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Title: Birds of the National Parks in Hawaii
Author: William W Dunmire (1930-)
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
                         NATIONAL PARK SERVICE

    [Illustration: PUBLISHED IN COOPERATION WITH THE NATIONAL PARK
    SERVICE]

                     HAWAII VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK
                        HALEAKALA NATIONAL PARK

    [Illustration: HAWAII NATURAL HISTORY ASSOCIATION]

                             copyright 1961


                       cover by Ronald L. Walker

                           (see center plate for identification)



                                 BIRDS
                                _of the_
                             NATIONAL PARKS
                                  _in_
                                 HAWAII


                                   by
                           William W. Dunmire
                _Park Naturalist, Hawaii National Park_

                    Illustrated by Ronald L. Walker
          _District Biologist, State Division of Fish & Game_


                   HAWAII NATURAL HISTORY ASSOCIATION
                                  1961

    [Illustration: _Trail Through Kipuka Puaulu (Bird Park)_]



                          _Table of Contents_


                                                                    Page
  Introduction                                                         2
  How the Birds Came                                                   3
  The Decline of Native Birds                                          4
  Where to See the Birds                                               5
  The National Parks                                                   8
  About This Booklet                                                   8
  The Birds
  Petrels: Family Procellariidae                                      11
  Tropic-birds: Family Phaëthontidae                                  11
  Geese: Family Anatidae                                              13
  Hawks: Family Accipitridae                                          15
  Quails, Partridges, Pheasants: Family Phasianidae                   15
  Plovers, Turnstones: Family Charadriidae                            19
  Sandpipers: Family Scolopacidae                                     20
  Terns: Family Laridae                                               20
  Doves: Family Columbidae                                            21
  Owls: Family Strigidae                                              22
  Larks: Family Alaudidae                                             22
  Babbling Thrushes: Family Timeliidae                                23
  Mockingbirds: Family Mimidae                                        24
  Thrushes: Family Turdidae                                           25
  Old World Flycatchers: Family Sylviidae                             26
  Starlings: Family Sturnidae                                         27
  White-eyes: Family Zosteropidae                                     27
  Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Family Drepaniidae                          28
  Weaver Finches: Family Ploceidae                                    32
  Finches, etc.: Family Fringillidae                                  33
  Other Birds                                                         34
  Index                                                               35



                              INTRODUCTION


When the Hawaiian Islands were first studied by ornithologists in the
nineteenth century, they were a bird paradise. The forests abounded with
many of the most unusual birds known to the world—some with enormous
sickle-shaped bills, some resembling parrots, a goose that spent most of
its life on barren lava flows, a tiny flightless rail, and a sea bird
that nested within the vents of the active volcanoes. Most of these
island birds were found nowhere else in the world.

Today many of the original island species are extinct, while others are
barely managing to hold their own. With more and more land being cleared
for agriculture and homesites, virgin forests here are becoming scarce.
Thus, protected areas like Hawaii Volcanoes and Haleakala National Parks
take on great significance as reserves where the native birds will
continue to survive. If you wish to learn about Hawaiian birdlife, you
will certainly want to spend some time in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
and visit Haleakala National Park on the island of Maui. This booklet is
meant to be an aid to your trips in the field.

    [Illustration: _Fern jungle—Thurston Lava Tube trail_]



                           HOW THE BIRDS CAME


Geologically the Hawaiian Islands are considered to be fairly young,
probably no more than 20 million years old. The islands are also
extremely isolated from any other land masses; it is more than 2,000
miles to the nearest continent. Before any resident birdlife could exist
here, plants had to become established. Seeds arrived by various means
from distant lands, and one by one new kinds of plants began to grow on
the volcanoes—at first only a few primitive types could get a foothold
on the barren lava, but in time those early plants decayed and combined
with the basalt rock to produce a soil that could support a complex
vegetation.


                                Endemics

We have no way of knowing what kind of land bird was the first to take
up residence here, for that early species has certainly been greatly
altered through the workings of evolution. In fact today nearly all the
resident native birds are types that are now found nowhere else in the
world. Birds such as these are called _endemic_; they have undergone
gradual change over the millennia to become completely new forms,
different from any birds found elsewhere.

Many of Hawaii’s endemic species belong to the Hawaiian honeycreeper
family (Drepaniidae) and are thought to have evolved from a single bird
prototype that possibly arrived here from Central or South America.
Explosive bursts of evolutionary change followed, and the resulting new
forms did not much resemble each other. Present day park representatives
of the Hawaiian honeycreepers include the apapane, iiwi, and amakihi.

Besides the Hawaiian honeycreeper stock several other early migrants
made their residence in Hawaii and evolved into endemic forms. In the
park they include a Hawaiian race of the (North American) short-eared
owl, the io (a hawk), the nene (a goose), the omao (a thrush), and the
elepaio (an Old World flycatcher).


                         Migrants and Sea Birds

While the endemic species have acquired full residence on the islands,
other birds live here for only part of the year, usually returning to
the north during summer to breed. In the park the best known of these
migrants is the American golden plover which spends almost 10 months of
the year in Hawaii and only 2 months on its travels to the Aleutian
Islands.

Migration patterns for certain of the sea birds are virtually unknown.
Some, like the white-tailed tropic-bird, may remain near the islands
throughout the year, while others, such as the dark-rumped petrel,
migrate inland only during their breeding season.


                                Exotics

The most recent additions to Hawaii’s avifauna are birds brought in
since 1855 by man. There are various reasons for the introductions; the
mynah, for example, was brought here from India in 1865 to combat the
army worm and other insect pests. Perhaps most of the exotics were
introduced because people wanted to see birds that reminded them of
their former homes. Birds like the cardinal from the eastern United
States and the white-eye from Japan are in this category. For years the
Hui Manu, a local bird club, was active in releasing new birds on the
islands. Game birds constitute another type of introduction. The first
to arrive was the California quail more than a hundred years ago.
Pheasants and chukars among others have also become established in the
park from importations.



                      THE DECLINE OF NATIVE BIRDS


In no area in the world have native birds fared more poorly than in
Hawaii during the past century. The causes of the decimation of numbers
and species are probably multiple; certainly no single factor alone can
be cited. Possibly some of the most specialized forms had already begun
a decline in numbers before the arrival of Western man. It is unlikely
that feather gathering for leis as practiced by the ancient Hawaiians
had much to do with the decline. On the other hand, the clearing of
land, which began early in the 1800’s, must have had a devastating
effect on those birds that had become so specialized—they simply were
forced into new environments and were unable to adapt. The introduction
of new plants, especially grasses, and the establishment of feral
mammals (goats, sheep, and pigs), and insects played a subtle but
possibly even more destructive role in altering the over-all
environment.

Introduction of exotic birds must have been the final blow to many of
the native species. Unfortunately until recently there was no adequate
control over importing and releasing new birds in Hawaii. The delicate
balance of nature was rudely upset when some of the more aggressive
exotic birds were released indiscriminately on the islands. Exotic birds
such as the white-eye became so plentiful that direct competition for
food with the natives must have occurred. Furthermore, bird diseases new
to Hawaii, such as avian malaria (probably brought to the islands with
some introduced bird from the Orient), would have been a great killer.
With a few exceptions, however, it does seem that the remaining Hawaiian
native birds are now holding their own.



                         WHERE TO SEE THE BIRDS


You will probably be amazed at the extremes of climate in Hawaii,
especially on Kilauea Volcano. This is one of the rare places in the
world where you can walk a few hundred yards from an area of heavy
rainfall to one of striking dryness. The change is due to prevailing
trade winds which force moisture laden clouds up over the mountain
masses from the northeast, then allow the clouds to dissipate on the
leeward side of the mountains. By taking the Crater Rim drive at
Kilauea, you will pass through lush fern jungle on one side of the
crater and barren desert on the other.

