. Twigs: light, gray, zigzag or tangled.
Flowers: dioecious, very early, petal-less, clusters of stamens pale
yellow, pistillate flowers greenish. Fruit: oval, bluish, ripen and fall
early in summer. These bushes make dense cover for birds and small
animals. It is always distinguishable from swamp holly by its opposite
twigs. K (p. 287).

    [Illustration: 276 spring herald]

277. SWAMP PRIVET (_Adelia acuminata_ Poir.) a tall shrub or rarely a
small tree growing only in low or swampy woods where fairly common.
Leaves: opposite, usually 1½ to 3 inches long and about an inch wide,
margins entire or finely serrate, tips acuminate. Twigs and BARK: dark,
rather smooth with light dots. Flowers: similar to spring herald. Fruit:
elongated, usually tapering.

    [Illustration: 277 swamp privet]


                             VERVAIN FAMILY

278. FRENCH MULBERRY (_Callicarpa americana_ L.) or beautyberry: a
medium shrub fairly common in low woods especially where sandy. Leaves:
simple, opposite, coarsely toothed, 3 to 5 inches long, 1½ to 3 wide,
light green, tapering at both ends, softly fuzzy on both sides and with
tiny shining glands beneath. Twigs: with pale, rusty fuzz. Flowers: pale
pink, in dense clusters close to the branches at each pair of leaves.
Fruit: bright reddish purple, about ¼ inch across, in dense clusters 1
to 1½ inches across, surrounding the stems. Often planted for the
decorative fruits which are attractive to birds. K (p. 341).

    [Illustration: 278 French mulberry]


                            BIGNONIA FAMILY

279. CIGAR TREE (_Catalpa speciosa_ Warder.) a tree well known in
cultivation and rarely as an escape, in woods. This tree with its large,
opposite, heart-shaped LEAVES, showy white or lavender, flaring
bell-shaped FLOWERS and pencil-like PODS is too conspicuous to require a
detailed description. Wood: soft, light, coarse-grained; sometimes
planted in groves in rich soil for use as fence posts or sometimes for
railroad ties.

280. TRUMPET CREEPER (_Tecoma radicans_ L.) a rare vine growing along
fence rows and edges of woods in sandy land; common in East Texas.
Leaves: pinnately compound and opposite, of 9 to 11 leaflets, toothed,
pointed, ovate. Flowers: large, orange-red, flaring trumpet-shaped,
nearly 3 inches long. Fruit: pods 2 to 5 inches long, tapered; seeds
flat, winged, numerous.

    [Illustration: 280 trumpet creeper]

281. BUTTONBUSH (_Cephalanthus occidentalis_ L.) button willow: usually
a large shrub, fairly common in swamps or near water; often cultivated.
Leaves: simple, opposite or in whorls of 3 or more, smooth, dark green,
with a stout yellow midrib, 2 to 7 inches long, ½ to 3½ wide. Twigs:
stout, smooth, with a thick pith, pale reddish-brown and covered with a
bloom in their first winter. Bark: dark, rough, with narrow scales;
contains tannin; used in treatment of fevers. Flowers: creamy white,
fragrant, in dense balls about 1 to 1½ inches in diameter. Fruit: a dark
brownish, hard ball, remaining through the winter.


                           HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY

282. CORAL HONEYSUCKLE or TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE (_Lonicera sempervirens_
L.) an evergreen vine, rare except in cultivation; common in East Texas;
low woods and thickets. Leaves: oblong, smooth, upper pairs united or
encircling stem. Flowers: Trumpet-shaped, light red, yellowish inside, 1
to 1½ inches long, in clusters. Fruit: scarlet, fleshy.

    [Illustration: 282 coral honeysuckle]

283. BUSH HONEYSUCKLE (_Lonicera albiflora_ T. & G.) not very common; on
limestone bluffs, upland meadows and thickets. Leaves: opposite, upper
pair usually united or encircling stem, not evergreen. Stems: stiff and
upright or sometimes long and trailing, both usually to be found on one
bush; this habit is the best point of distinction between this species
and the rarer trumpet honeysuckle when there are no flowers present.
Fruit: scarlet, fleshy. Flowers: whitish or yellowish, small. K (p.
382).

