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Title: Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of Francis Parkman
Author: Parkman, Francis
Language: English
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WORKS OF

FRANCIS PARKMAN


CONTENTS

##  THE CONSPIRACY OF PONTIAC
##  PART 1, FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA SERIES
PIONEERS OF FRANCE IN THE NEW WORLD
##  PART 2, FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA SERIES
THE JESUITS IN NORTH AMERICA IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
##  PART 3, FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA SERIES
LA SALLE AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE GREAT WEST
##  PART 4, FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA SERIES
THE OLD REGIME IN CANADA
##  PART 5, FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA SERIES
COUNT FRONTENAC AND NEW FRANCE UNDER LOUIS XIV
##  PART 6, V1 FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA SERIES
HALF-CENTURY OF CONFLICT, VOLUME ONE (OF TWO)
##  PART 6, V2 FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA SERIES
A HALF-CENTURY OF CONFLICT, VOL II. (of II)
##  PART 7, FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA SERIES
MONTCALM AND WOLFE
##  HISTORIC HANDBOOK OF THE NORTHERN TOUR
##  THE OREGON TRAIL
##  VASSALL MORTON
##  THE BOOK OF ROSES



TABLES OF CONTENTS OF VOLUMES



THE CONSPIRACY OF PONTIAC AND THE INDIAN WAR
AFTER THE CONQUEST OF CANADA
Volume. I.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I.
Introductory.—Indian Tribes East of the Mississippi.
General Characteristics.—Tribal Divisions.—Mode of Government.—Social Harmony.—The Totem.—Classification of Tribes.—The Iroquois.—Their Position and Character.—Their Political Organization.—Traditions of their Confederacy.—Their Myths and Legends.—Their Eloquence and Sagacity.—Arts.—Agriculture.—Their Dwellings, Villages, and Forts.—Their Winter Life.—The War Path.—Festivals and Pastimes.—Pride of the Iroquois.—The Hurons or Wyandots.—Their Customs and Character.—Their Dispersion.—The Neutral Nation. Its Fate.—The Eries and Andastes.—Triumphs of the Confederacy.—The Adoption of Prisoners.—The Tuscaroras.—Superiority of the Iroquois Race.—The Algonquins.—The Lenni Lenape.—Their changing Fortunes.—The Shawanoes.—The Miamis and the Illinois.—The Ojibwas, Pottawattamies, and Ottawas.—The Sacs and Foxes.—The Menomonies and Knisteneaux.—Customs of the Northern Algonquins.—Their Summer and Winter Life.—Legends of the Algonquins.—Religious Faith of the Indians.—The Indian Character.—Its Inconsistencies.—Its Ruling Passions.—Pride.—Hero-worship.—Coldness, Jealousy, Suspicion.—Self-control.—Intellectual Traits.—Inflexibility.—Generous Qualities. 15
CHAPTER II.
1663-1763.
France and England in America.
Contrast of French and English Colonies.—Feudalism in Canada.—Priests and Monks.—Puritanism and Democracy in New England.—French Life in Canada.—Military Strength of Canada.—Religious Zeal.—Missions.—The Jesuits.—Brebeuf and Lallemant.—Martyrdom of Jogues.—Results of the Missions.—French Explorers.—La Salle.—His Plan of Discovery.—His Sufferings.—His Heroism.—He discovers the Mouth of the Mississippi.—Louisiana.—France in the West.—Growth of English Colonies.—Approaching Collision. 46
CHAPTER III.
1608-1763.
The French, the English, and the Indians.
Champlain defeats the Iroquois.—The Iroquois Wars.—Misery of Canada.—Expedition of Frontenac.—Success of the French.—French Influence in the West.—La Verandrye.—The English Fur-trade.—Protestant and Romish Missions.—The English and the Iroquois.—Policy of the French.—The Frenchman in the Wigwam.—Coureurs des Bois.—The White Savage.—The English Fur-trader.—William Penn and his Eulogists.—The Indians and the Quakers.—Injustice of Penn's Successors.—The Walking Purchase.—Speech of Canassatego.—Removal of the Delawares.—Intrusion of Settlers.—Success of French Intrigues.—Father Picquet.—Sir William Johnson.—Position of Parties. 59
CHAPTER IV.
1700-1755.
Collision of the Rival Colonies.
The Puritan and the Canadian.—Fort Frederic.—Acadia.—The French on the Ohio.—Mission of Washington.—Trent driven from the Ohio.—Death of Jumonville.—Skirmish at the Great Meadows.—Alarm of the Indians.—Congress at Albany.—French and English Diplomacy.—Braddock and Dieskau.—Naval Engagement.—The War in Europe and America.—Braddock in Virginia.—March of his Army.—Beaujeu at Fort du Quesne.—Ambuscade at the Monongahela.—Rout of Braddock.—Its Consequences.—Acadia, Niagara, and Crown Point.—Battle of Lake George.—Prosecution of the War.—Oswego.—Fort William Henry.—Storming of Ticonderoga.—State of Canada.—Plans for its Reduction.—Progress of the English Arms.—Wolfe before Quebec.—Assault at Montmorenci.—Heroism of Wolfe.—The Heights of Abraham.—Battle of Quebec.—Death of Wolfe.—Death of Montcalm.—Surrender of Quebec.—Fall of Canada. 79
CHAPTER V.
1755-1763.
The Wilderness and Its Tenants at the Close Of The French War.
Sufferings of the Frontier.—Treaties with the Western Tribes.—Christian Frederic Post.—The Iroquois.—The remote Tribes.—The Forest.—Indian Population.—Condition of the Tribes.—Onondaga.—The Delawares and neighboring Tribes.—Their Habits and Condition.—The Shawanoes, Miamis, Illinois, and Wyandots.—English Settlements.—Forest Thoroughfares.—Fur-traders.—Their Habits and Character.—The Forest Traveller.—The French at the Illinois.—Military Life in the Forest.—The Savage and the European.—Hunters and Trappers.—Civilization and Barbarism. 111
CHAPTER VI.
1760.
The English take Possession of the Western Posts.
The victorious Armies at Montreal.—Major Robert Rogers.—His Expedition up the Lakes.—His Meeting with Pontiac.—Ambitious Views of Pontiac.—He befriends the English.—The English take Possession of Detroit.—Of other French Posts.—British Power Predominant in the West. 124
CHAPTER VII.
1760-1763.
Anger of the Indians.—The Conspiracy.
Discontent of the Tribes.—Impolitic Course of the English.—Disorders of the Fur-trade.—Military Insolence.—Intrusion of Settlers.—French Intrigue.—The Delaware Prophet.—An abortive Plot.—Pontiac's Conspiracy.—Character of Pontiac.—Gloomy Prospects of the Indian Race.—Designs of Pontiac.—His War Messengers.—Tribes engaged in the Conspiracy.—Dissimulation of the Indians.—The War-belt among the Miamis. 131
CHAPTER VIII.
1763.
Indian Preparation.
The Indians as a military People.—Their inefficient Organization.—Their insubordinate Spirit.—Their Improvidence.—Policy of the Indian Leaders.—Difficulties of Forest Warfare.—Defenceless Condition of the Colonies.—The Peace of Paris.—Royal Proclamation.—The War-chief. His Fasts and Vigils.—The War-feast.—The War-dance.—Departure of the Warriors.—The Bursting of the Storm. 145
CHAPTER IX.
1763, April.
The Council at the River Ecorces.
Pontiac musters his Warriors.—They assemble at the River Ecorces.—The Council.—Speech of Pontiac.—Allegory of the Delaware.—The Council dissolves.—Calumet Dance at Detroit.—Plan to surprise the Garrison. 151
CHAPTER X.
1763, May.
Detroit.
Strange Phenomenon.—Origin and History of Detroit.—Its Condition in 1763.—Character of its Inhabitants.—French Life at Detroit.—The Fort and Garrison.—Pontiac at Isle à la Pêche.—Suspicious Conduct of the Indians.—Catharine, the Ojibwa Girl.—She reveals the Plot.—Precautions of the Commandant.—A Night of Anxiety. 159
CHAPTER XI.
1763.
Treachery of Pontiac.
The Morning of the Council.—Pontiac enters the Port.—Address and Courage of the Commandant.—The Plot defeated.—The Chiefs suffered to escape.—Indian Idea of Honor.—Pontiac again visits the Fort.—False Alarm.—Pontiac throws off the Mask.—Ferocity of his Warriors.—The Ottawas cross the River.—Fate of Davers and Robertson.—General Attack.—A Truce.—Major Campbell's Embassy.—He is made Prisoner by Pontiac. 169
CHAPTER XII.
1763.
Pontiac at the Siege of Detroit.
The Christian Wyandots join Pontiac.—Peril of the Garrison.—Indian Courage—The English threatened with Famine.—Pontiac's Council with the French.—His Speech.—He exacts Provision from the French.—He appoints Commissaries.—He issues Promissory Notes.—His Acuteness and Sagacity.—His Authority over his Followers.—His Magnanimity. 183
CHAPTER XIII.
1763.
Rout of Cuyler's Detachment.—Fate of the Forest Garrisons.
Re-enforcement sent to Detroit.—Attack on the Schooner.—Relief at Hand.—Disappointment of the Garrison.—Escape of Prisoners.—Cuyler's Defeat.—Indian Debauch.—Fate of the Captives.—Capture of Fort Sandusky.—Strength of the Besiegers.—Capture of Fort St. Joseph.—Capture of Fort Michillimackinac.—Capture of Fort Ouatanon.—Capture of Fort Miami.—Defence of Fort Presqu' Isle.—Its Capture. 195
CHAPTER XIV.
1763.
The Indians continue to blockade Detroit.
Attack on the Armed Vessel.—News of the Treaty of Paris.—Pontiac summons the Garrison.—Council at the Ottawa Camp.—Disappointment of Pontiac.—He is joined by the Coureurs de Bois.—Sortie of the Garrison.—Death of Major Campbell.—Attack on Pontiac's Camp.—Fire Rafts.—The Wyandots and Pottawattamies beg for Peace. 214
CHAPTER XV.
1763.
The Fight of Bloody Bridge.
Dalzell's Detachment.—Dalzell reaches Detroit.—Stratagem of the Wyandots.—Night Attack on Pontiac's Camp.—Indian Ambuscade.—Retreat of the English.—Terror of Dalzell's Troops.—Death of Dalzell.—Defence of Campau's House.—Grant conducts the Retreat.—Exultation of the Indians.—Defence of the Schooner Gladwyn. 226
CHAPTER XVI.
1763.
Michillimackinac.
The Voyager on the Lakes.—Michillimackinac in 1763.—Green Bay and Ste. Marie.—The Northern Wilderness.—Tribes of the Lakes.—Adventures of a Trader.—Speech of Minavavana.—Arrival of English Troops.—Disposition of the Indians.—The Ojibwa War-chief.—Ambassador from Pontiac.—Sinister Designs of the Ojibwas.—Warnings of Danger.—Wawatam.—Eve of the Massacre. 238
CHAPTER XVII.
1763.
The Massacre.
The King's Birthday.—Heedlessness of the Garrison.—Indian Ball-play.—The Stratagem.—Slaughter of the Soldiers.—Escape of Alexander Henry.—His appalling Situation.—His Hiding-place discovered.—Survivors of the Massacre.—Plan of retaking the Fort.—Adventures of Henry.—Unexpected Behavior of the Ottawas.—They take Possession of the Fort.—Their Council with the Ojibwas.—Henry and his Fellow-prisoners.—He is rescued by Wawatam.—Cannibalism.—Panic among the Conquerors.—They retire to Mackinaw.—The Island of Mackinaw.—Indian Carouse.—Famine among the Indians.—They disperse to their Wintering Grounds.—Green Bay. The neighboring Tribes.—Gorell. His Address and Prudence.—He conciliates the Indians.—He abandons Green Bay.—The English driven from the Upper Lakes. 249
List of Illustrations.
Forts and Settlements in America, 1763 A. D. 	12
Fort and Settlements of Detroit, A. D. 1763. 	161



FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA—PART FIRST
PIONEERS OF FRANCE IN THE NEW WORLD
By Francis Parkman

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION.
Part One
PREFATORY NOTE TO THE HUGUENOTS IN FLORIDA.
CHAPTER I. 	1512-1561.--EARLY SPANISH ADVENTURE.
CHAPTER II 	1550-1558--VILLEGAGNON.
CHAPTER III. 	1562-1563--JEAN RIBAUT.
CHAPTER IV. 	1564--LAUDONNIERE.
CHAPTER V. 	1564-1565--CONSPIRACY.
CHAPTER VI. 	1564-1565--FAMINE. WAR. SUCCOR.
CHAPTER VII. 	1565--MENENDEZ.
CHAPTER VIII 	1565--MASSACRE OF THE HERETICS.
CHAPTER IX. 	1565-1567--CHARLES IX. AND PHILLIP II.
CHAPTER X. 	1567-1583--DOMINIQUE DE GOURGUES.


Part 2
SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN.
CHAPTER I. 	1488-1543--EARLY FRENCH ADVENTURE IN NORTH AMERICA.
CHAPTER II. 	1542-1604--LA ROCHE.-CHAMPLAIN.-DE MONTS.
CHAPTER III. 	1604-1605--ACADIA OCCUPIED.
CHAPTER IV. 	1605-1607--LESCARBOT AND CHAMPLAIN.
CHAPTER V. 	1610-1611--THE JESUITS AND THEIR PATRONESS.
CHAPTER VI. 	1611-1612--JESUITS IN ACADIA.
CHAPTER VII. 	1613--LA SAUSSAYE.-ARGALL
CHAPTER VIII. 	1613-1615--RUIN OF FRENCH ACADIA.
CHAPTER IX. 	1608-1609--CHAMPLAIN AT QUEBEC.
CHAPTER X. 	1609--LAKE CHAMPLAIN.
CHAPTER XI. 	1610-1612--WAR.-TRADE.-DISCOVERY.
CHAPTER XII. 	1612-1613--THE IMPOSTOR VIGNAU.
CHAPTER XIII. 	1615--DISCOVERY OF LAKE HURON.
CHAPTER XIV. 	1615-1616--THE GREAT WAR PARTY.
CHAPTER XV. 	1616-1627--HOSTILE SECTS.-RIVAL INTERESTS.
CHAPTER XVI. 	1628-1629--THE ENGLISH AT QUEBEC.
CHAPTER XVII. 	1632-1635--DEATH OF CHAMPLAIN.
END NOTES:



FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA SERIES, PART SECOND
THE JESUITS IN NORTH AMERICA IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
by Francis Parkman



CONTENTS

PREFACE.

INTRODUCTION.

NATIVE TRIBES.

Divisions • The Algonquins • The Hurons • Their Houses • Fortifications • Habits • Arts • Women • Trade • Festivities • Medicine • The Tobacco Nation • The Neutrals • The Eries • The Andastes • The Iroquois • Indian Social and Political Organization • Iroquois Institutions, Customs, and Character • Indian Religion and Superstitions • The Indian Mind

CHAPTER I. 1634.

NOTRE-DAME DES ANGES.

Quebec in 1634 • Father Le Jeune • The Mission-House • Its Domestic Economy • The Jesuits and their Designs

CHAPTER II.

LOYOLA AND THE JESUITS.

Conversion of Loyola • Foundation of the Society of Jesus • Preparation of the Novice • Characteristics of the Order • The Canadian Jesuits

CHAPTER III. 1632, 1633.

PAUL LE JEUNE.

Le Jeune's Voyage • His First Pupils • His Studies • His Indian Teacher • Winter at the Mission-House • Le Jeune's School • Reinforcements

x CHAPTER IV. 1633, 1634.

LE JEUNE AND THE HUNTERS.

Le Jeune joins the Indians • The First Encampment • The Apostate • Forest Life in Winter • The Indian Hut • The Sorcerer • His Persecution of the Priest • Evil Company • Magic • Incantations • Christmas • Starvation • Hopes of Conversion • Backsliding • Peril and Escape of Le Jeune • His Return

CHAPTER V. 1633, 1634.

THE HURON MISSION.

Plans of Conversion • Aims and Motives • Indian Diplomacy • Hurons at Quebec • Councils • The Jesuit Chapel • Le Borgne • The Jesuits Thwarted • Their Perseverance • The Journey to the Hurons • Jean de Brébeuf • The Mission Begun

CHAPTER VI. 1634, 1635.

BRÉBEUF AND HIS ASSOCIATES.

The Huron Mission-House • Its Inmates • Its Furniture • Its Guests • The Jesuit as a Teacher • As an Engineer • Baptisms • Huron Village Life • Festivities and Sorceries • The Dream Feast • The Priests accused of Magic • The Drought and the Red Cross

CHAPTER VII. 1636, 1637.

THE FEAST OF THE DEAD.

Huron Graves • Preparation for the Ceremony • Disinterment • The Mourning • The Funeral March • The Great Sepulchre • Funeral Games • Encampment of the Mourners • Gifts • Harangues • Frenzy of the Crowd • The Closing Scene • Another Rite • The Captive Iroquois • The Sacrifice.

xi CHAPTER VIII. 1636, 1637.

THE HURON AND THE JESUIT.

Enthusiasm for the Mission • Sickness of the Priests • The Pest among the Hurons • The Jesuit on his Rounds • Efforts at Conversion • Priests and Sorcerers • The Man-Devil • The Magician's Prescription • Indian Doctors and Patients • Covert Baptisms • Self-Devotion of the Jesuits

CHAPTER IX. 1637.

CHARACTER OF THE CANADIAN JESUITS.

Jean de Brébeuf • Charles Garnier • Joseph Marie Chaumonot • Noël Chabanel • Isaac Jogues • Other Jesuits • Nature of their Faith • Supernaturalism • Visions • Miracles

CHAPTER X. 1637-1640.

PERSECUTION.

Ossossané • The New Chapel • A Triumph of the Faith • The Nether Powers • Signs of a Tempest • Slanders • Rage against the Jesuits • Their Boldness and Persistency • Nocturnal Council • Danger of the Priests • Brébeuf's Letter • Narrow Escapes • Woes and Consolations

CHAPTER XI. 1638-1640.

PRIEST AND PAGAN.

Du Peron's Journey • Daily Life of the Jesuits • Their Missionary Excursions • Converts at Ossossané • Machinery of Conversion • Conditions of Baptism • Backsliders • The Converts and their Countrymen • The Cannibals at St. Joseph

xii CHAPTER XII. 1639, 1640.

THE TOBACCO NATION—THE NEUTRALS.

A Change of Plan • Sainte Marie • Mission of the Tobacco Nation • Winter Journeying • Reception of the Missionaries • Superstitious Terrors • Peril of Garnier and Jogues • Mission of the Neutrals • Huron Intrigues • Miracles • Fury of the Indians • Intervention of Saint Michael • Return to Sainte Marie • Intrepidity of the Priests • Their Mental Exaltation

CHAPTER XIII. 1636-1646.

QUEBEC AND ITS TENANTS.

The New Governor • Edifying Examples • Le Jeune's Correspondents • Rank and Devotion • Nuns • Priestly Authority • Condition of Quebec • The Hundred Associates • Church Discipline • Plays • Fireworks • Processions • Catechizing • Terrorism • Pictures • The Converts • The Society of Jesus • The Foresters

CHAPTER XIV. 1636-1652.

DEVOTEES AND NUNS.

The Huron Seminary • Madame de la Peltrie • Her Pious Schemes • Her Sham Marriage • She visits the Ursulines of Tours • Marie de Saint Bernard • Marie de l'Incarnation • Her Enthusiasm • Her Mystical Marriage • Her Dejection • Her Mental Conflicts • Her Vision • Made Superior of the Ursulines • The Hôtel-Dieu • The Voyage to Canada • Sillery • Labors and Sufferings of the Nuns • Character of Marie de l'Incarnation • Of Madame de la Peltrie

CHAPTER XV. 1636-1642.

