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Title: Bombers' Training and Application of Same in Trench Warfare
Author: Ferris, J. R.
Language: English
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BOMBERS’ TRAINING
AND
APPLICATION OF SAME
IN TRENCH WARFARE

by

LIEUT. J. R. FERRIS

63rd O. Bn., C.E.F.



William Briggs
Toronto

Copyright, Canada, 1916, by
William Briggs



PREFACE


This work is intended to be used as a guide for officers and N.C.O.’s
in training bombers. The lectures given at intervals as the men advance
in the training will emphasize the features to be observed. A syllabus
for a bombers’ school covering a period of six days is shown on page
37 as a further guide to instructors. A list of material and equipment
necessary to carry out the syllabus is shown on page 38.

Prior to the adoption by the British War Office of the present method
of fighting on the Western front, namely, the use of bombs and
grenades (which for practical purposes require the same care as high
explosives), it was not necessary for the rank and file of the Infantry
to have any great knowledge of explosives, any work that entailed the
extensive use of explosives being left to the Engineers.

In the Manual of Field Engineering, 1911, there is a chapter devoted
to Explosives, but as this work was written before the adoption of the
bomb method of fighting it could not be expected that the subject, as
treated there, applies fully to the requirements of this arm of the
service under present-day conditions. The Infantry being called upon
to make use of explosives in the form of bombs and grenades, makes
it necessary that they have instruction in the matter of handling,
shipping and storage of them in order to avoid accidents; and a
knowledge of their characteristics and properties to enable them to
make the best use of these altogether necessary and useful agents.

The author is indebted to Capt. G. S. Laing and Capt. G. D. Powis for
valuable assistance in this work.

                                                                J. R. F.



CONTENTS.


                                                            PAGE

  SAPHEADS                                                     6

  LECTURE I.--Explosives (Working Knowledge)                   7

  LECTURE II.--Explosives (Classification, Characteristics
      and Properties)                                         10

  LECTURE III.--Study of a Few Types of Rifle and
      Hand Grenades                                           17

  LECTURE IV.--Bombers’ Training, Parts I. and II.            23

  LECTURE V.--Frontal Attack                                  32

  LECTURE VI.--Consolidating the Ground Gained                34

  LECTURE VII.--Enfilade Attack                               35

  SYLLABUS (Six Days’ Training)                               37

  LIST OF MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT FOR CLASS OF
      50--(Six Days’ Training)                                38

  ORAL EXAMINATIONS                                           39



SAPHEADS.


[Illustration: Diagram 1. T. Shaped]

[Illustration: Diagram 2. Island Saphead]


Diagram 1.

(a) Bombs can only be thrown from narrow trenches in the direction
to which the trench is running. In order to have complete command
of foreground with this type of Sap. it is necessary to make the
cross-head too wide.

(b) The total area of Sap. may become effective zone from the fire of
one bomb.

(c) Only two men can be employed at one time in constructing this type
of Sap.


Diagram 2.

(a) Offers complete range of foreground with the narrowest possible
width of trench.

(b) Cannot become effective zone from the fire of one bomb.

(c) A greater fighting area is possible in the same extent of frontage.

(d) When connected up to form line of trenches from which to make
assault, takes the place of an island traverse and relieves congestion
of traffic at junction of communicating trench and fire trench.

(e) More men can be employed in constructing same than in the T-shaped
type.



Bombers’ Training



LECTURE I.

EXPLOSIVES.


Working Knowledge.

=Handling.= In moving cases containing explosives great care should be
taken that they are not placed on anything or in such a position that
they might topple over or be knocked over, or placed in such a position
that other objects might fall on them. Men who are entrusted with the
handling of these materials should be most reliable and careful.

=The Thawing of Frozen Explosives.= Some explosives freeze in a
temperature considerably above freezing point, and it is necessary that
they be thawed before using. The two recognized methods of thawing
frozen explosives are as follows:

  1. Place in a steam heated room, but not on the steam pipes. It is
  desirable that the room have an even temperature.

  2. By the use of a double heater; the outer vessel to contain water
  at a temperature of 125 deg. F., or not hotter than can be borne by
  the hand; the inner vessel contains the explosive, care being taken
  that there is no fire in the vicinity.

=A Few Causes of Accidents with Dynamite.= The following are a few of
the causes of accidents with explosives, as taken from statistical
information compiled by the Ontario Bureau of Mines, and circulated for
the purpose of preventing accidents:--


Dynamite.

  1. Forcing primer into hole which is too small for it.

  2. Presuming that the charge has a mis-fire, and going too soon to
  investigate it.

  3. Tamping too tightly near the explosive charge.

  4. Forcing cartridge into too small a hole or using a metal tamping
  rod.

  5. Thawing dynamite before an open fire, blacksmith’s forge, in an
  oven, or by the heat of the sun’s rays through window glass.


Detonators.

A Few Causes of Accidents with Detonators.

  1. Attempting to draw a wire from an electric detonator.

  2. Attaching a fuse to a detonator carelessly.

  3. Trying to destroy a detonator by striking it with a stone.

  4. Finding a detonator and tapping it to see if it is good.

  5. Holding an electric detonator in a gas flame.

  6. By treading on a detonator a number of them have been known to be
  exploded in the same room.

  7. By pricking the composition in a detonator with a pin.

  8. A spark from a miner’s lamp falling into a box containing fuses
  and detonators has been known to explode them.

=Shipping.= When it is desired to ship explosives from point to point
by wagons or other vehicles, it is necessary to inspect the wagons
and ascertain that everything is in order and good repair, to make
sure that the platforms of the wagons and inside of the wagon-boxes
are free from protruding nails or pieces of metal that would tend to
cause friction on the cases. A bed of straw should be prepared and the
cases placed on their flat side, right side up, without any space left
between that would permit of displacement or cause friction by the
moving of the wagon in transportation. Horses used for this purpose
should be quiet and well broken, and care taken that harness and
accoutrements are in a good state of repair. Roads should be chosen as
far as possible that do not lead through towns or thickly inhabited
parts of the country. In wet weather it is necessary that the load
be covered with tarpaulin, and in hot weather with white canvas to
minimize the effect of the sun’s rays. On reaching the destination,
wagons should be carefully unloaded and straw removed to a safe
distance and burned. In arranging for transportation by rail or boat,
the car or the boat, as the case may be, should be thoroughly examined
and not entrusted to the dangerous load unless you are absolutely sure
it is in good order. In unloading make sure that no vacant spaces
occur between cases that would permit of shifting or friction, and
should the entire floor of the car or boat be not occupied with the
cases the load should be fenced or blocked in such a way as to prevent
it shifting and ensure against friction. Should any packages of
explosives, when offered for shipment, show outward signs of oily stain
or other indications that the absorption of the liquid part of the
explosive in the absorbent material is not perfect, or that the amount
of liquid part is greater than the absorbent can carry, these packages
must under no consideration be loaded, and must be immediately removed
to a place of safety and the parties who supplied them immediately
notified thereof. The car containing explosives must be labelled as
such in a conspicuous manner and must be hauled as near the middle of
the train as possible, and must not be placed next to a car containing
oil or inflammable material. A flying switch must not be taken with
explosives. In case of a wreck every precaution must be taken to
prevent fire. While most of the high explosives burn quietly when
lighted in small quantities, and without causing disastrous explosions,
it must be remembered that it is not a safe experiment.

