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Title: Index of Project Gutenberg Works on Black History - A 2019 Project Gutenberg Contribution for Black History Month
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Index of Project Gutenberg Works on Black History - A 2019 Project Gutenberg Contribution for Black History Month" ***

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WORKS ON

BLACK HISTORY


CONTENTS

##	THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY, Vol. 1. Jan. 1916	Various
##	THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY, Vol. 2, 1917	Various
##	THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY, Vol. 3, 1918	Various
##	THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY, Vol. 4, 1919	Various
##	THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY, Vol. 5, 1920	Various
##	OUR WORLD, or THE SLAVEHOLDERS DAUGHTER	F. Colburn Adams
##	NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS	Frederick Douglass
##	OTHER ARTICLES BY FREDERICK DOUGLASS	Frederick Douglass
##	MY BONDAGE AND MY FREEDOM	Frederick Douglass
JOHN BROWN	Frederick Douglass
ABOLITION FANATICISM IN NEW YORK	Frederick Douglass
##	THE SOULS OF BLACK FOLK	W.E.B. Du Bois
##	DARKWATER, VOICES FROM WITHIN THE VEIL	W.E.B. Du Bois
##	THE QUEST OF THE SILVER FLEECE	W.E.B. Du Bois
##	THE NEGRO	W.E.B. Du Bois
##	SUPPRESSION OF THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE TO THE USA	W.E.B. Du Bois
THE CONSERVATION OF RACES	W.E.B. Du Bois
##	UP FROM SLAVERY AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY	B.T. Washington
##	THE NEGRO PROBLEM	B.T. Washington
##	A NEGRO EXPLORER AT THE NORTH POLE	B.T. Washington
##	THE FUTURE OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO	B.T. Washington
##	TUSKEGEE & ITS PEOPLE	B.T. Washington
##	SHADOW AND LIGHT	B.T. Washington
##	THE NEGRO IN THE SOUTH	B.T. Washington
THE STORY OF SLAVERY	B.T. Washington
##	THE NEGRO IN THE SOUTH	B.T. Washington
##	FROM SLAVE TO COLLEGE PRESIDENT	Pike
##	UNDERGROUND RAILROAD FROM SLAVERY TO FREEDOM	Siebert
##	THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD	Still
##	CLOTELLE	Brown
##	ESCAPE OF WM. WELLS BROWN FROM SLAVERY	Brown
##	NARRATIVE OF WILLIAM W. BROWN, A FUGITIVE SLAVE	Brown
##	DRED, A TALE OF THE GREAT DISMAL SWAMP	Stowe
##	UNCLE TOM'S CABIN	Stowe
##	STEP BY STEP	American Tract
##	THE IRON FURNACE	Aughey
##	A SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO	Brawley
##	CAPTAIN CANOT, TWENTY YEARS A SLAVER	Canot
##	THE WHITE SLAVES OF ENGLAND	Cobden
##	THE BLACK EXPERIENCE IN AMERICA	Coombs
##	WHERE THE TWAIN MEET	Gaunt
##	FATHER HENSON'S STORY OF HIS LIFE	Henson
##	BLACK REBELLION, FIVE REVOLTS	Higginson
##	THIRTY YEARS A SLAVE	Hughes
##	INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL	Jacobs
##	30 YEARS A SLAVE; 4 YEARS IN THE WHITE HOUSE	Keckley
##	THE SLAVERY QUESTION	Lawrence
##	JOURNAL OF A WEST INDIA PROPRIETOR	Lewis
##	THE NEGRO AND THE NATION	Merriam
##	THE SEA-WITCH	Murray
##	TWELVE YEARS A SLAVE	Northup
##	THE BROTHERS' WAR	Reed
##	THE BOY SLAVES	Reid
##	TWENTY-TWO YEARS A SLAVE	Steward
##	THE STORY OF MATTIE J. JACKSON	Thompson
##	POEMS	Wheatley
LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF HENRY BIBB	Bibb
THE LIFE OF HARRIET TUBMAN	Bradford



TABLES OF CONTENTS OF VOLUMES



POEMS
ON VARIOUS SUBJECTS,
By Phillis Wheatley
(Negro Servant To Mr. John Wheatley, Of Boston, In New-England)
1771


CONTENTS
PREFACE.
TO THE PUBLIC.
P O E M S
TO  M AE C E N A S.
O N  V I R T U E.
TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE, IN NEW-ENGLAND.
TO THE KING’S MOST EXCELLENT MAJESTY. 1768.
ON BEING BROUGHT FROM AFRICA TO AMERICA.
ON THE DEATH OF THE REV. DR. SEWELL, 1769.
ON THE DEATH OF THE REV. MR. GEORGE WHITEFIELD. 1770.
ON THE DEATH OF A YOUNG LADY OF FIVE YEARS OF AGE.
ON THE DEATH OF A YOUNG GENTLEMAN.
TO A LADY ON THE DEATH OF HER HUSBAND.
G O L I A T H  O F  G A T H.
THOUGHTS ON THE WORKS OF PROVIDENCE.
TO A LADY ON THE DEATH OF THREE RELATIONS.
TO A CLERGYMAN ON THE DEATH OF HIS LADY.
AN HYMN TO THE MORNING
AN HYMN TO THE EVENING.
ISAIAH lxiii. 1-8.
ON RECOLLECTION.
ON IMAGINATION.
A FUNERAL POEM ON THE DEATH OF C. E. AN INFANT OF TWELVE MONTHS.
TO CAPTAIN H———D, OF THE 65TH REGIMENT.
TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE WILLIAM, EARL OF DARTMOUTH
O D E  T O  N E P T U N E.
TO A LADY ON HER COMING TO NORTH-AMERICA WITH HER SON, FOR THE RECOVERY OF HER HEALTH.
TO A LADY ON HER REMARKABLE PRESERVATION IN AN HURRICANE IN NORTH-CAROLINA.
TO A LADY AND HER CHILDREN, ON THE DEATH OF HER SON AND THEIR BROTHER.
TO A GENTLEMAN AND LADY ON THE DEATH OF THE LADY’S BROTHER AND SISTER, AND A CHILD OF THE NAME OF AVIS, AGED ONE YEAR.
ON THE DEATH OF DR. SAMUEL MARSHALL. 1771.
TO A GENTLEMAN ON HIS VOYAGE TO GREAT-BRITAIN FOR THE RECOVERY OF HIS HEALTH.
TO THE REV. DR. THOMAS AMORY, ON READING HIS SERMONS ON DAILY DEVOTION, IN WHICH THAT DUTY IS RECOMMENDED AND ASSISTED.
ON THE DEATH OF J. C. AN INFANT.
AN  H Y M N  TO  H U M A N I T Y. TO S. P. G. ESQ;
TO THE HONOURABLE T. H. ESQ; ON THE DEATH OF HIS DAUGHTER.
NIOBE IN DISTRESS FOR HER CHILDREN SLAIN BY APOLLO, FROM OVID’S METAMORPHOSES, BOOK VI. AND FROM A VIEW OF THE PAINTING OF MR. RICHARD WILSON.
TO S. M. A YOUNG AFRICAN PAINTER, ON SEEING HIS WORKS.
TO HIS HONOUR THE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR, ON THE DEATH OF HIS LADY. MARCH 24, 1773.
A FAREWEL TO AMERICA. TO MRS. S. W.
A REBUS, BY I. B.
AN ANSWER TO THE REBUS, BY THE AUTHOR OF THESE POEMS.



NARRATIVE OF THE LIFE OF FREDERICK DOUGLASS
AN AMERICAN SLAVE. WRITTEN BY HIMSELF.


CONTENTS
PREFACE
LETTER FROM WENDELL PHILLIPS, ESQ.
FREDERICK DOUGLASS.
CHAPTER I
CHAPTER II
CHAPTER III
CHAPTER IV
CHAPTER V
CHAPTER VI
CHAPTER VII
CHAPTER VIII
CHAPTER IX
CHAPTER X
CHAPTER XI
APPENDIX
A PARODY



ADDITIONAL PROJECT GUTENBERG
COLLECTED ARTICLES
By Frederick Douglass
CONTENTS
MY ESCAPE FROM SLAVERY
RECONSTRUCTION



MY BONDAGE and MY FREEDOM
By Frederick Douglass


CONTENTS
MY BONDAGE and MY FREEDOM
EDITOR’S PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER I. Childhood
CHAPTER II. Removed from My First Home
CHAPTER III. Parentage
CHAPTER IV. A General Survey of the Slave Plantation
CHAPTER V. Gradual Initiation to the Mysteries of Slavery
CHAPTER VI. Treatment of Slaves on Lloyd’s Plantation
CHAPTER VII. Life in the Great House
CHAPTER VIII. A Chapter of Horrors
CHAPTER IX. Personal Treatment
CHAPTER X. Life in Baltimore
CHAPTER XI. “A Change Came O’er the Spirit of My Dream”
CHAPTER XII. Religious Nature Awakened
CHAPTER XIII. The Vicissitudes of Slave Life
CHAPTER XIV. Experience in St. Michael’s
CHAPTER XV. Covey, the Negro Breaker
CHAPTER XVI. Another Pressure of the Tyrant’s Vice
CHAPTER XVII. The Last Flogging
CHAPTER XVIII. New Relations and Duties
CHAPTER XIX. The Run-Away Plot
CHAPTER XX. Apprenticeship Life
CHAPTER XXI. My Escape from Slavery
LIFE as a FREEMAN
CHAPTER XXII. Liberty Attained
CHAPTER XXIII. Introduced to the Abolitionists
CHAPTER XXIV. Twenty-One Months in Great Britain
CHAPTER XXV. Various Incidents
RECEPTION SPEECH [10]. At Finsbury Chapel, Moorfields, England, May 12,
Dr. Campbell’s Reply
LETTER TO HIS OLD MASTER. [11]. To My Old Master, Thomas Auld
THE NATURE OF SLAVERY. Extract from a Lecture on Slavery, at Rochester,
INHUMANITY OF SLAVERY. Extract from A Lecture on Slavery, at Rochester,
WHAT TO THE SLAVE IS THE FOURTH OF JULY?. Extract from an Oration, at
THE INTERNAL SLAVE TRADE. Extract from an Oration, at Rochester, July
THE SLAVERY PARTY. Extract from a Speech Delivered before the A. A. S.
THE ANTI-SLAVERY MOVEMENT. Extracts from a Lecture before Various
FOOTNOTES



UP FROM SLAVERY: AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY
By Booker T. Washington
CONTENTS
Preface
Introduction
UP FROM SLAVERY
Chapter I	  A Slave Among Slaves
Chapter II	  Boyhood Days
Chapter III	  The Struggle For An Education
Chapter IV	  Helping Others
Chapter V	  The Reconstruction Period
Chapter VI	  Black Race And Red Race
Chapter VII	  Early Days At Tuskegee
Chapter VIII	  Teaching School In A Stable And A Hen-House
Chapter IX	  Anxious Days And Sleepless Nights
Chapter X	  A Harder Task Than Making Bricks Without Straw
Chapter XI	  Making Their Beds Before They Could Lie On Them
Chapter XII	  Raising Money
Chapter XIII	  Two Thousand Miles For A Five-Minute Speech
Chapter XIV	  The Atlanta Exposition Address
Chapter XV	  The Secret Of Success In Public Speaking
Chapter XVI	  Europe
Chapter XVII	     Last Words



THE NEGRO PROBLEM
By Booker T. Washington and Others
CONTENTS
I	Industrial Education for the Negro
Booker T. Washington	7
II	The Talented Tenth
W.E. Burghardt DuBois	31
III	The Disfranchisement of the Negro
Charles W. Chesnutt	77
IV	The Negro and the Law
Wilford H. Smith	125
V	The Characteristics of the Negro People
H.T. Kealing	161
VI	Representative American Negroes
Paul Laurence Dunbar	187
VII	The Negro's Place in American Life at the Present Day
T. Thomas Fortune	211



A NEGRO EXPLORER AT THE NORTH POLE
By Matthew A. Henson
With A Foreword By Robert E. Peary
Rear Admiral, U. S. N., Retired
And An Introduction By Booker T. Washington
CONTENTS
 	page
Foreword	v
Introduction	xv

CHAPTER I
The Early Years: Schoolboy, Cabin-Boy, Seaman, and Lieutenant Peary's Body-Servant—First Trips to the Arctic	1

CHAPTER II
Off for the Pole—How the Other Explorers Looked—The Lamb-Like Esquimos—Arrival at Etah	15

CHAPTER III
Finding of Rudolph Franke—Whitney Landed—Trading and Coaling—Fighting the Ice-packs	26

CHAPTER IV
[x]Preparing for Winter at Cape Sheridan—The Arctic Library	35

CHAPTER V
Making Peary Sledges—Hunting in the Arctic Night—the Excitable Dogs and Their Habits	40

CHAPTER VI
The Peary Plan—a Rain of Rocks—My Friends, the Esquimos	46

CHAPTER VII
Sledging to Cape Columbia—Hot Soldering in Cold Weather	52

CHAPTER VIII
In Camp at Columbia—Literary Igloos—The Magnificent Desolation of the Arctic	62

CHAPTER IX
Ready for the Dash to the Pole—The Commander's Arrival	70

CHAPTER X
Forward! March!	75

CHAPTER XI
[xi]Fighting up the Polar Sea—Held up by the "Big Lead"	78

CHAPTER XII
Pioneering the Way—Breaking Sledges	93

CHAPTER XIII
The Supporting-Parties Begin to Turn Back	103

CHAPTER XIV
Bartlett's Farthest North—His Quiet Good-By	116

CHAPTER XV
The Pole!	127

CHAPTER XVI
The Fast Trek Back to Land	140

CHAPTER XVII
Safe on the Roosevelt—Poor Marvin	145

CHAPTER XVIII
After Musk-Oxen—The Doctor's Scientific Expedition	153

CHAPTER XIX
[xii]The Roosevelt Starts for Home—Esquimo Villages—New Dogs and New Dog Fights	161

CHAPTER XX
Two Narrow Escapes—Arrival at Etah—Harry Whitney—Dr. Cook's Claims	170

CHAPTER XXI
Etah to New York—Coming of Mail and Reporters—Home!	180

Appendix I—Notes on the Esquimos	189

Appendix II—List of Smith Sound Esquimos	196
ILLUSTRATIONS
matthew a. henson	Frontispiece
nothing	facing
page
robert e. peary in his north pole furs	76
the four north pole esquimos	77
camp morris k. jesup at the north pole	122
matthew a. henson immediately after the sledge journey to the pole and back	123
the "roosevelt" in winter quarters at cape sheridan	138
matthew a. henson in his north pole furs, taken after his return to civilization	139



THE FUTURE OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO
By Booker T. Washington
CONTENTS
Chapter I.	Page 3
First appearance of Negroes in America—Rapid increase—Conditions during Civil War—During the reconstruction.

Chapter II.	Page 16
Responsibility of the whole country for the Negro—Progress in the past—Same methods of education do not fit all cases—Proved in the case of the Southern Negro—Illustrations—Lack of money—Comparison between outlay for schools North and South—Duty of North to South.

Chapter III.	Page 42
Decadence of Southern plantation—Demoralization of Negroes natural—No home life before the war—Too much classical education at the start—Lack of practical training—Illustrations—The well-trained slaves now dead—Former plantations as industrial schools—The decayed plantation built up by a former slave—Misunderstanding of industrial education.

Chapter IV.	Page 67
The Negroes' proper use of education—Hayti, Santo Domingo, and Liberia as illustrations of the lack of practical training—Present necessity for union of all forces to further the cause of industrial education—Industrial education not opposed to the higher education—Results of practical training so far—Little or no prejudice against capable Negroes in business in the South—The Negro at first shunned labor as degrading—Hampton and Tuskegee aim to remove this feeling—The South does not oppose industrial education for the Negroes—Address to Tuskegee students setting forth the necessity of steadfastness of purpose.

Chapter V.	Page 106
The author's early life—At Hampton—The inception of the Tuskegee School in 1881—Its growth—Scope—Size at present—Expenses—Purposes—Methods—Building of the chapel—Work of the graduates—Similar schools beginning throughout the South—Tuskegee Negro Conference—The Workers' Conference—Tuskegee as a trainer of teachers.

Chapter VI.	Page 127
The Negro race in politics—Its patriotic zeal in 1776—In 1814—In the Civil War—In the Spanish War—Politics attempted too soon after freedom—Poor leaders—Two parties in the South, the blacks' and the whites'—Not necessarily opposed in interests—The Negro should give up no rights—The same tests for the restriction of the franchise should be applied alike to both blacks and whites—This is not the case—Education and the franchise—The whites must help the blacks to pure votes—Rioting and lynching only to be stopped by mutual confidence.

Chapter VII.	Page 157
Difficulty of fusion—Africa impossible as a refuge because already completely claimed by other nations—Comparison of Negro race with white—Physical condition of the Negro—Present lack of ability to organize—Weaknesses—Ability to work—Trustworthiness—Desire to rise—Obstructions put in the way of Negroes' advancement—Results of oppression—Necessity for encouragement and self-respect—Comparison of Negroes'[Pg x] position and that of the Jews—Lynching—Non-interference of the North—Increase of lynching—Statistics of numbers, races, places, causes of violence—Uselessness of lynching in preventing crime—Fairness in carrying out the laws—Increase of crime among the Negroes—Reason for it—Responsibility of both races.

Chapter VIII.	Page 200
Population—Emigration to the North—Morality North and South—Dangers: 1. incendiary advice; 2. mob violence; 3. discouragement; 4. newspaper exaggeration; 5. lack of education; 6. bad legislation—Negroes must identify with best interests of the South—Unwise missionary work—Wise missionary work—Opportunity for industrial education—The good standing of business-educated Negroes in the South—Religion and morality—Justice and appreciation coming for the Negro race as it proves itself worthy.



TUSKEGEE AND ITS PEOPLE
By Booker T. Washington
CONTENTS
PAGE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION	1
By Booker T. Washington.

PART I
THE SCHOOL AND ITS PURPOSES

I.—PRESENT ACHIEVEMENTS AND GOVERNING IDEALS	19
By Emmett J. Scott, Mr. Washington's Executive Secretary.
II.—RESOURCES AND MATERIAL EQUIPMENT	35
By Warren Logan, Treasurer of the School.
III.—THE ACADEMIC AIMS	56
By Roscoe C. Bruce, Director of the Academic Department.
IV.—WHAT GIRLS ARE TAUGHT, AND HOW	68
By Mrs. Booker T. Washington, Director of Industries for Girls.
V.—HAMPTON INSTITUTE'S RELATION TO TUSKEGEE	87
By Robert R. Moton.

PART II
AUTOBIOGRAPHIES BY GRADUATES OF THE SCHOOL

I.—A COLLEGE PRESIDENT'S STORY	101
By Isaac Fisher, of Pine Bluff, Arkansas.
II.—A SCHOOL PRINCIPAL'S STORY	111
By William H. Holtzclaw, of Utica, Mississippi.
III.—A LAWYER'S STORY	141
By George W. Lovejoy, of Mobile, Alabama.
IV.—A SCHOOL TREASURER'S STORY	152
By Martin A. Menafee, of Denmark, South Carolina.
V.—THE STORY OF A FARMER	164
By Frank Reid, of Dawkins, Alabama.
VI.—THE STORY OF A CARPENTER	173
By Gabriel B. Miller, of Fort Valley, Georgia.
VII.—COTTON-GROWING IN AFRICA	184
By John W. Robinson, of Lome, Togo, West Africa.
VIII.—THE STORY OF A TEACHER OF COOKING	200
By Mary L. Dotson, of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama.
IX.—A WOMAN'S WORK	211
By Cornelia Bowen, of Waugh (Mt. Meigs), Alabama.
X.—UPLIFTING OF THE SUBMERGED MASSES	224
By W. J. Edwards, of Snow Hill, Alabama.
XI.—A DAIRYMAN'S STORY	253
By Lewis A. Smith, of Rockford, Illinois.
XII.—THE STORY OF A WHEELWRIGHT	264
By Edward Lomax, of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama.
XIII.—THE STORY OF A BLACKSMITH	276
By Jubie B. Bragg, of Tallahassee, Florida.
XIV.—A DRUGGIST'S STORY	285
By David L. Johnston, of Birmingham, Alabama.
XV.—THE STORY OF A SUPERVISOR OF MECHANICAL INDUSTRIES	299
By James M. Canty, of Institute P. O., West Virginia.
XVI.—A NEGRO COMMUNITY BUILDER	317
By Russell C. Calhoun, of Eatonville, Florida.
XVII.—THE EVOLUTION OF A SHOEMAKER	338
By Charles L. Marshall, of Cambria, Virginia.
ILLUSTRATIONS
FACING
PAGE
BOOKER T. WASHINGTON	Frontispiece
EMMETT J. SCOTT	20
Mr. Washington's Executive Secretary.
THE COLLIS P. HUNTINGTON MEMORIAL BUILDING	26
WARREN LOGAN	36
Treasurer of the School
THE OFFICE BUILDING IN PROCESS OF ERECTION	50
Student carpenters shown at work.
ROSCOE C. BRUCE	56
Director of the Academic Department.
A PORTION OF THE SCHOOL GROUNDS	64
ANOTHER PORTION OF THE SCHOOL GROUNDS	66
MRS. BOOKER T. WASHINGTON	68
Director of Industries for Girls.
A CLASS IN MILLINERY	76
THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL	94
Standing, left to right: P. C. Parks, Superintendent of Farm; George
W. Carver, Director, Agricultural Department; J. N. Calloway,
Land Extension; John H. Palmer, Registrar; Charles H. Gibson,
Resident Auditor; Edgar J. Penney, Chaplain.
Seated, left to right: Lloyd G. Wheeler, Business Agent; Robert R.
Taylor, Director of Mechanical Industries; John H. Washington,
General Superintendent of Industries; Warren Logan, Treasurer;
Booker T. Washington, Principal; Miss Jane E. Clark, Dean of
Woman's Department; Mrs. Booker T. Washington, Director of Industries
for Girls; and Emmett J. Scott, Secretary to the Principal.
The Director of the Academic Department, Roscoe C. Bruce, and the
Commandant of Cadets, Major J. B. Ramsey, also members of
the Executive Council, were absent when photograph was taken.
THE CARNEGIE LIBRARY BUILDING	108
MORNING AT THE BARNS ON THE SCHOOL FARM	122
Teams of horses and cattle ready to start for the day's work.
STUDENTS PRUNING PEACH-TREES	146
A SILO ON THE FARM	166
Students filling it with fodder corn, steam-power being used.
A MODEL DINING-ROOM	208
From the department where table-service is taught.
THE CULTURE OF BEES	220
Students at work in the apiary.
IN THE DAIRY	254
Students using separators.
STUDENTS AT WORK IN THE HARNESS SHOP	270
AT THE HOSPITAL	294
A corner in the boys' ward.
IN THE TIN SHOP	300
STUDENTS CANNING FRUIT	308
STARTING A NEW BUILDING	314
Student masons laying the foundation in brick.
GIRLS GARDENING	344



