Home
  By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII ]

Look for this book on Amazon


We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue - U. S. Bureau of Education Special Report on Public Libraries—Part II, Third Edition
Author: Cutter, Charles A. (Charles Ammi)
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue - U. S. Bureau of Education Special Report on Public Libraries—Part II, Third Edition" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.



Internet Archive (https://archive.org)



      Images of the original pages are available through
      Internet Archive. See
      https://archive.org/details/rulesfordictiona00cuttuoft


Transcriber’s note:

      Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

      Text enclosed by angle quotation marks is in bold face
      («bold»).

      A caret character is used to denote superscription. A
      single character following the caret is superscripted
      (example: 51^3). Multiple superscripted characters are
      enclosed by curly brackets (example: Hon^{ble}).


      by curly brackets (example: {52}).

      Footnotes and other anchored notes have been relabeled
      1–73, and moved from within paragraphs to nearby locations
      between paragraphs. In this text edition, each note is
      by [note] . . . [/note].



U. S. Bureau Of Education
Special Report On Public Libraries—Part II

RULES FOR A DICTIONARY CATALOGUE

by

CHARLES A. CUTTER

Librarian Of The Boston Athenæum

Third Edition
With Corrections and Additions and an Alphabetical Index



Washington
Government Printing Office
1891

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by
Charles A. Cutter,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

{3}



PREFATORY NOTE.


There are plenty of treatises on classification, of which accounts
may be found in Edwards’s Memoirs of Libraries and Petzholdt’s
Bibliotheca Bibliographica. The classification of the St. Louis Public
School Library Catalogue is briefly defended by W. T. Harris in the
preface (which is reprinted, with some additions, from the Journal of
Speculative Philosophy for 1870). Professor Abbot’s plan is explained
in a pamphlet printed and in use at Harvard College Library, also in
his “Statement respecting the New Catalogue” (part of the report of
the examining committee of the library for 1863), and in the North
American Review for January, 1869. The plan of Mr. Schwartz, librarian
of the Apprentices’ Library, New York, is partially set forth in the
preface to his catalogue; and a fuller explanation is preparing for
publication. For an author-catalogue there are the famous 91 rules of
the British Museum[1] (prefixed to the Catalogue of Printed Books, Vol.
1, 1841, or conveniently arranged in alphabetical order by Th. Nichols
in his Handbook for Readers at the British Museum, 1866); Professor
Jewett’s modification of them (Smithsonian Report on the Construction
of Catalogues, 1852); Mr. F. B. Perkins’s further modification (in
the American Publisher for 1869), and a chapter in the second volume
of Edwards.[2] But for a dictionary-catalogue as a whole, and for
most of its parts, there is no manual whatever. Nor have any of the
above-mentioned works attempted to set forth the rules in a systematic
way or to investigate what might be called the first principles
of cataloguing. It is to be expected that a first attempt will be
incomplete, and I shall be obliged to librarians for criticisms,
objections, or new problems, with or without solutions. {4} With such
assistance perhaps a second edition of these hints would deserve the
title—Rules.[3]

 [note] 1. Compiled by a committee of five, Panizzi, Th. Watts, J.
 Winter Jones, J. H. Parry, and E. Edwards, in several months of hard
 labor.[/note]

 [note] 2. To these may now be added: Condensed rules for an author
 and title catalogue, prepared by the co-operation committee, A. L.
 A. (printed in the Appendix of the present Rules); F: B. Perkins’s
 San Francisco cataloguing (1884); C: Dziatzko’s Instruction für die
 Ordnung der Titel im alphabetischen Zettelkatalog der Univ. Bibliothek
 zu Breslau (1886), of which an adaptation by Mr. K. A: Linderfelt
 will shortly be published; Melvil Dewey’s Condensed rules for a card
 catalogue, with 36 sample cards (published in the _Library notes_,
 v. 1, no. 2, 1886, and reprinted as “Rules for author and classed
 catalogs;” with changes, additions, and a “Bibliography of catalog
 rules” by Mary Salome Cutler, Boston, 1888, and again as “Library
 School rules,” Boston, 1889); G. Fumagalli’s Cataloghi di biblioteche
 (1887); H: B. Wheatley’s How to catalogue a library (1889); and
 various discussions in the _Library journal_, the _Neuer Anzeiger_,
 and the _Centralblatt für Bibliothekswesen_.[/note]

 [note] 3. In this second edition I have retained the discussions of
 principles of the first edition and added others, because it seems
 to me to be quite as important to teach cataloguers the theory, so
 that they can catalogue independently of rules, as to accustom them
 to refer constantly to hard and fast rules. The index, which will be
 published separately, has been enlarged so as to form an alphabetical
 or “dictionary” arrangement of the rules.[/note]

{5}



CONTENTS.


 PREFATORY NOTE • 3

 CONTENTS • 5

 GENERAL REMARKS • 7
   OBJECTS • 8
   MEANS • 8
   REASONS FOR CHOICE AMONG METHODS • 8
   DEFINITIONS (with a note on classification) • 8

 ENTRY (Where to enter) • 15
   I. AUTHOR-ENTRY • 15
     CATALOGUE • 15
     A. AUTHORS • 16
       (a.) Personal • 17
         (i.) Who is to be considered author • 17
         (ii.) What part of the name is to be used • 20
         (iii.) What form of the name is to be used • 24
       (b.) Corporate • 27
     B. SUBSTITUTES FOR AUTHORS • 33
     C. REFERENCES • 35
     D. ECONOMIES • 37
   II. TITLE-ENTRY • 38
     CATALOGUE • 38
     TITLES • 38
   III. SUBJECT-ENTRY • 45
     CATALOGUE • 45
     SUBJECTS • 46
       (a.) Entries considered separately • 49
         (i.) Choice between different subjects • 49
         (ii.) Choice between different names • 49
       (b.) Entries considered as parts of a whole • 57
   IV. FORM-ENTRY • 59
   V. ANALYSIS • 60

 STYLE (How to enter) • 61
   CATALOGUE • 61
   VI. STYLE • 62
     A. HEADINGS • 63
     B. TITLES (Abridgment, etc.) • 67
     C. EDITIONS • 73
     D. IMPRINTS • 74
     E. CONTENTS AND NOTES • 78
     F. REFERENCES • 79
     G. LANGUAGE • 80
     H. CAPITALS • 80
     I. PUNCTUATION, etc. • 81
     J. ARRANGEMENT • 83
       (a.) Headings • 83
       (b.) Titles • 88
       (c.) Contents • 92
       (d.) Subjects • 93
     K. Etc. (Sets, Rare books, etc.) • 98

 APPENDICES
   I. Condensed Rules for an Author and Title Catalog.
     A. American Library Association • 99
     B. Library Association of the United Kingdom • 103
     C. Bodleian • 104
     D. Dewey’s Rules • 107
   II. Transliteration.
     A. American Library Association • 108
     B. Sanskrit • 112
     C. Semitic • 113
     D. Russian • 114
   III. Book sizes (American Library Association) • 115
   IV. Alphabetical Order (Edmands) • 116
   V. Abbreviations • 119
   VI. Other Catalogues for Librarians • 126
   VII. Bibliographical aids in cataloguing • 128

 INDEX • 135

{7}



RULES

FOR A

DICTIONARY CATALOGUE.


No code of cataloguing could be adopted in all points by every one,
because the libraries for study and the libraries for reading have
different objects, and those which combine the two do so in different
proportions. Again, the preparation of a catalogue must vary as it is
to be manuscript or printed, and, if the latter, as it is to be merely
an index to the library, giving in the shortest possible compass clues
by which the public can find books, or is to attempt to furnish more
information on various points, or finally is to be made with a certain
regard to what may be called style. Without pretending to exactness, we
may divide dictionary catalogues into short-title, medium-title, and
full-title or bibliographic; typical examples of the three being, 1º,
the Boston Mercantile (1869) or the Cincinnati Public (1871); 2º, the
Boston Public (1861 and 1866), the Boston Athenæum (1874–82); 3º, the
author-part of the Congress (1869) and the Surgeon-General’s (1872–74)
or least abridged of any, the present card catalogue of the Boston
Public Library. To avoid the constant repetition of such phrases as
“the full catalogue of a large library” and “a concise finding list,” I
shall use the three words Short, Medium, and Full as proper names, with
the preliminary caution that the Short family are not all of the same
size, that there is more than one Medium, and that Full may be Fuller
and Fullest. Short, if single-columned, is generally a title-a-liner;
if printed in double columns, it allows the title occasionally to
exceed one line, but not, if possible, two; Medium does not limit
itself in this way, but it seldom exceeds four lines, and gets many
titles into a single line. Full usually fills three or four lines and
often takes six or seven for a title.

The number of the following rules is not owing to any complexity of
system, but to the number of cases to which a few simple principles
have to be applied. They are especially designed for Medium, but may
easily be adapted to Short by excision and marginal notes. The almost
universal practice of printing the shelf-numbers or the class-numbers
renders some of them unnecessary for town and city libraries. {8}


OBJECTS.[4]

1. To enable a person to find a book of which either

 (A) the author,
 (B) the title, or
 (C) the subject   is known.

2. To show what the library has

 (D) by a given author
 (E) on a given subject
 (F) in a given kind of literature.

3. To assist in the choice of a book

 (G) as to its edition (bibliographically).
 (H) as to its character (literary or topical).


MEANS.

 1. Author-entry with the necessary references (for A and D).
 2. Title-entry or title-reference (for B).
 3. Subject-entry, cross-references, and classed subject-table (for C and E).
 4. Form-entry[5] (for F).
 5. Giving edition and imprint, with notes when necessary (for G).
 6. Notes (for H).

 [note] 4. _Note to second edition._ This statement of Objects and
 Means has been criticized; but as it has also been frequently quoted,
 usually without change or credit, in the prefaces of catalogues and
 elsewhere, I suppose it has on the whole been approved.[/note]

 [note] 5. Here the whole is designated by its most important member.
 The full name would be form-and-language entry. Kind-entry would not
 suggest the right idea.[/note]


REASONS FOR CHOICE

among the several possible methods of attaining the OBJECTS.

Other things being equal, choose that entry

(1) That will probably be first looked under by the class of people who
use the library;

(2) That is consistent with other entries, so that one principle can
cover all;

(3) That will mass entries least in places where it is difficult to so
arrange them that they can be readily found, as under names of nations
and cities.

 This applies very slightly to entries under first words, because it is
 easy and sufficient to arrange them by the alphabet.


DEFINITIONS.

 There is such confusion in the use of terms in the various prefaces
 to catalogues—a confusion that at once springs from and leads to
 confusion of thought and practice—that it is worth while to propose a
 systematic nomenclature.


_Analysis._ See _Reference, Analytical_. {9}


_Anonymous_, published without the author’s name.

 Strictly a book is not anonymous if the author’s name appears anywhere
 in it, but it is safest to treat it as anonymous if the author’s name
 does not appear in the title.

 Note that the words are “in the title,” not “on the title-page.”
 Sometimes in Government publications the author’s name and the title
 of his work do not appear on the title-page but on a page immediately
 following. Such works are not anonymous.


_Asyndetic_, without cross-references. See _Syndetic_.


_Author_, in the narrower sense, is the person who writes a book; in
a wider sense it may be applied to him who is the cause of the book’s
existence by putting together the writings of several authors (usually
called _the editor_, more properly to be called _the collector_).
Bodies of men (societies, cities, legislative bodies, countries) are
to be considered the authors of their memoirs, transactions, journals,
debates, reports, etc.


_Class_, a collection of objects having characteristics in common.

 Books are classified by bringing together those which have the same
 characteristics.[6] Of course any characteristics might be taken,
 as size, or binding, or publisher. But as nobody wants to know what
 books there are in the library in folio, or what quartos, or what
 books bound in russia or calf, or what published by John Smith, or by
 Brown, Jones, and Robinson, these bases of classification are left
 to the booksellers and auctioneers and trade sales. Still, in case
 of certain unusual or noted bindings, as human skin or Grolier’s, or
 early or famous publishers, as Aldus and Elzevir, a partial class-list
 is sometimes very properly made. But books are most commonly brought
 together in catalogues because they have the same authors, or the
 same subjects, or the same literary form, or are written in the same
 language, or were given by the same donor, or are designed for the
 same class of readers. When brought together because they are by the
 same author, they are not usually thought of as classified; they form
 the author-catalogue, and need no further mention here except in
 regard to arrangement. The classes, _i. e._, in this case the authors,
 might of course be further classified according to their nations, or
 their professions (as the subjects are in national or professional
 biographies), or by any other set of common characteristics, but for
 library purposes an alphabetical arrangement according to the spelling
 of their names is universally acknowledged to be the best.

 The classification by language is not generally used in full. There
 are catalogues in which all the English books are separated from all
 the foreign; in others there are separate lists of French books or
 German books. The needs of each library must determine whether it is
 worth while to prepare such lists. It is undeniably useful in almost
 any library to make lists of the belles lettres in the different
 languages; which, though nominally a classification by language, is
 really a classification by literary form, the object being to bring
 together all the works with a certain national flavor—the French
 flavor, the German flavor, or it may be a classing by readers, the
 German books being catalogued together for a German population, the
 French for the French, and so on. Again, it is useful to give lists
 not of the belles lettres alone, but of all the works in the rarer
 languages, as the Bodleian and the British Museum have published
 separate lists of their Hebrew books. Here too the circumstances of
 each library must determine where it shall draw the line between those
 literatures which it will put by themselves and those which it will
 include and hide in the mass of its general catalogue. Note, however,
 that some of the difficulties of transliterating {10} names of modern
 Greek, Russian authors, etc., are removed by putting their original
 works in a separate catalogue, though translations still remain to
 puzzle us.

 The catalogue by donors or original owners is usually partial (as
 those of the Dowse, Barton, Prince, and Ticknor libraries). The
 catalogues by classes of readers are also partial, hardly extending
 beyond «Juvenile literature» and «Sunday-school books». Of course many
 subject classes amount to the same thing, the class «Medicine» being
 especially useful to medical men, «Theology» to the theologians, and
 so on.

 Classification by subject and classification by form are the most
 common. An example will best show the distinction between them.
 «Theology», which is itself a subject, is also a class, that is, it
 is extensive enough to have its parts, its chapters, so to speak (as
 «Future Life», «Holy Spirit», «Regeneration», «Sin», «Trinity»),
 treated separately, each when so treated (whether in books or only
 in thought) being itself a subject; all these together, inasmuch as
 they possess this in common, that they have to do with some part of
 the relations of God to man, form the class of subjects «Theology».
 Class, however, is applied to «Poetry» in a different sense. It then
 signifies not a collection of similar subjects, but a collection
 of books resembling one another in being composed in that form and
 with that spirit, whatever it is, which is called poetical. In the
 subject-catalogue class it is used in the first sense—collection of
 similar subjects; in the form-catalogue it is used in the second—list
 of similar books.

 Most systems of classification are mixed, as the following analysis of
 one in actual use in a small library will show:

 Art, science, and natural history.      _Subj._
 History and biography.                  _Subj._
 Poetry.                                 _Form_ (literary).
 Encyclopædias and books of reference.   _Form_ (practical).
 Travels and adventures.                 _Subj._ (Has some similarity to a
                                            Form-class.)
 Railroads.                              _Subj._

 Fiction.                                _Form._ (_Novels_, a subdivision
                                             of _Fiction_, is properly
                                             a Form-class; but the
                                             differentia of the more
                                             extensive class _Fiction_
                                             is not its form, but its
                                             untruth; imaginary voyages
                                             and the like of course
                                             imitate the form of the
                                             works which they parody.)
 Relating to the rebellion.              _Subj._
 Magazines.                              _Form_ (practical).
 General literature, essays, and
    religious works.                     A mixture: 1. Hardly a class;
                                             that is to say, it probably
                                             is a collection of books
                                             having only this in common,
                                             that they will not fit into
                                             any of the other classes; 2.
                                             _Form_; 3. _Subj._

 Confining ourselves now to classification by subjects, the word can be
 used in three senses:

  1. Bringing books together which treat of the same subject
  specifically.

       That is, books which each treat of the whole of the subject and
       not of a part only.

  2. Bringing books together which treat of similar subjects.

       Or, to express the same thing differently:

     Bringing subjects together so as to form a class.

       A catalogue so made is called a classed catalogue.

  3. Bringing classes together so as to form a system.

       A catalogue so made should be called a systematic catalogue.

 The three steps are then

 1. Classifying the books to make subject-lists.
 2. Classifying the subject-lists to make classes.
 3. Classifying the classes to make a systematic catalogue.

 The dictionary stops in its entries at the first stage, in its
 cross-references at the second.

 The alphabetico-classed catalogue stops at the second stage.

 The systematic alone advances to the third.

 Classification in the first sense, it is plain, is the same as
 “entry;” in the second {11} sense it is the same as “class-entry;”
 and in the third sense it is the same as the “logical arrangement” of
 the table on p. 12, under “Classed catalogue.”

 It is worth while to ascertain the relation of subject and class in
 the subject-catalogue. _Subject_ is the matter on which the author
 is seeking to give or the reader to obtain information; _Class_ is,
 as said above, a grouping of subjects which have characteristics in
 common. A little reflection will show that the words so used partially
 overlap,[7] the general subjects being classes[8] and the classes
 being subjects,[9] but the individual subjects[10] never being classes.

 [note] 6. This note has little direct bearing on practice, but by its
 insertion here some one interested in the theory of cataloguing may be
 saved the trouble of going over the same ground.[/note]

 [note] 7. [Illustration: Form Subject General Individual Classes.
 Subjects.][/note]

 [note] 8. The subjects «Animals», «Horses», «Plants» are classes, a
 fact which is perhaps more evident to the eye if we use the terms
 «Zoology», «Hippology», «Botany». The subdivisions of «Botany» and
 «Zoology» are obvious enough; the subdivisions of «Hippology» may be
 themselves classes, as «Shetland ponies», «Arabian coursers», «Barbs»,
 or individual horses, as «Lady Suffolk», «Justin Morgan».[/note]

 [note] 9. Not merely the concrete classes, «Natural history»,
 «Geography», «Herpetology», «History», «Ichthyology», «Mineralogy»,
 but the abstract ones, «Mathematics», «Philosophy», are plainly
 subjects. The fact that some books treat of the subject Philosophy
 and others of philosophical subjects, and that others treat in a
 philosophical manner subjects not usually considered philosophical,
 introduces confusion into the matter, and single examples may be
 brought up in which it seems as if the classification expressed the
 form (Crestadoro’s “nature”) or something which a friend calls the
 “essence” of the book and not its subject, so that we ought to speak
 of an “essence catalogue” which might require some special treatment;
 but the distinction can not be maintained. It might be said, for
 example, that “Geology a proof of revelation” would have for its
 _subject-matter_ «Geology» but for its _class_ «Theology»—which is
 true, not because class and subject are incompatible but because
 this book has two subjects, the first «Geology», the second one of
 the evidences of revealed religion, wherefore, as the «Evidences»
 are a subdivision of «Theology», the book belongs under that as a
 subject-class.[/note]

 [note] 10. It is plain enough that «Mt. Jefferson», «John Milton»,
 the «Warrior Iron-clad» are not classes. Countries, however, which
 for most purposes it is convenient to consider as individual, are
 in certain aspects classes; when by the word “England” we mean “the
 English” it is the name of a class.[/note]


_Class entry_, registering a book under the name of its class; in the
subject-catalogue used in contradistinction to specific entry.

 _E. g._, a book on repentance has class entry under «Theology»; its
 specific entry would be under «Repentance».


_Classed catalogues_ are made by class-entry, whether the classes
so formed are arranged logically as in the Systematic kind or
alphabetically as in the Alphabetico-classed.

 A dictionary catalogue contains class-headings, inasmuch as it
 contains the headings of extensive subjects, but under them there
 is no class entry, only specific entry. The syndetic dictionary
 catalogue, however, recognizes their nature by its cross-references,
 which constitute it in a certain degree an alphabetico-classed (not
 a systematic) catalogue. Moreover, the dictionary catalogue, without
 ceasing to be one, might, if it were thought worth while (which it
 certainly is not), not merely give titles under specific headings
 but repeat them under certain classes or under all classes in
 ascending series, _e. g._, not merely have such headings as «Rose»,
 «Geranium», «Fungi», «Liliaceæ», «Phænogamia», «Cryptogamia», but also
 under «Botany» include all the titles which appeared under «Rose»,
 «Geranium», etc.; _provided_ the headings «Botany», «Cryptogamia»,
 «Fungi», etc., were arranged alphabetically. The matter may be
 tabulated thus:

 Alphabetical arrangement.
   Dictionary catalogue.
     Specific entry. (Common dict. catal.)
     Specific entry and class reference. (Bost. Pub. Lib., Boston Athenæum.)
     Specific and class entry. (No example.)
   Alphabetico-classed catalogue.
     Class entry with specific or class subentry. (Noyes.)
     Class entry with chiefly class subentry. (Abbot.) {12}
 Logical arrangement.
   Systematic catalogue.
     Class entry. (Undivided classed catal.)
     Class entry and subentry and finally specific subentry. (Subdivided
       classed catal.)

                     Alphabetical arrangement.
             +──────────────────────+──────────────────────+
             │ Specific headings    │ Classes in           │
             │   in alphabetical    │   alphabetical       │
             │   order.             │   order.             │
             │                      │                      │
             │          A           │          B           │
 Single      │                      │                      │ Classes of
 subjects.   +──────────────────────+──────────────────────+ subjects.
             │                      │                      │
             │          D           │          C           │
             │                      │                      │
             │ Specific headings    │ Classes in logical   │
             │   arranged logically │   order.             │
             │   in classes.        │                      │
             +──────────────────────+──────────────────────+
                           Logical arrangement.

 A, Specific dictionary.

 B, Specific dict. by its cross-references and its form-entries.
 Alphabetico-classed catalogue.

 C, Classed catalogue without subdivisions.

 D, Classed catalogue with subdivisions.

 A, B are alphabetical.

 C, D are classed.

 A, B, D contain specific subjects.

 B, C, D contain classes.

The specific entries of A and the classes of B, though brought
together in the same catalogues (the class-dictionary and the
alphabetico-classed), simply stand side by side and do not unite, each
preserving its own nature, because the principle which brings them
together—the alphabet—is external, mechanical. But in D the specific
entries and the classes become intimately united to form a homogeneous
whole, because the principle which brings them together—the relations
of the subjects to one another—is internal, chemical, so to speak.


_Collector._ See _Author_.


_Cross-reference._ See _Reference_.


_Dictionary catalogue_, so called because the headings (author, title,
subject, and form) are arranged, like the words in a dictionary, in
alphabetical order.


_Dictionary and other alphabetical catalogues._ These are
differentiated not, as is often said, by the dictionary having specific
entry, but (1) by its giving specific entries in all cases and (2) by
its individual entry.

 Even the classed catalogues often have specific entry. Whenever a
 book treats of the whole subject of a class, it is specifically
 entered under that class. A theological encyclopædia is specifically
 entered under «Theology», and theology is an unsubordinated class
 in many systems. The alphabetico-classed catalogues have specific
 entry in many more cases, because they have many more classes.
 Professor Abbot has such headings as «Ink», «Jute», «Lace», «Leather»,
 «Life-savers», «Locks», «Mortars», «Perfumery», «Safes», «Salt»,
 «Smoke», «Snow», «Varnish», «Vitriol». Mr. Noyes has scores of similar
 headings; but neither of them permits individual entry, which the
 dictionary-catalogue requires. The alphabetico-classed catalogue
 enters a life of Napoleon and a history of England under «Biography»
 and «History»; the dictionary enters them under «Napoleon» and
 «England». This is the invariable and chief distinction between the
 two.


_Editor._ See _Author_.


_Entry_, the registry of a book in the catalogue with the title and
imprint.

 _Author-entry_, such registry with the author’s name for a heading.

 _Title-entry_, registry under some word of the title.

 _First-word-entry_, such entry made from the first word of the title
 not an article. {13}

 _Important-word_ or _catch-word entry_, such entry made from some
 word of the title other than the first word and not indicative of the
 subject, but likely to be remembered and used by borrowers in asking
 for the book.

 _Series entry_, entry of a number of separate works published under a
 collective title or half-title or title-page caption. Such are “The
 «English» citizen” series and “«American» statesmen.”

 _Subject-word-entry_, such entry made under a word of the title which
 indicates the subject of the book.

 _Subject-entry_, registry under the name selected by the cataloguer to
 indicate the subject.

 A cataloguer who should put “The insect,” by Michelet, under
 «Entomology» would be making a _subject-entry_; Duncan’s “Introduction
 to entomology” entered under the same head would be at once a
 _subject-entry_ and a _subject-word-entry_.

 _Form-entry_, registry under the name of the kind of literature to
 which the book belongs.


_Form_, applied to a variety of classification founded on the form of
the book classified, which may be either _Practical_, as in «Almanacs»,
«Dictionaries», «Encyclopædias», «Gazetteers», «Indexes», «Tables» (the
form in these being for the most part alphabetical), or _Literary_,
as «Fiction», «Plays», «Comedies», «Farces», «Tragedies», «Poetry»,
«Letters», «Orations», «Sermons» (the latter with the subdivisions
Charity, Election, Funeral, Installation, Ordination, Thanksgiving,
etc.). There are certain headings which belong both to the Subject
and the Form family. “«Encyclopædias»,” inasmuch as the books treat
of all knowledge, is the most inclusive of all the subject-classes;
inasmuch as (with few exceptions) they are in alphabetic form, it is a
form-class.


_Heading_, the word by which the alphabetical place of an entry in
the catalogue is determined, usually the name of the author, of the
subject, or of the literary or practical form, or a word of the title.


_Imprint_, the indication of the place, date, and form of printing.


_Polygraphic_, written by several authors.


_Polytopical_, treating of several topics.

 Will the convenience of this word excuse the twist given to the
 meaning of τόπος in its formation? Polygraphic might serve, as the
 French use polygraphe for a miscellaneous writer; but it will be well
 to have both words,—_polygraphic_ denoting (as now) collections of
 several works by one or many authors, _polytopical_ denoting works on
 many subjects.


_Reference_, partial registry of a book (omitting the imprint) under
author, title, subject, or kind, referring to a more full entry under
some other heading; occasionally used to denote merely entries without
imprints, in which the reference is implied. The distinction of entry
and reference is almost without meaning for Short, as a title-a-liner
saves nothing by referring unless there are several references. {14}


 _Analytical-reference_, or, simply, _an analytical_, the registry
 of some part of a book or of some work contained in a collection,
 referring to the heading under which the book or collection is entered.


 _Cross-reference_, reference from one subject to another.


 _Heading-reference_, from one form of a heading to another.


 _First-word-reference_, _catch-word-reference_,
 _subject-word-reference_, same as first-word-entry, etc., omitting the
 imprint, and referring.


_Series-entry._ See _Entry_.


_Specific entry_, registering a book under a heading which expresses
its special subject as distinguished from entering it in a class which
includes that subject.

 _E. g._, registering “The art of painting” under «Painting», or a
 description of the cactus under «Cactus». Putting them under «Fine
 arts» and «Botany» would be class-entry. “Specific entry,” by the way,
 has nothing to do with “species.”


_Subject_, the theme or themes of the book, whether stated in the title
or not.

 It is worth noting that subjects are of two sorts: (1) the individual,
 as «Goethe», «Shakespeare», «England», the «Middle Ages», the ship
 «Alexandra», the dog «Tray», the «French Revolution», all of which are
 concrete; and (2) general, as «Man», «History», «Horse», «Philosophy»,
 which may be either concrete or abstract. Every general subject is a
 class more or less extensive. (See note on _Class_.) Some mistakes
 have also arisen from not noting that certain words, «Poetry»,
 «Fiction», «Drama», etc., are subject-headings for the books written
 about Poetry, Fiction, etc., and form-headings for poems, novels,
 plays, etc.


_Subject-entry_, _Subject-word entry_. See _Entry_.


_Syndetic_, connective, applied to that kind of dictionary catalogue
which binds its entries together by means of cross-references so as to
form a whole, the references being made from the most comprehensive
subject to those of the next lower degree of comprehensiveness, and
from each of these to their subordinate subjects, and vice versa.
These cross-references correspond to and are a good substitute for the
arrangement in a systematic catalogue. References are also made in the
syndetic catalogue to illustrative and coördinate subjects, and, if it
is perfect, from specific to general subjects.


_Title_ in the broader sense includes heading, title proper, and
imprint; in the narrower (in which it is hereafter used) it is the
name of the book given by the author on the title-page, omitting
the imprint, but including names of editors, translators, etc. The
name of the book put on the leaf preceding the title page is called
the _half-title_; and the same term is applied to lines indicating
subdivisions of the book and following the title; the name given at the
head of the first page of text is the _caption_. That given at the back
of the book (the _binder’s title_) should never be used in a catalogue
which makes the slightest pretensions to carefulness.

 A title may be either the book’s name (as “&c.”) or its description
 (as “A collection of occasional sermons”), or it may state its subject
 (as “Synonyms of the New {15} Testament”), or it may be any two
 or all three of these combined (as description and subject, “Brief
 account of a journey through Europe;” name and description, “Happy
 thoughts;” name and subject, “Men’s wives;” all three, “Index of
 dates”).

 Bibliographers have established a cult of the title-page; its
 slightest peculiarities are noted; it is followed religiously, with
 dots for omissions, brackets for insertions, and uprights to mark
 the end of lines; it is even imitated by the fac-simile type or
 photographic copying. These things may concern the cataloguer of the
 Lenox Library or the Prince collection. The ordinary librarian has in
 general nothing to do with them; but it does not follow that even he
 is to lose all respect for the title. It is the book’s name and should
 not be changed but by act of legislature. Our necessities oblige us
 to abbreviate it, but nothing obliges us to make additions to it or
 to change it without giving notice to the reader that we have done
 so. Moreover, it must influence the entry of a book more or less; it
 determines the title-entry entirely; it affects the author-entry (see
 § 3) and the subject-entry (see § 104). But to let it have more power
 than this is to pay it a superstitious veneration.


_Volume_, a book distinguished from other books or other volumes of the
same work by having its own title, paging, and register.

 This is the bibliographic use of the word, sanctioned by the British
 Museum rules. That is, it is in this sense only that it applies to all
 the copies of an edition as it comes from the printer. But there is
 also a bibliopegic and bibliopolic use, to denote a number of pages
 bound together, which pages may be several volumes in the other sense,
 or a part of a volume or parts of several volumes. To avoid confusion
 I use “volume” in the present treatise as defined in the Rules of the
 British Museum catalogue, and I recommend this as the sole use in
 library catalogues, except in such phrases as 2 v. bd. in 1. which
 means 2 volumes in the bibliographical sense united by binding so as
 to form one piece of matter.

       *       *       *       *       *

In the present treatise I am regarding the dictionary catalogue as
consisting of an author-catalogue, a subject-catalogue, a more or less
complete title-catalogue, and a more or less complete form-catalogue,
all interwoven in one alphabetical order. The greater part, however, of
the rules here given would apply equally to these catalogues when kept
separate.

These rules are written primarily for a printed catalogue; almost all
of them would apply equally to a card catalogue.



ENTRY


I. AUTHOR-ENTRY


CATALOGUE

A. AUTHORS.

(a.) PERSONAL.

(i.) _Under whom as author._

Author, 1. Anonymous, 2. Joint authors, 3, 4. Theses, 5. Pseudonyms,
6. Illustrators, 7. Designer, Cartographer, Engraver, 8. Musical
works, 9. Booksellers and auctioneers, 10, 11. Commentaries, 12.
Continuations and indexes, 13. Epitomes, 14. Revisions, 15. Excerpts
and chrestomathies, 16. Concordances, 17. Reporters, translators, and
editors, 18.

(ii.) _Under what part of the name._

Christian name, 19. Surname, 20. Title, 21. Changed names, 22. Compound
names, 23. Prefixes, 24. Latin names, 25. Capes, lakes, etc., 26.

(iii.) _Under what form of the name._

Vernacular, 27. Several languages, 28. Masculine and feminine,
29. Various spellings, 30, 31. Forenames, 32. Places, 33–35.
Transliteration, 36–38.

(b.) CORPORATE.

General principle, 39. Places, 40. Governmental bodies, 41. Laws,
42. Calendars, 43. Works written officially, 44–46. Articles to be
inquired after, 47. Reports, 48. Congresses, 49. Treaties, 50. Parties,
denominations, orders, 51. Their conventions, conferences, etc., 52.
Ecclesiastical councils, 53. Reports of committees, 54. Classes of
citizens, 55. Societies, 56.

B. SUBSTITUTES.

Parts of the author’s name, 57. Pseudonyms, 58. Collectors, 59.

C. REFERENCES, 60, 61.

D. ECONOMIES, 62–67.


A. AUTHORS


1. Make the author-entry under (A) the name of the author whether
personal or corporate, or (B) some substitute for it.

 In regard to the author-entry it must be remembered that the object
 is not merely to facilitate the finding of a given book by an
 author’s name. If this were all, it might have been better to make
 the entry under the professed name (pseudonym), or under the form
 of name mentioned in the title («Bulwer» in one book, «Lytton»
 in another, «Bulwer Lytton» in a third; «Sherlock», Th., in that
 divine’s earlier works; «Bangor», Th. [Sherlock], _Bp. of_, in later
 ones; «Salisbury», Th. [Sherlock], _Bp. of_, in the next issues;
 «London», Th. [Sherlock], _Bp. of_, in his last works; «Milnes»,
 R. Monckton, for “Good night and good morning,” and the nine other
 works published before 1863, and «Houghton», Rich. M. M., _Baron_,
 for the 1870 edition of “Good night and good morning,” and for other
 books published since his ennoblement), or under the name of editor
 or translator when the author’s name is not given, as proposed by
 Mr. Crestadoro. This might have been best with object A; but we
 have also object D to provide for—the finding of all the books of a
 given author—and this can most conveniently be done if they are all
 collected in one place.


2. Anonymous books are to be entered under the name of the author
whenever it is known.

 If it is not known with certainty the entry may be made under the
 person to whom the work is attributed, with an explanatory note and a
 reference from the first word, or the book may be treated as anonymous
 and entered under the first word, with a note “Attributed to ——,”
 and a reference from the supposed author. The degree of doubt will
 determine which method is best. {17}


(a.) PERSONAL.


(i.) _Under whom as author._


3. Enter works written conjointly by several authors under the name of
the one first mentioned on the title-page, with references from the
others.

 The writers of a correspondence and the participants in a debate are
 to be considered as joint authors.

 _Ex._ «Schiller», J: Christoph F: v. Briefwechsel zwischen S. und
 «Cotta»; herausg. von Vollmar.

  — Briefwechsel zw. S. und «Goethe». Stuttg., 1829. 6 v. S.

  — Briefwechsel zw. S. und W: v. «Humboldt». Stuttg., 1830. S.

 «Cotta.» Briefwechsel. _See_ «Schiller», J: C. F: v.

 «Goethe», J: W. v. Briefwechsel. _See_ «Schiller», J: C. F: v.

 «Humboldt», K: W:, _Freiherr_ v. Briefwechsel. _See_ «Schiller», J: C.
 F: v.

 Many catalogues adopt the form of heading

 «Schiller», J: Christoph F: v., _and_ «Humboldt», K: W:, _Freiherr_ v.
 Briefwechsel. Stuttg., 1830. S.

 «Humboldt», K: W:, _Freiherr_ v. Briefwechsel. _See_ «Schiller», J: C.
 F: v., _and_ «Humboldt», K: W: v. But see § 240.

 When countries are joint authors it is better to make full entries
 under each and arrange them as if the country under consideration were
 the only one. Each country puts its own name first in its own edition
 of a joint work; and the arrangement proposed avoids an additional
 complexity under countries, which are confusing enough at the best.

 Whether the joint authorship appears in the title or not should make
 no difference in the mode of entry; if one name appears on the title,
 that should be chosen for the entry; if none, take the most important.


4. When double headings are used distinguish between joint authors of
one work and two authors of separate works joined in one volume. In the
latter case, if there is no collective title, the heading should be the
name of the first author alone and an analytical reference should be
made from the second. (See § 58 _b._)

 _Ex._ “The works of Shelley and Keats” would be entered in full under
 «Shelley» (both names being mentioned in the title, but Shelley alone
 in the heading), and analytically (§ 127) under «Keats». In such cases
 a double heading would often mislead.


5. For university theses or dissertations Dziatzko gives the following
rules:

 I. Until about 1750

 _a_ Unless the respondent is known to be the “auctor” (“auctor et
 respondens,” “scriptor,” etc.) enter under the name of the præses,
 without reference.

 _b_ If the respondent is “auctor” enter under him, with reference from
 the præses.

 II. After 1750 enter under the respondent, unless it is known that the
 præses is the author, when his name will be the heading. In neither
 case refer from the other name.

 For universities where the old custom was kept up beyond 1750, as the
 Swedish, Rule I applies till the change was made. {18}

 Where there are two respondents, neither specified as author, enter
 under the first, without reference from the second.


6. Enter pseudonymous works generally under the author’s real name,
when it is known, with a reference from the pseudonym; but make the
entry under the pseudonym, with a reference from the real name, when
the writer is better known by the false name.

 In the first edition this rule was without limitation, and I added
 the following note “One is strongly tempted to deviate from this
 rule in the case of writers like George Eliot and George Sand,
 Gavarni and Grandville, who appear in literature only under their
 pseudonyms. It would apparently be much more convenient to enter their
 works under the name by which alone they are known and under which
 everybody but a professed cataloguer would assuredly look first. For
 an author-catalogue this might be the best plan, but in a dictionary
 catalogue we have to deal with such people not merely as writers of
 books, but as subjects of biographies or parties in trials, and in
 such cases it seems proper to use their legal names. Besides, if one
 attempts to exempt a few noted writers from the rule given above,
 where is the line to be drawn? No definite principle of exception can
 be laid down which will guide either the cataloguer or the reader; and
 probably the confusion would in the end produce greater inconvenience
 than the present rule. Moreover, the entries made by using the
 pseudonym as a heading would often have to be altered. For a long
 time it would have been proper to enter the works of Dickens under
 «Boz»; the Dutch annual bibliography uniformly uses Boz-Dickens as a
 heading. No one would think of looking under «Boz» now. Mark Twain is
 in a transition state. The public mind is divided between Twain and
 Clemens. The tendency is always toward the use of the real name; and
 that tendency will be much helped in the reading public if the real
 name is always preferred in catalogues. Some pseudonyms persistently
 adopted by authors have come to be considered as the only names, as
 «Voltaire» (see § 23), and the translation «Melanchthon». Perhaps
 George «Sand» and George «Eliot» will in time be adjudged to belong to
 the same company. It would be well if cataloguers could appoint some
 permanent committee with authority to decide this and similar points
 as from time to time they occur.”

 I am now in favor of frequent entry under the pseudonym, with
 reference from the real name. I should recommend the pseudonym
 as heading in the case of any popular writer who has not written
 under his own name, provided he is known to the public chiefly by
 his pseudonym, and in the subject catalogue for any person who is
 so known. Examples are George «Eliot», George «Sand», «Gavarni»,
 «Grandville», «Cagliostro», «Cham», Pierre «Loti», Daniel «Stern», in
 some doubtful cases a card catalogue might profitably make entry both
 under the real and the false name. This elastic practice will give
 a little more trouble to the cataloguer than a rigid rule of entry
 under the real name, but it will save trouble to those who use the
 catalogue, which is more important.

 But entry should not be made under a pseudonym which is used only once
 or a few times; if the author writes also under his real name, if he
 is known to the contemporary public or in literary history under his
 real name, that is to be used for entry. It may sometimes happen that
 an author is well known under a pseudonym and afterwards is better
 known by his real name. In that case change the entries from the false
 to the real name. If any author uses two different pseudonyms enter
 under each the works written under it, with references both ways, and
 from the real name, until the real name becomes better known.

 It is plain that this practice of entering under the _best known_
 name, whether real or false, puts an end to uniformity of entry
 between different catalogues, leads to inconsistency of entry in the
 same catalogue, and will often throw the cataloguer into perplexity
 to decide which name is best known; but for the last objection it
 must be remembered that the catalogue is made for the reader, not
 for the cataloguer, and {19} for the first two that references will
 prevent any serious difficulty; and in the few cases of nearly equal
 notoriety, double entry is an easy way out of the difficulty.


7. When the illustrations form a very important part of a work,
consider both the author of the text and the designer—or in certain
cases the engraver—of the plates to be author, and make a full entry
under each. Under the author mention the designer’s name in the title,
and vice versa.

 Such works are: Walton’s Welsh scenery, with text by Bonney; Wolf’s
 “Wild animals,” with text by Elliot. Which shall be taken as author in
 the subject or form entry depends upon the work and the subject. Under
 «Water-color drawings» it would be Walton; under «Wood-engravings»,
 Wolf; under «Wales» and «Zoölogy», the cataloguer must decide which
 illustrates the subject most, the writer or the artist. _E. g._, under
 «Gothic Architecture» Pugin is undoubtedly to be considered the author
 of his “Examples,” though “the literary part” is by E. J. Willson; for
 the illustrator was really the author and the text was subsidiary to
 the plates. It was to carry out Pugin’s ideas, not Willson’s, that the
 work was published.


8. The designer or painter copied is the author of engravings; the
cartographer is the author of maps; the engraver in general is to be
considered as no more the author than the printer. But in a special
catalogue of engravings the engraver would be considered as author; in
any full catalogue references should be made from the names of famous
engravers, as Raimondi, Müller, Steinla, Wolle. An architect is the
author of his designs and plans.


9. Enter musical works doubly, under the author of the words and also
the composer of the music.

 Short and Medium will generally enter only under the composer; Don
 Giovanni, for example, only under «Mozart» and not under Da «Ponte».
 This economy especially applies to songs.


10. Booksellers and auctioneers are to be considered as the authors of
their catalogues, unless the contrary is expressly asserted.

 Entering these only under the form-heading «Catalogues» belongs to the
 dark ages of cataloguing. Put the catalogue of a library under the
 library’s name. (§ 56.)


11. Put the auctioneer’s catalogue of a public library under the name
of the library, of a private library under the name of the owner,
unless there is reason to believe that another person made it. In the
latter case it would appear in the author catalogue under the maker’s
name, and in the subject catalogue under the owner’s name.


12. Enter commentaries with the text complete under the author of the
text and also under the author of the commentary, provided that is
entitled “Commentary on * * *” and not “* * * with commentary.”

 In a majority of cases this difference in the title will correspond to
 a difference in the character of the works and in the expectation of
 the public; if in any particular case the commentary preponderates in
 a title of the second of the forms above, a reference can be made from
 the commentator’s name. {20}


13. Enter a continuation or an index, when not written by the author of
the original work but printed with it, under the same heading, with an
analytical reference from its own author (§§ 164, 194); when printed
separately, enter it under each author.


14. An epitome should be entered under the original author, with a
reference from the epitomator.

 _Ex._ “The boy’s King Arthur” under Sir Thomas «Malory», with a
 reference from Sidney «Lanier».


15. A revision should be entered under the name of the original author
unless it becomes substantially a new work.

 There will often be doubt on this point. To determine it, notice
 whether the revision is counted as one of the editions of the original
 work, and whether it is described on the title-page as the work of the
 original author or the reviser, and read and weigh the prefaces. Refer
 in all doubtful cases.


16. Excerpts and chrestomathies from a single author go under that
author, with a reference from the excerptor if his introduction and
annotations are extensive, or he has added a lexicon of importance.

 _Ex._ Urlichs’ Chrestomathia Pliniana goes under «Plinius», with a
 reference from «Urlichs».


17. Enter concordances both under their own author and the author
concorded. The latter entry, however, is to be regarded as a
subject-entry.

 _Ex._ «Cleveland’s» Concordance to the poetical works of «Milton»,
 «Brightwell’s» Concordance to «Tennyson», Mrs. «Furness’s» Concordance
 to «Shakespeare’s» poems.


18. Reporters are usually treated as authors of reports of trials,
_etc._[11] Translators and editors are not to be considered as
authors.[12] (But see References, § 60.)

 [note] 11. A stenographic reporter is hardly more an author
 than the printer is; but it is not well to attempt to make fine
 distinctions.[/note]

 [note] 12. A collection of works should be entered under the
 translator if he is also the collector (see § 59); but again if he
 translates another man’s collection it should be put under the name of
 the original collector; as Dasent’s “Tales from the North” is really a
 version of part of «Asbjörnsen» _and_ «Moe’s» “Norske Folkeventyr” and
 belongs under their names as joint collectors, with a reference from
 «Dasent».[/note]


(ii.) _Under what part of the name._


19. Put under the Christian or forename:

_a._ Sovereigns or princes of sovereign houses.[13] Use the English
form of the name except for Greeks and Romans. {21}

_b._ Persons canonized.

 _Ex._ «Thomas» [«a Becket»], _Saint_.

_c._ Friars who by the constitution of their order drop their surname.
Add the name of the family in parentheses and refer from it.

 _Ex._ «Paolino da S. Bartolomeo» [J. P. «Wesdin»].

_d._ Persons known under their first name only, whether or not they add
that of their native place or profession or rank.

 _Ex._ «Paulus» _Diaconus_, «Thomas» _Heisterbacensis_.

 Similarly are to be treated a few persons known almost entirely by the
 forename, as «Michelangelo Buonarroti», «Raffaello Santi» (refer from
 «Raphael»), «Rembrandt van Rhijn». Refer always from the family name.

_e._ Oriental authors, including Jewish rabbis whose works were
published before 1700.

 _Ex._ «Abu Bakr ibn Badr.» This rule has exceptions. Some Oriental
 writers are known and should be entered under other parts of their
 name than the first, as “«Abu-l-Kasim», Khalaf ibn Abbas,” or under
 some appellation as “al-«Masudi»,” “at-«Tabari».” Grässe’s “Lehrbuch
 einer allgemeinen Literärgeschichte” is a convenient guide in this
 matter; he prints that part of the name by which Arabic writers are
 commonly known in a heavier type than the rest.

 In Arabic names the words of relationship Abu (father), Umm (mother),
 Ibn, Bin (son), Ahu (brother), though not to be treated as names
 by themselves, are yet not to be disregarded, as proposed by Dr.
 Dziatzko. They form a name in conjunction with the word following (_e.
 g._, «Abu Bakr») and determine the alphabetical place of the entry.
 But the article al (changed by assonance to ad-, ar-, as-, at-, az-,
 according to the letter it precedes) is neglected (al-«Masudi»).

 In all Oriental names the cataloguer must be careful not to take
 titles, as Emir, Bey, Pasha, Sri, Babu, Pundit, for names.

 In regard to East Indian names, Dr. Feigl (Centralbl. f. Bibl., 4:
 120) gives the rule: If there are two names, enter under the first,
 which is the individual name, with a reference from the second; if
 there are three, enter under the third, which is the family name, with
 a reference under the second.

 [note] 13. This must include Popes even before the acquisition and
 after the loss of the temporal power.

 The direction “Use the English form of the name” was a concession to
 ignorance; when it was given, that form was almost alone employed in
 English books; since then the tone of literature has changed; the
 desire for local coloring has led to the use of foreign forms, and we
 have become familiarized with Louis, Henri, Marguerite, Carlos, Karl,
 Wilhelm, Gustaf. If the present tendency continues we shall be able to
 treat princes’ names like any other foreign names; perhaps the next
 generation of cataloguers will no more tolerate the headings «William»
 _Emperor of Germany_, «Lewis» XIV than they will tolerate «Virgil»,
 «Horace», «Pliny». The change, to be sure, would give rise to some
 difficult questions of nationality, but it would diminish the number
 of the titles now accumulated under the more common royal names.[/note]


20. Put under the surname:

_a._ In general, all persons not included under § 19.

 In a few cases, chiefly of artists, a universally-used sobriquet
 is to be taken in place of the family or forename, as «Tintoretto»
 (whose real name was Giacomo «Robusti»). Similar cases are
 «Canaletto» (Antonio «Canale» and also B. «Belotto»), «Correggio»
 (Ant. «Allegri»), «Garofalo» (Benvenuto Piero «Tisi»), Il «Sodoma»
 (Giov. Ant. «Bazzi»), «Spagnoletto» (José «Ribera»), «Uccello» (Paolo
 «Doni»). Always refer from the family name.

_b._ In particular, ecclesiastical dignitaries. Refer.

 _Ex._ «Kaye», John, _Bishop of Lincoln_.

 «Lincoln», John, _Bishop of_. _See_ «Kaye».

 Bishops usually omit their family name, canons their forename, on
 their title-pages, as “by Canon Liddon,” “by the Bishop of Ripon,” “by
 Henry Edward, archbishop of Westminster,” _i. e._, H: E: Manning. Care
 must be taken not to treat Canon as a forename or Edward as a family
 name. {22}

_c._ Married women, using the last well-known form. Refer.

 Wives often continue writing, and are known in literature, only under
 their maiden names (as Miss «Freer» or Fanny «Lewald»), or after a
 second marriage retain for literary purposes the first husband’s name.
 The cataloguer should not hurry to make a change in the name as soon
 as he learns of a marriage. Let him rather follow than lead the public.