VILLEMARIE DE MONTREAL.

Dauversiére and the Voice from Heaven • Abbé Olier • Their Schemes • The Society of Notre-Dame de Montreal • Maisonneuve • xiii Devout Ladies • Mademoiselle Mance • Marguerite Bourgeoys • The Montrealists at Quebec • Jealousy • Quarrels • Romance and Devotion • Embarkation • Foundation of Montreal

CHAPTER XVI. 1641-1644.

ISAAC JOGUES.

The Iroquois War • Jogues • His Capture • His Journey to the Mohawks • Lake George • The Mohawk Towns • The Missionary Tortured • Death of Goupil • Misery of Jogues • The Mohawk "Babylon" • Fort Orange • Escape of Jogues • Manhattan • The Voyage to France • Jogues among his Brethren • He returns to Canada

CHAPTER XVII. 1641-1646.

THE IROQUOIS—BRESSANI—DE NOUË.

War • Distress and Terror • Richelieu • Battle • Ruin of Indian Tribes • Mutual Destruction • Iroquois and Algonquin • Atrocities • Frightful Position of the French • Joseph Bressani • His Capture • His Treatment • His Escape • Anne de Nouë • His Nocturnal Journey • His Death

CHAPTER XVIII. 1642-1644.

VILLEMARIE.

Infancy of Montreal • The Flood • Vow of Maisonneuve • Pilgrimage • D'Ailleboust • The Hôtel-Dieu • Piety • Propagandism • War • Hurons and Iroquois • Dogs • Sally of the French • Battle • Exploit of Maisonneuve

CHAPTER XIX. 1644, 1645.

PEACE.

Iroquois Prisoners • Piskaret • His Exploits • More Prisoners • Iroquois Embassy • The Orator • The Great Council • Speeches of Kiotsaton • Muster of Savages • Peace Confirmed

xiv CHAPTER XX. 1645, 1646.

THE PEACE BROKEN.

Uncertainties • The Mission of Jogues • He reaches the Mohawks • His Reception • His Return • His Second Mission • Warnings of Danger • Rage of the Mohawks • Murder of Jogues

CHAPTER XXI. 1646, 1647.

ANOTHER WAR.

Mohawk Inroads • The Hunters of Men • The Captive Converts • The Escape of Marie • Her Story • The Algonquin Prisoner's Revenge • Her Flight • Terror of the Colonists • Jesuit Intrepidity

CHAPTER XXII. 1645-1651.

PRIEST AND PURITAN.

Miscou • Tadoussac • Journeys of De Quen • Druilletes • His Winter with the Montagnais • Influence of the Missions • The Abenaquis • Druilletes on the Kennebec • His Embassy to Boston • Gibbons • Dudley • Bradford • Eliot • Endicott • French and Puritan Colonization • Failure of Druilletes's Embassy • New Regulations • New-Year's Day at Quebec.

CHAPTER XXIII. 1645-1648.

A DOOMED NATION.

Indian Infatuation • Iroquois and Huron • Huron Triumphs • The Captive Iroquois • His Ferocity and Fortitude • Partisan Exploits • Diplomacy • The Andastes • The Huron Embassy • New Negotiations • The Iroquois Ambassador • His Suicide • Iroquois Honor

xv CHAPTER XXIV. 1645-1648.

THE HURON CHURCH.

Hopes of the Mission • Christian and Heathen • Body and Soul • Position of Proselytes • The Huron Girl's Visit to Heaven • A Crisis • Huron Justice • Murder and Atonement • Hopes and Fears

CHAPTER XXV. 1648, 1649.

SAINTE MARIE.

The Centre of the Missions • Fort • Convent • Hospital • Caravansary • Church • The Inmates of Sainte Marie • Domestic Economy • Missions • A Meeting of Jesuits • The Dead Missionary

CHAPTER XXVI. 1648.

ANTOINE DANIEL.

Huron Traders • Battle at Three Rivers • St. Joseph • Onset of the Iroquois • Death of Daniel • The Town Destroyed

CHAPTER XXVII. 1649.

RUIN OF THE HURONS.

St. Louis on Fire • Invasion • St. Ignace captured • Brébeuf and Lalemant • Battle at St. Louis • Sainte Marie threatened • Renewed Fighting • Desperate Conflict • A Night of Suspense • Panic among the Victors • Burning of St. Ignace • Retreat of the Iroquois

CHAPTER XXVIII. 1649.

THE MARTYRS.

The Ruins of St. Ignace • The Relics found • Brébeuf at the Stake • His Unconquerable Fortitude • Lalemant • Renegade xvi Hurons • Iroquois Atrocities • Death of Brébeuf • His Character • Death of Lalemant

CHAPTER XXIX. 1649, 1650.

THE SANCTUARY.

Dispersion of the Hurons • Sainte Marie abandoned • Isle St. Joseph • Removal of the Mission • The New Fort • Misery of the Hurons • Famine • Epidemic • Employments of the Jesuits

CHAPTER XXX. 1649.

GARNIER—CHABANEL.

The Tobacco Missions • St. Jean attacked • Death of Garnier • The Journey of Chabanel • His Death • Garreau and Grelon.

CHAPTER XXXI. 1650-1652.

THE HURON MISSION ABANDONED.

Famine and the Tomahawk • A New Asylum • Voyage of the Refugees to Quebec • Meeting with Bressani • Desperate Courage of the Iroquois • Inroads and Battles • Death of Buteux

CHAPTER XXXII. 1650-1866.

THE LAST OF THE HURONS.

Fate of the Vanquished • The Refugees of St. Jean Baptiste and St. Michel • The Tobacco Nation and its Wanderings • The Modern Wyandots • The Biter Bit • The Hurons at Quebec • Notre-Dame de Lorette.

xvii CHAPTER XXXIII. 1650-1670.

THE DESTROYERS.

Iroquois Ambition • Its Victims • The Fate of the Neutrals • The Fate of the Eries • The War with the Andastes • Supremacy of the Iroquois

CHAPTER XXXIV.

THE END.

Failure of the Jesuits • What their Success would have involved • Future of the Mission

INDEX.

APPENDIX.



FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA, PART THIRD.
LA SALLE AND THE DISCOVERY OF THE GREAT WEST
By Francis Parkman
CONTENTS
  		Page
  	INTRODUCTION 	3

  	CHAPTER I.
1643-1669.
CAVELIER DE LA SALLE.

The Youth of La Salle: his Connection with the Jesuits; he goes to Canada; his Character; his Schemes; his Seigniory at La Chine; his Expedition in Search of a Western Passage to India.
	7

  	CHAPTER II.
1669-1671.
LA SALLE AND THE SULPITIANS.

The French in Western New York.—Louis Joliet.—The Sulpitians on Lake Erie; at Detroit; at Saut Ste. Marie.—The Mystery of La Salle: he discovers the Ohio; he descends the Illinois; did he reach the Mississippi?
	19

  	CHAPTER III.
1670-1672
THE JESUITS ON THE LAKE.

The Old Missions and the New.—A Change of Spirit.—Lake Superior and the Copper-mines.—Ste. Marie.—LaPointe.— Michilimackinac.— Jesuits on Lake Michigan.—Allouez and Dablon.—The Jesuit Fur-trade.
	36

  	CHAPTER IV. [Pg xvi]
1667-1672.
FRANCE TAKES POSSESSION OF THE WEST.

Talon.—Saint-Lusson.—Perrot.—The Ceremony at Saut Ste. Marie.—The Speech of Allouez.—Count Frontenac.
	48

  	CHAPTER V.
1672-1675.
THE DISCOVERY OF THE MISSISSIPPI.

Joliet sent to find the Mississippi.—Jacques Marquette.—Departure.— Green Bay.—The Wisconsin.—The Mississippi.—Indians.—Manitous.— The Arkansas.—The Illinois.—Joliet's Misfortune.—Marquette at Chicago: his Illness; his Death.
	57

  	CHAPTER VI.
1673-1678.
LA SALLE AND FRONTENAC.

Objects of La Salle.—Frontenac favors him.—Projects of Frontenac.—Cataraqui.—Frontenac on Lake Ontario.—Fort Frontenac.—La Salle and Fénelon.—Success of La Salle: his Enemies.
	83

  	CHAPTER VII.
1678.
PARTY STRIFE.

La Salle and his Reporter.—Jesuit Ascendency.—The Missions and the Fur-trade.—Female Inquisitors.—Plots against La Salle: his Brother the Priest.—Intrigues of the Jesuits.—La Salle poisoned: he exculpates the Jesuits.—Renewed Intrigues.
	106

  	CHAPTER VIII. [Pg xvii]
1677, 1678.
THE GRAND ENTERPRISE.

La Salle at Fort Frontenac.—La Salle at Court: his Memorial.—Approval of the King.—Money and Means.—Henri de Tonty.—Return to Canada.
	120

  	CHAPTER IX.
1678-1679.
LA SALLE AT NIAGARA.

Father Louis Hennepin: his Past Life; his Character.—Embarkation.— Niagara Falls.—Indian Jealousy.—La Motte and the Senecas.— A Disaster.—La Salle and his Followers.
	131

  	CHAPTER X.
1679.
THE LAUNCH OF THE "GRIFFIN."

The Niagara Portage.—A Vessel on the Stocks.—Suffering and Discontent.—La Salle's Winter Journey.—The Vessel launched.— Fresh Disasters.
	144

  	CHAPTER XI.
1679.
LA SALLE ON THE UPPER LAKES.

The Voyage of the "Griffin."—Detroit.—A Storm.—St. Ignace of Michilimackinac.—Rivals and Enemies.—Lake Michigan.— Hardships.—A Threatened Fight.—Fort Miami.—Tonty's Misfortunes.—Forebodings.
	151

  	CHAPTER XII.
1679, 1680.
LA SALLE ON THE ILLINOIS.