SHADOW and LIGHT
AN AUTOBIOGRAPHY
With Reminiscences Of The Last And Present Century.
By Mifflin Wistar Gibbs
With An Introduction By Booker T. Washington
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I	3	Parents, School and Teacher—Foundation of the Negroes' Mechanical Knowledge—First Brick A. M. E. Church—Bishop Allen—Olive Cemetery—Harriet Smith Home—"Underground Railroad"—Incidents on the Road—William and Ellen Craft—William Box Brown.
CHAPTER II	15	Nat Turner's Insurrection—Experience on a Maryland Plantation—First Street Cars in Philadelphia—Anti-Slavery Meetings—Amusing Incidents—Opposition of Negro Churches—Kossuth Celebration, and the Unwelcome Guest.
CHAPTER III	29	Cinguez, the Hero of Armistead Captives—The Threshold of Man's Estate—My First Lecturing Tour with Frederic Douglass—His "Life and Times"—Pen Picture of George William Curtis of Ante-Bellum Conditions—Harriet Beecher Stowe, Lucretia Mott, and Frances E. Harper, a Noble Band of Women—"Go Do Some Great Thing"—Journey to California—Incidents at Panama.
CHAPTER IV	40	Arrival at San Francisco—Getting Domiciled and Seeking Work—Strike of White Employees—Lester & Gibbs, Importers—Assaulted in Our Store—First Protest from the Colored Men of California—Poll Tax.
CHAPTER V	51	"Vigilance Committee" and Lynch Law at "Fort Gunny"—Murder of James King, of William—A Paradox to Present Conditions.
CHAPTER VI	59	Gold Discovery in British Columbia—Incidents on Shipboard and Arrival at Victoria—National Unrest in 1859—"Irrepressible Conflict"—Garrison and Douglass—Harriet Beecher Stowe and Frances Ellen Harper—John Brown of Harper's Ferry—"Fugitive Slave Law"—Flight to Canada.
CHAPTER VII	74	Abraham Lincoln President—Rebellion Inaugurated—Success of the Union Army—Re-Election of Lincoln—Bravery and Endurance of Negro Soldiers—Assassination of Lincoln—Lynching Denounced by Southern Governors and Statesmen—Words of Wisdom from St. Pierre de Couberton.
CHAPTER VIII	85	My First Entry Into Political Life—Intricacies of the Ballot—Number of Negro Schools, Pupils and Amount of School Property in 1898—Amendment to Constitution and Interview with Vice-President Schuyler Colfax at Victoria, B. C.—William Lloyd Garrison, Jr., and James Russell Lowell on the Right to Vote.
CHAPTER IX	93	Philip A. Bell, a Veteran Editor of the "Negro Press"—British Columbia, Its Early History, Efforts for Annexation to the United States—Meeting with Lady Franklin, Widow of Sir John Franklin, the Arctic Explorer, in 1859—Union of British Columbia with the Dominion of Canada in 1868, the Political Issue—Queen Charlotte Island—Anthracite Coal Company—Director, Contractor and Shipper of First Cargo of Anthracite Coal on the Pacific Coast—Indians and Their Peculiarities.
CHAPTER X	107	An Incident of Peril—My Return to the United States in 1869—Thoughts and Feelings En Route—Entered Oberlin Law College and Graduated—Visit to my Brother, J. C. Gibbs, Secretary of State of Florida—A Delegate to the National Convention of Colored Men at Charleston, S. C.—"Gratitude Expensive"—The Trend of Republican Leaders—Contribution of Southern White People for Negro Education—Views of a Leading Democrat.
CHAPTER XI	122	President of National Convention at Nashville, Tenn., in 1876—Pen and Ink Sketch by H. V. Redfield of "Cincinnati Commercial"—Colored Leaders Desire to Fraternize for Race Protection—William H. Grey, H. B. Robinson, and J. H. Johnson, of Arkansas, Leaders and Planters—My Arrival at Little Rock, May, 1871—Reading of Local Statutes in the Law Office of Benjamin & Barnes—"Wheeler & Gibbs," Attorneys-at-Law.
CHAPTER XII	134	Politics and Politicians—Disruption of the Republicans in Arkansas—"Minstrels and Brindle Tails"—Early Canvassing in the South, with Its Peculiarities—Ku Klux Visits—My Appointment as County Attorney and Election as Municipal Judge—Hon. John Allen, of Mississippi, His Descriptive Anecdote.
CHAPTER XIII	145	Lowering Cloud on Righteous Rule—Comparison of Negro Progress—Sir Walter Scott in His Notes on English History—George C. Lorimer, a Noted Divine—Educational Solution of the Race Problem—Baron Russell, Lord Chief Justice of England—Civil War in Arkansas—Expulsion of Governor Baxter and Instalment of Governor Brooks at the State Houses—Stirring Episodes—"Who Shall Bell the Cat?"—Extraordinary Session of the Legislature—My Issue of a Search Warrant for the Seal of the State—Recognition of Baxter by the President.
CHAPTER XIV	158	Arkansas Constitutional Convention and New Constitution Adopted—Augustus H. Garland Elected Governor—My Letter from Madagascar on Learning of His Demise—General Grant's Nomination in 1872 at the Academy of Music, Philadelphia—Oliver P. Morton, of Indiana—William H. Gray, of Arkansas—R. B. Elliot, of South Carolina—"Henry at Ajincourt"—Study of Obsolete Languages Versus Industrial Education—Views of Lord Rosebery, ex-Premier of England—Also of Washington Post—United States Have Supreme Advantages for the Negro.
CHAPTER XV	173	Presidential Elector in 1876, Receiving the Highest Vote—President Hayes, His Yearnings and Accomplishments—Protest Against Lawlessness by the Negroes in State Conventions—Negro Exodus from the Southern to the Western States in 1878—Secretary William Windom's Letter—Hon J. C. Rapier, of Alabama, and Myself Appointed by Secretary Windom to Visit Western States and Report.
CHAPTER XVI	185	Appointed by the President in 1877 Register of U. S. Lands—Robert J. Ingersoll on the Benignity of Homestead Law—General Grant's Tour Around the World and His Arrival at Little Rock, 1879—A Guest at the Banquet Given Him—Response to the Toast, "The Possibilities of American Citizenship"—Roscoe Conkling's Speech Nominating General Grant for Third Term—Bronze Medal as one of the Historic "306" at the National Convention of 1880—The Manner of General Grant's Defeat for Nomination and Garfield's Success—Character Sketches of Hon. James G. Blaine, Ingersoll's Mailed Warrior and Plumed Knight—Hon Grover Cleveland.
CHAPTER XVII	195	Honorary Commissioner for the Colored Exhibits of the World's Exposition at New Orleans, La.—Neglected Opportunities—Important Factors Necessary to Recognition.
CHAPTER XVIII	201	Effort of Henry Brown, of Oberlin, Ohio, to Establish "Schools of Trade"—Call for a Conference of Leading Colored Men in 1885—Industrial Fair at Pine Bluff, Ark.—Captain Thompson, of the "Capital Guards," a Colored Military Company—Meeting of Prominent Leaders at New Orleans—The Late N. W. Cuney, of Texas—Contented Benefactions from Christian Churches.
CHAPTER XIX	215	The Reunion of General Grant's "306"—Ferdinand Havis, of Pine Bluff—Compromise and Disfranchisement—Progress of the Negro—"Decoration Day"—My Letter to the "Gazette"—Commission to Sell Lots of the Hot Springs Reservation—Twelve Years in the Land Service of the United States.
CHAPTER XX	223	My Appointment as U. S. Consul to Tamatave, Madagascar—My Arrival in France En Route to Paris—Called on Ambassador Porter and Consul Gowdy Relative to My "Exequator"—Visited the Louvre, the Famous Gallery of Paintings—"Follies Bergere," or Variety Theater—The "Dome des Invalids" or the Tomb of the Great Napoleon—Mrs. Mason, of Arkansas and Washington, in Paris—Marseilles and "Hotel du Louvre"—Embarkation on French Ship "Pie Ho" for Madagascar—Scenes and Incidents En Route—"Port Said"—Visit to the "Mosque," Mohammedan Place of Worship.
CHAPTER XXI	236	Suez Canal—The Red Sea—Pharaoh and His Hosts—Their Waterloo—Children of Israel—Travel by Sea—Arrival and Landing at Madagascar—Bubonic Plague—My Letter From Madagascar.
CHAPTER XXII	250	Island of Madagascar—Origin and Character of the Inhabitants—Their Religion and Superstitions—Physical Appearance of Madagascar—A Word Painting of Antananarivo, the Capital, by Cameron—Forms of Government—Queens of Madagascar—Slavery and Forced Labor.
CHAPTER XXIII	265	Introduction of the Christian Religion—Printing the Bible, Edict by Queen Ranavalona Against It—The New Religion "a Cloth of a Pattern She Did Not Like"—Asked the Missionaries, "Can You Make Soap?"—"Dark Days"—Persecutions and Executions for a Quarter of a Century—Examples of Christian Martyrs—Death of Queen Ranavalona—Permanent Establishment of the Christian Religion—Self-denial and Heroic Service of the Roman Catholics—Native Race Protection Committee—Forced Labor Abolished.
CHAPTER XXIV	282	Cuba and the Philippines—Their Acquisition Under the Plea of Relief From Spanish Misrule—Aguinaldo, Leader of the Filipinos—The Fidelity and Bravery of the American Negro in the Spanish War—Attestation by Many Witnesses—Industrial Education—Othello's Occupation Gone When Polls are Closed.
CHAPTER XXV	298	Opposition Possibly Beneficent—President McKinley's Order for Enlistment of Colored Soldiers—General Grosvenor's Tribute—Fifteen Thousand in the Spanish War—U. S. Supreme Court vs. The Negro—The Basis of Congressional Representation.
CHAPTER XXVI	306	Departure from Madagascar—Memories—Governor General's Farewell Letter—Madagascar Branch of the Smithsonian Institute—Wild Animals, a Consul's Burden—Descriptive Letter to State Department.
CHAPTER XXVII	312	Leave-taking, its Jollity and Sadness—Arrival at Camp Aden, Arabia—An Elysium for the Toper—Whisky Was Plenty, But the Water Was Out—Pleasant Visit to U. S. Consul Cunningham, of Knoxville, Tenn.—Arrival at Suez—My Visit to the U. S. Cruiser "New York"—The Urbanity of Captain Rogers—Suez Canal—Port Said—"Mal de Mer"—Marseilles to Paris—Across the English Channel to London.
CHAPTER XXVIII	320	My First Visit to the Land of Wilberforce and Clarkson—Excursion on the Thames—Bank of England—Visited Towers of London—Beauchamp Tower With Its Sad Inscriptions—Arrival at New York—National Negro Business Men's League Convention at Chicago—Booker T. Washington President—Many Talented Business Men in Attendance.
CHAPTER XXIX	327	Visit to President McKinley at Canton, Ohio—His Assassination at Buffalo—The Assassin Struck Down by James Parker—President's Death—The Nation in Tears—A Christian Statesman—A Lover of Justice—Crucial Epochs of Our Country's History, the Negro at the Fore.
CHAPTER XXX	336	President Roosevelt—His Imperial Honesty—Ex-Governor Jones, of Alabama—Advance of Justice in Our Country—Status a Half-Century Ago—Theodore Parker's Arraignment—Eulogy by Ralph Waldo Emerson.
CHAPTER XXXI	343	Booker T. Washington a Guest at the White House—Northern and Southern Press Comments—The Latter Not Typical of the Best Element of Southern Opinion.
CHAPTER XXXII	361	Washington City, the American Mecca—Ante-room at the White House—The Diary of an Office Seeker—William, the Innocent—William, the Croker—Colored People of the District of Columbia—Colored Press of the District.
CHAPTER XXXIII	269	Howard University—Public Schools—R. H. Terrell Appointed to a Judgship of the District—Unlettered Pioneers—Conclusions.
ILLUSTRATIONS.
1. M. W. Gibbs	Front.
2. Richard Allen	8
3. Wm. Lloyd Garrison	18
4. Frederick Douglass	32
5. Booker T. Washington	44
6. H. M. Turner	50
7. Geo. H. White	58
8. J. M. Langston	70
9. Abraham Lincoln	74
10. W. B. Derrick	80
11. Alexander Walters	92
12. H. P. Cheatham	104
13. Edward E. Cooper	118
14. Judson Lyons	128
15. Powell Clayton	140
16. P. B. S. Pinchback	149
17. A. H. Garland	158
18. J. A. Booker	172
19. I. G Ish	175
20. J. P. Green	183
21. P. L. Dunbar	199
22. B. K. Bruce	204
23. T. T. Fortune	210
24. W. A. Pledger	220
25. John C. Dancy	228
26. Abram Grant	253
27. J. E. Bush	263
28. J. P. Robinson	272
29. Martyrs	274
30. Chester W. Keatts	284
31. J. T. Settle	294
32. Justice Harlan	302
33. Charles W. Chestnut	312
34. William McKinley	327
35. James B. Parker	331
36. President Roosevelt	336
37. Secretary Cortelyou	341
38. W. Calvin Chase	367
39. R. H. Terrill	370



THE NEGRO IN THE SOUTH
Being the William Levi Bull
Lectures for the Year 1907
By Booker T. Washington And W.E. Burghardt Dubois
CONTENTS
I.	The Economic Development of the Negro Race in Slavery
By Booker T. Washington	7
II.	The Economic Development of the Negro Race since its Emancipation
By Booker T. Washington	43
III.	The Economic Revolution in the South
By W.E. Burghardt DuBois	77
IV.	Religion in the South
By W.E. Burghardt DuBois	123
 	Notes to Chapters III and IV	193



THE SOULS OF BLACK FOLK
By W.E.B. Du Bois


CONTENTS

CHAPTER
 	The Forethought
I.  	Of Our Spiritual Strivings
II.  	Of the Dawn of Freedom
III.  	Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others
IV.  	Of the Meaning of Progress
V.  	Of the Wings of Atalanta
VI.  	Of the Training of Black Men
VII.  	Of the Black Belt
VIII.  	Of the Quest of the Golden Fleece
IX.  	Of the Sons of Master and Man
X.  	Of the Faith of the Fathers
XI.  	Of the Passing of the First-Born
XII.  	Of Alexander Crummell
XIII.  	Of the Coming of John
XIV.  	Of the Sorrow Songs
 	The Afterthought



DARKWATER
Voices from within the Veil
By W.E.B. Du Bois
CONTENTS
POSTSCRIPT
Credo
I	THE SHADOW OF YEAR
A Litany at Atlanta
II	THE SOULS OF WHITE FOLK
The Riddle of the Sphinx
III	THE HANDS OF ETHIOPIA
The Princess of the Hither Isles
IV	OF WORK AND WEALTH
The Second Coming
V	"THE SERVANT IN THE HOUSE"
Jesus Christ in Texas
VI	OF THE RULING OF MEN
The Call
VII	THE DAMNATION OF WOMEN
Children of the Moon
VIII	THE IMMORTAL CHILD
Almighty Death
IX	OF BEAUTY AND DEATH
The Prayers of God
X	THE COMET
A Hymn to the Peoples



THE QUEST OF THE SILVER FLEECE
By W.E.B. Du Bois
1911
CONTENTS
Note from the Author
One	DREAMS
Two	THE SCHOOL
Three	MISS MARY TAYLOR
Four	TOWN
Five	ZORA
Six	COTTON
Seven	THE PLACE OF DREAMS
Eight	MR. HARRY CRESSWELL
Nine	THE PLANTING
Ten	MR. TAYLOR CALLS
Eleven	THE FLOWERING OF THE FLEECE
Twelve	THE PROMISE
Thirteen	MRS. GREY GIVES A DINNER
Fourteen	LOVE
Fifteen	REVELATION
Sixteen	THE GREAT REFUSAL
Seventeen	THE RAPE OF THE FLEECE
Eighteen	THE COTTON CORNER
Nineteen	THE DYING OF ELSPETH
Twenty	THE WEAVING OF THE SILVER FLEECE
Twenty-one	THE MARRIAGE MORNING
Twenty-two	MISS CAROLINE WYNN
Twenty-three	THE TRAINING OF ZORA
Twenty-four	THE EDUCATION OF ALWYN
Twenty-five	THE CAMPAIGN
Twenty-six	CONGRESSMAN CRESSWEL
Twenty-seven	THE VISION OF ZORA
Twenty-eight	THE ANNUNCIATION
Twenty-nine	A MASTER OF FATE
Thirty	THE RETURN OF ZORA
Thirty-one	A PARTING OF WAYS
Thirty-two	ZORA'S WAY
Thirty-three	THE BUYING OF THE SWAMP
Thirty-four	THE RETURN OF ALWYN
Thirty-five	THE COTTON MILL
Thirty-six	THE LAND
Thirty-seven	THE MOB
Thirty-eight	ATONEMENT



THE NEGRO
By W.E.B. Du Bois


CONTENTS
I	AFRICA
II	THE COMING OF BLACK MEN
III	ETHIOPIA AND EGYPT
IV	THE NIGER AND ISLAM
V	GUINEA AND CONGO
VI	THE GREAT LAKES AND ZYMBABWE
VII	THE WAR OF RACES AT LAND'S END
VIII	AFRICAN CULTURE
IX	THE TRADE IN MEN
X	THE WEST INDIES AND LATIN AMERICA
XI	THE NEGRO IN THE UNITED STATES
XII	THE NEGRO PROBLEMS
SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING
MAPS
The Physical Geography of Africa
Ancient Kingdoms of Africa
Races in Africa
Distribution of Negro Blood, Ancient and Modern



THE SUPPRESSION OF THE AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADE
TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
1638-1870
Volume I, Harvard Historical Studies
1896


CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
Introductory
1.	Plan of the Monograph	9
2.	The Rise of the English Slave-Trade	9

CHAPTER II
The Planting Colonies
3.	Character of these Colonies	15
4.	Restrictions in Georgia	15
5.	Restrictions in South Carolina	16
6.	Restrictions in North Carolina	19
7.	Restrictions in Virginia	19
8.	Restrictions in Maryland	22
9.	General Character of these Restrictions	23

CHAPTER III
The Farming Colonies
10.	Character of these Colonies	24
11.	The Dutch Slave-Trade	24
12.	Restrictions in New York	25
13.	Restrictions in Pennsylvania and Delaware	28
14.	Restrictions in New Jersey	32
15.	General Character of these Restrictions	33

CHAPTER IV
The Trading Colonies
16.	Character of these Colonies	34
17.	New England and the Slave-Trade	34
18.	Restrictions in New Hampshire	36
19.	Restrictions in Massachusetts	37
20.	Restrictions in Rhode Island	40
21.	Restrictions in Connecticut	43
22.	General Character of these Restrictions	44

CHAPTER V
The Period of the Revolution, 1774–1787 6
23.	The Situation in 1774	45
24.	The Condition of the Slave-Trade	46
25.	The Slave-Trade and the "Association"	47
26.	The Action of the Colonies	48
27.	The Action of the Continental Congress	49
28.	Reception of the Slave-Trade Resolution	51
29.	Results of the Resolution	52
30.	The Slave-Trade and Public Opinion after the War	53
31.	The Action of the Confederation	56

CHAPTER VI
The Federal Convention, 1787
32.	The First Proposition	58
33.	The General Debate	59
34.	The Special Committee and the "Bargain"	62
35.	The Appeal to the Convention	64
36.	Settlement by the Convention	66
37.	Reception of the Clause by the Nation	67
38.	Attitude of the State Conventions	70
39.	Acceptance of the Policy	72

CHAPTER VII
Toussaint L'Ouverture and Anti-Slavery Effort, 1787–1807
40.	Influence of the Haytian Revolution	74
41.	Legislation of the Southern States	75
42.	Legislation of the Border States	76
43.	Legislation of the Eastern States	76
44.	First Debate in Congress, 1789	77
45.	Second Debate in Congress, 1790	79
46.	The Declaration of Powers, 1790	82
47.	The Act of 1794	83
48.	The Act of 1800	85
49.	The Act of 1803	87
50.	State of the Slave-Trade from 1789 to 1803	88
51.	The South Carolina Repeal of 1803	89
52.	The Louisiana Slave-Trade, 1803–1805	91
53.	Last Attempts at Taxation, 1805–1806	94
54.	Key-Note of the Period	96

CHAPTER VIII
The Period of Attempted Suppression, 1807–1825 7
55.	The Act of 1807	97
56.	The First Question: How shall illegally imported Africans be disposed of?	99
57.	The Second Question: How shall Violations be punished?	104
58.	The Third Question: How shall the Interstate Coastwise Slave-Trade be protected?	106
59.	Legislative History of the Bill	107
60.	Enforcement of the Act	111
61.	Evidence of the Continuance of the Trade	112
62.	Apathy of the Federal Government	115
63.	Typical Cases	120
64.	The Supplementary Acts, 1818–1820	121
65.	Enforcement of the Supplementary Acts,1818–1825	126

CHAPTER IX
The International Status of the Slave-Trade, 1783–1862
66.	The Rise of the Movement against the Slave-Trade,1788–1807	133
67.	Concerted Action of the Powers, 1783–1814	134
68.	Action of the Powers from 1814 to 1820	136
69.	The Struggle for an International Right of Search, 1820–1840	137
70.	Negotiations of 1823–1825	140
71.	The Attitude of the United States and the State of the Slave-Trade	142
72.	The Quintuple Treaty, 1839–1842	145
73.	Final Concerted Measures, 1842–1862	148

CHAPTER X
The Rise of the Cotton Kingdom, 1820–1850
74.	The Economic Revolution	152
75.	The Attitude of the South	154
76.	The Attitude of the North and Congress	156
77.	Imperfect Application of the Laws	159
78.	Responsibility of the Government	161
79.	Activity of the Slave-Trade,1820–1850	163

CHAPTER XI
The Final Crisis, 1850–1870 8
80.	The Movement against the Slave-Trade Laws	168
81.	Commercial Conventions of 1855–1856	169
82.	Commercial Conventions of 1857–1858	170
83.	Commercial Convention of 1859	172
84.	Public Opinion in the South	173
85.	The Question in Congress	174
86.	Southern Policy in 1860	176
87.	Increase of the Slave-Trade from 1850 to 1860	178
88.	Notorious Infractions of the Laws	179
89.	Apathy of the Federal Government	182
90.	Attitude of the Southern Confederacy	187
91.	Attitude of the United States	190

CHAPTER XII
The Essentials in the Struggle
92.	How the Question Arose	193
93.	The Moral Movement	194
94.	The Political Movement	195
95.	The Economic Movement	195
96.	The Lesson for Americans	196

APPENDICES
A.	A Chronological Conspectus of Colonial and State Legislation restricting the African Slave-Trade, 1641–1787	199
B.	A Chronological Conspectus of State, National, and International Legislation, 1788–1871	234
C.	Typical Cases of Vessels engaged in the American Slave-Trade, 1619–1864	306
D.	Bibliography	316

INDEX	347



THE NEGRO IN THE SOUTH
Being the William Levi Bull
Lectures for the Year 1907
By Booker T. Washington
Of the Tuskeegee Normal and Industrial Institute
and
W.E. Burghardt Dubois
Of the Atlanta University
CONTENTS
I.	The Economic Development of the Negro Race in Slavery
By Booker T. Washington	7
II.	The Economic Development of the Negro Race since its Emancipation
By Booker T. Washington	43
III.	The Economic Revolution in the South
By W.E. Burghardt DuBois	77
IV.	Religion in the South
By W.E. Burghardt DuBois	123
 	Notes to Chapters III and IV	193



OUR WORLD:
OR, THE SLAVEHOLDER'S DAUGHTER.
By F. Colburn Adams
1855.
CONTENTS
PREFACE.
CHAPTER I.	MARSTON'S PLANTATION.
CHAPTER II.	HOW A NIGHT WAS SPENT ON MARSTON'S PLANTATION.
CHAPTER III.	THINGS ARE NOT SO BRIGHT AS THEY SEEM.
CHAPTER IV.	AN UNEXPECTED CONFESSION.
CHAPTER V.	THE MAROONING PARTY.
CHAPTER VI.	ANOTHER SCENE IN SOUTHERN LIFE.
CHAPTER VII.	"BUCKRA-MAN VERY UNCERTAIN."
CHAPTER VIII.	A CLOUD OF MISFORTUNE HANGS OVER THE PLANTATION.
CHAPTER IX.	WHO IS SAFE AGAINST THE POWER?
CHAPTER X.	ANOTHER SHADE OF THE PICTURE.
CHAPTER XI.	MRS. ROSEBROOK'S PROJECT.
CHAPTER XII.	ELDER PEMBERTON PRAISEWORTHY CHANGES HIS BUSINESS.
CHAPTER XIII.	A FATHER TRIES TO BE A FATHER.
CHAPTER XIV.	IN WHICH THE EXTREMES ARE PRESENTED.
CHAPTER XV.	A SCENE OF MANY LIGHTS.
CHAPTER XVI.	ANOTHER PHASE OF THE PICTURE.
CHAPTER XVII.	PLEASANT DEALINGS WITH HUMAN PROPERTY.
CHAPTER XVIII.	A NOT UNCOMMON SCENE SLIGHTLY CHANGED.
CHAPTER XIX.	THEY ARE ALL GOING TO BE SOLD.
CHAPTER XX.	LET US FOLLOW POOR HUMAN NATURE TO THE MAN SHAMBLES.
CHAPTER XX.	A FATHER'S TRIALS.
CHAPTER XXI.	WE CHANGE WITH FORTUNE.
CHAPTER XXII.	THE VICISSITUDES OF A PREACHER.
CHAPTER XXIII.	HOW WE MANUFACTURE POLITICAL FAITH.
CHAPTER XXIV.	MR. M'FADDEN SEES SHADOWS IN THE FUTURE.
CHAPTER XXV.	HOW THEY STOLE THE PREACHER.
CHAPTER XXVI.	COMPETITION IN HUMAN THINGS.
CHAPTER XXVII.	THE PRETTY CHILDREN ARE TO BE SOLD.
CHAPTER XXVIII.	NATURE SHAMES ITSELF.
CHAPTER XXX.	THE VISION OF DEATH HAS PAST.
CHAPTER XXXI.	A FRIEND IS WOMAN.
CHAPTER XXXII.	MARSTON IN PRISON.
CHAPTER XXXIII.	VENDERS OF HUMAN PROPERTY ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS MENTAL CAPRICES.
CHAPTER XXXIV.	A COMMON INCIDENT SHORTLY TOLD.
CHAPTER XXXV.	THE CHILDREN ARE IMPROVING.
CHAPTER XXXVI.	WORKINGS OF THE SLAVE SYSTEM.
CHAPTER XXXVII.	AN ITEM IN THE COMMON CALENDAR.
CHAPTER XXXVIII.	IN WHICH REGRETS ARE SHOWN OF LITTLE WORTH.
CHAPTER XXXIX.	HOW WE SHOULD ALL BE FORGIVING.
CHAPTER XL.	CONTAINING VARIOUS MATTERS.
CHAPTER XLI.	NICHOLAS'S SIMPLE STORY.
CHAPTER XLII.	HE WOULD DELIVER HER FROM BONDAGE.
CHAPTER XLIII.	OTHER PHASES OF THE SUBJECT.
CHAPTER XLIV.	HOW DADDY BOB DEPARTED.
CHAPTER XLV.	HOW SLAVEHOLDERS FEAR EACH OTHER.
CHAPTER XLVI.	SOUTHERN ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE.
CHAPTER XLVII.	PROSPERITY THE RESULT OF JUSTICE.
CHAPTER XLVIII.	IN WHICH THE FATE OF FRANCONIA IS SEEN.
CHAPTER XLIX.	IN WHICH IS A SAD RECOGNITION.
CHAPTER L.	IN WHICH A DANGEROUS PRINCIPLE IS ILLUSTRATED.
CHAPTER LI.	A CONTINUATION OF THE LAST CHAPTER.
CHAPTER LII.	IN WHICH ARE PLEASURES AND DISAPPOINTMENTS.
CHAPTER LIII.	A FAMILIAR SCENE, IN WHICH PRINGLE BLOWERS HAS BUSINESS.
CHAPTER LIV.	IN WHICH ARE DISCOVERIES AND PLEASANT SCENES.
CHAPTER LV.	IN WHICH IS A HAPPY MEETING, SOME CURIOUS FACTS DEVELOPED, AND CLOTILDA'S HISTORY DISCLOSED.
CHAPTER LVI.	IN WHICH A PLOT IS DISCLOSED, AND THE MAN-SELLER MADE TO PAY THE PENALTY OF HIS CRIMES.



THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY
VOL. I., No. 1 JANUARY, 1916
Edited By Carter G. Woodson


CONTENTS
Carter G. Woodson: The Negroes of Cincinnati Prior to the Civil War W. B. Hartgrove: The Story of Maria Louise Moore and Fannie M. Richards Monroe N. Work: The Passing Tradition and the African Civilization A. O. Stafford: The Mind of the African Negro as reflected in his Proverbs Documents:
What the Negro was thinking during the Eighteenth Century.
Letters showing the Rise and Progress of the early Negro Churches of Georgia and The West Indies.
Reviews of Books:
Steward's Haitian Revolution;
Cromwell's The Negro in American History;
Ellis's Negro Culture in West Africa;
and Woodson's The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861.
Notes
VOL. I., NO. 2, APRIL, 1916
CONTENTS
Kelly Miller: The Historic Background of the Negro Physician W. B. Hartgrove: The Negro Soldier in the American Revolution C. G. Woodson: Freedom and Slavery in Appalachian America A. O. Stafford: Antar, The Arabian Negro Warrior, Poet and Hero Documents:
Eighteenth Century Slaves As Advertised By Their Masters;
Learning a Modern Language;
Learning to Read and Write;
Educated Negroes;
Slaves in Good Circumstances;
Negroes Brought from The West Indies;
Various Kinds of Servants;
Negro Privateers and Soldiers Prior to The American Revolution;
Relations Between the Slaves and the British During The Revolutionary War;
Relations Between the Slaves And the French During The Colonial Wars;
Colored Methodist Preachers Among the Slaves;
Slaves in Other Professions;
Close Relations of the Slaves and Indentured Servants.
Reviews of Books:
Dubois's The Negro;
Roman's The American Civilization and the Negro;
Henry's The Police Control of the Slave in South Carolina;
Steward and Steward's Gouldtown.
Notes How The Public Received The Journal Of Negro History Various Letters and Reviews
VOL. I., NO. 3, JUNE, 1916
CONTENTS
John H. Russell, Ph.D.: Colored Freemen as Slave Owners in Virginia John H. Paynter, A.M.: The Fugitives of the Pearl Benjamin Brawley: Lorenzo Dow Louis R. Mehlinger: The Attitude Of The Free Negro Toward African Colonization Documents:
Transplanting Free Negroes to Ohio From 1815 to 1858:
Blacks and Mulattoes,
New Style Colonization,
Freedom in a Free State,
The Randolph Slaves,
The Republic of Liberia.
A Typical Colonization Convention:
Convention of Free Colored People,
Emigration of the Colored Race,
Circular, Address to the Free Colored People of the State of Maryland,
Proceedings of the Convention of Free Colored People of the State of Maryland
Reviews of Books:
Abel's The Slaveholding Indians. Volume I: As Slaveholder and Secessionist;
George's The Political History of Slavery in the United States;
Clark's The Constitutional Doctrines of Justice Harlan;
Thompson's Reconstruction in Georgia, Economic, Social, Political, 1865--1872
Notes

VOL. I., NO. 4, OCTOBER, 1916
CONTENTS
C. E. Pierre: The Work of The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts among the Negroes in the Colonies Alice Dunbar-Nelson: People of Color in Louisiana, Part I William T. McKinney: The Defeat of the Secessionists in Kentucky in 1861 J. Kunst:
Notes on Negroes in Guatemala During the Seventeenth Century;
A Mulatto Corsair of the Sixteenth Century
Documents:
Travelers' Impressions of Slavery in America from 1750 to 1800:
Burnaby's View of the Situation in Virginia;
General Treatment of Slaves Among the Albanians--Consequent Attachment of Domestics.--Reflections on Servitude by an American Lady;
Impressions of an English Traveler;
Abbé Robin on Conditions in Virginia;
Observations of St. John De Crèvecoeur;
Impressions of Johann D. Schoepf;
Extracts from Anburey's Travels Through North America;
Vindication of The Negroes: A Controversy;
Sur L'état Général, Le Genre D'industrie, Les Moeurs, Le Caractère, Etc. Des Noirs, Dans Les États-unis;
Slavery as Seen by Henry Wansey;
Esclavage Par La Rochefoucauld-liancourt;
Observations Sur L'esclavage Par La Rochefoucauld-liancourt;
What Isaac Weld Observed in Slave States;
John Davis's Thoughts on Slavery;
Observations of Robert Sutcliff;
Some Letters of Richard Allen and Absalom Jones to Dorothy Ripley;
Letter from an African Minister, Resident in Philadelphia Addressed to Dorothy Ripley.
Letter from an African, resident in Philadelphia, to Dorothy Ripley
Reviews of Books:
Clayton's The Aftermath of the Civil War, in Arkansas;
Evans's Black and White in the Southern States;
Sayers's Samuel Coleridge-Taylor--Musician. His Life and Letters;
Bailey's Race Orthodoxy in the South and Other Aspects of the Negro Problem;
Notes
INDEX TO VOLUME I.
Abel, A. H. II, The Slaveholding Indians of, reviewed, 339
African Mind, The, 42
Aftermath of the Civil War, The, reviewed, 444
Albany,
   a state convention of Colored people at, 293;
   slavery at, 400
Allen, Richard, letter of, 436
American Colonization Society opposed by free Negroes, 276
American lady, an, on the treatment of slaves, 400
Anburey, travels through North America, quoted, 407
Anderson, Martha E., a teacher in Ohio, 19
Andrew, one of the first Negroes to teach in Charleston, 352
Angus, Judith, the will of, 238
Antar, the Arabian Negro Warrior, Poet and Hero, 151
Arming the slaves,
   urged in South Carolina, 121;
   in Virginia, 119;
   in Rhode Island, 119;
   in Massachusetts, 120;
   in New York, 120
Astor, John Jacob, grandson of, aided slaves to purchase freedom, 252
Attitude of the Free People of Color toward African Colonization, 276
Auchmutty, Rev. Mr., took up the work of Elias Neau, 358
Augusta, Dr. A. T.,
   studied medicine at Toronto, 105;
   surgeon in the Civil War, 107
Augusta, Negroes at the siege of, 117

Bacon, Rev. Thomas, favored the instruction of Negroes, 350
Ball, Thomas, a colored photographer, 20
Baltimore, George, on colonization, 297
Baltimore,
  meeting to protest against African colonization, 279;
  another colonization meeting in 1831, 238;
  a divided meeting, 298;
  A Typical Colonization Meeting, 318
Bancroft, tribute to Negro troops, 129
"Baptists, Emancipating," 143
Barclay, Rev. T., instructed Negroes at Albany, 358
Bartow, Rev. Mr., baptized Negroes, 355
Beckett, Rev. Mr., instructed Negroes, 355
Beech, Rev. J., baptized Negroes, 359
Beecham, Mrs., teacher of Negroes in Fredericksburg, 24
Beecher, Henry Ward, aided slaves to purchase freedom, 254
Berea College in anti-slavery centre, 149
Bienville,
  exchanged Indians for Negroes, 362;
  code of, 365;
  Negro troops under, 371
Bigham, J. A., review of Du Bois's The Negro, 217
Birney, James G., editor of The Philanthropist destroyed by mob, 8
Black and White in the Southern States, reviewed, 437
Black Laws of Ohio, 2, 3, 4;
  repeal of 16
Black master, the existence of, 235-236
Blackburn, Miss Lucy, taught in Cincinnati, 19
Border States, position of, in 1861, 371
Boré, de Etienne,
  learned to granulate sugar, 375;
  the effects of the discovery, 375-376
Boston, anti-colonization meetings at, 284, 292
Bowen, Nathaniel, on colonization, 298
Boyd, Henry, a successful Negro business man prior to 1860, 21
Brawley, Benjamin, Lorenzo Dow, 265
Bray, Rev. Thomas, work of,
  among Negroes, 353-354;
  "The Associates" of, 354
"Breckinridge Democrats," in control of Kentucky, 379
Breckinridge, John, views of, 377, 378, 379
Breacroft, Dr., appeal of, in behalf of the enlightenment of the Negroes, 352
Brissot de Warville, J. P., on the condition of the slaves, 419
Brooklyn, anti-colonization meeting of, 285
Brown County, Ohio, Negroes in, 302
Brown, William Wells, an occasional physician, 106
Bryan, Andrew, letters of, 87
Buckner, S. B., joined the Confederates, 390

Calhoun, John C., refuted by Dr. James McCune Smith, 104
Casas, De las, on slavery, 361-362
Casey, Wm. R., a teacher, 19
Casor, John, a slave, 234
Cesar, cure of, 101-102
Channing, offered to aid the defense of Daniel Drayton, 251
Charleston, missionary efforts at,
  among Negroes, 350-352;
  attitude of Negroes of, toward colonization, 280-281
Charlton, Rev. Mr., a teacher of Negroes in New York, 358
Chase, Salmon P., desired to aid Daniel Drayton, 251
Chastellux, Marquis de,
  his observations of Negro troops, 128
  critical examination of the travels of, 419
Chatham, the attitude of the Negroes of, toward colonization, 300
Chickasaws, fought with Negroes in Louisiana, 370
Chouchas, fought with Negroes in Louisiana, 369, 370
Choctaws, Negroes' troubles with, in Louisiana, 371
Cimarrones, in Guatemala, 393-394
Cincinnati,
  The Negroes of, Prior to 1861, 1;
  Lane Seminary students opposed slavery, 7-8, 10-11, 12;
  Negro churches of, 11
  progress of the Negroes of, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13;
  anti-colonization meetings of, 289, 293, 294;
  Negroes excluded from public schools of, 17-18
Clark, F. B., The Constitutional Doctrines of Justice Harlan, 342
Clark, Jonathan, letters of, 79, 82
Clark, Peter H., a teacher in Ohio, 19
Clay, Henry, asked to head the anti-slavery societies of Kentucky, 144
Clayton, Powell, The Aftermath of the Civil War of, reviewed, 444
Cleveland, anti-colonization meeting of, 292
Clinton, Sir Henry,
  appeal of, to Negroes, 116
  proclamation of, 116
Code Noir, quoted, 365
Coffin, Joshua, aided fugitives to Northwest Territory, 146
Colgan, Rev. Mr., taught Negroes in New York, 358
Colonization, African,
  opposed, 279;
  supported, 280-282
Color, People of, in Louisiana, 362
Colored Freemen as Slave Owners in Virginia, 233
Columbia, anti-colonization meeting of, 287
Columbus, Negroes of, opposed to colonization, 292, 293
Conrad, Rufus, a preacher in Ohio, 20
Cook, Rev. Joseph, letter of, 69
Cooke, Stephen, letter of, 77
Cookes, moved from Fredericksburg to Detroit, 26
Cooper, Phil, chattel of his free wife, 240
Corbic, W. J., a teacher of Ohio, 19
Cornish, Samuel, opposed colonization, 294
Cornwallis, Ft., garrisoned by Negroes, 117
Corsair, a mulatto, 397
Creole, definition of, 366-368
Crittenden, John J.,
  advocated neutrality, 383;
  letter of, to General Scott, 387
Crittenden, Thomas L., stood with the Union, 391
Cromwell, John W., The Negro in American History of, reviewed, 94
Crozat, Anthony, traffic of, in slaves, 362
Crummell, Alexander, on colonization, 296
Cutler, Rev. Dr., admitted Negroes to his congregation at Boston, 359

Dabney, Austin, remarkable soldier and man, 129-131
Dahomey, speech of the king of, 65
D'Alone, a supporter of Dr. Bray, 353
Davis, Garrett, letter of, to General MeClellan, 381
Davis, John, thoughts on slavery, 434
Dayton, meeting at, to promote colonization, 298
De Baptiste, Richard,
  attended school at Fredericksburg, 22;
  moved to Detroit, 22; a preacher, 29
Debern, Magdelaine, lawsuit of, 366
De Grasse, John V., student at Bowdoin, 105
Delany, M. R.,
  studied at Harvard, 105;
  physician at Pittsburgh, 106;
  news on African colonization, 296;
  sent to Africa, 300
Depression of Louisiana, 375-376.
Derham, James, a Negro physician, 103
Detroit, attitude of,
  toward Negroes, 27;
  the question of fugitives in, 27;
  measures unfavorable to colored people, 28;
  progress of the Negroes of, 29
Diggs, Judson, betrayed the fugitives of the Pearl, 247
Don Quixote, quoted, 43
Dorsey, Thomas, opposed colonization, 282
Dotty, Duane, Miss Fannie M. Richards's first superintendent of
  schools, 31
Douglass, Frederick,
  opposed to colonization, 295;
  controversy of, with the National Council, 300
Dove, Dr., owner of James Derham, 103
Dow, Lorenzo,
  journeys of, 266;
  writings of, discussed, 271;
  attitude of, toward slavery, 273
Drayton, Daniel, in charge of the Pearl, 245
Drummond, Henry, quoted, 42
Du Bois, The Negro of, reviewed, 217
Dunbar-Nelson, Alice, People of Color in Louisiana of, 361
Dunmore, Lord, issued proclamation of freedom to loyal Negroes, 115
Dyson, Walter,
  review of, of Ellis's Negro Culture in West Africa, 95;
  of Gouldtown, 221

East, the attitude of, toward the West, 119
Edmondson children, the, 243; family tree of, 261
Edmondson, Hamilton, sold in New Orleans, 253
Edmondson, Richard, heroic efforts of, 248
Edmondson, Samuel, married Delia Taylor, 256
Education of the Negroes in Cincinnati, 6, 10
Education, The, of the Negro Prior to 1861, reviewed, 96
Edwards, Mrs., taught Negroes in South Carolina, 350-351
Effect of slaveholding in Louisiana, 368
Eighteenth Century Slaves as advertised by their Masters, 163
Ellis, Geo. W., Negro Culture in West Africa of, reviewed, 95
Emancipating Baptists in Kentucky, 143
Emancipation, the, and the arming of slaves, urged, 119
English, Chester, sailor on the Pearl, 246
Enlisting Negroes in the American Revolution, 112, 113, 114;
  considered by a council of war, 114;
  urged and allowed, 117
Ermana, a slave owned by her husband, 241
Erroneous opinions concerning the Negro, 34
Essadi Abdurrahman, a writer of the Sudan, 41
Essays on Negro slavery, 49, 54
Established Church of England, the ministrations of, 349
Ethiopia, ruled Egypt, 37
Evans, M. S., Black and White in Southern States of, reviewed, 437

Fausett, Jessie, review of,
  of T. G. Steward's Haitian Revolution, 93;
  of A. H. Abel's The Slaveholding Indians, 339
Ferguson, Joseph, a physician, 103
Fleet, Dr., educated in Washington, 105
Fleetwood, Bishop, urged the proselyting of Negroes, 350
Foote, John P., his opinion of Negroes, 19
Foote, Senator, effect of the speech of, at the Louis-Phillipe
  celebration, 245
Foster, James, opposed to colonization, 290
Free Negroes,
  power of, to manumit limited, 241-242;
  transplanted to free soil, 302;
  litigation concerning, in Louisiana, 368;
  aristocracy of, 395
Free Soilers attacked "Black Laws" of Ohio, 16
Freedman, a rich one of Guatemala, 395
Freedom in a Free State, 311
"Friends of Humanity" organized in Kentucky, 144
Frink, Rev. Mr., toiled among Negroes of Augusta, 354
Fugitives,
  going to the Northwest Territory, 1;
  from British territory to Michigan, 27
Fugitives of the Pearl, The, 243
Fuller, Betsey, owned her husband, 241

Gage, Thomas, quoted, on Negroes in Guatemala, 392-398
Gaines, John L., secured writ to obtain fund for colored schools, 17
Galvez, Governor of Louisiana, who employed Negro troops, 374
Garden, Commissary, opened a colored school in Charleston, 352
Garrison, Wm. L., effects of the radicalism of, 146
Gazzan, Dr. Joseph, teacher of M. R. Delany, 106
Gens de couleur libres, 365-366
George, James Z., The. Political History of Slavery of, reviewed, 340
Georgia,
  rise and progress of Negro Churches, 69;
  Negroes with the British in, 116, 117;
  Reconstruction in Georgia, reviewed, 343;
  missionary work in, 354
Germans,
  crowded the Negroes out in Cincinnati, 5;
  in Appalachian America, 133-134
Gibson, Bishop, address of, in behalf of Negroes, 352
Giddings, Joshua, motion for an inquiry into the detention of fugitives,
  250-251
Gilmore High School founded, 19
Goldsmith, Samuel, deposition of, 234
Gordon, Robert, a successful business man, 21-22
Gordon, Virginia Ann, daughter and heir of Robert Gordon, 22
Graydon, referred to Negro troops, 129
Greeks, acquainted with Ethiopia, 39
Greene, General, learned that the British would enlist Negroes, 115
Grimké, Thomas, letter of, referred to, 281
Gromes, Frank, purchased his relatives, 239
Guy, Rev. Mr., baptized Negroes in South Carolina, 352

Haigue, Mrs., taught Negroes in South Carolina, 351
Haitian Revolution, The, reviewed, 93
Hale, Senator, offered resolutions concerning the fugitives of the Pearl,
  251
Hall, Rev. C., admitted Negroes to his church in North Carolina, 353
Hamilton, Alexander,
  urged the emancipation and arming of slaves, 118;
  letter of, on conditions in South Carolina, 121
Hancock, John, member of the committee that opposed the enlistment of
  Negroes,--
Hanson, Roger W., went with the South, 390
Harlan, J. M., Constitutional Doctrines of, reviewed, 342
Harlan, Robert, once a man of considerable wealth, 20
Harris, Dr., opinion of, of Negro troops, 128
Harry, one of the first Negro teachers in America, 352
Hartford, anti-slavery meeting at, 286
Hartgrove, W. B., The Negro Soldier in the American Revolution of, 110
Hawkins, Peter, emancipated slaves, 240
Healing art among Negroes, 101-102
Henrico County, Virginia, records, 237
Henry, H. M., Police Control of the Slave in South Carolina of, reviewed,
  219
Henry, Patrick, influence of, in the uplands, 138
Hildreth, Richard, offered Daniel Drayton aid, 251
Hill, James H., statement of, 239
Historic Background of the Negro Physician, 99
Holly, James Theodore, position on African colonization, 300
Honyman, Rev. Mr., had Negroes in his congregation, 360
Hopkins, Samuel, urged the emancipation and arming of slaves, 118
How the Public received the Journal of Negro History, 225
Howe, Samuel, offered aid to Daniel Drayton, 251
Hubbard, Dr., a friend of Negro education, 107
Huddlestone, Rev. Mr., a successor of Neau, 358
Humboldt, Alex. Von, Observations on Negroes, 393
Hunt, Rev. Mr., had a Negro under probation, 352
Huntsville, Alabama, Negroes of, for colonization, 282
Husting Court of Richmond, a lawsuit in, to obtain freedom, 238

Iben Khaldun, a writer of Arabia, quoted, 39
Illinois, attitude of Negroes in, toward colonization, 300
Immigration of Negroes into Ohio, 2, 4; opposition to, aroused, 4
Impressions of an English traveler, 404
Indiana,
  Negroes took up land in, 8;
  attitude of Negroes of, toward African colonization, 300
Insurrections in Louisiana, 370, 376
Irish,
  crowded out the Negroes of Cincinnati, 5;
  the Scotch-Irish in the West, 133, 135
Iron first smelted by Negroes, 36-37

Jackson, George W., manager of Robert Gordon's estate, 22
Jacob, R. T., offered resolutions for mediatorial neutrality, 384
Jefferson County, Ohio, free Negroes of, 304
Jefferson, Thomas, influence of, on frontier, 138
Jenny, Dr., worked among Negroes, 355
Johnson, Anthony, a Negro owning slaves, 234-236
Johnson, Jerome A., remembered Judson Diggs, 247
Johnson, Rev. Mr., baptized Negroes at Stratford, 359
Jones, Absalom,
  letter of, --;
  mentioned by Dow, 274;
  opposed colonization, 277
Jones, David A., deposition of, 238-239
Jones, S. Wesley, letter of, quoted, 281

Kearsley, John, master of James Derham, 103
Kemps Landing, Negroes in battle of, 115
Kench, Thomas, wanted Negroes in separate regiments, 120
Kentucky,
  "Emancipating Baptists" of, 143
  anti-slavery Presbyterians in, 143
  neutrality of, 383
  dangerous policy of, 385
Knight and Bell, Negro contractors in Cincinnati, 20
Kunst. J., Notes on the Negroes in Guatemala in the Seventeenth
  Century, 392

Lannon, W. D., joined the Confederates, 390
Laurens, John, urged the arming of slaves, 118
Law, John, schemes of, 362-363
Lawrence County, Ohio, Negroes in, 4, 306
Lawrence, Samuel, Negroes under, behaved well, 112, 113
Lecky, tribute of, to Negro troops, 129
Lees, migrated to Detroit, 24, 26
Leile, George, letters of, 80, 81, 84
Lemoyne, Dr. Francis J., teacher of M. R. Delany, 106
Letters on slavery by a Negro, 60;
  letters showing the rise and progress of Negro Churches in Georgia
  and the West Indies, 69
Lewiston, Pennsylvania, anti-colonization meeting of, 287
Liberia, the Republic of, discussed, 313
Lincoln, a desire of, for the support of Kentucky, 377, 384
Lindsay, Rev. Mr., baptized Negroes in New Jersey, 355
Locke, Rev. Richard, baptized Negroes in Pennsylvania, 355
Longworth, Nicholas, aided colored schools of Cincinnati, 19
Louis-Philippe, the expulsion of, celebrated in Washington, 244
Louisiana,
  prostration of, 374-375;
  relieved somewhat by Negro refugees, 375
Lowth, Bishop, urged the conversion of Negroes, 350
Lundy, Benjamin, work of, in Tennessee, 145
Lutherans, in the West, 134
Lyell, Sir Charles, on the Negroes of Cincinnati, 18
Lyme, anti-colonization meeting of, 286

Madison, James, urged the emancipation and arming of slaves, 118
Magoffin, Governor, tried to aid the Secessionists in Kentucky, 382
Mann, Horace, offered to aid Daniel Drayton, 251
Manumission Society of Tennessee, 145
Marshall, Abraham, letters of, 77, 78, 85
Marshall, Humphrey, views of, 377, 384
Maryland, the enlistment of Negroes in, 120
Maryville, Tennessee, favorable to Negroes, 147-149
Massachusetts, arming the slaves in, 120
May, Samuel, helped to furnish defense for Daniel Drayton, 251
McSparran, conducted a class of Negroes, 359
Mehlinger, Louis R., The Attitude of the Free Negro toward African Colonization of, 276
Mennonites in the West, 134
Mercer County, Ohio, Negroes in, 9, 306
Middletown, anti-colonization meeting at, 286
Migration of Negroes,
  West Indian, 370-371;
  to the Northwest Territory, 1
Miller, Kelly, The Historic Background of the Negro Physician, 99
Monmouth, Negroes in the battle of, 129
Moore, Edwin, father of Maria Louise Moore, 23
Moore, Maria Louise, her struggles and triumphs, 23
Moral Religious Manumission Society of West Tennessee, 145
Moravians, in the mountains, 134
Morris, Robert, Jr., offered to aid Daniel Drayton, 251
Mountaineers,
  attitude of, toward slavery, 147;
  their efforts to elevate the slaves, 148, 149, 150;
  supported the Union, 149, 150;
  aided the Underground Railroad, 146;
  attitude of, toward the American Colonization Society, 146
Mulatto corsair, a, 397
Mundin, William, declaration of, 238

Nantucket, anti-colonization meeting at, 288
Natchez, Negroes captured by, 370
National Council, 299-300
Neau, Elias,
  work of, 356-358;
  supposed connection with Negro riot, 357
Negro,
  The, in American History, reviewed, 94;
  Negro Culture in West Africa, reviewed, 95;
  Negro Soldiers in the American Revolution, 110;
  What the Negro was thinking in the Eighteenth Century, 49
Negroes,
  contribution of, to civilization, 36;
  Notes on the Negroes of Guatemala in the Seventeenth Century, 392
Neill, Rev. Mr., preached to Negroes at Dover, 355
Neutrality in Kentucky, 383, 385;
  became dangerous policy, 385;
  abandoned, 389
New Bedford, anti-colonization meeting at, 293
New England, work among Negroes of, 359
New Hampshire, the enlistment of Negroes in, 120
New Jersey, teaching Negroes in, 355
New York,
  the enlistment of Negroes in, 120;
  instruction of Negroes in, 356;
  anti-colonization meetings of, 285, 288, 289
Newman, Rev. Mr., worked among Negroes, 353
North Carolina, slavery in, 142
Northampton County, Virginia, records of black masters, 237

Ohio, Negroes owned land in, 8-9;
  "Black Laws" of, 4;
  Law of 1849, 12;
  Negroes transplanted to, 302;
  protest against, 308;
  Negroes an issue in the Constitutional Convention of, 4
Ordinance of 1787, interpretation of, 377
"Othello," letters of, on slavery, 49-60
Otis, James, influence of, in the uplands, 138

Palomeque, a hard master, 396
Parham, William, a teacher of Negroes, 19
Park, Dr. R. E., review of Race Orthodoxy of, 439
Patoulet, M., decision of, 366
Patterson, Senator, speech at Louis-Philippe celebration, 245
Payne, Daniel A., on colonization, 296
Pearl, The Fugitives of, 246
Pelhams moved to Detroit, 26, 29
Pennington, J. W. C., opposed colonization, 293
People of Color in Louisiana, 361
Perier, Governor,
  fought Indians with Negroes 368, 369;
  tribute to Negroes
Philadelphia,
  anti-colonization meetings of, 277, 279;
  Convention of Free People of Color at, 290, 291
Philanthropist, The, office of, destroyed, 8
Physicians, Negro, the number of, 107
Piatt, James W., efforts with Cincinnati mob, 14
Pittsburgh, anti-colonization meetings of, 287, 292
Pittsylvania County, Virginia, Negroes from, 4
Point Bridge, Negro soldiers behaved well at battle of, 129
Political History of Slavery, The, by James Z. George, reviewed, 340
Political theories of Appalachian America, discussed, 129
Polk, invaded Kentucky, 390
Prejudice against the colored people in Cincinnati, 12-13
Presbyterians, anti-slavery, in Kentucky, 143
Pressly, J., a colored photographer, 20
Prince William County, Virginia, a Negro of, owned his family, 241
Professions, Negroes in, 99-101
Protests against African colonization, 277-296
Providence, anti-colonization meeting of, 293
Pugh, Rev. Mr., baptized Negroes in Pennsylvania, 355
Puritan, attitude of, toward Negro, 359
Purvis, Dr. Charles B., a Negro surgeon in the Civil War, 107

Quakers,
  interested in colonizing Negroes in the Northwest, 3;
  work of, among Negroes of Appalachian America, 133, 134
Quickly, Mary, owner of slaves, 238

Race Orthodoxy in the South, reviewed, 447
Racial characteristics on the frontier, 135
Racial elements in Appalachian America, 133
Radford, James, sold a Negro, 238
Radford, George, purchased a Negro woman, 238
Ramsey's estimate of Negroes lost to British, 116
Randolph, John, the slaves of, sent to Ohio, 308, 310, 311, 312
Ransford, Rev. Mr., baptized Negroes in North Carolina, 353
Redpath, James, appointed commissioner of emigration of Haiti, 300
Richards, Adolph,
  came to Fredericksburg for his health, 23;
  married Maria Louise Moore, 23
Richards, Fannie M.,
  studied in Toronto, 30;
  taught in Detroit, 31
Richmond, meeting of, to denounce the American Colonization Society, 277
Rider, Sidney, opinion of the services of Negro troops, 128
Ripley, Dorothy, letters received, 436
Riots,
  in Cincinnati, in 1836, 8;
  in 1841, 13-16;
  in New York, 357
Robert, M., decision of, with reference to Negroes, 366
Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, "l'esclavage" of, 430
Rochester, anti-colonization meeting of, 293
Roman, C. V., The American Civilization of, reviewed, 218
Ross, Rev. G., commended Mr. Yeates for work among Negroes, 354, 355
Rumford, Rev. Mr., baptized Negroes, 353
Rush, Benjamin, talks with James Derham, 103
Rutledge, Governor, freed a slave for his valor in battle, 129
Ryall, Anne, teacher in Cincinnati, 19

St. John de Crèvecoeur, observations of, 404
Salem, Peter, killed Major Pitcairn, 112
Sanderson, Bishop, urged the instruction of Negroes, 350
Sankore, the university of, 40
Savannah, a freedman of, favored colonization, 280
Sayers, Captain, owner of the Pearl, 246
Sayers, W. Berwick, Samuel Coleridge-Taylorof, reviewed, 438
Sayre, Rev. J., instructed Negroes, 358
Schoepf, Johann D., impressions of, 405
Schuyler, M., opposed the instruction of Negroes, 359
Secession in Kentucky, 377, 378, 385, 389, 390
Secker, Bishop, appeal in behalf of the enlightenment of Negroes, 352
Seward, W. H., offered to aid in defending Daniel Drayton, 251
Sewell, Samuel, endeavored to aid Daniel Drayton when accused, 251
Shelby County, Ohio, Negroes in, 309
Shelton, Rev. Wallace, a preacher of Cincinnati, 20
Simon, a Negro officer in Louisiana, 391
Simon, the Negro doctor, 102
Simpson, Henry, a preacher in Ohio, 20
Slaveholding Indians, The, reviewed, 339
Slavery,
  in North Carolina, 142;
  in Western Virginia, 142;
  in Tennessee, 143;
  in Kentucky, 144
Slaves of the 18th century,
  learning a modern language, 164;
  learning to read and write, 175;
  educated ones, 185;
  in good circumstances, 189;
  brought from the West Indies, 191;
  various kinds of servants, 194;
  relations between the Negroes and the British during the Revolution, 200;
  relations between the blacks and the French, 201;
  colored Methodist preachers among the slaves, 202;
  slaves in other professions, 205;
  close relations of the slaves and indentured servants, 206
Smith, Dr. James McCune,
  physician in New York, 104;
  opposed to colonization, 293
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts,
  organized, 349
  work of, 350
Songhay, empire of, discussed, 41
South Carolina,
  the enlistment of Negroes in, 122;
  Hamilton's letter on, 121-122;
  resolutions of Congress concerning, 123-124;
  efforts to instruct Negroes of, 350-352
Spaniards, attitude of, toward slavery, 361
Stafford, A. O., African Proverbs and Antar of, 42, 151
Stephenson, John W., views of, 378
Steward, T. G.,
  The Haitian Revolution of, reviewed, 93;
  Gouldtown of, reviewed, 221
Steward, Rev. Mr., found a colored school in North Carolina, 354
Story
  of a Negro cook, 372
  of a Negro blacksmith, 372
Stoupe, Rev. Mr., instructed Negroes in New Rochelle, 358
Stowe, H. B., inquiry of, 295
Sturgeon, Rev. W., taught Negroes in Philadelphia, 355
Sudan, the kingdoms of, 37
Sumner, Alphonso, on African colonization, 297
Sutcliff, Robert, observations of, 434
Swigle, Thomas Nichols, the letters of, 85, 88