21. Put under the title:

 British[14] and foreign[15] noblemen, referring from earlier titles by
 which they have been known, and, in the case of British noblemen, from
 the family name.

 _Ex._ «Chesterfield», Philip Dormer Stanhope, _4th Earl of_. Refer
 from «Stanhope». «Saint-Simon», Louis de Rouvroi, _duc_ de.

 [note] 14. The British Museum and Mr. Jewett enter British noblemen
 under the family name; Mr. Perkins prefers entry under titles for
 British noblemen, in which I agree with him, although the opposite
 practice is now so well established. The reasons for entry under
 the title are that British noblemen are always so spoken of, always
 sign by their titles only, and seldom put the family name upon the
 title-pages of their books, so that ninety-nine in a hundred readers
 must look under the title first. The reasons against it are that the
 founders of noble families are often as well known—sometimes even
 better—by their family name as by their titles (as Charles Jenkinson
 afterwards Lord Liverpool, Sir Robert Walpole afterwards Earl of
 Orford); that the same man bears different titles in different parts
 of his life (thus P. Stanhope published his “History of England from
 the peace of Utrecht” as Lord Mahon, and his “Reign of Queen Anne”
 as Earl Stanhope); that it separates members of the same family
 (Lord Chancellor Eldon would be under «Eldon» and his father and
 all his brothers and sisters under the family name «Scott»), and
 brings together members of different families (thus the earldom of
 Bath has been held by members of the families of Shaunde, Bourchier,
 Granville, and Pulteney, and the family name of the present Marquis
 of Bath is Thymne), which last argument would be more to the point
 in planning a family history. The same objections apply to the entry
 of French noblemen under their titles, about which there can be no
 hesitation. The strongest argument in favor of the Museum rule is that
 it is well-established and that it is desirable that there should be
 some uniform rule. Ecclesiastical dignitaries stand on an entirely
 different footing. There is much more use of the family name and much
 more change of title. In the first edition I followed the British
 Museum rules, but I am now in favor of the more popular method of
 entry of noblemen, namely, under their titles, _except when the family
 name is decidedly better known_ (Francis «Bacon», _Baron Verulam_,
 Horace «Walpole», _4th Earl of Orford_). In such cases enter under the
 family name and refer from the title. This rule was adopted by the
 committee of the American Library Association (_Lib. jnl._, 3: 12–19;
 8: 251–254). The reasons pro and con were discussed in _Lib. jnl._,
 3: 13, 14. The gist of them is: “Authors should be put under their
 names. The definition of a name is ‘that by which a person or thing
 is known.’ British noblemen are known by their titles, not by their
 family names.”[/note]

 [note] 15. Put the military nobles and princes of the French Empire
 under their family names, with references from their titles, _e.
 g._, Lucien «Bonaparte», _Prince de Canino_, «MacMahon», _duc de
 Magenta_.[/note]


22. Put the works of authors who change their name under the latest
form, provided the new name be legally and permanently adopted.

 Do not worry about the proper form of changed and transliterated
 names, nor spend much time in hunting up facts and deciding. If the
 necessary references are made, it is of little importance which form
 is chosen for the main entry, provided, of course, that the library
 always chooses the same heading.

 If the change consist in the addition of a name the new name is to be
 treated by the next rule. {23}


23. Put compound names:

_a._ If English, under the last part of the name, when the first has
not been used alone by the author.

 _Ex._ «Gould», Sabine Baring-; but «Halliwell» (_afterwards_
 «Halliwell-Phillipps»), J. O., because the author wrote much under the
 first name.

 This rule secures uniformity; but, like all rules, it sometimes leads
 to entries under headings where nobody would look for them. Refer.

_b._ If foreign, under the first part.

 Both such compound names as «Gentil-Bernard» and such as «Gentil de
 Chavagnac». There are various exceptions, when a name has been more
 known under the last part, as «Fénelon», not «Salignac de Lamothe
 Fénelon»; «Voltaire», not «Arouet de Voltaire»; «Sternberg», not
 «Ungern-Sternberg». Moreover, it is not always easy to determine what
 is a compound surname in French. A convenient rule would be to follow
 the authority of Hœfer (Biog. gén.) and Quérard, in such cases, if
 they always agreed; unfortunately, they often differ. References are
 necessary whichever way one decides each case, especially when the
 second part of a foreign compound name has been used alone, as «Merle
 d’Aubigné» (enter under «Merle» with a reference from «Aubigné»).

 In French a forename is sometimes joined to a surname by a hyphen. In
 such cases make the entry under the family name with a reference from
 the forename, _e. g._, entry, «Rochette», Désiré Raoul; reference,
 «Raoul-Rochette». _See_ «Rochette».

_c._ In foreign compound names of women also, although the first part
is generally the maiden name and the second the husband’s name, the
entry should generally be under the first, with a reference from the
second. (_See_ 20, _c._)

 _Ex._ «Rivé-King», with cross-reference from «King», _born_ «Rivé».


24. Put surnames preceded by prefixes:

_a._ In French, under the prefix when it is or contains an article,
«Le», «La», «L’», «Du», «Des»; under the word following when the prefix
is a preposition, «de», «d’».

 When the name is printed by the author as one word the entry is made
 under the preposition, as «Debucourt», «Decamps».

_b._ In English, under the prefix, no matter from what language the
name is derived, as «De Quincey», «Van Buren», with references when
necessary.

_c._ In all other languages, under the name following the prefix, as
«Gama», Vasco da. with references whenever the name has been commonly
used in English with the prefix, as «Del Rio», «Vandyck», «Van Ess».

 But when the author prints his name as one word entry is made under
 the prefix, as «Vanderhaeghen».

_d._ Naturalized names are to be treated by the rules of the nation
adopting them.

 Thus German names preceded by von when belonging to Russians are to
 be entered under «Von». _E. g._, Фонь Визин is to be entered as «Von
 Vizin» (not «Vizin», von), as this is the Russian custom. So when
 Dutch names compounded with van are adopted into French or English (as
 «Van Laun») the «Van» is treated as part of the family name.

 Prefixes are d’, de, de «La» (the name goes under _La_ not _de_), Des,
 Du, L’, La, Le, Les, St., Ste. (to be arranged as if written Saint,
 Sainte), Van, A’, Ap, O’, Fitz, Mac (which is to be printed as it is
 in the title, whether M’, or Mc, or Mac, but to be arranged as if
 written Mac). {24}


25. Put names of Latin authors under that part of the name chosen in
Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman biography, unless there is some
good reason for not doing so.


26. Put names of capes, lakes, mountains, rivers, forts, _etc._,
beginning with Cape, Lake, Mt., etc., under the word following the
prefix, but when the name is itself used as a prefix, do not transpose
Cape, etc., nor in such names as Isle of the Woods, Isles of Shoals.

 _Ex._ «Cod, Cape»; «George, Lake»; «Washington, Mt.»; «Moultrie,
 Fort»; but «Cape Breton Island». When the name of a fort becomes the
 name of a city, of course the inversion must be abandoned, as «Fort
 Wayne».

(iii.) _Under what form of the name._


27. Give the names, both family and Christian, in the vernacular
form,[16] if any instance occurs of the use of that form in the printed
publications of the author.[17]

 [note] 16. The vernacular form of most Christian names may be found in
 Michaelis’s “Wörterbuch der Taufnamen” (Berlin, 1856). There are also
 meagre lists in foreign dictionaries. For the forms of mediæval names
 much assistance can be had from A. Potthast’s “Bibliotheca historica
 medii aevi, Berlin, Weber, 1862,” O, and “Supplement, 1868,” O; also
 from Alfred Franklin’s “Dictionnaire des noms, surnoms, et pseudonymes
 latins de l’histoire littéraire du Moyen Age (1100 à 1530), Paris,
 1876,” O. (On the names of sovereigns, see § 19; on the Latin names of
 Greek authors, see § 36; on the names of Greek gods, see § 100.)[/note]

 [note] 17. This is the British Museum rule. It will obviously be
 sometimes impossible and often difficult to determine this point in a
 library of less extent than the Museum, and the cataloguer must make
 up his mind to some inconsistency in his treatment of mediæval names,
 and be consoled by the knowledge that if proper references are made no
 harm will be done. Against a too great preference for the vernacular
 Professor De Morgan writes in the preface to his “Arithmetical
 books:” “I have not attempted to translate the names of those who
 wrote in Latin at a time when that language was the universal medium
 of communication. I consider that the Latin name is that which the
 author has left to posterity, and that the practice of retaining it
 is convenient, as marking, to a certain extent, the epoch of his
 writings, and as being the appellation by which his contemporaries and
 successors cite him. It is well to know that Copernicus, Dasypodius,
 Xylander, Regiomontanus, and Clavius were Zepernik, Rauchfuss,
 Holtzmann, Müller, and Schlüssel. But as the butchers’ bills of these
 eminent men are all lost, and their writings only remain, it is best
 to designate them by the name they bear on the latter rather than the
 former.”

 The same may be said of Camerarius (Kämmerer), Capito (Kopflein),
 Mercator (Kramer), Œcolampadius (Hausschein), where it would be
 useless to employ the vernacular name; if both forms are in use, as in
 the case of Pomeranius = Bugenhagen, the vernacular should have the
 preference. Reuchlin is much more common than its equivalent, Capnio.

 Before the Reformation the presumption is in favor of the Latin form;
 after it in favor of the vernacular.

 Short will consult the convenience of his readers if he uses the
 English forms of names like «Homer», «Horace», «Virgil», in place of
 «Homerus», «Horatius», «Vergilius».

 The vernacular names of the Middle Ages often appear in various forms.
 The form which has survived to the present time is to be preferred (as
 «Jean» to «Jehan»), unless a name is commonly used in the old form, as
 in the romances «Jehan» de Lançon. Refer from the one not chosen.[/note]

{25}


28. If an author has written in several modern languages, choose that
in which he has written most.


29. In languages which use a masculine and a feminine form of family
names (as «Modjeski» and «Modjeska»), use that which the authoress
herself chiefly employs.


30. When an author’s name is variously spelled, select the best
authorized form as heading, add the variants in parentheses, and make
references from them to the form adopted.

 Of course, great care must be taken not to enter separately works in
 which an author spells his name differently, as Briant and Bryant,
 Easterbrookes and Estabrook, Erdmann and Erdtmann. On the other
 hand, different people who spell their names differently should be
 separated, as Hofmann and Hoffmann, Maier, Mair, Majer, Mayer, Mayr,
 Meier, Meir, Mejer, Meyer, Meyr, Schmid, Schmidt, Schmied, Schmiedt,
 Schmit, Schmitt. (On the arrangement of such names in a card catalogue
 see § 218.)

 In German Christian names there is a want of uniformity in the use of
 C and K (Carl, Conrad, Karl, Konrad) and f and ph (Adolf, Adolph).
 Occasionally an author uses both forms in different books, or writing
 only in Latin (Carolus, Rudolphus), does not show which form he
 prefers. Where the author thus leaves the point undecided, K and f
 should be preferred to C and ph (except in Christoph). Swedish f is to
 be preferred to v, as Gustaf, not Gustav.


31. When family names are written differently by different persons,
follow the spelling adopted by each, even though it should separate
father and son.


32. Forenames are to be used in the form employed by their owners,
however unusual, as Will «Carleton», Sally (Pratt) «McLean», Hans
«Droysen», Fritz «Reuter».


33. Give names of places in the English form.

 «Munich» not «Muenchen» or «München», «Vienna» not «Wien», «Austria»
 not «Oesterreich».


34. But if both the English and the foreign forms are used by English
writers, prefer the foreign form.


35. Use the modern name of a city and refer to it from the ancient,
provided its existence has been continuous and there is no doubt as to
the identity.


36. In transliteration of names from alphabets of differently formed
letters, use the vowels according to their German sounds. (_See_
Appendix II for the report of the Transliteration Committee of the
American Library Association.)

 _I. e._, «a» (not _ah_) for the sound of _a_ in _father_, «e» (not
 _a_) for the sound of _e_ in _heir_ or of _a_ in _hate_, «i» (not
 _e_) for the sound of _i_ in _mien_, «u» (not _oo_ nor _ou_) for
 the sound of _u_ in _true_ or of _oo_ in _moon_. This practice
 makes transliterations that are likely to be pronounced in the main
 correctly by anyone who knows any language but his own (who would
 naturally give foreign vowel sounds to foreign names), and will
 give transliterations agreeing at least in part with those of other
 nations. In some points, however, we must be careful not to be misled
 by the practice of foreigners, and when we take a name from Russian,
 for instance, through the French or German, must see to it that the
 necessities of their alphabet have not led them to use letters that do
 not suit our system. A Frenchman writes for Turgenief _Tourguénef_,
 and for Golovin {26} _Golovine_, and uses _ou_ for _u_, _ch_ for
 _sh_, _dj_ for _j_, _j_ for _zh_, _gu_ for _g_, and _qu_ for _k_. A
 German for Dershavin writes _Derschawin_, and, worse than that, is
 obliged to use the clumsy _dsch_ where an Englishman can use j, as
 _Dschellaleddin_ for Jalal-ad-Din, and uses _tsch_ for _ch_ or _tch_,
 _j_ for _y_ or _i_ (Turgenjew), _w_ for _v_ or _f_ in the ending of
 Russian names.

 In _Arabic_ names I am advised by good scholars to uniformly write «a»
 where our ordinary Anglicized names have «e», except for Ebn and Ben,
 which become Ibn and Bin; also «i» for «ee», and «u» where «o» has
 been commonly used; in other words, to uniformly represent the vowel
 fatha by «a», kasra by «i», and dhamma by «u». Thus «Mohammed» becomes
 «Muhammad», «Abou ed-Deen» becomes «Abu ad-Din». Of course references
 must be made from the corrupt forms under which various Arabic authors
 have become known in the West, unless it is thought that the altered
 form has been so commonly used that it must be taken for the entry, as
 perhaps «Avicenna» from Ibn Sina, «Averroes» from Ibn Roshd.

 In _Danish_ names if the type «å» is not to be had, use its older
 equivalent «aa»; in a manuscript catalogue the modern orthography,
 «å», should be employed. Whichever is chosen should be uniformly used,
 however the names may appear in the books. The diphthong «æ» should
 not be written «ae», nor should «ö» be written «oe»; «ö», not «œ»,
 should be used for «ø».

 In old _Dutch_ names write «y» for the modern «ij» and arrange so.

 In _German_ names used as headings, use «ä», «ö», «ü», not «ae», «oe»,
 «ue», and arrange accordingly.

 For _ancient Greek_ names use the Latinized form, as «Democritus»
 not «Demokritos», «Longinus» not «Logginos». This holds good of
 translated works as well as of the originals. It will not do to
 enter an Italian version of the Odyssey under «Omero», or of the
 Euterpe under «Erodoto», or a French version of the Noctes Atticæ
 under «Aulu-Gelle». A college literary catalogue may safely use the
 more nearly transliterated forms which are coming into use, like
 «Aiskulos», «Homeros», but used in a town-library catalogue they would
 only puzzle and mislead its readers. For that I should prefer the
 English forms, as «Homer», «Horace».

 For _modern Greek_ names Professor Abbot proposes the following
 plan: Works in Romaic to be entered in a supplement, the names not
 transliterated but printed in the Greek type. Translations of works
 of modern Greek authors to be put under their Greek names in the
 supplement, with references in the main catalogue under the forms
 (whatever they may be) which their names assume in the translation.
 Original works written in French, German, English, etc., by modern
 Greek authors may be treated in the same way if their authors have not
 become French, German, or English by residence and literary labors, in
 which case they should be entered under the French, German, or English
 forms which they have chosen for their names, with cross-references,
 if necessary, from the Greek supplement to these names. If, however,
 transliteration is attempted the following table of equivalents may be
 used:

 αι                     æ
 αυ                    av
 ει                    ei
 ευ                    ev
 η                      i
 ηυ                    iv
 οι                     œ
 υ                      y
 υι                    yi
 β                      v
 γ                     gh
 γ before κ, γ, χ, ξ    n
 δ                     dh
 κ after γ              g
 ξ                      x
 ου                     u
 ρ                      r
 χ                     kh

 When _Hindus_ themselves transliterate their names, use their form,
 whether or not according to our rules. (Appendix II.)

 In _Hungarian_ names write «ö», «ü», with the diæresis (not «oe»,
 «ue»), and arrange like the English «o», «u».

 In _Spanish_ names use the modern orthography «i» and «j» rather than
 the ancient «y» and «x».

 In _Swedish_ names «ä», «å», «ö», should be so written (not «ae»,
 «oe»), and arranged as the English «a», «o».

 Ballhorn’s Grammatography (London, 1861) will be found very useful on
 such points. {27}


37. When an author living in a foreign country has transliterated his
name according to the practice of that country and always uses it in
that form, take that as the heading, referring from the form which
the name would have under § 36; but if he has written much in his own
language, use the English transliterated form.

 _Ex._ «Bikelas», Demetrius, with reference from «Vikelas», Dmitri.


38. If a name which would properly be spelled by the English alphabet
has been transliterated into a foreign alphabet, refer from the foreign
form.

 _Ex._ «Šifner.» See «Schiefner».


(b.) CORPORATE.


_General principle._


39. Bodies of men are to be considered as authors of works published in
their name or by their authority.

 The chief difficulty with regard to bodies of men is to determine
 (1) what their names are, and (2) whether the name or some other
 word shall be the heading. In regard to (2) the catalogues hitherto
 published may be regarded as a series of experiments. No satisfactory
 usage has as yet been established. Local names have always very strong
 claims to be headings; but to enter the publications of all bodies of
 men under the places with which the bodies are connected is to push a
 convenient practice so far that it becomes inconvenient and leads to
 many rules entirely out of harmony with the rest of the catalogue.


_Details._


40. Enter under places (countries, or parts of countries, cities,
towns, ecclesiastical, military, or judicial districts) the works
published officially by their rulers (kings,[18] governors, mayors,
prelates, generals commanding, courts,[19] etc.). Refer from the name
of the ruler.

 [note] 18. Of course this does not affect works written privately by
 kings, etc., as K. James’s “Counterblast.”[/note]

 [note] 19. The relation of courts to judicial districts is a little
 different from the others, but it is convenient to treat them alike.
 The opinion of a single judge should be entered under his name.

 _Ex._ UNITED STATES. _Supreme Court._ Opinions of the judges in the
 case of Smith _vs._ Turner, etc.

 TANEY, Roger Brooke. Decision in the Merryman case.[/note]


41. Similarly Congress, Parliament, and other governmental bodies
are authors of their journals, acts, minutes, laws, etc.; and other
departments of government of their reports, and of the works published
by them or under their auspices.

 These are to be entered under the name of the country, city, or town,
 and not in the main alphabet under the word «Congress», «Parliament»,
 «City Council», or the like.


42. Laws on one or more particular subjects, whether digested or merely
collected, must have author-entries both under the name of the country
and under the name of the collector or digester.

 _Ex._ Tilsley’s “Digest of the stamp acts” would appear both under
 «Great Britain» and «Tilsley». {28}


43. Calendars of documents, regesta, etc., are to be entered under
their maker, with a series-entry under the department which orders the
publication.

 _Ex._ «Green», _Mrs._ M.. Anne Everett (Wood). Calendar of state
 papers, domestic, Charles II. The series-entry is under «Great
 Britain». _Master of the Rolls._


44. Works written officially are to be entered under the name of the
department of government or society (see § 56) or ecclesiastical
district with a reference from the name of the official, if it is
thought worth making.

 Some libraries may refer always; most will refer only when the
 report has exceptional importance (1) from its subject, (2) from the
 treatment of its subject, (3) from its literary merits, (4) from the
 fame of its author, or (5) from having been separately published.
 Horace Mann’s reports, for example, should be catalogued under
 «Massachusetts». _Board of Education_, to which heading a reference
 should be made from «Mann». Presidents’ messages should appear under
 «United States». _President._ Proclamations and all other official
 writings of kings should appear under the name of the country
 (division _King_ or _Crown_), arranged by reigns, as,

 «Great Britain.» _Crown._      │    «United States.» _President._
         _Charles_ I.           │              _Buchanan._
         _Charles_ II.          │              _Lincoln._
         _James_ II.            │              _Johnson._
         _William and Mary._    │              _Grant._


45. In the entry of Government publications, use for a subdivision
the name of the office rather than the title of the officer, _i. e._,
_Ministère de la Marine_, not _Ministre de la Marine_, _Registry
of Deeds_, not _Register of Deeds_.[20] The individual name of the
occupant of the office for the time being may be added in parenthesis
to the name of the office;[21] and it should be so added when the
publication has an individual character.

 [note] 20. There are cases, however, where the title of the
 officer is the only name of the office, as «Illinois». _State
 Entomologist._[/note]

 [note] 21. «Great Britain.» _Crown_, 1377–99 (Richard II). A roll,
 etc.[/note]


46. Messages of a superior executive officer (as President or Governor)
transmitting to a legislative body or to some higher executive officer
the report of some inferior officer should be entered as the report of
the inferior officer, provided the message is merely introductory and
contains no independent matter; provided, also, there are not three or
more reports; if there are, the higher officer is to be regarded as the
collecting editor (§ 59, _d_); in this case refer analytically to the
superior officer’s official title from all the inferior officers whose
reports are so transmitted.


47. “Articles to be inquired of” in ecclesiastical districts should go
under the name of the district; but episcopal charges are not to go
under the name of the bishopric unless they relate especially to its
affairs, in which case they will have a subject-entry.

 _Ex._ «York, Archdeaconry of.» Articles to be enquired of within the
 A. of Y. {29}


48. Reports made to a department, but not by an official, are to be
entered under the department, with either an entry, reference, or
analytical under the author as circumstances require.

 «Gould’s» “Mollusca and shells” and «Cassin’s» “Mammalogy and
 ornithology of the United States Exploring Expedition under Wilkes”
 are of this nature; so is “Memorial ceremonies at the graves of our
 soldiers, collected under authority of Congress, by Frank «Moore».”
 (Compare § 43.)


49. Enter congresses of several nations under the name of the place of
meeting (as that usually gives them their name), with references from
the nations taking part in them and from any name by which they are
popularly known.

 _Ex._ The Congress of «London», of «Paris», of «Verona».


50. Enter treaties under the name of each of the contracting parties,
with a reference from the name of the place, when the treaty is
commonly called by that name, and from any other usual appellation.

 _Ex._ Treaty of «Versailles», «Barrier» treaty, «Jay’s» treaty.


51. Enter the official publications of any political party[22] or
religious denomination or order,[23] or military order, under the name
of the party, or denomination, or order.[24]

 [note] 22. Platforms, manifestoes, addresses, etc., under «Democratic
 Party», «Republican Party», etc.[/note]

 [note] 23. Confessions of faith, creeds, catechisms, liturgies,
 breviaries, missals, hours, offices, prayer books, etc., under
 «Baptists», «Benedictines», «Catholic Church», «Church of England»,
 etc.[/note]

 [note] 24. That part of a body which belongs to any place should
 be entered under the name of the body, not the place; _e. g._,
 «Congregationalists in New England», «Congregationalists in
 Massachusetts», not «New England Congregationalists», «Massachusetts
 Congregationalists». But references must be made from the place
 (indeed in cases like Massachusetts Convention, Essex Conference,
 it may be doubted whether those well-known names should not be the
 headings). It is to be noticed this rule is just the reverse of the
 one given under Subjects, § 97. Single churches have usually been
 entered under the place, a practice which arose in American catalogues
 from our way of naming churches “The First Church in ——,” “The Second
 Church in ——,” etc., and applies very well to a majority of English
 churches, whose name generally includes the name of the parish. It is
 more in accordance with dictionary principles to limit the local entry
 of churches to First Church, etc., and those which have only the name
 of the town or parish, and to put all others (as «St. Sepulchre’s»,
 «St. Mary Aldermansbury») under their names, as they read, and to
 treat convents and monasteries in the same way. (See § 56, Rule 2.) Of
 course the parishes of London (as Kensington, Marylebone, Southwark),
 like the parts of Boston (Dorchester, Roxbury, etc.), or of any other
 composite city, will be put under their own names, not under the name
 of the city.[/note]


52. Enter reports, journals, minutes, etc., of conventions,
conferences, etc., under the names of the bodies holding the
conferences, etc. When the body has no exact name[25] enter under the
name of the place of meeting.[26]

 [note] 25. Some conventions are held by bodies which have no existence
 beyond the convention. If, however, they have a definite name, use
 that; _ex._, 4th «National Quarantine {30} and Sanitary Convention».
 Often the name is given in different forms. Select that which appears
 to be the most authentic, and make references from the others.[/note]

 [note] 26. In any case it is well to refer from the name of the place,
 and in the case of Presidential conventions it is indispensable.

 Put the convention of a county or other named district under the name
 of the district, with a reference from the town in which it is held,
 when it is named in the title-page.[/note]


53. Enter ecclesiastical councils, both general and special, under the
name of the place of meeting. (The Vatican Council under «Vatican», not
«Rome».) Refer from the name of the ecclesiastical body.


54. Enter reports of committees under the name of the body to which
they belong; but reports of “a committee of citizens,” etc., not
belonging to any named body should be put under the name of the writer,
if known, if not, of the chairman, or if that is not given, of the
first signer, or if not signed, under the name of the place.


55. Put the anonymous publications of any class (not organized) of
citizens of a place under the place.

 _Ex._ “Application to Parliament by the merchants of London” should go
 under «London. Merchants.»


56. Societies are authors of their journals, memoirs, proceedings,
transactions, publications. (On publishing-societies, see B.
Substitutes, § 59, _e_.)

 The chief practices in regard to societies have been to enter
 them (1. British Museum) under a special heading—«Academies»—with
 a geographical arrangement; (2. Boston Public Library, printed
 catalogue) under the name of the place where they have their
 headquarters; (3. Harvard College Library and Bost. Pub. Lib., present
 system) under the name of the place, _if it enters into the legal
 name of the society_, otherwise under the first word of that name not
 an article; (4. Boston Athenæum) English societies under the first
 word of the society’s name not an article, foreign societies under
 the name of the place. Both 3 and 4 put under the place all purely
 local societies, those whose membership or objects are confined to
 the place. The 1st does not deserve a moment’s consideration; such a
 heading is out of place in an author-catalogue, and the geographical
 arrangement only serves to complicate matters and render it more
 difficult to find any particular academy.[27] The 2d is utterly
 unsuited to American and English societies. The 3d practice is simple;
 but it is difficult to see the advantage of the exception which it
 makes to its general rule of entry under the society’s name; the
 exception does not help the cataloguer, for it is just as hard to
 determine whether the place enters into the _legal_ name as it is to
 ascertain the name; it does not help the reader, for he has no means
 of knowing whether the place is part of the legal name or not. The 4th
 is simple and intelligible; it is usually easy for both cataloguer and
 reader to determine whether a society is English or foreign. I shall
 mention two other possible plans, well aware that there are strong
 objections to both.

 5TH PLAN. _Rule_ 1. Enter academies,[28] associations, institutes,
 universities, societies, libraries, galleries, museums, colleges,
 and all similar bodies, and churches that {31} have an individual
 name, both English and foreign, according to their corporate name,
 neglecting an initial article when there is one.

 _Exception_ 1. Enter the universities and the royal academies of
 Berlin, Göttingen, Leipzig, Lisbon, Madrid, Munich, St. Petersburg,
 Vienna, etc., and the “Institut” of Paris, under those cities. An
 exception is an evil. This one is adopted because the universities and
 academies are almost universally known by the names of the cities, and
 are hardly ever referred to by the name Königliche, Real, etc.

 _Exception_ 2. Enter London guilds under the name of the trade; _e.
 g._, “«Stationers’ Company»,” not “Master and Keepers or Wardens
 and Commonalty of the Mystery and Art of Stationers of the City of
 London,” which is the corporate title. This exception is adopted
 because (1) it gives a heading easier to find, and (2) it would be
 difficult in many cases to ascertain the real names of the London
 companies.

 _Exception_ 3. Enter bodies whose legal name begins with such words as
 Board, Corporation, Trustees under that part of the name by which they
 are usually known.

 _E. g_. Trustees of the «Eastern Dispensary». Corporation of the
 «Chamber of Commerce» in the City of New York. Proprietors of the
 «Boston Athenæum». Contributors to the «Asylum for the Relief of
 Persons deprived of their Reason». Refer from the first word of the
 legal name.

 _Exception_ 4. Enter orders of knighthood under the significant word
 of the English title; as, «Garter, Order of the»; «Malta, Knights of»;
 «Templars, Knights»; «Teutonic Order».

 _Exception_ 5. Enter American State historical and agricultural
 societies under the name of the State.

 _Rule_ 2. _a._ Enter churches which have no individual name and all
 purely local benevolent or moral or similar societies under the name
 of the place.

 _b._ Young men’s Christian associations, mercantile library
 associations, and the like are to be considered local.

 _c._ Business firms or corporations (except national banks numbered as
 First National Bank, etc.), libraries, galleries, museums, are not to
 be considered local, nor are private schools local, but go under their
 corporate name, or, if they are not corporate, under the name of the
 proprietor.

 _d._ National libraries museums, and galleries and libraries, museums,
 and galleries instituted or supported by a city go under the name of
 the city provided they have not a name of their own. (_E. g._, the
 «Boston» _Public Library_ goes under «Boston»; but the «Reuben Hoar
 Library» of Littleton goes under «Hoar».) American public schools
 should in any case go under the name of the city. (Rule 2, _h_.)

 _e._ If college societies limited to one college are considered
 local, they would be entered not under the name of the place but of
 the college; if they are treated by rule 1, as all general college
 societies must be, reference (6) must be made. College libraries go
 under the name of the college. The colleges of an English university
 and the schools of an American university go under the name of the
 university.

 _Refer_ (1) from all the varying forms of the society’s name.

 (2) from important words in the society’s name, when the first word is
 unlikely to be thought of.

 (3) from the name of the city where the society is situated.

 (4) from the motto in the names of Dutch societies.

 (5) from the names of the royal societies of Berlin, etc.

 (6) from colleges to college societies.

 (7) from such words as «Gallery», «Museum», etc., to all the
 galleries, museums, etc., contained in the catalogue. {32}

 _f_ Universities, galleries, etc., called merely Imperial, Royal,
 National and the like are not to be considered as having individual
 names, except the «National Gallery» of London.

 _g_ Buildings are for the most part provided for in the above rules
 as museums, galleries, libraries, churches, etc. Any others should be
 entered under their names, with a reference from the city.

 _h_ If a firm’s name is in the form «Raphael Friedlander und Sohn»
 it might be put as it reads, _i. e._, under R, or reversed, _i.
 e._, «Friedlander und Sohn, Raphael». I prefer the latter, because
 the consulter is much more likely to remember the family than the
 Christian name. Whether the Christian name is written at the end or
 thus, «Town (John) and Bowers (Henry)», all firms should be arranged
 after all the other entries of the first family name, _i. e._,
 «Friedlander und Sohn» after all the «Friedlanders». The same reason
 applies to other bodies whose legal name begins with a forename.

 The plan might be tabulated thus:

           _Under name._                           _Under place._

 Churches not numbered and not named    Churches numbered or otherwise
   from the place.                        named from the place.
 Societies not local.                   Societies purely local.
 English and American academies.        Academies and universities of the
                                          European Continent and of South
                                          America.
 Colleges, universities, libraries,     National or municipal colleges,
    galleries, museums, having an         libraries, galleries, museums,
   individual name.                       not having an individual name.
 Private schools.                       Public schools.
 Business firms and corporations.       Municipal corporations.
 London guilds (name of trade).         State historical societies and
                                          State agricultural societies
                                          (name of state).

 _Ex._ «Amiens. Académie des Sciences, Agriculture, Commerce,
 Belles-Lettres, et Arts du Départment de la Somme.» (Rule 1, exc. 1.)

 «Association Scientifique Algérienne», _Algiers_. (Rule 1.)

 «Athenée de Vaucluse», _Avignon_. (Rule 1.)

 «Barbers and Surgeons of London (Mystery and Commonalty of)»,
 _afterwards_ «Royal College of Surgeons». _See_ «Royal College of
 Surgeons».

 «Boston» (_Mass._) _Public Library_. (Rule 2, _d_.)

 «Boston.» _Wells School_. (Rule 2, _d_.)

 «Boston Athenæum.» (Rule 1, exc. 3, Rule 2, _c_.)

 «Boston, First Church of.» (Rule 2, _d_.)

 «British Museum.» (Rule 2, _d_.)

 «Cambridge» (_Mass._), «First Church of». (Rule 2.)

 «Chauncy Hall School», _Boston, Mass._ (Rule 2 _c_.)

 «Chemins de Fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée, Comp. des.»
 (Rule 2, _c_.)

 «Christiania. Videnskabs-Selskab.» (Rule 1, exc. 1.)

 «Clarke (W. B.), & Co.» (Rule 2, _c_.)

 «Congrès International des Américanistes.» (Rule 1.)

 «Firenze. Galleria Imperiale.» (Rule 2, _f_.)

 «Freemasons» _in Iowa_. (§ 51^3.)

 «Genootschap “Oefening kweekt Kunst,”» _Amsterdam_. (Rule 1, and ref.
 4.)

 «Geschichts- und Alterthumsforschende Gesellschaft des Osterlandes»,
 _Altenburg_. (Rule 1.)

 «Göttingen. K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften.» (Rule 1, exc. 1.)

 «Great Britain.» _Parliament._ (§ 41.)

 «Harvard College.» (Rule 1.)

 «Harvard College.» _Lawrence Scientific School._ (Rule 1, 2, _e_.)

 «Harvard College.» _Library._ (Rule 1, 2, _e_.) {33}

 «Hermitage, Gallerie de l’», _St. Petersburg_. (Rule 2, _d_.)

 «Houghton & Mifflin.» (Rule 2, _c_.)

 «L’Internationale.» (Rule 1.)

 «Intime Club», _Paris_. (Rule 1.)

 «London. Merchants.» (§ 55.)

 «Louvre, Gallerie du», _Paris_. (Rule 2, _d_.)

 «Museum of Fine Arts», _Boston, Mass._ (Rule 2, _c_.)

 «Madrid. R. Academia de la Historia.» (Rule 1, exc. 1.)

 «National Gallery», _London_. (Rule 2, _f_.)

 «3d National Quarantine and Sanitary Convention.» (§ 52^1.)

 «New England Trust Co.», _Boston, Mass._ (Rule 2, _c_.)

 «New York. Chamber of Commerce.» (Rule 1, exc. 3, Rule 2, _c_.)

 «New York. First National Bank.» (Rule 2, _c_.)

 «New York. Young Men’s Christian Association.» (Rule 2, _b_.)

 «Or San Michele, Chiesa di», _Florence_. (Rule 1.)

 «Paris. Bibliothèque Nationale.» (Rule 2, _d_, _f_.)

 ΦΒΚ. _A of Harvard._ (Rule 2, _e_.)

 «Prado, Museo del», _Madrid_. (Rule 2, _d_.)

 «Pratt (Enoch) Free Library», _Balt., Md._ (Rule 2, _d_, _h_.)

 «San Francisco. Mercantile Library Assoc.» (Rule 2, _b_.)

 «Société de l’Agriculture de l’Orne», _Alençon_. (Rule 1.)

 «Stationers’ Company», _London_. (Rule 1, exc. 2.)

 «Templars, Knights.» (Rule 2, exc. 4.)

 «Tübingen. Eberhard-Karls Universität.» (Rule 1, exc. 1.)

 «L’Union Générale», _Paris_. (Rule 2, _c_.)

 «United States. Library of Congress.» (§ 40.)

 «Vatican Council.» (§ 53.)

 «Verona, Congress of.» (§ 49.)

 «Versailles, Treaty of.» _See ——._ (§ 50.)

 «Wisconsin, State Historical Society of.» (Rule 1, exc. 5.)

The 6TH PLAN has the same rules as the 5TH, and _no_ exceptions. It
may be preferred by those who think the advantage of having a single
uniform rule greater than the inconvenience of unusual headings.

Perhaps from habit I prefer the 4TH PLAN. Of the other plans experience
confirms me in the belief that the 5TH PLAN is the best. The A. L.
A. adopted the 6TH PLAN. I have used it ever since in the _Library
journal_, and I do not think it works well.

 [note] 27. They are now arranged under Academies in a single alphabet
 of places, so that the latter—the most serious—objection does not
 apply.[/note]

 [note] 28. That is learned academies like the French Academy, not high
 schools.[/note]


B. SUBSTITUTES.

Substitutes for the author’s name (to be chosen in the following order)
are—


57. Part of the author’s name when only a part is known.

 _Ex._ For a book “by J. B. Far...,” or “by L. M. P.,” or “by Ddg.,”
 or “by —lsd—,” the entry is to be made under «Far...», J. B., «P.»,
 L. M., «Ddg.», «—lsd—». If the last initials are evidently, from the
 style of printing, those of a title, the entry will be under the
 initial preceding them; thus for books “by B. F., _D.D._,” or “by M.
 P. R., _Gent._,” or “by X. Y. Z., _D.D._,” the entry is to be made
 under «F.», B., _D.D._, and «R.», M. P., _Gent._, and «Z.», X. Y.,
 _D.D._ In such case it is safest to have also a reference from the
 last initial to the one chosen, as «D.», X. Y. Z. D. _See_ «Z.», X.
 Y., _D.D._ It is often well to make a reference from the first word
 (title-reference). This mode of entry ensures the easy finding of a
 particular book and brings together all of an author’s works in which
 the same letters are used, and sometimes leads to the discovery of a
 real name.

 Even mere printer’s marks, as *** or ..., or !!!, unaccompanied by
 any letters, though they can not be considered as names, may be used
 as headings for a reference {34} for the sake of bringing together
 all the works of an author using them; but each work should also have
 title entry if anonymous.


58. A pseudonym, that is, a false name; as, John «Phenix», Mark «Twain».

 If the author’s real name is known, make the entry under that, with a
 reference from the pseudonym; but if the writer is much better known
 by the pseudonym, enter under that, with a reference from the real
 name. (See note under § 6.)

 A phrase—“One who loves his country,” “A friend to peace”—or even a
 shorter appellation—“A lawyer”—is not a name. References might be
 made from these to the word under which the book is entered, but they
 would swell the catalogue and rarely be of use. Appellatives beginning
 with the definite article, like “The Prig,” “The Old Shekarry,”
 “The Duchess,” are not vague like “A lover of justice,” and when
 constantly used should be treated as names in the way either of entry
 or reference. Latin phrases, like “Amator patriæ,” should be treated
 as names and the entry made under the last word; as, «Patriæ», Amator.
 But it should not be made under patronymic adjectives, or certain
 words like junior, senior, evidently intended to qualify the name,
 not to be taken as the name; _i. e._, the heading for a book “by
 Phileleutherus Lipsiensis” would not be «Lipsiensis», Phileleutherus,
 but «Phileleutherus» _Lipsiensis_; Vanity Fair Album by Jehu Junior
 would go under «Jehu» _junior_, not «Junior», Jehu. In such cases a
 reference from the word which is not taken as the heading will be an
 additional safeguard.

 Pseudonyms like Aunt Jane, Cousin Mary, Uncle John, should be entered
 under the second word, although it is evidently not a family name but
 a forename; it is all the name that we have.

 The word Anonymus may be considered as a pseudonym when used as
 follows: “Anonymi introductio in,” etc.

 A foreign article beginning a pseudonym used in an English work is
 considered as a part of the name; as, «El-Mukattem», _pseud._


59. Collector.

 That is, the one who is responsible for the existence of a collection.
 A collection is made by putting together, with a collective title,
 three or more works by different authors, so as to make one work.

 _Examples_: Johnson’s “Little classics,” Buchon’s “Collection des
 mémoires.”

_a._ This rule does not apply to the collector (editor) of a
periodical. (§ 73.)

_b._ Several works published together without a collective title are to
be put under that author’s name which appears first on the title-page,
even though the collector’s name is also there; in other words, he is
then to be considered merely as the editor. (See § 4.)

 Thus, “The fraternitye of vacabondes, by J. Awdeley; A caueat for
 common cursetors, by T. Harman; A sermon in praise of thieves,
 by Parson Haben or Hyberdyne; those parts of The groundworke of
 conny-catching that differ from Harman’s Caueat; ed. by E. Viles
 and F. J. Furnivall,” should be entered not under «Viles», E., and
 «Furnivall», F. J., but under «Awdeley»; but if it had been entitled
 “Early tracts on vagabonds and beggars; edited by E. Viles and F. J.
 Furnivall,” it would properly be put under the editors.

_c._ If the collector’s name is known, the collection is to be put
under it, whether it occurs on the title-page or not. If his name is
not known, enter the collection like any anonymous work, under the
first word of the collective title. In either case the separate works
forming the collection must be entered under their respective authors.
(See V. Analysis.) Title-references are also often necessary. (See II.
Titles.) {35}

_d._ A collection known chiefly by its title may be put under that as
well as under the collector.

 The older collections, like «Graevius’s» Thesaurus antiquitatum
 Romanarum, «Gronovius’s» Thesaurus Graecarum antiquitatum, are known
 and referred to by their collectors’ names but of late years a swarm
 of series (American statesmen series, etc.) has arisen which are known
 wholly by their titles, under which they should be entered in full,
 with contents, to save the time of the searcher. The entry under the
 editor is necessary because he is really the author of the series,
 but it may be brief, with a reference for the “_Contents_” to the
 title-entry.

_e._ Societies like the Camden, Chetham, Hakluyt are collectors of the
series of works published by them, of which a list should be given
under their names.

 But every such work filling one or more volumes should be entered
 separately under its author or title as if it were published
 independently, and should have the same subject-entry. (See § 125.)
 Works that fill part of a volume are to be entered analytically, (See
 § 126.) Of course any volume consisting of three or more treatises,
 put together with a collective title by the society, should be entered
 under it as collector, if no collector’s name is given.

For anonymous works, see Title-entry, § 68. For trials, see § 64.


C. REFERENCES.


60. Make references

(§ 3.) From joint authors (after the first) to the first.

(§ 5.) From the præses to the respondent or defendant of a thesis, or
vice versâ.

(§ 6.) From pseudonyms, initials, and part of names.

(§§ 7, 8.) From important illustrators when not important enough for an
entry.

(§ 12.) From commentators who are not entitled to an entry, if the
commentary preponderates or for any reason is likely to be looked for
under the commentator’s name. Where the line of omission shall be drawn
depends on the fullness of the catalogue.

(§§ 13–16.) From the authors of continuations, indexes, and of
introductions of some length, also in some cases, of epitomes,
revisions, and excerpts.

(§ 18.) From the names of reporters, translators, and editors of
anonymous works and of works not anonymous which are commonly known by
the name of their editors or translators.

 _Ex._ Some translations from the German by Mrs. Wister are wrongly
 lettered as if she were the author, and are therefore asked for by her
 name.

(§ 19 _a_.) From the foreign form of names of sovereigns, whenever they
are likely to be looked for under that form.

(§ 19 _b_, _c_.) From the family name of persons canonized, and of
friars who drop the family name on entering their order.

(§ 19 _e_.) From such parts of Oriental names as require it.

(§ 20.) From the names of English sees and deaneries. {36}

(§ 20 _c_.) From the maiden names or unused married names of wives to
the one used in the catalogue, provided they have written under the
earlier names or for any other reason are likely to be looked for under
them.

(§ 21.) From the family names of British noblemen to the titles, or
vice versâ, if the entry is made under the family name.

From the family names of foreign noblemen, when they are known by them
wholly or in part.

From any other title by which a man may be better known than by his
real name.

 As, “«Claimant», The.” The Diary of the Shah of Persia, catalogued
 under «Nassr-ad-Din», requires a reference from «Shah».

(§ 22.) From the earlier forms of names that are changed.

(§ 23.) From the part of compound names which is not used for entry to
the part which is, whenever it seems necessary.

(§ 24.) From the prefixes of foreign names when they have been commonly
used in combination with the last part.

 _Ex._ From «Vandyck» to «Dyck», A. van, from «Degerando» to «Gerando»,
 and «De Candolle» to «Candolle».

(§ 25.) From the alternative part of Latin names.

(§§ 27–38.) From all forms of a name varying either by spelling,
translation, or transliteration that do not come into immediate
juxtaposition with the one chosen.

 This should be done whether the rejected form occurs in the title of a
 book in the library or not. The object of a reference is to enable the
 reader to find the works of an author, not merely a particular book,
 and the reader may have seen the author referred to under the rejected
 form whether the library has a book with that form or not.

(§§ 40, 44, 48.) From the authors of official writings (with
discretion).

(§ 49.) From nations taking part in a congress to the place of meeting.

(§ 52.) From the places where conventions are held to the names of the
bodies holding them.

(§ 53.) From the name of an ecclesiastical body to the headings under
which the councils of the body are entered.

(§ 56.) A list of references is given in the note.

(§ 57.) From part of the author’s name appearing on the title-page to
the whole name if discovered.

From the last initial given on a title-page to the one chosen for the
entry.

(§ 58.) From a pseudonym to the real name when discovered.

From some phraseological pseudonyms, especially if brief.

 _Ex._ From «Lawyer», when an anonymous work is said to be “by a
 lawyer.” For Full only.

From editors and translators.

 If it is thought worth while to give a complete view of the literary
 and artistic activity of every author so far as it is represented
 in the library, of course references from editors, translators,
 illustrators, cartographers, engravers, etc., must be made. But this
 completeness is not usually sought even in large libraries. Such
 references {37} are also undeniably a help in finding books. But
 they increase the bulk and the cost of a catalogue so much and are
 comparatively of so little use that ordinary libraries must content
 themselves with a selection, though the best-made selection is
 certain to occasion complaints that the really useful ones have been
 omitted and the least important made. The chief classes of necessary
 references of this sort are—

 (1.) From the editors of periodicals to the title-entry, when the
 periodical is commonly called by the editor’s name, as Poggendorff’s
 Annalen, Silliman’s Journal.

 (2.) From the names of editors and translators which are habitually
 mentioned in connection with a work, so that it is as likely to be
 looked for under the editor’s name as under the author’s name. When
 the form is a combination of author’s and editor’s name, as Heyne’s
 Virgil, Leverett’s Cicero, the reference, though convenient, is
 certainly not necessary, inasmuch as a person of ordinary intelligence
 could hardly fail, not finding what he wanted under one name, to try
 the other.

 (3.) From the names of those who have made poetical versions, on the
 ground that their work is something more than mere translation.

 (4.) From the translators of anonymous works, because the title of
 the original will generally be unknown to the searcher. This is less
 necessary for famous works; thus J. Scott’s version of the Arabian
 Nights would probably be looked for under «Arabian» nights rather than
 under «Scott»; but it makes assurance doubly sure.

 (5.) From the names of translators, editors, etc., of Oriental works,
 because Occidental readers are much more likely to remember these
 names than those of the authors.

 It may be thought that an excessive number of references is
 recommended, but it is plain that wherever there can be a reasonable
 doubt among cataloguers under what head a book ought to be entered,
 it should have at least a reference under each head. The object of an
 author-catalogue is to enable one to find the book; if that object is
 not attained the book might as well not be catalogued at all.


61. Make explanatory notes under such words as «Congress»,
«Parliament», «Academies», «Societies», and others in regard to whose
entry there is a diverse usage, stating what is the rule of the
catalogue.


D. ECONOMIES.


62. In the title-a-liners references are not an economy; they occupy as
much room as an entry, and therefore the imprint may as well be given
whenever the reference does not take the place of several titles.


63. Mr. Perkins would catalogue directories, state registers, and local
gazetteers under the name of the place, omitting the author-entry This
is for Short alone, and should never be done by Full or Medium.


64. Trials of crown, state, and criminal cases may be entered only
under the name of the defendant, and trials of civil cases under the
parties to the suit, treated like joint authors, and trials relating to
vessels under the name of the vessel (subject-entries of course). But
Full and perhaps Medium should make author-entries under the reporter.
It may be doubted, however, whether a stenographic reporter is entitled
to be considered an author any more than a type-setter.

 Collected reports of trials will of course (§ 59) go under the
 collector: for subject-entry they come under the place over which
 the court has jurisdiction, and if they relate to a single crime (as
 murder), under that also. {38}


65. Often in analysis it may be worth while to make a subject-entry and
not an author-entry, or vice versâ.


66. An economical device in some favor is to omit the entry under the
author’s name when the library contains only one work by him.

 By this practice many famous authors, of whom no small library is
 likely to contain more than one work (such as Boswell, Dante, Gibbon,
 Lamb, Macaulay, Milton, indeed almost any of the English poets),
 will not appear in the catalogue; while the man who has written
 both a First class reader and a Second class reader, or a Mental
 arithmetic and a Written arithmetic, or two Sunday-school books, must
 be included. It is not necessary to say more to show the absurdity of
 the rule. If some authors must be omitted, let it be those who the
 librarian knows are never called for, whether they have written one or
 fifty works.


67. Another objectionable economy is to put biographies under the name
of the subject alone, omitting author-entry, so that there is no means
of ascertaining whether the library possesses all the works of a given
author.


II. TITLE-ENTRY.


CATALOGUE.

First-word entry. (Anonymous works, 68–72; Periodicals, 73, 74;
Fiction, 75; What is a first word, 76–80.)

