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Title: Gleanings in Bee Culture - Vol. III. No. 3
Author: Various
Language: English
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                        GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE

    Or how to Realize the Most Money with the Smallest Expenditure of
      Capital and Labor in the Care of Bees, Rationally Considered.

                           BY A. I. ROOT & CO.
 Vol. III                     March, 1875.                         No. 3
   _In the Preparation of this Journal the following are the Principal
                         Periodicals Consulted_:

=American Bee Journal.= _Clarke, and Mrs. Tupper._

                                        =Bee-Keeper’s Magazine.= _King._

=Bee World.= _A. F. Moon & Co._

 [_Also Bound Volumes of the former since 1860, and Files of all other
          Bee Journals that have been Published in America._]

     =American Agriculturist=,
             =Prairie Farmer=,
                     =Rural New Yorker=,
                             =Country Gentleman=,
                                     =Southern Farmer=,
                                             =Scientific American=.

                  *       *       *       *       *


               Remarks on in-door wintering           25
               Our own Apiary                         25
               How bees behave in cold weather        27
               Report from L. C. Root                 27
               Quinby hive                            27
               Why do our bees die?                   27
               Home made New Ideas etc.               28
               Double width versus two story          28
               Sawdust for contracting entrances      28
               Dimensions of frames etc.              28
               A Novel Idea in Wintering etc.         29
               Half inch, versus double walls         29
               Section Honey boxes                29, 32
               Double wall hives etc.                 30
               Honey Column                           31
               Humbugs and Swindles                   31
               Reports Encouraging                    31
               Basswood: Starting a plantation        32
               How to fly bees in a room              32
               Is it the fault of our Queens?         33
               Reports from cold frames               33
               Leather for quilts                     33
               Strait combs                           33
               Adulteration of honey                  33
               Movable portico                        34
               Buzz Saws                              34
               Candying of honey                      34
               Deep frames                            35
               Imported Queens                        36
               Sunflowers                             36

                  *       *       *       *       *

                       _ADVERTISERS’ DEPARTMENT_

                            SUNDRY MATTERS.

In making Bee veils use Tarleton in place of Crown Lining as advised on
page 2, Vol. 1.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Mrs. Axtell writes us that we made a mistake on page 10, Jan. No., when
we give her credit of extracting 3000 lbs.; that it was only about
one-half that amount.

                  *       *       *       *       *

We have just received an extra nice lot of Alsike Clover seed, new crop,
raised in our own vicinity, so that we know it is pure and safe. Single
pound by mail in cloth bag 45c.; by express 35c., if over 10 lbs. 30c.

                  *       *       *       *       *

We learn from J. D. Kruschke, Berlin, Wis., that there _is_ a good
market for the oil from Rape, and that in fact we at present import it
to supply the demand. We refer all interested in Rape culture to the
little book to be had by enclosing 5c. to the above address.

                  *       *       *       *       *

_Magazine_ reached us on the 15th, with its appearance much improved. On
further consideration we have decided to keep the clubbing price with it
and GLEANINGS at $1.75, and $5.00 for all the Bee Journals. If our
readers will now excuse so many changes we will try to change no more.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Mr. Doolittle, of Borodino, and L. C. Root, of Mohawk, N. Y., have each
sent us a club of 20 subscribers, Prof. Cook, and several others, nearly
as many. A few more such friends and we might afford to give you a
larger Journal and larger type, _without_ any change in price.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Our thanks are due J. C. Colborne, of Chicago, for a description of the
hive and frame used by Mr. Harbison. It is not a suspended frame, nor is
it like Quinby’s. We should prefer getting something more definite, and
from Harbison himself, if possible, before giving it to our readers.
Dimensions of frame about 12×15.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Our mailing type goes by machinery that won’t work unless 75c. be
remitted once a year. Therefore look to the labels on your papers and
see when your time will be out. If the paper stops coming blame the
“machine” and not us; also, if the labels do not always present your
account to you monthly, as it should be, drop us a postal.

                  *       *       *       *       *

We presume nearly every one of our readers, has already done something
for the relief of the Kansas and Nebraska sufferers; to those who have
not had the opportunity presented them, we would refer to Mr. James
Vick’s proposal in his Floral Guide. His arrangements enable him to give
a receipt for all money, and to also show how and where it has all been
judiciously expended.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Notwithstanding all that has been said about honey dealers, we have at
least two men in whom we feel we can place implicit confidence;
Lippincott of Pittsburg, and Muth, of Cincinnati. Mr. Muth has for many
years been dealing in supplies, and we have yet to hear a single
complaint of him in any shape or manner. His honey jars are very neat
indeed, and what is more they will hold an honest pound, or 2 lbs.,
according to the stamp in the glass of each. As an instance of the
magnitude of his business, we may say that he has given the
manufacturers orders for 1000 gross for the coming season; customers may
depend on getting goods as soon as ordered.

                  *       *       *       *       *

My bees, 50 stocks, on their summer stands, are not doing well; weather
very cold, some days below zero all day. A good deal of ice in hives,
with not sufficient warm weather to thaw it and dry them out. Have lost
some already, and shall lose more if the weather does not change soon.

                          JOHN F. TEMPLE, Ridgeway, Mich. Feb. 5th, ’75.

                  *       *       *       *       *

The San Diego Mountain honey does not candy although exposed to a
freezing temperature in an uncovered vessel. Mr. Tweed says such is
their experience, and astonishing as it may seem, such proves the case
with us, while all our other honey under the same conditions, is white
and solid.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                              GET THE BEST.

               ESTABLISHED 1848. - - - - - TRY IT FOR 1875.

                             THE OHIO FARMER,

 The Largest, Most Interesting, Enterprising and Valuable Farmer’s Family
                             Paper Published.

THE OHIO FARMER is a 16-page, 64-column, weekly paper, devoted to
Agriculture, Horticulture, Live Stock, Dairy, Poultry, Apiary, News,
Fireside Reading, Domestic Economy, and Choice Miscellany, with the
largest and ablest corps of Regular Contributors ever employed on an
agricultural paper in this country, under an able and experienced
Editorial Management who spare no expense to add everything possible to
its value.

                            READ THE TERMS.

          Single Subscriptions, 52 issues, postage paid $2.15
          In clubs of 10 or over, postage paid           1.90

We want good Agents everywhere, and offer very liberal pay to all who
work for us.

                   ☞ Send for Specimen Copies, free.
                2m Address =OHIO FARMER, Cleveland, O.=

                  *       *       *       *       *

                             HONEY PLANTS!

We keep the following seeds of Honey plants for sale: Rape, 35c. per
lb., post paid. Rapp, 45c. per lb. Esparcet, 60c. per lb. Linden Seeds
15c. per oz. Send stamp for Pamphlet on their culture.

                                   tfd      KRUSCHKE BROS., Berlin, Wis.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                             ITALIAN BEES.

For one Colony of Italian Bees $15.00; four for $50.00. Also tested
Italian Queens, Hives and material for Hives and surplus boxes at _very
low figures_. Price list free. J. S. WOODBURN,

                                2t$2      Dickinson, Cumberland Co., Pa.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                        SEEDS FOR HONEY PLANTS.

Catnip seed, fresh and pure at 40 cts. per ounce postage paid. Also
Summer Rape, Mignonette, Borage and other Honey producing plant seeds.

                           2 3d      B. H. STAIR & CO., Cleveland, Ohio.