Taylor, Dr., educated in Washington, 105
Taylor, Mr. Charles, instructed blacks in New York, 358
Taylor, Rev. E.,
  a missionary in South Carolina, 351;
  report of, 351

Taylor, Samuel Coleridge-, Life of, reviewed, 446
Tennessee, Manumission Society of, 144;
  Moral Religious Manumission Society of West Tennessee, 144
Thomas, General, urged the enlistment of Negro troops, 117, 129
Thomas, Rev. Mr., taught Negroes in South Carolina, 350
Thompson, C. M., Reconstruction in Georgia of, reviewed, 343
Tilley, Virginia C., a teacher, 19
Timbuctoo, the university of, 40
Trades Unions against Negroes, 12
Traveler's Impressions of Slavery in America from 1750 to 1800, 399
Trenton, anti-colonization meeting, 288
Typical Colonization Convention, A, 318

Underground Railroad, in the mountains, 146
Union cause in Kentucky, the, 380, 391
Usher, Rev. J., mentioned Negroes desiring baptism, 359

Vandroffen, Petrus, opposed the education of Negroes, 359
Vesey, Rev. Mr., interested in the Negroes of New York, 356
Vindication of Negroes, 408
Virginia, laws of, to prohibit the education of Negroes, 119;
  slavery in the western part of, 142;
  colored freemen as slave owners in, 233

Wansey, Henry, on slavery, 427
Warden, D. B., observations of, 3
Warren, John, a preacher in Ohio, 8
Washington, Augustus, attitude of, toward emigration, 297
Washington, Booker T., note on, 98
Washington, George, on the enlistment of Negroes, 113, 115, 125
Wattles, Augustus, induced Negroes to go to Ohio, 8
Webster, Daniel, petition of, 241
Weld, Isaac, observations of, 432
West, Dr., master of James Derham, 103
West Indian migration, 370, 371
West, Reuben, a black master, 239
Whigs attacked "Black Laws" of Ohio, 16
Whitbeck, teacher of a colored school in Detroit, 31
White, Dr. Thomas J., student at Bowdoin, 105
Whitfield, James, defended the National Council, 300
Whitmore, Rev. Mr., taught Negroes in New York, 358
Wilcox, Samuel T., a wealthy Negro of Cincinnati, 20
Wilkins, Charles T., testimonial of, 32
Wilkins, William D., assisted Miss Fannie M. Richards, 31
Williams, Rev. Peter, troubles of, in New York, 288
Wilmington, anti-colonization meeting at, 284
Wilson, Bishop, urged the instruction of Negroes, 352
Wing, Mr., taught Negroes in Cincinnati, 7
Wood, Jannette, manumitted by her mother, 240
Woodson, C. G., The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861, reviewed, 96;
  Freedom and Slavery in Appalachian America, 132
Wright, Theodore, antagonistic to colonization, 294

Yeates, Rev. Mr., endeavored to instruct Negroes, 354



THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY
VOLUME II. 1917
CONTENTS
VOLUME II. 1917— NO. 2
Slavery and the Slave Trade in Africa	Jerome Dowd
The Negro in the Field of Invention	Henry E. Baker
Anthony Benezet	C. G. Woodson
People of Color in Louisiana - Part II	Alice Dunbar-Nelson
Notes on Connecticut as a Slave State
Documents
Letters of Anthony Benezet
Reviews of Books
Notes
VOL II—APRIL, 1917—NO. 2
Evolution of Slave Status in American Democracy - I	John M. Mecklin
John Woolman's Efforts in Behalf of Freedom	G. David Houston
The Tarik É Soudan	A. O. Stafford
From a Jamaica Portfolio	T. H. MacDermot
Notes on the Nomolis of Sherbroland	Walter L. Edwin
Documents
Observations on the Negroes of Louisiana
The Conditions against which Woolman and Anthony Benezet Inveighted
Book Reviews
Notes
Vol II—JULY, 1917—NO. 3
Formation of American Colonization Society	Henry Noble Sherwood, Ph.D
Evolution of Slave Status in American Democracy - II	John M. Mecklin
History of High School for Negroes in Washington	Mary Church Terrell
The Danish West Indies	Leila Amos Pendleton
Documents
Relating to the Danish West Indies
Reviews of Books
Notes
African Origin of Grecian Civilization
VOL. II—OCTOBER, 1917—No. 4
Some Historical Errors of James Ford Rhodes	John R. Lynch
The Struggle of Haiti and Liberia for Recognition	Charles H. Wesley
Three Negro Poets	Benjamin Brawley
Catholics and the Negro	Joseph Butsch
Documents
Letters of George Washington Bearing on the Negro
Petition for Compensation for the Loss of Slaves
An Extract from the Will of Robert Pleasants
Proceedings of a Reconstruction Meeting
Reviews of Books
Notes
The First Biennial Meeting of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History at Washington



THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY
VOLUME III. 1918
CONTENTS
VOL. III.-JANUARY, 1918-NO. 1
The Story of Josiah Henson	W. B. Hartgrove
Elizabeth Barrett Browning and the Negro	Benjamin Brawley
Palmares: The Negro Numantia	Charles E. Chapman
Slavery in California	Delilah L. Beasley
Documents
California Freedom Papers
Thomas Jefferson's Thoughts on the Negro
Some Undistinguished Negroes
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. III.-APRIL, 1918-NO. 2
Benjamin Banneker	Henry E. Baker
George Liele and Andrew Bryan	John W. Davis
Fifty Years of Howard University - Part I	Dwight O. W. Holmes
Historical Errors of James Ford Rhodes	John R. Lynch
Documents
Letters of Governor Edward Coles
Some Undistinguished Negroes
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. III,-JULY, 1918-NO. 3
Slavery in Kentucky	Ivan E. McDougle
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. III.-OCTOBER, 1918-NO. 4
Beginnings of Miscegenation of Whites and Blacks	Carter G. Woodson
Gerrit Smith's Effort in Behalf of Negroes	Zita Dyson
The Buxton Settlement in Canada	Fred Landon
Fifty Years of Howard University - Part II	Dwight O. W. Holmes
Documents
What the Framers of the Federal Constitution
  Thought of the Negro
Some Undistinguished Negroes
Book Reviews
Notes



THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY
VOLUME IV. 1919
CONTENTS
VOL. IV.-JANUARY, 1919-NO. 1
Primitive Law and the Negro	Roland G. Usher
Lincoln's Plan for Colonizing Negroes	Charles H. Wesley
Lemuel Haynes	W. H. Morse
The Anti-Slavery Society of Canada	Fred Landon
Documents
Benjamin Franklin and Freedom
Proceedings of a Mississippi Migration Convention in 1879
How the Negroes were Duped
Remarks on this Exodus by Federick Douglass
The Senate Report on the Exodus of 1879
Some Undistinguished Negroes
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. IV.-APRIL, 1919-NO. 2
The Conflict and Fusion of Cultures	Robert E. Park
The Company of Royal Adventurers	George F. Zook
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. IV.-JULY, 1919-NO. 3
Negroes in the Confederate Army	Charles H. Wesley
Legal Status of Negroes in Tennessee	William Lloyd Imes
Negro Life and History in our Schools	C. G. Woodson
Grégoire's Sketch of Angelo Solimann	F. Harrison Hough
Documents
Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916-1918
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. IV.-OCTOBER, 1919-NO. 4
Labor Conditions in Jamaica Prior to 1917	E. Ethelred Brown
The Life of Charles B. Ray	M. N. Work
The Slave in Upper Canada	W. R. Riddell
Documents
Notes on Slavery in Canada
Additional Letters of Negro Migrants of 1916-1918
Book Reviews
Notes
Biennial Meeting of Association



THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY
VOLUME V. 1920
CONTENTS
VOL. V.-JANUARY, 1920-NO. 1
The Negro In Education	Loretta Funke
Negro Migration to Canada	Fred Landon
Richard Hill	Frank Cundall
Negroes and Indians in Massachusetts	C. G. Woodson
Documents
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. V.-APRIL, 1920-NO. 2
Negro Public School System in Missouri	Henry Sullivan Williams
Religious Education	David Henry Sims
Aftermath of Nat Turner's Insurrection	John W. Cromwell
Documents
Correspondence
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. V.-JULY, 1920-NO. 3
The Slave in Canada	William Renwick Riddell
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. V.-OCTOBER, 1920-NO. 4
The Return of Negro Slaves	Arnett G. Lindsay
The Negro in Politics	Norman P. Andrews
Henry Bibb, a Colonizer	Fred Landon
Myrtilla Miner	G. Smith Wormley
Communications
Documents
Some Undistinguished Negroes
Book Reviews
Notes



THE JOURNAL OF NEGRO HISTORY
VOLUME V. 1920
CONTENTS
VOL. V.-JANUARY, 1920-NO. 1
The Negro In Education	Loretta Funke
Negro Migration to Canada	Fred Landon
Richard Hill	Frank Cundall
Negroes and Indians in Massachusetts	C. G. Woodson
Documents
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. V.-APRIL, 1920-NO. 2
Negro Public School System in Missouri	Henry Sullivan Williams
Religious Education	David Henry Sims
Aftermath of Nat Turner's Insurrection	John W. Cromwell
Documents
Correspondence
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. V.-JULY, 1920-NO. 3
The Slave in Canada	William Renwick Riddell
Book Reviews
Notes
VOL. V.-OCTOBER, 1920-NO. 4
The Return of Negro Slaves	Arnett G. Lindsay
The Negro in Politics	Norman P. Andrews
Henry Bibb, a Colonizer	Fred Landon
Myrtilla Miner	G. Smith Wormley
Communications
Documents
Some Undistinguished Negroes
Book Reviews
Notes



THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD FROM SLAVERY TO FREEDOM
A COMPREHENSIVE HISTORY
By Wilbur H. Siebert


CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
Sources of the History of the Underground Railroad
 	PAGE
The Underground Road as a subject for research	1
Obscurity of the subject	2
Books dealing with the subject	2
Magazine articles on the Underground Railroad	5
Newspaper articles on the subject	6
Scarcity of contemporaneous documents	7
Reminiscences the chief source	11
The value of reminiscences illustrated	12
CHAPTER II
Origin and Growth of the Underground Road
Conditions under which the Underground Road originated	17
The disappearance of slavery from the Northern states	17
Early provisions for the return of fugitive slaves	19
The fugitive slave clause in the Ordinance of 1787	20
The fugitive slave clause in the United States Constitution	20
The Fugitive Slave Law of 1793	21
The Fugitive Slave Law of 1850	22
Desire for freedom among the slaves	25
Knowledge of Canada among the slaves	27
Some local factors in the origin of the underground movement	30
The development of the movement in eastern Pennsylvania, in New Jersey, and in New York	33
The development of the movement in the New England states	36
The development of the movement in the West	37
The naming of the Road	44
[xvi]CHAPTER III
The Methods of the Underground Railroad
Penalties for aiding fugitive slaves	47
Social contempt suffered by abolitionists	48
Espionage practised upon abolitionists	50
Rewards for the capture of fugitives and the kidnapping of abolitionists	52
Devices to secure secrecy	54
Service at night	54
Methods of communication	56
Methods of conveyance	59
Zigzag and variable routes	61
Places of concealment	62
Disguises	64
Informality of management	67
Colored and white agents	69
City vigilance committees	70
Supplies for fugitives	76
Transportation of fugitives by rail	78
Transportation of fugitives by water	81
Rescue of fugitives under arrest	83
CHAPTER IV
Underground Agents, Station-Keepers, or Conductors
Underground agents, station-keepers, or conductors	87
Their hospitality	87
Their principles	89
Their nationality	90
Their church connections	93
Their party affinities	99
Their local standing	101
Prosecutions of underground operators	101
Defensive League of Freedom proposed	103
Persons of prominence among underground helpers	104
[xvii]CHAPTER V
Study of the Map of the Underground Railroad System
Geographical extent of underground lines	113
Location and distribution of stations	114
Southern routes	116
Lines of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York	120
Routes of the New England states	128
Lines within the old Northwest Territory	134
Noteworthy features of the general map	139
Complex routes	141
Broken lines and isolated place names	141
River routes	142
Routes by rail	142
Routes by sea	144
Terminal stations	145
Lines of lake travel	147
Canadian ports	148
CHAPTER VI
Abduction of Slaves from the South
Aversion among underground helpers to abduction of slaves	150
Abductions by negroes living along the northern border of the slave states	151
Abductions by Canadian refugees	152
Abductions by white persons in the South	153
Abductions by white persons of the North	154
The Missouri raid of John Brown	162
John Brown's great plan	166
Abductions attempted in response to appeals	168
Devotees of abduction	178
CHAPTER VII
Life of the Colored Refugees in Canada
Slavery question in Canada	190
Flight of slaves to Canada	192
Refugees representative of the slave class	195
[xviii]Misinformation about Canada among slaves	197
Hardships borne by Canadian refugees	198
Efforts toward immediate relief for fugitives	199
Attitude of the Canadian government	201
Conditions favorable to their settlement in Canada	203
Sparseness of population	203
Uncleared lands	204
Encouragement of agricultural colonies among refugees	205
Dawn Settlement	205
Elgin Settlement	207
Refugees' Home Settlement	209
Alleged disadvantages of the colonies	211
Their advantages	212
Refugee settlers in Canadian towns	217
Census of Canadian refugees	220
Occupations of Canadian refugees	223
Progress made by Canadian refugees	224
Domestic life of the refugees	227
School privileges	228
Organizations for self-improvement	230
Churches	231
Rescue of friends from slavery	231
Ownership of property	232
Rights of citizenship	233
Character as citizens	233
CHAPTER VIII
Fugitive Settlers in the Northern States
Number of fugitive settlers in the North	235
The Northern states an unsafe refuge for runaway slaves	237
Reclamation of fugitives in the free states	239
Protection of fugitives in the free states	242
Object of the personal liberty laws	245
Effect of the law of 1850 on fugitive settlers	246
Underground operators among fugitives of the free states	251
[xix]CHAPTER IX
Prosecutions of Underground Railroad Men
Enactment of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793	254
Grounds on which the constitutionality of the measure was questioned	254
Denial of trial by jury to the fugitive slave	255
Summary mode of arrest	257
The question of concurrent jurisdiction between the federal and state governments in fugitive slave cases	259
The law of 1793 versus the Ordinance of 1787	261
Power of Congress to legislate concerning the extradition of fugitive slaves denied	263
State officers relieved of the execution of the law by the Prigg decision, 1842	264
Amendment of the law of 1793 by the law of 1850	265
Constitutionality of the law of 1850 questioned	267
First case under the law of 1850	268
Authority of a United States commissioner	269
Penalties imposed for aiding and abetting the escape of fugitives	273
Trial on the charge of treason in the Christiana case, 1854	279
Counsel for fugitive slaves	281
Last case under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850	285
Attempted revision of the law	285
Destructive attacks upon the measure in Congress	286
Lincoln's Proclamation of Emancipation	287
Repeal of the Fugitive Slave Acts	288
CHAPTER X
The Underground Railroad in Politics
Valuation of the Underground Railroad in its political aspect	290
The question of the extradition of fugitive slaves in colonial times	290
Importance of the question in the constitutional conventions	293
Failure of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1793	294
Agitation for a more efficient measure	295
Diplomatic negotiations for the extradition of colored refugees from Canada, 1826-1828	299
The fugitive slave a missionary in the cause of freedom	300
[xx]Slave-hunting in the free states	302
Preparation for the abolition movement of 1830	303
The Underground Railroad and the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850	308
The law in Congress	310
The enforcement of the law of 1850	316
The Underground Road and Uncle Tom's Cabin	321
Political importance of the novel	323
Sumner on the influence of escaped slaves in the North	324
The spirit of nullification in the North	327
The Glover rescue, Wisconsin, 1854	327
The rendition of Burns, Boston, 1854	331
The rescue of Addison White, Mechanicsburg, Ohio, 1857	334
The Oberlin-Wellington rescue, 1858	335
Obstruction of the Fugitive Slave Law by means of the personal liberty acts	337
John Brown's attempt Lo free the slaves	338
CHAPTER XI
Effect of the Underground Railroad
The Underground Road the means of relieving the South of many despairing slaves	340
Loss sustained by slave-owners through underground channels	340
The United States census reports on fugitive slaves	342
Estimate of the number of slaves escaping into Ohio, 1830-1860	346
Similar estimate for Philadelphia, 1830-1860	346
Drain on the resources of the depot at Lawrence, Kansas, described in a letter of Col. J. Bowles, April 4, 1859	347
Work of the Underground Railroad as compared with that of the American Colonization Society	350
The violation of the Fugitive Slave Law a chief complaint of Southern states at the beginning of the Civil War	351
Refusal of the Canadian government to yield up the fugitive Anderson, 1860	352
Secession of the Southern states begun	353
Conclusion of the fugitive slave controversy	355
General effect and significance of the controversy	356
ILLUSTRATIONS, PORTRAITS, FACSIMILES AND MAPS
The Underground Railroad: Levi Coffin receiving a company of fugitives in the outskirts of Cincinnati, Ohio	Frontispiece
 	FACING PAGE
Isaac T. Hopper	17
The Runaway: a stereotype cut used on handbills advertising escaped slaves	27
Crossing-place on the Ohio River at Steubenville, Ohio	47
The Rankin House, Ripley, Ohio	47
Facsimile of an Underground Message	On page 57
Barn of Seymour Finney, Detroit, Michigan	65
The Old First Church, Galesburg, Illinois	65
William Still	75
Levi Coffin	87
Frederick Douglass	104
Caves in Salem Township, Washington County, Ohio	130
House of Mrs. Elizabeth Buffum Chace, Valley Falls, Rhode Island	130
The Detroit River at Detroit, Michigan	147
Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio	147
Ellen Craft as she escaped from Slavery	163
Samuel Harper and Wife	163
Dr. Alexander M. Ross	180
Harriet Tubman	180
Group of Refugee Settlers at Windsor, Ontario, C.W.	190
Theodore Parker	205
Thomas Wentworth Higginson	205
Dr. Samuel G. Howe	205
Benjamin Drew	205
Church of the Fugitive Slaves, Boston, Massachusetts	235
Salmon P. Chase	254
[xxii]Thomas Garrett	254
Rush R. Sloane	282
Thaddeus Stevens	282
J. R. Ware	282
Rutherford B. Hayes	282
Gerrit Smith	290
Joshua R. Giddings	290
Charles Sumner	290
Richard H. Dana	290
Bust of Rev. John Rankin	307
Harriet Beecher Stowe	321
Captain John Brown	338
Facsimile of a Leaf from the Diary of Daniel Osborn	On pages 344, 345
MAPS
Map of the Underground Railroad System	Facing page 113
Map of Underground Lines in Southeastern Pennsylvania	"     113
Map of Underground Lines in Morgan County, Ohio	On page 136
Lewis Falley's Map of the Underground Routes of Indiana and Michigan	On page 138
Map of an Underground Line through Livingston and La Salle Counties, Illinois	On page 139
Map of Underground Lines through Greene, Warren and Clinton Counties, Ohio	On page 140
APPENDICES
Appendix A: Constitutional Provisions and National Acts relative to Fugitive Slaves, 1787-1850	359-366
Appendix B: List of Important Fugitive Slave Cases	367-377
Appendix C: Figures from the United States Census Reports relating to Fugitive Slaves	378, 379
Appendix D: Bibliography	380-402
Appendix E: Directory of the names of Underground Railroad Operators and Members of Vigilance Committees	403-439



THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD
A RECORD OF FACTS, AUTHENTIC NARRATIVE, LETTERS, &C.,
By William Still
ILLUSTRATIONS
THE AUTHOR PETER STILL—"THE KIDNAPPED AND THE RANSOMED" CHARITY STILL TWICE ESCAPED FROM SLAVERY DESPERATE CONFLICT IN A BARN DEATH OF ROMULUS HALL RESURRECTION OF HENRY BOX BROWN RESCUE OF JANE JOHNSON AND HER CHILDREN PASSMORE WILLIAMSON JANE JOHNSON ESCAPING FROM PORTSMOUTH, VA TWENTY-EIGHT FUGITIVES ESCAPING FROM EASTERN SHORE OF MARYLAND ESCAPING FROM ALABAMA ON TOP OF A CAR THE RIVER ON HORSEBACK IN THE NIGHT A BOLD STROKE FOR FREEDOM—CONTEST WITH FIRE-ARMS ABRAM GALLOWAY THE MAYOR AND POLICE OF NORFOLK SEARCHING CAPTAIN FOUNTAIN'S SCHOONER MARIA WEEMS ESCAPING AS JO WRIGHT JOHN HENRY HILL DRY-GOODS MERCHANT SEARCHING THE CARS ESCAPE WITH A LADY, AS HER COACHMAN, WITH MASTER'S HORSE AND CARRIAGE SIX ON TWO HORSES UP A TREE SAMUEL GREEN SENTENCED TO THE PENITENTIARY FOR TEN YEARS FOR HAVING A COPY OF "UNCLE TOM'S CABIN" IN HIS HOUSE LEAR GREEN ESCAPING IN A CHEST ESCAPE OF ELEVEN PASSENGERS FROM MARYLAND IN TWO CARRIAGES THE CHRISTIANA TRAGEDY WILLIAM AND ELLEN CRAFT MEMBERS OF THE ACTING COMMITTEE:
N.W. DEPEE
JACOB C. WHITE
CHARLES WISE
EDWIN H. COATES
KNIFING HIS VICTIM LIVING IN A HOLLOW TREE       IN A CAVE A NARROW ESCAPE SUSPENDED BY THE HANDS WITH BLOCK AND TACKLE CROSSING THE BAY BREAKING HIM IN MOTHER ESCAPING WITH SEVEN CHILDREN FIGHT IN CHESAPEAKE BAY JOHN W. DUNGEE MARY MILBURN (SECRETED IN A BOX) HEAVY WEIGHTS—ARRIVAL OF A PARTY AT LEAGUE ISLAND SKETCHES AND PORTRAITS OF STATION-MASTERS, PROMINENT ANTI-SLAVERY MEN, AND SUPPORTERS OF THE U.G.R.R.:
ABIGAIL GOODWIN
THOMAS GARRETT
DANIEL GIBBONS
LUCRETIA MOTT
J. MILLER M'KIM
WILLIAM H. FURNESS
WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON
LEWIS TAPPAN
ELIJAH F. PENNYPACKER
WILLIAM WRIGHT
DR. BARTHOLOMEW FUSSELL
ROBERT PURVIS
JOHN HUNN
SAMUEL RHOADS
WILLIAM WHIPPER
SAMUEL D. BURRIS
CHARLES D. CLEVELAND
GRACE ANNA LEWIS
MRS. FRANCES E.W. HARPER
JOHN NEEDLES
CONTENTS
SETH CONCKLIN UNDERGROUND RAILROAD LETTERS.
From Thomas Garrett—G.A. Lewis—E.L. Stevens—Sydney Howard Gay—John Henry Hill—J. Bigelowe—Ham and Eggs—Rev. H. Wilson—Sheridan Ford—E.F. Pennypacker—J.C. Bustill—Slave secreted in Richmond—G.S. Nelson—John Thompson—Wm. Penn

WILLIAM BOX PEEL JONES
Came boxed up viâ Erricson line of Steamers.

WESLEY HARRIS ALIAS ROBERT JACKSON, CRAVEN MATTERSON AND TWO BROTHERS. CLARISSA DAVIS
Arrived in Male Attire.

ANTHONY BLOW ALIAS HENRY LEVISON
Secreted Ten Months—Eight days on the Steamship City of Richmond bound for Philadelphia.

PERRY JOHNSON, OF ELKTON, MARYLAND.
Eye knocked Out.

ISAAC FORMAN, WILLIAM DAVIS AND WILLIS REDICK.
Hearts full of joy for Freedom—Very anxious for Wives in Slavery.

JOSEPH HENRY CAMP
Sold, the day he escaped, for Fourteen Hundred Dollars—Slave Trader loses his Bargain.

SHERIDAN FORD
Secreted in the Woods—Escapes in a Steamer.

JOSEPH KNEELAND ALIAS JOSEPH HULSON
Young Master had a "Malignant Spirit".

EX-PRESIDENT TYLER'S HOUSEHOLD LOSES AN ARISTOCRATIC ARTICLE. EDWARD MORGAN, HENRY JOHNSON, JAMES AND STEPHEN BUTLER.
"Two Thousand Dollars Reward" offered.

HENRY PREDO
Daniel Hughes, Thomas Elliott, and five others betrayed into Dover Jail.

MARY EPPS ALIAS EMMA BROWN, JOSEPH AND ROBERT ROBINSON.
A Slave Mother Loses her Speech at the Sale of her Child ... Bob Escapes from his Master, a Trader, with Fifteen Hundred Dollars in North Carolina Money.

GEORGE SOLOMON, DANIEL NEALL, BENJAMIN R. FLETCHER AND MARIA DORSEY. HENRY BOX BROWN
Arrived by Adams Express.

TRIAL OF THE EMANCIPATORS OF COL. J.H. WHEELER'S SLAVES, JANE JOHNSON AND HER TWO LITTLE BOYS. THE ARRIVALS OF A SINGLE MONTH.
Sixty Passengers came in one Month—Twenty-eight in one Arrival—Great Panic and Indignation Meeting—Interesting Correspondence from Masters and Fugitives.

A SLAVE GIRL'S NARRATIVE.
Cordelia Loney, Slave of Mrs. Joseph Cahell, (widow of the late Hon. Joseph Cahell, of Virginia)—Cordelia's Escape from her Mistress in Philadelphia.

ARRIVAL OF JACKSON, ISAAC AND EDMONDSON TURNER FROM PETERSBURG.
Touching Scene on Meeting their Old Blind Father at the U.G.R.R. Depot.

ROBERT BROWN ALIAS THOMAS JONES.
Crossing the River on Horseback in the Night.

ANTHONY LONEY ALIAS WILLIAM ARMSTEAD AND CORNELIUS SCOTT. SAMUEL WILLIAMS ALIAS JOHN WILLIAMS. BARNABY GRIGBY ALIAS JOHN BOYER, AND MARY ELIZABETH HIS WIFE, FRANK WANZER ALIAS ROBERT SCOTT, EMILY FOSTER ALIAS ANN WOOD. WILLIAM JORDAN ALIAS WILLIAM PRICE. JOSEPH GRANT AND JOHN SPEAKS.
Two Passengers viâ Liverpool.