Changed titles, 81–83.

First-word reference. (Plays and poems, 84; other works, 85.)

Catch-word reference. (Anonymous works, 86 _a_; other works, 86 _b_.)

Subject-word entry. (Anonymous biographies, 87.)

Subject-word reference. (Anonymous works, 88 _a_; other works, 88 _b_.)

Title-reference to corporate entries, 89.

Title-reference from subtitles, 90.

Double title-pages, 91.


TITLE-ENTRY.


68. Make a first-word entry for all[29] anonymous works,[30] except
anonymous biographies, which are to be entered under the name of the
subject of the life.[31] (If the author’s name can be ascertained
insert it within brackets.)

 [note] 29. Of course there are exceptions to this rule. There are
 works which are always known by certain names, under which they
 should be entered, although the title-pages of different editions
 may not begin with this name, or may not even contain it. The most
 noteworthy example is «Bible», which is the best heading—in an English
 catalogue—for the Bible and for any of its parts in whatever language
 written and under whatever title published.

 This is the British Museum rule. It is of a piece with putting all
 periodicals under the heading «Periodicals» and all publications of
 learned societies under the head «Academies». It would be much more in
 accordance with dictionary principles to put the separate books of the
 Bible each under its own name as given in the revised {39} English
 version («Matthew», Gospel of, not «Gospel» of Matthew), with all
 necessary references.

 Under the present rule, references should be made to «Bible» from
 «Testament», «Old Testament», «New Testament», «Gospels», «Apocrypha»,
 «Psalms», «Pentateuch», the names of the single books, and from such
 well-known names as «Breeches» Bible, «Speaker’s» commentary.

 In cataloguing the anonymous books of the Middle Ages, “Incipit” or
 “Here begyns,” or “Book the first of,” and similar phrases are not
 to be considered as first words. Thus the history of the Seven Sages
 appears under the following variety of title:

    1. Incipit historia septem sapientū Rome. [Cir. 1475.]
    2. In hoc opusculo sunt subtilitates septē sapientū rome valde
       p_er_utiles. [Later.]
    3. Historia septem sapientum Romæ. 1490.
    4. Historia calumnie nouercalis que septem sapientū inscribitur. 1490.
    5. Ludus septem sapientum. [Cir. 1560.]

 And the titles of the versions are equally various:

    1. Li romans des sept sages.
    2. Li romans de Dolopathos.
    3. Les sept sages de Rom̄e.
    4. Les sept saiges de romme.
    5. Los siete sabios de Roma.
    6. Hieuach volget ein gar schöne Cronick vn̄ hystori auss denn
       Geschichten der Römern.
    7. Die hystorie uan die seuen wise mannen van Romen.
    8. Hystory of the seuen maysters of Rome.
    9. The Hystorie of the seven wise maisters of Rome.
    10. The sevin seages.
    11. De siu sive mestere.

 Of course it will not do to catalogue these severally under Incipit,
 Hoc, Historia, Ludus, Romans, Sept, Siete, Hienach, Hystorie, Hystory,
 Sevin, and Siu. In this and other prose and poetical romances of the
 Middle Ages the heading must be taken in general from the subject of
 the romance; the name appearing of course in the original language,
 with all necessary references from other forms. In the present case
 all the editions would be collected under «Septem» sapientes,[32] with
 references from Ludus, Sept sages, Siete sabios, Hienach, and Seven,
 provided the library has so many editions.

 Somewhat similarly collections of papers known by the name of a
 principal contributor or a previous owner or of the house where they
 were found should be entered under such name, or, if they must be
 entered under the name of an editor, should have a reference from such
 name; _ex._, Dudley papers, Winthrop papers, etc.

 A title like “The modern Plutarch” does not mean to imply that the
 work is written by «Plutarchus»; such a book would be treated as
 anonymous, unless it had an editor.[/note]

 [note] 30. A catalogue of authors alone finds the entry of its
 anonymous books a source of incongruity. The dictionary catalogue
 has no such trouble. It does not attempt to enter them in the
 author-catalogue until the author’s name is known.[/note]

 [note] 31. For a smaller catalogue this may read “except anonymous
 works relating to a person, city, or other subject distinctly
 mentioned in the title, which are to be put under the name of the
 person, city, or subject.” In the catalogue of a larger library where
 more exactness (“red tape,” “pedantry”) is indispensable, biography
 should be the only exception, the place of entry under subjects
 and under large cities being {40} too doubtful. And in planning a
 manuscript catalogue, it should be remembered that a small library may
 grow into a large one, and that if the catalogue is made in the best
 way at first there will be no need of alteration.

 If a book’s title-page is lost, and it is impossible to ascertain what
 it was from other copies or other editions, or from catalogues or
 bibliographies, use the half-title or the running title, stating the
 fact; if it has neither, manufacture a title, within brackets. Such an
 entry will require many references.[/note]

 [note] 32. Since this was in type I have come to the conclusion that
 all these should be entered under «Sandabad» (Lat. «Syntipas»), the
 reputed author of the original Indian romance. But the example will
 still serve to show the great variety in mediæval titles, and the
 inconvenience of following a strict first-word rule.[/note]


69. A single inscription by an unknown author needs no title-entry, but
should have subject-entry under the subject of which it treats, or the
name of the place where it is found, or both.


70. When the author’s name is known, it will be enough for Medium to
make not an entry under the first word, but a reference from it to the
author. The shelf-mark or class-mark should always be given with this
reference, that the man who merely wishes to get the book need not
have to look in two places for the mark. If there are several editions
all the marks should be given, which is not satisfactory unless the
imprints are also given, that is, unless an entry is made and not
merely a reference.

The entry (or reference) for an anonymous work should be made, even if
the author’s name is given in another edition.


71. An anonymous work which forms a part of a larger whole is to be
entered where the whole would be, with a reference from its own title.

 _Ex._ «New» testament. _See_ «Bible».

 Die «Klage». _See_ «Nibelungenlied».


72. Translations of anonymous works should be entered under the same
heading as the original, whether the library possesses the original or
not.

 _Ex._ «Gisli’s» saga. Story of Gish the outlaw, from the Icelandic, by
 G. W. Dasent.

 So Perron’s translation, called by him “Glaive des couronnes,” would
 appear under «Saif»-al-tidjan; and the Arabian nights’ entertainments
 under «Alif» laila. Criticisms of anonymous works must be put under
 the heading of the work criticised.


73. Periodicals are to be treated as anonymous and entered under the
first word.

 _Ex._ «Popular» science monthly, «Littell’s» living age.

 When a periodical changes its title the whole may be catalogued under
 the original title, with an explanatory note there and a reference
 from the new title to the old; or each part may be catalogued under
 its own title, with references, “For a continuation, _see_   ,” “For
 the previous volumes, _see_   .”

 Treat almanacs and other annuals as periodicals. Do not confound
 periodicals with serials. The four characteristics of a periodical
 are: (1) that it be published at intervals usually but not necessarily
 regular; (2) in general that the publication be intended to continue
 indefinitely; (3) that it be written by a number of contributors
 under the supervision of one or more editors; (4) that it consist of
 articles on various subjects, so that a set of the work does not form
 an organic whole. The 2d, 3d, and 4th criteria exclude works like
 Trollope’s “The way we live now,” and the “Encyclopædia Britannica.”
 There are some exceptions to the 3d, as “Brownson’s quarterly review.”
 {41}

 Make a reference from the name of the editor when the periodical is
 commonly called by his name, as in the case of «Silliman’s» Journal of
 science.

 The Memoirs, Proceedings, Transactions of a society are periodicals
 in point of (1) occasional publication, (2) indefinite continuance,
 and—so far as they contain anything beyond the record of the
 society’s meetings—of (4) variety of subject; but they lack the
 3d characteristic, variety of authorship, inasmuch as the memoirs
 or other papers given in addition to “proceedings” proper may be
 considered as the work of the society acting through its members; the
 society, therefore, is the author, and the Transactions, etc., need
 not have title-entry. There are, however, some “Journals” published by
 or “under the auspices of” societies which are really periodicals, and
 should be so treated in entry, the society being not the author but
 the editor. Again, there are works which occupy a borderland between
 the two classes, in regard to which the puzzled cataloguer should
 remember that it is not of much importance which way he decides,
 provided he is careful to make all necessary references. Examples
 of such doubtful cases are “Alpine journal: a record of mountain
 adventure and scientific observation. By members of the Alpine Club;”
 which contains nothing of or about the Club itself;—“Journal of the
 American Institute, a monthly publication devoted to the interest
 of agriculture, commerce, etc. Edited by a committee, members of
 the Institute,” and “Journal of the Society of Arts and of The
 Institutions in Union,” both of which are journals both in the sense
 of record of proceedings and of periodical publication.

 Newspaper titles are troublesome. It is not uncommon for the name of
 the place to be included in the name on the first page (as The Boston
 Ægis), but to be dropped over the editorial column, or vice versa, or
 to be used for some years and afterwards dropped, or vice versa. The
 searcher can not always remember whether it is used or not. It would
 be well, therefore, to give under each name of a city the title of
 every newspaper published there which the library has.


74. Collections of extracts from a periodical should go under the name
of the periodical.

 _Ex._ «Life», Verses from.

 «Punch», A bowl of.


75. Make a first-word entry or reference for all works of prose
fiction. (Include the author’s name in the entry.)

 _Ex._ «Daughter» of Heth; novel, by W. Black. London, 1874. 3 v. O.

 The reason is that novels are known more by their titles than by their
 authors’ names. Whether to make an entry or a reference depends on
 the space at command. An entry means giving the book-marks for every
 edition. With a reference this may be done; but a reference without
 them obliges the reader to turn to the author-entry for such details,
 which is objectionable. It is better to give all the book-marks with
 the title.

 If the name of the hero or heroine enters into the title the entry
 should be made under that; _ex._, «David» Copperfield, Life and
 adventures of, by C. Dickens.


76. When a title begins with an article, the heading of a first-word
entry or reference is the word following the article.

 _Ex._ «Centaur», The, not fabulous, _not_ «The» centaur not fabulous.
 The entry has commonly been made under the first word “not an
 article or preposition.” But it is found to work badly to except the
 preposition in the titles of novels and plays, and it is awkward
 to omit or transpose it in any case. One reason for excepting the
 article—that there would be an immense accumulation of titles under
 the unimportant words A, The, Le, Der, Uno, etc.—is not so strong in
 the case of prepositions; the other—that it is difficult to remember
 with what article a given title begins—hardly applies at all to
 prepositions. The preposition is full as likely to fasten itself in
 the {42} memory as the word that follows it. The strongest argument
 in favor of confining preposition-entry to fiction and the drama is
 that in other cases the word following the preposition will probably
 be a subject-word, so that one entry will do the work of two. This
 will occasionally be true, but not often enough, I think, to make much
 difference.


77. When a foreign phrase is used as an English title, refer from the
article as well as from the following word.

 _Ex._ «El Fureidis» should have references to «Cummins» both under «E»
 and «F»; «L’arratiata» both under «L’» and «A» to «Heyse».


78. When a title begins with a word expressive of the number which the
work holds in a series the first-word entry or reference is to be made
under the next word.

 _Ex._ «Collection» of papers, 8th, _not_ «Eighth» collection.
 «Letter», 1st and 2d, to the Ministry, _not_ «First» letter, etc.,
 under «F», and «Second» letter under «S». When the numeral comes
 after a word like Book or Part (as frequently in Latin after Liber,
 Pars, Tomus, Volumen) both are to be neglected and the word following
 put into the nominative and used as a heading; _e. g._, “Pars prima
 epistolarum” is to be entered under «Epistolæ». Similarly Evening,
 Morning, Daily, and Weekly should be disregarded in titles of
 newspapers, otherwise we should have the morning edition at one end
 of the catalogue and the evening at the other. So “Appendix to,”
 “Continuation of” “Supplement to” (but not “Reply to”), are to be
 disregarded when they are followed by the title of the work continued.
 “Reply to” and similar beginnings are to be put under «Reply», etc.,
 with a subject-entry under the author of the work replied to.


79. When the first word of a title is spelled unusually, all the
editions should be entered under the word spelled in the modern or
correct way, with a reference from the form adopted in the title.

 _Ex._ The hystorie of the saints would be entered—

 «History.]» The hystorie of the saints.

 We enter under the common spelling (1) in order to get all editions of
 a work together, (2) because the reader can not be expected to know
 exactly how the word is misspelled in the title, and will generally
 look first under the correct spelling.

 Of two spellings equally correct, choose one and refer from the other.


80. When the first word of a title is in an oblique case, use the
nominative as a heading.

 _Ex._ Put Monumentorum antiquae sculpturae quae supersunt under
 «Monumenta».


81. If the title has various forms, refer from any that differ enough
to affect the alphabetical order.

 See the example in § 68.


82. Modern anonymous works whose titles are changed in different
editions may be entered under the first, with a reference under the
later; but the most satisfactory method is to enter in full in both
places.


83. Anonymous works that change their titles in successive volumes are
to be entered under the first title, with a reference from the later,
unless the greater part of the work has the later title, or the whole
is much better known by the later title, in which case entry should be
made under that. {43}


84. Make a first-word reference to the author for all plays, and for
poems of some length or importance or notoriety.

 _Ex._ «All’s» well that ends well. _See_ «Shakespeare», W.

 «Nothing» to wear. _See_ «Butler», W. A.

 Of course entries are better than references for the reader; the
 latter are recommended here merely for economy, which will be found
 to be considerable when there are many editions of a play. It is much
 better to distribute these like any other title-references, through
 the alphabet, than, as some have done, to collect the titles of novels
 together in one place and of plays in another. A man not unfrequently
 wishes to find a book whose title he has heard of without learning
 whether it was a novel, a play, a poem, or a book of travels.

 If the catch-word of the title of a novel, poem, or play is the
 name of a real person who is its subject, it is optional to make a
 reference, as in § 86, or a biographical entry under the family name,
 or both.

 _Ex._ «Paul» Revere’s ride. _See_ «Longfellow», H. W.

 _or_ «Revere», Paul. LONGFELLOW, H. W. (_In his_ Tales of a way-side
 inn.)


85. Make a first-word reference to the author for other works which are
likely to be inquired for under the first word of the title, whether
because the author-entry of the work is not obvious from the title,[33]
because the title does not indicate the subject,[34] or because it is
of a striking form,[35] or because the book is commonly known by its
title,[36] or for any other good reason.

 [note] 33. «Codex» Sinaiticus; ed. Tischendorf (entered under
 «Bible»).[/note]

 [note] 34. Cuppé’s “Heaven open to all men” needs a _title_-reference,
 because for its _subject_ it would be put under «Universal salvation»
 or «Future punishment, Duration of». Hutton’s “Plays and players” is
 merely an account of the New York stage. Keary’s “Nations around” does
 not suggest any subject at all.[/note]

 [note] 35. Border and bastille.[/note]

 [note] 36. Divina commedia.[/note]

 In a majority of cases, when a subject-word entry is made, no
 first-word reference is needed; but, if the title is striking, there
 should be a first-word reference, or a reference from that part of
 the title which is striking. Title-references should not generally be
 made from certain common titles, as “«Sermons» on various subjects,”
 “«Essays», historical and literary,” and should be made from less
 common collective words, as “«Century» of painters,” “«Century» of
 praise,” etc. References should be liberally made to the works of
 such authors as Brown, Jones, Schmidt, Smith, Wilson; if one has
 forgotten the Christian name, it is a work of too much time to find
 the book under the author, and one looks at once for a subject- or a
 title-entry or reference. And a reference will facilitate the finding
 of many collections entered properly under the editor; for it is easy
 to forget an editor’s name, and often difficult to determine the
 subject-entry of a collection.

 To sum up, then, make a title-reference when the author’s name is
 common, the title memorable, or the subject obscure.


86. Make a catch-word reference or references—

_a._ For all anonymous works which admit of it, if their subject does
not appear distinctly from the title. To be made to the author if
known, otherwise to the first word.

 _Ex._ «Scarlet» gowns, True and exact account of the. _See_ «True».
 Here «Cardinals» is the subject, but the word does not occur in
 the title; «True» is the first word and is therefore taken for the
 heading; but «Scarlet» gowns is a phrase very likely to remain {44}
 in the memory of anyone who had seen the title, and therefore the
 reference is made. Books published under a comparatively unknown
 pseudonym should have either a first-word or a catch-word reference,
 unless their subject-entry can be easily inferred from the title.

_b._ For other works which are likely to be inquired for not under the
first word but under the catch-word of the title. To be made to the
author.

 _Ex._ The fac-simile of the «Laurentian» ms. of «Sophocles» might be
 spoken of or referred to as “The «Laurentian» ms.” simply.

 It is not easy to decide when to make such entries nor how many to
 make. “An account of the baronial mansions of England in the olden
 time” may be asked for as “Baronial halls” or as “English baronial
 halls” or perhaps as “Mansions of the olden time.” If references are
 made from all possible headings which might occur to an inaccurate
 memory, there will be no end to the catalogue.


87. Make a subject-word entry for all anonymous biographies and works
of a biographical character. (See § 68, note 3.)

 _Ex._ «Cromwell», Oliver. PERFECT politician, The; life of Cromwell.
 London, 1681. 8º.

  — TREASON’S masterpiece; or, Conference between Oliver and a
 committee of Parliament. London, 1680. 8º.

 For greater security this latter ought to have also a first-word
 reference.


88. Make a subject-word reference—

_a._ For all anonymous works which admit of it, to the author if known,
otherwise to the first word.

 When the subject-word is the same as the heading of the subject-entry
 this reference need not be made; but it will not do to omit
 an important title-entry when there are many titles under the
 subject-heading or they are much subdivided, so that it would be
 difficult to find the title-entry there. Thus an anonymous book,
 “France and the Pope,” would no doubt have a subject-entry under some
 subdivision of «France», but as this in a large catalogue would be
 little help towards finding the book, it should also have a reference
 among the titles which follow the subject «France». Of course if there
 were only a dozen titles under France one entry would be enough.

_b._ For other works, when the subject-word is not the same as the name
of the subject selected by the cataloguer.

 In this case, however, a cross-reference, which will answer for all
 titles, is to be preferred to a collection of subject-word references,
 being more economical and nearly as convenient to the inquirer.
 Suppose, for instance, that «Insects» is preferred as a subject-name
 to «Entomology». It will be better and more sparing of space to say
 once for all “«Entomology.» _See_ «Insects»,” referring a man to a
 part of the catalogue where he will find not only the book he seeks
 but many similar ones, than to make number of references like these:

 «Entomologie», Cours de. _See_ «Latreille», P. A.
 «Entomologique», Bibliographie. _See_ «Percheron», A.
 «Entomology», Dialogues on. _See_ «Dialogues».
 «Entomology», Elements of. _See_ «Dallas», W. S.; «Ruschenberger», W. S. W.
 «Entomology», Introduction to. _See_ «Duncan», J.; «Kirby», W.

 which will serve his turn only for the particular book he has in mind,
 and serve it very little better than the general reference. {45}


89. Make title references (first-word, catch-word, or subject-word) for
works which are entered under the names of societies or of governments.

 _Ex._ «Consular» reports. _See_ «U. S.» _Consular Service_.

 The reason for this is that the inquirer might not think of looking
 for such works under those headings or might be unable to find them in
 the mass of titles under the larger countries, France, Great Britain,
 United States. But in view of the room which such references would
 fill, if made from all governmental titles, it seems best to state
 the rule for the entry of governmental and society publications very
 distinctly in the preface and then to require and presuppose a certain
 acquaintance with the plan of the catalogue on the part of those
 who use it, and omit all reference for ordinary official reports,
 making them only for works which have become part of literature, and
 are likely to be much inquired for: as, the “Astronomical exploring
 expedition,” “Connaissance des temps,” “Description de l’Égypte,”
 “Documents inédits,” “Philosophical transactions,” etc. Of course
 absolute uniformity can not be secured in this way, but absolute
 uniformity is not very important. Even if occasionally a reference of
 this kind fails to be made which might reasonably be required, those
 which are made will be useful. It is easy to add the reference wanted
 in a manuscript catalogue or in the inevitable supplement of a printed
 catalogue.


90. Title references must sometimes be made from subtitles and
half-titles.

 Because some books are known and referred to by them rather than by
 the full title. For the same reason the binder’s title, used on the
 original binding, may deserve a reference (never an entry); and also
 titles commonly given to books though not appearing anywhere in them,
 as «Breeches» Bible, «Speaker’s» commentary.


91. If a book has several title-pages use the most general, giving the
others, if necessary, in a note or as contents.

 This occurs especially in German books. The rule above should be
 followed even when the library has only one of the parts. But under
 the subject-heading the subtitle which corresponds to that subject
 may be used, the general title being given in a parenthesis after
 the imprint, so as to preserve the connection of the subject- and
 title-entries. _Ex._ «Saxony, House of.» VEHSE, E. Geschichte der
 Höfe des Hauses Sachsen. Hamburg, 1854. 7 v. 8º. (Vol. 28–34 _of his_
 Gesch. d. deut. Höfe.)


III. SUBJECT-ENTRY.


CATALOGUE.

(a.) ENTRIES CONSIDERED SEPARATELY.

(i.) CHOICE BETWEEN DIFFERENT SUBJECTS.

Between general and specific, 93; Between person and country, 94;
Between event and country, 95; Between subject and country, 96, 97;
Between subjects that overlap, 98.

(ii.) CHOICE BETWEEN DIFFERENT NAMES.

Language, 100; Synonyms, 101–103; Subject-word and subject, 107;
Homonyms, 105; Compound headings, 106, 107; Double entry, 108–112;
Vessels, 113; Civil actions, 114; Reviews, comments, etc., 115.

(b.) ENTRIES CONSIDERED AS PARTS OF A WHOLE.

Cross-references, 119, 120; Synoptical table, 121. {46}


SUBJECTS.


(a.) ENTRIES CONSIDERED SEPARATELY.


92. Some questions in regard to the place of entry are common to the
author- and the subject-catalogue; because individuals (persons,
places, ships, etc.) may be at once authors and subjects. For these
questions consult Part I, and also § 100 of the present part.

 In a dictionary catalogue some books can not profitably have
 subject-entry, because they not only have no one subject but do not
 even belong to any class of subjects.

 A collection is to be entered under the word which expresses
 its subject or its general tendency. The memoirs, transactions,
 proceedings, etc., of a society should be entered under name of
 the object for which the society is founded. When there are many
 societies under one head, it is economical to refer merely; as, from
 «Agriculture» or «Agricultural societies» to the various names.

 The importance of deciding aright where any given subject shall be
 entered is in inverse proportion to the difficulty of decision. If
 there is no obvious principle to guide the cataloguer, it is plain
 there will be no reason why the public should expect to find the
 entry under one heading rather than another, and therefore in regard
 to the public it matters not which is chosen. But it is better that
 such decisions should be made to conform when possible to some general
 system, as there is then more likelihood that they will be decided
 alike by different cataloguers, and that a usage will grow up which
 the public will finally learn and profit by, as a usage has grown up
 in regard to the author-entry of French names containing De, Du, La,
 etc.


(i.) CHOICE BETWEEN DIFFERENT SUBJECTS.


(_a._) _Between general and specific._


93. Enter a work under its subject-heading, not under the heading of a
class which includes that subject.

 _Ex._ Put Lady Cust’s book on “The cat” under «Cat», not under
 «Zoölogy» or «Mammals», or «Domestic animals»; and put Garnier’s “Le
 fer” under «Iron», not under «Metals» or «Metallurgy».

 This rule of “specific entry” is the main distinction between the
 dictionary-catalogue and the alphabetico-classed.

 Some subjects have no name; they are spoken of only by a phrase or
 by several phrases not definite enough to be used as a heading. A
 book may be written on the movements of fluids in plants, a very
 definite object of investigation, but as yet nameless; it must be
 put under Botany (Physiological). But if several works were written
 on it and it was called, let us say, «Phythydraulics», it would be
 seen that, under this rule, it no more ought to be under «Botany»
 than «Circulation of the blood» under «Zoölogy». Thirty years ago
 “Fertilization of flowers” could hardly have been used as a heading;
 but late writings have raised it to the status of a subject. There are
 thousands of possible matters of investigation, some of which are from
 time to time discussed, but before the catalogue can profitably follow
 its “specific” rule in regard to them they must attain a certain
 individuality as objects of inquiry, and be given some sort of _name_,
 otherwise we must assign them class-entry.

 And it is not always easy to decide what is a distinct subject.
 Many catalogues have a heading «Preaching». Is Extempore preaching
 a sufficiently distinct matter to have a heading of its own? There
 are a number of books on this branch of the {47} subject. In this
 particular case the difficulty can be avoided by making the heading
 “«Preaching without notes.»” Many such questions may be similarly
 solved, with perhaps more satisfaction to the maker of the catalogue
 than to its users; but many questions will remain.

 Then, mixed with this, and sometimes hardly distinguishable from
 it, is the case of subjects whose names begin within an unimportant
 adjective or noun,—Are of the meridian, Capture of property at sea,
 Segment of a circle, Quadrature of the circle. All that can be said in
 such cases is that, if the subject be commonly recognized and the name
 accepted or likely to be accepted by usage, the entry must be made
 under it. For the fuller discussion of compound headings, see §§ 106,
 107.

 On the other hand, difficulty arises from the public, or a part of
 it, being accustomed to think of certain subjects in connection with
 their including classes, which especially happens to those persons
 who have used classed catalogues or the dictionary catalogues in
 which specification is only partially carried out; so that there is
 a temptation to enter certain books doubly, once under the specific
 heading to satisfy the rule, and once under the class to satisfy the
 public. The dictionary principle does not forbid this. If room can
 be spared, the cataloguer may put what he pleases under an extensive
 subject (a class), provided he puts the less comprehensive works also
 under their respective specific headings. The objection to this is
 that, if all the specifics are thus entered, the bulk of the catalogue
 is enormously increased; and that, if a selection is made, it must
 depend entirely upon the “judgment,” _i. e._, the prepossessions and
 accidental associations, of the cataloguer, and there will be an
 end to all uniformity, and probably the public will not be better
 satisfied, not understanding why they do not find class-entry in all
 cases.


(_b._) _Choice between person and country._


94. Put under the name of a king or other ruler all his biographies,
and works purporting to be histories of his reign; but enter under the
country all histories which include more than his reign and accounts of
events which happened during the reign, and all political pamphlets not
directly criticising his conduct.

 The first part of this rule is analogous to that by which the works of
 a king of a private nature are put under his name, and all his public
 writings under the country; putting histories of the reign under the
 king is partly subject- and partly title-entry. Books of this sort
 have really two subjects and ought to be entered twice (_e. g._,
 Boutaric’s “La France sous Philippe le bel”); the rule above is simply
 an economical device to save room at the expense of convenience.
 Perhaps a better practice would be to enter all lives of kings as well
 as histories of their reigns under the country only, with a reference
 from the king.

 Similarly there are some biographies and autobiographies which have
 such a very large proportion of history that they ought to appear
 both under the man and the country. In general we merely refer from
 the country, but occasionally nothing but double entry will suffice.
 Whether they shall appear by way of entry or merely be mentioned in a
 note, must be determined by circumstances.


(_c._) _Choice between event and country._


95. Events[37] or periods[38] in the history of a country which have a
proper name may be entered under that name with a reference from the
country; those whose name is common to many countries[39] should be
entered under the country.

 [note] 37. St. Bartholomew’s day.[/note]

 [note] 38. Fronde.[/note]

 [note] 39. Revolution; Restoration; Civil war.[/note]

{48}


(_d._) _Choice between subject (or form) and country._


96. The only satisfactory method is double entry under the local and
the scientific subject—to put, for instance, a work on the geology of
California under both «California» and «Geology», and to carry out
this practice through the catalogue, so that the geographical student
shall not be obliged to search for works on California under «Botany»,
«Geology», «Natural history», «Palæontology», «Zoölogy», and a dozen
similar headings, and the scientist shall not be sent to «California»,
«England», «Russia», and a score of other places to find the various
treatises on geology. But as this profusion of entry would make the
catalogue very long, we are generally obliged to choose between country
and scientific subject.


97. A work treating of a general subject with special reference to a
place is to be entered under the place, with merely a reference from
the subject.

 _Ex._ Put Flagg’s “Birds and seasons of New England” under «New
 England», and under «Ornithology» say _See also_ «New England». As
 «New England ornithology» and «Ornithology of New England» are merely
 different names of the same specific subject, it may be asked why we
 prefer the first. Because entry under «Ornithology of New England»,
 though by itself specific entry, is when taken in connection with the
 entries that would be grouped around it («Ornithology», «Ornithology
 of America», «Ornithology of Scotland», etc.), in effect class-entry;
 whereas the similar grouping under New England does not make that a
 class, inasmuch as «New England botany», «New England history», «New
 England ornithology» are not parts of New England, but simply the
 individual New England considered in various aspects. Of course the
 dictionary catalogue in choosing between a class and an individual
 prefers the latter. Its object is to show at one view all the sides
 of each object; the classed catalogue shows together the same side of
 many objects.

 There is not as yet much uniformity in catalogues, nor does any carry
 out this principle so absolutely as the more obvious “specific” rule
 is obeyed. The Boston Public Library Supplement of 1866, for instance,
 has under the country _Antiquities_, _Coinage_, _Description_ and
 _History_, _Language_, _Religion_ (subjects), and _Literature_,
 and even _Elocution_ and _Poetry_ (forms), but not _Ballads_ nor
 _Periodicals_, which appear under those words. Yet when Ballads are
 called Volkslieder they appear under the country Germany,—an instance
 of the independence of the title produced by foreign languages, the
 English title being entered by form-word, the foreign works having
 national classification, regardless of the title. There are many other
 classes that in most catalogues at present, instead of being confined
 to general works, absorb books which should rather have local entry,
 as «Vases», «Gems», «Sculpture», «Painting», and other branches of
 the fine arts, «Ballads», «Epigrams», «Plays», and other forms of
 literature. In catalogues of merely English libraries this is perhaps
 as well (see § 122), but the multiplication of books and the accession
 of foreign literatures render more system necessary.

 To show the procedure under this rule, suppose we have a collection
 of books on coins. Let the general works go under «Numismatics»; let
 works on any particular coin, as a «Pine-tree shilling» or a «Queen
 Anne’s farthing», go under the name of the coin; let works on the
 coins of a country be put under its name; refer from the country
 to all the particular coins on which you have monographs, and from
 «Numismatics» both to all the separate coins and to all the countries
 on whose coinage you have treatises. {49}


(_e._) _Between subjects that overlap._


98. Among subjects that overlap choose the one that preponderates, with
a reference from the other.

 _Ex._ Any complete treatise on domestic animals will cover a large
 part of the ground of veterinary medicine; but it is unnecessary to
 enter all the works on domestic animals under «Veterinary medicine»;
 a note to this effect is sufficient. «Astronomy» and «Geology»
 overlap in regard to the origin of the earth, «Geology» and «Physical
 geography» in regard to its present condition. Any particular book
 must be classified with one or the other subject according as the
 geological or geographical treatment prevails.


(ii.) CHOICE BETWEEN DIFFERENT NAMES.


99. General rules, always applicable, for the choice of names of
subjects can no more be given than rules without exception in grammar.
Usage in both cases is the supreme arbiter,—the usage, in the present
case, not of the cataloguer but of the public in speaking of subjects.


(_f._) _Language._


100. When possible let the heading be in English, but a foreign word
may be used when no English word expresses the subject of a book.

 _Ex._ «Écorcheurs», «Émigrés», «Raskolnik». Many terms of the Roman
 or civil law are not exactly translatable; neither Fault nor Crime
 gives the idea of Culpa; the Debitor inops is not our bankrupt or
 insolvent; he would have been very glad to have the privileges of
 a bankrupt. Some other technical terms, and some names of bodies,
 sects, events, should be left in the original language. The use of
 the Latin names of Greek deities (Jupiter, Neptune, Venus, in place
 of Zeus, Poseidon, Aphrodite) is a manifest inaccuracy. Yet it may be
 defended on the plea: (1) that the Latin names are at present more
 familiar to the majority of readers; (2) that it would be difficult to
 divide the literature, or if it were done, many books must be put both
 under «Zeus» and «Jupiter», «Poseidon» and «Neptune», etc., filling
 considerable room with no practical advantage.

 On the language of place names, see § 33, 35.


(_g._) _Synonyms._


101. Of two exactly synonymous names choose one and make a reference
from the other.

 _Ex._ «Poisons» and «Toxicology»; «Antiquities» and «Archæology»;
 «Insects» and «Entomology»; «Warming» and «Heating»; «Pacific Ocean»
 and «South Sea». There are some cases in which separate headings
 («Hydraulics» and «Mechanics of Fluids»), which can not be combined,
 cover books almost identical in character, so that the inquirer
 must look under both. This is an evil; but there is no reason for
 increasing the evil by separating headings that are really synonymous,
 certainly not for dividing a subject in this way for verbal causes and
 giving no hint that it has been divided.

 It sometimes happens that a different name is given to the same
 subject at different periods of its history. When the method of study
 of the subject, or its objects, or the ideas connected with it, are
 very different at those two periods (as in the case of «Alchemy» and
 «Chemistry»), of course there must be two headings. There is not so
 much reason for separating Fluxions and Differential calculus, which
 differ only in notation. And there is no reason at all for separating
 «Natural Philosophy» and {50} «Physics». I am told that medical
 nomenclature has changed largely three times within the present
 century. How is the cataloguer, unless he happens to be a medical
 man, to escape occasionally putting works on one disease under three
 different heads?

 To arrive at a decision in any case one must balance the advantages on
 the one hand of having all that relates to a subject together, and on
 the other of making that economical conjunction of title-entry and of
 subject-entry which comes from following the titles of the books in
 selecting names for their subjects.

 In choosing between synonymous headings prefer the one that—

 (_a_) is most familiar to that class of people who consult the
 library; a natural history society will of course use the scientific
 name, a town library would equally of course use the popular
 name—«Butterflies» rather than «Lepidoptera», «Horse» rather than
 «Equus caballus». But the scientific may be preferable when the common
 name is ambiguous or of ill-defined extent.

 (_b_) is most used in other catalogues.

 (_c_) has fewest meanings other than the sense in which it is to be
 employed.

 (_d_) comes first in the alphabet, so that the reference from the
 other can be made to the exact page of the catalogue.

 (_e_) brings the subject into the neighborhood of other related
 subjects. It is, for instance, often an advantage to have near any
 art or science the lives of those who have been famous in it; as,
 «Art», «Artists»; «Painters», «Painting»; «Historians», «History». If
 one were hesitating between «Conjuring», «Juggling», «Legerdemain»,
 «Prestidigitation», and «Sleight of hand», it would be in favor of
 «Conjuring» or «Prestidigitation» that one could enter by their side
 «Conjurors» or «Prestidigitators».

 Sometimes one and sometimes another of these reasons must prevail.
 Each case is to be decided on its own merits.


102. In choosing between two names not exactly synonymous, consider
whether there is difference enough to require separate entry; if not,
treat them as synonymous.

 _Ex._ «Culture» and «Civilization», «Culture» and «Education».


103. Of two subjects exactly opposite choose one and refer from the
other.

 _Ex._ «Temperance» and «Intemperance», «Free Trade» and «Protection»,
 «Authority» (in religion) and «Private judgment». Reasons for choice
 the same as between synonyms.

 To this rule there may be exceptions. It may be best that works on
 theism and atheism should be put together, perhaps under the heading
 «God»; but Theists and Atheists as bodies of religious believers
 ought certainly to go under those two headings, and therefore it is
 appropriate to put works in defence of theistic doctrines and those in
 defence of atheistic doctrines under «Theism» and «Atheism».


(_h._) _Subject-word and subject._


104. Enter books under the word which best expresses their subject,
whether it occurs in the title or not.

 It is strange that the delusion ever should have arisen that “a
 catalogue must of necessity confine itself to titles only of books.”
 If it does, it can not enter that very considerable number of books
 whose titles make no mention or only an obscure or a defective mention
 of their subjects (§ 85), and it is at the mercy of deceptive titles
 (_e. g._, Channing’s sermon “On a future life,” which treats of Heaven
 only, Irving’s History of New York, Gulliver’s Travels). A man who
 is looking up the history of the Christian church does not care in
 the least whether the books on it were called by their authors church
 histories or ecclesiastical histories; and the cataloguer also should
 not care if he can avoid it. The title rules the title-catalogue; let
 it confine itself to that province. {51}


(_i._) _Homonyms._


105. Carefully separate the entries on different subjects bearing the
same name, or take some other heading in place of one of the homonyms.

 _E. g._, it will not do to confound works on the vegetable kingdom
 with works on vegetables, in the sense of kitchen-garden plants; the
 first would be properly entered under «Botany». Ottley’s “Italian
 school of design” or a work on “Wagner and his school” are not to
 be put under «Education». Special care is of course needed with
 foreign titles; the cataloguer may be easily misled by the sound if
 he is not on his guard. I have seen Lancelot’s “Jardin des racines
 grecques” classed with works on «Gardening», Stephanus Byzantinus
 “De Dodone [urbe Molossidis]” put under «Dodo» with a reference from
 «Ornithology», and Garnier “Sur l’autorité paternelle” among the works
 on the Christian «Fathers».


(_j._) _Compound subject-names._


106. The name of a subject may be—

 (_a_) A single word, as «Botany», «Ethics».

 Or several words taken together, either—

 (_b_) A noun preceded by an adjective, as «Ancient history», «Capital
 punishment», «Moral philosophy».

 (_c_) A noun preceded by another noun used like an adjective, as
 «Death penalty», «Flower fertilization».

 (_d_) A noun connected with another by a preposition, as «Penalty of
 death», «Fertilization of flowers».

 (_e_) A noun connected with another by “and,” as «Ancients and
 moderns».

 (_f_) A sentence, as in the titles “Sur la règle «Paterna paternis
 materna maternis»” and “De usu paroemiae juris Germanici, «Der Letzte
 thut die Thüre zu»;” where the whole phrase would be the subject of
 the dissertation.

 There are three main courses open:

 (1) We can consider the subject to be the phrase _as it reads_, as
 «Agricultural chemistry», «Survival of the fittest», which is the only
 possible method in (_a_) and undoubtedly the best method in (_c_),
 (_e_), and (_f_), and in most cases of proper names, as «Democratic
 Party», «White Mountains», «Missouri River» (but see § 26).

 (2) We can make our entry in (_b_), (_c_), and (_d_) under what we
 consider the most significant word of the phrase, inverting the order
 of the words if necessary; as, «Probabilities» (instead of «Theory» of
 probabilities); «Earth», Figure of the; «Species», Origin of the, the
 word Origin here being by itself of no account; «Alimentary» canal,
 Canal being by itself of no account; «Political» economy, Political
 being here the main word and economy by itself having a meaning
 entirely different from that which it has in this connection.

 (3) We can take the phrase as it reads in (_c_), (_d_), (_e_), and
 (_f_), but make a special rule for a noun preceded by an adjective
 (_b_), _first_, that all such phrases shall when possible be reduced
 to their equivalent nouns, as «Moral philosophy» to «Ethics» or
 to «Morals, Intellectual»; or «Mental philosophy» to «Intellect»;
 or «Mind, Natural philosophy» to «Physics, Sanitary science»; or
 «Hygiene, Scientific men» to «Scientists»; or «Social science» to
 «Sociology»; and, _secondly_, that in all cases where such reduction
 is impossible the words shall be inverted and the noun taken as
 the heading, as «Chemistry», Agricultural; «Chemistry», Organic;
 «Anatomy», Comparative; «History», Ancient; «History», Ecclesiastical;
 «History», Modern; «History», Natural; «History», Sacred.[40] {52}

 The objection to (1) is that it may be pushed to an absurd extent
 in the case (_b_). A man might plausibly assert that Ancient Egypt
 is a distinct subject from Modern Egypt, having a recognized name of
 its own, as much so as Ancient history, and might therefore demand
 that the one should be put under «A» (Ancient) and the other under
 «M» (Modern)[41] and similar claims might be made in the case of
 all subject-names to which an adjective is ever prefixed, which
 would result in filling the catalogue with a host of unexpected and
 therefore useless headings. Nevertheless the rule seems to me the best
 if due discrimination be used in choosing subject-names.

 [note] 40. This rule is proposed by Mr. Schwartz and carried out,
 with some exceptions, in his catalogue of the New York Apprentices’
 Library.[/note]

 [note] 41. Which would be much like putting Williams’s “Shakespeare’s
 Youth” under «Youthful» Shakespeare. Individuals should not be
 divided.[/note]

 The objection to (2) is that there would often be disagreement as to
 what is “the most important word of the phrase,” so that the rule
 would be no guide to the reader. But in connection with (1) and as a
 guard against its excesses (2) has its value. The combined rule might
 read:


107. Enter a compound subject-name by its first word, inverting the
phrase only when some other word is decidedly more significant or is
often used alone with the same meaning as the whole name.

 _Ex._ «Special providences» and «Providence», «Proper names» and
 «Names».

 It must be confessed that this rule is somewhat vague and that it
 would be often of doubtful application, and that on the other hand (3)
 is clear and easy to follow. But there are objections to (3). It would
 put a great many subjects under words where nobody unacquainted with
 the rule would expect to find them.

 Works on the                  would hardly be looked for under
         Alimentary canal                                   Canal.
         Dangerous classes                                  Classes.
         Digestive organs                                   Organs.
         Dispensing power                                   Power.
         Domestic economy                                   Economy.
         Ecclesiastical polity                              Polity.
         Final causes                                       Causes.
         Gastric juice                                      Juice.
         Laboring classes                                   Classes.
         Military art                                       Art.
         Parliamentary practice                             Practice.
         Political economy                                  Economy.
         Solar system                                       System.
         Suspended animation                                Animation.
         Zodiacal light                                     Light.

 Another objection is that in most cases the noun expresses a
 class, the adjective limits the noun, and makes the name that of a
 subclass (as International law, Remittent disease, Secret societies,
 Sumptuary laws, Typhoid fever, Venemous insects, Whig party, Woolen
 manufactures), and to adopt the noun (the class) as the heading is to
 violate the fundamental principle of the dictionary catalogue. The
 rule is urged, however, not on the ground of propriety or congruity
 with the rest of the system but simply as convenient, as a purely
 arbitrary rule which _once understood_ will be a certain guide for the
 reader. “If he is told that he shall always find a subject arranged
 under its substantive form and never under an adjective he can hardly
 fail to find it. If, on the other hand, he is told that Comparative
 anatomy is under «C» and Morbid anatomy under «A», that Physical
 geography is under «P» and Mathematical geography under «G», he will
 only be bewildered, and accuse the cataloguer of making distinctions
 that it requires too much study to appreciate. Theoretically the
 distinctions may be justified, but practically the simpler way of
 using the noun only is more {53} easily grasped by the common mind.
 And the system of classifying names under the surname is precisely
 analogous;[42] thus

 «Smith», John,
 «Smith», Joseph,
 «Smith», William,

 seems to me to be arranged on the same principle as

 «History», Ancient,
 «History», Ecclesiastical,
 «History», Modern,
 «History», Sacred.”[43]

 This is plausible. If the public could ever get as accustomed to the
 inversion of subject-names as they are to the inversion of personal
 names the rule would undoubtedly be very convenient; but it might
 be difficult to teach the rule. The catalogue treatment of personal
 names is familiar to every one, because it is used in all catalogues,
 dictionaries, directories, and indexes. But there are less than
 three hundred subject-names consisting of adjective and noun in a
 catalogue which has probably over 50,000 names of persons. The use
 of the rule would be so infrequent that it would not remain in the
 memory. And it should be observed that the confusion caused by the
 different treatment of Morbid anatomy and Comparative anatomy would
 only occur to a man who was examining the system of the catalogue, and
 not to the ordinary user. A man looks in the catalogue for treatises
 on «Comparative anatomy»; he finds it, where he first looks, under
 «C». He does not know anything about the disposition of works on
 Morbid anatomy, and is not confused by it. Another man looks for
 works on Morbid anatomy and under «M» he is referred to «Anatomy»,
 _Morbid_.[44] He finds there what he wants and does not stop to notice
 that «Comparative anatomy» is not there, but under «C», consequently
 he is not puzzled by that. And even those who are taking a general
 survey of all that the library possesses on anatomy would probably be
 too intent upon their object to pause and criticise the arrangement,
 provided the reference from «Anatomy» to «Comparative Anatomy» were
 perfectly clear, so that they ran no risk of overlooking it and had no
 difficulty in finding the subject referred to.

 The specific-entry rule is one which the reader of a dictionary
 catalogue must learn if he is to use it with any facility; it is much
 better that he should not be burdened with learning an exception to
 this, which the noun rule certainly is.

 It ought also to be noticed that this plan does not escape all the
 difficulties of the others. In reducing, for instance, Intellectual
 philosophy or Moral philosophy, will you say Mind or Intellect,
 Morals or Ethics? And the reader will not always know what the
 equivalent noun is,—that Physics = Natural Philosophy, for example,
 and Hygiene = Sanitary science. Nor does it help us at all to decide
 whether to prefer Botanical morphology or Morphological botany. These
 difficulties, which beset any rule, are only mentioned here lest too
 much should be expected from a plan which at first sight seems to
 solve all problems.

 The practice of reducing a name to the substantive form is often a
 good one; but should not be insisted upon as an invariable rule, as
 it might lead to the adoption of some very out-of-the-way names. As a
 mere matter of form Nebulæ is to be preferred for a heading to Nebular
 hypothesis, Pantheism to Pantheistic theory, Lyceums to Lyceum system,
 etc. {54}

 In (_b_), (_c_), and (_d_) the same subject can often be named in
 different ways; as,

 (_b_) «Capital punishment.»      «Floral fertilization.»
 (_c_) «Death penalty.»           «Flower fertilization.»
 (_d_) «Penalty of death.»        «Fertilization of flowers.»

 Is there any principle upon which the choice between these three can
 be made, so that the cataloguer shall always enter books on the same
 subject under the same heading? I see none. When there is any decided
 usage (_i. e._, custom of the public to designate the subjects by one
 of the names rather than by the others) let it be followed; that is
 to say, if, in the examples given above, the more customary phrases
 are «Capital punishment», «Fertilization of flowers», then we must use
 those names, preferring in the first case the name which begins with
 an adjective to its equivalent beginning with a noun, and in the other
 the name beginning with a noun to its equivalent beginning with an
 adjective. As is often the case in language, usage will be found not
 to follow any uniform course.

 If usage manifests no preference for either name, we can not employ
 the two indifferently; we must choose one; and some slight guide
 to choice in certain cases may perhaps be found. On examination of
 the phrases above, it appears that they are not all of the same
 composition. In «Comparative anatomy», «Capital punishment», the
 noun is the name of a general subject, one of whose subdivisions is
 indicated by the adjective. And Capital, Comparative have only this
 limiting power; they do not imply any general subject. But «Ancient
 history», «Mediæval history», etc., may be viewed not only in this
 way (History the class, Ancient history and Mediæval history the
 subdivisions) but also as equivalent to «Antiquity»: _History_,
 «Middle Ages»: _History_ (as we say «Europe»: «History»), in which
 case the adjectives (Ancient, Mediæval) imply a subject and the
 noun (History) indicates the aspect in which the subject is viewed.
 Here, then, we choose «Ancient» and «Mediæval» as the heading, on
 the principle of § 68. So in (_b_) and (_c_) each of the nouns in
 turn may be considered as expressing the more general idea and the
 other as limiting it; _e. g._, we can have various headings for Death
 considered in different lights, among others as a penalty; and we
 can have headings of various sorts of penalties, among others death.
 It is evident that this collection of penalties taken together makes
 up a class, and therefore this belongs to a style of entry which the
 dictionary catalogue is expected to avoid; but the series of headings
 beginning with the word Death would not make a class, being merely
 different aspects of the same thing, not different subordinate parts
 of the same subject.

 When an adjective implies the name of a place, as in «French
 literature», «German philosophy», «Greek art», it is most convenient
 on the whole to make the subject a division under the country. In this
 way all that relates to a country is brought together and arranged in
 one alphabetical series of subjects under its name (see § 258). It is
 not of the slightest importance that this introduces the _appearance_
 of an alphabetico-classed catalogue, so long as the main object
 of a dictionary, ready reference, is attained. Of course «Hebrew
 language», «Latin language», «Latin literature», and «Punic language»
 can not be so treated; it is the custom and is probably best not to
 put «English language» and «English literature» under «England», as
 they have extended far beyond the place of their origin; books on the
 language spoken in the United States go with those on the English
 language except the few on «Americanisms», which are separated, like
 accounts of any other dialect. Our literature can not be treated
 satisfactorily. It is never called United States literature, and no
 one would expect to find it under United States. On the other hand the
 name American properly should include Canadian literature and all the
 Spanish literature of South America. It is, however, the best name we
 have.