Birds are very sensitive to these differences in climate. Most of the
species you find at Thurston Lava Tube will never be seen at Halemaumau,
less than 3 miles away. The same thing is true at Haleakala, although
less dramatically so. To help you locate the most rewarding sites for
bird study in the park, here are a few suggestions:


                           Kilauea-Mauna Loa

_Thurston Lava Tube._ This is the heart of Hawaii’s tree-fern jungle and
an excellent habitat for several native species, such as the apapane,
iiwi, and amakihi. Spend a few moments looking for these at the exhibit
overlook, then take the quarter-mile loop path that leads through the
lava tube. On the other side of the lava tube parking area a trail
descends into Kilauea Iki, the site of the 1959 eruption. This
delightful walk also passes through fern jungle. Be on the lookout for
the io (Hawaiian hawk) in Kilauea Iki.

    [Illustration: _Grass slopes on the Mauna Loa Strip_]

_Halemaumau._ A most unlikely place for birds; however, there are almost
always a few white-tailed tropic-birds soaring within the pit.

_Kipuka Puaulu._ A popular name for this area is “Bird Park” and for
good reason, for this kipuka, a hundred acre island of well developed
vegetation surrounded by a recent lava flow, harbors 11 or more species.
The commonest here are the white-eye, red-billed leiothrix, and house
finch—all exotics. When the ohia trees are in bloom, and usually there
are at least a few, large numbers of iiwis and apapanes are attracted to
the kipuka. Other interesting birds often seen here are the elepaio,
Japanese blue pheasant, and cardinal.

_Mauna Loa Strip._ More kinds of birds (18) have been recorded from the
koa parkland along the Mauna Loa Strip road than from any other locality
in the park, but you are not likely to see large numbers in any one
place along the strip. The road ascends the lower slopes of Mauna Loa
from 4,000 feet at Kipuka Puaulu to 6,663 feet. Several introduced game
birds—Japanese blue pheasant, California quail, and chukar—may be
flushed as you drive up the road. Skylarks and house finches are fairly
common along the grassy flats, and you are almost sure to see an amakihi
in the koa grove at the end of the road. If you are lucky you might be
rewarded with a glimpse of a nene somewhere on these upper slopes.


                               Haleakala

_Hosmer Grove and Paliku._ These two localities are about the only
densely wooded areas in Haleakala National Park and both attract a
variety of birdlife. The apapane, iiwi, and amakihi as well as several
exotic birds can be seen at either place. A delightful self-guiding
nature trail that identifies many of the plants and trees winds through
the Hosmer Grove.

_Road to Haleakala Summit._ As you drive up to the Observatory from Park
Headquarters you will probably be surprised at the number of ring-necked
pheasants and chukars that flush along the road. Golden plovers and
skylarks are also plentiful, and mockingbirds may be seen occasionally.

    [Illustration: _Visitor cabin at Paliku, Haleakala_]



                           THE NATIONAL PARKS


Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and Haleakala National Park are two of
more than 180 different areas administered by the National Park Service
for your enjoyment. The two areas, Haleakala on Maui and Kilauea-Mauna
Loa on Hawaii, were set aside, as one park, by Congress in 1916 mainly
because of the three great volcanoes. In July 1961 Haleakala became a
separate national park. In recent years the unique flora and fauna found
in the parks have become an increasingly important part of the park
story. Thus you will find several interesting exhibits at the Kilauea
headquarters museum dealing with the ecology of the park with emphasis
on the birdlife.

One of the guiding principles for any national park is that all native
species of plants and animals are rigidly protected. In places like
Hawaii, where so much of the land has been altered through clearing and
planting, the park becomes a particularly important sanctuary for birds
and other animals. Please help do your share in protecting this area by
observing park regulations.



                           ABOUT THIS BOOKLET


The purpose of this booklet is to help anyone who cares to learn about
the birdlife of the national parks in Hawaii. Many of you, here in
Hawaii for the first time, will not recognize most of our birds;
however, the species are so few (32 described here) that it will not be
too hard to narrow your identification to the correct one. The little
perching birds are likely to give the most trouble, and the commonest of
these are shown on the color plate. You will probably want to refer to
the plate first when identifying a small bird. Descriptions in the text
refer to similar species also, so if you see a bird that appears
somewhat, but not exactly, like one of the illustrations, look up the
illustrated species in the text for clues.

Hawaiian names, when known, are used as the common name for each bird,
except for species that range elsewhere (e.g., all the sea birds and
introduced birds). The _A.O.U. Checklist of North American Birds_ has
been used as the authority of nomenclature wherever applicable,
otherwise the _Checklist and Summary of Hawaiian Birds_ by E. H. Bryan,
Jr., has been followed. For every description, length from the tip of
the bill to the end of the tail is given in inches. The stated
distributions are for the park only and they emphasize accessible places
that you are most likely to visit.

The serious bird student will want to have books that include Hawaiian
birds outside the park. The latest edition of Peterson’s _A Field Guide
to Western Birds_ includes a section on Hawaii and will prove
invaluable.

In preparing the text for this booklet frequent reference was made to
George C. Munro, 1944, _Birds of Hawaii_ and Hawaii Audubon Society,
1959, _Hawaiian Birds_. The most important current references for the
Hawaiian honeycreeper group are Dean Amadon’s (1950) monograph, _The
Hawaiian Honeycreepers_ and _Annual Cycle_, _Environment and Evolution
in the Hawaiian Honeycreepers_ by Paul H. Baldwin (1953). Baldwin, a
former Assistant to the Superintendent of Hawaii National Park, has
authored several other important papers on birdlife here. _The Game
Birds in Hawaii_ by Charles W. and Elizabeth R. Schwartz is an
invaluable reference on gamebirds.

The author wishes to acknowledge helpful suggestions made by E. H.
Bryan, Jr., of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum; Robert L. Barrel, Robert W.
Carpenter, and Robert T. Haugen of Hawaii National Park; and Ronald L.
Walker and David H. Woodside of the State Division of Fish and Game. The
Bishop Museum generously loaned study specimens for the drawings.

The black and white and color drawings are by Ronald L. Walker, and all
photographs are by the author except where noted.

    [Illustration: _Haleakala Crater, breeding grounds for the
    dark-rumped petrel_]

    [Illustration: PHOTO BY FRANK RICHARDSON
    _Dark-rumped petrel_]


               DARK-RUMPED PETREL _Pterodroma phaeopygia_
                          (Hawaiian name—uau)

DESCRIPTION: 15″. Underparts, forehead, and cheeks, white; back, upper
wings, and upper tail, dark. The crown is black.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: This petrel is a sea bird that nests in the mountains
of the Hawaiian group; it is the nesting birds that may be seen or heard
within the park between May and November. Kilauea—Status unknown; the
cliffs of Kilauea Crater may be used for nesting. Haleakala—Many birds
nest in the walls of the crater. The cliffs behind Kapalaoa and Holua
Cabins are the best places to hear them at night.

VOICE: As the birds fly overhead seeking their burrows after dusk, the
air is filled with their strange calls, some of which sound like the
barking of a small dog. A common pattern of notes is _oooo-wéh, ooo-wéh,
oo-wéh, oo-wéh_, etc., with the first notes drawn out and the last run
together in rapid succession.


