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Title: The American Bee Journal - Volume XVII No. 11.
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES.
  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and bold text
    by =equal= signs.



[Illustration:

  OLDEST BEE PAPER      ESTABLISHED
  IN AMERICA            IN 1861

  THE AMERICAN
  BEE JOURNAL

  DEVOTED TO SCIENTIFIC BEE-CULTURE AND THE PRODUCTION AND SALE OF
  PURE HONEY.

  VOL. XVII.      CHICAGO, ILL., MARCH 16, 1881.      No. 11.
]



[Illustration:

  OLDEST BEE PAPER       ESTABLISHED
  IN AMERICA             IN 1861

  THE AMERICAN
  BEE JOURNAL
]

  Published every Wednesday, by
  THOMAS G. NEWMAN,
  EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR,
  974 WEST MADISON ST., CHICAGO, ILL.


TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION:

 WEEKLY—(52 numbers) =$2.00= a year, in advance. Three or Six Months
 at the same rate.

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 year, in advance.

 MONTHLY—The first number of each month, at =50 cents= a year, in
 advance.

☞ Any person sending a Club of six is entitled to an extra copy (like
the club) which may be sent to any address desired. Sample copies
furnished _free_.

☞ Remit by money-order, registered letter, express or bank draft on
Chicago or New York, payable to our order. Such _only_ are at our risk.
Checks on local banks cost us 25 cents for collecting.

       *       *       *       *       *

 Free of postage in the United States or Canada.

 =Postage to Europe 50 cents extra.=

       *       *       *       *       *

 _Entered at Chicago post office as second class matter._



[Illustration: CORRESPONDENCE.]


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Pure Liquid Honey in Glass Jars.

  CHAS. DADANT.


  Under this heading I find an article from Mr. W. M. Hoge, who
  says that he has invented a way of preparing liquid honey so
  that it will not congeal. He adds that this discovery will
  be beneficial to bee-keepers, and he explains how we will
  profit by it. The tendency of honey to candy, for all the
  adulterators of honey, has proved to be a great impediment;
  while, for the producers, it is a good characteristic, for it
  is the best stamp that a bee-keeper can put on his product—a
  stamp that the adulterators are unable to counterfeit.

  Now that the consumers at large begin to give their
  preference to candied honey, the adulterators, seeing
  their sales decreasing, try to invent some means to stop
  this result, and incite us to help them to continue their
  fraudulent practice.

  Let us remember that the candying of honey is the best test
  of purity thus far; that, by preventing honey from candying,
  we lower it to the level of glucosed honey; and that, as
  long as liquid honey can be found on our markets, we will be
  compelled to compete with adulterated honey, for the profit
  of this adulteration will always tempt the unscrupulous
  dealers, while we will be unable to compete with them for the
  price.

  A few years ago we could find liquid honey, in glass jars,
  in every good grocery. Three years ago I produced, at the
  Western Illinois and Eastern Iowa Convention, held at
  Burlington, Iowa, one of these bottles, bought in St. Louis,
  labeled “Pure Extracted Honey, from John Long, New York.” Mr.
  Hoge, who resided in New York at that time, probably knows
  “John Long.” This “pure honey” was analyzed by an expert
  chemist and found mostly glucose. These jars and tumblers
  are now of slow sale, for the consumers begin to have
  confidence in candied honey. We are, therefore, in a fair
  way for selling our product. Let us go on, and turn the cold
  shoulder to the advice of those who have, so far, caused more
  prejudice than profit to bee-keepers.

  Mr. Hoge, who has visited the old continent, knows, as well
  as I do, that in Europe liquid honey is unsalable, for
  the consumers are accustomed to buying candied honey. Let
  us persist in our efforts to educate the people on this
  question, and we will drive all spurious honey from our
  markets.

  Hamilton, Ill., Feb. 2, 1881.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Colchian Honey.

  REV. W. BALLENTINE, A. M.


  I see in the BEE JOURNAL, under the above caption, a question
  from Mr. H. G. Colwell, of Columbus, Ohio, relative to the
  effects of honey eaten by the Grecian troops, under Xenophon,
  as they passed through Colchia in their famous retreat
  homeward. In regard to this, you propose a query, “Why did
  the ancient Colchian honey cause the above disorder?” I have
  frequently had my attention turned to this subject in reading
  Xenophon's Anabasis in the original, from which the extract
  by Mr. Colwell is taken. From the best sources of information
  at my command, the following seems to be the most rational.

  The honey of Asia Minor in many localities appears to be
  gathered from the flowers of the order Apocynoceæ, or
  dog's-bane. Of this order, Prof. Wilson, in his botany,
  page 588, observes: “These plants possess active, and often
  suspicious qualities, residing in the white juice with which
  the order is pervaded, and in the seeds, which are often
  deadly poisons. The alkaloid _strychnine_, or _strychinea_,
  one of the most violent poisons, is the active principle
  of the Strychorea Nux-vomica, of India. It is sometimes
  administered as a medicine, but with doubtful success; a
  single seed of one species is sufficient to kill 20 persons.
  The order is generally emetic.”

  In corroboration of this, I will give you the opinion of the
  celebrated Ainsworth, who traveled over the route of the
  Grecians, and took notes of all the localities and incidents
  recorded by Xenophon. He observes that “this fact of the
  honey of Asia Minor being, in certain places, and at certain
  seasons, of a poisonous nature, was known to all antiquity,
  and is very common at the present day, so much so, that I
  have known the peasants to inquire if we would prefer the
  bitter or the sweet honey, for the honey so qualified has a
  slight, but not unpleasant, bitterness, and is preferred by
  many, from producing, when taken in moderate quantities, the
  effect of slight intoxication. Pliny notices two kinds of
  honey, one found at Heraclea, in Pontus, and another among
  the Sanni or Mocrones. The first he supposed to be produced
  by a plant called Ægolethron, or goatsbane; the second by a
  species of rhododendron. Dioscorides, Diodorus, Siculus and
  Aristotle, all notice the honey of Heraclea Pontica. The
  celebrated botanist, Tournefort, ascertained on the spot,
  that the honey of bees feeding on the Azalea Pontica, as
  also on the Rhododendron Ponticum, possessed mischievous
  properties; but as the bitter and intoxicating honey is
  found in many parts of Asia Minor, where these plants do
  not flower, it is extremely probable that these peculiar
  properties are further derived from the flower of the Nerium
  Oleander, or common rose-laurel, the leaves of which are
  known to be acrid and poisonous. The natural family to which
  the rose-laurel belongs (Apocynaceæ) is distinguished by
  plants endued with dangerous and fatal properties, and these
  act on the nerves so as to produce stupefaction. Rhodoraceæ
  also possesses narcotic properties, but in a less marked
  degree.”

  It appears from this, that the honey gathered by the bees
  from these poisonous plants, possessed some of the inherent
  qualities of the plants themselves, and operated like a
  narcotic or opiate on the nerves, producing stupefaction
  and intoxication. If you see proper you can give the above
  a place in the Weekly, with which I am, so far, very well
  pleased.

  Sago, Ohio.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Combined Summer and Winter Stand.

  H. L. PENFIELD.


  The engraving shows a perspective view of a combined winter
  and summer stand, which I put up to accommodate 12 hives
  of the standard Langstroth pattern. It is constructed as
  follows: Put in the ground 9 oak posts 4 × 4 inches, for a
  frame to nail the 14 foot boards to—3 posts on each side,
  and 3 between these, set in the ground 18 inches. The ends
  are 9 feet wide, which I find gives ample room to manipulate
  the bees between the rows of hives, the operator being in
  the shade, and not in front of the entrance of the bees,
  which seldom bother me. The sides front east and west. The
  ends are open during the summer, and the north end boarded
  up in winter. We use millet hay for protection, filling in
  spaces between the hives, and over and under them, almost
  filling up between the rows, clearing away enough in front of
  the entrance for the bees to take a flight when the weather
  permits.


  [Illustration:

  A, A—Ventilation and bee escape. B—Space to work in and
  shaded.]


  This protection keeps them quiet, and storms beat on the
  shelter and on the millet hay. Of course, this is not a
  water-proof shelter or cover, and I do not think one is
  needed. It is advantageous to have an opening in the apex of
  the roof; this plan of having one roof higher than the other
  secures it with the least expense. It is curious to notice
  how the bees fly out of these spaces marked A, A (as both
  ends are open) while the operators manipulating the hives.
  Sixteen boards 14 feet long and 1 foot wide cover it, and
  with the 9 posts and 4 2 × 4 studding to set the hives on,
  and short pieces to set on top of the posts to nail the roof
  to, complete the lumber bill.

  Hunnewell, Mo.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Foul Brood, and Its Causes.

  H. L. JEFFREY.


  You ask for my observations on foul brood regarding the cases
  noted in the BEE JOURNAL. There are many who, I know, will
  disagree with me, but nevertheless, it seemed to come from
  no other source. The largest case of it was 25 colonies in
  one apiary. Ever since the year 1873 they had been wintered
  in the cellar, in a sort of room fitted up especially for
  them. They were usually put in about Nov. 25, and taken out
  about April 1st to the 20th, according to the season. This
  receptacle was directly under the living room, which was
  kept very warm. The bee-room was generally quite dry, and
  towards spring would stand from 45° to 50°, which would let
  the bees have from 60° to 80° in the hive, or perhaps 90°,
  causing the cluster to spread, and there was always a good
  supply of brood in the combs when taken from the cellar, and
  generally a considerable number of young hatched bees. So far
  everything was as good as could be asked for, and every good
  bee-keeper will say this could not have anything to do with
  foul brood; perhaps not.

  These same hives, with more space and more surface of comb
  than a 10 frame Langstroth hive gives, were put into the
  cellar with all their combs in place, with a box 6 inches
  deep below the hive, and another above filled with straw, or
  with a top story filled with rags, old clothes and pieces of
  carpet or straw. The full complement of combs was left in the
  hives, regardless of the strength of the colonies, and they
  were then set on their summer stands without using division
  boards, or any contraction of combs. After setting out they
  were generally fed liberally every night to induce breeding,
  which is a good plan if properly handled, but in this case it
  helped to breed the disease, and it did do it to the fullest
  extent. Why? First, a small colony should not be given any
  more combs than it can cover, either in summer or winter.
  If the hive is too large, insert a division on one or both
  sides; if on both sides, let one of them be at least half an
  inch shallower than the hive, then if the numbers increase,
  they can crowd outside of it.

  Second, if they are wintered indoors, in a hive full of
  combs, take away all you can before they are set out in the
  spring, even if you have to feed to prevent starvation.

  Third, if you do winter indoors on a full set of combs, do
  not commence feeding regularly, to induce breeding, as soon
  as set out, though it be the 25th of April or even the 1st of
  May.

  In the case mentioned the consequences were: In the weak
  colonies some of the bees died in the combs and contracted
  some moisture, consequently would mold. Some strong colonies
  would do the same, but many of the dead bees would be thrown
  down. The cellar had a drain 100 feet long, with a fall of 5
  feet, to keep the cellar dry, and a ventilator 3 feet above
  the house-sill outside, at the south. The ventilator opened
  on warm days, consequently a draft of warm air, fire in the
  room above, temperature in the bee-cellar raised, cluster
  of bees spread, queen goes to laying, honey consumed, brood
  reared and old bees wearing out; all of these conditions are
  the requisites of good, strong, healthy colonies, and they
  are just as surely the forerunners of first-class cases of
  foul brood every time.

  I know that 99 out of every 100 bee-keepers will differ
  with me, but go through the colonies with me 10 or 15 days
  after setting out on the summer stands; suppose in that time
  we have had 2 or 3 good flying days; the feeding induced
  the queen to lay more rapidly and forced the cluster to
  spread; the eggs hatched into larvæ; on the pleasant days
  the old bees flew out but forgot to fly in again, thus
  diminishing the cluster; then there came 2 or 3 stormy days
  in succession, cold and chilling; the cluster contracted
  as well as diminished in numbers; the minute larvæ starved
  and dead, and some, perhaps, that are advanced to capping;
  another flying day, and their numbers are more reduced. The
  dead bees in the combs putrefy, and you have for your pains a
  first-class case of foul brood in the near future. Many will
  shake their heads, but I saw the colonies, and in 3 years I
  saw the 25 and their increase decreased to 17, the 17 and
  their increase decreased to 9, the 9 down to 2, and the 2
  went, in the spring of 1880, “where the woodbine twineth.”

  Woodbury, Conn., Feb. 26, 1881.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Early Importations of Italian Bees.

  REV. L. L. LANGSTROTH.


  I can probably give, better than any one living, the history
  of the first efforts made to introduce Italian bees into
  this country; as I knew well the late Messrs. Samuel Wagner
  and Richard Colvin, and Messrs. S. B. Parsons and P. G.
  Mahan, who, with myself, were the first to import them.
  Messrs. Wagner and Edward Jessop, both residents of York,
  Penn., received from Dzierzon, in 1856, a colony of Italian
  bees which had starved on shipboard. Mr. Wagner's letter
  to me, August, 1856, and given the next spring, in my 2nd
  edition on bees, is the earliest notice, published in this
  country, of the Italian race of bees. Messrs. Wagner and
  Colvin, subsequently, bought a few queens of Dzierzon,
  which were consigned to the care of the surgeon of a Bremen
  steamship, who had been carefully taught what precautions to
  use for their safety. Fearing that the bees might sting his
  passengers, the captain would not allow them to be put on his
  vessel.

  “In the winter of 1858-59,” (I quote from Mr. Colvin's able
  article on beekings, in the Report of the Commissioner of
  Agriculture for 1863, page 530,) “another attempt was made
  by Mr. Wagner, Rev. L. L. Langstroth, and myself. The order
  was placed in the hands of the surgeon of the steamer, to
  whose charge the bees were to have been committed, but in
  consequence of his determining to leave the ship, the effort
  failed.[A] Subsequently arrangements were made, in the latter
  part of that year, and we received 7 living queens. Only two
  or three young queens were reared by us during that fall and
  winter, and in the following spring we found that all our
  imported stock had perished. In conjunction with Mr. Wagner,
  I determined to make another trial; the queens, however, did
  not arrive until June, 1860.”