=Storage.= Local conditions have much to do with the type of structure
to be built for an explosives’ magazine. In general, it may be said
that the lighter the construction the better. The laws of some
countries require that all magazines be built of such material, and in
such a manner, that in the event of an explosion the building will be
completely disintegrated and no pieces thrown to any great distance.
Storage in caves, tunnels, earth or stone-covered vaults, and in log
structures, should under no circumstances be tolerated. The chief
objection in all these cases is that the structure will hold dampness,
and any dampness in a magazine containing explosives into which
nitrates enter as an essential or accessory ingredient, is certain to
affect its quality and render it more or less dangerous in subsequent
use. This applies to gunpowder and to practically all dynamites,
especially those made in America. It does not apply to Kieselguhr
Dynamite of foreign manufacture. When it is desired to protect a
magazine from rifle fire, the magazine may be banked with earth to an
extent that would be proof against bullets, and to a height well above
the cases as arranged in the magazine; arrangements being made for
perpendicular air-shafts through the embankment next to the outer wall
at intervals necessary to give the required ventilation; ventilating
shafts being screened with fine wire netting to exclude vermin and
constructed in such a manner that water cannot enter. Explosives should
be stored in tiers, box on box, with laths between to prevent dampness
accumulating. No cases must be opened in the magazines, a separate
building being provided at a safe distance for that purpose. Gunpowder
and dynamites in unopened cases, and fuses securely boxed, may be
stored in the same magazine, but no fulminates in the form of caps, or
otherwise, or loose coils of fuse, should ever be stored in the same
building with gunpowder and high explosives. It is important that the
magazine be kept clean, and that no men with nails in their boots be
allowed to work in a magazine. No fires should be lighted or smoking
allowed in or about a magazine containing high explosives.



LECTURE II.

EXPLOSIVES.


Classification, Characteristics and Properties.

=General Classification.= Explosives are classified generally as
follows:--

  1. Explosive mixtures of the nitrate class.

  2. Explosive mixtures of the chlorate class.

  3. Explosive compounds of the nitro-substitution class. 4. Explosive
  compounds of the nitric-derivative class.

  5. Explosives of the Sprengel class.

  6. Fulminates and Amides.

  7. Ammunition.

Of the seven classifications of explosives, we are dealing with but
four in the subject of Bomb Fighting, namely, as classified above, 1,
3, 4 and the Fulminates.

=Nitrate Class.= Explosive mixtures of the nitrate class. The best
known example of this class is gunpowder, the characteristics of
which are that it consists of a mechanical mixture of nitrates with
some base containing charcoal or other substance yielding carbon. The
nitrates carry the oxygen which combines with the base, under favorable
circumstances developing a large volume of gases at a high temperature,
so that if the powder is confined at the time of explosion there will
be produced an enormous disruptive effect. The standard composition of
gunpowder is:--

  Potassium Nitrate or Salt-petre       75 parts.
  Charcoal                              15 parts.
  Sulphur                               10 parts.

It might be interesting to note that the charcoal employed for military
and sporting powder is made from dog-wood, while for inferior grades of
powder willow and alder are used.

=Explosive Compounds of the Nitro-Substitution Class and
Nitric-Derivative Class.= The two explosives of these classes which
are generally known are gun-cotton and nitro-glycerine, with special
preparations made from them, such as dynamite, blasting gelatine, etc.

=Gun-Cotton.= Gun-cotton is made by treating suitably prepared cotton
with a mixture of one part by weight of nitric acid and three parts
sulphuric acid. The immersion lasts 48 hours, the temperature being
maintained at 60 deg. F. The cotton is then subjected to a thorough
and prolonged washing, after which it is carried through various
processes to prepare it for use. The cellulose of the cotton has thus
been converted into tri-nitro cellulose. By varying the strength of the
acids different degrees of nitration may be obtained. Gun-cotton is
extensively used for military purposes.

Gun-cotton differs but slightly in appearance from ordinary cotton. It
has a harsh feel and is less flexible than common cotton. It becomes
highly electrified when rubbed between the fingers and appears luminous
when rubbed in the dark. It is entirely insoluble in hot or cold water,
but dissolves in a mixture of ether and ammonia. It will rarely take
up more than two per cent. of moisture from the atmosphere. It is
insensible to pressure, percussion or friction, unless closely confined
or firmly compressed. It burns with a flash, but without explosion
if brought into contact with burning or incandescent bodies. Wet
gun-cotton will not burn or explode. Its ignition temperature is 360
degrees F. Pure gun-cotton will undergo no spontaneous decomposition
and is the safest explosive known. Although it will not explode when
wet, it may be detonated in this condition by a Mercury Fulminate
Detonator with a small initial charge of dry gun-cotton in contact with
it.

=Nitro-Glycerine.= Nitro-glycerine is a nitric ether, or specifically
a glyceryl tri-nitrate. Different degrees of nitration yield the
mono-di- and tri-nitro glycerine, respectively; the latter being the
nitro-glycerine of commerce. It is made by treating an exceedingly pure
quality of glycerine with a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids, the
proportions commonly adopted being 3 parts of nitric acid, 5 parts of
sulphuric acid, and from 1 to 1.15 parts of glycerine. The glycerine
is added very slowly and with constant stirring. The agitation of the
mixture is now usually accomplished by compressed air.

When made from the purest ingredients, nitro-glycerine is an oily
looking fluid, as clear and transparent as water. When freshly made it
is whitish and opaque, but on standing it clears. The specific gravity
at normal temperature is about 1.6 deg. F., when frozen 1.735 deg. F.
Nitro-glycerine dissolves in alcohol, ether, methyl-alcohol, benzine,
etc. Freshly made, opaque nitro-glycerine freezes at from 2.2 deg.
F. to 7.6 deg. F., while the transparent, or clear, product freezes
at from 39.2 deg. F. to 37.4 deg. F. In its frozen state it is less
sensitive to shock or concussion than when it is in liquid. It may be
completely evaporated when at a temperature of 158 deg. F. Its ignition
temperature or firing point is 356 deg. F. Exposed to a temperature
of 365 deg. F. it boils with evolution of vapors; at 381.2 deg. F. it
volatilizes slowly; at 392 deg. F. it evaporates rapidly; at 422.6
deg. F. it detonates violently. From this point its behavior changes,
passing through temperatures at which it explodes with constantly
lessening violence until, at a dark, cherry-red heat, it assumes a
spheroidal state and fails to explode. This applies to small quantities
only. When gradually heated it is certain to explode at 356 deg. F.

=Picric Acid.= When coal tar is subjected to a fractional distillation
the portion which comes over up to a temperature of 170 deg. C. is
called “light oil” and contains all the compounds of low boiling paint
contained in tar, and from this several of our most valuable explosives
can be obtained. When these light oils have distilled over the next
fraction, or “middle oil,” yields phenol or carbolic acid, a body which
nitrated gives picric acid, which is the basis of the French high
explosive “melinite” and the English “lyddite.”

Picric acid consists of a very strong nitric acid and carbolic acid,
and is a very high explosive. It was introduced by Turpin, who mixed it
with collodium and called it “melinite,” by which name it is known in
the French Service. It forms with metals a class of salts (picrates).
The potassium salts were suggested as a bursting charge for shells
nearly fifty years ago. Sprengel and, later, Turpin, employed the
acid itself as an explosive. It was possible to get a great weight of
explosive into small space, as the acid could be melted and poured into
the shell in a molten condition. Picric acid is a very safe explosive,
but has the drawback of acting on metals, forming “picrates,” some of
which are more sensitive to disturbing influences than the acid itself.

=Lyddite.= Lyddite consists of melted solidified picric acid, and has
the same disadvantage of forming “picrates” when in contact with metal,
making it necessary to varnish the interior of shells when used in
them. Experience with lyddite shells shows them to be very erratic, due
to the fact that they require a very powerful detonator, the use of
which is very dangerous, as they may cause a premature explosion.

=T. N. T.= These disadvantages in picric acid led to its being largely
replaced by tri-nitro toluol, or T. N. T., which has a bursting
pressure of 119,000 pounds per square inch as against 135,820 pounds
for picric acid. Yet the advantages of the former more than compensate
and warrant its use being preferred. T. N. T. does not act on metals to
create sensitive salts and is, therefore, perfectly stable. The French
name for T. N. T. is “Tolitype,” the Spanish “Trilite,” and the German
“Trotyle.” It is produced by heating troulue with a mixture of nitric
acid and sulphuric acid.

=Troulue.= Troulue is a liquid hydro-carbon obtained along with benzine.

