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Title: Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of John Fiske
Author: Fiske, John
Language: English
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Old Tales and Superstitions Interpreted by Comparative Mythology
By John Fiske

By John Fiske

Or The Puritan Theocracy In Its Relations To Civil And Religious Liberty
By John Fiske

By John Fiske
Man’s Place in Nature as affected by the Copernican Theory.
As affected by Darwinism.
On the Earth there will never be a Higher Creature than Man.
The Origin of Infancy.
The Dawning of Consciousness.
Lengthening of Infancy and Concomitant Increase of Brain-Surface.
Change in the Direction of the Working of Natural Selection.
Growing Predominance of the Psychical Life.
The Origins of Society and of Morality.
Improvableness of Man.
Universal Warfare of Primeval Men.
First checked by the Beginnings of Industrial Civilisation.
Methods of Political Development, and Elimination of Warfare.
End of the Working of Natural Selection upon Man. Throwing off the Brute-Inheritance.
The Message of Christianity.
The Question as to a Future Life.

By John Fiske
With Maps, Index, And A Biographical Sketch
chap		page
Biographical Sketch.	vii
I.	Introduction.	1
II.	The Colonies In 1750.	4
III	The French Wars, and the First Plan of Union.	26
IV.	The Stamp Act, and the Revenue Laws.	39
V.	The Crisis.	78
VI.	The Struggle for the Centre.	104
VII.	The French Alliance.	144
VIII.	Birth of the Nation.	182
Collateral Reading.	195
Index.	197
Facing Page
Invasion of Canada	92
Washington's Campaigns in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.	119
Burgoyne's Campaign	130
The Southern Campaign	172

By John Fiske
VOL. I (of II)

The American aborigines 1
Question as to their origin 2, 3
Antiquity of man in America 4
Shell-mounds, or middens 4, 5
The Glacial Period 6, 7
Discoveries in the Trenton gravel 8
Discoveries in Ohio, Indiana, and Minnesota 9
Mr. Cresson's discovery at Claymont, Delaware 10
The Calaveras skull 11
Pleistocene men and mammals 12, 13
Elevation and subsidence 13, 14
Waves of migration 15
The Cave men of Europe in the Glacial Period 16
The Eskimos are probably a remnant of the Cave men 17-19
There was probably no connection or intercourse by water between ancient America and the Old World 20
There is one great American red race 21
Different senses in which the word "race" is used 21-23
No necessary connection between differences in culture and differences in race 23
Mr. Lewis Morgan's classification of grades of culture 24-32
Distinction between Savagery and Barbarism 25
Origin of pottery 25
Lower, middle, and upper status of savagery 26
Lower status of barbarism; it ended differently in the two hemispheres; in ancient America there was no pastoral stage of development 27
(p. xx) Importance of Indian corn 28
Tillage with irrigation 29
Use of adobe-brick and stone in building 29
Middle status of barbarism 29, 30
Stone and copper tools 30
Working of metals; smelting of iron 30
Upper status of barbarism 31
The alphabet and the beginnings of civilization 32
So-called "civilizations" of Mexico and Peru 33, 34
Loose use of the words "savagery" and "civilization" 35
Value and importance of the term "barbarism" 35, 36
The status of barbarism is most completely exemplified in ancient America 36, 37
Survival of bygone epochs of culture; work of the Bureau of Ethnology 37, 38
Tribal society and multiplicity of languages in aboriginal America 38, 39
Tribes in the upper status of savagery; Athabaskans, Apaches, Shoshones, etc. 39
Tribes in the lower status of barbarism; the Dakota group or family 40
The Minnitarees and Mandans 41
The Pawnee and Arickaree group 42
The Maskoki group 42
The Algonquin group 43
The Huron-Iroquois group 44
The Five Nations 45-47
Distinction between horticulture and field agriculture 48
Perpetual intertribal warfare, with torture and cannibalism 49-51
Myths and folk-lore 51
Ancient law 52, 53
The patriarchal family not primitive 53
"Mother-right" 54
Primitive marriage 55
The system of reckoning kinship through females only 56
Original reason for the system 57
The primeval human horde 58, 59
Earliest family-group; the clan 60
"Exogamy" 60
(p. xxi) Phratry and tribe 61
Effect of pastoral life upon property and upon the family 61-63
The exogamous clan in ancient America 64
Intimate connection of aboriginal architecture with social life 65
The long houses of the Iroquois 66, 67
Summary divorce 68
Hospitality 68
Structure of the clan 69, 70
Origin and structure of the phratry 70, 71
Structure of the tribe 72
Cross-relationships between clans and tribes; the Iroquois Confederacy 72-74
Structure of the confederacy 75, 76
The "Long House" 76
Symmetrical development of institutions in ancient America 77, 78
Circular houses of the Mandans 79-81
The Indians of the pueblos, in the middle status of barbarism 82, 83
Horticulture with irrigation, and architecture with adobe 83, 84
Possible origin of adobe architecture 84, 85
Mr. Cushing's sojourn at Zuñi 86
Typical structure of the pueblo 86-88
Pueblo society 89
Wonderful ancient pueblos in the Chaco valley 90-92
The Moqui pueblos 93
The cliff-dwellings 93
Pueblo of Zuñi 93, 94
Pueblo of Tlascala 94-96
The ancient city of Mexico was a great composite pueblo 97
The Spanish discoverers could not be expected to understand the state of society which they found there 97, 98
Contrast between feudalism and gentilism 98
Change from gentile society to political society in Greece and Rome 99, 100
(p. xxii) First suspicions as to the erroneousness of the Spanish accounts 101
Detection and explanation of the errors, by Lewis Morgan 102
Adolf Bandelier's researches 103
The Aztec Confederacy 104, 105
Aztec clans 106
Clan officers 107
Rights and duties of the clan 108
Aztec phratries 108
The tlatocan, or tribal council 109
The cihuacoatl, or "snake-woman" 110
The tlacatecuhtli, or "chief-of-men" 111
Evolution of kingship in Greece and Rome 112
Mediæval kingship 113
Montezuma was a "priest-commander" 114
Mode of succession to the office 114, 115
Manner of collecting tribute 116
Mexican roads 117
Aztec and Iroquois confederacies contrasted 118
Aztec priesthood; human sacrifices 119, 120
Aztec slaves 121, 122
The Aztec family 122, 123
Aztec property 124
Mr. Morgan's rules of criticism 125
He sometimes disregarded his own rules 126
Amusing illustrations from his remarks on "Montezuma's Dinner" 126-128
The reaction against uncritical and exaggerated statements was often carried too far by Mr. Morgan 128, 129
Great importance of the middle period of barbarism 130
The Mexicans compared with the Mayas 131-133
Maya hieroglyphic writing 132
Ruined cities of Central America 134-138
They are probably not older than the twelfth century 136
Recent discovery of the Chronicle of Chicxulub 138
Maya culture very closely related to Mexican 139
The "Mound-Builders" 140-146
The notion that they were like the Aztecs 142
Or, perhaps, like the Zuñis 143
(p. xxiii) These notions are not well sustained 144
The mounds were probably built by different peoples in the lower status of barbarism, by Cherokees, Shawnees, and other tribes 144, 145
It is not likely that there was a "race of Mound Builders" 146
Society in America at the time of the Discovery had reached stages similar to stages reached by eastern Mediterranean peoples fifty or sixty centuries earlier 146, 147

Stories of voyages to America before Columbus; the Chinese 148
The Irish. 149
Blowing and drifting; Cousin, of Dieppe 150
These stories are of small value 150
But the case of the Northmen is quite different 151
The Viking exodus from Norway 151, 152
Founding of a colony in Iceland, A. D. 874 153
Icelandic literature 154
Discovery of Greenland, A. D. 876 155, 156
Eric the Red, and his colony in Greenland, A. D. 986 157-161
Voyage of Bjarni Herjulfsson 162
Conversion of the Northmen to Christianity 163
Leif Ericsson's voyage, A. D. 1000; Helluland and Markland 164
Leif's winter in Vinland 165, 166
Voyages of Thorvald and Thorstein 167
Thorfinn Karlsefni, and his unsuccessful attempt to found a colony in Vinland, A. D. 1007-10 167-169
Freydis, and her evil deeds in Vinland, 1011-12 170, 171
Voyage into Baffin's Bay, 1135 172
Description of a Viking ship discovered at Sandefiord, in Norway 173-175
(p. xxiv) To what extent the climate of Greenland may have changed within the last thousand years 176, 177
With the Northmen once in Greenland, the discovery of the American continent was inevitable 178
Ear-marks of truth in the Icelandic narratives 179, 180
Northern limit of the vine 181
Length of the winter day 182
Indian corn 182, 183
Winter weather in Vinland 184
Vinland was probably situated somewhere between Cape Breton and Point Judith 185
Further ear-marks of truth; savages and barbarians of the lower status were unknown to mediæval Europeans 185, 186
The natives of Vinland as described in the Icelandic narratives 187-193
Meaning of the epithet "Skrælings" 188, 189
Personal appearance of the Skrælings 189
The Skrælings of Vinland were Indians,—very likely Algonquins 190
The "balista" or "demon's head" 191, 192
The story of the "uniped" 193
Character of the Icelandic records; misleading associations with the word "saga" 194
The comparison between Leif Ericsson and Agamemnon, made by a committee of the Massachusetts Historical Society, was peculiarly unfortunate and inappropriate 194, 197
The story of the Trojan War, in the shape in which we find it in Greek poetry, is pure folk-lore 195
The Saga of Eric the Red is not folk-lore 196
Mythical and historical sagas 197
The western or Hauks-bók version of Eric the Red's Saga 198
The northern or Flateyar-bók version 199
Presumption against sources not contemporary 200
Hauk Erlendsson and his manuscripts 201
The story is not likely to have been preserved to Hauk's time by oral tradition only 202
Allusions to Vinland in other Icelandic documents 202-207
(p. xxv) Eyrbyggja Saga 203
The abbot Nikulas, etc. 204
Ari Fródhi and his works 204
His significant allusion to Vinland 205
Other references 206
Differences between Hauks-bók and Flateyar-bók versions 207
Adam of Bremen 208
Importance of his testimony 209
His misconception of the situation of Vinland 210
Summary of the argument 211-213
Absurd speculations of zealous antiquarians 213-215
The Dighton inscription was made by Algonquins, and has nothing to do with the Northmen 213, 214
Governor Arnold's stone windmill 215
There is no reason for supposing that the Northmen founded a colony in Vinland 216
No archæological remains of them have been found south of Davis strait 217
If the Northmen had founded a successful colony, they would have introduced domestic cattle into the North American fauna 218
And such animals could not have vanished and left no trace of their existence 219, 220
Further fortunes of the Greenland colony 221
Bishop Eric's voyage in search of Vinland, 1121 222
The ship from Markland, 1347 223
The Greenland colony attacked by Eskimos, 1349 224
Queen Margaret's monopoly, and its baneful effects 225
Story of the Venetian brothers, Nicolò and Antonio Zeno 226
Nicolò Zeno wrecked upon one of the Færoe islands 227
He enters the service of Henry Sinclair, Earl of the Orkneys and Caithness 228
Nicolò's voyage to Greenland, cir. 1394 229
Voyage of Earl Sinclair and Antonio Zeno 229, 230
Publication of the remains of the documents by the younger Nicolò Zeno, 1558 231
The Zeno map 232, 233
Queer transformations of names 234-236
(p. xxvi) The name Færoislander became Frislanda 236
The narrative nowhere makes a claim to the "discovery of America" 237
The "Zichmni" of the narrative means Henry Sinclair 238
Bardsen's "Description of Greenland" 239
The monastery of St. Olaus and its hot spring 240
Volcanoes of the north Atlantic ridge 241
Fate of Gunnbjörn's Skerries, 1456 242
Volcanic phenomena in Greenland 242, 243
Estotiland 244
Drogio 245
Inhabitants of Drogio and the countries beyond 246
The Fisherman's return to Frislanda 247
Was the account of Drogio woven into the narrative by the younger Nicolò? 248
Or does it represent actual experiences in North America? 249
The case of David Ingram, 1568 250
The case of Cabeza de Vaca, 1528-36 251
There may have been unrecorded instances of visits to North America 252
The pre-Columbian voyages made no real contributions to geographical knowledge 253
And were in no true sense a discovery of America 254
Real contact between the eastern and western hemisphere was first established by Columbus 255