The St. Joseph.—Adventure of La Salle.—The Prairies.—Famine.— The Great Town of the Illinois.—Indians.—Intrigues.— Difficulties.—Policy of La Salle.—Desertion.—Another Attempt to poison La Salle.
	164

  	CHAPTER XIII. [Pg xviii]
1680.
FORT CRÈVECŒUR.

Building of the Fort.—Loss of the "Griffin."—A Bold Resolution.—Another Vessel.—Hennepin sent to the Mississippi.—Departure of La Salle.
	180

  	CHAPTER XIV.
1680.
HARDIHOOD OF LA SALLE.

The Winter Journey.—The Deserted Town.—Starved Rock.—Lake Michigan.—The Wilderness.—War Parties.—La Salle's Men give out.—Ill Tidings.—Mutiny.—Chastisement of the Mutineers.
	189

  	CHAPTER XV.
1680.
INDIAN CONQUERORS.

The Enterprise renewed.—Attempt to rescue Tonty.—Buffalo.—A Frightful Discovery.—Iroquois Fury.—The Ruined Town.—A Night of Horror.—Traces of the Invaders.—No News of Tonty.
	202

  	CHAPTER XVI.
1680.
TONTY AND THE IROQUOIS.

The Deserters.—The Iroquois War.—The Great Town of the Illinois.—The Alarm.—Onset of the Iroquois.—Peril of Tonty.—A Treacherous Truce.—Intrepidity of Tonty.—Murder of Ribourde.—War upon the Dead.
	216

  	CHAPTER XVII.
1680.
THE ADVENTURES OF HENNEPIN.

Hennepin an Impostor: his Pretended Discovery; his Actual Discovery; captured by the Sioux.—The Upper Mississippi.
	242

  	CHAPTER XVIII. [Pg xix]
1680, 1681.
HENNEPIN AMONG THE SIOUX.

Signs of Danger.—Adoption.—Hennepin and his Indian Relatives.—The Hunting Party.—The Sioux Camp.—Falls of St. Anthony.—A Vagabond Friar: his Adventures on the Mississippi.—Greysolon Du Lhut.—Return to Civilization.
	259

  	CHAPTER XIX.
1681.
LA SALLE BEGINS ANEW.

His Constancy; his Plans; his Savage Allies; he becomes Snow-blind.—Negotiations.—Grand Council.—La Salle's Oratory.—Meeting with Tonty.—Preparation.—Departure.
	283

  	CHAPTER XX.
1681-1682.
SUCCESS OF LA SALLE.

His Followers.—The Chicago Portage.—Descent of the Mississippi.—The Lost Hunter.—The Arkansas.—The Taensas.—The Natchez.—Hostility.—The Mouth of the Mississippi.—Louis XIV. proclaimed Sovereign of the Great West.
	295

  	CHAPTER XXI.
1682, 1683.
ST. LOUIS OF THE ILLINOIS.

Louisiana.—Illness of La Salle: his Colony on the Illinois.— Fort St. Louis.—Recall of Frontenac.—Le Febvre de la Barre.—Critical Position of La Salle.—Hostility of the New Governor.—Triumph of the Adverse Faction.—La Salle sails for France.
	309

  	[Pg xx]CHAPTER XXII.
1680-1683.
LA SALLE PAINTED BY HIMSELF.

Difficulty of knowing him: his Detractors; his Letters; vexations of his Position; his Unfitness for Trade; risks of Correspondence; his Reported Marriage; alleged Ostentation; motives of Action; charges of Harshness; intrigues against him; unpopular Manners; a Strange Confession; his Strength and his Weakness; contrasts of his Character.
	328

  	CHAPTER XXIII.
1684.
A NEW ENTERPRISE.

La Salle at Court: his Proposals.—Occupation of Louisiana.—Invasion of Mexico.—Royal Favor.— Preparation.—A Divided Command.—Beaujeu and La Salle.—Mental Condition of La Salle: his Farewell to his Mother.
	343

  	CHAPTER XXIV.
1684, 1685.
THE VOYAGE.

Disputes with Beaujeu.—St. Domingo.—La Salle attacked with Fever: his Desperate Condition.—The Gulf of Mexico.—A Vain Search and a Fatal Error.
	366

  	CHAPTER XXV.
1685.
LA SALLE IN TEXAS.

A Party of Exploration.—Wreck of the "Aimable."—Landing of Colonists.—A Forlorn Position.—Indian Neighbors.—Friendly Advances of Beaujeu: his Departure.—A Fatal Discovery.
	378

  	[Pg xxi]CHAPTER XXVI.
1685-1687.
ST. LOUIS OF TEXAS.

The Fort.—Misery and Dejection.— Energy of La Salle: his Journey of Exploration.—Adventures and Accidents.— Buffalo.—Duhaut.—Indian Massacre.—Return of La Salle.—A New Calamity.—A Desperate Resolution.—Departure for Canada.—Wreck of the "Belle."—Marriage.—Sedition.—Adventures of La Salle's Party.—The Cenis.—The Camanches.—The Only Hope.—The Last Farewell.
	391

  	CHAPTER XXVII.
1687.
ASSASSINATION OF LA SALLE.

His Followers.—Prairie Travelling.—A Hunters' Quarrel.—The Murder of Moranget.—The Conspiracy.—Death of La Salle: his Character.
	420

  	CHAPTER XXVIII.
1687, 1688.
THE INNOCENT AND THE GUILTY.

Triumph of the Murderers.—Danger of Joutel.—Joutel among the Cenis.—White Savages.— Insolence of Duhaut and his Accomplices.—Murder of Duhaut and Liotot.—Hiens, the Buccaneer.—Joutel and his Party: their Escape; they reach the Arkansas.—Bravery and Devotion of Tonty.—The Fugitives reach the Illinois.—Unworthy Conduct of Cavelier.—He and his Companions return to France.
	435

  	CHAPTER XXIX.
1688-1689.
FATE OF THE TEXAN COLONY.

Tonty attempts to rescue the Colonists: his Difficulties and Hardships.—Spanish Hostility.—Expedition of Alonzo de Leon: he reaches Fort St. Louis.—A Scene of Havoc.—Destruction of the French.—The End.
	464

  	[Pg xxii]APPENDIX.

I. Early Unpublished Maps of the Mississippi and the Great Lakes.
	475

II. The Eldorado of Mathieu Sâgean.
	485

  	INDEX. 	493



FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA, FOURTH PART
THE OLD REGIME IN CANADA
By Francis Parkman



CONTENTS
PREFACE.
DETAILED CONTENTS
I. THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION.
CHAPTER I. 1653-1658. THE JESUITS AT ONONDAGA.
CHAPTER II.
CHAPTER III. 1660, 1661. THE HEROES OF THE LONG SAUT.
CHAPTER IV. 1657-1668. THE DISPUTED BISHOPRIC.
CHAPTER V. 1659, 1660. LAVAL AND ARGENSON.
CHAPTER VI. 1658-1663. LAVAL AND AVAUGOUR.
CHAPTER VII. 1661-1664. LAVAL AND DUMESNIL
CHAPTER VIII. 1657-1665. LAVAL AND MÉZY.
CHAPTER IX. 1662-1680. LAVAL AND THE SEMINARY.
II. THE COLONY AND THE KING.
CHAPTER X. 1661-1665. ROYAL INTERVENTION.
CHAPTER XI. 1666, 1667. THE MOHAWKS CHASTISED.
CHAPTER XII. 1665-1672. PATERNAL GOVERNMENT.
CHAPTER XIII 1661-1673. MARRIAGE AND POPULATION.
CHAPTER XIV. 1665-1672. THE NEW HOME.
CHAPTER XV. 1663-1763. CANADIAN FEUDALISM.
CHAPTER XVI. 1663-1763. THE RULERS OF CANADA.
CHAPTER XVII. 1663-1763. TRADE AND INDUSTRY.
CHAPTER XVIII. 1663-1702. THE MISSIONS. THE BRANDY QUESTION.
CHAPTER XIX. 1663-1763. PRIESTS AND PEOPLE.
CHAPTER XX. 1640-1763. MORALS AND MANNERS.
CHAPTER XXI. 1663-1763. CANADIAN ABSOLUTISM.



FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA, PART THE FIFTH
COUNT FRONTENAC AND NEW FRANCE UNDER LOUIS XIV.
by Francis Parkman



Contents

PREFACE.

CHAPTER I. 1620-1672.

COUNT AND COUNTESS FRONTENAC.

Mademoiselle de Montpensier and Madame de Frontenac • Orleans • The Maréchale de Camp • Count Frontenac • Conjugal Disputes • Early Life of Frontenac • His Courtship and Marriage • Estrangement • Scenes at St. Fargeau • The Lady of Honor dismissed • Frontenac as a Soldier • He is made Governor of New France • Les Divines.

CHAPTER II. 1672-1675

FRONTENAC AT QUEBEC.

Arrival • Bright Prospects • The Three Estates of New France • Speech of the Governor • His Innovations • Royal Displeasure • Signs of Storm • Frontenac and the Priests • His Attempts to civilize the Indians • Opposition • Complaints and Heart-burnings.

CHAPTER III. 1673-1675.

FRONTENAC AND PERROT.

La Salle • Fort Frontenac • Perrot • His Speculations • His Tyranny • The Bush-rangers • Perrot revolts • Becomes alarmed • Dilemma of Frontenac • Mediation of Fénelon • Perrot in Prison • Excitement of the Sulpitians • Indignation of Fénelon • Passion of Frontenac • Perrot on Trial • Strange Scenes • Appeal to the King • Answers of Louis XIV. and Colbert • Fénelon rebuked.

xii CHAPTER IV. 1675-1682.

FRONTENAC AND DUCHESNEAU.

Frontenac receives a Colleague • He opposes the Clergy • Disputes in the Council • Royal Intervention • Frontenac rebuked • Fresh Outbreaks • Charges and Countercharges • The Dispute grows hot • Duchesneau condemned and Frontenac warned • The Quarrel continues • The King loses Patience • More Accusations • Factions and Feuds • A Side Quarrel • The King threatens • Frontenac denounces the Priests • The Governor and the Intendant recalled • Qualities of Frontenac.