Dark-rumped Petrels spend most of their life at sea, but in April and
May they begin their nightly flights inland to burrows they have
established high on the cliffs of Hawaiian volcanoes. A single egg is
laid near the end of the horizontal cavity that may be more than 6 feet
deep in the rocks. For the next 6 months the adults will fly in from the
ocean each night to tend the nest, arriving about an hour after sundown.
It is while they are circling in search of the burrows that you can hear
their mysterious barking sounds. The calling may continue for 2 hours or
more. Imagine the problems that each petrel must face trying to find its
own burrow 20 miles from the ocean on a foggy, moonless night—perhaps
the continuous calling back and forth helps orient it. The adults return
to the ocean before sunrise.

In the early days nesting birds were common on all the main Hawaiian
Islands; however, for a time it was feared that they were becoming
extinct. Hawaiians used to dig out the downy young petrels for food, and
introduced mongooses and cats also took a heavy toll, especially where
nests were at lower elevations. Now, with known breeding colonies high
on Haleakala and Mauna Kea and probably on Mauna Loa and Kilauea, the
future of this interesting species seems assured.


              WHITE-TAILED TROPIC-BIRD _Phaëthon lepturus_
                          (Hawaiian name—koae)

DESCRIPTION: 30″-32″. Unmistakable as a large white bird with two
fantastically long tail plumes, soaring around rocky cliffs such as in
Halemaumau. There is some black on the upper wings and around the face.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Uncommon, except locally. There are nearly
always a few birds soaring in Halemaumau, around the pit craters in the
Kau Desert, and near Hilina Pali. They are occasionally seen along the
coast. Haleakala—Some can usually be seen in the crater, especially
around the ruggedest cliffs such as behind Holua and Paliku Cabins.

VOICE: High pitched rasping cries.


Halemaumau—What a strange place for a sea bird! Yet these fish-eating
birds have nested in the Kilauea area for as long as we have records. In
recent years Halemaumau has been their favorite haunt, except when
volcano fumes drive them away, such as during the time when heavy
sulphur gasses filled the pit in June 1960. When Halemaumau erupts the
birds may become trapped by rapidly rising hot gas; in 1952 several of
them perished, falling into the molten lava below. For a meal the
Halemaumau birds must make at least a 10-mile flight to the ocean.

    [Illustration: EXHIBIT AT THE PARK MUSEUM
    _White-tailed tropic-bird_]

    [Illustration: _Nene—the native Hawaiian goose_]


                       NENE _Branta sandvicensis_
                         (also Hawaiian goose)

DESCRIPTION: 23″-28″. The only ducklike bird apt to be seen in the park.
A medium sized goose with striking head and neck markings. The face,
crown, and top of the neck are black, the throat and neck sides are
cream colored, and the remainder of the body is mottled and dark.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Formerly abundant in Hawaii and probably Maui. Now
extinct on Maui, while a few wild birds remain on Hawaii.
Kilauea—Occasionally seen on the slopes of Mauna Loa usually between
6,000 and 7,500 feet.

VOICE: Various thin, creaky notes. Often gives a high-pitched honking in
flight.


Because of recent studies, the habits of the nene are probably better
understood than those of any other native Hawaiian bird. The most
amazing thing about their life is the way they have forsaken water in
favor of rough, clinkery lava. All other ducks and geese rear their
young partly in water, but today the breeding grounds for the nene, high
on the barren slopes of Mauna Loa, are far from the nearest open water.
Here during the winter months the geese raise their broods of two to
five young. Berries, herbs, and grass growing in kipukas (islands of
vegetation surrounded by more recent lava flows) comprise the diet. At
present the nene is one of the rarest birds in the world and has been
near extinction in recent years.

The story of the nene’s decline is a sad one but it may yet have a happy
ending. Early visitors to the islands described the large flocks of nene
geese in the interior of Hawaii, but by 1900 a great decline in numbers
had occurred and in 1940 the entire population was estimated at 30 to 50
wild birds. Clearing of the land, introduction of such exotic mammals as
rats, pigs, dogs, and mongooses, and man himself through hunting—all
must share the blame for the nene decimation. Happily, the State of
Hawaii has taken vigorous recognition of this situation and a
restoration program was begun in 1949. The plan is to study the
remaining wild birds to learn how the decimating factors may be
controlled. Also nene raised in captivity have been released on Mauna
Loa to intermix with the wild flocks, and it is hoped that some day
visitors to Hawaii will again be assured of seeing these wonderful
geese.

    [Illustration: PHOTO BY GEORGE C. RUHLE
    _Nene Nest_]


                         IO _Buteo solitarius_
                          (also Hawaiian hawk)

DESCRIPTION: 16″-18″. The only hawklike bird to be seen on the islands,
except for accidental migrants. This small _Buteo_ has both light and
dark color phases. Can be distinguished from the Pueo, Hawaii’s diurnal
owl, by a smaller head and more soaring flight.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Found only on the island of Hawaii.
Kilauea—Occasional throughout the park. Individuals are often seen
soaring around the forested craters such as Kilauea Iki and Makaopuhi,
or in the more open areas such as along the Mauna Loa Strip road.

VOICE: A medium-pitched, but fairly soft, scream.


The io is certainly one of the rarest hawks in the world, as its range
is limited to the island of Hawaii, and even here it is not common. It
feeds on rats, mice, and large insects and spiders, and occasionally
will catch birds, but today birds comprise a minor part of the diet. It
tends to be tamer than mainland hawks, perhaps because it has not been
harassed as much in recent years, and sometimes you can approach a
perched io quite closely. Because of its rodent diet, the io is a very
beneficial bird to Hawaii.

    [Illustration: _California quail (male and female)_]


               CALIFORNIA QUAIL _Lophortyx californicus_

DESCRIPTION: 9½″-10½″. The distinctive _curved head plume_ identifies
this plump quail. Males have a black and white face pattern beneath the
brown crown, while females are duller and lack the striking facial
pattern. The bill is short and black.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from California before 1855 to all major
islands. Kilauea—Moderately common along the Mauna Loa Strip and south
and west of Kilauea Crater, for example Kipuka Nene. Haleakala—Fairly
common on slopes outside the crater up to about 8,000 feet.

VOICE: Both sexes issue a three noted _ka-kér-ko_, also clucking notes
_tek-tek_, etc.


Although the California quail has been in the islands for a long time,
it has not spread much in the park, probably because there is no
available open water. In this situation the birds must rely on dewfall,
berries, or succulent vegetation for their moisture requirements. They
shun heavy forests and do best where small grassy openings are
interspersed with dense brush thickets.


                       CHUKAR _Alectoris graeca_

DESCRIPTION: 15″. A heavy ground dwelling partridge, brownish with
buffy, black, and rusty markings. A black band extends through each eye
and joins the lower throat. Distinguished from the quail by lighter
color, lack of a head plume, and a red-orange bill.

    [Illustration: _Chukar_]

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced on Hawaii in 1949, on Maui in 1953.
Kilauea—Occasional on the slopes of Mauna Loa, descending as far as the
rim of Kilauea Crater. Haleakala—Common in open lava slopes inside and
out of the crater but especially along the drive to the summit.

VOICE: Chickenlike cackles and clucks, sometimes quite loud.


They are well camouflaged to blend with Hawaii’s gray lava and are not
usually seen until one or more flushes from an open or even bare slope.
Then they will fly downslope, sometimes for hundreds of yards, land, and
again merge invisibly with the somber background.

During the breeding season in late spring and summer the birds pair up;
at other times of the year you may encounter coveys of a dozen or more.


          RING-NECKED PHEASANT _Phasianus colchicus torquatus_
                        (also Chinese pheasant)

DESCRIPTION: Male 33″-36″; female 20″. _Male_: A rich chestnut-brown
bird with a conspicuous _white collar_ at the base of a dark green neck,
and an extremely long pointed tail. Hybridizes freely with the Japanese
blue pheasant, producing various combinations of ring-necked and blue
plumage. _Female_: Dull brown with a shorter tail than the male, similar
to the Japanese blue hen.

