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Title: An Easy Introduction to Spanish Conversation - Containing all that is necessary to make a rapid progress in it
Author: Cadena, M. Velazquez de la
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.

*** Start of this LibraryBlog Digital Book "An Easy Introduction to Spanish Conversation - Containing all that is necessary to make a rapid progress in it" ***

Transcriber’s Note:

  Underscores “_” before and after a word or phrase indicate _italics_
    in the original text.
  Equal signs “=” before and after a word or phrase indicate =bold=
    in the original text.
  Small capitals have been converted to SOLID capitals.
  Footnotes have been moved so they do not break up paragraphs.
  Old or antiquated spellings have been preserved.
  Typographical errors have been silently corrected but other variations
    in spelling and punctuation remain unaltered.



                         PARTICULARLY DESIGNED

                     BY M. VELAZQUEZ DE LA CADENA,


                               NEW YORK:
                       D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
                          549 & 551 BROADWAY.

        Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1849,

                       BY D. APPLETON & COMPANY,

          In the Clerk’s Office of the District Court for the
                    Southern District of New York.


_Multum in parvo_ is the object of this small book; in which the
student will find all the elements necessary to enable him in a very
short time to enter into a conversation on the most usual topics.

For this purpose, and in order that he may understand the questions
put, or the answers given to him, should they be expressed in words
different in tense or number from those contained in the dialogues,
and also to afford him the best means to vary them himself, it has
been deemed expedient to prefix to the vocabularies a synopsis of
the Spanish language. The learner is earnestly desired to study it
attentively, so as to become perfectly familiar with the conjugation of
the verbs; a thorough knowledge of which will render his progress easy,
sure, and speedy.

Persons unaccustomed to commit tasks to memory, will do well to begin
by learning daily a set number (say _five_) of nouns, adjectives, or
verbs, and as many phrases as they can remember well; repeating always
the English before the Spanish. Such exercise being steadily pursued
for a month, the student will have acquired an aggregate of more than
five hundred of the words most frequently used in common intercourse.
This plan has been often tried, and its results have constantly
exceeded the most sanguine expectations.

Should the student wish to acquire a thorough knowledge of the Spanish,
even without the assistance of a teacher, he may do so by studying
_Ollendorff’s New Method, by M. Velazquez and T. Simonné, published by
D. Appleton & Co_., No. 443 _Broadway_.

This work will also be found very useful for the younger classes of
learners, as _an introduction to Ollendorff_, or any other Spanish
grammar, as it contains in a few pages, and exhibits in the plainest
manner, the elements necessary to enable them to make a very easy and
rapid progress in the study of this language.

                                           NEW YORK, _June 1st, 1849_.


                           PART I.
                      A SYNOPSIS, ETC.


     The Letters                                          7
     Accent                                              10
     Noun—Number                                        ib.
           Gender                                       ib.
           Case                                          11
     Augmentative and Diminutive Nouns                  ib.
     Adjectives                                          12
     Comparative                                        ib.
     Superlative                                         13
     Pronouns                                            14
     Verbs                                               16
     Conjugation—Simple Tenses                           17
          “       Compound Tenses                        23
     Auxiliary Verbs                                     25
     Idiomatical Tenses                                  27
     Place of the Pronouns                               28
     Verbs affirmatively and negatively conjugated      ib.
     Passive Verbs                                      ib.
     Pronominal Verbs                                    29
     Gerund                                              30
     Verbs that alter their radical letters              31
     Remarks on the Subjunctive                         ib.
     Participle                                          32
     Verbs that have two Participles                    ib.
     Adverbs                                             33
     Prepositions                                        34
     Conjunctions                                        35
     Interjections                                       36
     Abbreviations                                      ib.

                          PART II.
                     A VOCABULARY, ETC.

     The Numbers                                         37
     Moneda corriente                                    39
     Of Heaven and the Elements                          40
     The Weather and Seasons                            ib.
     Days of the Week and Months                         41
     Holy Days                                          ib.
     Ecclesiastical Dignities                           ib.
     Eatables                                            42
     Covering of the Table                              ib.
     For Fast Days—Fish                                  44
     For the Dessert                                    ib.
     Conditions of Man and Woman                         46
     Clothes and Articles for Dressing                  ib.
     Articles for Riding                                 47
     Clothes for Ladies                                 ib.
     Parts of the Human Body                             48
     The Five Senses—Ages                                49
     Qualities of the Body                              ib.
     Defects of the Body                                 50
     Studying                                           ib.
     Musical Instruments                                ib.
     Parts and Furniture of a House                      51
     What is found about the Chimney, in the Kitchen,
          and in the Cellar                              52
     The Servants of a House                             53
     What is found in and about the Door, and in the
          Stable                                         54
     The Garden—Flowers, Trees, &c.                      54
     Temporal Dignities                                  55
     Officers of War—The Army                           56
     Fortifications                                     ib.
     Professions and Trades                              57
     Defects and Imperfections                           58
     Good Qualities—Diseases                           ib.
     Bird and Quadrupeds                                 59
     The Country—The City                                60
     Colors—Metals                                       61
     Commercial Terms                                   ib.
     Collection of Verbs                                 63

                          PART III.

         I. Saluting, &c.                                69
        II. To pay a Visit                               70
       III. To dress one’s self                          71
        IV. The Tailor                                   72
         V. To breakfast                                 73
        VI. To speak Spanish                             74
       VII. Of the Weather                               75
      VIII. To write                                     76
        IX. To buy                                       78
         X. To inquire after News                        79
        XI. To inquire after any one                     82
       XII. For a journey                                83
      XIII. Supper and Lodgings                          85
       XIV. To reckon with the Landlord                  86
        XV. On a Voyage by Sea                           87
       XVI. On board of a Vessel                         89
      XVII. On a Journey in a Litter, or on Mules        90
     XVIII. At the Dinner Table                          92

                          PART IV.
                  COMMERCIAL LETTERS, ETC.

     First Letter                                        95
     Second Letter                                       96
     An Invoice                                          97
     Third and Fourth Letters                            98
     Letter of Recommendation                            99
     A Draft                                            ib.
     Endorsement                                        100
     Notes                                              ib.





The vowels are, a, e, i, o, u, y.

Pronounce them, _ah_, _ay_, _ee_, _oh_, _oo_, _ee_. They have
invariably the same sound, and must be fully and distinctly pronounced.

The vowels are never silent, except _u_, in the syllables _gue_, _gui_,
_que_, _qui_. When the _u_ is to be sounded in them, it is marked with
a diæresis (¨) over it; thus, _argüir_, ar-goo-ir.

The syllables in which the consonants are pronounced differently from
the English, are the following. The letters in _italics_ under them
express their respective sounds.

      Ca,    co,    cu,    cua,    cuo.
     _Kah_, _koh_, _koo_, _kwah_, _kwo_.

                 ce,      ci.
  _Th_ lisped, _thay_,  _thee_.

 Pronounce it invariably as in the English words _chap_, _chess_,

    Ga,    go,     gu,     gue,    gui.
  _Gah_,  _goh_,  _goo_,  _gay_,  _gee_.

 _J_ before all the vowels, and _g_ before _e_ or _i_, have the
 sound of the English _h_, more harshly aspirated.

    Ja,    je,     ji,     jo,     ju.
  _Hah_,  _hay_,  _hee_,  _hoe_,  _who_.

              Ge,     gi.
             _Hay_,  _hee_.

 LL is not a double consonant in Spanish, consequently it must not be
 divided in spelling. It sounds like _ll_ in English in _million_; but
 it must be pronounced more quickly and stronger. In some parts of the
 Mexican states it is sounded somewhat like the Spanish _y_ consonant,
 with which they confound it in writing; and in manuscript we frequently
 see _cabayo_ instead of _caballo_.

    Lla,      lle,       lli,      llo,    llu.
  _Lyah_,   _lye-ay_,  _lyee_,   _lyoh_,  _lyoo_.

 N has a strong nasal sound, like _n_ in _poniard_.
 The _gn_ in French gives its sound.

    Na,        ñe,        ñi,         ño,        ñu.
  _Nyah_,   _nye-ay_,   _nyee_,     _nyoh_,    _nyoo_.

 The syllables _qua_, _qüe_, _qüi_, _quo_, are at
 present written with _c_, which see above.

             Que,      qui.
            _Kay_,    _kee_.

 V must be pronounced as in English. Its sound is so slender in
 Spanish, that most generally it is confounded with the _b_: but such
 pronunciation must not be imitated. It is frequently used in manuscript
 instead of the capital U; thus,

   =_Vnion y Libertad_=, instead of =_Union y Libertad_=.

 X, in conformity with the new orthography, is to represent solely
 the sound of _cs_; but the greater part of the people pronounce and
 write only the _s_; thus, _estranjero_, instead of _extranjero_,

 Y is a vowel when it is followed by a consonant, or terminates a word,
 and then it sounds like _ee_. It is a consonant when it is before a
 vowel, and then it sounds somewhat like English _j_. In some parts of
 America it is generally pronounced as _ee_; thus, _suyo_, soo´-ee-o.

N. B.—Of late years, some persons write _i_ instead of _y_ in _ai_,
_y_, _convoi_, &c., but the Academy retains the _y_. In manuscript, _Y_
is to be used instead of _I_, whenever this letter must be a capital.

 Z, before all the vowels, is pronounced like _th_ lisped in the English
 words _thank_, _theft_, _thin_, _path_, _truth_.

    Za,      ze,      zi,      zo,      zu.
  _Thah_,  _thay_,  _thee_,  _thoh_,  _thoo_.

    Az,      ez,      iz,      oz,      uz.
   _Ath_,   _eth_,  _eeth_,  _oth_,   _ooth_.

In Spanish America _z_ is generally pronounced _s_, and also
frequently written instead of that letter.


Gra-cio-so, cons-truc-cion, abs-te-ner-se, ha-bla-do-res, ca-ro,
car-ro, des-en-re-dar, ca-ba-llo, con-flic-to, pers-pi-caz, flu-xion.


This mark (´) is set over a vowel to point out that a particular
stress of the voice must be laid on it. When the word has no mark on
any of its letters, the penultimate, or last syllable but one, must be
pronounced with particular emphasis.

   Amo, este, ira, oso,     _Amó_, _esté_, _irá_, _osó_.

Nouns ending in a consonant (plurals excepted) have the last syllable
long, and consequently do not require the mark: otherwise, they have it
on the syllable on which the stress of the voice lies; as,

  _Caridad_, _animal_, _capitan_, | Césped, fácil, órden, carácter,
     _favor_, _interes_.          |   ménos.

                            _Singular_.    _Plural_.
     THE      {masculine      _El_           _Los_
              {feminine       _La_           _Las_

 _A_ or _an_ {masculine       _Un_     SOME  _unos_
              {feminine       _Una_     “    _unas_


Nouns are substantive or adjective, and have _number_, _gender_, and


_Singular and Plural_.—Nouns terminating in a short, or unaccented
vowel, add an _s_ for the plural; as, boy, _muchacho_; boys,
_muchachos_. Nouns ending in an accented vowel, or in a consonant, or
in _y_, add _es_ to the singular; as, ruby, _rubí_; rubies, _rubíes_;
lion, _leon_; lions, _leones_; ox, _buey_; oxen, _bueyes_. Nouns
terminating in _z_, change it into _c_ to form the plural; as, cross,
_cruz_; crosses, _cruces_.


Every he, or male animal, is of the masculine gender; as, man,
_hombre_; every she, or female, is of the feminine gender; as, woman,
_mujer_. Nouns of inanimate objects or things ending in _a_, _ad_,
_bre_, _ion_, are for the most part feminine; and those terminating in
_e_, _i_, _o_, _u_, _on_, are masculine. The exceptions, however, are
very numerous.

Common nouns ending in _o_, change it into _a_ to form the feminine;
as, son, _hijo_; daughter, _hija_. There are some that express their
gender by a different word or termination; as, father, _padre_; mother,
_madre_; bull, _toro_; cow, _vaca_; poet, _poeta_; poetess, _poetisa_.
(See Ollendorff, p. 246.)

Common nouns terminating in _an_, _on_, _or_, add an _a_ to form the
feminine; as lion, _leon_; lioness, _leona_; shepherd, _pastor_;
shepherdess, _pastora_.


There are two cases, the _Nominative_ and the _Objective_. The
_Nominative_ case expresses the subject of the verb; as, The man gives,
_El hombre da_. The _Objective_ case is either _direct_ or _indirect_.
It is _direct_ when it is the immediate object of the action of the
verb; as, The man gives alms, _El hombre da limosna_. It is _indirect_
(called also _complement_) when it is the term, or end of the action
expressed by the verb; as, The man gives alms to the poor, _El hombre
da limosna á los pobres_. When the _object direct_ of an active verb
is the noun of a _rational being_, or a _proper noun_, or _thing
personified_, it must be preceded by the preposition _á_; as, The
brother loves his sister, _El hermano ama á su hermana_. The brother
loves his money, _El hermano ama su dinero_.


_Augmentative_ nouns are those that increase the extent of their
signification by adding _on_, _ote_, or _azo_, to the masculine nouns,
and _ona_, _ota_, or _aza_, to the feminine, suppressing their last
letter, should it be _a_, _e_, or _o_; as, a boy, _un muchacho_; a
big boy, _un muchachon_; a girl, _una muchacha_; a big girl, _una
muchachona_. The termination _azo_ frequently signifies the blow, or
injury caused by the object to which it is added; as, whip, _látigo_;
a very large whip, _un latigazo_; a stroke with a whip, _un latigazo_.

_Diminutive_ nouns are formed by adding _ito_, _illo_, _ico_, or
_uelo_ for the masculine, and _ita_, _illa_, _ica_, or _uela_ for the
feminine, to the noun, which suppresses its last letter if it be _a_ or
_e_; as, a boy, _un muchacho_; a little boy, _un muchachito_, _un
muchachillo_, _un muchachuelo_; a girl, _una muchacha_; a little girl,
_una muchachita_, _una muchachilla_, _una muchachuela_.

N. B.—The terminations, _ito_, _ita_, &c., added to christian names,
or those that express relationship, indicate love, affection, and
regard towards the object; thus, _hermanita_, dear sister; _Juanito_,
esteemed John, &c.


Adjectives ending in _o_ are masculine, and change it into _a_ to form
the feminine; as, fine, _fino_, _fina_. Those ending in any other
letter are common to both genders; as, prudent, _prudente_; useful,

Except adjectives expressing the natives of a country, or things
belonging to it; and also most of those terminating in _an_ or _on_,
which add an _a_ for the feminine; as, Spaniard, or Spanish, _español_,
_española_; idle, _haragan_, _haragana_; clamorous, _griton_, _gritona_.

Adjectives form their plural according to the rules set forth for the
nouns; as, white, _blanco_, blancos, _blanca_, blancas; deep blue,
_turquí_, _turquíes_; natural, _natural_, _naturales_; happy, _feliz_,
_felices_, or _felizes_.

_Uno_, one; _alguno_, some; _ninguno_, none; _primero_, first; _bueno_,
good; _malo_, bad; suppress the _o_ when they are immediately followed
by a substantive masculine in the singular, whether it be alone, or
preceded by an adjective; as, no heart, _ningun corazon_; _ningun_
humano _corazon_.

_Ciento_, hundred, loses the last syllable before a substantive
masculine or feminine; the same does _Santo_ before a noun masculine in
the singular. _Grande_, great, generally loses it also when it refers
to qualities; as, _El Gran Capitan_.


      More, (or the termination _er_,) _mas_——than, _que_.
 He is _richer_, or _more_ rich than | _El es_ mas _rico_ que _ella_.
                  Less, _ménos_——than, _que_.
 She is _less_ rich _than_ he. | _Ella es_ ménos _rica_ que _él_.

             As, (or so,) _tan_——as, _como_.
    He is _as_ rich _as_ she.  | _El es_ tan _rico_ como _ella_.

   As much, (so much,) _tanto_ or _tanta_——as, _como_.
 She has as much money as      | _Ella tiene_ tanto _dinero_ como
  he.                          |   _él_.
 She has as much beauty as     | _Ella tiene_ tanta _hermosura_
  modesty.                     |  como _modestia_.

      As many, (so many,) _tantos_ or _tantas_——as, _como_.
 He has as many books as his   | _El tiene_ tantos _libros_ como
  brother.                     |   _su hermano_.
      As many houses.          | _Tantas casas_.

        The more, _cuanto mas_——the more, _tanto mas_.
 The more he studies, the more | _Cuanto mas estudia, tanto
   he learns.                  |   mas aprende_.

      The less, _cuanto ménos_——the less, _tanto ménos_.
 The less he works, the less   | _Cuanto ménos trabaja, tanto
    he earns.                  |    ménos gana_.

Greater, _mayor_; less, _menor_; better, _mejor_; worse, _peor_,
superior, _superior_, &c.


It is formed, first, by literally translating the adverb very, _muy_;
as, very high, _muy alto_. Secondly, by adding the termination _ísimo_,
or _ísima_, to the adjective, which suppresses the last letter if it be
an _o_, or _e_: very fine, _finísimo_; very sweet, _dulcisimo_; very
useful, _utilísimo_. Adjectives in _ble_ change it into _bilísimo_;
those in _co_, into _quísimo_; and those in _go_, into _guísimo_; as,
_amabilísimo_, _riquísimo_, _prodiguísimo_. Thirdly, by prefixing _el_,
_los_, _la_, _las mas_, or _ménos_ to the adjective; as, The most
industrious, _El mas industrioso_; the most humane, _el_, or _los mas
humanos_; _la_, or _las mas humanas_.

Best, _óptimo_, worst, _pésimo_; greatest, _máximo_; least, _mínimo_;
lowest, _ínfimo_; supreme, _supremo_.


                          PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
    Nom. _I_, yo.                 | Nom. _We_, nosotros, nosotras.
    Obj. Dir. _Me_, me.           | Obj. Dir. _Us_, nos, nos.
    Obj. Ind. _Me_, mí.           | Obj. Ind. _Us_, nosotros, nosotras.
        “     _With me_, conmigo. |     “     _With us_, con nosotros,
                                  |     “          “     con nosotras.

    Nom. _Thou_, tú.              | Nom. _You_, vosotros, vosotras.
    Obj. Dir. _Thee_, te.         | Obj. Dir. _You_, os, os.
    Obj. Ind. _Thee_, tí.         | Obj. Ind. _You_, vosotros, vosotras.
       “    _With thee_, contigo. |     “     _With you_, con vosotros.
                                  |     “          “      con vosotras.

_You_, in familiar polite style, is translated _usted_ for both
genders, and the verb agrees with it in the singular or the plural,
according to the sense. _Usted_ and its plural are always written in
abbreviation, thus: _V_. or _Vm_. for the first, and _VV_. or _Vms_.
for the latter.

 Nom. _You_, usted, (V. or Vm.)  | Nom. _You_, ustedes, (VV. or Vms.)
 Obj. Dir. _You_, á usted, le,   | Obj. Dir. _You_, á VV. los, las, se.
                  la, se.        |
 Obj. Ind. _You_, á V. le, se:   | Obj. Ind. _You_, á VV. les, se: á
                  á él, ella, sí.|                  ellos, ellas, sí.
     “     _With you_, con usted.|    “      _With you_, con ustedes.
     “     _With yourself_,      |    “           “      consigo.

 Nom. _He_ or _it_, él.          | Nom. _They_, ellos.
 Obj. Dir. _Him_ or _it_, le, se;| Obj. Dir. _Them_, los, se; ellos, sí.
                 él, sí.         |
 Obj. Ind. _Him_ or _it_, le, se;| Obj. Ind. _Them_, les, se; ellos, sí.
                 él, sí.         |
     “     _With him_ or _it_,   |     “     _With them_, con ellos.
                 con él.         |
     “     _With himself_ or     |     “     _With themselves_, consigo.
               _itself_, consigo.|

 Nom. _She_ or _it_, ella.       | Nom. _They_, ellas.
 Obj. Dir. _Her_ or _it_, la, se;| Obj. Dir. _Them_, las, se; ellas, sí.
                 ella, sí.       |
 Obj. Ind. _Her_ or _it_, le, se;| Obj. Ind. _Them_, les, se; ellas, sí.
                 ella, sí.       |
     “     _With her_ or _it_,   |     “     _With them_, con ellas.
                  con ella.      |
     “     _With herself_ or     |     “     _With themselves_, consigo.
               _itself_, consigo.|

_Mí_, _tí_, _sí_, are always preceded by prepositions.

_Me_, _te_, _se_, _le_, _los_, _la_, _las_, _les_, are governed by
verbs, and never placed after prepositions. When the verbs are in the
indicative, or in the subjunctive mood, they are placed before the
verb; as, He esteems her, _él la estima_. Should the verb be in the
infinitive, or in the imperative mood, the pronouns must be placed
after it, and joined to it so as to appear one word; thus, Give it to
him, (give, _da_, it, _le_, to him, _se_,) _dásele_.

  _My_, mi, mis.         _His_, su, sus.          _Its_, su, sus.
  _Thy_, tu, tus.        _Her_, su, sus.          _Their_, su, sus.
  _Your_, with reference to _Usted_, or _Ustedes_, su, sus.

These pronouns agree in number with the noun that follows them; as, He
sold _his_ horses, _él vendió_ sus _caballos_; they fulfilled _their_
promise, _ellos cumplieron_, su _promesa_.

 _Mine_, mio, mios.     _His_, suyo, suyos.      _Its_, suyo, suyos.
        mia, mias.           suya, suyas.             suya, suyas.
 _Thine_, tuyo, tuyos.  _Hers_, suyo, suyos.     _Theirs_, suyo, suyos.
         tuya, tuyas.           suya, suyas.               suya, suyas.
 _Our_, nuestro, nuestros. _Your_, vuestro, vuestros.  _Your_, de Usted.
       nuestra, nuestras.         vuestra, vuestras.         de Ustedes.
 _Your_, with reference to _Usted_, is translated also suyo, suyos,
                                                      suya, suyas.

  _Who_, _which_, que, quien, quienes.    _What_, _that_, que.
  _Which_, _what_, cual, cuales; _also_, el cual, los cuales,
                                         la cual, las cuales.
  _Whose_, cuyo, cuyos, cuya, cuyas;    _also_, de quien, de cual, &c.

                      DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
 _This_, este. _These_, estos.  | _That_, aquel.   _Those_, aquellos.
   “     esta.    “     estas.  |   “     aquella.    “     aquellas.
 _That_, ese.  _Those_, esos.   | _This_, esto.    _That_,  aquello.
   “     esa.     “     esas.   | _That_, eso.     _It_,    ello, lo.

                        INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
  _One_, uno.                   |   _Such_, tal.
  _Each_, cada.                 |   _Something_, algo.
  _Nobody_, {nadie.             |   _Nothing_, nada.
            {ninguno.           |   _Each one_, cada cual.
  _Somebody_, alguien.          |   _Each other_, uno y otro.
  _Anybody_,    }               |   _One another_, uno á otro.
  _Any_, _some_,} alguno.       |   _Every one_, cada uno.
  _Some one_,   }               |   _Every one_,    }
  _Somebody_,   }               |   _Everybody_,    } todo, todos.
  _Whichever_, cualquiera.      |   _Every thing_,  }
  _Whomsoever_, quienquiera.    |   _All_, _every_, }
          {ámbos.               |
  _Both_, {entrámbos.           |
          {ámbos á dos.         |



The conjugation of a verb is a regular arrangement of its moods,
tenses, persons, and numbers.

_All the verbs_ in the Spanish language are _formed out of the present
of the infinitive mood_, which invariably terminates in AR, ER, or IR,
which syllables are called its TERMINATION; and the letters that remain
of the said present of the infinitive, after separating one of the said
terminations, whatever they may be, are said to be its ROOT, and the
letters of such root are called its RADICAL LETTERS; as, to esteem,
_estim-ar_; to offend, _ofend-er_; to permit, _permit-ir_: in which
verbs _ar_, _er_, _ir_ are the TERMINATIONS; and _estim_, _ofend_,
_permit_, the RADICAL LETTERS of each respectively, to which the other
combinations must be added to form the various persons and tenses of a

All the Spanish verbs are, therefore, classed into _three
conjugations_. Verbs ending in _ar_ belong to the _first_; those in
_er_ to the _second_; and those in _ir_ to the _third_.

_Obs_. 1. It is not necessary to express the pronouns _subject_
or _nominative_, in the colloquial style, (_usted_ and _ustedes_
excepted;) but they must be used whenever elegance or clearness
requires it.

_Obs_. 2. The numbers before the terminations point out the different
persons. N. 2, before _usted_ and _ustedes_, denotes that they are of
the second person, but that the verb agrees with them in the third, (by


_Obs_. 3. The _grave accent_ (`) upon a vowel in the following
terminations, points out the syllable on which the stress of the voice
is laid, but over which the mark of it must not be set. The _acute
accent_ (') marks the syllable on which the stress of the voice lays,
and over which the accent is to be written. When there is no mark of an
accent in the termination, the syllable that precedes it is long.

                            SIMPLE TENSES.
                           INFINITIVE MOOD.

 =First Conjugation.=    =Second Conjugation.=    =Third Conjugation.=

       PRESENT.                  PRESENT.                PRESENT.
To arm,        _armar_. To offend,     _ofender_. To unite,      _unir_.

Termination,      _ar_. Termination,        _er_. Termination,     _ir_.

Radical letters, _arm_. Radical letters, _ofend_. Radical letters, _un_.

        GERUND.[1]              GERUND.                 GERUND.
  Arm_ing_,    _ando_.   Offend_ing_,  _iendo_.   Unit_ing_, _iendo_.

  Arm_ed_,       _ado_.   Offend_ed_,      _ido_.  Unit_ed_,     _ido_.

[1] The _Gerundio_ (gerund) never changes its termination for gender or

[2] The participle past coming immediately after any of the tenses of
the verb _haber_, (to have,) does not admit of any change of gender or
number. After other verbs, it changes its termination to agree with
that of the person or thing it refers to.

            INDICATIVE MOOD.

          =First Conjugation.=
     1. I arm,            _arm-o_.
     2. Thou armest,         _as_.
     3. He arms,             _a_.
     2. You arm,        _V_.—_a_.[3]
     1. We arm,              _àmos_.
     2. You arm,             _àis_.
     3. They arm,            _an_.
     2. You arm,       _VV_.—_an_.[4]

     1. I armed,[5]       _arm-àba_.
     2. Thou armedst,        _àbas_.
     3. He armed,            _àba_.
     2. You armed,      _V_.—_àba_.
     1. We armed,            _ábamos_.
     2. You armed,           _ábais_.
     3. They armed,          _àban_.
     2. You armed,     _VV_.—_àban_.