Why the voyages of the Northmen were not followed up 256
Ignorance of their geographical significance 257
Lack of instruments for ocean navigation 257
Condition of Europe in the year 1000 258, 259
It was not such as to favour colonial enterprise 260
The outlook of Europe was toward Asia 261
Routes of trade between Europe and Asia 262
(p. xxvii) Claudius Ptolemy and his knowledge of the earth 263
Early mention of China 264
The monk Cosmas Indicopleustes 265
Shape of the earth, according to Cosmas 266, 267
His knowledge of Asia 268
The Nestorians 268
Effects of the Saracen conquests 269
Constantinople in the twelfth century 270
The Crusades 270-274
Barbarizing character of Turkish conquest 271
General effects of the Crusades 272
The Fourth Crusade 273
Rivalry between Venice and Genoa 274
Centres and routes of mediæval trade 275, 276
Effects of the Mongol conquests 277
Cathay, origin of the name 277
Carpini and Rubruquis 278
First knowledge of an eastern ocean beyond Cathay 278
The data were thus prepared for Columbus; but as yet nobody reasoned from these data to a practical conclusion 279
The Polo brothers 280
Kublai Khan's message to the Pope 281
Marco Polo and his travels in Asia 281, 282
First recorded voyage of Europeans around the Indo-Chinese peninsula 282
Return of the Polos to Venice 283
Marco Polo's book, written in prison at Genoa, 1299; its great contributions to geographical knowledge 284, 285
Prester John 285
Griffins and Arimaspians 286
The Catalan map, 1375 288, 289
Other visits to China 287-291
Overthrow of the Mongol dynasty, and shutting up of China 291
First rumours of the Molucca islands and Japan 292
The accustomed routes of Oriental trade were cut off in the fifteenth century by the Ottoman Turks 293
Necessity for finding an "outside route to the Indies" 294
(p. xxviii) CHAPTER IV.

Question as to whether Asia could be reached by sailing around Africa 295
Views of Eratosthenes 296
Opposing theory of Ptolemy 297
Story of the Phœnician voyage in the time of Necho 298-300
Voyage of Hanno 300, 301
Voyages of Sataspes and Eudoxus 302
Wild exaggerations 303
Views of Pomponius Mela 304, 305
Ancient theory of the five zones 306, 307
The Inhabited World, or Œcumene, and the Antipodes 308
Curious notions about Taprobane (Ceylon) 309
Question as to the possibility of crossing the torrid zone 309
Notions about sailing "up and down hill" 310, 311
Superstitious fancies 311, 312
Clumsiness of ships in the fifteenth century 312
Dangers from famine and scurvy 313
The mariner's compass; an interesting letter from Brunetto Latini to Guido Cavalcanti 313-315
Calculating latitudes and longitudes 315
Prince Henry the Navigator 316-326
His idea of an ocean route to the Indies, and what it might bring 318
The Sacred Promontory 319
The Madeira and Canary islands 320-322
Gil Eannes passes Cape Bojador 323
Beginning of the modern slave-trade, 1442 323
Papal grant of heathen countries to the Portuguese crown 324, 325
Advance to Sierra Leone 326
Advance to the Hottentot coast 326, 327
Note upon the extent of European acquaintance with (p. xxix) savagery and the lower forms of barbarism previous to the fifteenth century 327-329
Effect of the Portuguese discoveries upon the theories of Ptolemy and Mela 329, 330
News of Prester John; Covilham's journey 331
Bartholomew Dias passes the Cape of Good Hope and enters the Indian ocean 332
Some effects of this discovery 333
Bartholomew Columbus took part in it 333
Connection between these voyages and the work of Christopher Columbus 334

Sources of information concerning the life of Columbus; Las Casas and Ferdinand Columbus 335
The Biblioteca Colombina at Seville 336, 337
Bernaldez and Peter Martyr 338
Letters of Columbus 338
Defects in Ferdinand's information 339, 340
Researches of Henry Harrisse 341
Date of the birth of Columbus; archives of Savona 342
Statement of Bernaldez 343
Columbus's letter of September, 1501 344
The balance of probability is in favour of 1436 345
The family of Domenico Colombo, and its changes of residence 346, 347
Columbus tells us that he was born in the city of Genoa 348
His early years 349-351
Christopher and his brother Bartholomew at Lisbon 351, 352
Philippa Moñiz de Perestrelo 352
Personal appearance of Columbus 353
His marriage, and life upon the island of Porto Santo 353, 354
The king of Portugal asks advice of the great astronomer Toscanelli 355
(p. xxx) Toscanelli's first letter to Columbus 356-361
His second letter to Columbus 361, 362
Who first suggested the feasibleness of a westward route to the Indies? Was it Columbus? 363
Perhaps it was Toscanelli 363, 364
Note on the date of Toscanelli's first letter to Columbus 365-367
The idea, being naturally suggested by the globular form of the earth, was as old as Aristotle 368, 369
Opinions of ancient writers 370
Opinions of Christian writers 371
The "Imago Mundi" of Petrus Alliacus 372, 373
Ancient estimates of the size of the globe and the length of the Œcumene 374
Toscanelli's calculation of the size of the earth, and of the position of Japan (Cipango) 375, 376
Columbus's opinions of the size of the globe, the length of the Œcumene, and the width of the Atlantic ocean from Portugal to Japan 377-380
There was a fortunate mixture of truth and error in these opinions of Columbus 381
The whole point and purport of Columbus's scheme lay in its promise of a route to the Indies shorter than that which the Portuguese were seeking by way of Guinea 381
Columbus's speculations on climate; his voyages to Guinea and into the Arctic ocean 382
He may have reached Jan Mayen island, and stopped at Iceland 383, 384
The Scandinavian hypothesis that Columbus "must have" heard and understood the story of the Vinland voyages 384, 385
It has not a particle of evidence in its favour 385
It is not probable that Columbus knew of Adam of Bremen's allusion to Vinland, or that he would have understood it if he had read it 386
It is doubtful if he would have stumbled upon the story in Iceland 387
If he had heard it, he would probably have classed it with such tales as that of St. Brandan's isle 388
(p. xxxi) He could not possibly have obtained from such a source his opinion of the width of the ocean 388, 389
If he had known and understood the Vinland story, he had the strongest motives for proclaiming it and no motive whatever for concealing it 390-392
No trace of a thought of Vinland appears in any of his voyages 393
Why did not Norway or Iceland utter a protest in 1493? 393
The idea of Vinland was not associated with the idea of America until the seventeenth century 394
Recapitulation of the genesis of Columbus's scheme 395
Martin Behaim's improved astrolabe 395, 396
Negotiations of Columbus with John II. of Portugal 396, 397
The king is persuaded into a shabby trick 398
Columbus leaves Portugal and enters into the service of Ferdinand and Isabella, 1486 398-400
The junto at Salamanca, 1486 401
Birth of Ferdinand Columbus, August 15, 1488 401
Bartholomew Columbus returns from the Cape of Good Hope, December, 1487 402, 403
Christopher visits Bartholomew at Lisbon, cir. September, 1488, and sends him to England 404
Bartholomew, after mishaps, reaches England cir. February, 1490, and goes thence to France before 1492 405-407
The duke of Medina-Celi proposes to furnish the ships for Columbus, but the queen withholds her consent 408, 409
Columbus makes up his mind to get his family together and go to France, October, 1491 409, 410
A change of fortune; he stops at La Rábida, and meets the prior Juan Perez, who writes to the queen 411
Columbus is summoned back to court 411
The junto before Granada, December, 1491 412, 413
Surrender of Granada, January 2, 1492 414
Columbus negotiates with the queen, who considers his terms exorbitant 414-416
Interposition of Luis de Santangel 416
(p. xxxii) Agreement between Columbus and the sovereigns 417
Cost of the voyage 418
Dismay at Palos 419
The three famous caravels 420
Delay at the Canary islands 421
Martin Behaim and his globe 422, 423
Columbus starts for Japan, September 6, 1492 424
Terrors of the voyage:—1. Deflection of the needle 425
2. The Sargasso sea 426, 427
3. The trade wind 428
Impatience of the crews 428
Change of course from W. to W. S. W 429, 430
Discovery of land, October 12, 1492 431
Guanahani: which of the Bahama islands was it? 432
Groping for Cipango and the route to Quinsay 433, 434
Columbus reaches Cuba, and sends envoys to find a certain Asiatic prince 434, 435
He turns eastward and Pinzon deserts him 435
Columbus arrives at Hayti and thinks it must be Japan 436
His flag-ship is wrecked, and he decides to go back to Spain 437
Building of the blockhouse, La Navidad 438
Terrible storm in mid-ocean on the return voyage 439
Cold reception at the Azores 440
Columbus is driven ashore in Portugal, where the king is advised to have him assassinated 440
But to offend Spain so grossly would be imprudent 441
Arrival of Columbus and Pinzon at Palos; death of Pinzon 442
Columbus is received by the sovereigns at Barcelona 443, 444
General excitement at the news that a way to the Indies had been found 445
This voyage was an event without any parallel in history 446
(p. xxxiii) CHAPTER VI.

The Discovery of America was a gradual process 447, 448
The letters of Columbus to Santangel and to Sanchez 449
Versification of the story by Giuliano Dati 450
Earliest references to the discovery 451
The earliest reference in English 452
The Portuguese claim to the Indies 453
Bulls of Pope Alexander VI. 454-458
The treaty of Tordesillas 459
Juan Rodriguez Fonseca, and his relations with Columbus 460-462
Friar Boyle 462
Notable persons who embarked on the second voyage 463
Departure from Cadiz 464
Cruise among the Cannibal (Caribbee) islands 465
Fate of the colony at La Navidad 466
Building the town of Isabella 467
Exploration of Cibao 467, 468
Westward cruise; Cape Alpha and Omega 468-470
Discovery of Jamaica 471
Coasting the south side of Cuba 472
The "people of Mangon" 473
Speculations concerning the Golden Chersonese 474-476
A solemn expression of opinion 477
Vicissitudes of theory 477, 478
Arrival of Bartholomew Columbus in Hispaniola 478, 479
Mutiny in Hispaniola; desertion of Boyle and Margarite 479, 480
The government of Columbus was not tyrannical 481
Troubles with the Indians 481, 482
Mission of Juan Aguado 482
Discovery of gold mines, and speculations about Ophir 483
Founding of San Domingo, 1496 484
The return voyage to Spain 485
Edicts of 1495 and 1497 486, 487
Vexatious conduct of Fonseca; Columbus loses his temper 487
(p. xxxiv) Departure from San Lucar on the third voyage 488
The belt of calms 489-491
Trinidad and the Orinoco 491, 492
Speculations as to the earth's shape; the mountain of Paradise 494
Relation of the "Eden continent" to "Cochin China" 495
Discovery of the Pearl Coast 495
Columbus arrives at San Domingo 496
Roldan's rebellion and Fonseca's machinations 496, 497
Gama's voyage to Hindustan, 1497 498
Fonseca's creature, Bobadilla, sent to investigate the troubles in Hispaniola 499
He imprisons Columbus 500
And sends him in chains to Spain 501
Release of Columbus; his interview with the sovereigns 502
How far were the sovereigns responsible for Bobadilla? 503
Ovando, another creature of Fonseca, appointed governor of Hispaniola 503, 504
Purpose of Columbus's fourth voyage, to find a passage from the Caribbee waters into the Indian ocean 504, 506
The voyage across the Atlantic 506
Columbus not allowed to stop at San Domingo 507
His arrival at Cape Honduras 508
Cape Gracias a Dios, and the coast of Veragua 509
Fruitless search for the strait of Malacca 510
Futile attempt to make a settlement in Veragua 511
Columbus is shipwrecked on the coast of Jamaica; shameful conduct of Ovando 512
Columbus's last return to Spain 513
His death at Valladolid, May 20, 1506 513
"Nuevo Mundo;" arms of Ferdinand Columbus 514, 515
When Columbus died, the fact that a New World had been discovered by him had not yet begun to dawn upon his mind, or upon the mind of any voyager or any writer 515, 516
Portrait of the author Frontispiece
View and ground-plan of Seneca-Iroquois long house reduced from Morgan's Houses and House-Life of the American Aborigines 66
View, cross-section, and ground-plan of Mandan round house, ditto 80
Ground-plan of Pueblo Hungo Pavie, ditto 86
Restoration of Pueblo Hungo Pavie, ditto 88
Restoration of Pueblo Bonito, ditto 90
Ground-plan of Pueblo Peñasca Blanca, ditto 92
Ground-plan of so-called "House of the Nuns" at Uxmal, ditto 133
Map of the East Bygd, or eastern settlement of the Northmen in Greenland, reduced from Rafn's Antiquitates Americanæ 160, 161
Ruins of the church at Kakortok, from Major's Voyages of the Zeni, published by the Hakluyt Society 222
Zeno Map, cir. 1400, ditto 232, 233
Map of the World according to Claudius Ptolemy, cir. A. D. 150, an abridged sketch after a map in Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography Facing 265
Two sheets of the Catalan Map, 1375, from Yule's Cathay, published by the Hakluyt Society 288, 289
Map of the World according to Pomponius Mela, cir. A. D. 50, from Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America 304
Map illustrating Portuguese voyages on the coast of Africa, from a sketch by the author 324
Toscanelli's Map, 1474, redrawn and improved from a sketch in Winsor's America Facing 357
(p. xxxvi) Annotations by Columbus, reduced from a photograph in Harrisse's Notes on Columbus 373
Sketch of Martin Behaim's Globe, 1492, preserved in the city hall at Nuremberg, reduced to Mercator's projection and sketched by the author 422, 423
Sketch of Martin Behaim's Atlantic Ocean, with outline of the American continent superimposed, from Winsor's America 429
Map of the discoveries made by Columbus in his first and second voyages, sketched by the author 469
Map of the discoveries made by Columbus in his third and fourth voyages, ditto 493
Arms of Ferdinand Columbus, from the title-page of Harrisse's Fernand Colomb 515