=Tetryl.= Tetryl is another coal tar product containing more nitrogen
than lyddite, and is employed in detonators with a little lead azide,
making a less sensitive and safer preparation than fulminate of mercury.

=Aunnonal.= Aunnonal is a mixture of T. N. T., aluminum in fine powder
and nitrate of ammonia, and a trace of charcoal. It is safe and
powerful, but has the disadvantage of attracting moisture, and for that
reason does not always explode.

=Dynamite.= Dynamite is the most generally used of any blasting
material in the world. It was invented in 1866 by Alfred Nobel. Its
principal consisted in using an absorbent commonly called a “dope,”
which would take up the nitro-glycerine and hold it after the manner of
a sponge.

A suitable dope should possess a cellular structure so that the
nitro-glycerine may be subdivided into minute globules, each being
held separately in its own cell, completely isolated from every other.
In this condition its sensitiveness is greatly reduced, depending, of
course, on the amount of nitro-glycerine absorbed. Dynamite may be
classified, according to the nature of the absorbent used, as follows:--

  1. Dynamites with inert base,
     (Kieselguhr, Magnesium carbonate.)

  2. Dynamite with an active base,
     (a) Combustible base.
     (b) Explosive base.

The explosives’ bases in (b), as above, may be of the
nitro-substitution class, or the nitric-derivative class.

In choosing the dopes for inert bases of dynamite where wood pulp or
sawdust is employed, it should be of some porous wood such as spruce or
basswood. Woods differ considerably in the amount of nitro-glycerine
they will absorb, ranging from 60% to 85%. Before introducing the
nitro-glycerine they should be thoroughly dried. Good dynamite should
not feel greasy. There should be no trace of free nitro-glycerine
inside the wrapper of the cartridge. Slowly heated dynamite explodes at
a temperature of 356 deg. F. If rapidly heated, it explodes at 446 deg.
F. These temperatures apply only to Kieselghur dynamite. The American
dynamites containing wood pulp and nitrates will explode with somewhat
lower temperatures. Like nitro-glycerine it is most sensitive to shock
and friction just above the freezing point. According to the dope
used, it freezes at from 42 deg. F. to 46 deg. F. It is nearly, but
not quite, insensitive to shock or friction when frozen. (See page 88,
Manual of Field Engineering.)

=Monobel.= Monobel consists of:

  Nitro-Glycerine           7-1/2% to  9-1/2%
  Nitrate of Amm.          66    % to 70    %
  Wood meal                 7    % to  9    %
  Chloride of Sodium       14    % to 16    %
  Rem. Moisture               1/2% to  2    %

=Fulminates.= These are the most powerful and dangerous explosives
in common use. They consist for the most part of metallic salts of
fulminic and amic acids. The commonest fulminate, known as mercury
fulminate, is formed by dissolving mercury in nitric acid, to which
solution when cool is added 110 parts of alcohol. Water is then added,
causing a grey fulminate to precipitate. This is carefully washed and
air-dried. The operation is attended with great danger. The color of
fulminate varies from a white to dirty grey. Its specific gravity is
4.42 deg. F. It has a sweetish taste and is highly poisonous. It is
extremely sensitive to heat and shock of every kind. Its firing point
when slowly heated is 306.5 deg. F., and when rapidly heated 368.6 deg.
F. When wet it is less sensitive, but not secure against explosion. The
slightest friction will provoke its explosion. It may be destroyed
safely by treating it with alkaline sulphides.

Fulminates of other metals are capable of being made, such as
fulminates of silver, gold, platinum, zinc and copper, but these
are more violently exploded and less stable. The only one which has
come into any use being a silver compound. Mercury fulminate is the
explosive used in the manufacture of detonators. (See page 89, Manual
of Field Engineering, 1911.)

=Detonators and Fuses.= (See pages 89, 90 and 91, Manual of Field
Engineering, 1911.)

=Theory of Explosives and Fumes. Definition of Explosive=: Explosive is
a substance either solid, liquid, or jelly, which, when subjected to
a shock, suddenly changes from solids, etc., to gases, at a very high
temperature, tearing to pieces any vessel which may contain them.

=Definition of an Explosion=: An explosion is a chemical reaction which
is completed in an exceedingly short period of time with the evolution
of a large quantity of gas at a very high temperature. If this reaction
occurs in a body which is closely confined, the expansive effect of
the highly heated gases produces disruptive effects. If the suddenness
of the reaction is very great, disrupted action upon solid objects
in contact with the body may be obtained even when it is unconfined,
because the cohesion of these objects can be overcome more readily in
an instant of time than the inertia of the surrounding air. This has
given rise to the popular error that nitro-glycerine and other high
explosives act downwards; as a matter of fact they act with equal
force in all directions. It is evident, therefore, that the violence
of an explosion depends upon three things, namely, the time occupied
completing the reaction of the explosive body; the temperature produced
by the reaction, upon which directly depends the expansive forces of
the resultant gases; and the quantity of gas evolved by the reaction.
A fourth consideration--whether the products of the reaction are the
result of one set of chemical actions occurring simultaneously; or
whether the set of new compounds react upon each other, producing a
second set of compounds.



LECTURE III.

STUDY OF A FEW OF THE PRINCIPAL TYPES OF RIFLE AND HAND GRENADES.


=General.= The undermentioned types of grenades, empty, are issued for
instruction:--

  (a) Grenade, 303-inch, short rifle, No. 3, Mark 1. (J. pattern.)
  (b) Grenade, hand, No. 1, Mark 1.
  (c) Grenade, hand, No. 5, Mark 1.
  (d) Grenades, hand, Nos. 6 and 7, Mark 1.

These grenades were also known as (a) Hales Rifle Grenade; (b) R. L.
impact or percussion grenade; (c) Mill’s pattern grenade; (d) R. L.
grenades, friction, time.

Of these (a) is for firing from the point .303-inch short rifle. Its
range is about 200 yards.

The remainder are intended to be thrown by hand.

Hand grenades can be of two classes, Heavy and Light. Heavy grenades
weigh about 2 lbs. and light about 1 lb. It is considered that a man
can throw a 2-lb. weight about 30 yards and a pound-weight about 50
yards. Heavy grenades project fragments of some weight a fair distance,
while light grenades rely for effect principally on the blast of
detonation.

The effective area of a light grenade is mainly local, 6 yards
diameter, but when possible it should not be thrown less than 20 yards
in the open, as stones, etc., thrown up by the explosion would be
dangerous to the thrower.

The danger area of the heavy grenade is about 30 yards in diameter,
and, therefore, it should not be thrown less than 25 yards in the open.
With both grenades the thrower should cover the eyes at the moment of
explosion and protect himself, as small fragments of metal may carry
further than the distance mentioned.

The types of hand grenades (b), (c) and (d) differ fundamentally in the
means by which ignition is effected; (b) explodes instantaneously on
impact (by percussion), while (c) and (d) are fired by time fuse, which
is lit in (c) by spring action releasing a trigger at the moment the
grenade leaves the thrower’s hand, and in (d) by an independent action
on the part of the thrower before throwing the grenade.

In the case of (b) it is necessary that the grenade fall head first.
This is done by the backward pull in the air of the streamers attached
to the handle. In using this grenade it is, therefore, necessary to see
that the streamers are opened out and free--before throwing, and to
throw the grenade well upwards.

In the case of (d) the total time of delay is slightly over 5 seconds,
so that from 1-1/2 to 2 seconds should be used in throwing. If thrown
hastily it may arrive at the mark 3 seconds before exploding and allow
it to be returned by the enemy.

When handling detonators for grenades, it should be remembered that the
detonator by itself is capable of blowing the hand off, so it must be
carefully handled, and if an igniter is accidentally fired it should
be thrown a few yards clear of any one in the neighborhood. When the
igniters and detonators are in the grenades reasonable care should
be taken to avoid rough usage as violent treatment might fire the
grenades, even in the safe position.

