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Title: Index of the Project Gutenberg Works of John Ruskin
Author: Ruskin, John
Language: English
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WORKS OF

JOHN RUSKIN


CONTENTS

##  THE KING OF THE GOLDEN RIVER

##  THE KING OF THE GOLDEN RIVER (Illustrated)

RUSKIN LILIES

##  THE ETHICS OF THE DUST

##  MORNINGS IN FLORENCE

##  THE TWO PATHS

##  VAL D'ARNO

##  THE QUEEN OF THE AIR

##  PROSERPINA, Vol. 1

PROSERPINA, Vol. 2

##  SELECTIONS FROM RUSKIN

##  THE PLEASURES OF ENGLAND

##  THE POETRY OF ARCHITECTURE

##  LOVE'S MEINIE

GIOTTO AND HIS WORKS IN PADUA

##  LECTURES ON ART

##  A JOY FOR EVER

##  LECTURES ON LANDSCAPE

##  THE STORM-CLOUD OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

##  ON THE OLD ROAD, VOL. 2 (of 2)

##  THE HARBOURS OF ENGLAND

##  HORTUS INCLUSUS

##  LECTURES ON ARCHITECTURE

##  BIBLE OF AMIENS

##  ARATRA PENTELICI, SEVEN LECTURES

##  THE CROWN OF WILD OLIVE

##  ARIADNE FLORENTINA

##  SAINT URSULA

##  THE ELEMENTS OF DRAWING

##  STONES OF VENICE [INTRODUCTIONS]

##  THE STONES OF VENICE, Vol. I (of III)

##  THE STONES OF VENICE, Vol. II

##  THE STONES OF VENICE, Vol. III (of III)

##  FRONDES AGRESTES

##  TIME AND TIDE BY WEARE AND TYNE

##  THE SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE

##  UNTO THIS LAST AND OTHER POLITICAL ESSAYS

##  THE EAGLE'S NEST

OF VULGARITY

##  RUSKIN RELICS

##  ARROWS OF THE CHACE, Vol. 1 (of 2)

##  ARROWS OF THE CHACE, Vol. 2 (of 2)

##  MODERN PAINTERS Vol. I (of V)

##  MODERN PAINTERS Vol. II (of V)

##  MODERN PAINTERS Vol. III (of V)

##  MODERN PAINTERS Vol. IV (of V)

##  MODERN PAINTERS Vol. V (of V)



TABLES OF CONTENTS OF VOLUMES



The King of the Golden River
By John Ruskin


CONTENTS
CHAPTER I
HOW THE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM OF THE BLACK BROTHERS WAS INTERFERED WITH BY SOUTHWEST WIND, ESQUIRE

CHAPTER II
OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE THREE BROTHERS AFTER THE VISIT OF SOUTHWEST WIND, ESQUIRE; AND HOW LITTLE GLUCK HAD AN INTERVIEW WITH THE KING OF GOLDEN RIVER

CHAPTER III
HOW MR. HANS SET OFF ON AN EXPEDITION TO THE GOLDEN RIVER, AND HOW HE PROSPERED THEREIN

CHAPTER IV
HOW MR. SCHWARTZ SET OFF ON AN EXPEDITION TO THE GOLDEN RIVER, AND HOW HE PROSPERED THEREIN

CHAPTER V
HOW LITTLE GLUCK SET OFF ON AN EXPEDITION TO THE GOLDEN RIVER, AND HOW HE PROSPERED THEREIN, WITH OTHER MATTERS OF INTEREST



THE KING OF THE GOLDEN RIVER
OR THE BLACK BROTHERS
A Legend of Stiria
By John Ruskin
Illustrated by Richard Doyle


CONTENTS
CHAPTER I.
HOW THE AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM OF THE BLACK BROTHERS WAS INTERFERED WITH BY SOUTH-WEST WIND, ESQUIRE	9

CHAPTER II.
OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE THREE BROTHERS AFTER THE VISIT OF SOUTH-WEST WIND, ESQUIRE; AND HOW LITTLE GLUCK HAD AN INTERVIEW WITH THE KING OF THE GOLDEN RIVER	28
CHAPTER III.
HOW MR. HANS SET OFF ON AN EXPEDITION TO THE GOLDEN RIVER, AND HOW HE PROSPERED THEREIN	40
CHAPTER IV.
HOW MR. SCHWARTZ SET OFF ON AN EXPEDITION TO THE GOLDEN RIVER, AND HOW HE PROSPERED THEREIN	51

CHAPTER V.
HOW LITTLE GLUCK SET OFF ON AN EXPEDITION TO THE GOLDEN RIVER, AND HOW HE PROSPERED THEREIN; WITH OTHER MATTERS OF INTEREST	56
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Designed And Drawn On Wood By Richard Doyle
SUBJECTS.	ENGRAVERS.	PAGE
South-West Wind, Esq., knocking at the Black Brothers' door	C. Thurston Thompson	Frontispiece.
The Treasure Valley	C. Thurston Thompson	Title
Initial Letter, and Mountain Range	G. and E. Dalziel	9
South-West Wind, Esq., seated on the hob	G. and E. Dalziel	18
South-West Wind, Esq., bowing to the Black Brothers	H. Orrin Smith	21
Storm Scene	G. and E. Dalziel	25
Card of South-West Wind, Esq.	H. Orrin Smith	27
Initial Letter, and Cottage in the Treasure Valley	Isabel Thompson	28
The Black Brothers drinking and Gluck working	C. S. Cheltnam	30
Gluck looking out at the Golden River	H. D. Linton	32
The Golden Dwarf appearing to Gluck	G. and E. Dalziel	36
Gluck looking up the Chimney	H. Orrin Smith	39
The Black Brothers beating Gluck	C. S. Cheltnam	40
Hans and Schwartz fighting	H. Orrin Smith	41
Schwartz before the Magistrate	C. S. Cheltnam	42
Hans and the Dog	H. Orrin Smith	47
The Black Stone	G. and E. Dalziel	50
Initial Letter—Gluck releasing Schwartz	G. and E. Dalziel	51
Schwartz ascending the Mountain	H. Orrin Smith	53
Initial Letter—Gluck ascending the Mountain	H. Orrin Smith	56
Priest giving Gluck Holy Water	G. and E. Dalziel	57
Gluck and the Child	C. S. Cheltnam	59



THE ETHICS OF THE DUST
Ten Lectures To Little Housewives
On The Elements Of Crystallization
By John Ruskin, LL.D.,


CONTENTS
DEDICATION.
PERSONAE
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
PREFACE.
LECTURE 1. — THE VALLEY OF DIAMONDS
LECTURE 2. — THE PYRAMID BUILDERS
LECTURE 3. — THE CRYSTAL LIFE
LECTURE 4. — THE CRYSTAL ORDERS
LECTURE 5. — CRYSTAL VIRTUES
LECTURE 6. — CRYSTAL QUARRELS
LECTURE 7. — HOME VIRTUES
LECTURE 8. — CRYSTAL CAPRICE
LECTURE 9. — CRYSTAL SORROWS
LECTURE 10.
NOTES.
NOTE I.
NOTE II.
NOTE III.
NOTE IV.
NOTE V.
NOTE VI.
NOTE TO SECOND EDITION



MORNINGS IN FLORENCE
By John Ruskin


CONTENTS
MORNINGS IN FLORENCE.
THE FIRST MORNING.
THE SECOND MORNING.
THE THIRD MORNING.
THE FOURTH MORNING.
THE FIFTH MORNING.
THE SIXTH MORNING.



THE TWO PATHS
By John Ruskin


CONTENTS
THE TWO PATHS.
PREFACE.
THE TWO PATHS
LECTURE I. — THE DETERIORATIVE POWER OF CONVENTIONAL ART OVER NATIONS.
LECTURE II. — THE UNITY OF ART.
LECTURE III. — MODERN MANUFACTURE AND DESIGN.
LECTURE IV. — INFLUENCE OF IMAGINATION IN ARCHITECTURE
LECTURE V. — THE WORK OF IRON, IN NATURE, ART, AND POLICY.
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX II.
APPENDIX III.
APPENDIX IV.
APPENDIX V.



VAL D'ARNO
By John Ruskin


CONTENTS
VAL D'ARNO
LECTURE I. NICHOLAS THE PISAN.
LECTURE II. JOHN THE PISAN.
LECTURE III. SHIELD AND APRON.
LECTURE IV. PARTED PER PALE.
LECTURE V. PAX VOBISCUM.
LECTURE VI. MARBLE COUCHANT.
LECTURE VII. MARBLE RAMPANT.
LECTURE VIII. FRANCHISE.
LECTURE IX. THE TYRRHENE SEA.
LECTURE X. FLEUR DE LYS.



THE QUEEN OF THE AIR
Being a Study of the Greek Myths of Cloud and Storm
By John Ruskin, LL.D.
CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
THE QUEEN OF THE AIR.
I. — ATHENA CHALINITIS. (Athena in the Heavens.)
II. — ATHENA KERAMITIS. (Athena in the Earth.)
III. — ATHENA ERGANE. (Athena in the Heart.)



PROSERPINA.
VOLUME I.
Studies of Wayside Flowers
By John Ruskin,


CONTENTS OF VOL.
PAGE

INTRODUCTION

1

CHAPTER I. MOSS

12

CHAPTER II. THE ROOT

26

CHAPTER III. THE LEAF

40

CHAPTER IV. THE FLOWER

64

CHAPTER V. PAPAVER RHOEAS

86

CHAPTER VI. THE PARABLE OF JOASH

106

CHAPTER VII. THE PARABLE OF JOTHAM

117

CHAPTER VIII. THE STEM

127

CHAPTER IX. OUTSIDE AND IN

151

CHAPTER X. THE BARK

170

CHAPTER XI. GENEALOGY

176

CHAPTER XII. CORA AND KRONOS

205

CHAPTER XIII. THE SEED AND HUSK

219

CHAPTER XIV. THE FRUIT GIFT

227

INDEX I. DESCRIPTIVE NOMENCLATURE

239

INDEX II. ENGLISH NAMES

255

INDEX III. LATIN OR GREEK NAMES

258



SELECTIONS FROM THE WORKS OF JOHN RUSKIN
Edited With Introduction And Notes By Chauncey B. Tinker


CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
The Life of Ruskin
The Unity of Ruskin's Writings
Ruskin's Style
SELECTIONS FROM MODERN PAINTERS
The Earth-Veil
The Mountain Glory
Sunrise on the Alps
The Grand Style
Of Realization
Of the Novelty of Landscape
Of the Pathetic Fallacy
Of Classical Landscape
Of Modern Landscape
The Two Boyhoods
SELECTIONS FROM THE STONES OF VENICE
The Throne
St. Mark's
Characteristics of Gothic Architecture
SELECTIONS FROM THE SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE
The Lamp of Memory
The Lamp of Obedience
SELECTIONS FROM LECTURES ON ART
Inaugural
The Relation of Art to Morals
The Relation of Art to Use
ART AND HISTORY
TRAFFIC
LIFE AND ITS ARTS
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE



THE PLEASURES OF ENGLAND.
Lectures given in Oxford.
By John Ruskin
CONTENTS
LECTURE I.
THE PLEASURES OF LEARNING. Bertha to Osburga 5

LECTURE II.
THE PLEASURES OF FAITH. Alfred to the Confessor 31

LECTURE III.
THE PLEASURES OF DEED. Alfred to Cour de Lion 61

LECTURE IV.
THE PLEASURES OF FANCY. Cour de Lion to Elizabeth 91



POETRY OF ARCHITECTURE
SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE
By John Ruskin
CONTENTS
 	INTRODUCTION	1
 	PART I.—THE COTTAGE.
I.	THE LOWLAND COTTAGE—ENGLAND AND FRANCE	7
II.	THE LOWLAND COTTAGE—ITALY	15
III.	THE MOUNTAIN COTTAGE—SWITZERLAND	25
IV.	THE MOUNTAIN COTTAGE—WESTMORELAND	35
V.	A CHAPTER ON CHIMNEYS	45
VI.	THE COTTAGE—CONCLUDING REMARKS	57
 	PART II.—THE VILLA.
I.	THE MOUNTAIN VILLA—LAGO DI COMO	67
II.	THE MOUNTAIN VILLA—LAGO DI COMO (CONTINUED)	80
III.	THE ITALIAN VILLA (CONCLUDED)	94
IV.	THE LOWLAND VILLA—ENGLAND	104
V.	THE ENGLISH VILLA—PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION	113
VI.	THE BRITISH VILLA.—PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION.
(THE CULTIVATED, OR BLUE COUNTRY, AND THE WOODED, OR GREEN COUNTRY)	126
VII.	THE BRITISH VILLA.—PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION.
(THE HILL, OR BROWN COUNTRY)	145
LIST OF PLATES
Facing Page
Fig.	1. Old Windows; from an early sketch by the Author	13
"	2. Italian Cottage Gallery, 1846	20
Cottage near la Cité, Val d'Aosta, 1838	21
"	3. Swiss Cottage, 1837. (Reproduced from the Architectural Magazine)	28
"	4. Cottage near Altorf, 1835	29
"	5. Swiss Châlet Balcony, 1842	32
"	6. The Highest House in England, at Malham	42
"	7. Chimneys. (Eighteen sketches redrawn from the Architectural Magazine)	48
"	8. Coniston Hall, from the Lake near Brantwood, 1837. (Reproduced from the Architectural Magazine)	50
"	9. Chimney at Neuchatel; Dent du Midi and Mont Blanc in the distance	20
"	10. Petrarch's Villa, Arquà, 1837. (Redrawn from the Architectural Magazine)	98
"	11. Broken Curves. (Three diagrams, redrawn from the Architectural Magazine)	101
"	12. Old English Mansion, 1837. (Reproduced from the Architectural Magazine)	116
"	13. Windows. (Three designs, reproduced from the Architectural Magazine)	122
"	14. Leading Lines of Villa-Composition. (Diagram redrawn from the Architectural Magazine)	164



LOVE'S MEINIE.
THREE LECTURES ON GREEK AND ENGLISH BIRDS.
By John Ruskin


CONTENTS.
PREFACEv
LECTURE I.

THE ROBIN1
LECTURE II.

THE SWALLOW25
LECTURE III.

THE DABCHICKS52


APPENDIX107



LECTURES ON ART.
Delivered Before The University Of Oxford In Hilary Term, 1870.


CONTENTS
LECTURE I.
INAUGURAL	1

LECTURE II.
THE RELATION OF ART TO RELIGION	24

LECTURE III.
THE RELATION OF ART TO MORALS	46

LECTURE IV.
THE RELATION OF ART TO USE	66

LECTURE V.
LINE	86

LECTURE VI.
LIGHT	102

LECTURE VII.
COLOUR	123



"A JOY FOR EVER"
(AND ITS PRICE IN THE MARKET)
Two Lectures On The Political Economy Of Art
By John Ruskin
CONTENTS.
LECTURE I.
PAGE
THE DISCOVERY AND APPLICATION OF ART	1
A Lecture delivered at Manchester, July 10th, 1857.

LECTURE II.

THE ACCUMULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF ART	70
Continuation of the previous Lecture; delivered July 13th, 1857.

ADDENDA.

Note	1.—"FATHERLY AUTHORITY"	151
"	2.—"RIGHT TO PUBLIC SUPPORT"	159
"	3.—"TRIAL SCHOOLS"	169
"	4.—"PUBLIC FAVOUR"	180
"	5.—"INVENTION OF NEW WANTS"	183
"	6.—"ECONOMY OF LITERATURE"	187
"	7.—"PILOTS OF THE STATE"	189
"	8.—"SILK AND PURPLE"	193
———
SUPPLEMENTARY ADDITIONAL PAPERS.

EDUCATION IN ART	213
ART SCHOOL NOTES	229
SOCIAL POLICY	240
INDEX.



LECTURES ON LANDSCAPE
DELIVERED AT OXFORD IN LENT TERM, 1871.

By John Ruskin
CONTENTS.
LECTURE I.
Outline	1
LECTURE II.
Light and Shade	16
LECTURE III.
Color	32
LIST OF PLATES
Vesuvius in Eruption, by J.M.W. Turner	2
Near Blair Athol, by J.M.W. Turner	19
Dumblane Abbey, by J.M.W. Turner	20
Madonna and Child, by Filippo Lippi	33
The Lady with the Brooch, by Sir Joshua Reynolds	35
Æsacus and Hesperie, by J.M.W. Turner	45
Mill near Grande Chartreuse, by J.M.W. Turner	47
L'Aiguillette; Valley of Cluses, by J.M.W. Turner	48



THE STORM-CLOUD OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
TWO LECTURES DELIVERED AT THE LONDON INSTITUTION
CONTENTS.
Preface	iii
Lecture I. (February 4)	1
Lecture II. (February 11)	31



ON THE OLD ROAD
A Collection Of Miscellaneous Essays And Articles On Art And Literature.
Vol. II. (of II.)
CONTENTS
PICTURE GALLERIES.
Parliamentary Evidence:—
National Gallery Site Commission. 1857	3
Select Committee on Public Institutions. 1860	25
The Royal Academy Commission	50
A Museum or Picture Gallery	71

MINOR WRITINGS UPON ART.
The Cavalli Monuments, Verona. 1872	89
Verona and its Rivers (with Catalogue). 1870	99
Christian Art and Symbolism. 1872	118
Art Schools of Mediæval Christendom. 1876	121
The Extension of Railways. 1876	125
The Study of Beauty. 1883	132

NOTES ON NATURAL SCIENCE.
The Color of the Rhine. 1834	141
The Strata of Mont Blanc. 1834	143
The Induration of Sandstone. 1836	145
The Temperature of Spring and River Water. 1836.	148
Meteorology. 1839	153
Tree Twigs. 1861	158
Stratified Alps of Savoy. 1863	162
Intellectual Conception and Animated Life. 1871	168

LITERATURE.
Fiction—fair and Foul. 1880-81	175
Fairy Stories. 1868	290

ECONOMY.
Home, and Its Economies. 1873	299
Usury. A Reply and a Rejoinder. 1880	314
Usury. A Preface. 1885	340

THEOLOGY.
Notes on the Construction of Sheepfolds. 1851	347
The Lord's Prayer and the Church. 1879-81. (Letters and Epilogue.)	382
The Nature and Authority of Miracle. 1873	418

AN OXFORD LECTURE. 1878	429



THE HARBORS OF ENGLAND.