CHAPTER V. 1682-1684.

LE FEBVRE DE LA BARRE.

His Arrival at Quebec • The Great Fire • A Coming Storm • Iroquois Policy • The Danger imminent • Indian Allies of France • Frontenac and the Iroquois • Boasts of La Barre • His Past Life • His Speculations • He takes Alarm • His Dealings with the Iroquois • His Illegal Trade • His Colleague denounces him • Fruits of his Schemes • His Anger and his Fears.

CHAPTER VI. 1684.

LA BARRE AND THE IROQUOIS.

Dongan • New York and its Indian Neighbors • The Rival Governors • Dongan and the Iroquois • Mission to Onondaga • An Iroquois Politician • Warnings of Lamberville • Iroquois Boldness • La Barre takes the Field • His Motives • The March • Pestilence • Council at La Famine • The Iroquois defiant • Humiliation of La Barre • The Indian Allies • Their Rage and Disappointment • Recall of La Barre.

xiii CHAPTER VII. 1685-1687.

DENONVILLE AND DONGAN.

Troubles of the New Governor • His Character • English Rivalry • Intrigues of Dongan • English Claims • A Diplomatic Duel • Overt Acts • Anger of Denonville • James II. checks Dongan • Denonville emboldened • Strife in the North • Hudson's Bay • Attempted Pacification • Artifice of Denonville • He prepares for War.

CHAPTER VIII. 1687.

DENONVILLE AND THE SENECAS.

Treachery of Denonville • Iroquois Generosity • The Invading Army • The Western Allies • Plunder of English Traders • Arrival of the Allies • Scene at the French Camp • March of Denonville • Ambuscade • Battle • Victory • The Seneca Babylon • Imperfect Success.

CHAPTER IX. 1687-1689.

THE IROQUOIS INVASION.

Altercations • Attitude of Dongan • Martial Preparation • Perplexity of Denonville • Angry Correspondence • Recall of Dongan • Sir Edmund Andros • Humiliation of Denonville • Distress of Canada • Appeals for Help • Iroquois Diplomacy • A Huron Macchiavel • The Catastrophe • Ferocity of the Victors • War with England • Recall of Denonville.

CHAPTER X. 1689-1690.

RETURN OF FRONTENAC.

Versailles • Frontenac and the King • Frontenac sails for Quebec • Projected Conquest of New York • Designs of the King • Failure • Energy of Frontenac • Fort Frontenac • Panic • Negotiations • The Iroquois in Council • Chevalier d'Aux • Taunts of the Indian Allies • Boldness of Frontenac • An Iroquois Defeat • Cruel Policy • The Stroke parried.

xiv CHAPTER XI. 1690.

THE THREE WAR-PARTIES.

Measures of Frontenac • Expedition against Schenectady • The March • The Dutch Village • The Surprise • The Massacre • Prisoners spared • Retreat • The English and their Iroquois Friends • The Abenaki War • Revolution at Boston • Capture of Pemaquid • Capture of Salmon Falls • Capture of Fort Loyal • Frontenac and his Prisoner • The Canadians encouraged.

CHAPTER XII. 1690.

MASSACHUSETTS ATTACKS QUEBEC.

English Schemes • Capture of Port Royal • Acadia reduced • Conduct of Phips • His History and Character • Boston in Arms • A Puritan Crusade • The March from Albany • Frontenac and the Council • Frontenac at Montreal • His War Dance • An Abortive Expedition • An English Raid • Frontenac at Quebec • Defences of the Town • The Enemy arrives.

CHAPTER XIII. 1690.

DEFENCE OF QUEBEC.

Phips on the St. Lawrence • Phips at Quebec • A Flag of Truce • Scene at the Château • The Summons and the Answer • Plan of Attack • Landing of the English • The Cannonade • The Ships repulsed • The Land Attack • Retreat of Phips • Condition of Quebec • Rejoicings of the French • Distress at Boston.

CHAPTER XIV. 1690-1694.

THE SCOURGE OF CANADA.

Iroquois Inroads • Death of Bienville • English Attack • A Desperate Fight • Miseries of the Colony • Alarms • A Winter Expedition • La Chesnaye burned • The Heroine of Verchères • Mission Indians • The Mohawk Expedition • Retreat and Pursuit • Relief arrives • Frontenac Triumphant.

xv CHAPTER XV. 1691-1695.

AN INTERLUDE.

Appeal of Frontenac • His Opponents • His Services • Rivalry and Strife • Bishop Saint-Vallier • Society at the Château • Private Theatricals • Alarm of the Clergy • Tartuffe • A Singular Bargain • Mareuil and the Bishop • Mareuil on Trial • Zeal of Saint-Vallier • Scandals at Montreal • Appeal to the King • The Strife composed • Libel against Frontenac.

CHAPTER XVI. 1690-1694.

THE WAR IN ACADIA.

State of that Colony • The Abenakis • Acadia and New England • Pirates • Baron de Saint-Castin • Pentegoet • The English Frontier • The French and the Abenakis • Plan of the War • Capture of York • Villebon • Grand War-party • Attack of Wells • Pemaquid rebuilt • John Nelson • A Broken Treaty • Villieu and Thury • Another War-party • Massacre at Oyster River.

CHAPTER XVII. 1690-1697.

NEW FRANCE AND NEW ENGLAND.

The Frontier of New England • Border Warfare • Motives of the French • Needless Barbarity • Who were answerable? • Father Thury • The Abenakis waver • Treachery at Pemaquid • Capture of Pemaquid • Projected Attack on Boston • Disappointment • Miseries of the Frontier • A Captive Amazon.

CHAPTER XVIII. 1693-1697.

FRENCH AND ENGLISH RIVALRY.

Le Moyne d'Iberville • His Exploits in Newfoundland • In Hudson's Bay • The Great Prize • The Competitors • Fatal Policy of the King • The Iroquois Question • Negotiation • Firmness of Frontenac • English Intervention • War renewed • State of the West • Indian Diplomacy • Cruel Measures • A Perilous Crisis • Audacity of Frontenac.

xvi CHAPTER XIX. 1696-1698.

FRONTENAC ATTACKS THE ONONDAGAS.

March of Frontenac • Flight of the Enemy • An Iroquois Stoic • Relief for the Onondagas • Boasts of Frontenac • His Complaints • His Enemies • Parties in Canada • Views of Frontenac and the King • Frontenac prevails • Peace of Ryswick • Frontenac and Bellomont • Schuyler at Quebec • Festivities • A Last Defiance.

CHAPTER XX. 1698.

DEATH OF FRONTENAC.

His Last Hours • His Will • His Funeral • His Eulogist and his Critic • His Disputes with the Clergy • His Character.

CHAPTER XXI. 1699-1701.

CONCLUSION.

The New Governor • Attitude of the Iroquois • Negotiations • Embassy to Onondaga • Peace • The Iroquois and the Allies • Difficulties • Death of the Great Huron • Funeral Rites • The Grand Council • The Work of Frontenac finished • Results.

APPENDIX.

INDEX.



FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA, PART SIXTH
HALF-CENTURY OF CONFLICT, VOLUME ONE (OF TWO)
FRANCIS PARKMAN.
IN TWO VOLUMES.



CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
1700-1713.
EVE OF WAR.

The Spanish Succession.—Influence of Louis XIV. on History.—French Schemes of Conquest in America.—New York.—Unfitness of the Colonies for War.—The Five Nations.—Doubt and Vacillation.—The Western Indians.—Trade and Politics3
CHAPTER II.
1694-1704.
DETROIT.

Michilimackinac.—La Mothe-Cadillac: his Disputes with the Jesuits.—Opposing Views.—Plans of Cadillac: his Memorial to the Court; his Opponents.—Detroit founded.—The New Company.—Detroit changes Hands.—Strange Act of the Five Nations17
CHAPTER III.
1703-1713.
QUEEN ANNE'S WAR.

The Forest of Maine.—A Treacherous Peace.—A Frontier Village.—Wells and its People.—Attack upon it.—Border Ravages.—Beaubassin's War-party.—The "Woful Decade."—A Wedding Feast.—A Captive Bridegroom34
CHAPTER IV.
1704-1740.
DEERFIELD.

[Pg viii]Hertel de Rouville.—A Frontier Village.—Rev. John Williams.—The Surprise.—Defence of the Stebbins House.—Attempted Rescue.—The Meadow Fight.—The Captives.—The Northward March.—Mrs. Williams killed.—The Minister's Journey.—Kindness of Canadians.—A Stubborn Heretic.—Eunice Williams.—Converted Captives.—John Sheldon's Mission.—Exchange of Prisoners.—An English Squaw.—The Gill Family55
CHAPTER V.
1704-1713.
THE TORMENTED FRONTIER.

Border Raids.—Haverhill.—Attack and Defence.—War to the Knife.—Motives of the French.—Proposed Neutrality.—Joseph Dudley.—Town and Country94
CHAPTER VI.
1700-1710.
THE OLD RÉGIME IN ACADIA.

The Fishery Question.—Privateers and Pirates.—Port Royal.—Official Gossip.—Abuse of Brouillan.—Complaints of De Goutin.—Subercase and his Officers.—Church and State.—Paternal Government110
CHAPTER VII.
1704-1710.
ACADIA CHANGES HANDS.

Reprisal for Deerfield.—Major Benjamin Church: his Ravages at Grand-Pré.—Port Royal Expedition.—Futile Proceedings.—A Discreditable Affair.—French Successes in [Pg ix]Newfoundland.—Schemes of Samuel Vetch.—A Grand Enterprise.—Nicholson's Advance.—An Infected Camp.—Ministerial Promises broken.—A New Scheme.—Port Royal attacked.—Acadia conquered120
CHAPTER VIII.
1710, 1711.
WALKER'S EXPEDITION.

