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´╗┐Title: Battery D First Rhode Island Light Artillery in the Civil War
Author: Sumner, George C.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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[Illustration]



 BATTERY D,
 FIRST RHODE ISLAND LIGHT ARTILLERY,
 IN
 THE CIVIL WAR,
 1861-1865.

 BY
 Dr. GEORGE C. SUMNER,
 A MEMBER OF THE BATTERY.

 Rhode Island Printing Company, Providence.
 1897.

[Illustration: MEMBERS OF BATTERY D, FIRST RHODE ISLAND LIGHT
ARTILLERY, VETERAN ASSOCIATION.

AT ROGER WILLIAMS PARK, JUNE, 1891.]

 1 John S. Gorton.
 2 John Rathbone.
 3 John Brod.
 4 Joseph W. Corey.
 5 Charles Gallagher.
 6 Charles E. May.
 7 Ezra K. Parker.
 8 Charles W. Cornell.
 9 John J. Busby.
 10 Samuel Jenkins.[1]
 11 William H. Fisk.
 12 Stephen Ballou.
 13 James S. Hayward.
 14 John J. Hopkins.
 15 William Stalker.
 16 Willett A. Johnson.
 17 Daniel W. Elliott.
 18 Lyman Nicholas.[1]
 19 James Tanner.
 20 Joseph F. Means.
 21 Henry W. Smith.
 22 Jeremiah D. Hopkins.
 23 Frank M. Tucker.
 24 John McKenna.
 25 Erich P. Botter.
 26 George Rathbone.
 27 Clark Walker.
 28 Halsey A. Aldrich.
 29 Rice A. Wickes.[1]
 30 George C. Sumner.[1]
 31 Otis G. Handy.
 32 Isaac D. Russell.
 33 Joseph B. French.
 34 Charles C. Gray.
 35 George N. Hawkins.
 36 Joseph B. Kenyon.
 37 Edwin R. Knight.
 38 Moses Budlong.
 39 Capt. J. Albert Monroe.[1]
 40 George E. Arnold.
 41 Olney Arnold.[1]
 42 Henry C. Whitaker.
 43 Charles E. Bonn.[1]
 44 Gideon Spencer.
 45 Christopher H. Carpenter.

[Footnote 1: _Deceased._]



PREFACE.


At a meeting of Battery D Association, held at Roger Williams Park,
June 6th, 1891, the following resolution was unanimously adopted:

 RESOLVED, That George C. Sumner is hereby appointed Historian of the
 Association, and earnestly requested to write and publish a History of
 Battery D, First Rhode Island Light Artillery.

Comrade Sumner accepted the position, and at once commenced to look
up material for the work. He soon found that he had quite a task to
perform. At the battle of Cedar Creek, late in the war, all the books
and papers of the battery were captured by the enemy, it thus became
rather a tedious undertaking to hunt up facts and dates. Artificer
Clark Walker and Corporal Knight had diaries of some parts of their
service, which was about all the material on hand to start with.

The Adjutant General's Office furnished considerable information. The
Roster of the Battery was taken entirely from that office. The "War
Records" was another source from which facts and dates were collected.

Comrade Sumner took a great deal of interest in this history and had a
large part of it written when he was "called away to join his comrades
who had gone before." The death of our comrade made it necessary for
some one to take up the work. It was impossible to fill his place, and
when the writer agreed to take up the history and complete it, it was
with a great deal of hesitation, knowing his inability to carry on
the work, and not having time to devote to the proper carrying out of
Comrade Sumner's ideas.

Comrade Sumner had a great many marginal notes attached to his
manuscript which he was familiar with, but to another person they were
not very plain. Without doubt he intended to add considerable to his
manuscript, but on taking up the work I found it almost impossible
to follow out what he had evidently intended to do, and came to the
conclusion that it was best to publish it as he left it. I hope the
comrades of the Battery and whoever else that reads this work, will
remember that the author was called away before he had time to even
revise his original manuscript.

 Very respectfully,
 Your obedient servant,
 A Comrade of the Battery.



CONTENTS.


  CHAPTER I.

  Organization--Camp Sprague, Washington, D.C.--Winter Quarters
  at Munson's Hill, Va.                                                 1


  CHAPTER II.

  Campaign to Centreville--Falmouth--Fredericksburg--Thoroughfare
  Gap--Rapidan River                                                    6


  CHAPTER III.

  Rappahannock Station--Groveton--Bull Run (or Manassas)               13


  CHAPTER IV.

  South Mountain and Antietam                                          28


  CHAPTER V.

  Fredericksburg--Bell's Landing--Hampton--and Trip to the
  West                                                                 40


  CHAPTER VI.

  The Campaign in East Tennessee                                       62


  CHAPTER VII.

  The Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee                                    98


  CHAPTER VIII.

  Battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania--The Campaign in
  the Shenandoah Valley                                               125

  Roster                                                              157

  Commissioned Officers                                               181

  Enlisted Men Commissioned                                           181

  Temporarily Attached Men                                            182



CHAPTER I.

Organization--Camp Sprague, Washington, D.C.--Winter Quarters at
Munson's Hill, Va.


At the commencement of the Civil War, in April, 1861, there was in the
city of Providence, among other excellent military organizations, one
of light artillery, known as the Providence Marine Corps of Artillery,
which for years had been interesting and instructing the young men of
the city and vicinity in the manoeuvres of this branch of military
service. A natural sequence of the presence of this company was to draw
attention to this arm, and led Gov. Sprague to offer the government
a fully equipped light battery, in addition to the First Regiment of
Infantry. The offer being accepted, a battery was speedily organized
for three months service, and on the 18th of April, six days after
the firing upon Fort Sumter, it left Providence, fully equipped, for
Washington. When it became evident that more troops and a longer term
of service would be needed, Gov. Sprague at once began the organization
of a regiment of light artillery. The second battery (or A, in
regimental orders) was mustered into service June 6th, 1861, for three
years or the war, and left home for Washington June 19th. After which,
at intervals of less than a month, a battery left Providence for the
seat of war, until eight had been sent, which completed the First
Regiment Rhode Island Light Artillery.

Battery D was the fifth in number, but fourth in the regimental
formation, that was recruited, its organization commencing immediately
upon the mustering of Battery C (Aug. 25th). Its quota was filled
perhaps the most rapidly of any of the batteries, for by the 2d of
Sept. it had its complement of men, and was sent to Camp Ames, on the
Warwick road, just beyond Pawtuxet, where, on the 4th of Sept., it was
mustered into the service of the United States.

On Sept. 10th, the battery moved to Camp Greene, near the Stonington
Railroad. While in this camp the men were uniformed, divided into gun
detachments, and drilled in the manual of the piece, marching, etc.

On the 13th the battery left Camp Greene on the steamboat train for
Stonington, under command of First Lieut. Geo. C. Harkness, the other
officers being First Lieut. Henry R. Gladding, Second Lieuts. Stephen
W. Fisk, and Ezra K. Parker. From Stonington it proceeded by boat to
Elizabeth City, N.J., from which place it continued on by cars to
Washington via Harrisburg, reaching its destination shortly after noon
on the 15th, and marched immediately to Camp Sprague, where Capt. J.
Albert Monroe, who had just been promoted from First Lieutenant to
Captain, and transferred from Battery A to Battery D, took command.

The personnel of the company was particularly well adapted for the
especially active work appertaining to the successful manoeuvering
of light artillery. Its members were young; scarcely one in ten had
reached his majority; most of them had left good homes, where they
had received the advantages of a fair education, and except in rare
instances their physiques were such that camp life and the exercise
of the drill speedily developed endurance and suppleness. To no one
was the possibilities of this command more apparent than to Captain
Monroe. His experience in the home company, and three months of
practical service with Battery A, convinced him that here was material
from which, by persistent hard work, and by a proper and judicially
administered discipline, there could be evolved a battery of light
artillery which would honor itself and the State from which it came;
and he immediately proceeded to work for the accomplishment of that
idea. Requisitions were speedily obtained for horses and guns, and the
battery was soon fully equipped, the battery consisting of four ten
pound Parrotts and two twelve pound howitzers. Drilling was commenced
immediately, both field and the manual of the piece, and continued
without cessation from the 18th of Sept. to Oct. 11th, and such was
the progress made by the company that at a review held on the 9th of
Oct., on the grounds back of the Capitol, of all the artillery in the
vicinity, at which Gen. Scott was reviewing officer, the battery was
complimented for the excellence of its movements.

Oct. 12th Capt. Monroe received orders to report with his battery to
Gen. Fitz John Porter, near Hall's Hill, Va., and as soon as possible
the company commenced its first march, passing through Washington via
Pennsylvania avenue, thence through Georgetown to the Potomac River,
crossing at Aqueduct Bridge. Hall's Hill was reached about 7 P.M., and
the battery went into camp. Having no tents, the men were obliged to
spread their blankets on the ground, and had their first taste of a
field camp in Virginia.

Oct. 14th orders were received to report to Gen. McDowell, and the
battery moved about three miles, to Upton's Hill. While here they were
given their first impressions of war. It was intimated that the enemy
was in the immediate vicinity, and were liable to make an attack at any
time. Each night one section of the battery was sent out on picket.
At no time in their service did they feel the responsibility of their
situation more keenly than on these occasions, and not a rebel soldier
within twenty miles. The two sections which were to remain in camp
were obliged to work upon the earthworks with picks and shovels, an
occupation they did not relish.

Oct. 29th camp was moved just over Munson's Hill, on the north slope,
and a camp laid out, under the direction of Capt. John Gibbon, who had
assumed command of the artillery in our division. His own, Battery B,
Fourth U. S., was placed upon the left (instead of the right, as it
should have been according to strict military etiquette, presumably
because the ground was higher and drier). Our battery came next, then
the First New Hampshire, Capt. Gerrish, and the Pennsylvania battery,
Capt. Durrell, on the right. Tents of the Sibley pattern were now
issued in place of the small A tents. These were circular in form,
and large enough to accommodate ten or twelve men comfortably. When
the weather became cold enough to require them, stoves were issued,
and when the tents were properly ditched, the bunks built and filled
a foot deep with straw, they became very comfortable homes, even in
the coldest of weather. We soon had orders to prepare this camp for
a winter's sojourn. Details were made each morning to work upon the
stables for the horses, and in the course of a few days the finest camp
in the history of Battery D was completed, and named Camp Dupont.

The battery was parked in regular style, pieces in front, caissons
in the rear; on the right and left of them the stables were built.
The tents for the men were pitched in the rear of the stables. The
officers' tents were in the rear of the battery, the Captain's being
in a line with the centre of the guns, and two others, one on each
side of the Captain's, a little in advance, for the four Lieutenants.
The cook-house was at the upper end of the right tents, and the
guard-house was placed quite a distance in front of the battery.

In this camp the battery remained from Oct. 29th, 1861, to March 10th,
1862, occupying its time in drill, inspections, sham fights, target
practice, etc. Everything calculated to increase its efficiency was
indulged in. Days were spent in perfecting the men in horsemanship.
Heroic measures were used; no saddles or bridles were allowed; men were
expected to learn to manage their horses successfully bareback, and
with only the halter, and they did it, but there were many laughable
and some serious incidents occurred before they thoroughly mastered the
art.

The sham-fights were particularly exhilarating and entertaining to us,
the whole corps, numbering fifteen or twenty thousand, participating in
them, and blank cartridges were used without stint. A change of front
would sometimes necessitate a long run for the battery, and if over
open ground, was participated in with a relish; but if, as it sometimes
happened, the route lay through what had been woods, but had been
freshly cut off by the soldiers, leaving stumps of irregular height,
it sometimes became very annoying to the cannoniers, as the carriages
struck first one stump and then another, throwing them about, making it
very difficult to retain their places on the boxes.



CHAPTER II.

Campaign to Centreville--Falmouth--Fredericksburg--Thoroughfare
Gap--Rapidan River.


For some time rumors had prevailed of a forward movement, but nothing
of a definite nature occurred until March 9th, when orders were issued
that four days rations be cooked, and the battery prepared to march
at an early hour the next morning; the limbers of the pieces and the
caissons were supplied with ammunition, and everything put in order for
a campaign against the enemy.

At an early hour on the 10th of March, "boots and saddles" was blown,
the battery was speedily hitched up, and in a short time Capt. Monroe
gave the order, "Right piece, forward," and we moved out of park, from
Camp Dupont, where we had spent four months, for the last time. The
line of march was toward the Centreville Pike, and when we reached
Baily's Cross Roads, a halt was made near the road until our turn
should come to join the column. The entire Army of the Potomac was on
the march for Centreville, where the enemy was reported to be in force.
It was several hours before our turn came, but at last we were ordered
to move into the road, and commenced our march in earnest. It was a
most disagreeable day, very cold, and a heavy mist prevailed, which
soon wet our clothing; the freezing temperature soon converted this
moisture into a coating of ice, making it exceedingly uncomfortable for
the men, particularly the drivers, who were obliged to sit their horses
without any opportunity to warm themselves by exercise.

Our progress was slow and tedious. Six o'clock found us in the vicinity
of Fairfax Court House, where we made camp. Early next morning we
hitched up and had barely time to prepare coffee for ourselves, when
we were ordered to join the column, and proceeded on our way towards
Centreville, but after marching about a mile we were ordered to make
camp.

It had been discovered by our advance that the enemy had retired upon
our approach, and there was to be no opportunity to display our valor.
We remained in this camp until the 15th.

On the morning of the 15th, the army started on its return towards
Washington. Soon after starting it began to rain, and by noon the water
was coming down in torrents, soon wetting the men to their skins. The
column marched much more rapidly than they did when going out, they
evidently hoping to find shelter at their old camps.

About 7 o'clock P.M., Battery D turned into the dooryard of Mr. Cloud,
at Cloud's Mill. Both officers and men were in a miserable condition,
and they immediately set about improving it to the best of their
ability. The fence in front of the house was soon demolished, and
a fire started, around which all hovered until morning. During the
forenoon of the 16th we marched back to Camp Dupont, after an absence
of just one week. This seemed like home to us, and we all felt that
we would like to stay here for a while at least; but that was not to
be, for next morning we were ordered to proceed at once to Fairfax
Seminary, where we remained until April 4th. While in this camp, on
March 29th, our first batch of recruits, nine in number, were received
from Rhode Island.

At daylight on April 4th, the battery, with the First Division of
the army, under Gen. McDowell, the rest of the Army of the Potomac
having gone by transports to Fortress Monroe, marched to Fairfax,
and bivouacked for the night, early the next morning continued on to
Manassas, remained over night, and at daylight next morning started on
to Bristow Station.

The weather on this trip up to this time had been pleasant and fairly
comfortable; but on the night of the 8th there came a change; it grew
rapidly cold, and about 10 P.M. began to snow. Those of the men who
were not frozen out and obliged to hover around the camp-fires, found
themselves covered by a blanket of snow about four inches deep in the
morning.

We remained at Bristow until the 16th, and then continued on the march
to Catlett's Station, remaining one day, and on the 18th marched to
within three miles of Fredericksburg, camping near the village of
Falmouth. Some of our men started into the village and attempted to
make small purchases, but the people of the place were very loyal to
the South, and at this early period of the war had great confidence
in the Confederate money, and but very little in Uncle Sam's crisp
greenbacks, and refused to take them in exchange for their goods.

Now it so happened that an enterprising firm in Philadelphia had just
issued a _fac simile_ of the rebel money, of various denominations,
and the men had purchased several thousand dollars worth, as _curios_.
These were offered the rebellious tradesmen, and accepted with great
glee, as an indication of the final success of their side, that the
Yankees were already being obliged to use their money. They soon
discovered that the bills were not genuine, some one having pointed
out to them the printer's name and location in the margin, and they
refused to take any more, notwithstanding the Yankee customers assured
them that the bills were worth just as much as the genuine. A complaint
was made to head-quarters, but the general, after hearing both sides,
decided that they were entitled to no redress.

On the 19th the battery marched to a position directly opposite
Fredericksburg, on the north branch of the Rappahannock River. The guns
were placed in position, pointing directly at the city, but the next
day the pieces were limbered and a regular camp laid out, tents were
pitched, and preparations made which indicated that we were to tarry
here for some time. Drill received our undivided attention; from four
to six hours a day being given to that work, excepting on Sundays,
which were given up to inspections of the men and material of the
battery. Cleanliness was important, and was carefully looked after.

On the 10th of May the battery was ordered to move down to the bank of
the river, near the railroad bridge, for the purpose of protecting it
from an expected attack of the enemy; but they did not come, and things
soon quieted down and assumed their normal condition, and the battery
resumed its usual occupation of drilling.

The effect of such long-continued and constant work in this direction
began to show itself in the accuracy with which the movements were
executed. The efficiency of the battery began to attract attention, and
almost every day when we reached the ground where we were to have our
field-drill there would be quite an audience awaiting us. Senators and
Representatives from Washington, visiting officers, and distinguished
people from all over the country, would be taken out to see the show.

As an illustration of how it impressed one individual from our own
State, I quote from an article which he sent to the _Providence
Journal_:

 "The proficiency attained by the sturdy fellows of Battery D, is
 really surprising, and would do credit to a company of Cadets fresh
 from the rapid practice of West Point. I saw them yesterday, under
 command of Captain Monroe, performing the evolutions of field-drill
 with such accuracy as to command the admiration of old army officers
 who were present."

On the 26th of May the battery crossed the Rappahannock River into
Fredericksburg, and made camp on a common in the centre of the town,
remaining until the 29th.

Union soldiers were not welcome guests in that city at that time, and
the citizens took no pains to disguise the fact. Their manner towards
us and treatment of us left no doubt in our minds that they wished we
were anywhere but in their presence. We did not mind it, however, and
made ourselves just as much at home as though we were welcome.

Early in the morning of the 29th the battery recrossed the river, and
joining our division, commenced our journey for Thoroughfare Gap,
for the purpose of aiding Gen. Banks, who was being badly pressed
by the rebel Gen. Jackson, in the Shenandoah Valley. We made only a
short distance the first day, but did better next day, making nearly
twenty-five miles, and reached Catlett's Station.

On the 31st we marched only four miles, but pushed on the next, and
reached Haymarket, near the Gap.

June 1st was a day of rest for us, but on June 2d the troops were early
in motion, and after marching through the Gap were halted for an hour,
then countermarched, passing through the Gap, and encamped on almost
the same spot that they had left in the morning.

This was a movement which at the time was very confusing to us, but
time developed the fact that the emergency which demanded our presence
in the Shenandoah Valley had passed, Jackson having accomplished what
he desired, and his troops being wanted at Richmond by Gen. Lee, he had
left the Valley, and at the moment of our arrival at the Gap, was well
on his way. Our stay at Haymarket continued for three days.

On the 6th we had orders to move. Our destination was Warrenton, where
we arrived after an easy march, late in the afternoon. Here we remained
until the 8th, moving on that date to Warrenton Junction, bivouacking
for the night, continuing on the next day towards Catlett's Station,
which we reached on the 10th, and made a stay of four days. This trip
was very pleasant to us; the weather was good, the roads were fair, our
marches were not long, and the whole more of a pleasure trip through a
rather interesting country.

June 15th we marched to Cannon Creek, and after remaining for five
days we continued our journey to Spotted Tavern, and, after a stay of
forty-eight hours, returned to Fredericksburg on the 23d, after nearly
a mouth of marching, and made camp within a short distance of the old
one, in which we remained until Aug. 5th, our time being occupied with
the usual duties of camp life, drills, inspections, etc.

July 2d we turned in our battery of Parrotts and howitzers and drew
one of light twelves or Napoleons. These guns were of brass, smooth
bore, and had fixed ammunition. They were of short range, which would
necessitate our coming in close contact with the enemy; but the fixed
ammunition would enable them to be fired much more rapidly; and as they
had the reputation of being very destructive when used at short range,
the exchange was on the whole very acceptable to the men.

July 4th was celebrated by a salute in the morning, and repeating it in
the afternoon.

Aug. 5th the battery, with a portion of our Division, started on a
reconnoisance towards the Rapidan River. Towards noon on the second day
out, a portion of our troops had a slight skirmish with the enemy, but
it was of short duration.

Early on the morning of the third day of the reconnoisance our column
countermarched, and marched rapidly towards Fredericksburg. Our cavalry
were constantly skirmishing with the enemy. When within fifteen miles
of the town a regiment of infantry and our battery went into position,
but after firing a few shots the enemy fell back, and we rejoined
the column. Continuing our march we reached our old camp on the
Rappahannock Aug. 8, where we remained until Aug. 22d.



CHAPTER III.

Rappahannock Station--Groveton--Bull Run (or Manassas).


August 22d King's Division to which Battery D belonged, left camp
opposite Fredericksburg, it having been ordered to report with all
possible haste at Rappahannock Station. The battery pulled out of park
at daylight, and after a hard day's march, made camp within eight miles
of the station, some time after dark. Very early next morning as we
were aroused, the battery hitched up, and everything made ready to
proceed, we heard heavy and continuous firing, which indicated to us
that some one was having a hot time of it.

At 9 A.M. we were ordered to continue on to the station, which we
reached about noon, remaining until dark. All the afternoon troops
were continually recrossing the river and moving to the rear, and just
before we left, the buildings around the station were fired. The light
from this fire illuminated our way for some distance. At the station,
and for a mile or so beyond it, as we passed along the road, men were
engaged in tearing up the railroad, heating the rails and twisting them
beyond any possibility of their being used again.

Everything indicated that we had commenced a retrograde movement, and
the constant picket firing, which would occasionally increase in
volume, as though a regiment or brigade had become engaged, with the
added noise of cannon, told us plainly that the enemy were pressing our
rear vigorously.

In order that our situation may be fully understood, it may be well to
give a brief description of the general military events of a few weeks
previous to our arrival at the station.

On the 27th of June Maj. Gen. John Pope assumed command of the Army
of Virginia, composed of Fremont's, Banks's and McDowell's Corps,
in all about 38,000 men. The first two of these commands were at
Middletown, in the Shenandoah Valley. Of the latter command, one
division, under Gen. Ricketts, was at or near Manassas Junction, and
King's (to which Battery D belonged) at Fredericksburg. It was the
first intention of Gen. Pope to unite these widely separated troops,
and in concert with Gen. McClellan, who was occupying an advanced
position on the Peninsula, attempt the capture of Richmond; but in the
interim between the assumption of this command by Gen. Pope and the
uniting of his forces, Gen. McClellan had decided to retire from his
advanced position, to the James River, at Harrison's Landing, which was
accomplished after seven days of continuous and severe fighting.

The rebel commander, Gen. Lee, being relieved from any anxiety for the
safety of Richmond, determined upon a demonstration towards Washington,
and sent Gen. Jackson with a large force to oppose Gen. Pope. The two
armies met at Cedar Mountain, on the 9th of August. A severe battle was
fought, resulting in the defeat of our army, which was driven from its
position at dark.

It was soon discovered by Gen. Pope that Gen. Lee was moving nearly his
whole force from Richmond, for the purpose of crushing his (Pope's)
army, and it was now determined by the authorities at Washington to
transfer Gen. McClellan's forces from the Peninsula to the Potomac, as
a reinforcement for Gen. Pope.

On the 23d of August, the day the battery arrived at Rappahannock
Station, Gen. Longstreet had reached our front, and made an attack upon
our troops at Beverly Ford. It was the firing from this engagement
which had been sounding in our ears all day.

We continued our march well into the night. Just after midnight the
battery pulled into a lot and halted without unharnessing. The men were
told to lay down near their pieces and get what rest they could. About
daylight we were aroused and started on again, reaching Warrenton about
dark on the 24th. Early next morning the battery was on the road, and
after a slow, tedious march of five or six hours bivouacked at Sulphur
Springs for the night, without unhitching.

The evening of the 26th found us in the neighborhood of Waterloo
Bridge. Twenty-four hours later we were on the Warrenton Pike, about
half-way between Warrenton and Groveton, wet through from a drenching
rain which had prevailed for several hours.

After a very uncomfortable night we took the road again on the morning
of the 28th, headed towards Groveton. About 5 P.M. the battery moved
off the road into a field upon the right, came into park, and, without
unhitching, the men commenced to prepare supper.

Just as Capt. Monroe and the other officers, with Gen. King as their
guest, had seated themselves at the camp-table, a few picket shots
were heard on our left, followed almost immediately by a considerable
volley. Gen. King immediately mounted his horse and started in the
direction of the firing. Capt. Monroe ordered the drivers to mount,
put the battery in motion down the pike, then galloped on ahead; soon
he returned, gave the order "Trot, march," and, after going a short
distance, turned the head of the column towards a hill upon the left
of the road. We had almost reached the base of the hill when a staff
officer was seen coming over the top towards us, waving his sword in
the wildest manner and calling upon us to go back as quick as possible.
He hurriedly made the Captain understand, but before our direction
could be changed, we saw the lead horses of a rebel battery appearing
over the brow of the hill--we were both after the same position and
they had beaten us. Our direction was soon changed and we made every
possible effort to get under cover before they could do us much damage,
but they succeeded in getting in a few shots, which, however, did us
no damage. Soon we reached a sunken place in the road which afforded
us protection, and we were halted while Capt. Monroe searched for
a new position. After a stay of five minutes we were again ordered
forward. About one hundred yards of our way was fully exposed to the
fire of the rebel battery. They took every advantage of it, and threw
their shells thick and fast at us. It did not seem possible that we
could pass this exposed part of our journey without being seriously
damaged; but notwithstanding the shots flew around us, only one took
effect, hitting the stock of one of our caissons, breaking it and
disabling the carriage and necessitating its being blown up. Lieut.
Parker was ordered to accomplish this, and although he was exposed to
great personal danger, both from the enemy's fire and the explosion, he
successfully accomplished it.

The battery soon turned from the road into the fields on the left, and
with all possible speed made for the top of a hill not far distant;
on reaching the top of which it came into battery and immediately
commenced firing at the rebel battery which had taken the first
position from us.

I quote from Capt. Monroe's account of this battle:

 "It was evident that we were in for it, and I hastened back to
 the battery, which started at a quick trot for a knoll that I had
 observed, and which appeared to be a good position. As the leading
 carriage reached the foot of the knoll an officer rode rapidly towards
 me from its top saying, 'For God's sake, Captain, get out of this;
 they are putting a battery right on this hill.' I lost no time, for I
 could see the horses of the rebel artillery above me, and we turned
 back to the road. We took cover in the road where timbers skirted both
 sides of it for a short distance. We were very uncomfortable here, for
 the battery that had stolen the hill from us knew our position, and at
 less than six hundred yards range, sent its shot and shell crashing
 through the trees and over them, exploding their shells directly above
 us.

 We were where we could do nothing, and I determined to run the
 gauntlet of fire that swept over the open road beyond the timber we
 were in, to another copse that would afford more shelter, and at
 the same time probably an opportunity to get our guns into action;
 therefore the necessary order was given, and the battery passed over
 the space intervening at a rapid gallop. This movement resulted in
 few if any casualties to the men, but a shot struck the stock of a
 caisson, disabling it. To prevent its capture by the enemy it was
 blown up by Lieut. Parker.

 It had now grown quite dark, and the opposing lines were easily traced
 by the sheets of flame and flashes of powder pouring from each, while
 the positions were plainly discernible. The ground the battery had
 secured appeared in the darkness to be unfavorable for the use of
 all the guns; therefore two were posted in the road, where they had
 a flank fire upon both the infantry and artillery of the enemy. A
 captain of one of the rebel batteries engaged here told me several
 years afterwards that the guns away off to his left, which he had
 understood were those of a Rhode Island battery, inflicted terrible
 punishment upon him, and that he lost more heavily in men, horses
 and material, than in any one action of the war. Considering that we
 had but two guns in this position, this was a high compliment to the
 efficiency of Battery D.

 Before or about nine o'clock the action was over. Its close was
 terrific: fire leaped in waves from the musket's mouth, and men saw in
 the darkness the angry flames; bullets filled the air, or struck with
 heavy thud a living mark, and men heard the cruel sound; but neither
 fire, scream nor blow, nor the presence of almost certain death,
 appalled the Federal lines."

Soon after nine o'clock the heavy firing ceased, and in a half hour
everything was quiet, save occasional shots from the pickets. By ten
o'clock the men were sleeping quietly, the drivers near their horses,
and the cannoniers in their positions about the guns.

About midnight a staff officer entered the battery, found the captain
and ordered him to awaken his men, have the guns limbered, and move the
command into the road with the least possible noise. Sergeants were
awakened and sent around among the men, who were awakened with great
care, and cautioned not to speak save in a whisper. Everything about
the harnesses and carriages which would rattle or make a noise of any
kind was muffled. When everything was ready the battery started out of
its position, and gaining the Warrenton Pike, took up its line of march
back towards Gainesville.

The explanation of this movement was, that our division commander
had become very much exercised in his mind as to the wisdom of his
remaining in this position, as it seemed to him untenable; and as Gen.
McDowell, our corps commander, was inaccessible, he decided not to
remain.

After-knowledge has made it plain that it would have been much better
for our side if our position had been firmly held, for our army had the
rebel Gen. Jackson at such disadvantage and his supporting force, under
Gen. Longstreet, was so far away, that in all probability had he (Gen.
Jackson) been assaulted by our combined forces at daylight, he would
have been so disabled as to have been of no service to his side in the
fighting of the two following days.

Upon reaching the intersection of the Warrenton and Manassas Pikes,
just beyond the village of Gainesville, the direction of our march
turned towards Manassas Junction, to which place we now marched,
reaching there just as the day began to dawn. The battery was parked
without unharnessing, and the men allowed to prepare their breakfast.

About the middle of the forenoon we left the Junction, taking the
Sudley road towards the old Bull Run battlefield. Our progress was slow
and tedious, the road being filled with troops and wagon trains. As we
neared our destination we could hear the sound of battle, which grew
louder and seemingly more extended with every mile we traveled. Our
halting and hitching-along progress became very annoying to the men of
Battery D, for it seemed to them that with such delay it was extremely
doubtful about their reaching the battlefield in time to be of any
service.

About 3 P.M. we left the road and entered the fields at a smart trot,
and soon reached the "Henry House" plateau, with the full expectation
of immediately entering the fight; instead of which the captain
indulged in a field-drill, for the purpose, as he has since said, of
satisfying himself as to whether his men would remain "steady" with
the immediate prospect of coming under fire. The result was entirely
satisfactory to him, and he has been pleased to say since, "that after
that experiment he would not have hesitated to have marched through the
whole Confederacy with those men."

Towards night we were ordered into a position on low ground between the
Stone House and Dugen's, north of the Warrenton turnpike, but after
a few moments found that the position was untenable, because of our
own batteries, who, from a position on a hill in our rear, persisted
in cutting their fuses so short that most of their shells exploded in
close proximity to us.

From here we marched back and took position on very high ground,
overlooking quite an extent of territory towards an unfinished
railroad, where Jackson had been fighting our troops since morning. We
were not near enough to take part, but could see the struggle quite
plainly, and frequently the shot and shell from the enemy would strike
or burst in close proximity to us.

We now began to get our first impressions of what war really was, and
soon became thoroughly convinced that it was very serious business. We
had hardly settled down in our new position before wounded men began to
pass through our intervals; those with light wounds on foot, and the
more seriously wounded were brought upon stretchers.

This night we spread our blankets, and lay down in our positions, the
cannoniers about the guns, and the drivers at their horses' heads, and
were soon fast asleep.

At daylight on the 30th we were awakened by picket firing upon our
right, which in an hour or so increased into a constant roar of
musketry and artillery, which, until about noon, seemed to be confined
principally to our right, but soon after noon we began to see great
clouds of dust on our left, and column after column of our troops could
be seen hurrying in that direction, which indicated to us that trouble
was brewing there. Batteries were taken from positions near us, and
hurried along with the troops, but we were allowed to remain in ours
until nearly three o'clock, when we were ordered to move down to the
Warrenton Pike, upon reaching which we moved along for perhaps a half
mile in the direction of Groveton, then moved into a field upon the
left of the turnpike and halted. We remained here for nearly an hour.

It was in the neighborhood of four o'clock that a staff officer from
Gen. McDowell rode up to Capt. Monroe, upon the full gallop, and, after
a few hurried words had passed between them, the order "Forward, trot,
march" was given. The battery was countermarched, and back we went,
bearing off to the south of the pike, and making for a hill perhaps
eight hundred yards distant. Upon reaching this hill (by name Bald
Hill), we moved down about two-thirds of the way to the bottom, and
there being a piece of level ground, we went into position. The ground
in our front descended quite abruptly for a hundred yards or so. At the
foot of the hill a brook ran, in which at this time the water was very
low, and when we reached our position the farther bank was occupied
by a single battle line of our troops, consisting of two brigades of
infantry. Gen. Milroy's independent brigade formed in line of battle in
our rear.

A great cloud of dust which we had been watching for some time coming
from the direction of Gainesville, has finally reached our front, and
we earnestly watch for the first appearance of the enemy. Soon we
notice a cloud of dust and considerable commotion upon a hill perhaps a
mile away. The dust has hardly settled when we see a puff of smoke, and
in a few seconds a case-shot explodes in our midst, we receive orders
to open fire, and our struggle has commenced.

Our guns are short range, and we find it impossible to reach the rebel
battery; but it became certain that rebel infantry are moving through
the woods in our front, and we begin to throw shell and solid shot in
their direction. Soon the line of battle in our front opens upon the
rebel line coming through the woods, and a sharp and vigorous fire is
kept up for a while, when the rebels charge our thin lines, which break
and run up the hill towards us, passing through our intervals to the
rear.

Battery D is now face to face with the enemy, who have halted in the
depression of the brook for the purpose of perfecting their alignment.
Soon they make a rush for the battery, probably without the least doubt
but that we will prove an easy prey; but Capt. Monroe had drilled the
men of that battery for nine months, and it had prepared them for just
such an emergency as this. Every man was perfectly familiar with his
duty, and determined to do it. Guns were never served faster than
were these; round after round of canister is thrown into this mass of
approaching rebels; and it is thrown in such a manner that it is most
effective, and more than the enemy can stand, and they fall back to the
brook.

While Battery D had been thus engaged, battery after battery had been
placed in position by the enemy, and these were now filling the air
with bursting shell and case-shot; but our position being so far down
the hill about all of their shots went over us.

Soon the enemy appear again, but this time their lines extending way
beyond both our flanks, the right and left pieces change the direction
of their fire so as to protect our flanks. We became anxious about
our support, who ought now to be ready to assist us, but a hurried
investigation gives us the information that they have left us to our
fate--not an infantryman is in sight save their commanding general and
three or four of his staff officers.

Gen. Milroy is standing on his dead horse cheering us on, and his
staff officers are trying to help us work our guns. We appreciate
their motives, but not being versed in light artillery duties, they
are rather a detriment to us. In justice to his brigade which has
retreated, it may be well to take into consideration that they were in
position some thirty yards in our rear, which brought them well up the
hill, and they were exposed to the artillery fire which was passing
over us.

To add to our trouble word is brought from the limbers that our
canister has been exhausted, and only a few rounds of solid shot
remain. We cannot do much execution with this kind of ammunition, but
we keep it going at a lively pace. The enemy in our front soon discover
that we are not using canister, and taking advantage of it are fast
approaching us. Will Capt. Monroe delay too long, and shall we be
obliged to leave our guns as we have seen two batteries do just a few
moments before? No; he has his eyes upon them, and we soon hear the
welcome order, "Limbers to the rear." The limbers are whirled across
the trail, the pieces are limbered and hurried away almost from the
possession of the enemy!

Lieut. Pardon S. Jastram, of Battery E, of our regiment, saw the latter
part of Battery D's engagement, and its withdrawal from its position,
and has described it in the following story:

 The heat of the battle was over on the right of our line, at the
 second Bull Run, and we were watching the movements of the troops
 away up on the plains at the top of Bald Hill. Kearney was there with
 us, as well as a large number of officers and men of the line, all
 watching with breathless interest the operations of the contending
 lines clearly exposed to our view, save where a clump of timber hid a
 portion of the rebel line, and concealed what was going on. There was
 a line of our batteries, supported by infantry, all heavily engaged in
 an effort to repel a determined attack that the enemy's artillery and
 infantry were making.

 It was evident Lee had concentrated his efforts upon this point,
 and that he proposed to carry it by hurling all his available force
 against it. It was so plain from our standpoint that he would be
 successful that Kearney remarked, "You will see a second stampede from
 this field before night."

 Slowly the rebel line advanced, and rapidly the rebel artillery poured
 shot, shell and shrapnel into the Union lines, which stood steady and
 unbroken, but all aglow from the rapidity of the fire streaming from
 it, which had a sulphurous hue as seen through the enveloping smoke
 which rose in the air and floated away in great clouds. Guns were
 served as it seemed they never were before. It appeared as if the
 heavens would be rent in twain by the thunder of the artillery and the
 discharges of the small arms on both sides combined.