CONTENTS
EDITOR'S PREFACE.v
AUTHOR'S ORIGINAL PREFACE. xi
THE HARBORS OF ENGLAND.1
Dover34
Ramsgate36
Plymouth38
Catwater40
Sheerness41
Margate43
Portsmouth46
Falmouth49
Sidmouth51
Whitby52
Deal54
Scarborough56



HORTUS INCLUSUS
MESSAGES FROM THE WOOD TO THE GARDEN,
SENT IN HAPPY DAYS TO THE SISTER LADIES OF THE THWAITE, CONISTON.
CONTENTS
PREFACE.	v
INTRODUCTION.	vii
PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.	ix
HORTUS INCLUSUS.	1
THE SACRISTANS CELL.	2
THE LOST CHURCH IN THE CAMPAGNA.	7
REGRETS.	9
FRONDES AGRESTES.	10
HOW HE FELL AMONG THIEVES.	10
IN PARADISE.	12
FOAM OF TIBER.	13
WHARFE IN FLOOD.	18
FRONDES.	19
WASP STINGS.	20
BOLTON STRID.	21
ST. URSULA.	25
ST. MARK'S DOVES.	26
ST. MARK'S REST.	28
SAINTS AND FLOWERS.	29
TO MISS BEEVER.	39
TO MISS BEEVER.	53
MISCELLANEOUS.	61
TO MISS BEEVER.	67
SUSIE'S LETTERS.	93
ABOUT WRENS.	100
HISTORY OF A BLACKBIRD.	101



LECTURES ON ARCHITECTURE AND PAINTING
Delivered At Edinburgh In November, 1853.
CONTENTS.
 PAGE
Prefacev
LECTURE I.
Architecture1
LECTURE II.
Architecture34
Addenda to Lectures I. and II.56
LECTURE III.
Turner and his Works75
LECTURE IV.
Pre-Raphaelitism100
Addenda to Lecture IV.123
LIST OF PLATES.
Plate	I.	Figs.	1. 3. and 5. Illustrative diagrams	3
"	II.	"	2. Windows in Oakham Castle	5
"	III.	"	4. and 6. Spray of ash-tree, and improvement of the same on Greek principles	10
"	IV.	"	7. Window in Dunblane Cathedral	15
"	V.	"	8. Mediæval turret	20
"	VI.	"	9. and 10. Lombardic towers	22
"	VII.	"	11. and 12. Spires at Coutances and Rouen	25
"	VIII.	"	13. and 14. Illustrative diagrams	39
"	IX.	"	15. Sculpture at Lyons	40
"	X.	"	16. Niche at Amiens	41
"	XI.	"	17. and 18. Tiger's head, and improvement of the same on Greek principles	44
"	XII.	"	19. Garret window in Hotel de Bourgtheroude	51
"	XIII.	"	20. and 21. Trees, as drawn in the 13th century	81
"	XIV.	"	22. Rocks, as drawn by the school of Leonardo da Vinci	83
"	XV.	"	23. Boughs of trees, after Titian	84



THE BIBLE OF AMIENS
CONTENTS
PREFACE.	iii
Chapter I.     —  By the Rivers of Waters	1
Chapter II.    —  Under the Drachenfels	26
Chapter III.   —  The Lion Tamer	58
Chapter IV.  — Interpretations

88
Appendix I.   —  Chronological List of Principal Events referred to in the 'Bible of Amiens'	143
Appendix II.  — References Explanatory of Photographs to Chapter IV	144
Appendix III.  —  General Plan of 'Our Fathers have told us'	153
INDEX	157
PLATES
Plate I.  — The Dynasties of France	9
Plate II.  —  The Bible of Amiens, Northern Porch before Restoration	27
Plate III.  —  Amiens, Jour Des Trépassés, 1880	58
St. Mary	131
Plan of the West Porches	140



ARATRA PENTELICI.
SEVEN LECTURES ON THE ELEMENTS OF SCULPTURE
Given Before The University Of Oxford In Michaelmas Term, 1870
CONTENTS
PAGE

Preface v

LECTURE I.
Of the Division of Arts 1

LECTURE II.
Idolatry 20

LECTURE III.
Imagination 39

LECTURE IV.
Likeness 67

LECTURE V.
Structure 90

LECTURE VI.
The School of Athens 114

LECTURE VII.
The Relation Between Michael Angelo and Tintoret 132
LIST OF PLATES
Facing Page

I. Porch of San Zenone, Verona 14

II. The Arethusa of Syracuse 15

III. The Warning to the Kings, San Zenone, Verona 15

IV. The Nativity of Athena 46

V. Tomb of the Doges Jacopo and Lorenzo Tiepolo 49

VI. Archaic Athena of Athens and Corinth 50

VII. Archaic, Central and Declining Art of Greece 72

VIII. The Apollo of Syracuse, and the Self-made Man 84

IX. Apollo Chrysocomes of Clazomenæ 85

X. Marble Masonry in the Duomo of Verona 100

XI. The First Elements of Sculpture. Incised outline and opened space 101

XII. Branch of Phillyrea 109

XIII. Greek Flat relief, and sculpture by edged incision 111

XIV. Apollo and the Python. Heracles and the Nemean Lion 119

XV. Hera of Argos. Zeus of Syracuse 120

XVI. Demeter of Messene. Hera of Cnossus 121

XVII. Athena of Thurium. Siren Ligeia of Terina 121

XVIII. Artemis of Syracuse. Hera of Lacinian Cape 122

XIX. Zeus of Messene. Ajax of Opus 124

XX. Greek and Barbarian Sculpture 127

XXI. The Beginnings of Chivalry 129



THE CROWN OF WILD OLIVE
Also, Munera Pulveris,
Pre-Raphaelitism-aratra Pentelici,
The Ethics Of The Dust,
Fiction, Fair And Foul,
The Elements Of Drawing
John Ruskin


CONTENTS.
THE CROWN OF WILD OLIVE.

PAGE
LECTURE I.

Work, 17

LECTURE II.

Traffic, 44

LECTURE III.

War, 66


MUNERA PULVERIS.

Preface, 97

CHAP.

I. Definitions, 111

II. Store-Keeping, 125

III. Coin-Keeping, 151

IV. Commerce, 170

V. Government, 181

VI. Mastership, 204

Appendices, 222


PRE-RAPHAELITISM.

Preface, 235

Pre-Raphaelitism, 237


ARATRA PENTELICI.

Preface, 283

LECTURE

I. Of the Division of Arts, 287

II. Idolatry, 304

III. Imagination, 322

IV. Likeness, 350

V. Structure, 372

VI. The School of Athens, 395

The Future of England, 415

Notes on Political Economy of Prussia, 435
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
PLATES FACING PAGE

I. Porch of San Zenone. Verona, 300

II. The Arethusa of Syracuse, 302

III. The Warning to the Kings, 302

IV. The Nativity of Athena, 308

V. Tomb of the Doges Jacopo and Lorenzo Tiepolo, 333

VI. Archaic Athena of Athens and Corinth, 334

VII. Archaic, Central and Declining Art of Greece, 355

VIII. The Apollo of Syracuse and the Self-made Man, 366

IX. Apollo Chrysocomes of Clazomenæ, 368

X. Marble Masonry in the Duomo of Verona, 381

XI. The First Elements of Sculpture, 382

XII. Branch of Phillyrea. Dark Purple, 390

XIII. Greek Flat Relief and Sculpture by Edged Incision, 392

XIV. Apollo and the Python. Heracles and the Nemean Lion, 400

XV. Hera of Argos. Zeus of Syracuse, 401

XVI. Demeter of Messene. Hera of Crossus, 402

XVII. Athena of Thurium. Sereie Ligeia of Terina, 402

XVIII. Artemis of Syracuse. Hera of Lacinian Cape, 404

XIX. Zeus of Messene. Ajax of Opus, 405

XX. Greek and Barbarian Sculpture, 407

XXI. The Beginnings of Chivalry, 409


FIGURE PAGE

1. Specimen of Plate, 293

2. Woodcut, 323

3. Figure on Greek Type of Vases, 326

4. Early Drawing of the Myth, 330

5. Cut, "Give It To Me," 332

6. Engraving on Coin, 335

7. Drawing of Fish. By Turner, 362

8. Iron Bar, 379

9. Diagram of Leaf, 391



ARIADNE FLORENTINA
SIX LECTURES ON WOOD AND METAL ENGRAVING
GIVEN BEFORE THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD,
IN MICHAELMAS TERM, 1872.
CONTENTS.
DEFINITION OF THE ART OF ENGRAVING	1
THE RELATION OF ENGRAVING TO OTHER ARTS IN FLORENCE	22
THE TECHNICS OF WOOD ENGRAVING	42
THE TECHNICS OF METAL ENGRAVING	61
DESIGN IN THE GERMAN SCHOOLS OF ENGRAVING (HOLBEIN AND DÜRER)	81
DESIGN IN THE FLORENTINE SCHOOLS OF ENGRAVING (SANDRO BOTTICELLI)	108
APPENDIX
ARTICLE
I.	NOTES ON THE PRESENT STATE OF ENGRAVING IN ENGLAND	143
II.	DETACHED NOTES	157
LIST OF PLATES
Diagram	27
The Last Furrow (Fig. 2). Facsimile from Holbein's woodcut	47
The Two Preachers (Fig. 3). Facsimile from Holbein's woodcut	48
I.	Things Celestial and Terrestrial, as apparent to the English mind	56
II.	Star of Florence	62
III.	"At evening from the top of Fésole"	72
IV.	"By the Springs of Parnassus"	77
V.	"Heat considered as a Mode of Motion." Florentine Natural Philosophy	92
VI.	Fairness of the Sea and Air. In Venice and Athens	95
 	The Child's Bedtime (Fig. 5). Facsimile from Holbein's woodcut	103
 	"He that hath ears to hear let him hear" (Fig. 6). Facsimile from Holbein's woodcut	105
VII.	For a time, and times	130
VIII.	The Nymph beloved of Apollo (Michael Angelo)	131
IX.	In the Woods of Ida	132
X.	Grass of the Desert	135
XI.	"Obediente Domino voci hominis"	145
XII.	The Coronation in the Garden	158



SAINT URSULA
By John Ruskin


Contents
PREFACE
THE STORY OF ST. URSULA
THE DREAM OF ST. URSULA



THE ELEMENTS OF DRAWING
IN THREE LETTERS TO BEGINNERS


CONTENTS.
 	page
Preface	ix
LETTER I.
On First Practice	1
LETTER II.
Sketching from Nature	65
LETTER III.
On Color and Composition	106
APPENDIX I.
Illustrative Notes	183
APPENDIX II.
Things to be Studied	188



STONES OF VENICE
By John Ruskin


CONTENTS
THE STONES OF VENICE
PREFACE.
THE STONES OF VENICE
CHAPTER I. — THE QUARRY.
CHAPTER II. — THE THRONE.
CHAPTER III. — TORCELLO.
CHAPTER IV. — ST. MARK'S.
CHAPTER V. — THE DUCAL PALACE.
NOTE.



THE STONES OF VENICE
VOLUME I. (of III)
THE FOUNDATIONS


CONTENTS.
 	page
Preface,	iii
CHAPTER I.
The Quarry,	1
CHAPTER II.
The Virtues of Architecture,	36
CHAPTER III.
The Six Divisions of Architecture,	47
CHAPTER IV.
The Wall Base,	52
CHAPTER V.
The Wall Veil,	58
CHAPTER VI.
The Wall Cornice,	63
CHAPTER VII.
The Pier Base,	71
CHAPTER VIII.
The Shaft,	84
CHAPTER IX.
The Capital,	105xii
CHAPTER X.
The Arch Line,	122
CHAPTER XI.
The Arch Masonry,	132
CHAPTER XII.
The Arch Load,	144
CHAPTER XIII.
The Roof,	148
CHAPTER XIV.
The Roof Cornice,	155
CHAPTER XV.
The Buttress,	166
CHAPTER XVI.
Form of Aperture,	174
CHAPTER XVII.
Filling of Aperture,	183
CHAPTER XVIII.
Protection of Aperture,	195
CHAPTER XIX.
Superimposition,	200
CHAPTER XX.
The Material of Ornament,	211
CHAPTER XXI.
Treatment of Ornament,	236xiii
CHAPTER XXII.
The Angle,	259
CHAPTER XXII.
The Angle,	259
CHAPTER XXIII.
The Edge and Fillet,	267
CHAPTER XXIV.
The Roll and Recess,	276
CHAPTER XXV.
The Base,	281
CHAPTER XXVI.
The Wall Veil and Shaft,	294
CHAPTER XXVII.
The Cornice and Capital,	305
CHAPTER XXVIII.
The Archivolt and Aperture,	333
CHAPTER XXIX.
The Roof,	343
CHAPTER XXX.
The Vestibule,	349
APPENDIX.
1.	Foundation of Venice,	359
2.	Power of the Doges,	360
3.	Serrar del Consiglio,	360
4.	Pietro di Castello,	361xiv
5.	Papal Power in Venice,	362
6.	Renaissance Ornament,	369
7.	Varieties of the Orders,	370
8.	The Northern Energy,	371
9.	Wooden Churches of the North,	381
10.	Church of Alexandria,	381
11.	Renaissance Landscape,	381
12.	Romanist Modern Art,	384
13.	Mr. Fergusson’s System,	388
14.	Divisions of Humanity,	394
15.	Instinctive Judgments,	399
16.	Strength of Shafts,	402
17.	Answer to Mr. Garbett,	403
18.	Early English Capitals,	411
19.	Tombs near St. Anastasia,	412
20.	Shafts of the Ducal Palace,	413
21.	Ancient Representations of Water,	417
22.	Arabian Ornamentation,	429
23.	Varieties of Chamfer,	429
24.	Renaissance Bases,	431
25.	Romanist Decoration of Bases,	432
LIST OF PLATES.
 	 	 	Facing Page
Plate	1.	Wall Veil Decoration, Ca’ Trevisan and Ca’ Dario,	13
"	2.	Plans of Piers,	100
"	3.	Arch Masonry,	134
"	4.	Arch Masonry,	137
"	5.	Arch Masonry, Bruletto of Como,	141
"	6.	Types of Towers,	207
"	7.	Abstracts Lines,	222
"	8.	Decorations by Disks, Ca’ Badoari,	241
"	9.	Edge Decoration,	268
"	10.	Profiles of Bases,	283
"	11.	Plans of Bases,	288
"	12.	Decorations of Bases,	289
"	13.	Wall Veil Decorations,	295
"	14.	Spandril Decorations, Ducal Palace,	298
"	15.	Cornice Profiles,	306
"	16.	Cornice Decorations,	311
"	17.	Capitals—Concave,	323
"	18.	Capitals—Convex,	327
"	19.	Archivolt Decoration, Verona,	333
"	20.	Wall Veil Decoration, Ca’ Trevisan,	369
"	21.	Wall Veil Decoration, San Michele, Lucca,	378



THE STONES OF VENICE
VOLUME II. (of III)
THE SEA STORIES
CONTENTS
FIRST, OR BYZANTINE, PERIOD.
CHAPTER I.
 	page
The Throne,	1
CHAPTER II.
Torcello,	11
CHAPTER III.
Murano,	27
CHAPTER IV.
St. Mark’s,	57
CHAPTER V.
Byzantine Palaces,	118
SECOND, OR GOTHIC, PERIOD.
CHAPTER VI.
The Nature of Gothic,	151
CHAPTER VII.
Gothic Palaces,	231
CHAPTER VIII.
The Ducal Palace,	281
APPENDIX.
1.	The Gondolier’s Cry,	375
2.	Our Lady of Salvation,	378
3.	Tides of Venice and Measures at Torcello,	378
4.	Date of the Duomo of Torcello,	380
5.	Modern Pulpits,	380
6.	Apse of Murano,	382
7.	Early Venetian Dress,	383
8.	Inscriptions at Murano,	384
9.	Shafts of St. Mark’s,	384
10.	Proper Sense of the Word Idolatry,	388
11.	Situations of Byzantine Palaces,	391
12.	Modern Paintings on Glass,	394
LIST OF PLATES.
 	 	 	Facing Page
Plate	1.	Plans of Torcello and Murano,	14
"	2.	The Acanthus of Torcello,	15
"	3.	Inlaid Bands of Murano,	40
"	4.	Sculptures of Murano,	42
"	5.	Archivolt in the Duomo of Murano,	45
"	6.	The Vine, Free and in Service,	96
"	7.	Byzantine Capitals—Convex Group,	131
"	8.	Byzantine Capitals—Concave Group,	132
"	9.	Lily Capital of St. Mark’s,	136
"	10.	The Four Venetian Flower Order,	137
"	11.	Byzantine Sculptures,	138
"	12.	Linear and Surface Gothic,	224
"	13.	Balconies,	247
"	14.	The Orders of Venetian Arches,	248
"	15.	Windows of the Second Order,	254
"	16.	Windows of the Fourth Order,	257
"	17.	Windows of the Early Gothic Palaces,	259
"	18.	Windows of the Fifth Order,	266
"	19.	Leafage of the Vine Angle,	308
"	20.	Leafage of the Venetian Capitals,	368



THE STONES OF VENICE
VOLUME III. (of III)
THE FALL
CONTENTS.
THIRD, OR RENAISSANCE, PERIOD.
CHAPTER I.
 	page
Early Renaissance,	1
CHAPTER II.
Roman Renaissance,	32
CHAPTER III.
Grotesque Renaissance,	112
CHAPTER IV.
Conclusion,	166
APPENDIX.
1.	Architect of the Ducal Palace,	199
2.	Theology of Spenser,	205
3.	Austrian Government in Italy,	209
4.	Date of the Palaces of the Byzantine Renaissance,	211
5.	Renaissance Side of Ducal Palace,	212
6.	Character of the Doge Michele Morosini,	213
7.	Modern Education,	214
8.	Early Venetian Marriages,	222
9.	Character of the Venetian Aristocracy,	223
10.	Final Appendix,	224
INDICES.
I.	Personal Index,	263
II.	Local Index,	268
III.	Topical Index,	271
IV.	Venetian Index,	287
LIST OF PLATES.
 	 	 	Facing Page
Plate	1.	Temperance and Intemperance in Ornament,	6
"	2.	Gothic Capitals,	8
"	3.	Noble and Ignoble Grotesque,	125
"	4.	Mosaic of Olive Tree and Flowers,	179
"	5.	Byzantine Bases,	225
"	6.	Byzantine Jambs,	229
"	7.	Gothic Jambs,	230
"	8.	Byzantine Archivolts,	244
"	9.	Gothic Archivolts,	245
"	10.	Cornices,	248
"	11.	Tracery Bars,	252
"	12.	Capitals of Fondaco de Turchi,	304



FRONDES AGRESTES
READINGS IN 'MODERN PAINTERS
By John Ruskin
Chosen At Her Pleasure, By The Author's Friend, The Younger Lady Of The Thwaite, Coniston.