Scheme of La Ronde Denys.—Boston warned against British Designs.—Boston to be ruined.—Plans of the Ministry.—Canada doomed.—British Troops at Boston.—The Colonists denounced.—The Fleet sails for Quebec.—Forebodings of the Admiral.—Storm and Wreck.—Timid Commanders.—Retreat.—Joyful News for Canada.—Pious Exultation.—Fanciful Stories.—Walker disgraced156
CHAPTER IX.
1712-1749.
LOUISBOURG AND ACADIA.

Peace of Utrecht.—Perilous Questions.—Louisbourg founded.—Annapolis attacked.—Position of the Acadians.—Weakness of the British Garrison.—Apathy of the Ministry.—French Intrigue.—Clerical Politicians.—The Oath of Allegiance.—Acadians refuse it: their Expulsion proposed; they take the Oath183
CHAPTER X.
1713-1724.
SEBASTIEN RALE.

Boundary Disputes.—Outposts of Canada.—The Earlier and Later Jesuits.—Religion and Politics.—The Norridgewocks and their Missionary.—A Hollow Peace.—Disputed Land Claims.—Council at Georgetown.—Attitude of Rale.—Minister and Jesuit.—The Indians waver.—An Outbreak.—Covert [Pg x]War.—Indignation against Rale.—War declared.—Governor and Assembly.—Speech of Samuel Sewall.—Penobscots attack Fort St. George.—Reprisal.—Attack on Norridgewock.—Death of Rale212
CHAPTER XI.
1724, 1725.
LOVEWELL'S FIGHT.

Vaudreuil and Dummer.—Embassy to Canada.—Indians intractable.—Treaty of Peace.—The Pequawkets.—John Lovewell.—A Hunting Party.—Another Expedition.—The Ambuscade.—The Fight.—Chaplain Frye: his Fate.—The Survivors.—Susanna Rogers250
CHAPTER XII.
1712.
THE OUTAGAMIES AT DETROIT.

The West and the Fur-trade.—New York and Canada.—Indian Population.—The Firebrands of the West.—Detroit in 1712.—Dangerous Visitors.—Suspense.—Timely Succors.—The Outagamies attacked: their Desperate Position.—Overtures.—Wavering Allies.—Conduct of Dubuisson.—Escape of the Outagamies.—Pursuit and Attack.—Victory and Carnage272
CHAPTER XIII.
1697-1750.
LOUISIANA.

The Mississippi to be occupied.—English Rivalry.—Iberville.—Bienville.—Huguenots.—Views of Louis XIV.—Wives for the Colony.—Slaves.—La Mothe-Cadillac.—Paternal Government.—Crozat's Monopoly.—Factions.—The Mississippi Company.—New Orleans.—The Bubble bursts.—Indian Wars.—The Colony firmly established.—The two [Pg xi]Heads of New France298
CHAPTER XIV.
1700-1732.
THE OUTAGAMIE WAR.

The Western Posts.—Detroit.—The Illinois.—Perils of the West.—The Outagamies.—Their Turbulence.—English Instigation.—Louvigny's Expedition.—Defeat of Outagamies.—Hostilities renewed.—Lignery's Expedition.—Outagamies attacked by Villiers; by Hurons and Iroquois.—La Butte des Morts.—The Sacs and Foxes326
CHAPTER XV.
1697-1741.
FRANCE IN THE FAR WEST.

French Explorers.—Le Sueur on the St. Peter.—Canadians on the Missouri.—Juchereau de Saint-Denis.—Bénard de la Harpe on Red River.—Adventures of Du Tisné.—Bourgmont visits the Comanches.—The Brothers Mallet in Colorado and New Mexico.—Fabry de la Bruyère346



FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA, PART SIXTH, VOL. II.
A HALF-CENTURY OF CONFLICT, VOL II. (of II)
By Francis Parkman.



CONTENTS.
CHAPTER XVI.
1716-1761.
SEARCH FOR THE PACIFIC.
	Page
The Western Sea.—Schemes for reaching it.—Journey of Charlevoix.—The Sioux Mission.—Varennes de la Vérendrye: his Enterprise; his Disasters; visits the Mandans; his Sons; their Search for the Western Sea; their Adventures.—The Snake Indians.—A Great War-party.—The Rocky Mountains.—A Panic.—Return of the Brothers; their Wrongs and their Fate 	3
CHAPTER XVII.
1700-1750.
THE CHAIN OF POSTS.
Opposing Claims.—Attitude of the Rival Nations.—America a French Continent.—England a Usurper.—French Demands.—Magnanimous Proposals.—Warlike Preparation.—Niagara.—Oswego.—Crown Point.—The Passes of the West secured 	44
CHAPTER XVIII.
1744, 1745.
A MAD SCHEME.
War of the Austrian Succession.—The French seize Canseau and attack Annapolis.—Plan of Reprisal.—William Vaughan.—Governor Shirley: he advises an Attack on Louisbourg.—The Assembly refuses, but at last consents.—Preparation.—William Pepperrell.—George Whitefield.—Parson Moody.—The Soldiers.—The Provincial Navy.—Commodore Warren.—Shirley as an Amateur Soldier.—The Fleet sails 	59
CHAPTER XIX.
1745.
LOUISBOURG BESIEGED.
Seth Pomeroy.—The Voyage.—Canseau.—Unexpected Succors.—Delays.—Louisbourg.—The Landing.—The Grand Battery taken.—French Cannon turned on the Town.—Weakness of Duchambon.—Sufferings of the Besiegers: their Hardihood; their Irregular Proceedings.—Joseph Sherburn.—Amateur Gunnery.—Camp Frolics.—Sectarian Zeal.—Perplexities of Pepperrell 	90
CHAPTER XX.
1745.
LOUISBOURG TAKEN.
A Rash Resolution.—The Island Battery.—The Volunteers.—The Attack.—The Repulse.—Capture of the "Vigilant."—A Sortie.—Skirmishes.—Despondency of the French.—English Camp threatened.—Pepperrell and Warren.—Warren's Plan.—Preparation for a General Attack.—Flag of Truce.—Capitulation.—State of the Fortress.—Parson Moody.—Soldiers dissatisfied.—Disorders.—Army and Navy.—Rejoicings.—England repays Provincial Outlays 	117
CHAPTER XXI.
1745-1747.
DUC D'ANVILLE.
Louisbourg after the Conquest.—Mutiny.—Pestilence.—Stephen Williams: his Diary.—Scheme of Conquering Canada.—Newcastle's Promises.—Alarm in Canada.—Promises broken.—Plan against Crown Point.—Startling News.—D'Anville's Fleet.—Louisbourg to be avenged.—Disasters of D'Anville.—Storm.—Pestilence.—Famine. —Death of D'Anville.—Suicide of the Vice-Admiral.—Ruinous Failure.—Return Voyage.—Defeat of La Jonquière 	145
CHAPTER XXII.
1745-1747.
ACADIAN CONFLICTS.
Efforts of France.—Apathy of Newcastle.—Dilemma of Acadians: their Character.—Danger of the Province.—Plans of Shirley.—Acadian Priests.—Political Agitators.—Noble's Expedition.—Ramesay at Beaubassin.—Noble at Grand-Pré.—A Winter March.—Defeat and Death of Noble.—Grand-Pré reoccupied by the English.—Threats of Ramesay against the Acadians.—The British Ministry will not protect them 	169
CHAPTER XXIII.
1740-1747.
WAR AND POLITICS.
Governor and Assembly.—Saratoga destroyed.—William Johnson.—Border Ravages.—Upper Ashuelot.—French "Military Movements."—Number Four.—Niverville's Attack.—Phineas Stevens.—The French repulsed 	205
CHAPTER XXIV.
1745-1748.
FORT MASSACHUSETTS.
Frontier Defence.—Northfield and its Minister.—Military Criticisms of Rev. Benjamin Doolittle.—Rigaud de Vaudreuil: his Great War-party; he attacks Fort Massachusetts.—Sergeant Hawks and his Garrison.—A Gallant Defence.—Capitulation.—Humanity of the French.—Ravages.—Return to Crown Point.—Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 	230
APPENDIX.
A. 	France claims all North America except the Spanish Colonies 	257
B. 	French Views of the Siege of Louisbourg 	274
C. 	Shirley's Relations with the Acadians 	312
INDEX 	361



FRANCE AND ENGLAND IN NORTH AMERICA, PART SEVEN
MONTCALM AND WOLFE
By Francis Parkman
CONTENTS

Montcalm and Wolfe: Volume 1

PREFACE.

AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION.

CHAPTER I. 1745-1755.

THE COMBATANTS.

England in the Eighteenth Century • Her Political and Social Aspects • Her Military Condition • France • Her Power and Importance • Signs of Decay • The Court, the Nobles, the Clergy, the People • The King and Pompadour • The Philosophers • Germany • Prussia • Frederic II • Russia • State of Europe • War of the Austrian Succession • American Colonies of France and England • Contrasted Systems and their Results • Canada • Its Strong Military Position • French Claims to the Continent • British Colonies • New England • Virginia • Pennsylvania • New York • Jealousies, Divisions, Internal Disputes, Military Weakness.

CHAPTER II. 1749-1752

CÉLORON DE BIENVILLE.

La Galissonière • English Encroachment • Mission of Céloron • The Great West • Its European Claimants • Its Indian Population • English Fur-Traders • Céloron on the Alleghany • His Reception • His Difficulties • Descent of the Ohio • Covert Hostility • Ascent of the Miami • La Demoiselle • Dark Prospects for France • Christopher Gist • George Croghan • Their Western Mission • Pickawillany • English Ascendency • English Dissension and Rivalry • The Key of the Great West.

xii
V1 CHAPTER III. 1749-1753.

CONFLICT FOR THE WEST.

The Five Nations • Caughnawaga • Abbé Piquet • His Schemes • His Journey • Fort Frontenac • Toronto • Niagara • Oswego • Success of Piquet • Detroit • La Jonquière • His Intrigues • His Trials • His Death • English Intrigues • Critical State of the West • Pickawillany Destroyed • Duquesne • His Grand Enterprise.

CHAPTER IV. 1710-1754.

CONFLICT FOR ACADIA.