 The rebel line never faltered, but continued to move on,
 notwithstanding the deadly havoc in its ranks. Finally came the
 charge, and, with yells that rang out clearly over the space between
 them and us, they impetuously dashed upon the apparently firm,
 immovable line before them. The quickened fire of the artillery told
 that they were throwing canister with all their might and main, and
 if human power, so far as those men were concerned, could stem the
 approaching crest of glittering steel, they would do it. It looked as
 if it was an impossibility for any living force, however determined,
 to advance through that storm of iron and lead; but the rebel line
 wavered for a moment only, then it gathered its strength again almost
 in the very second that it appeared to lose it, and with renewed ardor
 swept on.

 Our advanced line of infantry, occupying a sunken road in front of the
 artillery, broke and rushed pell mell through the intervals between
 the guns and limbers; and the second line just behind the limbers of
 the batteries, joined them in their mad race to the rear, and down
 the hill. Double canister went from the well served guns, and great
 gaps appeared in the hotly charging line; but it was only for a few
 seconds, for in that brief space of time they were in among the guns
 and gunners, the latter seeking safety in precipitate retreat; there
 was nothing else to do except to remain and become prisoners. The guns
 were silent; they could hardly be seen on account of the great number
 of the enemy in among them. The drivers hastily mounted the horses of
 the limbers, and making a short "left about," hurried away with the
 fleeing cannoniers.

 Not so, however, the limbers of one battery: like lightning they
 dashed forward towards their pieces, and almost in the twinkling of
 an eye, they emerged from the confusion in an unbroken line with a
 light twelve pounder attached to every one of them, the captain of the
 company proudly riding before, wildly waving his sword!

 It was a bold movement, and evidently one the enemy had not
 anticipated, and so quickly had it been executed, he did not have time
 to realize it until the guns were beyond his reach. Except the men
 with these guns, not a Union soldier nor Union commander of any kind
 save in hasty retreat, could be seen on that, the south side of the
 Warrenton Pike, while the rebel lines continued to increase in extent,
 and to advance as rapidly as formations could be made.

 Our interest was centered in the battery, now all alone, entirely
 without support, and all expected to see it gallop to the rear and
 join the general stampede. To our infinite surprise, after advancing
 two hundred or three hundred yards to the rear, the captain again went
 into battery, as if, single handed, to defy the whole centre of the
 rebel army. The assurance of the battery commander, his effrontery
 and impudence, were as much of a surprise to the rebels apparently,
 as to us, and they seemed to be staggered for a few moments, as if in
 doubt whether or no our lines had reformed and were about to advance
 again. Their doubts were soon dispersed, and they charged with
 such a dashing impetuous rush that apparently the battery could by
 no possibility escape. Again the horses and limbers plunged wildly
 forward, and it seemed as if the pintle-hooks of the limbers actually
 shot into the lunettes of the trails of the gun carriages. Before the
 charging line reached the ground that the guns stood upon and fired
 from the battery was moving away at a smart trot!

 It looked as though the battery captain was now playing and trifling
 with the enemy, for when he reached the crest of the hill leading
 down into the valley, he went into battery again, to pay a parting
 compliment to the Johnnies, but he failed to surprise them for a third
 time, and they resumed their formation for a charge. The captain saw
 his danger and without firing a shot he limbered to the rear and
 coolly moved down the hill, where he was lost to our sight.

 Several of us were light artillery officers, and we knew from our own
 experience on the drill ground and under fire, what skill must have
 been exercised by a battery commander in training his men and horses
 to enable him to handle his battery like a plaything in the face of
 overwhelming numbers of the enemy, and to take what would have been
 enormous and unpardonable risks with a command not almost absolutely
 perfect in drill and discipline.

Such was the manner Battery D retreated from its position at the second
Bull Run.

After limbering the pieces as narrated in the preceding pages, the
battery moved down the hill, and, following the edge of the woods, soon
reached the Warrenton Pike, near the Stone Bridge. We found the road
to be filled with wagons, parts of batteries, infantry, cavalry, etc.
We halted at the bridge and Capt. Monroe tried to get some ammunition
for the battery, but it was impossible to do so. The battery was now
ordered forward onto the bridge, but the bridge at this time was
blocked up with wagons, etc., which we had to remove, and by the time
we crossed it was quite dark. We moved up the pike about half a mile
and entered a field on the left, and remained there until about nine
o'clock. We took advantage of this halt to have supper. While we were
halted at the bridge we supplied the battery with coffee, sugar, and
hard-tack from an abandoned baggage wagon. Just before we reached the
bridge there was a large number of camp-kettles that were filled with
corned beef. The fires were about out under them owing to the bullet
holes that had let out the water from most of them; but we found a
number that were all right and took them along. We had a good square
meal, which put us in first class condition.

At about nine o'clock we were again put in motion, and reached
Centreville Heights about midnight, parked the battery, unhitched the
horses, without unharnessing, and the men lay down in a drizzling rain
for a very much needed rest, and slept soundly until morning.

Our stay on these heights was extended through the whole of Sunday, the
31st, and until nearly two o'clock P.M. of Sept. 1st. We were then put
in motion, and proceeded along the Centreville Pike towards Washington.
We moved along very leisurely, and it was in the vicinity of four
o'clock that we reached a point about half way between Centreville and
Fairfax Court House, when our ears were again filled with the roar
of volley after volley of musketry, seemingly not a great distance
away. Our column was halted immediately, and for an hour or more we
stood in expectation of being momentarily called upon. To add to the
impressiveness of the occasion, a very severe thunder storm commenced
about the same time with the engagement, and the noise of the thunder
added to that of the battle, made it seem terrific. The rain fell in
torrents, wetting us through in a few minutes, and increasing our
discomfort.

This engagement was the battle of Chantilly, and was brought about by
the rebel Gen. Jackson's endeavor to intercept and cut our retreating
column, moving along the Warrenton Pike, by marching via Little River
Pike, a road which leaves the Bull Run battlefield from a point near
his position upon that field, crossing the Warrenton Pike near Fairfax
Court House; but the watchfulness of our cavalry had discovered the
movement, and it was promptly frustrated. Soon after dark the firing
ceased, and the battery was moved into a field upon the right of the
road, parked, and notwithstanding that the ground was thoroughly
soaked, and the men wet to the skin, they rolled up in their blankets
and were soon asleep.

Tuesday, Sept. 2d, we continued our march towards Washington, reaching
the vicinity of Bailey's Cross-roads about dark. Since the 22d of
August, the battery had been upon the march day and night, not once had
the horses been unharnessed, and they had been short of forage for most
of the time, and it may be imagined were in a very exhausted condition.
The men were thoroughly used up; what with the excessive duty, lack of
rations, and the discouraging termination of the campaign, they were
very much disheartened.

On our arrival in the vicinity of our old camp, at sometime in the
early evening, considerable cheering was heard down the road leading to
Alexandria, which increased in volume as it approached. Our interest in
the singular and unexpected demonstration drew us out into the road,
and we could soon see in the growing darkness the approach of a large
cavalcade, and by a close inspection we were able to distinguish the
form of Gen. McClellan. We immediately added our cheers to the others,
and when a few moments later it was said that he had been reappointed
to the command of our armies, our enthusiasm was unrestrained.

From Sept. 2d until Sept. 6th, we remained in camp near our old camping
grounds at Upton's Hill and Dupont. Each night a section of the battery
was sent out on picket, but nothing of importance disturbed us.



CHAPTER IV.

South Mountain and Antietam.


About nine o'clock on the evening of Sept. 6th, the section on picket
was called in, and as speedily as possible the battery packed up and
started towards Washington, passing through the city towards midnight,
and early on the morning of the 7th made camp about twelve miles from
the city, on the Maryland side of the Potomac River, where we remained
until the 10th, when we marched to Lisbon. On the 12th we reached
New Market, continuing on to Frederick City the next day. Here the
head of our column began to encounter the rebels, and on the 14th our
troops fought a severe battle with them at South Mountain, and after
persistent and hard fighting, succeeded in driving them over the
mountain.

Battery D was not engaged in this battle, but from its position,
which was upon very high ground, the men had an excellent view of the
engagement.

Let us pause a moment, for the purpose of narrating the movements of
the Confederate army, which had caused this sudden departure of ours
into Maryland. After the check given to Gen. Jackson at Chantilly, Gen.
Lee decided to invade Maryland. He hoped by this action to have his
army largely recruited from the great number of Southern sympathizers
in that State, whom it had been said were only waiting for just such
an opportunity as this would give them, to join the Confederate army.
Gen. Jackson was ordered to march for the Potomac, and between the 4th
and 5th of Sept. the whole Confederate army had crossed into Maryland,
and was encamped near Frederick, on the Monocacy River. Gen. Lee
issued an address to the people of Maryland, inviting those who were
in sympathy with the Southern cause, to join the army; but it fell
flat, and he lost more by desertions than he gained by recruits from
the Marylanders. On the 9th of Sept. Gen. Lee issued Special Order No.
119, in which he ordered Gen. Jackson to proceed to Harper's Ferry, and
oblige its surrender. Gen. Longstreet and the rest of the army were
ordered to proceed to Boonsboro,--thus his army was divided. Happily
this order fell into the hands of Gen. McClellan, who acted upon its
information immediately by following the main part of the Confederate
army, attacking it and driving it over South Mountain down to Antietam,
and it was late in the afternoon of the 17th before Lee's army was
fully united.

The morning of the 15th saw Battery D upon the road again, and by noon
we had reached the summit of South Mountain. As we passed along we saw
numerous evidences of the severe struggle. Many of the dead, both of
our own and the rebel forces, lay by the roadside and in the fields,
burial parties being then at work digging graves.

During the afternoon we continued our winding way down the mountain,
following the pike road which led through the village of Boonsboro, and
went into camp just beyond the village. On the morning of the 16th we
were hitched up and ready to move, but did not get the order to move
until about noon; when, passing through Keedysville, we followed the
pike until near McClellan's head-quarters, the vicinity of which we
reached just before dark, and turning to the right crossed Antietam
Creek, and after marching for sometime in a somewhat circuitous route
went into park about nine o'clock, with a number of other batteries.
Our position was on cleared ground and on the summit of a commanding
ridge, as we discovered next morning.

As our infantry advanced to establish a picket line, they were met
with a heavy fire, which convinced us that the enemy were in our near
presence, and in large force. Their artillery shelled us continually,
and the flight of the shells with their burning fuses, together with
the flash of the small arms, made a very pretty display, but we were
all glad when the exhibition came to a close, just before ten o'clock.

The teams were not unhitched, but the bridles were dropped, giving
the horses an opportunity to feed. It was late before the horses were
fed and the men had eaten their suppers, but finally all had disposed
themselves for sleep, either upon the ground, or on the chests of the
caissons, and were soon utterly indifferent to their surroundings and
the prospects of trouble on the morrow.

Just at daylight the next morning we were awakened by a shell that went
screeching over the battery, and in a minute or two it was followed by
quite a lively lot of them, but their elevation was just a little too
high, and they passed over us, only one doing any damage.

Cannoniers rushed to their posts, drivers to their horses: bridles were
hastily slipped on, and in less time than it takes to tell it, were
executing the movement "Action front," in answer to an order from the
Captain. As the men succeeded in rubbing their eyes open, and recovered
from their astonishment, they looked about for an explanation of this
disturbance. It was in the gray of dawn, and the few first rays of the
rising sun had made it possible for us to see the surrounding hills.
From one of these a battery or two of rebels had discovered our
position, and gotten in the first blow; but they had no idea what a
hornets' nest they were stirring up, for it so happened that upon that
ridge there lay four batteries: upon our left lay Battery B, Fourth
United States, upon our rear Battery L, First New York, and the First
New Hampshire, and as quickly as possible every gun, twenty-four in
number, was firing in reply to the enemy.

Capt. Monroe says of this part of the action:

 "I have always thought that but one battery opened upon us, though
 others believe there were two or three opposed to us. Whatever number
 there was, they must have found their position a warm one, for the
 gunners of three of these (our batteries) could not be excelled for
 marksmanship, estimation of distances, and all the good qualities
 which go to make a skillful gunner. The previous winter they had been
 exercised by Capt. Gibbon in firing at target, sighting, etc., and
 they had acquired great proficiency in these points. The fuses of the
 shell and case were accurately timed, and the projectiles burst where
 it was intended they should, among the guns and limbers of the enemy,
 who had stirred up a hornets' nest, and the hornets proved too many
 for him."

After the rebel battery had retired, and the firing ceased, the men of
Battery D had an opportunity to look about them, take in the lay of the
land, etc. In our front the ground sloped gradually for several hundred
yards, at which distance it was crossed at nearly right angles with our
position by a sunken road, in which the rebel line of battle was posted.

Immediately upon our left was a thin belt of woods, and beyond that an
extensive cornfield, in which was done as stubborn fighting as was ever
seen. During the whole day its possession was hotly contested; first
one side and then the other would occupy it, and so vigorous was the
assault, so brave the defence, that by noon it was possible to trace
where the various stands had been made, by the continuous lines of dead
and wounded, extending from one side of the cornfield to the other.

After the cessation of the artillery fire, the men of Battery D were
kept busy replenishing the limber chests with ammunition, and various
other duties, until about nine o'clock, and for an hour afterwards had
a comparatively easy time. Two batteries in our line, Campbell's and
Reynolds's, were moved from their position near us to a new one just
beyond the woods in the edge of the cornfield, where they received very
warm treatment.

About ten A.M. one of Gen. Hooker's staff came to Capt. Monroe and
ordered him to report to Gen. Hooker. After ordering the drivers to
mount, and putting the column in motion, left in front, under Lieut.
Fisk, Capt. Monroe sought Gen. Hooker, whom he found at the front of
our line of battle, mounted upon a white horse, altogether the most
conspicuous object in that vicinity, and less than five hundred yards
from the rebel line. As coolly as though in a drawing room, he pointed
out to the Captain the position he desired him to occupy, and the
work he wanted him to do. The position was upon the top of a slight
elevation fully a hundred yards in front of our line of battle, and the
work was the silencing of a rebel battery which had secured a position
from which they had an enfilade fire upon our line of battle, which was
very destructive.

Upon receiving this order, Capt. Monroe returned to the battery,
joining us just as we had passed through the woods and were entering
the cornfield. Our passage through this field was necessarily slow,
because of the impossibility of moving in a direct line in consequence
of the great number of dead and wounded; frequent stops had to be made
for the purpose of moving them out of the way.

Just after crossing the Smoketown road Capt. Monroe halted the caissons
and advanced the pieces a short distance and gave the order "Form
line advancing, trot, march," and soon gave the order "In battery,
action front," "Commence firing." This manoeuvre brought us upon level
ground nearly in front of the Dunker Church, and about one hundred and
twenty-five yards from the Hagerstown Pike.

The battery that we were to silence was south of the church on the east
of the pike. They did not seem to pay any attention to us until we were
fairly in battery, and had opened on them, then it was give and take
for a few minutes. They had been firing at quite long range, and did
not get their guns depressed so as to do us any damage, all of their
shots going over us. Our gunners were putting case shot in among them
at a rapid rate, and soon their fire slackened and in a little while
ceased altogether. After the smoke had cleared away we found that they
had retired, leaving one limber and several dead men and horses on the
ground they had occupied.

We stopped firing and watched a brigade of our infantry which was going
into position on our right and rear. They moved to the right until
they were on a line with our right piece, and then faced to the front
and charged into the woods just to the north of the Dunker Church. In
the meantime we began to get a few minie balls from the south of the
church, and sent back a few shells; but we soon had orders to cease
firing, as there was some doubt about whether the brigade that had just
passed into the woods had not moved to that side of the church. It was
not over six or eight minutes before volley after volley was fired in
the woods just behind the church, and the brigade which had charged
into the woods but a few minutes before in such dashing style now came
pouring out in a confused mass. They had run into a large force of the
rebels and could not hold their ground.

We expected now to get the order to limber up and move to the rear; but
instead, we were ordered to "Commence firing." Up to this time we had
lost but two men and two or three horses. We directed our fire into
the woods in our front, and in a few minutes we saw a line of rebels
coming through the woods just to the right of the church. Knowing that
if that line was not stopped that Battery D was in a bad place, as they
would flank us on the right, and the ground to our left was such that
we could not get out that way, we sent round after round of canister at
them in quick succession, and had the satisfaction of seeing the line
waver and then break and return to the woods.

We were now feeling that we had things our own way again, but the
minie bullets were beginning to come again, not so thick as before,
but with a great deal of accuracy, and we soon found, that although
we had driven the main line back, in the meantime quite a number
of sharpshooters had dropped into the depression on the east side
of the pike, and also behind a pile of rails on our right not over
seventy-five yards away, and were making it very uncomfortable for us.
The right piece of the centre section had three number ones shot down
before they could load their piece, and had lost every man but Corp.
Gray and private Mills. The piece was finally loaded, and a shell was
sent into the pile of rails, which must have done some damage. The
right piece had lost every horse on its limber, and the other pieces
were suffering losses in men and horses.

It was now apparent that it was time for us to fall back if we wanted
to save our battery. Capt. Monroe soon gave the order, and we fell back
to Mumma's house, just under the hill to our rear. We had to leave one
piece, but Lieut. Fisk soon returned with some men and the piece was
taken to the rear with the prolonge, leaving the limber, which was
recovered next day.

The battery soon moved back to the position we occupied in the morning,
and replenished our ammunition. Lieut. Parker went on a hunt for
horses to replace those that were killed and wounded. He succeeded in
getting horses enough so that we were in shape to move at a moment's
notice.

In this battle our battery lost four killed, sixteen wounded, and two
missing (six of the slightly wounded staid with the battery). We lost
thirty-eight horses. Capt. Monroe's horse was shot six times.

Capt. Campbell, of Battery B, Fourth United States, having been
severely wounded, Capt. Monroe succeeded him as Chief of Artillery, and
the command of Battery D passed to Lieut. Fisk.

The afternoon was well advanced when an order was received that we
take position "In battery" along the ridge occupied by us in the early
morning, and with us went four other batteries, making twenty-nine
guns. Every officer was ordered to keep a sharp lookout, and at
the first indication of an attempt by the enemy to place artillery
in position, all the guns in that line were to commence firing,
concentrating their fire upon that spot.

About five o'clock a horseman was seen to ride over the hill from
which the rebel battery had shelled us in the morning, followed almost
immediately by the teams of a battery, and rapidly making the left
about, drop their pieces into battery, but before they had fired a
shot, twenty-nine projectiles of various kinds and sizes were flying
towards that unfortunate battery, creating, a few seconds later, the
greatest consternation, as they exploded among the pieces and limbers;
round after round followed in quick succession, and that battery beat a
hasty retreat. Other batteries tried to maintain the position, but it
was of no use; our fire was too frequent and well directed for anything
to live upon that hill for any length of time. Gradually it became more
and more quiet, so that by nine o'clock all firing had ceased, save an
occasional picket shot.

Battery D remained in position. Through the night rumor had it that we
had practically destroyed Lee's army, and that it only remained for us
to up and at him in the morning, to drive him into the Potomac. But
the next morning we were very much surprised at the entire absence of
noise; instead of the roar of battle, we could not hear even the noise
of a single picket gun. Our curiosity kept us hunting for a reason,
until it was ascertained that we were under a flag of truce.

All day long we lay in our position, expecting that the truce would
end, and we should resume the fight. During the forenoon we took
advantage of the inaction to recover the limber left on the field,
visit our wounded in the hospitals, refitting our disabled pieces,
caissons, etc., and at last night closed in without our having fired a
shot. This was not entirely satisfactory to us, for although we were
not actually starving for a fight, still the impression of all, even
the privates, was that we had our enemy at great disadvantage, which we
were by this delay losing.

On the morning of the 19th of Sept., the battery was early prepared
for an advance movement, but it was nearly noon before we moved out
of park. Since early morning we had seen troops moving forward along
the Hagerstown Pike, and were momentarily expecting to hear the roar
of battle, but not a sound reached our ears until near the middle
forenoon, when distant artillery could be heard. What has happened?
Soon mounted messengers returned at full speed to McClellan's
head-quarters, and the mortifying intelligence is given that there is
no enemy in our front, Gen. Lee having taken advantage of the darkness
of the night and moved his entire command across the Potomac at
Shepherdstown Ford.

It is well that it was not possible for Gen. McClellan to hear all
that was said of him by the soldiers of his army when this was fully
understood by them; the feeling that here was one more illustration of
the superior generalship of the enemy was very depressing.

About 12 o'clock our battery pulled out of park, moved across the
fields to the Hagerstown Pike, and started towards Sharpsburg. Our
route carried us along that part of the road over which there had been
such a fearful struggle on the 17th; nothing had been disturbed (except
that the wounded had been removed), but lay just as it had been left on
the evening of that day. As we reached that part where the cornfield
was upon our left and the Dunker Church upon our right, the sight
became sickening, even to men who had become inured to such scenes,
for there lay within the reach of our vision hundreds, yea, thousands
of dead, just as they had fallen, swelling into most horrible shapes,
twice their natural size, and mortification, which had been hastened
by a light rain on the night of the 18th, and a very hot sun on the
morning of the 19th, had turned the exposed parts of the bodies black.
We were glad when we had passed beyond the battlefield.

It was our impression that we had started in pursuit of the enemy,
but that was soon corrected, for before we reached Sharpsburg we were
ordered into camp, upon ground which had evidently been occupied very
recently by the rebels, as was made plain to us by the debris which
lay around, and emphasized by large numbers of a certain kind of live
stock, which for some reason (probably an over-crowded condition) had
left them, and now proceeded to fasten themselves upon us, much to our
discomfort.

On the 20th our camp was moved to a more acceptable place, and we
remained in it just one month.

Oct. 1st President Lincoln visited the army, and remained four days.
During his stay a grand review was held of the Army of the Potomac,
which had been increased to nearly 150,000, and was in superb
condition, while Lee was at Winchester, Va., with his army, reported
to be in a wretched condition; still McClellan did not show any
disposition to move upon him, notwithstanding he was urged time after
time by the President to do so.

All through October the weather was of the finest, just such as was
needed for a campaign, but all through the month Gen. McClellan was
inactive, and it was not until Nov. 1st that he was ready; then
he moved, but it was too late, for on the 7th there was a heavy
snowstorm--winter had commenced, and now movement would be necessarily
slow and tedious. His opportunity had been thrown away.

Oct. 20th Battery D left camp near Sharpsburg and marched to
Bakersville, going into camp with our Division Artillery, where it
was said we were to quarter for the winter; but at two o'clock in
the afternoon of the 26th, orders were received to pack up, and we
were soon on the march again, which was continued until nine o'clock,
through a drenching rainstorm, and finally made camp in a plowed field,
which was very inconvenient for men and horses, as the mud was ankle
deep.

On the 28th, our march was continued three or four miles, and we made
camp near Crompton's Pass. The next day we continued on, went through
the gap, and camped near Knoxville, Md. We remained here over the 29th.

A new disease had broken out among our horses, three-quarters of them
having swollen tongues, and so badly affected that their tongues would
protrude from their mouths, rendering it impossible for the poor
animals to eat their grain or hay; and added to this, a hoof disease,
caused by their being so constantly in the mud, had become so bad that
in many cases the hoof nearly rotted off, necessitating the shooting of
a considerable number of them.

Oct. 30th we crossed the Potomac into Virginia, at Berlin, and next
day commenced our pursuit of the rebel army, with a four gun battery,
being obliged to leave two of our guns because of lack of horses.

From the 31st of October to the 6th of November, we continued our
march, reaching Warrenton on the afternoon of the 6th, where we
remained until the 11th.

On the 7th the battery was ordered into position, expecting an attack.
A furious snow storm prevailed all day, making us very uncomfortable,
and as we were without tents, we were obliged to depend entirely upon
our blankets for protection.

On the 10th it was officially announced that Gen. McClellan had been
relieved from command of the army, and Gen. Burnside appointed to
succeed him. Their addresses, one of farewell and the other assuming
command, were read to us upon parade that night.

Towards the last of October Capt. J. Albert Monroe left us, having
been promoted to Major of our regiment, and assigned to duty at
Washington. He was a strict disciplinarian and a thorough and efficient
drillmaster. Early in November Major Monroe was assigned to the
duty of organizing and commanding the Artillery Camp of Instruction
at Washington, in which duty he made a national reputation as an
artillerist of the first order.

Lieut. Fisk, being the senior officer present, had command of the
battery from a short time after Antietam until our arrival at
Bakersville, when Lieut. Harkness, having returned from his sick leave,
assumed command.



CHAPTER V.

Fredericksburg--Bell's Landing--Hampton--and Trip to the West.


On the 11th of November the battery marched to Waterloo, remaining
until the 17th, and then continued on to Morristown. Here it was again
rumored that we were to go into winter quarters, and a removal on the
19th into a fine grove rather strengthened our belief that there was
some foundation for the rumor; but orders which were received late
on the 21st that we were to be ready to move early the next morning,
settled effectually the winter camp question at this place.

Next morning the battery made an early start, and at night reached
Brook Station, on the Fredericksburg & Aquia Creek Railroad. The
weather was perfectly horrible, a cold drizzling rain prevailing all
day long, made the march very disagreeable.

Our stay here was extended until the 7th of Dec. Twice during that time
we received marching orders, but heavy snow storms necessitated their
being countermanded; but on the 7th we started, but after marching
four or five miles we reached a hill so steep and icy that the horses
were unable to pull the carriages to the top, and we made camp upon
the hill with our pieces and caissons strung along from the top to the
bottom. The next day we managed to get over the hill, and continued on
to Fredericksburg. On the 9th we moved to a position opposite the city,
and made camp.

Gen. Burnside, upon assuming command of the army, with the consent of
Gen. Halleck, abandoned Gen. McClellan's plan, which was, by a rapid
march upon Gordonsville, to interpose between Gen. Lee's divided forces
(he having sent Gen. Longstreet over the Blue Ridge to resist the Union
advance upon the Confederate capital), and beat them in detail, and
adopted a new plan of operations. The capture of Richmond, rather than
the destruction of Gen. Lee's army, was to be his objective.

The Union army at this time was 120,000 strong. Some precious time was
wasted in its reorganization. Instead of the old corps formation, it
was now organized into three Grand Divisions, each consisting of two
corps. Gen. Sumner was placed in command of the right, Gen. Franklin of
the left, and Gen. Hooker of the centre, and a large reserve commanded
by Gen. Sigel.

The plan as stated by Gen. Burnside was to concentrate the army at
Warrenton, make a feint of crossing the Rappahannock, leading the enemy
to believe that an attack was about to be made upon Gordonsville,
and then move the whole army to Fredericksburg, and thence march
rapidly upon Richmond; but here again some one blundered. To cross the
Rappahannock, it would be necessary to construct pontoon bridges. Gen.
Burnside supposed that the matter had been fully attended to, and that
the pontoons would be on hand at the time of his arrival, Nov. 15th;
instead of which it was the 25th of the month before they arrived, and
the 10th of December before things were ready for throwing the bridges
across the river.

In the mean time the enemy had discovered the plan, and on the 22d Gen.
Burnside and his division commanders had the mortification of seeing
the opposite heights covered with the enemy's batteries, and filled
with his infantry. Gen. Lee's army, some 80,000 strong, had all been
brought up, and it lay in a semicircle around Fredericksburg, each wing
resting on the river--its right at Port Royal below the city, and its
left a short distance above it.

On the 10th of December, everything being ready, Gen. Burnside gave
orders that the bridges should be thrown across at an early hour the
next morning; three were to be constructed immediately in front of
Fredericksburg, and two a couple of miles below. The morning of the
11th was cold and raw, a dense fog prevailed, amid which the work
commenced.

The heights upon the Falmouth side were close to the margin of the
river, which at this point is about three hundred yards wide. Upon
these heights there were placed in position one hundred and forty-seven
guns. The bridges below the city were laid without much opposition; but
in front of the city a galling fire, from behind stone walls and from
windows, was opened upon the bridge builders, driving them back, and
effectually preventing further work upon them.

About six o'clock another attempt was made, with the same result.
Then Gen. Burnside ordered the guns mounted upon Safford Heights to
open fire upon the city, and batter it down if necessary. More than a
hundred guns responded immediately to the order, and a roar commenced
which could be heard miles away, and that fairly shook the earth,
lasting nearly three hours.

In the midst of this firing another attempt was made to lay the
bridges; but, strange to say, there still were sharpshooters to oppose
them, and they were obliged to fall back; then volunteers were called
for to cross the river and drive the enemy out of their hiding places.
Three regiments responded to the call, were quickly conveyed across,
and in a brief space of time the sharpshooters were driven away, nearly
a hundred of them being made prisoners, and the bridges laid.

Before dark Sumner's and a few of Hooker's Division had crossed to
the south side of the river. Considerable skirmishing occurred as the
troops forced their way through the city and out upon the plains beyond.

Early on the morning of the 12th, the rest of the army crossed, and
Battery D went with it. Our progress up the streets from the river was
extremely dangerous, from the fact that the enemy had a perfect range,
and succeeded in ricocheting shot after shot down the very centre of
the street, obliging us to use the sidewalks. Occasionally they would
explode a shell uncomfortably close; but we succeeded in reaching the
upper part of the town without any serious casualty. Here we sought
protection behind a large stone warehouse, where we remained all day,
and until before light next morning, when we were moved up nearer the
enemy.

All day of the 13th we lay under fire, protected by buildings. The
enemy shelled Fredericksburg all the morning, and about noon the order
was given for our infantry to advance upon Marye's Heights. The mist
had cleared, and every movement of our troops could be distinctly
seen by the rebels upon the heights. Then commenced a most furious
cannonading, followed in a few moments, as our troops reached the stone
wall at the foot of Marye's Hill, by volley after volley of musketry.
So terrific was the fire from Marye's Hill that our artillery could not
be advanced, and the infantry had to fall back.

The men of Battery D were soon convinced of the terrible work that was
going on in front, from the great numbers of wounded which passed them,
going to the rear. In fifteen minutes, of the 5600 led into battle by
Gen. Hancock, 2000 were disabled. All day and until nearly dark on
the 14th our battery remained in the place we had moved into in the
morning.

Just before dark we were ordered to move forward across the plain to
the left of the city and shell the works on Marye's Heights. We came
into position on the edge of an embankment which was at least five
or six feet high. We placed our pieces in position and then took our
limbers and caissons back under the embankment, and when all was ready,
we opened with a will. We thought we had quite a snap on our enemy,
but in about three minutes they convinced us that we had "barked up
the wrong tree," for they just sent in a shower of shells and minies
that made us seek cover. We laid close to the embankment until they
let up, and then loaded all our pieces and gave them a broadside. We
fired two or three rounds, and then they had their turn again; this was
repeated three or four times; but at last we were denied the privilege
of even getting in a round or two, as their fire was kept up for a long
time, and they were putting their shells just in the right place. We
afterwards found out that they had platted the ground in their front,
and knew to a nicety every position, and could drop a shell into any of
them; and then it became apparent to all of us that we were not wanted
there anyway, so we limbered up and retired to the lower part of the
city.

Here we remained until two o'clock in the morning of the 15th, when we
recrossed the river, and returned to our old camp. By daylight all our
army had recrossed the river to the Falmouth side, and the battle of
Fredericksburg was over.

Battery D, although under fire all the time, did not become engaged,
save in this single instance, and was but little injured--First
Sergeant R. Henry Lee's wounded hand, and a broken stock of a caisson
being our only casualties.

Capt. W.W. Buckley, who had been promoted from First Lieutenant to
Captain on Oct. 30th, and assigned to Battery D, reached our camp on
Dec. 10th, just in time to participate in this fight.

Dec. 17th the battery was moved about a mile and a half back from the
river into a grove, and began to build winter quarters. A cellar about
a foot deep, six feet long and four feet wide, was first dug; this was
fixed around with pine slabs, dirt was then tamped around the outside
of the slabs, a ridge-pole was raised in the crotch of two upright
poles and covered with our shelter tents, and a mud chimney was built
on the outside, the tent being tacked tightly around the fire-place.
We had a bunk on either side, raised from the ground and filled with
boughs. When these houses were completed and we had built good rousing
fires in the fire-places, we were just as comfortable and happy as it
was possible for soldiers to be.

From this time to Feb. 6th, 1863, our time was occupied in performing
the ordinary duties of the soldier, such as drills, having inspections,
etc., varying the operations between Jan. 10th and 21st, by being under
marching orders for the purpose of crossing the Rappahannock River on
an expedition against the rebels.

Gen. Burnside desired to redeem, if possible, the disaster which had
befallen the Union army, and he originated a new plan, the purpose of
which was an immediate advance upon Richmond. His plan was to make a
feint above Fredericksburg, and to cross with the main body six miles
below. A large force of cavalry with four guns was to cross at Kelly's
Ford, push towards the Rapidan, destroy the railroad and bridges in the
rear of Gen. Lee, traverse Virginia, and join the Union garrison at
Suffolk.

This movement was stopped by order of the President, representations
from dissatisfied officers had had their effect, and Gen. Burnside was
ordered not to make the movement.

By Jan. 10th the plan had been changed. It was now proposed to cross
the Rappahannock above Fredericksburg, flank the enemy and force a
battle. The President gave his permission, and the troops were placed
under marching orders. The pontoons were brought up to the vicinity of
Banks' Ford, and everything made ready to throw the bridge across the
swollen river. Most of the army had been brought up to the vicinity of
the ford, and it was contemplated to make the movement on the morning
of the 21st of Jan., but on the evening of the 20th a fearful storm of
wind, sleet and rain came on, such as is seldom seen in that region,
which continued all night, and when morning came the entire country had
been converted into a vast bed of mud, and for hours the troops were
hopelessly mired--it was impossible to move in either direction--every
attempt to move only sank the wheels of the artillery and of the wagons
deeper into the soft sticky mud. Orders were finally issued to the
troops to return to winter quarters, and what is known as the "Mud
March" was ended.

Battery D was fortunate enough not to have left its camp on this
occasion; for ten days we were hitched up ready to move at a moment's
notice, but happily were not called upon, and thus escaped a most
disagreeable episode.

Stormy and cold weather prevailed during the last week of January,
but as we were comfortably housed, rations plenty, and duty light, we
managed to get through it without much discomfort.

February came in like a lion--the 2d was very cold, the 3d still
colder, and on the 4th the men could do little else than sit by their
fires, the cold was so intense.

On the 6th orders were received to pack up as soon as possible, and be
ready to march in an hour. About eight o'clock the battery moved out
of our winter camp and took up its line of march in a cold drenching
rain, towards Bell's Landing on the Potomac River, distant about twelve
miles. The roads were exceedingly muddy, so that our progress was
necessarily very slow; the very best we could do was about six miles on
the first day; the pieces and caissons would become fast in the mud,
and we would have to double our teams to pull them out. Our condition
may be imagined--tired out, wet through, and no way of protecting
ourselves from the cold storm, which continued through the night.

We succeeded after great difficulty in pulling our pieces and caissons
through to the landing on the next day; but the battery wagon and forge
not having arrived, six teams of horses were sent back after them, and
they were found about five miles back, the forge being bottom side up
in a creek, having run off the bridge the night before. We finally got
it on the road and hauled it and the battery wagon to camp.

About two o'clock in the morning of the 9th, the men were aroused,
and commenced loading the battery on canal boats. At nine o'clock the
loading of the battery was completed. The boats were shoved out into
the stream and anchored until four o'clock in the afternoon, when a
steamer took our tow-line and towed us down the river a few miles,
where we again anchored, and remained until the 11th, when we continued
our journey; but about noon it commenced storming, and we put into St.
Mary's Bay for a harbor. All day of the 12th the storm continued, and
we remained in the harbor.

Within a hundred yards of where our boats lay, were some immense rocks,
and at low tide large numbers of oysters could be seen clinging to
their sides. Permission was given that the men could use the small
boats to gather them, and soon large quantities were secured, and, as
it may be imagined, to men whose diet had been principally "salt junk"
and pork, this change in their diet was very acceptable.

The 13th opening clear and pleasant, an early start was made, and we
moved on down to the mouth of the river, but the bay was found to be
so rough that it was not considered safe to attempt crossing it, and we
made harbor until three o'clock in the afternoon, when the wind having
gone down, we started again towards Fortress Monroe. We reached Hampton
at daylight, and immediately disembarked. The next day we went into
camp near Hampton.

Hampton at this time was in ruins. When the rebel Gen. Magruder
evacuated the place, he burned it, hardly leaving a house standing. It
must have been a beautiful place before the war, but at the time of our
arrival it had been given over to the negroes, who had built huts out
of the ruins, and were taking life very easily.

One enterprising darkey had established an oyster house, and as soon
as we were in camp he solicited our trade, but as we had not been
paid in some time, about everybody was "broke;" we did have some
"Kalamazoo" greenbacks, but they had lost their value. We felt that
our constitutions needed a change of diet, and oysters were about the
proper thing to tone us up, so we sent one of our number over to the
oyster house and he bought a gallon of oysters and offered in payment a
two dollar "Kalamazoo." The darkey had some doubts about the bill, but
was assured it was genuine, and that he could go up to the captain and
convince himself that it was all right; but before the darkey had time
to go, the captain walked in; the bill was produced, and the captain
gave him two dollars and eighty cents in good Government greenbacks,
remarking that it was worth three dollars to him. This move established
the worth of Kalamazoo greenbacks, and we had a fair supply of oysters.
(Capt. Buckley was at this time on a sick furlough, but _his dress
coat_ was in camp.)