CONTENTS
PREFACE.
FRONDES AGRESTES.
SECTION I.	PRINCIPLES OF ART.
SECTION II.	POWER AND OFFICE OF IMAGINATION.
SECTION III.	ILLUSTRATIVE: THE SKY.
SECTION IV.	ILLUSTRATIVE: STREAMS AND SEA.
SECTION V.	ILLUSTRATIVE: MOUNTAINS.
SECTION VI.	ILLUSTRATIVE: STONES.
SECTION VII.	ILLUSTRATIVE: PLANTS AND FLOWERS.
SECTION VIII.	EDUCATION.
SECTION IX.	MORALITIES.



TIME AND TIDE
BY WEARE AND TYNE
TWENTY-FIVE LETTERS TO A WORKING MAN OF SUNDERLAND ON THE LAWS OF WORK


CONTENTS
 	PAGE
 	Preface	ix
LETTER
I.	Co-operation	1
 	The two kinds of Co-operation.—In its highest sense it is not yet thought of.
II.	Contentment	4
 	Co-operation, as hitherto understood, is perhaps not expedient.
III.	Legislation	7
 	Of True Legislation.—That every Man may be a Law to himself.
IV.	Expenditure	11
 	The Expenses for Art and for War.
V.	Entertainment	13
 	The Corruption of Modern Pleasure.—(Covent Garden Pantomime.)
VI.	Dexterity	18
 	The Corruption of Modern Pleasure.—(The Japanese Jugglers.)
VII.	Festivity	20
 	Of the Various Expressions of National Festivity.
VIII.	Things Written	22
 	The Four Possible Theories respecting the Authority of the Bible.
IX.	Thanksgiving	27
 	The Use of Music and Dancing under the Jewish Theocracy, compared with their Use by the Modern French.
X.[Pg vi]	Wheat-Sifting	32
 	The Meaning, and Actual Operation, of Satanic or Demoniacal Influence.
XI.	The Golden Bough	38
 	The Satanic Power is mainly Twofold: the Power of causing Falsehood and the Power of causing Pain. The Resistance is by Law of Honor and Law of Delight.
XII.	Dictatorship	41
 	The Necessity of Imperative Law to the Prosperity of States.
XIII.	Episcopacy and Dukedom	45
 	The Proper Offices of the Bishop and Duke; or, "Overseer" and "Leader."
XIV.	Trade-Warrant	51
 	The First Group of Essential Laws.—Against Theft by False Work, and by Bankruptcy.—Necessary Publicity of Accounts.
XV.	Per-Centage	54
 	The Nature of Theft by Unjust Profits.—Crime can finally be arrested only by Education.
XVI.	Education	59
 	Of Public Education irrespective of Class distinction. It consists essentially in giving Habits of Mercy, and Habits of Truth. (Gentleness and Justice.)
XVII.	Difficulties	66
 	The Relations of Education to Position in Life.
XVIII.	Humility	68
 	The harmful Effects of Servile Employments. The possible Practice and Exhibition of sincere Humility by Religious Persons.
XIX.	Broken Reeds	73
 	The General Pressure of Excessive and Improper Work, in English Life.
XX.	Rose-gardens	78
 	Of Improvidence in Marriage in the Middle Classes; nd of the advisable Restrictions of it.
XXI.[Pg vii]	Gentillesse	83
 	Of the Dignity of the Four Fine Arts; and of the Proper System of Retail Trade.
XXII.	The Master	88
 	Of the Normal Position and Duties of the Upper Classes. General Statement of the Land Question.
XXIII.	Landmarks	93
 	Of the Just Tenure of Lands; and the Proper Functions of high Public Officers.
XXIV.	The Rod and Honeycomb	101
 	The Office of the Soldier.
XXV.	Hyssop	108
 	Of inevitable Distinction of Rank, and necessary Submission to Authority. The Meaning of Pure-Heartedness. Conclusion.
APPENDICES.
APPENDIX	 	PAGE
I.	Expenditure on Science and Art	119
II.	Legislation of Frederick the Great	120
III.	Effect of Modern Entertainments on the Mind of Youth	124
IV.	Drunkenness as the Cause of Crime	124
V.	Abuse of Food	126
VI.	Regulations of Trade	128
VII.	Letter to the Editor of the Pall Mall Gazette	130



THE SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE
LECTURES ON ARCHITECTURE AND PAINTING
The Study of Architecture
By John Ruskin


CONTENTS.

SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE.
 	PAGE
Preface	5

Introduction	9
CHAPTER I.
The Lamp of Sacrifice	15
CHAPTER II.
The Lamp of Truth	34
CHAPTER III.
The Lamp of Power	69
CHAPTER IV.
The Lamp of Beauty	100
CHAPTER V.
The Lamp of Life	142
CHAPTER VI.
The Lamp of Memory	167
CHAPTER VII.
The Lamp of Obedience	188

Notes	203

LECTURES ON ARCHITECTURE AND PAINTING.
Preface	213
Lecture I.	217
Lecture II.	248
        Addenda to Lectures I. and II.	270
Lecture III. Turner and his Works	287
Lecture IV. Pre-Raphaelitism	311
        Addenda to Lecture IV.	334

THE STUDY OF ARCHITECTURE.
An Inquiry into the Study of Architecture	339
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

SEVEN LAMPS OF ARCHITECTURE
PLATE	 	PAGE
I.	Ornaments from Rouen, St. Lo, and Venice	33
II.	Part of the Cathedral of St. Lo, Normandy	55
III.	Traceries from Caen, Bayeux, Rouen and Beavais	60
IV.	Intersectional Mouldings	66
V.	Capital from the Lower Arcade of the Doge's Palace, Venice	88
VI.	Arch from the Facade of the Church of San Michele at Lucca	90
VII.	Pierced Ornaments from Lisieux, Bayeux, Verona, and Padua	93
VIII.	Window from the Ca' Foscari, Venice	95
IX.	Tracery from the Campanile of Giotto, at Florence.	Frontispiece.
X.	Traceries and Mouldings from Rouen and Salisbury	122
XI.	Balcony in the Campo, St. Benedetto, Venice	131
XII.	Fragments from Abbeville, Lucca, Venice and Pisa	149
XIII.	Portions of an Arcade on the South Side of the Cathedral of Ferrara	161
XIV.	Sculptures from the Cathedral of Rouen	165



UNTO THIS LAST AND OTHER ESSAYS ON POLITICAL ECONOMY
By John Ruskin
CONTENTS.
PART I.
PAGE
THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF ART	7
Lecture I.	11
    1. Discovery	23
    2. Application	28
Lecture II.	46
    3. Accumulation	46
    4. Distribution	65
Addenda	86
   Note 1.—"Fatherly Authority"	86
"  2.—"Right to Public Support"	90
"  3.—"Trial Schools"	95
"  4.—"Public Favour"	101
"  5.—"Invention of new wants"	102
"  6.—"Economy of Literature"	104
"  7.—"Pilots of the State"	106
"  8.—"Silk and Purple"	107
PART II.
PAGE
UNTO THIS LAST	117
Essay
    I.—The Roots of Honour	127
    II.—The Veins of Wealth	143
    III.—"Qui Judicatis Terram"	156
    IV.—Ad Valorem	173
PART III.
PAGE
ESSAYS ON POLITICAL ECONOMY[A]
I.—Maintenance of Life: Wealth, Money and Riches	207
    Section 1. Wealth	214
        "       2. Money	219
        "       3. Riches	222
II.—Nature of Wealth, Variations of Value, The National Store, Nature of Labour, Value and Price, The Currency	225
III.—The Currency-holders and Store-holders, The Disease of Desire	252
IV.—Laws and Governments: Labour And Riches	278


[A] These Essays were afterwards revised and amplified, and published with others under the title "Munera Pulveris."



THE EAGLE'S NEST
TEN LECTURES ON THE RELATION OF NATURAL SCIENCE TO ART
GIVEN BEFORE THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD, IN LENT TERM, 1872
By John Ruskin


CONTENTS
LECTURE I.
February 8, 1872.
 	Page
THE FUNCTION IN ART OF THE FACULTY CALLED BY
  THE GREEKS oio?a	1
LECTURE II.
February 10, 1872.

THE FUNCTION IN SCIENCE OF THE FACULTY CALLED BY
  THE GREEKS oio?a	25
LECTURE III.
February 15, 1872.

THE RELATION OF WISE ART TO WISE SCIENCE	46
LECTURE IV.
February 17, 1872.

THE FUNCTION IN ART AND SCIENCE OF THE VIRTUE
  CALLED BY THE GREEKS ouonio?ic	74
LECTURE V.
February 22, 1872.

THE FUNCTION IN ART AND SCIENCE OF THE VIRTUE
  CALLED BY THE GREEKS a?oan?a?a	89
LECTURE VI.
February 24, 1872.

THE RELATION TO ART OF THE SCIENCE OF LIGHT	114
LECTURE VII.
February 29, 1872.

THE RELATION TO ART OF THE SCIENCES OF INORGANIC
  FORM	138
LECTURE VIII.
March 2, 1872.

THE RELATION TO ART OF THE SCIENCES OF ORGANIC
  FORM	161
LECTURE IX.
March 7, 1872.

INTRODUCTION TO ELEMENTARY EXERCISES IN PHYSIOLOGIC
  ART. THE STORY OF THE HALCYON	188
LECTURE X.
March 9, 1872.

INTRODUCTION TO ELEMENTARY EXERCISES IN HISTORIC
  ART. THE HERALDIC ORDINARIES	225



RUSKIN RELICS
By W. G. Collingwood
Author Of "The Life Of John Ruskin
With Fifty Illustrations By John Ruskin And Others


CONTENTS
CHAPTER	 	PAGE
I.	Ruskin's Chair	1
II.	Ruskin's "Jump"	13
III.	Ruskin's Gardening	29
IV.	Ruskin's Old Road	45
V.	Ruskin's "Cashbook"	63
VI.	Ruskin's Ilaria	83
VII.	Ruskin's Maps	105
VIII.	Ruskin's Drawings	119
IX.	Ruskin's Hand	133
X.	Ruskin's Music	149
XI.	Ruskin's Jewels	165
XII.	Ruskin's Library	179
XIII.	Ruskin's Bibles	193
XIV.	Ruskin's "Isola"	213
Index	299
ILLUSTRATIONS
Page
Ruskin's Study at Brantwood	5
Brantwood Harbour in the Seventies	17
Coniston Hall and Boathouse	18
Ruskin's "Jump" adrift off Brantwood	19
The Ruskin Museum, Coniston	22
Trial Model for the Jumping Jenny	25
The Waterfall at Brantwood Door	33
Ruskin's Reservoir, Brantwood	37
Ruskin's Moorland Garden	41
On Ruskin's Old Road, between Morez and Les Rousses, 1882	53
Lake of Geneva and Dent d'Oches under the Smoke-cloud	57
The Gorge of Monnetier and Buttresses of the Salève, 1882	61
Mont Blanc clearing; Sallenches, Sept. 1882	67
The Head of the Lake of Annecy	71
The Mont Cenis Tunnel in Snow, Nov. 11, 1882	75
A Savoy Town in Snow, Nov. 1882	79
The Palace of Paolo Guinigi, Lucca	87
Ilaria del Carretto; head of the Effigy	91
Thunderstorm clearing, Lucca	95
The Marble Mountains of Carrara from the Lucca Hills	99
Ruskin's first Map of Italy	108
Geology on the Old Road, by John Ruskin	109
Sketch of Spain, by John Ruskin	112
Physical Sketch of Savoy, by John Ruskin	113
[x]The History of France, by John Ruskin	117
Early Journal at Coniston, by John Ruskin	137
Ruskin's Handwriting in 1836	139
Ruskin's Handwriting in 1837	141
Notes for "Stones of Venice," by John Ruskin	143
Ruskin's Handwriting in 1875	145
Ruskin's Piano in Brantwood Drawing-room	153
John Ruskin in the Seventies, by Prof. B. Creswick	157
At Marmion's Grave; air by John Ruskin (two pages of Music)	160
"Trust Thou Thy Love," facsimile of music by John Ruskin	163
Gold as it Grows	169
Native Silver, by John Ruskin	170
Page from an early Mineral Catalogue, by John Ruskin	171
Letter on Snow Crystals, by John Ruskin	174
Diamond Diagrams, by John Ruskin	175
Ruskin's Swiss Figure	185
His "Nuremberg Chronicle" and Pocket "Horace"	189
The Bible from which John Ruskin learnt in Childhood	197
Sermon-book written by Ruskin as a Boy	199
Greek Gospels with Annotations by Ruskin	201
King Hakon's Bible, owned by Ruskin	203
An Illuminated Page of King Hakon's Bible	207
Lady Mount Temple, portrait by Edward Clifford	217
Lady Mount Temple, chalk drawing by G. F. Watts, R.A	221
Lady Mount Temple, 1886	223
Lady Mount Temple, 1889	224



ARROWS OF THE CHACE
BEING A COLLECTION OF SCATTERED LETTERS
PUBLISHED CHIEFLY IN THE DAILY NEWSPAPERS
1840-1880
VOLUME I. LETTERS ON ART AND SCIENCE


CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.
 	PAGE
Author's Preface	ix
Editor's Preface	xviii
Chronological List of the Letters in Volume I	xviii
Letters on Art:
    I. Art Criticism and Art Education.
        "Modern Painters;" a Reply. 1843	3
        Art Criticism. 1843	10
        The Arts as a Branch of Education. 1857	24
        Art-Teaching by Correspondence. 1860	32
    II. Public Institutions and the National Gallery.
        Danger to the National Gallery. 1847	37
        The National Gallery. 1852	45
        The British Museum. 1866	52
        On the Purchase of Pictures. 1880	55
    III. Pre-raphaelitism.
        The Pre-Raphaelite Brethren. 1851 (May 13)	59
        The Pre-Raphaelite Brethren. 1851 (May 30)	63
        "The Light of the World," Holman Hunt. 1854{vi}	67
        "The Awakening Conscience," Holman Hunt. 1854	71
        Pre-Raphaelitism in Liverpool. 1858	73
        Generalization and the Scotch Pre-Raphaelites. 1858	74
    IV. Turner.
        The Turner Bequest. 1856	81
        [Turner's Sketch Book. 1858	86, note]
        The Turner Bequest and the National Gallery. 1857	86
        The Turner Sketches and Drawings. 1858	88
        [The Liber Studiorum. 1858	97, note]
        The Turner Gallery at Kensington. 1859	98
        Turner's Drawings. 1876 (July 5)	100
        Turner's Drawings. 1876 (July 19)	104
        Copies of Turner's Drawings. 1876	105
        [Copies of Turner's Drawings—Extract. 1857	105, note]
        [Copy of Turner's Fluelen	ibid.]
        "Turners," False and True. 1871.	106
        The Character of Turner. 1857.	107
        [Thornbury's Life of Turner. 1861.	108]
    V. Pictures and Artists.
        John Leech's Outlines. 1872.	111
        Ernest George's Etchings. 1873.	113
        The Frederick Walker Exhibition. 1876.	116
    VI. Architecture and Restoration.
        Gothic Architecture and the Oxford Museum. 1858.	125
        Gothic Architecture and the Oxford Museum. 1859.	131
        The Castle Rock (Edinburgh). 1857 (Sept. 14)	145
        Edinburgh Castle. 1857 (Sept. 27)	147
        Castles and Kennels. 1871 (Dec. 22)	151
        Verona v. Warwick. 1871 (Dec. 24){vii}	152
        Notre Dame de Paris. 1871	153
        Mr. Ruskin's Influence—A Defence. 1872 (March 15)	154
        Mr. Ruskin's Influence—A Rejoinder. 1872 (March 21)	156
        Modern Restorations. 1877	157
        Ribbesford Church. 1877	158
        Circular relating to St. Mark's, Venice. 1879.	159
        [Letters relating to St. Mark's, Venice. 1879.	169, note.]
Letters on Science:
    I. Geological.
        The Conformation of the Alps, 1864	173
        Concerning Glaciers. 1864.	175
        English versus Alpine Geology. 1864	181
        Concerning Hydrostatics. 1864	185
        James David Forbes: His Real Greatness. 1874.	187
    II. Miscellaneous.
        On Reflections in Water. 1844	191
        On the Reflection of Rainbows. 1861	201
        A Landslip Near Giagnano. 1841	202
        On the Gentian. 1857	204
        On the Study of Natural History (undated)	204
CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE LETTERS
CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE LETTERS CONTAINED IN THE FIRST VOLUME.
Note.--In the second and third columns the bracketed words and figures are dating of more or less certainly conjectured; whilst those unbracketed give the actual the letter.
Title of Letter.	Where Written.	When Written.	Where and when First Published.	Page.
A Landslip near Giagnano	Naples	February 7, 1841	Proceedings of the Ashmolean Society	202
Modern Painters: a Reply	[Denmark Hill	About Sept. 17, 1843]	The Weekly Chronicle, Sept. 23, 1843	3
Art Criticism	[Denmark Hill	December, 1843]	The Artist and Amateur's Magazine, 1844	10
On Reflections in Water	[Denmark Hill	January, 1844]	The Artist and Amateur's Magazine, 1844	191
Danger to the National Gallery	[Denmark Hill]	January 6 [1847]	The Times, January 7, 1847	37
The Pre-Raphaelite Brethren, I.	Denmark Hill	May 9 [1851]	The Times, May 13, 1851	59
The Pre-Raphaelite Brethren, II.	Denmark Hill	May 26 [1851]	The Times, May 30, 1851	63
The National Gallery	Herne Hill, Dulwich	December 27 [1852]	The Times, December 29, 1852	45
"The Light of the World"	Denmark Hill	May 4 [1854]	The Times, May 15, 1854	67
"The Awakening Conscience"	[Denmark Hill	May 24 [1854]	The Times, May 25, 1854	71
The Turner Bequest	Denmark Hill	October 27 [1856]	The Times, October 28, 1856	81
On the Gentian	Denmark Hill	February 10 [1857]	The Athenæum, February 14, 1857	204
The Turner Bequest & National Gallery	[Denmark Hill	July 8, 1857]	The Times, July 9, 1857	86
The Castle Rock (Edinburgh)	Dunbar	14th September, 1857	The Witness (Edinburgh), Sept. 16, 1857	145
The Arts as a Branch of Education	Penrith	September 25, 1857	"New Oxford Examinations, etc.," 1858	24
Edinburgh Castle	Penrith	27th September [1857]	The Witness (Edinburgh), Sept. 30, 1857	147
The Character of Turner	[	  1857]	Thornbury's Life of Turner. Preface, 1861	107
Pre-Raphaelitism in Liverpool	[	January, 1858]	The Liverpool Albion, January 11, 1858	73
Generalization & Scotch Pre-Raphaelites	[	March. 1858]	The Witness (Edinburgh), March 27, 1858	74
Gothic Architecture & Oxford Museum, I.	[	June, 1858]	"The Oxford Museum," 1859.	125
The Turner Sketches and Drawings	[	November, 1858]	The Literary Gazette, Nov. 13, 1858	88
Turner's Sketch Book (extract)	[	 ] 1858	List of Turner's Drawings, Boston, 1874	86 n.
The Liber Studiorum (extract)	[	 ] 1858	List of Turner's Drawings, Boston, 1874	97 n.
Gothic Architecture & Oxford Museum, II.	[	January 20, 1859	"The Oxford Museum," 1859	131
The Turner Gallery at Kensington	Denmark Hill	October 20 [1859]	The Times, October 21, 1859	98
Mr. Thornbury's "Life of Turner" (extract)	Lucerne	December 2, 1861	Thornbury's Life of Turner. Ed. 2, Pref.	108
Art Teaching by Correspondence	Denmark Hill	November, 1860	Nature and Art, December 1, 1866	32
On the Reflection of Rainbows	[     ]	7th May, 1861	The London Review, May 16, 1861	201
The Conformation of the Alps	Denmark Hill	10th November, 1864	The Reader, November 12, 1864	173
Concerning Glaciers	Denmark Hill	November 21 [1864]	The Reader, November 26, 1864	175
English versus Alpine Geology	Denmark Hill	29th November [1864]	The Reader, December 3, 1864	181
Concerning Hydrostatics	Norwich	5th December [1864]	The Reader, December 10, 1864	185
The British Museum	Denmark Hill	Jan. 26 [1866]	The Times, January 27, 1866	52
Copies of Turner's Drawings (extract)	[	 ] 1867	List of Turner's Drawings, Boston, 1874	105 n.
Notre Dame de Paris	[Denmark Hill	January 18, 1871]	The Daily Telegraph, January 19, 1871	153
"Turners" False and True	Denmark Hill	January 23 [1871]	The Times, January 24, 1871	106
Castles and Kennels	Denmark Hill	December 20 [1871]	The Daily Telegraph, December 22, 1871	151
Verona v. Warwick	Denmark Hill, S. E.	24th (for 25th) Dec. [1871]	The Daily Telegraph, December 25, 1871	152
Mr. Ruskin's Influence: a Defence	Denmark Hill	March 15 [1872]	The Pall Mall Gazette, March 16, 1872	154
Mr. Ruskin's Influence: a Rejoinder	Denmark Hill	March 21 [1872]	The Pall Mall Gazette, March 21, 1872	156
John Leech's Outlines	[	  1872]	The Catalogue to the Exhibition, 1872	111
Ernest George's Etchings	[Denmark Hill	December, 1873]	The Architect, December 27, 1873	113
James David Forbes: his Real Greatness	[	  1874]	"Rendu's Glaciers of Savoy," 1874	187
The Frederick Walker Exhibition	[	January, 1876]	The Times, January 20, 1876	116
Copies of Turner's Drawings	Peterborough	April 23 [1876]	The Times, April 25, 1876	105
Turner's Drawings, I.	Brantwood	July 3 [1876]	The Daily Telegraph, July 5, 1876	100
Turner's Drawings, II.	Brantwood, Coniston, Lancashire	July 16 [1876]	The Daily Telegraph, July 19, 1876	104
Modern Restoration	Venice	15th April, 1877	The Liverpool Daily Post, June 9, 1877	157
Ribbesford Church	Brantwood, Coniston, Lancashire	July 24, 1877	The Kidderminster Times, July 28, 1877	158
St. Mark's Venice--Circular relating to	[Brantwood	Winter 1879]	See the Circular	159
St. Mark's Venice--Letters	[Brantwood	Winter 1879]	Birmingham Daily Mail, Nov. 27, 1879	169
On the Purchase of Pictures	[Brantwood	January 1880]	Leicester Chronicle, January 31, 1880	55
Copy of Turner's "Fluelen"	London	20th March, 1880	Lithograph copy issued by Mr. Ward, 1880	105 n.
The Study of Natural History	[     ]	Undated	Letter to Adam White [unknown]	204



ARROWS OF THE CHACE
BEING A COLLECTION OF SCATTERED LETTERS
PUBLISHED CHIEFLY IN THE DAILY NEWSPAPERS
1840-1880
VOLUME II. LETTERS ON POLITICS, ECONOMY,
AND MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS


CONTENTS OF VOLUME II.
PAGE
Chronological List of the Letters contained in Vol. II.	x
Letters on Politics and War:
The Italian Question. 1859.
Three letters:	June 6	3
June 15	8
August 1	13
The Foreign Policy of England. 1863	15
The Position of Denmark. 1864	17
The Jamaica Insurrection. 1865	20
The Franco-Prussian War. 1870.
Two letters:	October 6	22
October 7	25
Modern Warfare. 1876	29
Letters on Political Economy:
The Depreciation of Gold. 1863	37
The Law of Supply and Demand. 1864.
Three letters:	October 26	39
October 29	40
November 2	43
Mr. Ruskin and Professor Hodgson. 1873.
Two letters:	November 8	44
November 15	46[Pg vi]
Strikes v. Arbitration. 1865	48
Work and Wages. 1865.
Five letters:	April 20	50
April 22	52
April 29	54
May 4	59
May 20	62
The Standard of Wages. 1867	65
How the Rich spend their Money. 1873.
Three letters:	January 23	66
January 28	67
January 30	68
Commercial Morality. 1875	70
The Definition of Wealth. 1875	71
The Principles of Property. 1877	71
On Co-operation. 1879-80.
Two letters:	August, 1879	73
April 12, 1880	73
Miscellaneous Letters:
I.	The Management of Railways.
Is England Big Enough? 1868	79
The Ownership of Railways. 1868	81
Railway Economy. 1868	83
Our Railway System. 1865	88
Railway Safety. 1870	89
II.	Servants and Houses.
Domestic Servants—Mastership. 1865	93
Domestic Servants—Experience. 1865	95[Pg vii]
Domestic Servants—Sonship and Slavery. 1865	96
Modern Houses. 1865	104
III.	Roman Inundations.
A King's First Duty. 1871	111
A Nation's Defences. 1871	113
The Waters of Comfort. 1871	115
The Streams of Italy. 1871	116
The Streets of London. 1871	119
IV.	Education for Rich and Poor.
True Education. 1868	123
The Value of Lectures. 1874	124
The Cradle of Art. 1876	125
St. George's Museum. 1875	126
The Morality of Field Sports. 1870	127
Drunkenness and Crime. 1871	129
Madness and Crime. 1872	130
Employment for the Destitute Poor and Criminal Classes. 1868	131
Notes on the General Principles of Employment for the Destitute and Criminal Classes (a Pamphlet). 1868	132
Blindness and Sight. 1879	139
The Eagle's Nest. 1879	140
Politics in Youth. 1879	141
"Act, Act in the Living Present." 1873	141
"Laborare est Orare." 1874	142
A Pagan Message. 1878	143
The Foundations of Chivalry. 1877-8.
Five letters:	February 8, 1877	143
February 10, 1877	145
[Pg viii]	February 11, 1877	146
February 12, 1877	147
July 3, 1878	148
V.	Women: Their Work and Their Dress
Woman's Work. 1873	153
Female Franchise. 1870	154
Proverbs on Right Dress. 1862	154
Sad-colored Costumes. 1870	156
Oak Silkworms. 1862	158
VI.	Literary Criticism.
The Publication of Books. 1875	163
A Mistaken Review. 1875	165
The Position of Critics. 1875	167
Coventry Patmore's "Faithful for Ever." 1860	168
"The Queen of the Air." 1871	171
The Animals of Scripture: a Review. 1856	172
"Limner" and Illumination. 1854	174
Notes on a Word in Shakespeare. 1878.
Two letters:	September	176
September 29	177
"The Merchant of Venice." 1880	179
Recitations. 1880	186
Appendix.
Letter to W. C. Bennett, LL.D. 1852	183
Letter to Thomas Guthrie, D.D. 1853	184
The Sale of Mr. Windus' Pictures. 1859	185
At the Play. 1867	185
An Object of Charity. 1868	186[Pg ix]
Excuses from Correspondence. 1868	186
Letter to the Author of a Review. 1872	187
An Oxford Protest. 1874	188
Mr. Ruskin and Mr. Lowe. 1877	189
The Bibliography of Ruskin. 1878.
Two letters:	September 30	190
October 23	190
The Society of the Rose. 1879	191
Letter to W. H. Harrison. 1865	192
Dramatic Reform. 1880. (Two letters)	193
The Lord Rectorship of Glasgow University. 1880. (Five letters)	195
Epilogue	201
Chronological List of the Letters contained in Both Volumes	204
Index	213
CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF THE LETTERS
CONTAINED IN THE SECOND VOLUME.
Note.—In the second and third columns the bracketed words and figures are more or less certainly conjectured; whilst those unbracketed give the actual dating of the letters.

Title of Letter.	Where Written.	When Written.	Where and When First Published.	Page.
Letter To W. C. Bennett, LL.D.	Herne Hill, Dulwich	December 28th, 1852	"Testimonials of W. C. Bennett," 1871	183
Letter To Dr. Guthrie	[Edinburgh]	Saturday, 26th [Nov. ?] 1853	"Memoir of Thomas Guthrie, D.D.," (1875)	184
Letter To W. H. Harrison	[Herne Hill	1853]	The Autographic Mirror, Dec. 23, 1865	192
"Limner" and Illumination	[Denmark Hill	December 3, 1854]	The Builder, Dec. 9, 1854	174
The Animals of Scripture: a Review	[Denmark Hill	January, 1855]	The Morning Chronicle, Jan. 20, 1855	172
The Sale of Mr. Windus' Pictures	Denmark Hill	March 28 [1859]	The Times, March 29, 1859	185
The Italian Question	Berlin	June 6, 1859	The Scotsman, July 20, 1859	3
" "	Berlin	June 15 [1859]	" July 23, 1859	8
" "	Schaffhausen	August 1, 1859	" Aug. 6, 1859	13
Coventry Patmore's "Faithful for Ever"	Denmark Hill	[October 21, 1860]	The Critic, Oct. 27, 1860	168
Proverbs on Right Dress	Geneva	October 20th, 1862	The Monthly Packet, Nov. 1863	154
Oak Silkworms	Geneva	October 20th [1862]	The Times, Oct. 24, 1862	158
The Depreciation of Gold	Chamounix	October 2 [1863]	The Times, Oct. 8, 1863	37
The Foreign Policy of England	Zurich	October 25th, 1863	The Liverpool Albion, Nov. 2, 1863	15
The Position of Denmark	Denmark Hill	July 6 [1864]	The Morning Post, July 7, 1864	17
The Law of Supply and Demand	Denmark Hill	October 26 [1864]	The Daily Telegraph, Oct. 28, 1864	39
" " "	Denmark Hill	October 29 [1864]	" " Oct. 31, 1864	40
" " "	Denmark Hill	November 2 [1864]	" " Nov. 3, 1864	43
Strikes v. Arbitration	[Denmark Hill]	Easter Monday, 1865	The Pall Mall Gazette, April 18, 1865	48
Work and Wages	Denmark Hill	Thursday, April 20 [1865]	" " April 21, 1865	50
" "	Denmark Hill	Saturday, April 22, 1865	" " April 25, 1865	52
" "	[Denmark Hill]	Saturday, 29th April, 1865	" " May 2, 1865	54
" "	Denmark Hill	May 4 [1865]	" " May 9, 1865	59
" "	[Denmark Hill]	May 20, 1865	" " May 22, 1865	62
Domestic Servants—Mastership	Denmark Hill	September 2 [1865]	The Daily Telegraph, September 5, 1865	93
" " Experience	Denmark Hill	September 6 [1865]	" " September 7, 1865	95
" " Sonship and Slavery	Denmark Hill	September 16, 1865]	" " September 18, 1865	96
Modern Houses	Denmark Hill	October 16 [1865]	" " October 17, 1865	104
Our Railway System	Denmark Hill	December 7 [1865]	" " December 8, 1865	88
The Jamaica Insurrection	Denmark Hill	December 19 [1865]	" " December 20, 1865	20
At the Play	Denmark Hill	February 28, 1867	The Pall Mall Gazette, March 1, 1867	185
The Standard of Wages	Denmark Hill	April 30, 1867	" " May 1, 1867	65
An Object of Charity	Denmark Hill, S.	January 21, 1868	The Daily Telegraph, January 22, 1868	186
True Education	Denmark Hill, S.	January 31, 1868	The Pall Mall Gazette, January 31, 1868	123
Excuse from Correspondence	Denmark Hill, S.	2d February, 1868	Circular printed by Mr. Ruskin, 1868	186
Is England Big Enough?	Denmark Hill	July 30 [1868]	The Daily Telegraph, July 31, 1868	79
The Ownership of Railways	Denmark Hill	August 5 [1868]	" " August 6, 1868	81
Railway Economy	Denmark Hill	August 9 [1868]	" " August 10, 1868	83
Employment for the Destitute Poor, etc.	Denmark Hill, S.E.	December 24 [1868]	" " December 26, 1868	131
Notes on the Destitute Classes, Etc.	[Denmark Hill]	Autumn, 1868]	Pamphlet for private circulation, 1868	132
The Morality of Field Sports	Denmark Hill	January 14 [1870]	The Daily Telegraph, January 15, 1870	127
Female Franchise	Venice	29th May, 1870	Date and place of publication unknown	154
The Franco-Prussian War	Denmark Hill, S.E.	October 6 [1870]	The Daily Telegraph, Oct. 7, 1870	22
" " "	[Denmark Hill, S.E.]	October 7 [1870]	" " Oct. 8, 1870	25
Sad-Colored Costumes	Denmark Hill, S.E.	14th October, 1870	Macmillan's Magazine, Nov. 1870	156
Railway Safety	Denmark Hill	November 29, 1870	The Daily Telegraph, Nov. 30, 1870	89
A King's First Duty	[Denmark Hill]	January 10 [1871]	" " January 12, 1871	111
A Nation's Defences	Denmark Hill	January 19, 1871	The Pall Mall Gazette, Jan. 19, 1871	113
The Waters of Comfort	Oxford	February 3 [1871]	The Daily Telegraph, Feb. 4, 1871	115
The Streams of Italy	Oxford	February 3 [1871]	" " Feb. 7, 1871	116
Woman's Sphere (extract)	[Oxford	February 19, 1871]	" " Feb. 21, 1871	154 n.
The "Queen of the Air"	[Denmark Hill]	May 18, 1871	The Asiatic, May 23, 1871	171
Drunkenness and Crime	Denmark Hill	December 9 [1871]	The Daily Telegraph, Dec. 11, 1871	129
The Streets of London	[Denmark Hill]	December 27, 1871	The Pall Mall Gazette, Dec. 28, 1871	119
Madness and Crime	Oxford	November 2 [1872]	" " Nov. 4, 1872	130
Letter to the Author of a Review	Oxford	Wednesday, Oct. 30 [1872]	Liverpool Weekly Albion, Nov. 9, 1872	187
"act, Act in the Living Present"	Oxford	Christmas Eve, '72	New Year's Address, etc., 1873	141
How the Rich spend their Money	Brantwood, Coniston	January 23 [1873]	The Pall Mall Gazette, Jan. 24, 1873	66
" " "	[Brantwood, Coniston]	January 28 [1873]	" " Jan. 29, 1873	67
" " "	Brantwood, Coniston	King Charles the Martyr, 1873	" " Jan. 31, 1873	68
Woman's Work	[ ]	[May, 1873]	L'Espérance Genève, May 8, 1873	153
Mr. Ruskin and Professor Hodgson	Oxford	November 8, 1873	The Scotsman, November 10, 1873	44
" " "	Oxford	November 15, 1873	" November 18, 1873	46
"Laborare est Orare"	Oxford	December, 1873	New Year's Address, etc., 1874	142
The Value of Lectures	Rome	26th May, 1874	The Glasgow Herald, June 5, 1874	124
An Oxford Protest	[Oxford	October 29, 1874	The Globe, Oct. 29, 1874	188
A Mistaken Review	Brantwood	January 10 [1875]	The Pall Mall Gazette, January 11, 1875	165
The Position of Critics	Brantwood	January 18 [1875]	" " January 19, 1875	167
Commercial Morality	[Herne Hill	February, 1875]	Date and place of publication unknown	70
The Publication of Books	Oxford	June 6, 1875	The World, June 9, 1875	163
St. George's Museum	Brantwood, Coniston	[September, 1875]	Sheffield Daily Telegraph, Sept. 6, 1875	126
The Definition of Wealth	Oxford	9th November, 1875	The Monetary Gazette, Nov. 13, 1875	71
The Cradle of Art!	[Oxford]	18th February, 1876	Date and place of publication unknown	125
Modern Warfare	[Brantwood]	June, 1876	Fraser's Magazine, July, 1876	29
The Foundations of Chivalry	Venice	February 8th, 1877	"The Science of Life" (second edit.), 1878	143
" " "	Venice	February 10th [1877]	" " (first edition), 1877	145
" " "	Venice	11th February [1877]	" " " " 1877	146
" " "	Venice	12th February, '77]	" " " " 1877	147
Mr. Ruskin and Mr. Lowe	Brantwood, Coniston	August 24 [1877]	The Standard, August 28, 1877	189
The Principles of Property	[Brantwood]	10th October, 1877	The Socialist, November, 1887	71
A Pagan Message	Herne Hill, London, S. E.	19th December, 1877	New Year's Address, etc., 1878	143
Despair (extract)	[Oxford	February, 1878]	The Times, February 12, 1878	124 n.
The Foundations of Chivalry	Malham	July 3d, 1878	"The Science of Life" (second edit.), 1878	148
Notes on a Word in Shakespeare	Brantwood	[September, 1878]	New Shakspere Soc. Trans. 1878-9	176
" " "	Edinburgh	29th September, 1878	" " " "	177
The Bibliography of Ruskin	Brantwood, Coniston	September 30, 1878	"Bibliography of Dickens" (advt.), 1880	190
" " "	Brantwood, Coniston	October 23, 1878	" " " "	190
The Society of the Rose	[Brantwood	Early in 1879]	Report of Ruskin Soc., Manchester, 1880	191
Blindness and Sight	Brantwood, Coniston	18th July, 1879	The Y. M. A. Magazine, Sept., 1879	139
"The Eagle's Nest"	Brantwood, Coniston	August 17th, 1879	" " October, 1879	140
On Coöperation. I.	Brantwood, Coniston	[August, 1879]	The Christian Life, December 20, 1879	73
Politics in Youth	Sheffield	October 19th, 1879	The Y. M. A. Magazine, Nov., 1879	141
The Merchant of Venice (extract)	[Herne Hill, S. E.]	6th February, 1880	The Theatre, March, 1880	179
Recitations	Sheffield	16th February, 1880	Circular printed by Mr. R. T. Webling	180
Excuse from Correspondence	[Brantwood]	March, 1880	List of Mr. Ruskin's Writings, Mar., 1880	186 n.
On Coöperation. II.	Brantwood, Coniston	April 12th, 1880	The Daily News, June 19, 1880	73
The Glasgow Lord Rectorship	Brantwood, Coniston	10th June, 1880	The Glasgow Herald, Oct. 7, 1880	195
" " "	[Brantwood]	10th June, 1880	" " Oct. 7, 1880	195
" " "	[Brantwood]	24th June, 1880	" " Oct. 7, 1880	196
" " "	Brantwood, Coniston	[July, 1880]	" " Oct. 12, 1880	196
Dramatic Reform. I.	Brantwood	July 30th, 1880	Journal of Dramatic Reform, Nov., 1880	193
The Glasgow Lord Rectorship	Rouen	28th September, 1880	The Glasgow Herald, Oct. 7, 1880	197
Dramatic Reform. II.	Amiens	October 12th, 1880	Journal of Dramatic Reform, Nov., 1880	193