                  *       *       *       *       *

=Thirteen years experience= in propagating Italian Bees. Queens will be
bred direct from Imported Mothers and warranted pure and fertile. Send
for my circular. Wm. W. CARY,

                                  1tf      Colerain, Franklin Co., Mass.

                  *       *       *       *       *


You cannot look over the back No’s of GLEANINGS or any other Periodical
with satisfaction, unless they are in some kind of a Binder. Who has not
said—“Dear me what a bother—I _must_ have last month’s Journal and it’s
no where to be found.” Put each No. in the Emerson Binder as soon as it
comes and you can sit down happy, any time you wish to find any thing
you may have previously seen even though it were months ago.

Binders for GLEANINGS (will hold them for four years) gilt lettered,
free by mail for 50, 60, and 75c, according to quality. For table of
prices of Binders for any Periodical, see Oct. No., Vol. 2. Send in your

                                            A. I. ROOT & CO., Medina, O.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                        GLEANINGS IN BEE CULTURE.

 Vol. III.                   MARCH, 1, 1875.                    No. III.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                     REMARKS ON IN-DOOR WINTERING.

                            BY JAMES BOLIN.

Friend Novice:—While I freely endorse the most that is contained in the
article on, How to Conduct an Apiary, in the Dec. No. of GLEANINGS, I
will have to dissent from a few of your conclusions, even at the risk of
being accused of _heresy_ again.

For instance: that the position that keeping bees warm etc., will save
them, will have to be given up, and, since our wintering troubles, ****
nothing that has been done has amounted to a row of pins, [Beg pardon,
we meant toward curing sick ones.—Ed.] except fine weather etc. Now the
above may be true in the case of your bees, but I cannot think it will
apply to many. I have pretty strong evidence that keeping my bees warm
and quiet, _did_ save them, as most of those in this neighborhood that
were not wintered in warm depositories have perished with the bee
disease, during the last two or three winters. Keeping mine warm has, in
my opinion, amounted to a pretty long row of pins—a longer one in fact
than any one would need, unless they wished to start a notion store, and
even then they might be overstocked.

I do not think that I have ever claimed that cold was the _only_ but
merely the _main_ cause of the losses that have occurred. The want of
dryness and darkness in the winter depository has no doubt had
considerable to do, in some instances, with the loss of bees that were
housed, while disturbance, caused by taking a light in the room, looking
at the bees, admitting strong currents of air, by opening the door at
night, and introducing artificial heat has no doubt killed more bees
than anything else, except cold. A prominent bee-keeper remarked last
spring, that he regarded artificial heat as being indispensable in
wintering bees; right in the face of the fact that he had lost about
eight-ninths of his bees by its use, or at least, while using it. Rather
a poor argument in its favor, I think. But I may be too practical in my
views. Bees are very sensitive, and a slight jar, taking a light into
the room etc., will often excite them to an injurious activity. I have
frequently seen the advice given to open the door of the winter
depository at night to cool and purify the air, but if the ventilators
are arranged as they should be, I would much rather depend on them and
keep the door shut.

You remark on page 139 of Dec. GLEANINGS, that opening the door and
windows of your cellar only seemed to make the bees warmer. It no doubt
had just that effect, as the bees were stirred up by feeling a current
of air different from that in the room, [but what _should_ we have
done?—Ed.] and strong stocks, when disturbed, generate an immense amount
of heat. I had a pretty fair sample of what they can do in that line two
years ago when I put my bees in the house. We had a cold south-west wind
at the time. The thermometer stood at about zero in the open air, and at
34° in the house when I began carrying the bees in. By having the door
open it sunk to 20° in the house, by the time I had them in. I put in 88
swarms,—then shut the door for two hours,—when I went in again and they
had run the thermometer up to 45°, being 11° higher than it was before
the door was opened to put them in. It remained about the same all the
time out of doors. By letting them alone, they soon became quiet and the
temperature of the room fell to about 40°. Keeping bees _too warm_ will
excite them, and will have the same effect as keeping them too cold,
cause them to fill themselves with honey, and if the excitement is kept
up long, the result will be the same—they will be effected with the

The thermometer in my bee house stands at 42° at this date, Dec. 14th,
1874, and a person on entering the room would almost think there was not
a live bee in it, they are so still.

That the Editor, and all his readers, may succeed in carrying all their
bees safely through the present, and all subsequent winters, is the wish

West Lodi, Ohio.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                            OUR OWN APIARY.

We mentioned last month that we gave the bees in the forcing house a
brisk fly on the 17th, to accomplish this more effectually we removed
the covers to all the hives, and this was one reason why only _four_
bees remained on the sash. They saw their comrades just beneath them and
of course “hopped down” among them. To avoid giving any erroneous
impression we may remark that we spend the greater part of our Sundays
with our books and papers in the forcing house, and on sunny days even
the rest of the family find it an agreeable sitting room. Of course we
do not mean to work with our bees on the Sabbath and should be very
sorry to have any of our readers get such an opinion of us, yet it must
be admitted that it so came about, that the _bees_ instead of being
allowed to rest on the Sabbath, rested _six_ days, and on the seventh
were expected to turn out and have a fly if nothing else. If they would
not otherwise, we uncovered the hives etc., as above. Very likely friend
Bolin will expect this treatment to kill them whether or no. Never mind;
they would probably submit with resignation if they knew it was solely
in the cause of science. On the 23rd, we warmed the house in the
afternoon and made search in nearly all the hives for eggs, but none
could be found. We were anxious to report brood in Jan., in our Feb.
No., and so kept the room at a favorable temperature all day the 24th,
and next day were delighted to find that the Queens had laid profusely,
even to the lamp nursery which contained less than 100 bees with the
Queen at this time. By the way we can see no difficulty in wintering any
number of Queens with a tea-cupful of bees each, in this way. Our last
form was to be printed on the 27th, and to get larvæ before this time
required careful work, so we kept the room warm until the last item was
set up, but “not a larvæ” could we see, and we dolefully sent you your
papers with hardly a parting note in regard to our experiment. On the
28th we looked again and were cheered with the sight of whole patches of
larvæ, so large it seemed we must have been hasty the day before. And
now for pollen. Few of the colonies had any at all, some of them
positively none, and the worst of it was the bees would take no notice
of the spot where they had worked so industriously on it in Dec. They
seemed to take their flights close under the glass. On the 31st we were
rejoiced to see the sun come out full and clear, and by 10 o’clock the
room was abundantly warm without any aid from the stove, but not a bit
would they notice the meal. We had read in the _Fruit Recorder_ that
plants, especially strawberries, must be placed _close up to the glass_
to thrive. Was it not so with bees? In a twinkling the Simplicity hive
cover containing the heap of meal was suspended from the sash within
about a foot of the glass. Our better half here interposed that it was
long past church time and we bent our steps churchward with about as
much alacrity as did we when in the woods with the wild Touch-me-nots.
We were late, and what is more were rebuked by having the minister pause
in his discourse until we could get seated. Never mind we deserved it
and will try and do better next time. May our path through life never
lead, where the influence of such as he is unknown.

Do you wonder that we were in a mood to rejoice more fully, with the
bees, when we found them happy as in June, dancing about our heap of
meal, and now and then scampering into their hive as fast as their
padded legs could carry them. Yet this was a cold wintry day outside,
and the sun scarcely thawed the snow on the south roofs of the houses.