By John Fiske
"I am uneasy and apprehensive, more so than during the war."
Jay to Washington, June 27, 1786.
Fall of Lord North's ministry	1
Sympathy between British Whigs and the revolutionary party in America	2
It weakened the Whig party in England	3
Character of Lord Shelburne	4
Political instability of the Rockingham ministry	5, 6
Obstacles in the way of a treaty of peace	7, 8
Oswald talks with Franklin	9–11
Grenville has an interview with Vergennes	12
Effects of Rodney's victory	13
Misunderstanding between Fox and Shelburne	14
Fall of the Rockingham ministry	15
Shelburne becomes prime minister	16
Defeat of the Spaniards and French at Gibraltar	17
French policy opposed to American interests	18
The valley of the Mississippi; Aranda's prophecy	19
The Newfoundland fisheries	20
Jay detects the schemes of Vergennes	21
And sends Dr Vaughan to visit Shelburne	22
John Adams arrives in Paris and joins with Jay in insisting upon a separate negotiation with England	23, 24
The separate American treaty, as agreed upon:
1. Boundaries	25
2. Fisheries; commercial intercourse	26
3. Private debts	27
4. Compensation of loyalists	28–32
Secret article relating to the Yazoo boundary	33
Vergennes does not like the way in which it has been done	33
On the part of the Americans it was a great diplomatic victory	34
Which the commissioners won by disregarding the instructions of Congress and acting on their own responsibility	35
The Spanish treaty	36
The French treaty	37
Coalition of Fox with North	38–42
They attack the American treaty in Parliament	43
And compel Shelburne to resign	44
Which leaves England without a government, while for several weeks the king is too angry to appoint ministers	44
Until at length he succumbs to the coalition, which presently adopts and ratifies the American treaty	45
The coalition ministry is wrecked upon Fox's India Bill	46
Constitutional crisis ends in the overwhelming victory of Pitt in the elections of May, 1784	47
And this, although apparently a triumph for the king, was really a death-blow to his system of personal government	48, 49
Cessation of hostilities in America	50
Departure of the British troops	51
Washington resigns his command	52
And goes home to Mount Vernon	53
His "legacy" to the American people	54
The next five years were the most critical years in American history	55
Absence of a sentiment of union, and consequent danger of anarchy	56, 57
European statesmen, whether hostile or friendly, had little faith in the stability of the Union	58
False historic analogies	59
Influence of railroad and telegraph upon the perpetuity of the Union	60
Difficulty of travelling a hundred years ago	61
Local jealousies and antipathies, an inheritance from primeval savagery	62, 63
Conservative character of the American Revolution	64
State governments remodelled; assemblies continued from colonial times	65
Origin of the senates in the governor's council of assistants	66
Governors viewed with suspicion	67
Analogies with British institutions	68
The judiciary	69
Restrictions upon suffrage	70
Abolition of primogeniture, entails, and manorial privileges	71
Steps toward the abolition of slavery and the slave-trade	72–75
Progress toward religious freedom	76, 77
Church and state in Virginia	78, 79
Persecution of dissenters	80
Madison and the Religions Freedom Act	81
Temporary overthrow of the church	82
Difficulties in regard to ordination; the case of Mason Weems	83
Ordination of Samuel Seabury by non-jurors at Aberdeen	84
Francis Asbury and the Methodists	85
Presbyterians and Congregationalists	86
Roman Catholics	87
Except in the instance of slavery, all the changes described in this chapter were favourable to the union of the states	88
But while the state governments, in all these changes, are seen working smoothly, we have next to observe, by contrast, the clumsiness and inefficiency of the federal government	89
The several states have never enjoyed complete sovereignty	90
But in the very act of severing their connection with Great Britain, they entered into some sort of union	91
Anomalous character of the Continental Congress	92
The articles of confederation; they sought to establish a "league of friendship" between the states	93–97
But failed to create a federal government endowed with real sovereignty	98–100
Military weakness of the government	101–103
Extreme difficulty of obtaining a revenue	104, 105
Congress, being unable to pay the army, was afraid of it	106
Supposed scheme for making Washington king	107
Greene's experience in South Carolina	108
Gates's staff officers and the Newburgh address	109
The danger averted by Washington	110, 111
Congress driven from Philadelphia by mutinous soldiers	112
The Commutation Act denounced in New England	113
Order of the Cincinnati	114–117
Reasons for the dread which it inspired	118
Congress finds itself unable to carry out the provisions of the treaty with Great Britain	119
Persecution of the loyalists	120, 121
It was especially severe in New York	122
Trespass Act of 1784 directed against the loyalists	123
Character and early career of Alexander Hamilton	124–126
The case of Rutgers v. Waddington	127, 128
Wholesale emigration of Tories	129, 130
Congress unable to enforce payment of debts to British creditors	131
England retaliates by refusing to surrender the fortresses on the northwestern frontier	132, 133
The barbarous superstitions of the Middle Ages concerning trade were still rife in the eighteenth century	134
The old theory of the uses of a colony	135
Pitt's unsuccessful attempt to secure free trade between Great Britain and the United States	136
Ship-building in New England	137
British navigation acts and orders in council directed against American commerce	138
John Adams tried in vain to negotiate a commercial treaty with Great Britain	139, 140
And could see no escape from the difficulties except in systematic reprisal	141
But any such reprisal was impracticable, for the several states imposed conflicting duties	142
Attempts to give Congress the power of regulating commerce were unsuccessful	143, 144
And the several states began to make commercial war upon one another	145
Attempts of New York to oppress New Jersey and Connecticut	146
Retaliatory measures of the two latter states	147
The quarrel between Connecticut and Pennsylvania over the possession of the valley of Wyoming	148–150
The quarrel between New York and New Hampshire over the possession of the Green Mountains	151–153
Failure of American diplomacy because European states could not tell whether they were dealing with one nation or with thirteen	154, 155
Failure of American credit; John Adams begging in Holland	156, 157
The Barbary pirates	158
American citizens kidnapped and sold into slavery	159
Lord Sheffield's outrageous pamphlet	160
Tripoli's demand for blackmail	161
Congress unable to protect American citizens	162
Financial distress after the Revolutionary War	163, 164
State of the coinage	165
Cost of the war in money	166
Robert Morris and his immense services	167
The craze for paper money	168
Agitation in the southern and middle states	169–171
Distress in New England	172
Imprisonment for debt	173
Rag-money victorious in Rhode Island; the "Know Ye" measures	174–176
Rag-money defeated in Massachusetts; the Shays insurrection	177–181
The insurrection suppressed by state troops	182
Conduct of the neighbouring states	183
The rebels pardoned	184
Timidity of Congress	185, 186
Creation of a national domain beyond the Alleghanies	187, 188
Conflicting claims to the western territory	189
Claims of Massachusetts and Connecticut	189, 190
Claims of New York	190
Virginia's claims	191
Maryland's novel and beneficent suggestion	192
The several states yield their claims in favour of the United States	193, 194
Magnanimity of Virginia	195
Jefferson proposes a scheme of government for the northwestern territory	196
Names of the proposed ten states	197
Jefferson wishes to prohibit slavery in the national domain	198
North Carolina's cession of western lands	199
John Sevier and the state of Franklin	200, 201
The northwestern territory	202
Origin of the Ohio company	203
The Ordinance of 1787	204–206
Theory of folkland upon which the ordinance was based	207
Spain, hearing of the secret article in the treaty of 1783, loses her temper and threatens to shut up the Mississippi River	208, 209
Gardoqui and Jay	210
Threats of secession in Kentucky and New England	211
Washington's views on the political importance of canals between east and west	212
His far-sighted genius and self-devotion	213
Maryland confers with Virginia regarding the navigation of the Potomac	214
The Madison-Tyler motion in the Virginia legislature	215
Convention at Annapolis, Sept 11, 1786	216
Hamilton's address calling for a convention at Philadelphia	217
The impost amendment defeated by the action of New York; last ounce upon the camel's back	218–220
Sudden changes in popular sentiment	221
The Federal Convention meets at Philadelphia, May, 1787	222
Mr. Gladstone's opinion of the work of the convention	223
The men who were assembled there	224, 225
Character of James Madison	226, 227
The other leading members	228
Washington chosen president of the convention	229
Why the proceedings of the convention were kept secret for so many years	230
Difficulty of the problem to be solved	231
Symptoms of cowardice repressed by Washington's impassioned speech	232
The root of all the difficulties; the edicts of the federal government had operated only upon states, not upon individuals, and therefore could not be enforced without danger of war	233–233
The Virginia plan, of which Madison was the chief author, offered a radical cure	236
And was felt to be revolutionary in its character	237–239
Fundamental features of the Virginia plan	240, 241
How it was at first received	242
The House of Representatives must be directly elected by the people	243
Question as to the representation of states brings out the antagonism between large and small states	244
William Paterson presents the New Jersey plan; not a radical cure, but a feeble palliative	245
Straggle between the Virginia and New Jersey plans	246–249
The Connecticut compromise, according to which the national principle is to prevail in the House of Representatives, and the federal principle in the Senate, meets at first with fierce opposition	250, 251
But is at length adopted	252
And proves a decisive victory for Madison and his methods	253
A few irreconcilable members go home in dudgeon	254
But the small states, having been propitiated, are suddenly converted to Federalism, and make the victory complete	255
Vague dread of the future west	255
The struggle between pro-slavery and anti-slavery parties began in the convention, and was quieted by two compromises	256
Should representation be proportioned to wealth or to population?	257
Were slaves to be reckoned as persons or as chattels?	258
Attitude of the Virginia statesmen	259
It was absolutely necessary to satisfy South Carolina	260
The three fifths compromise, suggested by Madison, was a genuine English solution, if ever there was one	261
There was neither rhyme nor reason in it, but for all that, it was the best solution attainable at the time	262
The next compromise was between New England and South Carolina as to the foreign slave-trade and the power of the federal government over commerce	263
George Mason calls the slave-trade an "infernal traffic"	264
And the compromise offends and alarms Virginia	265
Belief in the moribund condition of slavery	266
The foundations of the Constitution were laid in compromise	267
Powers granted to the federal government	268
Use of federal troops in suppressing insurrections	269
Various federal powers	270
Provision for a federal city under federal jurisdiction	271
The Federal Congress might compel the attendance of members	272
Powers denied to the several states	272
Should the federal government he allowed to make its promissory notes a legal tender in payment of debts? powerful speech of Gouverneur Morris	273
Emphatic and unmistakable condemnation of paper money by all the leading delegates	274
The convention refused to grant to the federal government the power of issuing inconvertible paper, but did not think an express prohibition necessary	275
If they could have foreseen some recent judgments of the supreme court, they would doubtless have made the prohibition explicit and absolute	276
Debates as to the federal executive	277
Sherman's suggestion as to the true relation of the executive to the legislature	278
There was to be a single chief magistrate, but how should he be chosen?	279
Objections to an election by Congress	280
Ellsworth and King suggest the device of an electoral college, which is at first rejected	281
But afterwards adopted	282
Provisions for an election by Congress in the case of a failure of choice by the electoral college	283
Provisions for counting the electoral votes	284
It was not intended to leave anything to be decided by the president of the Senate	285
The convention foresaw imaginary dangers, but not the real ones	286
Hamilton's opinion of the electoral scheme	287
How it has actually worked	288
In this part of its work the convention tried to copy from the British Constitution	289
In which they supposed the legislative and executive departments to be distinct and separate	290
Here they were misled by Montesquieu and Blackstone	291
What our government would be if it were really like that of Great Britain	292–294
In the British government the executive department is not separated from the legislative	295
Circumstances which obscured the true aspect of the case a century ago	296–298
The American cabinet is analogous, not to the British cabinet, but to the privy council	299
The federal judiciary, and its remarkable character	300–301
Provisions for amending the Constitution	302
The document is signed by all but three of the delegates	303
And the convention breaks up	304
With a pleasant remark from Franklin	305
Franklin lays the Constitution before the legislature of Pennsylvania	306
It is submitted to Congress, which refers it to the legislatures of the thirteen states, to be ratified or rejected by the people in conventions	307
First American parties, Federalists and Antifederalists	308, 309
The contest in Pennsylvania	310
How to make a quorum	311
A war of pamphlets and newspaper squibs	312, 313
Ending in the ratification of the Constitution by Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey	314
Rejoicings and mutterings	315
Georgia and Connecticut ratify	316
The outlook in Massachusetts	317, 318
The Massachusetts convention meets	319
And overhauls the Constitution clause by clause	320
On the subject of an army Mr. Nason waxes eloquent	321
The clergymen oppose a religious test	322
And Rev. Samuel West argues on the assumption that all men are not totally depraved	323
Feeling of distrust in the mountain districts	324
Timely speech of a Berkshire farmer	325, 326
Attitude of Samuel Adams	326, 327
Meeting of mechanics at the Green Dragon	327
Charges of bribery	328
Washington's fruitful suggestion	329
Massachusetts ratifies, but proposes amendments	330
The Long Lane has a turning and becomes Federal Street	331
New Hampshire hesitates, but Maryland ratifies, and all eyes are turned upon South Carolina	332
Objections of Rawlins Lowndes answered by Cotesworth Pinckney	333
South Carolina ratifies the Constitution	334
Important effect upon Virginia, where thoughts of a southern confederacy had been entertained	335, 336
Madison and Marshall prevail in the Virginia convention, and it ratifies the Constitution	337
New Hampshire had ratified four days before	338
Rejoicings at Philadelphia; riots at Providence and Albany	339
The struggle in New York	340
Origin of the "Federalist"	341–343
Hamilton wins the victory, and New York ratifies	344
All serious anxiety is now at an end; the laggard states, North Carolina and Rhode Island	345
First presidential election, January 7, 1789; Washington is unanimously chosen	346
Why Samuel Adams was not selected for vice-president	347
Selection of John Adams	348
Washington's journey to New York, April 16–23	349
His inauguration	350