    [Illustration: _Ring-necked pheasant cock_]

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from China about 1865, now widely
distributed on all main islands. Kilauea—Pure ring-necks are quite rare
but Japanese blue hybrids are not uncommon in grassy openings,
especially along the Mauna Loa Strip road. Haleakala—One of the most
common birds of the park, both inside and out of the crater.

VOICE: The cocks crow throughout the breeding season (January-July) with
a violent staccato _koor-káck_.


Optimum pheasant habitat is large open grassy areas interspersed with
brush cover, and since this condition prevails on the slopes of
Haleakala and along the Mauna Loa Strip road, these birds are found in
both sections of the park. Your first view of one will likely be when it
flushes out with a great flurry of wingbeats alongside a road or trail
in these grasslands. Family broods with as many as 10 chicks may be seen
from April through August.


        JAPANESE BLUE PHEASANT _Phasianus colchicus versicolor_
                  (also versicolor or green pheasant)

DESCRIPTION: Male about 27″, female 20″. _Male_: Has a blue-green back,
iridescent green or purple breast, and long tail feathers. Appears
darker than the ring-necked pheasant and lacks the white collar.
_Female_: Brownish birds with long tails, indistinguishable from the
ring-necked hen.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from Japan prior to 1900. Has lost its
identity on most islands due to hybridization with the ring-neck.
Kilauea—The park includes perhaps the best habitat in the islands for
this species. Pure Japanese blue males are common along the Mauna Loa
Strip road and occasional on the Chain of Craters road or the Crater Rim
drive and to the west. Hybrids will also be seen. Haleakala—Nearly all
are ring-necked pheasants here.

VOICE: The cock-crow is similar to that of the ring-neck, but somewhat
higher in pitch.


This species has adapted to the moist open-forest and grassland, while
the ring-neck prefers drier areas. Blues seem to have established a
niche on the southern slopes of Mauna Loa between 4,000 and 7,000 feet
elevation where mists are frequent, sometimes for days at a time.

                            KEY TO PLATE

        AMAKIHI               APAPANE                 IIWI
         (male)         (immature and adult)

           OU                WHITE-EYE        RED-BILLED LEIOTHRIX
         (male)

        ELEPAIO               RICEBIRD            HOUSE FINCH
                                               (female and male)

               OMAO                            SKYLARK

               MYNAH                          CARDINAL
                                          (female and male)

    [Illustration: Plate]

    [Illustration: _American golden plover in winter plumage_]


              AMERICAN GOLDEN PLOVER _Pluvialis dominica_
                         (Hawaiian name—kolea)

DESCRIPTION: 10″-11″. A medium sized shore bird with a straight,
inch-long bill. _Winter plumage_—mottled brown spotted with gold; buffy
breast. _Summer plumage_—striking pattern; back spotted with gold, black
undersides, and a white band over the forehead and down the sides of the
neck and breast. Plovers don their summer colors in April or May before
migration and may still retain them when they return in early August.
The only shore bird likely to be seen in the interior of either park.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Winter migrant to the islands. Kilauea—Fairly common
locally from August to June. To be seen around Park Headquarters and on
the west side of Kilauea Crater or along the Mauna Loa Strip.
Haleakala—Common from August to June in open areas both inside and out
of the crater.

VOICE: A clear whistle _queep_, or _quee-leép_, etc., usually uttered as
the bird is flushed.


Like other migrants to Hawaii, golden plovers make a 2,000-mile (one
way) flight to and from their breeding grounds in Alaska or Siberia each
year. The trip requires about 48 hours, spent mostly over the open
ocean. When they arrive in Hawaii in the fall, individuals seem to
establish remarkably small territories—one bird may live during its
entire stay here in an area not much bigger than a large lawn. Here they
will feed on insects and berries until it is time for the annual
migration to the north.


                  RUDDY TURNSTONE _Arenaria interpres_
                        (Hawaiian name—akekeke)

DESCRIPTION: 9″. A chunky, medium sized shore bird with flashy black,
white, and russet-red markings and short orange legs. The contrasty
black and white pattern shows best in flight.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Winter migrant to islands. Kilauea—Except for summer,
when they have migrated to Alaska, flocks are often found at rocky beach
areas around Halape, but they are uncommon elsewhere along the rugged
coast within park boundaries. Large flocks were formerly recorded inland
as far as Kilauea Crater. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: A rapidly repeated _chut-a-chut_.


A flock of 8 or 10 turnstones will behave almost as though it was
controlled by one mind: in flight they dip and turn precisely together;
when they land it is a simultaneous action. The name turnstone comes
from their habit of flipping over small rocks with their bills to get at
the insects and other lower forms of life beneath.


                WANDERING TATTLER _Heteroscelus incanum_
                         (Hawaiian name—ulili)

DESCRIPTION: 11″. A large sandpiper with _uniformly dark gray_ upper
parts and a long (1½ inches) straight bill. The belly is lighter, and
there is an indistinct white line over the eye. The long legs and the
feet are yellow.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Winter migrant to islands. Kilauea—Uncommon along the
southern rocky shoreline. Absent in summer when it migrates to Alaska.
Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: A high clear _whee-we-we-we_ usually uttered as the bird takes
flight.


Individuals feed on crabs and other marine life among the rocks. They
never appear inland in the park.


                WHITE-CAPPED NODDY _Anoüs tenuirostris_
                          (Hawaiian name—noio)

DESCRIPTION: 14″. A dark gray tern restricted to the rocky coastline.
The forehead and crown are lighter gray than the rest of the body.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: The only common bird to be seen flying just off
shore. In the park, restricted to the coastline of the Kilauea Section.


Look for these along the ocean at the Kalapana end of the park. They
flutter over the water picking up small fish, but usually they stay
close to shore. The noddies nest in sea cliffs and caves in this area.


                 SPOTTED DOVE _Streptopelia chinensis_
                    (also laceneck or Chinese dove)

DESCRIPTION: 12″. A gray-brown dove with a long rounded tail showing
white in the corners, and a broad _collar of black with white spots_ on
the neck.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced before 1900; now common below 4,000 feet
on all islands. Kilauea—Fairly common around the crater and at lower
elevations such as on the Chain of Craters and Hilina Pali roads.
Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: Typical dove-like coos; often _coo-coó-coo_.


Like the barred dove, this species does not much penetrate the native
rain forest, but rather seems restricted to areas where man has altered
the vegetation. Both species feed on seeds and some fruit.

    [Illustration: _Spotted dove—Barred dove_]


                     BARRED DOVE _Geopelia striata_

DESCRIPTION: 8″-9″. Much smaller than the spotted dove and lacks the
lacy white neck. Has white outer tail feathers.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced to the islands in 1922; still spreading on
the island of Hawaii since its arrival here in 1935 from Asia.
Kilauea—Rare—at elevations below 3,000 feet. Haleakala—Absent from the
park.

VOICE: A rapid ringing phrase, higher pitched and faster than for the
spotted dove, often _wheeédle-de-wer_.


The range for this dove on Hawaii is continuing to increase. It is now
abundant along the Kona coast and has spread in both directions around
the island. Look for it within the park on the Hilina Pali road or on
the Kalapana road.


                          PUEO _Asio flammeus_
                    (also Hawaiian short-eared owl)

DESCRIPTION: 14″-15″. A medium-sized owl of buffy brown color and with
small ear tufts. In flight it appears big-headed and neckless compared
to the io.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Occasional around the crater and in grassy
areas on the Mauna Loa Strip. Haleakala—Occasional near meadows inside
the crater such as at Paliku; also on the lower slopes, especially just
below Park Headquarters. They are frequently seen on the drive up to the
park.