     1. I armed,[10]        _arm-é_.
     2. Thou armedst,        _àste_.
     3. He armed,            _ó_.
     2. You armed,      _V_.—_ó_.
     1. We armed,            _ámos_.
     2. You armed,           _ásteis_.
     3. They armed,          _áron_.
     2. You armed,     _VV_.—_áron_.

     1. I shall arm,          _arm-aré_.
     2. Thou wilt arm,        _arás_.
     3. He will arm,          _ará_.
     2. You will arm,    _V_.—_ará_.
     1. We shall arm,         _arémos_.
     2. You will arm,         _aréis_.
     3. They will arm,        _arán_.
     2. You will arm,   _VV_.—_arán_.

          =Second Conjugation.=
     1. I offend,       _ofend-o_.
     2. Thou offendest,      _es_.
     3. He offends,          _e_.
     2. You offend,     _V_.—_e_.[6]
     1. We offend,           _èmos_.
     2. You offend,          _èis_.
     3. They offend,         _en_.
     2. You offend,    _VV_.—_en_.[7]

     1. I offended,     _ofend-ía_.
     2. Thou offendedst,     _ías_.
     3. He offended,         _ía_.
     2. You offended,   _V_.—_ía_.
     1. We offended,         _íamos_.
     2. You offended,        _íais_.
     3. They offended,       _ían_.
     2. You offended,  _VV_.—_ían_.

     1. I offended,        _ofend-í_.
     2. Thou offendedst,      _iste_.
     3. He offended,          _ió_.
     2. You offended,    _V_.—_ió_.
     1. We offended,          _imos_.
     2. You offended,         _isteis_.
     3. They offended,        _iéron_.
     2. You offended,   _VV_.—_éron_.

     1. I shall offend,     _ofend-eré_.
     2. Thou wilt offend,        _erás_.
     3. He will offend,          _erá_.
     2. You will offend,    _V_.—_erá_.
     1. We shall offend,         _erémos_.
     2. You will offend,         _eréis_.
     3. They will offend,        _erán_.
     2. You will offend,   _VV_.—_erán_.

          =Third Conjugation.=
     1. I unite,           _un-o_.
     2. Thou unitest,        _es_.
     3. He unites,           _e_.
     2. You unite,      _V_.—_e_.[8]
     1. We unite,            _imos_.
     2. You unite,           _is_.
     3. They unite,          _en_.
     2. You unite,     _VV_.—_en_.[9]

     1. I united,          _un-ía_.
     2. Thou unitedst,       _ías_.
     3. He united,           _ía_.
     2. You united,     _V_.—_ía_.
     1. We united,           _íamos_.
     2. You united,          _íais_.
     3. They united,         _ían_.
     2. You united,    _VV_.—_ían_.

     1. I united,           _un-í_.
     2. Thou unitedst,      _iste_.
     3. He united,          _ió_.
     2. You united,    _V_.—_ió_.
     1. We united,          _imos_.
     2. You united,         _isteis_.
     3. They united,        _iéron_.
     2. You united,   _VV_.—_iéron_.

     1. I shall unite,          _un-iré_.
     2. Thou wilt unite,        _irás_.
     3. He will unite,          _irá_.
     2. You will unite,    _V_.—_irá_.
     1. We shall unite,         _irémos_.
     2. You will unite,         _iréis_.
     3. They will unite,        _irán_.
     2. You will unite,   _VV_.—_irán_.

REMARK.—Those scholars who desire a more detailed explanation
of this subject, are referred to Lesson XL. page 157 of _Ollendorff’s
New Method of Learning to Read and Write the Spanish Language_,
published by D. Appleton & Co., No. 200 Broadway. This work contains
every rule necessary to render easy the study of that language.

             IMPERATIVE MOOD.
         =First Conjugation.=
     1. Let me arm,[11]         _arm-e_.
     2. Arm thou,                   _a_.
     2. Arm thou not,[12]       _no—es_.
     3. Let him arm,                _e_.
     2. Arm you,                   _eV_.
     1. Let us arm,              _èmos_.
     2. Arm ye,                    _ad_.
     2. Arm you not,           _no—èis_.
     3. Let them arm,              _en_.
     2. Arm you,                _en VV_.

         =Second Conjugation.=
     1. Let me offend,        _ofend-a_.
     2. Offend thou,               _as_.
     2. Offend thou not,        _no—as_.
     3. Let him offend,             _a_.
     2. Offend you,               _a V_.
     1. Let us offend,           _àmos_.
     2. Offend ye,                 _ed_.
     2. Offend ye not,         _no—ais_.
     3. Let them offend,           _an_.
     2. Offend you,             _an VV_.

         =Third Conjugation.=
     1. Let me unite,        _un-a_.
     2. Unite thou,             _e_.
     2. Unite thou not,     _no—as_.
     3. Let him unite,          _a_.
     2. Unite you,            _a V_.
     1. Let us unite,        _àmos_.
     2. Unite ye,              _id_.
     2. Unite ye not,      _no—ais_.
     3. Let them unite,        _an_.
     2. Unite you,          _an VV_.

              SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
     1. I may arm,            _arm-e_.
     2. Thou mayst arm,          _es_.
     3. He may arm,               _e_.
     2. You may arm,         _V_.—_e_.
     1. We may arm,            _èmos_.
     2. You may arm,            _èis_.
     3. They may arm,            _en_.
     2. You may arm,       _VV_.—_en_.

     1. I might arm,       _arm-àra_.
     2. Thou mightst arm,     _àras_.
     3. He might arm,          _àra_.
     2. You might arm,      _V.—àra_.
     1. We might arm,       _áramos_.
     2. You might arm,       _árais_.
     3. They might arm,       _àran_.
     2. You might arm,    _VV.—àran_.

     1. I might arm,        _arm-aría_.
     2. Thou mightst arm,      _arías_.
     3. He might arm,           _aría_.
     2. You might arm,       _V.—aría_.
     1. We might arm,        _aríamos_.
     2. You might arm,        _aríais_.
     3. They might arm,        _arían_.
     2. You might arm,     _VV.—arían_.

              First Conjugation.
     1. I might arm,        _arm-àse_.
     2. Thou mightst arm,      _àses_.
     3. He might arm,           _àse_.
     2. You might arm,       _V.—àse_.
     1. We might arm,        _àsemos_.
     2. You might arm,        _àseis_.
     3. They might arm,        _àsen_.
     2. You might arm,     _VV.—àsen_.

     1. If I should arm,       _arm-àre_.
     2. If thou shouldst arm,     _àres_.
     3. If he should arm,          _àre_.
     2. If you should arm,      _V.—àre_.
     1. If we should arm,       _àremos_.
     2. If you should arm,       _àreis_.
     3. If they should arm,       _àren_.
     2. If they should arm,   _VV.—àren_.

     1. I may offend,          _ofend-a_.
     2. Thou mayst offend,          _as_.
     3. He may offend,               _a_.
     2. You may offend,         _V_.—_a_.
     1. We may offend,            _àmos_.
     2. You may offend,            _àis_.
     3. They may offend,            _an_.
     2. You may offend,       _VV_.—_an_.

     1. I might offend,       _ofend-ièra_.
     2. Thou mightst offend,       _ièras_.
     3. He might offend,            _ièra_.
     2. You might offend,        _V.—ièra_.
     1. We might offend,         _ièramos_.
     2. You might offend,         _ièrais_.
     3. They might offend,         _ièran_.
     2. You might offend,      _VV.—ièran_.

     1. I might offend,         _ofend-ería_.
     2. Thou mightst offend,         _erías_.
     3. He might offend,              _ería_.
     2. You might offend,          _V.—ería_.
     1. We might offend,           _eríamos_.
     2. You might offend,           _eríais_.
     3. They might offend,           _erían_.
     2. You might offend,        _VV.—erían_.

              Second Conjugation.
     1. I might offend,        _ofend-ièse_.
     2. Thou mightst offend,        _ièses_.
     3. He might offend,             _ièse_.
     2. You might offend,         _V.—ièse_.
     1. We might offend,          _ièsemos_.
     2. You might offend,          _ièseis_.
     3. They might offend,          _ièsen_.
     2. You might offend,       _VV.—ièsen_.

     1. If I should offend,      _ofend-ière_.
     2. If thou shouldst offend,      _ières_.
     3. If he should offend,           _ière_.
     2. If you should offend,     _V_.—_ière_.
     1. If we should offend,        _ièremos_.
     2. If you should offend,        _ièreis_.
     3. If they should offend,        _ièren_.
     2. If they should offend,        _ièren_.

     1. I may unite,            _un-a_.
     2. Thou mayst unite,         _as_.
     3. He may unite,              _a_.
     2. You may unite,        _V_.—_a_.
     1. We may unite,           _àmos_.
     2. You may unite,           _àis_.
     3. They may unite,           _an_.
     2. You may unite,      _VV_.—_an_.

     1. I might unite,         _un-ièra_.
     2. Thou mightst unite,      _ièras_.
     3. He might unite,           _ièra_.
     2. You might unite,       _V.—ièra_.
     1. We might unite,        _ièramos_.
     2. You might unite,        _ièrais_.
     3. They might unite,        _ièran_.
     2. You might unite,     _VV.—ièran_.

     1. I might unite,         _un-iría_.
     2. Thou mightst unite,      _irías_.
     3. He might unite,           _iría_.
     2. You might unite,       _V.—iría_.
     1. We might unite,        _iríamos_.
     2. You might unite,        _iríais_.
     3. They might unite,       _iríain_.
     2. You might unite,     _VV.—irían_.

              Third Conjugation.
     1. I might unite,        _un-ièse_.
     2. Thou mightst unite,     _ièses_.
     3. He might unite,          _ièse_.
     2. You might unite,      _V.—ièse_.
     1. We might unite,       _ièsemos_.
     2. You might unite,       _ièseis_.
     3. They might unite,       _ièsen_.
     2. You might unite,    _VV.—ièsen_.

     1. If I should unite,        _un-ière_.
     2. If thou shouldst unite,     _ières_.
     3. If he should unite,          _ière_.
     2. If you should unite,     _V.—_ière_.
     1. If we should unite,       _ièremos_.
     2. If you should unite,       _ièreis_.
     3. If they should unite,       _ièren_.
     2. If they should unite,  _VV.—_ièren_.

REMARK.—_Could_, _would_, or _should_ express as well as
_might_ any of the above tenses, but the translation of the verb
preceded by them in English, depends entirely on the meaning of the
Spanish verb or conjunction that governs, or requires it in the
subjunctive mood, as it is explained in Lesson LXXIX. p. 356 of
_Ollendorff’s Method_, which the learner must study with attention.

The future of the subjunctive might be translated in English _when I
shall_, and the verb in the usual way.

[3] _V_. in the singular, must be read _Usted_; _VV_. means _Ustedes_,
and must be pronounced so.

[4] _V_. in the singular, must be read _Usted_; _VV_. means _Ustedes_,
and must be pronounced so.

[5] When the English imperfect tense, for instance, _he united_, may
1be expressed by _he was uniting_, or _he used_ or _was accustomed to
unite_, preserving the same sense, then it is to be translated by the
imperfect tense in Spanish; thus—_él unía_. When that cannot be done,
but it may be changed into _did_, then the preterit must be used—_él
unió_. The same must be understood of all the verbs in the imperfect

[6] _V_. in the singular, must be read _Usted_; _VV_. means _Ustedes_,
and must be pronounced so.

[7] _V_. in the singular, must be read _Usted_; _VV_. means _Ustedes_,
and must be pronounced so.

[8] _V_. in the singular, must be read _Usted_; _VV_. means _Ustedes_,
and must be pronounced so.

[9] _V_. in the singular, must be read _Usted_; _VV_. means _Ustedes_,
and must be pronounced so.

[10] When the English imperfect tense, for instance, _he united_, may
be expressed by _he was uniting_, or _he used_ or _was accustomed to
unite_, preserving the same sense, then it is to be translated by the
imperfect tense in Spanish; thus—_él unía_. When that cannot be done,
but it may be changed into _did_, then the preterit must be used—_él
unió_. The same must be understood of all the verbs in the imperfect

[11] The imperative mood is set as it is found in _Murray’s English
Grammar_, with the object that the student may learn how to translate
it. When the emphasis is laid on the auxiliary _let_, it may be
translated by the verbs _permitir_ or _dejar_, in the second person
singular or plural; or in the third person singular or plural, if
_Usted_ or _Ustedes_ is used.

[12] The terminations of the second person singular or plural, when the
verb is used negatively, are _es_, _eis_, _as_, _ais_, thus—offend
thou not, _no ofendas_; unite ye not, _no unais_.


_Obs_. 4. These tenses being formed by placing after the verb _haber_,
(to have,) the participle past of the principal verb, or the verb that
is conjugated, only one participle for each conjugation is here given,
in all the tenses.



It is compounded of the _present_ of the indicative of the verb
_haber_, (to have,) and the perfect, or _participle past_ of the verb
which is conjugated. For brevity’s sake, the English is prefixed only
to the first person of all these tenses.

           _I have armed_.                  Yo he armado.
           _I have offended_.               Yo he ofendido.
           _I have united_.                 Yo he unido.
     1. He          } armado.         Hemos        } armado.
     2. Has         } ofendido.       Habeis       } ofendido.
     3. Ha          } unido.          Han          } unido.
     2. V. ha       }                 VV. han      }

            _I had armed_.                 Yo habia armado.
            _I had offended_.              Yo habia ofendido.
            _I had united_.                Yo habia unido.
     1. Habia      } armado.           Habíamos    } armado.
     2. Habias     } ofendido.         Habíais     } ofendido.
     3. Habia      } unido.            Habian      } unido.
     2. V. habia   }                   VV. habian  }

           _I had armed_.                  Yo hube armado.
           _I had offended_.               Yo hube ofendido.
           _I had united_.                 Yo hube unido.
     1. Hube      } armado.            Hubimos      } armado.
     2. Hubiste   } ofendido.          Hubisteis    } ofendido.
     3. Hubo      } unido.             Hubieron     } unido.
     2. V. hubo   }                    VV. hubieron }

                          FUTURE DEFINITE.

        _I shall have armed_.              Yo habré armado.
        _I shall have offended_.           Yo habré ofendido.
        _I shall have united_.             Yo habré unido.
     1. Habré        } armado.         Habrémos    } armado.
     2. Habrás       } ofendido.       Habréis     } ofendido.
     3. Habrá        } unido.          Habrán      } unido.
     2. V. habrá     }                 VV. habrán  }


       _I may have armed_.        Yo haya armado.
       _I may have offended_.     Yo haya ofendido.
       _I may have united_.       Yo haya unido.

     1. Haya    } armado.         Háyamos   } armado.
     2. Hayas   } ofendido.       Háyais    } ofendido.
     3. Haya    } unido.          Hayan     } unido.
     2. V. haya }                 VV. hayan }

              _Termination_ IERA.
       _I might have armed_.        Yo hubiera armado.
       _I might have offended_.     Yo hubiera ofendido.
       _I might have united_.       Yo hubiera unido.

     1. Hubiera    } armado.        Hubiéramos   } armado.
     2. Hubieras   } ofendido.      Hubiérais    } ofendido.
     3. Hubiera    } unido.         Hubieran     } unido.
     2. V. hubiera }                VV. hubieran }

              _Termination_ RIA.
       _I might (would) have armed_.         Yo habria armado.
       _I might (would) have offended_.      Yo habria ofendido.
       _I might (would) have united_.        Yo habria unido.

     1. Habria    } armado.                  Habríamos   } armado.
     2. Habrias   } ofendido.                Habríais    } ofendido.
     3. Habria    } unido.                   Habrian     } unido.
     2. V. habria }                          VV. habrian }

              _Termination_ IESE.
       _I might have armed_.         Yo hubiese armado.
       _I might have offended_.      Yo hubiese ofendido.
       _I might have united_.        Yo hubiese unido.

     1. Hubiese    } armado.         Hubiésemos   } armado.
     2. Hubieses   } ofendido.       Hubiéseis    } ofendido.
     3. Hubiese    } unido.          Hubiesen     } unido.
     2. V. hubiese }                 VV. hubiesen }

                    FUTURE DEFINITE.
       _Should I have armed_.         Si yo hubiere armado.
       _Should I have offended_.      Si yo hubiere ofendido.
       _Should I have united_.        Si yo hubiere unido.

     1. Hubiere    } armado.          Hubiéremos   } armado.
     2. Hubieres   } ofendido.        Hubiéreis    } ofendido.
     3. Hubiere    } unido.           Hubieren     } unido.
     2. V. hubiere }                  VV. hubieren }


                        INFINITIVE MOOD.
             _To have_.                      _To be_.
     Haber.           Tener.         Ser.           Estar.

             _Having_.                       _Being_.
     Habiendo.       Teniendo.       Siendo.        Estando.

                        PAST PARTICIPLE.
                _Had_.                        _Been_.
     Habido.         Tenido.         Sido.          Estado.

                            INDICATIVE MOOD.
            _I have_.                            _I am_.
     1. He.        Tengo.                Soy.           Estoy.
     2. Has.       Tienes.               Eres.          Estas.
     3. Ha.        Tiene.                Es.            Está.
     2. V. ha.     V. tiene.             V. es.         V. está.
     1. Hemos.     Tenemos.              Somos.         Estamos.
     2. Habeis.    Teneis.               Sois.          Estais.
     3. Han.       Tienen.               Son.           Estan.
     2. VV. han.   VV. tienen.           VV. son.       VV. estan.

                _I had_.                         _I was_.
     1. Habia.          Tenia.            Era.          Estaba.
     2. Habias.         Tenias.           Eras.         Estabas.
     3. Habia.          Tenia.            Era.          Estaba.
     2. V. habia.       V. tenia.         V. era.       V. estaba.
     1. Habíamos.       Teníamos.         Éramos.       Estábamos.
     2. Habíais.        Teníais.          Érais.        Estábais.
     3. Habian.         Tenian.           Eran.         Estaban.
     2. VV. habian.     VV. tenian.       VV. eran.     VV. estaban.

               _I had_.                         _I was_.
     1. Hube.          Tuve.              Fui.          Estuve.
     2. Hubiste.       Tuviste.           Fuiste.       Estuviste.
     3. Hubo.          Tuvo.              Fué.          Estuvo.
     2. V. hubo.       V. tuvo.           V. fué.       V. estuvo.
     1. Hubímos.       Tuvímos.           Fuímos.       Estuvimos.
     2. Hubisteis.     Tuvisteis.         Fuísteis.     Estuvísteis.
     3. Hubiéron.      Tuviéron.          Fuéron.       Estuviéron.
     2. VV. hubiéron.  VV. tuviéron.      VV. fuéron.   VV. estuviéron.

             _I shall have_.                   _I shall be_.
     1. Habré.         Tendré.            Seré.       Estaré.
     2. Habrás.        Tendrás.           Serás.      Estarás.
     3. Habrá.         Tendrá.            Será.       Estará.
     2. V. habrá.      V. tendrá.         V. será.    V. estará.
     1. Habrémos.      Tendrémos.         Serémos.    Estarémos.
     2. Habréis.       Tendréis.          Seréis.     Estaréis.
     3. Habrán.        Tendrán.           Serán.      Estarán.
     2. VV. habrán.    VV. tendrán.       VV. serán.  VV. estarán.

                              IMPERATIVE MOOD.
               _Let me have_.                   _Let me be_.
     1. Let me have.    Tenga yo.         Sea.          Esté.
     2. Have thou.      Ten tú.           Se.           Está.
     2. Have not.       No tengas.        Nó seas.      No estes.
     3. Let him have.   Tenga él.         Sea.          Esté.
     2. Have.           Tenga V.          Sea V.        Esté V.
     1. Let us have.    Tengamos.         Seamos.       Estemos.
     2. Have ye.        Tened.            Sed.          Estad.
     2. Have not.       No tengais.       No seais.     No estais.
     3. Let them have.  Tengan.           Sean.         Esten.
     2. Have you.       Tengan VV.        Sean VV.      Esten VV.

                              SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.
           _I may have_.                     _I may be_.
     1. Haya.       Tenga.                Sea.       Esté.
     2. Hayas.      Tengas.               Seas.      Estes.
     3. Haya.       Tenga.                Sea.       Esté.
     2. V. haya.    V. tenga.             V. sea.    V. esté.
     1. Háyamos.    Tengamos.             Seamos.    Estemos.
     2. Háyais.     Tengais.              Seais.     Esteis.
     3. Hayan.      Tengan.               Sean.      Esten.
     2. VV. hayan.  VV. tengan.           VV. sean.  VV. esten.

                             FIRST TERMINATION.
            _I would have_.                    _I would be_.
     1. Hubiera.       Tuviera.           Fuera.       Estuviera.
     2. Hubieras.      Tuvieras.          Fueras.      Estuvieras.
     3. Hubiera.       Tuviera.           Fuera.       Estuviera.
     2. V. hubiera.    V. tuviera.        V. fuera.    V. estuviera.
     1. Hubiéramos.    Tuviéramos.        Fuéramos.    Estuviéramos.
     2. Hubiérais.     Tuviérais.         Fuérais.     Estuviérais.
     3. Hubieran.      Tuvieran.          Fueran.      Estuvieran.
     2. VV. hubieran.  VV. tuvieran.      VV. fueran.  VV. estuvieran.

                             SECOND TERMINATION.
            _I  would have_.                  _I would be_.
     1. Habria.       Tendria.            Seria.       Estaria.
     2. Habrias.      Tendrias.           Serias.      Estarias.
     3. Habria.       Tendria.            Seria.       Estaria.
     2. V. habria.    V. tendria.         V. seria.    V. estaria.
     1. Habríamos.    Tendríamos.         Seríamos.    Estaríamos.
     2. Habríais.     Tendríais.          Seríais.     Estaríais.
     3. Habrian.      Tendrian.           Serian.      Estarian.
     2. VV. habrian.  VV. tendrian.       VV. serian.  VV. estarian.

                             THIRD TERMINATION.
             _I should have_.                 _I should be_.
     1. Hubiese.       Tuviese.           Fuese.       Estuviese.
     2. Hubieses.      Tuvieses.          Fueses.      Estuvieses.
     3. Hubiese.       Tuviese.           Fuese.       Estuviese.
     2. V. hubiese.    V. tuviese.        V. fuese.    V. estuviese.
     1. Hubiésemos.    Tuviésemos.        Fuésemos.    Estuviésemos.
     2. Hubiéseis.     Tuviéseis.         Fuéseis.     Estuviéseis.
     3. Hubiesen.      Tuviesen.          Fuesen.      Estuviesen.
     2. VV. hubiesen.  VV. tuviesen.      VV. fuesen.  VV. estuviesen.

           _When I shall have_.              _When I shall be_.
     1. Hubiere.       Tuviere.           Fuere.       Estuviere.
     2. Hubieres.      Tuvieres.          Fueres.      Estuvieres.
     3. Hubiere.       Tuviere.           Fuere.       Estuviere.
     2. V. hubiere.    V. tuviere.        V. fuere.    V. estuviere.
     1. Hubiéremos.    Tuviéremos.        Fuéremos.    Estuviéremos.
     2. Hubiéreis.     Tuviéreis.         Fuéreis.     Estuviéreis.
     3. Hubieren.      Tuvieren.          Fueren.      Estuvieren.
     2. VV. hubieren.  VV. tuvieren.      VV. fuéren.  VV. estuviéren.


N.B.—The (i) stands for the present of the infinitive mood,
and the (p) for the past participle.

     I am to, (i,)                   | _He de_, (i,) (139-153)[13]
     Thou art to, (i,) &c.           | _Has de_, (i,) &c.
     I was to, (i,) &c.              | _Habia de_, (i,) &c.
     I shall be obliged to, (i,) &c. | _Habré de_, (i,) &c.
     I have just, (p,) &c.           | _Acabo de_, (i,) _acabas de_,
                                     |             (i,) &c. (211.)
     I had just, &c.                 | _Acababa de_, (i,) _acababas
                                     |          de_, (i,) &c.
     I am going to, (i,) &c.         |{  _Voy á_, (i,) _vas á_, (i,)
                                     |{                 _va á_, (i.)
                                     |{  _Vamos á_, (i,) _vais á_, (i,)
                                     |{                   _van á_, (i.)
     I was going to, (i,) &c.        | _Iba á_, (i,) _ibas á_,(i,)
                                     |               _iba á_, (i,) &c.
                                     |{  _Volver á_, (i.)
                                     |{  _Vuelvo á_, (i,) _vuelves á_,
                                     |{              (i,)
     To (i) again, &c.               |{  _vuelve   á_, (i.)
                                     |{  _Volvemos á_, (i,) _volveis á_,
                                     |{                (i,)
                                     |{  _vuelven á_, (i.)
     I liked to have, (p.)           | _Estuve para_, (i.)
     To be near.  } Pres.            |{ _Estar á pique de_, (i.)
     To come near.} participle.      |{ _Estar á punto de_, (i.)
                                     |{ _Estar para_, (i.)
     To be about, (p. or i.)         | _Estar para_.
     To be to, (i.)                  | _Ser de. Haber de. Deber_.
     It is to be observed.           |{ _Es de notar. Se ha de notar_.
                                     |{ _Debe notarse_.

[13] The numbers within a parenthesis refer to the pages in
_Ollendorff’s Method_ which the scholar is advised to consult.


     Él me le     (los, la, las, lo)  da.
     Él no te le  (los, la, las, lo)  envia.
     ¿Nos le      (los, la, las, lo)  ofrece él?
     ¿Nos le      (los, la, las, lo)  trae él?
     V. no se le  (los, la, las, lo)  promete.


     I recompense, _or_ do recompense.  |  _Recompenso_.
     I do not recompense.               |{   _Yo no recompenso_, or
                                        |{   _No recompenso_.
     Do I recompense?                   |{   _¿Recompenso?_ or
                                        |{   _¿Recompenso yo?_
     Do I not recompense?               |{   _¿No recompenso?_
                                        |{   _¿No recompenso yo?_
     I have corresponded.               |  _He correspondido_.
     I have not corresponded.           |  _No he correspondido_.
     Have I corresponded?               |{   _¿He correspondido?_ or
                                        |{   _¿He correspondido yo?_
     Have I not corresponded?           |  _¿No he correspondido yo?_


_Passive verbs_ are formed from active-transitive verbs by adding
their _participle past_, or _passive_, to the auxiliary verb _ser_,
(to be,) through all its changes, as in English; thus, from the active
verb _amar_, (to love,) is formed the passive verb _ser amado_,
(to be loved.)