  [Footnote A: Mr. Colvin, having formed the acquaintance of
  the German Captain, not only convinced him that the bees
  could not escape to injure anyone, but inspired him with
  a strong desire to be the first to bring over in his own
  vessel, this valuable race of bees. It would require quite a
  volume to tell, at length, what sacrifices of time were made
  by Messrs. Wagner and Colvin, to secure these bees.]

  Our queens, which came in 1859, were in charge of a German
  resident of Brooklyn, N. Y., who was returning home from
  a visit to his friends, and to whom Mr. Wagner had given
  very careful directions how to care for them. This person,
  learning that Mr. Mahan had expressed the intention of having
  the honor of landing, in America, the first living Italian
  bees, and desiring, as he told me, to secure this honor for
  us, communicated Mr. Mahan's intention to the captain, who,
  as soon as the gang-way was in place, was the first person to
  step ashore, proclaiming with a very loud voice: “These are
  the first Italian bees ever landed on the shores of America!”

  In the spring of 1856, Mr. S. B. Parsons, of Flushing, L. I.,
  invited me to visit him, and advise with him as to the best
  way of managing his Italian bees. On my way, I called upon
  Mr. Mahan, who was joint owner with me of a large interest
  in my patent hive. He gave me a very graphic account of his
  visit to the apiary of the Baron Von Berlepsch, from whom he
  obtained a queen, and supplied me with a few Italian workers
  for Prof. Joseph Lidy, that he might determine how the length
  of proboscis, in that variety, compared with that of the
  black bee. On arriving at Flushing, Mr. Parsons showed me
  five hollow logs, or “gums,” placed in an old bee-shed. It
  was a warm, sun-shiny day, and I saw only an occasional bee
  flying out from one of the hives. These colonies had been
  purchased in Italy, carried safely on the backs of mules over
  the Alpine passes, to Genoa, from which port they were safely
  shipped to New York; but by a succession of mishaps, four of
  them died at Flushing. The fifth contained a mere handful of
  bees, with their queen, which I introduced to a colony of
  black bees. It is hardly necessary to say that none of these
  hives were ever in the same vessel with Mr. Mahan.

  On the 18th of April, the steamer Argo arrived in New York,
  after a tedious and stormy voyage. Mr. Herman, a German
  bee-keeper, and author of a work on the Italian bee, who had
  been furnished with a large sum of money by Mr. Parsons to
  buy Italian bees in the best districts of Italy, and who had
  agreed to bring them over in the original hives, and breed
  queens for Mr. Parsons, _was not on board_, but in his place,
  a young Austrian, by the name of Bodmer. On the 19th, as soon
  as the bees were allowed to be landed, they were carried to
  Flushing. The small boxes in which they were put up were
  in three different packages, one of which was consigned
  to the U. S. Government, one to Mr. Mahan, and one to Mr.
  Parsons. As the Austrian said that he knew, by examination on
  shipboard, that the bees were in a very bad condition, and
  many of them already dead, and, as the day was very pleasant,
  they were all examined under my personal supervision, and I
  can assure Mr. Robinson that every colony consigned to the
  Government and Mr. Mahan, was dead. A few, only, of those
  marked for Mr. Parsons, had living queens, some of which soon
  died, and in a short time he found himself the possessor of
  only two queens, one of which was the queen found alive upon
  my arrival at Flushing.

  By my advice, Mr. Wm. W. Cary, of Coleraine, Mass., a very
  skillful bee-keeper, and a thoroughly trustworthy man, was
  sent for by Mr. Parsons. One of the queens was entrusted
  to his care, on the premises of Mr. Parsons, and the other
  to Mr. Bodmer, some distance off, who did not raise queens
  enough even to pay for the black bees and honey which were
  purchased for his use; while Mr. Cary Italianized a large
  apiary for Mr. Parsons, besides filling all his orders for
  queens.

  One hundred and eleven queens were carried to California,
  by Mr. A. J. Biglow, 108 of which reached there in good
  condition. This small per cent. of loss was, in part, owing
  to the skillful supervision of Mr. Biglow, and to the
  purifying flight which, by my advice, he gave them on the
  Isthmus of Panama; but all his precautions would have been
  of no avail but for the judicious way in which they were
  prepared by Mr. Cary and himself, for so long a voyage. The
  bees sent to Mr. Parsons were in cigar boxes, into which the
  combs were merely crowded or wedged: the loosening of the
  combs on so rough a voyage killed some of the queens, while
  others were drowned, with their bees, in honey; and others,
  still, starved from the boxes being over-crowded with bees.
  It is hardly necessary to contrast Mr. Biglow's success with
  the heavy losses sustained for years by those who imported
  bees from Europe. The result of Mr. Parsons' dealings with
  Herman were, that for $1,200 advanced to him, he had only 2
  queens to show. The next season Mr. Bodmer, having learned
  how to pack bees for a sea voyage, brought over a number of
  queens in good condition, for Mr. E. W. Rose, but was very
  unfortunate in the management of them. Herman came, some
  years after, to this country, and was employed by a friend of
  mine in Philadelphia, to purchase for him, in Italy, a large
  number of queens. The return voyage was long and stormy, and
  every queen died on board the steamer.

  Oxford, Ohio, March 5, 1881.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  A Good Way to Promote Bee-Keeping.

  WM. F. CLARKE.


  As a sample of what may be done in many parts of the country
  to diffuse knowledge regarding apiculture, and awaken an
  interest in bee-keeping as a business, let me give a brief
  account of a meeting recently held in Shaftesbury Hall,
  Toronto, under the auspices of the Y. M. C. A. Mr. D. A.
  Jones, having made the acquaintance of some of the leading
  spirits in the organization just named, offered to give a
  free lecture on bee-keeping. The offer was accepted, and a
  meeting announced to which the members of the Y. M. C. A.
  were admitted _gratis_, while the general public were charged
  a small fee. Mr. Jones invited the writer to be present as
  a reserve force, in case he should break down, (!) and what
  enthusiastic bee-keeper would not rally to the rescue when
  thus appealed to? Unfortunately Mr. J. was not in good trim,
  having been sick enough to keep his bed most of the day
  preceding the lecture evening. However, he gathered himself
  up for the task he had undertaken, and was cheered by the
  appearance of his ally just as the lecture was about to
  begin. For a sick man, he did bravely, and spoke for nearly
  an hour. His remarks were, of course, general, and very
  different from what they would have been if his audience
  had been composed of experienced apiarists. He discoursed
  on bee-keeping as a business, explained the outlines of it,
  showed that it was profitable, and especially dwelt upon
  the gain which would accrue to the country if it were more
  generally engaged in. An interesting sketch of his journey
  to Cyprus and the Holy Land formed the latter part of his
  address. The writer supplemented his remarks by a talk of
  about half an hour, the chief theme of which was advice to
  intending bee-keepers. There was a far larger audience than
  might have been expected, considering the prevalent apathy in
  regard to apicultural pursuits, and considering also that the
  weather was unpleasantly stormy. Much interest was evidently
  awakened; a number of questions were asked at the close of
  the addresses, and many lingered when “meetin' was out” to
  talk about bee-matters. An immense amount of good might be
  done if practical bee-keepers would engage in this kind of
  missionary work. The public is a dull scholar, and needs to
  be “enthused” by men who have the true apicultural spirit.
  Among other questions, these were asked:—“What is the best
  bee journal?” and “What is the best book on bee-keeping?” The
  AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, and Cook's “Manual,” were the replies
  given. In his counsels to beginners, the writer insisted very
  strongly, that the first step in practical bee-keeping was to
  get a good hand-book, and journal of apiculture. So, if you
  receive orders from Toronto for the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, and
  “Manual,” you may give Jones' meeting the credit for having
  inspired them. There are not only Y. M. C. As., but other
  organizations all over the land that would be glad to have a
  meeting in the interests of bee-keeping. If 2 or 3 practical
  bee-keepers would divide the work and responsibility of
  maintaining such a meeting, it would not be so formidable,
  as though only one man undertook it. A plain, common-sense
  talk on a subject of such practical and commercial importance
  as bee-keeping, would be a welcome change from the elaborate
  lectures usually delivered before Y. M. C. As., Lyceums, and
  bodies of that ilk. I hope Jones' enthusiastic zeal will stir
  others up to emulation and imitation. Reader, if conscious of
  possessing “the gift of the gab” in any degree, “go thou and
  do likewise.”

  Listowell, Ont., March 7, 1881.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Do Bees Injure Fruit?

  F. P. BOUTEILLER.


  A prominent wine-grower in this country, told me, about a
  year ago, that he did not want bees in his neighborhood as
  he found they injured his grape crop. As I have a small
  grapery, of about a hundred plants, between the rows of which
  I find shelter for about 20 colonies of bees, I determined
  to observe if his theory was correct, for I was loth to give
  up either. If any fruit crop could be injured by the visit
  of bees, mine is surely the one. The result of one season's
  close observation has convinced me: 1st. That bees promote
  rather than injure the foundations of fruit buds, because the
  bunches on my vines were full, with better developed berries,
  than those produced on vines less exposed to their visits,
  and my peach and cherry trees were as fairly loaded with
  fruit as they well could be. 2nd. That in the fall bees only
  visit our ripe berries, that have been sweetened by early
  frosts, and are very rarely seen on good sound fruit, when
  the skin is unbroken, and that the loss from this cause is
  of very little consequence, as the fruit attacked would fall
  off itself, without the visit of the bees, before gathering.
  I am wintering 21 colonies, mostly Italians; procured one
  of Jones' Cyprian queens, but too late in the fall to speak
  intelligently of the result. They are on summer stands, well
  sheltered and surrounded with straw, having means of exit,
  and I think are wintering well, but they have not had a good
  fly since early in November.

  Belle River, Ont., March 5, 1881.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Remarkable Tardiness in Fecundity.

  G. W. DEMAREE.


  One of my Cyprian queens has upset an established doctrine in
  bee-science, set at naught all the bee-books, and reversed
  the old adage which says: “hope long deferred maketh the
  heart sick.” In the latter part of last season I reared some
  Cyprian queens from eggs and larvæ, obtained from Mr. Root;
  they were 7 in number, and were hatched on the 6th, 7th,
  and 8th days of Sept. The weather being warm and fair they
  were all fertilized (except one, which never returned from
  her bridal tour) by the 12th of the month, and a few days
  later they were all laying except one; that being the finest,
  brightest-looking queen of the lot, stubbornly refused to
  commence the duties of a good queen. She was in a strong
  nucleus which was fed regularly and bountifully, till the
  hive looked as though the occupants were enjoying a bountiful
  white clover harvest, but “nary an egg would she lay.”

  She was provided with a clean empty comb, placed in the
  center of the colony, and the feeding kept up till winter set
  in, but no brood appeared. The hive was not opened from the
  time it was prepared for winter (say Nov. 15) till the middle
  of Dec., at which time there was not a sign of brood. Then
  came the long siege of snow and bitter winds which lasted
  till the 30th of Jan.; on that date our bees enjoyed a good,
  cleansing flight, and I remembered my non-laying queen and
  proceeded to look her combs over, and to my surprise, on one
  of the center combs I found a little patch of brood about
  half as large as a postal card, some of which was sealed
  over. It was genuine worker brood, and no mistake. Since
  which time she has been laying nicely, and now has a nice lot
  of brood for the time of year.

  My bees, 30 colonies with selected queens, have come safely
  through the winter to the 1st of March, and there is really
  but little danger of losing bees in this climate after
  the 1st of this month, unless they are short of stores
  and shamefully neglected. The bee-man is aware, above all
  others, that there is “many a slip betwixt the cup and the
  lip,” however closely he may watch his business. On the 30th
  of Jan. last, when my bees were flying lively, I noticed
  that one large colony with a tested Cyprian queen, were
  not stirring like the others. I proceeded to open the hive
  and found the bees so nearly starved that they could only
  show signs of life by a feeble motion of their wings, which
  produced no sound whatever. Not a bee seemed able to change
  its position; the fore-runner of death was already present
  in the form of a cold, damp atmosphere in the brood chamber.
  I prepared some rich sweetened water, separated the frames
  gently, and sprinkled the bees thoroughly with the sweetened
  water, and poured some of it into the empty cells. The frames
  were then readjusted and a dry woolen quilt spread over the
  bees and the sun permitted to shine into the hive. In about
  an hour I raised the quilt and the inmates of the hive were
  stirring briskly, handing around the good cheer, while some
  of them showed fight in a most patriotic style. They were
  provided with stores, and are now a No. 1 colony. So much for
  bee-science.

  What a lesson this teaches! Here was a large colony of
  bees perishing with famine, as one single individual; so
  unselfishly had they divided their family stores amongst
  themselves that when relief did come, though not till their
  dire extremity, there was no practical loss of life. Before I
  close I cannot resist the temptation to tell how my bees have
  been carrying in meal, and prancing gaily on the alighting
  boards with their white pellets exposed to the best advantage.

  Christiansburg, Ky.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Honey-Producing in California.

  W. A. PRYAL.


  No doubt but by this time many of the Eastern bee-keepers
  are looking to this far-off “land of milk and honey,” as of
  late years it has been called. Perhaps the reason is partly
  because here abundant warm rains have fallen all over the
  State, and the world-renowned honey region has received its
  complement of the down-pour; in fact, the inhabitants hardly
  ever saw so much rain visit that section at the right time.

  There are now signs, however, that indicate the sun will
  shine with its usual brightness; that those delightful spring
  days, which are so peculiar to this fair land, are about
  to favor us. Let this be the case and the bees will soon
  be flying out by thousands, and the willow blossoms will
  each and all receive a welcome visit from those industrious
  insects. Their journeyings will not be confined to the banks
  of the creeks where the willows grow, but the woodland, where
  the Australian blue-gum (_Eucalyptus globulus_) has been
  planted by the hand of man, and which holds out its bounteous
  chalice for the busy bee to come and sip of nectar deep and
  sweet.

  While the loss in bees will in all probability be great in
  the States east of the Rocky Mountains, here the loss, if
  any, will not be quite as bad as it has been other years.
  Thus it will be seen that our eastern brethren will have to
  commence the season with greatly reduced forces, while the
  apiarists in this State will commence operations with more
  colonies, and, consequently, with more bees. Last season
  was a good one, and the bees went into winter quarters with
  abundant stores, which have carried them through the mild
  winter safely. The bee flora having had ample rains to insure
  a most thrifty growth, will bloom for a longer period than it
  has heretofore, and, of course, will insure an enormous yield
  of honey.