 [note] 42. But if analogies are to have any weight, why should we
 follow that of names of persons, which are inverted, more than that
 of names of places, which are not? We do not say «Mountains», White;
 «Regions», Antarctic; «Sea», Red; why should we say «Anatomy»,
 Comparative; «Arts», fine; «System», Brunonian?—C.[/note]

 [note] 43. Schwartz, slightly altered.[/note]

 [note] 44. This is on the supposition that Morbid Anatomy has been
 considered by the cataloguer not to be a distinct subject, entitled to
 a name of its own.[/note]


(_k._) _Double entry._


108. It is plain that almost every book will appear several times in
the catalogue:

 Under author, if he is known.
 Under first word of title, if the book is anonymous or the title is
    memorable. {55}
 Under each distinct subject.
 Under form-heading in many cases.
 Under many other headings by way of cross-reference.

And this is necessary if the various objects enumerated on p. 8 are to
be attained quickly. But inasmuch as the extent and therefore the cost
of the catalogue increases in direct proportion with the multiplication
of entries, it becomes worth while to inquire whether some of these can
not be dispensed with by devices which will suit the inquirer as well
or nearly as well. Such economies are mentioned in §§ 93–97, 113, 114.


109. Enter a polytopical book under each distinct subject.

 _Ex._ “An art journey in «Italy» and «Greece»;” “The history of
 «France» and «England» compared;” “Handbook of «drawing» and
 «engraving».”

 But some of the subjects may be omitted if their treatment is so
 slight that it is not worth while to take any notice of them, which is
 occasionally the case even when they are mentioned on the title-page.
 Sometimes an analytical can take the place of a full entry for the
 less important topics. The points to be considered are; (1) Would
 this book be of any use to one who is looking up this subject? (2) Is
 the entry or reference necessary as a subject-word entry or reference
 (that is, to one who is looking for this book)?

 Some books are polytopical which do not appear to be so at first
 sight. A collection of portraits of Germans, for example, has the
 subject «Germans», and so far as it has any artistic value might be
 quoted as one of the illustrative works under the subject «Portrait
 painting» or «Portrait engraving».[45] If the biographical interest
 were all, the general collections would be put under «Portraits»
 and the national collections (as “American portrait gallery,” “Zwei
 Hundert Bildnisse deutscher Männer”) under countries, with references
 from the general heading to the various countries, as directed in
 § 97. If the artistic interest were alone considered, the general
 titles would be put under «Portraits», and collections by painters
 or engravers of particular schools would be put under the names of
 the schools; which would amount to nearly the same arrangement as the
 previous.

 So in regard to «Hymns»; there are three sources of interest, the
 devotional, the literary (which would lead to national subdivision),
 and the denominational; a similar treatment would place general
 collections under «Hymns», collections in any language under the
 national heading, with either double entry under the name of the
 denomination or a reference from that to the national heading,
 specifying which of the collections there enumerated belong to the
 denomination. But the devotional interest so decidedly preponderates
 that it has been customary to collect everything under the
 form-heading «Hymns».

 In Full, almanacs will have form-entry under «Almanacs» and
 subject-entry under the district about which they give information.

 Sometimes if an ordinary reference be made from one subject to
 another the title referred to can not easily be found. A reference
 from «Architecture» to «Spain». _Architecture_, is convenient, but
 a reference to the same heading from «Gothic architecture» is not,
 because it obliges the inquirer to look through the whole list of
 Spanish architecture to find perhaps one title on the Gothic. In
 like manner there would be few entries of works on vases under most
 countries, so that no division _Vases_ would be made, and the inquirer
 must search for his book among a number of titles on _Art_. And if
 the reference were made the other way—from the country to «Vases»—the
 inquirer would be in the same plight. There is no need, however, of
 double entry. If merely the name of the particular author or authors
 referred to under any subject be inserted in the reference, the whole
 difficulty vanishes.

 _Ex._ «Gothic architecture.» [Various titles.] _See also_ «Spain»;
 _Architecture_ (STREET).

 It is to be noted that herein Short has a great advantage; it does not
 lose so much {56} by double entry and can afford to make it in many
 cases where Medium must for economy put the reader to some trouble.
 The notes, too, in such catalogues as the Quincy or the Boston Public
 history-list afford a convenient way of briefly inserting considerable
 double entry where it is thought expedient without any apparent
 inconsistency.

 [note] 45. It also belongs to the class «Portraits», but that is in
 the Form-catalogue, not the Subject-catalogue.[/note]


110. If a book purports to treat of several subjects, which together
make the whole or a great part of one more general, it may be put
either under each of the special subjects, or under the general
subject, and in the latter case it may or may not have analytical
references from the specific subjects, according as the treatises are
more or less distinct and more or less important.

 _E. g._, “A treatise on anatomy, physiology, pathology, and
 therapeutics,” which might be put under each of those four headings,
 ought rather to be entered under «Medicine», in which case, if the
 separate parts are by different authors, analyticals might very well
 be made under the four headings; and at any rate an analytical under
 the first would occasionally be useful as equivalent to a subject-word
 reference.


111. When a considerable number of books might all be entered under the
same two or more headings, entry under one will be sufficient, with a
reference from the others.

 On the other hand, if in printing it were noticed that under any
 subject only one or two titles were covered by the cross-references
 to countries (as from «Sculpture» to «Greece», «Italy», «Denmark»),
 it may be thought that double entry under nation and subject would
 be preferable. A man is provoked if he turns to another part of
 the catalogue to find there only one title. However, it should be
 remembered that one or two titles repeated under each of many subjects
 will amount to a considerable number in the whole. The want of
 uniformity produced by this mixture of reference and double entry is
 of less importance.


112. When there are many editions of a book, it is allowable to merely
refer under the subject to the author-entry. In a college library, for
instance, the full entry of all the editions of the classics under
their appropriate subjects (as of the Georgics under «Agriculture», of
Thucydides under «Greek history», and Polybius under «Roman history»)
would be a waste of room; it is enough to mention the best edition and
refer for other editions and translations to the author’s name.


(_l._) _Miscellaneous rules and examples._


113. Trials relating to a vessel should be put under its name; Short
would make no other entry. Exploring expeditious or voyages in a named
vessel should have at least a reference from the name.

 _Ex._ «Jeune Eugénie.» MASON, W. P. Report. Boston, 1822. 8º.
 «Herald», _H. M. S._, Voyage of the. _See_ «Seemann», B.


114. A civil action is to be entered under that party to it who is
first named on the title-page, with a reference from the other.

 In Short (and in Medium and Full, if the report is anonymous) this
 will be the only entry,—unless the case illustrates some subject, in
 which case entry or reference under that will be needed. Patent cases
 furnish the most common examples of subject-entry {57} of trials, but
 everyone will remember trials in which points of ecclesiastical law,
 of medical jurisprudence, etc., have been so fully discussed as to
 compel reference from those subjects.


115. Enter “Review of,” “Remarks on,” “Comments on” under the author
reviewed (as a combined subject and subject-word entry), and, if worth
while, under the subject of the book reviewed.


116. The distinction between «Bibliography» and «Literary history» is,
with reference to the books on those subjects, a distinction of more or
less; the two classes of books run into each other and it is hard to
draw the line between them.


117. Any theological library will probably contain books which treat—

 (1) of the four last things, death, judgment, heaven, and hell.
 (2) of the nature of the life after death, a much more extensive
     question than (1).
 (3) whether there is any future life, without regard to its nature.
 (4) of the retribution after death for the good and for the evil
     deeds done in this life.
 (5) whether there is any retribution for evil in a future life.
 (6) what is its nature.
 (7) how long does it last.

 Here are seven questions on nearly the same subject-matter, and there
 are six names for them. (It will be found, by the way, that although
 there are some books treating of each separately, many of the works
 overlap as the subjects do, and that the titles are no guide whatever
 to the contents of the books.) Two main courses are open to the
 cataloguer:

 1st. To make one heading, as «Future life», cover the whole, with
 subdivisions. In this way the catalogue becomes classed to a certain
 extent. No matter, if that is on the whole the more convenient
 arrangement;

 2d. More consistently, to make four headings: «Eschatology» (covering
 the 1st question, four last things, with references to each of them),
 «Future life» (its nature, including retribution both for good and
 evil, 2d and 4th questions), «Future punishment» (existence, nature,
 duration, and so including universalism, with references to Purgatory
 and Hell, covering the 5th, 6th, and 7th questions), «Immortality» (is
 there any? 3d question).


(b.) ENTRIES CONSIDERED AS PARTS OF A WHOLE.


118. The systematic catalogue undertakes to exhibit a scientific
arrangement of the books in a library in the belief that it will thus
best aid those who would pursue any extensive or thorough study. The
dictionary catalogue sets out with another object and a different
method, but having attained that object—facility of reference—is at
liberty to try to secure some of the advantages of classification
and system in its own way. Its subject-entries, individual, general,
limited, extensive, thrown together without any logical arrangement,
in most absurd proximity—«Abscess» followed by «Absenteeism» and
that by «Absolution», «Club-foot» next to «Clubs», and «Communion»
to «Communism», while «Christianity» and «Theology», «Bibliography»
and «Literary history» are separated by half the length of the
catalogue—are a mass of utterly disconnected particles without any
relation to one another, each useful in itself but only by itself.
But by a well-devised net-work of cross-references the mob becomes an
army, of which each part is capable of assisting many other parts. The
effective force of the catalogue is immensely increased. {58}


119. Make references from general subjects to their various subordinate
subjects and also to coördinate and illustrative subjects.

 Cross-references should be made by Full from «Classes» of persons
 (Merchants, Lawyers, Artists, Quakers, etc.) to individuals belonging
 to those classes; from «Cities» to persons connected with them by
 birth or residence, or at least to those who have taken part in the
 municipal affairs or rendered the city illustrious; from «Countries»
 to their colonies, provinces, counties, cities, etc. (unless their
 number is so great or the divisions are so well known that reference
 is useless); also, under the division _History_ to rulers and
 statesmen, under _Literature_ to authors, under _Art_ to artists, and
 so on; from other «Subjects» to all their parts, and to the names of
 persons distinguished for discoveries in them or knowledge of them.
 Short and Medium will make such of these references as seem most
 likely to be useful.

 The construction of this system may be carried on simultaneously
 with the ordinary cataloguing of the library, each book as it goes
 through the cataloguer’s hands not merely receiving its author- and
 subject-entries, but also suggesting the appropriate cross-reference;
 but when all the books are catalogued the system will not be complete.
 References are needed not merely to the specific from the general
 but to the general from the more general and to that from the most
 general. There must be a pyramid of references, and this can be made
 only by a final revision after the completion of the cataloguing.
 The best method is to draw off in a single column a list of all the
 subject-headings that have been made, to write opposite them their
 including classes in a second column and the including classes of
 these in a third column; then to write these classes as headings to
 cards and under them the subjects that stood respectively opposite
 to them in the list, to arrange the cards alphabetically, verify the
 references, and supplement them by thinking of all likely subordinate
 headings and ascertaining whether they are in the catalogue, and also
 by considering what an inquirer would like to be told or reminded of
 if he were looking up the subject under consideration. In this way a
 reasonably complete list may be made.

 It will, however, often happen that there is no entry under the
 including subject. Take a simple instance. The catalogue, we will
 suppose, contains twenty histories of towns belonging to seven
 counties in Connecticut. In the revision described above references
 have been made both from Connecticut _to_ these counties and to
 the towns _from_ the counties, but only three of the counties have
 any titles under them. The others would not make their appearance
 in the catalogue at all if there were no cross-references. And as
 this will happen continually, it follows that the system will very
 greatly increase the number of headings and therefore the length of
 the catalogue. Such fullness may be allowable in regard to the state
 which contains the library, which, of course, should be treated with
 exceptional completeness. It may possibly be worth while for all the
 States of the Union and for England, but to attempt to do the same for
 all countries and all subjects is too much. A modification of the plan
 must be introduced which will make it much less complete but still
 useful. With many subjects the next heading in the ascending series
 must be skipped, and the references massed under one still higher; in
 the supposed case, for example, the references to all the towns will
 be made under Connecticut and under those counties alone which have
 any other entry under them.


120. Make references occasionally from specific to general subjects.

 Of course much information about limited topics is to be found in more
 general works; the very best description of a single plant or of a
 family of plants may perhaps be contained in a botanical encyclopædia.
 This fact, however, must be impressed upon the inquirer in the preface
 of the catalogue or in a printed card giving directions for its use;
 it is out of the question to make all possible references of the
 ascending kind. From «Cathedrals», for example, one would naturally
 refer to «Christian art» and to «Ecclesiastical architecture», because
 works on those subjects will contain more or less on cathedrals. But
 so will histories of architecture and {59} histories of English,
 French, German, or Spanish architecture; so will travels in England,
 France, Germany, Italy, Spain. And anyone who desired to take an
 absolutely complete survey of the subject, or who was willing to spend
 unlimited time in getting information on some detail, would have to
 consult such books. Yet the cataloguer may very excusably not think
 of referring to those subjects, or if he thinks of it may deem the
 connection too remote to justify reference, and that he should be
 overloading the catalogue with what would be generally useless.

 There are many things that are seldom used, and then perhaps but for
 an instant, and yet their existence is justified because when wanted
 they are indispensable, or because they make useful what is otherwise
 useless: a policy of insurance, life-preservers in a steamer, the
 index of a book, large parts of the catalogue of a library, among
 others the cross-references. Of such a nature, but much less useful,
 more easily dispensed with, is a


121. Synoptical table of subjects.

 I mention its possibility here; I do not advise its construction,
 because there is little chance that the result would compensate for
 the immense labor.


IV. FORM-ENTRY.

 National entry has already been discussed under SUBJECTS (§ 97).


122. Make a form-entry for collections of works in any form of
literature.

 In the catalogues of libraries consisting chiefly of English books, if
 it is thought most convenient to make form-entries under the headings
 «Poetry», «Drama», «Fiction», it may be done, because for those
 libraries Poetry is synonymous with English poetry, and so on; but if
 a library has any considerable number of books in foreign languages
 the national classification should be strictly followed; that is to
 say, entries should be made under «English drama», «English fiction»,
 «English poetry», «Latin poetry», etc.; only those collections of
 plays, novels, poems that include specimens of several literatures
 being put under «Drama», «Fiction», «Poetry». Or the English plays,
 novels, poems, etc., may be entered under Drama, Fiction, Poetry,
 etc., and the dramatic works, etc., of foreign literatures under the
 names of the several literatures.

 The rule above confines itself to collections. It would be convenient
 to have full lists of the single works in the library in all the
 various kinds of literature, and when space can be afforded they
 ought to be given; if there is not room for them, references must be
 made under these headings to the names of all the single authors;
 an unsatisfactory substitute, it is true, but better than entire
 omission. Note, however, that there is much less need of these lists
 in libraries which give their frequenters access to the shelves than
 where such access is denied, so that borrowers must depend entirely
 on the catalogue. In the case of English fiction a form-list is of
 such constant use that nearly all libraries have separate fiction
 catalogues.

 It has been objected that such lists of novels, plays, etc., do not
 suit the genius of the dictionary catalogue. The objection is of no
 importance if true; if such lists are useful they ought to be given.
 There is nothing in the dictionary plan which makes them hard to use
 if inserted. But the objection is not well founded. Under the names
 of certain subjects we give lists of the authors who have treated of
 those subjects; under the names of certain kinds of literature we
 give lists of the authors who have written books in those forms; the
 cases are parallel. The divisions of fiction, it must be understood,
 are not the authors who have written novels but the different kinds
 of novels which they have written; they are either such varieties as
 “Historical fiction,” “Sea stories,” “Religious novels,” or such as
 “English fiction,” “French fiction.” The first divisions we do not
 make for single works because it would be very difficult to do so
 and of little use; but if there were collections in those classes we
 should certainly introduce such headings. The second division (by
 language) is made as it is in Poetry and Drama, both for single works
 and collections. {60}

 There is no reason but want of room why only collections should be
 entered under form-headings. The first entries of collections were
 merely title-entries, and Mr. Crestadoro is the only person who has
 thought that plays, etc., deserve two title-entries, one from the
 first word, the other from what we might call the form-word. It is
 not uninteresting to watch the steps by which the fully organized
 quadruple syndetic dictionary catalogue is gradually developing from
 the simple subject-word index.


123. Make a form-entry for single works in the rarer literatures, as
Japanese, or Kalmuc, or Cherokee.

 References can be substituted, if necessary.


124. Make a form-entry of encyclopædias, indexes, and works of similar
practical form, the general ones under the headings «Encyclopædias»,
etc., the special ones in groups under their appropriate subjects.

 Thus an agricultural dictionary will not be entered under
 «Dictionaries», but under «Agriculture», in a little division
 _Dictionaries_. Now and then some one asks for “a grammar,” “the
 dictionary.” It does not follow that it would be well to jumble
 together, under a form-heading, «Grammars» or «Dictionaries», all
 grammars and lexicons in all languages. Those who inquire so vaguely
 must be made to state their wishes more definitely. The cataloguer
 does his part if he inserts a note under such headings explanatory of
 the practice of the catalogue; as

 «Grammar.» [First a list of works on general grammar, then]

 _Note._ For grammars of any language, see the name of the language.


V. ANALYSIS.


125. Enter in full every work, forming a part of a set, which fills a
whole volume or several volumes.

 _Ex._ «Colombo», C. Select letters rel. to his four voyages to the New
 World; tr. and ed. by R. H. Major. London, 1847. 8º. (Vol. 2 of the
 Hakluyt Soc.)


126. Enter analytically, that is without imprint—

_a._ Every work, forming part of a set, which has a separate title-page
and paging, but forms only part of a volume of the set.

 _Ex._ «Fairholt», F. W. The civic garland; songs from London pageants,
 with introd. and notes. (_In_ «Percy Society», v. 19. 1845.)

 Full must and Medium may make a full entry in this case also. That is
 to say, Full will draw the line at a separate title-page, Short and
 perhaps Medium at filling a volume. Those catalogues which give no
 imprints at all and those which give no imprints under subjects will
 of course give none for analyticals.

_b._ Every work which, though not separately paged or not having a
title-page, has been published separately, whether before or since its
publication in the work under treatment.

 _Ex._ «Dickens», C. J. F. Little Dorrit. (_In_ «Harper’s» mag., v.
 12–15, 1855–57.)

_c._ Under _author_, (1) every separate article or treatise over
   [46] pages in length; (2) treatises of noted authors; (3) noted
works even if by authors otherwise obscure. {61}

_d._ Under _subject_ treatises important either (1) as containing the
origin of a science or a controversy or developing new views, or (2) as
treating the subject ably or giving important information, or (3) for
length.

 Absolute uniformity is unattainable; probably no one will be able to
 draw the line always at the same height. It is most desirable—and
 fortunately easiest—to make analysis when the subject is well
 marked, as of biographies or histories of towns, or monographs on
 any subject. General treatises or vague essays are much harder to
 classify and much less valuable for analysis. In analyzing collections
 of essays original articles should be brought out in preference to
 reviews, which are commonly not worth touching (except in a very full
 catalogue) either under the author of the work reviewed or under
 its subject. Of course exception may be made for famous reviews or
 for good reviews of famous works. A work giving a careful literary
 estimate of an author may be an exception to this remark; reviews of
 the “Works” of any author are most likely to contain such an estimate.
 Many reviews, like Macaulay’s, are important for their treatment of
 the subject and not worth noticing under the book reviewed, which is
 merely a pretext for the article.

_e._ Make analytical _title_-references for stories in a collection
when they are likely to be inquired for separately.

 [note] 46. This limit must be determined by each library for itself,
 with the understanding that there may be occasional exceptions.[/note]


127. Make analyticals for the second and subsequent authors of a book
written (_but not conjointly_) by several authors. (See § 4.)

 Sometimes it is better to give full entry under two headings than to
 make the second analytical. _Ex._ A “Short account of the application
 to Parliament by the merchants of London, with the substance of the
 evidence as summed up by Mr. Glover,” is to be entered under «London».
 _Merchants_, as first author, but as Glover’s part is two-thirds of
 the whole, it should also be entered under him, the entry in each case
 being made full enough not to mislead.


128. In analyticals it is well to give the date of the book referred to
and also, though less necessary, to state the pages which contain the
article. Many readers will not notice these details, but they will do
no one any harm and will assist the careful student.



STYLE.


CATALOGUE.

A. HEADINGS.

Type, 130–134. Italics, 131. Pseud., 135, 136. Ed., 137. Family name,
138. Christian name, 139, 140. To distinguish authors of the same name,
139–144. To distinguish subject headings, 145. Dashes, 146. References,
147.

B. TITLES.

Order, 148, 149. Abridgment, 150–160. Articles, 151, 152. Unnecessary
words, 153, 153½. Dates, 154. Initials, 155. Abbreviations, 156.
Numbers, 157. Position, 158. “Same,” 159. Words to be retained,
160–164. Analyticals, 164. Exact copying, 165. Language, 167, 168. {62}
Translations, 168, 169. Transposition of the article, 170. Anon.,
171–173. Lord, Gen., ed., 174. Transliteration, 175.

C. EDITIONS, 176, 177.

D. IMPRINTS.

The parts of an imprint and their order, 178. Transliteration,
179. Abbreviations, 180. Two or more places, 181, 182. Publisher’s
name, 183. Colophon, 184. Dates, 185–194. Number of volumes, 195.
Typographical form, 196. Maps, 197.

E. CONTENTS, 198–200, AND NOTES, 201.

F. REFERENCES, 202, 203.

FF. LANGUAGE, 204.

G. CAPITALS, 205, 206.

H. PUNCTUATION, ACCENTS, BRACKETS AND PARENTHESES, ITALICS, _etc._,
207–212.

I. ARRANGEMENT.

Order of the English alphabet, 213. Headings, 214–239. Person, place,
title, subject, form, 214. Forenames, 215, 216. M’, _etc._, 217. Family
names nearly alike, 218. Family names the same, 219. Forenames the
same, 220. Forenames not generally used, 221, 222. Forenames changed,
223. Titles, Sees, 224. Possessive case, 225. Greek and Latin names,
226. Compound names, 227–232. Pseudonyms, 233. Incomplete names, 234.
Signs, 235. Every word regarded, 236. Abbreviations, 237. Titles,
240–252. Under an author, 240–248. Editions, 242, 243. Numerals,
244. Translations, 245. Biographies, etc., 246. Criticisms, 247.
Analyticals, 248, 249. Under countries, 250–252. Synopsis, 252. Bible,
252. Contents, 253. Subjects, 254–258. Homonyms, 254. Topical
arrangement, 255. Chronological arrangement, 256. Cross-references,
257. Divisions, 258.

J. ETC.

Supplement, 259. An economy, 260. Incunabula and other rare books, 261.


VI. STYLE.


129. Uniformity for its own sake is of very little account; for the
sake of intelligibility, to prevent perplexity and misunderstanding, it
is worth something. And it is well to be uniform, merely to avoid the
question, “Why were you not consistent?” {63}


A. HEADINGS.


130. Print headings in some marked type.

 Either heavy-faced (best, if it can be had not too black), small
 capitals (handsome), or italics (least pleasing); never capitals (ugly
 and hard to read). Christian names should be in ordinary type; to make
 them like the heading is confusing, to have a special type for them
 would be extravagant.


131. Italicize titles of honor and similar distinguishing words.

 _Earl_, _Mrs._, _Rev._, _of Paris_, _Alexandrinus_, etc., also the
 name of a country or state following the name of a town, as Wilton,
 _N. H._, Cambridge, _Eng._ ☞ These words are to be italicized only in
 the headings and not in the title. They are italicized in the heading
 to distinguish the name and bring it out clearly; there is no need of
 such distinction in titles. Do not print «Badeau», _Gen._ A. Life of
 _Gen._ Grant. If the heading is italicized, the words _Mrs._, _Earl_,
 etc., must be distinguished from it in some other way.


132. Print the headings of all the four kinds of entry (author, title,
subject, form) in the same kind of type.

 In some indexes a distinction is made between persons and places or
 between authors and subjects, but in a catalogue varieties of type
 must be reserved for more important distinctions. The Catalogue of
 the Library of the Interior Department uses a heavy-faced title type
 for authors and a light-faced antique for other entries, with very
 satisfactory effect; but such typographical luxuries are not within
 general reach.


133. Print the whole of an author-, title-, or form-heading in the
special type; also an alternative family name and the family name of
the second of joint authors, if both authors are put into the heading
(§ 240), and the family names of British noblemen.

 _Ex._ «Cervantes Saavedra», «Varnhagen von Ense», «Cape of Good Hope»,
 «Bicknell & Goodhue», «American Antiquarian Society», «Comparative
 anatomy», «Political economy»; «Chasteillon» (_Lat._ «Castalio» _or_
 «Castellio»), S.; «Craik», G. L., _and_ «Knight», C.; «Manchester», W.
 Drogo «Montagu», _7th Duke of_.


134. Print the first word of a title-entry in the special type.

 _Ex._ «Rough» diamond. But compound words, whether hyphened or not,
 should be printed wholly in the heading type; as, «Out of door»
 amusements. London, 1864. 8º. This is merely for looks; the kind of
 type has nothing to do with the arrangement.


135. Add _pseud._ to the heading for all sorts of false names of
whatever origin.

 So much is necessary to prevent mistake on the part of the public;
 but it is a waste of time for the cataloguer to rack his brains to
 discover which of the ingenious names invented by Pierquin de Gembloux
 (cryptonym, geonym, phrenonym, etc.) is applicable to each case; for
 the only result is that readers are puzzled. A list of these terms
 may be found in the Notice of Quérard by Olphar Hamst [_i. e._, R.
 Thomas], London, 1867.

 The unauthorized assumption of any name should be indicated by
 such phrases as _called_, _calling himself_, _dit_, _soi disant_,
 _se dicente_ or _che si dice_, _que se dice_ or _se dicendiose_,
 _genannt_, _genoemd_, etc.


136. When an author uses a single pseudonym add it to his name, unless
the entry is made under the pseudonym; when the pseudonym is used only
in one work, and different ones in other works, include it in that
title, followed by [_pseud._].

 _Ex._ «Clemens», S. C. (_pseud._ Mark «Twain»).

 «Godwin», Wm. The looking-glass; by T. Marcliffe [_pseud._]. {64}


137. Add _ed._ to the heading when it is needed to show that a book is
merely put together, not written, by the author in hand.

 The title usually shows this fact clearly enough without _ed._ Short
 would omit to note the fact, and in Full, perhaps even in Medium,
 it is better to state it in the title than in the heading. The
 distinction, after all, is rarely of practical value.


138. Repeat the family name for each person.

 _Ex._
     «Smith», Caleb. Sermon.
     «Smith», Charles. Address.
     «Smith», Conrad. Narrative.
 not
     «Smith», Caleb. Sermon.
      — , Charles. Address.
      — , Conrad. Narrative.


139. Distinguish authors whose family name is the same by giving the
forename in full or by initials.

 In a card catalogue the names should always be given in full; in
 printing, initials are often used to save room; but the saving is
 small, and the advantages of full names are so considerable that any
 cataloguer who is relieved from the necessity of the greatest possible
 compression ought to give them. For the more common forenames fullness
 can be combined with economy by the use of the colon abbreviations
 (C: = Charles, etc. See Appendix V.) Under subjects it is rare that
 two persons of even the same family name come together and initials
 are sufficient; but here also the colon initials should be used.
 An exception may well be made in the case of men always known by
 a double name; as, Sydney Smith or Bayard Taylor. Nobody talks of
 Smith or Taylor. «Taylor», B., conveys no idea whatever to most
 readers. «Taylor», Bayard, they know. When one name alone is usual,
 as Gladstone, Shakespeare, and when both forms are used, as Dickens
 and Charles Dickens, initials will suffice. Of course there can be
 no uniformity in such practice, but there will be utility, which is
 better.

 Forenames used by the author in a diminutive or otherwise varied form
 may be given in that form.

 _Ex._ «Carleton», Will; «McLean», Sally; «Reuter», Fritz.


140. Mark in some way those forenames which are usually omitted by the
author, and neglect them in the arrangement.

 _Ex._ «Collins», (Wm.) Wilkie; «Gérard», (Cécile) Jules (Basile).
 This is of practical use. The consulter running over the Collinses
 is puzzled by the unusual name unless some generally accepted sign
 shows him that it is unusual. He does not quickly recognize Charles
 Dickens in «Dickens», Charles John Huffam; or Leigh Hunt in «Hunt»,
 James Henry Leigh; or Max Müller in «Müller», Friedrich Max. Besides,
 the eye finds the well-known name more quickly if the others are, as
 it were, pushed aside. The most common methods of distinction are
 inclosure in parentheses and spacing: «Guizot», (François Pierre)
 Guillaume, or «Guizot», F r a n ç o i s  P i e r r e Guillaume. The
 latter is objectionable as unusual, as taking too much room, and as
 making emphatic the very part of the name which one wants to hide. I
 prefer the style, «Dickens», Charles (_in full_ C: J: Huffam). _See_ §
 221. But in those catalogues in which all Christian names are inclosed
 in parentheses, some other sign must of course be used to mark the
 less usual names.


141. Distinguish authors whose family and forenames are the same by the
dates of their birth and death, or, if these are not known, by some
other label.

 _Ex._ _Bp._, _C. E._, _Capt._, _Col._, _D.D._, _F.R.S._, etc., always
 to be printed in italics.

 In a manuscript catalogue, in preparing which of course one never
 knows how many new names may be added, such titles should be given
 to every name. In {65} printing, if room is an object, they may be
 omitted except when needed for the distinction of synonymous authors.
 Note, however, that many persons are commonly known and spoken of by
 a title rather than by their first name, and it is a convenience for
 the man who is looking, for instance, for the life of Gen. Greene,
 whose Christian name he does not know, to see at once, as he runs his
 eye over the list of Greenes, which are generals, without having to
 read all the titles of books written by or about the Greenes in order
 to identify him. For the same reason _Mrs._ should always be given
 with the name of a married woman, whether the forename which follows
 is her own or her husband’s; even when the following form is adopted,
 “«Hall», _Mrs._ Anna Maria (Fielding), _wife of_ S. C.,” which is
 always to be done when in her titles she uses her husband’s initials.
 In this case a reference should be made from «Hall», _Mrs._ S. C.,
 to «Hall», _Mrs._ «A. M.», and so in similar cases. If forenames are
 represented under subjects by their initials, it is well to give
 _Miss_ or _Mrs._ with the names of female authors. The reader who
 would like to read a book by Miss Cobbe on a certain subject may not
 feel sure that «Cobbe, F. P.», is «Miss» Cobbe.

 As late as 1760 unmarried women were usually styled _Mrs._; as, Mrs.
 Lepel, Mrs. Woffington, Mrs. Blount, and among writers Mrs. Hannah
 More. There is no objection to following this practice in cataloguing,
 as the object of the cataloguer is not to furnish biographical
 information but to identify the people catalogued.


142. Titles of Englishwomen are to be treated by the following
rules:[47]

In the matter of titles an Englishwoman in marrying has everything to
gain and nothing to lose. If she marries above her own rank she takes
her husband’s title in exchange for her own, if below her own rank she
keeps her own title.


_Titles of married women._

_a._ The wife of a peer takes her husband’s style.

 That is, she is Baroness, Viscountess, Marchioness, etc. In
 cataloguing, say «Brassey», Annie (Allnutt), Baroness; not «Brassey»,
 Annie (Allnutt), _Lady_.

_b._ The wife of a knight or baronet is Lady. Whether this title
precedes or follows her forename depends upon whether she had a title
before her marriage.

 That is, if Lady Mary Smith marries Sir John Brown (either knight or
 baronet), she is Lady Mary Brown, also if Hon. Mary Smith marries Sir
 John Brown (knight or baronet) she is Lady Mary Brown; but if Miss
 Mary Smith marries Sir John Brown (knight or baronet), she becomes
 Mary, Lady Brown.

_c._ A maid of honor retains her Hon. after marriage, unless, of
course, it is merged into a higher title.

 Thus, if she marries a baronet she is the Hon^{ble} Lady Brown, if
 a peer the Lady So and So, in either case as though she had been a
 peer’s daughter.

_d._ The wife of an earl’s (or higher peer’s) younger son is never the
Hon^{ble} Lady; if she used the Lady before marriage in her own right
she does not, of course, add anything by such marriage, but the wife
of a younger son of a lower peer than an earl is Hon^{ble} Mrs. (not
Lady)—the younger children of all peers using, of course, the family
name, with or without their forenames, according to their rank. {66}

_e._ If the lady to whom the title Hon. belongs in virtue of her
father’s rank marries a commoner, she retains her title, becoming Hon.
Lady, if she marries a knight or baronet; and Hon. Mrs., if her husband
has no title.

 None of these courtesy titles are inherited by the children of those
 who bear them, the third generation of even the highest peer being
 simply commoners unless raised in rank by marriage or merit.


_Titles of unmarried women._

_f._ The title Lady belongs to daughters of all noblemen not lower than
earl.

_g._ The title Hon. belongs to daughters of viscounts and barons; also
to an untitled woman who becomes maid of honor to the Queen, and this
title is retained after she leaves the service. If a woman who has the
title Lady becomes maid of honor she does not acquire the title Hon.

 [note] 47. Prepared by Miss May Seymour and Mr. F. Wells Williams
 (_Lib. jnl._, 13: 321, 361).[/note]


143. Distinctive epithets to be in the same language as the name.

 _Ex._ _Kniaz_, _Fürst von_, _Freiherr zu_, _duc de Magenta_, _Bishop
 of Lincoln_, _évêque de Meaux_; but _Emperor of Germany_, _King of
 France_, not _Kaiser_ and _roi_, because names of sovereign princes
 are given in English. Treat in the same way patronymics habitually
 joined with a person’s name; as, «Clemens» _Alexandrinus_.


144. Prefixes (_i. e._, titles which in speaking come before the name),
as, _Hon._, _Mrs._, _Rev._, etc., should be placed before the Christian
name (as «Smith», _Capt._ John), and suffixes as _Jr._, _D.D._,
_LL.D._, after it (as «Channing», James Ellery, _D.D._).

 Hereditary titles generally follow the Christian name, as «Derby»,
 Thomas «Stanley», 1_st_ _Earl of_; but British courtesy titles (_i.
 e._, those given to the younger sons of dukes and marquesses) precede,
 as «Wellesley», _Lord_ Charles (2d son of the Duke of Wellington). In
 other languages than English, French, and German the title usually
 precedes the forename; as, «Alfieri», _Conte_ Vittorio. Occasionally a
 French nobleman uniformly places his title before his forenames; as,
 «Gasparin», _Comte_ Agénor de.

 _Lord_ should be replaced by the exact title in the names of English
 noblemen, _e. g._, Lord Macaulay should be entered as «Macaulay»,
 1_st_ _Baron_. _Lord_ in the title of Scotch judges follows the family
 name; as, «Kames», H. «Home», _afterwards Lord_.

 The title Baronet is given in the form «Scott», _Sir_ Walter, _Bart_.

 Patronymic phrases, as _of Dedham_, follow all the names; but they
 must immediately follow the family name when they are always used
 in close connection with it, as «Girault» _de St. Farjeau_, Eusèbe;
 similarly _aîné_, _fils_, _jeune_, as «Dumas» _fils_, Alexandre;
 «Didot» _fils_, Ambroise. Latin appellatives should not in general be
 separated from their nouns by a comma; as, «Cæsar» _Heisterbacensis_.


145. Distinguish two subject-headings which are spelled alike by
italicized phrases in parentheses.

 Ex. «Calculus» (_in mathematics_).
     «Calculus» (_in medicine_).


146. Medium avoids the repetition of the heading with all titles after
the first by using a dash. Short usually employs indention.

 Indention takes as much room as the dash and is much less clear. There
 should always be at least a hair-space between the end of the dash and
 the next letter; indeed that is the rule of all good printing. Under
 a subject the repetition of the {67} author’s name is indicated by
 a second dash.[48] (The repetition of the title is shown by the word
 _Same_.)

 «Cobbett», Wm. Emigrant’s guide.
  — A little plain English. London, 1795. 8º.
  — _Same_. Phila., 1795. 8º.
  — Porcupine’s works.

 «Atheism». Beecher, L. Lectures, _etc_.
  — Bentley, R. Confutation of A.
  — – Folly of A. and deism.
  — – Matter and motion.
  — – Fotherby, M. Atheomastix.

 [note] 48. After trying several experiments I have settled upon the
 following as producing the best effect:

 Put
   before the second and following lines of a title        3 em quads.
   before and after the em dash that denotes repetition    an en quad.
   before and after the double dash (an em dash followed
      by an en dash)                                       an en quad.
   between the parts of the double dash                    a 5-em space.
   before Same, in addition to the regular en quad         a 5-em space.
   before the first line of _Notes_ and _Contents_           an em quad.
     (Do not indent the other lines of Notes and
        Contents at all.)
   before the place of publication                         an em quad.
   between the date and the size-mark                      an en quad and
                                                             a 5-em space.
 [/note]


147. Print in the special type a heading occurring in other parts of
the catalogue, when a reference is intended.

 After _See_ or _In_, or when in a note some book contained in the
 catalogue is referred to; as, “For a discussion of the authorship,
 _see_ «Graesse’s» Lehrbuch.”


B. TITLES.


(a.) ORDER.


148. Preserve the order of words of the title.

 Short will depart from the order whenever it can not otherwise abridge
 the title; Medium and Full will do the same, but they will bracket all
 words introduced out of their original place as much as if they did
 not occur in the title at all.


149. When the title-page begins with the indication of the series to
which the book belongs, followed by the title of the book, transpose
the series name to a parenthesis after the imprint, including the
number in the series, when the series is numbered.

 _Ex._ American commonwealths. Virginia; a history of the people, by
 John Esten Cooke, would be entered «Cooke», J: E. Virginia; a history
 of the people. Boston, 1883. D. (Amer, commonwealths.)


(b.) ABRIDGMENT.


150. The more careful and student-like the probable use of the library
the fuller the title should be,—fuller, that is, of information, not
of words. Many a title a yard long does not convey as much meaning as
two well-chosen words. No precise rule can be given for abridgment. The
title must not be so much shortened that the book shall be confounded
with any other book of the same author or any other edition of the same
book, or that it shall fail to be recognized by those who know it or
have been referred to it by title, or that it shall convey a false or
insufficient idea of the nature of the work and (under the subject)
of its theme and its {68} method of treating its theme.[49] On the
other hand, it must not retain anything which could reasonably be
inferred from the rest of the title or from its position under a given
heading.[50]

 [note] 49. This clause must be very differently interpreted according
 to the character of the catalogue. It expresses rather the object to
 be aimed at than the point which an ordinary catalogue can expect to
 reach. To fully describe and characterize every book is impossible
 for most cataloguers. Still by a little management much may be
 briefly done. The words drama, play, novel, historical novel, poem,
 retained from or inserted in the title tell a great deal in a little
 space.[/note]

 [note] 50. It must make these omissions not merely that the catalogue
 may be short but that consulting it may be easy. Other things being
 equal, that title is best which can be taken in at a glance. What
 has been said in defence of full titles may be true, that “it takes
 longer to abridge a title than to copy it in full,” but it is also
 true that it takes longer for the printer to set the unabridged title,
 and longer for the reader to ascertain its meaning, and a long-title
 catalogue, besides being more expensive, is more bulky and therefore
 less convenient.[/note]


151. Omit the preliminary article when it can be done without altering
the sense or too much offending the ear.

 It will not do even for Short to catalogue “On the true, the
 beautiful, and the good” thus:

 «Cousin, V.» True, beautiful, good;

 but a list of Buckstone’s plays may as well be printed

 — Breach of promise, comedy.
 — Christening, farce.
 — Dead shot, farce.
 — Dream at sea.
 — Kiss in the dark, farce.
 — Lesson for ladies, com.,

 though the meaning of “Christening” and “The christening” is slightly
 different, and “Kiss in the dark” might be taken for an injunction,
 whereas “A kiss in the dark” is evidently only a title. Still neither
 Short nor Medium should hesitate to omit even in these cases. Besides
 the economy, the alphabetical order is brought out more clearly by
 this omission. That can also be done awkwardly by transposing the
 article; as,

 — Breach of promise, The; com.
 — Christening, The; farce.
 — Dead shot, The; farce.
 — Dream at sea, The.


152. Short omits articles in the title.

 _Ex._ “Observations upon an alteration of the charter of the Bank of
 England” is abridged: “Alteration of charter of Bank of England,”
 which is certainly not euphonious, but is as intelligible as if it
 were. Medium usually indulges in the luxury of good English. Perhaps
 in time a catalogue style will be adopted in which these elisions
 shall be not merely allowed, but required. It may be possible to
 increase the number of cataloguing signs. We have now 8º where we
 once had octavo, then 8vo. Why not insist upon N. Y. for New York, L.
 for London, P. for Paris, etc., as a few adventurous libraries have
 done? Why not make free substitution of commas for words, and leave
 out articles and prepositions in titles wherever the sense will still
 remain gleanable?


153. Omit puffs[51] and many descriptive words which are implied
either by the rest of the title[52] or by the custom of books of the
class {69} under treatment,[53] and those descriptive phrases which,
though they add to the significance of the title, do not give enough
information to pay for their retention.[54]

 [note] 51. _Ex._ A (plain) treatise on; an (exact and full)
 account.[/note]

 [note] 52. In “Compendious pocket dictionary,” either compendious or
 pocket is superfluous.[/note]

 [note] 53. _Ex._ Nekrolog, 1790–1800 (enthaltend Nachrichten von dem
 Leben merkwürdiger in diesem Jahre verstorbener Personen).[/note]

 [note] 54. “by an American not by birth but by the love of
 liberty.”[/note]


153½. Omit all other unnecessary words.

 In the following examples I use the double (( )) to indicate what
 every catalogue ought to omit, the single ( ) to indicate what may
 well be omitted.

 Ed. alt. (priore emendatior).
 2^e éd. (augmentée).
 2d ed. (with additions and improvements).
 with ((an appendix containing)) problems.
 ((a collection of)) papers relating to the war in India.
 ((a series of)) letters.
 ((On the)) brick architecture of the north of Italy.
 (debate) on ((the subject of)) the impressment bill.
 on ((the question of)) a financial agent.
 ((being some)) account of his travels.
 in ((the year)) 1875.
 Sermons ((on various subjects)). _N. B._ Must occasionally be retained to
    distinguish different collections of sermons by the same author.
 The grounds of infant damnation ((considered in)) (a) sermon ((preached))
    Nov. 5, (1717). Boston, 1717. O.
 Sermon (the Lord’s day after the) interment of.
 Opera ((quæ extant)) (omnia).
 Geology ((of the State)) of Maine.
 Tables for ((the use of)) civil engineers.
 Reflections ((suggested by a perusal of))[55] J. H. Palmer’s ((pamphlet
    on the)) “Causes (and consequences) of the war.”
 Occasioned by his ((book entitled)) “True narrative.”
 defended against ((the cavils of)) G. Martin.
 Howe during his command (of the King’s troops) in North America.
 So a “Discourse in Albany, Feb. 27, 1848, occasioned by the death
    of John Quincy Adams, etc. Albany, 1848. O.,” would become Disc.,
    Albany, Feb. 27, death of J. Q. Adams. Albany, 1848. O., in
    Medium; and Short would probably omit “Albany, Feb. 27.”

 [note] 55. Substitute [on].[/note]


154. For chronological phrases use dates.

 _Ex._ For “from the accession of Edward III. to the death of Henry
 VIII.,” say [1327–1547].


155. In Short and Medium use initials for all Christian names
introduced in titles, notes, and contents, and omit the initials
altogether for famous men unless there are two of the same name.

 _Ex._ Write “Life of L. V. Bell,” “ed. by F. J. Furnivall,” but “Lives
 of Cicero, Milton, Tell, Washington;” and distinguish by initials
 the Bachs, Grimms, Humboldts, Schlegels. Short may as well omit the
 initials of editors, translators, etc.

 _E. g._, «Dante.» Divine comedy; tr. by Cayley. London, 1851–54. 4 v. S.
          — _Same._ Tr. by Wright. London, _Bohn_, 1854. O.
          — _Same._ Tr. by Longfellow. Boston, 1867. 3 v. O. {70}


156. Abbreviate certain common words always, and less common words in a
long title which can not be shortened in any other way.

 Abbreviations should suggest the word for which they are used,
 and should not, if it can be avoided, suggest any other. When one
 abbreviation is used for two words, if the context does not determine
 the sense the abbreviation must be lengthened. The most common and
 useful are Abp. (Archbishop), a. d. Lat. (aus dem Lateinischen),
 add. (additions), Amer. or Am. (American), anon. (anonymous), app.
 (appendix), Aufl., Ausg., or even A. (Auflage, Ausgabe), bibl.
 (biblical, bibliographical, bibliotheca, etc.), biog. (biographical,
 biography), Bp. (Bishop), B. S. L., etc. (Bohn’s scientific
 library, etc.), Chr. (Christian), class. (classical), col. or coll.
 (collections, college), com. (commerce, committee), comp. (compiled,
 compiler), conc. (concerning), dept. (department), dom. (domestic),
 ed. (edited, edition, editor), encyc. (encyclopædia), ff. (folios or
 leaves), geog., geol., geom. (geology, geography, geometry), ges.
 (gesammelte), Ges. or Gesch. (Geschichte), Gr. (Great, Greek), H. F.
 L. (Harper’s family library), hrsg. (herausgegeben), imp. (imperfect),
 incl. (including), int. (intorno), lib. (library), mem. (memoir),
 mis. or miscel. (miscellaneous), nat. (natural), n. d. (no date of
 publication), n. p. (no place), n. s. (new series), n. t.-p. (no
 title-page), nouv. (nouvelle), obl. (oblong), p. pp. (page, pages),
 pseud. (pseudonym, pseudonymous), pt. (part), pub. (published), rec.
 (recensuit), rel. (relating, relative), rept. (report), rev. (review,
 revised), s. or ser. (series), sämm. (sämmtlich), sm. (small), soc.
 (society), t.-p. mut., t.-p. w. (title-page mutilated, wanting),
 tr. (translated, traduit, tradotto, etc.), trans. (transactions),
 u. (und), übers. (übersetzt), v. (volume), v. (von, but give van in
 full), w. (wanting). For others see Appendix V., pp. 119–126.


157. Express numbers by Arabic figures instead of words.

 _Ex._ With 30,000 (not thirty thousand) men; but Charles II., in place
 of King Charles the Second.


158. In Short omit all that can be expressed by position.

 _Ex._ In a title-entry

 «How» to observe. H. Martineau                               9287

 and in a subject-entry

 «Horse.»  CARVER, J.     Age of the.  Phila., 1818.  12º   9077
           MURRAY, W. H.  The perfect.  Bost., 1873.  8º    1694

 If this is thought too disagreeable, use an initial for the heading
 when it is repeated in the title; as:

 «Horse.»  CARVER, J.     Age of the H.  Phila., 1818. 12º    9077
           MURRAY, W. H.  The perfect H.  Bost., 1873. 8º     1694
           SIMPSON, H.    H. portraiture.  N. Y., 1868. 12º   7407


159. In cataloguing different editions of a book avoid the repetition
of the title by using “_Same_.”

 _Ex._ «Chaucer», G.  Canterbury tales; [ed.] by T. Tyrwhitt.  London,
                  1822.  5 v. 8º.
         — _Same._ Ed. by T. Wright.  London, 1847–51.  3 v.  8º.

The word following _Same_ should generally begin with a capital.


160. Retain under the author only what is necessary to distinguish the
work from other works of the same writer, but under the subject what is
needed to state the subject and show how it is treated.

 The preface of an excellent catalogue remarks that “the primary object
 of subject-entries is to inform the reader _who_ have written upon a
 given topic rather than _what_ has been written.” This is a mistake.
 The inquirer wishes to know both; in fact he wants to know who have
 written about it because their character will suggest to him what they
 have written. {71}


161. Retain both of alternative titles.

 _Ex._ Knights and sea-kings; or, The Middle Ages.

 The reason is that the book may be referred to by either title.


162. Retain in the author entry the first words of the title; let the
abridgement be made farther on.

 Because (1) it facilitates library work, by rendering the
 identification of the book quicker and surer; (2) if there is no
 part of the title which must be given, two persons may abridge so
 differently that not a single word shall be the same in the two
 abridged titles, so that two works will be made out of one (I have
 often known this to happen); (3) books are frequently referred to by
 the first word of the title (Grassi’s “Notizie sullo stato presente
 degli Stati Uniti” may be quoted as Grassi: Notizie). Short, however,
 can probably not afford to retain first words in all cases. Half the
 phrases used at the beginning of titles add little or nothing to the
 meaning, such as “Treatise on,” “System of,” “Series of lectures on,”
 “Practical hints on the quantitative pronunciation of Latin” (here
 “Practical hints” belongs in the preface, not in the title, to which
 it really adds nothing whatever). “History of” must often be retained
 under the subject. One can say

 YOUNG, _Sir_ W.  Athens.  3d ed.  London, 1804;

 but under _Athens_ that would not be enough; it would be necessary to
 write

 YOUNG, _Sir_ W.  History of Athens,

 to distinguish it from such works as Stuart’s “Antiquities of Athens,”
 and Leake’s “Topography of Athens.” But if there are enough titles
 under Athens to admit of the subheadings _Art_, _Antiquities_,
 _History_, the words “History of” again become unnecessary. Medium
 ought always to retain first words under author, and _may_ omit them
 under subject; but such phrases as “Manual of,” “Lectures on,” do much
 to explain the character of the book, and for that reason ought often
 to be retained.