_Obs. 5_. The participle must agree in gender and number with the
nominative it refers to; consequently it changes the _o_ into _a_
when the subject is feminine, and adds _s_ for the plural; thus,

       He is loved.    |  _El es amado_.
       She is loved.   |  _Ella es amada_.
       You are loved.  |  _V. es amado_, (_amada_.)

     They are loved.   |  _Ellos son amados_.
     They are loved.   |  _Ellas son amadas_.
     You are loved.    |  _VV. son amados_, (_amadas_.)

_Obs. 6_. In the compound tenses the participle of the principal verb
is the only one that admits the change; the participle of the auxiliary
verb _to be_ (been, _sido_) is unchangeable; as,

     He has been rewarded.         | _El ha sido premiado_.
     They have been rewarded.      | _Ellos han sido premiados_.
     She had been admired.         | _Ella habia sido admirada_.
     They had been admired.        | _Ellas habian sido admiradas_.
     You could have been employed. | _V. habria sido empleado_,
                                   |               (_empleada_.)
     You could have been assisted. | _VV. habrian sido asistidos_,
                                   |                 (_asistidas_.)

_Obs. 7_. _Passive impersonal verbs_, and those referring to inanimate
objects or things, are translated by placing the verb which is in the
participle past in English, in the same person and number in which
the verb _to be_ is in the English sentence, placing the pronoun _se_
before it; thus,—This ship was built in less than three months;
_Esta fragata se construyó en ménos de tres meses_, instead of _fué
construida_. It is said; _Se dice_, instead of _Es dicho_.


A _pronominal_, or _reflective verb_, is that which has the same
person or thing as subject and object; as,

        He arms himself. |  _El se arma á sí mismo_.

These verbs terminate their present of the infinitive mood by the
pronoun _se_, which must be suppressed in order to find out the
conjugation, thus—

     To approach.    |    _Acercarse_.
     To be sorry.    |    _Dolerse_.
     To repent.      |    _Arrepentirse_.

Taking off the _se_ we here have, _acercar_, 1st conjugation, _doler_,
2d conjugation; and _arrepentir_, 3d conjugation. (80.)

These verbs are conjugated by placing the pronouns _me_, _te_, _se_,
_se_, _nos_, _os_, _se_, _se_, according to the number and person
of the nominative they refer to, immediately before the verb, if the
subject be expressed before it; and either before or after the verb, if
the subject be not expressed or placed after it. When they are placed,
after the verb, they must be written so as to form one word with it.

In the imperative mood they are always placed after the verb, which
suppresses the _s_ in the first person plural, and the _d_ in the
second person of the same number. When the second person singular or
plural is used with the adverb _no_, the pronouns are placed before the
verb. Examples:—

   1. I congratulate myself.         |  _Yo me congratulo_.
   2. Thou congratulatest thyself.   |  _Tú te congratulas_.
   3. He congratulates himself.      |  _El se congratula_.
   2. You congratulate yourself.     |  _V. se congratula_.
   1. We congratulate ourselves.     |  _Nosotros nos congratulamos_.
   2. You congratulate yourselves.   |  _Vosotros os congratulais_.
   3. They congratulate themselves.  |  _Ellos se congratulan_.
   2. You congratulate yourselves.   |  _VV. se congratulan_.
   1. I had congratulated myself.    |  _Me habia congratulado_.
   2. I have armed myself.           |  _Yo me he armado_.
   3. They had flattered themselves. |  _Ellos se habian lisonjeado_.

                             IMPERATIVE MOOD.
         Behave (thou) well.         |  _Pórtate bien_.
         Behave (you) well.          |  _Portáos bien_,
                                     |      (the _d_ is suppressed)
         Behave not ill.             |  _No te portes mal_.
         Behave (you) not ill.       |  _No os portéis mal_.
         Let us prepare ourselves.   |  _Preparémonos_.
                                     |      (the _s_ is suppressed.)


The _gerund_ is that part of the verb that terminates in _ando_ in
the verbs of the first conjugation, and in _iendo_ in those of the
second and third; as, _publicando_, (publishing,) from _publicar_;
_prometiendo_, (promising,) from _prometer_; _asistiendo_, (assisting,)
from _asistir_. It does not admit any change of gender or number.

It is translated by the English present participle, and conjugated with
the verb _estar_, (to be;) as,

 Anastasia is reading, and Maria    | _Anastasia está leyendo, y Maria_
    Ann is playing on the piano.    |    _Ana está tocando el piano_.

It is used also absolutely; as,

  By practising virtue thou wilt | _Practicando la virtud, serás feliz_.
     be happy.                   |


Verbs ending in _car_ change the _c_ into _que_, when the first letter
of the termination is _e_; as, to mark, _marcar_, marc-ar, (perfect
tense) _marqué_.

Verbs ending in _gar_ add a _u_ immediately after the _g_ in the
terminations beginning by _e_; as, to pay, _pagar_, pag-ar, (perfect
tense) _pagué_.

    Verbs in _cer_ change the _c_ into _z_ }
      “      _ger_    “       _g_  “   _j_ } when the first letter of
      “      _gir_    “       _g_  “   _j_ } the termination is either
      “      _quir_   “       _qu_ “   _c_ } _o_ or _a_.
      “      _guir_ lose the  _u_          }

Examples:—To vanquish, _vencer_, venzo; to choose, _escoger_ escojo;
to elect, _elegir_, elijo; to transgress the law, _delinquir_ delinco;
to follow, _seguir_, sigo.


1. The imperfect tense of the subjunctive has three terminations; the
first in _ra_, the second in _ria_, the third in _se_.

The termination _ra_ (or _se_) must be used when the verb is governed
by a conditional conjunction, or an interjection expressing a _wish_;
and if any other verb be in the same phrase to complete its sense, it
must be placed in the termination _ria_; as, If you studied more, you
would learn very much; _Si usted estudiara mas, V. aprenderia mucho_.

2. When the verb begins without a conditional conjunction, the
termination _ra_ or _ría_ may be used, and the verb requisite to
complete the sentence must be placed in the termination _se_; as, It
would be proper that you should write to him; _Fuera_ (or _seria_)
_bueno que V. le escribiese_.

3. Verbs denoting _admiration_, _command_, _desire_, _duty_,
_fear_, _ignorance_, _intention_, _permission_, _prohibition_,
_application_, _surprise_, _will_, and also the _impersonal verbs_,
govern the next verb in the subjunctive with _que_. If the _governing_
verb is in the present or future of the indicative, or subjunctive, the
verb governed must be placed in the present of the subjunctive. If the
_governing_ verb be in any of the past tenses of the indicative, the
verb governed must be placed in the _first_ or _third_ termination of
the imperfect tense of the subjunctive; as, They beg you to come early;
_Suplican a V. que venga temprano_. I requested him to send you my
letter; _Le encargué que enviara á V. mi carta_.


The passive or past participle terminates in _ado_ in the first
conjugation, and in _ido_ in the second and third. It changes its
termination according to the number and gender of the person it refers
to; except when it follows immediately after the verb _haber_, or any
other auxiliary, in which case it does not admit of any change.

All passive participles that do not terminate in _ado_ or _ido_
are called irregular; such are the following, from the verbs—

     To open, _abrir, abierto_.     |  To print, _imprimir, impreso_.
     To cover, _cubrir, cubierto_.  |  To die, _morir, muerto_.
     To say, _decir, dicho_.        |  To solve, _solver, suelto_.
     To write, _escribir, escrito_. |  To see, _ver, visto_.
     To fry, _freir, frito_.        |  To put, _poner, puesto_.
     To do, _hacer, hecho_.         |  To turn, _volver, vuelto_.

Their compounds have the same irregularity.

_Obs. 8_. The participles past of _haber_, _ser_, _estar_, and _tener_,
do not admit any variation. The first and the last had it formerly.


There are some verbs that have _two passive participles_, the one
regular and the other irregular. Such are:—To bless, _bendecir_,
bendecido, _bendito_; to compel, _compeler_, compelido, _compulso_; to
convert, _convertir_, convertido, _converso_; to awake, _despertar_,
despertado, _despierto_; to elect, _elegir_, elegido, _electo_; to
express, _expresar_, expresado, _expreso_; to fix, _fijar_, fijado,
_fijo_; to satiate, _hartar_, hartado, _harto_; to include, _incluir_,
incluido, _incluso_; to join, _juntar_, juntado _junto_; to arrest,
_prender_, prendido, _preso_; to provide, _proveer_, proveido,
_provisto_; to break, _romper_, rompido, _roto_; to loosen, _soltar_,
soltado, _suelto_; to suspend, _suspender_, suspendido, _suspenso_, &c.

The _regular_ participles of these verbs are used to form the compound
tenses with _haber_; as,

       He has awaked early. | _El ha dispertado temprano_.

The irregular participles are used as verbal adjectives, and with
the verbs _ser_, &c., and do not form compound tenses with _haber_;
excepting _preso_, _prescrito_, _provisto_, _roto_, and a few
others; as,

        He is early awaked. | _El está despierto temprano_.
        They have provided. | _Ellos han provisto_, (_proveido_.)


Adverbs are formed from adjectives of one termination by adding to them
_mente_; as, _dulce_, dulcemente: and from those of two terminations
by adding _mente_ to the feminine; as, _gracioso_, graciosamente. They
admit the superlative; as, _graciosísimamente_.

When two or more adverbs ending in _ly_ occur in the same sentence, the
termination _mente_ is added to the last only; as,

He speaks elegantly and correctly. _El habla correcta y elegantemente_.


     Here,       _acá, aquí_.       |  Little,      _poco_.
     There,      _allá, allí, ahí_. |  Already,     _ya_.
     Near,       _cerca_.           |  Often,       _á menudo_.
     Far,        _léjos_.           |  To-day,      _hoy_.
     Where,      _donde, adonde_.   |  Yesterday,   _ayer_.
     Within,     _dentro_.          |  To-morrow,   _mañana_.
     Without,    _fuera_.           |  Last night,  _anoche_.
     Up,         _arriba_.          |  Now,         _ahora_.
     Down,       _abajo_.           |  Presently,   _luego_.
     Before,     _delante_.         |  Late,        _tarde_.
     Behind,     _detras_.          |  Early,       _temprano_.
     Upon,       _encima_.          |  Always,      _siempre_.
     Under,      _debajo_.          |  Never,       _nunca, jamas_.
     Well,       _bien_.            |  Thus,        _así_.
     Ill,        _mal_.             |  Very,        _muy_.
     More,       _mas_.             |  Even,        _aun_.
     Less,       _ménos_.           |  Yes,         _si_.
     Much,       _mucho_.           |  No, nor,     _no, ni_.


     On all fours,          _á gatas_.
     In heaps,              _á montones_.
     Hardly,                _á pénas_.
     On credit,             _á plazo_.
     Sometimes,             _á veces_.
     Truly,                 _á la verdad_.
     Knowingly,             _á sabiendas_.
     On the back,           _á cuestas_.
     At the utmost delay,   _á mas tardar_.
     Slyly,                 _á la sordina_.
     Secretly,              _á escondidas_.
     Rashly, Imprudently,   _á ojos cerrados_.
     Instantly,             _al punto_.
     Very nearly,           _casi casi_.
     As soon as possible.   _cuanto ántes_.
     How long,              _cuanto tiempo_.
     At most,               _cuando mucho_.
     At least,              _cuando ménos_.
     Gratis, for nothing,   _de balde_.
     Readily,               _de contado_.
     Of course,             _de seguro_.
     From time to time, }   _de cuando en cuando_.
     Now and then,      }
     To and fro,        }   _de aquí para allí_.
     Here and there,    }
     On a sudden,       }   _de improviso_.
     Unexpectedly,      }
     Purposely,             _de intento_.
     Across,                _de traves_.
     In fact, actually,     _de hecho_.
     Pell-mell,             _de tropel_.
     By chance,        }
     Cheaply,          }    _de lance_.
     Second-hand,      }
     Truly,                 _de véras_.
     In good earnest,       _en conciencia_.
     Forthwith,             _en seguida_.
     In the future,         _en adelante_.
     Hereafter,             _en lo sucesivo_.
     In a direct way,       _en derechura_.
     Briefly,             { _en resumen_.
     In short,            { _en breve_.
     To the utmost,         _hasta no mas_.
     Long time ago,         _mucho tiempo ha_.
     Behold,                _he aquí_, or _allí_.
     Not long since,        _no ha mucho_.
     No sooner, Scarcely    _no bien_.
     Lately,                _poco ha_.
     By degrees, Softly,    _poco á poco_.
     Of course,             _por supuesto_.
     Nearly,                _por poco_.
     Superficially,         _por encima_.
     Short time ago,        _poco ha_.
                          { _sobre seguro_.
     Confidently,         { _á ciencia_.
                          { _á cierta_.
     Without motive     }   _sin ton ni son_.
       or cause,        }
     Some time ago,         _rato ha_.
     Perhaps,               _tal vez, acaso_.
     Once,                  _una vez_.
     At once,               _de una vez_.
     Sometimes,             _á véces_.


The most frequent are—

   At, to, for,     _A_.            | Towards,          _hácia_.
   Before,          _ántes, ante_.  | Until,            _hasta_.
   With,            _con_.          | For, to,          _para_.
   Against,         _contra_.       | By, for, through  _por_.
   Of, from,        _de_.           | According,        _segun_.
   From,            _desde_.        | Without,          _sin_.
   In, on, at,      _en_.           | On, upon,         _sobre_.
   Between, among,  _entre_.        | Behind,           _tras, detras_.

The following prepositions require _de_ after them, when they are
followed by a noun or pronoun as,

         That man comes after.       |  _Ese hombre viene despues_.
         Sir, he will go after you.  |  _Señor, él irá despues de V_.

     About,     { _á cerca_, _al rededor_, _en torno_.
                { _á cerca de_, _al rededor de_, _en torno de_.
     Before,      _ántes, delante_.  |  Within, in,  _dentro_.
     Above, up,   _encima_.          |  After,       _despues_.
     Below,       _abajo_.           |  Behind,      _detras, tras_.
     Under,       _bajo_.            |  Beneath,     _debajo_.
     Out of,      _fuera_.           |  Opposite,    _enfrente_.
     Near,        _cerca_.           |  On, upon,    _encima_.


They are classed as follows:

     That,           _que_.
     Also,           _tambien_.
     Moreover,       _además_.
     And,            _y_ or _i_, _é_.[14]
     Neither, nor,   _ni_.

     Or, either, }   _ó, ú, ya_.[15]
     Whether,    }
     Whether,        _sea que_.
     Neither,        _tampoco_.

     But,            _mas, pero_.
     Even,         { _aun cuando_.
                   { _aun, cuando_.
     Although, }     _aunque_.
     Though,   }

     Because,        _porque, que_.
     Why?            _¿porqué?_
     Since,          _pues, pues que_.
     By, for,        _por_.
     Therefore,      _por tanto_.
     Whereas,        _por cuanto_.
     That,           _para que_.
     That,          {_para que_.
     In order that, {_á fin de_.

     If,             _si_.
     But,            _sino_.
     Provided,       _con tal que_.
     Unless,       { _á ménos de_.
                   { _á ménos que_.

     Since,          _pues, puesto que_.

     As,             _como, así como_.
     So,             _así_.

[14] _E_ is used instead of _y_ when the following word begins with _i_
or _hi_, as,

  Wise men and ignorant. |  _Sabios é ignorantes_.
  Mother and daughter.   |  _Madre é hija_.

[15] _U_ is employed instead of _ó_, when the word immediately
following it begins with _o_ or _ho_; as,

Silver or gold. | _Plata ú oro_


     Alas!       _¡Ay!_               Take care!  _¡Tate!_
     Ah!         _¡Ah!_               Hurrah!     _¡Viva!_
     Wo to me!   _¡Ay de mí!_         Here!       _¡Ce!_
     Lo!         _¡He!_               Fie!        _¡Puf!_
     Well!       _¡Ea!_               God grant!  _¡Ojalá!_
     Holla!      _¡Ola!_


   A _or_ a,          _Arroba_,             Twenty-five pounds weight.
   AA.                _Autores_,            Authors.
   A.C.               _Año Cristiano_,      Christian year.
   Art. _or_ art.     _Artículo_,           Article.
               { _Beso, besamos, besa_, }   I, we kiss; he, she kisses;
   B.L.M.      { _besan la mano_, or    }   they kiss the hands.
               { _las manos_,           }
   B.L.P.    _Beso_ or _besa los piés_, I kiss _or_ he kisses the feet.
   D. Dn.             _Don_,                Mr.
   Da.                _Doña_,               Mrs.
   Dr., D.D.          _Doctor, Doctores_,   Doctor, Doctors.
   Exmo., Esmo., }    _Excelentísimo_,      Most Excellent.
   Escmo.        }
   Fr.                _Fray, Frey_,         Friar, Brother.
   Ib.                _Ibidem_,             The same.
   Ill^e. Ill^{mo}.    { _Ilustre_,      }  Illustrious,
                       { _Ilustrísimo_,  }  Most Illustrious.
   Ill^{ma}.           { _Ilustrísima_,  }
   Ill. P.S.         _Muy poderoso Señor_,  Most powerful Sir.
   N.                  _Fulano_,            Such a one.
   N^o. _or_ Núm.      _Número_,            Number.
   Nro. Nra.           _Nuestro, a_,        Our.
   Onz.                _Onza_,              Ounce.
   Orn.                _Orden_,             Order.
   P.D.                _Post data_,         Postscript.
   R.P.M. _or_ Mtro. { _Reverendo Padre_ }  Reverend Father and Master.
                     { _Maestro_, }
   R^{do}. P.         _Reverendo Padre_,         Reverend Father.
   S.S^{n}. Sto. Sta. _San, Santo_, or _Santa_,  Saint.
   S.A.               _Su Alteza_,               His Highness.
   S.A.A.             _Su afecto amigo_,       Your affectionate friend.
   S.M.                  _Su Magestad_,        His Majesty.
   Sr. Sor. _or_ S^{ra}. _Señor_ or _Señora_,  Sir, Lord, Madam, Lady.
   S. Sria. _or_ S^{ra}. _Su Señoria_,     His Lordship, Her Ladyship.
   S.S.S.                _Su seguro servidor_, Your assured servant.
   V. Vd. Vm. _or_ Vmd.  _Usted_,              Your worship, you.
   VV. Vs. Vms. _or_ }   _Ustedes_,            Your worships, you.
     Vmds.           }
   V.E. _or_ V. Esc^a  _Vueclelencia_,         Your Excellency.
   V.M.                _Vuestra Majestad_,     Your Majesty.
   V.S.                _Usia_, (_Vueseñoria_,) Your Lordship.
   V.S.I.              _Usía Ilustrísima_,     Your Grace.




      CARDINAL NUMBERS.—_Números Cardinales_.

     One.                    _Uno_, m. _Una_, f.
     Two.                    _Dos_[16].
     Three.                  _Tres_.
     Four.                   _Cuatro_.
     Five.                   _Cinco_.
     Six.                    _Seis_.
     Seven.                  _Siete_.
     Eight.                  _Ocho_.
     Nine.                   _Nueve_.

     _Ten_.                   DIEZ.
     Eleven.                 _Once_.
     Twelve.                 _Doce_.
     Thirteen.               _Trece_.
     Fourteen.               _Catorce_.
     Fifteen.                _Quince_.
     Sixteen.                _Diez y seis_.
     Seventeen.              _Diez y siete_.
     Eighteen.               _Diez y ocho_.
     Nineteen.               _Diez y nueve_.

     _Twenty_.                VEINTE.
     Twenty-one.             _Veintiuno_.
     Twenty-two.             _Veintidos_.
     Twenty-three.           _Veintitres_.
     Twenty-four.            _Veinticuatro_.
     Twenty-five.            _Veinticinco_.
     Twenty-six.             _Veintiseis_.
     Twenty-seven.           _Veintisiete_.
     Twenty-eight.           _Veintiocho_.
     Twenty-nine.            _Veintinueve_.

     _Thirty_.                TREINTA.
     Thirty-one.             _Treinta y uno_.
     Thirty-two, &c.         _Treinta y dos_.
     _Forty_.                 CUARENTA.
     _Fifty_.                 CINCUENTA.
     _Sixty_.                 SESENTA.
     _Seventy_.               SETENTA.
     _Eighty_.                OCHENTA.
     _Ninety_.                NOVENTA.

     _A_ or _one hundred_.    CIENTO.
     Two hundred.            _Doscientos_[17].
     Three hundred.          _Trescientos_.
     Four hundred.           _Cuatrocientos_.
     Five hundred.           _Quinientos_.
     Six hundred.            _Seiscientos_.
     Seven hundred.          _Setecientos_.
     Eight hundred.          _Ochocientos_.
     Nine hundred.           _Novecientos_.

     _A_ or _one thousand_.              MIL.
     One thousand and one.              _Mil y uno_.
     One thousand and eleven.           _Mil y once_.
     One thousand one hundred and one.  _Mil, ciento y uno_.
     One thousand five hundred.         _Mil y quinientos_.
     Two thousand.                      _Dos mil_.
     Five hundred thousand.             _Quinientos mil_.
     _A million_.                       MILLON, (_cuento_.)

[16] From _dos_, (two,) up to _ciento_, (hundred,) inclusively, the
numbers are plural, and common to both genders; as—

Three men, _tres hombres_. | Four women, _cuatro mujeres_.

[17] From _doscientos_ to _novecientos_, inclusively, the termination
_os_ is changed into _as_ for the feminine; as—

Three hundred miles. | _Trescientas millas_.

Two numbers coming together in an inverted order in English, are
translated by placing the highest in the first place; thus,

             Three and twenty.   |   _Veinte y tres_.

_Eleven hundred_, _fifteen hundred_, and the like expressions, are
always translated, one thousand one hundred, one thousand five hundred,
&c.; thus, _mil y ciento_, _mil y quinientos_, and not _once cientos_,

The words _o’clock_ are omitted in reference to the hours of the day,
which are expressed by the cardinal numbers, preceded by the article
_las_ or _la_ with reference to _una_, one; as,

     What time is it?     |  _¿Que hora es?_
     It is one o’clock.   |  _Es la una_.
     It is two o’clock.   |  _Son las dos_.

           ORDINAL NUMBERS.—_Números Ordinales_.

                      _Singular_.           _Plural_.
     The first.      { El primero.    }   Los primeros.
                     { El primer.[18] }
     The second.       El segundo.        Los segundos.
     The third.      { El tercero.   }    Los terceros.
                     { El tercer.    }
     The fourth.       El cuarto.         Los cuartos.
     The fifth.        El quinto.         Los quintos.
     The sixth.        El sexto.          Los sextos.
     The seventh.      El séptimo.        Los séptimos.
     The eighth.       El octavo.         Los octavos.
     The ninth.      { El nono.           Los nonos.
                     { El noveno.         Los novenos.
     The tenth.        El décimo.         Los décimos.
     The eleventh.     El undécimo.       Los undécimos.
     The twentieth.    El vigésimo.       Los vigésimos.
     The thirtieth.    El trigésimo.      Los trigésimos.

[18] _Primero_ and _tercero_ lose the _o_ before a noun.

Ex.—_El primer tomo el tercer tomo_.

Ordinal numbers change _o_ into _a_ for the feminine, and admit
the same variation of numbers as the adjectives.

The cardinal numbers are used instead of the ordinal in speaking of the
days of the month, excepting the first; as,

         The fourth of July.         |  _El cuatro de Julio_.
         The first of May.           |  _El primero de Mayo_.
     What day of the month _is it_?  |{ ¿Que dia del mes _tenemos_?
                                     |{ ¿Que dia es hoy?
     (It is) the first.              |  El primero.
     (It is) the second.             |  El dos.
     (It is) the third.              |  El tres.
     What day of the month is this?  |  ¿A cuantos estamos?
     (It is) the eleventh.           |  A once.

_Obs_. Except the first day of the month, all the other days are
expressed by a cardinal number preceded by the article.


     2   maravedíses          _valen_  1 ochavo.
     2   ochavos                 “     1 cuarto.
     8½  cuartos                 “     1 real de vellon.
     4   reales de vellon        “     1 peseta.
     5   pesetas                 “     1 peso, _or_ duro.
     4   pesetas columnarias     “     1   “       “

                         PLATA.                                    vale
  1 duro, peso fuerte, peso, ó escudo de plata, _a silver dollar_ $1.00
  1 medio duro, ó escudo de vellon, _half a dollar_                  50
  1 peseta columnaria, _quarter of a dollar_                         25
  1 real de plata Americano, _New York shilling_                     12½
  1 medio real, medio, _New York sixpence_                            6½

                                                _Valor_      _Valor_
                                               _nominal_.    _real_.
  1 peseta provincial ó Sevillana, _pistareen_  20 _cents_.  16 _cents_.
  2 reales de vellon, _half pistareen_          10    “       8    “
  1 real de vellon, ó 34 maravedíses,
      _quarter pistareen_                       5     “       4    “

                                                   _Valor_     _Valor_
                                ORO.              _nominal_.   _real_.
  1    onza ú onza de oro, _a doubloon_             $16.00     $15.56
  ½  onza, (cuatro escudos,) _half of a doubloon_     8.00       7.76
  ¼  un doblon de á dos, _a quarter of a doubloon_    4.00       3.88
  ⅛  un dobloncito, ó un escudo, _an eighth of a
          doubloon_                                   2.00       1.94
 1/16 un escudito, un durillo, ó veinten,
            _a sixteenth of a doubloon_               1.00        .97

OF HEAVEN AND THE ELEMENTS.—_Del Cielo y de los Elementos_.

N.B.—A word within a parenthesis followed by an M, in the following
Vocabulary and Dialogues, indicates that it is the one used in the
Mexican States.