  On account of the long continuance of the rain, but few
  flowers have commenced to bloom. Still the plants are
  growing, and when they do commence, they will be able to do
  so in a vigorous manner. A few of those now blooming are
  the willows in variety, _Eucalyptus globulus_, and it is
  unusually covered with flowers; wild currant, a pretty fair
  honey plant, but scarce; wild gooseberry; wild blackberry,
  just beginning; raspberry, ditto; almond; pear and peach;
  mignonette; horehound, and a few others. All of which give
  the bees more than they can do to gather the nectar and
  pollen.

  North Temescal, Cal., Feb. 17, 1881.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Bee-Men to the Front.

  A. W. FISK.


  The present may be called “trying times” to bee-keepers of
  America. Poor honey seasons, hard winters, and the nefarious
  warfare against the honey producers of this country in the
  vile adulteration of honey, is indeed trying, discouraging
  and diabolical. It appears, by the papers, that these glucose
  scoundrels are not satisfied with adulterating extracted
  honey, but according to this article that I clip from one of
  our papers, _The Bushnell Record_, they are manufacturing
  comb honey. It reads as follows:

  Many singular discoveries have been made among manufacturers
  by the census enumerators in the course of their
  investigations. For instance, it has long been known that
  dealers are in the habit of adulterating honey with glucose
  on the plea of thus improving its keeping qualities. In
  Boston, however, there is a firm doing a large business
  in making honey entirely from glucose much in the same
  way as manufacturers elsewhere make butter from suine and
  oleo-margarine. The comb is molded out of paraffine in
  excellent imitation of the work of bees; then the cells are
  filled with clear glucose and sealed by passing a hot iron
  over them, and the product is sent to Europe as our best
  honey. The busiest Italian bees couldn't compete with this
  firm in turning out honey, any more than could a Eurotas-like
  Jersey breed compete in butter-making with our deft
  manipulators of lard and tallow.

  Now, brother bee-men, I believe the time has arrived when
  this honey counterfeiting should be stopped; I therefore
  suggest that the bee-men of this country come up in solid
  phalanx “to the front,” and with Pres. N. P. Allen and the
  bee-paper editors as leaders, let us agitate the question,
  educate the people, stir up the press, wake up the country,
  and vote or petition to Congress until we secure the passage
  of a law by Congress against the adulteration of honey,
  sugar, syrup, or food of any kind. Many of the leading
  journals of our land are battling for the right in this
  matter. The _Burlington_ (Iowa) _Hawkeye_ last week expressed
  itself as follows:

  It is time that stringent legislative enactments are passed,
  making the adulteration of so many articles of food a
  criminal offense, punishable by severe penalties. If these
  things must be done to gratify the inordinate greed of some
  men, let it be made obligatory on them that the packages
  containing spurious products so proclaim them, under penalty
  of confiscation when detected, and the fraud further
  punishable by heavy penalty. No man has any right to sell a
  compound of honey and glucose as pure honey, nor has he any
  right, either moral or legal, to place a compound of butter
  and lard, still further “doctored” with drugs, upon the
  market as pure butter. If adulterations of food are allowed
  to go on in this way, unrebuked, there is not an article of
  food known that will not be counterfeited, and oftentimes
  with substances very hurtful in character.

  I am thankful so many are lending their aid and influence in
  the cause of justice and humanity, but we want the united
  efforts of honest bee-keepers, and consumers, and fair
  dealers, to make a bold front against every adulterator, and
  to expose him to the world. In this way I believe the problem
  can be solved and the evil remedied.

  Bushnell, Ill.

  [So far as it refers to the adulteration of comb honey, it
  is a false alarm; all bosh! We alluded to this subject more
  at length on page 44 of the BEE JOURNAL for Feb. 9th. We
  are glad, however, to see the interest being awakened on
  the subject of food adulterations, and bee-keepers as well
  as all other honest producers, cannot be too out-spoken in
  denouncing it.—ED.]


  For the American Bee Journal.

  The In-and-In Breeding of Bees.

  M. S. SNOW.


  Mr. C. Thielmann, in the BEE JOURNAL, says he has bees which
  are mostly hybrids, and he does not know where they came
  from, but there are Italians 5 miles from him. Another says
  he has no black bees, and his queens must be purely mated,
  &c.; another that a neighbor has had some 10 or 15 colonies
  so many years, breeding in-and-in, but states he manages to
  keep his number about the same. Breeding in-and-in with bees,
  I am fully convinced, is not much done. Bees are free rovers
  and it seems to be their nature or instinct to mate at some
  distance from the parent hive.

  This question was discussed by one of the speakers at a
  bee convention in N. Y. some years ago. He claimed that
  in-and-in breeding had a great deal to do with the failures
  in bee-keeping, &c. He compared an apiary to a yard of fowls,
  in this respect, and that they could be bred in-and-in
  until entirely worthless. This may be done, for fowls are
  confined to a particular locality, but how is it with prairie
  chickens? what is the reason they do not degenerate and run
  out? Because they are rovers, like the bee, and are mated by
  others from some remote part.

  I claim that bees will mix from 5 to 7 miles, and if there
  are 50 or 100 colonies within that distance the progeny of a
  certain queen will stand a poor show of mating with drones
  from its own hive.

  To illustrate: While living in N. Y. I obtained one of Mr.
  Langstroth's $20 tested Italian queens; I reared some 70
  queens and introduced them into as many colonies. The next
  season I had Italian drones by the thousand. My stock of
  Italian drones were the only ones in the locality, so I had
  a good chance to test breeding in-and-in. The next season,
  and even that fall, there were hybrid colonies all over the
  country, even at the distance of 7 miles, one man had one
  colony. One man, 5 miles from me, wished me to introduce an
  Italian queen into one of his colonies. I think he had 6 and
  I was surprised to see 4 of them hybrids, how they came there
  he did not know. Others said to me, “I have your kind of
  bees, but where they came from I cannot tell.”

  All breeders of Italian queens find it very difficult to
  keep their stock up to the standard of purity. I obtained 5
  dollar-queens (Italians) from a breeder in N. Y., which when
  tested proved to be hybrids, showing conclusively that there
  were black bees in that section.

  Osakis, Minn.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  How to Prevent Robbing.

  J. D. ENAS.


  My location for surplus honey is not as good as some other
  sections of the State, and from the middle of June to the
  last of July, from 4 to 6 weeks, there appears to be no honey
  flow, and the weather being hot and dry, scorches what bloom
  is left, soon after June comes in. Our last rain is in April,
  or sometimes late in May, and no more, generally, before
  October or November. All kinds of stock depending on pasture,
  especially in the hills, suffer at that time. When bees
  can gather no honey, Italians especially go about visiting
  for the purpose of plunder, and woe to the colony that is
  not strong enough to defend its stores. I have reduced the
  entrance, covered the entrance with cow-chips, wet hay,
  brush, and, in fact, tried all remedies that ever I saw in
  print or heard of, without success. While the robbers were
  helping themselves, the colony robbed was not discouraged,
  but appeared to be robbing some other, and the queen was
  laying eggs, to be starved as they advanced to brood; no bees
  appeared to be killed at the entrance, as no blacks were
  about; they were all Italians, and they can rob when they get
  started.

  I exchanged the places of the hives without success, until I
  thought of changing after dark; so while they were robbing I
  went to all colonies that appeared to be quiet and minding
  their own business and placed a single stone on the cover,
  then on those that were getting robbed the worst, I placed
  2 stones. Then when so dark that no bees were flying, I
  exchanged places and put a strong colony on the stand of a
  weak one. Sometimes I had to repeat this, but not always.
  Some of those weak ones filled their hives with golden rod
  honey and robbing was stopped for that season. It was amusing
  to see the robbers when those strong colonies had fairly
  awakened, to know that they had callers; they mustered out at
  the entrance solid and were ready for business. The robber
  seemed to think he had made a mistake. The strong colony had
  not got discouraged; the robbers could not force the entrance
  and the weak colony not in a fighting humor, received the
  recruits from the strong one, which were a little too
  surprised at the change to interfere with the queen and
  inmates. Most of the old bees would go to their own stand but
  in the confusion of things they would gradually be at home
  in their own hive. I found the plan very successful, when
  closing the entrance did not do. I extracted as late as June
  10 to keep down swarming.

  Last spring my Italians took the grafting wax from my peach
  grafts. I also observed them gathering the worm dust from
  decayed oak wood, and filling their pockets instead of
  pollen, about Christmas. In the valley 2 miles from here,
  frost was quite severe, but here the mercury got below 32°
  only twice; the lowest was 28°. Natural bloom was 2 months
  behind, owing to early frosts which appeared to drive the sap
  down to the roots.

  Napa, Cal.


  For the American Bee Journal.

  Bees Killed by Kindness.

  B. F. WHITEAKER.


  I commenced the year 1875 with 12 box hives and engaged
  my brother to hive the colonies in movable frame hives on
  shares, but the bees swarmed faster than he had the hives
  ready—one swarmed 5 times in one week. In the fall I had 16
  colonies in movable frame and 20 in box hives. I prepared
  them for winter by cutting up a light bed-quilt to cover the
  frames; drove stakes about a foot from the hives all around
  except in the front, (which faced the south) and packed straw
  in the spaces and filled the cap with chaff and straw, and
  covered the hives with straw. In the spring but one colony
  was living and that was in a box hive. The quilts were laid
  down flat on the frames, leaving no ventilation. When it
  became cold the bees died and fell on the bottom board,
  filling up the spaces between the frames, the moisture fell
  on the bees and froze solid, closing the entrance so that I
  could not open it even with an iron rod. In the corners of
  each hive was a chunk of ice, running half way up the frames.
  The bees cut holes through the quilts and when they could,
  had crawled into the straw and died. This was murder, but
  such was my experience in 1875-6.

  Florid, Ill., Mar. 1, 1881.

[We have no doubt your first disasters were attributable altogether to
a too rapid increase.—ED.]

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ The North Western Wisconsin Bee-keepers Association will meet at
Germania Hall, LaCrosse, Wis., on Tuesday, May 10, at 10 a.m. All
interested in bee-keeping are requested to be present.

  L. H. PAMMEL, JR., _Sec._

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ The next meeting of the N. W. Illinois and S. W. Wisconsin
Bee-Keepers' Association, will be held at H. W. Lee's, 2 miles n.w. of
Pecatonica, Winnebago county, Ills., on the 17th of May, 1881.

  J. STEWART, _Sec._

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ On account of unfavorable weather the convention at Monroe Centre,
Ill., met on Feb. 8, and there being but few present, adjourned to the
same place on March 29, 1881.

  A. RICE, _Pres._



[Illustration:

  OLDEST BEE PAPER                ESTABLISHED
  IN AMERICA                      IN 1861

  THE AMERICAN
  BEE JOURNAL
]

THOMAS G. NEWMAN, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR,

CHICAGO, ILL., MAR. 16, 1881.



  Watchman! Tell us of the Night.


  Can you not recommend some reliable prophet, who will
  prophesy good weather soon? The storm is terrible; not a road
  in the county is passable for half a mile; the drifts are as
  high as the fences, and the snow full three feet on the level.

  Bees are getting uneasy, and must have a flight soon. Many
  report heavy losses, even now; others complain that all are
  sick with dysentery. In my home cellar, out of about 275, 4
  are slightly affected, the balance are apparently in good
  condition. My outside apiaries fare worse. Two weeks ago
  quite a number had the dysentery slightly; I should judge
  about 8 or 10 per cent. How they now are I cannot tell;
  certainly, no better. I believe that they can stand it a
  month longer, and my home apiary 6 weeks, but that is the
  limit.

  We are all afraid that Vennor's prophecy of 11 feet of
  snow will yet be realized, unless some one can be found to
  contradict it. Eleven feet of snow now would last us until
  all our bees had died a natural death from old age. Help us
  out of our trouble, if you can.

  GEO. GRIMM.

  Jefferson, Wis., March 3, 1881.

It was with much pleasure we noticed, in last Thursday's Associated
Press dispatches, evidences of Prof. Vennor's reformation. He
undoubtedly has become convinced that the realization of the eleven
feet of snow attributed to his prophecies, would not only cause much
suffering and privation with the majority of humanity, but work
serious and permanent injury to the country itself. He has relented,
or probably been bribed by Mr. McColm's liberal offer in the BEE
JOURNAL of March 2, page 69, and now promises us better weather
in the future. His latest prediction is a reasonably early, warm, dry
spring, cool, pleasant summer, and late, dry fall, followed by a mild
and pleasant winter. Of course, he promises abundant crops, and a
satisfactory and remunerative harvest.

But without any further reference to Prof. Vennor, and without laying
any claim to the “spirit of prophecy,” we believe the coming season
will be a very satisfactory one to those bee-keepers who may be
prepared to profit by it, and who have the industry and intelligence
to make the most of it. The winter of 1879-80 was very mild and open,
the scarcity of snow left the earth's surface exposed alike to the
freezing temperature of night, and the pleasant sunshine of the balmy
days; spring-like showers were of frequent occurrence, and heavy rains
accompanied with thunder were so numerous that they ceased to create
surprise; while the weird spring-music of the frogs was a familiar
sound every month, and nearly every week, throughout the winter. The
alternating cold and heat “threw out” the roots of the perennial
plants, breaking off the long, deep-reaching taps and killing the
rootlets; hence the frequent expression, “but little white clover in
bloom, and no honey in the blossoms.” The honey-producing annuals have
done but little better, owing, we presume, to the germination of the
seeds in mid-winter, and the frequent frosting of the tender sprouts
before spring set in. Thus, the summer and fall bloom was limited,
and no provision having been made to supply the short-comings of
nature, bees entered upon an unprecedented winter with a poor supply
of good—or a good supply of poor—honey. The many empty hives in the
country this spring is the result.