Acadia ceded to England • Acadians swear Fidelity • Halifax founded • French Intrigue • Acadian Priests • Mildness of English Rule • Covert Hostility of Acadians • The New Oath • Treachery of Versailles • Indians incited to War • Clerical Agents of Revolt • Abbé Le Loutre • Acadians impelled to emigrate • Misery of the Emigrants • Humanity of Cornwallis and Hopson • Fanaticism and Violence of Le Loutre • Capture of the "St. François" • The English at Beaubassin • Le Loutre drives out the Inhabitants • Murder of Howe • Beauséjour • Insolence of Le Loutre • His Harshness to the Acadians • The Boundary Commission • Its Failure • Approaching War

CHAPTER V. 1753, 1754.

WASHINGTON.

The French occupy the Sources of the Ohio • Their Sufferings • Fort Le Bœuf • Legardeur de Saint-Pierre • Mission of Washington • Robert Dinwiddie • He opposes the French • His Dispute with the Burgesses • His Energy • His Appeals for Help • Fort Duquesne • Death of Jumonville • Washington at the Great Meadows • Coulon de Villiers • Fort Necessity.

xiii
V1 CHAPTER VI. 1754, 1755.

THE SIGNAL OF BATTLE.

Troubles of Dinwiddie • Gathering of the Burgesses • Virginian Society • Refractory Legislators • The Quaker Assembly • It refuses to resist the French • Apathy of New York • Shirley and the General Court of Massachusetts • Short-sighted Policy • Attitude of Royal Governors • Indian Allies waver • Convention at Albany • Scheme of Union • It fails • Dinwiddie and Glen • Dinwiddie calls on England for Help • The Duke of Newcastle • Weakness of the British Cabinet • Attitude of France • Mutual Dissimulation • Both Powers send Troops to America • Collision • Capture of the "Alcide" and the "Lis."

CHAPTER VII. 1755.

BRADDOCK.

Arrival of Braddock • His Character • Council at Alexandria • Plan of the Campaign • Apathy of the Colonists • Rage of Braddock • Franklin • Fort Cumberland • Composition of the Army • Offended Friends • The March • The French Fort • Savage Allies • The Captive • Beaujeu • He goes to meet the English • Passage of the Monongahela • The Surprise • The Battle • Rout of Braddock • His Death • Indian Ferocity • Reception of the Ill News • Weakness of Dunbar • The Frontier abandoned.

CHAPTER VIII. 1755-1763.

REMOVAL OF THE ACADIANS.

State of Acadia • Threatened Invasion • Peril of the English • Their Plans • French Forts to be attacked • Beauséjour and its Occupants • French Treatment of the Acadians • John Winslow • Siege and Capture of Beauséjour • Attitude of Acadians • Influence of their Priests • They Refuse the Oath of Allegiance • Their Condition and Character • Pretended Neutrals • Moderation of English Authorities • xiv
V1 The Acadians persist in their Refusal • Enemies or Subjects? • Choice of the Acadians • The Consequence • Their Removal determined • Winslow at Grand Pré • Conference with Murray • Summons to the Inhabitants • Their Seizure • Their Embarkation • Their Fate • Their Treatment in Canada • Misapprehension concerning them.

CHAPTER IX. 1755.

DIESKAU.

Expedition against Crown Point • William Johnson • Vaudreuil • Dieskau • Johnson and the Indians • The Provincial Army • Doubts and Delays • March to Lake George • Sunday in Camp • Advance of Dieskau • He changes Plan • Marches against Johnson • Ambush • Rout of Provincials • Battle of Lake George • Rout of the French • Rage of the Mohawks • Peril of Dieskau • Inaction of Johnson • The Homeward March • Laurels of Victory.

CHAPTER X. 1755, 1756.

SHIRLEY. BORDER WAR.

The Niagara Campaign • Albany • March to Oswego • Difficulties • The Expedition abandoned • Shirley and Johnson • Results of the Campaign • The Scourge of the Border • Trials of Washington • Misery of the Settlers • Horror of their Situation • Philadelphia and the Quakers • Disputes with the Penns • Democracy and Feudalism • Pennsylvanian Population • Appeals from the Frontier • Quarrel of Governor and Assembly • Help refused • Desperation of the Borderers • Fire and Slaughter • The Assembly alarmed • They pass a mock Militia Law • They are forced to yield.

CHAPTER XI. 1712-1756.

MONTCALM.

War declared • State of Europe • Pompadour and Maria Theresa • Infatuation of the French Court • The European War • Montcalm to command in America • His early Life • xv
V1 An intractable Pupil • His Marriage • His Family • His Campaigns • Preparation for America • His Associates • Lévis, Bourlamaque, Bougainville • Embarkation • The Voyage • Arrival • Vaudreuil • Forces of Canada • Troops of the Line, Colony Troops, Militia, Indians • The Military Situation • Capture of Fort Bull • Montcalm at Ticonderoga.

CHAPTER XII. 1756.

OSWEGO.

The new Campaign • Untimely Change of Commanders • Eclipse of Shirley • Earl of Loudon • Muster of Provincials • New England Levies • Winslow at Lake George • Johnson and the Five Nations • Bradstreet and his Boatmen • Fight on the Onondaga • Pestilence at Oswego • Loudon and the Provincials • New England Camps • Army Chaplains • A sudden Blow • Montcalm attacks Oswego • Its Fall.

CHAPTER XIII. 1756, 1757.

PARTISAN WAR.

Failure of Shirley's Plan • Causes • Loudon and Shirley • Close of the Campaign • The Western Border • Armstrong destroys Kittanning • The Scouts of Lake George • War Parties from Ticonderoga • Robert Rogers • The Rangers • Their Hardihood and Daring • Disputes as to Quarters of Troops • Expedition of Rogers • A Desperate Bush-fight • Enterprise of Vaudreuil • Rigaud attacks Fort William Henry.

CHAPTER XIV. 1757.

MONTCALM AND VAUDREUIL.

The Seat of War • Social Life at Montreal • Familiar Correspondence of Montcalm • His Employments • His Impressions of Canada • His Hospitalities • Misunderstandings with the Governor • Character of Vaudreuil • His Accusations • Frenchmen and Canadians • Foibles of Montcalm • The opening Campaign • Doubts and Suspense • London's Plan • His Character • Fatal Delays • Abortive Attempt against Louisbourg • Disaster to the British Fleet.

xvi
V1 CHAPTER XV. 1757.

FORT WILLIAM HENRY.

Another Blow • The War-song • The Army at Ticonderoga • Indian Allies • The War-feast • Treatment of Prisoners • Cannibalism • Surprise and Slaughter • The War Council • March of Lévis • The Army embarks • Fort William Henry • Nocturnal Scene • Indian Funeral • Advance upon the Fort • General Webb • His Difficulties • His Weakness • The Siege begun • Conduct of the Indians • The Intercepted Letter • Desperate Position of the Besieged • Capitulation • Ferocity of the Indians • Mission of Bougainville • Murder of Wounded Men • A Scene of Terror • The Massacre • Efforts of Montcalm • The Fort burned.

Contents of Volume II
CONTENTS - VOL 2.

Montcalm and Wolfe: Volume 2

Contents of Volume I.

CHAPTER XVI. 1757, 1758.

A WINTER OF DISCONTENT.

Boasts of Loudon • A Mutinous Militia • Panic • Accusations of Vaudreuil • His Weakness • Indian Barbarities • Destruction of German Flats • Discontent of Montcalm • Festivities at Montreal • Montcalm's Relations with the Governor • Famine • Riots • Mutiny • Winter at Ticonderoga • A desperate Bush-fight • Defeat of the Rangers • Adventures of Roche and Pringle.

CHAPTER XVII. 1753-1760.

BIGOT.

His Life and Character • Canadian Society • Official Festivities • A Party of Pleasure • Hospitalities of Bigot • Desperate Gambling • Château Bigot • Canadian Ladies • Cadet • La Friponne • Official Rascality • Methods of Peculation • Cruel Frauds on the Acadians • Military Corruption • Péan • Love and Knavery • Varin and his Partners • Vaudreuil and the Peculators • He defends Bigot; praises Cadet and Péan • Canadian Finances • Peril of Bigot • Threats of the Minister • Evidence of Montcalm • Impending Ruin of the Confederates.

vi
V2 CHAPTER XVIII. 1757, 1758.

PITT.

Frederic of Prussia • The Coalition against him • His desperate Position • Rossbach • Leuthen • Reverses of England • Weakness of the Ministry • A Change • Pitt and Newcastle • Character of Pitt • Sources of his Power • His Aims • Louis XV • Pompadour • She controls the Court, and directs the War • Gloomy Prospects of England • Disasters • The New Ministry • Inspiring Influence of Pitt • The Tide turns • British Victories • Pitt's Plans for America • Louisbourg, Ticonderoga, Duquesne • New Commanders • Naval Battles.

CHAPTER XIX. 1758.

LOUISBOURG.

Condition of the Fortress • Arrival of the English • Gallantry of Wolfe • The English Camp • The Siege begun • Progress of the Besiegers • Sallies of the French • Madame Drucour • Courtesies of War • French Ships destroyed • Conflagration • Fury of the Bombardment • Exploit of English Sailors • The End near • The White Flag • Surrender • Reception of the News in England and America • Wolfe not satisfied • His Letters to Amherst • He destroys Gaspé • Returns to England.

CHAPTER XX. 1758.

TICONDEROGA.

Activity of the Provinces • Sacrifices of Massachusetts • The Army at Lake George • Proposed Incursion of Lévis • Perplexities of Montcalm • His Plan of Defence • Camp of Abercromby • His Character • Lord Howe • His Popularity • Embarkation of Abercromby • Advance down Lake George • Landing • Forest Skirmish • Death of Howe • Its Effects • Position of the French • The Lines of Ticonderoga • Blunders of Abercromby • The Assault • A Frightful Scene • Incidents of the Battle • British Repulse • Panic • Retreat • Triumph of Montcalm.

vii
V2 CHAPTER XXI. 1758.

FORT FRONTENAC.