By John Fiske

The Mystery of Evil
I.	The Serpent's Promise to the Woman	3
II.	The Pilgrim's Burden	8
III.	Manichæism and Calvinism	14
IV.	The Dramatic Unity of Nature	22
V.	What Conscious Life is made of	27
VI.	Without the Element of Antagonism there could be no Consciousness, and therefore no World	34
VII.	A Word of Caution	40
VIII.	The Hermit and the Angel	43
IX.	Man's Rise from the Innocence of Brutehood	48
X.	The Relativity of Evil	54

The Cosmic Roots of Love and Self-Sacrifice
I.	The Summer Field, and what it tells us	59
II.	Seeming Wastefulness of the Cosmic Process	65
III.[Pg xiv]	Caliban's Philosophy	72
IV.	Can it be that the Cosmic Process has no Relation to Moral Ends?	74
V.	First Stages in the Genesis of Man	80
VI.	The Central Fact in the Genesis of Man	86
VII.	The Chief Cause of Man's lengthened Infancy	88
VIII.	Some of its Effects	96
IX.	Origin of Moral Ideas and Sentiments	102
X.	The Cosmic Process exists purely for the Sake of Moral Ends	109
XI.	Maternity and the Evolution of Altruism	117
XII.	The Omnipresent Ethical Trend	127

The Everlasting Reality of Religion
I.	Deo erexit Voltaire	133
II.	The Reign of Law, and the Greek Idea of God	147
III.	Weakness of Materialism	152
IV.	Religion's First Postulate: the Quasi-Human God	163
V.	Religion's Second Postulate: the undying Human Soul	168
VI.	Religion's Third Postulate: the Ethical Significance of the Unseen World	171
VII.	Is the Substance of Religion a Phantom, or an Eternal Reality?	174
VIII.[Pg xv]	The Fundamental Aspect of Life	177
IX.	How the Evolution of Senses expands the World	182
X.	Nature's Eternal Lesson is the Everlasting Reality of Religion	186

And Other Essays
By John Fiske

I. A Century of Science	1
II. The Doctrine of Evolution: its Scope and Purport	39
III. Edward Livingston Youmans	64
IV. The Part played by Infancy in the Evolution of Man	100
V. The Origins of Liberal Thought in America	122
VI. Sir Harry Vane	154
VII. The Arbitration Treaty	166
VIII. Francis Parkman	194
IX. Edward Augustus Freeman	265
X. Cambridge as Village and City	286
XI. A Harvest of Irish Folk-Lore	319
XII. Guessing at Half and Multiplying by Two	333
XIII. Forty Years of Bacon-Shakespeare Folly	350
XIV. Some Cranks and their Crotchets	405
Note	461
Index	467