We should have said before, that our second sash were put in place about
the middle of Jan. It has not yet been closed up warm and secure by any
means, but it does excellent service in keeping the ice from the glass
and preventing the attendant drip.

_Feb. 1st_—To-day we had sunshine again, and brood rearing is going on
beautifully. The only drawback is the drunken bees that blunder about
and finally fall on the floor; these we gather up in the evening and put
in the lamp nursery where they revive and at least a part of them go
through the same programme next day. Not all, however, for the lamp
nursery is getting built up thereby. We forgot to mention that one
colony was found Queenless; search showed her dead in bottom of hive. As
she looked natural and perfect, and as the bees were healthy, we cannot
think it any fault of our own that we now have 67 colonies instead of

             [The following is from A. I. Root personally.]

_Feb. 8th_—I hope and trust that I have many warm friends among our
readers, many who have followed my efforts, in years past, and very
likely who feel that they know my weak points almost as well as those
who have held daily converse with me, face to face. If I have gained any
hold upon you, and if you have any confidence in my truth and candor,
please listen, and do not turn away, even if I talk a little to you on
these pages, on something, that does not _directly_ pertain to Bee

For a little time back a great light has been breaking above me. This
light might have come sooner had it not been for several things which
stood in its way; prominently among them, a vain pride and ambition in
regard to this very GLEANINGS. I worshipped worldly things first, and my
Maker, (when I worshipped Him at all) afterwards. In fact when this
great light commenced to reveal itself, I debated whether it was best to
mention the matter at, all, here; whether it would be—well,
_profitable_. When these thoughts arose, the old darkness threatened to
come back, until I could truly say, “I will do my Creator’s work first
_whatever_ it may be, and bees and all else afterwards.” Dear readers do
you know that this is one of the first tasks shown to me, to use my
influence whatever weight it may have, in all possible directions, to
induce imperfect mankind to say with me _Thy will_ our Heavenly Father,
not ours be done.

Do you say you have no duties that you are aware of, left unperformed?
just as I did a very few days ago? Go read your Bible, read the
commandments and see. When you have tried to live up to these, when you
have tried to love your neighbor _as yourself_, and find you _cannot_ do
it alone, admit your helplessness and call on your Heavenly Father for
aid, but first be sure you can freely give up all or _everything_ in
this world for His sake, and forgive all your fellow beings, as you hope
to be forgiven. With a sincere prayer that God will enable these few
words to reach you just as they were intended, I still remain _more than
ever_ your old friend A. I. Root.

                  *       *       *       *       *

_Feb. 12th_—Reports come in from all sides in regard to the extreme
severity of the weather, and brood rearing in the forcing house is again
suspended on account of the thick coat of ice that covers the sash and
prevents even the noonday sun from penetrating and warming it up.
Instead of feeling like being dissatisfied with such weather ought we
not rather to take it as a lesson that our climate is uncertain, and
that we should in building our wintering houses, cellars etc., make
proper calculation for such extremes.

_Feb. 15th_—Still zero weather. The forcing house is so completely
covered with ice that even the noonday sun scarcely has an effect on it.
In Jan. _Am. Agriculturist_, Mr. Quinby describes the behavior of bees
in cold weather, and also reiterates the statement made last season that
the solid portion of the honey they eat during winter is evacuated in a
dry state, and may be found on the bottom board of the hive, when the
bees are in health. As soon as the paper was received we commenced some
experiments to determine (as we supposed) the truth of the matter. We
soon decided that Quinby was utterly wrong in both, and prepared to
write a severe criticism. We are sincerely glad we did not for the
spirit that was then prompting, was more a disposition to show that Mr.
Q. was in error, than to get at the truth _whereever_ it might lie. What
we did was to raise a hive up from the bottom board, remove cover and
quilt and subject them to severe cold weather. Although the colony
(nucleus rather) contained not more than a quart of bees, they seemed to
bear this without detriment. A sheet of white paper was placed under the
cluster, and after a few hours the brown particles that had accumulated
were examined. We thought then there was nothing there but bits of comb,
propolis etc., but a more candid examination since has convinced us
that, in some hives at least, the bees do void their excrement in a dry
slate, and perhaps they always do in perfect health. The second point
was to see how the bees behaved when it was cold; strange to tell they
did not behave at all. They were simply, perfectly still, “dead as door
nails,” as Gallup used to say. We approached on tip-toe, and examined
them by day light, and by lamp light, but it was all the same. We fixed
our eye on a single bee, and watched it until our teeth chattered, but
it seemed perfectly comfortable on the outside of the cluster. When the
temperature became lower, quite a hum came apparently from the center of
the cluster, but we could see no movement that should produce this; the
bees that were visible, did not move their wings, and did not change
places. Now then, when do these bees get food, and if they change about,
why could we have not seen _just one_ in the act of so doing? We confess
we do not know, will some one else help? During the experiment once or
twice, a bee would crawl out of the cluster and fly off in the cold and
fall down and die. We then took a distant position, and saw the same
phenomena, and from the number of bees found scattered about, we think
it occurs about the same whether they be disturbed or not. A bee that is
sick crawls out of the cluster, and out of the hive if he can, and dies.
As they die thus, most in the forcing house, we may infer that brood
rearing aggravates the trouble, or what is more probable _to us_ is,
that sudden and wide changes of temperature, such as we always have in
the spring are severe on bees as well as on vegetation. The forcing
house varies from 40 to 70°, now, almost daily. If this be true, our
bees had better be kept in doors until April, or even later, if we can
manage to do so; and those using the cold frames, should keep them
covered and dark, except at intervals, until the days get pretty warm.
All colonies have a pretty fair patch of brood, in the forcing house, it
is true, but the old ones are dying off so fast, we fear we are gaining

_Feb. 16th_—Found Queen in lamp nursery dead on bottom. The bees looked
bright and all right, and she looked natural, except that her body was
somewhat distended. Our utter helplessness, in the matter is illustrated
in the following:

  Daring the last three winters, I have suffered heavy losses, and the
  matter has been a great puzzle to me. My reports of the last three
  seasons would have been much better, had my bees wintered well. I
  have for the last six winters kept my bees in an exceeding dry
  cellar, with an average temperature for the whole time of about 37°.
  For three winters they did well, then came disaster. To my mind,
  none of the causes and methods or theories advocated cover the whole
  ground or seem absolute remedies for this fatality in wintering. I
  firmly believe that it was an epidemic (or perhaps more properly an
  “apidemic”) sent by Providence for purposes His own. The most
  curious part in my experience is that stocks so nearly alike that I
  could detect no _slight_ difference in qualify, were affected so
  differently—one dying or becoming very weak while the other wintered
  in fine condition.

                      J. H. NELLIS, Canajoharie, N. Y. Feb. 10th, ’75.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                        REPORT FROM L. C. ROOT.

EDITORS GLEANINGS:—You ask me to report results of the past season. I
started last spring with 100 swarms, thinking this about the number one
man should attend to, and considering it about as many as should be kept
in one place, especially as there are over 150 swarms within one mile of

After placing bees on their summer stands which I did about the middle
of April, my first business was to remove all combs except those
occupied by the bees. Number of combs left in would vary from 3 to 7
giving space in hive to be kept warm according to quantity of bees. And
here let me say that no one thing helped me more towards success, than
did the Quinby frame, by the use of which I could contract or enlarge
space in brood chamber at pleasure.