From the 15th of February until the 11th of March, we remained in camp
at Hampton, the time being occupied with the regular round of camp
duties. Snow and rain alternated with pleasant weather. Duties were
light, and, with plenty to eat, a good comfortable place to sleep in,
and the privilege of passes to visit the numerous places of interest in
the vicinity, made us feel very well contented with our situation.

On the 27th of February Capt. Buckley returned from a sick furlough.
Lieut. Parker, taking his turn at a furlough, left the battery on March
2d, for Rhode Island.

At two o'clock in the morning of the 6th, John T. Green died of
measles, and was buried at three o'clock in the afternoon of the 7th,
with military honors.

First Lieut. G.C. Harkness, at his request, was mustered out of
service, and left for home on the 7th.

March 11th the battery moved to Newport News, where it remained until
the 16th, on which day the camp was changed about a mile back towards
Hampton.

Just at night on the 18th, orders were received to prepare five days
rations and be ready to march at an early hour next morning. At six
o'clock in the morning of the 19th, we started for Fortress Monroe. It
began to snow soon after leaving camp; the storm rapidly increased,
and by afternoon became a blizzard. It was found impossible for us
to reach our destination, and we were obliged to camp. We passed a
most disagreeable night; wood was very scarce, and it was with great
difficulty that we gathered enough to keep us from freezing. Snow fell
to the depth of eight or ten inches, adding much to our discomfort.

Next morning we continued on to Fortress Monroe, and from the wharf at
that place loaded our battery upon the steamer John Brooks, and the
horses upon two schooners, and started early on the morning of the 22d,
in tow of the steamer, for Baltimore, Md. Our passage across Chesapeake
Bay was rather tempestuous, indeed so rough was it at one time that the
steamer was obliged to cut the tow-line and cast us adrift. She lay to
near us until morning, when she picked us up again, and we proceeded on
our journey without further interruption, reaching Baltimore at sunrise
on the morning of the 24th.

The battery was transferred as rapidly as possible from the boats to
the cars, and at three o'clock in the afternoon left Baltimore over the
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad for Parkersburg, on the Ohio River. Our train
consisted of flat cars upon which the pieces and caissons were loaded,
and freight cars in which the men and horses were accommodated, the
only difference between those occupied by the men and those in which
the horses were, being the placing of a few pine planks across the car
for the men to sit upon. Two nights and one day were occupied in making
this journey, arriving at Parkersburg on the 27th. Frequently long
stops were made which enabled the men to make little foraging trips,
and, as they were almost always very successful, there was a sudden
increase both in the quantity and variety of their diet, which was very
acceptable to them, and this, together with the constant change of
scene, made the trip very enjoyable.

Most of the 27th was occupied in transferring the battery from the cars
to a river steamboat, and in the evening commenced our trip down the
Ohio River, which was continued all night, and until eight o'clock in
the evening of the 28th, when the bow of our steamer was run up against
the bank of the river some six or eight miles above Cincinnati. Early
next morning we continued on down the river to Covington, where our
mode of conveyance was again changed from boat to cars. We reached
Lexington, Ky., about eight o'clock on the morning of the 30th, and
unloaded our battery and went into camp about six miles from that city.

After the failure of Gen. Burnside's last movement with the Army of the
Potomac, which resulted in the "mud march," he was relieved at his own
request from that command, and went immediately to Washington, and
formally tendered his resignation as Major General of Volunteers to the
President, but Mr. Lincoln refused to receive it, remarking that he had
"other fish for him to fry."

After a short furlough, during which he visited Providence, where he
received an enthusiastic ovation from his townsmen, Gen. Burnside
returned to Washington, hoping to have command of his old Ninth Corps,
but the President, after several consultations with him, on the 26th
of March placed him in command of the Department of the Ohio. Upon
accepting this command Gen. Burnside requested that he might be allowed
to take the Ninth Corps with him. His request was granted, and as
Battery D had been transferred to that corps, we were thus enabled to
follow the fortunes of our much loved Burnside.

The battery remained in camp at Lexington just a week. On the evening
of April 7th marching orders were received, and early on the 8th we
packed and hitched up, but were delayed until nearly noon, while the
men were paid. As soon as this was accomplished we commenced our march,
but after making eight or ten miles, bivouacked until morning, when we
continued our march, reaching Camp Dick Robinson before dark, after a
pleasant journey of about twenty miles over one of the best of roads.

Battery D's camp was upon one side of the road and directly opposite
the Seventh Rhode Island was encamped. As there were many acquaintances
in the two organizations, this proximity made it very pleasant for the
men of both commands.

On our way from Lexington to Camp Dick Robinson some of our men had
stopped by the way to inspect the country in general and the whiskey
distilleries in particular. An irresistible desire had seized them
to learn just how that beverage--which, for a small outlay, would
so soon make a millionaire of a pauper, or a brigadier of a private
soldier--was made: so great was their interest that they took no heed
of time, and their inspection lasted two days. The men of the battery
began to think they would never see their comrades again; all of them
were popular fellows and their return was anxiously awaited.

At last, one afternoon a great cloud of dust was seen rolling down the
pike towards our camp, and occasionally as the curtain of dust was
blown aside, a family carriage, with a colored driver mounted upon the
box, a soldier by his side, with the horses upon the dead run, could
be seen. As it drew nearer the soldier was recognized as one of the
absentees, and when the carriage whirled from the pike through our
camp, drew up before the captain's tent with a great flourish, while
from inside our missing comrades one after another crawled out, formed
a line, and as the captain appeared, saluted him and reported for duty,
it was so ludicrous and audacious that it brought a shout of laughter
from the men, and made it impossible for the captain to say anything
more than "Go to your quarters," while he maintained a straight face.

Frequent trips were made by the men to distant villages in the
vicinity; the weather for the most part being very pleasant and warm,
made these trips through this beautiful country very enjoyable.

On the 26th we started early in the morning for Stamford, about
eighteen miles distant. We reached our destination about three o'clock
in the afternoon, and made camp, in which we remained until the 30th,
when an order was received to pack up as soon as possible and proceed
to Columbia, about twenty-five miles distant. We were soon on the road,
and after marching about twenty miles, went into camp at Carpenter's
Creek.

The next day, May 1st, was spent in bivouac, momentarily expecting
orders to march, but nothing was received until evening, when we were
ordered to prepare to march at five o'clock in the morning. At daylight
the order was countermanded.

May 2d we were allowed to pitch our A tents, which led us to think our
stay at this place was to be prolonged. Fortunate it was for us that we
pitched our tents, for a heavy thunder storm prevailed all day of the
3d, and nearly all day on the 4th, and without the tents we should have
been in a sorry condition.

Late on the 4th orders were received to cook two days rations, and
be ready to march at midnight, and shortly after that time "Boots
and saddles" was blown, and we commenced a march of about fifteen
miles, over a very rough road and through an all day rain, which,
with the rain of the two previous days, transformed the red clay into
several inches of a sticky paste, which made our progress very slow
and tedious. Early on the morning of the 6th we continued our march,
reaching the town of Bumpus about noon. Stopping only long enough to
feed our horses and eat dinner, we then pushed on and made camp a few
miles from Somerset.

On the 7th we moved our camp to Somerset, where we remained until June
4th, our time being occupied with general camp duties, drills, etc.
Hay was very scarce, and every other day the horses were taken out and
allowed to graze. These trips proved very pleasant for the men, as it
brought them in contact with the farmers, and gave them opportunities
to buy butter, eggs, and other desirable eatables.

On the 22d orders were received to turn in A tents and all our
surplus baggage, and rumor had it that we were soon to start for East
Tennessee; but day after day passed and nothing further was heard of
such a movement.

On the 25th, the drivers being some three or four miles from camp
grazing their horses, an orderly rode furiously into camp with an
order to have the battery hitched up as soon as possible, and bringing
the startling information that our pickets had been driven in by the
enemy, who were fast approaching Somerset.

A messenger was immediately dispatched for the horses, and upon his
reaching them there commenced as grand a hurdle race as one would
care to witness--every one upon his own responsibility starting for
camp--across fields, over fences and through ditches they went, making
for the men in camp a most interesting and amusing finish. Upon their
arrival the battery was hitched up, and remained in that condition,
ready to move at a moment's notice until dark, when everything quieted
down and assumed its usual condition.

It was while in this camp that the men of the battery had a rather
startling illustration of the cavernous condition of this part of
Kentucky. Our camp lay upon the ridge of quite a sizable basin, in the
bottom of which there was a pond of perhaps five or six hundred feet in
circumference. It had been there ever since we came to the place, and
we had no reason to think that it was not a permanent fixture to the
landscape; but one night about midnight the men were aroused by strange
and unusual noises, evidently proceeding from the pond. Investigations
were made, but nothing was ascertained beyond the fact that the water
in the pond was falling very fast. Daylight was patiently waited for,
when it was discovered that our pond had disappeared, and in the very
centre of the depression was a hole as large as a hogshead, evidently
leading into one of the numerous caverns with which the country
thereabout is filled.

Gen. Burnside left Cincinnati on the 30th of May for Hickman's Bridge,
Ky., for the purpose of leading the Ninth and Twenty-third Corps over
the Cumberland Mountains into East Tennessee, but when he reached
Lexington he was met by an order from the War Department directing him
to reinforce Gen. Grant, at Vicksburg. Gen. Burnside had at this time
the Twenty-third Corps, formed from small bodies of troops which had
been scattered about in Kentucky, Ohio and Indiana, whose organization
he did not consider thoroughly perfected, and his old staunch and true
Ninth Corps. With his usual unselfish noble-heartedness Gen. Burnside
put behind him all his plans and desires and immediately put two
divisions of the Ninth Corps in motion for Vicksburg, and telegraphed
the Secretary of War for permission to accompany them, but the
Secretary would not permit it, and Gen. Parks assumed command.

The order for this journey of the Ninth Corps reached Battery D at its
camp in Somerset just before one o'clock on the morning of June 4th,
and at sunrise the battery pulled out of park and started on its march
for Lexington.

On the evening of the 5th we reached Stamford, and the men were kept up
until after midnight signing the pay roll and receiving their pay. The
night of the 6th we occupied our old quarters at Camp Dick Robinson.

At ten o'clock in the forenoon the battery arrived at the depot in
Lexington, and the men immediately commenced to load the battery upon
the cars for the purpose of commencing our proposed journey, but after
having nearly completed this work, the order was countermanded; the
battery was unloaded and moved about three miles from Lexington and
encamped.

During the night word was brought to us that Louis LaFont, a member of
the battery, had fallen or been thrown down stairs at the guard house
in Lexington, and his neck broken. LaFont was a genial, good-natured
man, much liked by his comrades, and his death cast a gloom over the
whole company.

The next day the battery received orders temporarily transferring it
to the Twenty-third Corps, together with marching orders for the 11th,
and on that day it moved to Camp Nelson, about five miles distant,
where the battery remained until July 12th. Our situation here was
very pleasant, in the very centre as it was, of that beautiful blue
grass country, surrounded by the most luxuriant fields of corn, wheat
and rye, and such fields of clover. Our horses enjoyed it, and it made
the drivers feel glad to see them growing so fat and sleek upon this
excellent fodder.

As the 4th of July drew near we began to make great preparations for
its celebration. Clark Walker, our carpenter, went to Nicholsvale and
built a platform for dancing; arrangements were made with the citizens
to provide a banquet for a fair consideration; in fact everything
that could be thought of that would add to the success of the day was
arranged. By daylight on the morning of the 4th the men were astir,
cutting grass to be used as wadding (for at sunrise we were to fire a
national salute), and piled it up near each gun.

Just as the sun appeared above the horizon, every cannonier was at his
position--the guns having been previously loaded, filled almost to the
muzzle with the wet grass--number four stood with his lanyard held
taut in the position of ready, when out broke upon the morning air the
order "By battery, fire." At that instant there came a report from the
six guns of the battery that was heard for twenty miles, followed as
rapidly as possible by other reports until one volley had been fired in
honor of every State then in the Union.

After stable call had been attended to, the men were allowed to go
to the village and carry out the programme previously arranged. The
violinist of the battery, Dan Elliott, provided the music for the
dancing, fairly eclipsing all of his former efforts. It was a very
enjoyable occasion, the men returning to camp about six o'clock, well
satisfied with the entire success of the celebration. At sunset the
salute of the morning was repeated, thus making everyone feel that the
day had been properly observed.

July 5th rumors of the approach of Gen. John Morgan, at the head of
about 3000 mounted men and six guns, began to excite the citizens.
Farmers made all possible haste to drive their cattle, horses, etc.,
within our lines; the battery placed its guns in position commanding
the roads, while the infantry dug rifle pits and made every provision
to give these raiders a very warm reception should they have the
temerity to come our way.

The excitement continued for the next five days, but on the 11th it was
learned that Morgan had avoided us, having passed many miles to the
west of our position, and on the 8th had crossed the Ohio River into
Indiana, where he was committing all sorts of depredations.

July 12th orders were received for the battery to march at nine
o'clock in the forenoon for Lexington, load upon the cars and proceed
at once to Cincinnati. At eight o'clock on the morning of the 13th
Covington was reached, and as quick as the battery could be unloaded,
we crossed the river into Cincinnati. That city was in a state of great
excitement--Morgan was expected to ride into their streets at any
moment, and with the greatly exaggerated reports of the enormity and
cruelty of his depredations constantly ringing in their ears, it was
not surprising that they should welcome with open arms anything which
promised them protection from such a monster. All the militia was under
arms, but the advent of a battery of light artillery, particularly
a veteran organization that they knew had seen service, and lots of
it, like Battery D, was very reassuring to them. Their pleasure was
evidenced by the welcome they gave us; indeed so royal was the welcome
I am afraid had John Morgan appeared to us that night he would have
met very little resistance from us, a circumstance which happened but
once in the nearly four years service of Battery D.

No sooner had we landed on the levee than we began to receive an
ovation which increased with every block, and when we crossed
the Rhine--a canal which ran through the centre of the city--the
demonstration reached its climax. This part of the town was largely
occupied by Germans. There was a lager beer saloon upon each corner,
and sometimes one or two between. As we passed, the saloon-keepers
came out to us with each finger of both hands holding a glass of beer.
Capt. Buckley had mounted the cannoniers and given strict orders that
none should dismount without permission; but this precaution was wholly
unnecessary, for the men had no desire to dismount with all this beer
surrounding them. A few indulged once, more twice or thrice, and a
much larger number so frequently that when we arrived in camp on the
outskirts of the city, it was found that quite a number of the men
were ready to turn in at once, and the temperance men would have the
privilege of doing all the work of unharnessing, watering and feeding
the horses, as a reward for their good behavior.

Early next morning the three sections of the battery were sent out
upon three principal roads approaching the city from the north, and
selecting positions which commanded these different roads for a
considerable distance, went into battery. Our support was the militia
from the city and the surrounding country, who felt, and we agreed with
them, that should Morgan attempt to enter Cincinnati he would meet with
a very warm reception. But Morgan did not attempt to enter the city,
but passed some miles from our front, and was finally captured by Gen.
Shackleford on the 26th, near New Lisbon.

July 16th the battery was withdrawn from picket duty, and encamped upon
Vine Street Hill.

July 17th Gen. Burnside ordered Capt. Buckley to move the battery to
Ninth Street, within a short distance of his head-quarters, place the
carriages in a wagon yard, the horses in a stable, and furnish the men
with quarters in a hall near by. To say that the men were very much
pleased with this arrangement but mildly expresses their feelings.
It was a matter of much speculation among them as to just why this
good luck had fallen to them. At first the men were inclined to think
that it was because Gen. Burnside was kindly disposed towards us, and
having an opportunity to give us a "soft snap," had improved it; but
with the light of future events, they were inclined to think that,
added to this reason, was a desire to keep the battery in the city near
him, that he might use it as an intimidator against the draft rioters,
whose grumbling and growling were growing louder and louder, and
their nightly meetings in the different market places more numerously
attended, as the draft proceeded.

The first intimation that the officers of the battery received that
such duty would be required of us came a few evenings after the
commencement of our new arrangement, when an orderly from head-quarters
came to the hall and inquired for Capt. Buckley, who could not be
found; in fact it unfortunately happened that the highest officer that
could be found was a duty sergeant, which fact the orderly was obliged
to report to the General, who ordered him to return to the battery,
find an officer, and order him to report at head-quarters immediately.
Lieut. Parker had returned by this time, and he immediately reported to
Gen. Burnside, whom he found very wroth, and who proceeded to lecture
him upon the great lack of attention to duty by the officers of Battery
D, and ordered him to inform Capt. Buckley that he desired him to have
his battery prepared to hitch up at a moment's notice, at any hour of
the day or night. This gave us the knowledge that we were not in these
comfortable quarters just for our own pleasure, but that there was a
probable duty connected with our situation. After this only a few men
were allowed to leave at a time, all others were expected to be within
hailing distance of the hall.

As often as every other day the battery was called out for parade, and
was taken through the different portions of the city. On Sunday we
were marched down to the levee, where we went through an inspection,
and afterwards were drilled for an hour or two, just to remind the
evil-disposed citizens that there was a six-gun battery still in
their city, that would make short work with any mob who attempted any
violence.

About half-past eight one evening the battery was ordered to hitch up
as soon as possible, and as soon as ready it started for a market-place
situated nearly in the centre of the city, where a crowd was reported
to be gathering. As we neared the place the captain gave the order
"Trot, march," and the battery swept around the corner into the
market-place in a column of sections, dividing as it reached the
market-house, the right pieces passing it on the right, the left pieces
upon the left, uniting as they passed the house and continuing on to
the end of the square, then countermarched and came back. By the time
we had reached the end of the market-place there was hardly a person to
be seen, everybody seemingly having become satisfied that Gen. Burnside
was determined that there should be no hostile gathering in Cincinnati.

This was the only occasion when it was necessary to make such a
demonstration as this. Everything quieted down, and from this time
until the end of our stay, Aug. 10th, Battery D was not called upon to
do any more intimidating.

At nine o'clock on the morning of Aug. 10th we crossed the Ohio River,
loaded the battery on the cars, and at two o'clock in the afternoon
left Covington en route for Lexington. Arriving just after midnight,
the men were immediately put to work unloading the battery, and as
soon as this was accomplished, and they had prepared and eaten their
breakfast, "Boots and saddles" was blown, and the battery started for
Camp Nelson, where we remained until the 15th, the time being occupied
in general repairing and refitting, and every care was taken to get
our battery in the best possible condition. New harnesses were drawn,
the battery wagon was thoroughly overhauled and replenished, and
clothing was issued to the men. Those of them who drew a liberal supply
had reason to be thankful that they had done so; those who did not,
regretted it before the coming campaign was over.



CHAPTER VI.

The Campaign in East Tennessee.


On the 11th of August Gen. Burnside arrived at Hickman's Bridge, Ky.,
and began making the final arrangements for his movement into East
Tennessee. He received information that the Ninth Corps had been
relieved by Gen. Grant, and was then on its way north, the advance
regiments having already reached Cairo, and could be expected to arrive
in Cincinnati not later than the 15th.

The Twenty-third Corps, under Gen. Hartzuff, had rendezvoused in three
columns, at different points; one, under Gen. White, at Columbia;
another, under Gen. Hascall, at Somerset; and the third, under Gen.
Carter, at Crab Orchard. With this last column Gen. Burnside was to go.

On the 20th the General issued orders for a forward movement to take
place on the 21st, and _at last_ this long delayed, much wished for,
and most fervently prayed for expedition was to start.

What significance those two words--At Last--had for thousands, yea,
tens of thousands at this time. It signified to President Lincoln
that at last one load which had been upon his heart for a year and a
half--namely, his sympathy for the loyal people of East Tennessee--was
about to be removed; it signified to those three great leaders of the
Union men of that section--Andrew Johnson, Edward Maynard, and Parson
Brownlow, that at last all their labor, efforts and prayers were about
to bear fruit in the accomplishment of their most cherished desire.

It signified to Gen. Burnside that at last he could push forward an
expedition which had had full possession of his heart--primarily, for
the relief of a long-suffering, intensely loyal people--and secondly,
to seize and hold as much as possible of the East Tennessee and Georgia
Railroad.

It signified to Gen. Rosecrans that at last he need give himself no
uneasiness about the rapid transfer of any portion of the Army of
Virginia to Chattanooga, via the East Tennessee and Georgia Railroad,
and after being used successfully against him, to be as rapidly
returned back again.

But what an infinitely greater significance did these words have for
the thousands of women and children in East Tennessee. In imagination
I can see those mothers, wives and sisters (as they receive the news
carried by some fleet-footed messenger over the Cumberland Mountains,
by secluded paths) gather on their mountains, in their valleys, in
towns and cities, and turning their eyes towards the mountains at the
north, cry out in all the ecstacy of lightened hearts, "At last, thank
God, dear fathers, husbands and brothers, you are coming back to us!"
And in answer I can hear, coming from the throats of those fathers,
husbands and brothers, who had come over the mountains into Kentucky in
such numbers that they had organized eight full regiments of infantry
and three of cavalry, "Yes! dear ones, at last we surely are coming, to
protect you and our homes."

Our battery having been thoroughly refitted and prepared for the
expedition, was ordered upon the 15th to report to Gen. Hascall,
at Danville. Here it remained until the morning of the 17th, when
it continued its journey to Stamford, laid over one day, and at two
o'clock on the morning of the 19th was aroused by "Boots and saddles,"
marching as soon as ready, for Crab Orchard.

This place had in ante-bellum days been noted as a watering-place,
or perhaps more properly speaking, sanitarium, it being possessed
of numerous medicinal springs. If my memory serves me, it was more
fortunate than most fakes of this sort, in that these springs were
supposed to contain waters of different therapeutical effect. There was
the alterative, tonic, and aperient water, a liberal and intelligently
administered course of which would rejuvenate the most thoroughly
used-up system in the world. No wonder that it was the Mecca toward
which all the chronics of the South journeyed.

Any veteran will remember how apt an old soldier was who had been
living upon salt junk, salt pork and hard-tack for a considerable time,
to allow his imagination full scope whenever his surroundings reminded
him of a full course dinner or banquet. Thus it was with Battery D on
the evening that we spent at Crab Orchard.

A lot of us gathered on the piazza of the vacant hotel and gave
orders for dinners that would have taxed the ability of a Delmonico
or a Tillinghast to have filled; and the fearful drop that came when
the men who had been personating waiters to help along the joke and
had dashed away for the kitchen on receiving our orders to have them
filled, and returned with a raw pork sandwich for each, profuse with
their apologies from the proprietors, that they were unable to fill
our orders because of the great rush of business, which had entirely
destroyed their assortment of eatables.

We ate the sandwiches, using all the imagination that we possessed,
then went to the springs and tried a course of the waters. One of the
springs, which I suppose must have been the alterative, was loud in its
smell and loud in its taste, and we vowed we would have no more of it.

Crab Orchard is situated at the beginning of the foot-hills of the
Cumberland Mountains, and from here the difficulties of the way will
increase with every mile we travel. From this on for some eighty miles
we are to march through a wilderness, from which we cannot expect to
gather anything in the way of forage, consequently we must secure all
the grain and hay that can be found, to take with us. All day of the
20th we spent in this work, scouring the country for ten miles around
with indifferent success.

On the 21st we marched to Cub Creek, a small stream emptying into the
Cumberland River. Next day we moved to Cumberland River and camped on
its bank, near Smith's Ford. On this day our battery made twenty miles,
which was considered astonishing by our corps commander. In a report
to Gen. Burnside he said that the roads were the worst he ever saw,
particularly the last five or six miles before we reached the river,
but thought they would be better when we had crossed to the other side.

I think that my comrades of Battery D will smile at this prophecy when
they remember what we really did find in the line of roads after we
crossed the river. The approach to and exit from Smith's Ford were
two of the steepest hills I ever remember to have seen, and the next
morning when we began to cross I contemplated the work with fear and
trembling; for I considered my position of wheel-driver on the sixth
caisson a dangerous one. But as I stood upon the top of the hill and
watched piece after piece and caisson after caisson go down safely, and
feeling that I was perhaps as expert a driver as any of the others,
and had a pair of horses--of which I propose to have something more to
say later on--as reliable as any in the battery, I began to have more
confidence, and when my turn came made the descent successfully. On the
other side it required the united efforts of six pairs of horses and
all the cannoniers that could get a hand on the carriages, to make the
ascent.

We spent the 24th in foraging for grain, and succeeded in finding
enough for three or four feedings, which was very unsatisfactory. We
had hardly enough to feed the horses, on small rations, for more than
three days, and as on the morrow we were to commence our climb to the
top of the Cumberland Mountains, should our horses give out we would be
in a sorry plight.

On the 25th we continued our march, and to our surprise found the roads
in much better condition than we expected, and were able to make about
eighteen miles. We began to feel that perhaps our way was not to be so
difficult after all; but the next morning before we had been on the
road an hour we found that the good road was a delusion and a snare--a
sort of "will-o'-the-wisp" to lure us on, and then suddenly throw
before us difficulties which were almost insurmountable.

The road began to narrow rapidly, until it became simply a bridle-path,
over which I do not believe a carriage had ever passed before. The
ascent became steeper and steeper, many places being encountered over
which the carriages had to be lifted by the men. The horses could
hardly be driven over these precipitous places, much less be made to
pull.

The infantry which had been ordered to accompany the battery to assist
in getting us over the rough places, became tired very early, and the
men of the battery becoming disgusted with their continual grumbling,
and the awkward manner in which they rendered their assistance, drove
them away, preferring to do it alone. Both men and horses performed
herculean labor that day.

During the afternoon we had been encouraged by the report that there
was very little more of this terribly hard labor to be performed. If we
could only hold out just a little while we should reach the top of the
mountain, and after we passed the "Pine Knot Tavern," the road would be
level, and in much better condition.

I do not know whether it was the hope of getting through with the
labor, or the anxiety to reach the tavern--many of them picturing to
themselves an establishment something after the style of the good
old New England tavern, filled with plenty to eat and drink--that
stimulated the men to greater exertions or not, but for an hour or two
our progress was much more rapid. It was after dark when we reached
a spot large enough to park the battery at very close intervals, and
bivouacked for the night.

Early on the morning of the 27th, after giving our horses all the corn
left, we started on. Very soon we passed "Pine Knot Tavern," which
consisted of a cellar half filled with the debris of what had been a
small log cabin, the supports of which had rotted off and allowed the
cabin to fall into the cellar.

Several natives, who had come from their homes, located in the ravines
on either side of the mountain, to see us pass, and sell a few chickens
(their stock had been exhausted long before we passed), were the first
people we had seen since we entered the wilderness.

All day we marched at this high elevation. Occasionally a cloud would
sweep across our path, enveloping us in fog for a while; then there
would be places where we would pass out of the woods and a most
magnificent landscape would unfold to our view. Sometimes it would be
Kentucky, at others East Tennessee upon which we were looking. Taken
all together it was the most enjoyable panoramic sort of a march that
the battery ever made.

It was left, however, for the morning of the 29th to unfold the most
magnificent sight that most of us had ever looked upon. As we gazed
about, we found that our location gave us a view on both sides of the
mountain. To the north we could see back into Kentucky, almost to our
starting point, and trace the route which we had just come over, dotted
here and there with the towns and villages through which we had passed.
Many of us had wondered why that section of the State had been called
the "Blue Grass Region;" the reason was plainly evident to us now, for
there it lay before us, as blue as though it had been dyed.

Then we turned our eyes towards the south, and looked upon that
land into which we were about to enter; beautiful it was to look
upon, divided into valleys by spurs of the Cumberland Mountains, the
ever-changing color of the landscape as the sun rose higher and higher,
enabling us to see farther, until our eyes could discover the Smoky
Mountains, the tops of which were covered with a smoke-like cloud,
located beyond Knoxville.

As our eyes became tired of looking such a distance we fastened them
upon the scenery near at hand, and found it as grand and romantic
as any we had ever looked upon. Taken all together it was a most
magnificent sight, and did not fail to arouse the most unenthusiastic
nature in the battery.

While we are contemplating the scene before us, and before we commence
our descent into these valleys, it will be well for us to consider what
manner of people these are whom we are going to succor. That they are
a peculiar people is perfectly evident from the fact that, living as
they do in the almost geographical centre of the Slave States, they
are by a large majority opposed to the institution of slavery. This is
evidenced by the fact that the first abolition paper ever published in
the United States emanated from a press in Jonesboro, Tennessee. Among
the first abolition societies ever organized in this country were those
of Eastern Tennessee, and in the year 1816 the Manumission Society,
of Tennessee, held a meeting at Greenville, and issued an address
advocating the abolition of slavery. Whence came this abhorrence of
slavery, and this love of liberty? Certainly the origin of this people
must have been different, totally different, from those who surrounded
them on all sides.

I am indebted to my friend William Rule, Esq., of Knoxville, for the
following account of the first settlement of East Tennessee:

"On the first day of May, 1769, a young farmer started out from the
banks of the Yadkin River, in the State of North Carolina, accompanied
by five stalwart hunters. It was about the time that the descendants
of the Pilgrim Fathers in Massachusetts were denying themselves the
luxury of tea rather than pay tribute to a tyrant king. About the same
time the House of Burgesses was dissolved by the Colonial Governor of
Virginia, for having dared to pass resolutions condemning the Stamp
Act, and Governor Tryon, of North Carolina, was serving his royal
master by oppressing the patriots of that colony.

The name of the young farmer was James Robertson, the founder of the
first colony in Tennessee; and one of the hunters who accompanied him
was Daniel Boone, whose daring exploits are familiar to everyone. They
went, as did the messengers of old sent by Moses, to spy out beyond the
Alleghanies a land where they and those who sent them might live free
from the restraints and oppression of English rulers.

One year afterwards a colony was established beside the swift-running
waters of the beautiful Watango River. It was composed of men and women
of heroic mould, filled with inspirations of patriotism, resolved that
their abiding place in the wilderness, surrounded by savages, should
be "Freedom's home or Glory's grave." It was the descendants of these
patriots who became the first Abolitionists. It was these same people
that, in February, 1861, when voting upon a proposition proposed by the
Legislature as to whether a convention should or should not be called
for the purpose of passing an ordinance of secession, declared by a
majority of more than twenty-three thousand out of a total vote of
forty-three thousand, against holding the convention."

It was these same people who furnished to the Union army during the
Rebellion thirty-five thousand troops--two thousand more than our own
State.

It should be borne in mind that these men could not go quietly and
peacefully to enlisting places, situated in their own towns and cities,
place their names upon the rolls in the presence of friends who
encouraged and praised them for so doing, nor could they leave their
families with the assurance that they would be looked after and taken
care of by a kind and sympathetic State.

On the contrary they were obliged to travel on foot by night over
mountains, swimming swift-running rivers, avoiding all roads, taking
only unfrequented paths, because the Confederates, who realized that
these men were bound to serve the Union cause, and were willing to
endure any hardship or privation necessary to accomplish that object,
were patrolling all the roads leading into Kentucky, for the purpose
of capturing these patriots and carrying them off to rebel prisons.
Journeys varying from two to three hundred miles were made by tens of
thousands of these men, for the purpose of fighting for their country,
leaving their families to the tender mercies of an enraged enemy.

Show me a people possessed of greater heroism, patriotism and love of
country, than the men and women--of whom I propose to say more--of East
Tennessee!

It had been the custom of Capt. Buckley after we entered the
wilderness, to ride on before the battery after he had seen it under
way, taking with him as orderly, William Fisk, and hunt for forage.
On this morning they started as usual, and were nearly the first to
pass the tavern. They were successful in securing two of the chickens
before-mentioned, but could get no information as to any grain in
that vicinity. Continuing on, it was well into the afternoon before
they came across any other citizens. Turning a bend in the road they
suddenly came in sight of a log cabin just off the trail we were
following. No one was in sight, but a few vigorous hulloas from the
captain brought into view two men and three women, evidently father,
mother, son and two daughters.

Capt. Buckley, in his most suave manner, asked if they had grain or
any knowledge of any in that vicinity. They very promptly answered
that they had none, neither did they know of any, and the captain was
about to continue his journey, when the younger daughter said, "John
Cooper has some." "Who is John Cooper, and where does he live?" asked
the captain. "A right smart piece down that road, on Pond's Creek," she
replied, pointing to a path which opened from the main road directly
opposite where they were standing. Mounting their horses the captain
said to Fisk, "We will go and see John Cooper," and started down the
path.

After riding a little more than two miles, they reached a log cabin,
and noticing what appeared to be a grist-mill a little further on, the
captain thought he would investigate before going to the house. The
result of this investigation was between twenty-five and thirty bushels
of corn, wheat and oats, upon which the captain's seal was immediately
placed.

They went to the house and were pleasantly greeted by Susan Cooper,
wife of John Cooper, as the lady informed them. In reply to the
captain's question as to whom the grain belonged, she informed him
that some of it was John's and the balance belonged to neighbors. No
objection was made by her when informed by the captain that he should
be obliged to take the grain, but he would leave a receipt for it,
which would be paid if her husband was a Union man.

At the captain's suggestion Mrs. Cooper expressed a willingness to
provide dinner for her guests, the number of which had been enlarged
by the arrival of an artillery captain and two buglers, who had come
down into the ravine in quest of grain, and had been invited by Capt.
Buckley to partake of the meal then being prepared by Mrs. Cooper,
which consisted of fried chicken and bacon, with a liberal supply of
corn bread. The lady was considerably embarrassed by her inability
to supply dishes for so large a company, and apologized for her
impoverished condition in this direction by saying that "It was a long
time since John had been where dishes could be put off."

Three things in connection with these people are thoroughly impressed
upon my mind:--First, the very small environment within which they
lived; secondly, their entire lack of interest in anything not entering
upon their own lives; and, thirdly, the exceeding simplicity of their
lives, and the little that was required to make them apparently
contented and happy. Mrs. Cooper, for instance, living at the bottom
of that ravine, the only entrance to which was down a narrow mountain
pathway, in a log cabin having but one room, with about two acres of
cleared land, surrounded upon all sides, save at the entrance, by a
solid wall of rock towering seventy-five feet in height, passing months
at a time without seeing anyone save the members of her own family,
certainly had as monotonous an existence as could be imagined.

The grain secured by the captain did not reach our bivouac at Chitwood
until late at night, but so badly was it needed by the horses--they
having been without any grain for one day at least--that the drivers
were aroused and their horses fed immediately.

The time had now arrived when we must commence our descent from the
mountain top. It is less laborious for the cannoniers, but much more
so for the wheel-drivers, of which I, unfortunately, happened to be
one. It has always been a matter of surprise to me that we brought
the battery safely to the foot of that mountain. I consider that the
agility displayed by me in dodging that pole as it flew about in
every direction--sometimes over one horse, then the other, at one
time pointing to the earth, and then to heaven, caused by the dashing
(sliding would perhaps be a better word, as the wheels were locked) of
the caisson over the rocks, sometimes making necessary a jump of four
or five feet, and be able to shout to my comrades as we reached the
bottom, "It never touched me," was one of the best things I ever did.

I claim no special merit for the successful manner in which I guided
the caisson down that awful road, because there were thirteen other
wheel-drivers who were just as successful, but all the same, I believe
it was my thorough knowledge of the peculiarities of my horses that
enabled me to do it. I was intimately acquainted with both of them,
as I had driven them for twenty months. Both were powerful animals,
but with entirely different notions as to how their strength was to
be used. Hercules, the nigh horse, which I rode, was always willing
to do his full share of the pulling, and if upon occasions it became
necessary for him to make an extra effort, he would, at my bidding,
take the whole load of the caisson upon his shoulders. The off horse,
with almost as much strength, did not believe in pulling, and would not
unless he thought I was watching him, when he would put in apparently
for all there was in him; but when asked to hold back, he entered into
the performance of that act with all the enthusiasm of a horse's
nature. I have frequently stopped the whole team by signifying that I
wanted him to do his best at holding back.

I have always regretted that I obliged that horse to go down to his
grave with a name which entirely misrepresented him. He had the most
vicious expression I ever saw upon a horse. His ears were always lopped
(I never saw them erect), and he had a habit of parting his lips,
showing his teeth in such a manner that it gave one the impresssion
that he only awaited an opportunity to attack. His appearance led me,
when the sergeant presented him, saying, "George, here is a horse just
suited to go with Hercules," to exclaim, "He looks like Old Satan
himself!" and from that moment he was known through the battery as "Old
Satan."