By John Fiske
With Many Illustrations

Relations between the American colonies and the British government in the first half of the eighteenth century	1
The Lords of Trade	2
The governors’ salaries	3
Sir Robert Walpole	4
Views of the Lords of Trade as to the need for a union of the colonies	5
Weakness of the sentiment of union	6
The Albany Congress	6
Franklin’s plan for a federal union (1754)	7, 8
Rejection of Franklin’s plan	9
Shirley recommends a stamp act	10
The writs of assistance	11
The chief justice of New York	12
Otis’s “Vindication”	13
Expenses of the French War	14
Grenville’s resolves	15
Reply of the colonies	16
Passage of the Stamp Act	17
Patrick Henry and the Parsons’ Cause	18
Resolutions of Virginia concerning the Stamp Act	19, 20
The Stamp Act Congress	20-22
Declaration of the Massachusetts assembly	22
Resistance to the Stamp Act in Boston	23
And in New York	24
Debate in the House of Commons	25, 26
Repeal of the Stamp Act	26, 27
The Duke of Grafton’s ministry	28
Charles Townshend and his revenue acts	29-31
Attack upon the New York assembly	32
Parliament did not properly represent the British people	32, 33
Difficulty of the problem	34
Representation of Americans in Parliament	35
Mr. Gladstone and the Boers	36
Death of Townshend	37
His political legacy to George III.	37
Character of George III.	38, 39
English parties between 1760 and 1784	40, 41
George III. as a politician	42
His chief reason for quarrelling with the Americans	42, 43
Character of Lord North	44
John Dickinson and the “Farmer’s Letters”	45
The Massachusetts circular letter	46, 47
Lord Hillsborough’s instructions to Bernard	48
The “Illustrious Ninety-Two”	48
Impressment of citizens	49
Affair of the sloop Liberty	49-51
Statute of Henry VIII. concerning “treason committed abroad”	52
Samuel Adams makes up his mind (1768)	53-56
Arrival of troops in Boston	56, 57
Letters of “Vindex”	58
Debate in Parliament	59, 60
All the Townshend acts, except the one imposing a duty upon tea, to be repealed	61
Recall of Governor Bernard	61
Character of Thomas Hutchinson	62
Resolutions of Virginia concerning the Townshend acts	63
Conduct of the troops in Boston	64
Assault on James Otis	64
The “Boston Massacre”	65-68
Some of its lessons	69-72
Lord North becomes prime minister	72
Action of the New York merchants	73
Assemblies convened in strange places	74
Taxes in Maryland	74
The “Regulators” in North Carolina	74
Affair of the schooner Gaspee	75, 76
The salaries of the Massachusetts judges	76
Jonathan Mayhew’s suggestion (1766)	77
The committees of correspondence in Massachusetts	78
Intercolonial committees of correspondence	79
Revival of the question of taxation	80
The king’s ingenious scheme for tricking the Americans into buying the East India Company’s tea	81
How Boston became the battle-ground	82
Advice solemnly sought and given by the Massachusetts towns	82-84
Arrival of the tea; meeting at the Old South	84, 85
The tea-ships placed under guard	85
Rotch’s dilatory manœuvres	86
Great town meeting at the Old South	87, 88
The tea thrown into the harbour	88, 89
Moral grandeur of the scene	90, 91
How Parliament received the news	91-93
The Boston Port Bill	93
The Regulating Act	93-95
Act relating to the shooting of citizens	96
The quartering of troops in towns	96
The Quebec Act	96
General Gage sent to Boston	97, 98
Protest of the Whig Lords	99
Belief that the Americans would not fight	100
Belief that Massachusetts would not be supported by the other colonies	101
News of the Port Bill	101, 102
Samuel Adams at Salem	103, 104
Massachusetts nullifies the Regulating Act	105
John Hancock and Joseph Warren	106, 107
The Suffolk County Resolves	108
Provincial Congress in Massachusetts	109
First meeting of the Continental Congress (September 5, 1774)	110, 111
Debates in Parliament	112, 113
William Howe appointed commander-in-chief of the forces in America	113
Richard, Lord Howe, appointed admiral of the fleet	114
Franklin returns to America	115
State of feeling in the middle colonies	116
Lord North’s mistaken hopes of securing New York	117
Affairs in Massachusetts	101
Dr. Warren’s oration at the Old South	119
Attempt to corrupt Samuel Adams	120
Orders to arrest Adams and Hancock	121
Paul Revere’s ride	122, 123
Pitcairn fires upon the yeomanry at Lexington	124, 125
The troops repulsed at Concord; their dangerous situation	126, 127
The retreating troops rescued by Lord Percy	128
Retreat continued from Lexington to Charlestown	129
Rising of the country; the British besieged in Boston	130
Effects of the news in England and in America	130-133
Mecklenburg County Resolves	133
Legend of the Mecklenburg “Declaration of Independence”	133-135
Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen	135
Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point	136-140
Second meeting of the Continental Congress	141
Appointment of George Washington to command the Continental army	142-144
The siege of Boston	145
Gage’s proclamation	145
The Americans occupy Bunker’s and Breed’s hills	146
Arrival of Putnam, Stark, and Warren	147
Gage decides to try an assault	148, 149
First assault repulsed	149
Second assault repulsed	150
Prescott’s powder gives out	150
Third assault succeeds; the British take the hill	151
British and American losses	151, 152
Excessive slaughter; significance of the battle	153
Its moral effects	154
Washington’s arrival in Cambridge	155
Continental officers: Daniel Morgan	156
Benedict Arnold, John Stark, John Sullivan	157
Nathanael Greene, Henry Knox	158
Israel Putnam	159
Horatio Gates and Charles Lee	160
Lee’s personal peculiarities	161, 162
Dr. Benjamin Church	163
Difficult work for Washington	164
Absence of governmental organization	165
New government of Massachusetts (July, 1775)	166
Congress sends a last petition to the king	167
The king issues a proclamation, and tries to hire troops from Russia	168-170
Catherine refuses; the king hires German troops	170
Indignation in Germany	171
Burning of Falmouth (Portland)	171
Effects of all this upon Congress	172, 173
Montgomery’s invasion of Canada and capture of Montreal	174, 175
Arnold’s march through the wilderness of Maine	176
Assault upon Quebec (December 31, 1775)	177
Total failure of the attempt upon Canada	178
The siege of Boston	179
Washington seizes Dorchester Heights (March 4, 1776)	180, 181
The British troops evacuate Boston (March 17)	182, 183
Movement toward independence; a provisional flag (January 1, 1776)	184
Effect of the hiring of “myrmidons”	185
Thomas Paine	185
His pamphlet entitled “Common Sense”	186, 187
Fulminations and counter-fulminations	188
The Scots in North Carolina	188
Sir Henry Clinton sails for the Carolinas	189
The fight at Moore’s Creek; North Carolina declares for independence	189
Action of South Carolina and Georgia	190
Affairs in Virginia; Lord Dunmore’s proclamation	190
Skirmish at the Great Bridge, and burning of Norfolk	191
Virginia declares for independence	192
Action of Rhode Island and Massachusetts	192
Resolution adopted in Congress May 15	193
Instructions from the Boston town meeting	194
Richard Henry Lee’s motion in Congress	194
Debate on Lee’s	195, 196
Action of the other colonies; Connecticut and New Hampshire	196
New Jersey	197
Pennsylvania and Delaware	197-199
Maryland	199
The situation in New York	200
The Tryon plot	201
Final debate on Lee’s motion	202
Vote on Lee’s motion	203
Form of the Declaration of Independence	204
Thomas Jefferson	204, 205
The declaration was a deliberate expression of the sober thought of the American people	206, 207
Lord Cornwallis arrives upon the scene	208
Battle of Fort Moultrie (June 28, 1776)	209-211
British plan for conquering the valley of the Hudson, and cutting the United Colonies in twain	212
Lord Howe’s futile attempt to negotiate with Washington unofficially	213, 214
The military problem at New York	214-216
Importance of Brooklyn Heights	217
Battle of Long Island (August 27, 1776)	218-220
Howe prepares to besiege the Heights	220
But Washington slips away with his army	221
And robs the British of the most golden opportunity ever offered them	221-223
The conference at Staten Island	223, 224
General Howe takes the city of New York September 15	224
But Mrs. Lindley Murray saves the garrison	225
Attack upon Harlem Heights	225
The new problem before Howe	225, 226
He moves upon Throg’s Neck, but Washington changes base	227
Baffled at White Plans, Howe tries a new plan	228
Washington’s orders in view of the emergency	228
Congress meddles with the situation and muddles it	229
Howe takes Fort Washington by storm (November 16)	230
Washington and Greene	231
Outrageous conduct of Charles Le	231, 232
Greene barely escapes from Fort Lee (November 20)	233
Lee intrigues against Washington	233, 234
Washington retreats into Pennsylvania	234
Reinforcements come from Schuyler	235
Fortunately for the Americans, the British capture Charles Lee (December 13)	235-238
The times that tried men’s souls	238, 239
Washington prepares to strike back	239
He crosses the Delaware, and pierces the British centre at Trenton (December 26)	240, 241
Cornwallis comes up to retrieve the disaster	242
And thinks he has run down the “old fox" at the Assunpink (January 2, 1777)	242
But Washington prepares a checkmate	243
And again severs the British line at Princeton (January 3)	244
General retreat of the British upon New York	245
The tables completely turned	246
Washington’s superb generalship	247
Effects in England	248
And in France	249
Franklin’s arrival in France	250
Secret aid from France	251
Lafayette goes to America	252
Efforts toward remodelling the Continental army	252-255
Services of Robert Morris	255
Ill feeling between the states	256
Extraordinary powers conferred upon Washington	257-258
Invasion of New York by Sir Guy Carleton	259
Arnold’s preparations	260
Battle of Valcour Island (October 11, 1776)	260-262
Congress promotes five junior brigadiers over Arnold (February 19, 1777)	262
Character of Philip Schuyler	263
Horatio Gates	264
Gates intrigues against Schuyler	265
His unseemly behaviour before Congress	266
Charges against Arnold	267, 268
Arnold defeats Tryon at Ridgefield (April 27, 1777)	269
Preparations for the summer campaign	269
The military centre of the United States was the state of New York	270
A second blow was to be struck at the centre; the plan of campaign	271
The plan was unsound; it separated the British forces too widely, and gave the Americans the advantage of interior lines	272-274
Germain’s fatal error; he overestimated the strength of the Tories	274
Too many unknown quantities	275
Danger from New England ignored	276
Germain’s negligence; the dispatch that was never sent	277
Burgoyne advances upon Ticonderoga	277, 278
Phillips seizes Mount Defiance	279
Evacuation of Ticonderoga	279
Battle of Hubbardton (July 7)	280
One swallow does not make a summer	280-282
The king’s glee; wrath of John Adams	282
Gates was chiefly to blame	282
Burgoyne’s difficulties beginning	283
Schuyler wisely evacuates Fort Edward	284
Enemies gathering in Burgoyne’s rear	285
Use of Indian auxiliaries	285
Burgoyne’s address to the chiefs	286
Burke ridicules the address	286
The story of Jane McCrea	287, 288
The Indians desert Burgoyne	289
Importance of Bennington; Burgoyne sends a German force against it	290
Stark prepares to receive the Germans	291
Battle of Bennington (August 16); nearly the whole German army captured on the field	292, 293
Effect of the news; Burgoyne’s enemies multiply	294
Advance of St. Leger upon Fort Stanwix	295
Herkimer marches against him; Herkimer’s plan	296
Failure of the plan	297
Thayendanegea prepares an ambuscade	298
Battle of Oriskany (August 6)	298-300
Colonel Willett’s sortie; first hoisting of the stars and stripes	300-301
Death of Herkimer	301
Arnold arrives at Schuyler’s camp	302
And volunteers to retrieve Fort Stanwix	303
Yan Yost Cuyler and his stratagem	304
Flight of St. Leger (August 22)	305
Burgoyne’s dangerous situation	306
Schuyler superseded by Gates	306
Position of the two armies (August 19-September 12)	307
Why Sir William Howe went to Chesapeake Bay	308
Charles Lee in captivity	308-310
Treason of Charles Lee	311-314
Folly of moving upon Philadelphia as the “rebel capital”	314, 315
Effect of Lee’s advice	315
Washington’s masterly campaign in New Jersey (June, 1777)	316, 317
Uncertainty as to Howe’s next movements	317, 318
Howe’s letter to Burgoyne	318
Comments of Washington and Greene	319, 320
Howe’s alleged reason trumped up and worthless	320
Burgoyne’s fate was practically decided when Howe arrived at Elkton	321
Washington’s reasons for offering battle	321
He chooses a very strong position	322
Battle of the Brandywine (September 11)	322-326
Washington’s skill in detaining the enemy	326
The British enter Philadelphia (September 26)	326
Significance of Forts Mercer and Mifflin	327
The situation at Germantown	327, 328
Washington’s audacious plan	328
Battle of Germantown (October 4)	329-332
Howe captures Forts Mercer and Mifflin	333
Burgoyne recognizes the fatal error of Germain	333
Nevertheless he crosses the Hudson River	334
First battle at Freeman’s Farm (September 19)	335
Quarrel between Gates and Arnold	336-337
Burgoyne’s supplies cut off	338
Second battle at Freeman’s Farm (October 7); the British totally defeated by Arnold	338-340
The British army is surrounded	341
Sir Henry Clinton comes up the river, but it is too late	342
The silver bullet	343
Burgoyne surrenders (October 17)	343, 344
Schuyler’s magnanimity	345
Bad faith of Congress	346-349
The behaviour of Congress was simply inexcusable	350
What became of the captured army	350, 351

By John Fiske




Tercentenary of the Discovery of America, 1792	1
The Abbé Raynal and his book	2
Was the Discovery of America a blessing or a curse to
mankind?	3
The Abbé Genty's opinion	4
A cheering item of therapeutics	4
Spanish methods of colonization contrasted with English	5
Spanish conquerors value America for its supply of precious
metals	6
Aim of Columbus was to acquire the means for driving the
Turks from Europe	7
But Spain used American treasure not so much against Turks
as against Protestants	8
Vast quantities of treasure taken from America by Spain	9
Nations are made wealthy not by inflation but by production	9
Deepest significance of the discovery of America; it opened
up a fresh soil in which to plant the strongest type of
European civilization	10
America first excited interest in England as the storehouse
of Spanish treasure	11
After the Cabot voyages England paid little attention to
America	12
Save for an occasional visit to the Newfoundland fisheries	13
Earliest English reference to America	13
Founding of the Muscovy Company	14
Richard Eden and his books	15
[Pg x]
John Hawkins and the African slave trade	15, 16
Hawkins visits the French colony in Florida	17
Facts which seem to show that thirst is the mother of invention	18
Massacre of Huguenots in Florida; escape of the painter Le
Moyne	18
Hawkins goes on another voyage and takes with him young
Francis Drake	19
The affair of San Juan de Ulua and the journey of David
Ingram	20
Growing hostility to Spain in England	21
Size and strength of Elizabeth's England	21, 22
How the sea became England's field of war	22
Loose ideas of international law	23
Some bold advice to Queen Elizabeth	23
The sea kings were not buccaneers	24
Why Drake carried the war into the Pacific Ocean	25
How Drake stood upon a peak in Darien	26
Glorious voyage of the Golden Hind	26, 27
Drake is knighted by the Queen	27
The Golden Hind's cabin is made a banquet-room	28
Voyage of the half-brothers, Gilbert and Raleigh	28
Gilbert is shipwrecked, and his patent is granted to Raleigh	29
Raleigh's plan for founding a Protestant state in America
may have been suggested to him by Coligny	30
Elizabeth promises self-government to colonists in America	31
Amidas and Barlow visit Pamlico Sound	31
An Ollendorfian conversation between white men and red men	32
The Queen's suggestion that the new country be called in
honour of herself Virginia	32
Raleigh is knighted, and sends a second expedition under
Ralph Lane	32
Who concludes that Chesapeake Bay would be better than
Pamlico Sound	33
Lane and his party on the brink of starvation are rescued by
Sir Francis Drake	33
Thomas Cavendish follows Drake's example and circumnavigates
the earth	34
How Drake singed the beard of Philip II.	34
Raleigh sends another party under John White	35
The accident which turned White from Chesapeake Bay to
Roanoke Island	35
Defeat of the Invincible Armada	36, 37
[Pg xi]
The deathblow at Cadiz	38
The mystery about White's colony	38, 39
Significance of the defeat of the Armada	39, 40


Some peculiarities of sixteenth century maps	41
How Richard Hakluyt's career was determined	42
Strange adventures of a manuscript	43
Hakluyt's reasons for wishing to see English colonies planted
in America	44
English trade with the Netherlands	45
Hakluyt thinks that America will presently afford as good a
market as the Netherlands	46
Notion that England was getting to be over-peopled	46
The change from tillage to pasturage	46, 47
What Sir Thomas More thought about it	47
Growth of pauperism during the Tudor period	48
Development of English commercial and naval marine	49
Opposition to Hakluyt's schemes	49
The Queen's penuriousness	50
Beginnings of joint-stock companies	51
Raleigh's difficulties	52, 53
Christopher Newport captures the great Spanish carrack	53
Raleigh visits Guiana and explores the Orinoco River	54
Ambrosial nights at the Mermaid Tavern	54
Accession of James I	55
Henry, Earl of Southampton, Shakespeare's friend, sends
Bartholomew Gosnold on an expedition	55
Gosnold reaches Buzzard's Bay in what he calls North Virginia,
and is followed by Martin Pring and George
Weymouth	55, 56
Performance of "Eastward Ho," a comedy by Chapman and
Marston	56
Extracts from this comedy	57-59
Report of the Spanish ambassador Zuñiga to Philip III	59
First charter to the Virginia Company, 1606	60
"Supposed Sea of Verrazano" covering the larger part of the
area now known as the United States	61
Northern and southern limits of Virginia	62
The twin joint-stock companies and the three zones	62, 63
[Pg xii]
The three zones in American history	63
The kind of government designed for the two colonies	64
Some of the persons chiefly interested in the first colony
known as the London Company	65-67
Some of the persons chiefly interested in the second colony
known as the Plymouth Company	67, 68
Some other eminent persons who were interested in western
planting	68-70
Expedition of the Plymouth Company and disastrous failure
of the Popham Colony	70, 71
The London Company gets its expedition ready a little
before Christmas and supplies it with a list of instructions	71, 72
Where to choose a site for a town	72
Precautions against a surprise by the Spaniards	73
Colonists must try to find the Pacific Ocean	73
And must not offend the natives or put much trust in them	74
The death and sickness of white men must be concealed from
the Indians	75
It will be well to beware of woodland coverts, avoid malaria,
and guard against desertion	75
The town should be carefully built with regular streets	75, 76
Colonists must not send home any discouraging news	76
What Spain thought about all this	76, 77
Christopher Newport starts with a little fleet for Virginia	77
A poet laureate's farewell blessing	77-79