MODERN PAINTERS
VOLUME I.
PART I-II.
SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.
PART I.
OF GENERAL PRINCIPLES.
SECTION I.
OF THE NATURE OF THE IDEAS CONVEYABLE BY ART.
Chapter I., Introductory
§  1.	Public opinion no criterion of excellence, except after long periods of time.	1
§  2.	And therefore obstinate when once formed.	4
§  3.	The author's reasons for opposing it in particular instances.	5
§  4.	But only on points capable of demonstration.	5
§  5.	The author's partiality to modern works excusable.	6
Chapter II., Definition of Greatness in Art
§  1.	Distinction between the painter's intellectual power and technical knowledge.	8
§  2.	Painting, as such, is nothing more than language.	8
§  3.	"Painter," a term corresponding to "versifier."	9
§  4.	Example in a painting of E. Landseer's.	9
§  5.	Difficulty of fixing an exact limit between language and thought.	9
§  6.	Distinction between decorative and expressive language.	10
§  7.	Instance in the Dutch and early Italian schools.	10
§  8.	Yet there are certain ideas belonging to language itself.	11
§  9.	The definition.	12
Chapter III.Of Ideas of Power
§  1.	What classes of ideas are conveyable by art.	13
§  2.	Ideas of power vary much in relative dignity.	13
§  3.	But are received from whatever has been the subject of power. The meaning of the word "excellence."	14
§  4.	What is necessary to the distinguishing of excellence.[Page liv]	15
§  5.	The pleasure attendant on conquering difficulties is right.	16
Chapter IV. Of Ideas of Imitation
§  1.	False use of the term "imitation" by many writers on art.	17
§  2.	Real meaning of the term.	18
§  3.	What is requisite to the sense of imitation.	18
§  4.	The pleasure resulting from imitation the most contemptible that can be derived from art.	19
§  5.	Imitation is only of contemptible subjects.	19
§  6.	Imitation is contemptible because it is easy.	20
§  7.	Recapitulation.	20
Chapter V., Of Ideas of Truth
§  1.	Meaning of the word "truth" as applied to art.	21
§  2.	First difference between truth and imitation.	21
§  3.	Second difference.	21
§  4.	Third difference.	22
§  5.	No accurate truths necessary to imitation.	22
§  6.	Ideas of truth are inconsistent with ideas of imitation.	24
Chapter VI., Of Ideas of Beauty
§  1.	Definition of the term "beautiful."	26
§  2.	Definition of the term "taste."	26
§  3.	Distinction between taste and judgment.	27
§  4.	How far beauty may become intellectual.	27
§  5.	The high rank and function of ideas of beauty.	28
§  6.	Meaning of the term "ideal beauty."	28
Chapter VII., Of Ideas of Relation
§  1.	General meaning of the term.	29
§  2.	ideas are to be comprehended under it.	29
§  3.	The exceeding nobility of these ideas.	30
§  4.	Why no subdivision of so extensive a class is necessary.	31
SECTION II., OF POWER.
Chapter I., General Principles respecting Ideas of Power
§  1.	No necessity for detailed study of ideas of imitation.	32
§  2.	Nor for separate study of ideas of power.	32
§  3.	Except under one particular form.	33
§  4.	There are two modes of receiving ideas of power, commonly inconsistent.[Page lv]	33
§  5.	First reason of the inconsistency.	33
§  6.	Second reason for the inconsistency.	34
§  7.	The sensation of power ought not to be sought in imperfect art.	34
§  8.	Instances in pictures of modern artists.	35
§  9.	Connection between ideas of power and modes of execution.	35
Chapter II., Of Ideas of Power, as they are dependent upon Execution
§  1.	Meaning of the term "execution."	36
§  2.	The first quality of execution is truth.	36
§  3.	The second, simplicity.	36
§  4.	The third, mystery.	37
§  5.	The fourth, inadequacy; and the fifth, decision.	37
§  6.	The sixth, velocity.	37
§  7.	Strangeness an illegitimate source of pleasure in execution.	37
§  8.	Yet even the legitimate sources of pleasure in execution are inconsistent with each other.	38
§  9.	And fondness for ideas of power leads to the adoption of the lowest.	39
§ 10.	Therefore perilous.	40
§ 11.	Recapitulation.	40
Chapter III., Of the Sublime
§  1.	Sublimity is the effect upon the mind of anything above it.	41
§  2.	Burke's theory of the nature of the sublime incorrect, and why.	41
§  3.	Danger is sublime, but not the fear of it.	42
§  4.	The highest beauty is sublime.	42
§  5.	And generally whatever elevates the mind.	42
§  6.	The former division of the subject is therefore sufficient.	42
PART II. OF TRUTH.
SECTION I.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES RESPECTING IDEAS OF TRUTH.
Chapter I., Of Ideas of Truth in their connection with those of Beauty and Relation
§  1.	The two great ends of landscape painting are the representation of facts and thoughts.	44
§  2.	They induce a different choice of material subjects.[Page lvi]	45
§  3.	The first mode of selection apt to produce sameness and repetition.	45
§  4.	The second necessitating variety.	45
§  5.	Yet the first is delightful to all.	46
§  6.	The second only to a few.	46
§  7.	The first necessary to the second.	47
§  8.	The exceeding importance of truth.	48
§  9.	Coldness or want of beauty no sign of truth.	48
§ 10.	How truth may be considered a just criterion of all art.	48
Chapter II., That the Truth of Nature is not to be discerned by the Uneducated Senses
§  1.	The common self-deception of men with respect to their power of discerning truth.	50
§  2.	Men usually see little of what is before their eyes.	51
§  3.	But more or less in proportion to their natural sensibility to what is beautiful.	52
§  4.	Connected with a perfect state of moral feeling.	52
§  5.	And of the intellectual powers.	53
§  6.	How sight depends upon previous knowledge.	54
§  7.	The difficulty increased by the variety of truths in nature.	55
§  8.	We recognize objects by their least important attributes. Compare Part I. Sect. I. Chap. 4.	55
Chapter III., Of the Relative Importance of Truths:—First, that Particular Truths are more important than General Ones.
§  1.	Necessity of determining the relative importance of truths.	58
§  2.	Misapplication of the aphorism: "General truths are more important than particular ones."	58
§  3.	Falseness of this maxim, taken without explanation.	59
§  4.	Generality important in the subject, particularity in the predicate.	59
§  5.	The importance of truths of species is not owing to their generality.	60
§  6.	All truths valuable as they are characteristic.	61
§  7.	Otherwise truths of species are valuable, because beautiful.	61
§  8.	And many truths, valuable if separate, may be objectionable in connection with others.	62
§  9.	Recapitulation.	63
Chapter IV., Of the Relative Importance of Truths:—Secondly, that Rare Truths are more important than Frequent Ones
§  1.	No accidental violation of nature's principles should be represented.	64
§  2.	But the cases in which those principles have been strikingly exemplified.	65
§  3.	Which are comparatively rare.	65
§  4.	All repetition is blamable.	65
§  5.	The duty of the painter is the same as that of a preacher.	66
Chapter V., Of the Relative Importance of Truths:—Thirdly, that Truths of Color are the least important of all Truths
§  1.	Difference between primary and secondary qualities in bodies.	67
§  2.	The first are fully characteristic, the second imperfectly so.	67
§  3.	Color is a secondary quality, therefore less important than form.	68
§  4.	Color no distinction between objects of the same species.	68
§  5.	And different in association from what it is alone.	69
§  6.	It is not certain whether any two people see the same colors in things.	69
§  7.	Form, considered as an element of landscape, includes light and shade.	69
§  8.	Importance of light and shade in expressing the character of bodies, and unimportance of color.	70
§  9.	Recapitulation.	71
Chapter VI. Recapitulation
§  1.	The importance of historical truths.	72
§  2.	Form, as explained by light and shade, the first of all truths. Tone, light, and color, are secondary.	72
§  3.	And deceptive chiaroscuro the lowest of all.	73
Chapter VII., General Application of the Foregoing Principle
§  1.	The different selection of facts consequent on the several aims at imitation or at truth.	74
§  2.	The old masters, as a body, aim only at imitation.	74
§  3.	What truths they gave.	75
§  4.	The principles of selection adopted by modern artists.	76
§  5.	General feeling of Claude, Salvator, and G. Poussin, contrasted with the freedom and vastness of nature.	77
§  6.	Inadequacy of the landscape of Titian and Tintoret.[Page lviii]	78
§  7.	Causes of its want of influence on subsequent schools.	79
§  8.	The value of inferior works of art, how to be estimated.	80
§  9.	Religious landscape of Italy. The admirableness of its completion.	81
§ 10.	Finish, and the want of it, how right—and how wrong.	82
§ 11.	The open skies of the religious schools, how valuable. Mountain drawing of Masaccio. Landscape of the Bellinis and Giorgione.	84
§ 12.	Landscape of Titian and Tintoret.	86
§ 13.	Schools of Florence, Milan, and Bologna.	88
§ 14.	Claude, Salvator, and the Poussins.	89
§ 15.	German and Flemish landscape.	90
§ 16.	The lower Dutch schools.	92
§ 17.	English school, Wilson and Gainsborough.	93
§ 18.	Constable, Callcott.	94
§ 19.	Peculiar tendency of recent landscape.	95
§ 20.	G. Robson, D. Cox. False use of the term "style."	95
§ 21.	Copley Fielding. Phenomena of distant color.	97
§ 22.	Beauty of mountain foreground.	99
§ 23.	De Wint.	101
§ 24.	Influence of Engraving. J. D. Harding.	101
§ 25.	Samuel Prout. Early painting of architecture, how deficient.	103
§ 26.	Effects of age upon buildings, how far desirable.	104
§ 27.	Effects of light, how necessary to the understanding of detail.	106
§ 28.	Architectural painting of Gentile Bellini and Vittor Carpaccio.	107
§ 29.	And of the Venetians generally.	109
§ 30.	Fresco painting of the Venetian exteriors. Canaletto.	110
§ 31.	Expression of the effects of age on Architecture by S. Prout.	112
§ 32.	His excellent composition and color.	114
§ 33.	Modern architectural painting generally. G. Cattermole.	115
§ 34.	The evil in an archæological point of view of misapplied invention, in architectural subject.	117
§ 35.	Works of David Roberts: their fidelity and grace.	118
§ 36.	Clarkson Stanfield.	121
§ 37.	J. M. W. Turner. Force of national feeling in all great painters.	123
§ 38.	Influence of this feeling on the choice of Landscape subject.	125
§ 39.	Its peculiar manifestation in Turner.	125
§ 40.	The domestic subjects of the Liber Studiorum.	127
§ 41.	Turner's painting of French and Swiss landscape. The latter deficient.	129
§ 42.	His rendering of Italian character still less successful. His large compositions how failing.	130
§ 43.	His views of Italy destroyed by brilliancy and redundant quantity.[Page lix]	133
§ 44.	Changes introduced by him in the received system of art.	133
§ 45.	Difficulties of his later manner. Resultant deficiencies.	134
§ 46.	Reflection of his very recent works.	137
§ 47.	Difficulty of demonstration in such subjects.	139
SECTION II.
OF GENERAL TRUTHS.
Chapter I., Of Truth of Tone
§  1.	Meanings of the word "tone:"—First, the right relation of objects in shadow to the principal light.	140
§  2.	Secondly, the quality of color by which it is felt to owe part of its brightness to the hue of light upon it.	140
§  3.	Difference between tone in its first sense and aerial perspective.	141
§  4.	The pictures of the old masters perfect in relation of middle tints to light.	141
§  5.	And consequently totally false in relation of middle tints to darkness.	141
§  6.	General falsehood of such a system.	143
§  7.	The principle of Turner in this respect.	143
§  8.	Comparison of N. Poussin's "Phocion."	144
§  9.	With Turner's "Mercury and Argus."	145
§ 10.	And with the "Datur Hora Quieti."	145
§ 11.	The second sense of the word "tone."	146
§ 12.	Remarkable difference in this respect between the paintings and drawings of Turner.	146
§ 13.	Not owing to want of power over the material.	146
§ 14.	The two distinct qualities of light to be considered.	147
§ 15.	Falsehoods by which Titian attains the appearance of quality in light.	148
§ 16.	Turner will not use such means.	148
§ 17.	But gains in essential truth by the sacrifice.	148
§ 18.	The second quality of light.	148
§ 19.	The perfection of Cuyp in this respect interfered with by numerous solecisms.	150
§ 20.	Turner is not so perfect in parts—far more so in the whole.	151
§ 21.	The power in Turner of uniting a number of tones.	152
§ 22.	Recapitulation.	153
Chapter II., Of Truth of Color
§  1.	Observations on the color of G. Poussin's La Riccia.	155
§  2.	As compared with the actual scene.	155
§  3.	Turner himself is inferior in brilliancy to nature.	157
§  4.	Impossible colors of Salvator, Titian.	157
§  5.	Poussin, and Claude.	158
§  6.	Turner's translation of colors.	160
§  7.	Notice of effects in which no brilliancy of art can even approach that of reality.	161
§  8.	Reasons for the usual incredulity of the observer with respect to their representation.	162
§  9.	Color of the Napoleon.	163
§ 10.	Necessary discrepancy between the attainable brilliancy of color and light.	164
§ 11.	This discrepancy less in Turner than in other colorists.	165
§ 12.	Its great extent in a landscape attributed to Rubens.	165
§ 13.	Turner scarcely ever uses pure or vivid color.	166
§ 14.	The basis of gray, under all his vivid hues.	167
§ 15.	The variety and fulness even of his most simple tones.	168
§ 16.	Following the infinite and unapproachable variety of nature.	168
§ 17.	His dislike of purple, and fondness for the opposition of yellow and black. The principles of nature in this respect.	169
§ 18.	His early works are false in color.	170
§ 19.	His drawings invariably perfect.	171
§ 20.	The subjection of his system of color to that of chiaroscuro.	171
Chapter III., Of Truth of Chiaroscuro
§  1.	We are not at present to examine particular effects of light.	174
§  2.	And therefore the distinctness of shadows is the chief means of expressing vividness of light.	175
§  3.	Total absence of such distinctness in the works of the Italian school.	175
§  4.	And partial absence in the Dutch.	176
§  5.	The perfection of Turner's works in this respect.	177
§  6.	The effect of his shadows upon the light.	178
§  7.	The distinction holds good between almost all the works of the ancient and modern schools.	179
§  8.	Second great principle of chiaroscuro. Both high light and deep shadow are used in equal quantity, and only in points.	180
§  9.	Neglect or contradiction of this principle by writers on art.	180
§ 10.	And consequent misguiding of the student.	181
§ 11.	The great value of a simple chiaroscuro.	182
§ 12.	The sharp separation of nature's lights from her middle tint.	182
§ 13.	The truth of Turner.	183
Chapter IV., Of Truth of Space:—First, as Dependent on the Focus of the Eye
§  1.	Space is more clearly indicated by the drawing of objects than by their hue.	185
§  2.	It is impossible to see objects at unequal distances distinctly at one moment.	186
§  3.	Especially such as are both comparatively near.	186
§  4.	In painting, therefore, either the foreground or distance must be partially sacrificed.	187
§  5.	Which not being done by the old masters, they could not express space.	187
§  6.	But modern artists have succeeded in fully carrying out this principle.	188
§  7.	Especially of Turner.	189
§  8.	Justification of the want of drawing in Turner's figures.	189
Chapter V., Of Truth of Space:—Secondly, as its Appearance is dependent on the Power of the Eye
§  1.	The peculiar indistinctness dependent on the retirement of objects from the eye.	191
§  2.	Causes confusion, but not annihilation of details.	191
§  3.	Instances in various objects.	192
§  4.	Two great resultant truths; that nature is never distinct, and never vacant.	193
§  5.	Complete violation of both these principles by the old masters. They are either distinct or vacant.	193
§  6.	Instances from Nicholas Poussin.	194
§  7.	From Claude.	194
§  8.	And G. Poussin.	195
§  9.	The imperative necessity, in landscape painting, of fulness and finish.	196
§ 10.	Breadth is not vacancy.	197
§ 11.	The fulness and mystery of Turner's distances.	198
§ 12.	Farther illustrations in architectural drawing.	199
§ 13.	In near objects as well as distances.	199
§ 14.	Vacancy and falsehood of Canaletto.	200
§ 15.	Still greater fulness and finish in landscape foregrounds.	200
§ 16.	Space and size are destroyed alike by distinctness and by vacancy.	202
§ 17.	Swift execution best secures perfection of details.	202
§ 18.	Finish is far more necessary in landscape than in historical subjects.	202
§ 19.	Recapitulation of the section.	203
SECTION III., OF TRUTH OF SKIES
Chapter I., Of the Open Sky.
§  1.	The peculiar adaptation of the sky to the pleasing and teaching of man.	204
§  2.	The carelessness with which its lessons are received.	205
§  3.	The most essential of these lessons are the gentlest.	205
§  4.	Many of our ideas of sky altogether conventional.	205
§  5.	Nature, and essential qualities of the open blue.	206
§  6.	Its connection with clouds.	207
§  7.	Its exceeding depth.	207
§  8.	These qualities are especially given by modern masters.	207
§  9.	And by Claude.	208
§ 10.	Total absence of them in Poussin. Physical errors in his general treatment of open sky.	208
§ 11.	Errors of Cuyp in graduation of color.	209
§ 12.	The exceeding value of the skies of the early Italian and Dutch schools. Their qualities are unattainable in modern times.	210
§ 13.	Phenomena of visible sunbeams. Their nature and cause.	211
§ 14.	They are only illuminated mist, and cannot appear when the sky is free from vapor, nor when it is without clouds.	211
§ 15.	Erroneous tendency in the representation of such phenomena by the old masters.	212
§ 16.	The ray which appears in the dazzled eye should not be represented.	213
§ 17.	The practice of Turner. His keen perception of the more delicate phenomena of rays.	213
§ 18.	The total absence of any evidence of such perception in the works of the old masters.	213
§ 19.	Truth of the skies of modern drawings.	214
§ 20.	Recapitulation. The best skies of the ancients are, in quality, inimitable, but in rendering of various truth, childish.	215
Chapter II., Of Truth of Clouds:—First, of the Region of the Cirrus.
§  1.	Difficulty of ascertaining wherein the truth of clouds consists.	216
§  2.	Variation of their character at different elevations. The three regions to which they may conveniently be considered as belonging.	216
§  3.	Extent of the upper region.	217
§  4.	The symmetrical arrangement of its clouds.[Page lxiii]	217
§  5.	Their exceeding delicacy.	218
§  6.	Their number.	218
§  7.	Causes of their peculiarly delicate coloring.	219
§  8.	Their variety of form.	219
§  9.	Total absence of even the slightest effort at their representation, in ancient landscape.	220
§ 10.	The intense and constant study of them by Turner.	221
§ 11.	His vignette, Sunrise on the Sea.	222
§ 12.	His use of the cirrus in expressing mist.	223
§ 13.	His consistency in every minor feature.	224
§ 14.	The color of the upper clouds.	224
§ 15.	Recapitulation.	225
Chapter III., Of Truth of Clouds:—Secondly, of the Central Cloud Region
§  1.	Extent and typical character of the central cloud region.	226
§  2.	Its characteristic clouds, requiring no attention nor thought for their representation, are therefore favorite subjects with the old masters.	226
§  3.	The clouds of Salvator and Poussin.	227
§  4.	Their essential characters.	227
§  5.	Their angular forms and general decision of outline.	228
§  6.	The composition of their minor curves.	229
§  7.	Their characters, as given by S. Rosa.	230
§  8.	Monotony and falsehood of the clouds of the Italian school generally.	230
§  9.	Vast size of congregated masses of cloud.	231
§ 10.	Demonstrable by comparison with mountain ranges.	231
§ 11.	And consequent divisions and varieties of feature.	232
§ 12.	Not lightly to be omitted.	232
§ 13.	Imperfect conceptions of this size and extent in ancient landscape.	233
§ 14.	Total want of transparency and evanescence in the clouds of ancient landscape.	234
§ 15.	Farther proof of their deficiency in space.	235
§ 16.	Instance of perfect truth in the sky of Turner's Babylon.	236
§ 17.	And in his Pools of Solomon.	237
§ 18.	Truths of outline and character in his Como.	237
§ 19.	Association of the cirrostratus with the cumulus.	238
§ 20.	The deep-based knowledge of the Alps in Turner's Lake of Geneva.	238
§ 21.	Farther principles of cloud form exemplified in his Amalfi.	239
§ 22.	Reasons for insisting on the infinity of Turner's works. Infinity is almost an unerring test of all truth[Page lxiv]	239
§ 23.	Instances of the total want of it in the works of Salvator.	240
§ 24.	And of the universal presence of it in those of Turner. The conclusions which may be arrived at from it.	240
§ 25.	The multiplication of objects, or increase of their size, will not give the impression of infinity, but is the resource of novices.	241
§ 26.	Farther instances of infinity in the gray skies of Turner.	242
§ 27.	The excellence of the cloud-drawing of Stanfield.	242
§ 28.	The average standing of the English school.	243
Chapter IV.,Of Truth of Clouds:—Thirdly, of the Region of the Rain-Cloud.
§  1.	The apparent difference in character between the lower and central clouds is dependent chiefly on proximity.	244
§  2.	Their marked differences in color.	244
§  3.	And in definiteness of form.	245
§  4.	They are subject to precisely the same great laws.	245
§  5.	Value, to the painter, of the rain-cloud.	246
§  6.	The old masters have not left a single instance of the painting of the rain-cloud, and very few efforts at it. Gaspar Poussin's storms.	247
§  7.	The great power of the moderns in this respect.	248
§  8.	Works of Copley Fielding.	248
§  9.	His peculiar truth.	248
§ 10.	His weakness, and its probable cause.	249
§ 11.	Impossibility of reasoning on the rain-clouds of Turner from engravings.	250
§ 12.	His rendering of Fielding's particular moment in the Jumieges.	250
§ 13.	Illustration of the nature of clouds in the opposed forms of smoke and steam.	250
§ 14.	Moment of retiring rain in the Llanthony.	251
§ 15.	And of commencing, chosen with peculiar meaning for Loch Coriskin.	252
§ 16.	The drawing of transparent vapor in the Land's End.	253
§ 17.	The individual character of its parts.	253
§ 18.	Deep-studied form of swift rain-cloud in the Coventry.	254
§ 19.	Compared with forms given by Salvator.	254
§ 20.	Entire expression of tempest by minute touches and circumstances in the Coventry.	255
§ 21.	Especially by contrast with a passage of extreme repose.	255
§ 22.	The truth of this particular passage. Perfectly pure blue sky only seen after rain, and how seen.[Page lxv]	256
§ 23.	Absence of this effect in the works of the old masters.	256
§ 24.	Success of our water-color artists in its rendering. Use of it by Turner.	257
§ 25.	Expression of near rain-cloud in the Gosport, and other works.	257
§ 26.	Contrasted with Gaspar Poussin's rain-cloud in the Dido and Æneas.	258
§ 27.	Turner's power of rendering mist.	258
§ 28.	His effects of mist so perfect, that if not at once understood, they can no more be explained or reasoned on than nature herself.	259
§ 29.	Various instances.	259
§ 30.	Turner's more violent effects of tempest are never rendered by engravers.	260
§ 31.	General system of landscape engraving.	260
§ 32.	The storm in the Stonehenge.	260
§ 33.	General character of such effects as given by Turner. His expression of falling rain.	261
§ 34.	Recapitulation of the section.	261
§ 35.	Sketch of a few of the skies of nature, taken as a whole, compared with the works of Turner and of the old masters. Morning on the plains.	262
§ 36.	Noon with gathering storms.	263
§ 37.	Sunset in tempest. Serene midnight.	264
§ 38.	And sunrise on the Alps.	264
Chapter V., Effects of Light rendered by Modern Art.
§  1.	Reasons for merely, at present, naming, without examining the particular effects of light rendered by Turner.	266
§  2.	Hopes of the author for assistance in the future investigation of them.	266
SECTION IV.
OF TRUTH OF EARTH.
Chapter I., Of General Structure
§  1.	First laws of the organization of the earth, and their importance in art.	270
§  2.	The slight attention ordinarily paid to them. Their careful study by modern artists.	271
§  3.	General structure of the earth. The hills are its action, the plains its rest.[Page lxvi]	271
§  4.	Mountains come out from underneath the plains, and are their support.	272
§  5.	Structure of the plains themselves. Their perfect level, when deposited by quiet water.	273
§  6.	Illustrated by Turner's Marengo.	273
§  7.	General divisions of formation resulting from this arrangement. Plan of investigation.	274
Chapter II., Of the Central Mountains
§  1.	Similar character of the central peaks in all parts of the world.	275
§  2.	Their arrangements in pyramids or wedges, divided by vertical fissures.	275
§  3.	Causing groups of rock resembling an artichoke or rose.	276
§  4.	The faithful statement of these facts by Turner in his Alps at Daybreak.	276
§  5.	Vignette of the Andes and others.	277
§  6.	Necessary distance, and consequent aerial effect on all such mountains.	277
§  7.	Total want of any rendering of their phenomena in ancient art.	278
§  8.	Character of the representations of Alps in the distances of Claude.	278
§  9.	Their total want of magnitude and aerial distance.	279
§ 10.	And violation of specific form.	280
§ 11.	Even in his best works.	280
§ 12.	Farther illustration of the distant character of mountain chains.	281
§ 13.	Their excessive appearance of transparency.	281
§ 14.	Illustrated from the works of Turner and Stanfield. The Borromean Islands of the latter.	282
§ 15.	Turner's Arona.	283
§ 16.	Extreme distance of large objects always characterized by very sharp outline.	283
§ 17.	Want of this decision in Claude.	284
§ 18.	The perpetual rendering of it by Turner.	285
§ 19.	Effects of snow, how imperfectly studied.	285
§ 20.	General principles of its forms on the Alps.	287
§ 21.	Average paintings of Switzerland. Its real spirit has scarcely yet been caught.	289
Chapter III., Of the Inferior Mountains
§  1.	The inferior mountains are distinguished from the central, by being divided into beds.	290
§  2.	Farther division of these beds by joints.	290
§  3.	And by lines of lamination.	291
§  4.	Variety and seeming uncertainty under which these laws are manifested.	291
§  5.	The perfect expression of them in Turner's Loch Coriskin.	292
§  6.	Glencoe and other works.	293
§  7.	Especially the Mount Lebanon.	293
§  8.	Compared with the work of Salvator.	294
§  9.	And of Poussin.	295
§ 10.	Effects of external influence on mountain form.	296
§ 11.	The gentle convexity caused by aqueous erosion.	297
§ 12.	And the effect of the action of torrents.	297
§ 13.	The exceeding simplicity of contour caused by these influences.	298
§ 14.	And multiplicity of feature.	299
§ 15.	Both utterly neglected in ancient art.	299
§ 16.	The fidelity of treatment in Turner's Daphne and Leucippus.	300
§ 17.	And in the Avalanche and Inundation.	300
§ 18.	The rarity among secondary hills of steep slopes or high precipices.	301
§ 19.	And consequent expression of horizontal distance in their ascent.	302
§ 20.	Full statement of all these facts in various works of Turner.—Caudebec, etc.	302
§ 21.	The use of considering geological truths.	303
§ 22.	Expression of retiring surface by Turner contrasted with the work of Claude.	304
§ 23.	The same moderation of slope in the contours of his higher hills.	304
§ 24.	The peculiar difficulty of investigating the more essential truths of hill outline.	305
§ 25.	Works of other modern artists.—Clarkson Stanfield.	305
§ 26.	Importance of particular and individual truth in hill drawing.	306
§ 27.	Works of Copley Fielding. His high feeling.	307
§ 28.	Works of J. D. Harding and others.	308
Chapter IV., Of the Foreground
§  1.	What rocks were the chief components of ancient landscape foreground.	309
§  2.	Salvator's limestones. The real characters of the rock. Its fractures, and obtuseness of angles.	309
§  3.	Salvator's acute angles caused by the meeting of concave curves.[Page lxviii]	310
§  4.	Peculiar distinctness of light and shade in the rocks of nature.	311
§  5.	Peculiar confusion of both in the rocks of Salvator.	311
§  6.	And total want of any expression of hardness or brittleness.	311
§  7.	Instances in particular pictures.	312
§  8.	Compared with the works of Stanfield.	312
§  9.	Their absolute opposition in every particular.	313
§ 10.	The rocks of J. D. Harding.	313
§ 11.	Characters of loose earth and soil.	314
§ 12.	Its exceeding grace and fulness of feature.	315
§ 13.	The ground of Teniers.	315
§ 14.	Importance of these minor parts and points.	316
§ 15.	The observance of them is the real distinction between the master and the novice.	316
§ 16.	Ground of Cuyp.	317
§ 17.	And of Claude.	317
§ 18.	The entire weakness and childishness of the latter.	318
§ 19.	Compared with the work of Turner.	318
§ 20.	General features of Turner's foreground.	319
§ 21.	Geological structure of his rocks in the Fall of the Tees.	319
§ 22.	Their convex surfaces and fractured edges.	319
§ 23.	And perfect unity.	320
§ 24.	Various parts whose history is told us by the details of the drawing.	321
§ 25.	Beautiful instance of an exception to general rules in the Llanthony.	321
§ 26.	Turner's drawing of detached blocks of weathered stone.	322
§ 27.	And of complicated foreground.	323
§ 28.	And of loose soil.	323
§ 29.	The unison of all in the ideal foregrounds of the Academy pictures.	324
§ 30.	And the great lesson to be received from all.	324
SECTION V.
OF TRUTH OF WATER.