VOICE: Rarely heard muffled barking sounds.


You may be surprised to see an owl soaring hawklike over grassy openings
in full daylight. However, this Hawaiian race of the mainland
short-eared owl is often diurnal. It will hover over one spot until a
mouse or rat ventures out into the open, then with a swoop the pueo
captures its meal.


                       SKYLARK _Alauda arvensis_

    [Illustration: SKYLARK]

DESCRIPTION: 7″. A nondescript buffy, streaked bird with _white outer
tail feathers_ found only in open country. The head may appear crested.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced early to most of the islands.
Kilauea—Fairly common in open grassy places, for example on the floor of
Kilauea Crater or along the Mauna Loa Strip. Haleakala—Fairly common
both inside and out of the crater.

VOICE: Look to the sky when you hear an exceedingly long, high-pitched
rolling song. The skylark sings while on the wing and its beautiful
music may last for a minute or longer.


Certainly the most remarkable thing about this bird is its song—which it
delivers while hovering sometimes hundreds of feet in the air. Just when
you think that the lofty music must end, a skylark will change to a new
series of phrases and keep this up for another minute or so. Skylarks
feed and nest on the ground. Nests attributed to skylarks made entirely
of “Pele’s hair” have been found in the Kilauea area. “Pele’s hair” is
spun volcanic glass formed during an eruption—a strange material indeed
for the construction of a bird’s nest.


                CHINESE THRUSH _Trochalopterum canorum_
                        (also spectacled thrush)

DESCRIPTION: 9″. In the dense wet forests a large, reddish-brown bird
with _broad white “eye spectacles”_ can only be this species. The white
band around each eye extends backward to the ear. You will probably hear
this bird before seeing it.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced at the turn of the century. Now on all
major islands. Kilauea—Occasional in the wet ohia forest such as around
Park Headquarters. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: A mockingbird-like series of sustained musical and harsh notes
that carries for a great distance. The rich phrases may be repeated
several times before a new pattern is given.


These secretive birds seem to make a vertical migration to Kilauea from
the east each summer. They are rarely observed in the park during winter
months, but that may be due to their lack of song in the non-breeding
season. In summer you will probably hear several before seeing even one,
as they are wary and keep to the underbrush, moving about very little.


                 RED-BILLED LEIOTHRIX _Leiothrix lutea_
            (also Japanese hill robin or Peking nightingale)

    [Illustration: RED-BILLED LEIOTHRIX]

DESCRIPTION: 5½″. One of the easiest to identify: An olive-green bird
with contrasting red and yellow markings and a _bright red-orange bill_.
The back is olive-green, throat lemon-yellow shading to red-orange in
the breast, and the wing varied with yellow, orange, crimson, and black.
Immatures are not as bright, but have the same general markings.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced to the islands from Asia mainly in the
twenties. Kilauea—Very common throughout vegetated areas.
Haleakala—Fairly common in areas of dense vegetation such as Paliku.

VOICE: No wonder these birds are sometimes called “robins”, for their
robinlike warbled song fills the air in spring and summer. If you
approach they will often begin their excited noisy call notes, a rapid
_bzzt-bzzt-bzzt_, etc., which will usually continue for some time as the
birds nervously flit about the underbrush. Another common note, usually
heard from a distance, is a sharp _wheek-wheek-wheek_ made up of 3-8
notes.


The leiothrix is strictly a bird of the undergrowth and you are likely
to find it wherever there is plenty of bush cover in moist forested
areas. Mamake, a Hawaiian nettle, is one of its favorite haunts. If one
bird is seen, there are probably several others nearby, and flocks of a
dozen or more are common in fall and winter. Fruit, seeds, and insects
comprise the food.

These birds have strange migration habits. In the fall and early winter
large flocks may suddenly appear at the summit of Haleakala where they
stay a short time and then return to lower areas. On Hawaii flocks have
been recorded at above 13,000 feet on Mauna Loa during this season, but
they are reduced by deaths caused by exposure and starvation on the
barren slopes if they do not descend soon.

Although today the leiothrix is one of the best loved birds on the
islands, its introduction here may have been unfortunate. It is known to
be a carrier of bird malaria, a disease that has probably contributed to
the continuing decline of native Hawaiian honeycreepers.


                    MOCKINGBIRD _Mimus polyglottos_

DESCRIPTION: 10″-11″. A slender, gray and white bird with _large white
wing patches_ and white outer tail feathers.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced since 1928 on Oahu and Maui.
Kilauea—Birds, apparently migrants from Maui, were seen in the northern
part of the island in 1959; however, none have yet reached the park
(1961). Haleakala—Occasional on slopes below the summit; rare inside
Haleakala Crater. Probably still increasing its range within the park.

VOICE: The song is a brilliant series of phrases often repeated like the
Chinese thrush but more varied. One note is an emphatic _thack_.


You are most likely to see mockingbirds along the lower slopes of
Haleakala during your drive up to the crater. Park Headquarters is about
the upper limit for these birds on Maui. The food consists of insects,
fruit, and occasionally greens.


                        OMAO _Phaeornis obscura_
                         (also Hawaiian thrush)

    [Illustration: OMAO]

DESCRIPTION: 7″. Usually heard first, then seen if you are patient, for
it often remains motionless. A medium sized gray-brown thrush with no
distinct markings. Only similar species is the Chinese thrush which is
larger, more reddish brown, and has white markings around the eye.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Moderately common in the wet ohia forest,
especially along the Crater Rim Trail between Park Headquarters and
Thurston Lava Tube. Uncommon on lava flows between 7,000 and 9,200 feet
elevation—to be seen along the Mauna Loa trail. Haleakala—Absent from
Maui.

VOICE: Any one of several buzzing notes, a medium pitched _eéau_, or
_prueeé_, or a low throaty _whuaaá_ are likely to be heard before the
song. These notes may be interspersed and are often repeated many times
with a few seconds interval. The song is a rapid, erratic whistled
phrase, having the loud fluty quality of other thrushes.


This strange thrush lives in two contrasting habitats within Hawaii
Volcanoes National Park. In the dense forest you will usually find it
singing from its perch part way up an ohia or other tree. But there may
be no trees in sight at its other locality which is among the barren
lava flows on Mauna Loa. However, there will always be berry bushes
nearby—ohelo, pukeawe, or kukaenene; and insects also comprise a part of
the diet. The lava flow birds establish day-time roosts on the higher
rocks and remain at these sites for long periods, judging from the
accumulation of droppings. Old perch sites stand out clearly on a flow,
for a yellow-green lichen colors the top of whatever rocks have been
plastered with omao droppings.

    [Illustration: _Ohelo—favorite food of the omao_]

The nesting sites for these birds have remained an enigma until
recently. Now it is known that birds living on the flows will build
their nests on ledges within deep horizontal lava cracks, especially in
collapsed lava tubes, while the forest birds are said to nest in trees.


                  ELEPAIO _Chasiempsis sandwichensis_

    [Illustration: ELEPAIO]

DESCRIPTION: 5½″. A brownish flycatcher with variegated black, white,
and gray markings. The dark bill is short (½ inch) and nearly straight.
The female has less black on the breast and throat, while immatures,
generally more brown, have a reddish instead of a white ruff around the
vent. Its friendly wrenlike actions combined with the above make it
unmistakable.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Common in the more heavily vegetated areas
around Kilauea Crater and to the east. Look for it at Kipuka Puaulu.
Haleakala—Absent from Maui.

VOICE: A variety of short songs or calls. One is like a “wolf whistle”,
a clear _wheé-oo_ (or _elepaí-o_). Another is a nasal _yeékik_. A single
_wheek_ as well as short nasal chirps are also common.