The yield of honey from willow, apple, raspberry, and clover was light.
My principal business up to the first of July was taking combs filled
with brood from strongest swarms to help weak ones, and filling their
place with empty combs. Basswood commenced blossoming about the 20th of
July. Then came our flush. I increased my stock to 123 swarms.

                  Whole amount of box honey  3000 lbs.
                  Whole amount of extracted  7271 lbs.
                  Total                     10271 lbs.

Have in winter quarters 121 swarms. So far they seem to be in fine

Mohawk, N. Y. Feb. 1st, 1875.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                              QUINBY HIVE.

The following in regard to the Quinby hive is just at hand.

  You say on page 15 that “in justice to ourselves we would smile to
  see the person who would dare undertake to find the Queen or extract
  the honey from a dozen Q. hives as quickly as we could from a like
  number of our suspended frame hives.” _I_ would smile to see
  yourself, or any one else undertake to do it one-half as quickly as
  some half dozen I could name. Again, on same page, “where one has
  plenty of leisure Mr. Quinby’s cheap hive has many advantages, and
  we may be mistaken about the time needed by an expert to open and
  close these hives.” Now would it not be candid to say that Mr.
  Hetherington, Mr. Elwood, Mr. Van Deusen, and Mr. L. C. Root, have
  as much sense as common folks. Now what can be the object of using
  said hive, when hundreds have to be looked after if there was
  nothing to be gained from it. It is necessary for Mr. H. to work
  fast, if it is for any one. It is his business. He has used box,
  straw, and modification of Langstroth—has a thousand dollar’s worth
  on hand, that he does not use, now. To suppose that he has thrown
  aside all this property without being quite sure he can work with
  greater facility with the hive he is using is paying his judgment a
  poor compliment.

                                      M. QUINBY, St. Johnsville, N. Y.

It seems to us Mr. Q. writes a little unkindly, but perhaps we deserve
it. In a matter of so much importance there should be no arguing, and no
strife. Even should there be a test trial of the two hives, made by two
experts, the result would be of little use to our rising bee-keepers.
The question is, how will the people at large succeed best. At present
we really know of no better way than for those who are undecided, to try
one hive of each kind; what suits your neighbor exactly, may not suit
you. Our having the Corners for sale, should make no difference in our
opinion, and we try not to let it, but we cannot help wondering if Capt.
Hetherington has ever tried a hive with these Corners.

In the _Am. Agriculturist_ for Feb., the Quinby hive is described with
illustrations. The frame differs a little from the one we described last
month, in having the top bar also, dropped a little below the ends of
the side pieces; also, the top and bottom bars are both alike and
lighter. Dimensions there given are, uprights, 11×1½×½. Top and bottom,
18⅜×⅜, cut from inch boards. Ends are nailed firmly with finishing nails
into top and bottom but projecting beyond them as has been mentioned, ¼
inch. The hoop iron hooks to hold the frames in an upright position, if
they be used, can probably be bought cheaper of Mr. Q. than they can be
made. The sides and top of the hive are made of ½ inch boards, planed
smoothly, just the size of the frames, with cleats nailed on each end to
prevent warping. The bottom board is 11×20×1, also cleated on under side
to prevent warping. Mr. Q. says tie all together with a stout rubber
cord, but it seems to us this cannot prove a very durable fastening.

                  *       *       *       *       *


                            BY R. L. JOINER.

  Friend novice:—Enclosed find 75 cents for the next year’s crop of
  “GLEANINGS.” I have just sewed 1874 together and I would not take
  $5.00 for it if I couldn’t get another. My bees are sound asleep in
  their pit at present, and will remain there until about “St.
  Pathrick’s day in the mornin’.” I took the precaution this fall of
  planking the top and sides of the pit, also of putting two doors in
  the front end, something as described in Dec. GLEANINGS. My
  observing neighbors tell me that I had better have let well enough
  alone, and buried them in the dirt as usual, but I thought a
  permanent place if as successful, would be better. If you remember,
  I used to have trouble about my bees swarming as soon as strong.
  Well as you told me, I found regular and thorough extracting a
  perfect remedy, but I soon had my hives jam full of brood. The two
  story plan was “no good,” as my hives are practically _three_ story
  ones now. I did not want to get new hives and I could see no way of
  building a story, like Pat’s house “on behint.” I solved the
  difficulty in this manner, I moved the hive half its width to the
  right or left and set another hive exactly like it, by its side,
  with the entrance the same way, and took half of the combs from the
  old stock and placed them in (without any care which hive had the
  Queen) and filled up each with empty combs, and run them through the
  height of the season in that manner, supplying the Queenless one
  with brood from the other as I extracted, and carefully destroying
  all Queen cells as I extracted each week. Of course I only practised
  this with Queens that were very prolific and had their hives
  _boiling_ over with bees, and united again as soon as honey failed
  and the brood was sufficiently contracted. I foresee and forebear
  all the objections that will be urged to this plan, and the main one
  will be, “Why didn’t you let your Queenless hive hatch a Queen?”
  Well, I’ll tell you, I wanted to see how much honey _I_ could get
  from 25 stocks of bees even if some of the stocks did live in what
  we call out West a “double house.” I don’t pretend that it is any
  better than the “long idea” plan, except that when I wanted to
  contract my stock I had no “empty rooms” to carry into winter
  quarters. I am satisfied that the mammoth yields are from mammoth
  colonies. My yield is called enormous here but is small to what some
  report. I started with 17 colonies that had to be fed until June
  15th. I increased by dividing, to 25 Queens, and gave 3 of them,
  double colonies as before described. I got 2150 lbs. of honey, 2000
  lbs. of which was choice, and put 24 colonies into winter quarters
  well supplied with stores. I wasted the time of four of the best,
  for four weeks of the best part of the season trying to get some box
  honey. All I got for my trouble, was my pains, and the natural
  swarms, which I summarily returned, after throwing those honey boxes
  as far as I could send them, extracting every one of their _sealed
  combs_ full of honey and destroying their queen cells. Let those who
  can, _raise_ box honey, I had rather raise extracted for 4c per lb.
  than to wait all summer for box honey and then get none, for a
  dollar a pound. The boxes were put on “according to Hoyle,” they had
  nice starters, they were tight, and all right every way only the
  bees would not move in. I am afraid they are the Novice breed and
  aren’t in the box honey business. After I took off the boxes and
  took their honey, _didn’t_ they work though?

  Well Novice, I’ve spun this yarn long enough now and am not half
  done, if you get tired reading why throw the whole away. If I ever
  come within fifty miles of Medina I am going to stop and see you and
  bore you worse than I do by letter. I’ll tell you how I sold my

  Wyoming, Wis. Dec. 16th, 1874.