=Grenade .303-inch, Short Rifle, No. 3, Mark 1 (J. pattern).
Description=: The grenade consists of a steel body filled with
explosive. Down the centre of the explosive is a brass tube into the
forward end of which the detonator is inserted. The rearward end of the
body is closed by the base piece which carries the needle pellet, two
retaining bolts, wind vane and releasing socket with safety pin. To the
base piece is fixed a base plug carrying the spring clip and a 10-inch
steel rod.

The action of the grenade is that, the safety pin having been removed,
on firing the releasing socket sets back from under the wind vane,
which is then revolved by the wind pressure as the grenade travels
through the air. After a few turns of the vane the retaining bolts are
no longer held in position by its inner surface.

On impact the needle pellet sets forward against the creep spring, on
the detonator cap, firing the grenade.

The steel body is serrated so as to furnish numerous missiles.

=Package of Grenades=: The wooden box provided carries 20 grenades in
protecting tins with screw-off lids, 20 detonators, rifle grenades in
four tin boxes with lever lids, and 22 special blank cartridges in a
tin box.

=Preparation for Firing=: The grenade is removed from its tin and the
ebonite plug in its head is unscrewed by hand. The grenade is held nose
down to make sure that the needle pellet is held by the retaining bolts.

If correct, the detonator is inserted and screwed home.

The rod is then gently lowered into the rifle, the clip sprung on the
muzzle and a blank cartridge inserted in the chamber.

The safety pin is withdrawn just before firing.

If, after the safety pin has been removed, the grenade is not used,
the safety pin may be replaced if the screwed ring has not unscrewed
and uncovered the two retaining bolts, but if these are uncovered the
grenade is in a dangerously sensitive condition, and if so found should
be destroyed. Only the special detonators and cartridges provided
should be used.

If by accident a grenade were fired with a bulleted round the rifle
would probably burst and injure firer.

This grenade is very safe to handle, as it cannot be fired by knocking
or dropping on the ground; it must travel through the air some distance
before the retaining bolts fall out.

=Pendulum Dial Sights.= A pendulum dial sight graduated in yards,
for direct aim or high elevation, is issued for use with the rifle
grenades, and can be easily affixed to the leaf of the back-sight.

Should the sight not fit tightly on the leaf, the spring sides should
be slightly pinched in.

=Grenade, Hand, No. 1, Mark 1. Description=: The grenade consists of a
brass cylinder encircled by a narrow cast-iron ring serrated to break
up into 16 fragments.

The cylinder is mounted on a wood block to which a cane handle, with
streamer, is attached.

The brass cylinder or body of the grenade is filled with explosive,
and has its upper end closed by the detonator holder, fixed by three
screws. This holder carries two pins for securing the detonator. The
body has fitted above the serrated ring two knobs and two indicating
stops.

The firing needle is carried in the removable cap, which has two
grooves formed on it in which slide the knobs on the body. The cap is
centrally pierced for the safety pin.

On the outer surface of the cap are stamped the words “Remove,”
“Travel” and “Fire.” When the knobs are in the groove “Remove,” as
indicated by the stops, the cap can be removed and replaced; the
central position, marked “Travel,” is to be adhered to normally; while
in the position “Fire” the cap, after removal of the safety pin, is
held in position by friction only, and can be pressed inwards to fire
the grenade.

The action of the grenade is simply that the cap is forced in on
impact, carrying the needle on to the detonator, the cap having been
turned into the position “Fire” and the safety pin having been removed
before the throwing.

=Packing=: The grenades are packed six in a wooden box. Cylinders
containing 10 detonators, No. 1 Hand Grenade, Marks I. or II., are
issued separately.

=Preparation=: The cap is removed, a detonator is inserted in the
recess, the grooves in the detonator being placed opposite the pins on
the body, and the detonator is then pressed home and turned to the left
(its flange being under the heads of the two pins) until the spring on
the detonator flange is released thus locking it in position.

The cap is then replaced and turned into the position “Travel.”

The safety pin must on no account be withdrawn during these operations.

The cap from one grenade will not invariably fit another grenade
well, and steps should be taken to prevent caps and grenades being
interchanged.

=Throwing the Grenade=: When it is required to use the grenades, all
on the belt should be turned to “Fire,” and the whipcord beckets and
leather strips should be removed from the safety pins.

When a grenade is taken from the belt, the streamer is unwound and
allowed to hang free, and the safety pin is withdrawn immediately
before throwing.

The grenade is grasped by the end of the handle and thrown in the
required direction, care being taken that the streamer does not get
entangled with the thrower.

To insure the grenade firing on impact, it should be thrown well
upwards, at an angle of not less than 35 degrees.

Should the grenade not be used the cap should be turned back to
“Travel” and the safety pin replaced and secured by passing the
whipcord becket over the cap and threading the leather strip through
the slot in the end of the safety pin.

=Grenade, Hand, No. 5, Mark 1. Description=: The body of the grenade
is of cast-iron, serrated to provide numerous missiles on detonation.
Into one end is screwed a centre piece, with separate recesses for the
striker and detonator.

The striker is kept cocked against its spring by its head catching on
the end of the striker lever when the latter lies against the body of
the grenade, pivoted on its fulcrum pin.

The lever is retained in its position by the safety pin.

The detonator is a separate unit, consisting of cap, cap chamber,
safety fuse, and detonator.

The action of the grenade is that, after the safety pin is withdrawn,
on throwing the grenade the lever swings outward under the pull of
the striker pin spring, thus releasing the striker, which fires the
cap. The safety fuse burns less than five seconds and then fires the
detonator.

=Packing=: The grenades are packed 12 in a wooden box, together with a
cylinder containing 12 detonators and lengths of safety fuse attached.

=Preparation and Use of the Grenade=: Unscrew the base plug, insert the
detonator, etc., into the recesses provided and replace the plug.

The grenade is then held in the throwing hand in such a manner that the
striker lever is held securely against the body of the grenade by some
part of the hand.

The safety pin is pulled out by the other hand just before the grenade
is thrown.

If not thrown the safety pin should be replaced.

=Grenades, Hand, Nos. 6 and 7, Mark 1. Description=: The grenades
consist of tin vessels filled with high explosives and are packed 40 in
each packing case, with four haversacks.

The “HEAVY GRENADE,” weight about 1 lb. 13 oz., contains an outer
layer of scrap iron. The igniter socket is closed by a wooden plug for
transit, and covered by a papier mache cap.

The “LIGHT GRENADE” is entirely filled with explosive. Weight slightly
over 1 lb.

The IGNITERS and DETONATORS, packed 10 in a tin and 40 in each packing
case, consist of a friction igniter, a length of safety-fuse and a
service detonator. The friction igniter consists of the holder to
which is fixed a flange with two notches and two springs. It also has
two horns, which form a grip for turning the igniter into the locked
position. The friction bar is fixed to a button through which the
firing loop passes.

The HAVERSACK is intended to be carried similarly to be ordinary
service haversack, but the sling is shorter to cause the grenades to
rest above the hip and as far as possible clear of other equipment.

The loose strings should be tied round the waist to prevent the pockets
sagging and the grenades knocking against one another.

=Preparation of Grenade=: Remove papier mache cap and the wooden plug
from the igniter socket. Tear the strip from the tin box containing the
ten igniters, insert an igniter in the socket so that the notches in
the flange pass over the brass studs on the grenade. Turn the igniter
in either direction until it is locked by the springs on the flange and
one of the studs which is then held between the two springs. If it is
required to remove an igniter, one of the springs must be kept pressed
down while the igniter is turned till the spring is clear of the stud.
Replace the papier mache cap and place the grenade in a pocket of the
haversack with the cap uppermost.

=Firing the Grenade=: Remove the papier mache cap.

Hold the grenade in the right (or throwing) hand so that the igniter
is towards the wrist, the forefinger over the bottom of the grenade.
Pass the forefinger of the other hand through the firing loop and, when
ready to throw, pull with a sharp jerk. If a second’s time is taken and
the grenade bowled or thrown it should explode soon after reaching the
mark.



LECTURE IV.

BOMBERS’ TRAINING--PART I.