It was wrong thus to name him, and I desire on this occasion to do
him justice by declaring, after two years constant association,
during which I learned to think a great deal of him as a horse, that
I never saw any evidence of his possessing a single attribute said to
be possessed by his namesake. Kind and gentle, he never gave me any
trouble. He seemed to have acquired a perfect understanding of how that
caisson should be managed upon the march, and I soon learned to trust
him with its management. Upon long marches at night, when I found it
almost impossible to keep my eyes open, many were the restful naps I
enjoyed sitting on Hercules' back with my head pillowed upon the valise
in "Old Satan's" saddle.

Speaking about horses, I wonder if my comrades of Battery D have
forgotten what an amount of affection was lavished upon the horses
by their drivers. Certainly no one of the sixth detachment will ever
forget "Old Curley," driven so long as the nigh leader upon their
piece, by Anson Mathewson, possessed of an intelligence which enabled
him to reason more successfully than some animals of the human species.

We all remember the affectionate regard held by St. John, Billy Mills,
William Stalker and many others for their teams. Any of them would
tramp miles after dark to some haystack which they had seen during the
day, make as large a bundle of the hay as they could carry, bring it
to camp, spread it before their horses, and then sit up half the night
watching until the horses had consumed it, from fear that some one
would steal it and feed it to his own team.

At last we are over the mountains, and the great difficulties of our
journey passed. This march of the Army of the Ohio over the Cumberland
Mountains has been likened to the crossing of the Alps by Bonaparte,
and it seems to me the simile is well taken. Certainly it is hard to
imagine difficulties greater than those encountered by our army. The
rebel Gen. Buckner, who is said to have had an army of 20,000 men to
oppose our entry into East Tennessee, while Gen. Burnside had but about
15,000, was so thoroughly satisfied of the absolute impossibility
of the passage of an army from Kentucky to Tennessee at this point,
believing that they must come by way of Cumberland Gap, that he made
no attempt to oppose us; consequently when we appeared before him his
astonishment was so great, and his retreat so precipitous, he failed to
notify a detachment of his army, numbering 2,000 men, who were guarding
Cumberland Gap, and who soon were obliged to surrender to Gen. Burnside.

Our march of the 28th and 29th had been through a wilderness of rocks;
that of the 30th and 31st was through a wilderness of woods. The troops
in advance of the battery had worked the road-bed into an almost
impassable condition. Our horses having had but little forage since the
21st, and had been forced to work beyond the limits of their strength,
now began to give out, many falling from sheer exhaustion. It began
to look as though if grain could not be secured for them our chances
for getting through would be rather slim. Quartermaster Remington
was scouring the country in search of it; but on his return gave the
discouraging information that no forage could be secured until we
should reach a point about twenty miles further on. There was no other
way out of our present difficulty: that point _must_ be reached, and
the cannoniers must help the horses pull the carriages.

Our progress was necessarily very slow, but patience, perseverance
and lots of hard work, finally accomplished the task, and late in the
afternoon of the 31st, as we drove into park, we had the pleasure of
seeing Quartermaster Remington ride into camp, followed by two wagons
loaded with corn. It gave the drivers much satisfaction to see their
teams enjoying the first good feeding which they had had for ten days.

We had now gotten out of the wilderness, and were just about to enter
one of those fertile valleys which we had seen from the mountain top.
The men who had accompanied the wagons upon the forage trips after
the corn, gave us our first impression as to the kind and friendly
treatment which we might expect from the people whose country we were
just entering, in their description of the reception they had received
from those at whose places they had secured the corn.

On the morning of September 1st, after another good feeding, the
horses seemed to be in much better condition. About ten o'clock in the
forenoon the battery pulled out into the road and joined the division,
which had been ordered to make "Big Emery," about twenty miles distant,
before dark. We accomplished the task easily, and formed a junction
with the column under Gen. Carter, with whom Gen. Burnside had crossed
the mountains.

Foraging was now reduced to a perfect system. Gen. Burnside issued an
order calling attention to the fact that as it would now be necessary
for the army to depend upon the country largely for its subsistence,
he desired to remind us that we were among a loyal people, who
were our friends, and he was unwilling that they should be robbed
or despoiled of their property except in a legal manner, and by the
proper authorities. Officers were to be held strictly responsible for
any depredations committed by the men under their command; division,
brigade and regimental quartermasters were ordered to receipt for
everything taken by them for their commands, which would be paid upon
presentation to the proper authority, provided that the loyalty of
the person could be proven. Officers and men must pay for anything
taken by them for their personal use. The quartermaster sergeants of
batteries were allowed to give receipts for forage, but they must be
countersigned by the commanding officers to secure payment.

Details were made each day to do the work, and the privilege of going
upon these trips began to be much sought after. The kind manner in
which we were received by the citizens, made such excursions very
pleasant for the men.

September 2d we remained in camp near Big Emery River, resting and
grazing the horses until two o'clock in the afternoon, but the time
lost in the morning was made up by continuing the march well into the
night, it being eleven o'clock before we pulled off the road and parked
the battery for the night.

Very early the next morning we started for Clinch River, crossing some
five miles above Kingston, and continued on towards Knoxville, camping
that night about twenty miles from that place.

Next day, September 4th, our battery countermarched some six or eight
miles, and taking a road leading to Loudon, where the rebels were
reported to be in strong force, in a fortified position, marched
rapidly to that place.

Early in the afternoon artillery firing in our front convinced us that
at last we had come up with the enemy. Two hours afterwards, as we
came out upon the bluffs of the Tennessee River opposite Loudon, we saw
our cavalry crossing the river, under the protection of our artillery,
and driving the enemy beyond the town. Before the arrival of our troops
the enemy had fired the bridge over the river, and it was soon totally
destroyed.

Next day our infantry crossed the river and took possession of the
town, occupying as many of the fortifications as they could use, and
destroying the rest. The battery remained in camp opposite Loudon until
the 15th of September, enjoying a much needed rest. Both men and horses
had become thoroughly used up by this long and difficult journey,
which had just been completed, and the opportunity to recuperate was
thoroughly enjoyed and appreciated.

The rebels in their hurried flight had left us a few horses, mules,
and beef cattle, which were appropriated by our troops with thanks. A
large amount of wheat and corn were found in possession of the farmers,
which was immediately seized by our quartermaster. A steam flour-mill
in Loudon was found to be in perfect condition, and was soon at work
converting the wheat into flour, which was issued to the army for the
first time on the fifth. Corn meal was soon added to our rations;
flap-jacks and corn-dodgers became plenty; chickens and fresh pork
could be obtained without much trouble; and we were soon able to get up
a dinner the quality and quantity of which was very satisfactory to us.

September 14th orders were received late at night for the battery
to be prepared to march at an early hour next morning. The men were
aroused by "Boots and saddles," the battery hitched up, and marched
to the railroad, where all the knapsacks, together with the chests of
the caissons, were removed and placed upon flat cars. In this light
marching order the battery left Loudon at two o'clock in the morning
of the 15th. Our first camp was made near Knoxville, second at
Strawberry Plains, and the third at New Market, where we arrived early
in the afternoon of the 17th. It began raining on the evening of our
arrival, and continued throughout the night and the next day. Happily
we were not ordered to march and could spend the time fixing up our
tents for protection. The cooks were ordered to prepare rations for a
march on the following day.

September 19th we left New Market for Loudon, arriving on the 21st,
having been absent about one week, during which we had covered
ninety-eight miles.

The emergency which had occasioned this long march seems to have been
of double origin. Our movement to New Market had been occasioned by a
reported raid of the rebels of Southwestern Virginia upon Gen. Scannon,
with the view of driving him out of West Virginia, and our movement had
been made with the intention of leading the rebel commander to believe
that we were about to move upon him from the rear.

The occasion of our quick return was a dispatch from Gen. Halleck
to Gen. Burnside, notifying him that three divisions of Lee's army
had been sent to reinforce Bragg, and he desired him to go to Gen.
Rosecrans' assistance as soon as possible.

September 23d the battery was ordered to cross the river at Loudon. Our
crossing upon this occasion was a long, tedious work, occasioned by
the fact that it had to be accomplished by the use of one flat-boat,
just large enough to accommodate one carriage and the team at a time,
and the first streaks of day were appearing before it was fully
accomplished.

As soon as everything was across, the battery started for Sweet Water,
a station sixteen miles south of Loudon, on the East Tennessee and
Georgia Railroad. We had just arrived at that place, when we were
ordered to countermarch and return as rapidly as possible to Loudon. We
were all night upon the road, arriving at our destination at daylight,
when the troops were ordered into position upon the south side of the
river. Our battery was placed in a fort commanding the approach by the
road.

The 20th was a day of excitement among the citizens, who flocked to us
in great numbers for protection. It was reported that the rebel Gen.
Forrest was coming up the railroad from Athens via Cleveland, with a
large body of men, and it was also rumored that a large force of rebels
had crossed the Little Tennessee at Meyerton, a village about fifteen
miles to the left of Loudon, which it was supposed would unite with
the main column at or near this place. Skirmishing in our front was
continued all day; desultory firing to the left of our position, but at
considerable distance, was heard, convincing us that the rumors which
had been circulated had considerable merit of truth in them.

Early in the morning of the 27th we hitched up, expecting an attack.
A pontoon bridge had been completed during the night, and at daylight
troops began crossing the river from the north bank and moved to the
front, but it soon quieted down, and the day passed without further
incident.

Next morning cannonading could be heard from a distance, and our troops
fell back, forming three lines, making elaborate preparations for a
battle; but, as on the previous day, the cannonading soon ceased, and
everything became quiet.

On the 29th it was reported that the rebels had fallen back. Our
cavalry moved to the front, while our battery remained in position upon
Loudon Heights, with the three lines of infantry in front.

All excitement had subsided by the 30th, and although cannonading could
be heard occasionally, it was at such a great distance that it had no
terrors for the citizens, and they began slowly to return home. Several
regiments of cavalry and mounted infantry passed our position on their
way to the front.

It will be of service for a fuller understanding of our situation if we
spend a few moments in explanation. It was expected by Gen. Burnside
when he entered East Tennessee with the Twenty-third Corps, that the
Ninth would soon follow; but the surgeons' reports convinced him that
this would be impossible, fifty per cent., perhaps more, of the men of
that command were down with malarial fever. The commander, Gen. Parks,
was very sick, and could not be expected to do duty for a month at
least; Gen. Welch, the second in command--a man much admired by the
members of the Ninth--had died from the disease, at Cairo. Regiments
had been reduced until many of them could not muster more than a
hundred men for duty; while the batteries could hardly find men enough
to take care of the horses. Truly, the swamps around Vicksburg had
proved to be a more destructive enemy than the rebels.

Becoming convinced that the corps must be allowed to recuperate before
attempting a march so full of difficulties as the crossing of the
Cumberland Mountains, he ordered that they should rendezvous at Crab
Orchard, and give the corps a much needed rest, but they had not had
time to fully recuperate when Gen. Burnside's pressing need of more
troops compelled him to order the corps to join him in East Tennessee
as soon as possible.

On Sunday, Sept. 20th, the advance of the Ninth Corps passed through
Cumberland Gap and bivouacked in Tennessee, and by long, difficult and
continuous marches, reached Knoxville on the afternoon of the 26th.

It was the timely arrival of the Ninth which enabled Gen. Burnside to
send the Twenty-third Corps to Loudon and below, making a demonstration
of such strength that the rebel Gen. Forrest concluded not to hazard
an attack, but fell back towards Chattanooga.

From Oct. 1st to the 5th our battery remained in the forts at Loudon.
Each day details were made to accompany the three wagons upon forage
trips, and many are the pleasant episodes recollected of those
occasions. Seldom did those teams return to camp without the carcass
of a slaughtered hog or a fine sheep underneath its load of corn on
the ear. The citizens had kindly planted a liberal supply of that
improvement upon the sweet potato--those golden yams--and any foraging
trip which did not produce a large stock of them upon its return, was
pronounced a failure.

Most of the boys will remember trips of this sort, when the distance
from camp made it necessary that they should remain out over night.
How gladly they accepted an invitation to spend the night with the
people at whose house they happened to be--if they received such
invitations--and how persistently they demanded such hospitality from
those who did not extend the invitation.

It is well remembered by some of us how much we were embarrassed upon
the occasion of our first experience in spending the night with those
people. Most of their homes were log cabins, containing but one room,
and as it most always happened that the family consisted of mother
and from one to seven daughters, it became a vexed question with us
as to how the act of retiring would be accomplished; and as the time
for retiring approached, we became anxious. It was all unnecessary,
however, for when the time came, the women arose, threw a straw bed
upon the floor, with blankets, produced a curtain, which they hung
across the centre of the room, bade us good night, and retired to their
side, leaving us to go to bed at our leisure.

Oct. 5th our troops fell back from Athens, and crossed to the north
side of the Tennessee River upon the pontoon bridge at Loudon.

Oct. 6th our battery received orders to report to our old division
(First) Ninth Corps, at Blue Springs, distant about ninety-seven
miles. It was reported that the enemy were advancing from Virginia,
threatening our communications with Cumberland Gap, and on the 3d Gen.
Burnside had ordered the Ninth Corps to oppose them. All the infantry
were carried on the cars, and in order that the battery should reach
the objective point as soon after the infantry as possible, they were
hurried along at the rate of thirty miles a day.

Fortunately our horses were in a much better condition than they had
been for some time. Since our long march to New Market and back, Sept.
15th to 21st, they had had but little work to do, and with liberal
feeding on grain and much opportunity to graze, they had gotten into
very good condition.

We left Loudon at noon on the 6th, and reached Bull's Gap about dark on
the 9th. We found the roads in very good condition, the streams were
low, lessening the difficulties of fording, in fact everything seemed
to work favorably for the accomplishment of this long march.

Oct. 10th we passed through the Gap towards Blue Springs, but very soon
came up with our division, posted in line-of-battle along Lick Creek.
Capt. Buckley reported his arrival, and was told to hold himself in
readiness to move against the enemy.

Soon Gen. Burnside appeared and ordered the line to advance. Our
cavalry encountered the enemy a mile or two south of Blue Springs, and
a rattle of musketry ensued for a few minutes, when the enemy retired
to their reserve line and maintained a fire upon our skirmishers.

It was Gen. Burnside's desire to capture as many as possible of the
enemy, and for that purpose he sent Col. Foster's brigade of cavalry
around to seize and hold the roads in the Confederates' rear. When
sufficient time had been allowed for the colonel to reach his position,
our troops in front attacked the rebels, and a sharp, hotly-contested
battle upon both sides was continued until dark.

Our men had succeeded in driving the enemy from their position, and
after forming in a new position were ordered to lay upon their arms
during the night, prepared to assault the enemy at daylight. Next
morning our line advanced at daylight, only to find that the enemy had
abandoned his position--Col. Foster not having reached their rear in
time to intercept their retreat.

Our battery had been in position all day, but did not open fire until
nearly dark, when we threw a few shots at a rebel battery.

Our troops pursued the enemy nearly twenty miles, Battery D
accompanying them. Cannonading was heard in the vicinity of Greenville
soon after we started, showing that the enemy were some distance in
advance of us. It was nearly noon when we passed Greenville, and four
o'clock as we reached Rheatown, about nineteen miles from our bivouac
of the previous night. Continuing for a mile further, we halted for the
night.

On the 12th our cavalry reported the enemy so scattered that further
pursuit would be useless. Early in the afternoon the battery moved
back through Rheatown and encamped on the other side of the valley, in
proximity to the troops of our division.

Next morning, Oct. 13th, the army started on its way back to Knoxville.
Although there was no special haste in our return movements, it seemed
to me that very good time was made by the battery. Our first bivouac
was made at Blue Springs, near the battlefield, a distance of twenty
miles; that of the 14th at Morristown, a distance of twenty-five
miles; that of the 15th at New Market, a distance of twenty-three
miles: that of the 16th at Armstrong's Ford, on the Holston River, a
distance of twenty miles; and that of the 17th at Temperance Hill,
Knoxville, a distance of eight miles, making ninety-six miles, which
added to one hundred and seventeen, the distance from Loudon to
Rheatown, gave a total of two hundred and twenty-six miles traveled by
the battery between the 6th and 17th of October--an average of a little
more than twenty-two miles for each of the eleven days. Oct. 18th and
19th, the battery lay in camp in Knoxville.

Late in the afternoon of the 19th orders were received to have the
battery prepared to move at an early hour next morning. Requisition had
been made for more horses, and the division quartermaster had promised
Capt. Buckley that he should have them promptly; but as yet they had
not materialized.

Next morning, the horses not having arrived, the battery left Knoxville
with only four pieces, one section being left behind because of lack of
motive power. During the march cannonading was heard in the direction
of Kingston. We were getting rather used to that sort of thing, and
would not have been much surprised had the sound of cannonading reached
our ears from all points of the compass at one and the same time. We
bivouacked that night near Campbell's Station, about seventeen miles
from Knoxville.

Oct. 21st our battery was in motion at daylight, towards Loudon. After
passing Lanoir's Station we continued on towards Loudon for about two
miles, where we halted for about an hour, after which we countermarched
back to the station and made camp. Lanoir's Station at this time was
a large--perhaps the largest--plantation in East Tennessee, belonging
to a Dr. Lanoir. Its land was very extensive and beautifully situated.
The station consisted of the doctor's mansion, farm buildings, yarn
factory, houses for his overseers, and a hundred or more negro huts,
making a very sizeable settlement. Lanoir was a large owner of slaves,
and, as may be imagined, a very pronounced secessionist.

A good many of us felt inclined to forgive the doctor for all the hard
things he said of and to us Yankees, because of his wisdom--from our
standpoint--in planting such an extensive cornfield, many of us being
willing to make oath that it extended for four miles along the road
towards Campbell's Station--for our use. It certainly was for our men,
and the doctor's part in it was simply that of an instrument in the
hands of a higher power.

Oct. 22d we were ordered to Loudon. We moved out of park about one
o'clock in the afternoon, crossed the river on the pontoon bridge,
and camped at sunset. On the next day it looked a little as though we
should have a brush with the enemy.

On the 24th the battery wagons, forge, and all surplus baggage was sent
to the north side of the river. The right section of the battery, left
at Knoxville for want of horses, returned to us on this evening.

Oct. 25th, 26th and 27th were days of perfect quiet. Towards evening on
the 27th we received orders to be ready to move in the morning.

On the morning of the 28th all our troops on the south side of the
Holston River were withdrawn, the pontoon bridge taken up, and the
Ninth Corps fell back to Lanoir's.

On the 29th our camp was changed a short distance, just on the edge
of a fine grove of pine trees. When the battery was parked, the men
were ordered to the front, and Capt. Buckley addressed them, saying:
"This spot will probably be our winter camp, and I desire that each
detachment build for itself log cabins, from the materials in sight."

As soon as the line was dismissed, the men commenced staking out their
locations, and felling the trees preparatory to the building of their
houses. The material was of the very best, straight as an arrow, and of
about uniform size; they were just what was needed for this purpose,
and could be laid one upon the other so closely that it was unnecessary
to do but very little "chinking."

Day after day the men worked at this hut-building, and as they
progressed became more and more interested in them. An immense amount
of labor was expended upon these huts, the desire of each detachment to
equal if not excel the others, resulting in the production of some very
excellent cabins.

Chimney-building was by far the most difficult and intricate part of
the work. These were built of wood and clay, the base being built
of quite large logs, growing smaller as the chimney rose in height,
until as it neared completion the sticks were the size of ordinary
kindling-wood. As the wood-work was laid it was thickly plastered with
clay both inside and out, which soon became as hard as a brick after
fires had been kindled in the fire-places.

By the 5th of November many of the huts had been roofed in and were
occupied by the men. Improvements, however, were being constantly
added, such as securing boards for flooring, and building of bunks
one above the other. The making of mattresses, by carefully picking
over pine boughs, removing the larger sticks, then with an old blanket
covering the boughs and carefully tacking it all around, resulting when
finished in a most delightful bed.

The officers' quarters were of course finished before those of the
detachments, because they had at their command the whole mechanical
ability and muscular strength of the battery, and were occupying their
finished huts by the 6th of November.

With perhaps a single exception, the detachments did not occupy
theirs, fully completed, until the 13th. Certainly no member of
Battery D will fail to recollect that night; seated around those
fire-places in which were roaring fires, they gave perfect freedom to
their imagination and built castle after castle of great magnificence,
in which the certainty of a winter of ease, comfort and happiness
predominated. Luxuries were promised, a rumor prevailing that some of
our enterprising scientific comrades of the centre section had secured
a still, and within a week or two would be prepared to furnish us good
Bourbon whiskey, at a moderate advance over the cost of production. We
went to bed that night feeling that we had all the comforts of home
that a soldier could possibly expect, and were soon lulled to sleep by
the contentment of our surroundings, and the delightful aroma of our
pine beds.

At daylight on the morning of the 14th we were awakened from a most
refreshing sleep by first call, and almost immediately were astonished
to hear heavy artillery firing in the direction of Loudon. Each man sat
up in bed and looked at his comrade. "What does that mean?" they asked
each other.

Just at that moment a member of the detachment who had been on guard
entered, and was eagerly plied with questions as to what was up. He
could only tell us that there seemed to be considerable commotion
among the infantry around us, and that two regiments of cavalry had
just passed our camp in the direction of Loudon. Five minutes of such
cannonading as we had been listening to convinced us that this was not
an ordinary cavalry raid such as we had been engaged in following for
the past three months, and our hearts sank within us. Evidently there
was trouble ahead.

We were soon dressed, and hurried into line to answer to the assembly
call. After roll-call had been completed and the line broken, the
buglers were ordered to sound "Boots and saddles," which thoroughly
convinced us that we were in for it. Breakfast was hurriedly prepared
by the men, and by the time it had been partaken of, the troops in
our vicinity were in motion, going in the direction of Loudon. A cold
rain which had set in sometime during the night, added much to our
depression.

From a despatch-bearer we learned that Gen. Longstreet had been
detached from Gen. Bragg's army at Chattanooga and sent north to
capture or delay the Army of the Ohio, and was now attempting to cross
the Holston River, at Huff Ferry, just below Loudon; in which effort he
was being opposed by Gens. Potter and White and part of the Ninth and
Twenty-third Corps, with success.

From our information of to-day we know that these generals, together
with many others in our army, and also the members of Gen. Burnside's
personal staff, believed that it was possible for us to prevent Gen.
Longstreet from crossing the river, or even defeat him in battle, and
so expressed themselves to Gen. Burnside, who had astonished them by
declaring his intention to retreat to Knoxville.

Understanding the plan of Gen. Grant (who had succeeded Gen. Rosecrans
in command of the Army of the Cumberland) as he did, he realized that
he could do Gen. Grant a greater service by drawing Gen. Longstreet
to Knoxville, thus taking him away from Gen. Bragg, and making that
general's defeat by Gen. Grant more certain.

Our battery remained all day of the 14th in park, with the teams
hitched up and attached to the carriages, expecting every moment to
be ordered to the front. One battery of our division, Capt. Roemer's,
moved out of park, and started toward Loudon about eleven o'clock in
the forenoon, and again we looked for the expected order.

Sharp skirmishing, with an occasional artillery duel, continued all
day. Just at night our troops advanced upon the enemy and drove them
back to their bridge-head, where they held them during the night.

On the morning of the 15th Gen. Burnside ordered a retreat upon
Lanoir's Station, and by daylight the whole command was upon the
road, followed by the enemy, they pushing their skirmishers forward
with considerable caution. At dark that night our army bivouacked at
Lanoir's, and with the exception of a rather vigorous attack upon our
lines at ten o'clock in the evening, which was easily repulsed, we were
not further molested.

After dark on the 14th the men of the battery not on guard improved
their last opportunity to enjoy one more night in their huts. It was
noticed that there was none of that happiness and hilarity which had
prevailed to such an extent the night before. The faces of the men
expressed an amount of seriousness which had not been present then.

The morning of the 15th still found the battery waiting for orders to
move. Early in the morning troops of the Twenty-third Corps began to
pass our camp, and as it seemed to us, in some confusion, but Gen.
Burnside soon appeared and restored order, after which everything moved
with clock-like precision.

Just before five o'clock in the afternoon the battery moved out of
park to the road, and commenced its march towards Campbell Station.
Not more than three miles had been accomplished before we began to
have trouble. The rain which had commenced the night before still
continued, and had softened the clayey soil of the road into a clinging
substance which made it almost impossible to move the battery. There
was a series of hills to climb, and our only way was to take the horses
from the caissons and put them on the pieces, and haul them to the
top of the hill, and then go back and haul up the caissons; this was
repeated several times before we had reached the railroad crossing. It
was now three o'clock in the morning, and the officer commanding the
rear guard informed us that we must get ahead at once, as he should
be unable to hold his position after daylight, as Gen. Longstreet's
advance was close at hand. Capt. Buckley had in the mean time sent word
to Gen. Burnside of our situation, and he had ordered some mule teams
to our relief. The teams soon made their appearance, and the mules were
quickly hitched on, and we were on the move again. The wagons that had
been left in order to send us (and also the other batteries) the mule
teams, were burning as we passed them, as it was impossible to move
them.

By this time it had grown quite light, and the rapidly increasing fire
in our rear and on the left convinced us that we were being pushed by
the enemy. As an incentive to increase our efforts and hurry us along
during the night, we had been frequently told that unless we reached
the junction of the Kingston and Loudon roads before daylight, we
should be cut off and become prisoners of war to Gen. James Longstreet.
It was now long past daylight, and we were several miles from the
junction. Fortunately for us our pursuers had been unable to reach that
point.

Gen. Longstreet had detached a column under Gen. McLaw and ordered him
to proceed by the Kingston road to this point. Having secured a guide
perfectly familiar with the road, but who, unfortunately for Gen.
Longstreet's plans, happened to be a staunch Union man, who became so
strangely mixed in his bearings that when daylight appeared Gen. McLaw
found himself several miles from his objective point.

In the meantime Gen. Burnside had sent Gen. White with his division
out upon the Kingston road, with orders to extend his line to the left
until it joined the right of the Ninth Corps, and hold the enemy until
the artillery had passed.

It was shortly after ten o'clock in the forenoon when Battery D passed
the Kingston road, and continued on towards the village of Campbell
Station, noted as the birth-place of Admiral Farragut. Passing through
this village we were ordered into position upon the right of the road,
about half way up a long, steep hill, above the village.

Just before we went into position our hearts were rejoiced by the
discovery of one of our pieces and its caisson which we had about given
up as lost, fearing that it must in some manner have missed its way
and been overtaken by the enemy. Sergeant Gray explained his early
arrival by saying that, becoming convinced that being obliged to render
assistance to less fortunate teams was rapidly exhausting his own
teams, he determined to push on as fast as possible, and wait for the
battery at the station.

At this time Benjamin's battery of twenty-pound Parrotts was in
position upon the right of the road, some distance below our battery.
Gettings was on his right, while Von Sehlen was in position in line
with us, on our left.

When at twelve o'clock the enemy opened upon us, it was found that
Benjamin's and Gettings' positions were not favorable for their heavy
rifled guns, and they were moved to the left of the road, upon higher
ground a little in our rear.

Our infantry was posted across the Kingston road, beyond the creek
which ran through the village at the foot of the hill upon which we
were. The centre was held by White's division, Twenty-third Corps,
while the Ninth, which had retired from the front and formed in the
rear of these troops, took position upon the right and left of this
division.

Benjamin, Roemer and Gettings opened upon the enemy a most terrific
fire from their rifled guns. Our battery was unable to throw its shells
far enough to reach the enemy, and was obliged to content itself with
an occasional shot at their skirmishers.

We soon saw a heavy line of skirmishers advancing out of the woods in
our front, and with perfect nonchalance approach a ravine only a short
distance from one of our batteries, carrying their guns at a trail. The
coolness of the act made it somewhat doubtful as to whether they were
friend or foe.

Sergeant Gray, who was some distance in front of the battery on the
pike, took in the situation at once, and tried a shot at them with his
carbine, and was severely reprimanded by an officer standing near,
for firing at our men. A moment settled the question, however, for no
sooner had they reached the ravine than they dropped out of sight, and
instantly there came the pop, pop, pop of their rifles, and the officer
who had objected to their being treated as foes, had lost a horse.

The rebels who had so boldly sought this position had failed to notice
one of our regiments, which lay under cover of a building to their
right, which position gave then an enfilading fire the entire length
of that ravine, and in a few seconds the rebels found themselves in a
place hotter than they had ever been in before, and one which they were
glad to vacate as soon as possible.

Soon after the failure of the enemy to drive our centre, they made a
vigorous assault upon the right of Christ's brigade, Ninth Corps. Our
battery was ordered to change its position and direction of its fire,
to co-operate with this brigade, and we shelled the woods upon the
right with such good effect as to check the progress of the enemy in
that direction. It was while executing this movement that the men of
our battery became thoroughly convinced of the utter impossibility of
successfully manoeuvering light artillery with mules as a motive power.

No sooner was the attempt made to limber the pieces than each
individual mule commenced a performance of his own, entirely at
variance with that of his mate, which soon resulted in a tangle that
was exceedingly discouraging to the men. In some of the teams half
the mules seemed determined to run away, frightened by the bursting of
the shells, while its effect upon the rest of the team was to create
a determination not to move a step. Some of them were seized with
an irresistible desire to climb over each other, in many instances
elevating themselves to such a degree as to lose their balance and go
over backwards, in one or two instances falling upon the men who were
trying to control them.

An instance of the perverseness of these animals came very near
depriving the battery of one of its most valued members, Sergeant
Spencer, of the first piece, who found himself at the beginning of the
execution of this order to change positions, with his gun limbered,
to which was attached a team of mules, but without a driver, who had
mysteriously disappeared. There were none of his companions present who
felt competent to drive this team, nor did the sergeant himself have
the utmost confidence in his ability to successfully manage them; but
something must be done, and that quickly.

Riding up to the nigh wheel mule he seized the jerky-line--the use of
which he knew to consist of a rapid succession of jerks when it was
desired that the leaders should turn to the right, while a steady pull
would cause them to turn to the left--and started the team. It was his
desire that the gun should move in the middle of the road, but the
mules preferred the side close to the fence, and as they were masters
of the situation, that was where the gun moved.

It was very uncomfortable for our comrade, the uneven character of
this part of the road constantly throwing the wheel mules against his
horse and obliging him to lean for support upon the rail fence at his
side. Very little progress had been made, and the sergeant had but
just rested his hand upon the fence when a rebel shell carried away
the uprights of the fence within a foot of his hand. It was a natural
impulse which caused him to remove his hand instantly from its resting
place. This convinced Sergeant Spencer that it was time to assert his
authority over those mules. Dropping the jerky-line, he rushed to the
leaders, forced them into the road, and soon had the gun up with the
rest of the battery.

This last position held by our battery, was upon very high ground,
overlooking the entire field occupied by both Union and Confederates,
and save an occasional disappearance behind a ravine or into scattered
clusters of woods, the manoeuvering of the Ninth and Twenty-third Corps
was in plain view. It was a grand panoramic martial picture which was
unfolded to our vision that afternoon.

The rebel host, commanded by Gen. Longstreet, upwards of twenty
thousand strong, composed of such well-known fighting troops as
McLaw's and Hood's divisions, of Alabama, South Carolina, Georgia
and Mississippi regiments, to which had been added for this occasion
Buckner's division, commanded by Gen. B.R. Johnson, had started from
Chickamauga, flushed with their recent victory over Gen. Rosecrans,
upon a pleasure trip up the Tennessee Valley as far as Knoxville.

Pardonably proud were the first two divisions of that army at the
record of their prowess and success gained upon many of the hardest
fought battlefields of the war; and when camp rumors placed the foe
opposed to them to consist of a single corps of inexperienced troops,
it was not surprising that they should have entered upon this campaign
with a feeling that there would hardly be excitement enough in the
journey to make it interesting. This feeling was strengthened somewhat
when, upon arriving at Huff Ferry, on the Tennessee River, they found
us so willing to leave their front and retreat.

It is entirely probable that our foes entered upon this, their first
battle with us, having very little respect for our fighting abilities,
and a somewhat exaggerated opinion of their own, forgetting that
"pride goeth before a fall," and that it is always well to respect your
enemy's ability until you have proved his weakness.

The independent, indifferent way in which the rebel skirmish line
advanced, has already been described. The advance of his main force in
three columns, soon followed the repulse of his skirmishers, and then
began to occur surprises of which our enemy had little dreamed.

The eight or ten batteries of the Ninth and Twenty-third Corps opened
upon their lines as soon as they became uncovered, with such an
accuracy of range and correct judgment of distances as to keep the air
in front and about them well filled with bursting shells and case shot,
which must have convinced them that if these were new and inexperienced
troops which were opposing them--which they had been told we were--then
we must have made wonderfully good use of our time.

It will be easy, they think, to brush asunder this line of blue which
they see just in advance; but this line of blue rises up and delivers
volley after volley into the rebel ranks, absolutely refusing to be
brushed aside, and in a moment our over-confident foe is falling back
in a confused, uncertain way, as though they were not quite sure what
had happened. Indeed, it required one trial more before they were
willing to believe that our troops would not throw down their arms and
retreat at their approach.

A second repulse convinced our enemy that a direct attack would not
be a brilliant success; he then opened his artillery, and began a
series of flank movements, which were promptly and successfully met and
frustrated by Gen. Burnside.

About half-past five o'clock in the afternoon our battery was ordered
to pull out of our position, section at a time, and commence our march
towards Knoxville. The right section went first, then the centre, and
last the left. During this time a long-range battery of the rebels
was making it very uncomfortable for us. The twenty-pound shells were
falling and exploding unpleasantly near, creating a great disturbance
among our mules; indeed it required the united efforts of our own men,
together with a large detail of infantry, to control them sufficiently
to limber our pieces. At last it was accomplished, and considerably
after dark we reached the road, and made as rapid progress as possible
towards Knoxville.

This was our second night out, and it found every man thoroughly
exhausted. For thirty hours the men had not slept or partaken of food,
excepting a little corn bread, and were covered with mud from head to
foot, which the freezing weather had stiffened, making it difficult
to walk, adding to our uncomfortable condition. Many would have lain
down by the roadside for rest if they had been allowed to do so, but
infantry carefully patrolled the road and for a considerable distance
on either side. Anyone found inclined to take a nap was aroused and
started on his way.

The battery reached Knoxville at about three o'clock in the morning,
and went into camp near an earthwork, afterwards called Fort Sanders.
The troops began to arrive about daylight on the 17th, and were
assigned to positions in the defence line of Knoxville, by Capt. O.M.
Poe, Chief Engineer, Army of the Ohio.



CHAPTER VII.

The Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee.


The site occupied by the City of Knoxville, which we were to defend,
was in front of a plateau of about half a mile in width, running
parallel to and near the Holston River. This plateau was intersected
by three creeks, First, Second and Third, giving the position the
appearance of separate hills. First Creek separated Knoxville from East
Knoxville, or Temperance Hill; Second Creek separated the town from
College Hill; and Third Creek ran into the river beyond our lines.

To the north and west of the town the plateau descended gradually to
a valley or basin of about three-quarters of a mile in width, beyond
which was a small plateau similar to the one just described, and of
about the same height. On this ridge the enemy's forces were stationed,
with their batteries at prominent points.

The line of defence established commenced at a point on the river and
ran at nearly right angles with the river to a fort which the enemy had
commenced on a hill north of the Kingston road and about a thousand
yards in front and to the right of the College. From this point it ran
along and nearly parallel to the river, across Second and First Creeks,
over Temperance Hill to Mabey's Hill near to Bell's house, thence to
the Holston River.

Our forces at this time in Knoxville numbered about twelve thousand
effective men, exclusive of the new recruits of loyal Tennesseeans. The
enemy was estimated at from twenty to twenty-three thousand, including
cavalry.

In the line of our defence occurred the following strategic points:
College, Loudon, Summit, Temperance, and Mabey's Hills, all of them
of considerable height, and upon these hills were built forts of
varying strength, those upon Loudon, Summit, and Temperance Hills being
bastioned earthworks, protected by ditches of considerable depth and
width, while those upon the other hills were merely earthworks without
ditches. The parapets of all these forts were protected by cotton
bales, covered with raw hides.

Upon Loudon Hill was constructed by far the most important work of the
entire system. As has before been intimated, this fort was commenced by
the enemy before Knoxville was occupied by the Army of the Ohio. From
its strategic situation, coupled with the fact that the single assault
made by the enemy upon our lines during the siege of Knoxville was upon
this fort, when a force of less than three hundred men successfully
repelled and disastrously defeated nearly four thousand picked men from
Gen. Longstreet's army, it would seem to require a somewhat detailed
account of its principal features.

There have been several different ideas expounded in relation to the
build of Fort Sanders (called by the enemy Fort Loudon); the atlas
accompanying the War Records has been taken as the most accurate one,
but that differs very materially from what was built as Fort Sanders.
Capt. Poe, Chief Engineer of the Army of the Ohio, laid out the works
in quite an elaborate style, but on our arrival at Knoxville we went
to work on the old fort that the Confederates had started, on Loudon
Hill. The bastion on the extreme northwest corner was where the members
of our battery put in hard labor with pick and shovel, and when it was
completed we had a good defensible work. Perhaps it was not not quite
up to the engineer's idea; every fort is expected to have a berme, ours
did not; the western face of the bastion was as near a straight line as
possible; the line from the bastion running to the Kingston road took a
slight curve outward (or towards the west).