One of Newport's passengers was Captain John Smith, a
young man whose career had been full of adventure	80
Many persons have expressed doubts as to Smith's veracity,
but without good reason	81
Early life of John Smith	82
His adventures on the Mediterranean	83
And in Transylvania	84
How he slew and beheaded three Turks	85
For which Prince Sigismund granted him a coat-of-arms
which was duly entered in the Heralds' College	86
The incident was first told not by Smith but by Sigismund's
secretary Farnese	87
[Pg xiii]
Smith tells us much about himself, but is not a braggart	88
How he was sold into slavery beyond the Sea of Azov and
cruelly treated	88, 89
How he slew his master and escaped through Russia and
Poland	89, 90
The smoke of controversy	90
In the course of Newport's tedious voyage Smith is accused
of plotting mutiny and kept in irons	91
Arrival of the colonists in Chesapeake Bay, May 13, 1607	92
Founding of Jamestown; Wingfield chosen president	93
Smith is set free and goes with Newport to explore the James
River	93, 94
The Powhatan tribe, confederacy, and head war-chief	94
How danger may lurk in long grass	95
Smith is acquitted of all charges and takes his seat with the
council	96
Newport sails for England, June 22, 1607	96
George Percy's account of the sufferings of the colonists from
fever and famine	97
Quarrels break out in which President Wingfield is deposed
and John Ratcliffe chosen in his place	99
Execution of a member of the council for mutiny	100
Smith goes up the Chickahominy River and is captured by
Opekankano	101
Who takes him about the country and finally brings him to
Werowocomoco, January, 1608	102
The Indians are about to kill him, but he is rescued by the
chief's daughter, Pocahontas	103
Recent attempts to discredit the story	103-108
Flimsiness of these attempts	104
George Percy's pamphlet	105
The printed text of the "True Relation" is incomplete	105, 106
Reason why the Pocahontas incident was omitted in the
"True Relation"	106, 107
There is no incongruity between the "True Relation" and
the "General History" except this omission	107
But this omission creates a gap in the "True Relation," and
the account in the "General History" is the more intrinsically
probable	108
The rescue was in strict accordance with Indian usage	109
The ensuing ceremonies indicate that the rescue was an ordinary
case of adoption	110
The Powhatan afterward proclaimed Smith a tribal chief	111
[Pg xiv]
The rescue of Smith by Pocahontas was an event of real historical
importance	111
Captain Newport returns with the First Supply, Jan. 8, 1608	112
Ratcliffe is deposed and Smith chosen president	113
Arrival of the Second Supply, September, 1608	113
Queer instructions brought by Captain Newport from the
London Company	113
How Smith and Captain Newport went up to Werowocomoco,
and crowned The Powhatan	114
How the Indian girls danced at Werowocomoco	114, 115
Accuracy of Smith's descriptions	116
How Newport tried in vain to search for a salt sea behind the
Blue Ridge	116
Anas Todkill's complaint	117
Smith's map of Virginia	118


How puns were made on Captain Newport's name	119
Great importance of the Indian alliance	120
Gentlemen as pioneers	121
All is not gold that glitters	122
Smith's attempts to make glass and soap	123
The Company is disappointed at not making more money	124
Tale-bearers and their complaints against Smith	124
Smith's "Rude Answer" to the Company	125
Says he cannot prevent quarrels	125
And the Company's instructions have not been wise	126
From infant industries too much must not be expected while
the colonists are suffering for want of food	127
And while peculation and intrigue are rife and we are in sore
need of useful workmen	128
Smith anticipates trouble from the Indians, whose character
is well described by Hakluyt	129
What Smith dreaded	130
How the red men's views of the situation were changed	131
Smith's voyage to Werowocomoco	132
His parley with The Powhatan	133
A game of bluff	134
The corn is brought	135
Suspicions of treachery	136
[Pg xv]
A wily orator	137
Pocahontas reveals the plot	138
Smith's message to The Powhatan	138, 139
How Smith visited the Pamunkey village and brought Opekankano
to terms	139, 140
How Smith appeared to the Indians in the light of a worker
of miracles	141
What our chronicler calls "a pretty accident"	141
How the first years of Old Virginia were an experiment in
communism	142
Smith declares "He that will not work shall not eat," but
the summer's work is interrupted by unbidden messmates
in the shape of rats	143
Arrival of young Samuel Argall with news from London	143, 144
Second Charter of the London Company, 1609	144
The council in London	145
The local government in Virginia is entirely changed and
Thomas, Lord Delaware, is appointed governor for life	146
A new expedition is organized for Virginia, but still with a
communistic programme	147, 148
How the good ship Sea Venture was wrecked upon the Bermudas	149
How this incident was used by Shakespeare in The Tempest	150
Gates and Somers build pinnaces and sail for Jamestown,
May, 1610	151
The Third Supply had arrived in August, 1609	151
And Smith had returned to England in October	152
Lord Delaware became alarmed and sailed for Virginia	152
Meanwhile the sufferings of the colony had been horrible	153
Of the 500 persons Gates and Somers found only 60 survivors,
and it was decided that Virginia must be abandoned	154
Dismantling of Jamestown and departure of the colony	154, 155
But the timely arrival of Lord Delaware in Hampton Roads
prevented the dire disaster	155


To the first English settlers in America a supply of Indian
corn was of vital consequence, as illustrated at Jamestown
and Plymouth	156
Alliance with the Powhatan confederacy was of the first importance
to the infant colony	157
[Pg xvi]
Smith was a natural leader of men	157
With much nobility of nature	158
And but for him the colony would probably have perished	159
Characteristic features of Lord Delaware's administration	160
Death of Somers and cruise of Argall in 1610	161
Kind of craftsmen desired for Virginia	162
Sir Thomas Dale comes to govern Virginia in the capacity of
High Marshal	163
A Draconian code of laws	164
Cruel punishments	165
How communism worked in practice	166
How Dale abolished communism	167
And founded the "City of Henricus"	167, 168
How Captain Argall seized Pocahontas	168
Her marriage with John Rolfe	169
How Captain Argall extinguished the Jesuit settlement at
Mount Desert and burned Port Royal	170
But left the Dutch at New Amsterdam with a warning	171
How Pocahontas, "La Belle Sauvage," visited London and
was entertained there like a princess	171, 172
Her last interview with Captain Smith	172
Her sudden death at Gravesend	173
How Tomocomo tried to take a census of the English	173
How the English in Virginia began to cultivate tobacco in
spite of King James and his Counterblast	174
Dialogue between Silenus and Kawasha	175
Effects of tobacco culture upon the young colony	176, 177
The London Company's Third Charter, 1612	177, 178
How money was raised by lotteries	178
How this new remodelling of the Company made it an important
force in politics	179
Middleton's speech in opposition to the charter	180
Richard Martin in the course of a brilliant speech forgets
himself and has to apologize	181
How factions began to be developed within the London Company	182
Sudden death of Lord Delaware	183
Quarrel between Lord Rich and Sir Thomas Smith, resulting
in the election of Sir Edwin Sandys as treasurer of the
Company	184
Sir George Yeardley is appointed governor of Virginia while
Argall is knighted	185
How Sir Edwin Sandys introduced into Virginia the first
American legislature, 1619	186
[Pg xvii]
How this legislative assembly, like those afterwards constituted
in America, were formed after the type of the
old English county court	187
How negro slaves were first introduced into Virginia, 1619.	188
How cargoes of spinsters were sent out by the Company in
quest of husbands	189
The great Indian massacre of 1622	189, 190


Summary review of the founding of Virginia	191-194
Bitter hostility of Spain to the enterprise	194
Gondomar and the Spanish match	195
Gondomar's advice to the king	196
How Sir Walter Raleigh was kept twelve years in prison	197
But was then released and sent on an expedition to Guiana	198
The king's base treachery	199
Judicial murder of Raleigh	200
How the king attempted to interfere with the Company's
election of treasurer in 1620	201
How the king's emissaries listened to the reading of the
charter	202
Withdrawal of Sandys and election of Southampton	203
Life and character of Nicholas Ferrar	203-205
His monastic home at Little Gidding	205
How disputes rose high in the Company's quarter sessions	206, 207
How the House of Commons rebuked the king	207, 208
How Nathaniel Butler was accused of robbery and screened
himself by writing a pamphlet abusing the Company	208
Some of his charges and how they were answered by Virginia
settlers	209
As to malaria	209
As to wetting one's feet	210
As to dying under hedges	211
As to the houses and their situations	211, 212
Object of the charges	212
Virginia assembly denies the allegations	213
The Lord Treasurer demands that Ferrar shall answer the
charges	214
A cogent answer is returned	214, 215
[Pg xviii]
Vain attempts to corrupt Ferrar	215, 216
How the wolf was set to investigate the dogs	216
The Virginia assembly makes "A Tragical Declaration"	217
On the attorney-general's advice a quo warranto
is served	217, 218
How the Company appealed to Parliament, and the king refused
to allow the appeal	217, 218
The attorney-general's irresistible logic	219
Lord Strafford's glee	220
How Nicholas Ferrar had the records copied	221, 222
The history of a manuscript	221, 222


A retrospect	223
Tidewater Virginia	224
A receding frontier	224, 225
The plantations	225
Boroughs and burgesses	226
Boroughs and hundreds	227, 228
Houses, slaves, indentured servants, and Indians	229
Virginia agriculture in the time of Charles I	230
Increasing cultivation of tobacco	231
Literature; how George Sandys entreated the Muses with
success	232
Provisions for higher education	233
Project for a university in the city of Henricus cut short by
the Indian massacre	234
Puritans and liberal churchmen	235
How the Company of Massachusetts Bay learned a lesson
from the fate of its predecessor, the London Company
for Virginia	236,237
Death of James I	238
Effect upon Virginia of the downfall of the Company	238-240
The virus of liberty	240
How Charles I. came to recognize the assembly of Virginia	241-243
Some account of the first American legislature	243, 244
How Edward Sharpless had part of one ear cut off	245
The case of Captain John Martin	245
How the assembly provided for the education of Indians	246
And for the punishment of drunkards	246
[Pg xix]
And against extravagance in dress	246
How flirting was threatened with the whipping-post	247
And scandalous gossip with the pillory	247
How the minister's salary was assured him	247
How he was warned against too much drinking and card-playing	248
Penalties for Sabbath-breaking	248
Inn-keepers forbidden to adulterate liquors or to charge too
much per gallon or glass	249
A statute against forestalling	249, 250
How Charles I. called the new colony "Our kingdom of
Virginia"	251
How the convivial governor Dr. Pott was tried for stealing
cattle, but pardoned for the sake of his medical services	253
Growth of Virginia from 1624 to 1642	253, 254