=Discipline.= Soldiers do not receive any training in bombing until
they have passed the recruit stage, in which special attention is given
that a very high degree of discipline is attained. In bomb fighting and
trench warfare a higher degree of discipline is demanded. In addition
to the discipline which enables a unit to go on parade and carry out
the different movements as one man, it is necessary that every man be
taught in such a way that, should circumstances arise, that he should
be cut off from his comrades he can carry on intelligently as a little
unit by himself, doing the right thing at the right time. It is only by
training that enables him to do this in the absence of commanders that
the necessary degree of efficiency can be attained.

=Organization.= The use of bombs was adopted by the British War
Office early in the summer of 1915. The organization put into effect
in England was as follows: In each brigade was formed what was known
as the Brigade Bombers’ Company. Men were detailed from each of the
units forming the brigade for their initial training, which lasted
over a period of six days. During the first of the training periods at
least one subaltern per battalion should be attached to the Brigade
Company for training, so that the battalion is provided with an
officer qualified to superintend the training of the battalion bombers’
section. This officer and others should return to the brigade company
for short periods of training from time to time as it has been found
that new technical as well as tactical ideas are continually being
introduced into this important branch of work.

One sergeant, two corporals and 32 rank and file are detailed from each
battalion. The company is commanded by a selected officer, who will be
assisted by an additional N.C.O., who acts in the capacity of C.S.M.
and C.Q.M.S. The Company is kept up to strength by a system of relays,
so that at the end of each three days half the men of the Company are
returned to their units for duty, their place being taken by others
detailed for that purpose. It will be seen that by this method in a
short time the entire brigade will have received their preliminary
training in this subject. It must not be considered that their training
in bombing is complete at the end of six days, further periods for
practices being arranged for in their weekly training syllabus. The
preliminary training having been completed, there is formed what was
known as a permanent Brigade Bombers’ Company.

=The Battalion Bombers’ Section.= The Battalion Bombers’ Section, when
complete, should consist of about 40 trained men, including N.C.O.’s,
but the training of all men should be proceeded with so that ultimately
every man in the battalion is qualified. When trained a thrower should
be able, when standing in a trench behind one traverse, to place 75
per cent. of his bombs in a bay on the farther side of a traverse 30
yards away. To be an expert bomber, one must be fit. It is therefore
necessary to take a certain amount of physical exercise each day while
in training and when on active service. In this respect the grenadiers
are especially cared for. They are given special privileges, given
the best of billets and shorter hours in the trenches, which gives
them plenty of time for exercise, and their favorite games, which
keeps them in good condition. Drinking is not prohibited, but if a man
expects to be able to keep cool and think and act quickly it is better
to be temperate. A bombers’ duties in the trenches are looked upon
as most interesting and lack monotony. If he understands his work and
the grenades, that is, when they are safe, he has nothing to fear,
although he will find that some of his more ignorant pals may shun
him when he goes about with his full complement, in fact, they will
make way wherever he goes. When our First Canadian Division went into
the trenches, as also have many other reinforcing battalions, without
a sufficient knowledge of bombs, the result was that many accidents
occurred through carelessness and ignorance and lack of training in
this important branch of work.

=Practice in Making and Throwing of Dummy Bombs.= In order that the
men may become proficient in the matter of throwing live bombs it is
necessary to have dummies which represent as nearly as possible in
size, shape and weight the live manufactured types which are used in
active service. The men are accordingly taught to make these by hand.
There are four types of these, as follows:--

  (a) =The Jam-Tin Dummy=, which is made with an empty jam tin,
  three-quarters filled with clay, the top being drawn together and
  sewn with wire. This type contains no explosives.

  (b) A jam-tin made in the same manner but in the centre of the tin is
  placed half a cartridge of monobel with fuse and cap. These two types
  of bombs are made to weigh from one to two and a quarter pounds, and
  may be thrown from thirty to fifty yards.

  (c) =Powder Puffs=: A powder puff is representative of a hair brush
  bomb and consists of a piece of wood 1” x 5” x 17”, 7” at one end
  being left full size, the remainder being cut away on each edge to
  form a handle. On the broad part of this is placed another piece of
  wood 2” x 4” x 6” with a hole 1-3/8” in diameter bored through the
  centre. This piece of 2” x 4” is attached by wire nails to the 1”
  x 5”; the centre space is filled with gunpowder and covered with
  a small piece of 1-inch board, the fuse being inserted through a
  3/8-inch hole, which is bored through the 1” x 5”. The explosive
  used in the hair brush, which this dummy represents is a slab of wet
  gun-cotton, 1-3/4” x 3” x 6” with a 1-3/8” cone-shaped hole in the
  centre to receive a dry gun-cotton primer which has a 3/8” hole in
  its centre to receive the detonator, which in turn receives the fuse.
  The weight of slab 15 ounces; the weight of primer 1 ounce.

  =Hand Grenade, No. 1, Mark 1, Dummy.=

  (d) A piece of 2” x 2” wood, 17” long, one end shaped for a handle,
  the other end made partially round, a 1-3/4” gas pipe union being put
  over the handle end and driven tightly on to the large end of the
  stick. A groove is cut around the stick about 8” from the handle end,
  to which is wired three pieces of cotton about 1-1/2” x 24” long.
  These act as streamers and tend to keep the business end of the bomb
  forward in its flight.

=Note=: The idea of the explosive being used in the dummy bombs is to
accustom the men to handling explosives, the lighting of fuses and
gauging of the time required per inch for a service fuse to burn, at
the same time not sacrificing distance and accuracy in throwing. It has
been noticed that men in their eagerness to get rid of the live bomb
lose sight of the main object for which they are being trained, namely,
accuracy and range.

=Throwing Position.= The correct position for throwing is as
follows:--Spread the feet slightly and brace them firmly on the ground,
the shoulder opposite the throwing hand being in the direction to which
you are throwing. Bring the other hand containing the bomb upwards with
a straight arm and circular motion, releasing the bomb when the hand
is above the head. It is impossible in a narrow trench to move from a
standing position when throwing. The men in throwing practices should
therefore be made to maintain a standing position.

=Sandbags.= It is necessary that all men engaged in trench fighting
should be specially taught in the uses of sandbags and the methods of
filling, tying and passing them in the trench. The method of passing
sandbags in a trench is as follows: The men place themselves from two
to three paces apart with their backs in the direction to which they
are passing the sandbags and pass them between their legs from one
to another. This method has the double advantage of enabling them to
pass them very quickly and keep their heads down out of danger from
rifle and M. G. fire at the same time. The men should receive further
practice in the manner of building them up to form blockades and breast
works, etc., in order that they may acquire speed in this matter. In
the absence of a full supply of sandbags, grain sacks or flour sacks
may be used.

=Training in the Use of Digging and Cutting Tools.= Frequent practices
should be carried out in order that the men are efficiently trained in
this work. It is very necessary that the men should be taught the use
of these tools in the different positions, that is, standing, kneeling
and lying. This can only be accomplished by frequent practices.

=Training in Reconstruction and Repair Work.= This can be carried out
with success in the dummy trenches which we use for practices in bomb
throwing and by changing the front of these trenches and wrecking them
it is possible for the men to get practice in the use of the different
materials employed in reconstruction and repair work, such as earth,
sandbags, sods, timber, brushwood, bale wire and material obtained from
old packing cases.

=Means of Egress from Trench.= On taking up a position in a trench men
should be taught to provide means of egress therefrom at their first
opportunity. This is done by cutting steps in the walls of the trench,
just sufficiently large enough to enable them to get a foot-hold; the
bottom part of this being reinforced with a small piece of board to
keep the earth from breaking away. A hand hold is provided at the top
by means of a stake driven into the ground or a small piece of wood
secured by bale wire to a “dead man” buried in the parapet. By these
means the whole line is enabled to go forward at the same time should
occasion demand it.