Chapter I., Of Water, as Painted by the Ancients
§  1.	Sketch of the functions and infinite agency of water.	325
§  2.	The ease with which a common representation of it may be given. The impossibility of a faithful one.	325
§  3.	Difficulty of properly dividing the subject.	326
§  4.	Inaccuracy of study of water-effect among all painters.	326
§  5.	Difficulty of treating this part of the subject.	328
§  6.	General laws which regulate the phenomena of water. First, The imperfection of its reflective surface.[Page lxix]	329
§  7.	The inherent hue of water modifies dark reflections, and does not affect right ones.	330
§  8.	Water takes no shadow.	331
§  9.	Modification of dark reflections by shadow.	332
§ 10.	Examples on the waters of the Rhone.	333
§ 11.	Effect of ripple on distant water.	335
§ 12.	Elongation of reflections by moving water.	335
§ 13.	Effect of rippled water on horizontal and inclined images.	336
§ 14.	To what extent reflection is visible from above.	336
§ 15.	Deflection of images on agitated water.	337
§ 16.	Necessity of watchfulness as well as of science. Licenses, how taken by great men.	337
§ 17.	Various licenses or errors in water painting of Claude, Cuyp, Vandevelde.	339
§ 18.	And Canaletto.	341
§ 19.	Why unpardonable.	342
§ 20.	The Dutch painters of sea.	343
§ 21.	Ruysdael, Claude, and Salvator.	344
§ 22.	Nicolo Poussin.	345
§ 23.	Venetians and Florentines. Conclusion.	346
Chapter II., Of Water, as Painted by the Moderns
§  1.	General power of the moderns in painting quiet water. The lakes of Fielding.	348
§  2.	The calm rivers of De Wint, J. Holland, &c.	348
§  3.	The character of bright and violent falling water.	349
§  4.	As given by Nesfield.	349
§  5.	The admirable water-drawing of J. D. Harding.	350
§  6.	His color; and painting of sea.	350
§  7.	The sea of Copley Fielding. Its exceeding grace and rapidity.	351
§  8.	Its high aim at character.	351
§  9.	But deficiency in the requisite quality of grays.	352
§ 10.	Variety of the grays of nature.	352
§ 11.	Works of Stanfield. His perfect knowledge and power.	353
§ 12.	But want of feeling. General sum of truth presented by modern art.	353
Chapter III., Of Water, as Painted by Turner
§  1.	The difficulty of giving surface to smooth water.	355
§  2.	Is dependent on the structure of the eye, and the focus by which the reflected rays are perceived.	355
§  3.	Morbid clearness occasioned in painting of water by distinctness of reflections.	356
§  4.	How avoided by Turner.	357
§  5.	All reflections on distant water are distinct.[Page lxx]	357
§  6.	The error of Vandevelde.	358
§  7.	Difference in arrangement of parts between the reflected object and its image.	359
§  8.	Illustrated from the works of Turner.	359
§  9.	The boldness and judgment shown in the observance of it.	360
§ 10.	The texture of surface in Turner's painting of calm water.	361
§ 11.	Its united qualities.	361
§ 12.	Relation of various circumstances of past agitation, &c., by the most trifling incidents, as in the Cowes.	363
§ 13.	In scenes on the Loire and Seine.	363
§ 14.	Expression of contrary waves caused by recoil from shore.	364
§ 15.	Various other instances.	364
§ 16.	Turner's painting of distant expanses of water.—Calm, interrupted by ripple.	365
§ 17.	And rippled, crossed by sunshine.	365
§ 18.	His drawing of distant rivers.	366
§ 19.	And of surface associated with mist.	367
§ 20.	His drawing of falling water, with peculiar expression of weight.	367
§ 21.	The abandonment and plunge of great cataracts. How given by him.	368
§ 22.	Difference in the action of water, when continuous and when interrupted. The interrupted stream fills the hollows of its bed.	369
§ 23.	But the continuous stream takes the shape of its bed.	370
§ 24.	Its exquisite curved lines.	370
§ 25.	Turner's careful choice of the historical truth.	370
§ 26.	His exquisite drawing of the continuous torrent in the Llanthony Abbey.	371
§ 27.	And of the interrupted torrent in the Mercury and Argus.	372
§ 28.	Various cases.	372
§ 29.	Sea painting. Impossibility of truly representing foam.	373
§ 30.	Character of shore-breakers, also inexpressible.	374
§ 31.	Their effect how injured when seen from the shore.	375
§ 32.	Turner's expression of heavy rolling sea.	376
§ 33.	With peculiar expression of weight.	376
§ 34.	Peculiar action of recoiling waves.	377
§ 35.	And of the stroke of a breaker on the shore.	377
§ 36.	General character of sea on a rocky coast given by Turner in the Land's End.	378
§ 37.	Open seas of Turner's earlier time.	379
§ 38.	Effect of sea after prolonged storm.	380
§ 39.	Turner's noblest work, the painting of the deep open sea in the Slave Ship.	382
§ 40.	Its united excellences and perfection as a whole.	383
SECTION VI.
OF TRUTH OF VEGETATION.—CONCLUSION.
Chapter I., Of Truth of Vegetation
§  1.	Frequent occurrence of foliage in the works of the old masters.	384
§  2.	Laws common to all forest trees. Their branches do not taper, but only divide.	385
§  3.	Appearance of tapering caused by frequent buds.	385
§  4.	And care of nature to conceal the parallelism.	386
§  5.	The degree of tapering which may be represented as continuous.	386
§  6.	The trees of Gaspar Poussin.	386
§  7.	And of the Italian school generally, defy this law.	387
§  8.	The truth, as it is given by J. D. Harding.	387
§  9.	Boughs, in consequence of this law, must diminish where they divide. Those of the old masters often do not.	388
§ 10.	Boughs must multiply as they diminish. Those of the old masters do not.	389
§ 11.	Bough-drawing of Salvator.	390
§ 12.	All these errors especially shown in Claude's sketches, and concentrated in a work of G. Poussin's.	391
§ 13.	Impossibility of the angles of boughs being taken out of them by wind.	392
§ 14.	Bough-drawing of Titian.	392
§ 15.	Bough-drawing of Turner.	394
§ 16.	Leafage. Its variety and symmetry.	394
§ 17.	Perfect regularity of Poussin.	395
§ 18.	Exceeding intricacy of nature's foliage.	396
§ 19.	How contradicted by the tree-patterns of G. Poussin.	396
§ 20.	How followed by Creswick.	397
§ 21.	Perfect unity in nature's foliage.	398
§ 22.	Total want of it in Both and Hobbima.	398
§ 23.	How rendered by Turner.	399
§ 24.	The near leafage of Claude. His middle distances are good.	399
§ 25.	Universal termination of trees in symmetrical curves.	400
§ 26.	Altogether unobserved by the old masters. Always given by Turner.	401
§ 27.	Foliage painting on the Continent.	401
§ 28.	Foliage of J. D. Harding. Its deficiencies.	402
§ 29.	His brilliancy of execution too manifest.	403
§ 30.	His bough-drawing, and choice of form.	404
§ 31.	Local color, how far expressible in black and white, and with what advantage.[Page lxxii]	404
§ 32.	Opposition between great manner and great knowledge.	406
§ 33.	Foliage of Cox, Fielding, and Cattermole.	406
§ 34.	Hunt and Creswick. Green, how to be rendered expressive of light, and offensive if otherwise.	407
§ 35.	Conclusion. Works of J. Linnel and S. Palmer.	407
Chapter II., General remarks respecting the Truth of Turner
§  1.	No necessity of entering into discussion of architectural truth.	409
§  2.	Extreme difficulty of illustrating or explaining the highest truth.	410
§  3.	The positive rank of Turner is in no degree shown in the foregoing pages, but only his relative rank.	410
§  4.	The exceeding refinement of his truth.	411
§  5.	There is nothing in his works which can be enjoyed without knowledge.	411
§  6.	And nothing which knowledge will not enable us to enjoy.	412
§  7.	His former rank and progress.	412
§  8.	Standing of his present works. Their mystery is the consequence of their fulness.	413
Chapter III., Conclusion.-Modern Art and Modern Criticism
§  1.	The entire prominence hitherto given to the works of one artist caused only by our not being able to take cognizance of character.	414
§  2.	The feelings of different artists are incapable of full comparison.	415
§  3.	But the fidelity and truth of each are capable of real comparison.	415
§  4.	Especially because they are equally manifested in the treatment of all subjects.	415
§  5.	No man draws one thing well, if he can draw nothing else.	416
§  6.	General conclusions to be derived from our past investigation.	417
§  7.	Truth, a standard of all excellence.	417
§  8.	Modern criticism. Changefulness of public taste.	418
§  9.	Yet associated with a certain degree of judgment.	418
§ 10.	Duty of the press.	418
§ 11.	Qualifications necessary for discharging it.	418
§ 12.	General incapability of modern critics.	419
§ 13.	And inconsistency with themselves.	419
§ 14.	How the press may really advance the cause of art.[Page lxxiii]	420
§ 15.	Morbid fondness at the present day for unfinished works.	420
§ 16.	By which the public defraud themselves.	421
§ 17.	And in pandering to which, artists ruin themselves.	421
§ 18.	Necessity of finishing works of art perfectly.	421
§ 19.	Sketches not sufficiently encouraged.	422
§ 20.	Brilliancy of execution or efforts at invention not to be tolerated in young artists.	422
§ 21.	The duty and after privileges of all students.	423
§ 22.	Necessity among our greater artists of more singleness of aim.	423
§ 23.	What should be their general aim.	425
§ 24.	Duty of the press with respect to the works of Turner.	427
LIST OF PLATES TO VOLUME I.
 	Page.
Casa Contarini Fasan, Venice	111
From a drawing by Ruskin.
The Dogana, and Santa Maria della Salute, Venice	136
From a painting by Turner.
Okehampton Castle	258
From a painting by Turner.
Port Ruysdael	377
From a painting by Turner.
[Page 1]