The Irish village of Baltimore	255
Early career of George Calvert, first Lord Baltimore	255, 256
How James I. granted him a palatinate in Newfoundland	256
Origin of palatinates	256, 257
Changes in English palatinates	258, 259
The bishopric of Durham	259, 260
Durham and Avalon	260
How Lord Baltimore fared in his colony of Avalon in Newfoundland	261
His letter to the king	262
How he visited Virginia but was not cordially received	263, 264
How a part of Virginia was granted to him and received the
name of Maryland	265
Fate of the Avalon charter	266
Character of the first Lord Baltimore	267
Early career of Cecilius Calvert, second Lord Baltimore	268
How the founding of Maryland introduced into America a
new type of colonial government	269, 270
Ecclesiastical powers of the Lord Proprietor	271
Religious toleration in Maryland	272
The first settlement at St. Mary's	273
Relations with the Indians	274
[Pg xx]
Prosperity of the settlement	275
Comparison of the palatinate government of Maryland with
that of the bishopric of Durham	275-285
The constitution of Durham; the receiver-general	276
Lord lieutenant and high sheriff	276
Chancellor of temporalities	277
The ancient halmote and the seneschal	277
The bishop's council	278
Durham not represented in the House of Commons until
after 1660	278
Limitations upon Durham autonomy	279
The palatinate type in America	280
Similarities between Durham and Maryland; the governor	281
Secretary; surveyor-general; muster master-general; sheriffs	282
The courts	282, 283
The primary assembly	283
Question as to the initiative in legislation	284
The representative assembly	284, 285
Lord Baltimore's power more absolute than that of any king
of England save perhaps Henry VIII	285


William Claiborne and his projects	286
Kent Island occupied by Claiborne	287
Conflicting grants	288
Star Chamber decision and Claiborne's resistance	289
Lord Baltimore's instructions	290
The Virginia council supports Claiborne	290, 291
Complications with the Indians	291, 292
Reprisals and skirmishes	293
Affairs in Virginia; complaints against Governor Harvey	293, 294
Rage of Virginia against Maryland	294, 295
How Rev. Anthony Panton called Mr. Secretary Kemp a
jackanapes	295
Indignation meeting at the house of William Warren	296
Arrest of the principal speakers	296
Scene in the council room	296, 297
How Sir John Harvey was thrust out of the government	297
[Pg xxi]
How King Charles sent him back to Virginia	298
Downfall of Harvey	299
George Evelin sent to Kent Island	299
Kent Island seized by Leonard Calvert	300
The Lords of Trade decide against Claiborne	301
Puritans in Virginia	301, 302
The Act of Uniformity of 1631	303
Puritan ministers sent from New England to Virginia	303
The new Act of Uniformity, 1643	304
Expulsion of the New England ministers	304
Indian massacre of 1644	305
Conflicting views of theodicy	306
Invasion of Maryland by Claiborne and Ingle	306-308
Expulsion of Claiborne and Ingle from Maryland	308
Lord Baltimore appoints William Stone as governor	308
Toleration Act of 1649	309-311
Migration of Puritans from Virginia to Maryland	312
Designs of the Puritans	313
Reluctant submission of Virginia to Cromwell	314
Claiborne and Bennett undertake to settle the affairs of
Maryland	315
Renewal of the troubles	316
The Puritan Assembly and its notion of a toleration act	316
Civil war in Maryland; battle of the Severn, 1655	317
Lord Baltimore is sustained by Cromwell and peace reigns
once more	318

Tidewater Virginia, from a sketch by the author	Frontispiece
Michael Lok's Map, 1582, from Hakluyt's Voyages to America	60
The Palatinate of Maryland, from a sketch by the author	274