The past winter, whatever else may be said of it, has been propitious
for the honey plants. Cool weather in this latitude set in during
October; vegetation was checked in the perennials and biennials; the
ground was frozen in November, and it was overspread with a mantle of
snow quite early in the season, which has constantly held the roots of
the perennials in position, and prevented the seeds of the annuals from
unseasonable germination. The stand of white clover last fall was good,
and mostly of quite recent growth, which should bloom profusely this
season, and will only need heat and favorable sunshine to develop the
nectar. The causes enumerated will also tend to confine the vitality
of the linden trees to the roots, to be drawn out in profuse foliage
and bloom by the genial rays of the summer sun. The numerous variety of
flowers we believe will gratify the eye of every lover of the beautiful
in nature, and well reward the labors of the painstaking bee-keeper.
That the price of honey will be remunerative next fall no one can
doubt, in view of the lessened competition, owing to the heavy losses
the past winter and the many who will utilize the bees they have left
to refilling their empty hives.

It would take more space than we can give a single article, to explain
why we have much confidence in Prof. Vennor's latest prediction,
referred to above—though perhaps “the wish is father to the thought.”
We feel confident many of our readers will cordially unite with us in
welcoming the better time coming.



  Migratory Bee-Keeping.


  Why do not the enterprising bee-keepers of these parts go
  South with their bees, and wait till the March “blizzards”
  are over? Seems to me the bees and honey saved would about
  pay the expenses of the trip. How much does a colony need
  in those parts to winter on? Would there be any prospect
  of obtaining any surplus down there before the season
  opens here? These and a dozen other questions I am vainly
  speculating upon. Are Messrs. Bingham and Perrine the only
  ones that have tried the migratory plan? I believe neither
  of them was successful; at any rate, they have abandoned it.
  Probably they could not give it the necessary attention.
  The loss of larvæ in shipping seems but trifling compared
  to the gain in young bees. Considerable damage may be done
  by combs breaking down, but wired frames would obviate that
  difficulty. Is not wired foundation (wired in frames) the
  only kind that can be depended on under all circumstances?
  You report in the October number, 1880, page 468, that the
  Northwestern Convention disapproved of wired foundation.
  There were but few present that had given wired foundation a
  fair trial, and if I am not mistaken, they were strongly in
  favor of it.

  H. W. FUNK.

  Bloomington, Ill., March 5, 1881.

The first question is difficult to answer, as enterprising bee-keepers,
like the balance of humanity, are generally governed by motives of
convenience or profit. There are very few but have other business
connected with bee-keeping, and this would suffer if close attention
was given the migratory system. The amount of honey required to winter
in the South is much less than in the North, but the quantity is
governed by contingencies, as would be the question, How much honey
will a colony obtain in the South in a season? Usually bees obtain
considerable surplus in April and May, in some localities. Mr. Bingham,
we believe, abandoned the migratory system on account of excessive
freights, while Mr. Perrine met with a series of disasters from the
first which would have discouraged any one. Mr. W. O. Abbott was
engaged last season with a floating apiary on the Mississippi river,
from which large returns were anticipated; but as nothing definite has
been made public since the close of the season, we suppose it was not
a success. Others have tried Southern wintering, but we have no data
upon which to base conclusions, except the fact of its abandonment. The
trouble has not been so much from destruction of combs, as the expense
attending the removal.

A private letter from a gentleman with several hundred colonies of
bees, located a short distance below Memphis, Tenn., dated March 5,
says: “My colonies are mostly very strong; they are bringing in 5 kinds
of pollen; many are clustering in front of their hives; most of them
had large quantities of honey left over, and I could extract an average
of 15 lbs. per colony with profit to the bees. Bees here are given no
attention in the fall, but are left on the summer stands, sometimes
with the second story over them, and often with only a honey-board.
Frequently there are entrances at front and rear, and wide cracks in
the sides from which bees pour out, but disaster never overtakes them
except from starvation.”

If a necessity exists for wires in foundation, then perhaps the
wired frames are best. That but few of those in attendance at the
Northwestern Convention “had given wired foundation a fair trial,” was
undoubtedly owing to the fact that the great majority of those present
had never experienced the necessity for using wires; and it might
be difficult to convince a considerable minority of the bee-keepers
in the country that wired foundation is even desirable for general
use. Of course, for special purposes, such as migratory bee-keeping,
shipping in summer, etc., where not to be transferred from the frames,
wired-frames might be very desirable.



Interesting Letter from Ceylon.


Through the courtesy of Mr. D. A. Jones, we are permitted to publish
the following letter. Anything relating to the peregrinations of Mr.
Benton in the far East, and any discoveries of new races of bees he
may effect, will possess a great attraction for our readers. His next
letter, from Singapore, will be awaited with interest.

  I found on examination that every queen was alive upon my
  arrival in Pointe de Galle, though some of the nuclei were
  greatly depopulated, owing to the death of many bees, and
  would not have lived to reach Java had I not gotten off in
  Ceylon. By the next steamer I go to Singapore. I have made
  every effort to secure bees here, but none are kept in hives
  in those ports I have visited, and I do not think in any port
  of the Island.

  Of those found in trees few can be secured, because the trees
  are valuable cocoanut palms, and the entrance holes are in
  the trunk of course, and are very small. I have obtained
  three hives only of the small bees, having also spent some
  time fixing up the bees I brought with me, and trying to find
  the large bees, to say nothing of searching for some place
  where bees could be purchased in hives or pots. The natives
  are far worse than Cypriotes to get along with and accomplish
  anything. They seem to tell lies simply for the sake of
  giving an answer, where no pecuniary gain could come to them.
  Again, they seem to wish to avoid saying “I do not know,”
  when the Lord knows it would be the most appropriate thing
  for them to say in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred. The
  result is that it is hard work to sift the statements made by
  the natives, and Europeans—nearly all English—know absolutely
  nothing of value to us.

  The new bees, which I think are also found in India and many
  of the East India Islands (in which case East India bees
  would seem to me an appropriate name), are real beauties.
  The workers are 3/8 of an inch long, and build worker comb
  5/8 of an inch thick, 36 cells to the square inch. The drone
  comb is exactly the size, and like worker comb made by the
  bees already in Europe and America. The workers are brown
  with a very ringed abdomen, the bands to the tip of the body
  being broadly marked with yellow, and thorax very fuzzy,
  with a large shield between the wings; the drones are black,
  inclining to a blue-black, and are ½ of an inch long; the
  queens are leather-colored, and large compared with the
  workers. These bees are very active, wonderful breeders,
  regular little beauties, and can be handled without the least
  smoke, scarcely ever offering to sting. It is a pity I cannot
  get more of them during my stay.

  I am determined to find out whether _Apis dorsata_ is to be
  found here, if time will permit, and if two more races I have
  heard of here really do exist. I am now where a few shillings
  of railway fare will bring me to the interior of the Island.
  More by next mail, with samples of bees and comb.

  I have had a horrible time getting stung with large hornets
  while in the jungles. It laid me up for one whole day. These
  are fearful fellows, worse than those in Cyprus.

  F. BENTON.

  Colombo, Ceylon, Jan. 24, 1881.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ There are five Wednesdays in March—hence, the next number sent to
Semi-Monthly subscribers will be No. 14.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ We can supply but a few more of the back numbers to new subscribers.
If any want them, they must be sent for soon.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ One letter sometimes makes quite a difference in the meaning of a
sentence. Mr. L. James calls attention to an error in his article on
page 34, in the 4th line from the bottom—the word hiving is there
given as “hiding.” As the sense indicated the word required, perhaps it
was not generally noticed.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ The past week has been noted for snow storms, not only in America but
also in Europe, where a winter of unusual severity is reported, with
deep snows and steady frosts for months together. This winter will have
a place in history, as being among the most severe as well as of the
longest duration. Not alone have the bees suffered by it, but cattle,
sheep, hogs, etc., have perished by the thousand from the prevalence of
blizzards and deep snows.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ Several bee-keepers in this vicinity are considering the feasibility
of holding a convention in Detroit this spring. The law in regard
to foul brood, which is about to be passed, makes an organization
necessary. It is desirable to know how many would favor the enterprise.
Will such please send me their address.

  A. B. WEED.

  No. 75 Bagg street, Detroit, Mich.



[Illustration:

  _SELECTIONS FROM
  OUR LETTER BOX_
]


  =Wintered Well.=—I have wintered 40 colonies of Italians on
  the summer stands; they have wintered well.

  JAMES H. DAVIS.

  New Holland, Pa., March 8, 1881.


  =Mortality Reports.=—It seems to me that the only way of
  profiting by the experience of bee-keepers throughout the
  country, this exceptionally severe winter, is to reduce their
  reports to a tabular statement. If they could be induced
  to send in these reports, in the form of brief answers, to
  questions like the following, we could read the history
  of the past winter on a single page of the BEE JOURNAL,
  and learn from it lessons of scientific value. I mean such
  questions as these:

  1. How many colonies did you winter?

  2. Where? (out doors or in cellar.)

  3. What hive did you use?

  4. How did you prepare it?

  5. What entrance was left open, bottom, top, or both?

  6. How late did the bees breed?

  7. How many lbs. of honey were they allowed to keep?

  8. When did they have their first flight?

  9. How many colonies did you lose?

  C. F. KROEH.

  Hoboken, N. J., Mar. 5, 1881.

 [It would be difficult to get up a reliable report of this kind for
 many reasons, chiefly, perhaps, the following: 1st. Spring does not
 open simultaneously all over the country, and by the time the last
 were heard from, the table would have lost its interest; 2d. Many are
 sensitive, and prefer not to give their experience; 3d. Many have
 partially reported already, and would scarcely care to do so again. We
 agree with Mr. Kroeh, a table of that description would be invaluable
 for reference; but it is difficult to obtain.—ED.]


  =Nineteen Weeks' Confinement.=—Bees have at last had a
  purifying flight after 19 weeks' confinement. I find 28 dead
  from 153, I packed in chaff. Temperature has been below zero
  7 times, and as low as 17° below, this winter. A few of the
  remaining colonies are weak and may die yet, but nearly all
  are strong for this season of the year. One has had dysentery
  since Dec. 15, but is alive yet, with a fair prospect of
  getting through.

  H. D. BURRELL.

  Bangor, Mich., March 10, 1881.


  =Wintered Safely.=—We had a very poor season last year and
  the winter has been very severe. I began the last season with
  18 colonies, increased to 34 and obtained about 500 lbs. of
  surplus. I wintered in the cellar, and lost 3 colonies with
  dysentery. My bees had a cleansing flight about 2 weeks ago
  and I think we will have no more losses this winter. There
  are quite a number of bee-keepers in this vicinity, but
  most of them report very heavy losses, some having over 100
  colonies and losing nearly all. We are very much pleased with
  the Weekly BEE JOURNAL, and think it far superior to any
  Monthly.

  L. E. WELCH.

  Linden, Mich., March 8, 1881.


  =A Slim Living.=—I prepared 21 colonies on Dec. 1st, for
  wintering on summer stands. Hives were sitting on 4 inch
  blocks, and the colonies were all strong. I placed woolen
  blankets over the tops of the frames, then the honey-boards
  and covers, and left them for the winter—my usual way. Always
  heretofore they have come out bright. Feb. 22nd I felt uneasy
  about them, and being a bright day, I opened the hives to
  find 11 dead out or 21 colonies, and the remaining 10 weak.
  The hives were filled with frost and ice, and blankets wet
  with water; 5 out of the 11 dead had Italian queens, which
  I purchased from Mr. A. H. Newman last summer. I am not
  discouraged. If I had to make a living from bees it would be
  slim. I can learn more in 1 week about taking care of bees
  from the BEE JOURNAL, than I could in 1 year without it.

  EDMUND DELAIR.

  Oketo, Kan., March 1, 1881.


  =Honey Sections.=—In the BEE JOURNAL of March 2d Mr. Heddon
  says he prefers a section that he can press to any angle and
  have it solid, but I fail to see that any other angle than
  square is of any advantage. Again, Mr. H. asks, “Is it not
  better to wait and see which goes into general use?” Perhaps
  the following figures may show which has gone into general
  use, at least with our customers. I make any kind that are
  wanted, and therefore the figures will show which are the
  most desirable. In 1879, the first year that the one piece
  sections were put upon the market, and at a higher price than
  other kinds, my sales were:

  104,578 one piece sections. 124,058 dovetailed. 38,270 nailed.

  In 1880, the following are the figures:

  233,898 one-piece sections. 47,980 dovetailed. 50,950 nailed.

  According to Mr. Heddon's test, therefore, the one-piece
  sections are the most desirable, because they have gone into
  general use.

  G. B. LEWIS.

  Watertown, Wis., March 8, 1881.


  =Bees in Good Condition.=—The Weekly BEE JOURNAL is a welcome
  visitor and is the first paper I read when I return home
  on Friday evening. It is a friend that introduces me to my
  fellow bee-keepers, and their manner of manipulating our
  pets. My bees are in good spirits, yet they had but 2 flights
  this winter. I have them packed in a shed in new Langstroth
  hives, manipulating sides. They are 6 inches apart and packed
  all around with straw, excepting the fronts. They face the
  south, with a division board on each side of the frames,
  leaving a dead air space.

  JOHN W. STURWOLD.

  Haymond, Ind., Feb. 7, 1881.


  =Wintered Without Loss.=—I have kept bees for 7 years and my
  greatest trouble has been wintering them, but I think I have
  that perfect now. I winter on summer stands packed in chaff.
  Last fall I had 72 colonies, and on Feb. 9 all were right. I
  think I shall have to feed them. Last fall some had 15 lbs.
  and others 25 lbs of honey; that is if bees and comb weighed
  10 lbs. The combs were all new, and it may be that 10 lbs.
  was allowing too much.

  GEORGE WICKWIRE.

  Weston Mills, N. Y., March 4, 1881.


  =Mourning for the Bees.=—It is lamentable to hear the reports
  throughout this country. Some have lost all; others all but 1
  or 2. I think about four-fifths of the bees are dead through
  this country; as nearly all left their bees unprotected,
  they had to suffer losses. But I think the present winter
  will in part decide the best methods of wintering. I started
  last spring with 4 colonies, increased to 6, but obtained no
  surplus. In Sept. I bought 2 Italian colonies which are doing
  well. I packed 2 in chaff and 6 I put into the cellar, but 2
  of these died, 1 starved, and the other had the dysentery.
  Those packed in chaff had a good flight on Feb. 26. Those in
  the cellar had no flight since Nov. 1. The weather is now
  breaking up, the snow has nearly all gone, and the roads are
  muddy. I am highly pleased with the Weekly BEE JOURNAL. I
  could not be persuaded to do without it.