 Mottoes, however, at the top of the title-page (often separated
 by a line from the real title) may be neglected. Sometimes such
 superscriptions are important, generally not.

 When the author’s name alone or his name and titles are first on the
 title-page, as is frequently the case in old Latin and modern French
 books, omit them. _Example_: Jani Jacobi Boissardi Vesuntini de
 divinatione.

 A custom has grown up of late, particularly in French publications,
 of putting at the top of the title-page, before the title proper, the
 name of the series to which the work belongs or else what might be
 called the classification of the book. The name of the series should
 be given in parentheses after the imprint. The cataloguer may retain
 or omit the classification at his discretion. To avoid all possibility
 of mistake Full will mark the omission of these words by ...


163. Do not by abridgment render the words retained false or
meaningless or ungrammatical.


(c.) MISCELLANEOUS RULES AND REMARKS.


164. In analyticals, if there are several entries under the author
referred to, give the first word or words of the title referred to, so
that the entry can easily be found; if there are few entries take one
or two words which unmistakably identify the book.

 A word or two is enough[56] and those abbreviated if possible;[57]
 but sometimes, when the article has an insufficient or no title it is
 well to give more of the title of the book in which it is contained,
 if that is more communicative; _e. g._, «Wordsworth, J.» Grammatical
 introduction. (_In his_ Fragments of early Latin. 1874.), where “of
 early Latin” explains “grammatical introduction.” The date should
 always be given to show in what edition of the work the passage is
 contained and also to what period the ideas belong. Giving the pages
 facilitates reference. {72}

 [note] 56. (_In_ «Mueller», F. M. Chips, v. 1. 1867.) _not_ (_In_
 «Mueller», F. M. Chips from a German workshop, v. 1. 1867.)[/note]

 [note] 57. (_In_ «Grævius.» Thes. Rom. antiq., v. 10. 1699.)[/note]


165. The title is to be copied, so far as it is copied, exactly.
Omissions may be made without giving notice to the reader, unless by
_etc._ when the sentence is manifestly unfinished.[58] Additions made
to a title are to be marked by inclosing the words in brackets [ ].[59]
All additions to be in the same language as the title; if this can not
be done, put the addition into a note.[60] After a word spelled wrongly
or unusually insert [_sic_].[61]

 [note] 58. The use of ... is suited only to bibliographies. I do
 not see why even Full should use this sign, except for very rare or
 typographically-important books. The title in a catalogue is not
 intended to be a substitute for the book itself and must leave some
 questions to be answered by the latter. But if the ... are used they
 should be printed as a group, separated from the word or punctuation
 mark which they follow or precede by a slight space, as . ... or
 ... .[/note]

 [note] 59. The use of [ ] is important, both as a check on
 indiscriminate addition and as an aid to identification. It will not
 often be of use in the latter respect, but as one can never tell when
 it will be needed it must be employed always.[/note]

 [note] 60. The intercalation of English words in a foreign title is
 extremely awkward.[/note]

 [note] 61. _Ex._ The beginning end [_sic_] end of drinking.[/note]


166. If the title-page is lost and the title can not be ascertained,
use the half-title or the running title, stating that fact; if the book
has neither, manufacture a title, putting it in brackets.


167. State in what language the book is written unless it is evident
from the title.

 _Ex._ «Aelianus.» De natura animalium [Gr. et Lat.].

 «Aeschines.» Orations on the crown [Gr.], with Eng. notes.


168. Retain in or add to the title of a translation words stating from
what language it was made, unless that is evident from the author’s
name or is shown by its position after the original title.

 _Ex._  «Beckford», Wm. Vathek; [tr. fr. the French].

       «Lessing», Gotthold Ephraim. Laocoon; tr. by E. Frothingham.

       «Euripides.» Ἱππόλυτος στεφανηφόρος.

        — _Eng._ The crowned Hippolytus; tr. by M. P. Fitz-Gerald.


169. In the entry of translations after the original give the
translated title, preceded by the name of the language of the version.

 This is for the good of persons unacquainted with the original
 language, who would not know the book by the foreign title, and also
 to identify the book, different translations not always having the
 same title.

 «Sand», George. Le château des désertes.

  — _Eng._ The castle in the wilderness.

  — L’homme de neige.

  — _Eng._ The snow man.

 «Dante.» Divina commedia.

  — _Eng._ Vision of hell, purgatory, and paradise; tr. by Cary.

  — – Divine comedy; tr. by Cayley.


170. In anonymous titles entered under the first word put the
transposed article after the first phrase.

 _Ex._ «Ame» en peine, Une, _not_ «Ame», Une, en peine. {73}


171. Under the author distinguish the titles of anonymous books.

 Enclosing the dash in brackets is ugly [ — ]; enclosing the title
 in brackets is misleading, as if the title were false. Stars (*)
 or daggers (†) are sometimes prefixed to the title, but they are
 often used for other purposes and they throw the titles out of line.
 [_Anon._] may be used between the title and the imprint; † in the same
 position would take less room and as soon as accepted would be equally
 intelligible; it has occasionally been used.


172. In the preliminary card catalogue enclose in brackets the name of
the author of an anonymous or pseudonymous work. This may be extended
to cases where the name is only implied.

 _Ex._ “By the Bishop of Ripon,” “M. Tullii oratio;” meaning M. Tullii
 Ciceronis oratio, or Cat. used in old editions for Catullus.


173. In the title-entry of an anonymous work insert the author’s name
in brackets.

 _Ex._ «Colloquies» of Edw. Osborne; [by M. A. Manning]. London, 1860.
 S.


174. Words like Lord, Gen., Rev., King, ed., tr., occurring in the
title are not to be italicized.


175. When the title is in an alphabet which differs from the English,
transliterate the first few words and add a translation.

 _Ex._ [Pisni Russkaho naroda; Songs of the Russian people.]

 When the title is in Greek, followed by a Latin translation, it is
 customary to use the latter alone, and the same may be done in the
 case of other languages. But for identification it is necessary that
 some part of the book’s own title should be printed. It is not enough
 to give merely a made title or a translation.


C. EDITIONS.


176. Distinguish editions by the number, the name of the editor,
translator, etc., and by mentioning in parentheses (not brackets) after
the imprint the collection, library, series, to which it belongs, or
the name of the society by which it is published.

 _Ex._ 4th ed., 10th thous., New ed., ed. by T. Good, (Bohn’s standard
 library), (Weale’s series, v. 20), (Camden Soc., v. 3). It is shorter
 and nearly as useful to give Bohn, Weale, etc., as publishers in the
 imprint,—London, _Bohn_, 1867. O.

 The various editions of different volumes may be stated thus:

 «Hales», Stephen. Statical essays. (Vol. 1, 3d ed.) London, 1738, 33. 2v. O.

 The specification of edition is necessary: (1) for the student, who
 often wants a particular edition and cares no more for another than he
 would for an entirely different work; (2) in the library service, to
 prevent the rejection of works which are not really duplicates. And
 the number of the edition is a fact in the literary history of the
 author worth preserving under his name; under the subject it is some
 guarantee for the repute, if not for the value, of the work.


177. Full will note carefully whether there is any change in a new
edition, or whether it is merely what the Germans call a title-edition
(the same matter with a new title-page). Medium and Short generally
content themselves with noting the number of the edition. Short often
takes no notice of the edition. {74}


D. IMPRINTS.


178. The imprint consists of place of publication, publisher’s name,
date, number of volumes, number of pages, number of maps, engravings,
and the like, and typographic form, which are to be given in the above
order.

 Washington, 1875. 2 v. 7, 441, (12); 4, 424 p. O.; 20 engr., 24
 photographs, 4 maps. The imprint proper consists merely of place,
 date, form, and number of volumes (Wash., 1875. 2 v. O). The other
 details are given by Medium in particular cases. Full gives them
 always, but it may be doubted whether their use is frequent enough to
 pay for the very considerable increase in the trouble of cataloguing.
 It is worth while to show by some sign (as _pm._) that the pages are
 less than 100 or than 50 (40 is the limit of the French Bibliothèque
 Nationale), for the fact is easily ascertained, and the mark fills
 little space and may prevent some one sending for a book he does not
 care to look at. It is not an exact designation, but many things
 are useful which are not exact. On the other hand an inquirer might
 occasionally fail to see the best treatise on his subject, thinking
 it too short to be of any value. Neither Short nor Medium should give
 the exact number of maps, plates, etc., but it is well worth while,
 especially for a popular library, to add the word _illus._ to the
 titles of books in which the illustrations are at all prominent, and,
 under «Biography», to note the presence of portraits.

 Imprints are indispensable in a catalogue designed for scholars, that
 is for college libraries, for historical or scientific libraries,
 and for large city libraries. They may not be of much use to nine
 persons in ten who use those libraries, but they should be inserted
 for the tenth person. But in the majority of popular city and town
 libraries neither the character of the readers nor of the books
 justifies their insertion. Their place may be much better filled (as
 in the Quincy catalogue) with more important matter—with “_Illus._”
 or “_Portraits_,” or a word or two explaining an obscure title. But
 the number of volumes should invariably be given. And the year of
 publication is important under subjects.

 Epithets like “Large paper,” which are applicable, generally, to
 only a part of the copies of a book, should be mentioned after all
 the details which apply to the whole edition (place, date, number of
 volume, etc.).


179. Do not translate the name of the place of publication, but if it
is not in a Roman alphabet transliterate it.

 Göttingen, not Gottingen; München, not Munich; Wien, not Vienna;
 Londini, not London; Lisboa, not Lisbon, when the first are the forms
 on the title-page. So [Moskva], Moskau, Moscou, Moscow, according as
 the imprint is in Russian, German, French, or English.


180. Use abbreviations and even initials for names of the most common
places of publication.

 _Ex._ Balt., Berl., Bost., Camb., Cin., Cop. or Copenh., Göt.,
 L. (London), Lisb., Lpz., Madr., N. O., N. Y., Oxf., P. (Paris),
 Phila., St. P. (St. Petersburg), Ven., Wash.; and use the ordinary
 abbreviations for state names. (A list is given in Appendix V.)


181. If there is more than one place of publication Short and Medium
should give only one.

 If the places are connected by “and,” as London and Edinburgh, New
 York and London, take the first; if they are unconnected, as

 Berlin              Paris            Genève
                 H. Baillière

 take that which proves on examination to be the real place of
 publication. In this economy there is some danger of cataloguing the
 same book at different times with {75} different imprints, and making
 two editions out of one; but a little watchfulness will prevent this.


182. If the place differs in the different volumes, state the fact.

 _Ex._ History of England. Vol. 1–2, Boston; 3–5, N. Y., 1867–69. 5 v.
 O.


183. Print publishers’ names, when it is necessary to give them, after
the place.

 _Ex._ London, Pickering, 1849; Antwerpen, bi mi Claes die Graue. The
 publisher’s name must not be mistaken for the place. I have seen a
 dozen books catalogued as Redfield, 185–. D; Redfield being a New
 York publisher who had a fancy for making his name the most prominent
 object in the imprint of his books.


184. If the place or date given at the end of the book differs from
that on the title-page, or if place and date are given there only, they
should be printed in brackets.

 _Ex._ Augsb., 1525 [_colophon_ Nuremb., 1526].

 Lpz., [_col._ 1571].


185. In early works the date is sometimes given without the century,
as “im vierten Jahre,” _i. e._, 1604. Of course the century should be
supplied in brackets.


186. Masonic dates should be followed by the date in the usual form.

 _Ex._ 5834 [1834]. O.


187. Chronograms should be interpreted and given in Arabic numerals.

 _Ex._ Me DuCit ChrIstVs = 1704.


188. When the place or date is given falsely, whether intentionally or
by a typographical error, add the true place or date in brackets, if it
can be ascertained.

 _Ex._ London, 1975 [1775]. O. Boston, 1887 [1886]. O.

 Paris, 1884 [mistake for 1874]. O. En Suisse [Paris], 1769.


189. When the place or date is not given, supply it in brackets, if
it can be ascertained. If neither is discoverable, write _n. p._ (=no
place), _n. d._ (=no date), to show that the omission of place and date
is not an oversight.

 _Ex._ _n. p._, _n. d._ O.


190. But avoid _n. d._, and if possible give the decade or at least the
century, even if an interrogation point must be added.

 _Ex._ London, [17—]. Q.

 Phila., [182–?] O.


191. Print the date in Arabic numerals.

 _Ex._ 1517 for MDXVII or CIↃ IↃ XIIIX.

 When the subarrangement of the catalogue is by dates (as in that of
 the Amer. Philos. Society), it may be well to place the date uniformly
 at the end of the line in this order: O. Wash., 1864. Otherwise the
 best order is to put the place and date immediately after the title,
 because like it they are taken from the title-page. The form, which is
 not copied but is the cataloguer’s own assertion, then comes last. The
 dates can be made prominent in a chronological arrangement by printing
 them in heavy type, as in Prof. Abbot’s “Literature of the doctrine
 of a future life.” In Very Short the German style of printing dates
 should be adopted, 742 (_i. e._, 1742), 875 (_i. e._, 1875). {76}


192. When different volumes of a work were published at different
times, give the extreme dates.

 _Ex._ Paris, 1840–42. O. Sometimes Vol. 1 is of the 2d ed. and its
 date is later than that of Vol. 2. This is in Medium: (Vol. 1, 2d ed.)
 1874, 69–73. 5 v. O; in Short merely 1869–74.


193. In cataloguing reprints, Full should give the date of the original
edition.

 _Ex._ «Ascham», R. Toxophilus, 1545. London, 1870. O. (Arber’s reprints.)
                          _or_ 3d ed. London, 1857 [1st ed. 1542]. O.

 The labor of always hunting up the original date is so great that
 Medium may be allowed to give it when it can easily be ascertained and
 omit it in other cases.

 In a printed catalogue, if the first edition is in the library, of
 course its date need not be given with the subsequent editions.


194. In analyticals Medium and Full should give the date of the work
referred to, and the number of pages; Short should specify at least
which volume is meant.

 The date, if it be that of original publication, tends to show the
 style of treatment; if it be that of a reprint or of “Works” it shows
 which of the various editions in the library is meant. The number of
 pages will help the reader to decide whether the reference is worth
 looking up.

 The Birmingham Free Library has an ingenious way of printing
 analyticals. The title is in long primer type, the parenthesis is in
 pearl, of which two lines will justify with one of the long primer.

Fossils. Recent and fossil shells by Woodward [Illustration: (Weale’s
Series, vol. 27.)]

Gleig, G. R. Eminent military commanders [Illustration: (Lardner’s
Cyclopædia, vols. 19–21)] 3 duo 1832.

 By this arrangement the analytical nature of the reference is made
 much clearer and often a line is saved. But it is very troublesome to
 the printer.


195. Give the number of volumes.

 An imperfect set can be catalogued thus:

 Vol. 2–4, 6–7. Bost., 1830. 5 v. O, _or_
 Bost., 1830. 7 v. (v. 5 w.). O.

 7 v. O means Vol. 1–7 if nothing is said to the contrary, and any
 number of missing volumes can be enumerated in the second of these
 forms; but as the first volumes of periodicals are often missing, the
 exception may be made of always cataloguing them in the first form.
 Whatever Short may be forced to do by its system of charging books,
 Medium and Full ought to give the number of volumes bibliographically,
 that is to say, they should count only that a volume which has its own
 title, paging, and register. If the parts of a work have a continuous
 register or a continuous paging they form one volume; but if they are
 called Vol. 1, Vol. 2 on the title-page they may be described as 1 v.
 in 2. For the bibliographical cataloguer binding has nothing to do
 with the matter. That the binder has joined two or more thin volumes
 or divided a thick one ought to be recorded in the accessions-book
 and in the shelf-list, but is not worth notice in the catalogue; if
 mentioned at all it should be in such a way that the description of
 the accidental condition of a single copy in a particular library
 shall not be mistaken for an assertion applicable to a whole edition
 (thus, 1 v. bd. in 2, or 2 v. bd. in 1, as the case may be). A work
 which has a title-page, but is connected with another work by mention
 on its title-page as part of the volume, or by continuous paging or
 register, is said to be _appended_ to that work.


196. Let the signs fº, 4º, 8º, etc., if used, represent the fold of the
sheet as ascertained from the signature, not be guessed from the size.

 In the older books this is important, and in modern books the
 distinction between the octavo and the duodecimo series is so easily
 ascertained that it is not worth while {77} to be inaccurate. The
 size may be more exactly indicated, if it is thought worth while,
 by l. or sm., sq., obl., prefixed to the fold, as l. 8º, sm. 4º.
 The “vo” or “mo” should be represented by a superior º if it can be
 had, otherwise a degree-mark °, though manifestly improper, must be
 employed; it has abundant usage in its favor.

 Another method of giving the form is fº (8), 4º (2), 8º (4), in which
 fº, 4º, 8º indicate the apparent form of the book as the terms folio,
 quarto, octavo are generally understood, and the figures within
 the parentheses show the number of leaves intervening between the
 successive signatures.

 “In the folio the sheet of paper makes two leaves or four pages, in
 the 4º four leaves, in the 8º eight, in the 12º twelve, and so on.
 When a sheet of paper is folded into six leaves, making what ought to
 be a 6º book, it is called a 12º printed in half sheets, because such
 printing is always done with half-sized paper, or with half-sheets, so
 as to give a 12º size. From a very early period it has been universal
 to distinguish the sheets by different letters called signatures. At
 present a sheet has A on the first leaf or A1 on the first leaf and A2
 on the second, which is enough for the folder’s purpose. But in former
 times the signatures were generally carried on through half the sheet,
 and sometimes through the whole. Again, in modern times, no sheet
 ever goes into and forms part of another; that is, no leaf of any one
 sheet ever lies between two leaves of another. But in the sixteenth
 century, and even later in Italy, it was common enough to print in
 quire-fashion, the same letter being used for the whole quire, and the
 leaves of the quire distinguished as they were successively placed
 inside of one another by the figures 2, 3, 4, so that a book actually
 printed in folio might have the signatures of a modern octavo. In
 exact bibliography such books are sometimes described as ‘folio in
 twos,’ ‘folio in fours.’ Rules are given for determining the form of
 printing by the water-lines of the paper and by the catchwords. It
 is supposed that the latter are always at the end of the sheet, and
 also that the water-lines are perpendicular in folio, octavo, and
 decimo-octavo books, horizontal in quarto and duodecimo. But in the
 first place a great many old books have catchwords at the bottom of
 every page, many have none at all; and as to the rule of water-lines,
 there are exceptions to every case of it.”[62]

For anything but exact bibliographical description it is better to take
no account of the fold of the sheet, but either to give the size in
centimeters or to use the notation of the American Library Association
(see APPENDIX III, p. 115), which is founded on measurement.

 FE, anything less than 10 centimeters.
 TT, anything between 10 and 12½ centimeters.
 T, anything between 12½ and 15 centimeters.
 S, anything between 15 and 17½ centimeters.
 D, anything between 17½ and 20 centimeters.
 O, anything between 20 and 25 centimeters.
 Q, anything between 25 and 30 centimeters.
 F, anything over 30 centimeters. centimeters.
 F4, anything over 40 centimeters.
 F5, anything over 50 centimeters.
 And so on.

 [note] 62. De Morgan, altered.[/note]


197. Maps may be identified either by giving the scale or by
measurement.

 The measure (in centimeters) should be taken from the inner margin of
 the degrees, unless the map extends beyond it, in which case measure
 to the farthest point; pictures at the side are not to be included in
 the measure unless they come within the degree-mark. The perpendicular
 measure to be stated first, then the horizontal. {78}


E. CONTENTS AND NOTES.


198. Give (under the author) a list of the contents of books containing
several works by the same author, or works by several authors, or
works on several subjects, or a single work on a number of distinct
subjects,[63] especially if the collective title does not sufficiently
describe them.[64]

 [note] 63. As a collection of lives.[/note]

 [note] 64. Only Full can give the contents of all such works,
 including the memoirs, transactions, etc., of all the learned
 societies. And in an analytical catalogue this is much less important.
 When every separate treatise is entered in its proper places under
 the names of its author and of its subject, why should it be given
 again in a long column of fine type which few persons will ever read?
 Because, if analysis is not complete, contents supplement it; and
 one who has forgotten author and subject may occasionally recall
 them by looking over a “_contents_;” and this list is, so far as it
 goes, a substitute for a classed catalogue in this respect. Moreover,
 the “_contents_” is needed to fully explain the character of the
 subject-entry (see § 4). In the division _Biography_ under countries
 we have many such titles as “Memoirs of eminent Englishwomen,”
 “British senators,” “Political portraits.” It is an advantage to the
 reader, though perhaps neither a great nor a frequent advantage, to be
 able to find out from the catalogue what Englishwomen and what British
 senators he shall find described in the books. No catalogue can be
 considered complete that omits such information.

 For collected works of any author “_contents_” have been found so
 useful that even Short often gives them, especially of late, and
 strange to say, not rarely prints them in the most extravagant style,
 allowing a line for each item. One may sometimes see a quarter of a
 page left bare from this cause.[/note]


199. When a single work fills several volumes give the contents under
the author, provided the division is definite and easily described.

 Object, that the inquirer may know which volume he wants; application,
 chiefly to dictionaries and historical works; method, in general,
 giving dates and letters of the alphabet, which take little room. It
 is particularly important also to fully describe in this way very
 bulky works; Walton’s Polyglott is a good example, in consulting
 which, without such a guide, one may have to handle ten gigantic
 folios.


200. Under the subject repeat so much of the contents as is necessary
to show how the subject is treated or what part is treated in the
different volumes.

 This is particularly desirable in works with an insufficiently
 descriptive title which treat of several subjects, for which under
 each heading will be given its appropriate part of the contents. For
 example, Hugo’s “Jus civile Antejustinianeum” contains the originals
 of Antejustinian law, but this does not appear from its title, and
 if it did, it would be hardly worth while to save a few lines by
 obliging the reader to turn to «Hugo» to ascertain just what is in the
 book. On the other hand, the contents of Pertz’s “Monumenta Germaniae
 historica” is so long that only Fullest can afford to give it under
 Germany as well as under Pertz. In such a case the reader feels it to
 be more reasonable that he should be referred.

 The contents is often more useful under subject-heading than under
 author; but it is best that there should be one uniform place where it
 can always be found, and where the whole of it can be found, and that
 place should be the author-catalogue.


201. Put into notes (in small type) that information which is not given
in the title but is required to be given by the plan of the catalogue.
{79}

 Notes have several objects:

 1. To give any information about the author, the form of his
 name, his pseudonyms, etc., about the different editions or
 places of publication, or about the gaps in a set (especially of
 periodicals), which can not be included in the title without making it
 disproportionately long. Short, especially if without imprints, can
 get many of these into the title; which it is well to do, for a short
 note is not economical.

 2. To explain the title or correct any misapprehension to which it
 might lead. In a popular library the boys take out “The cruise of the
 Betsy,” imagining it to be another “Cruise of the Midge.”

 3. To direct the attention of persons not familiar with literature to
 the best books. The main principles of such annotating are simple.
 (_a._) The notes should characterize the best books only; to insert
 them under every author would only confuse and weary; if few they
 will arrest attention much better. Dull books and morally bad books
 should be left in obscurity. Under some of the poorer works which
 have attained unmerited popularity a brief protest may be made; it
 will probably be ineffectual; but it can do no harm to call Mühlbach
 unreliable or Tupper commonplace. (_b._) They should be brief and
 pointed. Perhaps after this direction it is necessary to add that they
 should be true.

 4. To lay out courses of reading for that numerous class who are
 desirous of “improving their minds,” and are willing to spend
 considerable effort and time but know neither where to begin or how to
 go on.

 5. To state what is the practice of the catalogue in the entry of the
 publications of Congress, Parliament, Academies, Societies, etc., the
 notes to be made under those words.


F. REFERENCES.


202. In references use the word _See_ when there is no entry under the
heading from which the reference is made; _See also_ when there is one.

 _Ex._ «Death penalty.» _See_ «Capital punishment».

 «Horticulture.» LINDLEY, J. Theory of H.

 _See also_ «Flowers;—Fruit».

 Not _Vide_; the language of an English catalogue should be English.


203. References must be brief.

 Yet the convenience of the public must not be sacrificed to brevity.
 If, for instance, several authors had used the same pseudonym, the
 titles of their respective works should be given in the references
 that the reader may know under which of the authors he will find the
 work he is in search of, and not have to turn to all three.

 «Detlef», Carl, _pseud._ _See_ «Baur, C.» is the usual form of
 reference; but it is not enough for Hamilton.

 «Hamilton», _pseud._ Essay on a congress of nations. _See_ «Whitman,
 G. H.»

 «Hamilton», _pseud._ Hamilton. No. 1, _etc._ _See_ «Carey, M.»

 Analytical references to treatises of the same author or on the same
 subject, contained in different volumes of the same work, may be made
 thus:

 «Charles», A. O. Reformatory and refuge union. (_In_ «National Assoc.
 Prom. Soc. Sci.» Trans., 1860.)—Reformatory legislation. (_In_ Trans.,
 1861.)—Punishment and reformation in America. (_In_ Trans., 1863.)

 «Comets.» «PEIRCE, B.» Connection of comets with the solar system.
 (_In_ «Amer. Assoc.», Proc., v. 2. 1850.)—HUBBARD, J. S. Biela’s
 double comet. (_In_ v. 8.)—KIRKWOOD, D. Mean distances of the periodic
 comet. (_In_ v. 12. 1859.)

 The signs ⟨ ⟩ have been used instead of ( ) in analytical references
 to mean “contained in.” They are more conspicuous,—unnecessarily so.
 {80}

 References are frequently printed in smaller type than the rest of the
 catalogue. This is well when there are enough not to be overlooked;
 but a single reference from one form of a name to another, or from one
 subject-name to its synonym, should be in the title type, not in the
 note type, _e. g._

«Bell», Acton, _pseud._ _See_ «Bronté», Anne.

«Gardening.» _See_ «Horticulture.»

 Similarly notes explaining the practice of the catalogue (§§ 61, 201
 no. 5) should be made typographically conspicuous.


G. LANGUAGE.


204. The language of the compiler’s part of an English catalogue should
be English.

 Therefore all notes, explanations, and such words as _in, see, see
 also, note, contents, and_ (between joint authors), _and others, n.
 p., n. d._, should be English; however, _etc., q. v._, and _sic_ may
 be used.

 For the language of HEADINGS, see §§ 27–36. In the entry of Government
 publications the name of the country or city will have the English
 form (§§ 33, 34), but the name of the department should usually be in
 the language of the country, _e. g._:

 «Italy.» _Ministero di Agricoltura._

 But for countries like Russia, Turkey, Japan, where the vernacular
 name could not easily be ascertained, an English form may be used.

 For titles see §§ 165–169, 175; put the specifications of the EDITION
 in the language of the title, also the IMPRINT (§ 179), CONTENTS,
 NOTES, and REFERENCES.


H. CAPITALS.


205. In English use an initial capital

 1. for the first word,
    _a._ of every sentence,
    _b._ of every title quoted,
    _c._ of every alternative title,

 2. for all proper names, each separate word not an article or preposition.
    _a._ of persons and places,
    _b._ of bodies
    _c._ of noted events and periods,

 _N. B._ This does not include names of genera, species, etc., in the
 animal and vegetable kingdoms, which in an ordinary catalogue should
 not be capitalized; as digitalis purpurea, raia batis, the horse.

3. for adjectives and other derivatives from proper names when they
have a direct reference to the person, place, etc., from which they are
derived.

4. for titles of honor standing instead of a proper name.

 _Ex._ 1_b._ Reply to the Essay on the discovery of America.

 1_c._ Institutio legalis; or, Introduction to the laws of England.
 But it is better, when the sense will permit, to omit the “or” and
 consider the second title as a clause explanatory of the first, as
 Institutio legalis; introduction to the laws of England.

 2_b._ Society for Promoting the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.

 2_c._ Boston Massacre, French Revolution, Gunpowder Plot, Middle Ages.

 4. The Earl of Derby, _but_ John Stanley, earl of Derby. {81}


206. In foreign languages, use initial capitals

5. for 1_a_, 1_b_, 1_c_.

6. (Persons and places) _a._ In _German_ and _Danish_ for every noun
and for adjectives derived from names of persons, but for no others.

_b._ In the _Romance_ languages (_Italian_, _French_, _Spanish_,
_Portuguese_) and in _Swedish_ and _Greek_ for proper names of persons
and places, but not for adjectives derived from them.

_c._ in _Latin_ and _Dutch_ for proper names and also for the
adjectives derived from them, but not for common nouns.

7. (Bodies) as in English, except that in _German_ and _Danish_ only
the nouns are to be capitalized, and adjectives when they begin the
name.

8. (Events and periods) as in English, with the same exception.

9. (Titles) in _German_ and _Danish_, but not in the _Romance_
languages, in _Latin_ or in _Greek_.

 _Ex._ 6_a._ Die Homerische Frage, but Die griechischen Scholien. In
 many German books capitals are not used even for adjectives derived
 from personal names.

 6_b._ Les Français, but le peuple français.

 7. Société de l’Histoire de France.

 8. Le Moyen Âge, la Révolution Française, Die französische Revolution.
 The French, however, now generally print le moyen âge, la révolution
 française. Capitals are to be avoided, because in the short sentences
 of which a catalogue consists they confuse rather than help the eye.
 For this reason it is better not to capitalize names in natural
 history whether English or Latin (bee, rana pipiens, liliaceæ, etc.).
 Several libraries following the lead of the Congress catalogue have
 discarded capitals for German nouns. Grimm’s authority is alleged
 in justification, but Grimm’s example is followed by a very small
 minority even of German scholars, and the titles so printed still
 have an awkward look to most readers. The Boston Public Library also
 goes to an extreme in its avoidance of capitals, not using them for
 such proper names as methodists, protestant episcopal church, royal
 society, etc.

 The names of languages are not to be capitalized in the Romance
 languages, as “traduit de l’anglais,” “in francese.”

 Titles of honor are not to be capitalized in the Romance languages,
 as _comte_, _conte_, _marchese_. But _Monsieur_, _Madame_, _Signor_,
 _Don_, _Donna_ always begin with capitals.

 Use capitals (or, better, small capitals) for numbers after the
 names of kings (Charles III. or Henry IV.) and for single-letter
 abbreviations (A. D., B. C., H. M. S., F. R. S. E., etc., or A. D.,
 F. R. S. E., etc.). But n. p. no place, n. t. p. no title-page, may
 be in lower-case letters or small capitals, and b. born, d. died, ms.
 manuscript, should be in lower case.


I. PUNCTUATION, etc.


207. Let each entry consist of four (or five) sentences:

  1. the heading,                   «Cicero», Marcus Tullius.
  2. the title, including editors   Brutus de claris oratoribus; erkl.
       and translators,               von O. Jahn.
  3. the edition,                   2e Aufl. {82}
  4. the imprint, as given by
       the book,                    Berlin, 1856.
  5. the part of the imprint
       added by the cataloguer,     O.

Which, if not the first title under Cicero, would read:

 — Brutus de Claris oratoribus; erkl. von O. Jahn. 2e Aufl. Berlin,
1856. O.

 Separate by a ; the title proper from the phrase relating to the
 editor, translator, etc. This requires a minimum of capitals. It
 will occasionally happen that the title can not be thrown into one
 sentence, but that should always be done when possible. It is usual
 to separate 4 and 5. The French, however, make one sentence of them
 (Paris, 1864, in–12). This has the advantage of agreeing with the best
 form of quoting a title (“see his Memoirs, London, 1874, O. in which,”
 etc.). It is useless for one who abridges titles to make any attempt
 to follow the punctuation. The spelling should be retained, but it is
 hardly worth while for Short or Medium to imitate the old printers in
 their indiscriminate use of i and j, u and v.

 A library may have a collection of books or a few volumes which from
 their rarity deserve to be catalogued with every bibliographical
 nicety, with the most exact copying of punctuation, spelling, and
 forms of letters, and even with marks to show where the lines of the
 title end. Such collections are the Prince and the Ticknor books in
 the Boston Public Library, such single books are fifteeners or the
 rarest Americana. Yet it may be questioned whether a library does well
 to redescribe books already fully described by Hain, Harrisse, Thiele,
 Trömmel, Stevens, or Sabin. A simple reference to these works will
 generally suffice (§ 261).


208. Supply the proper accents if they are not given in the title.

 In French and Greek titles printed in capitals the accents are often
 omitted. In the titles of rare books, copied exactly, accents should
 not be supplied.


209. Use [ ] only for words added to the title, and ( ) to express
inclusion.

 _Ex._ «Talbot», E. A. Five years’ residence in Canada, [1818–23].

 «Maguire», J. F. Canada. (_In his_ Irish in America. 1868.)

 «Bale», J. Kinge John, a play; ed. by J. P. Collier. Westm., 1838. 4º.
 (Camden Soc., v. 2.)


210. If any title contains [ ] or ( ) omit them, using commas instead.

 One sign should never be used to express two things, if that can be
 avoided; each should have one definite meaning. Also alter — into , or
 ; or . as the context may require.


211. Use italics for the words _See_ or _See also_ in references, _In_
and _In his_ in analytical, and for _Same_, _Note_, _Contents_, and
_Namely_, and for _etc._ when used to indicate omission of part of the
title, also for subdivisions of subjects (as _France_, _History_).


212. In long _Contents_ make the division of the volumes plain either
by heavy-faced volume-numbers or by giving each volume a separate
paragraph.

 Anyone will recoil from the labor of looking through a long undivided
 mass of small type; moreover the reader ought to be able to determine
 at once in what volume any article whose title he is reading is
 contained. {83}


J. ARRANGEMENT.[65]


213. Arrange entries according to the English alphabet, whatever the
order of the alphabet in which a foreign name might have to be entered
in its original language.

 Treat «I» and «J», «U» and «V», as separate letters; «ij», at least in
 the older Dutch names, should be arranged as «y»; do not put Spanish
 names beginning with «Ch», «Ll», «Ñ», after all other names beginning
 with «C», «L», and «N», as is done by the Spanish Academy, nor «ä»,
 «å», «æ», «ö», «ø», at the end of the alphabet, as is done by the
 Swedes and Danes, nor the German «ä», «ö», «ü», as if written «ae»,
 «oe», «ue» (except «Goethe»). If two names are spelled exactly alike
 except for the umlaut (as Müller and Muller) arrange by the forenames.

 [note] 65. On this subject consult Appendix IV, pp. 116–118; also p.
 36–69 of Dr. C: Dziatzko’s “Instruction für die Ordnung der Titel im
 alphabetischen Zettelkatalog der Univ.-Bibliothek zu Breslau, Berlin,
 1886,” 74 pp. O (the first 35 pp. are a treatise on Entry).[/note]


(a.) HEADINGS.


214. When the same word serves for several kinds of heading let the
order be the following: person, place, followed by subject (except
person or place), form, and title.

 Arrangement must be arbitrary. This order is easy to remember, because
 it follows the course of cataloguing; we put down first the author,
 then the title. The subject and form, expressed sometimes in more than
 one word, and the title, almost always having more than one word,
 must be arranged among themselves by the usual rules. Of course, the
 person considered as a subject can not be separated from the person as
 author. As the place may be either author or subject or both, it may
 come between the two.

 _Ex._ «Washington», George. (person)

 «Washington», _D. C._ (place)

 «Homes», H. A. (person)

 «Homes family.» (persons)

 «Homes.» (subject)

 «Homes» and shrines. (title)


215. Forenames used as headings precede surnames.

 _Ex._ «Christian» II.

 «Christian», James.

 «Christian art.»

 «Francis» II.

 «Francis», Abraham.

 «Francis» and Jane.


216. Headings like Charles, George, Henry, when very numerous, must be
divided into classes, in this order: Saints, Popes, Emperors, Kings,
Princes and Noblemen, others. The Saints are subarranged by their usual
appellatives, the Popes by their number, Sovereigns and Sovereign
princes in alphabetical order of countries, and under countries
numerically. Other persons are subarranged by their usual appellatives,
neglecting the prepositions.[66]

 _Ex._ «Peter», _Saint_.

 «Peter», _Pope_.

 «Peter» _the Great, Emperor of Russia_.

 «Peter» II. _of Aragon_.

 «Peter» III. _of Aragon_.

 «Peter» I. _of Portugal_.

 «Peter», _Duke of Newcastle_.

 «Peter», _of Groningen, enthusiast. See_ «Pieter».

 «Peter», John Henry.

 «Peter, Lake.»

 «Peter, Mt.»

 «Peter» Lewis, a true tale.

 «Peter-Hansen», Erik.

 When there are two appellatives coming in different parts of the
 alphabet, refer from the rejected one, as «Thomas» _Cantuariensis_.
 _See_ «Thomas» Becket.

 [note] 66. So that «Thomas» _de Insula_ and «Thomas» _Insulanus_ may
 not be separated.[/note]

{84}


217. Arrange proper names beginning with «M’», «Mc», «St.», «Ste.» as
if spelled «Mac», «Saint», «Sainte».

 Because they are so pronounced. But L’ is not arranged as La or Le,
 nor O’ as if it stood for Of, because they are not so pronounced.


218. In a card catalogue mix in one alphabet names that differ slightly
in spelling and come close together in the alphabet.

 _Ex._ Clark and Clarke, and the French names beginning with Saint and
 Sainte. The names should be spelled correctly, but the difference
 of spelling disregarded by the arranger. But the exceptional order
 should be clearly indicated. A guide block should have the inscription
 «Clark» _and_ «Clarke», and there should be a reference guide block,
 «Clarke.» _See_ «Clark.» The most common spelling should go first;
 if the forms are equally used, let that precede that comes first in
 alphabetical order.


219. Arrange by the forename headings in which the family name is the
same.

 No attention is to be paid to prefixes, as _Bp._, _Capt._, _Dr._,
 _Hon._, _Sir_, _Fräulein_, _Miss_, _Mlle._, _Mme._, _Mrs._, or to
 suffixes, as _D.D._, _F.R.S._, _LL.D._, etc. In regard to _Hungarian_
 names, observe that the name appears on the title-page as it does in a
 catalogue, the family name first, followed by the Christian name; as,
 “Elbeszélések; irta báró «Eötvös» Jozsef.”


220. When the forenames are the same arrange chronologically.

 Again, no attention is to be paid to the titles _Sir_, etc. The
 alphabetical principle is of no use here because no one can know
 beforehand which of many possible titles we have taken to arrange by,
 whereas some one may know when the author whom he is seeking lived. Of
 course

 «Brown, T. L.», comes before
 «Brown», Thomas, for the same reason that
 «Brown» comes before
 «Browne.»


221. Forenames not generally used should be neglected in the
arrangement.

 When an author is generally known by one of several forenames he will
 be looked for by that alone, and that alone should determine the
 arrangement, at least in a card catalogue. Instances are: «Agassiz»,
 (J:) L: (Rudolph), «Cleveland», (Stephen) Grover, «Collins», (W:)
 Wilkie, «Cook», (Flavius Josephus _known as_) Joseph, «Dobson», (H:)
 Austin, «Doré», (Paul) Gustav. The form should be

 «Harte», Bret (_full name_ Francis Bret), or «Harte», Bret
 (_in full_ Francis Bret).

 Make references whenever the omission of a name will change the
 alphabetical arrangement, as from «Müller», F: Max, to «Müller», Max.

 But if they are counted in arranging they should be spaced or
 parenthesized, because when there are several persons with the same
 family name the spacing or parenthesizing assists the eye in picking
 out the right one. Thus if we have

 «Franklin», John, _d._ 1759,
 «Franklin», _Sir_ John, _d._ 1863,
 «Franklin», John Andrew,
 «Franklin», John Charles,
 «Franklin», John D a v i d,

 the reader not knowing of the name David would expect to find the last
 among the simple Johns, but seeing the David spaced would understand
 that it was a rarely used name. This supposes that he knows the
 system, but one can not have a condensed catalogue without obliging
 the reader to learn how to use it. (See § 140.) {85}


222. If an author uses both the shorter and the longer forms in
different works and yet is decidedly better known by the shorter,
arrange by that.

 _Ex._ «Müller», Max (_in full_ F: Max). Otherwise give and arrange by
 all the names.


223. If a person’s forenames occur differently in different books or
different authorities, or occur in a different order, or the person
has changed one or more of his forenames, arrange by one form (the
best known or the latest) and refer from the others if alphabetically
separated.


224. Arrange a nobleman’s title, under which entry is made, and the
name of a bishop’s see, from which reference is made to the family
name, among the personal names, not with the places.

 _Ex._
        «London», Alfred.

        «London», David, _Bp. of_.

        «London», John.

        «London», _Conn._

        «London», _Eng._

  _not_ «London», John.

        «London», David, _Bp. of_.

        «London», _Conn._

  _nor_ «London», John.

        «London», _Conn._

        «London», David, _Bp. of_.

        «London», _Eng._

        «Danby», John.

        «Danby», Thomas «Osborne», _Earl of_.

        «Danby», Wm.

        «Danby», _Eng._

        «Holland», C.

        «Holland», H: E. «Fox-Vassal», _4th Baron_.

        «Holland», H: R. «Fox-Vassal», _3d Baron_.

        «Holland» [_the country_].


225. The possessive case singular should be arranged with the plural.

 The alphabet demands this, and I see no reason to make an exception
 which can not be made in foreign languages.

 «Bride» of Lammermoor.

 «Brides» and bridals.

 «Bride’s» choice.

 «Boys’» and girls’ book.

 «Boy’s» King Arthur.

 «Boys» of ’76.


226. Arrange Greek and Latin personal names by their patronymics or
other appellatives.

 _Ex._ «Dionysius.»

 «Dionysius» _Areopagita_.

 «Dionysius» _Chalcidensis_.

 «Dionysius» _Genuensis_.


227. Arrange English personal names compounded with _prefixes_ as
single words; also those foreign names in which the prefix is not
transposed (see § 24).

 _Ex._ «Demonstration.»

 «De Montfort.»

 «Demophilus.»

 «De Morgan.»

 «Demosthenes.»

 Other such names are Ap Thomas, Des Barres, Du Chaillu, Fitz Allen, La
 Motte Fouqué, Le Sage, Mac Fingal, O’Neal, Saint-Réal, Sainte-Beuve,
 Van Buren.

 This is the universal custom, founded on the fact that the prefixes
 are often not separated in printing from the following part of the
 name. It would, of course, be wrong to have «Demorgan» in one place
 and «De Morgan» in another. {86}


228. Arrange personal names compounded of _two names_ with or without a
hyphen after the first name but before the next longer word.

 _Ex._ «Fonte», Bart. de.
       «Fonte Resbecq», Auguste.
       «Fontenay», Louis.
       «Fontenay Mareuil», François.


229. In the preliminary card catalogue it is best to arrange these by
the first name, neglecting the second entirely[67] and subarranging by
forenames.

 The reason is (1) that authors do not always use the second part of
 their names, and (2) that the single alphabet is easier to use in a
 card catalogue.

 _Ex._ «Halliwell» (_afterwards_ «Halliwell-Phillipps»), James Orchard.

 [note] 67. Except when the first family names and forenames of two
 persons are the same, when the one with a second part will come after
 the other; but if both have a second part, subarrange by these second
 parts when they differ.[/note]


230. Arrange compound names of _places_ as separate words.

 _Ex._ «New», John.
       «New Hampshire.»
       «New» legion of Satan.
       «New Sydenham Society.»
       «New York.»
       «Newark.»
       «Newfoundland.»
       «Newspapers.»

 _not_ «New», John.
       «New» legion of Satan.
       «Newark.»
       «Newfoundland.»
       «New Hampshire.»
       «Newspapers.»
       «New Sydenham Society.»
       «New York.»


231. Arrange names of _societies_ as separate words.

 See «New Sydenham Society» in the list above.


232. Arrange as single words compound words which are _printed_ as one.

 _Ex._ Bookseller, Bookplates. Sometimes such words are printed on
 title-pages as two words; in such case do the same in copying the
 title, but if the word is used as a heading follow the authority of
 a dictionary; each library should select some one dictionary as its
 standard.


233. Arrange _hyphened_ words as if separate.

 _Ex._ «Happy» home.
 «Happy-Thought» Hall.
 «Happy» thoughts.
 «Home» and hearth.
 «Home» rule.
 «Homely» traits.
 «Homer.»
 «Sing», _pseud._
 «Sing», James.
 «Sing», James, _pseud._
 «Sing-Sing Prison.»
 «Singapore.»
 «Singing.»

 «Grave and Reverend Club.»
 «Grave County.»
 «Grave Creek.»
 «Grave-digger.»
 «Grave-mounds.»
 «Grave» objections.
 «Grave de Mézeray», Antoine.
 «Gravel.»
 «Gravestone.»
 «Graveyard.»
 «Out» and about.
 «Out» in the cold, a song.
 «Out-of-door» Parliament.
 «Outer» darkness, The. {87}


234. Arrange _pseudonyms_ after the corresponding real name.

 _Ex._ «Andrew», _pseud._
      «Andrew», _St._
      «Andrew», _St., pseud._
      «Andrew», John.
      «Andrew», John, _pseud._
      «Andrew», John Albion.


235. Arrange _incomplete_ names by the letters. If the same letters are
followed by different signs, if there are no forenames, arrange in the
order of the complexity of signs; but if there are forenames arrange by
them.

 _Ex._ «Far» from the world.
      «Far»...
      «Far»***
      «Far»***, B.F.
      «Far»..., J. B.
      «Farr», John.


236. If signs without any letters are used as headings (§ 57) (as ...
or †††) put them all before the first entries under the letter «A».


237. The arrangement of title-entries is first by the heading words; if
they are the same, then by the next word; if that is the same, by the
next; and so on. Every word, articles and prepositions included, is to
be regarded; but not a transposed article.

 _Ex._ «Uncovenanted» mercies.
      «Under» a cloud.
      «Under» the ban.
      «Under» the greenwood tree; a novel.
      «Under» the greenwood tree; a poem.
      «Under» which king.
      «Undone» task, The.
      «Undone» task done.

 Here the transposed The is non-existent for the arranger.

 It makes no difference whether the words are connected with one
 another in sense or not; the searcher should not be compelled to
 think of that. Let the arrangement be by words as ordinarily printed.
 Thus «Home» rule is one idea but it is two words, and its place
 must be determined primarily by its first word «Home», which brings
 it before «Homeless». If it were printed «Homerule» it would come
 after «Homeless». Similarly «Art» amateur is one phrase, but as the
 first word «Art» is followed by a word beginning with am, it must
 come before «Art» and artists, although its parts are more closely
 connected than the parts of the latter phrase.

 The French d’ and l’ are not to be treated as part of the following
 word:

 _Ex._ Art d’économiser.
       Art d’être grandpère.
       Art d’instruire.
       Art de faire.
       Art de l’instruction.
       Art de linguistique.
       Art des mines.
       Art digne.

 _not_ Art de faire.
       Art de linguistique.
       Art de l’instruction.
       Art d’économiser.
       Art des mines.
       Art d’être grandpère.
       Art digne.
       Art d’instruire. {88}


238. Arrange titles beginning with numeral figures (not expressing the
number of the work in a series, § 244) as if the figures were written
out in the language of the rest of the title.

 _Ex._ 100 deutscher Männer = Ein hundert deutsche Männer; 1812 = Mil
 huit cent douze.


239. Arrange abbreviations as if spelled in full; but elisions as they
are printed.

 _Ex._ Dr., M., Mlle., Mme., Mr., Mrs., as Doctor, Monsieur, etc.

 But «Who’d» be a king?

 «Who» killed Cock Robin?

 «Who’s» to blame?

 ☞ The arrangement recommended in §§ 227–232 suits the eye best and
 requires as little knowledge or thought as any to use. The exception
 made in § 227 is required by universal practice and by the fact that
 a very large part of the personal names beginning with prefixes are
 commonly printed as one word. Names of places beginning with New,
 Old, Red, Blue, Green, etc. (which might be likened to the prefixes
 De, Des, Du, etc., and made the ground of a similar exception), are
 much less frequently printed as one, and when they are the accent is
 different. Moreover the words New, Old, etc., have an independent
 meaning and occur as personal names, first words of titles, or of
 the names of societies, as in the examples in § 230. The reason for
 separating New Hampshire and Newark in the first example is patent to
 every consulter at a glance; the reason for the different positions
 of New legion and New York in the second example would not be clear
 and would have to be thought out; and it is not well to demand thought
 from those who use the catalogue if it can be avoided.


(b.) TITLES.


240. Under an author’s name adopt the following order: (1) Complete
(or nearly complete) works, (2) Extracts from the complete works, (3)
Single works, whether by him alone or written in conjunction with
another author, (4) Works about him.

 Nos. 1–3 come first as belonging to the author-catalogue; 4 comes last
 as belonging to the subject-catalogue.

 It is better to let the smaller collections come in their alphabetical
 place with the single works. The single works of a voluminous author
 (as Aristotle, Cicero, Homer, Shakespere) should be so printed that
 the different titles will strike the eye readily. If the “_contents_”
 of the collected words are not printed alphabetically, it is well to
 insert under the titles of the chief single works a reference to the
 particular volumes of the collections in which they are to be found.
 (See Boston Athenæum catal., art. «Goethe».) Two works published
 together are arranged by the first title, with reference from the
 second.