WILLIAM N. TAYLOR.
"One Hundred Dollars Reward".

LOUISA BROWN, JACOB WATERS, AND ALFRED GOULDEN. ARRIVAL FROM BALTIMORE.
Jefferson Pipkins alias David Jones, Louisa Pipkins, Elizabeth Brit, Harriet Brown, alias Jane Wooton, Gracy Murry alias Sophia Sims, Edward Williams alias Henry Johnson, Charles Lee alias Thomas Bushier.

SEVERAL ARRIVALS FROM DIFFERENT PLACES.
Henry Anderson, Charles and Margaret Congo, Chaskey Brown, William Henry Washington, James Alfred Frisley, Charles Henry Salter, Stephen Taylor, Charles Brown, Charles H. Hollis, Luther Dorsey.

ARRIVAL FROM RICHMOND.
Jeremiah W. Smith and wife Julia.

EIGHT ARRIVALS.
James Massey, Perry Henry Trusty, George Rhoads, James Rhoads, George Washington, Sarah Elizabeth Rhoads, and Child, Mary Elizabeth Stephenson.

CHARLES THOMPSON.
Carrier of "The National American".

BLOOD FLOWED FREELY.
Abram Galloway and Richard Eden—Secreted in a Vessel Loaded with Spirits of Turpentine—Shrouds Prepared to Prevent being Smoked to Death—Abram a Soldier under Father Abraham—Senator of North Carolina.

JOHN PETTIFOOT.
"One Hundred Dollars Reward" Offered—McHenry and McCulloch Anxious About John.

EMANUEL T. WHITE.
"Would rather Fight than Eat".

THE ESCAPE OF A CHILD FOURTEEN MONTHS OLD.
Letter from "J.B."—Letters from E.L. Stevens ... Great Anxiety and Care.

ESCAPE OF A YOUNG SLAVE MOTHER.
Baby, Little Girl and Husband left Behind—Three Hundred Dollars Reward Offered.

SAMUEL W. JOHNSON.
Arrival from the Richmond Daily Dispatch Office—"Uncle Tom's Cabin" turned Sam's Brain—Affecting Letters.

FAMILY FROM BALTIMORE.
Stephen Amos alias Henry Johnson, Harriet alias Mary Jane Johnson, and their four children, Ann Rebecca, William H., Elizabeth and Mary Ellen.

ELIJAH HILTON.
From Richmond—"Five Hundred Dollars Reward" offered by R.J. Christian.... Grateful letter from Canada.

SOLOMON BROWN.
Arrived per City of Richmond—Letter from Canada containing expressions of Gratitude.

WILLIAM HOGG ALIAS JOHN SMITH.
Traveler from Maryland—William was much troubled about his Wife left behind—Letter from Canada.

TWO FEMALE PASSENGERS FROM MARYLAND.
Ann Johnson and Lavina Woolfley Sold—Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire.

CAPTAIN F. AND THE MAYOR OF NORFOLK.
Twenty-one Passengers secreted in Captain Fountain's Boat—Mayor and Posse of Officers on the Boat searching for U.G.R.R. Passengers.

ARRIVALS FROM DIFFERENT PLACES.
Matilda Mahoney—Dr. J.W. Pennington's Brother and Sons—Great Adventure to deliver a Lover.

FLEEING GIRL OF FIFTEEN IN MALE ATTIRE.
Ann Maria Weems alias Joe Wright—Great Triumph—Arrival on Thanksgiving Day—Interesting letters from J. Bigelow.

FIVE YEARS AND ONE MONTH SECRETED.
John Henry, Hezekiah and James Hill.

FROM VIRGINIA, MARYLAND AND DELAWARE.
Archer Barlow, alias Emet Robins—Samuel Bush alias William Oblebee—John Spencer and his son William and James Albert—Robert Fisher—NATHAN HARRIS—Hansel Waples—Rosanna Tonnell, alias Maria Hyde—Mary Ennis alias Licia Hemmit and two Children—Lydia and Louisa Caroline.

SAM, ISAAC, PERRY, CHARLES AND GREEN.
"One Thousand Dollars Reward".

FROM RICHMOND AND NORFOLK, VA.
William B. White, Susan Brooks, and Wm. Henry Atkinson.

FOUR ARRIVALS.
Charlotte and Harriet escape in deep Mourning—White Lady and Child with a Colored Coachman—Three likely Young Men from Baltimore—Four large and two Small Hams—U.G.R.R. Passengers Travelling with their Master's Horses and Carriage—Six Passengers on two Horses, &c.

FROM VIRGINIA, MARYLAND, DELAWARE, NORTH CAROLINA, WASHINGTON, D.C. AND SOUTH CAROLINA. CHARLES GILBERT,
Fleeing from Davis, a Negro Trader—Secreted under a Hotel—Up a Tree—Under a Floor—In a Thicket—On a Steamer.

LIBERTY OR DEATH.
Jim Bowlegs alias Bill Paul.

SALT-WATER FUGITIVE. SAMUEL GREEN ALIAS WESLEY KINNARD.
Ten Years in the Penitentiary for having a Copy of Uncle Tom's Cabin in his House.

AN IRISH GIRL'S DEVOTION TO FREEDOM.
In Love with a Slave—Gets him off to Canada—Follows him—Marriage, &c.

"SAM" NIXON ALIAS DR. THOMAS BAYNE.
The Escape of a Dentist on the U.G.R.R. &c.

SUNDRY ARRIVALS.
From Loudoun County, Va., Norfolk, Baltimore, Md., Petersburg, Va., &c.

HEAVY REWARD.
"Two Thousand Six Hundred Dollars Reward" Offered.

SLAVE-TRADER HALL IS FOILED.
Robert McCoy alias William Donar, and Elizabeth Sanders, arrived per steamer.

THE PROTECTION OF SLAVE PROPERTY IN VIRGINIA.
A Bill providing additional Protection for the Slave Property of Citizens of this Commonwealth.

ESCAPING IN A CHEST.
"One Hundred and Fifty Dollars Reward"—Lear Green.

ISAAC WILLIAMS, HENRY BANKS AND KIT NICKLESS. ARRIVAL OF FIVE PROM THE EASTERN SHORE OF MARYLAND.
Cyrus Mitchell alias John Steel, Joshua Handy alias Hambleton Hamby, Charles Button alias William Robinson, Ephraim Hudson alias John Spry, Francis Molock alias Thomas Jackson.

SUNDRY ARRIVALS ABOUT AUGUST 1ST, 1855.
Francis Hilliard and Others.

DEEP FURROWS ON THE BACK.
Thomas Madden.

PETER MATHEWS ALIAS SAMUEL SPARROWS.
"I might as well be in the Penitentiary as in Slavery."

"MOSES" ARRIVES WITH SIX PASSENGERS. ESCAPED FROM "A WORTHLESS SOT."
John Atkinson.

WILLIAM BUTCHER ALIAS Wm. T. MTCHELL.
"He was abuseful".

"WHITE ENOUGH TO PASS". ESCAPING WITH MASTER'S CARRIAGES AND HORSES.
Harriet Shephard, and her five Children with five other Passengers.

EIGHT AND A HALF MONTHS SECRETED.
Washington Somlor alias James Moore.

ARTHUR FOWLER ALIAS BENJAMIN JOHNSON. SUNDRY ARRIVALS.
About the 1st of June, 1855—Emory Roberts and others.

SUNDRY ARRIVALS ABOUT JANUARY 1ST, 1855.
Verenea Mercer and others.

SLAVE-HOLDER IN MARYLAND WITH THREE COLORED WIVES.
James Griffin alias Thomas Brown.

CAPTAIN F. ARRIVES WITH NINE PASSENGERS.
Names of Passengers.

OWEN AND OTHO TAYLOR'S FLIGHT WITH HORSES, &c. HEAVY REWARD.
Three Hundred Dollars Reward—"Tom" gone.

CAPT. F. ARRIVES WITH FOURTEEN "PRIME ARTICLES" ON BOARD. SUNDRY ARRIVALS, LATTER PART OF DECEMBER, 1855, AND BEGINNING OF JANUARY, 1856.
Joseph Cornish and others.

PART OF THE ARRIVALS IN DECEMBER, 1855.
Thomas J. Gooseberry and others.

THE FUGITIVE SLAVE BILL OF 1850.
"An Act Respecting Fugitives from Justice, and Persons Escaping from the Services of their Masters."

THE SLAVE HUNTING TRAGEDY IN LANCASTER COUNTY, IN SEPTEMBER, 1851.
"Treason at Christiana".

WILLIAM AND ELLEN CRAFT.
Female Slave in Male Attire, fleeing as a Planter, with her Husband as her Body Servant.

ARRIVALS FROM RICHMOND.
Lewis Cobb and Nancy Brister.

PASSENGERS FROM NORTH CAROLINA, [By SCHOONER.]
Major Latham, William Wilson, Henry Goram, Wiley Madison, and Andrew Shepherd.

THOMAS CLINTON, SAUNEY PRY AND BENJAMIN DUCKET.
Passed over the U.G.R.R. in the Fall of 1856.

ARRIVALS IN APRIL, 1856.
Charles Hall and others.

FIVE FROM GEORGETOWN CROSS-ROADS.
Mother and Child from Norfolk, Va., &c.

PASSENGERS FROM MARYLAND.
William Henry MOODY, BELINDA BIVANS, &c.

ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND. ARRIVAL FROM WASHINGTON, D.C., &c., 1857.
George Carroll, Randolph Branson, John Clagart and William Royan.

ARRIVAL FROM UNIONVILLE, 1857.
Israel Todd and Bazil Aldridge.

ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1857.
Ordee Lee and Richard J. Booce.

ARRIVAL FROM CAMBRIDGE, 1857.
Silas Long and Solomon Light—"The Mother of Twelve Children"—Old Jane Davis.

BENJAMIN ROSS AND HIS WIFE HARRIET
Fled from Caroline County, Eastern Shore of Maryland, June, 1857.

ARRIVAL FROM VIRGINIA, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM DELAWARE, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM ALEXANDRIA, IN 1857. ARRIVAL FROM UNIONVILLE, 1857. FROM NEW ORLEANS, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM WASHINGTON, D.C. ARRIVAL FROM VIRGINIA, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND. ARRIVAL FROM GEORGETOWN CROSS ROADS AND ALEXANDRIA. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND. ARRIVAL FROM NORFOLK, VA. ARRIVAL FROM WASHINGTON, D.C. FOUR ABLE BODIED "ARTICLES" IN ONE ARRIVAL, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM ARLINGTON, MD., 1857. FIVE PASSENGERS, 1847.
ARRIVAL FROM HOWARD COUNTY, MD., 1857.

ARRIVAL FROM PRINCE GEORGE'S COUNTY, MD. ARRIVAL FROM RAPPAHANNOCK COUNTY, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM NORTH CAROLINA, 1857. ALFRED HOLLON, GEORGE AND CHARLES N. RODGERS. ARRIVAL FROM KENT COUNTY, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM BALTIMORE COUNTY, 1857. MARY COOPER AND MOSES ARMSTEAD, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM NEAR WASHINGTON, D.C. HON. L. McLANE'S PROPERTY, SOON AFTER HIS DEATH, TRAVELS VIA THE UNDERGROUND RAIL ROAD—WILLIAM KNIGHT, ESQ. LOSES A SUPERIOR "ARTICLE." ARRIVAL FROM HARFORD COUNTY, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM NORFOLK, VA., 1857. ARRIVAL FROM HOOPERVILLE, MD., 1857. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1857. ARRIVAL FROM QUEEN ANNE COUNTY, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM BALTIMORE. ARRIVED FROM DUNWOODY COUNTY, 1858. ARRIVED FROM ALEXANDRIA, VA., 1857. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM PETERSBURG, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND. ARRIVAL OF A PARTY OF SIX, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM RICHMOND, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM BALTIMORE, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM HIGHTSTOWN, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM VIRGINIA, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM BELLAIR. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM VIRGINIA, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM RICHMOND, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM NORFOLK, VA., 1858. ARRIVAL FROM NEAR BALTIMORE, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM VIRGINIA, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM WASHINGTON, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM VIRGINIA, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM THE OLD DOMINION. ARRIVAL FROM DELAWARE, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM DELAWARE, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM NORTH CAROLINA AND DELAWARE. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND. ARRIVAL FROM THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM HONEY BROOK TOWNSHIP, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM ALEXANDRIA, VA., 1858. ARRIVAL FROM THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT. CROSSING THE BAY IN A SKIFF. ARRIVAL FROM KENT COUNTY, MD., 1858. ARRIVAL FROM WASHINGTON, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM CECIL COUNTY, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM GEORGETOWN, D.C., 1858. ARRIVAL FROM SUSSEX COUNTY, 1858. SUNDRY ARRIVALS IN 1859. ARRIVAL FROM RICHMOND, 1859. ARRIVAL FROM DELAWARE, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM RICHMOND, 1859. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1859. SUNDRY ARRIVALS, 1859. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1859. ARRIVAL FROM DELAWARE, 1859. ARRIVAL FROM VIRGINIA, 1859. SUNDRY ARRIVALS FROM MARYLAND, 1859. ARRIVAL FROM RICHMOND, 1859. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, AND THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. SUNDRY ARRIVALS FROM MARYLAND AND VIRGINIA. ARRIVAL FROM SEAFORD, 1859. ARRIVAL FROM TAPS' NECK, MD., 1859. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1859. SUNDRY ARRIVALS FROM VIRGINIA, MARYLAND AND DELAWARE. ARRIVAL FROM DIFFERENT POINTS. SUNDRY ARRIVALS FROM MARYLAND, 1860. ARRIVAL FROM VIRGINIA, 1860. ARRIVAL FROM BALTIMORE, 1860. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND. ARRIVAL FROM FREDERICKSBURG, 1860. SUNDRY ARRIVALS FROM MARYLAND, 1860. CROSSING THE BAY IN A BATTEAU. ARRIVAL FROM DORCHESTER COUNTY, 1860. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND, 1860. TWELVE MONTHS IN THE WOODS, 1860. ARRIVAL FROM MARYLAND. A SLAVE CATCHER CAUGHT IN HIS OWN TRAP. TO WHOM IT MIGHT CONCERN. ARRIVAL FROM RICHMOND, 1858. ARRIVAL FROM RICHMOND, 1859. ARRIVAL FROM RICHMOND. "AUNT HANNAH MOORE." KIDNAPPING OF RACHEL AND ELIZABETH PARKER—MURDER OF JOSEPH C. MILLER, IN 1851 AND 1852. ARRIVAL FROM VIRGINIA, 1854. ARRIVAL FROM NORFOLK. ARRIVAL OF FIFTEEN FROM NORFOLK, VIRGINIA. THE CASE OF EUPHEMIA WILLIAMS. HELPERS AND SYMPATHIZERS AT HOME AND ABROAD—INTERESTING LETTERS. PAMPHLET AND LETTERS. LETTERS TO THE WRITER. WOMAN ESCAPING IN A BOX, 1857. ORGANIZATION OF THE VIGILANCE COMMITTEE. PORTRAITS AND SKETCHES. ESTHER MOORE. ABIGAIL GOODWIN. THOMAS GARRETT. DANIEL GIBBONS. LUCRETIA MOTT. JAMES MILLER McKIM. WILLIAM H. FURNESS, D.D. WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON. LEWIS TAPPAN. ELIJAH F. PENNYPACKER. WILLIAM WRIGHT. DR. BARTHOLOMEW FUSSELL. THOMAS SHIPLEY. ROBERT PURVIS. JOHN HUNN. SAMUEL RHOADS. GEORGE CORSON. CHARLES D. CLEVELAND. WILLIAM WHIPPER. ISAAC T. HOPPER. SAMUEL D. BURRIS. MARIANN, GRACE ANNA, AND ELIZABETH R. LEWIS. CUNNINGHAM'S RACHE. FRANCES ELLEN WATKINS HARPER.



CLOTELLE; OR, THE COLORED HEROINE.
A TALE OF THE SOUTHERN STATES.
By William Wells Brown


CONTENTS
CLOTELLE
CHAPTER I	  THE SOUTHERN SOCIAL CIRCLE
CHAPTER II	  THE NEGRO SALE
CHAPTER III	  THE SLAVE-SPECULATOR
CHAPTER IV	  THE BOAT-RACE
CHAPTER V	  THE YOUNG MOTHER
CHAPTER VI	  THE SLAVE-MARKET
CHAPTER VII	  THE SLAVE-HOLDING PARSON
CHAPTER VIII/td>	  A NIGHT IN THE PARSON'S KITCHEN
CHAPTER IX	  THE MAN OF HONOR
CHAPTER X	  THE QUADROON'S HOME
CHAPTER XI	  TO-DAY A MISTRESS, TO-MORROW A SLAVE
CHAPTER XII	  THE MOTHER-IN-LAW
CHAPTER XIII	  A HARD-HEARTED WOMAN
CHAPTER XIV	  THE PRISON
CHAPTER XV	  THE ARREST
CHAPTER XVI	  DEATH IS FREEDOM
CHAPTER XVII	  CLOTELLE
CHAPTER XVIII	  A SLAVE-HUNTING PARSON
CHAPTER XIX	  THE TRUE HEROINE
CHAPTER XX	  THE HERO OF MANY ADVENTURES
CHAPTER XXI	  SELF-SACRIFICE
CHAPTER XXII	  LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT AND WHAT FOLLOWED
CHAPTER XXIII	  MEETING OF THE COUSINS
CHAPTER XXIV	  THE LAW AND ITS VICTIM
CHAPTER XXV	  THE FLIGHT
CHAPTER XXVI	  THE HERO OF A NIGHT
CHAPTER XXVII	  TRUE FREEDOM
CHAPTER XXVIII	  FAREWELL TO AMERICA
CHAPTER XXIX	  A STRANGER IN A STRANGE LAND
CHAPTER XXX	  NEW FRIENDS
CHAPTER XXXI	  THE MYSTERIOUS MEETING
CHAPTER XXXII	  THE HAPPY MEETING
CHAPTER XXXIII	  THE HAPPY DAY
CHAPTER XXXIV	  CLOTELLE MEETS HER FATHER
CHAPTER XXXV	  THE FATHER'S RESOLVE
CHAPTER XXXVI	  THE RETURN HOME
CHAPTER XXXVII	  THE ANGEL OF MERCY
CHAPTER XXXVIII	    THE GREAT TUNNEL AND THE MISTAKE
CHAPTER XXXIX	  CONCLUSION



ILLUSTRATED EDITION OF THE LIFE AND ESCAPE
OF WM. WELLS BROWN FROM AMERICAN SLAVERY
By Wm. Wells Brown
Written By Himself.


CONTENTS
TESTIMONIALS.
PREFACE TO THE EIGHTH ENGLISH EDITION.
NARRATIVE.
CHAPTER I.
CHAPTER II.
CHAPTER III.
CHAPTER IV.
CHAPTER V.
CHAPTER VI.
CHAPTER VII.
CHAPTER VIII.
CHAPTER IX.
CHAPTER X.
CHAPTER XI.
CHAPTER XII.
THE AMERICAN SLAVE-TRADE.



NARRATIVE OF WILLIAM W. BROWN
A Fugitive Slave
Written By Himself


CONTENTS
PREFACE.
CHAPTER I.
CHAPTER II.
CHAPTER III.
CHAPTER IV.
CHAPTER V.
CHAPTER VI.
CHAPTER VII.
CHAPTER VIII.
CHAPTER IX.
CHAPTER X.
CHAPTER XI.
CHAPTER XII.
CHAPTER XIII.
CHAPTER XIV.



DRED A TALE OF THE GREAT DISMAL SWAMP
By Harriet Beecher Stowe


CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
PAGE
The Mistress of Canema	1
CHAPTER II.
Clayton	11
CHAPTER III.
The Clayton Family and Sister Anne	22
CHAPTER IV.
The Gordon Family	31
CHAPTER V.
Harry and his Wife	50
CHAPTER VI.
The Dilemma	66
CHAPTER VII.
Consultation	77
CHAPTER VIII.
Old Tiff	82
CHAPTER IX.
The Death	101
CHAPTER X.
The Preparation	106
CHAPTER XI.
The Lovers	116
[Pg vi]CHAPTER XII.
Explanations	129
CHAPTER XIII.
Tom Gordon	145
CHAPTER XIV.
Aunt Nesbit's Loss	162
CHAPTER XV.
Mr. Jekyl's Opinions	172
CHAPTER XVI.
Milly's Story	178
CHAPTER XVII.
Uncle John	193
CHAPTER XVIII.
Dred	205
CHAPTER XIX.
The Conspirators	213
CHAPTER XX.
Summer Talk at Canema	224
CHAPTER XXI.
Tiff's Preparations	235
CHAPTER XXII.
The Worshippers	242
CHAPTER XXIII.
The Camp-Meeting	255
CHAPTER XXIV.
Life in the Swamps	285
CHAPTER XXV.
More Summer Talk	293
[Pg vii]CHAPTER XXVI.
Milly's Return	307
CHAPTER XXVII.
The Trial	313
CHAPTER XXVIII.
Magnolia Grove	321
CHAPTER XXIX.
The Troubadour	336
CHAPTER XXX.
Tiff's Garden	348
CHAPTER XXXI.
The Warning	357
CHAPTER XXXII.
The Morning Star	362
CHAPTER XXXIII.
The Legal Decision	368
CHAPTER XXXIV.
The Cloud Bursts	379
CHAPTER XXXV.
The Voice in the Wilderness	391
CHAPTER XXXVI.
The Evening Star	395
CHAPTER XXXVII.
The Tie Breaks	403
CHAPTER XXXVIII.
The Purpose	410
CHAPTER XXXIX.
The New Mother	418
[Pg viii]CHAPTER XL.
The Flight into Egypt	424
CHAPTER XLI.
The Clerical Conference	436
CHAPTER XLII.
The Result	448
CHAPTER XLIII.
The Slave's Argument	457
CHAPTER XLIV.
The Desert	468
CHAPTER XLV.
Jegar Sahadutha	477
CHAPTER XLVI.
Frank Russel's Opinions	488
CHAPTER XLVII.
Tom Gordon's Plans	497
CHAPTER XLVIII.
Lynch Law	502
CHAPTER XLIX.
More Violence	515
CHAPTER L.
Engedi	521
CHAPTER LI.
The Slave Hunt	530
CHAPTER LII.
"All Over"	535
CHAPTER LIII.
The Burial	542
[Pg ix]CHAPTER LIV.
The Escape	547
CHAPTER LV.
Lynch Law again	556
CHAPTER LVI.
Flight	569
CHAPTER LVII.
Clear Shining after Rain	576
APPENDIX   I.	580
APPENDIX  II.	587
APPENDIX III.	596



UNCLE TOM’S CABIN
or
Life among the Lowly
By Harriet Beecher Stowe


CONTENTS
VOLUME I
CHAPTER I	In Which the Reader Is Introduced to a Man of Humanity
CHAPTER II	The Mother
CHAPTER III	The Husband and Father
CHAPTER IV	An Evening in Uncle Tom's Cabin
CHAPTER V	Showing the Feelings of Living Property on Changing Owners
CHAPTER VI	Discovery
CHAPTER VII	The Mother's Struggle
CHAPTER VIII	Eliza's Escape
CHAPTER	In Which It Appears That a Senator Is But a Man IX
CHAPTER X	The Property Is Carried Off
CHAPTER XI	In Which Property Gets into an Improper State of Mind
CHAPTER XII	Select Incident of Lawful Trade
CHAPTER XIII	The Quaker Settlement
CHAPTER XIV	Evangeline
CHAPTER XV	Of Tom's New Master, and Various Other Matters
CHAPTER XVI	Tom's Mistress and Her Opinions
CHAPTER XVII	The Freeman's Defence
CHAPTER XVIII	Miss Ophelia's Experiences and Opinions
VOLUME II
CHAPTER	Miss Ophelia's Experiences and Opinions Continued XIX
CHAPTER XX	Topsy
CHAPTER XXI	Kentuck
CHAPTER XXII	"The Grass Withereth-the Flower Fadeth"
CHAPTER XXIII	Henrique
CHAPTER XXIV	Foreshadowings
CHAPTER XXV	The Little Evangelist
CHAPTER XXVI	Death
CHAPTER XXVII	"This Is the Last of Earth"
CHAPTER XXVIII	Reunion
CHAPTER XXIX	The Unprotected
CHAPTER XXX	The Slave Warehouse
CHAPTER XXXI	The Middle Passage
CHAPTER XXXII	Dark Places
CHAPTER XXXIII	Cassy
CHAPTER XXXIV	The Quadroon's Story
CHAPTER XXXV	The Tokens
CHAPTER XXXVI	Emmeline and Cassy
CHAPTER XXXVII	Liberty
CHAPTER XXXVIII	The Victory
CHAPTER XXXIX	The Stratagem
CHAPTER XL	The Martyr
CHAPTER XLI	The Young Master
CHAPTER XLII	An Authentic Ghost Story
CHAPTER XLIII	Results
CHAPTER XLIV	The Liberator
CHAPTER XLV	Concluding Remarks



STEP BY STEP
or, TIDY'S WAY TO FREEDOM.


CONTENTS
STEP BY STEP.
CHAPTER I	INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER II	THE BABY.
CHAPTER III	SUNSHINE.
CHAPTER IV	SEVERAL EVENTS.
CHAPTER V	A NEW HOME.
CHAPTER VI	BEGINNINGS OF KNOWLEDGE.
CHAPTER VII	FRANCES.
CHAPTER VIII	PRAYER.
CHAPTER IX	THE FIRST LESSON.
CHAPTER X	LONY'S PETITION.
CHAPTER XI	ROUGH PLACES.
CHAPTER XII	A GREAT UNDERTAKING.
CHAPTER XIII	A LONG JOURNEY.
CHAPTER XIV	CRUELTY.
CHAPTER XV	COTTON.
CHAPTER XVI	RESCUE.
CHAPTER XVII	TRUE LIBERTY.
CHAPTER XVIII	CROWNING MERCIES.