  H. CRIPE.

  North Manchester, Ind., Mar., 8, 1881.


  =Wintering.=—My experience of over 25 years in trying all
  modes of wintering is as follows: On summer stands, and in
  the cellar for 10 years; I then built a house to winter in,
  used that 2 years and then abandoned it. The last 3 years I
  have been using the chaff hive and winter on summer stands,
  with the least loss of any way I have tried. My bees had
  a splendid fly on the 11th, it being the first chance for
  them since the 8th of Nov. I think they will go through all
  right now unless we have a very late spring. I prepared 148
  colonies for winter, (123 in chaff hives and 25 in the common
  box hive.) I have lost but one in chaff hive yet, and 10 in
  the box hive already, and doubt if one-half of what are left
  will see the middle of April. I wish to congratulate our
  editor on the success of the BEE JOURNAL. I have received
  it regular since assuming its new form, and think it just
  splendid, and if I had but 1 colony of bees I would try to
  take the Weekly BEE JOURNAL to aid me to make a success of
  that 1. I hope the editor may be liberally supported by the
  bee-keepers of America, for I believe with his experience and
  that of his able contributors, he can give us a paper that we
  cannot afford to do without.

  J. M. FRANCE.

  Auburn, Pa. Feb. 24, 1881.


  =Vexatious to Sell Honey.=—I only realized $300 last year
  from my bees. I put 50 colonies in winter quarters in the
  fall of 1879; lost none, but doubled up on account of
  queenlessness, weakness, etc., to 45, all in first class
  order. I bought 50 colonies in old-fashioned Langstroth
  hives; they were wintered in a good cellar, and were, with a
  few exceptions, weak in bees, combs in bad order, short of
  stores, and badly managed the preceding season. I united them
  down to 27 before I moved them. At the beginning of honey
  harvest (basswood bloom) I doubled up to 15, so that when
  the honey season opened I had 60 first class colonies, and
  obtained 3,500 lbs. of summer honey. I extracted only once. I
  increased by natural swarming to 88, and at the close of the
  season doubled up to 74. I have lost 1 this winter through
  my own fault. I winter out-doors, but would winter indoors
  if I had a proper place. I sell nearly all my honey to the
  consumers, but confess this is a vexatious way of disposing
  of it; it is the most annoying part of the business; in
  fact, I feel disgusted when I think of it. People cry fraud,
  fraud, when there is no fraud; but when a spurious article is
  offered, they swallow it as quietly as desired.

  GEORGE W. HORNER.

  Dubuque, Iowa, Feb. 15, 1881.


  =Prospects Better.=—This has been a fine day; my bees had a
  cleansing flight to-day. They are all alive and strong, and
  seem to be in splendid condition, with plenty of honey and
  perfectly dry. I think all the danger is over with them now.
  I am in favor of double-walled hives, but not packed with
  chaff, for I have noticed that where there is chaff there is
  frost on the inside wall. I prefer a dead air space, for then
  it is always dry. What is the use of changing black bees for
  Italians, if Mr. Loucks, of California, can get so much honey
  from the black bees, they surely must be the “boss” bees? I
  think we had better take our bees to California, where milk
  and honey flows.

  DAVID HOHENSHELL.

  Collins, Ill., March 6, 1881.


  =All Alive.=—My bees are all alive and in fine condition.
  They were wintered out of doors, in shed, packed around with
  straw, but open to the east.

  J. R. MEAD.

  Wichita, Kas., March 7, 1881.


  =Winter yet in Kentucky.=—Bees are wintering very badly here,
  and 2 of my neighbors have lost all they had. The ground is
  covered with snow, and looks as much like winter as it did a
  month ago.

  A. E. FOSTER.

  Covington, Ky., March 5, 1881.


  =No Surplus nor Increase.=—This has been a hard winter on the
  bees. I think all that were not protected and those partially
  protected will die. There was no surplus nor increase here
  worth mentioning, last summer.

  JAMES NIPE.

  Spring Prairie, Wis., Feb. 26, 1881.


  =Great Loss of Bees.=—The bees in McDonough county that were
  wintered on the summer stands are nearly all dead. Those in
  double-walled hives, and those packed in straw, dying the
  same as those in single-walled hives. My loss is about 95 out
  of 100.

  S. H. BLACK.

  Sciota, Ill., March 5, 1881.

  =Bees in Prime Condition.=—I have 110 colonies in the cellar
  in prime condition. Nearly all bees out-doors are dead.

  C. H. DIBBERN.

  Milan, Ill., Mar. 9, 1881.


  =Paris Green.=—It is not very good for bees, as I had an
  opportunity last spring to find out. I have in my garden a 10
  year old plum tree that never perfected any fruit and knowing
  that Paris green would kill bugs I thought it might also kill
  the “little turk,” or Curculio. Acting upon the suggestion I
  mixed some Paris green in a watering can and put up through
  the branches of the tree a long ladder, from the top of which
  I sprinkled the whole top of the tree just before dark, and a
  day or 2 before the bloom went off. Next day afternoon as I
  was passing through my bee yard I was very much surprised to
  see on the ground a good many bees in a dying condition which
  I could not account for. I came at last, however, to the
  conclusion that they had gone to the plum tree in the morning
  before it was dry and partaken of the poison. I lost a good
  many bees but I have learned this lesson, “never to put Paris
  green on trees when in bloom;” still I am satisfied that by
  sprinkling or syringing 2 or 3 times, when the plum is in its
  incipient state, it will insure a crop. Who will try this
  spring and report?

  GEO. THOMPSON.

  Geneva, Ill.


  =Making Progress.=—Although behind some other States, yet we
  have made some progress. Bees seem to do best in the newer
  counties, where the timber has not been cut off. It might
  be supposed that the northern portion of this State was not
  favorable for bees, but Aroostook county, in the extreme
  north, produces nearly as much honey as all the other 15
  counties, and the honey is put up in the most marketable
  shape; but I fear the bees are not protected as they should
  be in this northern climate. We have had a cold winter, and
  the loss has been very great. I winter my bees in the cellar
  with success, and obtain much pleasure, as well as profit,
  from the time I devote to them. The Weekly BEE JOURNAL is my
  constant companion.

  ISAAC F. PLUMMER.

  Augusta, Maine.


  =Not Discouraged.=—Should I be persuaded to give up the
  business of keeping bees for profit, I do not know what I
  could find that would pay better. I have 25 colonies in good
  condition and every one in this town wants honey, and I shall
  try to supply it to them.

  CHARLES FOLLETT.

  Osage, Iowa.


  =Lost but 4 out of 273.=—My bees are wintering well; I have
  lost but 4 out of 273 colonies, wintered on the summer
  stands, packed with sawdust and planer shavings. It has paid
  me to advertise in the Weekly BEE JOURNAL. I have all the
  work I can do.

  A. E. MANUM.

  Bristol, Vt., March 9, 1881.


  =Dead Bees in the Cells.=—I took 6 combs out of 2 hives
  in which the bees died, that had plenty of honey in the 2
  outside frames. In every cell of the 3 middle frames is a
  dead bee. I tried to pick them out with a pin, but gave it up
  for a bad job. Is there a way to clean them? Can I use the
  combs again next spring? Please let me know in next JOURNAL.

  JOHN W. STURWOLD.

  Haymond, Ind., March 11, 1881.

[You will find our method given in answer to Mr. Phillips, page 86 of
this number. The combs can be used again this spring.—ED.]


  =Progressing.=—My bees are getting along well. I have lost
  3 weak colonies that were left unprotected; but it was my
  own fault. A hive peddler was in this section this winter
  selling hives without frames. I showed him my hives, similar
  to the Langstroth, and he took the measure of it, and said I
  was “well fixed” for bee-keeping. He never said a word about
  selling his hive to me. I do not know how many he sold.

  JOHN BOERSTLER.

  Gilead, Ill., Feb. 26, 1881.

  =Moldy Combs, Etc.=—Having lost a few colonies of bees the
  past winter, I wish to make the best use of the combs left,
  as they are mostly new. Some are moldy, what shall I do with
  them? Some of the cells are full of dead bees, how shall
  I get them out? How can I keep the moths out of the combs
  until I can use them? An answer to these questions through
  the Weekly, at an early day, will no doubt benefit many new
  beginners.

  O. PHILLIPS.

  Emporia, Kans., March 2, 1881.

[When your colonies are strong in the spring, give the moldy combs;
they will soon utilize them, if not given too fast. The combs with
dead bees should be kept in a dry place, and after the bees have
become dried and shrunken, you can easily shake them out of the cells.
If moths get in the combs, treat them in the manner suggested by Mr.
Doolittle, page 74, BEE JOURNAL of March 9th. One pound of sulphur,
however, to each 100 cubic feet, seems a large amount; this would
require 10 lbs. for a room 10 feet square. We have had no experience
in sulphuring combs, but think 1 lb. would be sufficient for 1,000
cubic feet, in a close room.—ED.]


  =Palestine Bees.=—We are having a hard winter on bees: they
  have not had a fly since last Oct. 28. Bees that were here
  kept in old-style boxes are nearly all dead, many that were
  packed in chaff are dead or have the dysentery, and are
  flying out on our coldest days, and of course never return.
  My bees that are in chaff tenement hives are in the best
  condition of any I have seen. My Palestine bees are standing
  the lonely confinement in the hives better than the Italians;
  they are quieter, and do not fly out so much and get lost on
  the snow. I much like the Weekly BEE JOURNAL, and when I got
  the JOURNAL of Feb. 2d out of the office I felt like grasping
  the hand of the Editor, and having a shake, but alas it was
  not flesh and blood, but a very good likeness. Many thanks
  for giving us a chance to view it.

  I. R. GOOD.

  Napanee, Ind., Feb. 2, 1881.


  =Honey as Medicine.=—I wish to compile for publication an
  exhibit of the medicinal qualities of the various kinds of
  honey, and I shall be obliged for any facts sent me on the
  subject. Chaff-packing seems to be ahead here this winter,
  but I notice a great difference in the wintering capacity
  of several colonies. All of mine which were devoted to the
  production of honey are doing well, but I have lost by
  excessive early breeding, and some that were used to rear
  queens. They had no flight for 4 months.

  T. L. VON DORN.

  S Ave., Omaha, Neb., March 9, 1881.


  =Gathering Pollen.=—Last season proved a splendid one for
  bees. Each colony averaged 72 lbs. of surplus sweet honey,
  and from 20 to 40 lbs. of bitter. My bees are blacks, and
  to-day are out gathering pollen and some honey.

  E. P. MASSEY.

  Waco, Texas., March 1, 1881.


  =Anxious for Spring.=—The Monthly was good, but a more
  frequent visitor, in the shape of the Weekly, is better.
  It brings fresh news, ready for use. I spent an hour in my
  cellar, last evening, examining my bees. I was heart-sick at
  the condition in which I found them. I had about 40 colonies
  in the fall; at least one-half of them are dead. I have an
  excellent cellar, especially for my bees, and have not lost
  a colony before for 5 or 6 years. I began to think that
  losing bees in winter was an unnecessary thing, but I see
  that I was mistaken, for my bees did not lack for care in any
  particular. The death of mine is from dysentery. The small
  amount of honey collected in this vicinity last year was a
  very poor quality, as is seen from the fact that it has not
  candied during the winter. I extracted about 300lbs, and put
  it away in glass jars, and it looks like so much New Orleans
  molasses. My friend, Mr. Bischoff, had about 40 colonies in
  the fall; all are now dead but 6. They were left on their
  summer stands. Mr. B. is lonesome and wants my bees put in
  his apiary next summer to keep him company, but it remains
  yet to be seen if I will have any left to keep up a humming
  in my own apiary. I met Mr. Gardener, of this city, the other
  day, and he reports all of his 16 colonies dead. Several
  other bee-men have told me that but few, if any, of their
  bees are alive. Winter still holds on with an iron grasp. Our
  bees so much need a cleansing flight. I am anxiously waiting
  for some warm days.

  I. P. WILSON.

  Burlington, Iowa, March 4, 1881.


  =Died of Disease.=—I have lost about all the bees I had, yet
  I love to hear of others' success in the bee business, and
  read of others' way of management; but I am convinced that my
  bees died of some disease, the same as Mr. Carver reported
  from Greencastle, Indiana, although bees have not died so
  universally throughout this country as mine have. I have the
  hives and combs left, with lots of honey in them; these I can
  sell for something, perhaps, or melt them into wax, or get
  a few colonies of bees to begin anew, but it is very poor
  encouragement to put much stock in bees, the way it looks now.

  D. W. FLETCHER.

  Lansingville, N. Y., Mar. 4, 1881.


  =Cyprians Ahead.=—Bees doing well; they are commencing to
  work on plum-bloom; they have brood in all stages. In an
  average of over 30 colonies of Cyprians, they are farther
  ahead in brood-rearing than the Italians. The latter have had
  the same chance as the former. Am very busy now, preparing
  for queen-rearing.

  J. H. P. BROWN.

  Augusta, Ga., March 2, 1881.


  =An Early Season.=—I see from reports in our new Weekly
  JOURNAL that bees are dying throughout the north and west
  more than usual, from short stores and intense cold. I may
  say that we have had an unprecedented cold winter here, the
  thermometer at one time ranged, for a few hours, as low as
  18° above zero, but soon struggled back to about 2∙5° below.
  Last fall our bees gathered a full supply of fall honey, and
  none will die from cold or starve out that are worth saving.
  The winter being wet, white clover is coming out very thick
  over the ground; maple, elm, plum and wild cherry are now in
  bloom, as well as heads of white clover that are pushing out
  their lovely forms to the genial sun. Bees usually work on
  white clover here by the 10th of this month; but this year
  our honey season will be much later. May the “new departure”
  prosper and lead us forward to perfection.

  J. W. WINDER.

  Thibodaux, La., Feb. 10, 1881.

[Mr. Winder enclosed us some white clover blossoms of this year's
growth. The sight of the modest flowers is refreshing, while from our
office windows the earth looks bleak and gloomy with its deep mantle
of snow.—ED.]