The following are the dimensions as we knew them at that time, and by
actual measurements:

Starting at the northwest corner of the bastion it ran about south four
hundred feet, then east one hundred and thirty-five feet, then south
to the Kingston road, six hundred and seventy feet; from the northwest
corner of the bastion running east one hundred and fifteen feet, then
southeast eighty feet, then in an easterly direction until it reached
the creek at the foot of the hill.

When we arrived at the fort it was simply a rifle-pit, but in two or
three days it was in good shape. The irregularity of the site was such
that the parapets of the bastion varied in height, the one on the north
being thirteen feet, while the western front was twelve feet. The ditch
on the west was twelve feet wide and eight feet deep; on the north
it was eight feet deep at the corner of the bastion, and ran back to
almost nothing at the northeast angle; on the south side of the bastion
the ditch ran from eight feet deep to about a level where it joined the
line running south. There was one embrasure on the west and one on the
north side of the bastion. On the northwest angle the ground was built
up so that a gun could be fired in barbette.

The line running south was quite heavy, where it joined the bastion,
and had four embrasures, which were occupied by Benjamin's regular
battery. As the line ran down the hill it was lighter, being about
four feet with no ditch, or only a slight one where dirt had been
thrown up from the outside, except in two places where the ground
inside the breastworks had been dug lower to allow a piece of artillery
to be placed and an embrasure cut in.

In front of the northwest angle of the bastion Capt. Poe had some
telegraph wire stretched from stump to stump. Some time after the siege
was over a fort was built south of the bastion, so as to command the
ditch on the west, but during the siege there was no line of fire that
could enfilade the ditch on the west side of the bastion.

During the siege the Seventy-ninth New York had a plank laid over the
ditch from the embrasure on the west, which they used in going to and
from the picket line, and when the enemy was looking for a good place
to assault the works, they saw some men of the Seventy-ninth crossing
on this plank, and came to the conclusion that there was no ditch in
front of the bastion. Gens. Longstreet and McLaw both speak about this
in their report of the siege and assault.

All of the large forts, such as Sanders, on Loudon Hill, Comstock, on
Summit Hill, Huntington Smith, on Temperance Hill, were connected by a
line of rifle-pits; on and near this line were built batteries for from
one to six guns, which could command both a direct and enfilading fire
for a considerable distance in their vicinity. Battery Noble, located
to the left of the Kingston road, below College Hill; Battery Zoelner,
to the right of Fort Sanders, commanded the railroad for a considerable
distance on the left of Second Creek; Battery Galpin, on the right of
Second Creek, overlooked the railroad for a considerable distance;
Batteries Wiltsie and Billingsley were located between Gay street and
First street, covering the ground near the depot and beyond; Battery
Clifton Lee, east of Fort Huntington Smith, together with Battery
Fearns, on Flint Hill, were in the second line of defence; Battery
Stearman was located in the gorge between Temperance and Mabey's Hills;
Fort Hill, the extreme north-eastern limit of our line, was situated
upon Mabey's Hill.

It must be remembered that upon the morning of the army's arrival at
Knoxville, Nov. 17th, almost none of the immense work contemplated
in the line of defence which we have been considering, was begun. As
fast as troops arrived and were assigned to their positions, they were
ordered to select either a shovel or pick and dig for all there was in
them.

Early in the morning Gen. Burnside, in order to relieve his exhausted
troops, and also hurry along the work as rapidly as possible, had
started patrols through different parts of the town with orders to
arrest every able-bodied citizen, white or black, Union or Confederate,
and put them at work on the fortifications. Relief gangs were
organized, and the work continued night and day.

By the 20th our line was in such a condition as to inspire the entire
command with confidence that we could hold the town against any rebel
force that might be brought against us. First and Second Creeks had
been dammed, the back water creating quite large ponds, the overflow
from which made most formidable wet ditches in front of a considerable
portion of the line.

The pieces of Battery D remained in Fort Sanders from their arrival
until the 20th, when the right piece, right section, under Lieut.
W.B. Rhodes, was moved into what afterwards became Battery Noble. The
lieutenant felt that he would like to take both pieces of his section,
and asked permission of Gen. Ferrero to do so, but the general refused,
giving as his reason that "he thought one piece quite enough to be
sacrificed." This remark, overheard as it was by the men, created
in their minds the impression that in the general's opinion he was
placing them in an extra-hazardous position, and they were constantly
on the alert expecting an assault down the Kingston road.

On Wednesday, the 18th, the men of our battery, together with those
from Benjamin's, and a large detail of citizens, commenced active labor
upon the ditch and bastion of the fort. During the afternoon we were
joined by the Seventy-ninth New York Highlanders. Lieut. Benjamin,
who was appointed to the command of Fort Sanders, had requested that
this regiment be assigned to duty as defenders of the fort, and it had
been so ordered. While all of the regiments of the Ninth Corps had the
thorough confidence of their comrades of the artillery service, the old
Seventy-ninth was held in especial esteem because of its long service,
and it was very gratifying to have them with us in the fort.

The work upon the fort was pushed forward with the greatest rapidity.
The men were arranged in details and required to work a certain number
of hours, then allowed a certain number for rest. In this way there was
no cessation in the work.

The morning of Tuesday, the 19th, opened dull and cloudy. A heavy fog
obscured the valley below the fort, and occasional picket shots made
us very anxious that the mist should clear, that we might locate our
enemy. The previous afternoon he had made his appearance upon the
heights in the vicinity of the Armstrong house, where he had been held
at bay for several hours by a force of mounted infantry and cavalry,
under command of Gen. Sanders, of the Twenty-third Corps.

Gen. Longstreet had ordered Gen. McLaw to force his way into the town,
and sent reinforcements to enable him to do so. Our troops were finally
forced down into the ravine below the Armstrong house, and the enemy
getting within easy range of our guns at the fort, both batteries
improved the opportunity to shell them.

Gen. Burnside was in the fort at the time, and watched the battle over
the parapet. He went from point to point along the west front, speaking
encouragingly to the men, advising them to "keep cool, fire low, and be
sure and hit something every time."

Towards evening the enemy ceased his efforts to push us further,
seemingly contenting himself with occupying the heights in front of the
Armstrongs. When the fog cleared we found that during the night the
enemy had occupied a range of hills running from a point on the river
south of the Armstrong house, thence along our west and north front to
a point on Second Creek, while their pickets extended nearly to the
Farwell road. A little later they established a battery upon this road
and from it threw the first shells into the city. This line of the
enemy was from three-fourths to one mile distant from our works, and as
it became light enough we could plainly see their men at work throwing
up breastworks for almost the entire length of their line.

All day long the pickets kept up a constant exchange of shots, which
near the Armstrong house assumed the proportions of a fair-sized battle
on several occasions during the day.

In the afternoon we raised a flagstaff in the fort and in a short time
a flag was unfurled and heartily greeted by the men with cheers. The
enemy desiring to honor the occasion, opened a furious cannonading upon
the fort, fortunately doing us no damage. During this, the second day
of the siege, bullets began to sing right merrily over the parapets
and through the embrasures of the fort, a music which we were obliged
to listen to day and night from this on for the seventeen days of the
continuance of the siege.

The morning of Friday, the 20th, was cool and misty. The enemy had been
very quiet during the night and allowed us to get a full night's rest;
but at nine o'clock, when the new pickets made their appearance, they
increased the vigor of their fire, causing the relieved men to hustle
for all they were worth to get inside the fort.

During the afternoon bales of cotton had been hauled into the fort from
the town, and gangs of negroes were employed to roll them onto the
parapets for the better protection of the men. The interior crest being
only about four feet above the banquette tread, the upper part of the
bodies of the infantry were exposed to the enemy's fire. The bales of
cotton were covered with raw hides to prevent their being ignited from
musket fire. It began raining during the afternoon, and continued well
into the night, and, as we were without tents, it made our situation
rather uncomfortable.

A brick house on the Kingston road in the ravine below the Armstrong
house had become a source of annoyance to our men; the rebel
sharpshooters occupying it had from the windows kept up a most
disastrous fire upon our pickets and the fort, the distance being about
five hundred yards.

Gen. Ferrero determined to destroy this building, that it should
furnish no further protection to the enemy, and ordered Col. Humphrey,
commanding the brigade in its front to detail a regiment to proceed
under cover of darkness of the evening, dislodge the enemy from the
house and burn it. The Seventeenth Michigan, under command of Lieut.
Col. Comstock, was chosen for this dangerous and difficult work.

The sortie was made at eight o'clock in the evening, so quietly and
with such alacrity as to completely surprise the enemy. Many of them
were captured, while others had very narrow escapes, such as taking
advantage of the opening of a door by one of our men to slip under his
arm and escape. This was not an easy thing to do, as many found, quite
a number losing their lives in the attempt.

As our men were returning from this successful assault the enemy
seemed to suddenly realize what had happened, and opened furiously
upon our lines with three or four batteries; but by that time our
troops were back within the works, the light from the burning building
enabling both infantry and artillery to pour a most destructive
fire into the enemy's line, who, by half-past nine, confessed their
willingness to call it enough for this day, by discontinuing their
firing.

Work upon the rifle-pits and north front of Fort Sanders was continued
during Saturday, Nov. 21st, strengthening them in every possible way.
We were not molested by the rebels, and nothing worthy of mention
occurred during the day.

A rumor reached the battery about noon that the enemy had commenced the
construction of a raft at Boyd's Ferry, some distance above Knoxville,
on the Holston River, which they proposed setting adrift, hoping that
it would carry away our pontoon bridge, and thus break our connection
with the south side. At five o'clock in the afternoon Chief Engineer
Poe commenced the construction of a boom, made by stretching an iron
cable across the river above the bridge. This cable was finished and
placed in position by nine o'clock on the next morning.

Sunday, Nov. 22d, was passed quietly. Up to this time the pickets
had been relieved about nine o'clock in the morning, but as many
of the men had been badly wounded while performing this duty, the
commanding officer decided to change the time for doing this work,
to early morning before light, and this Sunday morning was chosen to
make this change. The wire entanglement which had just been completed
on the northwest in front of Fort Sanders, proved its efficacy upon
this occasion, for notwithstanding the men of the relief party were
perfectly familiar with its existence, nearly one-half their number
were sent to the ground before they were reminded of the entanglement.

On Monday, Nov. 23d, two pieces of Battery D were moved from their
positions on the northern portion of Fort Sanders, and placed in
Battery Galpin, a small earthwork upon the eastern side of Second
Creek. From this point they covered a considerable extent of territory,
reaching from the pond made by the damming of Second Creek, along the
railroad to the west and north for several hundred yards.

The section had but just reached this position when the enemy made
an assault on Col. Christ's brigade, driving in his skirmish line,
who, as they were driven back, set fire to a considerable quantity of
combustible material which had been placed in the large round-house
for just such an emergency. This fire soon communicated with adjacent
buildings, and created an illumination which enabled our troops to see
the entire field. This was not satisfactory to the rebels, and they
soon retired.

Tuesday, Nov. 24th, it began raining at daylight. During the night
the rebels had dug and occupied a rifle-pit which gave them a flank
fire along our west front. This proved very troublesome, and it was
decided that it must be stopped if possible. As soon as it was light
enough to see, the Second Michigan made a charge on the enemy's new
line at this point. The brave men of this regiment formed near the
ditch of our fort, pushed rapidly forward, reached the objectionable
ditch and had nearly destroyed it, when the enemy hurled a very heavy
reserve force against them and drove them back. Further to the right
a second determined assault was made by the Forty-first Massachusetts
and the Forty-eighth Pennsylvania, our men driving the enemy from the
rifle-pits and taking many prisoners.

On Wednesday, Now 25, the enemy made a determined effort to push
forward their lines on the south side of the Holston River. It was
evidently his desire to force us from our position opposite Knoxville.
This would have given him the key to our position, and made it
untenable for us.

Thursday, Nov. 26th, the work of strengthening our works continued, and
all of the intrenching tools were kept busy.

On Friday, Nov. 27th, the enemy still appeared to threaten our troops
on the south side of the river, moving their forces from one part of
their line to another, but did not attack us.

Saturday, Nov. 28th, opened cold and rainy. The water in and around
the fort formed into quite heavy ice during the night, while men
woke with a coating of ice on their clothing which occasioned them
much inconvenience in moving about. All the afternoon the enemy were
moving large bodies of troops towards our right, constantly pushing
our pickets nearer our works. In front of the northwest angle of Fort
Sanders our picket line was only a few yards from the fort.

That the assault was near at hand, and must come in a few hours, we
were all certain. That every one was on the alert was proven when at
about ten o'clock in the evening a general alarm was sounded; our
artillery immediately opened from Battery D's section at Battery
Galpin, under Lieut. Parker, around Fort Sanders to Battery Noble,
occupied by the right piece of Battery D, under Lieut. Rhodes.

Our fire at this time was only continued for a short time, ceasing
as soon as we ascertained that the enemy were not coming. One of the
greatest difficulties labored under by us was the absolute necessity of
using the closest economy with regard to ammunition.

This ten o'clock attack had been for the purpose of driving in our
pickets close under the fort, where they now lay. This enabled the
enemy to advance within one hundred yards of our guns, and at that
moment they were lying in a depression a short distance from the
northwest angle of the bastion of the fort, waiting for the first dawn
of day that they might rush on to what?--victory, they thought, but we
had quite a different idea, and our idea was nearer right than theirs.

By five o'clock on Sunday morning, Nov. 29th, every man in our line had
been aroused, and was occupying his position, either at the parapets
or embrasures. The third piece of our battery was located on the north
side of the fort some two hundred feet from the bastion; the fifth
piece was located on the line running south about one hundred and fifty
feet from the Kingston road; while the fourth had been mounted in the
northwestern bastion, in barbette. This gun, under command of Sergt.
Chas. C. Gray, was by far the most serviceable in the fort on that
morning, as will be seen as our story progresses.

All of the guns were loaded with double canister, and at half-past
five the cannoneers were at their posts in the position of "Ready,"
every number four holding his lanyard taut, ready to pull at a second's
warning, and send the gun's charge of death into the ranks of the enemy.

It was a minute or two of half-past six when a signal gun was fired
from the rebel battery near the Armstrong house, the shell passing over
Fort Sanders and exploding in its rear. Instantly all the artillery in
the enemy's line opened, and for twenty minutes poured a furious fire
of shot and shell into and beyond the fort.

Suddenly the firing ceased, and the cannoneers who were straining their
eyes trying to pierce the gloom and mist of the early winter's morning,
saw our pickets hurry across the plank which gave them passage over
the deep ditch through the embrasure into the fort, and rapidly fall
into their places. Then we were certain that there was work before us.
At this instant the first gun in the fort to fire--Sergt. Gray's--was
discharged.

During the twenty minutes cannonading by the enemy not a gun had
been fired from our side, every man having been cautioned to reserve
his fire until he could see or hear the enemy. Soon the cannoneers
caught the sound as of the rushing of many feet, followed quickly by a
confused sound as the rebels encountered the wire entanglement, over
which many of them stumbled and fell. Then we saw them coming through
the mist, and greeted them with the contents of our double-shotted guns.

Sergt. Gray soon discovered that the position of his gun (in barbette)
was a failure, because of the ease with which the rebel infantry could
prevent his men from loading the piece--they being obliged to expose a
considerable portion of their bodies in the performance of that duty.
Ordering the piece taken down from its elevated position, the sergeant
had it run into the embrasure upon his right, from which he rapidly
poured round after round of canister among the mass of rebels that were
charging the bastion on the north side.

Either the rapid and terribly destructive work of this gun, or the
desire of the enemy to find some easier way of entering the fort,
caused them to swing away from this point around to the western front,
and soon our sergeant noticed that there was apparently no enemy in his
front. Not being of the kind to throw away ammunition, and having in
mind the necessity for observing economy in its use, after taking the
precaution to load the piece with double canister, and have the number
four affix his friction primer, with the lanyard held taut in his hand,
he awaited events.

It was only a moment before the head and shoulders of a rebel officer
appeared above the brow of the ditch, who, after a hurried glance
around, sprang into the embrasure, rushed up to the muzzle of the gun
and placing his sword upon it, ordered its surrender. William Mills,
the number four, turned to his sergeant and asked, "Charlie, shall I
let him have it?" "No," replied Gray, "don't waste a double round
of canister on one d----d fool." Not long, however, did the sergeant
have to wait for more victims. Before his words were hardly spoken
three more brave rebels had followed their leader. Gray gave the order
to "Fire!" and when the smoke cleared away not a vestige of the four
heroes who had stood before that gun a moment before remained.

This seemed to quiet the enemy on the northern front of the bastion,
but a fresh column now commenced a furious assault upon the western
front, the noise and confusion of which attracted the attention of
Sergt. Gray, who, glancing around to the embrasure in his rear,
discovered that the gun from a New York battery, which occupied it, was
evidently in trouble. Hurrying across, he ascertained that the horses
had run away with the limber, thus depriving the gun of ammunition.

Sergt. Gray had the gun replaced with his own, and during the remainder
of the battle, ably and heroically supported by the men of the fourth
detachment, did such efficient service that although many desperate
attempts were made to drive them from their position, none were
successful.

Benjamin's twenty-pound Parrotts had opened fire at the same moment
with our own, and were sweeping the opposite side of the glacis with
double canister.

The infantry support in Fort Sanders consisted of the Seventy-ninth
New York and two companies of the Twenty-ninth Massachusetts. These
men were posted along the parapets and angles of the fort, every place
that would afford opportunity for a shot at our assailants being fully
occupied. Full cartridge-boxes, with hundreds of extras, were placed in
front of each man, to facilitate the most rapid work. Men who could not
find a place in the line were employed to load muskets and pass them to
their comrades who were in position.

Soon we were in the midst of the very hottest work, the enemy charging
in "Column by division, closed en masse," and although the entanglement
prostrated many, the weight of the column carried them over it to
the edge of the ditch, the formidableness of which caused them to
momentarily hesitate. Then it was that the terrific fire from the
double-shotted guns of our artillery and closely posted infantry,
delivered almost in their faces--not ten yards distant--caused them to
melt away as grass before the mower's scythe, and jump into the ditch
for safety; but, alas! no sooner had they reached the ditch than Lieut.
Benjamin had some of his twenty-pound Parrott ammunition with fifteen
second fuses brought into the bastion of the fort, and lighting the
fuses with a burning stick they threw them through the embrasures or
rolled them down the parapets into the ditch.

Acts of heroism followed each other in rapid succession; the brave
rebels were making every effort to scale the twenty feet from the
bottom of the ditch to the parapet, under the greatest difficulties;
digging with their fingers into the slippery surface they would raise
themselves up the embankment for a short distance, only to lose their
hold and slide back into the ditch; and if perchance one did reach the
top without being shot on the way up, the moment his head showed above
the parapet it would be pierced with a bullet, and back he would roll
into the ditch. Two or three times the enemy succeeded in reaching the
top of the parapet, upon which they placed their flags, but they were
instantly killed.

An incident illustrative of the fierceness with which this battle was
fought is described in the "History of the Seventy-ninth New York
(Highlanders)": "Sergeant Dunn, of Company K, owing to the excitement,
had forgotten to withdraw his ramrod when he last loaded his piece, and
it was fired with the charge. On attempting to reload he was unable to
ram home the cartridge. Two of the enemy were making their appearance
above the crest, within six feet of him; clubbing his rifle he flung it
at them, but failed to hit either. No other piece was within reach, his
companions were busy with their own work; the enemy were nearly upon
him; time was precious. Looking hastily about he espied an axe; it was
but the work of a moment to seize it, swing it above his head, and hurl
it at the approaching foe. It hit and knocked one down, while the other
fell at the same instant, pierced by a bullet."

It was now apparent that the enemy had enough, for their main attacking
force had been driven back under the protection of the depression just
in front of the bastion of the fort, and those in the ditch could not
stand the havoc which the shells that were thrown over the parapet were
making, so one of them stuck a piece of cloth on his gun and poked it
up in front of the embrasure, a signal that they surrendered.

Sergt. Gray stepped into the embrasure and commenced to pass what men
there were left through. In taking their arms and equipments he soon
found some men with artillery equipments on, who, when questioned,
allowed they had been sent up to work our guns; but as we were not
in need of recruits, they were sent to the rear with the rest of the
prisoners.

About this time the enemy's artillery again opened on the fort, but
ceased in a few minutes, when Gen. Burnside offered the enemy an
armistice lasting until noon, to allow them to care for their wounded
and to bury their dead, which was promptly accepted.

How thankful they were to be relieved from their terrible position may
be imagined when it is remembered that for fully an hour most of them
had been exposed to as terrific and deadly a fire as ever fell to the
lot of a soldier to endure. Every stump within the northern and western
glacis of the fort yielded from one to two rebels, while those in
the ditch still alive and not too severely wounded, made haste to get
within the fort.

"Yanks" and "Rebs" were soon fraternizing, discussing the events of
the past few weeks. It was then we learned that our enemy had been
told they had only new troops opposed to them, who would run at the
first fire, and could be swept away from their front with very little
effort. Their confidence in this story had been somewhat shaken after
their encounter with us at Campbell's Station, when they discovered
the old Ninth Corps was in their front. They were as familiar with the
fighting qualities of this corps as we were with theirs, and began to
realize that our encounters would very likely resemble the traditional
one "when Greek meets Greek." They had been told that Fort Sanders was
garrisoned only by Tennessee conscripts, and all they had to do was to
yell like devils and they would run. Considerable bluffing was indulged
in on both sides. They informed us that they were coming again soon,
and when they did the boot would be on the other leg. We assured them
that we would be glad to see them at any time, and guaranteed them a
warm reception.

When noon arrived it was found that the work was not nearly completed,
and the time was extended until five o'clock. On the arrival of that
hour each side retired within its lines, our pickets occupying the
rifle-pits from which they had been driven the night before.

The loss of the enemy in their attack upon Fort Sanders, as taken from
their own reports, was 129 officers and men killed, 458 wounded, and
228 prisoners, an aggregate loss of 815. Besides this we captured three
battle-flags, and between five and six hundred stand of small arms.

Monday, Nov. 30th, the thirteenth day of the siege, opened with much
less firing from the pickets. It was said that during the armistice of
Sunday the soldiers on both sides had entered into an agreement not to
fire on each other's pickets.

Tuesday, Dec. 1st, some time before daylight an alarm sent every man
to his post, where they remained until sunrise, when, as there was no
demonstration on the part of the enemy, the men were dismissed. During
the afternoon there were indications from within the enemy's lines of
another attack. We made ready to receive them, but happily it did not
materialize.

Wednesday, Dec. 2d, the enemy pushed forward their lines, their pickets
very nearly reaching the advanced position occupied by them on the
morning of the 19th. They could be seen erecting a new battery on a
hill near the Clinton road. We sent a few shells at them, but the
necessity of observing the closest economy in regard to our ammunition
still continued, obliging us to use it very sparingly.

At daylight, Thursday, Dec. 3d, it became evident to us that the enemy
were leaving our front, and rumors of the abandonment of the siege were
current in the fort, much to our relief. Probably for the purpose of
deceiving us, a rattling picket fire was maintained by the enemy well
into the night, which kept us at our posts, much to our disgust.

Friday, Dec. 4th, the news that Gen. Sherman was advancing with an army
of forty thousand men, and that his advance had crossed the Tennessee
River the day before, made us all very happy, and when, at one o'clock
Saturday morning, our pickets reported that the enemy were leaving our
front, our joy knew no bounds. At daylight our skirmish line advanced
and found that the enemy had departed.

The siege of Knoxville was over.

It is customary to date the commencement of this struggle between the
Union and Confederate forces, on the 17th of November, that being the
date on which the Union army entered Knoxville and began the erection
of the defences.

A careful consideration of the movements occurring a few days just
previous to that date, will convince anyone that the siege practically
commenced on the 13th, the date upon which Gen. Longstreet reached
Loudon, attacked our pickets, and moved down the Tennessee River to
Hough's Ferry. From that moment until midnight Dec. 5th, there was
no cessation, day or night, from deadly encounters, varying from the
picket or skirmish fire, to that of the pitched battle, in which record
will show as many men lost in killed, wounded and missing, as in any
battle of the war where the numbers engaged were equal.

Commencing also on the 13th, the soldiers of this army were called
upon to endure an amount of physical and mental strain such as men
have seldom been called upon to pass through. Battery D's experience
during this trying time was an average one. The record of its daily
participation in the struggle of those three weeks is one of which its
officers and men are justly proud. Not only were the members of the
battery complimented by the commanding general for the excellence of
their service, but individual members were specially complimented and
praised in reports by other officers.

The faithful and intelligent serving of the fourth gun, in its two
positions at the northwestern bastion of Fort Sanders, was acknowledged
to have been of greater service in repelling the enemy from that
section than any other piece of artillery; and when Gen. Burnside
visited the fort with his staff soon after the flag of truce had been
accepted, he personally shook hands with every member of the fourth
piece, and thanked them for the gallant manner in which they had done
their duty, and directed Capt. Buckley to apply at once to the Governor
of Rhode Island for a commission for Sergt. Gray.

The first piece, under Lieut. Rhodes, had done excellent work from
Battery Noble; the second and sixth, under Lieut. Parker, had done
themselves proud in preventing the enemy from entering our works by the
ravines at Second Creek, while the third and fifth, under Lieut. Chase,
had as usual, done efficient service in their respective positions.
The battery had certainly added much during the siege to its excellent
record as a fighting battery.

Battery D entered East Tennessee well supplied with clothing, the men
having replenished their wardrobes at Camp Nelson, but the long journey
over the Cumberland Mountains had been so rough, and so filled with
difficulties, in the way of climbing the rocky and precipitous roads,
the lifting necessary in order to get the heavy carriages over the
rough places, had, to say the least, entirely destroyed that appearance
of newness which the cloth had possessed a month before. Then came
the twice-repeated march, almost from one end of East Tennessee to
the other, and it began to dawn upon some of us that the time was not
far distant when we should be obliged to draw clothing to hide our
nakedness. We were told that a train was then upon its way over the
mountains, and promised that as soon as it arrived clothing would be
issued. That was a train which was longingly looked for, but never came.

During the three weeks siege the men had no time to give any attention
to their persons, and as may be imagined, they were, at the close of
the siege, in a deplorable condition. Daily the expected clothing train
was looked for, but it did not materialize. Fortunate was it for us
that we could not see into the future, and have known that it would be
more than two months before we would see that clothing, and realize
fully what suffering we would have to endure from the extreme poverty
of our condition in regard to clothing and food.

Up to the appearance of Gen. Longstreet, before we had been deprived
of the privilege of foraging, our army had been able to live upon the
country. His coming altered that condition of things immediately. As
soon as Gen. Burnside became assured of the approach of the enemy,
he ordered Col. Goodrich, Chief Commissary, to collect all the beef
cattle, hogs, etc., and drive them into Knoxville. The hogs were killed
and salted; the cattle were collected in two droves, one located near
Temperance Hill, the other near Second Creek, in close proximity to
Battery D's caissons.

Orders were at once issued to reduce rations. The Commissary, hoping, I
suppose, to impress the men's minds with the fact that they were after
all getting a fair amount of food, stretched his conscience as much as
he could, and called the amount given us one-fourth rations; but the
old soldiers that he was trying to deceive were too well posted upon
the size of a ration to be thus taken in. They were perfectly certain
that a piece of fat pork about the size of their hand, together with
a quart of flour or corn meal--ground cob and all--issued to last
three days, but frequently made to last four, which could be eaten
at one meal without the least sensation of fullness or the slightest
indication of indigestion, was not only not a fourth ration, but was
not even an eighth. Small rations, such as coffee, beans, etc., were
discontinued entirely, the supply being so small that it was found
necessary to reserve them all for the hospitals.

Our flour ration was not a popular one, from the beginning, in
consequence of the difficulties attending the getting it into edible
condition. Before we were shut in we succeeded in getting along fairly
well, because we were able to secure from our lady friends a supply of
those rather essential articles for making good bread--leaven and salt.
After we were shut in we found it impossible to procure those articles,
and our efforts at bread-making yielded only a cake of burnt dough,
which required a good appetite to enable us to eat.

The enemy found it impossible to extend their line on the northwest
much beyond the Taswell road, and on the south the excellent work of a
division, aided by the cavalry of the Twenty-third Corps, prevented the
rebels from extending their lines much beyond their works, which left
open to us the free use of our bridges and enabled us to forage along
the French Broad River and out on to the Louisville road, both of which
were kept open to our foraging parties during the principal part of
the siege. The loyal citizens sent down the French Broad River a large
amount of grain and meat in flats, and Capt. Doughty maintained a small
force up the river during the whole siege directing the efforts of the
people in our behalf.

On our arrival at Knoxville on the 17th, we had a mixed motive power
consisting of mules and horses, but as soon as we had been assigned
positions in the works, we gave up our mule teams. They had helped us
out of a bad hole on the road from Loudon, but we had not taken kindly
to them, and were glad to see them go.

Our caissons were parked in the ravine near Second Creek, and all our
horses but the wheel teams on the pieces, were picketed in a small
grove of pine trees near the caissons. Forage was short, and it was
soon found that it was an impossibility to keep them hitched, as they
would chew up every piece of leather that they could get at, and in a
few days there were no halters to be had, and the picket ropes went
with the halters. They ate up all the pine boughs, and finally we had
to shoot quite a number of them, as they were so near starved it was a
mercy to put them out of their misery.

The departure of the enemy was very satisfactory to us. A person who
has never passed through the experience of being confined within very
narrow limits for a considerable time, under an almost constant fire
from artillery and infantry, can hardly realize what a strain it
produces on one's nervous system.

To be continually upon the alert, prepared to dodge a shell, never
forgetting to keep your head down and your body out of sight, lest some
sharpshooter should get a bead upon you which would certainly end your
earthly career; the constant screaming of the shells and the whirring
of the minie balls, all have such a wearing effect upon the nerves of
a man that he wishes something would happen that would make the other
fellow quit and give him a rest. With us something had happened--the
other fellow had gone, and for the first time in weeks we could
straighten our backs and walk erect.

Among the very few pleasant recollections of that disagreeable time is
the writer's remembrance of the affection entertained by the men of
the Army of the Ohio for their commanding general. His appearance at
any time, day or night, along the rifle-pits, or in the forts, always
aroused their enthusiasm to the highest pitch. His interest in, love
and sympathy for them in their sufferings, conveyed to them in orders,
conversations and kindnesses, quite won their hearts.

Many are the stories in circulation illustrative of the kindness of
his heart towards his army; true or not, they found ready believers
among the men. Personally, the stories were accepted as truthful by my
young mind, and to-day I would not willingly listen to any argument or
story which had for its object the lessening of my faith in the great
humanity of my beloved general, Ambrose E. Burnside.

On Dec. 6th the battery was paid, and for the first time in our
experience we took no interest in receiving money. We had received
pay more frequently since entering Tennessee than at any previous
time during our service. There was very little to buy, and our stock
of greenbacks had accumulated. It was said that the government's
liberality toward us was occasioned by the fact that our paymasters
had found themselves at the beginning of the siege with a large supply
of money, and desiring to be relieved of part of the responsibility,
allowed the men to share it with them.

After a careful searching for information, I am fully assured that the
following brief account of the Confederates' movements from ten o'clock
on the evening of the 28th to half-past eight on the morning of the
29th, is substantially true:

At dark on the 28th, Gen. Longstreet sent a dispatch to Gen. McLaw
ordering him to double his pickets, and as soon as the moon had risen
sufficiently to throw a little light upon the movement, to press our
pickets back as far as possible. After having successfully accomplished
this, he was to move the three brigades of his division chosen for the
assault, to a depression occurring in the topography of the glacis in
front of the northwestern bastion of Fort Sanders, where they were to
lie down until the signal gun should be discharged.

At daylight Anderson's brigade, of Hood's division, was ordered to
take position about one hundred yards to the left--our right--of the
fort, and in case of the success of McLaw's column, to break over our
breastworks, wheel to the left and force their way through the ravine
of Second Creek to the rear of Fort Sanders. If, however, McLaw was
unsuccessful, Anderson was to wheel to the right after passing our
breastworks, and take the fort by an attack in reverse.

At the appointed time, as we have seen, the signal gun was fired.
Wofford's brigade sprang to their feet, closely followed by Bryan's and
Humphrey's brigades; the Seventeenth Mississippi, of Humphrey's, and
Phillips' Georgia, of Wofford's brigade, leading the assaulting column,
dashed forward to the fort.

Wofford, who was to attack the northwest bastion, with his left well
extended along the northern face of the fort, was so disturbed by the
physical difficulties, including the wire entanglement through which
he was obliged to pass, that he took so much distance to the right
that the attack extended only about twelve feet upon the northern face,
or to the first embrasure, occupied on that side by the fourth gun of
Battery D.

Humphrey's brigade, with Bryan on his right, moved to the assault on
the right of Wofford's, meeting with all the physical difficulties of
the last-named, in their endeavor to get to the ditch.

Anderson's brigade, of Hood's division, which had been ordered to
attack the rifle-pits upon the left of Fort Sanders, became so excited
and exasperated over the terrible treatment their comrades were
receiving, that they rushed with impetuosity toward the fort, and were
into the ditch and suffering the same treatment, before orders which
had been sent them to retire from in front of the fort, could reach
them, leaving many of their number in the ditch dead or wounded.

As to the number of Confederates engaged in the assault on Fort
Sanders, it can only be approximated. Four brigades participated.
Wofford's contained six, Humphrey's four, Bryan's four, and Anderson's
five regiments.

Gen. Jenkins, who commanded Hood's division upon this occasion, gives
us the only clue, when he states that Anderson's brigade, which had
been greatly reduced by details for picket duty, contained only about
one thousand rifles. This would seem to make the statement truthful,
that four thousand men of the Confederate army marched to the assault
of Fort Sanders on Sunday morning, Nov. 29th, 1863, and out of that
number, less than two hundred and eighty Union soldiers obliged nearly
twelve hundred in killed, wounded and prisoners, to remain.

Of this bloody work Battery D did its full share. The fourth piece
did the largest part, because of its situation, but the third and
fifth did a work which caused the rebel Gen. McLaw to complain of the
damage done to Wofford's brigade by guns on his left--our right--in
the fort. The second and sixth pieces won this compliment from a rebel
source: "That two guns, mounted in a redoubt on the left [our right] of
Second Creek, fired so rapidly and accurately as to prevent his column
from penetrating the ravine at that point." The first piece, in its
position at Battery Noble, was too far removed from the scene of active
operations to take a prominent part.

Dec. 7th we were ordered to prepare as many of our guns as possible and
be ready to start in pursuit of the enemy. In consequence of losing
so many of our horses, we found it impossible to equip more than four
guns. These, with about three-fourths of our army, started at noon for
Strawberry Plains. Capt. Buckley, Lieuts. Rhodes and Chase accompanied
us. The other two pieces, with the battery wagon and forge, were left
at Knoxville, under command of Lieut. Parker.

Following the enemy as fast as our impoverished condition would allow,
we reached Rutledge about two o'clock on Dec. 9th, where we remained
until late in the evening of Dec. 15th, and then began a retrograde
movement towards Knoxville. Our enemy had been encamped during this
time about nine miles beyond Rutledge. He had now turned upon us, and
rumor had it that an attempt was being made to flank us at Strawberry
Plains, and Thursday, Dec. 17th, quite a brisk engagement occurred
at that place, which quieted down toward evening, and some prisoners
captured upon that evening gave us the information that the rebels were
retiring from our front.

We encamped for the night, and next day started for Knoxville, arriving
on the 20th, and went into camp on the south side of the city. After
a rest of a day or two the order came to have fifty men detailed each
day to work on fortifications. This was a duty which the men did not
relish, and being still short of rations, and having very little
clothing, it was a physical impossibility for the men to do even a half
day's work.

The weather was very cold, and many of the men left the prints of their
toes on the snow as they walked. This was by far the hardest winter
that we had seen in the service, and when, about the first of March, we
had a chance to draw clothing and shoes, it was appreciated, and when a
few rations of coffee and some "hard-tack" was issued, the members of
the battery thought they had struck a bonanza.

Notwithstanding the privations we had passed through, nearly two-thirds
of the battery re-enlisted, and on March 10th we turned in our guns
and horses, and on the 12th started for Rhode Island, on a thirty days
furlough. The men that did not re-enlist were left at Knoxville.

We marched to the depot at two o'clock in the morning on the 12th, and
took cars for Loudon; crossed the Ferry at eight o'clock that forenoon,
and boarded cars for Chattanooga; from there we went to Stevenson,
Ala., Nashville, Louisville, Jefferson, Cincinnati, Pittsburg,
Harrisburg, New York, and finally reached Providence on March 20th. We
had been eight days on the road, having had several delays, but as we
were going toward home, we found no fault.