=Passing of Orders and Information in the Trenches.= Men should be
taught the art of passing of orders and information correctly, by word
of mouth. This is a very important part of the soldiers’ training, and
should always be practised when the trench practices are being carried
out; a sender of messages being placed at one end of the line and a
receiver at the other to keep a record of messages, etc.

=Trench Comforts.= A little study in the matter of personal comforts
in the trenches will prove to be of great advantage to the men. The
clothing should be tight fitting about the neck and waist to prevent
falling earth and pebbles getting inside the clothing and working down
into the boots. The men should be instructed to take a change of socks
when they go in the trenches and it is also necessary not to forget to
have a supply of smokes; in short, by paying attention to these small
matters there may be many comforts enjoyed in the trenches which would
otherwise be overlooked.

=Uses of Bombs.=--The uses of bombs may be classified under two heads,
=Defensive and Offensive=.

  =Defensive=:

  (a) Throwing from sapheads to prevent the enemy from pushing their
  saps too close to our trenches or strong places.

  (b) To combat the enemy’s enfilade attack in our trench should they
  be successful in gaining entrance thereto.

  (c) From concealed positions bombs may be used to break up and throw
  into confusion an enemy’s attacking force; this especially applies to
  night attacks when enemy is advancing in close formation.

  =Offensive=:

  (a) By throwing from sapheads when destroying the enemy’s keeps and
  strong places.

  (b) Supplying cover fire for wire cutters, sappers, etc.

  (c) Assisting in a frontal attack on an enemy’s position.

  (d) Following up advantages gained in a frontal attack by an enfilade
  attack to the flanks and our front from position gained in enemy’s
  trenches.

=Advantages of Bomb and Grenade Fire Over Rifle Fire.= It must not
be supposed that when advantages are claimed for bomb and grenade
fire over rifle fire that the latter has not its advantages, too. The
advantages of bomb and grenade fire must be at short range and are,
therefore, specially adapted to the type of warfare waged at present on
the Western front and may be considered as follows:

  (a) Owing to the high and pronounced trajectory we are able by the
  use of bombs to reach the enemy in his trench, whereas with rifle
  fire the only precaution necessary on the part of the enemy is to
  keep his head below the parapet, the trajectory of rifle fire being
  practically flat at point blank range.

  (b) It is possible with a single 2-pound bomb to obtain an effective
  zone of 20 yards and a danger space of 40 yards in the enemy’s trench
  which is dead ground to rifle fire.

  (c) The moral effect of bomb fire is much greater than that of rifle
  fire.

  =Means of Protection Against Enemy’s Bombs.=

  (a) =The Use of Wire Netting=: Trenches, machine gun pits, etc., are
  covered with close wire netting to prevent the entrance of enemy’s
  bombs. Low screens of wire netting may be placed in front of the
  parapet to prevent rolling bombs getting into our trenches.

  (b) The =Digging= of small =Ditches= and the =Breaking= up of the
  =Surface= of the =Ground= in front of our position is an effective
  way of preventing bombs from rolling towards our position.

  (c) The adoption of shallow =Sleeping Pits= in the rear of our
  trenches to provide quarters for the reliefs has been proven a
  success.

  (d) Trenches should not be made wider or deeper than is absolutely
  necessary, as the effect of high explosives in deep trenches is
  much more deadly than in shallow ones, and the highest part of the
  parapet and parados should be next to the trench and sloping slightly
  from the trench, the idea being not to aid bombs in rolling into the
  trench.

  (e) Bomb and splinter proof shelters may be built over keeps,
  trenches and other strong places.

  (f) The use of sapheads from which bomb fire is provided to keep the
  enemy from getting into bombing range of our positions. (See Fig. 1.)

  (g) =Obstacles= should be placed in front of our trenches at
  sufficient distance when possible to prevent enemy throwing bombs
  into the latter from behind these obstacles. This will disallow of
  bombing covering fire for their wire cutters.

=Storage of Bombs in Trenches.= Each platoon commander in the trenches
is responsible that he has a supply of bombs and grenades and procures
the same from the brigade bombers’ magazine, which is located anywhere
from 1,500 to 2,500 yards in the rear of the front line trenches. They
are stored in the trenches in bomb and splinter proof pits provided for
that purpose.

=General Efficiency and Resourcefulness.= When a unit goes into the
trenches the success with which it meets depends entirely on the
degree of efficiency and resourcefulness and physical condition of the
men. We are taught in the different Training Manuals that the British
forces do not retreat and should it be necessary that from a tactical
or strategical standpoint the commanders of our forces consider it
necessary to give ground, the movement is carried out under what is
known as a rear guard action and must not under any circumstances be
considered in the nature of a defeat, the reason for this being that
with anything like equality in numbers, equipment and armament, we are
more than a match for the fighting forces of any other nation. Assuming
this to be true, it is not so much the training in the building of our
trenches that our men require as the training that will enable them
on occupying the enemy’s trenches to reconstruct and repair them to
meet our own requirements. This work has often to be carried out in
daylight and under fire, making it necessary for the men to work in
a prone position. It is therefore necessary that the men be skilled
in the use of the digging and cutting tools used in trench warfare
in order that accordingly as we occupy the enemy’s trenches they may
be consolidated for our use and kept in repair as long as they are
required for fighting, communication or storage trenches. By this means
the ground we gain is consolidated for our purposes as we advance. On
the other hand, if we do not consolidate our position as we advance we
are left more or less in a state of unpreparedness and give the enemy a
chance to launch a counter-attack with good results. All the training
that our men can possibly receive on the subjects of musketry, bomb
throwing, etc., that fits them for trench warfare is practically lost
unless they are thoroughly skilled in the use of the trench digging and
cutting tools, in which they require as much training as in the use of
the rifle. This can only be accomplished by a systematic arrangement
and carrying out of practices in trenches which are built for that
purpose. To accomplish the desired results special attention should be
given to the instruction and training that will enable a soldier to
use intelligently the different kinds of material which may come to
hand. For example, our men may be taught to repair a trench by the use
of sandbags, sods and brushwood, but might not be able to obtain these
materials. At the same time back of the lines there might be all kinds
of bale wire, packing cases, cull lumber, etc., by means of which, with
a little instruction, the same work of repairing the trench might be
accomplished. It is only by getting down into the ground and working
out these problems for ourselves and making note of the little things,
not being above taking suggestions from the last private in the ranks,
that we will be efficient to a degree necessary to outwit and defeat
our ever industrious and systematic enemy.

  =Note.--In the following lectures blackboard illustrations may be
  used with good results.=



LECTURE V.

FRONTAL ATTACK.


=Preparation and Organization.= In trench warfare, when our movements
are changed from the defensive to the offensive, it is necessary to
choose certain sections of the enemy’s front line of trenches. These
are chosen from a tactical point of view, and after having been
occupied and consolidated to our use become the bases from which
enfilade attacks are directed to the flanks and front, by means of
which we extend and connect our positions. The Officers and their
Staffs ordering the offensive, make a very careful study of the
neighborhood in the sections to be occupied from maps and sketches
which have been compiled from information gained by the Air Service and
Reconnaisance. They finally decide the exact extent of front which will
be occupied in each case by direct frontal attack. The extent of front
in each case is never greater than is absolutely necessary, and is
clearly defined in orders. Every officer taking a part in the assault
is supplied with maps and sketches, which constitute part of his orders.

(Note the necessity for every officer being able to make a study of a
locality from information given on maps and sketches.)

Arrangements are made for the co-operation of the different arms of the
service taking part in the assault, such as the engineers, artillery,
air service and infantry. A schedule or program is arranged covering
the movements of the different arms of the service, which are carried
out by time-table, each Officer and Non-Commissioned Officer having
correct divisional time.

Arrangements are made for reinforcements, ammunition, supplies and
materials necessary to carry out the attack and consolidate the new
positions to be taken, also for the establishment and maintenance of
communication. Artillery fire is directed on the positions to be
occupied, also on the trenches to each flank and the rear of the same,
and on the enemy’s obstacles for a period of from thirty minutes to
several hours prior to the advancing of the infantry.