  =Gone back on him.=—I had 30 colonies of bees—most of them
  Italians—last fall, in Langstroth hives, packed in this way:
  The ends of my hives are double-walled, and the sides are
  made double in winter by the use of division boards, in place
  of 2 frames, leaving but 8 frames. I then use a crate made of
  laths, which sets down around the hive so is to leave a space
  of about 8 inches for packing between it and the hive on the
  sides and back end. This space I fill with a packing of fine
  straw and leaves mixed, and packed hard when just a little
  damp. Then strips of board are fitted so as to protect the
  top of the straw from rain or snow; next a blanket over the
  frames and 6 inches of chaff over that, protected by the cap,
  in which are openings, so as to give free circulation of air
  above the chaff. The entrance is kept open enough for a good
  supply of air. In this way I have heretofore had good success
  in wintering on summer stands; but this winter it has gone
  back on me. Until last Saturday, the 5th inst., there has
  been no day warm enough for bees to fly for some months. Many
  did come out, even on the coldest days, but of course could
  live but a few moments out of the hive. I let them entirely
  alone, except to see that the entrances were free, until day
  before yesterday, when it was warm enough for bees to fly. I
  looked them over and found only twelve of them alive; only 4
  of these are in good condition, the others are weak and the
  hives a good deal soiled. Now, what puzzles me is this. They
  were all, apparently, very nearly alike last October, and now
  4 of them are in perfect condition while all the others were
  bad. Now, why the four exceptions out of 30? I am glad for
  them, but would like to understand the reason. Can you tell
  us, Mr. Editor? They have evidently not been cold, and have
  had plenty of honey. In the dead ones I have examined I find
  brood in a hatching state, with half or more of the cells
  empty, indicating that young bees had hatched. I attribute
  the disaster to long confinement, but why the 4 exceptions?
  I say amen to all the compliments you publish from your
  subscribers for the BEE JOURNAL.

  D. K. BOUTELLE.

  Lake City, Minn., March 7, 1881.

[Probably during some of the milder days of winter the bees became
scattered in their hives, the weather suddenly changed, and they
perished before they could form their cluster on honey, and thus
starved.—ED.]


  =From Florida.=—The BEE JOURNAL is at hand; we do not know
  how we could do without it. The past has been a very good
  honey season here. We have 255 colonies of bees in Langstroth
  hives. Some are Italians—we like them as honey-gatherers,
  but they are crosser than our natives. We obtained 850 gals.
  honey, and 500 lbs. wax. The latter we obtained from about
  90 hives which we transferred. We think apiculture will pay
  here with good management. We extracted from one colony
  32 Langstroth frames well filled with honey. Our apiary
  is located on a “gum” swamp, 5 or 6 miles wide and 15 or
  20 miles long, which is our main honey source, and blooms
  from April 15 till May 15; we also have many other honey
  producing flowers. We have a vine which grows in the swamps
  and yields a great deal of amber-colored honey. We inclose a
  sprig—please give the name.

  ALDERMAN & ROBERTS.

  Wewahitchka, Fla.

[The vine you send is commonly known as snow vine, and is quite
abundant in several of the Southern States.—ED.]


  =Bee Feeding.=—I have thus far used the “bag feeder,” of
  our friend Prof. Cook, with this addition: I have a long
  tin tube, shaped like the handle to a water-dipper, long
  enough to reach through the bag of chaff and empty into
  the bag; then, with the aid of a funnel, I can daily place
  the warm food within reach of the bees without disturbing
  them or letting out the heat—so precious in early spring
  to a depleted colony. Have never tried the Professor's
  “Perfection”—thought I saw objections to it. If any of our
  more experienced bee-keepers have devised a “better way,”
  please tell me through “our” JOURNAL.

  E. M. R.

  Flint, Mich., March 4, 1881.


  =Introduced a Queen.=—Bad luck to bees in this valley of the
  Ohio. Of 32 colonies in Langstroth hives, 18 now remain, and
  the 4th day of March a perfect “blizzard” all day, so I fear
  I will lose more from spring dwindling. I found, one day in
  February, all the bees dead but two, and the queen nearly
  gone, in one hive, but plenty of honey. I had a queenless
  colony, and laid these 3 bees on the frames to see if they
  would come to life; they became warm and crept down among the
  bees. The next warm spell I looked, and the yellow queen was
  safe among the black bees. A novel way to introduce a queen
  in February.

  G. W. ASHBY.

  Valley Station, Ky., March 5, 1881.

  =Loss 88 per cent.=—The loss of bees in Wayne and Randolph
  counties is heavy—about 88 per cent. Our bees had a fly Feb.
  26th, the first for 111 days. We have reports from 1400
  colonies (November count) and March 1st finds them all dead
  but 171. The Italians have come through better than the
  blacks. Those packed in chaff on summer stands have wintered
  better than any other mode in this locality. There is a great
  call for bees here by parties that are wanting to start
  again. Our loss is 4 out of 15 colonies, all in chaff hives.

  M. G. REYNOLDS.

  Williamsburg, Ind., March 7, 1881.


  =First Year's Experience.=—Bees done poorly here last season.
  There was an abundance of bloom, but too much rain. I sowed
  1 acre of buckwheat; while this lasted my bees stored more
  honey than at any other time in the season; I think it an
  excellent honey plant. Pumpkin blossoms yield considerable
  honey; would it pay to plant them all over a field of corn?
  My bees are packed in chaff, and they are all in good
  condition at present. They have not had a flight since the
  1st of Nov. Success to the Weekly BEE JOURNAL; I like it
  better than the Monthly.

  WM. HAGAN.

  Holly, Mich., Jan. 18, 1881.

[Pumpkin blossoms yield a rich, but strongly flavored honey; we think
the pumpkins would be remunerative for their cultivation to feed to
stock, and that the honey obtained from the blossoms would be a net
profit.—ED.]


  =Summer a long way off.=—This winter has been, so far, the
  most severe known for many years in this part of the State.
  Snow-storm has followed snow-storm, and cold spell has
  followed cold spell, until now there is more snow on the
  ground than we have had altogether for 6 or 7 years. And the
  poor bees! how have they fared through all the snow and cold?
  Badly, I fear from the reports I hear every few days; but so
  far as heard from, where they were properly cared for, either
  in cellar or on summer stands, they are doing quite well; but
  summer is a long way off.

  HARRY G. BURNET.

  Blairstown, Iowa, March 5, 1881.


  =A Little Discouraged.=—I am a little discouraged this
  spring. I put 54 colonies into winter quarters last fall
  and now have but 23, and some of them are weak. Those in
  my bee-house suffered the worst. I had 20 colonies on the
  summer stands, packed with cut straw, and lost 6 of them by
  dysentery and starvation. If bees are strong in numbers and
  have plenty of honey, I can see that there is no danger of
  loss. Last season it was so dry here that the white clover
  dried up, and the bees could get but little honey, and what
  they did gather was very dark. I am glad to receive the BEE
  JOURNAL weekly now; the news comes and seems so _fresh_. I
  hope it will be well supported.

  J. W. RIKIE.

  Mont Clair, N. J., March 6, 1881.


  =Why Did They Die?=—Last fall I put my bees into a dry
  cellar; some of them had 75 lbs. of honey, and in 4 or 5
  weeks there were many dead bees. I cleaned them up but in a
  few weeks more they all died; what was the cause of this?
  Over 80 per cent. of all the bees in this vicinity are dead.

  R. L. HOLMAN.

  Springfield, Ohio, Feb. 19, 1881.

[Your colonies were strong, had a large quantity of honey, and the
cellar was too warm; they commenced breeding, became uneasy, and left
their hives from disquietude.—ED.]


  =Wintered Without Loss.=—I packed 41 colonies and they
  are now all living, and nearly all appear to be in good
  condition. My bees are flying to-day. Many bee-keepers in
  this country have lost heavily, and are much disheartened. I
  hope to be able to make a good showing when I report again,
  say about May 1.

  J. J. ROE.

  Buchanan, Mich., March 9, 1881.



[Illustration:

  CONVENTION
  NOTES
]


Champlain Valley, Vt., Convention.

This Association held its winter meeting at Brandon, Vt., on Jan. 20,
21, 1881. Pres. Crane in the chair. Col. H. H. Merritt gave an address
of welcome, to which Pres. Crane replied, stating the object of the
meeting and giving a brief narration of the ancient history of the
honey bee, and of its improved management in the present age.

Mr. A. E. Manum said success depended on the man and circumstances.
The bee-keeper should be a person of even temperament—not easily
excited—should be somewhat acquainted with botany; and recommended
small section boxes, to hold not more than 2 lbs. Everything should
be kept ready and in order. He gave an estimate of produce in a good
season with Italian bees, and also a poor season like the past.

Mr. O. C. Wait, of Georgia, said that experience had shown that
bee-keeping was no mystery or sleight of hand, but a clear, plain,
practical science. Bee-keepers were an intelligent, enterprising class
of men; men of progress. No intelligent man would destroy his bees.

After some discussion Mr. Manum exhibited some of his honey boxes, and
explained their uses and advantages.

Bees were advantageous in the orchard, and to the buckwheat crop, as
he had satisfactorily demonstrated. Some doubts had been expressed to
the value of the red clover blossom on account of the inability of the
bee to reach the nectary; Italians have the advantage over black bees,
because they are provided with greater length of proboscis.

Pres. Crane said he had noticed bees working in red clover early and
late in the season; bees will not work where they get no honey.

In the evening, after a few preliminaries, Mr. E. A. Hasseltine read a
sensible and witty poem on “Prospects and Retrospects,” which was well
received by the audience.

The talk on Sweets, by Prof. Seely, was a learned dissertation on the
chemical properties and qualities of the various kinds of sweets that
are offered in our markets. He exhibited over 20 different kinds of
sugar; spoke of the various substances from which sugar was extracted,
as trees, plants, roots and fruits; some specimens would solidify
sooner than others; sugar from cane, corn, beets and maple, were all of
the same chemical formation.

J. E. Crane spoke on the Individuality of Bees; there was a marked
difference in the character of colonies, some were industrious, others
not so; some prefer some kinds of flowers, others reject them; Italians
dislike buckwheat, while black bees work well on it. Every colony
has some peculiar character. He showed several samples of honey from
different flowers, and explained their various qualities, and also
exhibited specimens of bees from the Holy Land.

Dr. F. Bond said that the Creator had placed the sweets in flowers
to attract the bee, to carry out nature's laws, by carrying the
fertilizing pollen to the unfertile flower, and thus showing a wise and
beneficent Providence.

On Friday, Jan. 21, after some preliminary business, the following
were elected officers for the ensuing year: President, J. E. Crane;
Vice-Presidents, H. L. Leonard, E. P. Wolcott, E. A. Hasseltine;
Secretary and Treasurer, Hon. T. Brookins.

Mr. O. C. Wait spoke of the bad condition he found honey in the Boston
market, and of the manner of awarding premiums at fairs.

Mr. Manum remarked that it was important to have good queens, he
advised all to raise their own; old queens were best to rear queens
from, say 2 years old or more; it is best to rear queens in warm
weather, when honey is plenty.

The question “how to prevent bees from dwindling” Mr. Leonard answered
thus: In this case as in all other ills to which bee-keepers are heir
to, keep the colony strong and healthy. Mr. Leonard read an essay on
“Bee-culture for Women,” giving instances of marked success. He said
women in Vermont were as capable and had as good facilities as in any
part of the country, and would succeed as well, if attended to.

Adjourned to meet at Bristol, Vt., in May next.

T. BROOKINS, _Sec._


Local Convention Directory.

  1881.      _Time and Place of Meeting._

  April  2—S. W. Iowa, at Corning, Iowa.
         5—Central Kentucky, at Winchester, Ky.
               Wm. Williamson, Sec., Lexington, Ky.
         7—Union Association, at Eminence, Ky.
               E. Drane, Sec. pro tem., Eminence, Ky.
         7—N. W. Ohio, at Delta, Ohio.
        13—N. W. Missouri, at St. Joseph, Mo.
               D. G. Parker, Pres., St. Joseph, Mo.
    May  4—Tuscarawas and Muskingum Valley, at Cambridge,
               Guernsey Co., O.
                   J. A. Bucklew, Sec., Clarks, O.
         5—Central Michigan, at Lansing, Mich.
        10—Cortland Union, at Cortland, N. Y.
                 C. M. Bean, Sec., McGrawville, N. Y.
        11—S. W. Wisconsin, at Darlington, Wis.
                 N. E. France, Sec., Platteville, Wis.
  Sept. — —National, at Lexington, Ky.
        — —Kentucky State, at Louisville, Ky.
   Oct. 18—Ky. State, in Exposition B'd'g, Louisville, Ky.
                 W. Williamson, Sec., Lexington, Ky.

☞ In order to have this Table complete, Secretaries are requested to
forward full particulars of time and place of future meetings.—ED.



CLUBBING LIST.


We supply the Weekly =American Bee Journal= and any of the following
periodicals, for 1881, at the prices quoted in the last column of
figures. The first column gives the regular price of both:

                                  _Publishers' Price._ _Club._

  The Weekly Bee Journal (T. G. Newman)               $2 00
  and Gleanings in Bee-Culture (A. I. Root)     3 00   2 75
          Bee-Keepers' Magazine (A. J. King)    3 00   2 60
          Bee-Keepers' Exchange (J. H. Nellis)  2 75   2 50
            The 4 above-named papers            4 75   3 75
          Bee-Keepers' Instructor (W. Thomas)   2 50   2 35
          Bee-Keepers' Guide (A. G. Hill)       2 50   2 35
            The 6 above-named papers            5 75   5 00
          Prof. Cook's Manual (bound in cloth)  3 25   3 00
          Bee-Culture (T. G. Newman)            2 40   2 25

  For Semi-monthly Bee Journal, $1.00 less.
  For Monthly Bee Journal, $1.50 less.



Honey and Beeswax Market.

BUYERS' QUOTATIONS.


CHICAGO.

HONEY.—The market is plentifully supplied with honey, and sales are
slow at weak, easy prices. Quotable at 18@20c. for strictly choice
white comb in 1 and 2 lb. boxes; at 14@16c. for fair to good in
large packages, and at 10@12c. for common dark-colored and broken
lots.—_Chicago Times._

BEESWAX.—Choice yellow, 20@24c; dark, 15@17c.