It was quite a change to us when we were told that we could now go
to our respective homes for thirty days. It is needless to add that
we made the most of our leave of absence. I think most of us rather
appreciated our change of diet, and it seemed as if those thirty days
passed off very quickly; but notwithstanding the good times we were
having, on April 20th, every man but one reported in Providence to
Capt. Buckley, ready to again go to the front.



CHAPTER VIII.

Battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania--the Campaign in the
Shenandoah Valley.


Leaving Providence at quarter past seven o'clock, on April 20th, 1864,
we took the steamboat train en route for Washington, where we arrived
at dark on the 23d, and went to the "Soldiers' Rest" barracks.

On the 24th we took in the Capitol and other sights about Washington,
and the next day went into camp about a mile east of the Capitol.

The 26th we drew two government wagons, ambulance, and horse equipments
for the officers. The men who did not re-enlist, and were left in
Knoxville, joined the battery at this camp.

On the 27th we drew horses, a battery of six Napoleon guns, ammunition,
etc., and were now ready for the field; and on the morning of the 30th
we were ordered to Alexandria, and arrived there in the afternoon, and
went into camp near the city.

May 2d, loaded the battery on cars and started for Warrenton Junction,
arriving there at three o'clock in the afternoon, and were assigned to
the artillery brigade of the Ninth Army Corps.

The whole Army of the Potomac was in our immediate vicinity, under
command of Gen. Meade; the Ninth Corps, under Gen. Burnside, reporting
direct to Gen. Grant, who was in command of the entire Army of the
United States, and was personally directing the movements of the
campaign against Richmond, and at this time, May 2d, had about
completed his plans to cross the Rapidan and attack Lee's army.

On May 4th, the Fifth and Sixth Corps crossed at Germania Ford, and the
Second Corps and Sheridan's cavalry crossed at Ely's Ford; Burnside's
Corps was at the crossing of the Rappahannock River and Alexandria
Railroad, to hold that position until our troops had crossed the
Rapidan.

On May 3d we got everything in shape for a forward movement, and on the
4th moved toward Brandy Station, and encamped near the railroad bridge
for the night.

May 5th, broke camp early in the morning, and moved with the corps
across the Rapidan, at Germania Ford, and continued our march until
late in the evening. Since early in the forenoon we had heard the
incessant roar of artillery and musketry in our front, and during the
last part of the march had passed large numbers of wounded men going to
the rear.

On the morning of the 6th we hitched up at three o'clock, and awaited
orders. At five o'clock we started with Benjamin's battery, and marched
about four miles and went into position near some woods. There had been
a constant roar of musketry since five o'clock. Our position was such
that we could see but a very small part of the field, and we wondered
why we were put in such a position, as the underbrush in the woods just
in our front was so thick that we could not see an enemy until they
were right on our guns.

We remained in this position until nine o'clock in the evening without
firing a shot. All day long the roar of battle had continued; large
numbers of wounded had been passing our position all day; occasionally
a stray shot would come our way, but nothing of any account.

At nine o'clock in the evening we had orders to limber up, and moved
about five miles out on the Chancellorsville road, and went into camp
at three o'clock in the morning.

On the 7th we hitched up at eight o'clock in the morning, but did not
move until dark; then we marched by the Chancellorsville House, and at
daylight went into camp. From this until the 15th, we remained near
this camp, going into position once or twice, but not firing a shot;
in the meantime the infantry and cavalry with some artillery, had been
having some very hard fighting, but the large amount of woods and the
contour of the ground was such that a small amount of artillery was
used in the battles of the Wilderness and Spottsylvania, so that on the
15th a large number of batteries were sent back to the rear.

We hitched up at four o'clock on the morning of the 15th, and started
for Fredericksburg, where we arrived in the evening, and encamped;
remained in camp the 17th, crossed the Rappahannock on the 18th, and
next day marched to Belle's Landing, and remained there until the 24th,
when we started for Port Royal, where we arrived on the 26th.

On the morning of the 27th we received orders to send forty horses and
twenty men to the front.

On the 28th we turned over the balance of our horses, and loaded guns
and caissons on steamer and started for Washington, landing at the Navy
Yard on the night of the 31st, and turned in our battery, then marched
to Fort Lincoln, about four miles north of the city, and went into
barracks. We remained there doing garrison duty and having drills on
both light and heavy artillery until July 5th.

On the morning of the 5th we started for Fort Sumner, on the northwest
of the city near the Potomac, arriving there in the afternoon, and went
into barracks. In the fort was a battery of six thirty-two pound rifled
guns, and we were given charge of these. The infantry in the fort were
all one hundred day men.

On the 7th Gen. Augur visited the fort and ordered Capt. Buckley to
draw muskets for the men. We did not like this move, but had to "take
our medicine." We had to smile when we saw some of the hundred-day men
out on drill; but when we went out on our first drill with muskets I
guess it must have been rather amusing to the spectators.

We appeared on dress parade with the infantry the same night we
received our muskets, and it wasn't a success as far as we were
concerned. Quite a large number of our men had been in the service
long enough to get quite a good idea of infantry tactics, but on this
occasion they failed to remember "just a little bit" of them.

The next morning we sent a detail of thirteen men and a sergeant up
the Potomac on picket. That night at about one o'clock we heard firing
on our picket-line, and in a short time some of the infantry pickets
reached the fort and reported that the rebel cavalry were driving in
our whole line.

Everybody was turned out, and there was considerable excitement. We
waited for some of our men to show up, but they did not come, and we
came to the conclusion that it was a scare.

In the morning our relief went out, and when our men came in we found
that two farmers had come down the road with a wagon and some led
horses. Our men halted them, but some of the led horses got away and
started on. The infantry pickets opened on them, and our men tried
to stop their firing, but the more they halloed the faster came the
bullets. For self-protection, our men opened on the pickets, firing
high, and in a few minutes everything was quiet on the picket-line.

Perhaps a slight history of the situation of affairs at this time will
be of interest. The Army of the Potomac was before Richmond; Gen.
Hunter, commanding forces in the Shenandoah Valley, had moved up the
valley and had met with good success, destroying the Central Virginia
Railroad at Goshen Springs and at Staunton, also destroying at Staunton
the enemy's depot, woolen factory, government stables, and large
quantities of army material, and captured fifteen hundred prisoners and
three pieces of artillery.

Here Hunter was joined on June 8th by the troops of Crook and Averell,
who had marched from West Virginia by way of Warm Springs and Goshen,
making his available force about eighteen thousand men. On the 10th
Hunter started with his whole army for Lynchburg. Two days marching
brought him to Lexington, Va., where he remained until the 14th,
waiting for his expected wagon train, and then continued his march.
Averell reached Lynchburg on the afternoon of the 17th, and Hunter's
main force the same evening.

On the 18th Hunter attacked with all his available force, but was
repulsed. From some prisoners taken Hunter found that Breckenridge had
been re-enforced during the night by the corps of Gen. Early (Stonewall
Jackson's old corps).

Hunter was now in a tight place, and could not retreat up the
Shenandoah Valley, as the enemy had repaired the railroad and could
now send troops by rail and hold Rockfish Gap, so Hunter resolved to
retreat by way of Bulford's Gap to Charlestown, in the Kanawha Valley.
Early hurried him along for a time, but soon turned back. By this move
the Shenandoah Valley was left open, and Gen. Lee immediately started
Early and Breckenridge down the valley and into Maryland, and on the
11th of July Early was in front of Washington.

Things remained quiet in our front until the afternoon of the 11th,
when our pickets reported that our cavalry was falling back under quite
a brisk fire from the enemy's cavalry. We had our muskets piled up
and at once took our positions on the thirty-two pound rifle battery,
thinking we could do more execution with them than we would be apt to
with the muskets. At about five o'clock in the afternoon our men out on
picket were relieved by some cavalry.

We did not fire a shot from our battery, and only one shot was fired
from the fort, and that was at a squad of our own cavalry. The shot did
no harm, as it went wide of its mark. The major commanding our fort
wanted us to open on this same party, but Capt. Buckley refused to do
so until he was satisfied who we were going to fire on.

We felt rather blue over our situation, as all in our immediate
vicinity were new troops or clerks from the city, and we did not have
much confidence in them, but we soon heard that the Sixth Corps and a
part of the Nineteenth had arrived, and we felt that Washington was
safe.

The night of the 11th was quiet in our front, and on the 12th only
a little picket firing. Before dark Early had been driven back by
Wright's Sixth Corps, and things had quieted down.

About noon time we received orders to turn in our muskets and report
at Camp Barry. Nobody objected to this order, and soon we were on the
march. Capt. Buckley and Lieuts. Bonn and Gray started ahead, and when
the men under command of Lieut. Chase arrived at Camp Barry, they had
requisitions for a four-gun battery of three-inch rifles. We did not
get our complement of horses, baggage wagons, ambulance, etc., until
the next morning, but at five o'clock on the afternoon of the 13th we
marched in pursuit of Early.

We reached Tenallytown and went into camp, but the next morning we
found that many of our horses were lame, and we had to stay there two
days, working night and day to get them shod.

On the 16th we started for Snicker's Gap. Marched twenty miles, and
went into camp at Edwards' Ferry. Hitched up early in the morning,
crossed the Potomac, and marched to Leesburg, and joined the Nineteenth
Corps.

Early in the morning on the 18th, we were on the road; passed through
Snicker's Gap and went into camp near the Shenandoah River, but later
crossed the river and marched about four miles and went into position,
where we remained until about nine o'clock in the evening, when we
received orders to recross the river and report at Washington with the
Nineteenth and Sixth Corps.

This movement was by order of Gen. Grant, he supposing that Early
had started for Richmond, and wanting the Sixth and Nineteenth Corps
forwarded via Washington to join the Army of the Potomac, then in front
of Petersburg.

We marched nearly all night, stopping at Leesburg to feed, and then
continued on to Goose Creek, where we went into camp, having marched
about twenty-four miles. Our march was continued for three days,
starting early in the morning and making camp at dark.

The 23d we started at daylight and arrived at Chain Bridge in the
afternoon and went into camp, remaining there two days, which gave the
men and horses a rest. The weather had been very warm, and the dust on
the march was almost suffocating.

On the 26th we had orders to start back to Harper's Ferry, and we
broke camp early in the morning and hurried along, arriving at our
destination on the evening of the 29th and went into camp, the men and
horses being pretty well tired out. We omitted the evening roll-call so
as to allow the men to go to sleep early; but we were just a little
vexed to get orders in the evening to be ready to move at three o'clock
in the morning--where? Right back over the road we had just come!

"Boots and saddles" were blown at half-past two the next morning, and
we moved out of camp promptly at three o'clock. It was reported that
some one in the battery, on being woke up and told that we were to
retrace our steps over the same ground that we had covered twice since
the 16th, made a very profane remark, but on investigation the culprit
could not be found.

We marched that day until late in the evening, when we encamped in
a lot alongside of the pike. Starting early next morning we passed
through Frederick City and went into camp on the Gettysburg pike, where
we remained one day, and then started back, making twenty-four miles,
and again went into camp. We remained there until Aug. 6th, when we
stared at daylight and reached Knoxville, having marched twenty-three
miles.

On the 7th we crossed the Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and encamped at
Halltown.

There were various reasons for the marches and countermarches we had
been making for the past fifteen days. Early had not started up the
valley as was supposed, but was holding on to some of the fords, and
his whole force was in the lower part of the Shenandoah Valley. There
were a number of generals commanding certain sections of the country
in the vicinity of Washington, and each thought that Early was sure to
attack him, and if a small cavalry force showed up in his vicinity, he
immediately wired to Washington that Early's whole force was after him,
and then everything had to "hustle;" but at last Gen. Grant insisted
that one man should take command of the whole, and Gen. Philip H.
Sheridan was sent from his command of the Cavalry Corps of the Army
of the Potomac to take command of all troops on the Upper Potomac.
Gen. Grant, on the 6th of August, ran down to Monocacy Bridge, in
Maryland, and met Gen. Sheridan at that point, and gave him his final
instructions.

Gen. Hunter had just arrived from his long trip down the Kanawha
Valley, and his troops were at or near Harper's Ferry, having been
delayed by low water in the Ohio River, and also by various breaks on
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, from reporting as soon as expected.

Gen. Halleck had sent one or two sharp telegraph orders to Hunter,
hurrying him up, so Hunter, as soon as he had his troops at the Ferry,
sent his resignation to Washington, and it was accepted, and the army
lost a good general.

Sheridan's army consisted of the Sixth Corps, commanded by Maj. Gen.
Wright, its three divisions by Gens. Russell, Getty and Rickets; one
division of the Nineteenth Corps, Maj. Gen. Emory commanding corps,
Gen. Dwight commanding division (the second division of the Nineteenth
Corps, Gen. Grover, arrived on the 18th of August); Army of West
Virginia (Eighth Corps), Gen. Crook commanding, Gens. Thoburn and
Duval as division commanders. The cavalry consisted of Gen. Torbert's
division and Averell's; Torbert was appointed as Chief of Cavalry, with
Merritt and Averell commanding divisions.

The rebel force in the valley consisted of "Stonewall" Jackson's old
corps, now commanded by Early, with Gens. Rodes, Ransom and Gordon
commanding divisions. Breckenridge's division, three battalions of
artillery and one corps of cavalry commanded by Gen. Lomax, with
Vaughn, Johnson, McCausland and Imboden as brigade commanders.

I quote from Sheridan's Memoirs the following description of the
Shenandoah Valley, that the reader may have a better idea of the
different movements of the army:

 "The valley has its northern limit along the Potomac between McCoy's
 ferry at the eastern base of the North Mountain, and Harper's Ferry
 at the western base of the Blue Ridge. The southern limit is south of
 Staunton, on the divide which separates the waters flowing into the
 Potomac from those that run to the James. The western boundary is the
 eastern slope of the Alleghany Mountains, the eastern, the Blue Ridge;
 these two distinct mountain ranges trending about southwest inclose a
 stretch of quite open, undulating country varying in width from the
 northern to the southern extremity, and dotted at frequent intervals
 with patches of heavy woods.

 "At Martinsburg the valley is about sixty miles broad, and on an
 east and west line drawn through Winchester about forty-five, while
 at Strasburg it narrows down to about twenty-five. Just southeast of
 Strasburg, which is nearly midway between the eastern and western
 walls of the valley, rises an abrupt range of mountains called
 Massanutten, consisting of several ridges which extend southward
 between the North and South Forks of the Shenandoah River until,
 losing their identity, they merge into lower but broken ground between
 New Market and Harrisonburg. The Massanutten ranges, with their spurs
 and hills, divide the Shenandoah Valley into two valleys, the one
 next the Blue Ridge being called the Luray, while that next the North
 Mountain retains the name of Shenandoah.

 "A broad macadamized road, leading south from Williamsport, Maryland,
 to Lexington, Virginia, was built at an early day to connect the
 interior of the latter State with the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and
 along this road are situated the principal towns and villages of the
 Shenandoah Valley, with lateral lines of communication extending to
 the mountain ranges on the east and west. The roads running toward the
 Blue Ridge are nearly all macadamized, and the principal ones lead to
 the railroad system of eastern Virginia through Snicker's, Ashby's,
 Manassas, Chester, Thornton's, Swift Run, Brown's and Rockfish Gaps,
 tending to an ultimate centre at Richmond. These gaps are low and
 easy, offering little obstruction to the march of an army coming from
 eastern Virginia, and thus the Union troops operating west of the
 Blue Ridge were always subjected to the perils of a flank attack; for
 the Confederates could readily be brought by rail to Gordonsville and
 Charlottesville, from which point they could move with such celerity
 through the Blue Ridge that, on more than one occasion, the Shenandoah
 Valley has been the theatre of Confederate success, due greatly to the
 advantage of possessing these interior lines."

As before stated, our battery arrived at Halltown on the 7th of August.
We put our guns in position and remained there three days.

On the 9th, Lieut. Gray was detailed as Ordnance Officer, Artillery
Brigade, Nineteenth Army Corps.

The 10th we moved with our corps to Berryville, and on the morning of
the 11th we made a forward movement, Sheridan intending to force Early
into a fight. Early was not willing to accept a battle, and moved his
army up the valley.

We followed as far as Cedar Creek, and on the afternoon of the 13th
had quite a lively brush with Early's rear guard, we only firing a few
shots. We remained there until the evening of the 15th, when we moved
out of camp at ten o'clock, and reached Winchester at daylight, and
went into position, where we remained until the morning of the 17th,
when we moved back to Berryville.

Next morning we retired about four miles and formed line-of-battle,
Crook on the left, Emory in the centre, and Wright on the right. This
retrograde movement was caused by Sheridan receiving notice that
Kershaw's division of infantry and two brigades of Fitzhugh Lee's
cavalry were on the way to re-enforce Early, and at that time, the
16th, had reached Front Royal, where Merritt, with his cavalry, was
disputing their advance.

Early, as soon as he found that Sheridan had fallen back, put his
force in motion, and lost no time in following us down the valley, and
from this until the 19th, our army was on the defensive. We were at or
near Halltown, where several skirmishes occurred, we firing only a few
shots, however.

On the 3d of September all the three-years men who had not re-enlisted
were mustered out at Charlestown, and went home under the charge of
Capt. Buckley.

Sheridan learned on the 16th that Kershaw's division of infantry and
Cutshaw's artillery had been returned to Richmond, and he immediately
made preparations for a forward movement; and on the morning of the
19th his cavalry forced the Berryville crossing of the Opequon,
followed by the Sixth, Eighth and Nineteenth Corps. The enemy was
posted in line-of-battle, and in a short time the engagement became
general. It was nearly dark before Early was fairly beaten and sent
"whirling through Winchester."

Our part in this important victory may be seen in part from the report
of Capt. E.D. Taft, Chief of Artillery, Nineteenth Army Corps:

 "Battery D, First Rhode Island Artillery, by my direction, took
 position in a skirt of woods on the right of the Nineteenth Army
 Corps, and immediately opened fire on one of the enemy's batteries,
 then enfilading our lines on the right, when the enemy opened fire
 from two guns in the wood with canister, about two hundred yards
 distant and in rear of our line of infantry. The battery soon
 silenced these two guns, and then renewed the fire on the battery
 enfilading our line, silencing it for a short period, but the infantry
 falling back for want of ammunition rendered the position unsafe for
 artillery. The battery had whilst in this position, although under a
 severe fire front and left oblique, been gallantly fought. The support
 having retired, and the battery having lost four men and six horses
 and one wheel broken, I ordered it to withdraw, which was done in good
 order. This closed the operations of these batteries for the day."

Capt. Taft's report is wrong in one particular. When our infantry fell
back, Capt. Taft did ride up to our battery and tell the commanding
officer to hold his position as long as possible, but look out and not
lose his pieces, and then rode away. We soon had orders to limber up.

At this time some infantry in our front was showing up rather near our
position. As we were afraid they would get at us before we could get
through the woods, we thought that a few rounds of canister, rightly
distributed, would give them a check and allow us to retire.

Lieut. Bonn was in command of the right section, and Lieut. Gray of the
left. Lieut. Gray was still on detached duty, but came up while we were
halted in the woods and took his section into the fight. We promptly
commenced to distribute canister among the infantry in our front, and
they soon took shelter under the bank of Red Bud Run. Just at this time
Lieut. Gray's left piece was disabled by a shot, and he sent it to the
rear, but retained the cannoneers to help on the other pieces. It was
now decided that we could pull out.

The right section pulled out, and the right piece of the left section
was about to limber up, when a shot from a twenty-pound Parrott that
was across the Red Bud Run passed entirely through the swing horses. We
had to stay, then, and Sergt. Tucker and his men needed no orders to
commence firing again.

We soon expended all our canister, and had to use solid shot as our
shell had given out some time before. The infantry that was under the
bank to our right and front now commenced to give us some trouble, and
we began to think that we had staid too long; but we would shy a shot
along the bank and they would lay low; meantime we were hurrying to get
our dead horses on the limber clear, but it was a slow job.

About this time an officer rode out of the woods in our rear and gave
us the welcome news that a brigade of the Eighth Corps was close at
hand; and in a minute or two we saw them coming on the double-quick.
When they arrived we ceased firing and limbered up, and taking the
harnesses from our dead horses, we soon joined the rest of the battery.
When our lines advanced, we were ordered to move with them, and we had
quite a good view of the final rout of Early's army. We went into camp
for the night just outside of Winchester.

On the morning of the 20th we started early in pursuit of the enemy,
and on arrival at Strasburg went into camp. Gen. Early was found in
position just in our front at Fisher's Hill, strongly fortified. His
position was almost impregnable from an attack in front, so Sheridan
sent the Eighth Corps around his left to take the position by flanking
it. It took until the afternoon of the 23d to get the Eighth Corps
into position, as they had to make most of the movements through thick
woods, and keep out of sight of the rebels' signal stations. On the
afternoon of the 23d the Eighth Corps charged down on to Early's left
flank and routed it. The movements in our front were to help carry out
this project.

On the morning of the 23d our corps was advanced, and at three o'clock
in the afternoon Grover's division drove in the skirmish line in our
front and formed in line-of-battle. Some two hundred yards in our front
was a ridge, and the rebel sharpshooters took up their position on
this ridge, and made it very uncomfortable for us. The third brigade,
second division, Nineteenth Corps, soon made a charge and captured
this position, which was within three hundred yards of the enemy's
fortifications.

Gens. Sheridan and Grover were at the right of our battery when the
infantry carried the hill. Sheridan wanted a piece of artillery sent
out there, and Gen. Grover came and asked Lieut. Chase if he could put
a piece on that ridge. Lieut. Gray was sent to see if it was possible
to do so. Dismounting just before the top of the ridge was reached, he
left his horse in charge of an orderly and took to all fours to do the
rest of the distance.

There was quite a depression on the top of the ridge, and just on the
other edge was a slight rifle-pit that had been hastily thrown up
by the enemy. Our skirmishers were occupying this, and it was quite
necessary to keep well down, as the enemy's infantry and artillery were
within short range, and were giving this particular spot very close
attention.

Becoming convinced that if a piece could be put into this depression it
would do good execution, Lieut. Gray gave the signal, and Sergt. Tucker
with his piece started on the gallop and was soon there, the piece
being halted before the top of the ridge was reached. The pickets kept
up a sharp fire so as to have the smoke hide our movements, and we ran
the piece by hand into the depression and filled both haversacks with
ammunition and loaded. We had a sure mark, and when we sent that shell
into the earthwork in our front, it made things jingle. The enemy was
not slow in returning the compliment, and as they had eight or ten guns
in our immediate front, we laid low, but just as soon as we thought
they had fired everything, we repeated the experiment before they had
loaded.

We had been in this position about fifteen or twenty minutes when
Gens. Sheridan and Grover ran over the ridge and took shelter in the
depression just to our right. Sheridan was anxious to see the whole
situation, and crawled up to the skirmish line, some ten feet in
advance of us. Gen. Grover soon joined him, and just about this time
a shot from a twenty-pound Parrott ploughed through the slight ridge
within a foot of Sheridan's head, covering him with dirt. He rolled
over on his side, and we thought he was wounded, but he was only
getting the dirt out of his ear and neck; he came back, though, and
took his position by the side of our piece.

In a few minutes we heard cheers on our right and soon saw the
enemy breaking all along the line. We sent shot after shot in quick
succession, but were told to stop firing. Soon our corps came sweeping
over the ridge and down the other side.

Sheridan now wanted his horse, but could not see it, so Lieut. Gray let
him take his, but regretted it in a moment, as Sheridan went dashing
down the hill over stumps and fallen trees, and we expected to see
horse and rider take a tumble, but they were soon out of sight.

We limbered up and went back to where the remainder of the battery was,
and then started over to the pike and joined our division. We marched
nearly all night and then went into camp at Woodstock, to get a little
sleep and some rations.

At two o'clock in the afternoon we started again and reached Edenburg,
where toward night we fired a few shots and then encamped. In the
morning we were away early, and marched all day, going into position
two or three times and firing a few shots, but apparently doing the
enemy no great harm. The next day we marched to Mount Jackson, having
quite a skirmish in the afternoon.

On the morning of the 29th we started at nine o'clock, and on reaching
Harrisonburg, went into camp, remaining there until the 6th of October,
occupying the time in foraging for our horses.

On the morning of the 30th Lieut. Gray took nine mounted men from the
battery, armed with revolvers, and started out into the country to
secure some horses that he had seen the day before, but on arriving
where he had seen the horses he found the natives had run them off to
the mountains. Following the trail for about seven miles we ran across
a few straggling rebel cavalrymen, several of whom were captured, and
also a number of horses.

We continued on until we were about fifteen or sixteen miles from camp,
when we stopped at a farmhouse and had dinner and fed our horses. We
then started toward camp again, but by a different road than that
on which we came. We had two or three quite sharp skirmishes with
squads of rebel cavalry, and about dusk Billy Mills, who was in the
advance, rode back bringing the information that there was a company of
rebel cavalry drawn up on the side of the road with the intention of
obstructing our passage. We had at this time nine rebel cavalrymen as
prisoners and twenty-three horses.

The line was immediately halted, and Lieut. Gray rode ahead to
reconnoiter. When he arrived at the edge of the woods he found a
company of rebels drawn up in line in a large field adjoining the road.
On looking over the situation he found that the fence in the rear and
on the left had been taken down, to allow egress from the lot, which
gave him the impression that the force there had some doubt as to the
number of our men.

Riding back, the column was started forward, following the road
until close to the edge of the woods where we could be seen from the
lots. We filed by twos from the road into the woods and made a short
countermarch on to the road and into the woods again, which manoeuvre
made it look as if we had two companies. On moving into the woods the
second time, all the rebel cavalrymen were dismounted, their arms
strapped to each other and ordered to sit down, and one man left as
guard.

The darkies that had been confiscated to take care of the spare horses,
twelve in number, were mounted on them, and a line was formed at the
edge of the woods, consisting of twenty men, nine of us and eleven
darkies sandwiched in, the other darkey being left to look after the
horses. These arrangements were not quite satisfactory to some of the
darkies; but they were told that when we started out of the woods they
must keep well up in the line or get shot.

An order was given to charge, every man was told to halloo as loud as
he could yell, and ride straight for the line of the rebel cavalry.
The scheme worked like a charm. The rebel line soon broke and fled to
the woods, we in hot pursuit, capturing three, two seriously wounded,
while our loss was one darkey shot, and slight wounds on two horses. We
soon collected our men together and sent them back to the woods under
command of Sergt. Tucker.

Lieut. Gray and Mills rode down to the town to see if there were
any rebels there, we having seen a squad of men leaving there a
few minutes before we had our brush with the company of cavalry.
Both Lieut. Gray and Mills had on rebel uniforms, and they soon had
information that the body of men which had left the town a few minutes
before were Yankees, which information was pleasing to them.

Mills was immediately sent back to have the line moved forward, and we
soon entered the town. Lieut. Gray sat on his horse with a dozen people
around him, who were giving what information they could, and urging
him to hurry so as to capture some of the Yankees that had left a few
minutes before. The squad of men we saw leaving the town was Lieut.
Corthell and some men from Battery G. of our regiment. When our line
came up there was a look of astonishment on the faces of some of the
people when they found we were Yankees.

We arrived in camp about eight o'clock with twenty-eight horses and
thirteen rebel cavalrymen, which we considered a good day's work for
ten light artillerymen.

On the morning of the 6th Sheridan started his army down the valley,
having done all the damage with his cavalry that he could in this
neighborhood. We bivouacked at Mount Jackson, and started the next
morning and reached Woodstock late in the evening.

On the morning of the 8th we hitched up early, but did not move. We
soon learned that Sheridan had made up his mind to give the rebel
cavalry another lesson.

Gen. Rosser had just arrived in the valley with his brigade, and he was
put in command of all the cavalry. Since leaving Harrisonburg they had
been annoying our rear guard, so Sheridan sent word to Torbert on the
evening of the 7th to "give Rosser a drubbing in the morning, or get
whipped yourself, and the infantry will be halted until the affair is
over."

Torbert had the divisions of Merritt and Custer, and in the morning
he attacked Rosser. After a hard fight of about two hours Rosser had
received his "drubbing," losing eleven pieces of artillery, several
wagons, and three hundred prisoners.

We started on our march at ten o'clock, and encamped near Strasburg,
remaining there one day, and then moved to the north bank of Cedar
Creek, and went into position just off the pike on the extreme left of
the Nineteenth Corps. Crook (Eighth Corps) went into position on the
left of the pike joining the left of the Nineteenth Corps, his right
advanced some hundred and fifty yards beyond our position. The Sixth
Corps had started for Port Royal, to rejoin the Army of the Potomac,
while Merritt's cavalry was on the extreme right of our line.

Our cavalry destroyed all the mills and crops in the valley as we
fell back, and gathered in all the live stock, so that Early could
not subsist his army in the valley. Early was at Fisher's Hill on the
morning of the 13th, just the same, but probably brought his rations
with him. We occupied this position until the morning of the 19th. In
the meantime the Sixth Corps had come back and taken position in rear
of the Nineteenth Corps. Sheridan had been called to Washington, which
left Wright in command.

At break of day on the 19th, three of Early's divisions surprised
Crook's camp and stampeded his whole command. Our battery, being on the
extreme left of the Nineteenth Corps, were the first troops to receive
their attention after the Eighth Corps had been swept away.

We had orders to have our battery hitched up at daylight, and we had
just completed the task when we heard a volley of musketry on our left.
We fired four rounds, just to make a noise and wake up the camp, not
yet realizing just what had happened on our left.

Lieut. Gray hurriedly gave orders to have the tents struck and
everything in readiness to move. In a few minutes we saw a line coming
over the hill on our left, and making sure they were not our troops, we
opened on them, but after firing for a few minutes, Gen. Emory dashed
up and ordered us to stop firing, as they were some of our men, and
Lieut. Gray was told to always look out before he commenced firing. At
this moment Lieuts. Chase and Bonn came up, and Chase took command.

In the two or three minutes that had elapsed since we had stopped
firing, the line of infantry that we had driven behind the brow of the
hill, now opened on us, and in a few seconds we had orders to "give it
to them." We had just opened on them as Gen. Wright rode up. He asked
Emory "What is the matter?" and Emory replied, "Early has surprised
us--Crook's corps has gone." Wright quickly took in the situation, and
started off.

We had warm work before us, the enemy's line of infantry on our left
having a notion of charging us, but as they came over the ridge we
had very nearly a complete flank fire on them, and our left section
commenced using canister. The right of their line was driven back over
the ridge, but the left was swinging up parallel with the pike, which
gave them a flank fire on our battery. We were lucky in having three or
four loads of hay piled up just in rear of the limbers and on a line
with the caissons on the extreme left of the battery, this pile of hay
stopping many of the bullets from our left.

At this time the fourth brigade, second division, Nineteenth Corps,
swung into position on our left. The smoke and fog was quite thick, and
they did not open fire for some minutes thinking that the line in their
front was some of the Eighth Corps falling back. Their mistake was
discovered, and none too soon, for the enemy made a dash for our guns,
but the line on our left had their guns loaded, and poured a volley at
them which checked their onward rush.

We were firing very rapidly and doing good execution, as we kept the
line on our left (or in front of our left section, which had swung to
the left) back to the brow of the ridge; but it now became apparent
that we must fall back, as the right of our support had given way and
the troops on the left of the battery were only hanging on so as to
give us a chance to get out; and to add to our troubles, the line of
infantry on our left, which we had until now been able to keep back to
the ridge, was joined by Wharton's rebel division which had moved up
the pike, and they were pouring in a nasty fire.

When we received the order, "Limber to the rear," we were not long in
executing it, as the rebels were now very close to us. All the pieces
were taken off but the left piece of Lieut. Gray's section--three of
the limber horses being down, and in a minute every horse on the limber
was shot. It was impossible to take the piece by hand to the rear, and
the caisson had started some minutes before. The pike had been in the
hands of the rebels for the last fifteen minutes, so Lieut. Gray told
the three or four cannoneers who had been trying to get the limber
clear, to join the battery.

Maj. Hart, of Gen. Emory's staff, wanted to save this piece, and told
Lieut. Gray to fix the prolong and he would have the infantry haul
it off. It was simply sacrificing men to make the attempt under the
circumstances. Maj. Hart lost his life, also Capt. Watson and Lieut.
Quay, both of the Eighth Indiana, and Lieut. Col. Kenny, commanding the
Eighth Indiana, was severely wounded, and four others. Lieut. Gray was
the only one who escaped from the attempt to get the piece away.

The following is from Vol. XLIII. of the Official Records of the War:

 Hdqrs. Fourth Brig., Second Div., 19th Army Corps,
 Cedar Creek, Va., October 24, 1864.

 Captain: I have the honor to submit the following report of operations
 of my command in the engagement on the 19th of October, instant:

 * * * * the right regiment (Eighth Indiana) supporting Battery D,
 First Rhode Island Artillery. In consequence of the dense fog, which
 existed at the time, the enemy advanced on the battery and were within
 a short distance of it before we could distinguish whether they were
 friends or foes, the more so, as we supposed them to be a portion
 of the Eighth Corps, and notwithstanding we received a very heavy
 fire from that direction, we did not reply to it until they charged
 directly on the battery. Five pieces were withdrawn successfully, and
 while attempting to save the last one Major Hart (of General Grover's
 staff), Capt. William D. Watson, and Lieut. George W. Quay (both of
 Eighth Indiana) were killed, and Lieut. Col. A.J. Kenny (commanding
 Eighth Indiana) severely wounded. * * * * *

 I cannot close this report without referring to the bravery of the
 lamented Major Hart (of General Grover's staff), who was killed while
 cheering on the men in their attempt to save the last gun of Battery
 D, First Rhode Island Artillery. In him we have lost a noble, brave,
 efficient officer.

 I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

 DAVID SHUNK,
 _Colonel Eighth Indiana, Commanding_.

 Capt. E.A. Fiske,
   _Actg. Asst. Adjt. Gen._,
     _Second Div., Nineteenth Army Corps_.

 Hdqrs. Third Brig., Second Div., 19th Army Corps,
 Near Cedar Creek, Va., October 24, 1864.

 Sir: In obedience to orders, I have the honor to make the following
 report of the operations of this brigade in the action of the 19th
 instant:

 * * * * the left of the One Hundred and Seventy-sixth New York reached
 nearly to and supported Battery D, First Rhode Island Artillery.

 These dispositions had scarcely been made, and orders given to the
 men to reserve their fire until the enemy was near enough to make the
 fire effective, when we began to receive a heavy fire of musketry from
 the advancing, but still hidden, enemy. The fire came from our front,
 our right, and our left, with a heavy, but random fire of artillery
 from the heights formerly occupied by General Crook's command. The
 enemy's lines were not developed until they were within one hundred
 and fifty yards of our lines, and then were but dimly visible
 through the fog. At this time they opened a furious and destructive
 fire upon us, still advancing, which was vigorously and effectively
 returned, checking to some extent their advance. The enemy's lines,
 as now developed, were nearly at right angles with the main brigade
 line, and facing the One Hundred and Seventy-sixth New York and the
 three companies of the One Hundred and Fifty-sixth New York, which
 had changed front. The left of their lines extended very nearly to
 Cedar Creek, while their right extended as far as the eye could reach
 through the fog and smoke. In a very few moments they were on us in
 force, their left swinging to the right, while their right poured
 heavy volleys in our rear. A desperate hand-to-hand fight ensued on
 the left of the brigade line. The enemy had planted their colors on
 our works and were fighting desperately across them, meeting with a
 stubborn resistance, while they swarmed like bees round the battery on
 our left and rear. * * * *

 I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

 ALFRED NEAFIE,
 _Lieutenant Colonel, Commanding Brigade_.

 Capt. E.A. Fiske,
 _Acting Assistant Adjutant General_.

When the battery retired, we moved to the right and rear of our
position, crossed Meadow Brook, passing to the west of the Bell Grove
house (Sheridan's head-quarters) and joined some infantry about one
thousand yards to the rear, and went into position, firing at a line
of infantry on the pike, and then fell back just beyond Middletown,
and again went into position behind some light breastworks that had
been thrown up. We remained there until three or four in the afternoon,
firing occasionally when we could see anything to fire at.

Gen. Sheridan joined his command at about half-past ten in the
morning, from Winchester. At this time Getty's division, of the Sixth
Corps, was holding a position about one mile north of Middletown, his
left near the pike. Col. Lowell's cavalry extended from Getty's left
to near Middletown. The other two divisions of the Sixth Corps, the
Nineteenth, and part of the Eighth Corps, were just south of Newtown.

Our army had lost twenty-four pieces of artillery, a large amount of
camp equipage, ambulances, wagons, and thirteen hundred prisoners.

Sheridan's arrival gave our men confidence. He had the two divisions of
the Sixth Corps, also the Nineteenth, and part of the Eighth Corps put
in line on the right of Getty's division. The enemy tried to break this
line, but Emory handsomely repulsed the charge.