The elepaio is probably the friendliest of our native birds. It is
easily overlooked, since it usually remains fairly quiet when you first
approach, but if you pause for a few moments in the wet fern jungle, one
or more of these birds are likely to appear. They seem very inquisitive
as they hop about in the low underbrush, often within a few feet of an
observer, and they cock their tails high whenever they alight. Like the
omao these birds often push their wings forward with a rapid shivering
motion when confronted by people, probably a type of aggressive action.

Being a member of the Old World flycatcher family, the elepaio is
adapted to an insect diet which it gleans from the tree tops to the
ground, but mostly in the understory. It often feeds like a creeper,
carefully working up or down the trunk of an ohia in search of insect
life. There seem to be no seasonal movements; individuals or family
groups of two to four birds apparently remain in the same general area
throughout the year.


                      MYNAH _Acridotheres tristis_

    [Illustration: MYNAH]

DESCRIPTION: 9″. No other bird like it. Black, brown, and white with
yellow bill, feet, and skin around the eye; above all noisy. Large white
wing patches are conspicuous in flight.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from India in 1865. Kilauea—Common at Park
Headquarters, around other human habitations, and to the south
especially around Hilina Pali. Occasional in the Kau Desert. Haleakala—A
few live around the Park Headquarters area in the summer months but they
descend to lower elevations in winter.

VOICE: A raucous mixture of squawks, mews, and chirrs not likely to be
mistaken for any other bird.


For a bird that prefers to live around human habitations, the mynah is
extremely wary of people—probably with good reason, for among the
imported birds the mynah has never been particularly well loved. Yet it
is at least partly beneficial since it often feeds on agricultural
insect pests. “Mynah bird” has become a favorite Hawaiian expression for
anyone who chatters endlessly.


                   WHITE-EYE _Zosterops palpibrosus_
                             (also mejiro)

    [Illustration: WHITE-EYE]

DESCRIPTION: 4½″. A tiny yellow-green bird with a distinct _white
eye-ring_. Its back and wings are green, the throat yellow, and under
parts gray; the bill is thin and straight. Only other common small green
bird is the amakihi, which has no white around the eyes. Immatures are
duller, and the eye-ring, although present, is less distinct.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced from Japan in 1929. Now widely established
on all islands. Kilauea—Common almost everywhere in the park.
Haleakala—Fairly common throughout the park, except at the highest
elevations or in the barren portions of the crater.

VOICE: A thin, high-pitched song a bit like that of the house finch, but
much higher and not as loud. Note: a high _tsee_ or _chee_ given
repeatedly.


You will hear a rapid chittering of high notes as a flock of three or
four white-eyes fly into the nearby shrubbery. Notice how quickly they
work over the foliage and limbs gleaning tiny insects. They continue to
utter their notes as they feed, but soon one by one they are off again
to new vegetation.

The pattern of population increase for the white-eye has paralleled that
of many exotic species. Following their introduction in 1929 the birds
were at first slow to increase their range, but in more recent years a
population explosion has taken place ... on the Island of Hawaii, at
least. It is presently the commonest bird on the island and it seems to
have adapted to nearly every habitat. There is every indication that the
white-eye, competing for insects with native Hawaiian birds such as the
Hawaiian creeper, has virtually eliminated some of the natives from
their former habitat.


                        AMAKIHI _Loxops virens_

    [Illustration: AMAKIHI
    (male)]

DESCRIPTION: 4½″. Yellow-green with no outstanding markings, and a dark
slightly downcurved bill. The male is bright green above with a
yellowish breast, while the female and immatures are duller, tending
toward gray-green. It is a real problem to distinguish between a female
or young amakihi and the very rare Hawaiian creeper (next bird).

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Very common on the slopes of Mauna Loa around
tree-line (for example along the Mauna Loa trail); less common in the
wet ohia forests around Kilauea Crater and along the Chain of Craters
road. Haleakala—Common in the open forests such as Hosmer Grove and
Paliku.

VOICE: The usual song, a slow tinkling trill,
_tink-tink-tink-tink-tink-tink-tink_ or _wheedle-wheedle-wheedle_, etc.,
is uttered by the male. Commonest foraging note (both sexes) is a high
_djeee_; another note is _wheee_ with a rising inflection.


You will see a little green bird flit into a mamani or other nearby tree
and begin to seek insects among the foliage, visiting the blossoms for
nectar if the tree happens to be in bloom. You hear a buzzy _djeee_ and
you have made acquaintance with the amakihi. This Hawaiian honeycreeper
prefers more open forest than do the other two common members of the
family, the apapane and iiwi. But often all three are found together,
with the amakihis working through the entire foliage and not just in the
tree tops.

Seasonal movements are much less obvious than for either apapanes or
iiwis, probably because amakihis are less dependent on flowering
periods. However, some migration does occur, especially in and out of
their lower range below 3,000 feet elevation. Nesting is in late spring
and early summer.


                   HAWAIIAN CREEPER _Loxops maculata_

DESCRIPTION: 4½″. Very similar to the female or immature amakihi, but
the bill is straighter and tends to be lighter in color. Creepers search
for insects on the trunks and heavier branches, while amakihis usually
work more in the foliage.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Now very rare in the upper rain forest or koa
parkland on Mauna Loa. Haleakala—Has not been definitely recorded within
the park for many years.


Twenty years ago creepers were often seen in the Mauna Loa Strip area of
the Kilauea Section, but from 1958-1960 the author saw only one. On the
other hand, introduced white-eyes have greatly increased their numbers
in recent years, and now they are by far the commonest bird along the
Mauna Loa Strip. White-eyes feed in much the same manner as
creepers—they carefully glean tiny insects from limbs of ohia, mamani,
and other trees. It seems likely that direct competition for insects by
the white-eyes is an important factor in the recent decline of Hawaiian
creepers.


                      OU _Psittirostra psittacea_

    [Illustration: OU
    (male)]

DESCRIPTION: 6½″. A greenish bird with a heavy _parrotlike bill_. Male:
Varying shades of green above, lighter below, with a _bright yellow
head_ that give it the appearance of being unusually large headed.
_Female and Immature_: Lack the yellow head.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Rare; in the wet tree-fern jungle. Thurston
Lava Tube is within its range. Haleakala—Absent from Maui.

VOICE: A beautiful singer, according to Munro. Note: a medium
high-pitched _teweé_.


Ous are fairly inactive birds, often spending long periods quietly on
the branch of an ohia or other tree, and would be difficult to locate in
the dense forest except for the bright male plumage. They frequently
travel in pairs and apparently have a small individual range, for the
same pair may be seen day after day in one locality. Their food consists
of fruit.


                     APAPANE _Himatione sanguinea_

    [Illustration: APAPANE
    (immature and adult)]

DESCRIPTION: 5½″. Crimson red with black wings and tail, _white
abdomen_, and slightly down-curved _black bill_. Only similar species,
the iiwi, has a red abdomen and a long orange bill. Immatures are
confusing, as the red is mostly lacking. However, grayish birds having a
touch of rusty red on the sides and white under the tail, and feeding in
ohia tops, are surely this species. The throat and face of young
apapanes may appear yellow-orange.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Common to abundant throughout the wet ohia
forest; much less common in the drier forests. Haleakala—Common locally
in forested areas such as Hosmer Grove or Paliku.

VOICE: You will hear a constant chorus of short songs and notes from the
highest ohia tops whenever apapanes are about. The quality varies from
sweet whistled notes to harsh chips and buzzes, usually intermixed.
Probably the most varied songster in the park.