     God,             _Dios_.
     Jesus Christ,    _Jesucristo_.
     The Holy Ghost,  _El Espíritu Santo_.
     The angel,       _el ángel_.
     The paradise,    _el paraíso_.
     The world,       _el mundo_.
     The fire,        _el fuego_.
     The air,         _el aire_.
     The earth,       _la tierra_.
     The sea,         _el mar_.
     The sun,         _el sol_.
     The moon,        _la luna_.
     The stars,       _las estrellas_.
     The rays,        _los rayos_.
     The clouds,      _las nubes_.
     The wind,        _el viento_.
     The rain,        _la lluvia_.
     The thunder,     _el trueno_.
     The lightning,   _el relámpago_.
     The hail,        _el granizo_.
     The thunderbolt, _el rayo, _or _la centella_.
     The snow,        _la nieve_.
     The frost,       _la helada_.
     The ice,         _el hiélo_.
     The white frost, _la escarcha_.
     The dew,         _el rocío_.
     The fog,         _la niébla_.
     A deluge,        _un diluvio_.
     The heat,        _el calor_.
     The cold,        _el frío_.

OF THE WEATHER AND SEASONS.—_Del tiempo y de las estaciones_.

     The day, _el día_.
     The noon, _el mediodía_.
     The night, _la noche_.
     Midnight, _media noche_.
     The morning, _la mañana_.
     The afternoon, The evening, _la tarde_.
     Hour, _hora_.
     Quarter of an hour, _cuarto de hora_.
     Half an hour, _media hora_.
     Three quarters of an hour, _tres cuartos de hora_.
     To-day, _hoy_.
     Yesterday, _ayer_.
     The day before yesterday, _ántes de ayer_.
     The day after to-morrow, _pasado mañana_.
     This evening, _esta tarde_.
     This morning, _esta mañana_.
     After dinner, _despues de comer_.
     After supper, _despues de cenar_.
     A week, _una semána_.
     A month, _un mes_.
     A year, _un año_.
     A moment, _un momento_.
     The spring, _la primavera_.
     The summer, _el verano or estío_.
     Autumn, _el otoño_.
     The winter, _el invierno_.
     A holiday, _día de fiesta_.
     A working-day, _día de trabajo_.
     The sun-rising, _la salida del sol_.
     The sun-setting, _el ponerse del sol_.
     The dawn, _la aurora_.

THE DAYS OF THE WEEK.—_Los días de la semána_.

     Monday,     _Lúnes_.
     Tuesday,    _Mártes_.
     Wednesday,  _Miércoles_.
     Thursday,   _Juéves_.
     Friday,     _Viérnes_.
     Saturday,   _Sábado_.
     Sunday,     _Domingo_.

THE MONTHS.—_Los meses_.

     January,    _Enero_.
     February,   _Febrero_.
     March,      _Marzo_.
     April,      _Abril_.
     May,        _Mayo_.
     June,       _Junio_.
     July,       _Júlio_.
     August,     _Agosto_.
     September,  _Setiembre_.
     October,    _Octubre_.
     November,   _Noviembre_.
     December,   _Diciembre_.

THE HOLIDAYS OF THE YEAR.—_Dias de fiesta del año_.

     New Year’s Day,   _el dia de Año Nuevo_.
     Lent,             _la Cuaresma_.
     The Ember-weeks,  _las Cuatro témporas_.
     Palm Sunday,      _Domingo de Ramos_.
     Good Friday,      _Viérnes Santo_.
     Easter-day,       _Pascua de Resurreccion_.
     Twelfth day,      _Dia de Reyes_.
     Whitsunday,       _Pascua del Espíritu Santo_.
     All Souls’-day,   _Dia de Difuntos_, (_muertos_, M.)
     Christmas,        _Pascua de navidád. La Noche Buena_.
     The Eve,          _la Vigilia_.
     The Harvest,      _la cosecha de Granos_.

ECCLESIASTICAL DIGNITIES.—_Dignidades ecclesiasticas_.

     The pope,         _el papa_.
     A cardinal,       _un cardenal_.
     An archbishop,    _un arzobispo_.
     A bishop,         _un obispo_.
     A nuncio,         _un nuncio_.
     A prelate,        _un prelado_.
     A rector,         _un cura_.
     A canon,          _un canonigo_.
     A priest,         _un sacerdote_.
     A chaplain,       _un capellan_.
     A vicar,          _un vicario_.
     A vicar-general,  _un vicaria general_.
     A dean,           _un dean_.
     An almoner,       _un limosnero_.
     A curate,         _teniente de cura_.
     A preacher,       _un predicador_.
     A grave-digger,   _sepulturero_.
     A sexton,         _un sacristan_.
     A musician,       _un músico_.
     A beadle,         _un pertiguero_.

NAMES OF THINGS MOST USUALLY EATEN.—_Nombres de las cosas que se comen
mas comunmente_.

     Bread,               _pan_.
     Meat,                _carne_.
     Fish,                _pez_ or _pescado_.
     Boiled meat,         _el cocido_.
     Roast meat,          _el asado_.
     A mouthful of bread, _un bocado de pan_.
     A pie,               _un pastel_.
     A soup,              _una sopa_.
     A slice of bread,    _una rebanoda de pan_.
     A broth,             _un caldo_.
     A salad,             _una ensalada_.
     A sauce,             _una salsa_.
     A stew,              _un estofado_.
     A ragout,            _un guisado_.
     Fruits,              _las frutas_.
     Cheese,              _el queso_.

THE COVERING OF THE TABLE.—_El aparato de la mesa_.

     The table,      _la mesa_.
     The tablecloth, _el mantel_.
     A chair,        _una silla_.
     A knife,        _un cuchillo_.
     A fork,         _un tenedor_.
     A plate,        _un plato_.
     A dish,         _fuente, platon_.
     A saltcellar,   _un salero_.
     Oil-cruet,      _aceítera_.
     Vinegar-cruet,  _vinagrera_.
     Casters,        _taller_.
     A sugar-dish,   _azucarero_.
     A candle,       _una vela_.
     A candlestick,  _un candelero_.
     The snuffers,   _las despabiladeras_.
     A chafingdish,  _el braserito_.
     A basin,        _palangana_.
     A glass,        _copa_.
     A napkin,       _una servilleta_.
     A flask,        _un flasco_.
     A cup,          _una jicara, taza_.
     A saucer,       _una salsera_.
     A towel,        _una toalla_.
     A service,      _un servicio_.
     Water,          _agua_.
     Wine,           _vino_.
     Brandy,         _aguardiente_.
     A decanter,     _una botella de cristal_.
     A tumbler,      _un vaso_.
     A jug,          _un jarro_.
     A bottle,       _una botella_.
     A gill,         _una copa_.

WHAT IS EATEN AT TABLE, BOILED.—_Loque se come en la mesa cocido_.

     Beef,      _la vaca_.
     Mutton,    _el carnero_.
     Veal,      _la ternera_.
     Lamb,      _el cordero_.
     A fowl,    _una gallina_.
     A turkey,  _un pavo_, (_un guajolote_, M.)

OTHER DISHES.—_Otros platos_.

     A ragout,          _un guisado_.
     A fricassee,       _una fricasé_.
     Stewed meat,       _estofado_.
     Sweetbread,        _lechecillas_.
     A tart,            _una torta_.
     Petty patties,     _pastelillos_.
     Ham,               _jamon_.
     Sausages,          _salchichas_.
     A Bologna sausage, _salchicha de Boloña_.
     Black pudding,     _morcilla_.
     Liver,             _hígado_.
     A hash,            _un picadillo_.
     Beef’s tongue,     _lengua de vaca_.

WHAT IS ROASTED.—_Loque es asádo_.

     Pullets,               _pollos_.
     Pigeons,               _pichónes_.
     Woodcocks,             _gallinetas_.
     Partridges,            _perdices_.
     Thrushes,              _tordos_.
     Larks,                 _alondras_.
     Quails,                _codorníces_.
     Pheasants,             _faisanes_.
     A turkey-cock,         _un pavo_, (_un guajolote_, M.)
     A goose,               _un ganso_.
     A gosling,             _un gansaron_, or _pollo de ganso_.
     A duck,                _un pato_.
     A hare,                _una liebre_.
     A rabbit,              _un conejo_.
     A hog,                 _un cerdo_.
     A roasting-pig,        _lechoncillo_.
     A wild-boar,           _un jabalí_.
     A stag,                _un ciervo_.
     A leg of mutton,       _pierna a carnero_.
     A loin of veal,        _tomo de ternera_.
     A shoulder of mutton,  _brazuelo de carnero_.
     Game, _caza_.

TO SEASON MEAT WITH.—_Para sazonar la carne_.

     Salt,          _sal_.
     Pepper,        _pimienta_.
     Oil,           _aceite_.
     Vinegar,       _vinagre_.
     Verjuice,      _agraz_.
     Mustard,       _mostaza_.
     Cloves,        _clavos_.
     Cinnamon,      _canela_.
     Capers,        _alcaparras_.
     Laurel,        _laurel_.
     Chervil,       _perifollo_.
     Pimento,       _chile_, (M.)
     Mushrooms,     _setas_.
     Onions,        _cebollas_.
     Garlic,        _ajos_.
     Bacon,         _tocino_.
     Oranges,       _naranjas_.
     Lemons,        _limones_.
     Parsley,       _perexil_.
     Young onions,  _cebolletas_.
     Eggs,          _huevos_.

FOR A SALAD.—_Para una ensalada_.

     Endives,        _endibias_.
     Lettuce,        _lechuga_.
     Succory,        _achicoria_.
     Celery,         _apio_.
     Chervil,        _perifollo_.
     Roman lettuce,  _lechuga Romana_.
     Cresses,        _berros_.

FOR FAST DAYS.—_Para los dias de ayuno_.

     Butter,            _manteca_.
     Milk,              _leche_.
     Eggs in the shell, _huevos cocidos_.
     Poached eggs,      _huevos estrellados_.
     An omelet,         _tortilla de huevos_.
     Crawfish,          _cangrejo de agua dulce_.
     A pike,            _un lucio_.
     A carp,            _una carpa_.
     A trout,           _una trucha_.
     A sole,            _lenguado_.
     An eel,            _anguila_.
     A tench,           _tenca_.
     A sturgeon,        _esturion_.
     A herring,         _arenque_.
     Oysters,           _ostras_.
     Salmon,            _salmon_.
     Codfish,           _abadejo, bacalao, merluza_.
     A mackerel,        _caballa, escombro, halacha_.
     A lobster,         _langosta_.
     Peas,              _guisantes_.
     Beans,             _habas_.
     Kidney-beans,      _frijoles_.
     Spinach,           _espinacas_.
     Artichokes,        _alcachofas_.
     Asparagus,         _esparragos_.
     Cabbages,          _berzas, coles_.
     Cauliflowers,      _coliflores_.
     Vegetables,        _verduras_.
     Fennel,            _hinojo_.

FOR THE DESSERT.—_Para los postres_.

     Apples,          _manzanas_.
     Pears,           _peras_.
     Peaches,         _duraznos_.
     Mellow peaches,  _melocotones_, (_priscos_.)
     Apricots,        _albaricoques_.
     Cherries,        _cerezas_.
     Figs,            _higos_.
     Plums,           _ciruelas_.
     Raspberries,     _frambuesas_.
     Grapes,          _uvas_.
     Fritters,        _buñuelos_.
     A tart,          _torta_.
     Sugarplums,      _confites_.
     Sweetmeats,      _dulces, conservas_.
     Nuts,            _nueces_.
     Filberts,        _avellanas_.
     Chestnuts,       _castañas_.
     Almonds,         _almendras_.
     Medlars,         _nisperos_.
     Blackberries,    _zarzamora_.
     Quinces,         _membrillos_.
     Pomegranates,    _granadas_.
     Oranges,         _naranjas_.
     Olives,          _aceitunas_.
     Mulberries,      _moras_.
     Currants,        _grosellas_.

DEGREES OF KINDRED.—_Grados de parentesco_.

     The father,            _el padre_.
     The mother,            _la madre_.
     The grandfather,       _el abuelo_.
     The grandmother,       _la abuela_.
     The great-grandfather, _el bisabuelo_.
     The great-grandmother, _la bisabuela_.
     The son,               _el hijo_.
     The daughter,          _la hija_.
     The grandson,          _el nieto_.
     The granddaughter,     _la nieta_.
     The brother,           _el hermano_.
     The sister,            _la hermana_.
     The eldest son,        _el primogénito_.
     The second son,        _el hijo segundo_.
     The uncle,             _el tio_.
     The aunt,              _la tia_.
     The nephew,            _el sobrino_.
     The niece,             _la sobrina_.
     The nephew’s son,      _el hijo del sobrino_.
     The niece’s daughter,  _la hija de la sobrina_.
     The cousin,            _el primo_.
     The female cousin,     _la prima_.
     The brother-in-law,    _el hermano político_, or _el cuñado_.
     The sister-in-law,     _la hermana política_, or _la cuñada_.
     The father-in-law,     _el padre político_, or _el suegro_.
     The mother-in-law,     _la madre política_, or _la suegra_.
     The son-in-law,        _el hijo político_, or _el yerno_.
     The daughter-in-law,   _la hija política_, or _la nuera_.
     The parents,           _los padres_, (_el padre y la madre_.)
     The spouse,            _el esposo_, m.
     The spouse,            _la esposa_, f.
     A consort,             _un consorte_.
     Twin brothers,         _mellizos_, (_cuátes_, M.)
     Twin sisters,          _mellizas_, (_cuátes_, M.)
     A godfather,           _el padrino_.
     A godmother,           _la madrina_.
     A godson,              _el ahijado_.
     A goddaughter,         _la ahijada_.
     A lying-in woman,      _muger parida_.
     The nurse,             _ama de criar, criandera_,
                                  or (_chichigua_), M.
     A midwife,             _la partera_.
     A relation,            _un pariente_.
     A female relation,     _una parienta_.
     A friend,              _un amigo_.
     A female friend,       _una amiga_.
     An enemy,              _un enemigo_, m.
     An enemy,              _una enemiga_, f.
     A widower,             _un viudo_.
     A widow,               _una viuda_.
     An heir,               _un heredero_.
     An heiress,            _una heredera_.
     A pupil,               _un pupilo_, m.
     A pupil,               _una pupila_, f.
     A marriage,            _un casamiento_.
     A wedding,             _unas bodas_.
     A christening,         _un bautismo_.

_Compadre_, and _comadre_, are names that the sponsor and the parents
of the godson or daughter give each other.

OF THE CONDITIONS OF MAN AND WOMAN.—_De los estados del hombre y de la

     A man,            _un hombre_.
     A woman,          _una muger_.
     An aged man,      _un viejo_.
     An aged woman,    _una vieja_.
     An old man,       _hombre anciano_.
     An old woman,     _muger anciana_.
     A young man,      _un jóven_.
     A young girl,     _una moza_.
     A spark, dandy,   _petimetre_.
     A lady,           _una señora_.
     A husband,        _el marido_.
     A wife,           _la muger_.
     An infant,        _un infante_.
     A boy,            _un muchacho_.
     A girl,           _una muchacha_.
     A maid,           _una doncella_.
     A master,         _el amo_.
     A mistress,       _el ama_.
     A man-servant,    _un criado_.
     A female servant, _una criada_.
     A citizen,        _un ciudadano_.
     A countryman,     _un paisano_, (_un payo_, M.)
     A stranger,       _un extrangero_.
     A rogue,          _un bribon_.
     A sharper,        _un estafador_.
     A cheat,          _un engañador_.
     A thief,          _un ladron_.
     A pickpocket,     _un ratero_.

para vestirse_.

     A suit of clothes,   _un vestido_.
     A hat,               _un sombrero_.
     A wig,               _una peluca_.
     A cravat,            _una corvata_.
     A coat,              _casaca_.
     A close coat,        _casaca á la francesa_.
     Pantaloons,          _pantalones_.
     Small-clothes,       _los calzones_.
     Stockings,           _las medias_.
     Silk stockings,      _medias de seda_.
     Under-stockings,     _calcetas_.
     Socks,               _escarpines_.
     The shoes,           _los zapatos_.
     The slippers,        _las chinelas_.
     A shirt,             _una camisa_.
     An under-waistcoat,  _una almilla_.
     A vest,              _un chaleco_.
     The sleeves,         _las mangas_.
     The ruffles,         _las vueltas_.
     A cap,               _un gorro_.
     A nightgown,         _una bata_.
     A fob,               _el bolsillo_.
     The pocket,          _la faltriquera_.

WITH CLOTHES ONE MUST HAVE.—_Con los vestidos es menester tener_.

     Ribbons,                _cinta de seda_.
     Lace,                   _encaje_.
     Buttons,                _botones_.
     Button-holes,           _ojales_.
     A pocket-handkerchief,  _un pañuelo_,
                               (_un paño_, or _pañite de polvos_, M.)
     Fringe,                 _franja_.
     Gloves,                 _guantes_.
     Mittens,                _mitones_.
     A watch,                _reloj de faltriquera_.
     A muff,                 _un manguito_.
     Buckles,                _las hebillas_.
     Garters,                _ligas_, (_ataderos_, M.)
     A ring,                 _anillo_, (_cintillo_, M.)
     A comb,                 _peine_.

FOR THOSE THAT RIDE ON HORSEBACK.—_Para aquellos que andan á caballo_.

     A sword,               _la espada_.
     A girdle,              _el cinto_.
     The pistols,           _las pistolas_.
     The bridle,            _el freno_.
     The saddle,            _la silla_.
     The stirrups,          _los estribos_.
     The whip,              _el látigo_.
     The boots,             _las botas_.
     The spurs,             _los espuelas_.
     The top of the boot,   _la campana de la bota_.
     The rowel of the spur, _la estrella de la espuela_.
     The leg,               _la pierna_.
     The heel,              _el talon_.
     The sole,              _la suela de la bota_.

FOR THE LADIES.—_Para las Señoras_.

     A cap,                  _el tocado_.
     A chemise,              _una camisa_.
     An under-petticoat,     _enaguas_.
     The stays,              _la cotilla_.
     An upper-petticoat,     _un guardapiés_.
     A morning-gown,         _ropa de levantar_.
     Stockings,              _medias_.
     Garters,                _ligas_.
     The slippers,           _las chinelas_.
     An apron,               _el delantal_.
     A comb,                 _un peine_.
     A combing-cloth,        _el peinador_.
     The toilet,             _el tocador_.
     A looking-glass,        _el espejo_.
     Powder,                 _polvos_.
     Pomatum,                _la pomada_.
     Sweet-waters,           _aguas de olor_.
     Pins,                   _los alfileres_.
     A pincushion,           _el acerico_.
     Scissors,               _tijeras_.
     A head-dress,           _una cofia_.
     A cloak,                _un capotillo_.
     A mantilla,             _una mantilla_.
     A pelisse,              _un ropon de pieles_.
     A thimble,              _el dedal_.
     A needle,               _la aguja_.
     Thread,                 _el hilo_.
     Linen,                  _el lienzo_.
     A pocket looking-glass, _el espejo de faltriquera_.
     A gown, _una bata_,     _un camison_, (_túnico_, M.)
     A necklace,             _la gargantilla_.
     Jewels,                 _joyas_.
     Precious stones,        _piedras preciosas_.
     A diamond,              _un diamante_.
     An emerald,             _una esmeralda_.
     A ruby,                 _un rubí_.
     A pearl,                _una perla_.
     Silk stockings,         _medias de seda_.
     Cotton stockings,       _medias de algodon_.
     Shoes,                  _zapatos_.
     A bonnet,               _un sombrerillo_: _una gorra_.
     A hat,                  _un sombrero_.
     A veil,                 _un velo_.
     The curls,              _los rizos_.
     A fan,                  _el abanico_.
     A tippet,               _una palatina_.
     A muff,                 _un manguito_.
     Gloves,                 _los guantes_.
     A smelling-bottle,      _botellita de olor_.
     An umbrella,            _el paraguas_.
     The curling-irons,      _el encrespador_.
     A parasol,              _el quita sol_.
     A watch,                _un reloj de faltriquera_.
     A pocket-handkerchief,  _un pañuelo_.
     Rings,                  _los anillos_.
     Ear-rings,              _los zarcillos_, (_aretes_, M.)
     Bracelets,              _los brazaletes_.

OF THE PARTS OF THE HUMAN BODY.—_De las partes del cuerpo humano_.

     The head,                 _la cabeza_.
     The face,                 _la cara_.
     The forehead,             _la frente_.
     The eyes,                 _los ojos_.
     The eyebrows,             _las cejas_.
     The eyelids,              _los párpados_.
     The eyeball,              _la niña del ojo_.
     The ears,                 _las orejas_.
     The hair,                 _el pelo_.
     The temples,              _las sienes_.
     The hollow of the ear,    _el hueco de la oreja_.
     The drum of the ear,      _el tímpano del oído_.
     The eyelashes,            _las pestañas_.
     The cheeks,               _las mejillas_.
     The nose,                 _la nariz_.
     The nostrils,             _las ventanas de la nariz_.
     The mouth,                _la boca_.
     The tongue,               _la lengua_.
     The teeth,                _los dientes_.
     The gums,                 _las encías_.
     The eyeteeth,             _los colmillos_.
     The grinders,             _las muelas_.
     The lips,                 _los labios_.
     The nails,                _las uñas_.
     The belly,                _la barriga_.
     The stomach,              _el estomago_.
     The ribs,                 _las costillas_.
     The navel,                _el ombligo_.
     The groins,               _las ingles_.
     The thighs,               _los muslos_.
     The knees,                _las rodillas_.
     The legs,                 _las piernas_.
     The calf of the leg,      _la pantorrilla_.
     The ankle-bone,           _hueso del tobillo_.
     The instep,               _la garganta del pié_.
     The foot,                 _el pié_.
     The heel,                 _el talon_.
     The sole of the foot,     _la planta del pié_.
     The mien,                 _el semblante_.
     The complexion,           _la complexion_.
     The air,                  _el aire_.
     The demeanor,             _el porte_.
     The fatness,              _la gordura_.
     The leanness,             _la magrura_.
     The palate,               _el paladar_.
     The whiskers,             _las patillas_.
     The chin,                 _la barba_.
     The beard,                _las barbas_.
     The neck,                 _el cuello_.
     The throat,               _la garganta_.
     The bosom,                _el seno_.
     The breast,               _el pecho_.
     The stomach,              _el estomago_.
     The shoulders,            _los hombros_.
     The arms,                 _los brazos_.
     The elbow,                _el codo_.
     The wrist,                _la muñeca_.
     The hands,                _las manos_.
     The thumb,                _el pulgar_.
     The forefinger,           _el dedo índice_.
     The middle finger,        _el dedo del corazon_.
     The fourth finger,        _el dedo anular_.
     The little finger,        _el dedo meñique_.
     The brawn of the fingers, _la yema de los dedos_.
     The sides,                _los costados_.
     The stature,              _la estatura_.
     The gait, the step,       _el paso_.
     The gesture,              _el gesto_.
     The brain,                _el celebro_.
     The blood,                _la sangre_.
     The veins,                _las venas_.
     The arteries,             _las arterias_.
     The nerves,               _los nervios_.
     The muscles,              _los músculos_.
     The skin,                 _el cútis_.
     The heart,                _el corazon_.
     The liver,                _el hígado_.
     The lungs,                _los pulmones_.
     The bladder,              _la vejiga_.
     The gall,                 _la hiel_.
     The spittle,              _la saliva_.
     The sweat,                _el sudor_.
     The rheum,                _el resfriado_.
     A cough,                  _la toz_.
     The breath,               _la respiracion_.
     The voice,                _la voz_.
     The speech,               _la palabra_.
     A sigh,                  _un suspiro_.

THE FIVE SENSES.—_Los cinco sentidos_.

     The sight,    _la vista_.
     The hearing,  _el oido_.
     The smell,    _el olfato_.
     The taste,    _el gusto_.
     The feeling,  _el tacto_.

OF AGES.—_De las edades_.

     Childhood,    _la niñez_.
     Infancy,      _infancia_.
     Boyishness,   _puericia_.
     Adolescence,  _adolescencia_.
     Youth,        _la juventud_.
     Manhood,      _la virilidad_.
     Old age,      _la senectud_.
     Old age,      _la vejez_.

QUALITIES OF THE BODY.—_Calidades del cuerpo_.

     Health,         _la salud_.
     Strength,       _la fuerza_.
     Weakness,       _la debilidad_.
     Beauty,         _la hermosura_.
     Ugliness,       _la fealdad_.
     Good presence,  _el garbo_.
     Sprightliness,  _el brío_.
     Fine stature,   _hermoso tallo_.

DEFECTS OF THE HUMAN BODY.—_Defectos del cuerpo humano_.

     Ugliness,            _la fealdad_.
     Wrinkles,            _las arrugas_.
     Freckles,            _las pecas_.
     Blear eyes,          _las lagañas_.
     A wart,              _una verruga_.
     A mole,              _un lunar_.
     A pearl in the eye,  _la nube en el ojo_.
     Tickling,            _las cosquillas_.
     Cataract,            _la catarata_.
     Blindness,           _la ceguedád_.
     Blind,               _el ciego_.
     One-eyed,            _el tuerto_.
     Dumb,                _el mudo_.
     Leanness,            _la flacura_.
     Lame,                _el cojo_.
     Lameness,            _la cojera_.
     The stammerer,       _el tartamudo_.
     Crookedness,         _la corcova_.
     Bald,                _el calvo_.
     Flat-nosed,          _el romo_.
     Crippled,            _el estropeado_.
     Lame of the limbs,   _el tullido_.
     Squinting,           _el bizco_.
     Lame of a hand,      _el manco_.
     Deaf,                _el sordo_.
     Left-handed,         _el zurdo_.

FOR STUDYING.—_Para estudiar_.

     A book,               _un libro_.
     The paper,            _el papel_.
     A leaf,               _un pliego de papel_.
     A page,               _una página_.
     The cover of a book,  _la cubierta del libro_.
     A pen,                _una pluma_.
     The ink,              _la tinta_.
     The inkstand,         _el tintero_.
     A penknife,           _el cortaplumas_.
     The sealing-wax,      _el lacre_.
     A seal,               _el sello_.
     A letter,             _una carta_.
     A note,               _una esquela_.
     The writing,          _la escritura_.
     The pocketbook,       _librito de memorias_.
     Parchment,            _pergamino_.
     The pencil,           _el lápiz_.
     A lesson,             _una leccion_.
     A translation,        _una traduccion_.
     A writing-desk,       _una escribanía_.

INSTRUMENTS OF MUSIC.—_Instrumentos de música_.

     A violin,       _un violin_.
     A bass-viol,    _violon_.
     A flute,        _una flauta_.
     A flageolet,    _un caramillo_.
     A bagpipe,      _una gaita_.
     A hautboy,      _un oboe_.
     A guitar,       _una guitarra_.
     A piano,        _un piano_.
     A harpsichord,  _un clavicordio_.
     A lute,         _laud_.
     A harp,         _una harpa_.
     An organ,       _un órgano_.
     A trumpet,      _una trompeta_.
     A drum,         _un tambor_.