    [Illustration: 283 bush honeysuckle]

284. INDIAN CURRANT (_Symphoricarpos orbiculatus_ Moench.) or
coralberry, the last name also used for other plants, locally well known
as buckbrush or partridge brush. This 1 to 3-foot shrub is abundant in
woodlands, especially in rich soil. Leaves: simple, opposite, entire or
nearly, 1 to 1½ inches long, usually blunt at tip, darker above. Twigs:
wiry, brown. Flowers: white, small, in dense clusters at leaf-axils.
Fruit: magenta red, in dense clusters encircling stems, remaining
through winter. The much smaller size of bush, leaves and fruit clusters
prevents confusion with French mulberry. B (Vol. III, p. 277).

    [Illustration: 284 Indian current]

285. BLACK HAW (_Viburnum rufidulum_ Raf.) or possum haw: a shrub or
more often a small tree; in woods, preferring lowlands. Leaves: thick,
glossy, finely serrate, about 3 inches long and half as wide; a rusty
fuzz at the base of the veins beneath; simple, opposite, red in autumn.
Twigs: sometimes coated with rusty fuzz as the buds always are. Bark:
dark reddish brown, with small, roundish scales. Flowers: late March or
early April, white, in flat clusters about 5 or 6 inches across. Fruit:
oval, about one-half inch long, blue with a bloom, containing a single
stony seed; especially attractive in autumn, turning from red to blue.
Wood: ill-scented.

    [Illustration: 285 black haw]

286. ELDERBERRY or common elder (_Sambucus canadensis_ L.) usually a
tall shrub; common in low, rich woods. Leaves: pinnately compound, of 5
to 11 oblong, or oval, smooth leaflets, 2 to 4 inches long, the lower
often 3-parted; sharply serrate, opposite. Twigs: with thin woody layer
surrounding thick white pith. Flowers: small, white, in large, compound,
flat clusters; sweet-scented. Fruit: purplish black, glossy, juicy,
popular with birds, ripe in late summer. K (p. 381).

    [Illustration: 286 elderberry]



                              BIBLIOGRAPHY


A. Blakeslee & Jarvis, “Trees in Winter,” Macmillan, 1926. Includes only
the trees found in New England, about 25 of them also here; illustrated.
Contains a good section on the care and planting of trees.

B. Britton & Brown, “Illustrated Flora of the Northern States and
Canada,” 3 vol., Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1913 edition. These volumes,
though technical, are helpful in the identification of many plants
because of the detailed line drawings which illustrate every species.

C. Brown, H. P., “Trees of Northeastern United States,” Christopher
Publishing house, 1938, second edition. Useful leaf, fruit and twig
keys.

D. Coulter, John M., “Botany of Western Texas,” the U. S. National
Herbarium, Vol. II, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C., 1894.
Obviously out of date and also out of print but describes a few species
of this region which are to be found in no other book.

E. Gray, Asa, “Gray’s New Manual of Botany,” American Book Co., 7th
edition, 1908. A technical handbook for the flowering plants and ferns
of the Central and Northeastern states and Canada. Mentioned here
because its system of classification and scientific names has been
followed, in most cases. This manual more nearly conforms to the new
international rules of classification than any other available, except
Sargent.

F. Hough, Romeyn Beck, “Handbook of the Trees of the Northern States and
Canada.” Published by the author, Lowville, N. Y., 1907. Includes many
of our trees and useful because of the detailed photographic
illustrations.

G. Mattoon & Webster, “Forest Trees of Texas,” bulletin 20, Texas Forest
Service, College Station, 1928. Contains descriptions and drawings of 92
Texas trees, about 45 of them in Dallas County. Inexpensive.

H. Parks, H. B., “Valuable Plants Native to Texas,” Bulletin 551, Texas
Agricultural Experiment Station, College Station, 1937. Notes on the
uses and habits of native plants, with special emphasis on honey plants.

I. Rogers, Julia Ellen, “The Tree Book,” Doubleday Page, 1912. Old but
still popular guide to the trees of North America, illustrated. Useful
and interesting facts about trees are here told in a most interesting
manner.

J. Sargent, Charles Sprague, “Manual of the Trees of North America,”
Houghton Mifflin, 1933. Includes complete technical descriptions of the
56 plants in this booklet which sometimes attain such height and habit
as to be called trees.

K. Schulz, Ellen D. (Quillen), “Texas Wild Flowers,” Laidlaw Bros.,
1928. Describes about 18 of the species in this booklet. One of the best
books for beginners in the study of wild flowers of our region.