The Routed Army • Indignation at Abercromby • John Cleaveland and his Brother Chaplains • Regulars and Provincials • Provincial Surgeons • French Raids • Rogers defeats Marin • Adventures of Putnam • Expedition of Bradstreet • Capture of Fort Frontenac.

CHAPTER XXII. 1758.

FORT DUQUESNE.

Dinwiddie and Washington • Brigadier Forbes • His Army • Conflicting Views • Difficulties • Illness of Forbes • His Sufferings • His Fortitude • His Difference with Washington • Sir John Sinclair • Troublesome Allies • Scouting Parties • Boasts of Vaudreuil • Forbes and the Indians • Mission of Christian Frederic Post • Council of Peace • Second Mission of Post • Defeat of Grant • Distress of Forbes • Dark Prospects • Advance of the Army • Capture of the French Fort • The Slain of Braddock's Field • Death of Forbes.

CHAPTER XXIII. 1758, 1759.

THE BRINK OF RUIN.

Jealousy of Vaudreuil • He asks for Montcalm's Recall • His Discomfiture • Scene at the Governor's House • Disgust of Montcalm • The Canadians Despondent • Devices to encourage them • Gasconade of the Governor • Deplorable State of the Colony • Mission of Bougainville • Duplicity of Vaudreuil • Bougainville at Versailles • Substantial Aid refused to Canada • A Matrimonial Treaty • Return of Bougainville • Montcalm abandoned by the Court • His Plans of Defence • Sad News from Candiac • Promises of Vaudreuil.

viii
V2 CHAPTER XXIV. 1758, 1759.

WOLFE.

The Exiles of Fort Cumberland • Relief • The Voyage to Louisbourg • The British Fleet • Expedition against Quebec • Early Life of Wolfe • His Character • His Letters to his Parents • His Domestic Qualities • Appointed to command the Expedition • Sails for America.

CHAPTER XXV. 1759.

WOLFE AT QUEBEC.

French Preparation • Muster of Forces • Gasconade of Vaudreuil • Plan of Defence • Strength of Montcalm • Advance of Wolfe • British Sailors • Landing of the English • Difficulties before them • Storm • Fireships • Confidence of French Commanders • Wolfe occupies Point Levi • A Futile Night Attack • Quebec bombarded • Wolfe at the Montmorenci • Skirmishes • Danger of the English Position • Effects of the Bombardment • Desertion of Canadians • The English above Quebec • Severities of Wolfe • Another Attempt to burn the Fleet • Desperate Enterprise of Wolfe • The Heights of Montmorenci • Repulse of the English.

CHAPTER XXVI. 1759.

AMHERST. NIAGARA.

Amherst on Lake George • Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point • Delays of Amherst • Niagara Expedition • La Corne attacks Oswego • His Repulse • Niagara besieged • Aubry comes to its Relief • Battle • Rout of the French • The Fort taken • Isle-aux-Noix • Amherst advances to attack it • Storm • The Enterprise abandoned • Rogers attacks St. Francis • Destroys the Town • Sufferings of the Rangers.

ix
V2 CHAPTER XXVII. 1759.

THE HEIGHTS OF ABRAHAM.

Elation of the French • Despondency of Wolfe • The Parishes laid waste • Operations above Quebec • Illness of Wolfe • A New Plan of Attack • Faint Hope of Success • Wolfe's Last Despatch • Confidence of Vaudreuil • Last Letters of Montcalm • French Vigilance • British Squadron at Cap-Rouge • Last Orders of Wolfe • Embarkation • Descent of the St. Lawrence • The Heights scaled • The British Line • Last Night of Montcalm • The Alarm • March of French Troops • The Battle • The Rout • The Pursuit • Fall of Wolfe and of Montcalm.

CHAPTER XXVIII. 1759.

FALL OF QUEBEC.

After the Battle • Canadians resist the Pursuit • Arrival of Vaudreuil • Scene in the Redoubt • Panic • Movements of the Victors • Vaudreuil's Council of War • Precipitate Retreat of the French Army • Last Hours of Montcalm • His Death and Burial • Quebec abandoned to its Fate • Despair of the Garrison • Lévis joins the Army • Attempts to relieve the Town • Surrender • The British occupy Quebec • Slanders of Vaudreuil • Reception in England of the News of Wolfe's Victory and Death • Prediction of Jonathan Mayhew.

CHAPTER XXIX. 1759, 1760.

SAINTE-FOY.

Quebec after the Siege • Captain Knox and the Nuns • Escape of French Ships • Winter at Quebec • Threats of Lévis • Attacks • Skirmishes • Feat of the Rangers • State of the Garrison • The French prepare to retake Quebec • Advance of Lévis • The Alarm • Sortie of the English • Rash Determination of Murray • Battle of Ste.-Foy • Retreat of the English • Lévis besieges Quebec • Spirit of the Garrison • Peril of their Situation • Relief • Quebec saved • Retreat of Lévis • The News in England.

x
V2 CHAPTER XXX. 1760.

FALL OF CANADA.

Desperate Situation • Efforts of Vaudreuil and Lévis • Plans of Amherst • A Triple Attack • Advance of Murray • Advance of Haviland • Advance of Amherst • Capitulation of Montreal • Protest of Lévis • Injustice of Louis XV. • Joy in the British Colonies • Character of the War.

CHAPTER XXXI. 1758-1763.

THE PEACE OF PARIS.

Exodus of Canadian Leaders • Wreck of the "Auguste" • Trial of Bigot and his Confederates • Frederic of Prussia • His Triumphs • His Reverses • His Peril • His Fortitude • Death of George II. • Change of Policy • Choiseul • His Overtures of Peace • The Family Compact • Fall of Pitt • Death of the Czarina • Frederic saved • War with Spain • Capture of Havana • Negotiations • Terms of Peace • Shall Canada be restored? • Speech of Pitt • The Treaty signed • End of the Seven Years War.

CHAPTER XXXII. 1763-1884.

CONCLUSION.

Results of the War • Germany • France • England • Canada • The British Provinces.

APPENDIX.

INDEX.



HISTORIC HANDBOOK OF THE NORTHERN TOUR.
LAKES GEORGE AND CHAMPLAIN; NIAGARA; MONTREAL; QUEBEC.
BY FRANCIS PARKMAN.



CONTENTS.
LAKE GEORGE AND LAKE CHAMPLAIN.
	Page
Discovery of Lake Champlain 	3
Discovery of Lake George 	9
Battle of Lake George 	16
A Winter Raid 	40
Siege and Massacre of Fort William Henry 	45
Battle of Ticonderoga 	65
A Legend of Ticonderoga 	86


NIAGARA.
Siege of Fort Niagara 	93
Massacre of the Devil's Hole 	98


MONTREAL.
The Birth of Montreal 	105


QUEBEC.
Infancy of Quebec 	123
A Military Mission 	128
Massachusetts Attacks Quebec 	134
The Heights of Abraham 	154



THE OREGON TRAIL
by Francis Parkman, Jr.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER I 	THE FRONTIER
CHAPTER II 	BREAKING THE ICE
CHAPTER III 	FORT LEAVENWORTH
CHAPTER IV 	"JUMPING OFF"
CHAPTER V 	"THE BIG BLUE"
CHAPTER VI 	THE PLATTE AND THE DESERT
CHAPTER VII 	THE BUFFALO
CHAPTER VIII 	TAKING FRENCH LEAVE
CHAPTER IX 	SCENES AT FORT LARAMIE
CHAPTER X 	THE WAR PARTIES
CHAPTER XI 	SCENES AT THE CAMP
CHAPTER XII 	ILL LUCK
CHAPTER XIII 	HUNTING INDIANS
CHAPTER XIV 	THE OGALLALLA VILLAGE
CHAPTER XV 	THE HUNTING CAMP
CHAPTER XVI 	THE TRAPPERS
CHAPTER XVII 	THE BLACK HILLS
CHAPTER XVIII 	A MOUNTAIN HUNT
CHAPTER XIX 	PASSAGE OF THE MOUNTAINS
CHAPTER XX 	THE LONELY JOURNEY
CHAPTER XXI 	THE PUEBLO AND BENT'S FORT
CHAPTER XXII 	TETE ROUGE, THE VOLUNTEER
CHAPTER XXIII 	INDIAN ALARMS
CHAPTER XXIV 	THE CHASE
CHAPTER XXV 	THE BUFFALO CAMP
CHAPTER XXVI 	DOWN THE ARKANSAS
CHAPTER XXVII 	THE SETTLEMENTS



VASSALL MORTON.
A Novel.
By Francis Parkman
CONTENTS
CHAPTERS
I 	XI 	XXI 	XXXI 	XLI 	LI 	LXI 	LXXI
II 	XII 	XXII 	XXXII 	XLII 	LII 	LXII 	LXXII
III 	XIII 	XXIII 	XXXIII 	XLIII 	LIII 	LXIII 	LXXIII
IV 	XIV 	XXIV 	XXXIV 	XLIV 	LIV 	LXIV 	LXXIV
V 	XV 	XXV 	XXXV 	XLV 	LV 	LXV
VI 	XVI 	XXVI 	XXXVI 	XLVI 	LVI 	LXVI
VII 	XVII 	XXVII 	XXXVII 	XLVII 	LVII 	LXVII
VIII 	XVIII 	XXVIII 	XXXVIII 	XLVIII 	LVIII 	LXVIII
IX 	XIX 	XXIX 	XXXIX 	XLIX 	LIX 	LXIX
X 	XX 	XXX 	XL 	L 	LX 	LXX



THE BOOK OF ROSES
By Francis Parkman
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I. OPEN AIR CULTURE
CHAPTER II. POT CULTURE
CHAPTER III. PROPAGATION
CHAPTER IV. MISCELLANEOUS OPERATIONS
CHAPTER V. GROUPS and FAMILIES
CHAPTER VI. SUMMER ROSES
CHAPTER VII. AUTUMNAL ROSES
ROSES MOST APPROVED BY THE BEST CULTIVATORS OF THE PRESENT DAY
NEW ROSES OF 1866





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