OF THE PARTS OF A HOUSE.—_De las partes de una casa_.

     The house,         _la casa_.
     The door,          _la puerta_.
     The drawing-room,  _la sala_.
     The staircase,     _la escalera_.
     The stairs,        _los escalones_.
     The chamber,       _la cámara_.
     The antechamber,   _la antecámara_.
     The study,         _el estudio_.
     The windows,       _las ventanas_.
     The glasses,       _los vidrios_.
     The kitchen,       _la cocina_.
     The yard,          _el patio_.
     The well,          _el pozo_.
     The stable,        _la caballeriza_.
     The cellar,        _la bodega_.
     The garden,        _el huerto_.
     The gate,          _el porton_.
     The fountain,      _la fuente_.
     The pantry,        _la dispensa_.
     The first story,   _el primer alto_.
     The second story,  _el segundo alto_.
     The garret,        _el zaquizamí_.
     The terrace,       _la azotea_.
     The roof,          _el tejado_.
     The tiles,         _las tejas_.
     The gutters,       _las goteras_.
     The chimney,       _la chimenéa_.
     The bricks,        _los ladrillos_.
     The floor,         _el suelo_.
     The coach-house,   _la cochera_.
     The oven,          _el horno_.
     The beams,         _las vigas_.
     The joists,        _las viguetas_.
     The planks,        _los tablones_.
     The sign,          _la señal_, or _la tablilla_.
     The plastering,    _el yeso_.
     The lime,          _la cal_.
     The marble,        _el marmol_.
     The stones,        _las piedras_.
     The pigeon-house,  _el palomar_.
     The hen-house,     _el gallinero_.
     The poultry-yard,  _corral de aves_.
     The hogsty,        _la zahurda_.
     The walls,         _las paredes_.
     The house-rent,    _el alquiler de casa_.

THE FURNITURE OF A HOUSE.—_Muebles de una casa_.

     The hangings,           _la tapicería_.
     The looking-glass,      _el espejo_.
     The bed,                _la cama_.
     The sheets,             _las sábanas_.
     The mattress,           _el colchon_.
     The feather-bed,        _colchon de plumas_, or _el plumon_.
     The bolster,            _la almohada_.
     The pillows,            _las almohadas_.
     The tester of the bed,  _el cielo de la cama_.
     The curtains,           _las cortinas_.
     The counterpane,        _la colcha_.
     The head-curtains,      _las cortinitas_.
     The curtain-rods,       _las varillas_.
     The warming-pan,        _calentador de cama_.
     The pictures,           _las pinturas_.
     The frame,              _el cuadro_.
     The chairs,             _las sillas_.
     An arm-chair,           _silla de brazos_.
     The table,              _la mesa_.
     The carpet,             _la alfombra_.
     A cupboard,             _bufete_.
     A screen,               _el biómbo_.
     A box,                  _una caja_.
     A trunk,                _un cofre_, or _baul_.
     A little trunk,         _cofrecito_.
     Embroidery,             _el bordado_.
     The painting,           _la pintura_.
     The gilding,            _el dorado_.
     The carving,            _la escultura_.
     A figure,               _una figura_.
     A pedestal,             _una pedestal_.
     A vessel,               _una vasíja_.
     A cage,                 _una jaula_.
     A bird,                 _un pájaro_.
     A portrait,             _un retrato_.

WHAT IS FOUND ABOUT THE CHIMNEY.—_Lo que se halla cerca de la

     The chinaware,      _la porcelana_.
     An urn,             _una vasija_.
     A vase,             _un vaso_.
     The fire,           _la candela, el fuego, la lumbre_.
     Coal,               _carbon de piedra_.
     Charcoal,           _carbon_.
     The ashes,          _las cenízas_.
     The hearth,         _el hogar_.
     A firebrand,        _un tizon_.
     A pair of bellows,  _los fuelles_.
     The fender,         _el guarda fuego_.
     A standing screen,  _el biombo_.
     The shovel,         _el badil_.
     The tongs,          _las tenazas_.
     The poker,          _el atizador_.
     A hand-screen,      _el biombito_.
     The flame,          _la llama_.
     The smoke,          _el humo_.
     The soot,           _el hollin_.
     The matches,        _las pajuelas_.
     The steel,          _el eslabon_.
     The flint,          _el pedernal_, (_la piedra_, M.)
     The tinder,         _la yesca_.

WHAT IS FOUND IN THE KITCHEN.—_Lo que se halla en la cocina_.

     The spit,             _el asador_.
     The jack,             _el torno del asador_.
     A kettle,             _una caldera_, (_un cazo_, M.)
     A frying-pan,         _la sarten_.
     A trivet,             _el_ or _la trípode_.
     A gridiron,           _las parrillas_.
     A pitcher,            _un cántaro_.
     A pail,               _un cubo_.
     A rope,               _una cuerda_.
     A pulley,             _una polea_.
     An earthen pan,       _una cazuela_.
     A great pot,          _una marmita_.
     A pot,                _una olla_.
     A spoon,              _una cuchara_.
     A ladle,              _un cucharon_.
     A chafingdish,        _el escalfador_.
     A hook,               _un garabato_.
     The pot-hanger,       _las lláres_.
     A grater,             _el rallo_.
     A pudding-pan,        _la tortera_.
     A mortar,             _el mortero, or almirez_.
     A pestle,             _la mano del mortero_.
     The sink,             _el sumidero_.
     A broom,              _la escoba_.
     A rag,                _un trapo_.
     A dishclout,          _una rodilla_.
     A saucepan,           _la cacerola_.
     A little pan,         _un cacito_.
     A skimmer,            _la espumadera_.
     A strainer,           _la coladera_.
     An oil-pot,           _la alcuza_.
     A vial,               _una redoma_.
     A tub,                _un barreño_, _una cuba_.
     Ley, _or_ lie,        _la lejia_.
     Soap,                 _el jabon_.
     A coarse cloth,       _un trapo_.
     The flour,            _la harina_.
     The bran,             _el salvado_.
     A tray,               _la artesa_.
     A tablecloth,         _los manteles_.
     Napkin,               _la servilleta_.
     A basin,              _la jofayna_, (_palangana_, M.)
     A towel,              _la toalla_.
     Plate,                _el plato_.
     Knife,                _el cuchillo_.
     Washstand,           (_aguamanil_, M.)
     Fork,                 _el tenedor_.
     Saltcellar,           _el salero_.
     A porringer,          _la escudilla_.
     Dishes,               _los platos_.
     Spoon,                _la cuchara_.
     A chopping-block,     _el tajo_.
     A mug,                _el jarro_.
     A cup,                _una taza_.
     A basin,              _una palangana_.
     The peel of the oven, _la pala del horno_.
     Some wood,            _leña_.

WHAT WE FIND IN THE CELLAR.—_Lo que hallamos en la bodega_.

     A butt,              _una bota_.
     A barrel,            _un barril_.
     A stand for a butt,  _el sitio de la bota_.
     A funnel,            _el embudo_.
     Some hoops,          _algunos aros_.
     The dregs,           _la hez_.
     Wine,                _el vino_.
     Old wine,            _vino añejo_.
     New wine,            _vino nuevo_.
     Red wine,            _vino tinto_.
     White wine,          _vino blanco_.
     Claret,              _vino clarete_.
     Sour wine,           _vino agrio_.
     Sweet wine,          _vino dulce_.
     Beer,                _cerveza_.
     Small-beer,          _cerveza floja_.
     Cider,               _sidra_.
     Vinegar,             _vinagre_.
     A hammer,            _el martillo_.
     A lantern,           _la linterna_.
     To tap a barrel,    _decentar un baril_.
     To draw wine,       _sacar vino_.

THE SERVANTS OF A HOUSE.—_Los criados de una casa_.

     The steward,              _el mayordomo_.
     An almoner,               _el limosnero_.
     A chaplain,               _el capellan_.
     The secretary,            _el secretario_.
     The purveyor,             _el despensero_.
     The chamberlain,          _el camarero_.
     A page,                   _el page_.
     A footman,                _el lacayo_.
     A coachman,               _el cochero_.
     A groom,                  _el mozo de caballos_.
     The master of the horses, _el caballerizo_.
     The cupbearer,            _el copero_.
     A butler,                 _el bodeguero_.
     A falconer,               _el halconero_.
     The cook,                 _el cocinero_.
     A woman cook,             _la cocinera_.
     The scullion,             _el galopin_.
     The maid-servant,         _la criáda_.
     The chambermaid,          _doncella de la señora_,
                                      (_la recamarera_, M.)
     The waiting-woman,        _doncella de cámara_, or _la criada_.
     The carver,               _el trinchante_.
     The gardener,             _el jardinero_.
     The porter,               _el portero_.
     The master of the house,  _el amo de la casa_.
     The mistress, _el ama_.

WHAT IS FOUND ABOUT THE DOOR.—_Lo que se halla cerca de la puerta_.

     The key,              _la llave_.
     The lock,             _la cerradura_.
     The latch,            _el picaporte_.
     The bolt,             _el cerrojo_.
     The bell,             _la campanilla_.
     The knocker,          _el aldabon_.
     The wards of a lock,  _las guardas de la cerradura_.
     The bar,              _la tranca_.
     The threshold,        _el umbral_.
     The hinges,           _los goznes_.

WHAT IS FOUND IN THE STABLE.—_Lo que se halla en la caballeriza_.

     The hay,          _el heno_.
     Some oats,        _la avena_, (_cebada_, M.)
     Some straw,       _la paja_.
     A rack,           _el enrejado_.
     A manger,         _el pesebre_.
     The bran,         _el salvado_.
     The comb,         _el peine_.
     The currycomb,    _la almohaza_.
     A sieve,          _el tamiz_.
     A bridle,         _el freno_.
     A saddle,         _la silla_.
     The breastplate,  _el pretal_.
     The girths,       _las cinchas_.
     The fetlocks,     _las cernejas_.
     Some nails,       _algunos clavos_.
     The saddle-bow,   _el arzon_.
     A halter,         _el cabestro_.
     The groom,        _el establero_.
     The horses,       _los caballos_.
     A cart,           _un carro_.

WHAT IS FOUND IN THE GARDEN; FLOWERS, TREES &c. _Lo que se halla en el
jardín; flores, árboles, &a_.

     A row of trees,      _hilera de árboles_.
     An arbor,            _el emparrado_.
     A rose,              _una rosa_.
     A jessamine,         _un jazmin_.
     Pinks,               _claveles_.
     Tulips,              _tulipanes_.
     Lilies,              _lírios_.
     Violets,             _violetas_.
     Gilliflowers,        _alhelíes_.
     Jonquils,            _junquillos_.
     Poppies,             _amapolas_.
     An apple-tree,       _manzano_.
     An orange-tree,      _naranjo_.
     The gooseberry-bush, _el espino_.
     A rose-bush,         _el rosal_.
     The vine,            _la vid_.
     The ivy,             _la yedra_.
     A branch,            _un ramo_.
     An almond-tree,      _el almendro_.
     An alley,            _calle de árboles_.
     A little wood,       _un bosquecito_.
     The shade,           _la sombra_.
     The cool,            _el fresco_.
     A pear-tree,         _un peral_.
     A cherry-tree,       _un cerezo_.
     A plum-tree,         _un ciruelo_.
     An apricot-tree,     _un albaricoque_.
     A mulberry-tree,     _un moral_.
     A peach-tree,        _un alberchigo_.
     A fig-tree,          _una higuera_.
     An olive-tree,       _un olivo_.
     The box-tree,        _el box_.
     A laurel-tree,       _el laurel_.
     A fir-tree,          _el abeto_.
     An oak,              _el roble_.
     The elm,             _el olmo_.
     The beech-tree,      _la haya_.
     The nursery,         _el plantel_.
     The fountain,        _la fuente_.
     The pond,            _el estanque_.
     A bush,              _un arbusto_.
     A myrtle-tree,       _el mirto_.
     Sweet marjoram,      _la mejorana_.
     Thyme,               _el tomillo_.
     Verdure,             _la verdura_.
     A nosegay,           _un ramillete_.

TEMPORAL DIGNITIES.—_Dignidades temporales_.

     The chancellor,           _el chanciller_.
     The keeper of the seals,  _el guarda sellos_.
     The secretary of state,   _el secretario de estado_.
     The surveyor,             _el superintendente_.
     The treasurer,            _el tesorero_.
     The president,            _el presidente_.
     The counsellor,           _el consejero_.
     The judge,                _el juez_.
     The consul,               _el cónsul_.
     The auditor,              _el contador mayor_.
     The alderman,             _el regidor_.
     The civil magistrate,     _el magistrado civil_.
     The mayor,                _el corregidor_.
     The justice of the ward,  _el alcalde de barrio_.
     The advocate,             _el abogado_.
     The attorney-general,     _el procurador general_.
     An attorney,              _un procurador_.
     A deputy,                 _un diputado_.
     A notary,                 _un escribano_.
     A secretary,              _un secretario_.
     A solicitor,              _un agente_.
     A clerk,                  _un escribiente_.
     A writer,                 _un escritor_.
     The doorkeeper,           _el portero_.
     The constable,            _el alguacil_.
     A jailer,                 _el carcelero_.
     A prisoner,               _un preso_.
     A bumbailiff,             _el corchete_.

OFFICERS OF WAR.—_Oficiales de guerra_.

     The general,             _el general_.
     The admiral,             _el almirante_.
     The lieutenant-general,  _el teniente general_.
     A field-marshal,         _el mariscal de campo_.
     A brigadier,             _el brigadier_.
     The colonel,             _el coronel_.
     The major,               _el sargento mayor_.
     The adjutant,            _el ayudante mayor_.
     The captain,             _el capitan_.
     The lieutenant,          _el teniente_.
     The cornet,              _el corneta_.
     The ensign,              _el alférez_.
     The sergeant,            _el sargento_.
     The corporal,            _el cabo de escuadra_.
     A quartermaster,         _el cuartel maestre_.
     A commissary,            _el comisario_.
     A harbinger,             _el aposentador_.
     A horseman,              _soldado de á caballo_.
     The infantry,            _la infanteria_.
     A dragoon,               _un dragon_.
     A musketeer,             _un mosquetero_.
     A trumpeter,             _el trompetero_.
     A drummer,               _un tambor_.
     The fifer,               _el pífano_.
     The sentinel,            _la centinela_.
     The round,               _la ronda_.
     The patrole,             _la patrulla_.
     A spy,                   _una espia_.
     A pioneer,               _un gastador_.
     A cannonier,             _el artillero_.
     A miner,                 _un minador_.
     A volunteer,             _un voluntario_.
     The volunteers,          _los voluntarios_.

OF THE ARMY.—_Del ejército_.

     A land army,          _un ejército_.
     A fleet,              _una armada_.
     The main body,        _el cuerpo del ejército_.
     The vanguard,         _la vanguardia_.
     The rearguard,        _la retaguardia_.
     The body of reserve,  _el cuerpo de reserva_.
     A flying camp,        _el campo volante_.
     The horse,            _la caballeria_.
     The foot,             _la infanteria_.
     A squadron,           _un esquadron_.
     A batalion,           _un batallon_.
     The first rank,       _la primera fila_.
     The second rank,      _la segunda fila_.
     The baggage,          _el bagage_.
     The artillery,        _la artilleria_.
     The tents,            _las tiendas_.
     The pavilion,         _el pabellon_.
     A regiment,           _un regimiento_.
     A company,            _una compañia_.
     A garrison,           _la guarnicion_.

OF THE FORTIFICATIONS.—_De las fortificaciones_.

     A city,             _una ciudad_.
     The citadel,        _una ciudadela_.
     A fort,             _un fuerte_.
     A fortress,         _una fortaleza_.
     A castle,           _un castillo_.
     The walls,          _las murallas_.
     The ditch,          _el foso_.
     A palisade,         _la palizada_.
     The curtain,        _la cortina_.
     The half moon,      _la media luna_.
     The covered way,    _camino cubierto_.
     A redoubt,          _un reducto_.
     The trenches,       _las trincheras_.
     A mine,             _una mina_.
     A counter-mine,     _una contra mina_.
     A tower,            _una torre_.
     A parapet,          _el parapeto_.
     A bastion,          _un bastion_.
     Provisions,         _los víveres_.
     Ammunition,         _las municiones_.
     A siege,            _el sitio_.
     The capitulations,  _las capitulaciones_.
     Succors,            _un socorro_.
     A sally,            _una salida_.
     A storm,            _un asalto_.

PROFESSIONS AND TRADES.—_De las profesiones y oficios_.

     A physician,      _un médico_.
     A surgeon,        _un cirujano_.
     An apothecary,    _un boticario_.
     An engraver,      _un grabador_.
     A goldsmith,      _un platero_.
     A watchmaker,     _un relojero_.
     A merchant,       _un mercader_.
     A mercer,         _mercader de sedas_.
     A haberdasher,    _tendero de cintas_.
     An embroiderer,   _un bordador_.
     An upholsterer,   _un tapicero_.
     A pawnbroker,     _un prendero_.
     A pastrycook,     _un pastelero_.
     A butcher,        _un carnicero_.
     An innkeeper,     _un mesonero_.
     A hatter,         _un sombrerero_.
     A tailor,         _un sastre_.
     A shoemaker,      _un zapatero_.
     A printer,        _un impresor_.
     A bookseller,     _un librero_.
     Grocer,           _un tendero_, _especiero_.
     A baker,          _un panadero_.
     A cobler,         _un remendon_.
     A sadler,         _un sillero_.
     A barber,         _un barbero_.
     A joiner,         _un ensamblador_,
                            _carpintero de obra prima_.
     A carpenter,      _un carpintero_.
     A mason,          _un albañil_.
     A locksmith,      _un cerragero_.
     A blacksmith,     _un herrero_.
     A miller,         _un molinero_.
     A glover,         _un guantero_.
     A washerwoman,    _una lavandera_.
     A glazier,        _un vidriero_.
     A farrier,        _un herrador_.
     A player,         _un comediante_.
     A musician,       _un músico_.
     A painter,        _un pintor_.
     A wine-merchant,  _mercader de vino_.
     A sword cutler,   _un espadero_.
     A bookbinder,     _un encuadernador_.
     A milliner,       _una modista_.
     A mantuamaker,    _una batera_.
     An interpreter,   _un interprete_.
     A master,         _un maestro_.

Qualities, Defects, and Imperfections of a Man.

_Calidades, defectos, é imperfeciones de un hombre_.

     A one-eyed man,              _un tuerto_.
     A blind man,                 _un ciego_.
     A cripple,                   _un estropeado_.
     A cripple, (one who limps,)  _un cojo_.
     Squinteyed,                  _bizco_, or _bisojo_.
     A hunchbacked man,           _un jorobado_.
     A left-handed man,           _un zurdo_.
     A one-handed man,            _un manco_.
     A deaf man,                  _un sordo_.
     A dumb man,                  _un mudo_.
     A stammerer,                 _un tartamudo_.
     A bald man,                  _un calvo_.
     A dwarf,                     _un enano_.
     A thief,                     _un ladron_.
     A rascal,                    _un bribon, belitre_.
     A pickpocket,                _un ratero_.
     A rogue,                     _un pícaro_.
     A magician,                  _un mágico_.
     A sorcerer,                  _un hechicero_.
     A witch,                     _una bruja_.
     A wicked fellow,             _un malvado_.
     A poor fellow,               _un pobrete_.


_Buenas calidádes del hombre, y las enfermedádes á las cuales está

     A good-looking man,     _hombre de buena presencia_.
     A bad-looking man,      _hombre de mala catadura_.
     A rich man,             _hombre rico_.
     A misfortune,           _desgracia_.
     A person ill,           _un enfermo_.
     An illness,             _una enfermedád_.
     A fever,                _una calentura_.
     A quotidian ague,       _calentura cuotidiana_.
     A tertian ague,         _las tercianas_.
     A quartan ague,         _las cuartanas_.
     The cold fit,           _el parasismo de frio_.
     A wound,                _una herida_.
     A contusion,            _una contusion_.
     The gout,               _la gota_.
     The colic,              _un dolor cólico_.
     The smallpox,           _las viruélas_.
     The measles,            _el sarampion_.
     The rheum,              _la reuma_.
     The cough,              _la toz_.
     A cold in the head,     _una fluxion, un catarro_.
     The hooping-cough,      _toz convulsiva_.
     The itch,               _la sarna_.
     The itching,            _la comezon_.
     A tumor,                _un tumor_.
     The corruption,         _la corrupcion_.
     The stone,              _la piedra_.
     The gravel,             _las arenillas_.
     A bunch,                _un bulto_.
     A scratch,              _un araño_.
     A slap on the face,     _una bofetada_.
     A cuff,                 _un puñetazo_.
     A kick,                 _un puntapié_.
     A pistol-shot,          _un tiro de pistola, pistoletazo_.
     A thrust with a sword,  _una estocada_.
     A fall,                 _una caida_.
     Swooning,               _el desmayo_.
     A cold sweat,           _el sudor frio_.
     Death,                  _la muerte_.

OF BIRDS.—_De las aves_.

     An eagle,       _una águila_.
     A bird,         _una ave_.
     A little bird,  _un pajarito_.
     A goldfinch,    _un jilguero_.
     A linnet,       _un pardillo_.
     A Canary-bird,  _un Canario_.
     A nightingale,  _el ruiseñor_.
     A lark,         _una alondra_.
     A green-bird,   _un verderon_.
     A thrush,       _un tordo_.
     A godwit,       _un francolin_.
     A partridge,    _una perdiz_.
     A redbreast,    _un pitirojo_.
     A quail,        _una codorniz_.
     A starling,     _un estornino_.
     A chaffinch,    _un pinzon_.
     A sparrow,      _un gorrion_.
     A parrot,       _un papagayo_.
     A blackbird,    _un mirlo_.
     A magpie,       _una urraca_.
     A jay,          _un grajo_.
     A pigeon,       _un pichon_.
     A dove,         _una paloma_.
     A rook,         _una corneja_.
     A wagtail,      _el aguzanieve_.
     A plover,       _el reyezuelo_.
     An ortolan,     _un ortolano_.
     A swallow,      _una golondrina_.
     A cuckoo,       _un cuclillo_.

AMPHIBIOUS CREATURES.—_Animales anfibios_.

     A beaver,         _un castor_.
     An otter,         _una nutria_.
     A sea-horse,      _un hipopótamo_.
     A tortoise,       _una tortuga_.
     A land-tortoise,  _un galápago_.
     A sea-calf,       _una foca_.

OF FOUR-FOOTED ANIMALS.—_De los cuadrúpedos_.

     A dog,        _un perro_.
     A little dog, _un perrito_.
     A cat,        _un gato_.
     A civet-cat,  _gato de algalia_.
     A rat,        _una rata_.
     A mouse,      _un raton_.
     An ape,       _un mono_.
     A sheep,      _una oveja_.
     A hog,        _un puerco_.
     A sow,        _una puerca_.
     A cow,        _una vaca_.
     A fox,        _una zorra_.
     A rabbit,     _un conejo_.
     A wolf,       _un lobo_.
     A bull,       _un toro_.
     A mule,       _un mulo_.
     A camel,      _un camello_.
     A she-goat,   _una cabra_.
     An elephant,  _un elefante_.
     A lion,       _un leon_.
     A leopard,    _un leopardo_.
     A tiger,      _un tigre_.
     A horse,      _un caballo_.
     A mare,       _una yegua_.
     An ox,        _un buey_.
     An ass,       _un burro_.

OF REPTILES AND INSECTS.—_De los réptiles é insectos_.

     A toad,         _un sapo_.
     A frog,         _una rana_.
     A lizard,       _un lagarto_.
     A snail,        _un caracol_.
     A beetle,       _un escarabajo_.
     A scorpion,     _un escorpion_.
     A spider,       _una araña_.
     A serpent,      _una serpiente_.
     A butterfly,    _una mariposa_.
     A fly,          _una mosca_.
     A gnat,         _un mosquito_.
     A caterpillar,  _una oruga_.
     A worm,         _un gusano_.
     A louse,        _un piojo_.
     A flea,         _una pulga_.
     A bug,          _una chinche_.
     A nit,          _una liendre_.
     An ant,         _una hormiga_.
     A crocodile,    _una cocodrilo_.
     An asp,         _un áspia_.

WHAT IS SEEN IN THE COUNTRY.—_Lo que se ve en el campo_.

     The road,          _el camino_.
     The highway,       _camino real_.
     A plain,           _un llano_.
     A valley,          _un valle_.
     A mountain,        _una montaña_.
     A little hill,     _una colina_.
     A wood,            _un bosque_.
     A forest,          _una selva_.
     A hedge,           _un seto_.
     A bush,            _un arbusto_.
     A tree,            _un árbol_.
     A branch,          _un ramo_.
     The corn,          _el grano_.
     The wheat,         _el trigo_.
     Barley,            _la cebada_.
     The oats,          _la avena_.
     The vine,          _la vid_.
     A garden,          _un jardin_.
     An orchard,        _un huerto_.
     An alley,          _calle de árboles_.
     A castle,          _un castillo_.
     A steeple,         _un campanario_.
     A meadow,          _una pradería_.
     A lake,            _un lago_.
     A pond,            _estanque de agua_.
     A rock,            _una roca_.
     A ditch,           _una zanja_.
     A rivulet,         _un arroyo_.
     A river,           _un rio_.
     A bridge,          _un puente_.
     A bark,            _un barco_.
     A marsh,           _un pantano_.
     A slough,          _un cenagal_.
     A village,         _una aldéa_.
     A fortified town,  _una plaza_.
     A hut,             _una choza_, (_jacal_, M.)

WHAT WE SEE IN A CITY.—_Lo que vémos en una ciudad_.

     The gates,          _las puertas_.
     The church,         _la iglesia_.
     A palace,           _un palacio_.
     A house,            _una casa_.
     An hospital,        _un hospital_.
     The custom-house,   _la aduana_.
     The exchange,       _la lonja_.
     The place of arms,  _plaza de armas_.
     The town-house,     _casa de ayuntamiento_.
     The post-office,    _la casa del correo_.
     A banking-house,    _el banco_.
     A street,           _una calle_.
     The fair,           _la feria_.
     The market,         _la plaza_.
     A fountain,         _una fuente_.
     The bridge,         _el puente_.
     A shop,             _una tienda_.
     A prison,           _la cárcel_.
     A lane,             _callejuela_.
     An inn,             _una posada_.