THE IRON FURNACE:
OR,SLAVERY AND SECESSION
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I.
SECESSION.
Speech of Colonel Drane—Submission Denounced—Northern Aggression—No more Slave States—Northern isms—Yankees’ Servants—Yankee inferiority—Breckinridge, or immediate, complete, and eternal Separation—A Day of Rejoicing—Abraham Lincoln, President elect—A Union Speech—A Southerner’s Reasons for opposing Secession—Address by a Radical Secessionist—Cursing and Bitterness—A Prayer—Sermon against Secession—List of Grievances—Causes which led to Secession	13—49

CHAPTER II.
VIGILANCE COMMITTEE AND COURT-MARTIAL.
The election of Delegates to determine the status of Mississippi—The Vigilance Committee—Description of its members—Charges—Phonography—No formal verdict—Danger of Assassination—Passports—Escape to Rienzi—Union sentiment—The Conscript Law—Summons to attend Court-Martial—Evacuation of Corinth—Destruction of Cotton—Suffering poor—Relieved by General Halleck	50—69

CHAPTER III.
ARREST, ESCAPE, AND RECAPTURE.
High price of Provisions—Holland Lindsay’s Family—The arrest—Captain Hill—Appearance before Colonel Bradfute at Fulton—Arrest of Benjamin Clarke—Bradfute’s [Pg 10]Insolence—General Chalmers—The clerical Spy—General Pfeifer—Under guard—Priceville—General Gordon—Bound for Tupelo—The Prisoners entering the Dungeon—Captain Bruce—Lieutenant Richard Malone—Prison Fare and Treatment—Menial Service—Resolve to escape—Plan of escape—Federal Prisoners—Co-operation of the Prisoners—Declaration of Independence—The Escape—The Separation—Concealment—Travel on the Underground Railroad—Pursuit by Cavalry and Bloodhounds—The Arrest—Dan Barnes, the Mail-robber—Perfidy—Heavily ironed—Return to Tupelo	70—112

CHAPTER IV.
LIFE IN A DUNGEON.
Parson Aughey as Chaplain—Description of the Prisoners—Colonel Walter, the Judge Advocate—Charges and Specifications against Parson Aughey, a Citizen of the Confederate States—Execution of two Tennesseeans—Enlistment of Union Prisoners—Colonel Walter’s second visit—Day of Execution specified—Farewell Letter to my Wife—Parson Aughey’s Obituary penned by himself—Address to his Soul—The Soul’s Reply—Farewell Letter to his Parents—The Union Prisoners’ Petition to Hon. W. H. Seward—The two Prisoners and the Oath of Allegiance—Irish Stories	113—142

CHAPTER V.
EXECUTION OF UNION PRISONERS.
Resolved to Escape—Mode of Executing Prisoners—Removal of Chain—Addition to our Numbers—Two Prisoners become Insane—Plan of Escape—Proves a Failure—Fetters Inspected—Additional Fetters—Handcuffs—A Spy in the Disguise of a Prisoner—Special Police Guard on Duty—A Prisoner’s Discovery—Divine Services—The General Judgment—The Judge—The Laws—The Witnesses—The [Pg 11]Concourse—The Sentence	143—167

CHAPTER VI.
SUCCESSFUL ESCAPE.
The Second Plan of Escape—Under the Jail—Egress—Among the Guards—In the Swamp—Travelling on the Underground Railroad—The Fare—Green Corn eaten Raw—Blackberries and Stagnant Water—The Bloodhounds—Tantalizing Dreams—The Pickets—The Cows—Become Sick—Fons Beatus—Find Friends—Union Friend No. Two—The night in the Barn—Death of Newman by Scalding—Union Friend No. Three—Bound for the Union Lines—Rebel Soldiers—Black Ox—Pied Ox—Reach Headquarters in Safety—Emotions on again beholding the Old Flag—Kindness while Sick—Meeting with his Family—Richard Malone again—The Serenade—Leave Dixie—Northward bound	168—211

CHAPTER VII.
SOUTHERN CLASSES—CRUELTY TO SLAVES.
Sandhillers—Dirt-eating—Dipping—Their Mode of Living—Patois—Rain-book—Wife-trade—Coming in to see the Cars—Superstition—Marriage of Kinsfolks—Hardshell Sermon—Causes which lead to the Degradation of this Class—Efforts to Reconcile the Poor Whites to the Peculiar Institution—The Slaveholding Class—The Middle Class—Northern isms—Incident at a Methodist Minister’s House—Question asked a Candidate for Licensure—Reason of Southern Hatred toward the North—Letter to Mr. Jackman—Barbarities and Cruelties of Slavery—Mulattoes—Old Cole—Child Born at Whipping-post—Advertisement of a Keeper of Bloodhounds—Getting Rid of Free Blacks—The Doom of Slavery—Methodist Church South	212—248
 [Pg 12]
CHAPTER VIII.
NOTORIOUS REBELS.—UNION OFFICERS.
Colonel Jefferson Davis—His Speech at Holly Springs, Mississippi—His Opposition to Yankee Teachers and Ministers—A bid for the Presidency—His Ambition—Burr, Arnold, Davis—General Beauregard—Headquarters at Rienzi—Colonel Elliott’s Raid—Beauregard’s Consternation—Personal description—His illness—Popularity waning.—Rev. Dr. Palmer of New Orleans—His influence—The Cincinnati Letter—His Personal Appearance—His Denunciations of General Butler—His Radicalism.—Rev. Dr. Waddell of La Grange, Tennessee—His Prejudices against the North—President of Memphis Synodical College—His Talents prostituted.—Union Officers—General Nelson—General Sherman	249—263

CHAPTER IX.
CONDITION OF THE SOUTH.
Cause of the Rebellion—Prevalence of Union Sentiment in the South—Why not Developed—Stevenson’s Views—Why Incorrect—Cavalry Raids upon Union Citizens—How the Rebels employ Slaves—Slaves Whipped and sent out of the Federal Lines—Resisting the Conscript Law—Kansas Jayhawkers—Guarding Rebel Property—Perfidy of Secessionists—Plea for Emancipation—The South Exhausted—Failure of Crops—Southern Merchants Ruined—Bragg Prohibits the Manufacture and Vending of Intoxicating Liquors—Its Salutary Effect	264—281

CHAPTER X.
BATTLES OF LEESBURG, BELMONT, AND SHILOH.
Rebel Cruelty to Prisoners—The Fratricide—Grant Defeated—Saved by Gunboats—Buell’s Advance—Railroad Disaster—The South Despondent—General Rosecrans—Secession will become Odious even in the South—Poem	282—296



A SOCIAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO
By Benjamin Brawley


CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
THE COMING OF NEGROES TO AMERICA
1. African Origins
2. The Negro in Spanish Exploration
3. Development of the Slave-Trade
4. Planting of Slavery in the Colonies
5. The Wake of the Slave-Ship
CHAPTER II
THE NEGRO IN THE COLONIES
1. Servitude and Slavery
2. The Indian, the Mulatto, and the Free Negro
3. First Effort toward Social Betterment
4. Early Insurrections
CHAPTER III
THE REVOLUTIONARY ERA
1. Sentiment in England and America
2. The Negro in the War
3. The Northwest Territory and the Constitution
4. Early Steps toward Abolition
5. Beginning of Racial Consciousness
CHAPTER IV
THE NEW WEST, THE SOUTH, AND THE WEST INDIES
1. The Cotton-Gin, the New Southwest, and the First Fugitive Slave Law
2. Toussaint L'Ouverture, Louisiana, and the Formal Closing of the Slave-Trade
3. Gabriel's Insurrection and the Rise of the Negro Problem
CHAPTER V
INDIAN AND NEGRO
1. Creek, Seminole, and Negro to 1817: The War of 1812
2. First Seminole War and the Treaties of Indian Spring and Fort Moultrie
3. From the Treaty of Fort Moultrie to the Treaty of Payne's Landing
4. Osceola and the Second Seminole War
CHAPTER VI
EARLY APPROACH TO THE NEGRO PROBLEM
1. The Ultimate Problem and the Missouri Compromise
2. Colonization
3. Slavery
CHAPTER VII
THE NEGRO REPLYâ?"I: REVOLT
1. Denmark Vesey's Insurrection
2. Nat Turner's Insurrection
3. The Amistad and Creole Cases
CHAPTER VIII
THE NEGRO REPLYâ?"II: ORGANIZATION AND AGITATION
1. Walker's "Appeal"
2. The Convention Movement
3. Sojourner Truth and Woman Suffrage
CHAPTER IX
LIBERIA
1. The Place and the People
2. History
(a) Colonization and Settlement
(b) The Commonwealth of Liberia
(c) The Republic of Liberia
3. International Relations
4. Economic and Social Conditions
CHAPTER X
THE NEGRO A NATIONAL ISSUE
1. Current Tendencies
2. The Challenge of the Abolitionists
3. The Contest
CHAPTER XI
SOCIAL PROGRESS, 1820-1860
CHAPTER XII
THE CIVIL WAR AND EMANCIPATION
CHAPTER XIII
THE ERA OF ENFRANCHISEMENT
1. The Problem
2. Meeting the Problem
3. Reaction: The Ku-Klux Klan
4. Counter-Reaction: The Negro Exodus
5. A Postscript on the War and Reconstruction
CHAPTER XIV
THE NEGRO IN THE NEW SOUTH
1. Political Life: Disfranchisement
2. Economic Life: Peonage
3. Social Life: Proscription, Lynching

CHAPTER XV
"THE VALE OF TEARS," 1890-1910
1. Current Opinion and Tendencies
2. Industrial Education: Booker T. Washington
3. Individual Achievement: The Spanish-American War
4. Mob Violence; Election Troubles; The Atlanta Massacre
5. The Question of Labor
6. Defamation; Brownsville
7. The Dawn of a To-morrow
CHAPTER XVI
THE NEGRO IN THE NEW AGE
1. Character of the Period
2. Migration; East St. Louis
3. The Great War
4. High Tension: Washington, Chicago, Elaine
5. The Widening Problem
CHAPTER XVII
THE NEGRO PROBLEM
1. World Aspect
2. The Negro in American Life
3. Face to Face



TWENTY YEARS OF AN AFRICAN SLAVER
By Brantz Mayer


CONTENTS.
 	PAGE
CHAP. I.—My parentage and education—Apprenticed at Leghorn to an American captain—First voyage—its mishaps—overboard—black cook—Sumatra—cabin-boy—Arrival in Boston—My first command—View of Boston harbor from the mast-head—My first interview with a Boston merchant, William Gray	1
CHAP. II.—My uncle tells my adventure with Lord Byron—Captain Towne, and my life in Salem—My skill in Latin—Five years voyaging from Salem—I rescue a Malay girl at Quallahbattoo—The first slave I ever saw—End of my apprenticeship—My backslidings in Antwerp and Paris—Ship on a British vessel for Brazil—The captain and his wife—Love, grog, and grumbling—A scene in the harbor of Rio—Matrimonial happiness—Voyage to Europe—Wreck and loss on the coast near Ostend	10
CHAP. III.—I design going to South America—A Dutch galliot for Havana—Male and female captain—Run foul of in the Bay of Biscay—Put into Ferrol, in Spain—I am appropriated by a new mother, grandmother, and sisters—A comic scene—How I got out of the scrape—Set sail for Havana—Jealousy of the captain—Deprived of my post—Restored—Refuse to do duty—Its sad consequences—Wrecked on a reef near Cuba—Fisherman-wreckers—Offer to land cargo—Make a bargain with our salvors—A sad denouement—A night bath and escape	19
CHAP. IV.—Bury my body in the sand to escape the insects—Night of horror—Refuge on a tree—Scented by bloodhounds—March to the rancho—My guard—Argument about my fate—“My Uncle” Rafael suddenly appears on the scene—Magic change effected by my relationship—Clothed, and fed, and comforted—I find an uncle, and am protected—Mesclet—Made cook’s mate—Gallego, the cook—His appearance and character—Don Rafael’s story—“Circumstances”—His counsel for my conduct on the island	31
CHAP. V.—Life on a sand key—Pirates and wreckers—Their difference—Our galliot destroyed—the gang goes to Cuba—I am left with Gallego—His daily fishing and nightly flitting—I watch him—My discoveries in the graveyard—Return of the wreckers—“Amphibious Jews”—Visit from a Cuban inspector—“Fishing license”—Gang goes to Cape Verde—Report of a fresh wreck—Chance of escape—Arrival—Return of wreckers—Bachicha and his clipper—Death of Mesclet—My adventures in a privateer—My restoration to the key—Gallego’s charges—His trial and fate	41
[Pg x] CHAP. VI.—I am sent from the key—Consigned to a grocer at Regla—Cibo—His household—Fish-loving padre—Our dinners and studies—Rafael’s fate—Havana—A slaver—I sail for Africa—The Areostatico’s voyage, crew, gale—Mutiny—How I meet it alone—My first night in Africa!	57
CHAP. VII.—Reflections on my conduct and character—Morning after the mutiny—Burial of the dead—My wounds—Jack Ormond or the “Mongo John”—My physician and his prescription—Value of woman’s milk—I make the vessel ready for her slave cargo—I dine with Mongo John—His harem—Frolic in it—Duplicity of my captain—I take service with Ormond as his clerk—I pack the human cargo of the Areostatico—Farewell to my English cabin-boy—His story	68
CHAP. VIII.—I take possession of my new quarters—My household and its fittings—History of Mr. Ormond—How he got his rights in Africa—I take a survey of his property and of my duties—The Cerberus of his harem—Unga-golah’s stealing—Her rage at my opposition—A night visit at my quarters—Esther, the quarteroon—A warning and a sentimental scene—Account of an African factor’s harem—Mongo John in his decline—His women—Their flirtations—Battles among the girls—How African beaus fight a duel for love!—Scene of passionate jealousy among the women	76
CHAP. IX.—Pains and dreariness of the “wet season”—African rain!—A Caravan announced as coming to the Coast—Forest paths and trails in Africa—How we arrange to catch a caravan—“Barkers,” who they are—Ahmah-de-Bellah, son of the Ali-Mami of Footha-Yallon—A Fullah chief leads the caravan of 700 persons—Arrival of the caravan—Its character and reception—Its produce taken charge of—People billeted—Mode of trading for the produce of a caravan—(Note: Account of the produce, its value and results)—Mode of purchasing the produce—Sale over—Gift of an ostrich—Its value in guns—Bungee or “dash”—Ahmah-de-Bellah—How he got up his caravan—Blocks the forest paths—Convoy duties—Value and use of blocking the forest paths—Collecting debts, &c.—My talks with Ahmah—his instructions and sermons on Islamism—My geographical disquisitions, rotundity of the world, the Koran—I consent to turn, minus the baptism!—Ahmah’s attempt to vow me to Islamism—Fullah punishments—Slave wars—Piety and profit—Ahmah and I exchange gifts—A double-barrelled gun for a Koran—I promise to visit the Fullah country	84
CHAP. X.—Mode of purchasing Slaves at factories—Tricks of jockeys—Gunpowder and lemon-juice—I become absolute manager of the stores—Reconciliation with Unga-golah—La belle Esther—I get the African fever—My nurses—Cured by sweating and bitters—Ague—Showerbath remedy—Mr. Edward Joseph—My union with him—I quit the Mongo, and take up my quarters with the Londoner	94
CHAP. XI.—An epoch in my life in 1827—A vessel arrives consigned to me for slaves—La Fortuna—How I managed to sell my cigars and get a cargo, though I had no factory—My first shipment—(Note on the cost and profit of a slave voyage)—How slaves are selected for various markets, and shipped—Go on board naked—hearty feed before embarkation—Stowage—Messes—Mode of eating—Grace—Men and women separated—Attention to health, cleanliness, ventilation—Singing and amusements—Daily purification of the vessel—Night, order and silence preserved by negro constables—Use and disuse of handcuffs—Brazilian slavers—(Note on condition of slavers since the treaty with Spain)	99
CHAP. XII.—How a cargo of slaves is landed in Cuba—Detection avoided—“Gratificaciones.” Clothes distributed—Vessel burnt or sent in as a coaster, or in distress—A[Pg xi] slave’s first glimpse of a Cuban plantation—Delight with food and dress—Oddity of beasts of burden and vehicles—A slave’s first interview with a negro postilion—the postilion’s sermon in favor of slavery—Dealings with the anchorites—How tobacco smoke blinds public functionaries—My popularity on the Rio Pongo—Ormond’s enmity to me	107
CHAP. XIII.—I become intimate with “Country princes” and receive their presents—Royal marriages—Insulting to refuse a proffered wife—I am pressed to wed a princess and my diplomacy to escape the sable noose—My partner agrees to marry the princess—The ceremonial of wooing and wedding in African high life—Coomba	110
CHAP. XIV.—Joseph, my partner, has to fly from Africa—How I save our property—My visit to the Bagers—their primitive mode of life—Habits—Honesty—I find my property unguarded and safe—My welcome in the village—Gift of a goat—Supper—Sleep—A narrow escape in the surf on the coast—the skill of Kroomen	118
CHAP. XV.—I study the institution of Slavery in Africa—Man becomes a “legal tender,” or the coin of Africa—Slave wars, how they are directly promoted by the peculiar adaptation of the trade of the great commercial nations—Slavery an immemorial institution in Africa—How and why it will always be retained—Who are made home slaves—Jockeys and brokers—Five sixths of Africa in domestic bondage	126
CHAP. XVI.—Caravan announced—Mami-de-Yong, from Footha-Yallon, uncle of Ahmah-de-Bellah—My ceremonious reception—My preparations for the chief—Coffee—his school and teaching—Narrative of his trip to Timbuctoo—Queer black-board map—prolix story teller—Timbuctoo and its trade—Slavery	129
CHAP. XVII.—I set forth on my journey to Timbo, to see the father of Ahmah-de-Bellah—My caravan and its mode of travel—My Mussulman passport—Forest roads—Arrive at Kya among the Mandingoes—My lodgings—Ibrahim Ali—Our supper and “bitters”—A scene of piety, love and liquor—Next morning’s headache—Ali-Ninpha begs leave to halt for a day—I manage our Fullah guide—My fever—Homœopathic dose of Islamism from the Koran—My cure—Afternoon	136
CHAP. XVIII.—A ride on horseback—Its exhilaration in the forest—Visit to the Devil’s Fountain—Tricks of an echo and sulphur water—Ibrahim and I discourse learnedly upon the ethics of fluids—My respect for national peculiarities—Our host’s liberality—Mandingo etiquette at the departure of a guest—A valuable gift from Ibrahim and its delicate bestowal—My offering in return—Tobacco and brandy	143
CHAP. XIX.—A night bivouac in the forest—Hammock swung between trees—A surprise and capture—What we do with the fugitive slaves—A Mandingo upstart and his “town”—Inhospitality—He insults my Fullah leader—A quarrel—The Mandingo is seized and his townsfolk driven out—We tarry for Ali-Ninpha—He returns and tries his countrymen—Punishment—Mode of inculcating the social virtues among these interior tribes—We cross the Sanghu on an impromptu bridge—Game—Forest food—Vegetables—A “Witch’s cauldron” of reptiles for the negroes	147
CHAP. XX.—Spread of Mahometanism in the interior of Africa—The external aspect of nature in Africa—Prolific land—Indolence a law of the physical constitution—My caravan’s progress—The Ali-Mami’s protection, its value—Forest scenery—Woods, open plains, barrancas and ravines—Their intense heat—Prairies—Swordgrass—River scenery, magnificence of the shores, foliage, flowers, fruits and birds; picturesque towns, villages and herds—Mountain scenery, view, at morning, over the lowlands—An African noon	153
[Pg xii] CHAP. XXI.—We approach Tamisso—Our halt at a brook—bathing, beautifying, and adornment of the women—Message and welcome from Mohamedoo, by his son, with a gift of food—Our musical escort and procession to the city—My horse is led by a buffoon of the court, who takes care of my face—Curiosity of the townsfolk to see the white Mongo—I pass on hastily to the Palace of Mohamedoo—What an African palace and its furniture is—Mohamedoo’s appearance, greeting and dissatisfaction—I make my present and clear up the clouds—I determine to bathe—How the girls watch me—Their commentaries on my skin and complexion—Negro curiosity—A bath scene—Appearance of Tamisso, and my entertainment there	157
CHAP. XXII.—Improved character of country and population as we advance to the interior—We approach Jallica—Notice to Suphiana—A halt for refreshment and ablutions—Ali-Ninpha’s early home here—A great man in Soolimana—Sound of the war-drum at a distance—Our welcome—Entrance to the town—My party, with the Fullah, is barred out—We are rescued—Grand ceremonial procession and reception, lasting two hours—I am, at last, presented to Suphiana—My entertainment in Jallica—A concert—Musical instruments—Madoo, the ayah—I reward her dancing and singing	162
CHAP. XXIII.—Our caravan proceeds towards Timbo—Met and welcomed in advance, on a lofty table land, by Ahmah-de-Bellah—Psalm of joy song by the Fullahs for our safety—We reach Timbo before day—A house has been specially built and furnished for me—Minute care for my taste and comforts—Ahmah-de-Bellah a trump—A fancy dressing-gown and ruffled shirt—I bathe, dress, and am presented to the Ali-Mami—His inquisitive but cordial reception and recommendation—Portrait of a Fullah king—A breakfast with his wife—My formal reception by the Chiefs of Timbo and Sulimani-Ali—The ceremonial—Ahmah’s speech as to my purposes—Promise of hospitality—My gifts—I design purchasing slaves—scrutiny of the presents—Cantharides—Abdulmomen-Ali, a prince and book-man—His edifying discourse on Islamism—My submission	167
CHAP. XXIV.—Site of Timbo and the surrounding country—A ride with the princes—A modest custom of the Fullahs in passing streams—Visit to villages—The inhabitants fly, fearing we are on a slave scout—Appearance of the cultivated lands, gardens, near Findo and Furo—Every body shuns me—A walk through Timbo—A secret expedition—I watch the girls and matrons as they go to the stream to draw water—Their figures, limbs, dress—A splendid headdress—The people of Timbo, their character, occupation, industry, reading—I announce my approaching departure—Slave forays to supply me—A capture of forty-five by Sulimani-Ali—The personal dread of me increases—Abdulmomen and Ahmah-de-Bellah continue their slave hunts by day, and their pious discourses on Islamism by night—I depart—The farewell gifts—two pretty damsels	176
CHAP. XXV.—My home journey—We reach home with a caravan near a thousand strong—Kambia in order—Mami-de-Yong and my clerk—The story and fate of the Ali-Mami’s daughter Beeljie	183
CHAP. XXVI.—Arrival of a French slaver, La Perouse, Captain Brulôt—Ormond and I breakfast on board—Its sequel—We are made prisoners and put in irons—Short mode of collecting an old debt on the coast of Africa—The Frenchman gets possession of our slaves—Arrival of a Spanish slaver	190
CHAP. XXVII.—Ormond communicates with the Spaniard, and arranges for our rescue—La Esperanza—Brulôt gives in—How we fine him two hundred and fifty doubloons for the expense of his suit, and teach him the danger of playing tricks upon African factors	196
[Pg xiii] CHAP. XXVIII.—Capt. Escudero of the Esperanza dies—I resolve to take his place in command and visit Cuba—Arrival of a Danish slaver—Quarrel and battle between the crews of my Spaniard and the Dane—The Dane attempts to punish me through the duplicity of Ormond—I bribe a servant and discover the trick—My conversation with Ormond—We agree to circumvent the enemy—How I get a cargo without cash	200
CHAP. XXIX.—Off to sea—A calm—A British man-of-war—Boat attack—Reinforcement—A battle—A catastrophe—A prisoner	206
CHAP. XXX.—I am sent on board the corvette—My reception—A dangerous predicament—The Captain and surgeon make me comfortable for the night—Extraordinary conveniences for escape, of which I take the liberty to avail myself	214
CHAP. XXXI.—I drift away in a boat with my servant—Our adventures till we land in the Isles de Loss—My illness and recovery—I return to the Rio Pongo—I am received on board a French slaver—Invitation to dinner—Monkey soup and its consequences	218
CHAP. XXXII.—My greeting in Kambia—The Feliz from Matanzas—Negotiations for her cargo—Ormond attempts to poison me—Ormond’s suicide—His burial according to African customs	222
CHAP. XXXIII.—A visit to the Matacan river in quest of slaves—My reception by the king—His appearance—Scramble for my gifts—How slaves are sometimes trapped on a hasty hunt—I visit the Matacan Wizard; his cave, leopard, blind boy—Deceptions and jugglery—Fetiches—A scale of African intellect	227
CHAP. XXXIV.—What became of the Esperanza’s officers and crew—The destruction of my factory at Kambia by fire—I lose all but my slaves—the incendiary detected—Who instigated the deed—Ormond’s relatives—Death of Esther—I go to sea in a schooner from Sierra Leone—How I acquire a cargo of slaves in the Rio Nunez without money	233
CHAP. XXXV.—I escape capture—Symptoms of mutiny and detection of the plot—How we put it down	240
CHAP. XXXVI.—A “white squall”—I land my cargo near St. Jago de Cuba—Trip to Havana on horseback—My consignees and their prompt arrangements—success of my voyage—Interference of the French Consul—I am nearly arrested—How things were managed, of old, in Cuba	244
CHAP. XXXVII.—A long holiday—I am wrecked on a key—My rescue by salvors—New Providence—I ship on the San Pablo, from St. Thomas’s, as sailing master—Her captain and his arrangements—Encounter a transport—Benefit of the small-pox—Mozambique Channel—Take cargo near Quillimane—How we managed to get slaves—Illness of our captain—The small-pox breaks out on our brig—Its fatality	248
CHAP. XXXVIII.—Our captain longs for calomel, and how I get it from a Scotchman—Our captain’s last will and testament—We are chased by a British cruiser—How we out-manœvred and crippled her—Death of our captain—Cargo landed and the San Pablo burnt	255
CHAP. XXXIX.—My returns from the voyage $12,000, and how I apply them—A custom-house encounter which loses me La Conchita and my money—I get command of a slaver for Ayudah—La Estrella—I consign her to the notorious Da Souza or Cha-cha—His history and mode of life in Africa—His gambling houses and women—I keep aloof from his temptations, and contrive to get my cargo in two months	260
[Pg xiv] CHAP. XL.—All Africans believe in divinities or powers of various degree, except the Bagers—Iguanas worshipped in Ayudah—Invitation to witness the HUMAN SACRIFICES at the court of Dahomey—How they travel to Abomey—The King, his court, amazons, style of life, and brutal festivities—Superstitious rights at Lagos—The Juju hunts by night for the virgin to be sacrificed—Gree-gree bush—The sacrifice—African priest and kingcraft	265
CHAP. XLI.—My voyage home in the Estrella—A revolt of the slaves during a squall, and how we were obliged to suppress it—Use of pistols and hot water	272
CHAP. XLII.—Smallpox and a necessary murder—Bad luck every where—A chase and a narrow escape	276
CHAP. XLIII.—The Aguila de Oro, a Chesapeake clipper—my race with the Montesquieu—I enter the river Salum to trade for slaves—I am threatened, then arrested, and my clipper seized by French man-of-war’s men—Inexplicable mystery—We are imprisoned at Goree—Transferred to San Louis on the Senegal—The Frenchmen appropriate my schooner without condemnation—How they used her The sisters of charity in our prison—The trial scene in court, and our sentence—Friends attempt to facilitate my escape, but our plans detected—I am transferred to a guard-ship in the stream—New projects for my escape—A jolly party and the nick of time, but the captain spoils the sport	280
CHAP. XLIV.—I am sent to France in the frigate Flora—Sisters of charity—The prison of Brest—My prison companions—Prison mysteries—Corporal Blon—I apply to the Spanish minister—Transfer to the civil prison	286
CHAP. XLV.—Madame Sorret and my new quarters—Mode of life—A lot of Catalan girls—Prison boarding and lodging—Misery of the convicts in the coast prisons—Improvement of the central prisons	292
CHAP. XLVI.—New lodgers in our quarters—How we pass our time in pleasant diversions by aid of the Catalan girls and my cash—Soirées—My funds give out—Madame Sorret makes a suggestion—I turn schoolmaster, get pupils, teach English and penmanship, and support my whole party	295
CHAP. XLVII.—Monsieur Germaine, the forger—His trick—Cause of Germaine’s arrest—An adroit and rapid forgery—Its detection	300
CHAP. XLVIII.—Plan of escape—Germaine’s project against Babette—A new scheme for New Year’s night—Passports—Pietro Nazzolini and Dominico Antonetti—Preparations for our “French leave”—How the attempt eventuated	304
CHAP. XLIX.—Condition of the sentinel when he was found—His story—Prison researches next day—How we avoid detection—Louis Philippe receives my petition favorably—Germaine’s philosophic pilfering and principles—His plan to rob the Santissima Casa of Loretto—He designs making an attempt on the Emperor Nicholas—I am released and banished from France	310
CHAP. L.—I go to Portugal, and return in disguise to Marseilles, in order to embark for Africa—I resolve to continue a slaver—A Marseilles hotel during the cholera—Doctor Du Jean and Madame Duprez—Humors of the table d’hôte—Coquetry and flirtation—A phrenological denouement	316
CHAP. LI.—I reach Goree, and hasten to Sierra Leone, where I become a coast-pilot to Gallinas—Site of that celebrated factory—Don Pedro Blanco—His monopoly of the Vey country—Slave-trade and its territorial extent prior to the American Scheme of Colonization—Blanco’s arrangements, telegraphs, &c. at Gallinas—Appearance and mode of life—Blanco and the Lords’ prayer in Latin	324
[Pg xv] CHAP. LII.—Anecdotes of Blanco—Growth of slave-trade in the Vey country—Local wars—Amarar and Shiakar—Barbarities of the natives	330
CHAP. LIII.—I visit Liberia, and observe a new phase of negro development—I go to New Sestros, and establish trade—Trouble with Prince Freeman—The value of gunpowder physic	335
CHAP. LIV.—My establishment at New Sestros, and how I created the slave-trade in that region—The ordeal of Saucy-Wood—My mode of attacking a superstitious usage, and of saving the victims—The story of Barrah and his execution	339
CHAP. LV.—No river at New Sestros—Beach—Kroomen and Fishmen—Bushmen—Kroo boats—I engage a fleet of them for my factory—I ship a cargo of slaves in a hurry—My mode of operating—Value of rum and mock coral beads—Return of the cruiser	344
CHAP. LVI.—I go on a pleasure voyage in the Brilliant, accompanied by Governor Findley—Murder of the Governor—I fit out an expedition to revenge his death—A fight with the beach negroes—We burn five towns—A disastrous retreat—I am wounded—Vindication of Findley’s memory	349
CHAP. LVII.—What Don Pedro Blanco thought of my Quixotism—Painful effects of my wound—Blanco’s liberality to Findley’s family—My slave nurseries on the coast—Digby—I pack nineteen negroes on my launch, and set sail for home—Disastrous voyage—Stories—I land my cargo at night at Monrovia, and carry it through the colony!—Some new views of commercial Morality!	356
CHAP. LVIII.—My compliments to British cruisers—The Bonito—I offer an inspection of my barracoons, &c., to her officers—A lieutenant and the surgeon are sent ashore—My reception of them, and the review of my slaves, feeding, sleeping, &c.—Our night frolic—Next morning—A surprise—The Bonito off, and her officers ashore!—Almost a quarrel—How I pacified my guests over a good breakfast—Sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander	362
CHAP. LIX.—Ups and downs—I am captured in a Russian vessel, and sent to Sierra Leone—It is resolved that I am to be despatched to England—I determine to take French leave—Preparation to celebrate a birthday—A feast—A martinet—Corporal Blunt—Pleasant effects of cider—A swim for life and liberty at night—My concealment—I manage to equip myself, and depart in a Portuguese vessel—I ship thirty-one slaves at Digby—A narrow escape from a cruiser—My return to New Sestros—Report of my death—How I restored confidence in my actual existence—Don Pedro’s notion of me—The gift of a donkey, and its disastrous effect on the married ladies of New Sestros	369
CHAP. LX.—The confession of a dying sailor—Sanchez—The story of the murder of Don Miguel, and destruction of his factory by Thompson—A piratical revenge—An auto-da-fé at sea	377
CHAP. LXI.—My establishment at Digby—The rival kinsmen, and their quarrel—Jen-ken, the Bushman—My arrival at Digby, carousal—A night attack by the rival and his allies—A rout—Horrid scenes of massacre, barbarity, and cannibalism—My position and ransom	382
CHAP. LXII.—I escape from the bloody scene in a boot with a Krooman—Storm on the coast—My perilous attempt to land at Gallinas—How I am warned off—An African tornado—The sufferings of my companion and myself while exposed in the boat, and our final rescue	387
CHAP. LXIII.—Don Pedro Blanco leaves Gallinas—I visit Cape Mount, to restore his son to the Chief—His reception—I go to England in the Gil Blas; she is run [Pg xvi] down by steamer in the Channel—Rescued, and reach Dover—I see London and the British Islands—The diversions, sufferings, and opinions of my servant Lunes in Great Britain—He leaves voluntarily for Africa—A queer chat and scene with the ladies—His opinion of negro dress and negro bliss	391
CHAP. LXIV.—I make arrangements for future trade and business with Mr. Redman—I go to Havana, resolved to obtain a release from Blanco, and engage in lawful commerce—Don Pedro refuses, and sends me back with a freight—A voyage with two African females revisiting their native country—Their story in Cuba; results of frugality and industry—Shiakar’s daughter—Her reception at home—Her disgust with her savage home in Africa, and return to Cuba	396
CHAP. LXV.—I find my establishment in danger, from the colonists and others—A correspondence with Lieut. Bell, U. S. N.—Harmless termination of Governor Buchanan’s onslaught—Threatened with famine; my relief—The Volador takes 749 slaves;—The last cargo I ever shipped	399
CHAP. LXVI.—I am attacked by the British cruiser Termagant, Lieut. Seagram—Correspondence and diplomacy—I go on board the cruiser in a damp uniform—My reception and jollification—I confess my intention to abandon the Slave-trade—My compact with Seagram—How we manage Prince Freeman—His treaty with the Lieutenant for the suppression of the trade—The negro’s duplicity outwits himself—The British officer guaranties the safe removal of my property, whereupon I release 100 slaves—Captain Denman’s destruction of Gallinas—Freeman begins to see my diplomacy, and regrets his inability to plunder my property, as the natives had done at Gallinas—His plot to effect this—How I counteract it	405
CHAP. LXVII.—My barracoons destroyed—Adieus to New Sestros—I sail with Seagram, in the Termagant, for Cape Mount—A slaver in sight—All the nautical men depart to attack her in boats during a calm—I am left in charge of Her Britannic Majesty’s cruiser—The fruitless issue—Escape of the Serea	411
CHAP. LXVIII.—We land at Cape Mount, and obtain a cession of territory, by deed, from King Fana-Toro and Prince Gray—I explore the region—Site of old English slave factory—Difficulty of making the negroes comprehend my improvements at New Florence—Negro speculations and philosophy in regard to labor.	414
CHAP. LXIX.—Visit to Monrovia—Description of the colony and its products—Speculations on the future of the republic, and the character of colored colonization	419
CHAP. LXX.—I remove, and settle permanently at New Florence—I open communications with cruisers to supply them with provisions, &c.—Anecdote of Soma, the gambler—His sale and danger in the hands of a Bushman—Mode of gambling one’s self away in Africa—A letter from Governor Macdonald destroys my prospect of British protection—I haul down the British flag—I determine to devote myself to husbandry—Bad prospect	424
CHAP. LXXI.—Account of the character of the Vey negroes—The Gree-gree bush—Description of this institution, its rites, services, and uses—Marriage and midwifery—A scene with Fana-Toro, at Toso—Human sacrifice of his enemy; frying a heart; indignity committed on the body—Anecdote of the king’s endurance; burns his finger as a test, and rallies his men—Death of Prince Gray—Funeral rites among the Vey people—Smoking the corpse—I am offered the choice of his widows	429
CHAP. LXXII.—My workshops, gardens, and plantations at the Cape Mount settlement—I do not prosper as a farmer or trader with the interior—I decide to send [Pg xvii] a coaster to aid in the transfer of the Yankee clipper A—— to a slaver—I part on bad terms with the British—Game at Cape Mount—Adventure of a boy and an Ourang-outang—How we killed leopards, and saved our castle—Mode of hunting elephants—Elephant law	437
CHAP. LXXIII.—Fana-Toro’s war, and its effect on my establishment—I decline joining actively in the conflict—I allow captives to be shipped by a Gallinas factor—Two years of blockade by the British—A miraculous voyage of a long-boat with thirty-three slaves to Bahia—My disasters and mishaps at Cape Mount in consequence of this war—Exaggerations of my enemies—My true character—Letter from Rev. John Seys to me—My desire to aid the missionaries—Cain and Curtis stimulate the British against me—Adventure of the Chancellor—the British destroy my establishment—Death of Fana-Toro—The natives revenge my loss—The end	442