Don’t go to the expense of coming here, friend J., it would hardly pay
you we fear, but do keep on giving us just such sketches from your
Apiary. We _do_ believe you have hit on a plan that will prove many
times quite practicable. For instance the Simplicity hive with,
Langstroth frames, _so long as one story will hold the bees_, is to us
the simplest, and easiest handled of any thing we have ever used in the
shape of a bee hive, and we have studied long and earnestly in regard to
some plan of uniting two of them side by side. All of these plans
required too much tinkering. If we made holes for communication, through
either hive, bottom board, or cover, these holes would have to be
plugged up at other times, and would look ungainly. Your plan of using
them without other means of communication, than through the entrance, we
confess is novel and so far as your experiment is concerned, seems quite

He who shows us how we can keep pace with modern improvements, and still
keep the hives we have already in use, is truly a benefactor. To use the
Simplicity hives thus, both entrances should be turned to the south, and
the two hives placed close together. The covers in this case should be
hinged to the front so as to turn up against the grape vine trellis, or
hinges may be dispensed with entirely. In the height of the season, both
hives can be pushed, well forward over the bottom boards, thus making
the entrances the whole length. Should this prove “too much entrance,”
bank sawdust up by the outside corners. In making so many new colonies
last season, we governed the size of the entrances to exclude robbers,
almost entirely with sawdust, and it answered the purpose more
completely to our satisfaction, than any other plan we have ever used.
Also, when the nights became cool, we banked sawdust clear around the
hives, to close the cracks between the hive and bottom board. We are a
great friend to sawdust; it keeps down the weeds, gives you a clean
place to work, is clean and orderly for a small dooryard for the bees,
and enables you to make just such an entrance as you desire. Beg pardon
we forgot _sawdust_ wasn’t our topic.

Our Standard hive with its permanent bottom board without cracks, and
its capacity for 18 or 20 combs without any fussing etc. etc., would
perhaps be best, but then, “we haven’t got ’em,” as friend J. says, and
just at present we rather prefer to use the hives we have already in

                  *       *       *       *       *

                       DIMENSIONS OF FRAMES ETC.

  MR. NOVICE & CO:—Arn’t we greenies glad that we settled down on _our
  own Standard_ frame before you _decreed_ something that one must
  print the dimensions with chalk over his work bench lest he forget
  it. _We_ dislike the everlasting vulgar fractions and odd and even
  numbers about the size of frames. _We_ adopted 12 inches inside of
  frame—144 square inches of emptiness—until filled with comb. Now any
  body can remember this size—and every one can build outside their
  frames just what kind of hive he pleases. It is just the nicest
  frame for taking in one hand, and for turning this way and that way
  for inspection and work, and also for leaving one hand to do
  something else, and we do find plenty for the free hand to do—all it
  _can_ do sometimes. Then for shipping, why they are just the nicest
  and handiest frames ever made, and for housing too, hives of 10
  frames pack away like brick in a wall. So you see we are not a bit
  sorry for ourselves—and we are so glad to have the ladies with us,
  we have Mrs. Tupper who is a representative character and carries
  the women with her in this matter. Of course we are sorry your
  wind-mill won’t work for us in the wood work of our hives at the
  “Standard prices” but we can’t be driven by wind into abandoning our
  12×12—“On this firm rock etc.” Why our hives are so jealous they
  won’t let one frame of the Factory of the Wind, enter their yard
  now—we have no doubt that to set down one of your vulgar fraction
  and odd number frame hives would raise a mighty buzz and set all the
  12 inches on a revolution against any such vulgar innovation. By the
  way we have got a hive “the likes on’t you never did see.” We took
  the Alley hive—paid the right to it too—and now we have some Alley,
  and some Quinby, and some of our own whims, and it is going to be
  just the nicest and handiest of a’ the bee gums that can be found in
  Patentdom or out of it. May be we’ll tell you what it is some day—if
  you want us to bother you.

  _We_—that is we greenies—use the Isham honey box—the nicest,
  staunchest, and handiest honey box _we_ ever saw. We know him he
  lives round here, he _has_ a patent on his box—we saw his papers,
  all reg’lar—he deserves them too—has lately sold three counties to
  an apiarian who has seen a good many such affairs, and sold for a
  handsome sum. If you saw it, you would want a State at least—the
  _work_ would suit your taste.

  Now to finish all this rigmarole and to convince you that we are
  your friend, tho’ we expect you will blow us with a stiff breeze, we
  say—we frankly confess, that we have tried your tin corners for
  frames, after using wooden ones, and we don’t want to see in our
  hives another frame that has not those same tin corners. And our
  _green_ advice to all beginners is, don’t make a single frame till
  you get these corners. We shall get rid of all our frames which have
  not these corners just as fast as we can. We have tried several
  hundred of them and now we send our orders for 6500 more _with the
  cash_, as evidence that we mean what we say.

                                                        2. EROAPPIANS.

  [We can give full address to any who may desire, but the writer at
  present prefers a nom de plume.—Ed.]

At the risk of having the above sound something like a puff for the
corners, we have decided to give it a place, especially as some
disparaging remarks that have been given might tend towards giving an
impression that the corners hardly deserve. We will cheerfully give
place to anything on the contrary side, coming from any Apiary where
they have been considerably used.

Our friends are in error about Mrs. Tupper using a frame 12×12 _inside_.
Variety of taste has dictated so many different thicknesses of the stuff
composing the frames, that we cannot see how our friend gets rid of
fractions by using _inside_ dimensions as a standard. We have seen end
bars in use _one inch_ in thickness and top bars with a massive comb
guide still thicker. Supposing we all should adopt a uniform size inside
of frame, where would be the outside, and what would be dimensions of
hive to suit? We can readily make metal cornered frames to agree in
outside dimensions, with any frame in use, and this allows them to be
worked in the same hive mixed up with the old ones, thus giving the
owner a fair chance to contrast their lightness, ease in handling, and
at the same time greater capacity for brood and honey, from the larger
comb surface.

We certainly don’t want any of your friend’s “rights” but if you will
send us a sample of his honey box, we will cheerfully help him sell it,
if we think it meritorious. Let _him_ manufacture and supply all demand,
and let his patent papers protect him in so doing. Nice honey boxes
should be made by machinery, and ordinary bee-keepers would prefer to
buy rather than to make them.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                       A NOVEL IDEA IN WINTERING.

  I have used several hives with an outside case filled in between
  with straw or leaves, for five or six years. Also hives with double
  boarded sides and ends with dead air space between the boards but I
  fail to see that they do any better than the single boards. Last
  winter a small colony in a hive of ½ inch boards wintered well
  without any protection except the quilt covering on top, and the
  entrance closed with a piece of wool when the weather was freezing.
  I have two small colonies (made up in the fall of my nucleus hives)
  in the same hives, and they have stood thus far as well as others.
  The only difference that I see, is that they are more apt to fly out
  when the sun shines brightly, and need shading.

  Another experiment.—I saw it stated that empty space beneath the
  bees was of great advantage. Last winter I removed all the frames
  from the lower story of a hive and left the colony to winter in the
  upper story. They did well, but it was a very fine strong colony and
  proves nothing. This winter I have quite a weak colony wintering in
  the upper story and doing very well so far.