 _Extracts_ from single works come immediately after the respective
 works.

 A _spurious_ work is arranged with the single works, but with a
 note stating the spuriousness. But if the author’s name is used as
 a pseudonym the entry should have a separate heading after all the
 works; as, «Browne», H. History. «Browne», H., _pseud._ Stones from
 the old quarry. _See_ «Ellison», H.

 If there are only two _joint authors_ both may appear in the heading,
 but the entry should be arranged among the works written by the
 first author alone; if there are more than two the heading may be
 made in the form «Smith», John, _and others_. The usual practice
 hitherto has been to arrange entries by joint authors _after_ the
 works written by the first author alone, and this was recommended
 in the first edition in regard both to the form of the heading and
 the arrangement; but although it is pleasing to a classifying mind,
 it is practically objectionable because a reader, not knowing that
 the book he is looking for is a joint production, and not finding it
 in the first {89} series of titles, may suppose that it is not in
 the library. This danger is greatest in a card catalogue, where it
 entirely overweighs the somewhat visionary advantage of the separate
 arrangement. The arrangement of a card catalogue should be as simple
 as possible, because the reader having only one card at a time under
 his eyes can not easily see what the arrangement is. On the printed
 page, where he takes in many titles at a glance, more classification
 can be ventured upon; there the danger is confined to the more
 voluminous authors; where there are few titles the consulter will
 read them all and so will not miss any. On the printed page, too, the
 mixing in of joint authors interrupts to the eye the alphabetical
 order of titles; _e. g._,

 «Dod, T.» Anamites and their country.

  — _and others_. Barracouta.

  — Carriboo, a voyage to the interior.

  — _and_ White,   E. Dahomey and the slave trade.

  — Elephanta, its caves and their images.

 This trifling inconvenience can be easily avoided, however, by
 including the second name in the title; _e. g._,

 «Dod, T.» Anamites.

  — Barracouta, by D. [and others].

  — Carriboo.

  — Dahomey, by Dod and E. White.

  — Elephanta.

 When the form «Smith», John, _and others_ is used, Full will give a
 list of the “others” in a note. They are not put into a heading merely
 because there is not room for many names on the first line of a card,
 and in a printed catalogue the information seems more in place in a
 note than in a very long heading.


241. In the order of titles take account of every word except initial
articles. If two titles have the same words arrange by date of imprint,
the earliest first.

 _Ex._ «Address» of Southern delegates in Congress.

 «Address» of the people of Great Britain.

 «Address» of twenty thousand loyal Protestant apprentices.

 «Address» on national education.

 «Address» to a provincial bashaw.

 «Address» to Christians, recommending the distribution.

 «Husson, F.» Vie d’une grande dame.

  — Vie dans le Sahel.

 «Mason, T.» The corner stone.

  — A wall of defence.


242. Arrange different editions of the same works chronologically.

 _Ex._ «Homerus.» Carmina [Gr.]; cum annot., cur. C. G. Heyne. Lips.,
 1802. 8v. 8º.

  — _Same._ [Gr.]; cum notis et proleg. R. P. Knight. Londini, 1820. 4º.

  — _Same._ [Gr.]; ed. J. Bekker. Bonnae, 1858. 2v. 8º.

 «Bartlett», John. Collection of familiar quotations. 3d ed. Camb.,
 1860. 12º.

  — _Same._ 4th ed. Boston, 1863. 12º.

  — _Same._ 8th ed. Boston, 1882. 16º.


243. Undated editions should have the date supplied as nearly as may
be; absolutely undatable editions should precede dated editions.


244. Disregard numerals commencing a title before such words as Report,
Annual report.

 _Not_ First report,
       Fourth report,
       General account,
       Second report.

 _but_ General account.
       1st, 2d, 4th report. {90}


245. Arrange translations immediately after the original, prefixing the
name of the language into which they are made; if there are several,
arrange the languages alphabetically.

 _Ex._ «Cicero.» De officiis. [Various editions, arranged
 chronologically.]

  — _Same._ Erkl. von O. Heine. Berlin, 1857. 8º.

  — _Eng._ Offices; tr. by C. R. Edmonds. London, 1850. 8º.

  — _French._ Les offices; tr. par [G. Dubois]. Paris, 1691. 8º.

 If the original is not in the library the translation may be arranged
 either by the first words of its own title or by the first words of
 the original title prefixed in brackets. The latter order is to be
 preferred when most of the other titles are in the original language.
 When the list of entries is long a reference should be made from any
 title of a translation which is alphabetically much separated from its
 original back to the original title under which it is to be found.

 _Ex._ «Hofland», _Mrs._ B. (W. H.). [The son of a genius. _French_:]
 Ludovico; tr. par Mme. de Montolieu.

 «Dudevant.» L’homme de neige.

 — _Eng._ The snow man.
        [58 titles interposed.]

 — The snow man. _See, back_, L’homme de neige.

 An original text with a translation is to be arranged as if alone,
 but if there are many editions make a reference from among the
 translations to the original. If there are translations into two
 languages in a volume, arrange by the first, and, if necessary, refer
 from the second.

 Polyglots precede all other editions.


246. Divide the works _about_ a person when numerous by collecting the
titles of lives into a group.


247. When a writer is voluminous insert the criticisms or notes on or
replies to each work after its title; otherwise give them according to
§ 240, at the end of the article.


248. Arrange analyticals, when there are several for the same article,
chronologically, as being different editions.

 _Ex._ «Pretty», F. Prosperous voyage of Sir T. Cavendish. (_In_
 «Purchas», S. Pilgrims, v. 1, b. 2. 1625; — «Harris», J. Col., v. 1.
 1705; _and_ v. 1. 1764; — «Callander», J. Terra Austr., v. 1. 1768; —
 «Hakluyt», R. Col., v. 4. 1811.)


249. If the library has a work both as part of another work and
independently, arrange in the probable order of publication.

 _Ex._
  «Cutter», C: A. Common sense in libraries. (_In_ «Library» journal,
            v. 14. 1889.)
   — _Same._ (_In_ «American Library Assoc.» Proceedings at St. Louis,
            1889.)
   — _Same, separated._
   — _Same._ [Boston, 1889.] Q.


250. Under countries arrange titles as under any other author.

 That is, put first the country’s own works (governmental
 publications), then the works about the country; and as we put the
 criticisms on a voluminous author after the separate writings to which
 they respectively apply, so we put accounts of or attacks upon any
 branch of government after the entry of the branch.


251. In arranging government publications make all necessary divisions
but avoid subdivision. {91}

 It is much clearer—and it is the dictionary plan—to make the parts
 of a division themselves independent divisions, referring from the
 including division to the subordinate one. _E. g._ (to take part of
 the headings under «United States»):


 _Subordination._

 «United States.»
  Department of the Interior.
    Bureau of Indian Affairs.
    Patent Office.
    Pension Office.
    Public Land Office.
    Department of the Navy.
      Bureau of Navigation.
        Hydrographic Office.
        Naval Academy.
        Naval Observatory.
      Bureau of Navy-Yards and Docks.
        Naval Asylum.
    Department of War.
      Adjutant-General’s Office.
      Bureau of Engineers.
      Bureau of Topographical Engineers.
      Commissary-General’s Office.
      Freedmen’s Bureau.
      Military Academy.


 _Better order._

 «U. S.»
  Adjutant-General.
  Bureau of Engineers.
  Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  Bureau of Navigation.
  Bureau of Navy Yards and Docks.
  Bureau of Topographical Engineers.
  Commissary-General.
  Department of the Interior.
  Department of the Navy.
  Department of War.
  Freedmen’s Bureau.
  Hydrographic Office.
  Military Academy.
  Naval Academy.
  Naval Asylum.
  Naval Observatory.
  Patent Office.
  Pension Office.
  Public Lands.

 The subordination of bureaus and offices to departments is adopted
 simply for convenience, and is changed from time to time as the
 exigencies of the public service demand. There is no corresponding
 convenience in preserving such an order in a catalogue, but
 inconvenience, especially in the case of the above-mentioned changes.
 The alphabetical arrangement has here all its usual advantages without
 its usual disadvantage of wide separation.


252. Insert a synopsis of the arrangement whenever there are enough
titles under a heading to require it.

 This applies chiefly to the larger countries (as «France», «Great
 Britain», «United States»), the more voluminous authors (as «Cicero»,
 «Shakespeare»), one title-entry («Bible»), and possibly some subjects
 not national. The arrangement of titles under «Bible» will be governed
 by §§ 240, 242, 245, and 247; but it can be best understood from an
 example in some catalogue which has many titles under that heading.
 The synopsis in the Boston Athenæum catalogue is as follows:

 Whole Bibles (first Polyglots, then single languages arranged
 alphabetically).

 Works illustrating the whole Bible (under the heads Analysis,
 Antiquities, Bibliography, Biography, Canon, Catechisms, historical
 and theological, Commentaries, Concordances, Criticism, Dictionaries,
 Evidences, authority, etc., Geography, Hermeneutics, History,
 Inspiration, Introductions, Natural history, Science and the Bible,
 Theology, morals, etc., Miscellaneous illustrative works).

 Selections from both Testaments.

 Prophetical books of both Testaments.

 Old Testament.

 Illustrative works. {92}

 Parts of the Old Testament (arranged in the order of the English
 version), and works severally illustrating them.

 Apocrypha.

 New Testament.

 Illustrative works.

 Parts of the New Testament, and works illustrating them.

 Under each part the order is: Editions of the original texts
 chronologically arranged;—Versions, in the alphabetical order of the
 languages;—Illustrative works.


(c.) CONTENTS.


253. Arrange _contents_ either in the order of the volumes or
alphabetically by the titles of the articles.

 _Alphabetical order._

 _Contents._

 Argentile and Curan; a legendary drama, v. 2.

 Art of painting, by Du Fresnoy, v. 3.

 Caractacus; a dramatic poem, v. 2.

 Chronological list of painters to 1689, v. 3.

 Dryden’s preface to his translation of Du Fresnoy, v. 3.

 Elegies, v. 1.

 Elfrida; a dramatic poem, v. 2.

 English garden, The, v. 1.

 Epitaphs and inscriptions, v. 1.

 Essay on the meaning of the word angel, as used by St. Paul, v. 4.

 Essays on English church music, v. 3.

 Examination of the prophecy in Matthew 24th, v. 4.

 Hymns and psalms, v. 1.

 Musæus: a monody to the memory of Mr. Pope, v. 1.

 Odes, v. 1.

 Pygmalion; a lyrical scene, v. 2.

 Religio clerici, v. 1.

 Sappho; a lyrical drama, v. 2.

 Sermons, v. 4.

 Sonnets, v. 1.

 _Volume order._

 _Contents._

 Vol. «1.» Musæus, a monody to the memory of Mr. Pope. — Odes,
 sonnets, epitaphs and inscriptions, elegies. — The English garden. —
 Religio clerici. — Hymns and psalms. «2.» Elfrida, a dramatic poem.
 — Caractacus, a dramatic poem. — Sappho. — Argentile and Curan, a
 legendary drama. — Pygmalion, a lyrical scene. «3.» Du Fresnoy’s art
 of painting. — Dryden’s preface to his translation of Du Fresnoy. —
 Chronological list of painters to 1689. — Essays on English church
 music. «4.» Sermons. — Essay on the meaning of the word angel, as used
 by St. Paul. — Examination of the prophecy in Matthew 24th.

 It is evident how much much more compendious the second method is. But
 there is no reason why an alphabetical “contents” should not be run
 into a single paragraph.

 The titles of novels and plays contained in any collection ought to
 be entered in the main alphabet; it is difficult then to see the
 advantage of an alphabetical arrangement of the same titles under the
 collection. Many other collections are composed of works for which
 alphabetical order is no gain, because the words of their titles are
 not mnemonic words, and it is not worth while to take the trouble of
 arranging them; but there are others composed of both classes, in
 which such order is very convenient. {93}


(d.) SUBJECTS.


254. Care must be taken not to mix two subjects together because their
names are spelled in the same way.

 Thus «Grace» before meals, «Grace» of body, «Grace» the musical term,
 and «Grace» the theological term, must be four distinct headings.


255. Under subject-headings group titles topically when it can be done,
otherwise arrange them by the authors’ names.

 Alphabetical arrangement by authors’ names is useful when a
 subject-entry is a substitute for a title-entry, but otherwise is as
 useless as it is inappropriate. If the author’s name is known the
 book should be looked for under that, not under the subject; if it is
 not known, what good can an arrangement by authors do? Sometimes, if
 one has forgotten the Christian name of an author, it may be easier
 to find him under a subject than in a crowd of Smiths or Joneses or
 Müllers, and this use of a subject-heading is impaired by grouping
 or by chronological order; but such use is infrequent, and the main
 design of a subject-entry should not be subordinated to this side
 advantage.

 It is even urged that it is harder to find a work treating of the
 subject in any special way among subdivisions than when there is only
 one alphabet, which is absurd. On the one hand one must look over a
 list of books embracing five or six distinct divisions of a subject
 and select from titles often ambiguous or provokingly uncommunicative
 those that seem likely to treat of the matter in the way desired.
 On the other plan he must run over five or six headings given by
 another man, and representing that man’s ideas of classification,
 and decide under which of them the treatise he is in search of is
 likely to be put. Which system gives the least trouble and demands
 the least brain-work? Plainly the latter. In three cases out of four
 he can comprehend the system at a glance. And if in the fourth there
 is a doubt, and he is compelled after all to look over the whole
 list or several of the divisions, he is no worse off than if there
 were no divisions; the list is not any longer. The objection then to
 subdivisions is not real, but fanciful. The reader at first glance is
 frightened by the appearance of a system to be learned, and perversely
 regards it as a hinderance instead of an assistance. But if anyone
 has such a rooted aversion to subdivisions it is very easy for him
 to disregard them altogether, and read the list as if they were not
 there, leaving them to be of service to wiser men.

 As the number of titles under each heading increases in number so
 does the opportunity and need of division. The first and most usual
 groups to be made are _Bibliography_ and its companion _History_,
 and the “practical-form” groups _Dictionaries_ and _Periodicals_
 Under countries the first grouping will be _Description and Travels_,
 _History and Politics_, _Language and Literature_, followed by
 _Natural history_, etc. For examples of further subdivisions see the
 longer catalogues. It is not worth while in a printed catalogue to
 make very minute divisions. The object aimed at,—enabling the enquirer
 to find quickly the book that treats of the branch of the subject
 which _he_ is interested in,—is attained if the mass of titles is
 broken up into sections containing from half a dozen to a score.
 Of course there are masses of titles which can not be so broken up
 because they all treat of the same subject in the same way, or at
 least show no difference of treatment that admits of classification.
 The general works on the Fine Arts in a library of 100,000 volumes may
 number 100 titles, even after _Periodicals_ and _Dictionaries_ have
 been set aside.

 There is one objection to grouping,—that books can seldom be made
 to fill any classification exactly, their contents overrunning the
 classes, so that they must be entered in several places, or they will
 fail to be found under some of the subdivisions of which they treat.
 Thus in the chronological arrangement of _History_, whether we arrange
 by the first date, the average, or the last date of each work, the
 books cover periods of such various length that one can never get all
 that relates to one period together. {94}

 There is another objection,—that it is much harder to make a catalogue
 with subdivisions, which of course require a knowledge of the
 subject and examination of the books; and the difficulty increases
 in proportion to the number of the books and the minuteness of the
 divisions.


256. The subarrangement in groups will often be alphabetical by
authors; but in groups or subjects of a historical character it should
be chronological, the order being made clear by putting the dates first
or by printing them in heavy-faced type.

 Thus under countries the division _History_ will be arranged according
 to the period treated of, the earliest first; so under _Description_,
 for England as seen by foreigners in the days of Elizabeth was a very
 different country from the England seen by Prince Pückler-Muskau
 in 1828, or satirized by Max O’Rell in 1883. So _Statistics_ and
 _Literature_, and other divisions, should be treated when they are
 long enough.


257. When there are many cross-references classify them.

 _Ex._ «Architecture.» _See also_
 «Arches»;—«Baths»;—«Bridges»;—«Cathedrals»;—«Fonts»;—[and many other
 things built];

 _also_ «Carpentry»;—«Drawing»;—«Metal-work»;—«Painting»;—[and many
 other means or methods of building];

 _also_
 «Athens»;—«Berlin»;—«Boston»;—«Milan»;—«Rome»;—«Venice»;—«Verona»;—[and
 many other cities whose buildings are described];

 _also_
 «Arabia»;—«Assyria»;—«Egypt»;—«France»;—«Greece»;—«India»;—«Italy»;—[and
 many other countries whose architecture is described].


258. When the titles are numerous under a subject-heading divide them,
but avoid subdivision.

 It may not be best to adopt strictly the same method in the
 subdivisions under countries that was recommended for government
 publications. There are advantages in both the following plans. The
 second is the dictionary plan pure and simple; the first is a bit
 of classification introduced for special reasons into a dictionary
 catalogue, and perhaps out of place there. It is, however, the one
 which I have adopted for the catalogue of the Boston Athenæum.


 (1.) Dictionary Catalogue with a Bit of Classification

 [Name of country.]

 Administration.
 Agriculture.
 Antiquities.
 Architecture.
 Army.
 Art.
 Biography.
 Botany.
 Calendar.
 Ceremonies.
 Charities.
 Climate.
 Colonies.
 Commerce and Trade.
 Costume.
 Description and Travels.
 Ecclesiastical history.
 Education.
 Entomology.
 Finance.
 Folk-lore.
 Foreign relations.
 Geology.
 Heraldry.
 Herpetology.
 History.
   Bibliography.
   General works.
   Chronological arrangement.
 Ichthyology.
 Industry.
 Language.
   Bibliography.
   General and miscellaneous works.
   Composition.
   Conversation and Phrases.
   Correspondence.
   Dialects.
   Dictionaries.
   Epithets.
   Etymology.
   Exercises.
   Grammar.
   Historical grammars.
   History.
   Homonyms.
   Pronunciation and spelling.
   Prosody.
   Readers (for foreign languages).
   Rhymes.
   Synonyms.
 Law.
   Bibliography.
   History.
   General works.
 Literature.
   General
     Bibliography.
     History (including lives of authors).
     Collections.
     Manuals.
     Selections for reading and speaking.
   Ballads and songs.
   Dialogues.
   Drama.
   Eloquence or oratory.
   Epigrams.
   Epitaphs.
   Essays.
   Fables.
   Fairy tales.
   Fiction.
   Legends.
   Letters.
   Parodies.
   Periodicals.
   Poetical romances.
   Poetry.
   Popular literature.[68]
   Prose romances.[69]
   Satire.
   Sonnets.
   Wit and humor.
 Malacology.
 Manufactures.
 Medicine.
 Mineralogy.
 Money.
 Music.
 Names.
 Natural history.
 Navy.
 Naval history.
 Numismatics.
 Ornithology.
 Palæontology.
 Philosophy.
 Politics.
 Population.
 Public works.
 Registers.
 Religion.
 Sanitary affairs.
 Science.
 Social distinctions.
 Social life, Manners and customs.
 Social science.
 Statistics.
 Technology.
 Theatre.
 Theology.
 Zoölogy.
 Etc.


 (2.) Dictionary Catalogue Pure and Simple

 [Name of country.]

 Administration.
 Agriculture.
 Antiquities.
 Architecture.
 Army.
 Art.
 Ballads and songs.
 Bibliography.
 Botany.
 Calendar.
 Ceremonies.
 Charities.
 Climate.
 Colonies.
 Commerce.
 Composition.
 Conversation and Phrases.
 Correspondence.
 Costume.
 Description and Travels.
 Dialects.
 Dialogues.
 Dictionaries.
 Drama.
 Ecclesiastical history.
 Education.
 Eloquence or oratory.
 Entomology.
 Etymology.
 Epigrams.
 Epitaphs.
 Epithets.
 Exercises.
 Fables.
 Fairy tales.
 Fiction.
 Finance.
 Foreign relations.
 Geology.
 Grammar.
 Heraldry.
 Herpetology.
 History.
   Bibliography.
   General works.
   Chronological arrangement.
 Homonyms.
 Ichthyology.
 Language.
   Bibliography.
   History.
   General and miscellaneous works.
 Law.
   Bibliography.
   History.
   General and miscellaneous works.
 Legends.
 Letters.
 Literature.
   Bibliography.
   History.
   General and miscellaneous works.
   Collections.
 Malacology.
 Manufactures.
 Medicine.
 Mineralogy.
 Money.
 Music.
 Names.
 Natural history.
 Navy.
 Naval history.
 Numismatics.
 Ornithology.
 Palæontology.
 Parodies.
 Periodicals.
 Philosophy.
 Poetical romances.
 Poetry.
 Politics.
 Popular literature.[68]
 Population.
 Pronunciation.
 Prose romances.[69]
 Prosody.
 Public works.
 Registers.
 Religion.
 Rhymes.
 Sanitary affairs.
 Satire.
 Science.
 Social distinctions.
 Social life, Manners and customs.
 Social science.
 Sonnets.
 Spelling.
 Statistics.
 Synonyms.
 Technology.
 Theatre.
 Theology.
 Wit and humor.
 Zoölogy.
 Etc.

 Note, however, that if the subordination under Language and Literature
 is objected to, it is very easy to make them independent headings in
 the main alphabet, having

 instead of

 «Italy.» _Description._
          _History._
          _Language._
          _Literature._
          _Natural history._

 the headings

 «Italian language.»
 «Italian literature.»
 «Italy.» _Description._
          _History._
          _Natural history._

 Of course different countries will require different divisions, e.
 g., _Ecclesiastical history_, _Mythology_, _Religion_, _Theology_
 will not often be required for the same {97} country. And often
 it will be expedient to combine those divisions in which there are
 very few titles into one more general; thus _Botany_, _Herpetology_,
 _Ichthyology_, _Zoölogy_, would join to give _Natural history_ a
 respectable size, and _Geology_, _Mineralogy_, _Palæontology_,
 _Physical geography_ would combine, or in very small countries all
 these would go together under _Description_. Under some countries
 other divisions will be required; in the list are given only those in
 actual use; but the arrangement is elastic and admits of new divisions
 whenever they are needed. In regard to a few (such as _Epitaphs_,
 _Fables_, _Names_, _Proverbs_) there is room for doubt whether they
 ought to be under countries; whether the subject cohesion is not much
 stronger than the national cohesion. Many others are not usually
 put here (as _Numismatics_, _Philosophy_, _Religion_, _Science_,
 _Theology_, _Zoölogy_). The former usage was to put under the country
 only its history, travels in it, and the general descriptive works;
 and books that treated of the Art, Architecture, Ballads, Botany,
 Drama, etc., of that land were put with the general works on Art,
 Architecture, etc. But the tendency of the dictionary catalogue is
 towards national classification; that is, in separating what relates
 to the parts of a subject, as is required by its _specific_ principle,
 it necessarily brings together all that relates to a country in every
 aspect, as it would what relates to any other individual.

 It may be asked (1) why the parts of _Natural history_ are here
 separated and the parts of _Language_ and _Literature_ not; and (2)
 why we do not divide still more (following out the dictionary plan
 fully), so as to have divisions like _Liliaceæ_, _Cows_, _Horses_. As
 to (2), in a library catalogue of a million volumes it would no doubt
 be best to adopt rigidly this specific mode of entry for the larger
 countries; for a catalogue of one or two hundred thousand, arrangement
 in classes is as well suited to quick reference and avoids the loss of
 room occasioned by numerous headings. With few books minute division
 has a very incomplete appearance, specialties occurring only here
 and there, and most of the titles being those of general works. This
 may be compared to the division of a library into alcoves. One of
 from 10,000 to 20,000 volumes has an alcove for Natural History; from
 20,000 to 50,000 it has alcoves for Botany and for Zoölogy; from
 50,000 to 100,000 it has alcoves for Birds, Fishes, Insects, Mammals,
 Reptiles, but it must be either very large or very special before it
 allows to smaller divisions of Zoölogy separate apartments. On an
 expansive system it is easy to make new alcoves as they are wanted;
 a similar multiplication by fission is possible in the successively
 enlarging editions of a printed catalogue. A card catalogue, designed
 for continuous growth, should have more thorough division than can
 be put into print, because it must look into the future, while the
 printed catalogue has no future.

 As to (1) I can only say that the divisions of _Language_ seem to me
 too intimately connected to be dispersed in catalogues of the present
 size, but that those of _Literature_ have a more substantive existence
 and ought to be separated sooner. A double subdivision, however, ought
 to be avoided. Under _Language_ there should be only one alphabet. It
 is better to arrange

 «Greece.» _Language._
             _Accents._
             _Dictionaries._
             _Ellipses._
             _Etymology._
             _Grammar._
             _History._
             _Particles._
             _Pleonasms._
             _Pronunciation._
             _Syntax._
 than
             _Dictionaries._
             _Etymology._
             _Grammar._
               _Accents._
               _Ellipses._
               _Particles._
               _Pleonasms._
               _Pronunciation._
               _Syntax._
             _History._

 Any subdivision of the groups under countries has been strongly
 opposed as being troublesome to make, useless, and even confusing, or
 as being an unlawful mixture of classed and dictionary cataloguing.
 But suppose you have four or five hundred {98} titles under «France.»
 _History._ Will you break them up into groups with such headings as
 _House of Bourbon_, _Revolution_, _Empire_, _Restoration_, etc., with
 references and other devices for those works which treat of several
 periods, all of which it must be confessed is a little formidable
 at first glance, or will you leave them in one undivided mass, so
 that he who wants to find the history of the last half of the 15th
 century must read through the 500 titles, perhaps, to find even one
 and certainly to find all? You would divide of course. It is true that
 grouping may mislead. The inquirer must still be careful to look in
 several places. The history of France during the ascendency of the
 House of Valois is to be found not merely under that heading but in
 the comprehensive histories of the country. The inquirer may be a
 little less likely to think of this because the titles of these two
 groups are separated from the many other titles which have nothing to
 do specially or generally with the House of Valois, but if he does
 think of it he is greatly assisted by such segregation.

 [note] 68. Not meaning novels, but broadsides, chap-books, and the
 like,—the literature of the people in times past.[/note]

 [note] 69. Again not meaning novels, but the romances of chivalry,
 etc.[/note]


K. _Etc._


259. In a supplement, catalogue the _whole_ of a continued set, not
merely the volumes received since the first catalogue.

 _Ex._ If v. 1–4 are in the catalogue and v. 5–10 are received later,
 enter all 10 v. in the supplement. It takes no more room, and it is
 useless to make the reader look in two places to ascertain how much
 of the work the library has. But this should not be done when it will
 take up much space, as would often be the case with periodicals, owing
 to details of change of name, number of volumes missing, etc. Nor
 should Contents be repeated; it is enough to refer.


260. When there are many editions of a work under any subject-heading
omit the titles and merely refer to the author-entry.

 Much space may thus be saved at little inconvenience to the reader.

 _Ex._ «Gaul.» CÆSAR, C. J. Commentarii [B.C. 58–49]. _See_ «Cæsar», C.
 J. (pp. 441, 442); here two lines do the work of forty.


261. Rare books.

 American libraries and especially town libraries seldom have any books
 sufficiently rare to deserve great particularity of description. If
 for any reason it is thought necessary to give a minute account of a
 book or of a collection good models may be found in Trömel’s Biblioth.
 amér., Lpz., 1861, 8º, Stevens’s Historical nuggets, Lond., 1862, 2
 v. 16º, Weller’s Repertorium bibliographicum, Nördlingen, 1864, 8º,
 Harrisse’s Biblioth. Amer. vetustissima, N. Y., 1866, 8º, Tiele’s Mém.
 bibliog. sur les journaux des navig. néerlandaises, Amst., 1867, 8º,
 and the titles of the rarer books in Sabin’s Dict. of books rel. to
 America, N. Y., 1868, etc. For the convenience of those who have not
 these works at hand a few examples are given here.

 «Leonardus» _de Utino or de Belluno_. _F1._ Sermones aurei de sanctis.
 [_Colophon_:] Expliciūt Sermones aurei | de sanctis per totū annum
 q̊^s | cōpilauit magister Leonar | dus d_e_ Vtino sacre theologie |
 doctor . . . | . . . Ad instantiam & cō|placentiā magnifice coītatis |
 Vtinensis . . . | . . . | M. cccc. xlvi . . . | . . . | . . . | . . .
 | . . . | [Coloniæ per Ulr. Zell,] M. cccc. Lxxiij. fº. Registr_um_
 (47) pp., (4) pp. blank, Tabula (1) p., (244) ll. In 2 coll. of 36
 lines.

 This copy has the leaves numbered in ms. and a Tabula prefixed to the
 2d part by a contemporary hand. The work being very thick was probably
 in general bound in two parts and is rarely complete; Santander
 describes only the 1st part, the due de la Vallière had only the 2d.
 The name of the printer, Zell, is found in only three or four of his
 numerous publications. This is shown to be his by the type, which
 is the same as that used in the Sermones of R. Caracciolus de Litio
 issued in the same year. The present work went through 10 editions
 in 8 years. According to Graesse it is {99} probably the first book
 printed out of Italy which contains a line of Italian poetry, “Trenta
 foglie ha la rosa”, at the end of the 1st part.

 Brunet v. 1022, Graesse vi. ii. 232, Hain no. 16128.

 (47) pp. means 47 unnumbered pages, ll. means leaves. Italicizing the
 _um_ in Registr_um_ signifies that those letters are expressed in the
 caption by a contraction which the printer of the catalogue has no
 type for.

 «Huon» _de Bordeaux_. Les gestes et faictz | merueilleux du no|ble
 Huon de Bor|deaulx Per de France, Duc de Guyenne. Nouuellement redige
 en bon | Francoys: et Imprime nouuellement a Paris pour Jean Bonfonds
 | . . . | . . . | [_Woodcut_] [_Ending_] Lequel liure & | hystoire
 a este mis de rime en prose | . . . | . . . | . . . | . . . | . . .
 lequel fut fait & parfait le vinte | neufiesme iour de Januier. Lan |
 mil. cccc. liiii | . . . | . . . | . . . | . . . | . . . «Imprime a
 Paris» pour Jan | Bonfons . . . | . . . _n. d._ 4º. (8), 264 ll. @ 40
 lines. With 14 woodcuts in the text, and the printer’s mark.

 On the eighth leaf is written “Jehan Moynard me possidet 1557,” which
 is probably not far from the date of publication. The 1st dated
 edition appeared in 1516. Brunet mentions two other editions before
 recording the present, one 1556, one undated.

 Sold, Essling 95 _fr._, Giraud 199 _fr._



APPENDICES.


APPENDIX I.


CONDENSED RULES FOR AN AUTHOR AND TITLE CATALOG.

PREPARED BY THE COÖPERATION COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN LIBRARY
ASSOCIATION.[70]


ENTRY.

Books are to be entered under the:

_Surnames_ of authors when ascertained, the abbreviation “_Anon._”
being added to the titles of anonymous works.  (1a

_Initials_ of authors’ names when these only are known, the last
initial being put first.  (1b

_Pseudonyms_ of the writers when the real names are not
ascertained.  (1c

_Names_ of _editors_ of collections, each separate item to be at the
same time sufficiently catalogd under its own heading.  (1d

_Names_ of _countries_, _cities_, _societies_, or other _bodies_ which
are responsible for their publication.  (1e

_First word_ (not an article or serial number) of the titles of
periodicals and of anonymous books, the names of whose authors are not
known. And a motto or the designation of a series may be neglected when
it begins a title, and the entry may be made under the first word of
the real title following.  (1f

_Commentaries_ accompanying a text and _translations_ are to be entered
under the heading of the original work; but commentaries without the
text under the name of the commentator. A book entitled “Commentary on
. . . ” and containing the text should be put under both.  (1g

{100}

The _Bible_, or any part of it (including the Apocrypha), in any
language, is to be entered under the word Bible.  (1h

The _Talmud_ and _Koran_ (and parts of them) are to be entered under
those words; the _sacred books_ of other religions are to be entered
under the names by which they are generally known; references to be
given from the names of editors, translators, etc.  (1i

The respondent or defender of an academical _thesis_ is to be
considered as the author, unless the work unequivocally appears to be
the work of the praeses.  (1j

Books having _more than one author_ to be entered under the one first
named in the title with a reference from each of the others.  (1k

_Reports_ of civil actions are to be entered under the name of the
party to the suit which stands first on the title-page. Reports of
crown and criminal proceedings are to be entered under the name of the
defendant. Admiralty proceedings relating to vessels are to be put
under the name of the vessel.  (1l

_Noblemen_ are to be entered under their titles, unless the family name
is decidedly better known.  (1m

_Ecclesiastical_ dignitaries, unless popes or sovereigns, are to be
entered under their surnames.  (1n

_Sovereigns_ (other than Greek or Roman), _ruling princes_, _Oriental
writers_, _popes_, _friars_, _persons canonized_, and all other persons
known _only_ by their first name, are to be entered under this first
name.  (1o

_Married women_, and other persons who have _changed_ their names, are
to be put under the last well-known form.  (1p

A _pseudonym_ may be used instead of the surname (and only a reference
to the pseudonym made under the surname) when an author is much more
known by his false than by his real name. In case of doubt use the real
name.  (1q

A _society_ is to be entered under the first word, not an article, of
its corporate name, with references from any other name by which it is
known, especially from the name of the place where its headquarters are
established, if it is often called by that name.  (1r

_References._—When an author has been known by more than one name,
references should be inserted from the name or names not to be used as
headings to the one used.  (1s

References are also to be made to the headings chosen:

 from the titles of all novels and plays and of poems likely to be
 asked for by their titles;  (1t

 from other striking titles;  (1u

 from noticeable words in anonymous titles, especially from the names
 of subjects of anonymous biographies;  (1v

 from the names of editors of periodicals, when the periodicals are
 generally called by the editor’s name;  (1w

 from the names of important translators (especially poetical
 translators) and commentators;  (1x

 {101}

 from the title of an ecclesiastical dignitary, when that, and not the
 family name, is used in the book catalogd;  (1y

 and in other cases where a reference is needed to insure the ready
 finding of the book.  (1z

 [note] 70. C. A. Cutter, S. H. Scudder, C. B. Tillinghast. Reprinted
 from the _Library journal_, 8: 251–254. The rules of the Library
 Association of the United Kingdom were printed in the _Library
 journal_, 6: 315–316. The Bodleian cataloging rules are given in the
 _Library journal_, 8: 298–301.[/note]


HEADINGS.

In the heading of titles, the names of authors are to be given _in
full_, and in their _vernacular_ form, except that the Latin form may
be used when it is more generally known, the vernacular form being
added in parentheses; except, also, that sovereigns and popes may be
given in the English form.  (2a

English and French surnames beginning with a _prefix_ (except the
French de and d’) are to be recorded under the prefix; in other
languages under the word following;  (2b

English _compound_ surnames are to be entered under the last part of
the name; foreign ones under the first part;  (2c

Designations are to be added to _distinguish_ writers of the _same
name_ from each other;  (2d

Prefixes indicating the _rank_ or _profession_ of writers may be added
in the heading, when they are part of the usual designation of the
writers.  (2e

Names of places to be given in the English form. When both an
English and a vernacular form are used in English works, prefer the
vernacular.  (2f


TITLES.

The title is to be an exact transcript of the title-page, neither
amended, translated, nor in any way altered, except that mottoes,
titles of authors, repetitious, and matter of any kind not essential,
are to be _omitted_. Where great accuracy is desirable, omissions
are to be indicated by three dots (...). The titles of books
especially valuable for antiquity or rarity may be given in full,
with all practicable precision. The phraseology and spelling, but not
necessarily the punctuation, of the title are to be exactly copied.  (3a

Any _additions_ needed to make the title clear are to be supplied and
inclosed by brackets.  (3b

Initial _capitals_ are to be given in _English_:  (3c

 to proper names of persons and personifications, places, bodies, noted
 events, and periods (each separate word not an article, conjunction,
 or preposition, may be capitalized in these cases);  (3d

 to adjectives and other derivatives from proper names when they have
 a direct reference to the person, place, etc., from which they are
 derived;  (3e

 to the first word of every sentence and of every quoted title;  (3f

 to titles of honor when standing instead of a proper name (_e. g._,
 the Earl of Derby, but John Stanley, earl of Derby);  (3g

{102}

 In _foreign_ languages, according to the local usage;  (3h

 In doubtful cases capitals are to be avoided.  (3i

_Foreign languages._—Titles in foreign characters may be
transliterated. The languages in which a book is written are to be
stated when there are several, and the fact is not apparent from the
title.  (3j

[For the A. L. A. transliteration report, see pp. 108–114.]


IMPRINTS.

After the title are to be given, in the following order, those in [ ]
being optional:—

 the _edition_;  (4a

 the _place_ of publication;  (4b

 [and the _publisher’s_ name] (these three in the language of the
 title);  (4c

 the _year_ as given on the title-page, but in Arabic figures;  (4d

 [the year of copyright or actual publication, if known to be
 different, in brackets, and preceded by c. or p. as the case may
 be];  (4e

 the number of _volumes_, or of pages if there is only one volume;  (4f

 [the number of _maps_, portraits, or illustrations not included in the
 text];  (4g

 and either the approximate _size_ designated by letter (see _Library
 journal_, 3: 19–20), or the exact size in centimeters;  (4h

 the name of the _series_ to which the book belongs is to be given in
 parentheses after the other imprint entries.  (4i

After the place of publication, the place of _printing_ maybe given if
different. This is desirable only in rare and old books.  (4j

The _number of pages_ is to be indicated by giving the last number of
each paging, connecting the numbers by the sign +; the addition of
unpaged matter may be shown by a +, or the number of pages ascertained
by counting may be given in brackets. When there are more than three
pagings, it is better to add them together and give the sum in brackets.

These imprint entries are to give the facts, whether ascertained from
the book or from other sources; those which are usually taken from the
title (edition, place, publisher’s name, and series) should be in the
language of the title, corrections and additions being inclosed in
brackets. It is better to give the words, “maps,” “portraits,” etc.,
and the abbreviations for “volumes” and “pages,” in English.  (4k


CONTENTS, NOTES.

Notes (in English) and contents of volumes are to be given when
necessary to properly describe the works. Both notes and lists of
contents to be in a smaller type.  (5a


MISCELLANEOUS.

A single _dash_ or indent indicates the omission of the preceding
heading; a subsequent dash or indent indicates the omission of a
subordinate heading, or of a title.  (6a

{103}

A dash connecting numbers signifies _to and including_; following a
number it signifies _continuation_.  (6b

A ? following a word or entry signifies _probably_.  (6c

_Brackets_ inclose words added to titles or imprints or changed in
form.  (6d

Arabic _figures_ are to be used rather than Roman; but small capitals
may be used after the names of sovereigns, princes, and popes.  (6e

A list of _abbreviations_ to be used was given in the _Library
journal_, 3: 16–20.  (6f


ARRANGEMENT.

The surname when used alone precedes the same name used with forenames;
where the initials only of the forenames are given, they are to precede
fully written forenames beginning with the same initials (_e. g._,
Brown; Brown, J.; Brown, J. L.; Brown, James).  (7a

The prefixes M and Mc, S., St., Ste., Messrs., Mr., and Mrs., are to be
arranged as if written in full, Mac, Sanctus, Saint, Sainte, Messieurs,
Mister, and Mistress.  (7b

The works of an author are to be arranged in the following order:—

 1. Collected works.  (7c

 2. Partial collections.  (7d

 3. Single works, alphabetically by the first word of the title.  (7e

The order of alphabeting is to be that of the English alphabet.  (7f

The German ae, oe, ue, are _always_ to be written ä, ö, ü, and arranged
as a, o, u.  (7g

Names of persons are to precede similar names of places, which in turn
precede similar first words of titles.  (7h


THE RULES OF THE ENGLISH LIBRARY ASSOCIATION.

The cataloguing rules of the Library Association of the United Kingdom,
as revised in 1883, and published in the _Library Chronicle_ of
February, 1885, differ from the A. L. A. rules in the following points:

1. The order of the imprint is to be: edition, number of volumes,
if only one volume, the number of pages, the number of separate
illustrations, maps, or portraits, the size, the place of publication,
the place of printing when different from that of publication, the
publisher’s name, and the year.

2. All anonymous works to have the abbreviation “Anon.” added.

3. Entry under the chief subject-word of the titles of anonymous books,
with a cross-reference, where advisable, under any other noticeable
word.

4. Service and Prayer books used by any religious community are to be
placed under the head of Liturgies, with a subhead of the religious
community.

5. Names of translators, commentators, editors, and preface writers,
if they do not occur in the title-page, may be added within square
brackets, a cross-reference being made in each case. {104}

6. It should be noticed that sometimes the respondent and defender of a
thesis are joint authors.

7. All persons generally known by a forename are to be so entered,
the English form being used in the case of sovereigns, popes, ruling
princes, Oriental writers, friars, and persons canonized.

[This is like the A. L. A., but differently expressed.]

8. [References are required to be always made to the first word under
which a society is entered] from the name of the place where its
headquarters are established.

9. Individual works to be arranged under an author in alphabetical
order of titles, under the first word, not an article or a preposition
having the meaning of “concerning.”

10. The German ä, ö, ü, are to be arranged as if written out in
full—ae, oe, ue.


THE BODLEIAN LIBRARY RULES.

The Bodleian rules differ from the A. L. A. in the following points[71]:

1. All omissions to be indicated by a group of three dots (...). The
name of the author or editor, if it occur on the title-page in the same
form as in the heading, may be omitted _if no ambiguity be occasioned
thereby_.

3. Does not capitalize titles of honor when standing instead of a
proper name.

6. Puts number of volumes before place of publication. Does not give
number of pages, maps, etc. In the case of books of the 15th and 16th
centuries or of special value or rarity, the names of the publisher and
printer are to be added after the place.

Books are to be entered:

10. Under the surnames of authors, when stated on the title-page or
otherwise certainly known, followed by the forename and other necessary
prefixes in round brackets.

11. When only the initials or pseudonym of an author occur in the book,
it is to be regarded for the purpose of headings as anonymous; and a
cross-reference is to be made from the initials or pseudonym to the
first heading, the last initial being placed first, followed by the
others in round brackets.

12. Under the pseudonyms of the writers, unless the book be already
entered under two headings, in which case a cross-reference is to be
made from the pseudonym to the first heading.

13. Under the names of editors of collections, and under the
catch-titles of such collections; the parts are to be at the same time
sufficiently catalogued under their own headings.

15. Under the chief word or words of the titles of periodicals.

16. Under the first striking word or words of the titles of anonymous
{105} works, with a cross-reference, where advisable, from any other
noticeable word or catch-title. If the name of a writer occur in a work
but not on the title-page, the work is also to be regarded for the
purpose of headings as anonymous.

17. Commentaries with the text, editions of the text, and translations
are to be entered (1) under the heading of the original work, and (2)
under the name of the commentator, editor, or translator; commentaries
without the text are to be entered under the same two headings, the
second being placed first.

18. Editions of the entire Bible, with or without the Apocrypha,
are to be entered under the word _Bible_: editions of parts of the
Bible comprising more than one book under the words _Testament
(Old)_, _Apocrypha_, _Testament (New)_, or lesser divisions such as
_Pentateuch_, _Historical books_, _Hagiographa_, _Prophets_, _Gospels_,
_Paul the apostle_, _Epistles (General)_.

21. Service and prayer books of the Church of England are to be entered
under the names by which they are commonly known, such as _Prayer (Book
of Common)_, _Baptism (Order of)_, _Communion (Holy)_, etc.: those of
the Church of Rome in like manner under _Missal_, _Breviary_, _Hours_,
etc., with a subheading of the use. Service-books of other religious
communities are to be entered under the head of _Liturgies_, with a
subheading of the religious community.

22. Separate musical compositions, accompanied by words, are to be
entered under the names of the authors and translators of the words
(unless these are taken from the Bible or a public service-book) as
well as under those of the authors and editors of the music.

24. In the case of an academical thesis the _praeses_ is to be
considered as the author, unless the work unequivocally appears to be
the work of the respondent or defender.

26. Catalogues are to be entered under the name of the compiler;
also, as circumstances require, under the names of one or more of the
institutions or persons now or formerly owning the collection, and,
where desirable, under the name of the collection itself.

32. English and French surnames beginning with a prefix or prefixes are
to be recorded under the first prefix, and surnames in other languages
under the word following the last prefix—except that French names
beginning with _de_ or _d’_ are to be entered under the word following
_de_ or _d’_.

33. English compound surnames, not connected by an hyphen, are to be
entered under the last part of the names [A. L. A.—under first part]:
foreign ones, with or without hyphens, under the entire compound name,
cross-references being given in all instances.

35. A society is to be entered under the leading word or words of its
corporate name.

37. Dashes or asterisks in names and titles are to precede letters of
the alphabet. {106}

39. The works of an author, and other books capable of similar
treatment, are to be arranged in the following order, an index or
conspectus of the entire article being prefixed when expedient:

(1) General cross-references.

(2) Collections of _all the works_ of the author _in the original
language_, whether including or excluding fragments, and whether with
or without translations or commentaries.

(_a_) Dated editions in chronological order.

(_b_) Editions without date and without conjecturally supplied date;
but if known to be of the 15th century they are to precede the dated
editions.

But new editions of a work by the same editor are to succeed the first
entry of the edition.

(3) _Translations_ without the text, of collected works, in
alphabetical order of languages, cross-references being inserted in
this series to all editions which contain the original text as well as
a translation. Polyglot editions are to precede all others.

(4) _Commentaries_ without the text, on collected works, in
chronological order. Scholia are to precede all other commentaries.

(5) Selections from collected works.

(6) Collections of _two or more works_ of the author, in alphabetical
order of the general title of the collection; or, if there be none, of
the first work of the collection. In special cases entries which would
in strictness fall under this division may be placed in the succeeding
paragraph, with a cross-reference.

(7) _Separate works_, or entire parts of a separate work, in
chronological order of the first issues of the works; in any difficult
cases an alphabetical or other special arrangement is to be made.

(8) _Fragments_ of the author; but when a work exists only in fragments
it may be entered under preceding paragraphs.

(9) (_a_) Lexicons, (_b_) Indexes and concordances.

(10) Dissertations, treatises, imitations, etc., which do not fall
under preceding heads, in chronological order.

(11) Biographies.

(12) Bibliographies.

 N. B. The principles of arrangement in the preceding paragraphs are to
 be used where applicable, in other articles.

40. Biographies are to be entered under the subjects of them, as well
as under the writers.

41. The order of alphabetization is to be that of the English alphabet,
except that, in general, I and U before a vowel are to be arranged
as J and V, and J and V before a consonant as I and U, with such
cross-references as may be necessary.

42. Headings composed of more than one separate word are not to be
regarded for purposes of arrangement as a single word. {107}

45. The German _ä_, _ö_, _ü_ are to be arranged as if written out in
full, _ae_, _oe_, _ue_.

46. Arabic figures are to used rather than Roman; but Roman figures may
be used after the names of ruling princes and popes, or to designate
the number of a volume or chapter when followed by a page [or division]
number in Arabic figures.

50. Word-books, grammars, and alphabets are to be entered under the
names of the languages to which they relate, as well as under the names
of their compilers and editors—except that, where a word-book relates
to two languages, or dialects, of which one is modern literary English,
no separate entry needs be made in respect of the latter.

51. Long and important articles are to have an index prefixed, and
subheadings may be added to the main heading in the same line, for
convenience of reference.

52. Gives a list of 28 abbreviations allowable in ordinary entries.

53. The general rule regulating the use of brackets is that round
brackets include notes derived from the work itself, while square
brackets include notes of which the matter or form is independent of
the work.

54. Single sermons are to have a note of the text added.

 [note] 71. It will be seen in several cases that, unlike the A.
 L. A, rules, they are designed for a library that has no subject
 catalogue.[/note]


MR. DEWEY’S RULES FOR A CARD CATALOGUE.

Mr. Dewey’s Rules for a card catalogue, printed in No. 2 of the
_Library notes_, pp. 111–124, and reprinted as Columbia catalog rules,
Boston, 1888, and again as Library School rules, Boston, 1889, “except
for the enlargements, differ from the A. L. A. rules,” he says, “only
in the following points:

 We enter always under real name, omitting the exception that some
 books may go under pseudonyms. [_Not_ Eliot, G., _but_ Lewes or
 Cross.]  (1e

 We follow the rule recommended as best in Cutter’s rules No. 40,
 putting under the name of the place local and municipal societies,
 _though the corporate name may not begin with that word_.  (1s

 We give cities in their vernacular form instead of in English. [Wien,
 _not_ Vienna.]  (2f

 We do not capitalize common nouns in German, but follow the rule of
 the Library of Congress. [Wahrheit und dichtung.]  (5m

 We give place and date at the end of the imprint entries instead of
 after edition, thus following the L. A. U. K. and Bodleian rules, the
 A. L. A. minority report, and the Library of Congress in putting those
 most important items in the most prominent place, instead of burying
 them back of minor items.

 We give edition in English rather than in the language of the title,
 [Ed. 2, _not_ 2^e Aufl.]  (4c

 We use Arabic figures for all numerals, unless Roman are used on the
 title after names of rulers and popes.” [Charles 1, Leo 13.]  (9b

{108}


APPENDIX II.