The apapane is likely to be your first introduction to the endemic
Hawaiian honeycreepers. While most of Hawaii’s native birds have either
become extinct or are greatly reduced in numbers, this species seems to
have held its own wherever there are ohia trees to provide a supply of
lehua nectar. Examine a cluster of red ohia blossoms. You will find that
each tiny cup which bears long bright stamens is filled with honey. A
single ohia in full bloom with countless thousands of these nectar-cups
must produce many pounds of honey. No wonder one blossoming tree will
attract so many honeycreepers.

You will see the birds high in the trees, flitting about from flower to
flower, often stopping to pick up insects along the way. Although a few
trees are in bloom throughout the year in any given area, there are
definite “flowering periods” for the ohia when more than half of the
trees may be in full blossom. The season for these flowering periods
will vary among localities, and tremendous flocks of apapanes and other
honeycreepers follow the bloom from one area to another. They can often
be seen flying high overhead in small groups, all going in the same
direction. But even during times when the ohias are out of bloom a few
apapanes will remain in the forest.

The breeding season is an extended one, and you may see immature
apapanes with almost no sign of red plumage from February to October.

    [Illustration: _Ohia blossom nectar is the staple food for the
    apapane and iiwi_]


                       IIWI _Vestiaria coccinea_

    [Illustration: IIWI]

DESCRIPTION: 5¾″. A brilliant scarlet body and _long, orange,
sickle-shaped bill_ distinguishes this honeycreeper. Lacks the white
abdomen of the apapane. Immatures appear greenish-yellow with patches of
red developing with age, but the long orange bill is always diagnostic.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Kilauea—Common in the wet ohia forest, especially
when the trees are in bloom. Kipuka Puaulu and the vicinity of Thurston
Lava Tube are likely places. Haleakala—Fairly common in Hosmer Grove and
the forest behind Paliku.

VOICE: The creaking of a rusty gate, _ker-eeék_ is the best description
for its commonest note. Other calls include a sharp whistle and a short
warble, all rather harsh.


Look for this bright Hawaiian honeycreeper among flocks of apapanes in
the forest. On a calm day you will hear the heavy flutter of their wings
as they fly from tree to tree. Apapanes also have a similar feather
structure which produces such noisy flight.

Iiwis tend to feed more in the upper-middle branches rather than the
high tops, and they seem to remain in a single tree for a longer time
than the apapanes. Their food is made up of nectar (ohia, mamane, and
other flowers) which they suck up through tubular tongues that extend
the length of their sickle bills, and the larger insects. Old koa trees
often attract iiwis, presumably because of the insects.

You will see birds in green juvenile plumage any time from February
until autumn. These young birds seem to be especially affected by bird
lice, for they spend much time scratching and preening.


                        RICEBIRD _Munia nisoria_

    [Illustration: RICEBIRD]

DESCRIPTION: 4″. A tiny, _dark-faced_ bird with a heavy blackish bill.
Differs from house sparrow and house finch females in its smaller size,
the dark face and throat, and under parts that look speckled. The flanks
may appear barred. Nearly always in flocks.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced to the islands about 1865. Now established
on all main islands. Kilauea—Occasional to common along most park roads
except in the Kau Desert and the upper Mauna Loa Strip. Haleakala—Absent
from the park.

VOICE: A short _wheek_ or _whireép_, softer than the chip of the house
finch, and usually repeated.


Ricebirds used to be great pests among the rice fields of lower
elevations, but their numbers have diminished now that little rice is
grown on the islands. Notice the flocks of half-a-dozen or so that fly
out with short wing beats along park roads, trails, or other places
where weeds thrive. They are primarily ground feeders and even in flight
they seldom rise much above the ground surface.


                   HOUSE SPARROW _Passer domesticus_
                         (also English sparrow)

DESCRIPTION: 6″. Almost everyone knows this chunky, grayish-brown bird
with a heavy bill, restricted to areas of human habitation. Males have
black throats; females gray.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced before 1870. Kilauea—Restricted to areas
of human habitations. Haleakala—A few around Park Headquarters, mainly
during the summer months.

VOICE: Dull chirps.


                   CARDINAL _Richmondena cardinalis_

    [Illustration: CARDINAL
    (female and male)]

DESCRIPTION: 4″-10″. _Male_—the only _all red bird with a crest_.
_Female_—yellowish-brown with some red, also crested. Both sexes have a
heavy red bill: however, immatures, which resembles females, have dark
beaks.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced on several islands since 1929.
Kilauea—Fairly common locally in the drier vegetated areas such as
Kipuka Puaulu. Haleakala—Absent from the park.

VOICE: The song, which may be varied, is made up of a liquid whistled
phrase usually repeated. Note: a sharp _tik_.


Visitors from the eastern states will recognize familiar birdcalls when
a cardinal is nearby. They are usually rather shy birds here, so you
will probably hear them first. Seeds, insects, and fruit make up the
diet of these birds. They are often found in company with the red-billed
leiothrix.


                   HOUSE FINCH _Carpodacus mexicanus_
                      (also linnet or papaya bird)

    [Illustration: HOUSE FINCH
    (female and male)]

DESCRIPTION: 5½″. _Male_—Grayish-brown with rosy red breast, forehead,
stripe over eye, and rump. At Haleakala the color is more yellow than
red. _Female_ and _Immature_—Sparrowlike with a gray-brown back and
dusky-white streaked breast. House finches have thick seed-eating bills.

PARK DISTRIBUTION: Introduced before 1870. Kilauea—very common in the
drier sections of the park, especially along the Hilina Pali road and at
Kipuka Puaulu. Haleakala—One of the commonest birds in the park both
inside and out of the crater.

VOICE: A rapid, disjointed warbling song, usually lasting several
seconds. Note: one or a series of chirps, more musical than that of the
house sparrow.


This is strictly a social species living in flocks ranging in size from
a few birds to 20 or more. On the Island of Hawaii the introduced house
finch has adapted well to a habitat that is presently unoccupied by any
native resident—the dry grassy regions of the Kau Desert and along
Hilina Pali.

On the mainland house finches are reddish; the same is true for most
Kilauea birds. However, at Haleakala the usual color of the male is
yellow or orange. It seems likely that diet, which is known to affect
pigmentation in bird plumage, rather than heredity, is the cause of this
difference.



                              OTHER BIRDS


                              Accidentals

From time to time various sea and other birds passing over the island or
blown inland during a storm may be observed in either park. In recent
years such accidentals have included:

  Red-footed booby (_Sula sula_): one record, Kilauea (1959).
  Peregrine falcon (_Falco peregrinus_): seen at Kilauea during 1961.
  Red phalarope (_Phalaropus fulicarius_): one record, Kilauea (1949).
  Gray-backed tern (_Sterna lunata_): one record, Kilauea (1959).


                           Formerly Recorded

Several native birds that were formerly found within the park have not
been recorded in recent years. They include:

Hawaiian crow (_Corvus tropicus_): This, the only crow here and endemic
to the Island of Hawaii, formerly occurred within the park. One recent
Kilauea record (1940).

Akepa (_Loxops coccinea_): A tiny (4½″) bird. _Male_: Red-orange with no
white markings. _Female_: Green above and yellow below. Still occurs in
the koa forests northeast of the Mauna Loa Strip. Last park record was
over 20 years ago.

Akiapolaau (_Hemignathus wilsoni_): 5½″. Like the amakihi but with a
long, curved upper mandible overlapping the short straight lower bill.
Used to be a permanent resident of the koa kipukas along the Mauna Loa
Strip, but has not been observed within the park for several years.

Parrot-billed koa finch (_Pseudonestor xanthophrys_): 5½″. A yellowish
parrotlike bird with a heavy hooked beak that formerly occurred in Kaupo
Gap at Haleakala. Last record, a few miles outside the park, was in
1950.