  Third experiment.—Some years ago I was preparing my bees for winter
  by removing frames from upper story and putting on quilts. In one
  very strong colony the bees remained on top the frames in large
  numbers. I pulled off an old wool hat and placed over them and
  spread the quilt over that. I found the bees filled the hat and
  remained in it all winter. Since then I have used all the old hats I
  can find. I notice in some instances that half the bees of the
  colony are in the hat. When those in the hat get hungry, and those
  below get cold, how nice and easy it is for them to exchange places,
  much easier than to go from the outside of the cluster to the inside
  over or around the frames—that is, provided that is their way of
  doing—for instance, when one little fellow’s feet get cold he goes
  inside to warm them, and another little fellow comes out to take his
  place. This I believe is the generally received theory. I noticed it
  so stated lately by one of our most distinguished bee masters, (M.
  Q. in _Am. Agriculturist_). As I never saw any such commotion among
  them as would necessarily be the consequence of all this changing in
  cold weather, you must excuse me for being somewhat skeptical about.
  Has anyone _actually observed_ this continual changing places in
  cold weather? Akin to this is another statement we frequently see
  made—that the colder the weather the more the bees require to eat to
  keep up the animal heat. This is all very nice in theory, but so far
  as I have observed, the bees are very quiet and still in cold
  weather, and scarcely consume any honey at all. These may be
  subjects worthy of investigation. I don’t propose to discuss them

  I have experimented some with the Adair-Gallup long idea hive, or
  rather “New Idea” long hive. I used two hives three feet long, one
  with large frames 13 square—the other with my standard narrow
  frames. I gave them the strongest colonies I had, and I must confess
  that neither of them gave as much satisfaction as the plain two
  story hives. They may not have been long enough (_?_) they did not
  swarm and did not fill the few empty frames I gave them.

  I am aware that these experiments do not conclusively establish any
  particular fact or theory in bee-keeping but they may throw a little
  light on some points, and I find them useful in my own practice.

                       THADDEUS SMITH, Point Peelee Island, Ont., Can.

Friend S. it seems, has the rare good sense to see that single
experiments do not settle a matter by any means. We are quite taken up
with the old hat idea. Get one just large enough to hold your colony,
and keep plenty of sealed honey below them, and they will be in the
_best possible_ wintering trim, if we know aught of bees. We once
wintered a colony without any honey board. We supposed they had been
given the ordinary allowance with the rest but may have been mistaken.
They were out of food before March, but they had commenced to rear brood
briskly—rather in advance of the rest.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                          SECTION HONEY BOXES.

  It is at least too bothersome for _me_ to make the Harbison frames,
  as per GLEANINGS; I have made some very nice frame boxes, top and
  end pieces all 1½ inches wide, ends are 5 inches long and top and
  bottoms 6¼ inches long and nailed to end pieces, which are ¼ thick
  and top and bottom ⅛ inch thick; outside sections are 1¾ wide with a
  groove to receive a glass 5×6. I place the pieces in a long
  bottomless box or frame, wedge them up together and nail them, and
  then fasten strips of stout paper across them. I forgot to say in
  the proper place, that for an entrance I cut a notch in each side of
  the bottom pieces ¼×2 inches. I leave the bottom pieces wide because
  it makes a better box and is more convenient, one box can be raised
  up and another placed under it without much danger of killing bees,
  use a wax guide in each frame.

                                    R. S. BECKTELL, New Buffalo, Mich.

  [As it is a little inconvenient to cut the notches in the Harbison
  frame with our circular saws, we think they may be omitted and the
  stout paper used as above. In making these light frames, perhaps it
  would be well to fix on a size that would allow of putting 4 or 6
  inside our large frames. Quinby advises this with his new hive, and
  illustrates it in _Am. Ag._ for Feb.—Ed.]

                  *       *       *       *       *

                       Gleanings in Bee Culture,

                           Published Monthly,

                           A. I. ROOT & CO.,
                        EDITORS AND PROPRIETORS

                             MEDINA, OHIO.

                         Terms: 75c. Per Annum.
                         [_Including Postage._]
                    _For Club Rates see Last Page._

                         MEDINA, MAR. 1, 1875.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Almighty Father! We pray that thy blessing may accompany each
  separate number of our little Journal on its mission among the
  bee-keepers of our land. May each and every one of us bear our
  losses during the present and ensuing months, should such there be,
  with a proper spirit of resignation to events we cannot control.
  Give us also that cool, calm, and deliberate frame of mind, that
  best prepares us to look earnestly about, and see what means thou
  hast placed within our reach to avert a repetition of our past
  troubles during the spring months. Give us submission, without a
  spirit of idleness, and teach us to work while we pray. Enable your
  servant to deserve the great trust, that he has never until _now_
  felt has been accorded him. Give him that humility that will enable
  him to forget self and labor honestly for the benefit of his brother
  bee-keepers, and to deserve the confidence they repose in him.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  _A. B. J., Magazine_, and _World_, for Feb. were all on hand in fair
  time, and are all good.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Kruschke Bros. are now supplied with Rapp and Esparcet seeds just
  imported; see advertisement.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  With pleasure we refer our friends wanting Queens or full colonies,
  to the advertis’t of J. Oatman & Co.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Chinese Mustard seed seems difficult to find, but we shall have some
  in due time we think, even if it has to be imported.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  We shall have to refer all those inquiring for bees to our
  advertising columns. Everything _we_ have for sale is in our price

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Summer Rape seed, American grown, by mail in cloth bags, per lb.,
  25c.; per express 15c. These will be our rates for the season.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Photo’s for the Medley are still coming in, and as we wish to
  include all that _will_ send them, we shall delay it perhaps a week
  after this number reaches you. Remember this is the last call, and
  that we wish to include every bee-keeper whose eye meets these

                  *       *       *       *       *

  On page 104 of Vol. 2. Mr. Quinby says the Queen of Mr. Elwood’s
  colony that produced the great yield, _came from us_; yet in Mr.
  Elwood’s report page 19, current Vol., it does not so appear. Who is
  in error? We certainly wish no credit given the dollar Queens which
  they have not earned.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  We are happy to say Miss A. (P. G.) has recovered from the fever and
  is again at her accustomed post. We trust our friends will now have
  less cause to complain of the types and other small items, that have
  of late too often prevented things going with the promptness and
  accuracy that makes business a pleasure.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  It seems some of the other sex are determined to have the “last
  word” in regard to bee stings; a privilege we accord them with all
  the good will imaginable, after we have mentioned for the benefit of
  beginners, that no matter how distressing are the symptoms at first,
  they will very soon get inured to the poison, and finally, no
  swelling will ensue at all.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  This is the month for feeding the rye and oat meal, with most of our
  readers. Put in shallow boxes out of the wind, but in the sun as
  much as possible. Here is a chance for you to exercise your
  ingenuity in so arranging a glass sash, as to secure these
  conditions, and yet not trouble the bees by having them bump against
  the glass by mistake. If they don’t notice the meal, as some
  complain they will not, start them by giving a piece of comb honey
  laid in the midst of the meal; get a few bees on the comb from
  several hives until they have got a taste, if you cannot start them
  otherwise. When they begin on natural pollen they will take little
  notice of the meal. Equal parts of oats and rye _ground fine_ seems
  to please our bees best.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  We are very sorry indeed to be obliged to say that we think “Money
  in the Apiary” by H. A. Burch, by no means worth the price (25c.)
  asked for it. The more so as our relations with Mr. B. of late have
  been of the most friendly nature, and he has uniformly spoken well
  of GLEANINGS. The book is entirely too small, containing only about
  one-fourth the matter of a single number of any one of our Bee
  Journals. King’s Bee-Keeper’s Text book, only costs 15c. more, and
  yet it is a work of 140 pages, condensed, and to the point,
  alphabetically indexed, etc. etc. Money in the Apiary contains less
  than 20 pages, less in size, and some of it unimportant matter at
  that. We advertised the work without seeing it which we regret, but
  it would be unkind, and do no good now to find fault with what is
  past; shall we not rather consider a remedy that will do justice all
  around? Our advice would be that Mr. Burch give his patrons _four_
  just such pamphlets, for the 25c. he has received, and make it a
  quarterly. If he will do this, we will give him a standing
  advertisement gratis.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  _Feb. 24th._—All three of the hives, that we are wintering
  out-doors, have come through so far in good condition so far as bees
  are concerned, although they spot their hives and the ground badly.
  The hive bro’t from a distance worst of all; the one prepared with
  woolen by Miss A., next, and the Standard hive best of all. The
  latter stands just where, and just as it did when we left off
  extracting, has had no preparation nor tinkering, and is all in
  complete trim to extract again, so soon as its 20 combs are filled.
  Could we be sure of making a whole Apiary winter like this one, we
  should feel quite relieved, even if we _were_ obliged to put two
  fair colonies into every hive to do it. The Queen has just commenced
  laying. We were agreeably surprised to find that almost every bee
  from these three safely regained their hives, while those in the
  forcing house, collect in masses on the glass, get nearly all of
  them into one hive, and seem in a fair way at present to become
  utterly demoralized, although they have reared quite a patch of
  brood during this month in some of the hives. Will others using the
  cold frames, please send us minute reports? Even though our own now
  looks discouraging, we are going to give it a careful test to the
  best of our ability, clear through.