L. Small, John Kunkel, “Flora of the Southeastern United States,”
published by the author, 1903. This is the only complete floral manual
ever published which includes Dallas County. Needed for identification
of a few species but the book is out-of-date in its system of
classification and also out of print. Ditto for the edition of 1913.

M. Small, John Kunkel, “Manual of the Southeastern Flora,” published by
the author, New York, 1933. Descriptions technical but helpful in the
identification of a few species not described in many other books. This
volume does not include Texas.



                                 INDEX


                                   A
  _Acer negundo_, 255
  _Adelia acuminate_, 277
  _Adelia pubescens_, 276
  _Aesculus glabra_, 258
  _Amorpha fruticosa_, 245
  _Aristolochia tomentosa_, 228
  _Ascyrum hypericoides_, 268
  ash, green, 275
  ash, prickly, 246
  ash, wafer, 247
  ash, white, 274


                                      B
  bear grass, 205
  beautyberry, 278
  beech family, 212-220
  _Berchemia scandens_, 261
  bignonia family, 279-281
  birthwort family, 228
  bois d’arc, 226
  box elder, 255
  buck-brush, 284
  buckeye, fetid, 258
      Ohio, 258
      Spanish, 256
      Texas, 256
  buckthorn, Carolina, 259
      yellow, 259
  buckthorn family, 259-261
  _Bumelia lanuginosa_, 272
  bumelia, wooly, 272
  burning bush, 254
  button willow, 281
  buttonbush, 281
  buttonwood, 231


                                      C
  cactus family, 269
  _Callicarpa americana_, 278
  Canada moonseed, 230
  Carolina moonseed, 229
      poplar, 207
  _Carya buckleyi_, 211
      _pecan_, 209
      _texana_, 210
  cashew family, 249-252
  _Catalpa speciosa_, 279
  catbrier, 204
  _Ceanothus ovatus_, 260
  cedar, mountain, 202
      red, 201
  _Celtis laevigata_, 225
      _occidentalis_ (var.), 224
  _Cephalanthus occidentalis_, 281
  _Cercis canadensis_, 241
      _reniformis_, 242
  cherry, Indian, 259
      wild black, 236
  Chinaberry, 248
      wild, 257
  chittam wood, 272
  cigar tree, 279
  _Cissus ampelopsis_, 265
      _arborea_, 263
      _incisa_, 264
  _Cocculus carolinus_, 229
  coralberry, 284
      honeysuckle, 282
      vine, 229
  _Cornus asperifolia_, 271
      _florida_, 270
  cottonwood, 207
  cow-itch vine, 264
  _Crataegus_, 232


                                      D
  devil’s elbow, 276
  dewberry, 235
  _Diospyros virginiana_, 273
  dogwood, dwarf, 271
      flowering, 270
      rough-leaved, 271
  dogwood family, 270-271
  Dutchman’s pipe, 228


                                      E
  ebony family, 273
  elder, 286
      box, 255
  elderberry, 286
  elm, American, 221
      cedar, 222
      red, 220
      slippery, 220
      white, 221
      winged, 223
  Eve’s necklace, 244
  _Evonymus atropurpureus_, 254


                                      F
  false indigo, 245
  _Fraxinus americana_, 274
      _pennsylvanica_ (var.), 275
  French mulberry, 278


                                      G
  _Gleditsia triacanthos_, 243
  grape, mustang, 266
      summer, 267
  grape family, 262-267
  greenbrier, 204
  gum elastic, 272


                                      H
  hackberry, rough-leaved, 224
      southern, 225
  haw, black, 285
      possum, 253, 285
      red, 232
  hawthorn, 232
  hickory, 211
  holly, swamp, 253
  holly family, 253
  honey locust, 243
  honeysuckle, bush, 283
      coral, 282
  honeysuckle family, 282-286
  hop tree, 247
  horse-apple, 226


                                      I
  _Ilex decidua_, 253
  Indian cherry, 259
  Indian currant, 284
  indigo, false, 245
  ivy, poison, 251


                                      J
  _Juglans nigra_, 208
  _Juniperus mexicana_, 202
      _virginiana_, 201


                                      L
  lily family, 204-205
  locust, honey, 243
      river, 245
  _Lonicera albiflora_, 283
      _sempervirens_, 282