                            Status Uncertain

Game birds are sometimes released by the State Division of Fish and Game
near the park, but they do not always become established. A recent
release (June 1960) just outside the park boundary near Headquarters at
Haleakala was the Erckel’s Francolin (_Francolinus erckelii_). This
large chickenlike partridge can be recognized by its rusty-red crown. It
is not yet known whether the birds will reproduce and become
established.



                                 INDEX


                                   A
  Acknowledgements                                                     9
  _Acridotheres tristis_                                              27
  Akepa                                                               34
  Akekeke                                                             20
  Akiapolaau                                                          34
  _Alauda arvensis_                                                   22
  _Alectoris graeca_                                                  16
  Amakihi                                             3, 5, 7, 28, Plate
  _Anoüs tenuirostris_                                                20
  Apapane                              3, 5, 6, 7, 29, 30, 31, 32, Plate
  _Arenaria interpres_                                                20
  _Asia flammeus_                                                     22


                                   B
  Bird Park                                                            6
  Booby, red-footed                                                   34
  _Branta sandvicensis_                                               13
  _Buteo solitarius_                                                  15


                                   C
  Cardinal                                               4, 6, 33, Plate
  _Carpodacus mexicanus_                                              33
  Chain of Craters Road                                       18, 21, 28
  _Chasiempsis sandwichensis_                                         26
  Chukar                                                           7, 16
  _Corvus tropicus_                                                   34
  Crater Rim Drive                                                 5, 18
  Creeper, Hawaiian                                                   29
  Crow, Hawaiian                                                      34


                                   D
  Dove
      barred                                                      21, 22
      Chinese                                                         21
      laceneck                                                        21
      spotted                                                         21
  Drepaniidae                                                          3


                                   E
  Elepaio                                                3, 6, 26, Plate
  Endemics                                                             3
  Exotics                                                              4


                                   F
  Fern jungle                                                    2, 5, 6
  Finch
      house                                              6, 7, 33, Plate
      parrot-billed koa                                               34
  Francolin, Erckel’s                                                 34
  _Francolinus erckelii_                                              34


                                   G
  _Geopelia striata_                                                  22
  Goose, Hawaiian                                                     13


                                   H
  Haleakala National Park                                           7, 8
  Halemaumau                                                       6, 12
  Halape                                                              20
  Hawaiian Islands                                                     3
  Hawaiian Honeycreepers                                               3
  Hawaii Volcanoes National Park                                       8
  Hawk, Hawaiian                                                   6, 15
  _Hemignathus wilsoni_                                               34
  _Heteroscelus incanum_                                              20
  Hilina Pali                                         12, 21, 22, 27, 33
  Hill robin, Japanese                                                24
  _Himatione sanguinea_                                               30
  Holua Cabin                                                     11, 12
  Hosmer Grove                                                 7, 28, 30
  Hui Manu                                                             4


                                   I
  Iiwi                                         3, 5, 6, 7, 29, 31, Plate
  Io                                                            3, 6, 15


                                   K
  Kalapana—Kalapana Road                                          21, 22
  Kapalaoa Cabin                                                      11
  Kau Desert                                              12, 27, 32, 33
  Kaupo Gap                                                           34
  Kilauea Crater                          11, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 26, 28
  Kilauea Iki                                                      6, 15
  Kilauea Volcano                                                      5
  Kipuka Nene                                                         16
  Kipuka Puaulu                                             1, 6, 26, 33
  Koae                                                                11
  Kolea                                                               19
  Kona Coast                                                          22


                                   L
  _Leiothrix lutea_                                                   24
  Leiothrix, red-billed                                 6, 24, 33, Plate
  Linnet                                                              33
  _Lophortyx californicus_                                            15
  _Loxops_
      _coccinea_                                                      34
      _maculata_                                                      29
      _virens_                                                        28


                                   M
  Malaria, avian                                                   5, 24
  Makaopuhi Crater                                                    15
  Mauna Kea                                                           11
  Mauna Loa—Mauna Loa Strip   6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 22, 23, 28,
                                                                  29, 32
  Mejiro                                                              27
  _Mimus polyglottus_                                                 24
  Mockingbird                                                      7, 24
  _Munia nisoria_                                                     32
  Mynah                                                     4, 27, Plate


                                   N
  Nene                                              3, 7, 13, back cover
  Nightingale, Peking                                                 24
  Noddy, white-capped                                                 20
  Noio                                                                20


                                   O
  Old World flycatcher                                             3, 27
  Owl, Hawaiian short-eared                                        3, 22
  Omao                                                  3, 25, 27, Plate
  Ou                                                           29, Plate


                                   P
  Paliku                                           7, 12, 22, 24, 28, 30
  Papaya bird                                                         33
  _Passer domesticus_                                                 32
  Petrel, dark-rumped                                          4, 10, 11
  _Phaeornis obscura_                                                 25
  _Phaëthon lepturus_                                                 11
  Phalarope, red                                                      34
  _Phalaropus fulicarius_                                             34
  _Phasianus colchicus torquatus_                                     17
      _colchicus versicolor_                                          18
  Pheasant
      Chinese                                                         17
      green                                                           18
      Japanese blue                                             6, 7, 18
      ring-necked                                                  7, 17
      versicolor                                                      18
  Plover, American golden                                       4, 7, 19
  _Pluvialis dominica_                                                19
  _Pseudonestor xanthophrys_                                          34
  _Psittirostra psittacea_                                            29
  Pueo                                                                22
  _Pterodroma phaeopygia_                                             11


                                   Q
  Quail, California                                             4, 7, 15


                                   R
  Ricebird                                                     32, Plate
  _Richmondena cardinalis_                                            33


                                   S
  Skylark                                                   7, 22, Plate
  Sparrow
      English                                                         32
      house                                                           32
  _Streptopelia chinensis_                                            21
  _Sterna lunata_                                                     34
  _Sula sula_                                                         34


                                   T
  Tattler, wandering                                                  20
  Tern, gray-backed                                                   34
  Thrush
      Chinese                                                         23
      Hawaiian                                                        25
      spectacled                                                      23
  Thurston Lava Tube                                        2, 5, 25, 29
  _Trochalopterum canorum_                                            23
  Tropic-bird, white-tailed                                 4, 6, 11, 12
  Turnstone, ruddy                                                    20


                                   U
  Uau                                                                 11
  Ulili                                                               20


                                   V
  _Vestiaria coccinea_                                                31


                                   W
  White-eye                                       4, 5, 6, 27, 29, Plate


                                   Z
  _Zosterops palpibrosus_                                             27


Boldfaced type: refers to illustrations



                       OTHER PARK NATURE BOOKLETS


The Hawaii Natural History Association, a nonprofit organization devoted
to aiding the park interpretive program, has produced several other
booklets to help you enjoy the parks in Hawaii. These may be obtained at
headquarters in either park or by writing directly to the association,
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii.

  _Haleakala Guide_, by George C. Ruhle, $1.00
  _Ferns of Hawaii National Park_, by Douglass H. Hubbard, 50¢
  _Trailside Plants of Hawaii National Park_, by Douglass H. Hubbard and
          Vernon R. Bender, Jr., 50¢
  _Volcanoes of the National Parks in Hawaii_, by Gordon A. MacDonald
          and Douglass H. Hubbard, 50¢



                                _NOTES_


    [Illustration: PHOTO BY THE AUTHOR
    _Nene_]



                          Transcriber’s Notes


—Silently corrected a few typos.

—Retained publication information from the printed edition: this eBook
  is public-domain in the country of publication.

—Included images from the color plate beside the corresponding species
  descriptions.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by
  _underscores_.





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