THE WHITE SLAVES OF ENGLAND
Compiled From Official Documents.
By John C. Cobden


CONTENTS
CHAPTER I.
General Slavery proceeding from the existence of the British Aristocracy	Page 13
CHAPTER II.
Slavery in the British Mines	28
CHAPTER III.
Slavery in the British Factories	104
CHAPTER IV.
Slavery in the British Workshops	168
CHAPTER V.
The Workhouse System of Britain	206
CHAPTER VI.
Impressment, or Kidnapping White Men for Slaves in the Naval Service	257
CHAPTER VII.[Pg 12]
Irish Slavery	284
CHAPTER VIII.
The Menial Slaves of Great Britain	370
CHAPTER IX.
Mental and Moral Condition of the White Slaves in Great Britain	379
CHAPTER X.
Coolie Slavery in the British Colonies	433
CHAPTER XI.
Slavery in British India	441
CHAPTER XII.
The Crime and the Duty of the English Government	489



THE BLACK EXPERIENCE IN AMERICA
By Norman Coombs
CONTENTS
Preface
Acknowledgments
The Human Cradle
West African Empires
The Culture of West Africa
The Slave Trade
Caribbean Interlude
The Shape of American Slavery
North American and South American Slavery
Slavery and the Formation of Character
Slave Response
Slavery and the American Revolution
Slave Insurrections
Growing Racism
Black Moderates and Militants
White Liberals
Growth of Extremism
Blue, Gray, and Black
Reconstruction and Its Failure
The New Racism
Fighting Jim Crow
Making the World Safe for Democracy
Urban Riots
The Klan Revival
The Debate Over Means and Ends
Booker T. Washington: The Trumpet of Conciliation
W. E. B. DuBois: The Trumpet of Confrontation
Marcus Garvey: The Trumpet of Pride
A. Philip Randolph: The Trumpet of Mobilization
Immigration and Migration
Harlem: "The Promised Land"
The Negro Renaissance
Black Nationalism
Hard Times Again
The Second World War
The U.S. and the U.N.
Schools and Courts
The Civil Rights Movement
Civil Disorders
Black Power
Epilogue



WHERE THE TWAIN MEET
By Mary Gaunt
CONTENTS
PREFACE
WHERE THE TWAIN MEET
CHAPTER I	BRITAIN'S FIRST TROPICAL COLONY
CHAPTER II	THE WHITE BONDSMEN
CHAPTER III	JAMAICA'S FIRST HISTORIAN
CHAPTER IV	THE CASTLES ON THE GUINEA COAST
CHAPTER V	THE MIDDLE PASSAGE
CHAPTER VI	THE PLANTATION
CHAPTER VII	SLAVE REBELLIONS
CHAPTER VIII	THE MAROONS
CHAPTER IX	THE FOOTPRINTS OF THE YEARS
CHAPTER X	THE MAKING OF CHRISTIANS
CHAPTER XI	THE FREEING OF THE SLAVE
CHAPTER XII	JAMAICA AS I SAW IT



FATHER HENSON'S STORY OF HIS OWN LIFE.
CONTENTS
CHAPTER I.
MY BIRTH AND CHILDHOOD.	1
Earliest memories.—Born in Maryland.—My father's first appearance.—Attempted outrage on my mother.—My father's fight with an overseer.—One hundred stripes and his ear cut off.—Throws away his banjo and becomes morose.—Sold South.
CHAPTER II.
MY FIRST GREAT TRIAL.	8
Origin of my name.—A kind master.—He is drowned.—My mother's prayers.—A slave auction.—Torn from my mother.—Severe sickness.—A cruel master.—Sold again and restored to my mother.
CHAPTER III.
MY BOYHOOD AND YOUTH.	16
Early employment.—Slave-life.—Food, lodging, clothing.—Amusements.—Gleams of sunshine.—My knight-errantry.—Become an overseer and general superintendent.
[Pg viii]CHAPTER IV.
MY CONVERSION.	25
A good man.—Hear a sermon for the first time.—Its effects upon me.—Prayer and communion.—Its first fruits.
CHAPTER V.
MAIMED FOR LIFE.	31
Taking care of my drunken master.—His fight with an overseer.—Rescue him.—Am terribly beaten by the overseer.—My master seeks redress at law, but fails.—Sufferings then and since.—Retain my post as superintendent.
CHAPTER VI.
A RESPONSIBLE JOURNEY.	42
My marriage.—Marriage of my master.—His ruin.—Comes to me for aid.—A great enterprise undertaken.—Long and successful journey.—Incidents by the way.—Struggle between inclination and duty.—Duty triumphant.
CHAPTER VII.
A NEW HOME.	55
Become a Methodist preacher.—My poor companions sold.—My agony.—Sent for again.—Interview with a kind Methodist preacher.—Visit free soil and begin my struggle for freedom.
[Pg ix]CHAPTER VIII.
RETURN TO MARYLAND.	66
Reception from my old master.—A slave again.—Appeal to an old friend.—Buy my freedom.—Cheated and betrayed.—Back to Kentucky, and a slave again.
CHAPTER IX.
TAKEN SOUTH, AWAY FROM WIFE AND CHILDREN.	79
Start for New Orleans.—Study navigation on the Mississippi.—The captain struck blind.—Find some of my old companions.—The lower depths.
CHAPTER X.
A TERRIBLE TEMPTATION.	86
Sigh for death.—A murder in my heart.—The axe raised.—Conscience speaks and I am saved.—God be praised!
CHAPTER XI.
PROVIDENTIAL DELIVERANCE.	93
Offered for sale.—Examined by purchasers.—Plead with my young master in vain.—Man's extremity, God's opportunity.—Good for evil.—Return North.—My increased value.—Resolve to be a slave no longer.
CHAPTER XII.
ESCAPE FROM BONDAGE.	102
[Pg x]Solitary Musings.—Preparations for flight.—A long good-night to master.—A dark night on the river.—Night journeys in Indiana.—On the brink of starvation.—A kind woman.—A new style of drinking cup.—Reach Cincinnati.
CHAPTER XIII.
JOURNEY TO CANADA.	113
Good Samaritans.—Alone in the wilderness.—Meet some Indians.—Reach Sandusky.—Another friend.—All aboard.—Buffalo.—A "free nigger."—Frenzy of joy on reaching Canada.
CHAPTER XIV.
NEW SCENES AND A NEW HOME.	128
A poor man in a strange land.—Begin to acquire property.—Resume preaching.—Boys go to school.—What gave me a desire to learn to read.—A day of prayer in the woods.
CHAPTER XV.
LIFE IN CANADA.	138
Condition of the blacks in Canada.—A tour of exploration.—Appeal to the Legislature.—Improvements.
CHAPTER XVI.
CONDUCTING SLAVES TO CANADA.	144
Sympathy for the slaves.—James Lightfoot.—My first mission to the South.—A Kentucky company of fugitives.—Safe at home.[Pg xi]
CHAPTER XVII.
SECOND JOURNEY ON THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD.	150
A shower of stars.—Kentuckians.—A stratagem.—A providence.—Conducted across the Miami River by a cow.—Arrival at Cincinnati.—One of the party taken ill.—We leave him to die.—Meet a "friend."—A poor white man.—A strange impression.—Once more in Canada.
CHAPTER XVIII.
HOME AT DAWN.	165
Condition in Canada.—Efforts in behalf of my people.—Rev. Mr. Wilson.—A convention of blacks.—Manual-labor school.
CHAPTER XIX.
LUMBERING OPERATIONS.	173
Industrial project.—Find some able friends in Boston.—Procure funds and construct a saw-mill.—Sales of lumber in Boston.—Incident in the Custom House.
CHAPTER XX.
VISIT TO ENGLAND.	179
Debt on the institution.—A new pecuniary enterprise.—Letters of recommendation to England.—Personal difficulties.—Called an impostor.—Triumphant victory over these troubles.
CHAPTER XXI.
THE WORLD'S FAIR IN LONDON.	187
My contribution to the great exhibition.—Difficulty [Pg xii]with the American superintendent.—Happy release.—The great crowd.—A call from the Queen.—Medal awarded to me.
CHAPTER XXII.
VISITS TO THE RAGGED SCHOOLS.	194
Speech at Sunday School Anniversary.—Interview with Lord Grey.—Interview with the Archbishop of Canterbury, and dinner with Lord John Russell, the great events of my life.
CHAPTER XXIII.
CLOSING UP MY LONDON AGENCY.	203
My narrative published.—Letter from home apprising me of the sickness of my wife.—Departure from London.—Arrival at home.—Meeting with my family.—The great sorrow of my life, the death of my wife.
CHAPTER XXIV.
CLOSING CHAPTER.	209
Containing an accurate account of the past and present condition of the fugitive slaves in Canada, with some remarks on their future prospects.



BLACK REBELLION: FIVE SLAVE REVOLTS
By Thomas Wentworth Higginson
CONTENTS
AUTHOR'S NOTE:
THE MAROONS OF JAMAICA
THE MAROONS OF SURINAM.
GABRIEL'S DEFEAT
DENMARK VESEY
NAT TURNER'S INSURRECTION
APPENDIX OF AUTHORITIES



THIRTY YEARS A SLAVE
From Bondage to Freedom
AUTOBIOGRAPHY
By Louis Hughes
CONTENTS
PREFACE.
CHAPTER I.	LIFE ON A COTTON PLANTATION.
CHAPTER II.	SOCIAL AND OTHER ASPECTS OF SLAVERY.
CHAPTER III.	SLAVERY AND THE WAR OF THE REBELLION.
CHAPTER IV.	REBELLION WEAKENING; SLAVES' HOPES STRENGTHENING.
CHAPTER V.	FREEDOM AFTER SLAVERY.



INCIDENTS
IN THE
LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL.
Written by Herself.
By Linda Brent
CONTENTS
PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR
INTRODUCTION BY THE EDITOR
INCIDENTS IN THE LIFE OF A SLAVE GIRL
I	Childhood
II	The New Master And Mistress
III	The Slaves' New Year's Day
IV	The Slave Who Dared To Feel Like A Man
V	The Trials Of Girlhood
VI	The Jealous Mistress
VII	The Lover
VIII	What Slaves Are Taught To Think Of The North
IX	Sketches Of Neighboring Slaveholders
X	A Perilous Passage In The Slave Girl's Life.
XI	The New Tie To Life
XII	Fear Of Insurrection
XIII	The Church And Slavery
XIV	Another Link To Life
XV	Continued Persecutions
XVI	Scenes At The Plantation
XVII	The Flight
XVIII	Months Of Peril
XIX	The Children Sold
XX	New Perils
XXI	The Loophole Of Retreat
XXII	Christmas Festivities
XXIII	Still In Prison
XXIV	The Candidate For Congress
XXV	Competition In Cunning
XXVI	Important Era In My Brother's Life
XXVII	New Destination For The Children
XXVIII	Aunt Nancy
XXIX	Preparations For Escape
XXX	Northward Bound
XXXI	Incidents In Philadelphia
XXXII	The Meeting Of Mother And Daughter
XXXIII	A Home Found
XXXIV	The Old Enemy Again
XXXV	Prejudice Against Color
XXXVI	The Hairbreadth Escape
XXXVII	A Visit To England
XXXVIII	Renewed Invitations To Go South
XXXIX	The Confession
XL	The Fugitive Slave Law
XLI	Free At Last
APPENDIX



BEHIND THE SCENES.
By Elizabeth Keckley
THIRTY YEARS A SLAVE, AND FOUR YEARS IN THE WHITE HOUSE
CONTENTS
Preface	3
Chapter I. Where I was born	7
Chapter II. Girlhood and its Sorrows	13
Chapter III. How I gained my Freedom	19
Chapter IV. In the Family of Senator Jefferson Davis	28
Chapter V. My Introduction to Mrs. Lincoln	34
Chapter VI. Willie Lincoln's Death-bed	41
Chapter VII. Washington in 1862-3	50
Chapter VIII. Candid Opinions	57
Chapter IX. Behind the Scenes	62
Chapter X. The Second Inauguration	68
Chapter XI. The Assassination of President Lincoln	77
Chapter XII. Mrs. Lincoln leaves the White House	89
Chapter XIII. The Origin of the Rivalry between Mr. Douglas and Mr. Lincoln	101
Chapter XIV. Old Friends	106
Chapter XV. The Secret History of Mrs. Lincoln's Wardrobe in New York	119
Appendix --Letters from Mrs. Lincoln to Mrs. Keckley	147



THE SLAVERY QUESTION.
By John Lawrence


CONTENTS
CHAPTER I.
ORIGIN OF AMERICAN SLAVERY.
THE SLAVE TRADE.
Seven millions of slaves in America—Slavery originated in the African slave trade—Slave-trade unprovoked—Excited by lust for gold—Commenced by the Portuguese in 1434—Spaniards in 1511—English in 1556—President Edwards quoted—100,000 annually destroyed—Report made to the British House of Commons—Startling statistics—A slave ship described—Slave-trade declared to be piracy and abolishedpage 13

CHAPTER II.
SLAVERY DEFINED.
PROPERTY IN A HUMAN BEING.
A slave is a chattel—Authorities quoted—Advertised and sold as property—Facts adduced—sale of a boy—a woman with an infant in her arms—a mother—American slave-code identical in principle with the Romanpage 30[Pg viii]

CHAPTER III.
SLAVERY ILLUSTRATED.
THE CHATTEL PRINCIPLE IN PRACTICE.
Slaves denied an education—Laws—Instances—Slavery disregards matrimonial connections—Painful factspage 41

CHAPTER IV.
SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.
Slavery disregards the parental and filial relations—Facts—Slave-mother’s lamentpage 56

CHAPTER V.
SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.
Slavery utterly impoverishes its victims—Exposes them to unbridled lust—unrestrained passion—irresponsible tyranny—Heart-rending incidents!page 64

CHAPTER VI.
SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.
Severity of laws against slaves—partial—unreasonable and cruel—Practice worse than the laws—Burning of slaves—Horrible examplespage 80[Pg ix]

CHAPTER VII.
SLAVERY AND RELIGION.
Curse of Canaan—Doubtful authority—Did not allude to slavery—A mere prediction at best—Africans not the descendants of Canaanpage 88

CHAPTER VIII.
SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.
Patriarchal servitude and slavery—No patriarch ever owned a slave—Slavery had no existence in the time of the patriarchs—Diodorus, Athenæus and Rollin quoted—The Hebrew word SERVANT not equivalent to the English word SLAVE—Abraham’s servants converts from idolatrypage 94

CHAPTER IX.
SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.
Law of Moses and slavery—Levitical statutes not perfect—Allowed what it would now be wrong to practice—Dr. Stowe quoted—Servitude under the law of Moses essentially different from American slavery—Meaning of “buy,” “heathen,” “bondmen,” and “forever,”—Servants not stolen—Voluntary—Provision for religious improvement—Kind treatment—Could not be sold—Equal to their masters—Certain emancipation—Salvation of the heathen the primary design of introducing foreign servantspage 107[Pg x]

CHAPTER X.
SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.
New Testament and slavery—Servants mentioned but not SLAVES—Doulos does not mean SLAVE—New Testament does not regulate slavery because it cannot be regulated—Slaveholders not addressed by the Apostles—Onesimus not a slave—Character of Roman slavery—Contrary to the fundamental principles of revealed religion—The character of God—Common origin of man—General Redemption—Moral precepts—And is necessarily unjust and unequalpage 124

CHAPTER XI.
AMERICAN CHURCHES AND SLAVERY.
THE POSITION THEY OCCUPY.
Presbyterians (O. S. and N. S.)—Congregational—Methodist Episcopal, North and South—Methodist Protestant—Wesleyan Methodist Connection—Baptist, Regular—Freewill—Seventh Day—Evangelical Association—United Brethren—Various Churches—Summary Viewpage 149

CHAPTER XII.
SLAVERY AND THE CHURCH.
NON-FELLOWSHIP WITH SLAVEHOLDERS.
Scriptural view—Church must keep slaveholders out—If they get in, it must expel them—If the Church sanction slavery officially or practically, withdraw from it—Non-slaveholding required that it may be holy—The pillar of truth—That it may honor the Scriptures—Convert the world—Be faithful to slaveholders and to slaves—Non-fellowship required by decency—humanity—If fellowshiped, we shall have slaveholding preachers, and women-sellers and cradle-plunderers for class-mates—Cases givenpage 169[Pg xi]

CHAPTER XIII.
SAME SUBJECT CONTINUED.
OBJECTIONS ANSWERED.
Kind slaveholders—Examples—Excusable slaveholders—Slavery a political matter—Fault of the public corruption—Fault of the laws—Slaveholders from necessity—Slaves their property—All right ONLY this one thing—Take them in to convince them of the wrong—Mr. Fee’s opinionpage 184

CHAPTER XIV.
POLITICAL DUTIES OF CHRISTIANS.
EXTIRPATION OF SLAVERY FROM THE WORLD.
Necessity of government—Obligation of political action—Voters responsible for slavery—United States Constitution does not endorse slavery—Founders of the Republic intended that slavery should die out speedily—Character of the government changed—Great work for Christian citizens—Slavery in the District—Territories—Slave States—Throughout the worldpage 195

CHAPTER XV.
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY.
IMMEDIATE EMANCIPATION.
The duty plain and scriptural—Break every yoke—proclaim a year of Jubilee—Slavery cannot be reformed—Slaves prepared for freedom—Free people of color—Fugitives in Canada—West India emancipation—Colored people not dangerous when free—Amalgamation—Our fears originate in our guilt—Colonization scheme impracticable—Wrong—Watkins quoted—All objections mere excuses—We must emancipate to escape the judgments of God—Too long delayed—A good examplepage 206[Pg xii]

CHAPTER XVI.
WHAT OF THE NIGHT?
THERE IS HOPE IN GOD ONLY.
The government intensely pro-slavery—Political horizon lowering—The great denominations and benevolent societies heartily supporting slavery—Ecclesiastical heavens dark—Deep prejudices in the masses of the people—Douglass quoted—God is on the side of the oppressed—He is stirring the nation—Question cannot rest—Agitation goes on—Truth is on the side of the slave—Literature coming to his aid—A pure Church arising to plead his cause—“Toil and trust.”page 219



JOURNAL OF A WEST INDIA PROPRIETOR,
Kept During a Residence in The Island of Jamaica
By Matthew Gregory Lewis


CONTENTS
ADVERTISEMENT.
JOURNAL OF A WEST INDIA PROPRIETOR
1815. NOVEMBER 8.
1816.—JANUARY 1.
1817.
1818.—JANUARY 1.