OF COLORS.—_De los colores_.

     White,             _el blanco_.
     Black,             _el negro_.
     Red,               _el rojo_.
     Green,             _el verde_.
     Yellow,            _el amarillo_.
     Blue,              _el azul_.
     Gray,              _el pardo_.
     Violet color,      _violado_.
     Fire color,        _color de fuego_.
     Cherry color,      _color de cereza_.
     Purple,            _el morado_.
     Olive color,       _aceitunado_.
     Brick color,       _color de ladrillo_.
     Straw color,       _pajizo_.
     Crimson,           _carmesí_.
     Brown dark color,  _bruno_.
     Orange color,      _naranjado_.
     Dove color,        _columbino_.
     Ash color,         _ceniciento_.

OF METALS.—_De los metales_.

     Gold,         _el oro_.
     Silver,       _la plata_.
     Steel,        _el acero_.
     Iron,         _el hierro_, or _fierro_.
     Lead,         _el plomo_.
     Copper,       _el cobre_.
     Brass,        _el bronce_.
     Zinc,         _zinc_.
     Pewter,       _el peltre_.
     Tin,          _el estaño_.
     Quicksilver,  _el azogue_.
     Loadstone,    _piedra imán_.
     Brimstone,    _el azufre_.
     Cast steel,   _acero fundido_.
     Verdigris,    _el cardenillo_.
     Glass,        _el vidrio_.

COMMERCIAL TERMS.—_Voces mercantiles_.

     An engrosser,                 _un abarcador_.
     To credit,                    _abonar_.
     The carriage,                 _el porte_.
     Packthread,                   _hilo acarreto_.
     To accept a bill,             _aceptar una letra_.
     Stock,                        _accion_.
     Mortgagee,                    _hipotecario_.
     Mortgager,                    _el que dá la hipóteca_.
     Creditor,                     _acreedor_.
     Custom-house,                 _aduana_.
     A bargain,                    _ajuste_.
     A settlement,                 _ajuste de cuentas_.
     Carried over,                 _á la vuelta_.
     A warehouse,                  _un almacen_.
     Sale by auction,              _almoneda_.
     To hire, to let out,          _alquilar_.
     Exchange,                     _cambio_.
     Goods,                        _bienes_, _géneros_.
     Property,                     _propiedad_.
     To insure,                    _asegurar_.
     Ready money,                  _dinero de contado_.
     Goods which I have,           _bienes habidos_,
                or may have,             _y por haber_.
     Consumption,                  _consumo_.
     Stock,                        _caudal_.
     Fund,                         _fondo_.
     Cashier,                      _cajero_.
     Clerk,                        _cajero_, (M.)
     Cash,                         _caja_.
     Cash-book,                    _libro de caja_.
     A certificate,                _un certificádo_.
     The receiver,                 _el cobrador_.
     Wharfage, &c.,                _derechos de muelle_.
     A partner,                    _un compañero_.
     Company,                      _compañia_.
     Partnership,                  _compañia_.
     A commission,                 _una comision_.
     Cent, _or_ per 100,           _ciento_.
     Two or three per cent,        _dos ó tres por ciento_.
     A purchase,                   _una compra_.
     A purchaser,                  _un comprador_.
     A bill of lading,             _un conocimiento_.
     A bill,                       _una cuenta_.
     To cast up a bill,            _sumar una cuenta_.
     To call to an account,        _pedir cuenta_.
     To pay a part of an account,  _pagar a cuenta_.
     Consignment,                  _consignacion_.
     Duty of importation,          _derechos de entrada_.
     Duty of exportation,          _derechos de salida_.
     To unlade,                    _descargar_.
     Discount for ready money,     _descuento por dinero_
                                             _de contado_.
     Disbursement,                 _desembolso_.
     Town’s duties,                _derechos municipales_.
     A duplicate,                  _un duplicado_.
     A shop-book,                  _libro de tienda_.
     The waste-book,               _el borrador_.
     A small note-book,            _el borradorcillo_.
     A journal,                    _el diario_.
     A ledger,                     _libro mayor_.
     A letter-book,                _copiador de cartas_.
     A wholesale dealer,           _comerciante por mayor_.
     Nonpayment,                   _falta de pago_.
     A promissory note,            _un pagaré_.
     For the cost of losses,       _para costo de pérdidas_.
     Gross weight,                 _peso bruto_.
     Neat weight,                  _peso neto_.
     Policy of insurance,          _póliza de seguros_.
     To come to anchor,            _surgir_.
     Tare _or_ trett,              _tara_.
     A set rate,                   _la tara_.
     Cooperage,                    _tonelería_.
     To deal,                      _tratar_.
     Business,                     _negocio_.
     Seller,                       _vendedor_.
     Sale,                         _venta_.
     A cable,                      _la amarra, el cable_.
     The sounding-lead,            _la sonda_.
     A pilot,                      _un piloto_.
     The boatswain,                _el contramaestre_.
     A sailor,                     _un marinero_.
     A passenger,                  _un pasajero_.
     A cabin,                      _camarote_.
     The great cabin,              _la camara_.
     A tempest,                    _una tormenta_.
     A storm,                      _una borrasca_.
     Fair weather,                 _bonanza_.
     The calm,                     _calma_.
     Cabin-boy,                    _page de escoba_.


FOR STUDYING.—_Para estudiar_.

     To study,                _estudiar_.
     To learn,                _aprender_.
     To learn by heart,       _aprender de memoria_.
     To read,                 _leer_.
     To write,                _escribir_.
     To mark,                 _señalar_.
     To fold up,              _doblar_.
     To seal,                 _sellar_.
     To put the direction,    _sobrescribir_.
     To correct,              _corregir_.
     To blot out,             _borrar_.
     To translate,            _traducir_.
     To begin,                _empezar_.
     To go on,                _continuar_.
     To end,                  _acabar_.
     To repeat,               _repetir_.
     To do,                   _hacer_.
     To know,                 _saber_.
     To be able,              _poder_.
     To be willing, to wish,  _querer_.
     To remember,             _acordarse_.
     To forget,               _olvidar_.

TO SPEAK.—_Para hablar_.

     To pronounce,       _pronunciar_.
     To accent,          _acentuar_.
     To utter,           _proferir_.
     To say,             _decir_.
     To prattle,         _charlar_.
     To speak,           _hablar_.
     To cry out,         _exclamar_.
     To open the mouth,  _abrir la boca_.
     To shut the mouth,  _cerrar la boca_.
     To be silent,       _callar_.
     To call,            _llamar_.
     To answer,          _responder_.

TO EAT AND DRINK.—_Para beber y comer_.

     To chew,             _mascar_.
     To swallow,          _tragar_.
     To cut,              _cortar_.
     To taste,            _gustar_.
     To rinse,            _limpiar_.
     To drink,            _beber_.
     To eat,              _comer_.
     To fast,             _ayunar_.
     To breakfast,        _almorzar_.
     To dine,             _comer_.
     To drink tea,        _tomar té_.
     To sup,              _cenar_.
     To fill one’s self,  _saciarse_.
     To be hungry,        _tener hambre_.
     To be thirsty,       _tener sed_.

TO GO TO SLEEP.—_Para ir á dormir_.

     To get into bed,  _meterse en la cama_.
     To sleep,         _dormir_.
     To watch,         _velar_.
     To rest,          _descansar_.
     To fall asleep,   _adormecerse_.
     To dream,         _soñar_.
     To snore,         _roncar_.
     To wake,          _despertar_.
     To rise,          _levantarse_.
     To pray God,      _rogar á Dios_.

TO DRESS ONE’S SELF.—_Vestirse_.

     To dress one’s self,       _vestirse_.
     To undress one’s self,     _desnudarse_.
     To put on one’s shoes,     _ponerse los zapatos, calzarse_.
     To pull off one’s shoes,   _quitarse los zapatos_.
     To comb one’s head,        _peinarse_.
     To shave one’s self,       _afeitarse_.
     To dress one’s head,       _rizarse el pelo_,
                                     _componerse la cabeza_.
     To put on one’s hat,       _ponerse el sombrero_.
     To be covered,             _estar cubierto_.
     To button one’s self,      _abotonarse_.
     To put on one’s stockings, _ponerse las medias_.

ORDINARY ACTIONS OF MEN.—_Acciones ordinarias de los hombres_.

     To laugh,              _reir_.
     To weep,               _llorar_.
     To sigh,               _suspirar_.
     To sneeze,             _estornudar_.
     To yawn,               _bostezar_.
     To blow,               _soplar_.
     To blow one’s nose,    _sonarse las narices_.
     To whistle,            _silbar_.
     To hear,               _oir_.
     To smell,              _oler_.
     To spit,               _escupir_.
     To bleed at the nose,  _echar sangre por las narices_.
     To sweat,              _sudar_.
     To clean,              _limpiar_.
     To tremble,            _temblar_.
     To swell,              _hinchar_.
     To cough,              _toser_.
     To look,               _mirar_.
     To see,                _ver_.
     To pinch,              _pellizcar_.
     To scratch,            _rascar_.

ACTIONS OF LOVE AND HATRED.—_Acciones de amor y de odio_.

     To love,             _amar_, or _querer_.
     To caress,           _alhagar_.
     To show a kindness,  _mostrar benevolencia_.
     To flatter,          _lisonjear_.
     To embrace,          _abrazar_.
     To kiss,             _besar_.
     To salute,           _saludar_.
     To teach,            _enseñar_.
     To nourish,          _nutrir_.
     To correct,          _corregir_.
     To punish,           _mortificar_.
     To chastise,         _castigar_.
     To whip,             _azotar_.
     To praise,           _alabar_.
     To blame,            _culpar_.
     To give,             _dar_.
     To deny,             _negar_.
     To forbid,           _prohibir_.
     To use ill,          _maltratar_.
     To beat,             _apalear_.
     To hate,             _detestar_.
     To drive,            _impeler_.
     To pardon,           _perdonar_.
     To dispute,          _disputar_.
     To argue,            _argüir_.
     To plead,            _alegar_.
     To protect,          _proteger_.
     To forsake,          _abandonar_.
     To curse,            _maldecir_.
     To bless,            _bendecir_.

FOR AMUSEMENTS.—_Para las diversiones_.

     To sing,                _cantar_.
     To dance,               _bailar_.
     To play,                _jugar_.
     To play on the guitar,  _tocar la guitarra_.
     To play on the flute,   _tocar la flauta_.
     To fence,               _esgrimir_.
     To play at mall,        _jugar al mallo_.
     To play at tennis,      _jugar á la pelota_.
     To play at cards,       _jugar á los naipes_.
     To play at piquet,      _jugar á los cientos_.
     To play at ombre,       _jugar al hombre_.
     To play at basset,      _jugar á la baceta_.
     To play at chess,       _jugar al ajedrez_.
     To leap,                _saltar_.
     To win,                 _ganar_.
     To lose,                _perder_.
     To ride,                _cabalgar_.
     To lay a wager,         _apostar_.
     To venture,             _aventurar_.
     To be quits,            _estar en paz_.
     To lay out,             _descartar_.
     To shuffle,             _barajar los naipes_.
     To cut,                 _alzar los naipes_.
     To divert one’s self,   _entretenerse_.
     To joke,                _chancear_.
     To laugh at one,        _reirse de uno_.
     To make one laugh,      _hacer reir á uno_.
     To stand up,            _estar en pié_.
     To stoop downwards,     _inclinarse_.
     To turn,                _voltear_.
     To stop,                _parar_.

FOR ILLNESSES.—_Para las enfermedádes_.

     To feel the pulse,    _tomar el pulso_.
     To give a medicine,   _dar una medicina_.
     To take medicine,     _tomar una medicina_.
     To be sick,           _estar enfermo_.
     To grow worse,        _ponerse peor_.
     To purge,             _purgar_.
     To let blood,         _sangrar_.
     To make an incision,  _hacer una incision_.
     To bind up a wound,   _vendar una herida_.
     To probe,             _tentar_.
     To grow better,       _mejorarse_.
     To cut,               _cortar_.
     To cure,              _sanar_.
     To recover,           _recobrarse_.

FOR BUYING.—_Para comprar_.

     To ask the price,        _pedir el precio_.
     How much is this worth?  _¿cuanto vale eso?_
     What does it cost?       _¿que cuesta?_
     To haggle,               _regatear_.
     To measure,              _medir_.
     To buy,                  _comprar_.
     To pay,                  _pagar_.
     To bid, to offer,        _ofrecer_.
     To exact,                _exigir_.
     To sell dear,            _vender caro_.
     To sell cheap,           _vender barato_.
     To lend,                 _prestar_.
     To borrow,               _pedir prestado_.
     To pawn,                 _empeñar_.
     To take out of pawn,     _desempeñar_.
     To give,                 _dar_.
     To cheat,                _engañar_.

FOR THE CHURCH.—_Para la iglesia_.

     To go to church,           _ir á la iglesia_.
     To pray God,               _rogar á Dios_.
     To hear the sermon,        _oir el sermon_.
     To preach,                 _predicar_.
     To receive the sacrament,  _comulgar_.
     To adore,                  _adorar_.
     To baptize,                _bautizar_.
     To confirm,                _confirmar_.
     To ring the bells,         _repicar las campanas_.
     To bury,                   _sepultar_.
     To sing,                   _cantar_.
     To inter,                  _enterrar_.
     To kneel,                  _arrodillarse_.
     To rise,                   _levantarse_.

ACTIONS AND MOTIONS OF MEN.—_Acciones y movimientos de los hombres_.

     To go,               _andar_, or _ir_.
     To stay,             _quedar_.
     To dwell,            _habitar_.
     To come,             _venir_.
     To walk,             _pasear_.
     To run,              _correr_.
     To follow,           _seguir_.
     To escape,           _escapar_.
     To depart,           _partir_.
     To advance,          _adelantar_.
     To stand back,       _estar detras_.
     To be distant,       _estar léjos_.
     To come near,        _acercarse_.
     To return,           _volver_.
     To fall down,        _caerse abajo_.
     To slide,            _resbalarse_.
     To hurt one’s self,  _hacerse daño_.
     To arrive,           _arribar_,  _llegar_.
     To go to meet,       _ir á recibir_.
     To come in,          _entrar_.
     To go out,           _irse_, or _salir_.
     To go up,            _subir_.
     To go down,          _bajar_.
     To stand idle,       _estar ociso_.
     To sit down,         _sentarse_.
     To walk,             _pasear_.
     To go a-walking,     _ir á pasear_.
     To be in haste,      _estar de priesa_.

MANUAL ACTIONS.—_Acciones manuales_.

     To work,                 _trabajar_.
     To touch _or_ feel,      _tocar_.
             to play on,
     To handle,               _palpar_.
     To tie,                  _atar_, _anudar_.
     To untie,                _desatar_.
     To let loose,            _soltar_.
     To take away,            _llevar_.
     To take,                 _tomar_.
     To steal away,           _hurtar_.
     To gather,               _coger_.
     To tear off,             _despedazar_.
     To present,              _presentar_.
     To receive,              _recibir_.
     To squeeze,              _comprimir_.
     To hold, _or_ to have,   _tener_.
     To break,                _romper_.
     To hide,                 _esconder_.
     To cover,                _cubrir_.
     To discover,             _descubrir_.
     To dirty,                _emporcar_.
     To clean,                _limpiar_.
     To rub,                  _frotar_.
     To feel,                 _sentir_.
     To point out,            _mostrar_.
     To pinch,                _pellizcar_.
     To scratch,              _arañar_.

y de laimaginacion_.

     To remember,            _acordarse_.
     To forget,              _olvidar_.
     To think,               _pensar_.
     To believe,             _creer_.
     To doubt,               _dudar_.
     To suspect,             _sospechar_.
     To observe,             _observar_.
     To take care,           _tener cuidado_.
     To know,                _saber_.
     To imagine,             _imaginar_.
     To wish,                _desear_.
     To hope,                _esperar_.
     To fear,                _temer_.
     To assure,              _asegurar_.
     To adjudge,             _adjudicar_.
     To conclude,            _concluir_.
     To resolve,             _resolver_.
     To feign,               _fingir_.
     To be conceited,        _estar pagado de si_,
                             _ser presumido_.
     To be obstinate,        _estar obstinado_,
     To fly into a passion,  _arder en colera_,
     To be appeased,         _aplacarse_.
     To embroil one’s self,  _embrollarse_.
     To mistake,             _errar_.
     To be certain,          _estar cierto_.
     To be jealous,          _estar zeloso_.

FOR ARTS AND TRADES.—_Para las artes y oficios_.

     To paint,          _pintar_.
     To engrave,        _grabar_.
     To draw a sketch,  _delinear_.
     To embroider,      _bordar_.
     To enamel,         _esmaltar_.
     To gild,           _dorar_.
     To silver over,    _platear_.
     To inlay,          _ataracear_.
     To print,          _imprimir_.
     To bind a book,    _encuadernar_.
     To labor,          _trabajar_.

FOR THE ARMY.—_Para el ejército_.

     To raise soldiers,     _levantar gente_.
     To beat the drum,      _tocar el tambor_.
     To sound the trumpet,  _tocar el clarin_.
     To march,              _marchar_.
     To encamp,             _acampar_.
     To lodge,              _alojar_.
     To alight,             _apearse del caballo_.
     To give battle,        _dar batalla_.
     To gain the victory,   _ganar la victoria_.
     To put in disorder,    _poner en desorden_.
     To rout,               _derrotar_.
     To rob,                _hurtar_.
     To sack,               _saquear_.
     To plunder,            _pillar_.
     To block up,           _bloquear_.
     To besiege,            _sitiar_.
     To storm,              _asaltar_.
     To take by storm,      _tomar por asalto_.
     To spring a mine,      _volar una mina_.
     To fire,               _disparar_, _quemar_.
     To capitulate,         _capitular_.
     To surrender,          _rendirse_.
     To draw the sword,     _sacar la espada_.
     To kill,               _matar_.
     To give quarter,       _dar cuartel_.
     To wound,              _herir_.
     To open the trenches,  _abrir la trinchera_.
     To sound the retreat,  _tocar á la retirada_.
     To pursue the enemy,   _perseguir al enemigo_.

END OF THE VOCABULARY.—_Fin del Vocabulario_.



        DIALOGUE I.                         DIALOGO I.

  _About saluting and inquiring        Acerca de saludar é informarse
   after the health of a person.       de la salud de una persona_.

  Good morning, sir.                  Buenos dias, tenga Usted.[19]
  Good night, sir.                    Buenas noches, tenga V.
  Good afternoon, _or_ good evening.  Buenas tardes, tenga V.
  How do you do, sir?                ¿Como está, V.?
  Well, not very well; so, so.        Bueno, no muy bueno; así, así.
  Very well to serve you.             Muy bueno para servir á V.
  At your service.                    Al servicio de V.
  I am obliged to you.                Viva V. muchos años.
  I thank you.                        Doy á V. las gracias.
  How does your brother do?          ¿Como está su señor hermano de V.?
  He is well.                         Está bueno.
  He will be glad to see you.         Se alegrará de ver á V.
  I shall have no time to see         No tengo tiempo de verle hoy.
      him to-day.
  Be pleased to sit down.             Siéntese V. un rato.
  Give a chair to the gentleman.      Da una silla al señor.
  There is no occasion.               No es necesario.
  I must go to pay a visit in         Es menester que vaya á hacer
      the neighborhood.                    una visita en la vecindad.
  You are in haste.                    V. está de priesa.
  I will be back presently.            Volveré luego.
  Farewell, sir.                       Adiós, señor.
  I am glad to see you in good health. Me alegro de ver á V. con salud.
  I kiss your hands.                   Beso á V. las manos.
  I am your servant.                   Servidor de V.
  Your most humble servant.            Su humilde servidor de V.
  Your servant, sir.                   Servidora de V.

[19] _Usted_ and _Ustedes_, (you,) have always been written in
abbreviation, thus—_Vm_., _Vd_., _Vmd_., for the singular, and _Vms_.,
_Vds_., _Vmds_., for the plural. At present _V_. for the former, and
_VV_. for the latter, are used; and by either of them only, will those
words be expressed in these dialogues.

        DIALOGUE II.                        DIALOGO II.

  _To pay a visit in the morning.      Para hacer una visita por
                                             la mañana_.

  Where is your master?                ¿Adonde está tu amo?
  Is he asleep still?                  ¿Duerme aun?
  No, sir, he is awake.                No, señor, está despierto.
  Is he up?                            ¿Está levantado?
  No, sir, he is still abed.           No, señor, aun está en la cama.
  What a shame it is to be abed        ¡Que vergüenza! estar en la
      at this time of the day!              cama á esta hora.
  I went to bed so late last           Me acosté tan tarde anoche,
      night, I could not rise early         que no he podido levantarme
      this morning.                         temprano.
  What did you after supper?           ¿Que hizo V. despues de cenar?
  We danced, we sung, we               Bailamos, cantamos, reimos,
    laughed, we played.                     jugamos.
  At what game?                        ¿A que juego?
  We played at piquet with Mr. N.      Jugámos, á los cientos con el
                                            Don N.
  What did the rest do?                ¿Que hiciéron los otros?
  They played at chess.                Jugaron el ajedrez.
  How grieved am I, I did not know it! ¡Siento muchisimo no haberlo
  Who won? who lost?                   ¿Quien ganó? ¿quien perdió?
  I won ten pistoles.                  Gané diez doblones.
  Till what hour did you play?         ¡Hasta que hora jugaron VV.?
  Till two in the morning.             Hasta las dos de la mañana.
  At what o’clock did you go to bed?   ¿A que hora se acostó V.?
  At three, half an hour after three.  A las tres, á las tres y media.
  I don’t wonder at your rising        No extraño que V. se levante
    so late.                             tan tarde.
  What o’clock is it?                  ¿Que hora es?
  What o’clock do you think it is?     ¿Que hora cree V. que sea?
  Scarce eight, I believe, yet.        Creo que son apénas las ocho.
  How, eight! it has struck ten.       ¡Como, las ocho! han dado
                                            las diez.
  Then I must rise with all speed.     Es menester que me levante

        DIALOGUE III.                       DIALOGO III.

    _To dress one’s self.                  Para vestirse_.

  Who is there?                    ¿Quien es? _or_ ¿quien está ahi?
  What will you please to have,    ¿Que manda V. señor?
  Be quick, make a fire, and        Presto, haz fuego, y ven á
    dress me.                           vestirme.
  There is a fire, sir.             El fuego está encendido, señor.
  Give me my shirt.                 Dáme mi camisa.
  It is not warm, it is quite cold. No esta caliente, está fria.
  If you please, I will warm it.    La calentaré si V. gusta.
  No, no; bring me my silk          No, no; traeme mis medias
    stockings.                          de seda.
  They are torn.                    Tienen puntos.
  Stitch them a little; mend them.  Remiéndalas un poco.
  I have given them to the          Las he dado á la calcetera.
  You have done right. Where        Has hecho bien. ¿Adonde
      are my slippers?                  están mis chinelas?
  Where is my nightgown?           ¿Adonde esta mi pata?
  Comb my head.                     Peíname.
  Take another comb.                Toma otro peine.
  Give me my handkerchief.          Dame mi pañuelo.
  There is a clean one, sir.        Aqui está uno limpio, señor.
  Give me that which is in my       Dame el que está en mi faltriquera.
  I gave it to the washerwoman;     Le dí á la lavandera; estaba
      it was foul.                      sucio.
  Has she brought my linen?        ¿Ha traido ella mi ropa?
  Yes, sir; there wants nothing.    Si, señor, no falta nada.
  What clothes will you wear       ¿Que vestido llevará V. hoy
      to-day, sir?                      señor?
  Those I had yesterday.            El que llevé ayer.
  The tailor will bring your suit   El sastre debe traer luego, su
    of clothes presently.               vestido nuevo de V.
  Somebody knocks; see who it is.   Alguno llama á la puerta;
                                        mira quien es.
  Who is it?                       ¿Quien es?
  It is the tailor, sir.            Es el sastre, señor.
  Let him come in.                  Díle que entre.

      DIALOGUE IV.                          DIALOGO IV.

  _A gentleman and the tailor.         Un caballero y el sastre_.

  Do you bring me my suit of clothes? ¿Me trae V. mi vestido?
  Yes, sir; here it is.                Si, señor; aqui está.
  You make me wait a great while.      V. me hace esperar largo tiempo.
  I could not come sooner; it          No podía venir mas pronto;
      was not finished.                    no estaba acabado.
  The lining was not sewed.            El forro no estaba cosido.
  Will you be pleased to try          ¿Quiere V. probar la casaca?
      the close coat on?
  Let us see whether it be well made.  Veámos si está bien hecha.
  I believe it will please you.        Espero que le gustará á V.
  It seems to me to be very long.      Me parece muy larga.
  They wear them long now.             Se usan largas ahora.
  Button me.                           Abotóneme V.
  It is too close.                     Me aprieta demasiado.
  To fit properly, it ought to be      Para que siente bien, es preciso
      close.                               que ajuste.
  Are not the sleeves too wide?       ¿No son las mangas demasiado
  No, sir; they fit very well.         No, señor; van muy bien.
  This suit becomes you mighty         Este vestido le va muy bien
      well.                                 á V.
  It is too short, too long, too       Está demasiado corto, largo,
    big, too little.                       grande, chico.
  Pardon me, it fits very well.        Perdone V., le va muy bien.
  Have you made your bill?            ¿Ha hecho V. su cuenta?
  No, sir; I had not time.             No, señor; no he tenido tiempo.
  Bring it to-morrow; I will pay you.  Traígala V. mañana, y le pagaré.

      DIALOGUE V.                           DIALOGO V.

    _To breakfast.                        Para almorzar_.