                  *       *       *       *       *


It will be observed that we have among our advertisements, one of the
Finn Bee Hive. In receiving this, we feel it a duty to state frankly our
opinion of the matter, and then if the parties think we should, we will
cheerfully return the $1.00 they have paid us for this one insertion. Of
course what we say here must only be taken for our own opinion, and in
the matter of selling rights we may have been unduly severe. In matters
of this kind it is a very safe rule to ask ourselves if we are honestly
doing as we would be done by.

If Messrs Keyes & Finn made hives for sale such as they advise and sold
them for a fair price, there could certainly be no wrong, for very many
bee-keepers of late stoutly affirm that bees do winter safely in hives
well protected, on their summer stands, while those side by side, not so
protected, perish. In order to show both sides of the question, we give
the following:

  They are stowed away in boxes parked with straw. Kept good in that
  way winter of ’72 and ’73, all that were packed early. Those that
  were packed in Jan. of same winter died, though stronger in bees and

                              W. S. LUNT, Fostoria, O. Jan. 5th, 1875.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  At present, Feb. 10th, 38° below zero. I put 28 hives in the cellar
  and have lost one. They are too cold, temperature varies from 29 to
  34°. I would prefer 42° as nearly as possible to keep them. I put up
  20 in rough boxes on summer stands, boxes six inches larger than
  hives, filled in with shavings. I have wintered so two years and
  never lost any. They seem in fine condition but it is quite
  expensive—cost me $15.00 to put up the twenty hives but think it
  pays well. Would like to have them all put up in the same way. One
  of my neighbors had three stocks in box hives and has lost them all,
  think the loss will be quite severe in this vicinity.

                                LEWIS KELLY, Smyrnia, Ionia Co., Mich.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Having had the pleasure of a visit to the Apiary of J. S. Hill &
  Sons, near Mt. Pleasant, I will, with your permission, Mr. Editor,
  say a few words in regard to it. Any one entering their bee yard can
  see at first glance that there is the best of order, system and
  management. It contains 85 large Langstroth hives completely storm
  and weather proof, adapted alike to the storms and zero cold of
  winter, and the broiling sun of July and August. Perfect ventilation
  with no possible chance of a draft of cold air on the bees, and no
  danger of moisture of frost in the hive to give the bees the

  Mr. Hill having years ago been convinced that cellar wintering would
  not do in our changeable climate, has given a great deal of thought,
  time and attention to the business of out-door wintering; that he
  has made it a success, is proven by the fact that his loss in the
  past four or five years, has been very light, in fact scarcely any
  loss at all; while others all around him lost heavily. He manages to
  get them through winter, strong in numbers and is not troubled with
  colonies dwindling down in spring and deserting their hives, as did
  so many the past two years where they had been wintered in cellars
  and other repositories. Mr. Hill is a firm believer in strong
  stocks—in keeping them strong the year round—takes the position that
  the only sure way to have strong colonies in early spring, is to see
  to it that they are strong in the fall. His location is not nearly
  as good for honey as many others, yet the amount he takes yearly
  would satisfy many of us who are in more favored localities; his
  only dependance for surplus, is white clover, having no poplar,
  linden, or buckwheat, consequently the honey season is rather short,
  ending by July 1st. The hive used by Mr. Hill is, of course, not a
  dollar hive, and would perhaps be thought, by some bee-keepers, to
  be entirely too expensive, but all things considered I believe it to
  be the cheapest for out-door wintering.

                                                         JONAS SCHOLL,

  Lyons Station, Ind. Jan. 6th, 1875.

Were we to stop here, we might think the matter settled, but why does
Quinby now advise a hive with only _half inch boards_ as a protection.
His large hive was most perfectly adapted for packing material on all
sides of the bees, even to a thickness of 8 or 10 inches. In the large
Apiaries about him would it be fair to suppose they had abandoned this
plan before giving it a fair trial? We should much like to hear from
Hetherington, Elwood, and others in this matter. See letter on page 29.
The testimonials in regard to the Finn hive are none of them from
practical bee-keepers such as are known through the Journals, and none
of them owners of large Apiaries. If we wanted to make a hive such as
they describe in their circular we assuredly should not think of buying
a right for the privilege, but if they would make us a hive at a
reasonable price suitable for receiving our frames, so that we could
easily set a colony into one, we would prefer to buy of them rather than
make one.

If Adam Grimm, and Capt. Hetherington will give their opinion in regard
to double wall hives compared with single ones for out-door wintering,
we will cheerfully pay any reasonable sum for service. During our
protracted cold weather, many complaints have come in, in regard to ice
forming in hives left out-doors, and many losses are reported already.
In cases like these, we do think the straw mats a great advantage, and
is it not possible that they are as efficient as the expensive double

                  *       *       *       *       *

                             HONEY COLUMN.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Friend Root:—Please name a few parties of whom I can buy Basswood
  honey and oblige.

                         CHAS. F. MUTH, Cincinnati, O. Feb. 3rd, 1875.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I have now on hand about 60 gallons of that choice thick Clover
  honey, same as you bought of me, there is very little sale for it
  here. Price 18c., delivered here.

                            WM. PAYNE, Spencer, Medina Co., O. Feb. 1.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Have sold our Catnip honey to W. G. Smith. St. Louis, 15 cts.
  delivered, he paid promptly. The barrel came to $64.55 net; that
  isn’t bad is it? Shall set out half an acre of plants next spring,
  and sow some seed too.

                                          J. L. WOLFENDEN, Adams, Wis.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I sent my honey to Barber & Stout, Cincinnati, O., got 15 cts. cash
  on delivery and was paid to a cent. I also sent J. Lippincott, of
  Pittsburg, Pa., one barrel. Now Novice, please accept my most
  profound thanks for your assistance in disposing of my honey, by
  your recommendations to the two above named honey men. There is
  nothing like keeping bees to restore a burned farm, and dollars are
  by far the best chromos.

                           J. DUFFELER, Wequiock, Wis. Dec. 16th, ’74.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                          Humbugs and Swindles
                       Pertaining to Bee Culture.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  [We respectfully solicit the aid of our friends in conducting this
  department, and would consider it a favor to have them send us all
  circulars that have a deceptive appearance. The greatest care will
  be at all times maintained to prevent injustice being done any one.]