THE NEGRO AND THE NATION
A History of American Slavery
and Enfranchisement
By George S. Merriam


CONTENTS
 	CHAPTER	PAGE
I.	How Slavery Grew in America	1
II.	The Acts of the Fathers	8
III.	Conflict and Compromise	21
IV.	The Widening Rift	28
V.	Calhoun and Garrison	46
VI.	Birney, Channing and Webster	58
VII.	The Underlying Forces	67
VIII.	The Mexican War	71
IX.	How to Deal with the Territories	79
X.	The Compromise of 1850	84
XI.	A Lull and a Retrospect	92
XII.	Slavery as It Was	97
XIII.	The Struggle for Kansas	112
XIV.	"Fremont and Freedom"	122
XV.	Three Typical Southerners	132
XVI.	Some Northern Leaders	140
XVII.	Dred Scott and Lecompton	147
XVIII.	John Brown	158
XIX.	Abraham Lincoln	172
XX.	The Election of 1860	185
XXI.	Face to Face	197
XXII.	How They Differed	205
XXIII.	Why They Fought	211
XXIV.	On Niagara's Brink—and Over	221
XXV.	The Civil War	237
XXVI.	Emancipation Begun	248
XXVII.	Emancipation Achieved	258
XXVIII.	Reconstruction: Experiments and Ideals	267
XXIX.	Reconstruction: The First Plan	274
XXX.	Congress and the "Black Codes"	281
XXXI.	Reconstruction: The Second Plan	294
XXXII.	Reconstruction: The Final Plan	306
XXXIII.	Reconstruction: The Working Out	316
XXXIV.	Three Troubled States	331
XXXV.	Reconstruction: The Last Act	344
XXXVI.	Regeneration	354
XXXVII.	Armstrong	362
XXXVIII.	Evolution	371
XXXIX.	Ebb and Flow	382
XL.	Looking Forward	391
 	Index	413



THE SEA-WITCH:
OR, THE AFRICAN QUADROON A STORY OF THE SLAVE COAST.
By Lieutenant Murray


CONTENTS
I.  	OUTWARD BOUND.
II.  	CAPTAIN WILL RATLIN.
III.  	THE GALE.
IV.  	BRAMBLE PARK.
V.  	THE NAVAL OFFICER.
VI.  	THE WRECK.
VII.  	THE SEA WITCH.
VIII.  	THE QUADROON.
IX.  	THE ATTACK.
X.  	THE DUEL.
XI.  	THE HUES OF LOVE.
XII.  	THE CONFLICT.
XIII.  	THE TRIAL.
XIV.  	THE BROTHERS.
XV.  	THE ESCAPE.
XVI.  	THE CANNIBALS.
XVII.  	THE POISONED BARB.
XVIII.  	THE DENOUEMENT.



TWELVE YEARS A SLAVE
NARRATIVE OF SOLOMON NORTHUP, A CITIZEN OF NEW-YORK, KIDNAPPED IN WASHINGTON CITY IN 1841, AND RESCUED IN 1853 FROM A COTTON PLANTATION NEAR THE RED RIVER, IN LOUISIANA.
Buffalo: Derby, Orton And Mulligan.
1853


CONTENTS
page.

Editor's Preface,

15

CHAPTER I.

Introductory—Ancestry—The Northup Family—Birth and Parentage—Mintus Northup—Marriage with Anne Hampton—Good Resolutions—Champlain Canal—Rafting Excursion to Canada—Farming—The Violin—Cooking—Removal to Saratoga—Parker and Perry—Slaves and Slavery—The Children—The Beginning of Sorrow,

17

CHAPTER II.

The two Strangers—The Circus Company—Departure from Saratoga—Ventriloquism and Legerdemain—Journey to New-York—Free Papers—Brown and Hamilton—The haste to reach the Circus—Arrival in Washington—Funeral of Harrison—The Sudden Sickness—The Torment of Thirst—The Receding Light—Insensibility—Chains and Darkness,

28

CHAPTER III.

Painful Meditations—James H. Burch—Williams' Slave Pen in Washington—The Lackey, Radburn—Assert my Freedom—The Anger of the Trader—The Paddle and Cat-o'-nine-tails—The Whipping—New Acquaintances—Ray, Williams, and Randall—Arrival of Little Emily and her Mother in the Pen—Maternal Sorrows—The Story of Eliza,

40

[Pg viii]
CHAPTER IV.

Eliza's Sorrows—Preparation to Embark—Driven Through the Streets of Washington—Hail, Columbia—The Tomb of Washington—Clem Ray—The Breakfast on the Steamer—The happy Birds—Aquia Creek—Fredericksburgh—Arrival in Richmond—Goodin and his Slave Pen—Robert, of Cincinnati—David and his Wife—Mary and Lethe—Clem's Return—His subsequent Escape to Canada—The Brig Orleans—James H. Burch,

54

CHAPTER V.

Arrival at Norfolk—Frederick and Maria—Arthur, the Freeman—Appointed Steward—Jim, Cuffee, and Jenny—The Storm—Bahama Banks—The Calm—The Conspiracy—The Long Boat—The Small-Pox—Death of Robert—Manning, the Sailor—The Meeting in the Forecastle—The Letter—Arrival at New-Orleans—Arthur's Rescue—Theophilus Freeman, the Consignee—Platt—First Night in the New-Orleans Slave Pen,

65

CHAPTER VI.

Freeman's Industry—Cleanliness and Clothes—Exercising in the Show Room—The Dance—Bob, the Fiddler—Arrival of Customers—Slaves Examined—The Old Gentleman of New-Orleans—Sale of David, Caroline, and Lethe—Parting of Randall and Eliza—Small-Pox—The Hospital—Recovery and Return to Freeman's Slave Pen—The Purchaser of Eliza, Harry, and Platt—Eliza's Agony on Parting from Little Emily,

78

CHAPTER VII.

The Steamboat Rodolph—Departure from New-Orleans—William Ford—Arrival at Alexandria, on Red River—Resolutions—The Great Pine Woods—Wild Cattle—Martin's Summer Residence—The Texas Road—Arrival at Master Ford's—Rose—Mistress Ford—Sally and her Children—John, the Cook—Walter, Sam, and Antony—The Mills on Indian Creek—Sabbath Days—Sam's Conversion—The Profit of [Pg ix]Kindness—Rafting—Adam Taydem, the Little White Man—Cascalla and his Tribe—The Indian Ball—John M. Tibeats—The Storm approaching,

89

CHAPTER VIII.

Ford's Embarrassments—The Sale to Tibeats—The Chattel Mortgage—Mistress Ford's Plantation on Bayou Bœuf—Description of the Latter—Ford's Brother-in-law, Peter Tanner—Meeting with Eliza—She still Mourns for her Children—Ford's Overseer, Chapin—Tibeats' Abuse—The Keg of Nails—The First Fight with Tibeats—His Discomfiture and Castigation—The attempt to Hang me—Chapin's Interference and Speech—Unhappy Reflections—Abrupt Departure of Tibeats, Cook, and Ramsey—Lawson and the Brown Mule—Message to the Pine Woods,

105

CHAPTER IX.

The Hot Sun—Yet bound—The Cords sink into my Flesh—Chapin's Uneasiness—Speculation—Rachel, and her Cup of Water—Suffering increases—The Happiness of Slavery—Arrival of Ford—He cuts the Cords which bind me, and takes the Rope from my Neck—Misery—The gathering of the Slaves in Eliza's Cabin—Their Kindness—Rachel Repeats the Occurrences of the Day—Lawson entertains his Companions with an Account of his Ride—Chapin's apprehensions of Tibeats—Hired to Peter Tanner—Peter expounds the Scriptures—Description of the Stocks,

118

CHAPTER X.

Return to Tibeats—Impossibility of pleasing him—He attacks me with a Hatchet—The Struggle over the Broad Axe—The Temptation to Murder him—Escape across the Plantation—Observations from the Fence—Tibeats approaches, followed by the Hounds—They take my Track—Their loud Yells—They almost overtake me—I reach the Water—The Hounds confused—Moccasin Snakes—Alligators—Night in the "Great Pacoudrie Swamp"—The Sounds of Life— [Pg x]North-West Course—Emerge into the Pine Woods—Slave and his Young Master—Arrival at Ford's—Food and Rest,

131

CHAPTER XI.

The Mistress' Garden—The Crimson and Golden Fruit—Orange and Pomegranate Trees—Return to Bayou Bœuf—Master Ford's Remarks on the way—The Meeting-with Tibeats—His Account of the Chase—Ford censures his Brutality—Arrival at the Plantation—Astonishment of the Slaves on seeing me—The anticipated Flogging—Kentucky John—Mr. Eldret, the Planter—Eldret's Sam—Trip to the "Big Cane Brake"—The Tradition of "Sutton's Field"—Forest Trees—Gnats and Mosquitoes—The Arrival of Black Women in the Big Cane—Lumber Women—Sudden Appearance of Tibeats—His Provoking Treatment—Visit to Bayou Bœuf—The Slave Pass—Southern Hospitality—The Last of Eliza—Sale to Edwin Epps,

146

CHAPTER XII.

Personal Appearance of Epps—Epps, Drunk and Sober—A Glimpse of his History—Cotton Growing—The Mode of Ploughing and Preparing Ground—Of Planting, of Hoeing, of Picking, of Treating Raw Hands—The difference in Cotton Pickers—Patsey a remarkable one—Tasked according to Ability—Beauty of a Cotton Field—The Slave's Labors—Fear of Approaching the Gin-House—Weighing—"Chores"—Cabin Life—The Corn Mill—The Uses of the Gourd—Fear of Oversleeping—Fear continually—Mode of Cultivating Corn—Sweet Potatoes—Fertility of the Soil—Fattening Hogs—Preserving Bacon—Raising Cattle—Shooting-Matches—Garden Products—Flowers and Verdure,

162

CHAPTER XIII.

The Curious Axe-Helve—Symptoms of approaching Illness—Continue to decline—The Whip ineffectual—Confined [Pg xi]to the Cabin—Visit by Dr. Wines—Partial Recovery—Failure at Cotton Picking—What may be heard on Epps' Plantation—Lashes Graduated—Epps in a Whipping Mood—Epps in a Dancing Mood—Description of the Dance—Loss of Rest no Excuse—Epps' Characteristics—Jim Burns—Removal from Huff Power to Bayou Bœuf—Description of Uncle Abram; of Wiley; of Aunt Phebe; of Bob, Henry, and Edward; of Patsey; with a Genealogical Account of each—Something of their Past History, and Peculiar Characteristics— Jealousy and Lust—Patsey, the Victim,

176

CHAPTER XIV.

Destruction of the Cotton Crop in 1845—Demand for Laborers in St. Mary's Parish—Sent thither in a Drove—The Order of the March—The Grand Coteau—Hired to Judge Turner on Bayou Salle—Appointed Driver in his Sugar House—Sunday Services—Slave Furniture; how obtained—The Party at Yarney's, in Centreville—Good Fortune—The Captain of the Steamer—His Refusal to Secrete me—Return to Bayou Bœuf—Sight of Tibeats—Patsey's Sorrows—Tumult and Contention—Hunting the Coon and Opossum—The Cunning of the latter—The Lean Condition of the Slave—Description of the Fish Trap—The Murder of the Man from Natchez—Epps Challenged by Marshall—The Influence of Slavery—The Love of Freedom,

191

CHAPTER XV.

Labors on Sugar Plantations—The Mode of Planting Cane—of Hoeing Cane—Cane Ricks—Cutting Cane—Description of the Cane Knife—Winrowing—Preparing for Succeeding Crops—Description of Hawkins' Sugar Mill on Bayou Bœuf—The Christmas Holidays—The Carnival Season of the Children of Bondage—The Christmas Supper—Red, the Favorite Color—The Violin, and the Consolation it afforded—The Christmas Dance—Lively, the Coquette—Sam Roberts, and his Rivals—Slave Songs—Southern Life as it is—Three Days in the Year—The System of Marriage—Uncle Abram's Contempt of Matrimony,

208

CHAPTER XVI.

[Pg xii]Overseers—How they are Armed and Accompanied—The Homicide—His Execution at Marksville—Slave Drivers—Appointed Driver on removing to Bayou Bœuf—Practice makes perfect—Epps's Attempt to Cut Platt's Throat—The Escape from him—Protected by the Mistress—Forbids Reading and Writing—Obtain a Sheet of Paper after Nine Years' Effort—The Letter—Armsby, the Mean White—Partially confide in him—His Treachery—Epps' Suspicions—How they were quieted—Burning the Letter—Armsby leaves the Bayou—Disappointment and Despair,

223

CHAPTER XVII.

Wiley disregards the counsels of Aunt Phebe and Uncle Abram, and is caught by the Patrollers—The Organization and Duties of the latter—Wiley Runs Away—Speculations in regard to him—His Unexpected Return—His Capture on the Red River, and Confinement in Alexandria Jail—Discovered by Joseph B. Roberts—Subduing Dogs in anticipation of Escape—The Fugitives in the Great Pine Woods—Captured by Adam Taydem and the Indians—Augustus killed by Dogs—Nelly, Eldret's Slave Woman—The Story of Celeste—The Concerted Movement—Lew Cheney, the Traitor—The Idea of Insurrection,

236

CHAPTER XVIII.

O'Niel, the Tanner—Conversation with Aunt Phebe overheard—Epps in the Tanning Business—Stabbing of Uncle Abram—The Ugly Wound—Epps is Jealous—Patsey is Missing—Her Return from Shaw's—Harriet, Shaw's Black Wife—Epps Enraged—Patsey denies his Charges—She is Tied Down Naked to Four Stakes—The Inhuman Flogging—Flaying of Patsey—The Beauty of the Day—The Bucket of Salt Water—The Dress stiff with Blood—Patsey grows Melancholy—Her Idea of God and Eternity—Of Heaven and Freedom—The Effect of Slave-Whipping—Epps' Oldest Son—"The Child is Father to the Man,"

250

CHAPTER XIX.

[Pg xiii]Avery, on Bayou Rouge—Peculiarity of Dwellings—Epps builds a New House—Bass, the Carpenter—His Noble Qualities—His Personal Appearance and Eccentricities—Bass and Epps discuss the Question of Slavery—Epps' Opinion of Bass—I make myself known to him—Our Conversation—His Surprise—The Midnight Meeting on the Bayou Bank—Bass' Assurances—Declares War against Slavery—Why I did not Disclose my History—Bass writes Letters—Copy of his Letter to Messrs. Parker and Perry—The Fever of Suspense—Disappointments—Bass endeavors to cheer me—My Faith in him,

263

CHAPTER XX.

Bass faithful to his word—His Arrival on Christmas Eve—The Difficulty of Obtaining an Interview—The Meeting in the Cabin—Non-arrival of the Letter—Bass announces his Intention to proceed North—Christmas—Conversation between Epps and Bass—Young Mistress McCoy, the Beauty of Bayou Bœuf—The "Ne plus ultra" of Dinners—Music and Dancing—Presence of the Mistress—Her Exceeding Beauty—The Last Slave Dance—William Pierce—Oversleep myself—The Last Whipping—Despondency—Cold Morning—Epps' Threats—The Passing Carriage—Strangers approaching through the Cotton-Field—Last Hour on Bayou Bœuf,

279

CHAPTER XXI.

The Letter reaches Saratoga—Is forwarded to Anne—Is laid before Henry B. Northup—The Statute of May 14, 1840—Its Provisions—Anne's Memorial to the Governor—The affidavits Accompanying it—Senator Soule's Letter—Departure of the Agent appointed by the Governor—Arrival at Marksville—The Hon. John P. Waddill—The Conversation on New-York Politics—It suggests a Fortunate Idea—The Meeting with Bass—The Secret out—Legal Proceedings instituted—Departure of Northup and the Sheriff from Marksville for [Pg xiv]Bayou Bœuf—Arrangements on the Way—Reach Epps' Plantation—Discover his Slaves in the Cotton-Field—The Meeting—The Farewell,

289

CHAPTER XXII.

Arrival in New-Orleans—Glimpse of Freeman—Genois, the Recorder—His Description of Solomon—Reach Charleston Interrupted by Custom House Officers—Pass through Richmond—Arrival in Washington—Burch Arrested—Shekels and Thorn—Their Testimony—Burch Acquitted—Arrest of Solomon—Burch withdraws the Complaint—The Higher Tribunal—Departure from Washington—Arrival at Sandy Hill—Old Friends and Familiar Scenes—Proceed to Glens Falls—Meeting with Anne, Margaret, and Elizabeth—Solomon Northup Staunton—Incidents—Conclusion,

310

Appendix,

323

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Portrait of Solomon in his Plantation Suit
Scene in the Slave Pen at Washington,
Separation of Eliza and her last Child,
Chapin rescues Solomon from Hanging,
The Staking out and Flogging of the girl Patsey,
Scene in the Cotton Field, and Solomon's Delivery,
Arrival Home, and first meeting with his Wife and Children,



FROM SLAVE TO COLLEGE PRESIDENT
BEING THE LIFE STORY OF BOOKER T. WASHINGTON
By G. Holden Pike


CONTENTS
CHAP.		PAGE
I.	WANTED: A MAN—THE MAN FOUND	1
II.	THE ERA OF FREEDOM—REALISING THAT KNOWLEDGE IS POWER	16
III.	OFF TO HAMPTON—WAS HE A LIKELY CANDIDATE?	32
IV.	GENERAL ARMSTRONG—HIS PREDECESSORS AND COLLABORATORS—PIONEERS
OF THE NEW ERA	41
V.	UPS AND DOWNS—PROGRESS AS A STUDENT—BEGINNING TO TEACH	49
VI.	AMERICAN INDIANS—WORK AT HAMPTON	60
VII.	THE BEGINNING OF A LIFE WORK	71
VIII.	SOME ACTUAL RESULTS—POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS	85
IX.	CONTINUED PROGRESS—POPULARITY AS A SPEAKER	94
X.	VISIT TO EUROPE—RETURN TO TUSKEGEE	104



THE BROTHERS' WAR
By John C. Reed
CONTENTS
Chapter	 	Page
I.	Introductory	1
II.	A Beginning made with Slavery	35
III.	Unappeasable Antagonism of Free and Slave Labor	45
IV.	Genesis, Course, and Goal of Southern Nationalization	51
V.	American Nationalization, and how it made the Bond of Union stronger and stronger	62
VI.	Root-and-Branch Abolitionists and Fire-eaters	84
VII.	Calhoun	93
VIII.	Webster	130
IX.	“Uncle Tom’s Cabin”	161
X.	Slavery impelled into a Defensive Aggressive	208
XI.	Toombs	212
XII.	Help to the Union Cause by Powers in the Unseen	282
XIII.	Jefferson Davis	296
XIV.	The Curse and Blessing of Slavery	330
XV.	The Brothers on Each Side were True Patriots and Morally Right—both those [Pg xviii]who fought for the Union and those who fought for the Confederacy	346
XVI.	The Race Question: General and Introductory	359
XVII.	The Race Question: the Situation in Detail	378
 	Appendix	429
 	Index	451



THE BOY SLAVES.
By Capt. Mayne Reid
CONTENTS
AUTHOR'S NOTE.
MEMOIR OF MAYNE REID.
CHAPTER I	The Land of the Slave
CHAPTER II	Types of the Triple Kingdom
CHAPTER III	The Serpent's Tongue
CHAPTER IV	'Ware the Tide!
CHAPTER V	A False Guide
CHAPTER VI	Wade or Swim?
CHAPTER VII	A Compulsory Parting
CHAPTER VIII	Safe Ashore
CHAPTER IX	Uncomfortable Quarters
CHAPTER XI	'Ware the Sand!
CHAPTER XII	A Mysterious Nightmare
CHAPTER XIII	The Maherry
CHAPTER XIV	A Liquid Breakfast
CHAPTER XV	The Sailor among the Shell-fish
CHAPTER XVI	Keeping under Cover
CHAPTER XVII	The Trail on the Sand
CHAPTER XVIII	The "Desert Ship"
CHAPTER XIX	Homeward Bound
CHAPTER XX	The Dance Interrupted
CHAPTER XXI	A Serio-Comical Reception
CHAPTER XXII	The Two Sheiks
CHAPTER XXIII	Sailor Bill Beshrewed
CHAPTER XXIV	Starting on the Track
CHAPTER XXV	Bill to be Abandoned
CHAPTER XXVI	A Cautious Retreat
CHAPTER XXVII	A Queer Quadruped
CHAPTER XXVIII	The Hue and Cry
CHAPTER XXIX	A Subaqueous Asylum
CHAPTER XXX	The Pursuers Nonplussed
CHAPTER XXXI	A Double Predicament
CHAPTER XXXII	Once more the mocking Laugh
CHAPTER XXXIII	A Cunning Sheik
CHAPTER XXXIV	A Queer Encounter
CHAPTER XXXV	Holding on to the Hump
CHAPTER XXXVI	Our Adventures in Undress
CHAPTER XXXVII	The Captives in Conversation
CHAPTER XXXVIII	The Douar at Dawn
CHAPTER XXXIX	An Obstinate Dromedary
CHAPTER XL	Watering the Camels
CHAPTER XLI	A Squabble between the Sheiks
CHAPTER XLII	The Trio Staked
CHAPTER XLIII	Golah
CHAPTER XLIV	A Day of Agony
CHAPTER XLV	Colin in Luck
CHAPTER XLVI	Sailor Bill's Experiment
CHAPTER XLVII	An Unjust Reward
CHAPTER XLVIII	The Waterless Well
CHAPTER XLIX	The Well
CHAPTER L	A Momentous Inquiry
CHAPTER LI	A Living Grave
CHAPTER LII	The Sheik's Plan of Revenge
CHAPTER LIII	Captured Again
CHAPTER LIV	An Unfaithful Wife
CHAPTER LV	Two Faithful Wives
CHAPTER LVI	Fatima's Fate
CHAPTER LVII	Further Defection
CHAPTER LVIII	A Call for Two More
CHAPTER LIX	Once More by the Sea
CHAPTER LX	Golah Calls Again
CHAPTER LXI	Sailor Bill Standing Sentry
CHAPTER LXII	Golah Fulfils his Destiny
CHAPTER LXIII	On the Edge of the Saära
CHAPTER LXIV	The Rival Wreckers
CHAPTER LXV	Another White Slave
CHAPTER LXVI	Sailor Bill's Brother
CHAPTER LXVII	A Living Stream
CHAPTER LXVIII	The Arabs at Home
CHAPTER LXIX	Work or Die
CHAPTER LXX	Victory!
CHAPTER LXXI	Sold Again
CHAPTER LXXII	Onward Once More
CHAPTER LXXIII	Another Bargain
CHAPTER LXXIV	More Torture
CHAPTER LXXV	En Route
CHAPTER LXXVI	Hope Deferred
CHAPTER LXXVII	El Hajji
CHAPTER LXXVIII	Bo Muzem's Journey
CHAPTER LXXIX	Rais Mourad
CHAPTER LXXX	Bo Muzem Back Again
CHAPTER LXXXI	A Pursuit
CHAPTER LXXXII	Moorish Justice
CHAPTER LXXXIII	The Jew's Leap
CHAPTER LXXXIV	Conclusion
ILLUSTRATIONS
THE DEATH OF GOLAH.
'WARE THE TIDE
THE OLD SAILOR SUCCEEDS IN GATHERING SOME SHELL-FISH.
THE SHEIK CAPTURED



TWENTY-TWO YEARS A SLAVE
AND FORTY YEARS A FREEMAN
By Austin Steward
1856
CONTENTS
PREFACE.
CHAPTER I.	SLAVE LIFE ON THE PLANTATION.
CHAPTER II.	AT THE GREAT HOUSE.
CHAPTER III.	HORSE-RACING AND ITS CONSEQUENCES.
CHAPTER IV.	JOURNEY TO OUR NEW HOME IN NEW YORK.
CHAPTER V.	INCIDENTS AT SODUS BAY.
CHAPTER VI.	REMOVAL FROM SODUS TO BATH.
CHAPTER VII.	DUELING.
CHAPTER VIII.	HORSE-RACING AND GENERAL TRAINING.
CHAPTER IX.	DEATH BED AND BRIDAL SCENES.
CHAPTER X.	HIRED OUT TO A NEW MASTER.
CHAPTER XI.	THOUGHTS ON FREEDOM.
CHAPTER XII.	CAPT. HELM—DIVORCE—KIDNAPPING.
CHAPTER XIII.	LOCATE IN THE VILLAGE OF ROCHESTER.
CHAPTER XIV.	INCIDENTS IN ROCHESTER AND VICINITY.
CHAPTER XV.	SAD REVERSES OF CAPT. HELM.
CHAPTER XVI.	BRITISH EMANCIPATION OF SLAVERY.
CHAPTER XVII.	ORATION—TERMINATION OF SLAVERY.
CHAPTER XVIII.	CONDITION OF FREE COLORED PEOPLE.
CHAPTER XIX.	PERSECUTION OF THE COLORED PEOPLE.
CHAPTER XX.	REMOVAL TO CANADA.
CHAPTER XXI.	ROUGHING IT IN THE WILDS OF CANADA.
CHAPTER XXII.	NARROW ESCAPE OF A SMUGGLER.
CHAPTER XXIII.	NARRATIVE OF TWO FUGITIVES FROM VIRGINIA.
CHAPTER XXIV.	PLEASANT RE-UNION OF OLD AND TRIED FRIENDS.
CHAPTER XXV.	PRIVATE LOSSES AND PRIVATE DIFFICULTIES.
CHAPTER XXVI.	INCIDENTS AND PECULIARITIES OF THE INDIANS.
CHAPTER XXVII.	OUR DIFFICULTIES WITH ISRAEL LEWIS.
CHAPTER XXVIII.	DESPERATION OF A FUGITIVE SLAVE.
CHAPTER XXIX.	A NARROW ESCAPE FROM MY ENEMIES.
CHAPTER XXX.	DEATH OF B. PAUL, AND RETURN OF HIS BROTHER.
CHAPTER XXXI.	MY FAMILY RETURN TO ROCHESTER.
CHAPTER XXXII.	THE LAND AGENT AND THE SQUATTER.
CHAPTER XXXIII.	CHARACTER AND DEATH OF I. LEWIS.
CHAPTER XXXIV.	MY RETURN TO ROCHESTER.
CHAPTER XXXV.	BISHOP BROWN—DEATH OF MY DAUGHTER.
CHAPTER XXXVI.	CELEBRATION OF THE FIRST OF AUGUST.
CHAPTER XXXVII.	CONCLUSION.
CORRESPONDENCE.



THE STORY OF MATTIE J. JACKSON
Her Parentage-Experience of Eighteen Years in Slavery-Incidents During the War-Her Escape from Slavery
By Dr. L. S. Thompson
CONTENTS
MATTIE'S STORY	 	5
THEIR ATTEMPT TO MAKE THEIR ESCAPE	 	9
THE SOLDIERS, AND OUR TREATMENT DURING THE WAR	 	13
MR. LEWIS CALLS AT THE BOARDING HOUSE	 	17
RELEASED FROM THE TRADER'S YARD AND TAKEN TO HER NEW MASTER	 	19
CAPT. TIRRELL REMOVES THE FAMILY—ANOTHER STRATEGY	 	20
THE FARE AT THEIR NEW HOMES	 	25
MATTIE IN INDIANAPOLIS—THE GLORY OF FREEDOM—LINCOLN	 	28
SISTER LOST—MOTHER'S ESCAPE	 	31
MOTHER'S MARRIAGE	 	33
MATTIE MEETS HER OLD MASTER—GOES TO SERVICE—IS SENT FOR	 	33
SUMMARY	 	37
CHRISTIANITY	 	38





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