Saps are run out in front of our obstacles and as much progress as
possible is made in joining up the sapheads to form a new line of
trenches from which to deliver the actual assault without the hindrance
of our own obstacles.

Our troops are massed as near as possible to the front line in
readiness for the assault. The supplies of ammunition and material are
brought forward to as convenient a position as possible, to be taken
into the new position at the first opportunity.

Saps are extended towards the enemy’s machine gun positions and any
positions from which they could supply cover fire, and bombs are thrown
from these to finish the work of the artillery in the destruction of
the same.

At the time arranged in the program the artillery cease fire on the
enemy’s obstacles and our wire cutters advance, covered by bomb
fire, to finish the work of the artillery in the destruction of the
obstacles. The wire-cutters are armed with axes, saws, billhooks,
crowbars, wire-cutters, and high explosive bombs, and when they have
cleared the way sufficiently for our men to pass, the signal is given
and the first line of bayonet men goes forward accompanied by a few
bombers. They are joined in the attack by the wire-cutters.

The first line is followed by a second line and possibly a third,
before the section of the enemy’s trench is occupied.

=The Assault.= The assault may be said to be classified under three
heads, as follows:--

  1. SUPPRESSION OF THE ENEMY’ FIRE.
  2. DESTRUCTION OF THE ENEMY’S OBSTACLES.
  3. THE ACTUAL DELIVERY OF THE ASSAULT.



LECTURE VI.

CONSOLIDATING THE GROUND GAINED.


=Consolidating the Ground Gained.= Immediately we have occupied the new
positions, it is necessary to reorganize our forces (the flanks being
protected by bombing parties while this work is being carried out). The
different parties and reliefs necessary are formed, as follows:

  (A) SENTRIES AND RELIEFS.
  (B) RECONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR PARTIES.
  (C) SAPPERS AND DIGGERS.
  (D) SUPPLY PARTY.
  (E) COMMUNICATION MEN.

=Sentries and Reliefs.= (A) In each bay of the trench it is necessary
at all times to have one man on sentry and, as a rule, three men
in relief, and it is very important that means be provided that
the reliefs get the necessary rest and sleep. Accordingly, shallow
sleeping-out pits are provided in the rear of the trenches for that
purpose. This work is accomplished by the sappers and the diggers with
the assistance of the reliefs.

=Reconstruction and Repair.= (B) It is very important that the
reconstruction and repair work be got under way as quickly as possible
after occupying the new position, as any lack of time affords the enemy
an excellent chance to launch a counter-attack. Accordingly, the entire
party are put to work until this object is accomplished. Communication
trenches and other trenches along which we do not intend to extend
our frontage at the present time will be double-blocked by the use of
sandbags, sentries being placed to guard same. What was the enemy’s
communication trench prior to our occupation now really becomes our
sapheads, so it is necessary to construct positions in these from
which we can throw bombs to keep the enemy in the next line of trenches
at his distance until such time as we are prepared to extend our
position in that direction. The work of reversing the fire trench (what
was the enemy’s parados now becomes our parapet) must be completed
as soon as possible, and means of egress from the trenches must be
supplied in order that every man can advance at the same instant should
occasion arise.

(C) At the earliest opportunity it will be necessary to connect up
our new position with our old by a continuation of what were formerly
our sapheads, to enable us to get in our supply of reinforcements,
materials, food, water and ammunition.

(D) It will be the duty of men reinforcing to bring forward a supply of
ammunition, bombs and materials for reconstruction and consolidation of
the new position and a supply of food and water.

(E) Arrangements will have been previously made for a line of
communication men to establish telephone and telegraph communication
and to maintain same.



LECTURE VII.

ENFILADE ATTACK.


=Enfilading Parties and Reliefs.= Having occupied the section of
trenches as pre-arranged, and consolidated same under cover of bomb
fire, we use this as a base from which to extend our position to the
flanks and front along the enemy’s trenches, by means of enfilading
parties.

An enfilading party may consist of three or more men. When it consists
of three men, they are the BAYONET MAN, the THROWER, and the CARRIER.
The bayonet man is really a trench scout, who proceeds ahead and is
armed with a RIFLE and BAYONET, or, better still, a PAIR OF PISTOLS.
His duties are to spy out the trench and pass back information to
the thrower as to the locality and direction of the bays in front.
In giving information to the thrower as to the location of different
points which he wants bombed, the clock method may be used; the
thrower’s position being the centre of an imaginary dial and twelve
o’clock directly in front and in line with the section of the trench
from which the thrower is throwing. It can be easily seen that by
this method information can be given the thrower as to the bends and
twists of the trench. Another method the trench scout may use is merely
pointing the direction in which he wants the bomb placed, and denoting
the number of yards distant. The trench scout should be very careful
in watching out for loopholes through traverses from which the enemy
could guard against the approach of an enfilading party, also give
information when an island traverse or communicating trench is reached.
In the former case it will be necessary for an additional scout, one
to proceed each way. In the latter case, sandbags will probably be
required to double-block the communicating trench and information
passed back to this effect so that supply men can rush them forward for
that purpose.

It is necessary that the trench scout be a very wide-awake, careful and
resourceful man, and have his wits about him at all times.

In the absence of an officer or N.C.O. in the enfilading party the
thrower commands and is responsible that signals be given that the
artillery know the exact extent of our frontage at all times. This is
done by means of a flag which is khaki colored on the enemy’s side
and red on our own side, so that it can be easily picked up by our
artillery, the flag being maintained in a correct position by the use
of a double flag-staff. At night the signal may be given by the use of
flashes or any other pre-arranged signals.

The carrier’s duty is to follow up and keep supplied with a stock of
bombs, and to pass back information, messages and orders.



SYLLABUS.

PRELIMINARY TRAINING.

Period of Six Days.


Each Day--Fall in, 8:45 a.m., 1:45 p.m. Roll called by 9 a.m. and 2 p.m.

Class, divided in four squads, take turns in cleaning up.


First Day--

   9:00- 9:45--Lecture IV., Bombers’ Training, Part I.
   9:45-10:30--Make jam-tin dummies.
  10:30-10:45--Stand easy.
  10:45-12:15--Throwing practices.
   2:00- 2:45--Lecture I., Explosives.
   2:45- 3:15--Make powder-puffs and jam-tin dummies.
   3:15- 3:30--Stand easy.
   3:30- 4:30--Throwing practices.


Second Day--

   9:00- 9:45--Lesson II., Explosives.
   9:45-10:30--Make jam-tin dummies and powder-puffs.
  10:30-10:45--Stand easy.
  10:45-12:15--Throwing practices.
   2:00- 2:45--Lecture III., Part I.
   2:45- 3:30--Make jam-tins and hair-brushes.
   3:30- 3:45--Stand easy.
   3:45- 4:30--Throwing practices.


Third Day--

  9:00- 9:45--Lecture III., Part II.
  9:45-12:15--Digging trenches in relays.
  2:00- 2:45--Lecture IV., Part II.
  2:45- 4:30--Digging trenches and saps in relays.


Fourth Day--

  9:00- 9:45--Lecture V., with blackboard illustrations.
  9:45-12:15--Finish trenches and saps and carry out
                dummy frontal attack with bombs.
  2:00- 2:45--Lecture VI.
  2:45- 4:30--Repair and reconstruct trench (consolidate).


Fifth Day--

   9:00- 9:45--Lecture VII., Enfilade Attack (b.b. illus.)
   9:45-10:30--Make jam-tins and hair-brush bombs.
  10:30-12:15--Enfilade attack in trenches.
   2:00- 2:45--Lecture, review and oral exams.
   2:45- 3:30--Trench practices in passing sandbags and
                 uses of materials repairing.
   3:30- 4:30--Throwing practices.


Sixth Day--

  9:00- 9:45--Throwing tests for range and accuracy.
  9:45-12:15--Oral exams. by squads and practice in use
                of repair materials.
  2:00- 2:45--Practice in use of digging and cutting tools
                by relays.
  2:45- 4:30--Final throwing tests and oral exams. by
                squads, alternately.