                                      M
  _Maclura pomifera_, 226
  mahogany family, 248
  maple family, 255
  _Melia azederach_, 248
  _Menispermum canadense_, 230
  mesquite, 240
  moonseed family, 229-230
  _Morus rubra_, 227
  mulberry, French, 278
      red, 227
  mustang grape, 266


                                      N
  necklace, Eve’s, 244
  nettle family, 220-227
  New Jersey tea, 260


                                      O
  oak, basket, 215
      black jack, 218
      bur, 214
      chestnut, 216
      chinquapin, 216
      cow, 215
      duck, 217
      dwarf post, 213
      mossy cup, 214
      pin, 217
      poison, 251
      post, 212
      red, 219
      scrub, 213
      Spanish, 219
      swamp chestnut, 215
      Texas red, 219
      water, 217
  olive family, 274-277
  _Opuntia_ sp., 269
  Osage orange, 226


                                      P
  palm family, 203
  palmetto, dwarf, 203
  _Parthenocissus_, 262
  Partridge brush, 284
  pea family, 240-244
  peach, 239
  pecan, 209
  pecan, bitter, 210
  pepper vine, 263
  persimmon, 273
  pine family, 201-202
  pipevine, wooly, 228
  plane tree family, 231
  _Platanus occidentalis_, 231
  plum, dwarf, 238
      Mexican, 237
      wild, 237
  poison ivy, 251
      oak, 251
  poplar, Carolina, 207
  _Populus deltoides_ (var.), 207
  possum haw, 253, 285
  prickly ash, 246
  prickly pear cactus, 269
  privet, swamp, 277
  _Prosopis glandulosa_, 240
  _Prunus angustifolia_ (var.), 238
      _mexicana_, 237
      _persica_, 239
      _serotina_, 236
  _Psedera quinquefolia_, 262
  _Ptelea trifoliata_, 247


                                      Q
  _Quercus macrocarpa_, 214
      _marilandica_, 218
      _muehlenbergii_, 216
      _nigra_, 217
      _prinus_, 215
      _rubra_, 219
      _Shumardii_ (var.), 219
      _stellata_, 221 and var., 213
      _texana_, 219


                                      R
  rattan vine, 261
  redbud, 241, 241
  red-root, 260
  red haw, 232
  _Rhamnus caroliniana_, 259
  _Rhus copallina_, 250
      _glabra_, 249
      _toxicodendron_, 251
      _trilobata_ (var.), 252
  river locust, 245
  _Rosa foliosa_ (_foliolosa_), 234
      _setigera_, 233
  rose, pasture, 234
      prairie, 233
  rose family, 232-239
  _Rubus trivialis_, 235
  rue family, 246-247


                                      S
  _Sabal minor_, 203
  St. Andrew’s cross, 268
  St. John’swort family, 268
  _Salix nigra_, 206
  _Sambucus canadensis_, 286
  _Sapindus drummondii_, 257
  sapodilla family, 272
  sarsaparilla, wild, 229
  sawbrier, 204
  skunkbush, 252
  _Smilax_, 204
  soapberry, 257
      family, 256-258
  _Sophora affinis_, 244
  Spanish buckeye, 256
      dagger, 205
  spring goldenglow, 276
      herald, 276
  staff-tree family, 254
  stretchberry, 204
  sumac, aromatic, 252
      dwarf, 251
      ill-scented, 251
      smooth, 249
      winged, 250
  supplejack, 261
  swamp holly, 253
      privet, 277
  sycamore, 231
  _Symphoricarpos_, 284


                                      T
  tear-blanket, 246
  _Tecoma radicans_, 280
  Texas buckeye, 256
  toothache tree, 246
  trumpet creeper, 280
      honeysuckle, 282


                                      U
  _Ulmus americana_, 221
      _alata_, 223
      _crassifolia_, 222
      _fulva_, 220
  _Ungnadia speciosa_, 256


                                      V
  vervain family, 278
  _Viburnum rufidulum_, 285
  vine family, 262-267
  Virginia creeper, 262
  _Vitis candicans_, 266
      sp., 267


                                      W
  waahoo, 254
  wafer ash, 247
  walnut, black, 208
  walnut family, 208-210
  willow, 206
      family, 206-207
  woodbine, 262


                                      X
  _Xanthoxylum clava-herculis_, 246


                                      Y
  _Yucca_, 205

    [Illustration: Cover image]



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Silently corrected a few typos.

—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.

—Included species drawings with each species (the printed edition
  included all drawings in a single section.)





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