At about a quarter of four o'clock Sheridan advanced his whole line,
which was met by a stubborn resistance; but soon the enemy was obliged
to give way, and in a short time it was a complete rout.

Our infantry followed the enemy until their old camps were reached at
Cedar Creek, and then the cavalry took up the chase. All of our guns
were recaptured, and twenty-four of Early's (just the number we lost in
the morning), besides about all of the ambulances and wagons that were
lost in the morning were in our hands that night, with a large majority
of Early's.

Our battery followed the infantry when the advance was made, and on
arrival at Cedar Creek, went into our position of the morning. We
had lost one gun and one limber and all of our camp equipage (our
teams, having taken the pike when they fell back, were captured);
notwithstanding, we felt happy at the way things had turned out. We
also experienced just a little regret that we had no blankets, tents,
or anything else in fact, but what we had on.

Not a man of the battery had had a morsel to eat since the night
before, and no show for rations getting to the front that night. We
could get along without tents or blankets, but the day's excitement
had given us a good appetite. We built up two large camp fires and sat
around discussing the events of the day.

About nine o'clock Lieut. Gray (who had left the battery shortly after
we arrived in our old position) rode into camp escorting a four-mule
team which he had captured. The contents of the wagon were soon spread
out, disclosing three boxes of "hard-tack" as a part of the capture.
This was issued at once, and we had a good supper.

The following is Lieut. Gray's report of his two hours' absence: "When
we arrived in our old position just at dusk, there was a rebel battery
on the hill beyond the bridge, and quite a piece to the right. A few
shells came over our camp, and I knew they were from a three-inch
rifle; having lost one of that kind in the morning, I thought I would
ride over and see if I could find it.

I rode down toward our right, crossed a small stream in the woods, and
came out near a small plateau where some two or three hundred rebel
infantrymen were trying to hold our cavalry from coming up the hill. I
swung back and joined the head of our cavalry line, which proved to be
the First Vermont, Col. Bennett. He was waiting for his men to close up.

I crossed the stone wall and rode a few yards to the left, when Gen.
Custer, with the Fifth New York came up, and both regiments charged. I
was carried along with the crowd, but before we had gone fifty yards
the rebel infantry broke. I made friends with a sergeant, and suggested
that we shove ahead and get the guns of the battery that had been
firing but a minute or two before.

He fell into the scheme, and we gathered about a dozen of his command
and struck out for the battery, but they had limbered up, and were
quite a piece from where we expected to find them. We were riding at a
sharp trot, passing through quite a number of rebel infantry, who paid
not the least attention to us. I soon made out the battery, which was
bearing off to the right.

I rode to the head of the battery and ordered them to halt. The
officer in command told me that he had orders to go to the rear as
quick as possible. I explained to him who I was, and ordered him to
countermarch. As soon as the battery was halted three or four of
the mounted men rode up to see what the matter was, and heard the
conversation. I heard the click of two or three revolvers, and wished I
was at home, as my friend the sergeant and his men had stopped to take
some of the rebel infantry into camp, leaving me entirely alone.

I rode directly in front of the commanding officer of the battery,
holding my Colt's navy revolver very close to him, and told him it was
no use making a fuss, as our cavalry was some distance in our front,
and it was impossible for him to get away.

He finally gave the order to countermarch, and we were nearing the pike
when some of our cavalry came up, and they demanded our surrender. I
explained to them how things stood, and that they could have all the
pieces but one, but I wanted one at least. The officer in command
allowed I had no business out there anyway, and he would take charge of
the guns. We had quite an argument, but I had to let him have his own
way.

I now came to the conclusion that I didn't want any guns, so I rode up
the pike, where I soon got into their infantry, which was scattered
over the lots on each side of the pike. On the pike were three lines of
vehicles going at a slow trot, the lines being composed of pieces of
artillery, wagons, ambulances, and caissons, all mixed in together.

I rode alongside the pike until I came to a place where there was a
down grade, and I then took a whip from one of the drivers and his
"jerk-line" and swinging his lead mules over against the next team to
him, I put the whip to them, and it was fun to see those mules try
to climb over that team. In a few seconds there was a mix-up, mules,
horses, wagons and drivers, being piled up, completely blocking the
road.

I went back down the pike asking different drivers what they had in
their wagons. I soon struck one that said he had three boxes of Yankee
hard-tack, a wall tent, blankets, and the mess-kit of the surgeon of
the Fourth Georgia. I asked him to pull out out into the lot, but he
allowed that he would lose his place in line if he did; but as the line
was halted, I persuaded him to do as I suggested, telling him I would
answer all questions if anyone asked them.

I remained there some fifteen or twenty minutes, meanwhile there were
hundreds of men going along, but no organization to them. One small
squad of four or five came by and they had two flags. I started to
capture the flags, but saw a squad of mounted men coming, and waited
for them to pass. One of them asked what I had the team there for, and
I told him that the captain was wounded, and I was waiting to put him
in the wagon, as I could not find an ambulance. He advised me to hurry
up, as the Yankees were right near.

I followed up the flags for a minute or two, but finally weakened, and
gave it up. When our cavalry came up I was again ordered to surrender,
and I had quite a task to keep my wagon, but I soon led it down the
pike, and at about nine o'clock I arrived at our camp. The driver of
the team I had, as soon as he found I wasn't going to harm him, told me
he was glad to get away from the rebel service."

Major DeForrest, aid on Gen. Emory's staff, in his letter published in
_Harper's Monthly Magazine_, of February, 1865, gives the following:

 "Lieut. Gray, Company D, First Rhode Island Artillery, galloped up
 to a retreating battery and ordered it to face about. "I was told to
 go to the rear as rapidly as possible," remonstrated the sergeant in
 command. "You don't seem to know who I am," answered Gray. "I am one
 of those d----d Yanks. Countermarch immediately!" The battery was
 countermarched, and Gray was leading it off alone, when a squadron of
 our cavalry came up and made the capture a certainty."

As soon as we had eaten our hard-tack, we made ourselves as comfortable
as possible, and tried to get some sleep; but the night was chilly, and
most of the men were up at daylight. We rather envied our officers,
who had wall-tents and plenty of blankets (part of the contents of the
captured wagon).

About nine o'clock in the morning we drew rations, and soon had hot
coffee, which put us all right again; but it was nearly noon before we
could obtain grain for our horses, by which time they were very hungry,
having had nothing to eat for about forty-two hours.

Capt. Buckley arrived in camp at about five o'clock in the afternoon on
the 18th, from his visit to Providence with the men that were mustered
out. He did not take part in the proceedings of the battery on the
19th, and was mustered out Oct. 23d.

Nov. 7th Elmer L. Corthell, who had established an excellent military
reputation by long service on various fields, joined the battery
and took command, having been promoted from First Lieutenant of
Battery G, to Captain of Battery D. We found him a very efficient and
conscientious officer.

We remained in camp in our old position at Cedar Creek until Nov. 9th,
when we moved to near Newtown, and went into winter quarters.

On the 9th Early, hearing that Sheridan had fallen back, immediately
advanced, and the 11th crossed Cedar Creek. On the morning of the 12th
Sheridan sent his cavalry out on both flanks and they had quite a sharp
brush with Early's cavalry, and with the usual result. Dudley's brigade
of the Nineteenth Corps, and a small force from the Sixth Corps, were
advanced up the pike to assist the cavalry. Early soon found that Gen.
Sheridan was still in the valley, and promptly retreated to his old
camp at New Market. This was Early's last advance in the Shenandoah
Valley.

We built shelter for our horses, and quite good quarters for the men;
but we had not more than completed our quarters before we had orders
to move nearer our base of supplies, so on Dec. 12th we broke camp and
marched through Winchester to within a short distance of Stephenson
Station.

This march was very hard on both men and horses, as it commenced to
snow soon after we started, and when we arrived at camp there was about
six inches of snow. It cleared up at night, and came out cold, the
ground freezing up, making it quite a job to pitch our tents. There was
very little sleep that night.

The next day we had time to log up our tents, and at once began to
build shelters for our horses. We soon had a very comfortable camp,
where we remained until the 10th of March, 1865, with no hard duty to
perform.

By the middle of December Gen. Sheridan had sent all of the Sixth Corps
to the Army of the Potomac, then in front of Petersburg. One division
of the Eighth Corps was sent to City Point, and the other to West
Virginia, the cavalry and the Nineteenth Corps remaining in the valley.
The cavalry made a raid through Luray Valley and destroyed all the
forage and wheat; they also drove off about three thousand sheep, one
thousand hogs, and hundreds of cattle and horses.

On the 19th of December Torbert started up the valley with eight
thousand cavalry, to strike the Virginia Central Railroad and destroy
the James River Canal. This enterprise was not a success, and on the
27th he returned to Winchester, many of his men frost-bitten by the
excessive cold.

This ended all movements until February 27th, when Gen. Sheridan
started with ten thousand cavalrymen and two sections of artillery
on his successful trip up the valley, through to Grant's army before
Petersburg. At Waynesboro he captured all of Early's command, and the
valley was clear of any large force of the enemy.

On the 10th of March we broke camp and moved near Winchester, remaining
in this camp a short time, and then moved to the east of Winchester
about a mile and went into camp. Our duties there were light. We fired
a salute of one hundred guns on Lee's surrender. Knowing that the war
was about over, we had very short drills, both mounted and the manual.

On the 4th of July we received orders to turn in our battery and other
government property, and proceed to Rhode Island. It is needless to
say that this order was received by the men with every conceivable
manifestation of joy; some hugged each other, while others shouted and
threw their hats in the air, and when "water call" was blown it took
fifteen minutes to form the line, but after that things quieted down,
and on the morning of the 10th we started for home, under command
of Capt. Corthell, taking the cars as far as New York, and then the
steamer John Brooks, which landed us at Fox Point wharf on the morning
of July 13th.

The officers accompanying Capt. Corthell and belonging to the battery
were First Lieuts. Frederick Chase and Charles E. Bonn, and Second
Lieut. Charles C. Gray. The men numbered ninety-five, and presented a
remarkably fine appearance, having nearly new uniforms.

We were received by the Mechanic Rifles and a detachment of the Marine
Artillery, and escorted to Washington Hall, where we found a bountiful
collation prepared for us by L.H. Humphreys. The collation was soon
over, and the men dismissed with orders to report at the Revenue
Office, on South Main Street, on the 17th for final pay and muster out.

On the 17th of July, 1865, the battery was mustered out by Capt. Joseph
S. York, of the Fifteenth United States Infantry, and Battery D, First
Rhode Island Light Artillery, was no more; but we all felt that the
battery had made a record that was honorable alike to itself and the
State.

[Illustration]



ROSTER.


 Aldrich, Halsey A., Corp., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private; Sept. 3,
 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 Andrews, Robert H., 1st Sergt.; Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as Corp.; Nov. 12, 1861,
 promoted Sergt.; Aug. 30, 1862, wounded in action and borne as absent
 sick in hospital until April, 1863; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as Vet.
 Vol. Borne on furlough of fifteen days from April 29, 1865; June 25,
 1865, promoted 1st Sergt.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Arnold, George E., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Aug. 29, 1862, captured at Bull Run, Va.; Sept.
 1, 1862, released at Bull Run, Va., and reported at Camp Parole, Md.
 Borne as absent on detached service at Knoxville, Tenn., from Dec. 8,
 1863, until Jan., 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 Arnold, Olney, Priv., Lonsdale, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital, from May 21,
 1863, until Oct. 8, 1863, when transferred to 74th Co. 2d Bat. V.R.
 C.; Sept. 4, 1864, mustered out as of 74th Co. 2d Bat. V.R. C.

 Austin, Allen, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in; April, 1864, absent sick in hospital, and so borne
 until Sept., 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 Ballou, Stephen, Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Barber, Robert F., Priv. Oct. 22, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Oct. 22, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Bates, Daniel J., Priv. Dec. 22, 1862, transferred from Battery H.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital, from Feb. 7, 1863, until May, 1863.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital, from Aug. 12, 1863, until Oct 15,
 1863, when transferred to 83d Co. 2d Bat. V.R. C.; May 15, 1865,
 mustered out as of 83d Co. 2d Bat. V.R. C.

 Bennett, George, Priv. Dec. 4, 1862, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Dec. 4, 1862, mustered in. Probably recruited for Battery H.
 Re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; Jan., 1864, granted furlough of forty-five
 days; March 7, 1864, deserted at Providence, R.I.

 Bennett, William R., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Relieved from duty as Corporal, by
 request; Sept. 17, 1862, missing in action; Dec. 22, 1862, joined from
 missing in action; Aug. 10, 1863, deserted at Cincinnati, Ohio.

 Bezely, John F., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne on detached service at Knoxville, Tenn.,
 from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864. Borne as absent sick in hospital,
 from Feb. 23, 1864, until March, 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Biglan, John, Priv., Woonsocket, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.
 Mustered in as Biglow.

 Billen, Michael, Priv. Oct. 26, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Oct. 26, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Bizburger, John, Artificer. Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Dec. 23, 1861, transferred to Battery G.

 Blush, Curtis A., Priv. July 9, 1863, enrolled at Camp Nelson, Ky.;
 July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Bonn, Charles E., 1st Lieut. April 26, 1864, commissioned. Mustered in
 to date from May 4, 1864. Promoted from 1st Sergt. Battery H, to 2d
 Lieut. Battery D. Borne on leave of absence from Oct. 24, 1864, until
 Nov., 1864; Nov. 24, 1864, ordered on detached service as A.A. A.G.
 at Hdqrs. Art. Brig. 19th Army Corps, and so borne until July, 1865;
 April 3, 1865, commissioned 1st Lieut., and mustered in as such April
 11, 1865; July 17, 1865, mustered out. Brevet Captain, for bravery and
 good conduct in the field, to date from March 13, 1865.

 Botter, Erich P., Priv., North Kingstown, R.I. Oct. 20, 1862,
 enrolled; Oct. 20, 1862, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Bourn, Samuel D., Priv. Nov. 30, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 March 12, 1865, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at Stephenson's
 Station, Va.

 Bowers, William R., Artificer, Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Dec. 23, 1861, transferred to
 Battery G.

 Boyle, John, Priv. Dec. 7, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.; Dec. 7,
 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Brady, Alexander, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 25, 1864, enrolled;
 April 20, 1864, mustered in. Borne on furlough for fifteen days from
 May 23, 1865; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Brand, William G., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; March, 1862, in General Hospital; April
 10, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at camp near Bristoe,
 Va.

 Brod, John, Artificer, North Kingstown, R.I. Oct. 20, 1862, enrolled;
 Oct. 20, 1862, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Brown, Herbert M., Priv., North Providence, R.I. Aug. 8, 1862,
 enrolled; Aug. 8, 1862, mustered in; June 23, 1865, mustered out.

 Brown, William W., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Aug. 14, 1862, enrolled; Aug.
 14, 1862, mustered in; June 23, 1865, mustered out.

 Buckley, Andrew, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 14, 1864, enrolled;
 April 20, 1864, mustered in; Oct. 19, 1864, missing in action near
 Cedar Creek, Va. Gained and borne as absent sick in hospital, from
 Nov. 24, 1864, until Feb., 1865; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Buckley, William W., Capt. Oct. 30, 1862, commissioned. Mustered in
 to date Nov. 1, 1862. Promoted from 1st Lieut. Battery C. Borne on
 leave of absence sick, from Jan. 18, 1863, until Feb. 28, 1863. Absent
 with leave from May 10, 1863, until June 8, 1863; March, 1864, absent
 with leave; Sept. 3, 1864, granted leave of absence; Oct. 23, 1864,
 mustered out; Brevet Major for faithful and meritorious services
 during the war, to date from March 13, 1865.

 Budlong, Moses, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July
 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Burdick, John C., Priv. Nov. 1, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Nov. 1, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Burkhardt, Charles J., Priv. Dec. 19, 1864, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Dec. 19, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Burns, Christopher, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 14. 1864, enrolled;
 April 20, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Burt, Everett B., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 17, 1862, severely wounded at the
 battle of Antietam, and sent to hospital; borne as absent sick until
 June 27, 1863, when dropped from rolls. No further record.

 Busby, John J., Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July
 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Caesar, Daniel, Priv., Smithfield, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; March 19, 1863, admitted to Chesapeake General
 Hospital, Fort Monroe, Va.; March 26, 1863, died of disease.

 Caesar, Royal W., Priv., Smithfield, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 17, 1862, injured by cannon shot at
 Antietam, sent to hospital and borne as absent sick until Dec. 1862;
 Sept. 6, 1864, mustered out at Providence, R.I.

 Cahoone, Andrew J., Corp., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private. Borne as
 absent on furlough for twenty days from June 14, 1863; borne on
 detached service at Knoxville, Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan.,
 1864; borne as absent sick in hospital, from Jan. 24, 1864, until
 Feb., 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 Carbier, Andrew, Priv. Dec. 12, 1862, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Feb. 10, 1863, deserted at Belle Plain Landing.

 Card, Samuel A., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital, from March 24,
 1863, until March 7, 1864, when he deserted from hospital.

 Carpenter, Christopher H., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept.4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Carrigan, Thomas, Priv., Warwick, R.I. April 15, 1864, enrolled; Dec.
 16, 1864, deserted near Opequon Creek, Va.

 Carroll, Edward, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 17, 1862, killed in action at Antietam.

 Carroll, James, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Feb. 21, 1862, enrolled; Sept.,
 1862, in General Hospital, and borne as absent sick until Nov. 21,
 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate at Mount Pleasant
 General Hospital, Washington, D.C.

 Cary, Owen A., Priv., Providence, R.I. Oct. 28, 1864, enrolled; Oct.
 28, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Chase, Frederick, 1st Lieut. Dec 4, 1862, commissioned. Promoted from
 Sergt. Battery F, to 2d Lieut. Battery D. Borne on leave of absence
 for thirty days from Dec. 17, 1863; March, 1864, absent with leave;
 April 8, 1864, commissioned 1st Lieut., and mustered in as such to
 date April 8, 1864; Sept. 1864, commanding Battery, and so borne until
 Nov., 1864; borne on leave of absence from Nov. 20, 1864, until Dec,
 1864; Jan., 1865, commanding Battery; June 12, 1865, commissioned
 Captain (never mustered); July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Collins, Alexander, Priv. Dec. 12, 1862, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Feb. 10, 1863, deserted at Belle Plain Landing.

 Corey, Augustus, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; March 10, 1862, left in hospital at Upton's
 Hill, Va., having been run over by a caisson while in line of duty;
 April 24, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's certificate.

 Corey, Joseph W., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.;
 July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Cornell, Charles W., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 March 19, 1863, until Aug. 1, 1863, when transferred to 30th Co., 2d
 Bat. V.R. C; Nov. 28, 1865, mustered out as of 4th Co., 2d Bat. V.R.
 C., to which transferred.

 Cornell, Daniel B., Q.M. Sergt., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as Corp.; June
 13, 1862, promoted Sergt. Borne on detached service at Knoxville,
 Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted
 as a Vet. Vol.; April 13, 1865, promoted Q.M. Sergt.; July 17, 1865,
 mustered out.

 Cornell, Patrick, Priv., Smithfield, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 Oct. 20, 1863, until March, 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Corthell, Elmer L., Capt. Oct. 21, 1864, commissioned; Nov. 2, 1864,
 mustered in. Promoted from 1st Lieut. Battery G. Borne on leave of
 absence for fifteen days from Jan. 21, 1865; July 17, 1865, mustered
 out.

 Coyle, Olney, Priv., Providence, R.I. Nov. 19, 1864, enrolled; Nov.
 19, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Crawford, William, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Cross, Benjamin, Corp. Dec. 22, 1862, transferred from private
 Battery H; Jan. 5, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; Jan., 1864,
 granted furlough of forty-five days; Oct. 19, 1864, captured at Cedar
 Creek, Va.; April 1, 1865, escaped from Salisbury, N.C.; May 2, 1865,
 reported at Camp Chase, Ohio; June 27, 1865, mustered out at Camp
 Chase, Ohio.

 Cross, Henry C., Priv. Dec. 22, 1862, transferred from Battery H.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital from June 15, 1863, until Oct. 8,
 1863, when transferred to 74th Co., 2d Bat. V.R. C.; Sept. 5, 1864,
 mustered out of the V. R.C. to accept commission as Capt. 115th U.S.
 C. Inf; Feb. 10, 1866, mustered out as Capt. Co. D, 115th U.S. C.T.

 Cullen, Patrick, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 12, 1864, enrolled;
 April 20, 1864, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 Sept. 4, 1864, until Dec, 1864; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Curigan, Thomas, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 21, 1864, enrolled;
 April 20, 1864, mustered in. Borne on furlough for fifteen days from
 April 29, 1865; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Currie, William, Priv., Westerly, R.I. Feb. 24, 1862, enrolled. Borne
 as absent sick from Dec. 30, 1862, until Feb. 9, 1863, when discharged
 on Surgeon's certificate, at Providence, R.I.

 Daniels, William, Priv. Dec. 22, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Dec. 22, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Darcy, Thomas, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 16, 1864, enrolled; April
 20, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Dearnley, James, Priv. Nov. 30, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Nov. 30, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Deming, Richard H., 1st Sergt., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Dec. 4, 1861, discharged for
 disability, at Camp Dupont, Va.

 DeSilvey, John W., Priv. July 30, 1863, enrolled; July 30, 1863,
 mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Dixon, John, Priv., Apponaug, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in; Dec. 27, 1862, deserted at Falmouth, Va.

 Dodge, Reuben D., Priv., Block Island, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 17, 1862, wounded at the battle of
 Antietam, sent to hospital and borne as absent sick until Dec, 1862;
 April 14, 1863, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at Armory Square
 Hospital, Washington, D.C.

 Dolan, Joseph, Priv. Dec. 12, 1862, enrolled at Providence, R.I. No
 further record.

 Donnelly, James, Corp., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private. Jan. 30, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol. Borne on furlough of fifteen days from May
 23, 1865; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Doran, Hugh, Priv., Apponaug, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in; Aug. 30, 1862, killed in action at Bull Run.

 Doyle, Patrick, Priv. Dec. 12, 1862, enrolled at Providence, R.I. No
 further record.

 Duddy, Thomas C., Priv., Westerly, R.I. Aug. 7, 1862, enrolled; April
 20, 1864, deserted at Providence, R.I.

 Edwards, Edwin, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept
 4, 1861, mustered in; July, 1862, absent sick, and so borne until
 Oct., 1862; Dec. 13, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at
 Providence, R.I.

 Egan, John, Priv. Dec. 1, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.; Dec. 1,
 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Eldred, George A., Corp., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Aug. 30, 1862, killed in action at Bull
 Run.

 Elliott, Daniel W., Priv., Smithfield, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.
 Borne on furlough of fifteen days from Jan. 21, 1865; July 17, 1865,
 mustered out.

 Ellis, Leonard G., Priv. Transferred from Battery A; Nov. 16, 1863,
 wounded at battle of Campbell's Station, Tenn.; June 23, 1865,
 mustered out.

 Esser, Philip, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Dec. 3, 1861, admitted to General Hospital,
 Baltimore, Md.; Jan. 14, 1864, discharged at Providence, R.I., to date
 Jan. 20, 1862.

 Fairbrother, James H., Corp., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private; Sept. 3,
 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 Finley, Roger, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Oct., 1862, in General Hospital, and so borne
 until Dec., 1862; Oct. 12, 1863, discharged on Surgeon's certificate
 at Lovell General Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, R.I.

 Fisk, Stephen W., 2d Lieut., Providence, R.I. Sept. 7, 1861,
 commissioned; Sept. 9, 1861, mustered in; Dec. 4, 1862, promoted 1st
 Lieut. Battery C.

 Fisk, William H., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 French, Joseph B., Priv., Providence, R.I. July 18, 1862, enrolled;
 July 18, 1862, mustered in; June 23, 1865, discharged at Winchester,
 Va.

 French, Joseph S., Priv., Providence, R.I. July 21, 1862, enrolled;
 July 21, 1862, mustered in; Oct. 24, 1862, died of disease at
 hospital, Smoketown, Md.

 Galindo, Peter, Priv. Jan. 2, 1863, enrolled at Providence, R.I.; Feb.
 10, 1863, deserted at Belle Plain Landing.

 Gallagher, Charles, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 July 15, 1863, until Aug., 1863; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Galloughly, John, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 17, 1862, killed in action at
 Antietam.

 Gilmore, Solomon, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.;
 July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Gladding, Henry R., 1st Lieut., Providence, R.I. Sept 7, 1861,
 commissioned; Sept. 9, 1861, mustered in; Nov. 30, 1862, mustered out
 at Brooks Station, Va.; Aug. 1, 1863, commissioned 1st Lieut. Fifth
 Rhode Island Heavy Artillery. Never mustered in nor served under
 commission.

 Glassey, John, Priv., Lonsdale, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in; May, 1862, received injury, sent to hospital, and
 borne as absent sick until Oct. 7, 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Providence, R.I.

 Goff, Bernard, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 12, 1864, enrolled; April
 20, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Goodwin, Terrence, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 14, 1864, enrolled;
 April 20, 1864, mustered in; Sept. 19, 1864, wounded at battle of
 Winchester, Va., sent to hospital, and borne as absent sick until May
 20, 1865, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at U.S. General
 Hospital, York, Pa.

 Gordon, James, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 18, 1864, enrolled; April
 20, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Gorton, Erastus, Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne on extra duty as teamster from March 1,
 1863, until May, 1863; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July
 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Gorton, John S., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol. Borne
 as absent sick in hospital from Aug. 1, 1864, until Oct., 1864; July
 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Gray, Charles C., 2d Lieut., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as Corporal. Promoted
 Sergeant; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; May 26, 1864,
 commissioned 2d Lieut.; May 26, 1864, discharged as Sergeant to accept
 promotion. Mustered in as 2d Lieut. to date May 27, 1864. Borne on
 detached service as Acting Ordnance Officer 19th Army Corps from Aug.
 9, 1864, until Sept., 1864; June 12, 1865, commissioned 1st Lieut.,
 never mustered; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Green, John T., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; March 6, 1863, died of disease at Newport News,
 Va.

 Grey, John, Priv., Smithfield, R.I. Aug. 2, 1862, enrolled; May 18,
 1863, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at Providence, R.I.

 Grinnell, Robert A., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne on detached service at Knoxville,
 Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted
 as a Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Handy, Otis G., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.;
 July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Harkness, George C., 1st Lieut., Providence, R.I. Sept. 7, 1861,
 commissioned; Sept. 9, 1861, mustered in; Jan., 1862, on leave of
 absence; Aug. 30, 1862, wounded in action at Bull Run, and borne as
 absent sick until Nov., 1862; Nov., 1862, commanding Battery; March 3,
 1863, discharged on tender of resignation.

 Hathaway, Charles B., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; April 24, 1863, deserted at
 Parkersburg, Va.

 Havens, William, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Jan. 21,
 1864, until Sept., 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, discharged at Charlestown, Va.

 Hawkins, George N., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.;
 July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Hawkins, Richard S., Priv., Coventry. R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Dec, 1861, absent sick in hospital, and so
 borne until Feb. 11, 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate,
 at Georgetown, D.C.

 Hayward, James S., Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 July 13, 1862, until Oct., 1862; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Hicks, Otis F., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Aug. 30, 1862, killed in action at Bull Run.

 Hollihan, Thomas, Priv., Warwick. R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 March 24, 1863, until April 26, 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Hood, William H., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 26, 1861, deserted at Camp Sprague,
 Washington, D.C.

 Hopkins, Daniel, Priv., Foster, R.I. Feb. 24, 1862, enrolled; Aug. 28,
 1862, missing in action, taken prisoner; date of parole not shown;
 Nov. 10, 1862, died of disease at Military Hospital, Camp Parole,
 Annapolis, Md.

 Hopkins, Henry H., Priv., South Scituate, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as teamster from April 1,
 1862, until Jan., 1863. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Jan. 25,
 1863, until Sept. 3, 1864, when mustered out.

 Hopkins, Henry W., Bugler, Foster, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private; Jan. 30, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol. Borne as absent sick in hospital from July
 27, 1864, until Oct., 1864; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Hopkins, Jeremiah D., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Nov., 1861, absent sick; Dec. 27, 1861,
 returned to duty; Sept. 17, 1862, wounded in action at Antietam, and
 borne as absent sick until Dec. 29, 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Frederick, Md.

 Hopkins, John, Priv., West Greenwich, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 12, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Camp Dupont, Va.

 Hopkins, John W., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 17, 1862, wounded at the battle of
 Antietam, and borne as absent sick in hospital until Dec., 1862; April
 2, 1863, discharged on Surgeon's certificate.

 Hopkins, Thomas W., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; April 2, 1863, discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Antietam Hospital, by reason of gun shot wound.

 Howard, Martin L., Priv., North Scituate, R.I. Jan. 2, 1805, enrolled;
 Jan. 2, 1865, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Hoxsie, Joseph W., Priv., West Greenwich, R.I. March 14, 1864,
 enrolled. Borne as absent sick in hospital from July 6, 1864, until
 August 13, 1864, when discharged for disability, at Judiciary Square
 Hospital, Washington, D.C.

 Hunter, Samuel, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. Nov. 17, 1864, enrolled; Nov.
 17, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Jackson, Charles O., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne on detached service at Hdqrs.
 Chief of Arty., Dept. of the Ohio, from March 7, 1864, until Sept.,
 1864; Sept. 14, 1864, discharged at Providence, R.I., to date Sept. 3,
 1864.

 Jencks, Hezekiah, Artificer. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan., 1862, transferred to Battery B.

 Jenkins, Samuel, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; April, 1864, sick in hospital, and so borne
 until Sept., 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, discharged at Charlestown, Va.

 Jerrold, Frederick L., Priv. Aug. 13, 1862, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Aug., 1862, mustered in. Reported as having been transferred
 from Battery B; June 23, 1865, mustered out at Winchester, Va. Also
 borne as Jerraulds.

 Johnson, Hugh, Priv., Providence, R.I. Nov. 25, 1864, enrolled; Nov.
 25, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Johnson, Willett A., Priv., Warwick. R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick from Sept. 2, 1862,
 until Dec. 29, 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at
 Philadelphia.

 Jones, Thomas Lloyd, Priv. Nov. 30, 1864, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Nov. 30, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Keables, Thomas A., Priv., Westerly, R.I. Feb. 24, 1862, enrolled;
 June 4, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's certificate.

 Keach, Jesse D., Priv., Smithfield, R.I. Oct. 27, 1864, enrolled; Oct.
 27, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Kehoe, James, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 12, 1864, enrolled; April
 20, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Kelly, Patrick, Priv. July 27, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 July 27, 1864, mustered in. Transferred to Battery B.

 Kennison, Charles H., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick from March 24, 1863,
 until Aug. 3, 1863, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at
 United States General Hospital, Baltimore, Md.

 Kenyon, Joseph B., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne on duty as teamster from March 1, 1863,
 until May, 1863; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.
 Mustered in as John B. Kenyon.

 Kilburn, Bernard, Priv., North Providence, R.I. Aug. 6, 1862,
 enrolled; Sept. 17, 1862, missing in action at Antietam. No further
 record.

 Kimball, Charles H., Sergt., North Scituate, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as Corp. Borne
 as absent sick in hospital from Oct. 20, 1863, until Dec., 1863; Dec.
 13, 1863, died of disease in General Hospital, at Knoxville, Tenn.

 Knight, Edwin R., Corp., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Aug., 1862, in General Hospital, and so borne
 until Dec., 1862; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July 17,
 1865, mustered out.

 Knowles, John B., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Oct. 12, 1861, discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Camp Sprague, Washington, D.C.

 Landry, Joseph, Priv. Nov. 5, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.; Nov.
 5, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Lee, Royal Henry, 1st Sergt., Pawtucket, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as Sergt.; Nov. 12,
 1861, promoted 1st Sergt.; Dec. 25, 1862, discharged to accept
 promotion as 2d Lieut., Battery C.

 Lewis, Clark, Priv., Richmond, R.I. Jan. 2, 1865, enrolled; Jan. 2,
 1865, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Linn, Peter, Corp., Pawtucket, R.I. March 12, 1864, enrolled; April
 20, 1864, mustered in. Borne on furlough of fifteen days from Jan. 21,
 1865; March 25, 1865, promoted Corp.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Locke, James W., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne on detached service at Knoxville,
 Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted
 as a Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Loper, Peter, Priv. Transferred from Battery H; April 24, 1863,
 deserted at Baltimore, Md. Also borne as Lopez.

 Lopez, Manuel, Priv. Jan. 2, 1863, enrolled at Providence, R.I. Feb.
 10, 1863, deserted at Belle Plain Landing, Va.

 Lynch, Daniel, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 16, 1864, enrolled; April
 20, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Lyon, Lewis, Priv. Dec. 22, 1862, transferred from Battery H; Sept.
 14, 1863, deserted at Loudon, Tenn.

 Matthews, Albert N., Corp. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private. Borne
 as absent sick in hospital from March 21, 1863, until Dec., 1863; Jan.
 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; Sept., 1864, absent sick in
 hospital; Nov. 30, 1864, detached for service at Hdqrs. Arty. Brig.,
 19th Army Corps; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Mattison, Anson, Sergt., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private. Promoted Corp.;
 Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Mattison, Edmund H., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.;
 July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 May, Charles E., Bugler. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick from Nov. 16, 1862,
 until June, 1863; June, 1864, in hospital, and so borne until Sept.,
 1864; Sept. 20, 1864, mustered out at Providence, R.I.

 McCann, John, Priv. July 22, 1862, enrolled at Providence, R.I.; July
 22, 1862, mustered in. Probably recruited for Battery E; June 23,
 1865, discharged at Winchester, Va.

 McCausland, Alexander, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Aug. 13, 1862, enrolled;
 Aug. 13, 1862, mustered in. Borne on detached service at Knoxville,
 Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864; Nov. 30, 1864, detached
 for service at Hdqrs. Arty. Brig., 19th Army Corps; June 23, 1865,
 discharged at Winchester, Va.

 McCausland, Norman L., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; March, 1862, in General Hospital;
 April 10, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at camp near
 Bristoe, Va.

 McCormick, James F., Jr., Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Dec. 27, 1862, deserted at camp
 near Falmouth Station, Va.

 McGinnity, John, Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. March 12, 1864, enrolled;
 April 20, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 McGovern, John, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 17, 1862, killed in action at Antietam.

 McKearnan, Edward, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July
 17, 1865, mustered out.

 McKenna, James F., Priv., Pawtucket, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from July
 29, 1863, until Aug., 1863; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital from Aug. 24, 1864, until Feb., 1865.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital from April 6, 1865, until June 7,
 1865; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 McKenna, John, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Aug. 13, 1862, enrolled; Aug. 13,
 1862, mustered in; Dec. 8, 1863, detached for service at Knoxville,
 Tenn.; June 23, 1865, discharged at Winchester, Va.

 McKenna, John, 1st, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 McLaughlin, John, Priv. Nov. 25, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Nov. 25, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 McMannus, James, Priv. Nov. 30, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Nov. 30, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 McQuade, Patrick, Priv. Oct. 22, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Oct. 22, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Means, Joseph F., Priv., North Providence, R.I.; Nov. 23, 1864,
 enrolled; Nov. 23, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Mendosa, Raphael, Priv. Dec. 12, 1862, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Dec. 12, 1862, mustered in. Originally assigned to Battery H; Feb. 1,
 1863, deserted at Falmouth, Va.

 Mills, William T., Priv., Warwick R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol. Borne
 as sick in hospital from May 15, 1865, until June, 1865. Borne on
 furlough of twenty days from June 10, 1865; July 17, 1865, mustered
 out.

 Milne, William O., Sergt. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Promoted Corp. Absent on furlough for
 fifteen days from July 24, 1863; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet.
 Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Moore, Frederick, Priv., Westerly, R.I. Feb. 20, 1862, enrolled; Feb.
 25 1864, mustered out by virtue of re-enlistment; Feb. 26, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Monroe, J. Albert, Capt., Providence, R.I. June 6, 1861, commissioned;
 June 6, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as 1st Lieut. Battery
 A; Sept. 7, 1861, commissioned Captain, mustered in as such to date
 from Sept. 7, 1861, and assigned to Battery D; Oct. 24, 1862, promoted
 Major; Oct. 29, 1862, resigned as Captain to accept promotion.

 Moore, John, Priv., Westerly, R.I. Feb. 24, 1862, enrolled; Feb.
 25, 1864, mustered out by virtue of re-enlistment; Feb. 26, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol. Borne as absent sick in hospital from July
 27, 1864, until Oct., 1864; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Morgan, Edward, Priv., North Kingstown, R.I. Oct. 13, 1862, enrolled;
 Oct. 13, 1862, mustered in. Deserted, date not shown.

 Morgan, Michael, Priv., Richmond, R.I. Oct. 13, 1862, enrolled; Oct.
 13, 1862, mustered in. Deserted, date not shown.