  Bring us something for breakfast.   Traiganos V. alguna cosa, para
  Yes, sir; there are sausages        Si, señor; ahi tiénen salchichas
      and eggs.                           y huevos.
  Do you choose ham?                 ¿Gustan VV. jamon?
  Yes, bring it; we will cut a        Si, traigale V.; cortarémos
      slice of it.                        una tajada.
  Lay the tablecloth.                 Ponga V. los manteles.
  Give us plates, knives, and forks.  Denos platos, cuchillos,
                                          y tenedores.
  Give the gentleman a chair.         Dé una silla al señor.
  Sit down, sir; sit by the fire.     Siéntese V. junto al fuego.
  I am very well here; I am not cold. Estoy bien aqui; no tengo frio.
  Let us see if the wine is good.     Veámos si el vino es bueno.
  Give me that bottle and a glass.    Deme V. esa botella y un vaso.
  Taste that wine, pray.              Pruebe V. este vino, señor.
  How do you like it? What           ¿Como le halla V.? ¿que le
      do you say to it?                   parece á V.?
  It is not bad; it is very good.     No es malo; es muy bueno.
  Here are the sausages; take         Ahí están las salchichas; quite
      away this plate.                    V. este plato.
  Eat some sausages.                  Coma V. unas salchichas.
  I have eaten some; they are         He comido algunas; son muy
      very good.                          buenas.
  Give me some drink.                 Déme V. algo de beber.
  Your health, sir.                   Caballero á la salúd de V.
  Sir, I thank you.                   Doy á V. las gracias.
  Give the gentleman something        Dá de beber al señor.
      to drink.
  I drank but just now.               Acabo de beber.
  The petty patties were very         Los pastelillos eran muy buenos.
  They were baked a little too        Solo estaban demasiado cocidos.
  You do not eat.                     V. no come.
  I have eaten so much, I shall       He comido tanto, que no tendré
      not be able to eat my dinner.       ganas á medio dia.
  You only jest; you have eaten       V. se burla; V. no ha comido
      nothing at all.                     casi nada.
  I have eaten very heartily          He comido de buena gana las
      black pudding, sausages,            morcillas, las salchichas,
      and ham.                            y el jamon.

      DIALOGUE VI.                          DIALOGO VI.

   _To speak Spanish.                   Para hablar Español_.

  How goes on your Spanish?          ¿Como vamos con el Español?
  Are you much improved in it now?   ¿Ha hecho V. mucho progreso ahora?
  Not much; I know scarcely           No mucho; no sé casi nada.
      any thing.
  It is said, however, you speak      Dicen, no obstante, que V. le
      it very well.                       habla muy buen.
  Would to God it were true!         ¡Ojalá fuéra verdad!
  Those that say so are much          Los que lo dicen se engañan
      mistaken.                           mucho.
  I assure you, I was told so.        Le aseguro á V. que me lo han
  I can say a few words which         Puedo decir algunas palabras
      I have learned by heart.            que he aprendido de memoria.
  And it is as much as it is          Y es cuanto basta para empezar
      necessary to begin to speak.        á hablar.
  The beginning is not all; you       El principio no es el todo; es
      must make an end.                   preciso acabar.
  Be always speaking, either          Hable V. siempre, ó bien ó
      well or ill.                        mal.
  I am afraid of committing blunders. Temo decir disparates.
  Never fear; the Spanish language    No hay nada que temer; la
      is not hard.                        lengua España no es dificil.
  I know it; and that it has          Lo sé; y que tiene tambien
      abundance of graces.                abundancia de gracias.
  Application is the only way         La aplicasion es el solo modo
      of learning it.                     de aprenderla.
  How long have you been learning?   ¿Cuanto tiempo ha, que V. la
                                          está aprendiendo?
  Scarcely two months.                A pénas dos meses.
  Does not your master tell you,     ¿No dice su maestro de V. que es
      you must always speak Spanish?       menester hablar siempre
  Yes, he often tells me so.          Si, señor, me lo dice á menudo.
  Why don’t you talk, then?          ¿Porqué no habla V.?
  Whom will you have me talk with?   ¿Con quien he de hablar?
  With those that talk to you.        Con todos los que le hablen á V.
  I would fain talk, but I dare not.  Quisiera hablar, pero no me.
  You must not be afraid.               atrevo.  V. no debe tener miedo.
  You must be bold.                   Es menester ser atrevido.

      DIALOGUE VII.                     DIALOGO VII.

    _Of the weather.                    Del tiempo_.

  What sort of weather is it?        ¿Que tiempo hace?
  It is fine weather.                 Hace buen tiempo.
  It is bad weather.                  Hace mal tiempo.
  Is it cold? is it hot?             ¿Hace frio? ¿hace calor?
  It is not cold; it is not hot.      No hace frio; no hace calor.
  Does it rain? does it not rain?    ¿Llueve? ¿no llueve?
  I do not think it does.             No lo creo.
  The wind is changed.                Se mudó el viento.
  We shall have rain.                 Tendremos lluvia.
  It will not rain to-day.            No lloverá hoy.
  It rains; it pours.                 Llueve; llueve á cántaros.
  It snows.                           Nieva.
  It thunders.                        Truena.
  It hails.                           Graniza.
  It lightens.                        Relampaguéa.
  It is very hot.                     Hace gran calor.
  Has it frozen to-night?            ¿Ha helado á noche?
  No, sir; but it freezes now.        No, señor; pero hiela ahora.
  It appears to me to be a great fog. Me parece que hace un tiempo
  You are not mistaken; it is true.   V. tiene razon; es verdád.
  You have caught a violent cold.     V. ha cogido un gran catárro,
                                           _or_ una fluxion.
  I have had it this fortnight.       Ya hace quince días que le
                                         (_or_ la) tengo.
  What o’clock is it?                ¿Que hora es?
  It is early; it is not late.        Es temprano; no es tarde.
  Is it breakfast-time?              ¿Es tiempo de desayunarse?
  It will be dinner-time immediately. Luego será tiempo de comer.
  What shall we do after dinner?     ¿Que harémos despues de comer?
  We will take a walk.                Irémos á pasear.
  Let us take a turn now.             Vamos ahora.
  We must not go abroad this weather. No debemos salir con este tiempo.

      DIALOGUE VIII.                     DIALOGO VIII.

        _To write.                       Para escribir_.

  Give me a sheet of paper, a       Déme V. un pliego de papel,
      pen, and a little ink.             una pluma, y un poco de tinta.
  Step into my closet; you will     Entre V. en mi gabinete, y
      find on the table whatever         hallará sobre la mesa, recado
      you want.                          de escribir.
  There are no pens.                No hay plumas.
  They are in the standish.         Ahí están en el tintero.
  They are good for nothing.        Nada valen.
  There are some others.            Allí hay otras.
  They are not made.                No estan tajadas.
  Where is your penknife?          ¿Adonde está el cortaplumas de V.?
  Can you make pens?               ¿Sabe V. tajar plumas?
  I make them my own way.           Las tajo á mi modo.
  This is not bad.                  Esta no es mala.
  While I finish this letter, do    Miéntras acabo esta carta, hágame
      me the favor to make a             V. el favor de hacer
      packet of the rest.                un pliego del resto.
  What seal will you have me       ¿Que sello quiere V. que le
      put to it?                         ponga?
  Seal it with my cipher, or        Selléle V. con mi cifra, ó con
      coat of arms.                      mis armas.
  What wax shall I put to it?      ¿Que lacre le he deponér?
  Put either red or wafer, no       Ponga V. encarnado, ú oblea,
      matter which.                      no importa.
  Have you put the date?           ¿Ha puesto V. la fecha?
  I believe I have; but I have      Créo que si; pero no he firmado.
      not signed it.
  What day of the month is this?   ¿A cuantos estamos del mes?
  The eighth, the tenth, the        A ocho, á diez, á veinte.
  Put the superscription.           Ponga V. el sobrescrito.
  Where is the sand?               ¿Adonde está la arenilla?
  You never have either powder      V. no tiene nunca arenilla.
      or sand.
  There is some in the sandbox.     Hay alguna en la salvadera.
  There is your servant; will       Aqui está el criado; ¿quiere V. que
      you let him carry the              lleve estas cartas al correo?
      letters to the post-house?
  Carry my letters to the           Lleva las cartas del señor al
      post-office; and don’t             correo, y no se te olvide
      forget to pay the postage.        (pagar el porte) franquearlas.
  I have no money.                  No tengo dinero.
  There is some; go quick,          Ahí le tienes; vete pronto, y
      make haste to come back.           vuelve luego.

      DIALOGUE IX.                          DIALOGO IX.

        _To buy.                           Para comprar_.

  What do you want, sir?              ¿Que manda V. señor?
  What would you please to have?      ¿Que desea V.?
  I want a good fine cloth, to         Necesito paño bueno y hermoso,
      make me a suit of clothes.           para hacerme un vestido.
  Be pleased to walk in, sir,          Hágame V. el favor de entrar,
      you will see the finest I have.      verá V. el mejor que tengo.
  Show me the best you have.           Enséñeme V. el mejor que tenga.
  There is a very fine one, and        Ahí tiene V. uno muy fino, y
      what is worn at present.             como se estila ahora.
  It is a good cloth; but I don’t      Es bueno, pero el color no me
      like the color.                      gusta.
  There is another lighter piece.      Aquí hay otra pieza de un
                                           color mas claro.
  I like that color well; but the      Me gusta ese color; pero el
      cloth is not strong, it is too       paño es muy delgado, no
      thin.                                tiene bastante cuerpo.
  Look at this piece, sir; you         Mire V. este paño, señor, no
      will not find the like               hallará otro semejante en
      anywhere else.                       ninguna parte.
  What do you ask for it a yard?      ¿Cuanto pide V. por la vara?
  Without exacting, it is worth        Sin pedir demasiado, vale
      five dollars.                        cinco pesos.
  Sir, I am not used to stand          No estoy acostumbrádo a regatear;
      haggling; pray tell me your          suplico á V. que me diga
      lowest price.                        el último precio.
  I have told it you, sir; it is       He dicho á V. cuanto vale.
      worth that.
  It is too dear; I will give          Es demasiado caro; le daré
      you four dollars.                    á V. solo cuatro pesos.
  I cannot abate a farthing.           No puedo rebajar un cuarto.
  You shall not have what you ask.     No daré á V. lo que pide.
  You asked me the lowest price,       V. me preguntó el último
      and I have told it to you.           precio, y se le he dicho.
  Come, come, cut off two yards        Vamos, corte V. dos varas y
      and a half of it.                    media.
  I protest, on the word of an         Aseguro á V. bajo palabra de
      honest man, I do not get             hombre de bien, que no gano
      two shillings by you.                dos reales con V.
  There are three doubloons;           Aquí hay tres onzas déme V.
      give me my change.                   cambio.
  Be pleased, sir, to give me          Hágame V. el favor de darme
      another doubloon; this is            otra onza, á esta le falta
      too light, it wants weight.          peso.
  Here is another.                     Aquí hay otra.
  Farewell; sir, your servant.         Adiós; señor, servidor de V.

       DIALOGUE X.                        DIALOGO X.

  _To inquire after news.              De las noticias_.

  What news is there?               ¿Que se dice de nuevo?
  Do you know any?                  ¿Sabe V. alguna cosa?
  I have heard none.                 No he oido decir nada.
  What is the talk of the town?     ¿Que se dice en la ciudad?
  There is no talk of any thing.     No se habla de nada.
  Have you heard no talk of war?    ¿No ha oido V. hablar de la guerra?
  I heard nothing of it.             No se dice nada de ella.
  A person told me this morning,     Un sugeto me dijo esta mañana que
    that Mr. S. is a bankrupt; have    el señor S. ha quebrado; ¿tiene
    you any connection with him?       V. correspondencia con él?
  No, thank God.                     No, señor, gracias á Dios.
  So much the better.                Tanto mejor.
  Indeed, you surprise me.           Verdaderamente V. me sorprehende.
  My dear friend, there is no        Querido amigo, no hay nada
    wonder in all the bankruptcies     que extrañar en todas las
    now.                               quiebras ahora.
  Why so?                           ¿Porqué?
  Because the greatest part of       Porque la mayor parte de los
    shopkeepers will appear            tenderos quiéren parecer
    more than they really are.         mas de lo que son realmente.
  What is the amount of his          ¿A cuanto llega su quiebra?
  Between twenty-five and thirty     Veinticinco ó treinta mil pesos.
    thousand dollars.
  So much as that! you surprise     ¡Tanto! V. me sorprehende.
    me. Four years ago he was but      Cuatro años ha estába de
    a shopman at Mr. M’s. How has      dependiente en la tienda
    he been able to be trusted         del señor M. ¿Como ha
    so much?                           podido tener tanto crédito?
  I don’t know; he was worth         No sé, él era ríco cuando al
    something when he first            principio abrió su tienda.
    began to open his shop.
  I heard he had ten thousand        He oido, que tenia diez mil pesos.
  Well; if he was worth ten          Muy bien; si tenía diez mil
    thousand dollars, and reduced      pesos y ahora esta insolvente,
    to be a bankrupt now, there        hay ciertamente mala conducta
    must be some misconduct in that.   en él.
  I suppose so; I have heard he has  Lo supongo; he oido que tiene casa
    a country-house most handsomely    de campo muy soberbiamente
    furnished, a horse-chaise, two     adornada, una calesa, dos ó tres
    or three servants, without         criados, sin hablar de sus mozos
    speaking of his shopmen:           de tienda: con todas estas cosas
    all that takes a great part        se gasta la mayor parte de la
    of the profit, besides frequent    ganancia, además de la comedia y
    entertainments and the play.       de los convites.
  If there was nothing but that,     Si no fuéra otra cosa que eso,
   it would be but a trifle.           seria bagatela.
  Do you call that a trifle?        ¿V. llama eso bagatela?
  Yes, if he can afford it; but      Sí, si puede sostener semejantes
    if cards are his greatest          gastos; mas si los naipes son
    occupation, and he loses in        su mas grande ocupacion, y pierde
    an instant the labor of his        en un instante el trabajo de sus
    men and his own, I do not          mozos y su ganancia, no hay que
    wonder at his being a bankrupt.    extrañar que sea insolvente.
  I cannot comprehend how a man of   No puedo comprehender como un
    sense can run headlong to the      hombre de juicio puede ser tan
    ruin of others and his own.        inconsiderado que arruine á otros
                                       y á sí mismo.
  I have heard he is overstocked    He oido que tiene abundancia de toda
    with every thing.                  suerte de géneros.
  If he is overstocked, and does    Si tiene tantos géneros, y no los
    not pay for it, would it not be   paga, ¿No seria mejor volver lo
    better to send back what he       que no puede vender, que hacer
    cannot sell, than to make a show  vender, que hacer gala de lo que
    of what is not his own?           no es suyo?
  But you do not reflect, that      V. no considera, que la gente
    people generally go where         va generalmente adonde
    there is a greater choice.        hay mas en que escoger.
  I grant it; however, there is     Lo concedo; pero hay un
    a medium in every thing.          medio en todas las cosas.
  Yes, when prudence dictates       Sí, cuando la prudencia es la
    our actions; but when we          regla de nuestras acciones;
    will appear what we are           mas cuando queremos parecer
    not, others suffer for it.        lo que no somos, otros sufren
                                      por ello.
  You are right.                     V. tiene razon.
  How soon will he present          ¿Quando se ha de presentar?
  The newspaper does not say.       La gazeta no lo dice.
  It will be soon known.            Pronto lo sabrémos.
  It is twenty-six years ago        Hace veintiseis años desde
    since I opened my shop:           que abrí mi tienda: mi
    we were not worth, my             mujer y yo no teniámos
    wife and I, three thousand        tres mil pesos: hemos educádo
    dollars: I have bred up           doce hijos, y vivido
    twelve children, and lived        dichosos, sin verme insolvente.
    comfortably, without
    having been a bankrupt.
  I can say almost the same;        Puedo casi decir lo mismo;
    for my fortune was not so         mi fortuna verdaderamente
    considerable by a great           no era tan considerable:
    deal: yet by frugality I          pero con economía he vencido
    have overcome all the             las dificultades de la vida.
    difficulties of life.
  Were you married when first       ¿Era V. casado quando abrió
    you began business?                su tienda?
  No; I kept shop ten years          No; tenía tienda diez años
    before I married, and was          ántes de casarme, y tuve
    fortunate enough to find a         la dicha de hallar una mujer
    wife after my own sentiments.      de mi modo de pensar.
  We are both old, and have           Somos ámbos ancianos, y
    chosen the best time for            hemos escogido el mejor
    our business.                       tiempo para nuestros negocios.
  Truly, it is so; for, if you        Realmente, es así; porque,
    observe, now we pay dearer          si V. observa, pagamos
    for every article, and not          ahora mas caros los géneros,
    so good as they were formerly.      y no son tan buenos
                                      como lo eran antiguamente.
  It is true; but we sell them        Es verdad; pero los vendemos
    nearly the half dearer than         casi la mitad mas caro de lo
    what they did sell ten years        lo que se vendian diez años
    ago.                                hace.
  I grant it; but we have not         Lo concedo; pero no tenemos tanta
    so much profit as we had.           ganancia como teníamos.

      DIALOGUE XI.                         DIALOGO XI.

  _To inquire after any one.           Para informarse de alguno_.

  Who is that gentleman that spoke  ¿Quien es ese caballero que
    to you a little while ago?          hablaba á V. algun tiempo ha?
  He is a German.                     Es un Aleman.
  I took him for an Englishman.       Creí que era Ingles.
  He comes from Saxony.               Viene de Sajonia.
  He speaks French very well.         Habla Francés muy bien.
  The Spaniards take him for a        Los Españoles le creen Español,
    Spaniard, and the English for       y los Ingleses Ingles.
    an Englishman.
  It is difficult to be conversant    Es dificil hablar tantas lenguas
    in so many different languages.     diferentes.
  He has been a long while in         Ha estado largo tiempo en
    those countries.                    esos paises.
  Have you known him for any time?  ¿Hace mucho tiempo que V. le conoce?
  About two years.                    Cerca de dos años.
  He has a noble air; he has a        Tiene buena presencia, y él
    good mien.                          aspecto noble.
  He is a genteel person.             Es bien parecído.
  He is neither too tall, nor too    No es demasiado alto, ni demasiado
    little.                            pequeño.
  He is handsome; he is well         Es hermoso; es bien hecho.
  He plays upon the piano, the       Toca el piano, la guitarra, y
    guitar, and several other          otros muchos instrumentos.
  I should be glad to know him.      Gustaría mucho de conocerle.
  I will bring you acquainted        Proporcionaré a usted su
    with him.                          conocimiento.
  Where does he live?               ¿Adonde vive?
  He lives by the river side.        Vive á la orilla del rio.
  When will you have us go and      ¿Cuando quiere V. que váyamos
    wait on him?                      á visitarle?
  Whenever you please, for he        Cuando V. guste, porque es
    is my intimate friend.             mi amigo íntimo.
  It shall be when you are not       Será quando V. esté desocupado.
  We will go to-morrow morning.      Irémos mañana por la mañana.
  I shall be obliged to you.         Se lo agradeceré á V. mucho.

      DIALOGUE XII.                       DIALOGO XII.

     _For a journey.                      De un viage_.

  How many leagues is it from       ¿Cuantas leguas hay de aquí á N.?
    this place to N.?
  It is eight leagues.               Hay ocho leguas.
  We shall not be able to get        No podrémos llegar allá hoy, es
    there to-day, it is too late.      muy tarde.
  It is not twelve o’clock; you      No han dado las doce, tiene V.
    have time enough yet.              bastante tiempo.
  Is the road good?                 ¿Es un buen camino?
  So so; there are woods and         Así así; tiene V. bosques y rios
    rivers to pass.                    que atravesar.
  Is there any danger upon the      ¿Hay peligro en el camino real?
  There is no talk of it; it is a    No se dice nada de eso; es un
    highway where you meet             camino en que se encuentra
    people every moment.               gente á cada momento.
  Do not they say there are         ¿No se dice que hay ladrones en
    robbers in the woods?              los bosques?
  There is nothing to be feared      No hay nada que temer de dia a ni
    either by day or night.            de noche.
  Which way must one take?          ¿Que camino he de tomar?
  When you come near the hill, you   Cuando esté V. cerca del cerro,
    must take to the right hand.       tomará á mano derecha.
  Is it not necessary to ascend     ¿Hay necesidad de subir el cerro?
    the hill then?
  No, sir; there is no other hill    No, señor; no hay mas que un
    but a little declivity in the      declive insensible en el bosque.
  Is the way difficult through      ¿Es el camino dificil en el bosque?
   the wood?
  You cannot lose your way.          V. no puede extraviarse.
  As soon as you are out of the      Luego que V. esté fuera del bosque,
    wood, remember to keep to the      acuérdese de tomar á la
    left hand.                         izquierda.
  Is there any good inn on the       ¿Hay alguna buena posada _or_ venta
    road?                               (algun buen meson, M.)
                                         en el camino?
  There is one. There is none.       Hay una. No hay ninguna.
  There is one tolerably good.       Hay una pasadera.
                                       (Hay una tal cual.)
  Can I find any horses there?      ¿Podré hallar caballos en ella?
  It is likely. But you would        Puede ser. Pero V. haria mejor en
    do better to secure one here,      asegurar uno aquí de antemano.
  Pray, how much would it cost?     ¿Dígame V. cuanto me costaría?
  It would cost at the rate of       Costaría á razon de ... por legua.
    ... a league.
  I thank you, sir, and am much      Muchas gracias: lo agradezco
    obliged to you.                    mucho.
  Come, come, gentlemen, let us      Vamos, caballeros, á caballo.
    take horse.
  Where is Mr. N.?                  ¿Adonde está el Sr. N.?
  He is gone before.                 Se ha ido adelante.
  He will wait for you just out      Esperará á VV. fuera de la ciudad.
    of town.
  What do we stay for now?          ¿Que esperámos ahora? Vamos.
    Let us be gone.
  Farewell, gentlemen.               Adiós, señores.
  I wish you a good journey.         Dios les dé á VV. buen viage.
  Thank you.                         Viva V. muchos años.

       DIALOGUE XIII.                     DIALOGO XIII.

   _Supper and lodgings.             La cena y el alojamento_.

  Let us alight, gentlemen.          Apeémonos, señores.
  Take these gentlemen’s horses,     Toma los caballos de estos
    and take care of them.             señores, y cuídalos bien.
  Now, let us see what you will      Veamos ahora que nos dará
    give us for supper.                V. de cenar.
  Two chickens, half-a-dozen of      Un par de pollos, media docena de
    pigeons, a salad, six quails,      pichónes, una ensalada, seis
    and a dozen of larks.              codornices, y una docena de
  Will you have nothing else?       ¿No quieren VV. otra cosa?
  That is enough; but give us        No, esto basta; pero dénos buen
    some good wine, and some           vino y postres.
  Let me alone, I will please        Déjenme VV. les asegúro que les
    you, I warrant ye.                 daré gusto.
  Light the gentlemen.               Alumbra á los señores.
  Let us have our supper as          Dénos V. de cenar cuanto ántes.
    soon as possible.
  Before you have pulled off         Antes que se hayan quitado
    your boots, supper will be         VV. las botas, estará la
    upon the table.                    cena en la mesa.
  Let our portmanteaus and pistols   Vengan nuestras maletas y pistolas
    be carried up-stairs.               al cuarto.
  Pull off my boots; and then        Quítame las botas, y vé a ver si
    you shall go and see whether       han dado heno (paja, M.)
    they have given the horses         á los caballos.
    any hay.
  You shall conduct them to          Llévalos al rio, y cuida que les
    the river; and take care           de avena, (cebada, M.)
    they give them some oats.
  I will take care of everything;    Tendré cuenta con todo: descuide V.
    don’t trouble yourself.
  Gentlemen, supper is ready;        Señores, la cena está pronta;
    it is upon the table.              está en la mesa.
  We will come presently.             Vamos luego.
  Let us go to supper, gentlemen,     Vamos, señores, á cenar, para
    that we may go to bed in            poder acostarnos temprano.
    good time.
  Give us water to wash our hands.    Dénos agua para lavarnos.
  Let us sit down at table,           Sentémonos á la mesa, señores.
  Give us some drink.                 Dénos de beber.
  To your health, gentlemen.          A la salud de VV., señores.
  Is the wine good?                  ¿Es el vino bueno?
  It is not bad.                      No es malo.
  The chickens are not done           Los pollos no estan bastante
    enough.                             asados.
  Give us some oranges.               Dénos algunas naranjas.
  Why don’t you eat of these         ¿Porque no come V. pichónes?
  I have eaten one pigeon and         Me he comído un pichón, y tres
    three larks.                        alondras.
  Go, call for a chafingdish.         Vaya V. por un escalfadór.
  Tell the landlord we want to        Dí al posadero que venga á
    speak with him.                     hablarnos.

      DIALOGUE XIV.                       DIALOGO XIV.

  _To reckon with the landlord.       Para ajustar cuentas con el_

  Good evening, gentlemen.            Buenas noches, señores.
  Are you satisfied with your        ¿Les gusta á VV. la cena?
  We are; but we must satisfy         Si, señor; pero es menester
    you too.                            pagar.
  What is the reckoning?             ¿Cuanto hemos gastado?
  The reckoning is not great.         El escote no sube á mucho.
  See what you must have for us,        Vea V. cuanto le debémos,
  our men, and our horses.              por nosotros, nuestros criados
                                        y caballos.
  Reckon yourselves, and you          Hagan VV. la cuenta, y hallaran
    will find it comes to ten           que todo importa diez pesos.
  Methinks you ask too much.          Me parece que es demasiado.
  On the contrary, I am very          Al contrario, es muy barato.
  How much do you make us            ¿Cuanto nos hace V. pagar por
    pay for the wine?                   el vino?
  Four shillings a bottle.            Cuatro reales la botella.
  Bring us another bottle, and        Traiganos otra botella, y mañana
    to-morrow morning we will           por la mañana le pagaremos
    pay you ten dollars with            diez pesos incluyendo
    breakfast included.                 el almuerzo.
  Methinks the gentleman is           Me paréce que este señor está
    not well.                           malo.
  I am very well, but I am           Estoy bueno, pero estoy molido y
    weary and fatigued.                 cansado.
  You must take courage.             Es menester tomar ánimo.
  It would be better for me to       Yo estaría mejor en la cama, que
    be in bed than at the table.       en la mesa.
  Get your bed warmed, and           Mande V. calentar su cama,
    go to bed.                         y váyase á acostar.
  Good night, gentlemen.             Buenas noches, señores.
  Do you want any thing?            ¿Le falta á V. algo?
  I want nothing, but rest.          Nada quiero, sino descanso.
  Let us be called to-morrow         Despiértenos V. mañana muy
    morning very early.                temprano.
  I will not fail. Gentlemen,        Lo haré sin falta. Señores,
    good-night.                        tengan VV. buenas noches.

      DIALOGUE XV.                        DIALOGO XV.

  _On sailing upon the water, or    De un viaje por agua, ó por mar.
    on a voyage by sea_.