REPORT OF THE TRANSLITERATION COMMITTEE.

[See § 36. This Report was made to the American Library Association in
1885, and printed in the Proceedings of the Lake George Conference, and
in the _Library journal_, 10: 302–8.]

In determining the principles of transliteration it must be remembered
that a catalogue is not a learned treatise intended for special
scholars, and bound to an erudite consistency, at whatever cost of
convenience. It is simply a key to open the doors of knowledge to a
partly ignorant and partly learned public, and it is very important
that such a key should turn easily. A good catalogue, therefore,
will be a compromise between the claims of learning and logic on the
one hand, and of ignorance, error, and custom on the other. Speaking
generally, that form of name must be chosen with which people now are,
_and in the future will be_, most familiar. This reference to the
future is important. The catalogue must not be in advance of its age;
but, on the other hand, it will not be well that it should be behind
the next generation. If, therefore, there is an evident current of
progress in any direction the makers of the catalogue will do well to
be a little before the present practice, in the hope that the world
will soon catch up with them, not to pass them before the catalogue
itself has been superseded by another. The larger the catalogue,
therefore, and the less likely to be soon reprinted, the more may it
venture to be ahead of the times. Nevertheless the maker will do well
to remember that the future is very uncertain.

One evident current of progress there is,— in favor of adopting
the continental value of the vowels, representing the _ou_ sound,
for instance, not by _ou_ nor by _oo_ (as does Dr. Thomas), but by
_u_; writing, therefore, Butan, not Boutan, nor Bootan, Turgenef
and not Tourgueneff; using also _a_ and not _ah_ for the sound of
_a_ in father, papa (I speak as a New Englander); using the _i_ for
the English _e_ sound; and giving what are unfortunately called the
corresponding short sounds by doubling the following consonant; thus
Nānā would be spelt with one n, but Nanny with two. This tendency,
which has been gathering strength for some time, has at last received
the sanction of an influential body, the Royal Geographical Society,
and can be followed with safety.

The following notes are taken mostly from Mr. Heilprin’s articles in
the _Nation_:

1. For ancient _Greek_ names use the Latin forms, _e. g._, Homerus not
Homeros, Plato not Platon, Philippus not Philippos. But where two forms
are in common use choose that which is nearest the Greek.

2. For _Egyptian_ names known to us through the Greek, both the Greek
and the Egyptian form (as Cheops and Shufu) should be given, with a
reference from the one which is not chosen for the main entry.

3. _Biblical_ names are to be written as we find them in the English
Bible, and the names of post-Biblical Jews, if derived from the
Scriptures, should retain their Anglicized form. On the other hand, a
strict transliteration is demanded of rabbinical and other more or less
pure Hebrew names which are not taken from Scriptures, and therefore
have no popular English forms, to which, again, there is an exception
in the case of a few celebrated Jewish authors, as Maimonides, where an
un-Hebrew form has been fully adopted in English literature.

East _Indian_ names have such long accepted forms that it might well
be doubted whether it will do to use any others. Cashmere, Mooltan,
Jellaleddin, Punjaub, have taken their places in literature and in the
popular mind. Nevertheless, as the better system which writes Kashmir,
Multan, Jalal ud Din, Panjab, is now adopted in most histories, in
all official documents, among others in Hunter’s great statistical
dictionary of Bengal, it is evident that it is the coming method, and,
in accordance with the {109} principles already laid down, we are
inclined to recommend this spelling rather than the clumsy English
fashion of the last generation.

All other _Asiatic_ and _African_ names should be transliterated
according to the rules of the Royal Geographical Society, which we
quote here from their Proceedings for August, 1885 (pp. 535, 536).

The Council of the Royal Geographical Society have adopted the
following rules for such geographical names as are not, in the
countries to which they belong, written in the Roman character. These
rules are identical with those adopted for the Admiralty charts, and
will henceforth be used in all publications of the society:—

1. No change will be made in the orthography of foreign names in
countries which use Roman letters: thus, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
etc., names will be spelt as by the respective nations.

2. Neither will any change be made in the spelling of such names in
languages which are not written in Roman character as have become by
long usage familiar to English readers: thus, Calcutta, Cutch, Celebes,
Mecca, etc., will be retained in their present form.

3. The true sound of the word, as locally pronounced, will be taken as
the basis of the spelling.

4. An approximation, however, to the sound is alone aimed at. A system
which would attempt to represent the more delicate inflections of sound
and accent would be so complicated as only to defeat itself.

5. The broad features of the system are, that vowels are pronounced as
in Italian and consonants as in English.

6. One accent only is used—the acute—to denote the syllable on which
stress is laid.

7. Every letter is pronounced. When two vowels come together each
one is sounded, though the result, when spoken quickly, is sometimes
scarcely to be distinguished from a single sound, as in _ai_, _au_,
_ei_.

8. Indian names are accepted as spelt in Hunter’s _Gazetteer_.

The amplification of the rules is given below:

 Letters.│Pronunciation and remarks.              Examples.
 ────────+───────────────────────────────────────+──────────────
 a       │_ah_, _a_ as in _father_               │Java, Banána.
         │                                       │
 e       │_eh_, _e_ as in _benefit_              │Tel-el-Kebír, Oléleh,
         │                                       │  Yezo, Medina, Levúka,
         │                                       │  Peru.
         │                                       │
 i       │English _e_; _i_ as in _ravine_;       │
         │  the sound of _ee_ in _beet_.         │
         │Thus not _Feejee_, but                 │Fiji, Hindi.
         │                                       │
 o       │_o_ as in _mote_                       │Tokio.
         │                                       │
 u       │long _u_, as in _flute_; the           │
         │  sound of _oo_ in _boot_.             │
         │Thus, not _Zooloo_, but                │Zulu, Sumatra.
         │                                       │
         │All vowels are shortened               │Yarra, Tanna,
         │  in sound by doubling                 │  Mecca, Jidda,
         │  the following consonant.             │  Bonny.
         │                                       │
         │Doubling of a vowel is                 │Nuulúa, Oosima.
         │  only necessary where                 │
         │  there is a distinct repetition       │
         │  of the single sound.                 │
         │                                       │
 ai      │English _i_ as in _ice_                │Shanghai.
         │                                       │
 au      │_ow_ as in _how_.                      │
         │  Thus not _foochow_, but              │Fuchau.
         │                                       │
 ao      │is slightly different from             │Macao.
         │  above.                               │
         │                                       │
 ei      │is the sound of the two                │Beirút, Beilúl.
         │  Italian vowels, but is               │
         │  frequently slurred                   │
         │  over, when it is scarcely            │
         │  to be distinguished                  │
         │  from _ey_ in the English             │
         │  _they_.                              │
         │                                       │
 b       │English _b_.                           │
         │                                       │
 c       │is always soft, but is so              │Celebes.
         │  nearly the sound of _s_              │
         │  that it should be seldom             │
         │  used. (If _Celebes_                  │
         │  were not already recognized          │
         │  it would be written _Selebes_.)      │
         │                                       │
 ch      │is always soft as in                   │Chingchin.
         │  _church_.                            │
         │                                       │
 d       │English _d_.                           │
         │                                       │
 f       │English _f_. _ph_ should not be used   │
         │  for the sound of _f_.                │
         │  Thus, not _Haiphong_ but             │Haifong, Nafa.
         │                                       │
 g       │is always hard. (Soft _g_              │Galápagos.
         │  is given by _j_.)                    │
         │                                       │
 h       │is always pronounced when inserted.    │
         │                                       │
 j       │English _j_. _Dj_ should never be put  │Japan, Jinchuen.
         │  for this sound.                      │
         │                                       │
 k       │English _k_. It should always be put   │
         │   for the hard _c_.                   │
         │   Thus, not _Corea_, but              │Korea
         │                                       │
 kh      │ the Oriental guttural                 │Khan.
         │                                       │
 gh      │is another guttural, as in the Turkish.│ Dagh, Ghazi.
         │                                       │
 l,m,n   │as in English.                         │
         │                                       │
 ng      │has two separate sounds, the           │
         │  one hard as in the English word      │
         │  _finger_, the other as in _singer_.  │
         │  As these two sounds are rarely       │
         │  employed in the same locality, no    │
         │  attempt is made to distinguish       │
         │  between them.                        │
         │                                       │
 p       │ as in English.                        │
         │                                       │
 q       │should never be employed; _qu_ is      │
         │   given as _kw_.                      │ Kwangtung.
         │                                       │
 r,s,t,v │as in English                          │ Sawákin.
         │                                       │
 w,x,y   │as in English                          │ Sawákin.
         │                                       │
 y       │is always a consonant, as in _yard_,   │
         │  and therefore should never be used   │
         │  as a terminal, _i_ or _e_ being      │
         │  substituted.                         │
         │  Thus, not _Mikindány_ but            │ Mikíndáni.
         │        not _Kwaly_, but               │ Kwale.
         │                                       │
 z       │ English _z_                           │ Zulu.
         │                                       │
         │Accents should not generally be        │Tongatábu, Galápagos,
         │  used, but when there is a very       │    Paláwan, Saráwak.
         │  decided emphatic syllable or stress, │
         │  which affects the sound of the word, │
         │  it should be marked by an _acute_    │
         │  accent.                              │
         │                                       │
 ────────+───────────────────────────────────────+──────────────

A few points need to be emphasized. Of course the consonantal sound in
_itch_ should never be expressed in transliteration by the Polish _cz_,
nor by the German _tsch_. _Tch_ has been much used for this sound; but
the _t_ is hardly necessary if, as the Geographical Society recommend,
_ch_ is always used with this sound only and never with the sound _sh_.
Of course there is no reason why _ch_ should be used in foreign names
with the sound _sh_ any more than _j_ with the sound _zh_. All that
was needed to prevent ambiguity was for some competent authority to
make a rule; and these rules of the Geographical Society will no doubt
soon be copied into all manuals and followed by the majority. In this
connection we express our regret that a new edition of Dr. Thomas’s
excellent Dictionary of Biography continues to give his support to what
we believe is an obsolescent system of transliteration.

Nor should the consonantal sound in _judge_ be rendered by the English
_dg_, nor the French _dj_, nor the German _dsch_, but by _j_ alone.
Likewise the consonantal sound in _she_ is not to be written after the
French style, _ch_, or as the Germans do, _sch_. The sound which the
French transliterate by _j_ we must express by _zh_ (_e.g._, Nizhni
Novgorod). _Tz_ is best to use in Semitic and Slavic names, and _ts_
in Japanese and Chinese. For the Semitic “yod” _y_ is the proper
equivalent, and not the German _j_. But after a consonant in the same
syllable it is usual to change the _y_ to _i_ (Biela not Byela), and in
Russian names _ai_, _ei_, _oi_, _ui_ are used instead of _ay_, _ey_,
_oy_, _uy_ (Alexei not Alexey). After _i_ the _y_ is dropped (Dobni not
Dobniy). _W_ is to be used rather than _i_ in Arabic names (_e. g._,
Moawiyah). But the Russian, Serb, Bulgarian, and Wallach contain no
such sound or letter as _w_, and we must write Paskevitch, Vasili, not
as do the Germans, Paskewitch, Wasili. In the last syllable of names of
places (Azov, Kiev) _ev_ and _ov_ are to be used, because the Russians
used the corresponding letter, though they pronounce _ef_ and _of_
(in the nominative cases). But in the last syllable of family names,
similarly pronounced, _of_ and _ef_ may be used, because the Russians
sign their names _off_ and _eff_ when using Roman characters. The last
_f_, which they use, may be omitted as being plainly not required to
express the sound, and not corresponding to the Russian character.
_Kh_ represents the full guttural, which the Germans make _ch_ and the
Spanish _j_ in Slavic and Oriental names. _H_ answers to the softer
guttural as well as to the Hebrew _he_. _K_ answers to the Semitic
_Kaph_ and _Koph_.

The use of _ei_ for the sound of _a_ in fate, _ea_ in great, _ai_ in
trait, is not altogether satisfactory. It is not easy to see why _e_
was not used to represent this sound, and {111} the short _e_, like
the short _a_, _i_, _o_, and _u_, indicated by doubling the following
consonant, as Yeddo, Meddina.

The general rule, then, is to use the consonants with their English
value, the vowels with their continental, or, to speak more exactly,
their German and Italian value, for the French value of _u_ should
never be used, and the short French _a_ requires of us a doubled
consonant after it. Their _ou_ and our _oo_ is quite unnecessary to
express the sound of the last syllable of Timbuctu or Khartum.

 C: A. CUTTER.
 C. B. TILLINGHAST.
 W: C. LANE.
 MICHAEL HEILPRIN.

Professor Toy, of Harvard University, furnished to the committee a
transliteration table for Semitic languages, Professor Lanman, of the
same University, one for Sanskrit, and Mr. Heilprin, of the committee,
one for Russian.

Professor LANMAN remarked on his table:

1. It will be observed that each of the five rows numbered 1 to 5
consists of five letters; the second and fourth in each, _i. e._, the
aspirates, are often written, especially in older works, thus, _k῾_,
_g῾_, _c῾_, _j῾_, _ṭ῾_, _ḍ῾_, _t῾_, _d῾_, _p῾_, _b῾_; that is, the
rough breathing takes the place of the _h_.

2. Write long vowels with a macron, thus, _ā_, _ī_, _ū_, _r̄_, and not
with a circumflex.

3. Wherever you find the combination _ṛi_, with a dot under the _ṛ_,
reduce it to simple _ṛ_, since it is a simple unitary sound.

4. The palatals (row 2) are often written by means of the gutturals and
an accent:

 thus, we find    _k´_  _k´h_  _g´_  _g´h_;
 for              _c_   _ch_   _j_   _jh_

and in some German books _c_ (which has the sound of _ch_ in _church_)
is written _tsch_, and _j_ (= _j_ in _judge_) in like manner _dsch_.
Further, _c_ and _ch_ are written in some English works as _ch_ and
_cch_, a useless waste of labor.

5. When the third palatal is written by _ǵ_, it is common among the
Germans to write the first semi-vowel by _j_. The last semi-vowel is
often written _w_ (instead of _v_).

6. The transliteration of the _first two sibilants_ is very
fluctuating. My _ç_, is written _ś_ by Monier Williams in his
dictionary.

The second sibilant is often written _sh_, sometimes _š_, by me as _ṣ_,
like the other linguals.

7. Finally an _s_ at the end of a Sanskrit word is converted into
an aspiration called _risarga_, and written thus «:», and in
transliteration is written in this manner, _ḥ_. The nasality of a vowel
is marked by _ṅ_ or _ṁ_ which appears in the Sanskrit as a dot above
the body of the consonant.

For a brief and lucid discussion of these matters and a defense of the
system of Professor Whitney, of Yale, which is followed in his grammar
and in Lanman’s Reader, see The Proceedings of the American Oriental
Society, October, 1880, p. xvii.

{112}

[Illustration: Sanskrit Transliteration Report.]

{113}

[Illustration: Semitic Transliteration.]

{114}

[Illustration: Russian Transliteration.]

{115}


APPENDIX III.

REPORT ON BOOK SIZES.

 A Special Committee on Book Sizes of the American Library Association
 reported (_Library journal_, 3: 19, 20) the following rule:

Give the outside height in centimeters, using fractions (decimals)
where extreme accuracy is desired. For books of special forms, prefix
sq., ob., or nar., to indicate square, oblong, or narrow, or else give
the actual width after the height. Add a small “^h” to the figures
giving the height, except when followed by the width. In the latter
case connect height and width with the ordinary symbol ×, always giving
the height first. If fractious are not used, give the first centimeter
above, _e. g._, all books between 18 and 19 mark 19^h, because they
fall in the 19th centimeter. For the width, measure the board from the
hinge to the edge, not including the round. If desirable to give the
size of the paper or letter-press, prefix the measurement with p(aper)
or t(ype), including in the type neither folio nor signature lines.

For those preferring to use the common designations, the following-rule
was unanimously recommended:

Designate each size by its initial letter or letters (followed, if
preferred by the cataloguer, by its final letter “o,” superior “º”)
assigning the size by the following table, and prefixing sq., ob.,
nar., if the books be square, oblong, or narrow. Give the exact
measurement of all size-curiosities, whether very large or very small.

 Numerical symbol   Abbreviation     Limit of outside
  formerly used.     to be used.   height, centimeters.
      48º              Fe                 10
      32º              Tt                 12.5
      24º              T                  15
      16º              S                  17.5
      12º              D                  20
      8º               O                  25
      4º               Q                  30
      fº               F                  40
      fº               F⁵                 50
      fº               F⁶                 60
      fº               F⁷                 70
      fº                etc.               etc.

Any cataloguer desiring to use the term E (18º) may do so by calling
the smaller S (16º). This causes no confusion, for either E or S is
between 15 and 17½ cm. in height. Books from 20 to 40 cm. high may be
called sm. Q, Q, and l. Q when of the square form, but O, l. O, and F,
or sm. F, when of the ordinary form. Books smaller than 20 cm., and of
the quarto form, are marked sq. D, etc. * * *

The plan of giving the height in centimeters has the advantage that,
once stated, it will never be forgotten. By it the size is more
easily {116} determined, more quickly recorded, much more definite
in its description, and, most important of all, is understood by all
users of catalogues after the first time, while the other systems are
intelligible only to those familiar with books. The committee therefore
recommends the plan of _indicating the size by giving the size_.


APPENDIX IV.

MR. EDMANDS ON ALPHABETICAL ORDER.

 Mr. J. Edmands, in “Rules for alfabeting,” read at the meeting of the
 American Library Association in August, 1887, and published in the
 _Library journal_, 12: 326–341, discussed the subject carefully. A
 committee of the Association was directed to prepare a code of rules,
 to be reported in the _Library journal_; for their report see 14:
 273–274. Their code coincides with mine (§§ 214–239), except (1) that
 they adopt my former order, “person, place, title, subject (except
 person and place), form,” and not the present rule (§ 214), “person,
 place, followed by subject (except person and place), form and title,”
 an arrangement which probably was not proposed to the committee; and
 (2) that when two or more names are spelled exactly alike except for
 the umlaut in names in which the German ä, ö, or ü may occur, the
 committee put all the names having the umlaut last, _e. g._, all the
 Müllers after the Mullers. I arrange by the forenames.

 Mr. Edmands correctly states as the principle of alphabeting
 “_Something follows nothing_; or, conversely, _Nothing before
 something_; thus in

 Art of living      In clover
 Arthur             Incas

 the _art_, in the first case, and the _in_, in the second, ar followed
 by a space, i. e., by _nothing_, and so precede the single word in
 which the t and the n are followed by a letter; i. e., by _something_.”

 His Rules agree with those stated or implied in § 214 and following
 sections, with three exceptions. The first is this:

“A word used independently as a subject heding should precede the same
word used in connection with another. And if this word is coupled
with another word to form a compound subject heding, it should follow
the simple heding. And if this word used as a simple heding is also
used a substantiv to form a different subject heding, and is also
used adjectivly before a noun, the substantiv use should precede the
adjectiv use. And so we hav this order:

 Art
 Art and artists
 Art of conversation
 Art amateur

 “The reasons for it ar clear and strong. A substantiv should precede
 an adjectiv, as being the more important word, and as being less
 closely connected with the following than an adjectiv. In uttering
 the frases Art applied to industry, Art of conversation, there is a
 perceptible suspension of the voice after the word Art, which does not
 occur in the case of Art journal, art amateur.”

 The reason is not strong enough to justify interfering with the
 alphabetical order, which demands that amateur shall precede and.
 It is needless to compel the searcher to stop and think whether the
 word “art” in the phrase he is hunting for is a noun {117} or an
 adjective; indeed, it is not only a useless refinement, but positively
 dangerous, as likely occasionally to lead him to overlook an entry
 which is out of its alphabetical order.

 The same objection applies to the practice of some cataloguers of
 putting the plural immediately after the singular, even when the
 alphabet demands that it should precede (as Charities, Charity), or
 when many entries might come between (as between Bank and Banks). This
 practice Mr. Edmands condemns.

 The second exception is this:

“A single ful name should precede a double initial, i. e., a surname
with one Christian name should stand before the same surname with two
Christian names; thus,

 John,       _not_ J. M.
 J. M.,            John.

 This plainly contradicts the principle “nothing before something.” A
 period is too trifling a matter to arrange by, and neglecting that

                J followed by nothing      J
 should precede J followed by o,           John.

 The third exception is this:

A book written by a single author should precede one written by him and
another.

 (See the argument in the note to § 240.)

 The rules which agree are in substance as follows:

_New._ Titles with the initial word New used as a proper adjective
followed by a common noun, and those in which it forms a part of a
compound place name should be arranged in one series, alfabeting by
the last part. (New Amsterdam, new boat, New Canaan, new life.) Single
words beginning with «new», whether names of persons, places, or
things, should be arranged in a following alfabetical series.

The _hyfen_ is best disregarded, words connected by it being arranged
as two words.

If an _article_, which belongs before a word used as a heding, is
inserted after it, it is not to be taken account of in alfabeting.

The _plural_ in s should follow the singular. The _possessive_ case
singular should follow the singular and precede the plural in s. The
sequence, however, may not in either case be immediate. Several entries
may intervene. Plurals in ies of words ending in y should precede the
singular, tho not necessarily in immediate connection.

_Common and proper nouns._ In the case of words used sometimes as
common and sometimes as proper nouns, the true order is person, place,
and thing.

_Surnames._ Whenever a single name. Charles, Henry, William, is used
as the sole designation of a person, this should precede the same
word used as a surname. If several ranks are represented by one name,
precedence should be given to those bearing the highest rank in this
order, pope, emperor, king, noble, saint. If these represent different
nationalities they should be groupt in the alfabetical order of the
countries; and numerically under each country, as John I., John II.
{118}

Family names that hav the same sound, but a different spelling, must be
separated, but the reader should be aided as much as we can by a free
use of cross references.

In names beginning with La, Le, and De—not French names—written
separately, it is better to disregard the separation, and arrange these
words as if they were written solidly.

_Abbreviations._ Names beginning with M’, Me, St, and Ste should be
arranged as if written out in ful, as Mac, Saint, and Sainte, for the
reason that they ar uniformly so pronounct, and often so written. And
for the same reason entries beginning with Dr., M., Mme., Mlle., Mr.,
and Mrs. should be treated as if they were written in ful, as Doctor,
Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle, Mister, and Mistress.

_Forenames._ When Christian names ar given in ful, the arrangement
should be in strict alfabetical order, following the surname. And use
should be made of all the helps which the cataloger has given for
distinguishing two or more persons whose names ar identical.

_Titles_, such as Gen., Don., Sir, ar to be allowed to stand, but not
to affect the arrangement.

_Numerals_ occurring as hedings should be treated as if written out in
letters. The novel “39 men for one woman” should be entered under t.

_Initials._ If the cataloger has simply followed the title-page and
given only initials of Christian names, the only safe course is to
treat every initial as a name; and, on the axiom “Nothing before
something,” the initial should precede the ful name. Thus J. precedes
James even tho, as may afterwards be learned, the J. stands for
Jehoshaphat.

_Dash._ In order to save space in printing, and for distinctness to the
eye, it is wel to use a dash to represent a word or group of words that
might otherwise hav to be repeated; or to inset the words that come
under the general heding. Care should be taken to make clear what the
dash stands for, and to confine its use within proper bounds.

It may be used when we hav several books written by one person; but it
should not be used to cover another person of the same surname.

It may be used to represent a word or group of words that indicate a
definite subject, as heat, moral science, socialists and Fourierism,
society for the diffusion of useful knowledge. But it should not be
used to represent a part of a compound subject-heding, nor a part of a
title; e. g., in the entries Historical portraits, Historical reading,
the word Historical should be spelled out in each case.

{119}


APPENDIX V.

ABBREVIATIONS.

The list of abbreviations originally given on p. 57, § 116, was
enlarged in the report of the committee on catalogue rules of the
American Library Association (_Library journal_, 3: 16–19). It there
included the abbreviations for the most usual forenames formed by the
initial followed by a colon for men and by two periods for women (as
J:=John, M..=Mary), devised by C: A. Cutter and first published in the
_Library journal_, 1: 405 and 5: 176. It was republished, classified,
but with many omissions and additions, by Melvil Dewey in _Library
notes_, 1: 206–211, and also on a convenient card. It is here reprinted
in full with his additions.

A list of abbreviations used in describing bindings, prepared by E. H.
Woodruff, was published in the _Library journal_ for May, 1887.


FORENAMES.

 Aaron                          Aar.
 Abraham                        Ab.
 Adam                           Ad.
 Adelbert                       Adlb.
 Adolf                          Adf.
 Adrian                         Adr.
 Aegidius                       Aeg.
 Albert                         Alb.
 Albrecht                       Albr.
 Alexander, Alexandre           Alex.
 Alfonso                        Alf.
 Alfred                         Alfr.
 Alphonse                       Alph.
 Amadeus                        Amad.
 Ambrose, Ambrosius             Amb.
 Anastasius                     Anast.
 Andreas, Andrew                And.
 Anna                           A..
 Anselm                         Ans.
 Anthony, Antoine, Anton        Ant.
 Archibald                      Arch.
 Arnold                         Arn.
 Arthur                         Arth.
 August, Augustus               A:
 Augusta                        A: a
 Augustin                       A: in
 Augustinus                     A: inus
 Aurelius                       Aur.
 Austin                         Aust.

 Baldwin                        Bald.
 Balthasar                      Balt.
 Baptiste                       Bapt.
 Barbara                        Barb.
 Barnard                        Barn.
 Bartholomäus, Bartholomew      Bart.
 Basilius                       Bas.
 Beatrice                       B..
 Beatrix                        Bx.
 Belinda                        Bel.
 Benedict                       Bened.
 Benjamin                       B:
 Bernard                        Bern.
 Bernhard                       Bernh.
 Barthold                       Brth.
 Bertram                        Bert.
 Boniface                       Boni.
 Bruno                          Bru.
 Burchard                       Bch.

 Cadwallader                    Cadwal.
 Caleb                          Clb.
 Calvin                         Calv.
 Camillus                       Cam.
 Camilla                        Cma.
 Carl, Carlo, Charles           C:
 Caroline                       Caro.
 Casimir                        Cas.
 Caspar                         Cap.
 Catharine                      Cath.
 Charlotte                      C..
 Christian                      Chr.
 Christlieb                     Chli.
 Christoph                      Cp.
 Clarence                       Clar.
 Claude                         Cl. {120}
 Claudius                        Cls.
 Clemens, Clement                Clem.
 Conrad                          Conr.
 Constantin                      Const.
 Cordelia                        Cord.
 Cornelius                       Corn.
 Crispian, Crispin, Crispus      Crsp.

 Daniel                          Dan.
 David                           D:
 Deborah                         Deb.
 Detlev                          Dtl.
 Delia                           D.
 Diana                           Di.
 Dietrich                        Dt.
 Dominicus                       Dom.
 Donald                          Don.
 Dorothy                         Dor.
 Duncan                          Dunc.

 Ebenezer                        Eb.
 Eberhard                        Ebh.
 Edgar                           Edg.
 Edmund                          Edm.
 Edouard, Eduard, Edward         E:
 Edwin                           Edn.
 Egbert                          Egb.
 Ehrenfried                      Ehrfr.
 Elias                           El.
 Elijah                          Elij.
 Elizabeth                       E..
 Emanuel                         Em.
 Ephraim                         Eph.
 Erdmann                         Erdm.
 Erhard                          Erh.
 Eric, Erich                     Er.
 Ernest, Ernst                   Ern.
 Eugen, Eugene                   Eug.
 Eusebius                        Eus.
 Eustace, Eustachius             Eust.
 Evelina                         Evel.
 Ezechiel                        Ezech.
 Ezra                            Ez.

 Fanny                           F..
 Felix                           Fel.
 Ferdinand                       Fd.
 Fitz William                    Fitz W.
 Flavius                         Flav.
 Florence                        Flo.
 Francis                         Fs.
 Frances                         Fcs.
 Frank                           Fk.
 Franz                           Fz.
 Frederic, Friedrich             F:
 Fürchtegott                     Fchtg.

 Gabriel                         Gbr.
 Gamaliel                        Gam.
 Gasparo                         Gsp.
 Gaston                          Gast.
 Gebhard                         Gbh.
 Geoffrey                        Geof.
 Georg, George, Georges          G:
 Gerald                          Ger.
 Gerhard                         Gh.
 Gershom                         Gersh.
 Gertrude                        Gert.
 Giacomo                         Giac.
 Giam Battista                   Gi. bat.
 Gian Giacomo                    Gi. Giac.
 Gian Pietro                     Gi. P:
 Gideon                          Gid.
 Gilbert                         Gilb.
 Giovanni                        Gi.
 Giuseppe                        Giu.
 Godfrey                         Godf.
 Gottfried                       Gf.
 Gotthard                        Gthd.
 Gotthelf                        Ghf.
 Gotthold                        Ghld.
 Gottlieb                        Gli.
 Gottlob                         Glo.
 Gottschalk                      Gk.
 Grace                           G..
 Gregor, Gregory                 Greg.
 Guillaume                       Guil.
 Günther                         Gth.
 Gustav, Gustavus                Gst.

 Hannah                          Ha.
 Hans                            Hs.
 Harold                          Har.
 Harriet                         Ht.
 Hartmann                        Htm.
 Hartwig                         Htw.
 Hector                          Hect.
 Hedwig                          Hedw.
 Heinrich, Henri, Henry          H:
 Helen                           H..
 Herbert                         Herb.
 Herrmann                        Hm.
 Hezekiah                        Hzk.
 Hieronymus                      Hi.
 Hippolyte                       Hip.
 Horace                          Hor.
 Hubert                          Hub.
 Hugh                            Hu. {121}
 Hugo                            Hg.
 Humphrey                        Hum.

 Ignatius, Ignaz                 Ign.
 Immanuel                        Im.
 Innocenz                        Inn.
 Isaac                           I:
 Isabella                        I..
 Israel                          Isr.

 Jacob                           Jac.
 Jakob                           Jak.
 James                           Ja.
 Jane                            J..
 Jasper                          Jasp.
 Jedediah                        Jed.
 Jemima                          Jem.
 Jeremiah, Jeremias, Jeremy      Jer.
 Joachim                         Joac.
 Joel                            Jl.
 John, Johann, Jean, _masc._     J:
 Johannes                        Js.
 Jonathan                        Jona.
 Joseph                          Jos.
 Josepha                         Josa.
 Josephine                       Jose.
 Joshua                          Josh.
 Jószef                          Jósz.
 Jules, Julius                   Jul.
 Julia                           Jla.
 Juliet                          Jlt.
 Justin, Justus                  Just.

 Karl                            K:
 Kaspar                          Ksp.
 Katharine                       K..
 Konrad                          Konr.

 Laurence                        Laur.
 Lawrence                        Lawr.
 Lazarus                         Laz.
 Leberecht, Lebrecht             Lbr.
 Lemuel                          Lem.
 Leonard                         Leon.
 Leonhard                        Lh.
 Leopold                         Lp.
 Lewis                           Lew.
 Louis, Ludwig                   L:
 Louise                          L..
 Lobegott                        Lbg.
 Lorenz                          Lor.
 Lothar                          Lth.
 Louisa                          L..
 Ludolf                          Ldf.

 Malachi                         Mal.
 Marcus                          Mcs.
 Margaret                        Marg.
 Maria                           Mar.
 Marc, Mark                      M:
 Martin                          Mt.
 Mary                            M..
 Mathäus, Matthew                Mat.
 Matilda                         Mta.
 Maurice                         Maur.
 Max, Maximilian                 Mx.
 Mehitabel                       Mehit.
 Melchior                        Mlch.
 Michael                         Mich.
 Moriz                           Mor.
 Moses                           Mos.

 Nancy                           N..
 Napoleon                        Nap.
 Nathan                          Nat.
 Nathaniel                       Natl.
 Nehemiah                        Neh.
 Nepomuk                         Np.
 Nicodemus                       Nicod.
 Nicolas, Nicolaus, Nicole       N:
 Noah                            No.
 Norman                          Norm.

 Obadiah                         Ob.
 Octavius                        Oct.
 Octavia                         Octa.
 Oliver                          Ol.
 Olivia                          O..
 Orlando                         Orl.
 Oscar                           Osc.
 Oswald                          Osw.
 Ottmar                          Ottm.
 Otto                            O:

 Patrick                         Pat.
 Paul                            Pl.
 Pauline                         P..
 Peter, Pierre                   P:
 Philip                          Ph.
 Phineas                         Phin.
 Priscilla                       Pris.

 Rachel                          Ra.
 Raimund, Raymond                Rmd.
 Raphael                         Rapl.
 Rebecca                         R..
 Reginald                        Reg.
 Reinhard                        Rhd.
 Reinhold                        Rhld.
 Reuben                          Reub. {122}
 Richard                       R:
 Robert                        Rob.
 Rodolph                       Rod.
 Roger                         Rog.
 Roland                        Rol.
 Rudolf                        Rud.
 Rufus                         Ruf.
 Rupert, Ruprecht              Rup.

 Salomon                       Sal.
 Salvator                      Salv.
 Samuel                        S:
 Sarah                         S..
 Severen                       Sev.
 Sebastian                     Seb.
 Siegfried                     Siegf.
 Sigismund                     Sgsm.
 Sigmund                       Sigm.
 Simeon, Simon                 Sim.
 Solomon                       Sol.
 Sophia                        So.
 Stanislas                     Stan.
 Stephen                       Ste.
 Susan                         Su.

 Tabitha                       Tab.
 Temperance                    Temp.
 Thaddeus                      Thad.
 Theobald                      Thbd.
 Theodor                       Thdr.
 Theophilus                    Thph.
 Theresa                       T..
 Thomas, Tomas, Tomaso         T:
 Tiberius                      Tib.
 Timotheus, Timothy            Tim.
 Titus                         Tit.
 Tobias, Tobiah                Tob.
 Traugott                      Trg.

 Ulrich                        U:
 Ursula                        U..

 Valentine                     Val.
 Veit                          Vt.
 Victor                        Vet.
 Victoria                      V..
 Vincentius                    Vinc.
 Virginia                      Virg.
 Volkmar                       Volkm.

 Waldemar                      Wald.
 Walther, Walter               Wa.
 Washington                    Wash.
 Wenzel                        Wz.
 Werner                        Wr.
 William, Willem, Wilhelm      W:
 Wilhelmina                    W..
 Winfred                       Winf.
 Winifred                      Winif.
 Woldemar                      Wold.
 Wolfgang                      Wolfg.

 Xaver, Xavier                 X:
 Xenophon                      Xen.
 Xerxes                        Xerx.

 Zacharias, Zachary            Zach.
 Zebadiah, Zebedee             Zeb.
 Zechariah                     Zech.
 Zenobia                       Z..
 Zephaniah                     Zeph.


COLON ABBREVIATIONS FOR FORENAMES.

 A: Augustus.     A.. Anna.
 B: Benjamin.     B.. Beatrice.
 C: Charles.      C.. Charlotte.
 D: David.        D.. Delia.
 E: Edward.       E.. Elizabeth.
 F: Frederick.    F.. Fanny.
 G: George.       G.. Grace.
 H: Henry.        H.. Helen.
 I: Isaac.        I.. Isabella.
 J: John.         J.. Jane.
 K: Karl.         K.. Katharine.
 L: Louis.        L.. Louise.
 M: Matthew.      M.. Mary.
 N: Nicholas.     N.. Nancy.
 O: Otto.         O.. Olivia.
 P: Peter.        P.. Pauline.
 R: Richard.      R.. Rebecca.
 S: Samuel.       S.. Sarah. {123}
 T: Thomas.       T.. Theresa.
 U: Uriah.        U.. Ursula.
 V: Victor.       V.. Victoria.
 W: William.      W.. Wilhelmina.
 X: Xavier.       Z.. Zenobia.
 Z: Zenas.

Here C: is used both for Charles and Carlo, H: for Henry, Henri, and
Heinrich, and so on. Mr. Dewey for greater distinctness advises the
following:

Where : and .. is used in English names, use ; and ., for the German
form, and ; and ,. for the French.


FOR HEADINGS.

 abridger                   abr.
 afterwards                 aftw.
 annotater                  annot.
 born                       b.
 collector                  col.
 company                    co.
 commentator                comment.
 compiler                   comp.
 continuer                  contin.
 died                       d.
 department                 dept.
 editor                     ed.
 Great Britain              Gr. Br.
 pseudonym                  pseud.
 publisher                  pub.
 superintendent             supt.
 translator                 tr.
 United States              U. S.
 veuve                      vve.
 wittwe                     wwe.
 include maiden name of
   married woman.           ( )
 include words or parts of
   words supplied.          [ ]
 probably, perhaps          ? after a word.

Use also the common abbreviations for political, military,
professional, and honorary titles.


FOR IMPRINTS AND NOTES.

 Auflage, Ausgabe                 Aufl., Ausg.
 Band                             Bd.
 Bohn’s scientific library        B. S. L.
 calf                             cf.
 cloth                            cl.
 copyright                        c.
   e. g., 1882 [c. ’80].
 edited, -ion, -or                ed.
 fac-similes                      fac-sim.
 folios                           f.
 group of portraits               gr. of por.
 Harper’s family library          H. F. L.
 illustrated, -ions               il.
 leaves                           l.
 morocco                          mor.
 mutilated                        mut.
 no date of pub.                  n. d.
 no place of pub.                 n. p.
 no title-page                    n. t. p.
 page, pages                      p.
 pamphlet, pamphlets              pam.
 paper                            pap.
 photographs                      phot.
 portrait of group                por. of gr.
 portrait, portraits              por.
 Roxburgh                         rxb.
 sheep                            sh.
 square                           sq.
 tables                           tab.
 title-page                       t.-p.
 title-page mutilated, wanting    t. p. m., t. p. w.
 unbound                          unbd.
 unpaged                          unp.
 vellum                           vel.
 volume, volumes                  v. (in the imprint),
                                    Vol. (in the title).[72]
 with (before words)              w.
 wanting (after words)            w.

In notes the abbreviations in all these lists may be used.

 [note] 72. _I. e._, Vol. 1 _but_ 2 v.[/note]

{124}


FOR BOOK TITLES.

 abridged                           abr.
 abbreviations                      abbr.
 account                            acct.
 additional, -ons                   add.
 American                           Amer. or Am.
 analysis, -tical                   anal.
 anonymous                          anon.
 appended, -ix                      app.
 aus dem Lateinischen               a. d. Lat.
 born                               b.
 biblical, bibliographical,
   bibliotheca, etc.                bibl.
 biographical, -phy                 biog.
 book                               bk.
 Christian                          Chr.
 chronological                      chron.
 classical                          class.
 collected, -ions, college,
   colored                          col.
 commerce, -ial, committee          com.
 compiled, -er                      comp.
 concerning                         conc.
 containing, contents, continued    cont.
 copy, copyrighted                  cop.
 corrected                          cor.
 crown, _size of book_              cr.
 cyclopædia                         cyc.
 Danish                             Dan.
 died                               d.
 department                         dept.
 domestic                           dom.
 elementary, -ts                    elem.
 encyclopædia                       encyc.
 English                            Eng.
 engraved, -er, -ings               eng.
 enlarged                           enl.
 fiction                            fict.
 folios, _i. e._, leaves            ff.
 from                               fr.
 French                             Fr.
 geography                          geog.
 geology                            geol.
 geometry                           geom.
 German                             Germ.
 gesammelte, gesammt                ges.
 Geschichte                         Ges. or Gesch.
 grammar, -tical                    gram.
 great                              gr.
 Greek                              Gr.
 half                               hf.
 historical, -y                     hist.
 homœopathic                        homœop.
 herausgegeben                      hrsg.
 illustrated, -ions                 il.
 imperfect                          imp.
 improved                           impr.
 including                          incl.
 increased                          incr.
 intorno                            int.
 introduction, -ory                 introd.
 Italian                            Ital.
 juvenile                           juv.
 Latin                              Lat.
 library                            lib.
 literary, -ture                    lit.
 medical, -ine                      med.
 memoir                             mem.
 miscellaneous                      misc.
 manuscript, -ts                    ms., mss.
 national, natural                  nat.
 new series                         n. s.
 nouvelle                           nouv.
 number, -s                         no., nos.
 oblong                             obl.
 preface, -ed, prefixed             pref.
 pseudonym, -ous                    ps.
 part                               pt.
 published, -er                     pub.
 recensuit, record                  rec.
 relating, relative                 rel.
 report                             rept.
 review, revised, -ion              rev.
 Roman                              Rom.
 Russian                            Rus.
 sämmtlich                          sämm.
 science, scientific                sci.
 selected, -ions                    sel.
 separate                           sep.
 series                             s. or ser.
 small                              sm.
 society                            soc.
 supplement, -ary, -ing             sup.
 Swedish                            Swed.
 theology                           theol.
 transactions                       trans.
 translated, -or, traduit,
   tradotto, etc.                   tr.
 übersetzt                          übers,
 und                                u.
 vocabulary                         vocab.
 von                                v.
 van to be given in full.
 in, contained in                   ( ) {125}
 words added to title               [ ]
 to and included in, or continued   —
 matter omitted                     ...
 probably, perhaps                  ?
 end of line on title-page          |
 transition to another title-page   ||
 vo, mo, to, in octavo,
   duodecimo, quarto                º


FOR PLACES OF PUBLICATION.

Use first form on cards. In accession and all official records use
shortest form.

 Albany                 «Alb.»
 Amsterdam              «Amst.»
 Baltimore              «Balt.»
 Berlin                 «Ber.»
 Boston                 «B.» or «Bost.»
 Braunschweig           «Brns.»
 Cambridge              «Camb.» or «Cb.»
 Chicago                «Chic.» or «Ch.»
 Cincinnati             «Cin.»
 Copenhagen             «Copng.»
 Edinburgh              «Edin.» or «Ed.»
 England                «Eng.»
 Firenze                «Fir.»
 France                 «Fr.»
 Germany                «Germ.»
 Glasgow                «Glasg.» or «Gl.»
 Gotinga                «Got.»
 Göttingen              «Göt.»
 Kjöbenhavn             «Kjöb.»
 London                 «L.» or «Lond.»
 Leyden                 «Ley.»
 Leipzig                «Lpz.»
 Lugduni Batavorum      «Lug. Bat.»
 Milano                 «Mil.»
 München                «Mün.»
 New Orleans            «N. O.»
 New York               «N. Y.»
 Oxford                 «Oxf.»
 Paris                  «P.» or «Par.»
 Philadelphia           «Ph.» or «Phil.»
 St. Louis              «St. L.»
 St. Petersburg         «St. Pet.» or «St. P.»
 San Francisco          «San Fran.» or «S. F.»
 Stuttgart              «Stut.»
 Torino                 «Tor.»
 United States          «U. S.»
 Venice                 «Ven.» or «V.»
 Washington             «W.» or «Wash.»

Also the common abbreviations for the States. Use for all languages
when the equivalent name contains these letters.


TITLES, STATES, ETC.

 bachelor of arts           «A. B.»
 archbishop                 «abp.»
 year of our Lord           «A. D.»
 adjutant                   «adjt.»
 admiral                    «adm.»
 Alabama                    «Ala.»
 Master of Arts             «A. M.»
 American                   «Am.» or «Amer.»
 associate of the Royal
   Academy                  «A. R. A.»
 attorney                   «atty.»
 bachelor of arts           «B. A.»
 baronet                    «bart.»
 before Christ              «B. C.»
 bishop                     «bp.»
 brigadier general          «brig. gen.»
 California                 «Cal.»
 captain                    «capt.»
 Colorado                   «Col.»
 Confederate States of
   America or C. S. army    «C. S. A.»
 C. S. navy                 «C. S. N.»
 Connecticut                «Ct.»


MONTHS.

 Ja.   F.    Mr.    Ap.    My.    Je.    Jl.    Ag.    S.    O.    N.    D.


DAYS.

 Su.    M.    Tu.    W.    Th.    F.    St. {126}


SIZE NOTATION.

 _Fold symbol._               _Size letter._       _Outside height._

 Never use for size.      Never use for fold.      In centimeters.

       48º                      Fe                  Up  to 10
       32º                      Tt                  10   – 12.5
       24º                      T                   12.5 – 15
       16º                      S                   15   – 17.5
       12º                      D                   17.5 – 20
        8º                      O                   20   – 25
        4º                      Q                   25   – 30
        fº                      F                   30   – 35
                                F⁴                  35   – 40
                                F⁵                  40   – 50

 Prefix _nar._ if width is less than ⅗ height.
 Prefix _sq._ if width is more than ¾ height.
 Prefix _ob._ if width is more than height.

 For all books over 35^{cm} high the superior figures show in which
 10^{cm} of height the book falls, e. g., F⁸ is between 70 and 80^{cm}
 high.


_Actual size method._

 Give all sizes in cm (for greater accuracy adding decimals), leaving
 the old symbols and names, 8º and Octavo to indicate fold only. Give
 height first, followed by h, or by × and width, e. g., 23^h or 23 ×
 14. 23^h means between 22 and 23, i. e., in 23^d cm. All measures are
 taken outside the cover. Width is from hinge to edge not including the
 round. To measure paper or letter-press, prefix p(aper) or t(ype) to
 figures, including in type neither folio nor signature lines.


APPENDIX VI.

So far we have been considering only the catalogue by which the
library communicates with the public; but a librarian needs several
others for library service: (1) The Catalogue of books ordered; (2)
The Accessions catalogue; (3) The Periodical-and continuation-book;
(4) The Shelf-list; (5) The Catalogue of books missing; (6) The
Tract-catalogue; (7) The Catalogue of duplicates to be sold; (8) The
Catalogue of duplicates sold or exchanged.

(2) and (8) are necessary for the preservation of the history of the
library and important in its financial management.

(6) is a modification of (5). It is a list of the tracts contained in
bound volumes, by which the abstraction of any particular tract can be
ascertained, or the extent of the loss if the whole volume disappears.
All this might be entered on the shelf-list, but it is more convenient
to keep the record of the tract-volumes together. Sometimes part of a
tract-list is inserted in the public catalogue. You may see collections
of pamphlets on various subjects by various authors recorded under a
made-up heading «Tracts», or «Pamphlets», a style of entry that is
nearly useless. The whole of the Prince catalogue of 1846 was made in
this absurd way. A number of tracts by a single author may indeed for
economy be catalogued under him in one mass like a “contents,” and the
same may be {127} done for tracts on a single subject, though there
are objections even to this; but to catalogue the writings of several
authors under an arbitrary heading (as «Plays», «Speeches», «French
Revolution»), to which references merely are made under the authors, is
to be economical at altogether too great an expense of trouble to the
public,—to say nothing of the incongruity of a form or subject heading
for an author-entry.

(4), the shelf-list, ought to be so made (_a_) that the entry of each
book in the catalogue can be readily found from it; (_b_) that the book
can be readily identified with the entry on the shelf-list; (_c_) that
at the annual examination or taking account of stock the shelf-reader
shall know at once what book is meant as each title is read by the
list-reader. For these reasons the list should contain the author’s
name (or first word, etc., if the book is anonymous), part of the real
title, the binder’s title (which will generally be the same as the
real), and the place and date of printing. If the author’s name, or any
part of the title, is not on the back of the book it should be inclosed
in parentheses.

 _Ex._ Appuleius.   Metamorphoses, tr. Head.  L. 1851.     1

       (Reinhardt.  Artist’s journey.)        Bost. 1872.  1

A briefer shelf-list can be made by merely entering the book’s number
and the accessions number, so that the full title can be found if
needed by referring to the accessions-book.

(2), (3), and (8) are best kept in books; (4) and (6) on separate
sheets of paper; (1), (5), and (7) on cards. When the catalogue is kept
on cards (5) can be made by merely separating the cards of such books
as are missing.

(1). After some experiments I have preferred the following method of
keeping the order-list. The titles of books proposed for purchase are
type-written on ruled slips of stiff paper 12½ cm. long by 5 cm. wide.
If approved by the committee a check is made at the left of the title.
A searcher then ascertains whether the library already has the book;
if it has, the card is destroyed or sent with this information to the
person who asked for the book; if not, the searcher puts her initials
and the date in the lower left-hand corner. The cards are then sorted
into parcels for the English, French, or German agents; and an order is
written, the writer first making sure, by looking among the cards of
previous orders, that none of the books has already been sent for. In
the order a running number is given to each title and a corresponding
number is put on the card.

The name of the author is entered in a book opposite the running
number, and the date is put there against the first number of each
order.[73] The cards are then all stamped on the left with the
date, and put away in a drawer alphabetically with other cards of
books ordered. When a {128} box of books comes, the corresponding
cards are picked out and stamped on the right with the date. They
receive the accessions-number when the books are entered on the
accessions-catalogue, the class-number when the books are placed, and
are corrected when the books are catalogued; for, having usually been
written from advertisements, these cards are often incorrect. When a
number have accumulated they are sorted in the order of class-numbers
and the entry on the class-catalogue is made from them. They are
then put away alphabetically in drawers accessible only to the
library-attendants, and form the index of the accessions-book. When a
duplicate volume is exchanged or sold the date, its price, and receiver
are noted on the order card.