MODERN PAINTERS
VOLUME II.
CONTAINING PART III., SECTIONS I. AND II. OF THE IMAGINATIVE AND THEORETIC FACULTIES.
SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.

PART III.
OF IDEAS OF BEAUTY.
SECTION I.
OF THE THEORETIC FACULTY.
Chapter I.-Of the Rank and Relations of the Theoretic Faculty.
 	 	page
§  1.	With what care the subject is to be approached.	1
§  2.	And of what importance considered.	2
§  3.	The doubtful force of the term "utility".	3
§  4.	Its proper sense.	4
§  5.	How falsely applied in these times.	4
§  6.	The evil consequences of such interpretation. How connected with national power.	5
§  7.	How to be averted.	6
§  8.	Division of the pursuits of men into subservient and objective.	8
§  9.	Their relative dignities.	10
§ 10.	How reversed through erring notions of the contemplative and imaginative faculties.	10
§ 11.	Object of the present section.	11
Chapter II.-Of the Theoretic Faculty as concerned with Pleasures of Sense.
§  1.	Explanation of the term "theoretic".	12
§  2.	Of the differences of rank in pleasures of sense.	12
§  3.	Use of the terms Temperate and Intemperate.	13
§  4.	Right use of the term "intemperate".	13
§  5.	Grounds of inferiority in the pleasures which are subjects of intemperance.	14
§  6.	Evidence of higher rank in pleasures of sight and hearing.	15
§  7.	How the lower pleasures may be elevated in rank.	16
§  8.	Ideas of beauty how essentially moral.	17
§  9.	How degraded by heartless reception.	17
§ 10.	How exalted by affection.	18
Chapter III.-Of Accuracy and Inaccuracy in Impressions of Sense.
§  1.	By what test is the health of the perceptive faculty to be determined?	19
§  2.	And in what sense may the terms Right and Wrong be attached to its conclusions?	20
§  3.	What power we have over impressions of sense.	21
§  4.	Depends on acuteness of attention.	21
§  5.	Ultimate conclusions universal.	22
§  6.	What duty is attached to this power over impressions of sense.	22
§  7.	How rewarded.	23
§  8.	Especially with respect to ideas of beauty.	23
§  9.	Errors induced by the power of habit.	24
§ 10.	The necessity of submission in early stages of judgment.	24
§ 11.	The large scope of matured judgment.	25
§ 12.	How distinguishable from false taste.	25
§ 13.	The danger of a spirit of choice.	26
§ 14.	And criminality.	27
§ 15.	How certain conclusions respecting beauty are by reason demonstrable.	27
§ 16.	With what liabilities to error.	28
§ 17.	The term "beauty" how limitable in the outset. Divided into typical and vital.	28
Chapter IV.-Of False Opinions held concerning Beauty.
§  1.	Of the false opinion that truth is beauty, and vice versa.	30
§  2.	Of the false opinion that beauty is usefulness. Compare Chap. xii. § 5.	31
§  3.	Of the false opinion that beauty results from custom. Compare Chap. vi. § 1.	31
§  4.	The twofold operation of custom. It deadens sensation, but confirms affection.	31
§  5.	But never either creates or destroys the essence of beauty.	32
§  6.	Instances.	32
§  7.	Of the false opinion that beauty depends on the association of ideas.	33
§  8.	Association. Is, 1st, rational. It is of no efficiency as a cause of beauty.	33
§  9.	Association accidental. The extent of its influence.	34
§ 10.	The dignity of its function.	35
§ 11.	How it is connected with impressions of beauty.	36
§ 12.	And what caution it renders necessary in the examination of them.	36
Chapter V.-Of Typical Beauty:-First, of Infinity, or the Type of Divine Incomprehensibility.
§  1.	Impossibility of adequately treating the subject.	38
§  2.	With what simplicity of feeling to be approached.	38
§  3.	The child instinct respecting space.	39
§  4.	Continued in after life.	40
§  5.	Whereto this instinct is traceable.	40
§  6.	Infinity how necessary in art.	41
§  7.	Conditions of its necessity.	42
§  8.	And connected analogies.	42
§  9.	How the dignity of treatment is proportioned to the expression of infinity.	43
§ 10.	Examples among the Southern schools.	44
§ 11.	Among the Venetians.	44
§ 12.	Among the painters of landscape.	45
§ 13.	Other modes in which the power of infinity is felt.	45
§ 14.	The beauty of curvature.	46
§ 15.	How constant in external nature.	46
§ 16.	The beauty of gradation.	47
§ 17.	How found in nature.	47
§ 18.	How necessary in Art.	48
§ 19.	Infinity not rightly implied by vastness.	49
Chapter VI.-Of Unity, or the Type of the Divine Comprehensiveness.
§  1.	The general conception of divine Unity.	50
§  2.	The glory of all things is their Unity.	50
§  3.	The several kinds of unity. Subjectional. Original. Of sequence, and of membership.	51
§  4	Unity of membership. How secured.	52
§  5.	Variety. Why required.	53
§  6.	Change, and its influence on beauty.	54
§  7.	The love of change. How morbid and evil.	55
§  8.	The conducing of variety towards unity of subjection.	55
§  9.	And towards unity of sequence.	57
§ 10.	The nature of proportion. 1st, of apparent proportion.	57
§ 11.	The value of apparent proportion in curvature.	60
§ 12.	How by nature obtained.	61
§ 13.	Apparent proportion in melodies of line.	61
§ 14.	Error of Burke in this matter.	62
§ 15.	Constructive proportion. Its influence in plants.	63
§ 16.	And animals.	64
§ 17.	Summary.	64
Chapter VII.-Of Repose, or the Type of Divine Permanence.
§  1.	Universal feeling respecting the necessity of repose in art. Its sources.	65
§  2.	Repose how expressed in matter.	66
§  3.	The necessity to repose of an implied energy.	66
§  4.	Mental repose, how noble.	67
§  5.	Its universal value as a test of art.	68
§  6.	Instances in the Laocoon and Theseus.	69
§  7.	And in altar tombs.	70
Chapter VIII.-Of Symmetry, or the Type of Divine Justice.
§  1.	Symmetry, what and how found in organic nature.	72
§  2.	How necessary in art.	72
§  3.	To what its agreeableness is referable. Various instances.	73
§  4.	Especially in religious art.	73
Chapter IX.-Of Purity, or the Type of Divine Energy.
§  1.	The influence of light as a sacred symbol.	75
§  2.	The idea of purity connected with it.	75
§  3.	Originally derived from conditions of matter.	76
§  4.	Associated ideas adding to the power of the impression. Influence of clearness.	76
§  5.	Perfect beauty of surface, in what consisting.	77
§  6.	Purity only metaphorically a type of sinlessness.	78
§  7.	Energy, how expressed by purity of matter.	79
§  8.	And of color.	79
§  9.	Spirituality, how so expressed.	79
Chapter X.-Of Moderation, or the Type of Government by Law.
§  1.	Meaning of the terms Chasteness and Refinement.	81
§  2.	How referable to temporary fashions.	81
§  3.	How to the perception of completion.	81
§  4.	Finish, by great masters esteemed essential.	82
§  5.	Moderation, its nature and value.	84
§  6.	It is the girdle of beauty.	84
§  7.	How found in natural curves and colors.	84
§  8.	How difficult of attainment, yet essential to all good.	85
Chapter XI.-General Inferences respecting Typical Beauty.
§  1.	The subject incompletely treated, yet admitting of general conclusions.	86
§  2.	Typical beauty not created for man's sake.	87
§  3.	But degrees of it for his sake admitted.	87
§  4.	What encouragement hence to be received.	87
Chapter XII.-Of Vital Beauty:-First, as Relative.
§  1.	Transition from typical to vital Beauty.	89
§  2.	The perfection of the theoretic faculty as concerned with vital beauty, is charity.	90
§  3.	Only with respect to plants, less affection than sympathy.	91
§  4.	Which is proportioned to the appearance of energy in the plants.	92
§  5.	This sympathy is unselfish, and does not regard utility.	93
§  6.	Especially with respect to animals.	94
§  7.	And it is destroyed by evidences of mechanism.	95
§  8.	The second perfection of the theoretic faculty as concerned with life is justice of moral judgment.	96
§  9.	How impeded.	97
§ 10.	The influence of moral signs in expression.	97
§ 11.	As also in plants.	99
§ 12.	Recapitulation.	100
Chapter XIII.-Of Vital Beauty:-Secondly, as Generic.
§  1.	The beauty of fulfilment of appointed function in every animal.	101
§  2.	The two senses of the word "ideal." Either it refers to action of the imagination.	102
§  3.	Or to perfection of type.	103
§  4.	This last sense how inaccurate, yet to be retained.	103
§  5.	Of Ideal form. First, in the lower animals.	104
§  6.	In what consistent.	104
§  7.	Ideal form in vegetables.	105
§  8.	The difference of position between plants and animals.	105
§  9.	Admits of variety in the ideal of the former.	106
§ 10.	Ideal form in vegetables destroyed by cultivation.	107
§ 11.	Instance in the Soldanella and Ranunculus.	108
§ 12.	The beauty of repose and felicity, how consistent with such ideal.	108
§ 13.	The ideality of Art.	109
§ 14.	How connected with the imaginative faculties.	109
§ 15.	Ideality, how belonging to ages and conditions.	110
Chapter XIV.-Of Vital Beauty:-Thirdly, in Man.
§  1.	Condition of the human creature entirely different from that of the lower animals.	111
§  2.	What room here for idealization.	111
§  3.	How the conception of the bodily ideal is reached.	112
§  4.	Modifications of the bodily ideal owing to influence of mind. First, of intellect.	113
§  5.	Secondly, of the moral feelings.	113
§  6.	What beauty is bestowed by them.	115
§  7.	How the soul culture interferes harmfully with the bodily ideal.	115
§  8.	The inconsistency among the effects of the mental virtues on the form.	116
§  9.	Is a sign of God's kind purpose towards the race.	116
§ 10.	Consequent separation and difference of ideals.	117
§ 11.	The effects of the Adamite curse are to be distinguished from signs of its immediate activity.	118
§ 12.	Which latter only are to be banished from ideal form.	118
§ 13.	Ideal form is only to be obtained by portraiture.	119
§ 14.	Instances among the greater of the ideal Masters.	119
§ 15.	Evil results of opposite practice in modern times.	120
§ 16.	The right use of the model.	121
§ 17.	Ideal form to be reached only by love.	121
§ 18.	Practical principles deducible.	122
§ 19.	Expressions chiefly destructive of ideal character. 1st, Pride.	122
§ 20.	Portraiture ancient and modern.	123
§ 21.	Secondly, Sensuality.	123
§ 22.	How connected with impurity of color.	124
§ 23.	And prevented by its splendor.	124
§ 24.	Or by severity of drawing.	125
§ 25.	Degrees of descent in this respect: Rubens, Correggio, and Guido.	125
§ 26.	And modern art.	126
§ 27.	Thirdly, ferocity and fear. The latter how to be distinguished from awe.	126
§ 28.	Holy fear, how distinct from human terror.	127
§ 29.	Ferocity is joined always with fear. Its unpardonableness.	127
§ 30.	Such expressions how sought by painters powerless and impious.	128
§ 31.	Of passion generally.	129
§ 32.	It is never to be for itself exhibited—at least on the face.	130
§ 33.	Recapitulation.	131
Chapter XV.-General Conclusions respecting the Theoretic Faculty.
§  1.	There are no sources of the emotion of beauty more than those found in things visible.	133
§  2.	What imperfection exists in visible things. How in a sort by imagination removable.	134
§  3.	Which however affects not our present conclusions.	134
§  4.	The four sources from which the pleasure of beauty is derived are all divine.	134
§  5.	What objections may be made to this conclusion.	135
§  6.	Typical beauty may be æsthetically pursued. Instances.	135
§  7.	How interrupted by false feeling.	136
§  8.	Greatness and truth are sometimes by the Deity sustained and spoken in and through evil men.	137
§  9.	The second objection arising from the coldness of Christian men to external beauty.	138
§ 10.	Reasons for this coldness in the anxieties of the world. These anxieties overwrought and criminal.	139
§ 11.	Evil consequences of such coldness.	140
§ 12.	Theoria the service of Heaven.	140
SECTION II.
OF THE IMAGINATIVE FACULTY.
Chapter I.-Of the Three Forms of Imagination.
§  1.	A partial examination only of the imagination is to be attempted.	142
§  2.	The works of the metaphysicians how nugatory with respect to this faculty.	143
§  3.	The definition of D. Stewart, how inadequate.	143
§  4.	This instance nugatory.	144
§  5.	Various instances.	145
§  6.	The three operations of the imagination. Penetrative, associative, contemplative.	146
Chapter II.-Of Imagination Associative.
§  1.	Of simple conception.	147
§  2.	How connected with verbal knowledge.	148
§  3.	How used in composition.	148
§  4.	Characteristics of composition.	149
§  5.	What powers are implied by it. The first of the three functions of fancy.	150
§  6.	Imagination not yet manifested.	150
§  7.	Imagination is the correlative conception of imperfect component parts.	151
§  8.	Material analogy with imagination.	151
§  9.	The grasp and dignity of imagination.	152
§ 10.	Its limits.	153
§ 11.	How manifested in treatment of uncertain relations. Its deficiency illustrated.	154
§ 12.	Laws of art, the safeguard of the unimaginative.	155
§ 13.	Are by the imaginative painter despised. Tests of imagination.	155
§ 14.	The monotony of unimaginative treatment.	156
§ 15.	Imagination never repeats itself.	157
§ 16.	Relation of the imaginative faculty to the theoretic.	157
§ 17.	Modification of its manifestation.	158
§ 18.	Instances of absence of imagination.—Claude, Gaspar Poussin.	158
§ 19.	Its presence.—Salvator, Nicolo Poussin, Titian, Tintoret.	159
§ 20.	And Turner.	160
§ 21.	The due function of Associative imagination with respect to nature.	161
§ 22.	The sign of imaginative work is its appearance of absolute truth.	161
Chapter III.-Of Imagination Penetrative.
§  1.	Imagination penetrative is concerned not with the combining but apprehending of things.	163
§  2.	Milton's and Dante's description of flame.	163
§  3.	The imagination seizes always by the innermost point.	164
§  4.	It acts intuitively and without reasoning.	165
§  5.	Signs of it in language.	165
§  6.	Absence of imagination, how shown.	166
§  7.	Distinction between imagination and fancy.	166
§  8.	Fancy how involved with imagination.	168
§  9.	Fancy is never serious.	169
§ 10.	Want of seriousness the bar to high art at the present time.	169
§ 11.	Imagination is quiet; fancy, restless.	170
§ 12.	The detailing operation of fancy.	170
§ 13.	And suggestive, of the imagination.	171
§ 14.	This suggestiveness how opposed to vacancy.	172
§ 15.	Imagination addresses itself to imagination.	173
    	Instances from the works of Tintoret.	173
§ 16.	The entombment.	174
§ 17.	The Annunciation.	174
§ 18.	The Baptism of Christ. Its treatment by various painters.	176
§ 19.	By Tintoret.	177
§ 20.	The Crucifixion.	178
§ 21.	The Massacre of innocents.	179
§ 22.	Various works in the Scuola di San Rocco.	181
§ 23.	The Last Judgment. How treated by various painters.	181
§ 24.	By Tintoret.	182
§ 25.	The imaginative verity, how distinguished from realism.	183
§ 26.	The imagination how manifested in sculpture.	184
§ 27.	Bandinelli, Canova, Mino da Fiesole.	184
§ 28.	Michael Angelo.	185
§ 29.	Recapitulation. The perfect function of the imagination is the intuitive perception of ultimate truth.	188
§ 30.	Imagination how vulgarly understood.	190
§ 31.	How its cultivation is dependent on the moral feelings.	190
§ 32.	On independence of mind.	191
§ 33.	And on habitual reference to nature.	191
Chapter IV.-Of Imagination Contemplative.
§  1.	Imagination contemplative is not part of the essence, but only a habit or mode of the faculty.	192
§  2.	The ambiguity of conception.	192
§  3.	Is not in itself capable of adding to the charm of fair things.	193
§  4.	But gives to the imagination its regardant power over them.	194
§  5.	The third office of fancy distinguished from imagination contemplative.	195
§  6.	Various instances.	197
§  7.	Morbid or nervous fancy.	200
§  8.	The action of contemplative imagination is not to be expressed by art.	201
§  9.	Except under narrow limits.—1st. Abstract rendering of form without color.	201
§ 10.	Of color without form.	202
§ 11.	Or of both without texture.	202
§ 12.	Abstraction or typical representation of animal form.	203
§ 13.	Either when it is symbolically used.	204
§ 14.	Or in architectural decoration.	205
§ 15.	Exception in delicate and superimposed ornament.	206
§ 16.	Abstraction necessary from imperfection of materials.	206
§ 17.	Abstractions of things capable of varied accident are not imaginative.	207
§ 18.	Yet sometimes valuable.	207
§ 19.	Exaggeration. Its laws and limits. First, in scale of representation.	208
§ 20.	Secondly, of things capable of variety of scale.	209
§ 21.	Thirdly, necessary in expression of characteristic features on diminished scale.	210
§ 22.	Recapitulation.	211
Chapter V.-Of the Superhuman Ideal.
§  1.	The subject is not to be here treated in detail.	212
§  2.	The conceivable modes of manifestation of Spiritual Beings are four.	212
§  3.	And these are in or through creature forms familiar to us.	213
§  4.	Supernatural character may be impressed on these either by phenomena inconsistent with their common nature (compare Chap. iv. § 16).	213
§  5.	Or by inherent Dignity.	213
§  6.	1st. Of the expression of inspiration.	214
§  7.	No representation of that which is more than creature is possible.	215
§  8.	Supernatural character expressed by modification of accessories.	216
§  9.	Landscape of the religious painters. Its character is eminently symmetrical.	217
§ 10.	Landscape of Benozzo Gozzoli.	217
§ 11.	Landscape of Perugino and Raffaelle.	218
§ 12.	Such Landscape is not to be imitated.	218
§ 13.	Color, and Decoration. Their use in representations of the Supernatural.	219
§ 14.	Decoration so used must be generic.	220
§ 15.	And color pure.	220
§ 16.	Ideal form of the body itself, of what variety susceptible.	221
§ 17.	Anatomical development how far admissible.	221
§ 18.	Symmetry. How valuable.	221
§ 19.	The influence of Greek art, how dangerous.	222
§ 20.	Its scope, how limited.	223
§ 21.	Conclusion.	224
ADDENDA.	225
LIST OF PLATES TO VOLUME II.
 	Page.
Court of the Ducal Palace, Venice	10
From a drawing by Ruskin.
Tomb of the Ilaria di Caretto, Lucca	72
From a photograph.
The Adoration of the Magi	158
From a painting by Ruskin, after Tintoret.
Study of Stone Pine, at Sestri	199
From a drawing by Ruskin.