  When shall we go on board?        ¿Cuando nos embarcarémos?
  If we have favorable weather,     ¿Si tenemos viento favorable,
    how long shall we be on our        cuanto durará nuestro viaje?
  How much must I pay for           ¿Cuanto he de pagar por el pasage?
    the passage?
  How much must I pay for a         ¿Cuanto he de pagar por un
    cabin for myself?                  camarote para mí solo?
  How much ought I to give          ¿Cuanto se paga por estar en
    for a place in the large           la cámara grande con los
    cabin, with the rest of the        demas pasageros?
  How many passengers have you?     ¿Cuantos pasageros tiene V.?
  Are there any ladies among        ¿Hay algunas señoras entre
    the number?                        ellos?
  How many persons does your        ¿De cuantos hombres se compone
    whole crew consist of?             la tripulacion de V.?
  What kind of diet shall we        ¿Que nos darán de comer?
  Some smoked and salt meat,         Carne ahumada y salada, pescado
    and fish, potatoes, beans,         salado, patatas, frijoles,
    cheese, and sea-bread. I           ó avichuelas, queso y
    advise you, therefore, to          galleta. Aconsejo á V. por
    take along some provisions         lo mismo que lleve consigo
    for your private use.              algunas provisiones para
                                       su uso particular.
  What sort of provisions shall      ¿Que provisiones debo llevar?
    I take?
  Rice, vermicelli, ham, pickled     Arroz, fideos, jamones, ostras
    oysters, portable soup, and        en escaleche, sopa, y otros
    other eatables prepared for        comestibles preparados para
    that purpose, sugar, honey,        el efecto, azúcar, miel
    lemon syrup, prunes, fresh         de abejas, jarabe de limon,
    lemons; and also beer,             ciruelas pasas, limones frescos;
    wine, and such liquors as          y tambien vino, cerveza,
    you may be in want of.             y aquellos licores que
                                       puedan necesitarse.
  Do not forget to provide           No olvide V. llevar sábanas y
    yourself with sheets and           demas ropa de cama; y asi mismo
    bedclothes, and likewise           algunas medicinas.
    with a few medicines.
  When shall we set sail?           ¿Cuando partirémos, or saldrémos?
  To-day, if the wind is fair.       Hoy, si hace buen viento.
  At what hour shall we set sail?   ¿A que hora nos harémos á la vela?
  At ten o’clock, to profit by       A las diez, para aprovecharnos
    the high water.                    de la marea alta.
  I shall be in readiness, you       Estaré pronto, puedo V. estar
    may depend upon it. I will         seguro. Volveré en ménos
    be back in less than half          de media hora.
    an hour.

      DIALOGUE XVI.                                 DIALOGO XVI.

 _Conversation on board of a vessel. Conversacion á bordo de un barco_.

  Is the wind fair?                   ¿Es bueno el viento? ¿Tenemos
                                          buen viento?
  I fear we shall have a storm.        Temo que tengamos un temporal.
  The wind gets much higher.           El viento crece mucho. El viento
                                         se arrecia.
  What a dreadful storm!              ¡Que terrible temporal!
                                          _or_ tempestad!
  Do you think there is any danger?   ¿Piensa V. que hay peligro?
  Don’t be afraid, there is no         No tenga V. miedo, no hay
    danger.                              peligro.
  Does the wind continue to be        ¿Continua el viento á ser tan
    so contrary, or so bad?              contrario, _or_ tan malo?
  It is likely it will continue the    Es regular que continue lo mismo
  the same for three more hours.         por tres horas mas.
  No, it begins to abate a little.     No, empieza á caer un poca.
  I am very sick.                      Estoy muy malo.
  What is the matter with you?        ¿Que tiene V.?
  I feel very dizzy, great             Siento un grande desvanecimiento,
    squeamishnessin my stomach,          (se me anda la cabeza,) tengo
    my head and bones pain                el estómago revuelto, me
    me much, and I have a                 duelen mucho la cabeza y los
    shivering all over me.                huesos, y experimento
                                          escalofrío en todo el cuerpo.
  This is the effect of the            Todo eso es efecto del maréo; y
    seasickness; you must not be         no debe darle á V. ningun
    under any apprehension on            cuidado.
    that account.
  I advise you to take, two or         Aconsejo á V. que tome dos
    three times a day, a little           ó tres veces al dia una
    spoonful of sulphuric-ether           cucharaditade eter sulfúrico
    in a small tumbler of water,          en un vasito de agua, y que
    and to rub your temples               se frote con él las sienes,
    and nose with it. It                  y las nariz. Se recomienda
    is recommended also to                tambien á los principios el
    drink sea-water for the               beber agua del mar una ó dos
    first few days, to keep on            veces al dia; el mantenerse
    deck, and to walk about               sobre la cubierta, y pasear
    as much as possible. Some             cuanto se pueda. Algunos
    persons assert that a silk            aseguran que el atarse
    handkerchief, tied tight              fuertemente un pañuelo de seda
    round the waist next to               á raiz de las carnes, al
    the skin, is a great preventive.      rededor de la cintura, es un
                                          gran preservativo.
  I have the toothache.                Tengo dolor de muelas.
  That happens frequently at           Eso sucede frecuentemente en
    sea. You must mind not               el mar. Es menester no
    to expose yourself to the            esponerse al relente, (la
    damps of the morning and             humedad de la mañana, ó
    evening air. You must                de la noche;) mascar coclearia,
    frequently chew cochlearia           ó salvia; lavarse la boca
    or sage leaves. Wash your            á menudo con aguardiente
    mouth with camphorated               alcanforado, en una palabra
    brandy, and finally, take            tener mucho cuidado de los
    great care of your teeth.            dientes.

      DIALOGUE XVII.                     DIALOGO XVII.

  _On a journey which cannot          Sobre un viaje que no puede
    be otherwise performed             hacerse sino en litera, ó en
    than in a litter, or on mules.     mulas_.

  Is the road very bad?             ¿Es muy malo el camino?
  Yes, sir, it is very narrow,       Si, señor, es muy angosto,
    rugged, and bordered with          escabroso, á la orilla de
    precipices.                        precipicios.
  How far is this place from ...?  ¿Cuanto dista este lugar de ...?
  It is about eleven long leagues.   Dista como unas once leguas largas.
  Shall we sleep on the road?       ¿Pasarémos la noche en el camino?
  It is likely; but there is an      Es regular; pero V. hallará
    inn at the foot of yonder          una venta al pié de aquel
    mount. You will find in            monte. En ella algunas
    it pretty good accommodations,     comodidades, y las mulas
    with good stabling for the         una buena caballeriza.
  How many horses or mules          ¿Cuanto caballos ó mulas tengo
    must I take?                       que tomar?
  Two, four, &c.                      Dos, cuatro, &a.
  How much are they paid by           ¿Cuanto se les paga (se les da)
    the day?                            por día?
  You would travel more              V. viajaria mas comodamente yendo
    conveniently by going in a          en litera.
  Will you do me the favor to       ¿Querrá V. hacerme el favor
    look for a good litter, a           de buscarme una buena
    good litter-driver, and good        litera y procurarme, un
    mules for me?                       buen literero, y mulas?
  Very willingly.                    De muy buena gana.
  As you will perform part           Como V. hará mucha parte
    of this journey on foot, I         del camino á pié, le aconsejo
    advise you to get a pair of        que se provea de un
    good, stout, and easy boots,       buen par de botas fuertes
    and to take with you an            y cómodas, de su paragua,
    umbrella and your greatcoat.       y de su sobretodo.
  Do you know enough of the         ¿Sabe V. lo bastante de la
    language of the country to         lengua del pais para hablar
    speak with the drivers and         con los litereros, o con los
    the servants?                      criados, (mozos, M.)?
  No; but one of the passengers      No; pero uno de los pasageros
    speaks it well.                    la habla bien.
  That is not sufficient. You        Eso no basta. Es preciso que
    must be able yourself to           V. mismo pueda mandar á
    order the drivers to stop,         los litereros que paren, que
    to drive on a good pace, to        caminen mas á priesa, que
    proceed more gently, &c.           vayan con mas tiento, &a.
  Well, I will learn a dozen of      Bien está; voy á aprender una
    phrases for that purpose.          docena de frases con ese objeto.
  That is all you stand in need of.  Eso es todo lo que se ha menester.
  Would you be so kind as to        ¿Querria V. tener la bondad
    prepare all things necessary       de preparar todas las cosas
    for this voyage?                   necesarias para mí viage?
  With all my heart.                 De muy buena gana.

      DIALOGUE XVIII.                    DIALOGO XVIII.

  _At the dinner table.              A la mesa_ or _comiendo_.

  Call for dinner.                   Pida V. la comida.
  It is not ready yet.               Todavia no está pronta.
  They have rung the bell.           Ya han tocado la campana.
  Sit down, ladies and gentlemen.    Siéntense VV. señoras y señores.
  Who says grace?                   ¿Quien echa la bendicion?
  Why do you make such ceremonies?  ¿Porqué hace V. tantas ceremonias?
  Give us some bread.                Dénos V. pan.
  Shall I cut you some of the       ¿Quiere V. que le dé de la
  upper or the under crust?          corteza de encima ó de la
                                     de abajo?
  As you please.                     Como V. guste.
  I thank you; I shall help          Gracias; me serviré yo mismo.
  What can I help you to?           ¿Que me permite V. que le sirva?
  Will you take a little soup?      ¿Tomará V. un poco de sopa?
  I thank you. I will trouble        Gracias. Tenga V. la bondad
    you for a small piece of           de darme un pedacito de vaca,
    beef, it looks very well.          que parece muy buena.
  What part do you like best?       ¿Que parte le gusta á V. mas?
  It is indifferent. Any that        Me es indiferente. La que
    you please.                        V. guste.
  Do you like it well done or        ¿Le gusta á V. bien cocida, o no?
  Well done, if you please.          Bien cocida; si V. me hace favor.
  Rather rare, if it is not too      Poco cocida, si no es muy
    much trouble.                      molesto para V.
  I do not like it overdone.         No me gusta demasiadamente cocida.
  Have I helped you to what          ¿Le he servido á V. á se gusto?
    you like?
  I hope this piece is to your       Espero que este pedazo sea del
    liking.                            gusto de V.
  It is very good, indeed.           Con verdad es bonísimo.
  What do you take with your meat?  ¿Que toma V. con su carne?
  Shall I help you to some          ¿Gusta V. de que le sirva legumbres?
  We have here potatoes, cabbage,    Aquí tenemos patatas, (papas,)
    cauliflower, peas, turnips,        coles, coliflor, guisantes,
    parsnips, beets, spinage, &c.     (chícharos,) nabos, chirivías,
                                       remolacha, espinacas, &a.
  I will thank you for some           Sirvase V. darme patatas.
  Change my plate.                    Múde (llévese) V. este plato.
  Bring a clean plate.                Traiga V. un plato limpio.
  A knife and fork.                   Un cuchillo y un tenedor.
  A spoon and a tumbler.              Una cuchara y un vaso.
  Help yourselves.                    Sírvanse VV.
  Take, without ceremony, what        Tomen VV. sin ceremonia, de
    you like best.                      lo que hay.
  Will you take some roast beef?    ¿Tomará V. un poco de asado?
  Do you like the fat, or the       ¿Le gusta á V. el gordo, ó el
    lean?                               magro?
  I am not very fond of fat.          No me gusta mucho el gordo.
  Give me some of the lean, if        Déme V. un poco de magro, si V.
    you please.                         me hace el favor.
  Take this to Mr. or Mrs., &c.       Lleve V. este plato al caballero,
                                        _or_ al Señor N.,
                                        _or_ á la Señora N.
  This is for the young lady.         Este es para la Señorita.
  How do you like the roast beef?    ¿Como le gusta á V. el asado?
  It is delicious—excellent.         Es delicioso—excelente.
  I am very glad it is to your        Me alegro mucho que esté del
    taste.                              gusto de V.
  You have no juice.                  V. no tiene caldo, _or_ salsa.
  I have plenty, I thank you.         Tengo bastante, muchas gracias.
  Have the goodness to pass           Tenga V. la bondad de pasarme
    the saltcellar.                      el salero.
  Now I will send you some of         Ahora voy á enviarle á V.
    this fowl. Which do you             una piececita de este pollo.
    like best—a wing, a leg, or       ¿Que prefiere V., el alon,
    the white meat?                     la pierna, ó la pechuga?
  I thank you. I would prefer         Gracias. Preferiria un bocadito
   a small piece of salmon.             de salmon.
  Pray, taste some of this pie.       Hágame V. favor de probar
                                        este pastel.
  You drink nothing.                  Parece que V. no bebe.
  Permit me to pour you out           Permítame V. que le ofrezca
    some Madeira.                       una copita de Madera.
  You have some wine beside you.      Ahí tiene V. vino á su lado.
  Help yourself to what you           Sírvase V. como guste.
    like best.
  I drink nothing but cool water.     Yo no bebo mas que agua fría.
  What will you take of the          ¿Que tomará V. de los postres?
  Here are pears, oranges,            Aquí tiene V. peras, naranjas,
  grapes, &c., preserves, jellies.      uvas, &a., conservas, jaléas.
  I thank you; I have eaten             Gracias; he comido bastante.
  Will you take some coffee?         ¿Tomará V. un poco de café?
  With pleasure.                      Con mucho gusto.



_Modelos de Cartas de Comercio, &a_.

                     FIRST LETTER.—_Carta primera_.

  _New York_, _March 15_, _1849_.         Sr. Don[20] Anselmo Bravo,
                                             _Nueva York_, _á 15 de
  Mr. Anselmo Bravo,                                  Marzo de 1849_.

    Sir: Having established in           Muy Señor mio:[21] Habiendo
  this city a mercantile house         establecido en esta ciudad
  under my own name, I beg leave       una casa de comercio bajo mi
  to offer you my services,            propio nombre, suplico á V.
  particularly as a commission         me permita ofrecerle mis
  merchant. (Or any other kind         servicios, particularmente como
  of business.)                        comisionista. (U otra clase de

    A sufficient capital, a              Un caudal suficiente,
  respectable credit, and the          un crédito respetable y el
  requesite knowledge of business,     conocimiento necesario de los
  enable me to serve my friends        negocios, me ponen en estado
  in the most satisfactory manner;     de servir á mis amigos de la
  and I am happy to add that           manera mas satisfactoria,
  Mr. Cándido Delgado, of              teniendoel gusto de añadir que
  your city, merchant, has permitted   el Señor Don Cándido Delgado,
  me to refer to him for any           de ese comercio me ha permitido
  information on the subject.          referirme á su informe, siempre
                                       que se requiera alguno sobre
    I have the honor to be, with       el particular.
  the utmost respect,
                                         Tengo[22] el honor de ser de
      Your most ob’t servant,          V. con el mayor respeto su muy
                                       atento seguro servidor,
               ELIGIO FUENTE.
                                                    Q. B. S. M.
                                                 ELIGIO FUENTE.

[20] DON being a distinction of nobility, is omitted in the new
republics; they address thus, _Señor Anselmo Bravo_. It will be better
for foreigners to observe the style used by persons to whom the letters
are addressed, and imitate it.

[21] Letters, particularly on business, generally begin with these
words _Muy Señor mio_; which, according to circumstances, may be
changed into _Muy Señores mios_, _Muy Señor nuestro_, _Muy Señores
nuestros_. Persons mutually acquainted frequently begin their letters
thus: _Muy Señor mio, y amigo_, or _estimado amigo_, or _Muy Señor mio
y de todo mi aprecio_; My dear Sir, and friend, or esteemed friend, or
valued friend.

[22] Letters are also ended thus: _Dios guarde á V_. (or _la vida de
V_.) _los m^s. a^s_. (muchos años) _que desea S. S. S_. (su seguro
servidor) _Q. B. S. M_. (que besa sus manos.) Also, _Soy de V. muy
atento servidor Q. B. S. M_. or _Quedo de V. su muy afecto servidor,
Q. B. S. M_.

                     SECOND LETTER.—_Carta segunda_.

           _Havana_ ... _1849_.        Sr. Don A. B.
  Mr. A. B.,                             _Habana_, _y_ ... de _1849_.

    SIR: Under the protection            Muy Señor mio. Bajo los
  of our common friend ... I          auspicios de nuestro comun
  take the liberty to send, on         amigo ... me tomo la libertad
  my own account and risk and          de remitir de mi cuenta
  to your consignment, one hundred     y riesgo, y á la consignacion
  and fifty boxes white sugar,         de V. ciento y cincuenta cajas
  and twenty-two bags containing       de azúcar blanco, y veintidos
  coffee of superior quality, which    sacos de café de superior
  I have this day shipped on board     calidad, que he embarcado á
  the American ship Anastasia,         bordo de la fragata Americana
  A. Smith, captain, as per the        Anastasia, su capitan A. Smith
  inclosed invoice and bill of         como lo prueban la factura y
  lading.                              conocimiento incluso.

    The ship is new, and her             El barco es nuevo, el capitan
  captain a very intelligent and       muy inteligente y experimentado,
  experienced seaman, and he is        y deberá darse á la vela el 9
  to sail on the 9th instant           del corriente sin falta.

    This information will be            Estas noticias serán suficientes
  sufficient for the insurance of     para proceder al seguro de dichos
  said articles, which I beg you      artículos, que suplico á V. se
  to have made immediately,           sirva hacer inmediatamente, con
  together with the addition of       mas un 25 por ciento de ganancias
  25 per cent. for imaginary          imaginarias.

    Should this first essay prove       Si este primer ensayo tuviere
  as successful as I wish, I will     el buen éxito que deseo continuaré
  apply to you in all the business    valiéndome del favor de V. para
  I may have in your place, and       cuanto me ocurra en esa, é
  induce my friends to do the same.   induciré á mis amigos á que hagan
                                      lo mismo.

    Wishing you the greatest            Deseando á V. la mayor
  prosperity, I beg leave to offer    prosperidad, me ofrezco á sus
  you my services, and am             órdenes y soy con el mayor
        Very respectfully,            respeto,
              Sir,                            S. S. S.
      Your most ob’t servant,                     Q. B. S. M.
                              E. F.                         E. F.

  An invoice of one hundred           Factura de ciento y cincuenta
  and fifty boxes white sugar,        cajas de azucar blanco, y
  and twenty-two bags superior        veintidos sacos de café superior,
  coffee, which I, the undersigned,   que yo, el infraescrito he
  have shipped on my own account      embarcado de mi cuenta y riesgo,
  and risk, on board the American     á bordo de la fragata Americana
  ship Anastasia, Captain A. Smith,   Anastasia, su capitan A. Smith,
  bound to New York, consigned to     con destino á Nueva York, á la
  Don A. B. of that city, merchant.   consignacion de Don A. B de
                                      aquel comercio.

                cwt. qrs. lbs.                     qtls. arrb. lb.
  N.1  to  N.1.  17    3   11  $       N.1 á  N.1.  17    3    11 $
   150     N.2.  16    2   17  $        150   N.2.  16    2    17 $
  A.F.      &c.  &c.             ——    A.F.   &a.   &a.             ——

  N.1  to  N.1.   4    3    9 $       N.1  á  N.1.   4    3     9 $
   22      N.2.   4    3   21 $        22     N.2.   4    3    21 $
  A.F.      &c.  &c.            ——    A.F.     &a.   &a.            ——
                              $                                    $
                  Expenses    $                     Gastos         $
                                ——                                  ——
                E. E. Total   $                  S. Y. O. Total    $
                                ——                                  ——
  _Havana_ ...     1849.                 _Habana_ ... 1849.

                        E. F.                                E. F.

                     THIRD LETTER.—_Carta tercera_.

              _New York_ ... 1849.   Sr. Dn. E. F.
  Mr. E. F.,                                 _Nueva York á_ ... 1849.

    SIR: I have the pleasure            Muy Señor mio: Tengo el
  to inform you, that the Anastasia   gusto de informar á V. que
  arrived safely at this              la Anastasia llegó felizmente
  port the day before yesterday,      á este puerto el dia ántes de
  and that your sugar and             ayer, y que el azúcar y café
  coffee are already in my store.     de V. estan ya en mi almacen.
  I hope soon to wait on you          Espero pasar á V. dentro de
  with their account-sale, and        poco su cuenta de venta, y a
  at prices which I have no           precios que no dudo merezcan
  doubt will be satisfactory:         su aprobacion: en el entretanto
  in the mean while I remain          quedo á sus órdenes
  very respectfully,                  con el mayor respeto, y soy
            Sir,                      su muy afecto servidor,
    Your most affect’e serv’t,                      Q. B. S. M.
                      A. B.                                 A. B.

                     FOURTH LETTER.—_Carta cuarta_.

            _New York_ ... 1849.     Sr. Dn. E. F.,
  Mr. E. F.,                                 _Nueva York á_ ... 1849.

    SIR: I have just received           Muy Señor mio: Acabo de
  a letter from Captain A.            recibir una carta de Sr. A.
  Smith, of the Anastasia, dated      Smith, capitan de la Anastasia,
  Savannah on the ... instant,        fecha el ... del corriente,
  informing me that he                en Savannah, en la que me informa
  has been obliged to enter said      haberse visto obligado á entrar de
  port in distress, in order to       arribada en aquel puerto para
  repair the damages sustained        reparar los daños causados á
  by said vessel, in consequence      dicho barco por el recio temporal
  of the severe gale experienced      experimentado en su travesia. El
  during her passage. He supposes     supone que el cargamento está
  the cargo to be damaged.            averiado.

    In order to secure your             A fin de poner en salvo los
   interests, I have made a protest   intereses de V. he hecho la
  in your name; which, together with  correspondiente protesta en su
  all the necessary documents, I      nombre, la cual, con los demas
  have presented to the underwriters, documentos necesarios he
  and in due time I will inform you   presentado á los aseguradores,
  of the results.                     y á su tiempo informaré á V. del

    Very respectfully, &c.              Quedo de V., &a.

        LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION.—_Carta de recomendacion_.

                 _N.Y._ ... 1849.     Sr. Don G. H.,
  Mr. G. H.,                                     _N.Y._ ... _de_ 1849.

    SIR: Permit me to                  Muy Señor mio: Permítame
  introduce to your acquaintance     V. que le presente mi particular
  my particular friend Mr. J.        amigo, Don J. del comercio de
  of this city, merchant. He         esta ciudad, que pasa á esa á
  visits your city on certain        suntos de familia. Si este Señor
  family business. Should he         necesitare del auxilio de los
  stand in need of any assistance,   conocimientos de V. le viviré muy
  you will oblige me by affording    reconocido si se sirviere
  it to him with your usual          prestársele con su acostumbrada
  friendly attention.                bondad.

    (In the event of Mr. J.            (En caso que dicho Sr. J
  requiringsome money, I beg         haya menester algun dinero,
  you to supply him with any         suplico á V. se sirva franquearle
  sum to the extent of two           hasta la cantidad de dos mil pesos,
  thousand dollars, taking his       tomando su libranza á, mi cargo
  draft on me at ... days’           á ... dias vista por el importe.
  sight for the amount. At foot      Al pié va su firma para direccion
  is his signature for your          de V.)

        I am, dear Sir,                Soy de V. mi estimado Señor,
    Most affectionately yours,       su muy afecto servidor,
                       L. M.                    Q. B. S. M.
                                                       L. M.

                        A DRAFT.—_Libranza_.

       _Havana_, _Feb_. 9, 1849.     _Habana á_ 9 _de Feb. de_ 1849.
  For Dollars 567.                    Por Pesos 567.

  Thirty days after sight, you        A treinta dias vista, se ser
  will please to pay, by this         vira V pagar por esta sola
  sole bill of exchange, to Mr.       de cambio, á Don ... ó á su
  ... or order, the sum of five       órden, la cantidad de quinientos,
  hundred, sixty-seven dollars,       sesenta y siete pesos, que
  and place it to the account         cargará V. en cuenta á (segun
  of (_or_ to account as by     a     viso de) este
  advice from) your most obedient
  servant,                                        S. S. S.
                      M. V.                             M. V.

  To Mr. G. P., Merchant,           A Don G. P. del comercio
         Philadelphia.                     de Filadelfia.


 _Baltimore_, _Mar_. 3, 1849.      _Baltimore y Marzo_ 3 _de_ 1849.

  Pay to the order of Mr. N. N.     Pagúese á la orden de Don N. N.

                          O. S.                               O. S.

                      A RECEIPT.—_Recibo_.

      Received, New York, Mar.          He recibido de Don T. C.
  19, 1849, from Mr. T. C. two       dos cientos y veinticinco pesos
  hundred and twenty-five dollars    por finiquito de todas cuentas
  in full of all claims and          hasta la fecha, (_or_ á cuenta de
  demands up to this date,           mayor cantidad.)
  (_or_ on account.)                 Nueva York á 19 de Marzo de 1849.

     For $225.           H. L.         Son $225.              H. L.

                      A NOTE.—_Esquela_.

    Mr. A.’s compliments to          Don A. C. (A. C.) B. L. M. al
  Mr. B. (Mr. and Mrs. B.) and     Sr. Don B. (saluda al Sr. y la
  requests the favor of his        Sra. B.) y le (les) suplica se
  (their) company on Thursday      sirva (sirvan) favorecerle con
  evening the 21st instant, at 8   su compañia la noche del Juéves 21
  o’clock.                         del corriente á las ocho.
        Jan. 10.                       Enero 10.
          A. if Y. P.                      S. V. C.
  (An answer if you please.)       (Sírvase V. contestar.)

    Mr. D. F. requests the           Don D. F. (el Sr. D. F. or
  pleasureof Mr. G.’s company      D. F.) suplica al Sr. G. le
  on Wednesday evening, the 9th    haga el gusto de favorecerle
  instant, at eight o’clock.       con su compañia en la noche
                                   del Miércoles 9 del corriente
                                   á las ocho.
  Wednesday, Feb. 2.                  Miércoles, Febrero 2.

    Mr. B.’s compliments to Mr.      El Sr. B. B. L. M. al Sr. A.
  A. and is happy to accept his    y acepta con gusto su atento
  polite invitation for            convite para el Juéves 21 del
  Thursday evening, the 21st       corriente.
  inst.                               Enero 12.
     Jan. 12.

    Mr. B.’s compliments to             El Sr. B. saluda al Sr. A.
  Mr. A. and regrets that a           y siente no poder aceptar su
  pre-engagement does not allow       atento convite por hallarse
  him to accept his polite            comprometida de antemano
  invitation for the 21st inst.       para la noche del 21.
     Jan. 11.                            Enero 11.

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