By John Fiske


Virginia depicted by an admirer	1
Her domestic animals, game, and song-birds	2
Her agriculture	2, 3
Her nearness to the Northwest Passage	3
Her commercial rivals	3, 4
Not so barren a country as New England	4
Life of body and soul were preserved in Virginia; Mr. Benjamin Symes and his school	5
Worthy Captain Mathews and his household	5
Rapid growth in population	6
Historical lessons in names of Virginia counties	7
Scarcity of royalist names on the map of New England	8, 9
As to the Cavaliers in Virginia; some popular misconceptions	9, 10
Some democratic protests	10, 11
Sweeping statements are inadmissible	11
Difference between Cavaliers and Roundheads was political, not social	12
Popular misconceptions regarding the English nobility; England has never had a noblesse, or upper caste	13
Contrast with France in this respect	13, 14
Importance of the middle class	14
Respect for industry in England	15
The Cavalier exodus	16
Political complexion of Virginia before 1649	16, 17
The great exchange of 1649	17, 18
Political moderation shown in Virginia during the Commonwealth period	18iv
Richard Lee and his family	19
How Berkeley was elected governor by the assembly	20
Lee's visit to Brussels	20
How Charles II. was proclaimed king in Virginia, but not before he had been proclaimed in England	21
The seal of Virginia	22, 23
Significant increase in the size of land grants	23, 24
Arrival of well-known Cavalier families	25
Ancestry of George Washington	25
If the pedigrees of horses, dogs, and fancy pigeons are important, still more so are the pedigrees of men	26
Value of genealogical study to the historian	26
The Washington family tree	27
How Sir William Jones paraphrased the epigram of Alc?us	28
Historical importance of the Cavalier element in Virginia	28
Differences between New England and Virginia were due not to differences in social quality of the settlers, but partly to ecclesiastical and still more to economical circumstances	29, 30
Settlement of New England by the migration of organized congregations	30
Land grants in Massachusetts	31
Township and village	31, 32
Social position of settlers in New England	32
Some merits of the town meeting	33
Its educational value	34
Primogeniture and entail in Virginia	35
Virginia parishes	35
The vestry a close corporation; its extensive powers	36
The county was the unit of representation	37
The county court was virtually a close corporation	38
Powers of the county court	39
The sheriff and his extensive powers	40
The county lieutenant	41
Jefferson's opinion of government by town meeting	42
Court day	42, 43
Summary	43
Virginia prolific in great leaders	44v
How the crude medi?val methods of robbery began to give place to more ingenious modern methods	45
The Navigation Act of 1651	45, 46
Second Navigation Act	46
John Bland's remonstrance	47
Some direct consequences of the Navigation Act	47
Some indirect consequences of the Navigation Act	48
Bland's exposure of the protectionist humbug	49, 50
His own proposition	50, 51
Effect of the Navigation Act upon Virginia and Maryland; disasters caused by low price of tobacco	51, 52
The Surry protest of 1673	52
The Arlington-Culpeper grant	53
Some of its effects	54
Character of Sir William Berkeley	55
Corruption and extortion under his government	56
The Long Assembly, 1661-1676	57
Berkeley's violent temper	57
Beginning of the Indian war	58
Colonel John Washington	59
Affair of the five Susquehannock envoys	60
The killing of the envoys	61
Berkeley's perverseness in not calling out a military force	62
Indian atrocities	62, 63
Nathaniel Bacon and his family	64
His friends William Drummond and Richard Lawrence	65
Bacon's plantation is attacked by the Indians, May, 1676	65
Bacon marches against the Indians and defeats them	66
Election of a new House of Burgesses	66
Arrest of Bacon	67
He is released and goes to lodge at the house of "thoughtful Mr. Lawrence"	67
Bacon is persuaded to make his submission and apologizes to the governor	68, 69
In spite of the governor's unwillingness, the new assembly reforms many abuses	70, 71
How the "Queen of Pamunkey" appeared before the House of Burgesses	72-74
The chairman's rudeness	74vi
Bacon's flight	74
His speedy return	75
How the governor was intimidated	76
Bacon crushes the Susquehannocks while Berkeley flies to Accomac and proclaims him a rebel	76
Bacon's march to Middle Plantation	77
His manifesto	78
His arraignment of Berkeley; he specifies nineteen persons as "wicked counsellors"	80
Oath at Middle Plantation	81
Bacon defeats the Appomattox Indians	82
Startling conversation between Bacon and Goode	82-86
Perilous situation of Bacon	86
The "White Aprons" at Jamestown	87
Bacon's speech at Green Spring	88
Burning of Jamestown	89
Persons who suffered at Bacon's hands	89, 90
Bacon and his cousin	90
Death of Bacon, Oct. 1, 1676	91
Collapse of the rebellion	92
Arrival of royal commissioners, January, 1677	92
Berkeley's outrageous conduct	93
Execution of Drummond	94
Death of Berkeley	95
Significance of the rebellion	96
How far Bacon represented popular sentiment in Virginia	97
Political changes since 1660; close vestries	98, 99
Restriction of the suffrage	100, 101
How the aristocrats regarded Bacon's followers	102, 103
The real state of the case	104
Effect of hard times	104, 105
Populist aspect of the rebellion	106
Its sound aspects	106
Bacon must ever remain a bright and attractive figure	107
A century of political education	108
Robert Beverley, clerk of the House of Burgesses	109
His refusal to give up the journals	110
Arrival of Lord Culpeper as governor	110, 111vii
The plant-cutters' riot of 1682	111, 112
Contracting the currency with a vengeance	112
Culpeper is removed and Lord Howard of Effingham comes to govern in his stead	113
More trouble for Beverley	114
For stupid audacity James II., after all, was outdone by George III.	114, 115
Francis Nicholson comes to govern Virginia and exhibits eccentric manners	115
How James Blair founded William and Mary College	116, 117
How Sir Edmund Andros came as Nicholson's successor and quarrelled with Dr. Blair	118
How young Daniel Parke one Sunday pulled Mrs. Blair out of her pew in church	119
Removal of Andros	119
The Earl of Orkney draws a salary for governing Virginia for the next forty years without crossing the ocean, while the work is done by lieutenant-governors	120
The first of these was Nicholson once more	120
Who removed the capital from Jamestown to Middle Plantation, and called it Williamsburg	121
How the blustering Nicholson, disappointed in love, behaved so badly that he was removed from office	122, 123
Fortunes of the college	123
Indian students	124
Instructions to the housekeeper	125
Horse-racing prohibited	126
Other prohibitions	126
The courtship of Parson Camm; a Virginia Priscilla	127, 128
Some interesting facts about the college	128, 129
Nicholson's schemes for a union of the colonies	129, 130
Maryland after the death of Oliver Cromwell	131
Fuller and Fendall	132
The duty on tobacco	133
Fendall's plot	134
Temporary overthrow of Baltimore's authority	135
Superficial resemblance to the action of Virginia	136
Profound difference in the situations	137viii
Collapse of Fendall's rebellion	138
Arrival of the Quakers	138, 139
The Swedes and Dutch on the Delaware River	139
Augustine Herman	140
He makes a map of Maryland and is rewarded by the grant of Bohemia Manor	141
How the Labadists took refuge in Bohemia Manor	142, 143
How the Duke of York took possession of all the Delaware settlements	143
And granted New Jersey to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret	144
Which resulted in the bringing of William Penn upon the scene	144
Charter of Pennsylvania	145
Boundaries between Penn and Baltimore	145, 146
Old manors in Maryland	146
Life on the manors	147
The court leet and court baron	148
Changes wrought by slavery	148, 149
A fierce spirit of liberty combined with ingrained respect for law	149
Cecilius Calvert and his son Charles	150
Sources of discontent in Maryland	150
A pleasant little family party	151
Conflict between the Council and the Burgesses	151, 152
Burgesses claim to be a House of Commons, but the Council will not admit it	152
How Rev. Charles Nichollet was fined for preaching politics	153
The Cessation Act of 1666	153
Acts concerning the relief of Quakers and the appointment of sheriffs	153, 154
Restriction of suffrage in 1670	154, 155
Death of Cecilius, Lord Baltimore	155
Rebellion of Davis and Pate, 1676; their execution	156
How George Talbot, lord of Susquehanna Manor, slew a revenue collector and was carried to Virginia for trial	157
How his wife took him from jail, and how he was kept hidden until a pardon was secured	158
"A Complaint from Heaven with a Hue and Cry"	159
The anti-Catholic panic of 1689	159
Causes of the panic	160
How John Coode overthrew the palatinate government	161
But did not thereby bring the millennium	162ix
How Nicholson removed the capital from St. Mary's to Annapolis	162, 163
Unpopularity of the establishment of the Church of England	163
Episcopal parsons	164
Exemption of Protestant dissenters from civil disabilities	165
Seymour reprimands the Catholic priests	166
Cruel laws against Catholics	167
Crown requisitions	168
Benedict Calvert, fourth Lord Baltimore, becomes a Protestant and the palatinate is revived	168, 169
Change in the political situation	170
Charles Carroll entertains a plan for a migration to the Mississippi Valley	171
How the seeds of revolution were planted in Maryland	171
End of the palatinate	172, 173
How the history of tobacco has been connected with the history of liberty	174
Rapid growth of tobacco culture in Virginia	175
Legislative attempts to check it	176
Need for cheap labour	176
Indentured white servants	177
How the notion grew up in England that Virginians were descended from convicts; Defoe's novels, a comedy by Mrs. Behn, Postlethwayt's Dictionary, and Gentleman's Magazine	178-180
Who were the indentured white servants	181
Redemptioners	182
Distribution of convicts	183
Prisoners of war	184
Summary	185
Careers of white freedmen	186
Representative Virginia families were not descended from white freedmen	187
Some of the freedmen became small proprietors	187
Some became "mean whites"	188, 189
Development of negro slavery; effect of the treaty of Utrecht	190
Anti-slavery sentiment in Virginia	191x
Theory that negroes were non-human	192
Baptizing a slave did not work his emancipation	193
Negroes as real estate	194
Tax on slaves	194
Treatment of slaves	195, 196
Fears of insurrection	196
Cruel laws	197, 198
Free blacks a source of danger	199
Taking slaves to England; did it work their emancipation?	200
Lord Mansfield's famous decision	201
Jefferson's opinion of slavery	201
Immoralities incident to the system	202, 203
Classes in Virginia society	204
Huguenots in Virginia	204, 205
Influence of the rivers upon society	206
Some exports and imports	207
Some domestic industries	208
Beverley complains of his countrymen as lazy, but perhaps his reproachful tone is a little overdone	210
Absence of town life	210, 211
Futile attempts to make towns by legislation	212
The country store and its treasures	213, 214
Rivers and roads	215
Tobacco as currency	216
Effect upon crafts and trades	217
Effect upon planters' accounts	218
Universal hospitality	219
Visit to a plantation; the negro quarter	220
Other appurtenances	221
The Great House or Home House	222
Brick and wooden houses	222, 223
House architecture	223, 224
The rooms	224
Bedrooms and their furniture	225
The dinner table; napkins and forks	226
Silver plate; wainscots and tapestry	227
The kitchen	228
The abundance of wholesome and delicious food	228, 229
The beverages, native and imported	229, 230
Smyth's picture of the daily life on a plantation	230, 231
Very different picture given by John Mason; the mode of life at Gunston Hall	232-234xi
A glimpse of Mount Vernon	235
Dress of planters and their wives	236
Weddings and funerals	237
Horses and horse-racing	237-239
Fox-hunting	239
Gambling	239, 240
A rural entertainment of the olden time	240, 241
Music and musical instruments	242
The theatre and other recreations	243
Some interesting libraries	243-245
Schools and printing	245, 246
Private free schools	246
Academies and tutors	247
Convicts as tutors	248
Virginians at Oxford	249
James Madison and his tutors	250
Contrast with New England in respect of educational advantages	251
Causes of the difference	252, 253
Illustrations from the history of American intellect	254
Virginia's historians; Robert Beverley	255
William Stith	255, 256
William Byrd	256-258
Jefferson's notes on Virginia; McClurg's Belles of Williamsburg; Clayton the botanist	259
Physicians, their prescriptions and charges	260
Washington's last illness	260
Some Virginia parsons, their tricks and manners	261, 263
Free thinking; superstition and crime	264
Cruel punishments	265
Lawyers	266
A government of laws	267
Some characteristics of Maryland	267-269
How South Carolina was a frontier against the Spaniards	270
How North Carolina was a wilderness frontier	271
The grant of Carolina to eight lords proprietors	272
John Locke and Lord Shaftesbury	272, 273
"Fundamental Constitutions" of Carolina	274xii
The Carolina palatinate different from that of Maryland	275
Titles of nobility	276
Albemarle colony	276
New Englanders at Cape Fear	277
Sir John Yeamans and Clarendon colony	277
The Ashley River colony and the founding of Charleston	278
First legislation in Albemarle	279
Troubles caused by the Navigation Act	280
The trade between Massachusetts and North Carolina	281
Eastchurch and Miller	282
Culpeper's usurpation	283
How Culpeper fared in London	284
How Charleston was moved from Albemarle Point to Oyster Point	285
Seth Sothel's tyranny in Albemarle and his banishment	286, 287
Troubles in Ashley River colony	287
The Scotch at Port Royal	288
A state without laws	289
Reappearance of Sothel, this time as the people's friend	289
His downfall and death	290
Clarendon colony abandoned	290
Philip Ludwell's administration	290, 291
Joseph Archdale and his beneficent rule	291
Sir Nathaniel Johnson and the dissenters	292
Unsuccessful attempt of a French and Spanish fleet upon Charleston	293
Thomas Carey	294
Porter's mission to England	295
Edward Hyde comes to govern North Carolina	296
Carey's rebellion	296, 297
Expansion of the northern colony; arrival of Baron Graffenried with Germans and Swiss; founding of New Berne	297
Accusations against Carey and Porter of inciting the Indians against the colony	297
These accusations are highly improbable and not well supported	298
Survey of Carolina Indians	298-300
Algonquin tribes	298
Sioux tribes; Iroquois tribes	299
Muscogi tribes	300
Algonquin-Iroquois conspiracy against the North Carolina settlements	300xiii
Capture of Lawson and Graffenried by the Tuscaroras; Lawson's horrible death	301
The massacre of September, 1711	302
Aid from Virginia and South Carolina	302, 303
Barnwell defeats the Tuscaroras	303
Crushing defeat of the Tuscaroras by James Moore; their migration to New York	304
Administration of Charles Eden	304, 305
Spanish intrigues with the Yamassees	305
Alliance of Indian tribes against the South Carolinians and nine months' warfare	306
Administration of Robert Johnson	306
The revolution of 1719 in South Carolina; end of the proprietary government in both colonies	308
Contrast between the two colonies	308, 309
Interior of North Carolina contrasted with the coast	310, 311
Unkempt life	311
A genre picture by Colonel Byrd	312, 313
Industries of North Carolina	313
Absence of towns	314, 315
A frontier democracy	315
Segregation and dispersal of Virginia poor whites	316
Spotswood's account of the matter	317
New peopling of North Carolina after 1720; the German immigration	318
Scotch Highlanders and Scotch-Irish	318, 319
Further dispersal of poor whites	319, 320
Barbarizing effects of isolation	321
The settlers of South Carolina, churchmen and dissenters	323
The open vestries	323
South Carolina parish, purely English in its origin, not French like the parishes of Louisiana	324
Free schools	325
Rice and indigo	326
Some characteristics of South Carolina slavery	327, 329
Negro insurrection of 1740	329
Cruelties connected with slavery	330
Social life in Charleston	331
Contrast between the two Carolinas	332, 333
The Spanish frontier and the founding of Georgia	333
James Oglethorpe and his philanthropic schemes	334
Beginnings of Georgia	335, 336
Summary; Cavaliers and Puritans once more	337xiv
The business of piracy has never thriven so greatly as in the seventeenth century	338
Pompey and the pirates	338
Chinese and Malay pirates on the Indian Ocean and Mussulman pirates on the Mediterranean Sea	339
The Scandinavian Vikings cannot properly be termed pirates	339, 340
Sir William Blackstone's remarks about piracy	340
Character of piracy	341
To call the Elizabethan sea-kings pirates is silly and outrageous	341, 342
Features of maritime warfare out of which piracy could grow	342, 343
Privateering	343
Fighting without declaring war	344
Lack of protection for neutral ships	344
Origin of buccaneering; "Brethren of the Coast"	345
Illicit traffic in the West Indies	346
Buccaneers and filibusters	347
The kind of people who became buccaneers	348
The honest man who took to buccaneering to satisfy his creditors	349
The deeds of Olonnois and other wretches	349, 350
Henry Morgan and his evil deeds	350, 351
Alexander Exquemeling and his entertaining book	352
How Morgan captured Maracaibo and Gibraltar in Venezuela	353
The treaty of America of 1670 for the suppression of buccaneering and piracy	353
Sack of Panama by Morgan and his buccaneers	354
How Morgan absconded with most of the booty	355
How English and Spanish governors industriously scotched the snake	355
How the chief of pirates became Sir Henry Morgan, deputy-governor of Jamaica, and hanged his old comrades or sold them to the Spaniards	356
How the treaty of America caused his downfall	357
Decline of buccaneering	357
Pirates of the South Sea	358, 359xv
Plunder of Peruvian towns	360
Effects of the alliance between France and Spain in 1701	360
Pirates in the Bahama Islands and on the Carolina coast	361
Effect of the navigation laws in stimulating piracy	362, 363
Effect of rice culture upon the relations between South Carolina settlers and the pirates	363
Wholesale hanging of pirates at Charleston	364
How pirates swarmed on the North Carolina coast	365
Until Captain Woodes Rogers captured the Island of New Providence in 1718	365
The North Carolina waters furnished the last lair for the pirates	365
How Blackbeard, the last of the pirates, levied blackmail upon Charleston	366, 367
Epidemic character of piracy; cases of Kidd and Bonnet	368
Fate of Bonnet and Blackbeard, and final suppression of piracy	369
Family and early career of Alexander Spotswood	370
He brings the privilege of habeas corpus to Virginia, but wrangles much with his burgesses	371
His energy and public spirit	372
How the Post-Office Act was resisted by the people	373, 375
Disputes as to power of appointing parsons	376
Beginnings of continental politics in America	376
Beginning of the seventy years' struggle with France	377
How the continental situation in America was affected by the war of the Spanish succession	378, 379
Different views of Spotswood and the assembly with regard to sending aid to Carolina	379, 380
How the royal governors became convinced that the thing most needed in English America was a continental government that could impose taxes	381
Franklin's plan for a federal union	381, 383
It was the failure of the colonies to adopt Franklin's plan that led soon afterwards to the Stamp Act	382, 383
How Spotswood regarded the unknown West	383
Attempts to cross the Blue Ridge	384
How the Blue Ridge was crossed by Spotswood	385xvi
Knights of the Golden Horseshoe	386
Spotswood's plan for communicating between Virginia and Lake Erie	387, 388
Condition of the postal service in the English colonies under Spotswood's administration	389
Brief mention of Governors Gooch and Dinwiddie	390
Importance of the Scotch-Irish migration to America	390, 391
In 1611 James I. began colonizing Ulster with settlers from Scotland and England	391
In Ulster they established flourishing manufactures of woollens and linens	392
Which excited the jealousy of rival manufacturers in England	393
Legislation against the Ulster manufacturers	393
Civil disabilities inflicted upon Presbyterians in Ulster	393
These circumstances caused such a migration to America that by 1770 it amounted to more than half a million souls	394
Many Scotch-Irish settled in the Shenandoah Valley, and were closely followed by Germans	395
This Shenandoah population exerted a most powerful democratizing influence upon the colony	396
Jefferson found in them his most powerful supporters	396
Lord Fairfax's home at Greenway Court; Fairfax's affection for Washington	397
How the surveying of Fairfax's frontier estates led Washington on to his public career	398
The advance of Virginians from tidewater to the mountains brought on the final struggle with France	398, 399
Advance of the French from Lake Erie	399
Washington goes to warn them from encroaching upon English territory	399
Westward Growth of Old Virginia, from a sketch by the author	Frontispiece
North Carolina Precincts in 1729, after a map in Hawks's History of North Carolina	276
A Map of ye most Improved Part of Carolina, from Winsor's America, vol. v. p. 351	306

By John Fiske
I.	Difficulty of expressing the Idea of God so that it can be readily understood	35
II.	The Rapid Growth of Modern Knowledge	46
III.	Sources of the Theistic Idea	62
IV.	Development of Monotheism	72
V.	The Idea of God as immanent in the World	81
VI.	The Idea of God as remote from the World	87
VII.	Conflict between the Two Ideas, commonly misunderstood as a Conflict between Religion and Science	97
VIII.	Anthropomorphic Conceptions of God	111
IX.	The Argument from Design	118
X.	Simile of the Watch replaced by Simile of the Flower	128
XI.	The Craving for a Final Cause	134
XII.	Symbolic Conceptions	140
XIII.	The Eternal Source of Phenomena	144
XIV.	The Power that makes for Righteousness	158

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of John Fiske" ***

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