MODERN PAINTERS
VOL. III.
CONTAINING PART IV., OF MANY THINGS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART IV., OF MANY THINGS
 	 	 	PAGE
Chapter	  I.—	Of the received Opinions touching the "Grand Style"         	1
"	II.—	Of Realization	16
"	III.—	Of the Real Nature of Greatness of Style	23
"	IV.—	Of the False Ideal:—First, Religious	44
"	V.—	Of the False Ideal:—Secondly, Profane	61
"	VI.—	Of the True Ideal:—First, Purist	70
"	VII.—	Of the True Ideal:—Secondly, Naturalist	77
"	VIII.—	Of the True Ideal:—Thirdly, Grotesque	92
"	IX.—	Of Finish	108
"	X.—	Of the Use of Pictures	124
"	XI.—	Of the Novelty of Landscape	144
"	XII.—	Of the Pathetic Fallacy	152
"	XIII.—	Of Classical Landscape	168
"	XIV.—	Of Mediæval Landscape:—First, the Fields	191
"	XV.—	Of Mediæval Landscape:—Secondly, the Rocks	229
"	XVI.—	Of Modern Landscape	248
"	XVII.—	The Moral of Landscape	280
"	XVIII.—	Of the Teachers of Turner	308

APPENDIX.
I.—	Claude's Tree-drawing	333
II.—	German Philosophy	336
III.—	Plagiarism	338
LIST OF PLATES TO VOL. III.
 	 	    Drawn by	    Engraved by
Frontispiece. Lake, Land, and Cloud.      	The Author      	J. C. Armytage.

Plate
 Facing page
1.  	True and False Griffins	The Author	R. P. Cuff	106
2.  	Drawing of Tree-bark	Various	J. H. Le Keux	114
3.  	Strength of old Pine	The Author	J. H. Le Keux	116
4.  	Ramification according to Claude	Claude	J. H. Le Keux	117
5.  	Good and Bad Tree-drawing	Turner and Constable      	J. Cousen	118
6.  	Foreground Leafage	The Author	J. C. Armytage	121
7.  	Botany of the Thirteenth Century	Missal-Painters	Henry Shaw	203
8.  	The Growth of Leaves	The Author	R. P. Cuff	204
9.  	Botany of the Fourteenth Century	Missal-Painters	Cuff; H. Swan	207
10.  	Geology of the Middle Ages	Leonardo, etc.	R. P. Cuff	238
11.  	Latest Purism	Raphael	J. C. Armytage	313
12.  	The Shores of Wharfe	J. W. M. Turner	The Author	314
13.  	First Mountain-Naturalism	Masaccio	J. H. Le Keux	315
14.  	The Lombard Apennine	The Author	Thos. Lupton	315
15.  	St. George of the Seaweed	The Author	Thos. Lupton	315
16.  	Early Naturalism	Titian	J. C. Armytage	316
17.  	Advanced Naturalism	Tintoret	J. C. Armytage	316



MODERN PAINTERS
VOLUME IV., CONTAINING PART V., OF MOUNTAIN BEAUTY.


TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART V.
OF MOUNTAIN BEAUTY.
 	 	 	page
Chapter	I.—	Of the Turnerian Picturesque	1
"	II.—	Of Turnerian Topography	16
"	III.—	Of Turnerian Light	34
"	IV.—	Of Turnerian Mystery: First, as Essential	56
"	V.—	Of Turnerian Mystery: Secondly, Wilful	68
"	VI.—	The Firmament	82
"	VII.—	The Dry Land	89
"	VIII.—	Of the Materials of Mountains: First, Compact Crystallines	99
"	IX.—	Of the Materials of Mountains: Secondly, Slaty Crystallines	113
"	X.—	Of the Materials of Mountains: Thirdly, Slaty Coherents	122
"	XI.—	Of the Materials of Mountains: Fourthly, Compact Coherents	127
"	XII.—	Of the Sculpture of Mountains: First, the Lateral Ranges	137
"	XIII.—	Of the Sculpture of Mountains: Secondly, the Central Peaks	157
"	XIV.—	Resulting Forms: First, Aiguilles	173
"	XV.—	Resulting Forms: Second, Crests	195
"	XVI.—	Resulting Forms: Third, Precipices	228
"	XVII.—	Resulting Forms: Fourthly, Banks	262
"	XVIII.—	Resulting Forms: Fifthly, Stones	301
"	XIX.—	The Mountain Gloom	317
"	XX.—	The Mountain Glory	344
APPENDIX.
I.	 Modern Grotesque	385
II.	 Rock Cleavage	391
III.	 Logical Education	399
LIST OF PLATES TO VOL. IV.
 	Drawn by	Engraved by
Frontispiece. The Gates of the Hills	J. M. W. Turner	J. Cousen
Plate	Facing page
18.	The Transition from Ghirlandajo to Claude	Ghirlandajo and Claude	J. H. Le Keux	1
19.	The Picturesque of Windmills	Stanfield and Turner	J. H. Le Keux	7
20.	The Pass of Faïdo. 1. Simple Topography	The Author	The Author	22
21.	The Pass of Faïdo 2. Turnerian Topography	J. M. W. Turner	The Author	24
22.	Turner's Earliest Nottingham	J. M. W. Turner	T. Boys	29
23.	Turner's Latest Nottingham	J. M. W. Turner	T. Boys	30
24.	The Towers of Fribourg	The Author	J. C. Armytage	32
25.	Things in General	The Author	J. H. Le Keux	32
26.	The Law of Evanescence	The Author	R. P. Cuff	71
27.	The Aspen under Idealization	Turner, etc.	J. Cousen	76
28.	The Aspen Unidealized	The Author	J. C. Armytage	77
29.	Aiguille Structure	The Author	J. C. Armytage	160
30.	The Ideal of Aiguilles	The Author, etc.	R. P. Cuff	177
31.	The Aiguille Blaitière	The Author	J. C. Armytage	185
32.	Aiguille-drawing	Turner, etc.	J. H. Le Keux	191
33.	Contours of Aiguille Bouchard	The Author	R. P. Cuff	204
34.	Cleavage of Aiguille Bouchard	The Author	The Author	211
35.	Crests of La Côte and Taconay	The Author	The Author	212
36.	Crest of La Côte	The Author	T. Lupton	213
37.	Crests of the Slaty Crystallines	J. M. W. Turner	The Author	222
38.	The Cervin, from the East and North-east	The Author	J. C. Armytage	233
39.	The Cervin from the North-west	The Author	J. C. Armytage	238
40.	The Mountains of Villeneuve	The Author	J. H. Le Keux	246
12.	A. The Shores of Wharfe	J. M. W. Turner	Thos. Lupton	251
41.	The Rocks of Arona	The Author	J. H. Le Keux	255
42.	Leaf Curvature Magnolia and Laburnum	The Author	R. P. Cuff	269
43.	Leaf Curvature Dead Laurel	The Author	R. P. Cuff	269
44.	Leaf Curvature Young Ivy	The Author	R. P. Cuff	269
45.	Débris Curvature	The Author	R. P. Cuff	285
46.	The Buttresses of an Alp	The Author	J. H. Le Keux	286
47.	The Quarry of Carrara	The Author	J. H. Le Keux	299
48.	Bank of Slaty Crystallines	Daguerreotype	J. C. Armytage	304
49.	Truth and Untruth of Stones	Turner and Claude	Thos. Lupton	308
50.	Goldau	J. M. W. Turner	J. Cousen	312



MODERN PAINTERS
VOLUME V., COMPLETING THE WORK AND CONTAINING:
PARTS
VI. OF LEAF BEAUTY.
VII. OF CLOUD BEAUTY.
VIII. OF IDEAS OF RELATION.
1. OF INVENTION FORMAL.
IX. OF IDEAS OF RELATION.
2. OF INVENTION SPIRITUAL.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART VI.
ON LEAF BEAUTY.
 	PAGE
 	Preface	v
Chapter	I.	—The Earth-Veil	1
”	II.	—The Leaf Orders	6
”	III.	—The Bud	10
”	IV.	—The Leaf	21
”	V.	—Leaf Aspects	34
”	VI.	—The Branch	39
”	VII.	—The Stem	49
”	VIII.	—The Leaf Monuments	63
”	IX.	—The Leaf Shadows	77
”	X.	—Leaves Motionless	88
—————
PART VII.
OF CLOUD BEAUTY.
—————
Chapter	I.	—The Cloud Balancings	101
”	II.	—The Cloud-Flocks	108
”	III.	—The Cloud-Chariots	122
”	IV.	—The Angel of the Sea	133
—————
PART VIII.
OF IDEAS OF RELATION:—I. OF INVENTION FORMAL.
—————
Chapter	I.	—The Law of Help	153
”	II.	—The Task of the Least	164
”	III.	—The Rule of the Greatest	175
”	IV.	—The Law of Perfectness	180
—————
PART IX.
OF IDEAS OF RELATION:—II. OF INVENTION SPIRITUAL.
—————
Chapter	I.	—The Dark Mirror	193
”	II.	—The Lance of Pallas	202
”	III.	—The Wings of the Lion	214
”	IV.	—Durer and Salvator	230
”	V.	—Claude and Poussin	241
”	VI.	—Rubens and Cuyp	249
”	VII.	—Of Vulgarity	261
”	VIII.	—Wouvermans and Angelico	277
”	IX.	—The Two Boyhoods	286
”	X.	—The Nereid’s Guard	298
”	XI.	—The Hesperid Æglé	314
”	XII.	—Peace	339
—————
 	Local Index.
 	Index to Painters and Pictures.
 	Topical Index.
LIST OF PLATES TO VOL. V.
 	 Drawn by	 Engraved by
Frontispiece, Ancilla Domini	Fra Angelico	Wm. Hall
Plate	Facing page
51. The Dryad’s Toil	J. Ruskin	J. C. Armytage	12
52. Spirals of Thorn	R. Allen	R. P. Cuff	26
53. The Dryad’s Crown	J. Ruskin	J. C. Armytage	36
54. Dutch Leafage	Cuyp and Hobbima	J. Cousen	37
55. By the Way-side	J. M. W. Turner	J. C. Armytage	38
56. Sketch by a Clerk of the Works	J. Ruskin	J. Emslie	61
57. Leafage by Durer and Veronese	Durer and Veronese	R. P. Cuff	65
58. Branch Curvature	R. Allen	R. P. Cuff	69
59. The Dryad’s Waywardness	J. Ruskin	R. P. Cuff	71
60. The Rending of Leaves	J. Ruskin	J. Cousen	94
61. Richmond, from the Moors	J. M. W. Turner	J. C. Armytage	98
62. By the Brookside	J. M. W. Turner	J. C. Armytage	98
63. The Cloud Flocks	J. Ruskin	J. C. Armytage	109
64. Cloud Perspective (Rectilinear)	J. Ruskin	J. Emslie	115
65. Cloud Perspective (Curvilinear)	J. Ruskin	J. Emslie	116
66. Light in the West, Beauvais	J. Ruskin	J. C. Armytage	121
67. Clouds	J. M. W. Turner	J. C. Armytage	118
68. Monte Rosa	J. Ruskin	J. C. Armytage	339
69. Aiguilles and their Friends	J. Ruskin	J. C. Armytage	125
70. The Graiæ	J. Ruskin	J. C. Armytage	127
71. “Venga Medusa”	J. Ruskin	J. C. Armytage	127
72. The Locks of Typhon	J. M. W. Turner	J. C. Armytage	142
73. Loire Side	J. M. W. Turner	J. Ruskin	165
74. The Mill Stream	J. M. W. Turner	J. Ruskin	168
75. The Castle of Lauffen	J. M. W. Turner	R. P. Cuff	169
76. The Moat of Nuremberg	J. Ruskin	J. H. Le Keux	233
78. Quivi Trovammo	J. M. W. Turner	J. Ruskin	298
79. Hesperid Æglé	Giorgione	Wm. Hall	314
80. Rocks at Rest	J. Ruskin, from J. M. W. Turner	J. C. Armytage	319
81. Rocks in Unrest	J. Ruskin, from J. M. W. Turner	J. C. Armytage	320
82. The Nets in the Rapids	J. M. W. Turner	J. H. Le Keux	336
83. The Bridge of Rheinfelden	J. Ruskin	J. H. Le Keux	337
84. Peace	J. Ruskin	J. H. Le Keux	338
SEPARATE ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD
Figure	 56,	to face page	65
”	 61,	”	69
”	 75 to 78,	”	97
”	 85,	”	118
”	 87,	”	127
”	 88 to 90,	”	128
”	 98,	”	184
”	100,	”	284





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