NEW YORK.

HONEY.—Best white comb honey, small neat packages, 17@18c.; fair do.,
15@16c.; dark do., 12@13c.; large boxes sell for about 2c. under above.
White extracted, 9@10c.; dark, 7@8c.; southern strained, 80@85c.

BEESWAX.—Prime quality, 20@23c.


CINCINNATI.

HONEY.—The market for extracted clover honey is very good, and in
demand at 11c. for the best, and 8@9c. for basswood and dark honey.
Comb honey is of slow sale at 16c. for the best.

BEESWAX.—18@24c.

  C. F. MUTH.


SAN FRANCISCO.

HONEY.—Extracted is in large supply for the season, and purchasers for
round lots difficult to find, except at extremely low prices. We quote
white comb, 12@15c.; dark to good, 10@11c. Extracted, choice to extra
white, 6@6½c.; dark and candied, 5@5½c.

BEESWAX.—21@22½c., as to color.

  STEARNS & SMITH, 423 Front Street.

  San Francisco, Cal., March 4, 1881.



SPECIAL NOTICES.


☞ Constitutions and By-Laws for local Associations $2 per 100. The name
of the Association printed in the blanks for 50 cents extra.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ “What is the meaning of ‘Dec. 81’ after my name on the
direction-label of my paper?” This question has been asked by several,
and to save answering each one, let us here say: It means that you have
paid for the full year, or until “Dec. 31, 1881.” “June 81” means that
the first half of the year is paid for, up to “July 1st.” Any other
month, the same.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ We will send sample copies to any who feel disposed to make up clubs
for 1881. There are persons keeping bees in every neighborhood who
would be benefited by reading the JOURNAL, and by using a little of the
personal influence possessed by almost every one, a club can be gotten
up in every neighborhood in America. Farmers have had large crops, high
prices, and a good demand for all the products of the farm, therefore
can well afford to add the BEE JOURNAL to their list of papers for 1881.

       *       *       *       *       *

HUNDREDS OF MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN rescued from beds of pain, sickness
and almost death and made strong and hearty by Parker's Ginger Tonic
are the best evidences in the world of its sterling worth. You can find
these in every community.—POST. See advertisement. 9w4t

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ When changing a post office address, mention the _old_ address as
well as the new one.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ We have prepared Ribbon Badges for bee-keepers, on which are printed
a large bee in gold. Price 10 cents each, or $8.00 per hundred.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ The Volume of the BEE JOURNAL for 1880, bound in stiff paper covers,
will be sent by mail, for $1.50.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ Notices and advertisements intended for the Weekly BEE JOURNAL must
reach this office by Friday of the week previous.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ Instead of sending silver money in letters, procure 1, 2 or 3 cent
stamps. We can use them, and it is safer to send such than silver.

       *       *       *       *       *

LADIES WHO APPRECIATE ELEGANCE and purity are using Parker's Hair
Balsam. It is the best article sold for restoring gray hair to its
original color and beauty.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ The date following the name on the wrapper label of this paper
indicates the time to which you have paid. In making remittances,
_always_ send by postal order, registered letter, or by draft on
Chicago or New York. Drafts on other cities, and local checks, are not
taken by the banks in this city except at a discount of 25c., to pay
expense of collecting them.

       *       *       *       *       *

PREMIUMS.—For a club of 2, _weekly_ we will give a copy of
“Bee-Culture;” for a club of 5, _weekly_, we will give a copy of
“Cook's Manual,” bound in cloth; for a club of 6, we give a copy of the
JOURNAL for a year _free_. Do not forget that it will pay to devote a
few hours to the BEE JOURNAL.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ Sample copies of the Weekly BEE JOURNAL will be sent _free_ to any
names that may be sent in. Any one intending to get up a club can have
sample copies sent to the persons they desire to interview, by sending
the names to this office.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ Any one desiring to get a copy of the Constitution and By-Laws of
the National Society, can do so by sending a stamp to this office to
pay postage. If they desire to become members, a fee of $1.00 should
accompany it, and the name will be duly recorded. This notice is given
at the request of the Executive Committee.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ It would save us much trouble, if all would be particular to give
their P.O. address and name, when writing to this office. We have
several letters (some inclosing money) that have no name. Many others
having no Postoffice, County or State. Also, if you live near one post
office and get your mail at another, be sure to give the address we
have on our list.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ At the Chicago meeting of the National Society we were requested to
get photographs of the leading apiarists, to sell to those who wanted
them. We can now supply the following at 25 cents each: Dzierzon, the
Baron of Berlepsch, and Langstroth. The likeness of Mr. Langstroth we
have copied, is one furnished by his daughter, who says, “it is the
only one ever taken when he was in good health and spirits.” We are
glad to be able to secure one of such a satisfactory nature.

       *       *       *       *       *

☞ We have filled orders for quite a number of Binders for the Weekly
BEE JOURNAL. We put the price low, 30 per cent. less than any one else
could afford to sell them, for we get them by the quantity at wholesale
and sell them at just enough to cover the cost and postage, the latter
being 21 to 23 cents, on each. We do this to induce as many as possible
to get them, and preserve their Weekly numbers. They are exceedingly
convenient; the JOURNAL being always bound and handy for reference. The
directions for binding are sent with each one.



Books for Bee-Keepers.


=Cook's Manual of the Apiary.=—Entirely rewritten, greatly enlarged
and elegantly illustrated, and is fully up with the times on every
conceivable subject that interests the apiarist. It is not only
instructive, but intensely interesting and thoroughly practical. The
book is a masterly production, and one that no bee-keeper, however
limited his means, can afford to do without. Cloth, =$1.25=; paper
covers, =$1.00=, postpaid. Per dozen, by express, cloth, $12.; paper,
$9.50.

=Quinby's New Bee-Keeping=, by L. C. Root.—The author has treated the
subject of bee-keeping in a manner that cannot fall to interest all.
Its style is plain and forcible, making all its readers sensible of
the fact that the author is really the master of the subject. Price,
=$1.50=.

=Novice's A B C of Bee-Culture=, by A. I. Root.— This embraces
“everything pertaining to the care of the honey-bee,” and is valuable
to beginners and those more advanced. Cloth, =$1.25=; paper, =$1.00=.

=King's Bee-Keepers' Text-Book=, by A. J. King.—This edition is
revised and brought down to the present time. Cloth, =$1.00=; paper,
=75c.=

=Langstroth on the Hive and Honey Bee.= This is a standard scientific
work. Price, =$2.00=.

=Blessed Bees=, by John Allen.—A romance of bee-keeping, full of
practical information and contagious enthusiasm. Cloth, =$1.00=.

=Bee-Culture; or Successful Management of the Apiary=, by Thomas G.
Newman.—This pamphlet embraces the following subjects: The Location
of the Apiary—Honey Plants—Queen Rearing—Feeding—Swarming—Dividing—
Transferring—Italianizing—Introducing Queens—Extracting—Quieting and
Handling Bees—The Newest Method of Preparing Honey for Market, etc. It
is published in =English= and =German=. Price for either edition, =40
cents=, postpaid, or $3.00 per dozen.

=Food Adulteration=; What we eat and should not eat. This book should
be in every family, where it ought to create a sentiment against the
adulteration of food products, and demand a law to protect consumers
against the many health-destroying adulterations offered as food. 200
pages. Paper, =50c.=

=The Dzierzon Theory=;—presents the fundamental principles of
bee-culture, and furnishes a condensed statement of the facts and
arguments by which they are demonstrated. Price, =15 cents=.

=Honey, as Food and Medicine=, by Thomas G. Newman.—This is a pamphlet
of 24 pages, discoursing upon the Ancient History of Bees and Honey;
the nature, quality, sources, and preparation of Honey for the Market;
Honey as an article of food, giving recipes for making Honey Cakes,
Cookies, Puddings, Foam, Wines, &c.; and Honey as Medicine, followed
by many useful Recipes. It is intended for consumers, and should
be scattered by thousands all over the country, and thus assist in
creating a demand for honey. Published in =English= and =German=. Price
for either edition, =6c.=; per dozen, =5Oc.=

=Wintering Bees.=—This pamphlet contains all the Prize Essays on this
important subject that were read before the Centennial Bee-Keepers'
Association. The Prize—$25 in gold—was awarded to Prof. Cook's Essay,
which is given in full. Price, =10c.=

=Bees and their Management.= This pamphlet was issued by the Italian
Bee Company, and has had a large circulation. The price has been
reduced from 20 cents to =10 cents=.

=The Hive I Use=.—Being a description of the hive used by G. M.
Doolittle. Price, =5c.=

=Kendall's Horse Book.=—No book can be more useful to horse owners. It
has 35 engravings, illustrating positions of sick horses, and treats
all diseases in a plain and comprehensive manner. It has a large number
of good recipes, a table of doses, and much other valuable horse
information. Paper, =25c.=

=Chicken Cholera=, by A. J. Hill.—A treatise on its cause, symptoms
and cure. Price, =25c.=

=Moore's Universal Assistant= contains information on every conceivable
subject, as well as receipts for almost everything that could be
desired. We doubt if any one could be induced to do without it, after
having spent a few hours in looking it through. It contains 480 pages,
and 500 engravings. Cloth, =$2.50=.

=Ropp's Easy Calculator.=—These are handy tables for all kinds of
merchandise and interest. It is really a lightning calculator, nicely
bound, with slate and pocket for papers. In cloth, =$1.00=; Morocco,
=$1.50=. Cheap edition, without slate, =50c.=

☞ Sent by mail on receipt of price, by

  THOMAS G. NEWMAN,
  974 West Madison Street, =Chicago, Ill.=



Binders for the Bee Journal


[Illustration:

  EMERSON'S           FOR MUSIC &
  PAT. BINDER         PERIODICALS
]

☞ =Binders for the Weekly Bee Journal, of 1881=, cloth and paper,
=postpaid, 85 cents=.

       *       *       *       *       *

We can furnish Emerson's Binders, gilt lettered on the back, for
AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL for =1890=, at the following prices, postage paid:

  Cloth and paper, each      50c.
  Leather and cloth          75c.

☞ We can also furnish the Binder for any Paper or Magazine desired.

  THOMAS G. NEWMAN,
  974 West Madison Street, =Chicago, Ill.=


=HONEY WANTED.=—I desire to purchase several barrels of dark extracted
honey, and a few of light; also, Comb Honey. Those having any for sale
are invited to correspond, giving particulars.

  ALFRED H. NEWMAN,
  972 West Madison street, CHICAGO ILL.


THE BRITISH BEE JOURNAL, AND BEE-KEEPER'S ADVISER.

The _British Bee Journal_ is published monthly at $1.75, and contains
the best practical information for the time being, showing what to do,
and when and how to do it. =C. N. ABBOTT=, Bee Master.

School of Apiculture, Fairlawn, Southall, London.



[Illustration:

  OLDEST BEE PAPER                                     ESTABLISHED
  IN AMERICA                                           IN 1861

  THE AMERICAN
  BEE JOURNAL
]


RATES FOR ADVERTISING.

A line will contain about =eight words=; fourteen lines will occupy one
inch of space.

  One to three weeks, each insertion, =20= cts. per line.
  Four        "  or more "     "      =18=  "       "
  Eight       "     "    "     "      =15=  "       "
  Thirteen    "     "    "     "      =12=  "       "
  Twenty-six  "     "    "     "      =10=  "       "
  Fifty-two   "     "    "     "       =8=  "       "
          Special Notices, 50 cents per line.

Advertisements withdrawn before the expiration of the contract, will be
charged the full rate for the time the advertisement is inserted.

Transient Advertisements payable in advance.—Yearly Contracts payable
quarterly, in advance.

THE AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL is the oldest Bee Paper in America, and has
a large circulation in every State, Territory and Province, among
farmers, mechanics, professional and business men, and is therefore
the best advertising medium for reliable dealers. Cases of _real_
imposition will be exposed.

  THOMAS G. NEWMAN,
  974 West Madison Street, =Chicago, Ill.=



Contents of this Number.


  Correspondence:

  Pure Liquid Honey in  Glass Jars      81
  Colchian Honey                        81
  Combined Winter and Summer Stands     81
  Foul Brood and Its Causes             81
  History of the Early Importation
    of Italian Bees                     82
  Good Way to Promote Bee-Keeping       82
  Do Bees Injure Fruit?                 82
  Remarkable Tardiness in Fecundity     82
  Honey-Producing in California         83
  Bee Men to the Front—Adulteration     83
  How to Prevent Robbing                83
  The In-and-In-Breeding of Bees        83
  Killed by Kindness                    83


  Editorial:

  Editorial Items                       84
  Watchman! Tell us of the Night        84
  Migratory Bee-Keeping                 84
  Interesting Letter from Ceylon        84


  Selections from Our Letter Box:

  Bees Wintered Well                    85
  Mortality Reports                     85
  Nineteen Weeks' Confinement           85
  Wintered Safely                       85
  A Slim Living                         85
  Honey Sections                        85
  Bees in Good Condition                85
  Wintered Without Loss                 85
  Mourning for the Bees                 85
  Wintering                             85
  Selling Honey, Vexatious              85
  Prospects Better                      85
  Bees All Alive                        85
  Winter Yet in Kentucky                85
  No Surplus nor Increase               85
  Great Loss of Bees                    85
  Dead Bees in the Cells                85
  Making Progress                       85
  Not Discouraged                       85
  Paris Green                           85
  Bees in Prime Condition               85
  Progressing                           85
  Lost but 4 out of 283                 85
  Moldy Combs, etc                      86
  Palestine Bees                        86
  Honey as Medicine                     86
  Gathering Pollen                      86
  Anxious for Spring                    86
  Bees Died of Disease                  86
  Cyprian Bees Ahead                    86
  An Early Season                       86
  Bees Gone Back on Him                 86
  Snow Vine as a Honey Plant            86
  Feeding Bees                          86
  Introducing a Queen                   86
  Loss of Bees 88 per cent.             86
  First Year's Experience               86
  Summer a Long Way Off                 86
  A Little Discouraged                  86
  Why Did the Bees Die?                 86
  Wintered Without Loss                 86


  Conventions:

  Champlain Valley, Vt., Convention     87



  15 One-Cent Stamps

  Will pay for our exhaustive pamphlet on raising,
  handling and marketing extracted honey.