Note.--If instructors are available it is a good idea to work in squads
alternately as suggested by the arrangement of Syllabus above.


=Equipment and material for school of fifty, period of six days=: 1 keg
gunpowder, 1/2 case monobel, 1 coil fuse, 1 packet detonators (100),
36 shovels, 36 picks, 3 pairs snips, 3 pairs wire plyers, 3 hammers, 3
hand saws, 3 hand axes, 3 Marlin spikes, 2 braces, 2 bits (3/8-inch),
1 auger (1-3/8-inch), 5 yards cotton, 2 lbs. 2-inch wire nails, 2 lbs.
2-1/2-inch wire nails, 2 lbs. soft wire (stovepipe), 2 bbls. empty jam
tins (1 to 2 lbs.), 100 lin. ft. 1 inch x 6 inch common boards, 36 lin.
ft. 2 inch x 4 inch scantling, 1 good sized blackboard and chalk, 2
work benches (improvised), 3 boxes fusee matches, 2 dozen sandbags with
ties attached, brush wood, cull lumber, bale wire, sods, etc.



EXAMINATION PAPERS.


Lecture I.

  1. What care should be taken in handling explosives?

  2. What should oily stains on dynamite indicate?

  3. What should be done with cases showing oily stains?

  4. What two methods should be employed in thawing dynamite?

  5. Name a few causes of accidents in handling dynamite.

  6. Name a few causes of accidents in handling detonators.

  7. What care should be taken in shipping explosives by wagons? By
       rail?

  8. What are the principal features to be considered in the
       construction of a magazine?

  9. Is it wise to store explosives in tunnels or caves?

  10. How may a magazine be made bullet proof?

  11. What precautions should be taken with men working in or about
        magazines?


Lecture II.

  12. Name the explosives used in the service.

  13. In what shape is gun-cotton put up for service use?

  14. What are the characteristics of gun-cotton?

  15. How is wet gun-cotton detonated?

  16. To what use is dry gun-cotton put?

  17. Is gun-cotton generally considered a safe explosive?

  18. What uses are made of gun-cotton?

  19. Explain how you would prepare a gun-cotton charge.

  20. What is a detonator?

  21. What kind of explosive is used in service detonator?

  22. What kinds of fuses are used in the service?

  23. At what rate do service fuses burn per second?

  24. At what rate do instantaneous fuses burn per second?

  25. What use is made of picric acid? T. N. T.? Nitro-Glycerine?

  26. Is picric acid a safe explosive?
      Ans. No.

  27. And why?


Lecture III.

  28. Explain the working of a .303 short rifle grenade.

  29. How are they packed ready for shipping?

  30. How are they prepared for firing?

  31. How are they carried?

  32. What arrangements are to be used with the rifle for giving the
        necessary elevation?

  33. What kind of ammunition is used with them?

  34. Explain the working of a hand grenade No. 5, Mark 1.

  35. What explosive is used in No. 5, Mark 1?

  36. How far may it be thrown?

  37. What is meant by cane and streamer type of grenade?

  38. Explain the working of hand grenade No. 1, Mark 1.

  39. Why do we use dummy bombs?

  40. Why do we put explosives in dummy bombs?

  41. Explain the manufacture of the jam-tin dummy?

  42. Explain the manufacture of jam-tin bomb?

  43. Explain the manufacture of the powder-puff.

  44. Explain the manufacture of the hair-brush bomb?

  45. What explosive is used in the hair-brush bomb?

  46. Describe the impact or percussion type of grenade?

  47. How is the dummy type made which represents the impact and
        percussion type?

  48. Up to what weight may dummies be made?

  49. How far may a 2-pound bomb be thrown?

  50. How far may a 1-pound bomb be thrown?

  51. Explain the correct throwing position for trench work?

  52. When may a man be said to be trained in throwing from a trench?

  53. What are the defensive uses of bombs and grenades?

  54. What are the offensive uses of bombs and grenades?


Lecture IV.

  55. What is a saphead?

  56. Explain some of the different types of sapheads used.

  57. What advantage has it over a “T” shaped saphead?

  58. What is meant by an island saphead?

  59. Name the digging and cutting tools?

  60. What materials are used in trench warfare?

  61. How are sandbags filled? Tied? Passed? Built?

  62. What are the uses made of sandbags?

  63. What is meant by “bond” in use in sandbags?

  64. To what uses are the following materials put in trench warfare:
        Earth? Sods? Timber? Brush? Barb Wire? Bale Wire?

  65. How are sods built to obtain the best results?

  66. What is a revetment? Traverse? Bay? Parapet? Parados? Obstacle?

  67. What are obstacles used for?

  68. How many men usually constitute a sentry and relief per bay in a
        trench?

  69. What arrangements are made for sleep and rest of reliefs?

  70. Why are relief pits put in rear of trench?

  71. Why are they made shallow?

  72. What style of a trench is best suited to bomb warfare?

  73. What precautions may be taken to prevent enemy’s bombs getting
        into our trench?

  74. What are the disadvantages of having relief pit under the parapet?

  75. What are the disadvantages of having a deep trench?

  76. What provisions should be made so that our men could advance from
        the trench at the same instant?

  77. What is a “dead man”? “Funk Hole”?


Lecture V.

  78. Who are usually the first men of the Infantry to advance in a
        frontal attack?

  79. How are they armed? What tools do they carry? What are their
        duties?

  80. When the first line advances what do the wire cutters do?

  81. What part do the bombers take on a frontal attack?

  82. Who is responsible that there is a supply of bombs in the trench?

  83. How are bombs stored in the trenches?

  84. Where is the reserve supply of bombs stored?

  85. What general arrangements are made preparatory to frontal attack?

  86. What arms of the service may take part in a frontal attack?

  87. What extent of frontage is usually planned to be occupied in a
        frontal attack?
      Ans. Only the extent of frontage that is absolutely necessary.

  88. Why?
      Ans. The odds are against the attacking forces.


Lecture VI.

  89. What is necessary to be done on occupying a portion of the
        enemy’s trench?

  90. What is meant by consolidating ground gained?

  91. How is our position protected while work of reconstruction and
        repair is going on?

  92. How will communication be established in the occupied portion of
        the enemy’s trench?

  93. What is meant by double-blocking? When is it done? How protected?

  94. What precautions may be taken to provide comfort for the men in
        the trenches?

  95. What are the principal advantages of bomb fire, or rifle and
        machine gun fire?

  96. Generally, what work will the sappers and diggers do on occupying
        the enemy’s trench?

  97. How are the enemy’s communication trenches used to our advantage?


Lecture VII.

  98. What is an enfilading party?

  99. How many men may constitute an enfilading party?

  100. When party consists of three, what are they called?

  101. What are the duties of a trench scout?

  102. Name some of the most important things he should look out for?

  103. What qualifications should he possess?

  104. How is he armed?

  105. How does he pass information to the thrower regarding location
         of targets?

  106. What are the duties of the thrower?

  107. What are the duties of the carrier?

  108. In the absence of an officer or non-commissioned officer, who
         commands the enfilading party?

  109. How are the artillery advised of the extending of our frontage
         when enfilading?

  110. What precautions should be taken as we gain ground in enfilade
         work?

  111. What men follow up and keep in touch with enfilade party? What
         are their duties?

  112. What are the advantages of gaining ground by enfilade bomb
         attacks over that of frontal attacks?
       Ans. (a) We have a minimum of exposure to the enemy’s rifle or
                  machine gun fire.
            (b) Enfilade attacks provide the means by which we use the
                  enemy’s trench as our fortification against him.
            (c) As we advance the ground occupied is consolidated to our
                  use so that at no time do we have an extent of
                  frontage in an unprepared position.
            (d) The disorganization immediately following an extensive
                  frontal attack gives the enemy a chance to launch a
                  counter-attack.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber’s note:

  Obvious typographical errors have been corrected.

  Inconsistencies in hyphenation have been standardized.

  Incorrect page references in the Preface have been corrected.





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