 Morrell, Joseph, Priv. Nov. 5, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Nov. 5, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Mulick, Charles A., Priv., Providence, R.I. July 19, 1862, enrolled;
 Dec. 6, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at Providence, R.I.

 Nicholas, Lyman, Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Feb. 19, 1864, ordered on special duty as
 teamer. Borne as absent sick in hospital from July 16, 1864, until
 Sept., 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, discharged at Charlestown, Va.

 Nickerson, David R., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Nov., 1861, on extra duty at hospital,
 and so borne until May, 1862. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 July 13, 1862, until Nov. 16, 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Fort McHenry.

 Nichols, Edward L., Sergt. Aug. 11, 1862, enrolled at Falmouth, Va.;
 Aug. 11, 1862, mustered in. Originally served as private; June 1,
 1863, promoted 1st Lieut. Va. Arty.; June 14, 1863, discharged by
 reason of promotion.

 Norris, Bradley J., Priv. Dec. 22, 1862, transferred from Battery H.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital from Dec. 28, 1863, until Jan. 3,
 1864, when he died of disease at camp near Blaine's Cross Roads, Tenn.

 Oakes, William A., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Aug. 30, 1862, wounded and borne as absent
 sick until Dec., 1862; borne as absent sick in hospital, probably
 wounded, from Nov. 27. 1863, until March, 1864; Sept. 3, 1864,
 mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 Oglesby, Samuel S., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.
 Borne as absent on furlough of fifteen days from Jan. 21, 1865; July
 17, 1865, mustered out. Also borne as Samuel I.

 O'Rourke, John, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; April 10, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Camp near Bristoe, Va.

 O'Rourke, Mathew, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; May 10, 1862, left in hospital at Upton's
 Hill, Va.; May 26, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's certificate.

 Parker, Ezra K., 2d Lieut., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 7, 1861,
 commissioned; Sept. 9, 1861, mustered in; Nov. 30, 1862, mustered out
 and re-commissioned 2d Lieut., by Governor of Rhode Island same day;
 again mustered in to date Dec. 15, 1862. Borne on detached service at
 Knoxville, Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864; March, 1864,
 absent with leave; April 23, 1864, mustered out by reason of promotion
 to 1st Lieut. Battery E.

 Parmenter, Orange S., Corp., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 10, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Camp Dupont, Va.

 Peckham, William S., Priv., Wakefield, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; June, 1862, on extra duty as teamster, and
 so borne until Oct., 1862. Borne as absent sick from Oct. 30, 1862,
 until Dec., 1862; Feb. 28, 1863, discharged on Surgeon's certificate,
 at Providence, R.I.

 Perez, Joseph, Priv. Jan. 2, 1863, enrolled at Providence, R.I.; Jan.
 2, 1863, mustered in; July 12, 1863, deserted at Nicholasville, Ky.

 Phetteplace, David, Priv. Dec. 21, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Dec. 21, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Phillips, George G., Priv., Providence, R.I. July 21, 1862, enrolled;
 Sept. 13, 1862, deserted at New Market, Md. Also borne as George Y.

 Phinney, Thomas R., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1862, enrolled;
 Sept 19, 1864, wounded in action near Winchester, Va., sent to
 hospital and borne as absent sick until May 19, 1865, when mustered
 out from United States General Hospital, West Philadelphia, Pa.

 Pickering, Daniel, Priv., Scituate, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 Sept. 2, 1862, until Dec. 6, 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Philadelphia.

 Pierce, William T., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.;
 July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Pinkham, Charles H., Priv., Providence, R.I. Nov. 7, 1864, enrolled;
 Nov. 7, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Pitcher, Joseph S., Priv., Providence, R.I. July 12, 1862, enrolled;
 April 21, 1864, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at Lovell General
 Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, R.I., by reason of injuries received while
 on duty at Fredericksburg, Va., Dec., 1862.

 Place, John E., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in; Nov. 20, 1863, transferred to Co. G, 1st Regt. V.R.
 C.; Nov. 14, 1865, mustered out as of Co. G, 1st Regt. V.R. C.

 Place, Joseph B., Priv., West Greenwich, R.I. Aug. 13, 1862, enrolled;
 Aug. 23, 1862, mustered in. Transferred to Battery B, previous to Oct.
 31, 1862.

 Pollard, John, Jr., Priv., Cranston, R.I. Feb. 20, 1862, enrolled.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital from June 29, 1862, until July 31,
 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at Fredericksburg, Va.

 Potter, Frank A., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 17, 1862, missing in action at
 Antietam. No further record.

 Pratt, Albert F., Q.M. Sergt. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as Corp.; promoted
 Sergt. Borne on detached service at Knoxville, Tenn., from Dec. 8,
 1863, until Jan., 1864; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.;
 Oct. 19, 1864, wounded at Cedar Creek, Va., and borne as absent
 sick in hospital until April 13, 1865, when discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Baltimore, Md.

 Pratt, Henry B., Priv. Sept. 28, 1861, transferred from Battery C;
 Oct. 7, 1863, transferred to 19th Co., 2d Bat. V.R. C.; Oct. 25, 1864,
 mustered out as of the same.

 Ragan, William H., Priv. Oct. 26, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Oct. 26, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Rathbone, John, Priv., West Greenwich, R.I. March 4, 1864, enrolled;
 March 4, 1864, mustered in; Oct. 19, 1864, captured at Cedar Creek,
 Va.; March, 1865, released at N.E. Ferry, N.C.; subsequently reported
 at Camp Parole, Md.; May 3, 1865, sent to Camp Distribution, Va.; June
 23, 1865, mustered out at Winchester, Va.

 Rawson, Samuel G., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Dec. 5, 1861, discharged at Regimental
 Hospital.

 Rector, John H., Priv., North Kingstown, R.I. Sept. 13, 1862,
 enrolled; Sept. 13, 1862, mustered in. No further record.

 Remington, Charles R., Priv., Providence, R.I. Aug. 25, 1861,
 enrolled; Aug. 27, 1861, mustered in; Aug. 25, 1864, mustered out at
 Halltown, Va.

 Reynolds, Thomas J., Corp. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne on furlough of twenty days
 from June 14, 1863. Borne on detached service at Knoxville, Tenn.,
 from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a
 Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Rhodes, Francis W., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 12, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Camp Dupont, Va.

 Rhodes, William B., 1st Lieut. Dec. 26, 1862, transferred from Battery
 G. Commanding Battery from May 10, 1863, until June, 1863; March,
 1864, absent with leave. Mustered out to date April 7, 1864, to accept
 promotion as Captain Battery E.

 Rice, John E., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; March, 1862, in General Hospital, and so borne
 until May 12, 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate.

 Rice, William T., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Dec. 10,
 1861, until March 25, 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate,
 at General Hospital, Alexandria, Va.

 Richardson, James A., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital
 from May 21, 1863, until Aug., 1863. Borne on detached service at
 Knoxville, Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864; Jan. 30, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Rider, Hugh, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in. Borne on detached service at Knoxville, Tenn., from
 Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet.
 Vol. Borne on furlough of ten days from June 27, 1864; July 17, 1865,
 mustered out.

 Robbins, Duty, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Aug. 14, 1862, enrolled; Sept. 17,
 1862, missing in action at Antietam. No further record.

 Rober, John, Priv. Transferred from Battery H; March 10, 1863,
 deserted at Newport News, Va.

 Ross, David G., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 Ross, John M., Priv. Oct. 18, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.; July
 17, 1865, mustered out. Also borne as John M. Rose.

 Russell, Francis, Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 17, 1862, missing in action at
 Antietam. No further record.

 Russell, Isaac D., Priv., South Kingstown, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a
 Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Samaniego, Joseph, Priv. Dec. 30, 1862, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Feb. 10, 1863, deserted at Belle Plain Landing.

 Schmidt, I. Jacob, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from June
 22, 1863, until Oct. 31, 1863, when transferred to 43d Co., 2d Bat.
 V.R. C.; re-transferred to Battery D, by order dated Aug. 8, 1864;
 Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 Shaw, David, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital at Falmouth, Va.,
 from May 18, 1862, until Aug., 1862; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Sheldon, Charles B., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Aug. 30, 1862, wounded in action, and
 borne as absent sick until Jan. 16, 1863, when discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Philadelphia, Pa.

 Shourdon, Robert, Priv., Lonsdale, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from March 24,
 1863, until Jan. 25, 1864, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate,
 at Lovell General Hospital, Portsmouth Grove, R.I.

 Slocum, Isaac P., Priv., Westerly, R.I. Feb. 24, 1862, enrolled; June
 7, 1862, left in hospital at camp near Haymarket, Va., and borne as
 absent sick until Oct. 10, 1862, when dropped from rolls. No further
 record.

 Smith, David, Priv., Westerly, R.I. Aug. 16, 1862, enrolled; Sept. 17,
 1862, missing in action at Antietam. No further record.

 Smith, Henry W., Bugler, North Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick from March
 21, 1863, until May, 1863; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.;
 July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Smith, Israel S., Priv., Providence, R.I. Nov. 22, 1864, enrolled;
 Nov. 22, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Smith, William G., Priv. Dec. 22, 1862, transferred from Battery
 H; Sept. 19, 1864, wounded in action near Winchester, Va., sent to
 hospital and borne as absent sick until June 19, 1865, when mustered
 out from United States Army Hospital, York, Pa.

 Smith, William R., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 March 21, 1863, until Sept., 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Spear, John W., Priv., Richmond, R.I. Aug. 9, 1862, enrolled. Borne as
 absent sick from April 5, 1863, until May 26, 1863, when he deserted
 from United States Hospital, Cincinnati; July 17, 1863, returned from
 desertion; Jan. 14, 1864, deserted at Blaine's Cross Roads, Tenn.

 Spencer, Gideon, Sergt., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private; Jan. 30, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol. Discharged to date April 28, 1864, by
 reason of promotion to 2d Lieut. Battery B.

 Stalker, William, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Aug. 30, 1862, wounded at the battle of
 Bull Run; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 Steinhaur, Kirby, 1st Lieut. Feb. 8, 1863, commissioned; April 14,
 1863, promoted from 2d Lieut. Battery H. Borne on leave of absence for
 thirty days from Oct. 22, 1863; March, 1864, absent with leave; April
 19, 1864, resigned.

 Stickney, Daniel, Priv. Regimental return for Dec., 1862, reported
 him "Dropped Dec. 21, 1862, by G.O. 15, 1st A.C." No additional
 information found.

 Stillman, Gideon S., Corp., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private. Borne on
 extra duty as teamster from March 1, 1863, until May, 1863; Jan. 30,
 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Stinson, James, Priv. Transferred from Battery B, by order dated Jan.
 1, 1862; Sept. 13, 1862, deserted at New Market, Md.

 St. John, John, Corp., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private; Jan. 30, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Stollard, George F., Priv. October 31, 1864, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Oct. 31, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Sullivan, Jeremiah, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from
 Aug. 7, 1863, until March, 1864; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Sullivan, John, Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept., 1862, in General Hospital; Oct.,
 1862, on detached service at Div. Hdqrs., and so borne until March,
 1863; April, 1863, deserted.

 Sumner, George C., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at
 Charlestown, Va.

 Sunderland, Henry A., Corp., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4. 1861, mustered in; Dec. 5, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Washington, D.C., by reason of injuries received when
 entering battle of Antietam.

 Sutton, Henry L., Priv., Bristol, R.I. Dec. 31, 1864, enrolled; Dec.
 31, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Swan, William, Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital at
 Fredericksburg, Va., from July 13, 1862, until Sept. 22, 1862, when
 discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at Cranch Hospital, Washington,
 D.C.

 Taft, Anthony, Priv., Woonsocket, R.I. Nov. 28, 1864, enrolled; Nov.
 28, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Taft, Charles G., Priv., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; April 24, 1863, deserted at Lexington, Ky.

 Tanner, David B., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Oct.
 15, 1861, until March, 1862; April 7, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Washington, D.C.

 Tanner, James, Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in. Borne on detached service at Knoxville, Tenn., from
 Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan, 1864; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet.
 Vol. Borne on furlough of ten days from March 20, 1865; July 17, 1865,
 mustered out.

 Thornley, William H., Artificer, Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861,
 enrolled; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital
 from July 13, 1862, until Oct. 30, 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's
 certificate, at Fort McHenry.

 Thurber, Edwin I., Priv., Johnston, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Sept. 28, 1861, transferred to Battery C.
 Mustered in as Edward J. Thurber.

 Tibbetts, J.R., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept. 4,
 1861, mustered in; Nov. 12, 1861, discharged at Camp Dupont, Va.

 Troutay, Alexander, Priv. Nov. 5, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Nov. 5, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Tucker, Frank M., Sergt. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as Corp.; Jan. 30, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; June 12, 1865, commissioned 2d Lieut., for
 gallant and meritorious service during the war; never mustered in;
 July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Tyson, John, Priv., Portsmouth, R.I. Aug. 6, 1862, enrolled; Aug. 6,
 1862, mustered in; June 23, 1865, discharged at Winchester, Va.

 Underwood, William J., Priv., Scituate, R.I. Aug. 14, 1862, enrolled;
 Dec. 27, 1862, deserted at Falmouth, Va.; Jan. 10, 1863, joined
 from desertion, tried by G.C. M., and sentenced to be dishonorably
 discharged.

 Vickery, William H., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 3, 1862, injured by a fall from
 his horse; May 3, 1862, discharged on Surgeon's certificate, at
 Philadelphia, Pa.

 Wagg, Charles, Priv. Nov. 30, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.; Nov.
 30, 1864, mustered in. Borne as sick in hospital from June 3, 1865,
 until July, 1865; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Walker, Clark, Artificer, Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private; Jan. 30,
 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Warner, John, Priv., West Greenwich, R.I. March 25, 1864, enrolled;
 April 20, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Warren, Charles W., Sergt., Lonsdale, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as private; Aug., 1862,
 in General Hospital, and so borne until Nov., 1862; Jan. 30, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol. Borne on furlough of fifteen days from Jan.
 21, 1865; June 25, 1865, promoted Sergt. from Corp.; July 17, 1865,
 mustered out.

 Waterman, Frank A., Sergt., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Jan. 1, 1862, promoted Corp. Borne on
 detached service at Knoxville, Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan.,
 1864; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; July 14, 1864,
 discharged to accept promotion as 2d Lieut. Battery G.

 Watson, Charles H., Priv., Coventry, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Dec. 27, 1862, deserted at Camp near
 Falmouth Station, Va.

 Way, John, Priv., Westerly, R.I. Feb. 24, 1862, enrolled; Feb.
 25, 1864, mustered out by virtue of re-enlistment; Feb. 26, 1864,
 re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol. Borne as absent sick in hospital from June
 24, 1864, until Oct., 1864; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Webb, Edward J., Priv., North Providence, R.I. Aug. 8, 1862, enrolled;
 June 2, 1863, died at Somerset, Ky., of disease.

 Weeden, Henry M., Priv., Bristol. R.I. March 30, 1864, enrolled; April
 20, 1864, mustered in; Nov. 12, 1864, detached for service at Hdqrs.
 Art. Brig. 19th Army Corps; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Weish, George, Priv. Aug. 14, 1863, enrolled. Borne as absent sick in
 hospital from March 5, 1864, until Oct. 5, 1864, when discharged on
 Surgeon's certificate, at Cincinnati, Ohio. Also borne as Weist.

 Westcott, James, Priv. Dec. 22, 1862, transferred from Battery H.
 Borne as sick in hospital from April 6, 1865, until June 19, 1865,
 when mustered out at Jarvis United States General Hospital.

 Whipple, Benjamin N., Corp., Providence, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Originally served as Artificer; Aug. 30,
 1862, wounded; Sept. 17, 1862, wounded in action at Antietam and borne
 as absent sick until Feb., 1863; Jan 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet.
 Vol.; Sept. 19, 1864, wounded near Winchester, Va.; July 17, 1865,
 mustered out.

 Whitaker, Henry C., Priv., Cranston, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick from Aug. 22, 1862,
 until Dec., 1862; Sept. 3, 1864, mustered out at Charlestown, Va.

 White, Henry J., Priv., Lonsdale, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; March 10, 1862, left in hospital at Upton's
 Hill, Va., and borne as sick in hospital until April 24, 1862, when
 discharged on Surgeon's certificate, because of injuries received
 while in service.

 Wickes, Rice A., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled;
 Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick in hospital at
 Fredericksburg, Va., from June 29, 1862, until Sept., 1862; March,
 1863, absent sick in hospital and so borne until Aug. 21, 1863, when
 transferred to the 30th Co., 2d Bat. V. R.C.; Sept. 5, 1864, mustered
 out at Fort Monroe, Va., as Sergt. 30th Co., 2d Bat. V.R. C.

 Wilbur, George W., Priv., Warwick, R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in; Nov., 1861, absent sick; Dec. 15, 1861, returned
 to duty. Borne as absent sick in hospital from April 14, 1863, until
 Sept. 20, 1863, when transferred to Co. B, 20th Reg. V.R. C.; Sept.
 12, 1864, mustered out as of Co. B, 20th Regt. V.R. C.

 Woolley, John, Priv., Scituate. R.I. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled; Sept.
 4, 1861, mustered in. Borne as absent sick from Jan. 25, 1863, until
 Feb., 1863; Jan. 30, 1864, re-enlisted as a Vet. Vol.; Oct. 19, 1864,
 wounded in action near Cedar Creek, Va., and borne as absent sick in
 hospital until July 26, 1865, when mustered out.

 Woolley, Samuel, Priv. Nov. 25, 1864, enrolled at Providence, R.I.;
 Nov. 25, 1864, mustered in; July 17, 1865, mustered out.

 Wrightington, James H., Priv. Sept. 4, 1861, enrolled at Providence,
 R.I.; Sept. 4, 1861, mustered in; Oct. 1, 1861, discharged on
 Surgeon's certificate, at Camp Sprague, Washington, D.C.

       *       *       *       *       *

This Roster was taken from the Revised Adjutant General's Report
of this State. There were several members of the Battery who were
Sergeants or Corporals during part of their service.

 Edward H. Matteson was First Sergeant for quite a long time;
 Stephen Ballou was Corporal and Sergeant for at least two years
     of his service;
 Reuben D. Dodge and
 Charles H. Kennison were Sergeants.
 Charles Gallagher,
 Edward McKennan, and
 Isaac D. Russell, served as Corporals.

Those above named are all that I can remember for a certainty. Without
doubt there were others. The reason that they were not credited with
that part of their service was (as before stated in this work) that all
our books were captured at Cedar Creek, and the new books only showed
those that were serving at the time.



COMMISSIONED OFFICERS,

AND TIME OF SERVICE WITH BATTERY D.


 J. Albert Monroe, Capt., Sept. 7, 1861, to Oct. 21, 1862.
 William W. Buckley, Capt., Nov. 1, 1862, to Oct. 23, 1864.
 Elmer L. Corthell, Capt., Nov. 23, 1864, to July 17, 1865.
 George C. Harkness, 1st Lieut., Sept. 9, 1861, to March 3, 1863.
 Henry R. Gladding, 1st Lieut., Sept. 9, 1861, to Aug. 1, 1862.
 William B. Rhodes, 1st Lieut., Dec. 26, 1862, to April 7, 1864.
 Kirby Steinhaur, 1st Lieut., April 14, 1863, to April 19, 1864.
 Frederick Chase, 2d and 1st Lieut., Dec. 4, 1862, to July 17, 1865.
 Stephen W. Fisk, 2d Lieut., Sept. 9, 1861, to Dec. 4, 1862.
 Ezra K. Parker, 2d Lieut., Sept. 9, 1861, to April 23, 1864.
 Charles E. Bonn, 2d Lieut., May 4, 1864, to July 17, 1865.
 Charles C. Gray, 2d Lieut., May 27, 1864, to July 17, 1865.



ENLISTED MEN COMMISSIONED

FROM BATTERY D.


 1st Sergt. Henry Royal Lee, to be 2d Lieut. Battery C.
 Sergt. Gideon Spencer, to be 2d Lieut. Battery B.
 Sergt. Charles C. Gray, to be 2d Lieut. Battery D.
 Sergt. Frank A. Waterman, to be 2d Lieut. Battery G.
 Sergt. Edward L. Nichols, to be 2d Lieut. First Virginia Art.
 Sergt. Frank M. Tucker, commissioned but never mustered.



ROLL OF MEN TEMPORARILY ATTACHED.


 Allen, Erasmus, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L.A.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass. Battery.

 Arnold, Philo, Priv. Detached from 35th N.Y. Inf., from May 29, 1862,
 until Dec. 31, 1862.

 Austin, Edward G., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L.A.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass. Battery.

 Barber, Amos P., Priv. Detached from Co. C, 7th R.I. Vols. Borne on
 detached service at Knoxville, Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan.,
 1864; Dec. 10, 1864, returned to 7th R.I. Vols., by order dated Dec.
 3, 1864.

 Barner, Albert, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.;
 May 11, 1865, returned to his regiment at Winchester, Va., by order
 dated May 8, 1865.

 Barney, Marshall, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital from Dec. 28, 1864, until Jan, 1865;
 May 11, 1865, returned to his regiment at Winchester, Va., by special
 order dated May 8, 1865.

 Bashee, Eli, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.; May
 11, 1865, returned to regiment at Winchester, Va., by order dated May
 8, 1865.

 Bauer, John C., Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from Co. M, 14th N.Y. H.A.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital from Aug. 4, 1864, until Dec., 1864;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3,
 1864. Also borne as John C. Bonn.

 Beardsley, Philo, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital from July 12, 1864, until Dec., 1864;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3,
 1864.

 Beck, William, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from Battery
 L, 2d N.Y. Art., by special order dated Jan. 16, 1864.

 Bird, Charles, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, transferred from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L.A., by order dated Dec. 31, 1864; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred
 to 9th Mass. Battery by order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Blanchard, John E., Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from Co. E, 7th R.I.
 Vols.; Feb. 1, 1865, returned to regiment.

 Bogardus, John, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A. Borne
 as absent sick in hospital from Aug. 24, 1864, until Dec., 1864; Dec.
 10, 1864, returned to regiment by order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Boon, John, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.; May
 11, 1865, returned to regiment at Winchester, Va., by order dated May
 8, 1865.

 Boss, Joseph A., Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from Co. G, 7th R.I.
 Vols.; Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment by order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Brill, Christian, Sr., Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art., by special order dated Jan. 16, 1864.

 Brill, Christian, Jr., Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art., by special order dated Jan. 16, 1864.

 Burman, Ira, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A. Borne as
 absent sick in hospital from Aug. 4, 1864, until Oct., 1864; Dec. 10,
 1864, returned to regiment by order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Cameron, Donald, Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Vols.;
 July 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Capron, Alpheus, Jr., Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment by special order dated May
 8, 1865.

 Carbinan, John, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A. Borne
 as absent sick in hospital from Aug. 4, 1864, until Oct., 1864; Dec.
 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Carman, Silas, Priv. April 18, 1862, detached from Co. E, 7th Wis.
 Inf.; March, 1864, returned to regiment.

 Chandler, James C., Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment by special order dated May
 8, 1865.

 Chatterson, Jesse, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art., by special order dated Jan. 16, 1864.

 Cleveland, Lundon, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3,
 1864.

 Cole, William, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.; Dec.
 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Collins, William, Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from 7th R.I. Vols.
 Absent on detached service at Knoxville, Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863,
 until Jan., 1864; May 1, 1864, died in Asylum Hospital, Knoxville,
 Tenn.

 Coons, David S., Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.,
 near Cedar Creek, Va.; Oct. 20, 1864, accidentally shot at Cedar
 Creek, Va.

 Covel, Milo, Priv. Detached from Co. G, 7th Wis. Inf., from April 18,
 1862, until Aug., 1864. Borne as absent sick from Jan. 8, 1864, until
 Aug., 1864.

 Cunningham, John, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.;
 May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at Winchester, Va.

 Cushing, William S., Priv. Detached from Co. I, 6th Wis. Inf., from
 April 18, 1862, until Aug., 1863; Aug. 30, 1862, wounded in action and
 borne as absent sick from that time until June, 1863.

 Davis, Albert C., Priv. Jan. 14, 1863, detached from the 12th R.I.
 Inf.; July 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Davis, Thomas, Priv. Detached from Co. B, 6th Wis. Inf. Borne as
 absent sick in General Hospital from Aug. 31, 1862, until Dec. 12,
 1862, when discharged on Surgeon's certificate.

 Dehue, Fritz, Priv. Temporarily detached from Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art.,
 by order dated Jan. 16, 1864.

 Dinkins, William T., Priv. Temporarily detached from Co. G, 20th
 Indpt Inf. Borne as absent sick from Jan. 25, 1863, until July, 1863;
 Nov. 10, 1863, slightly wounded at battle of Campbell's Station,
 Tenn.; Jan. 5, 1864, discharged and returned to regiment by reason of
 re-enlistment.

 Doolan, Patrick, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L. A.; transferred to 9th Mass. Battery by order dated Feb. 9,
 1865.

 Doremus, William, Priv. Temporarily detached from Battery L, 2d N.Y.
 Art., by order dated Jan. 16, 1864.

 Dorsay, John, Priv. Jan. 14, 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Inf.; Jan.
 6, 1863, shot by a citizen at Camp Dick Robinson, Ky.

 Dunn, James N., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L.A.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass. Battery.

 Dunwell, William, Priv. Jan. 14, 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Inf.;
 July 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Dutcher, William, Priv. Detached from Co. A, 2d Wis. Inf., from May 4,
 1862, until June, 1864.

 Fannon, Joseph, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L.A.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass. Battery.

 Fitzgerald, John F., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L.A.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass. Battery.

 Fogerty, Michael, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, N.Y. Art.

 Fox, Samuel W., Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, temporarily detached from 175th
 N.Y. Vols. Borne as absent sick from Nov. 5, 1864, until Nov. 22,
 1864, when he died in hospital at Winchester, Va.

 Gann, Isaac, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.; May
 11, 1865, returned to regiment by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Gardner, John, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L.A.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass. Battery by special order
 dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Graves, Leander W., Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols. near Cedar Creek, Va.; Dec. 21, 1864, died at Jarvis United
 States Army Hospital, Baltimore, Md., from effect of gunshot wound.

 Griffin, Joseph H., Jr., Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from 7th R.I.
 Vols.; Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment.

 Griffiths, James, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols. near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Gyett, Lewis, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.,
 near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Harry, Charles E., Priv. Jan. 14, 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Vols.
 Borne as absent sick in hospital from March 19, 1863, until July,
 1863; July 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Hastings, John, Priv. Temporarily detached from Co. I, 7th Wis. Inf.

 Hawkins, Orlando S., Priv. Temporarily detached from Co. H, 2d Wis.
 Inf. Borne as absent sick from Aug. 22, 1862, until Dec. 21, 1862,
 when dropped from rolls. Joined, and borne as absent on detached
 service at Knoxville, Tenn., from Dec. 8, 1863, until Jan., 1864.

 Head, Henry P., Priv. Jan. 14, 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Vols.;
 July 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Helme, Anthony, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A. Borne
 as absent sick in hospital from Oct. 19, 1864, until Dec, 1864; Dec.
 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Henon, William, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L. A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass.
 Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Hill, Eben, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L.A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass.
 Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Howes, George, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L.A. at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass.
 Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Hubbard, Franklin D., Priv. Temporarily detached from Co. D, 6th Wis.
 Inf.

 Hudson, William J., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L.A., at Camp Sheridan, Va. Borne on furlough of fifteen days
 from Jan. 21, 1865; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass. Battery by
 special order dated Feb. 9, 1865. Also borne as N.L. Hudson.

 Johnston, Daniel, Priv. Feb 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville, Tenn., by special order dated
 Jan. 16, 1864.

 Kellogg, McKendry, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3,
 1864.

 Knecht, John, Priv. Jan., 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Vols.; July
 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 LaFont, Louis, Priv. May, 1862, detached from Co. C, 2d Wis. Inf.;
 June 8, 1863, killed by a fall at Lexington, Ky.

 LaFountain, John, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols., near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Laich, John T., Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from Battery
 L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville, Tenn., by special order dated Jan. 16,
 1864.

 Lampe, Christian, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3,
 1864.

 Lance, Alfred, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.,
 near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment by special
 order dated May 8, 1865.

 LaRocke, John, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.,
 near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 LaRose, John, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.,
 near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 LeMay, Peter, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 Art., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to the 9th
 Mass. Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Lewis, Frank, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from Battery
 L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville, Tenn., by special order dated Jan. 16,
 1864.

 Main, John W., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L.A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass.
 Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Main, Joseph H., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, transferred from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. Art., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th
 Mass. Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Malone, John, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A. Borne as
 absent sick in hospital from Oct. 19, 1864, until Dec., 1864; Dec. 10,
 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va., by order dated Dec.
 3, 1864.

 Maloney, Daniel, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville, Tenn., by special order dated
 Jan. 16, 1864.

 Marshall, John, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.; Dec.
 10, 1864, rejoined his regiment at Opequan Creek, Va., by special
 order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Matteson, Robert F., Priv. Jan. 14, 1863, detached from 12th R.I.
 Vols.; July 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Melvin, Edward, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.,
 near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment by special
 order dated May 8, 1865, at Winchester, Va.

 Miller, George, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.; Dec.
 10, 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va., by special order
 dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Millett, George L., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L.A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Jan. 22, 1865, died of disease at
 Stephenson, Va.

 Mills, Leander F., Priv. Temporarily detached from Co. C, 19th Ind.
 Inf. Also borne as Frederick Mills.

 Mitchell, Stephen D.W., Priv. Jan. 14, 1863, detached from 12th R.I.
 Vols.; July 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Moffatt, George, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols., near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Moore, George, Priv. Sept. 16, 1863, detached from 1st Tenn. Battery,
 at Knoxville; Sept. 10, 1863, deserted at New Market.

 Moore, Ira, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L.A., at Camp Sheridan, Va., and borne as absent on detached service
 at Hdqrs. M. M. Div., until Feb., 1865; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to
 9th Mass. Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Morse, George, Artificer. Jan. 5, 1865, detached as private from
 Battery A, 1st Mass. L.A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865,
 transferred to 9th Mass. Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Mundon, Hosea, Priv. April 21, 1863, detached from Battery C, 7th Wis.
 Inf.; June, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Murphy, David S., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L. A., at Camp Sheridan, Va; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th
 Mass. Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Narrow, Joseph, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols., near Cedar Creek, Va; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Nash, Richard, Priv. Temporarily detached from Co. F, 19th Indpt. Inf.

 Nott, Peter, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols., near
 Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at Winchester,
 Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865. Also borne as Noll and Kott.

 Palmer, Samuel, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from Battery
 L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville, Tenn, by special order dated Jan. 16,
 1864.

 Parker, Horace I., Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va., by special
 order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Peterson, Thomas, Priv. Aug. 17, 1863, detached from 100th Ohio Vols.,
 at Stanford; Feb., 1864, returned to regiment at Knoxville, Tenn.

 Pettis, David, Priv. Jan. 17, 1864, temporarily detached from Battery
 L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Strawberry Plains. Also borne as Pettit.

 Pickett, Erastus, Priv. Oct. 15. 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.
 near Cedar Creek, Va. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Nov. 16,
 1864, until Nov. 24, 1864, when he died at Winchester, Va.

 Pollard, John, Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Vols.;
 July 10, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Potter, Franklin H., Priv. Dec, 1863, detached from 7th R.I. Vols.;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va., by special
 order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Prouty, Robert A., Priv. Jan. 5. 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L.A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th
 Mass. Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Raney, John, Priv. Jan. 14, 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Vols.; July
 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Rathbone, George, Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from 7th R.I. Vols.;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3,
 1864, at Opequan Creek, Va.

 Reed, Charles, Priv. Temporarily detached from Co. A, 6th Wis. Inf.

 Rengie, Samuel, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.; Dec.
 10, 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va., by special order
 dated Dec. 3, 1864. Also borne as Resign.

 Rhodes, Charles G., Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols. near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Rice, Richard M., Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols, near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Richards, George, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville, Tenn., by special order dated
 Jan. 16, 1864, and borne as absent sick in hospital until March, 1864.

 Ridiker, Theodore, Priv. Aug. 16, 1863, detached from 103d Ohio Vol.
 Inf., at Danville, Ky.; March 11, 1864, transferred to 104th Ohio Vol.
 Inf.

 Rogers, Silas, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.
 near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Roselle, William, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.
 near Cedar Creek, Va. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Nov.
 23, 1864, until Jan., 1865; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Rowley, George W., Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va., by special
 order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Russell, John B., Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.,
 at Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at Winchester,
 Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Schwamb, Charles, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L. A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th
 Mass. Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Seymour, John N., Priv. Detached from Co. B, 2d Wis. Inf., from May 2,
 1862, until April 18, 1864. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Aug.
 12, 1863, until Dec., 1863.

 Shannon, Edward, Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L. A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th
 Mass. Battery by order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Smith, John H., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st Mass.
 L.A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass.
 Battery by special order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Smith, Reuben, Priv. Aug. 17, 1863, detached from 103d Ohio Inf. Borne
 as in hospital from April 26, 1864, until May, 1864; June 19, 1865,
 returned to regiment at Winchester, Va., by order dated June 17, 1865.

 Somers, John, Priv. Reported as temporarily detached from 12th R.I.
 Vols.; returned to regiment, term of service having expired. Name not
 borne on rolls of 12th R.I. Vols.

 Stamford, William, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville, Tenn., by special order dated
 Jan. 16, 1864.

 Starkweather, Melvin M., Priv. Temporarily detached from Co. D, 7th
 Wis. Inf.

 Steinberg, Surgen, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville, Tenn., by special order dated
 Jan. 16, 1864.

 Sullivan, Patrick, Priv. Temporarily detached from 19th or 20th Ind.
 Inf.

 Sutliff, James, Priv. Jan., 1863, detached from Co. C, 12th R.I.
 Vols.; July 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Taylor, Charles, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols.
 near Cedar Creek, Va. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Oct. 19,
 1864, until Nov. 11, 1864, when he died at York, Pa.

 Terry, Maurice, Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from Co. H, 7th R.I.
 Vols. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Sept. 1, 1864, until Dec.
 10, 1864 when returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Tierny, John, Priv. Jan. 17, 1864, temporarily detached from Battery
 L, 2d N.Y. Art. Borne as absent sick in hospital from Feb. 20, 1864,
 until March, 1864.

 Toland, John, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y. Vols. near
 Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at Winchester,
 Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Tuckerman, James F., Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from Co. C, 7th
 R.I. Vols. Borne as absent sick in hospital from July 29, 1863, until
 Aug., 1863; Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va.,
 by special order dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Vosburg, Ira, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.; Dec.
 10, 1864, returned to regiment by special order dated Dec. 3, 1864, at
 Opequan Creek, Va.

 Wardbuger, Jacob, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.;
 Dec. 10, 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va. Also borne
 as I. Waldberger.

 Warner, Harmon, Priv. Oct. 15, 1864, detached from 175th N.Y.
 Vols. near Cedar Creek, Va.; May 11, 1865, returned to regiment at
 Winchester, Va., by special order dated May 8, 1865.

 Weaver, George, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.; Dec.
 10, 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va., by special order
 dated Dec. 3, 1864.

 Weaver, George H., Priv. Jan. 15. 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Vols.
 Borne as absent sick from Jan. 25, 1863, until March 15, 1863, when
 discharged for disability from General Hospital.

 Webb, George A., Priv. Jan., 1863, detached from 12th R.I. Vols.; July
 12, 1863, returned to regiment.

 Werner, Frederick, Sergt. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from
 Battery L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville, Tenn., by order dated Jan. 16,
 1864.

 Wheelock, Charles C., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L.A., at Camp Sheridan, Va.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th
 Mass. Battery, by order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Whitney, Henry, Priv. May 4, 1864, detached from 14th N.Y. H.A.; Dec.
 10, 1864, returned to regiment at Opequan Creek, Va.

 Wick, George, Priv. April 24, 1862, detached from Co. K, 2d Wis. Inf.;
 Feb. 2, 1865, mustered out by reason of expiration of term of service.

 Wilhelm, John, Priv. Feb. 18, 1864, temporarily detached from Battery
 L, 2d N.Y. Art., at Knoxville. Tenn., by order dated Jan. 16, 1864.

 Wilson, Daniel G., Priv. Jan. 5, 1865, detached from Battery A, 1st
 Mass. L.A.; Feb. 16, 1865, transferred to 9th Mass. Battery by special
 order dated Feb. 9, 1865.

 Winsor, Chauncey A., Corp. Temporarily detached from Co. A, 6th Wis.
 Inf.

 Worden, Charles H., Priv. Jan. 15, 1863, detached from 7th R.I. Vols.;
 Feb. 18, 1863, died of disease in Hampton General Hospital.


[Illustration: THE END]





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