The system is economical. One card serves many purposes and with little
writing answers all the questions likely to come up: Has this book
been proposed to the Book Committee? (Books rejected are kept in a
separate drawer.) Has it been approved? Ordered? When? From whom? Who
is responsible for the error if it turns out a duplicate? When was it
received? Where is it entered in the Accessions-catalogue (that we may
ascertain its price and condition)? Where was it first located? If any
one of the questions is not to be asked then the corresponding process
can be dispensed with. The list, of which an example is given in the
note below, is not necessary but convenient.


[Specimen.]

        Darwin, Charles.
 IXHZ      Coral reefs. 2d ed. London, 1874. 8º.
 .D35
 [On the back of the card is]
 2915 [the order No.]    [Stamp, with date of order.]
 [Stamp, with date of receipt.]    39625 [the accession No.]

 [note] 73.     Jan. 1, 1875. 1497 Black.
                              1498 Hammond.
                              1499 Grenville.
                              1500 Sampson.[/note]


APPENDIX VII.

SOME WORKS OF REFERENCE.

I have set down here chiefly those works which I find to be of
_constant_ use in cataloguing. One occasionally needs many more,
even for a short investigation. A complete and systematic view of
bibliographical literature is given in Petzholdt’s “Bibliotheca
bibliographica. Leipzig, 1866,” and many of the more modern works
may be found in Vallée’s Bibliographie des bibliographies, Paris,
1883, and supplement, 1887. Powers’ “Handy-book about books. London,
1870,” contains a useful list, which is reprinted, with additions, in
Sabin’s “American bibliopolist.” C: H. Hull’s “Help’s for cataloguers
in finding full names” in the _Library journal_, Jan., 1889, gives an
excellent classified list with descriptive notes. {129}

BALLHORN. Grammatography. Lond., 1861. O. 7_s._ 6_d._

BRUNET. Manuel. 5^e éd. Paris, 1860–65. 6 v. O. 120 _fr._, and
Supplement. Par Deschamps et Brunet. Paris, 1878–80. 2 v. O.

HŒFER. Nouvelle biographie générale. Paris, 1852–66. 46 v. O. 184 _fr._

HORNE. Introd. to bibliography. Lond., 1814. 2 v. O. _Antiq._ 18_s._

JOECHER. Allgem. Gelehrten-Lexikon. Lpz., 1850–51. 4 v., Q., and
Fortsetzung. Bremen, 1784–1819. 6 v. Q. _Antiq._ 40 _fl._

LAROUSSE. Dictionnaire universel. Paris, 1866–89. 15 v. and 2 suppl. O.
635 _fr._

MEN of the time. 12th ed. Lond., 1887. D. 15_s._

MICHAELIS. Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der gebräuchlichsten Taufnamen.
Berl., 1856. O. 15 _Ngr._

OETTINGER. Moniteur des dates. Dresde, 1866–68. 6 v. Q. 35 _Thlr._
Supplément. Lpz., 1873–82. 3 v. Q. 90 _M._

ROSSE. Index of dates. Lond., _Bohn_, 1858. 2 v. O. $2.50.

SANDERS. Celebrities of the Century. Lond., 1887. O. 21_s._

THOMAS. Universal dict. of biography and mythology. Phila., 1870. 2 v.
O. $22, or 1 v. $15.

TOWNSEND. Manual of dates. 5th ed. Lond., 1877. O. 18_s._

VAPEREAU. Dict. des contemporains. 5^e éd. Paris, 1880. O. 25 _fr._

 The catalogues of the following libraries: ADVOCATES’, ASTOR, BOSTON
 ATHENÆUM, BRITISH MUSEUM, PEABODY INSTITUTE (Baltimore), are the most
 useful.


AMERICAN.

ALLIBONE. Dict. of Eng. literature. Phila., 1858–71. 3v. O. $22.50.

CUSHING. Anonyms. Camb., 1889. 2 pts. [A–Main]. O.

CUSHING. Initials and pseudonyms. N. Y., 1885. O., and 2d series. N.
Y., 1888. O.

DRAKE. Dict. of Amer. biog. Rev. ed. Bost., 1875. O. $6.

HARRISSE. Biblioth. Amer. vetustissima; works rel. to Amer. pub.
1492–1551. N. Y., 1866. O. $20.

LEYPOLDT. American catalogue; books in print July 1, 1876. N. Y.,
1880–81. 2 v. F.—1876–84. N. Y., 1885. 2 v. F.

SABIN. Dict. of books rel. to Amer. N. Y., 1868, etc. Q. $5 per vol.

SPRAGUE. Annals of the American pulpit. N. Y., 1857–69. 9 v. O. $36.

THOMAS. History of printing in America. 2d ed. Albany, 1874. 2 v. O. $8

 The following may sometimes be of use: ROORBACH’S Biblioth. Amer.,
 1820–61. 4 v. O., and KELLY’S Amer. catalogue, 1861–71. N. Y.,
 1866–71. 2 v. O; and the general catalogues of colleges. {130}


ANONYMS AND PSEUDONYMS.

The most useful books are mentioned under their respective languages,
American (CUSHING), English (HALKETT _and_ LAING), French (BARBIER
_and_ QUÉRARD). A list of new discoveries is published each month in
the Library Journal.


ART.

MEYER. Allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon. 2. Aufl. von Nagler’s
Künstler-Lexikon. 1.–3. Bd.: A–Bez. Lpz., 1872–85. O.

NAGLER. Die Monogrammisten. München, 1858–79. 5 v. O.

POLLEN. Universal catal. of books on art. Lond., 1858–77. 2 v. and
suppl. sq. O. 29_s._

THIES. Catalogue of the engravings bequeathed to Harvard College by F.
C. Gray. Camb., 1869. Q.


BELGIAN.

BRUSSELS. ACAD. ROY. DE BELGIQUE. Biographie nationale [A-H]. Brux.,
1866–87. 9 v. O.


DANISH.

BRICKA. Dansk. biog. Lex. 1. Bind [A–Bea]. Kopenh., 1887. O.


BOTANY.

PAXTON. Botanical dictionary. New ed. London, 1868. O. 25_s._


DUTCH.

KOBUS _and_ RIVECOURT. Biog. handwoordenboek. Zutphen, 1854–61. 3 v. O.
About $4.

 Convenient; for fuller details use

AA. Biog. woordenboek. Haarlem, 1852–78. 21 v. O.


ENGLISH.

ALLIBONE. Dict. of Eng. literature. Phila., 1858–71. 3 v. O. $22.50.

 A continuation is in preparation.

BURKE. Dormant and extinct peerages. New ed. Lond., 1866. O. 42_s._

BURKE. Landed gentry. 7th ed. Lond., 1886. 2 v. O.

BURKE. Peerage and baronetage. 51st ed. Lond., 1888. O. 38_s._

COLLIER. Bibliog. account of the rarest works in English. Lond., 1868.
2 v. O., or N. Y., 1868. 2 v. O. $16.

DARLING. Cyclopædia bibliog.: Authors. Lond., 1854. O. 52_s._ 6_d._

 Chiefly English theol. works. {131}

DOYLE. Official baronage of England. Lond., 1886. O. 8º. 105_s._

HALKETT _and_ LAING. Dict. of the anon. and pseudon. lit. of Gr.
Britain. Edin., 1882–88. 4 v. O. 168_s._

HAYDN. Book of dignities. Lond., 1851. O. 25_s._

LOWNDES. Bibliog. manual of Eng. literature. New ed., enl. by H. G.
Bohn. Lond., 1857–64. 6 v. D. 33_s._

NICOLAS. Historic peerage. Lond., 1857. O. 30_s._

STEPHEN. Dict. of national biography. Vol. 1—20: A—Garner. Lond.,
1885–89. 20 v. O.

THOMAS. Handbook of fictitious names; by Olphar Hamst [pseud.]. Lond.,
1868. O. 7_s._ 6_d._

WALFORD. County families. New ed. Lond., 1888. O. 50_s._

WARD. Men of the reign. Lond., 1885. D. 15_s._

WATT. Bibliotheca Britannica. Edin., 1824. 4 v. Q. _Antiq._ £4 15_s._

 The following may sometimes be of use: LOW’S English catalogue,
 1835–80. Lond., 1864–82. 3 v. O. 117_s._, and LOW’S [Subject] index to
 the British catalogue, 1837–80. Lond., 1858–84. 3 v. O. 86_s._

 Crockford’s Clerical directory, the Medical directory of Great
 Britain, the Army list, and similar registers afford assistance.


FRENCH.

BARBIER. Ouvrages anonymes. 3^e éd. Paris, 1872–79. 4 v. O. 60 _fr._

LORENZ. Catal. gén. de la librairie française, depuis 1840. Paris,
1867–88. 11 v. O. 330 _fr._

POTIQUET. L’Institut National de France. Paris, 1871. O. 8 _fr._

QUÉRARD. La France littéraire. Paris, 1827–39. 10 v. O. 120 _fr._

QUÉRARD. Supercheries littéraires. 2^e éd. Paris, 1869–70. 3 v. O. 60
_fr._

QUÉRARD _and others_. La littérature française contemporaine. Paris,
1842–57. 6 v. O. 96 _fr._


GEOGRAPHY.

THOMAS _and_ BALDWIN. Lippincott’s gazetteer. New ed. Phila., 1882,
l. O. $12.


GERMAN.

HEINSIUS. Allgem. Bücher-Lexikon; Verzeichniss aller von 1700 bis 1879
erschienenen Bücher. Lpz., 1812–82. 16 v. Q.

KAYSER. Vollständ. Bücher-Lexikon, 1750–1886. Lpz., 1834–87. 24 v. Q.
About $60, but now reduced to 140 marks.

 The following are also often useful The Brockhaus’
 Konversations-Lexikon, 13. Anfl., Lpz., 1882, etc.; Pierer’s
 Universal-Lexikon; the Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, Lpz., 1875–89,
 which has reached R in its 28th vol.; Zedler’s Grosses vollst.
 Univ.-Lex. 1732–54, 68 v. fº (for 17th and 18th century writers); and
 Wurzbach’s Biog. Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich. Wien, 1856–86.
 54 v. O. {132}

GREEK AND ROMAN.

SMITH. Dict. of Gr. and Rom. biography and mythology. Lond., 1849. 3 v.
O. 115_s._ 6_d._, or Bost. $30.

 For subject-cataloguing, the Dictionary of the Bible, the Dict.
 of Greek and Roman antiquities, and the Dict. of Greek and Roman
 geography are of prime importance.


HEBREW.

BRITISH MUSEUM. Catal. of Hebr. books. Lond., 1867. O. 25_s._

FUERST. Biblioth. Judaica. Lpz., 1849–63. 3 v. O. 14 _Thlr._


INCUNABULA.

BERJEAU. Early German, Dutch, and English printers’ marks. Lond., 1866.
O. 10_s._ 6_d._

HAIN. Repertorium bibliogr. Stuttg., 1826–38. 2 v. O. 20 _Thlr._

PANZER. Annales typogr., 1457–1536. Norimb., 1793–1803. 11 v. Q.
_Antiq._ 42 _Thlr._


ITALIAN.

GUBERNATIS. Dizionario biog. degli scrittori contemp. Firenze, 1879. l.
O.

MELZI. Diz. di opere anon. e pseud. Milano, 1848–59. 3 v. O. 30 _fr._

TIRABOSCHI. Storia della lit. ital. Milano, 1822–26. 16 v. O.


LANGUAGE, PHILOLOGY.

ECKSTEIN. Nomenclator philologicus. Lpz., 1871. S.

VATER. Litteratur der Grammatiken, Lexika, _u.s.w._ 2. Aufl. Berl.,
1847. O. 3 _Thlr._


LAW.

BOUVIER. Law dictionary. 15th ed. Phila., 1884. 2 v. O.


MEDIÆVAL.

CHASSANT. Dict. des abréviations lat. et françaises. 3^e éd. Paris,
1866. D. 6 _fr._

CHEVALIER, C. U. J. Répertoire des sources hist. du Moyen Age. Paris,
1877–86. O., and Suppl., 1888. O.

FRANKLIN, A. Dict. des noms, surnoms, et pseudonymes latins, 1100–1530.
Paris, 1875. O. 10 _fr._

GRAESSE. Orbis Latinus; Verzeichniss d. latein. Benennungen der Städte,
_u.s.w._ Dresden, 1861. O. 1½ _Thlr._

POTTHAST. Biblioth. historica Medii Aevi. Berlin, 1862. O., and
supplement, 1868. O. 9 _Thlr._


MEDICINE.

DUNGLISON. Medical lexicon. N. Y., 1873. O. $6.50.

U. S. SURGEON-GENERAL. Index-catalogue of the library. Vol. 1–10:
A-Pfeutsch. Wash., 1880–89. 10 v. l. O. {133}


MUSICIANS.

FÉTIS. Biog. univ. des musiciens. 2^e éd. augm. Paris, 1860–65. 8 v. O.
64 _fr._ Supplément. Paris, 1878–80. 2 v. O.

GROVE. Dict. of music and musicians. Lond. and N. Y., 1879–87. 4 v. O.

MENDEL. Musikalisches Conversations-Lexikon fortg. von A: Reissman. 2e
Ausg. Berl., 1880–82, 11 v. O, and Ergäuzungsband. Berl., 1883. O.


PORTUGUESE.

BARBOSA MACHADO. Bibliotheca lusitana. Lisboa, 1741–59. 4 v. F.

SILVA. Dic. bibliog. portuguez. Lisboa, 1858–62. 7 v., and Suppl.
1867–70. 2 v. O.


QUAKERS.

SMITH. Biblioth. anti-Quakerana. Lond., 1873. O. 15_s._

SMITH. Descr. catal. of Friends’ books. Lond., 1867. 2 v. O.


SCIENCE.

POGGENDORF. Biog.-literar. Handwörterbuch zur Gesch. d. exacten
Wissenschaften. Lpz., 1863. 2 v. O. 10⅔ _Thlr._

ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. Catal. of scientific papers, 1800–63. Lond.,
1867–72. 6 v. Q. £6.


SPANISH.

ANTONIO. Bibliotheca Hispana vetus, ad a. C. MD. Matriti, 1788. 2 v. F.
_Antiq._ 40 à 50 _fr._

ANTONIO. _Same._ Bibliotheca Hispana nova, 1500–1684. Matriti, 1783–88.
2 v. F. _Antiq._ 40 à 50 _fr._

BARRERA. Catal. bibliog. y biog. del teatro ant. esp. hasta med. del
siglo 18. Madrid, 1860. l. O.

BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY. Catalogue of the Spanish and Portuguese books
bequeathed by G. Ticknor; by J. L. Whitney. Boston, 1879. Q.

LATASSA Y ORTIN. Bibl. ant. de los escritores aragoneses. Zaragoza,
1796. 2 v. Q.

LATASSA Y ORTIN. Bib. nova, 1500–[1802]. Pamplona, 1798–1802. 6 v. Q.

TICKNOR. Hist. of Span. lit. 4th ed. Bost., 1872. 3 v. l. O. $10.


WOMEN.

HALE. Woman’s record. N. Y., 1853. l. O. $5.


_N. B._—An INDEX, in which the foregoing rules are given in full in an
alphabetical arrangement, is in preparation.

{135}



ALPHABETICAL INDEX.


 A’, Ap. _See_ Prefixes.

 Ä, pp. 103, 104, 107.

 Abbott, Ezra, p. 3.

 Abbreviations, §§ 156, 180, pp. 103, 107.

  — list of, pp. 118–119.

  — arrangement of, § 239.

 Abridgment, §§ 150–160, p. 101.

 Academies, § 56.

 Accents, § 208.

 Accessions book, pp. 126, 127, 128.

 Acts of legislative bodies, § 41.

 Adaptations. _See_ Epitomes.

 Additions, p. 101.

 Admiralty proceedings, p. 100.

 African names, p. 109.

 Almanacs, §§ 73, 109.

 Alphabeting, pp. 103, 106.

  — J: Edmands’s rules for, p. 116.

 Alphabets, p. 107.

 Alternative titles, §§ 161, 205.

 Alumni. _See_ Colleges.

 Ambiguity, p. 104.

 American, used for U.S., p. 54.

 American Library Assoc. catalog rules, p. 99.

 American reference books, p. 129.

 Analytical references, § 203; p. 14.

  — when to be made, §§ 65, 110, 125–128, 164.

  — arrangement of, § 248.

  — date of, § 194.

 Annuals, § 73.

 Anonymous, defined, p. 9.

 Anonymous biographies, subject-word entry for, § 87.

 Anonymous works, §§ 2, 55, 68–72, 86 _a_, 87, 88 _a_, 170–173, p. 103.

  — author’s name in title entry of, § 173.

  — changed titles of, § 82, 83.

  — forming parts of others, § 71.

  — when considered so, p. 104.

  — reference books for, p. 130.

 Anthologies. _See_ Collections, form entry.

 Apocrypha, p. 100.

 Appended, § 195.

 Apprentices’ Library, N. Y., p. 3.

 Arabic numerals, §§ 117, 187, 191, pp. 103, 107.

 Arabic writers, 19 _e_.

  — transliteration of Arabic names, § 36.

 Arrangement, § 213–258, pp. 103, 106.

 Art, reference books on, p. 130.

 Articles, §§ 76, 151, 152.

  — place of, when transposed, § 170.

  — not noticed in arrangement, §§ 241, p. 117.

 “Articles to be inquired of,” § 47.

 Assemblies, §§ 52, 53.

 Associations, § 56.

 Asterisks, p. 105.

 Asyndetic, defined, p. 9.

 Attributed books, § 2.

 Auctioneers, § 10.

 Author defined, p. 9.

 Author entry, p. 12, §§ 1–67, 126 _c_.

 Author name, arrangement of works under, p. 103.

  — when omitted, p. 104.

 Authors having the same name, how to distinguish, §§ 139, 141, p. 101.

  — uncertain, § 2.


 Banks, § 56 _c_.

 Baronet, title, § 144.

 Belgian reference books, p. 130.

 Benevolent societies, § 56.

 Bible, § 68, pp. 100, 105.

  — arrangement of titles under, § 252.

 Biblical names, p. 108.

 Bibliographies, p. 106.

 Bibliography, § 116.

 Binder’s title, p. 14.

 Biographical reference from fiction, § 87.

 Biographies, economy in entry of, § 67.

  — anonymous, §§ 68, 87.

  — of kings, etc., § 94.

  — in collected works, 126 _d_.

  — arrangement of, § 246, p. 106.

  — when separated from criticisms, §§ 246, 247.

 Bishops, entry of, § 20 _b_.

  — charges, § 47.

 Bodleian Library, catalog rules, p. 104.

 Book sizes, A. L. A. committee on, p. 115.

 Booksellers, § 10.

 Boston Athenæum, p. 7.

 Boston Mercantile Library, p. 7.

 Boston Public Library, p. 7.

 Botany, reference books on, p. 130.

 Brackets, §§ 165, 166, 171–173, 209, 210, pp. 102, 103, 104, 107.

 Breviaries, § 51, p. 105.

 British Museum, p. 3.

 British noblemen, § 21.

 Buildings, § 56 _g_.

 Bureaus. _See_ Government publications.


 Calendars of documents, § 43.

 Canons omit forenames, § 20 _b_.

 Canonized persons. _See_ Saints.

 Capes, § 29.

 Capitals, §§ 205, 206, pp. 101, 104.

  — in German, p. 107.

 Caption, p. 14.

 Cardinals. _See_ Eccles. dignitaries.

 Cartographers, § 8.

 Cases, oblique, in titles, § 80.

 Catalog of accessions, books ordered, missing, etc., pp. 126, 127.

 Catalog rules, Amer. Lib. Assoc., p. 99.

  — Bodleian Library, p. 104.

  — English Lib. Assoc., p. 103.

  — Mr. Dewey’s, p. 107.

 Cataloging, list of books useful in, pp. 128–133.

 Catalogs, p. 105.

  — how entered, §§ 10, 11, 39.

  — table of different kinds of, pp. 11, 12.

 Catch-word entry, p. 13.

  — reference, p. 14, §§ 86, 89.

 Catechisms, § 51.

 Cathedrals. _See_ Churches.

 Centimeters, size of book in, pp. 102, 115.

 Century, not given in early books, § 185.

 Changed names, §§ 22, 60.

 Changed titles of anonymous works, §§ 82, 83.

 Charges, episcopal, § 47.

 Chrestomathies, § 16.

 Christian name. _See_ Forename.

 Chronograms, § 187.

 Chronological arrangement of subjects, § 256.

 Church of England, p. 105.

 Churches, §§ 51, 56.

 Cities, § 40, pp. 99, 107.

  — cross-references from, § 119.

 Civil actions, § 114, p. 100.

 Class, defined, p. 9.

  — its relation to subject, p. 11.

 Class entry, p. 11.

 Classed catalogs, pp. 11, 12.

 Classes of citizens, § 55.

  — of persons, cross-refs. from, § 119.

 Classical names, §§ 36, 226, p. 108.

 Classification, pp. 3, 9–12, § 118.

 Collections, §§ 59, 68, p. 104.

  — arrangement of, § 149.

  — form entry for, § 122.

  — subject entry for, § 92.

  — of an author’s works, arrangement of, p. 106.

 Collective titles, § 59 _c_.

 Collectors, § 59.

 College societies, § 56.

 Colleges, § 56.

 Colon names, p. 122.

 Colophon, § 184.

 Columbia College catalog rules, p. 107.

 Commentaries, §§ 12, 60, pp. 99, 105;

  — arrangement of, p. 106.

 Commentators, pp. 103, 105.

 Comments, § 115.

 Committees and commissions, § 54.

 Compilers. _See_ Editors.

 Composers of music, § 9, p. 105.

 Compound entries. §§ 106, 107.

 Compound names, §§ 23, 60, 106, 107, 227–232, pp. 101, 105.

 Compound subject-names, inversion of, § 107.

 Compound words, arrangement of, § 232.

 Concordances, § 17, p. 106.

 Conferences, § 52.

 Confessions of faith, § 51.

 Congress, § 41.

 Congresses, §§ 49, 60.

 Contents, §§ 198–200, p. 102.

  — arrangement of, § 253.

 Continuations, §§ 13, 60.

  — denoted by dashes, p. 103.

 Contractions. _See_ Elisions.

 Conventions, §§ 52, 60.

 Coöperation committee, A. L. A., p. 99.

 Copyright, date of, p. 102.

 Corporate entry, §§ 39–56, p. 99.

 Corporations, entered under name or place, § 56.

 Correspondence, writers of a, § 3.

 Councils, ecclesiastical, §§ 53, 60.

 Countries, p. 99.

  — as joint authors, § 3.

  — cross refs. from, § 119.

  — arrangement under, § 250–252, 258.

 Country and person, choice between, § 94.

 Country and event, § 95.

 Country and subject, § 96, 97.

 Courtesy titles. _See_ Titles of honor.

 Courts, § 40.

 Creeds, § 51.

 Criminal trials, p. 100.

 Criticisms of anon. works, § 72.

 Criticisms, when to be separated from biographies, §§ 240, 246, 247.

 Cross reference, p. 14, §§ 117, 119, 257.

 Cyclopædias. _See_ Encyclopædias.


 D’, de, § 24, p. 105.

 Daily, § 78.

 Danish names, § 36.

 Danish reference books, p. 130.

 Dashes, § 146, pp. 102, 103, 105, 118.

 Date of publication, §§ 184–194, p. 102.

 Dates in title, § 154.

 Days, abbreviations for names of, p. 125.

 De, de la, § 24, p. 105.

 Debate, participants in a, § 3.

 Defender of a thesis, §§ 5, 60, pp. 104, 105.

 Definitions of terms, pp. 8–15.

 Denominations, religious, § 51.

 Des, § 24, p. 105.

 Designers, §§ 7, 8, 60.

 Dewey, Melvil, his catalog rules, p. 107.

 Dialects, p. 107.

 Dictionaries, § 124.

 Dictionary catalog defined, p. 12.

 Dictionary and systematic catalogs, § 118.

 Digests of laws, § 42.

 Dignitaries, §§ 19, 20, p. 100.

 Directories, § 63.

 Dissertations. _See_ Theses.

 Distinctive epithets, language of, § 143.

 Divisions, under headings, §§ 255, 256, 258.

 Documents, calendars of, § 43.

 Dots, omissions indicated by, pp. 101, 104.

 Double entry, under subjects §§ 93–96, 108.

 Double title pages, § 91.

 Drama, §§ 84, 122.

 Du, § 24, p. 105.

 Duplicate list, p. 126.

 Dutch names, § 36.

 Dutch reference books, p. 130.

 Dziatzko, K: § 5.


 East Indian names, § 19 _e_, p. 108.

 Ecclesiastical councils, §§ 53, 60.

 Ecclesiastical dignitaries, §§ 20 _b_, 60, p. 100.

 Ecclesiastical districts, § 40.

 Economies in author entry, § 62–67.

  — in subject entry, §§ 94, 96, 97, 108, 110–112, 118, 260.

 Editions, §§ 159, 176, 177, p. 102.

  — arrangement of, §§ 242, 243, 260, p. 106.

  — language of, p. 107.

 Editors, §§ 18, 137, pp. 9, 99, 103, 104, 105.

  — of periodicals, § 59 _a_.

 Elisions, § 239.

 Edmands, J:, rules for alphabeting, p. 116.

 Egyptian names, p. 108.

 Encyclopædias, p. 13, § 124.

 English, use of capitals in, p. 101.

 English reference books, p. 130.

 Engravings, §§ 7, 8, 60.

 Entry, defined, p. 12.

  — where to enter, §§ 1–128.

  — how to enter, §§ 129–261.

 Episcopal charges, § 47.

 Epitomes, § 14.

 Eschatology, § 117.

 Essays, § 126 _d_.

 Evening, § 78.

 Events, § 95.

 Exact copying, § 165, p. 101.

 Excerpts, § 16.

 Extracts, §§ 74, 240.


 False dates, § 188.

 False place of publication, § 188.

 Family names. _See_ Surnames.

 Fiction, §§ 75, 122.

  — subject entry under, § 87.

 Firms, § 56 _c_.

 First word, what it is, §§ 76–79.

  — entry, §§ 75–80, pp. 12, 99.

  — reference, p. 14, §§ 84, 85.

 First words of a title to be retained, §§ 134, 162.

 Foreign languages, transliteration in, p. 102.

  — rules for capitals in, § 205, p. 102.

 Foreign names, §§ 23 _b_, _c_, 24, p. 105, 109.

 Foreign phrases as titles, § 77.

 Forenames, §§ 19, 130, 139–141, 155, 215, 216, 219–223.

  — abbreviations of, p. 119.

  — arrangement of, p. 118.

  — in parentheses, p. 104.

  — persons known by, p. 104.

 Form, p. 13.

 Form, typographical. _See_ Size.

 Form entry, p. 13, §§ 122–124.

  — classification by, p. 10.

 Forts, § 26.

 Fragments, p. 106.

 French reference books, p. 131.

 Friars, §§ 19 _c_, 60, pp. 100, 104.

 Friends, Society of, reference books for, p. 133.

 Full, defined, p. 7.

 Future life, § 117.


 Galleries, § 56.

 Gazetteers, § 63.

 Geography, reference books on, p. 131.

 German names, § 36.

 German reference books, p. 131.

 Government publications, §§ 41, 44–46, 251.

  — references from, § 89.

 Governors’ messages, § 46.

 Grammars, § 124, p. 107.

 Greek and Roman reference books, p. 132.

 Greek names, §§ 36, 226, p. 108.

  — of deities, § 100.

 Grouping of subject-headings, §§ 255, 256.

 Guilds, § 56.


 Half-titles, p. 14.

 Harris, W: T., p. 3.

 Harvard College Library, p. 3.

 Heading reference, p. 14.

 Headings, defined, p. 13.

  — abbreviations of, p. 123.

  — arrangement of, §§ 214–239.

  — compound, p. 106.

  — style of, §§ 130–147.

  — after _See_ or _In_, type for, § 147.

 Hebrew names, p. 108.

  — reference books, p. 132.

  — words, transliteration, pp. 108, 113.

  — writers, § 19 _c_.

 Heilprin, M., p. 111.

 Historical fiction, subject entry for, § 84.

 Historical grouping of titles under countries, § 258 (end of note).

 Historical societies, § 56.

 Homonyms, §§ 105, 254.

 Hungarian names, §§ 36, 219.

 Huon de Bordeaux, § 261.

 Hymns, § 109.

 Hyphened words, § 233, p. 117.


 Illustrations, p. 102.

 Imprints, pp. 13, 102, §§ 178–197.

  — abbreviations of, p. 123.

  — object in giving, p. 102.

  — order of, pp. 103, 104.

 Incomplete names, arrangement of, § 235.

 Incunabula, § 261.

  — reference books for, p. 132.

 Indention, § 146.

 Indexes, §§ 13, 60, 124, pp. 106, 107.

 Indian names, p. 109.

 Individual subjects, p. 11.

 Individual works of an author, arrangement of, p. 104.

 Initials, entry under, §§ 57, 60, pp. 99, 104.

  — for forenames, § 139.

  — for subject heading, § 158.

  — arrangement of, pp. 117, 118.

 Inscription, single, § 69.

 Interrogation marks, p. 103.

 Introductions, § 60 (13–16).

 Inversion of subject names, § 107.

 Italian reference books, p. 132.

 Italics, §§ 131, 174, 211, 212.


 Jewett, C. C., p. 3.

 Jewish. _See_ Hebrew.

 Joint authors, §§ 3, 4, 60, 127, 240, p. 100.

  — arrangement of works by, § 240.

 Journals, of legislative bodies, § 41.

  — of conventions, § 52.

  — of societies, § 56.


 Kings, works written by, §§ 40, 44.

  — works about, § 94.

 Knighthood, orders of, §§ 51, 56.

 Koran, p. 100.


 L’, la, entry of § 24 _a_.

 Lakes, § 26.

 Lady, as title, § 142.

 Lane, W: C., p. 111.

 Language, classification by, p. 9.

  — of a catalog, § 204.

  — of a book, to be stated in the title, §§ 167, 168, p. 102.

  — of subject names, § 100.

  — reference books for, p. 132.

 Lanman, C. R., p. 111.

 Latin appellatives, § 144.

 Latin names, §§ 25, 27^2, 60, 226.

  — of Greek deities, § 100.

 Latinized form of Greek names, § 36.

 Law, reference books for, p. 132.

 Laws, §§ 41, 42.

  — digests of, § 42.

 Le, entry of, § 24 _a_.

 Leonardus de Utino, § 261.

 Lexicons. _See_ Dictionaries.

 Libraries, § 56 _d_.

 Library Assoc. of the United Kingdom, catalog rules, p. 103.

 Library catalogs, p. 105.

 Library school catalog rules, p. 107.

 Literary form, p. 13.

 Literary history, § 116.

 Liturgies, § 51, pp. 103, 105.

 Lord, as title, § 144.


 M’, Mc., etc., § 217.

 Manifestoes, § 51.

 Maps, p. 102.

  — authors of, § 8.

  — how to identify, § 197.

  — mentioned in imprint, § 178.

  — measurement of, § 197.

 Married women, §§ 20 _c_, 60, p. 100.

  — titles of, § 142.

 Masonic dates, § 186.

 Mediæval works, § 68.

 Medicine, reference books for, p. 132.

 Medium, defined, p. 7.

 Memoirs of societies, §§ 56, 73.

  — their subject entry, § 92.

 Mercantile library associations, § 56.

 Messages, Presidents’ or governors’, § 46.

 Middle ages, reference books for, p. 132.

 Military noblemen, § 21^2.

 Minutes of legislative bodies, § 41.

  — of conventions, § 52.

 Missals, § 51, p. 105.

 Missing-book list, pp. 126, 127.

 Months, abbreviations or names of, p. 125.

 Morning, § 78.

 Mottoes, § 162, p. 99.

 Mountains, § 26.

 Museums, § 56.

 Musical works, § 9, p. 105.

 Musicians, reference books for, p. 133.


 Name, under what part of, to enter, §§ 19–26.

  — under what form of, to enter, §§ 27–38.

  — entry under parts of, §§ 57, 60.

 Names, assumed, § 135.

  — changed, § 22.

  — foreign, §§ 23 _b_, _c_, 24.

  — local, as headings, § 39.

  — naturalized, § 24 _d_.

  — personal, §§ 3–38.

  — to be given in full in headings, p. 101.

  — of subjects, §§ 99–111.

  — variety of spelling in, §§ 30, 31.

  — transliteration of. _See_ Transliteration.

 Naturalized names, § 24 _d_.

 New, place of word in arranging, p. 117.

 Newspapers, §§ 73, 78.

 Nichols, Th., p. 3.

 Noblemen, §§ 21, 60, p. 100.

 Notes, § 201, p. 102.

  — abbreviations of, p. 123.

 Novels. _See_ Fiction.

 Numbers. _See_ Numerals.

 Numerals, § 157, p. 118.

  — arranged as if written out, § 238.

  — at the beginning of titles, § 78.

  — initial, disregarded in arrangement, § 244.


 O’, § 24.

 Objects of a dictionary catalog, p. 8.

 Oblique cases in titles, § 80.

 Official writings, entry of, § 44.

 Omissions. _See_ Abridgment.

 Order of the parts of an entry, § 207.

  — of the parts of an imprint, § 178.

  — of place and date in imprint, § 191.

  — of the title to be preserved, § 148.

 Order list, pp. 126, 127.

 Orders, military and religious, §§ 51, 56.

 Oriental authors, §§ 19 _e_, 60, pp. 100, 104.

  — names, p. 109.


 Pages, number of, §§ 178, 194, p. 102.

 Pamphlets, p. 126.

 Parentheses, §§ 176, 209, 210, pp. 104, 107.

 Parliament, § 41.

 Parties, political, § 51.

 Patronymic phrases, § 144.

 Periodical list, p. 126.

 Periodicals, § 73, pp. 99, 104.

 Periods in history, § 95.

 Perkins, F: B., p. 3, § 63.

 Person and country, choice between, for subject entry, § 94.

 Personal name, §§ 3–38.

 Persons and places, relative position in arrangement, p. 103.

 Phrases, used as subject entry, §§ 93, 106.

 Place, entry of that part of a body which belongs to a, § 51.

 Place and date, position of, p. 107.

 Place of publication, §§ 179, 182, 184, 188, 189, p. 102.

 Place of publication, abbreviations of, p. 125.

 Places, names of, §§ 33–35, p. 101.

  — entry under, §§ 40, 56.

  — compound names of, § 230.

 Plans, authors of, § 7.

 Plates, mentioned in imprints, § 178.

 Platforms, § 51.

 Plays, §§ 84, 122.

 Plural number, p. 117.

 Poems, §§ 84, 122.

 Polygraphic, p. 13.

 Polytopical, p. 13.

 Popes, § 19 _a_, p. 104.

 Portraits, p. 102.

 Portuguese reference books, p. 133.

 Position, § 158.

 Possessive case, § 225.

  — place of, p. 117.

 Practical form, p. 13.

 Præses, §§ 5, 60, p. 105.

 Prayer books, § 51, pp. 103, 105.

 Preface writers, p. 103.

 Prefixes to names, §§ 24, 60, 144, 217, 219, 227, pp. 101, 105, 118.

  — arrangement of, p. 103.

 Prepositions, § 76.

 Presidential conventions, § 52.

 President’s messages, § 46.

 Princes, §§ 19 _a_, 60, pp. 100, 104.

 Printing, place of, p. 102.

  — style of, for headings § 147.

 Proceedings, §§ 56, 73.

  — their subject entry, § 92.

 Profession, designation of, p. 101.

 Proper names, §§ 205, 206.

 Pseudonyms, entry under, §§ 6, 58, 60, pp. 99, 100, 104, 107.

  — arrangement of, § 234.

  — reference books for, p. 130.

  — use of _pseud._, §§ 135, 136.

 Publication, place of, §§ 179–182, 184, 188, 189, p. 102.

 Publishers’ names, § 183, p. 102.

 Publishing societies, § 59 _e_.

 Punctuation, § 207.


 Rank, designations of, p. 101.

 Rare books, § 261.

 “Red-tape,” indispensable in some cases, § 68.

 Reference defined, p. 13.

 Reference books, list of, p. 128.

 References, §§ 147, 202, 203, p. 100.

  — author, §§ 60, 62.

 Regesta, § 43.

 Registers, § 63.

 Reigns, histories of, § 94.

 Religious bodies, § 51, p. 105.

 Repetition of titles, how avoided, § 146.

 Replies to a work. _See_ Comments.

 Reporters, §§ 18, 64.

 Reports, governmental, §§ 41, 46, 48.

  — law, p. 100.

  — of committees, § 54.

  — of conventions, conferences, etc., § 52.

 Reprints, § 193.

 Respondent of a thesis, §§ 5, 60, pp. 104, 105.

 Reviews, §§ 115, 126 _d_.

 Revisions, §§ 15, 242.

 Rivers, § 26.

 Romaic names, § 36.

 Roman Catholic Church, p. 105.

 Roman numerals, § 157, pp. 103, 107.

 Rome, reference books for, p. 132.

 Royal Geographical Society, p. 109.

 Russian words, transliteration of, pp. 110, 114.


 Sacred books, p. 100.

 St. Louis Public School Library, p. 3.

 Saints, §§ 19 _b_, 60, pp. 100, 104.

 _Same_, § 159.

 Sanscrit language, p. 111.

 Scholia, p. 106.

 Schools, § 56.

 Schwartz, J., p. 3.

 Science, reference books for, p. 133.

 _See_ and _See also_, §§ 202, 211.

 Selections, p. 106.

 Semitic languages, p. 111.

 Serials, not to be confounded with periodicals, § 73.

 Series entry, § 59 _d_.

  — for calendars, § 43.

 Series name, transposition of, § 149.

 Sermons, p. 107.

 Service books, p. 103, 105.

 Sets of works, §§ 125, 126.

 Seven Sages, history of, § 68.

 Shah of Persia, § 60 (21 _b_).

 Shelf lists, pp. 126, 127.

 Ships, §§ 64, 113.

 Short, defined, p. 7.

 _Sic_, use of, § 165.

 Signatures, § 196 (note).

 Signs used as headings, § 57.

  — arrangement of, § 236.

 Size or typographical form, § 196, pp. 102, 115.

  — A. L. A. rules for, § 196 (note).

  — notation for, p. 126.

 Slavic languages, transliteration of, p. 110.

 Societies, §§ 56, 125, 126, pp. 99, 100, 105, 107.

  — publishing, § 59 _e_.

  — references to works under the names of, § 89.

  — references to, from places, p. 104.

  — names of, how arranged, § 231.

 Sovereigns, §§ 19 _a_, 60, pp. 100, 104.

 Spanish names, § 36.

 Spanish reference books, p. 133.

 Specific entry, pp. 11, 12, 14, § 93.

 Spelling, variety of, §§ 30, 31, 60, 79.

  — of foreign names, p. 109.

 Spurious works, § 240.

 States, abbreviations for names of, p. 125.

 Style of entry, §§ 130–261.

 Subarrangement, chronological, § 256.

 Subdivisions under countries, §§ 97, 107 (end of note), 251, 258.

  — under other subjects, §§ 255–258.

 Subject, defined, p. 14.

  — classification by, p. 10.

  — its relation to class, p. 11.

  — and country, choice between, §§ 96, 97.

 Subject entry, p. 13, §§ 92–121, 126 _d_.

  — choice between general and specific, § 93.

  — object of, wrongly stated, § 160 (note).

 Subject entry, references between specific and general, §§ 119, 120.

 Subject headings spelled alike, how distinguished, § 145.

  — arrangement of, p. 116.

 Subject word and subject, § 104.

  — not occurring in title, § 104.

  — entry, p. 13, § 87.

  — reference, p. 15, § 63.

  — for anonymous works, p. 103.

 Subject words, inversion of compound, § 107.

  — rules governing determination of, § 107.

 Subjects, arrangement of, §§ 254–258.

  — case of overlapping, § 98.

  — opposite, § 103.

  — synonymous, §§ 101–103.

 Substitute for author’s name, §§ 57–59.

 Supplements, § 259.

 Surnames, §§ 20, 138, 139, p. 99, 101, 104.

  — masculine and feminine forms of, § 29.

  — and forenames, place of, in arranging, p. 117.

  — with a prefix, pp. 105, 118.

 Swedish names, § 36.

 Syndetic, p. 14.

 Synonymous subject names, §§ 101–103.

 Synoptical table, § 121.

 Synopsis of arrangement, when to be given, § 252.

 Syriac words, transliteration of, p. 113.

 Systematic and dictionary catalogs, p. 57.


 Talmud, p. 100.

 Theological libraries, subject headings in, § 117.

 Theses, §§ 5, 60, pp. 100, 104, 105.

 Tillinghast, C. B., p. 111.

 Title, defined, p. 14.

  — its influence on entry, p. 15, §§ 1, 3, 104.

 Title editions, § 177.

 Title entries, arrangement of, § 237.

 Title entry, p. 12, §§ 68–83.

 Title page, loss of, § 68.

 Title pages, double, § 91.

  — bibliographers’ cult of, p. 15.

 Title references, §§ 81–91.

  — analytical, § 127.

 Titles, abbreviations in, p. 124.

  — alternative, §§ 161, 205.

  — arrangement of, §§ 240–252.

  — exact copying of, § 165, p. 101.

  — first words of, to be retained, § 162

  — how to supply missing, § 68.

 Titles, not to be taken for names, § 19 _e_.

  — style of, §§ 148–175.

 Titles of honor, p. 104, 125.

  — arrangement of, § 224, p. 118.

  — capitals for, §§ 205, 206, p. 101.

  — italicised in headings, § 131.

  — not italicised in titles, § 174.

 Towns, § 40.

 Toy, C. H., p. 111.

 Tract catalog, p. 126.

 Transactions of societies, §§ 56, 73.

  — their subject entry, § 92.

 Translations, §§ 168, 169, pp. 99, 105.

  — arrangement of, § 245, p. 106.

  — of anonymous works, § 72.

 Translators, §§ 18, 60, pp. 103, 105.

 Transliteration, §§ 36, 37, 38, 175, 179, p. 102.

 Transliteration committee of A. L. A., report of, p. 108.

 Treaties, § 50.

 Trials, §§ 64, 113, 114, p. 100.

 Type, §§ 130–134.

 Typographical form. _See_ Size.


 Ü. _See_ Umlaut.

 Umlaut, German, pp. 103, 104, 107.

 Undated editions, arrangement of, § 243.

 Uniformity, importance and unimportance of, § 129.

  — want of, in catalogs, § 97.

 Universities, § 56.

 Unmarried women, titles of, § 142 _f_, _g_.

 Unnecessary words, to be omitted, §§ 152, 153.


 Van, § 24 _b_, _c_.

 Vernacular, to be used in spelling, § 27, p. 101.

 Vessels. _See_ Ships.

 Volume, defined, p. 15.

 Volumes, number of, § 195, p. 102.

 Von, § 24 _b_, _c_.


 Water lines, § 196 (note).

 Weekly, § 78.

 Whitney, W: D., p. 111.

 Williams, Monier, p. 111.

 Wister, _Mrs._ A. L., her translations, § 60 (18).

 Women, reference books on, p. 133.

  — married, §§ 20 _c_, 60, 142, p. 100.

  — unmarried, titles of, § 142 _f_, _g_.

 Word books, p. 107.


 Young Men’s Christian Associations, § 56.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber’s note:

Original spelling and grammar have been generally retained, with
some exceptions noted below.

I produced the cover image and hereby assign it to the public domain.

Large curly brackets that graphically indicate combination of
information on two or more lines of text have been removed. The text
was modified, if necessary, to retain the original meaning. In most
cases, as on page 8, this was trivial. However, the task was not
trivial for the chart beginning at the bottom of page 11, so errors
of interpretation are not impossible. For reference, the original
image is shown below.

 [Illustration]

The original Table of Contents failed to connect reliably with the
text. The original has been severely overhauled, without further
comment here.

Precise horizontal spacing of words is essential in this book.
However, this has not been implemented in this simple text edition.


Page 12. The word ‹unsorbordinated› was changed to ‹unsubordinated›.

Page 15. During the process of producing an ebook, headings are coded
in HTML as h1–h6 elements, with h1 representing the highest level in an
outline. A new h2 level heading, ‹ENTRY.›, was inserted on page 15. A
new h4 level heading, ‹CATALOGUE.›, was inserted after the existing h3
heading ‹I. AUTHOR-ENTRY.›.

Page 16. The existing h4 heading ‹AUTHORS.› was changed to ‹A. AUTHORS.›.

Page 17. The h5 level heading ‹1. PERSONAL.› was changed to ‹(a.)
PERSONAL.›. The h6 heading ‹_a. Under whom as author._› was changed
to ‹(i.) _Under whom as author._›. Subsequent entries in these lists
were enumerated similarly, e.g. on page 20 where ‹_b._› was changed to
‹(ii.)›.

Page 21. The phrase ‹Grässe’s ‘Lehrbuch› was changed to ‹Grässe’s
“Lehrbuch›.

Page 27. The phrase ‹Tilsley’s ‘Digest› was changed to ‹Tilsley’s
“Digest›.

Page 32. The phrase ‹the Christain name› was changed to ‹the Christian
name›.

Page 37. The word ‹vesssels› was changed to ‹vessels›.

Page 38. A new h4 heading was inserted: ‹CATALOGUE.›.

Page 45. The h3 heading ‹III. SUBJECTS.› was changed to ‹III.
SUBJECT-ENTRY.› A new h4 level heading ‹CATALOGUE.› was inserted before
the catalogue.

Page 46. The h5 level heading ‹A. ENTRIES CONSIDERED SEPARATELY.› was
changed to ‹(a.) ENTRIES CONSIDERED SEPARATELY.›, and the h5 level
heading on page 57 was changed similarly. The h6 level heading ‹1.
CHOICE BETWEEN DIFFERENT SUBJECTS.› was changed to ‹(i.) CHOICE BETWEEN
DIFFERENT SUBJECTS.›.

Page 51. The phrase ‹as «Moral philosophy» to «Ethics» or to «Morals,
Intellectual» or «Mental philosophy» to «Intellect» or «Mind, Natural
philosophy» to «Physics, Sanitary science» to «Hygiene, Scientific
men» to «Scientists», «Social science» to «Sociology»;› was changed
to ‹as «Moral philosophy» to «Ethics» or to «Morals, Intellectual»;
or «Mental philosophy» to «Intellect»; or «Mind, Natural philosophy»
to «Physics, Sanitary science»; or «Hygiene, Scientific men» to
«Scientists»; or «Social science» to «Sociology»;›. Specifically,
semicolons have been introduced to improve the syntax of this
complicated phrase.

Page 54. The word ‹slighest› was changed to ‹slightest›.

Pages 58–117. Several instances of originally _gesperrt_ text, in which
the spacing between letters has been increased, have been changed to
bold. Gesperrt text—the HTML/CSS attribute letter-spacing—is not yet
supported by many epub reader browsers. Two instances of gesperrt text
have been preserved. On page 64, the name ‹«Guizot», François Pierre
Guillaume› has been rendered herein with a clumsy artificial gesperrt,
namely by adding explicit spaces [u202f narrow no-break space] between
the letters of ‹F r a n ç o i s  P i e r r e›. On page 84, the name
‹«Franklin», John D a v i d› has been rendered herein with similar
artificial gesperrt.

Page 61. The h2 level heading ‹VI. STYLE.› was changed to ‹STYLE.›. A
new h3 heading was inserted: ‹CATALOGUE.›.

Page 62. The h3 level heading ‹STYLE.› was changed to ‹VI. STYLE.›.

Page 81. The h4 heading ‹H. PUNCTUATION, ETC.› was changed to ‹I.
PUNCTUATION, ETC.›.

Page 83. The h4 heading ‹I. ARRANGEMENT.› was changed to ‹J.
ARRANGEMENT.›.

Pages 94–96. In § 258, the two example catalogues were originally
printed side by side: (1.) dictionary catalogue with a “bit of
classification”, on the left, and (2.) dictionary catalogue, “pure
and simple”, on the right. Semantically, these are two independent
lists, which do not comprise a table. To display them side by side
in an ebook using the coding methods currently available to us is
problematic. Therefore, catalogue 2 has been moved after catalogue 1,
and new headings have been inserted. In catalogue 1, the three subjects
‹Satire.›, ‹Sonnets.›, and ‹Wit and humor.› were subordinated under
‹Literature.›, correcting an evident error in the original.

Page 98. The h4 heading ‹J. _Etc._› was changed to ‹K. _Etc._›.

Page 103. The word ‹noticeable› was originally printed on two lines as
‹notice,› ‹able›.

Page 106. The word ‹arrranged› was changed to ‹arranged›.

Pages 109–110. The table is semantically three columns but was printed
in two columns, so appears in the original to have six columns. Herein
the table has been restored to three columns. On page 109, first
column, seventh entry ‹an› is changed to ‹au›.

Page 117. The quotation mark in ‹“A single ful name› has no mate; its
mate possibly belongs after ‹John.›.





*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue - U. S. Bureau of Education Special Report on Public Libraries—Part II, Third Edition" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.



Home