  =COLONIES
  WITH
  Imported Cyprian and Italian Queens=,
  Of our own Importation,
  GUARANTEED PURE AND GENUINE.

Our =Comb Foundation= was awarded the diploma at the North-Eastern
Bee-Keepers' Convention held in February.


Smokers, Knives, Extractors, &c.

Price List, with 3 samples of Comb Foundation, free.

  CHAS. DADANT & SON,

  9smtf        Hamilton, Hancock Co., Ill.


THE CANADIAN FARMER

THE ONLY

Agricultural Weekly

PUBLISHED IN THE

DOMINION OF CANADA.


This practical journal is now in its =Third Year=, and meeting with
immense success. The low price of its subscription ($1.00 per year) in
its new and improved form (16 pages 13½ x 10½, folded and pasted)
makes it very popular. Its editors are all practical men. It is the
=Best Advertising Medium= in Canada. Sample copies sent free to any
address.

  11w26tx      =N. B. COLCOCK=, Welland, Ont.


  FRANCES DUNHAM,
  Inventor and Sole Manufacturer of the
  DUNHAM
  FOUNDATION
  MACHINE,

[Illustration:

  DUNHAM
  FOUNDATION
  MACHINE

  PATENT APPLIED FOR
]

  AND DUNHAM
  COMB FOUNDATION,

  ☞ New Circular and Samples free. ☜

  FRANCES DUNHAM,
  1sm6m   DEPERE, BROWN CO., WIS.


FLAT-BOTTOM COMB FOUNDATION,

high side-walls, 4 to 16 square feet to the pound. Circular and samples
free.

[Illustration]

  J. VAN DEUSEN & SONS,
  Sole Manufacturers,
  11tf   Sprout Brook, Mont. Co., N. Y.


=BASSWOOD AND TULIP TREES=, from 1 to 8 feet in height, nursery grown.
The 2 best HONEY PRODUCING TREES KNOWN, at low prices.

  10w4t   A. BATTLES, Girard, Pa.


BARNES' PATENT

Foot-Power Machinery

  CIRCULAR and
  SCROLL SAWS

[Illustration]

Hand, Circular Rip Saws for general heavy and light ripping. Lathes,
&c. These machines are especially adapted to =Hive Making=. It will pay
every bee-keeper to send for our 48 page Illustrated Catalogue.

  W. F. & JOHN BARNES

  Rockford, Winnebago Co., Ill.


Given's Foundation Press.

The latest improvement in Foundation. Our thin and common Foundation
is not surpassed. The only invention to make Foundation in the wired
frame. All Presses warranted to give satisfaction. Send for Catalogue
and Samples.

  1wly      =D. S. GIVEN=, Hoopeston, Ill.


Be SURE

To send a postal card for our Illustrated Catalogue of Apiarian
Supplies before purchasing elsewhere. It contains illustrations and
descriptions of everything new and valuable needed in an apiary, at the
lowest prices. Italian, Cyprian and Holy Land Queens and Bees.

  J. C. & H. P. SAYLES,

  2eow15t      Hartford, Wis.


[Illustration: WILBOR'S COMPOUND OF

PURE COD LIVER OIL AND LIME.]

=Wilbor's Cod-Liver Oil and Lime.=—Persons who have been taking
Cod-Liver Oil will be pleased to learn that Dr. Wilbor has succeeded,
from directions of several Professional gentlemen, in combining the
pure Oil and Lime in such a manner that it is pleasant to the taste,
and its effects in Lung complaints are truly wonderful. Very many
persons whose cases were pronounced hopeless, and who had taken the
clear Oil for a long time without marked effect, have been entirely
cured by using this preparation. Be sure and get the genuine.
Manufactured only by A. B. WILBOR, Chemist, Boston. Sold by all
druggists.

  llw4t


SEEDS FOR HONEY PLANTS

A full variety of all kinds, including Melilot, Alsike and White
Clover, Mammoth Mignonette, &c. For prices and instructions for
planting see my Illustrated Catalogue,—sent free upon application.

  ALFRED H. NEWMAN,
  972 West Madison St.,      CHICAGO, ILL.


FEEDERS

Now is the time to make preparations for Spring Feeding.


[Illustration]

Shuck's Feeder may be placed at the entrance of the hive, any time of
the day, without danger from robbers; feed much or little as may be
desired; feed can only be reached by the bees from the inside of the
hive. Price, by mail, postpaid, 30 cents. By express, 25 cents each, or
$2.40 per dozen. Special rates on large quantities.

[Illustration]

Novice's Simplicity Feeder is made in two sizes, at the following
prices: 5c. for the pint and 10c. for the quart feeder, or per dozen,
50c. for the small and $1.00 for the large, by express. If sent by
mail, twice the above prices.

  Kretchmer's, by mail..... 35c.
  Van Deusen's, by mail.... 75c.

I will mail my Illustrated Catalogue and Price List FREE, upon
application, to any address. All orders for Bee-Keepers' Supplies will
be promptly filled.

  ALFRED H. NEWMAN,
  972 West Madison St.,      CHICAGO, ILL.


THE ORIGINAL

Patented Jan. 9, 1878, and May, 1879; Re-issued July 9, 1878.

[Illustration]

If you buy a Bingham Smoker, or a Bingham & Hetherington Honey Knife
you are sure of the best and cheapest, and not liable to prosecution
for their use and sale. The largest bee-keepers use them exclusively.
Twenty thousand in use—not one ever returned, or letter of complaint
received. Our original patent Smokers and Honey Knives were the only
ones on exhibition at the last National Bee-Keepers' Convention, 1880.
Time sifts the wheat from the chaff. Pretensions are short-lived.

The Large and Extra Standard have extra wide shields to prevent burning
the fingers and bellows. A real Improvement.

Send postal card for testimonials.

  Bingham & Hetherington Honey Knife      2     in., $1 00
  Large Bingham Smoker                    2½     "    1 50
  Extra Standard Bingham Smoker           2      "    1 25
  Plain Standard Bingham Smoker           2      "    1 00
  Little Wonder Bingham Smoker            1¾     "      75

If to be sent by mail, or singly by express, add 25c. each, to prepay
postage or express charges.

To sell again, apply for dozen or half-dozen rates.

Address,

  BINGHAM & HETHERINGTON,
  9wtf      OTSEGO, MICH.


FREE!

We wish to obtain 25,000 New Subscribers to

THE FLORAL MONTHLY

during the next few months, and we propose to give to every reader of
this paper

50c. worth of Choice Flower Seed.

Our offer is to send Free of Cost, 50 cents' worth of Choice Flower
Seeds to each and every one who will send us 25 two cent postage stamps
for the =FLORAL MONTHLY= one year. Seeds sent free by return mail.
Specimen copies free. Address.

  W. E. MORTON & CO., FLORISTS,
  615 Congress Street, Portland, Me.

☞ Natural Flowers preserved to last for years. 9w4t


It will Pay you

To read our forty page Catalogue of Apiarian Supplies. It gives the
latest information about the best appliances and methods pertaining to

Profitable Bee Culture

Sent free to all who send us their names and addresses, _plainly
written_, upon a postal card. Address

  H. A. BURCH & CO.,
  9wtf      South Haven, Mich.


R. A. BURNETT.

  Successor to Conner, Burnett & Co.,
  165 South Water Street, Chicago, Ill.,

GENERAL PRODUCE COMMISSION.

HONEY A SPECIALTY.

We ask you to correspond with us before disposing of your HONEY CROP,
as we can be of much service, having constant intelligence from all
parts of the country. We would refer to JAMES HEDDON, Dowagiac, Mich.,
and J. OATMAN & SONS, Dundee, Ill.

  1w1y


[Illustration:

  GOOD WORK
  AT FAIR PRICES.

  HALLOCK & CHANDLER
  WOOD ENGRAVERS
  & Electrotypers

  167 DEARBORN ST.
  CHICAGO
]

  1w1y


  REV. A. SALISBURY.      =1881.=      J. V. CALDWELL.

  SALISBURY & CALDWELL,
  Camargo, Douglas County. Ill.

[Illustration]

 Warranted Italian Queens, $1.00; Tested Italian Queens, $2.00;
 Cyprian Queens, $2.00; Tested Cyprian Queens, $4.00; 1 frame Nucleus,
 Italians, $4.00; 1 frame Nucleus, Cyprians, $5.00; Colony of Italians,
 8 frames, $5.00; Colony of Cyprians, 8 frames, $10.00. Wax worked 10c.
 per lb. Pure Comb Foundation, on Dunham Machine, 25 lbs. or over, 35c.
 per lb. ☞ Send for Circular.

  1w1y


Florida Land—640 Acres.

☞CHEAP FOR CASH. ☜

DESCRIPTION.—Sec. 4, township 7, south range 7 west, Franklin county,
Florida, situated about 50 miles south of the Georgia line, 25 miles
west of the city of Tallahassee, the capital of the State, and about 25
miles northeast of the city of Apalachicola, a seaport on the Gulf of
Mexico, and within 2 sections (5 and 6) of the Apalachicola river; the
soil is a rich, sandy loam, covered with timber.

It was conveyed on Dec. 31st, 1875, by Col. Alexander McDonald, who
owned 6 sections, including the above, to J. M. Murphy, for $3,200, and
on Sept. 5th, 1877, by him conveyed to the undersigned for $3,000. The
title is perfect, and it is unincumbered, as shown by an abstract from
the Records of the county, duly attested by the County Clerk; the taxes
are all paid and the receipts are in my possession.

I will sell the above at a bargain for cash, or trade for a small farm,
or other desirable property. An offer for it is respectfully solicited.
Address,

  THOMAS G. NEWMAN,
  974 West Madison Street, CHICAGO, ILL.


SUPPLIES FOR THE APIARY, FOR 1881.

It is to every person's interest, when they wish to purchase anything,
to go where they can get the most for their money. State on a postal
card just what you want, and we will let you know by return mail what
we will furnish it for. No Circulars. Address,

2wtf         =HIRAM ROOP=, Carson City, Mich.


=65= _ENGRAVINGS_.

The Horse

BY B. J. KENDALL, M. D.

=A TREATISE= giving an index of diseases, and the symptoms; cause and
treatment of each, a table giving all the principal drugs used for the
horse, with the ordinary dose, effects and antidote when a poison;
a table with an engraving of the horse's teeth at different ages,
with rules for telling the age of the horse; a valuable collection of
recipes, and much valuable information.

=Price 25 cents.=—Sent on receipt of price, by

  THOMAS G. NEWMAN,
  974 West Madison Street, CHICAGO, ILL.


PARKER'S GINGER TONIC

=Ginger=, =Bucha=, =Mandrake=, =Stillingia= and many other of the best
medicines known are combined so skillfully in PARKER'S GINGER TONIC
as to make it the =greatest Blood Purifier= and the =Best Health and
Strength Restorer ever used=.

It cures =Dyspepsia=, =Rheumatism=, =Neuralgia=, =Sleeplessness=, and
all diseases of the =Stomach=, =Bowels=, =Lungs=, =Liver=, =Kidneys=,
=Urinary Organs= and all =Female Complaints=.

If you are wasting away with Consumption or any disease, use the TONIC
to-day. No matter what your symptoms may be, it will surely help you.

Remember! This TONIC cures drunkenness, is the =Best Family Medicine=
ever made, entirely different from Bitters, Ginger Preparations and
other Tonics, and combines the best curative properties of all. Buy a
50c. bottle off your druggist. None genuine without our signature on
outside wrapper.

  HISCOX & CO., Chemists, New York.


  =PARKER'S HAIR BALSAM=      The best and most economical
                            Hair Dressing


=ITALIAN QUEENS.= Full Colonies, Nuclei and Bee Hives specialties. Our
=new= Illustrated Catalogue of Bees, Supplies, Fine Poultry, Small
Fruits, &c., =Free=. ☞ Send for it and save money.

  J. T. SCOTT & BRO., Crawfish Springs, Ga.      2w82tx


[Illustration:

  THE AMERICAN
  POULTRY JOURNAL.
]

Is a 32-page, beautifully Illustrated Monthly Magazine devoted to


POULTRY, PIGEONS AND PET STOCK.

It has the largest corps of practical breeders as editors of any
journal of its class in America, and is


THE FINEST POULTRY JOURNAL IN THE WORLD.

Volume 12 begins January 1891. SUBSCRIPTION:—$1.00 per year. Specimen
Copy, 10 cents.

  C. J. WARD, Editor and Proprietor.
  182 CLARK ST.,  -  CHICAGO.

TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES.

1. Colchian Honey.
   REV. W. BALLENTINE, A. M.
     This letter includes a quotation from Professor Wilson's botany.
     The copy of this quotation contains many errors.
     These are listed below and have been corrected in this eBook.
       Apochynoceæ, should read Apocynaceæ.
       dog-bones, should read dog's-bane.
       astychine, should read strychnine.
       strychinea, should read strychnia.
       Strychorea, should read Strychnos.
       Heroclea, should read Heraclea.
       Æglatherem, should read Ægolethron.
       Liculus, should read Siculus.
       Tournefoil, should read Tournefort.
       mischevous, should read mischievous.
       Neriun, should read Nerium.
       (apocyhnaceæ), should read Apocynaceæ.
       Rhodaraceæ, should read Rhodoraceæ.
       narctoic, should read narcotic.

2. J. W. Winder.
   Thibodaux, La., Feb. 10, 1881.
     “as well as heads of white clover are
     pushing out their lovely forms to the...”
     The word ‘that’ has been added.
     “as well as heads of white clover that are
     pushing out their lovely forms to the...”

3. From Florida.—The BEE JOURNAL
     is at hand; we do not know how we could do without it.
     The past [time-period missing. Year/Month/Season?] has been a
     very good honey season here. Left as original.

4. “Everything should be kept ready and in
     order. He gave an estimate of produce in...”
     Word ‘an’ inserted.

5. “We can furnish Emerson's Binders, gilt lettered on
     the back, for AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL for =1890=,...”.
     This looks like an error. This issue is for March, 1881.
     Left as original.

6. Silently corrected simple spelling, grammar, and typographical
     errors.

7. Retained anachronistic and non-standard spellings as printed.





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