                  *       *       *       *       *

We cut the following from E. C. Hazard & Co’s circular, 192 Chambers
St., N. Y.


  These packages are made of flint glass, tight, very attractive,
  convenient size, and salable, possessing a marked advantage over all
  other Honey in the market, because of its non-congealing tendencies.
  The Extracted Honey in bottles and tin, culled from Alsike Clover,
  and Orange blossoms and thrown from the comb by centrifugal force,
  is entirely free from all foreign substances and will be found to
  possess the delicate BOUQUET and medicinal qualities so seldom found
  in the ordinary commercial article.

              E. C. H. & CO’S PURE EXTRACTED HONEY:
                In Quarts, Fancy Decanters, per doz. $4.50

We might think this a mistake but the _Grocery and Provision Review_ of
Jan. 18th, quotes precisely same prices. As a quart of good honey weighs
3 lbs., these good people are selling it at 12½c. per lbs. and charging
nothing for those _Fancy Decanters_, packages, cost of putting up etc.,
etc., and yet producers get from 15 to 16.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                          Reports Encouraging.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I can report 850 lbs. comb and 150 lbs. extracted honey from six
  swarms with Quinby hive.

                                                   O. J. HETHERINGTON.

  East Saginaw, Mich. Nov. 25th, 1874.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  From 34 hives we took 3000 lbs., 600 lbs. box and balance extracted.

                                                  T. E. HAWKINS & BRO.

  New Frankfort, Mo. Dec. 18th, 1874,

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Twenty-three colonies of Italian bees made 160 lbs. of extracted
  honey to the colony last year up to July 15th.

                                           JOHN SCHEERER, Ridgley, Mo.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I commenced last spring with one swarm on three combs, and they were
  not crowded at that. I extracted 55 lbs. honey, increased to four
  that have 22 lbs. average of their own stores.

                                                         O. W. PARKER,

  New London, Minn. Dec. 25th, 1874.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Twenty-two stocks in spring—taken 1120½ lbs. extracted honey, 288½ lbs.
box honey, have now 46 strong stocks and 14 Queen rearing nuclei and
weak stocks. Increased by artificial and natural swarming and lost
several natural swarms.

                             M. PARSE. Pine Bluff, Ark. Nov. 22nd, 1874.

                  *       *       *       *       *

I had 26 stocks of bees last spring in Langstroth hives, one-half of
them were very weak. I got 1100 lbs. of box honey from 20 stocks, it was
sold for from 20½ to 28½ cts. per lb. I have increased my bees this year
to 45 stocks which I have put into winter quarters with from 30 to 35
lbs. each.

                         Wm. J. DEDRICK, Borodino, N. Y. Dec. 14th, ’74.

                  *       *       *       *       *

I had 60 swarms in the spring, some of them very light in bees. I
increased to 100, from natural swarming, and they made a little over
5000 lbs. of box honey, including that not capped. I hived no second
swarms. I used virgin Queens mostly, and cells. Often some would be
about hatching; I would then put them in after a swarm issued. Bees seem
to be wintering well.

                    D. C. McCALHOUN, Hornellsville, N. Y. Feb. 1st, ’75.

                  *       *       *       *       *

32 swarms in spring, made 3000 lbs. surplus, increased to 50, (of course
it was all extracted) and have sold it all for 15 cts. per lb. delivered
on track. The honey was nearly all from basswood, clover did not do
much. The fall was very dry and the bees got very little after basswood
failed. Don’t know how they will winter, but they are all right yet.

                                JAMES SCOTT, Epworth, Dubuque Co., Iowa.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Last winter I put up 68 swarms, all came through alive but lost 4 which
were Queenless; sold two more which left me 62. Increased them the past
season to 99 swarms and got 2600 lbs. box honey and 600 lbs. extracted,
for which I realized about $600.00. I sold 31 swarms for $7.50 each, so
it leaves me with 68 swarms again this winter, all of which seem to be
wintering well.

                              W. H. TENANT, Eureka, Wis. Jan. 18th, ’75.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Began the season with about 20 stocks in poor condition. Five stocks
Queenless in spring. Increased them to 37 in fall, in apparent good
condition to winter. From 6 stocks in non-swarmers, took 560 lbs. box
honey; from the best, 110 lbs., from the poorest, 65 lbs. Built up and
increased the remaining stocks, and took 760 lbs. liquid white honey
from them. Fed in the fall, 15 lbs. “A” sugar. Reared during the summer,
36 surplus Italian Queens.

                                        J. H. NELLIS, Canajoharie, N. Y.

                  *       *       *       *       *

We have only extracted from 5 stocks this summer as we thought best to
“go slow and sure.” Well, we took from those 5 stocks over 300 lbs. of
honey, and increased them to 13 good stocks with plenty of honey for
winter supplies, while our other 4 left for box honey and natural
swarms, have swarmed altogether too much, and gave very little surplus.
And worst of all, some of the young swarms went to the woods, in spite
of all our endeavors to prevent them.

                       ILA MICHENER, Low Banks, Ont., Can. Oct. 19, ’74.

                  *       *       *       *       *

The summer was very dry, so there was very little honey stored. But the
fall was unusually fine. _Four_ stocks devoted to box honey, gave 128
lbs., an average of 32 lbs. per stock. Nine stocks yielded to the
extractor 741 lbs., an average of 82⅓ lbs. per stock. The largest yield
from any _one_ stock was 153 lbs. I increased my 13 to 23 and they go
into winter quarters in good condition with 50 lbs. of stores per hive.
I should have extracted a little closer, but was away from home at the
time it should have been done.

                                    DR. W. H. P. JONES, Nashville, Tenn.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Last year I tried small frames something like Harbison’s, only I had
them so that the bees could work all ways through them—could tier them
up etc. It was on a Quinby hive or rather frame, put small frames on
sides and top, got between 90 and 100 lbs. of comb honey and one swarm
of bees besides. I shall try them several ways the coming season. The
best I have done with boxes is about the same as above. My frame is
14×10 inches, inside measure—have three New Idea hives—bees swarmed out
of them while I was extracting in spite of all I could do. How’s
that?—never saw such a season for swarming—returned most of mine. I have
only 26 swarms and do not want to increase if I can help it for I cannot
attend to them. I winter in a large cellar and lose no bees, keep up my
experiments winter as well as summer— that’s half the fun. Most of my
frames are so placed that the boxes come up plump against the _ends_ of
frames and are just as close to the brood as those on top and in fact
the guide comb is a good deal nearer, and no bee can stick his head out
at the ends, unless he sticks it in the boxes; but I forget you are no
box man!

                                     R. H. MELLEN, Amboy, Lee Co., Ills.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                       HOW TO FLY BEES IN A ROOM.

In the spring of ’73 bought two colonies of bees, having poor health
thought the attention to them in the open air would be beneficial;
finding the business so pleasant and profitable concluded to make it a
permanent business, and have given my whole attention to it. Increased
my two colonies to ten, bought 12 more, making in all 22. All came out
good in the spring of ’74, and I got 2100 lbs. box honey and 400 lbs.
extracted, and increased to 47. I have now 65 colonies in my cellar all
in good condition except one, which showed signs of dysentery. I gave
them a fly, and this is how I did it. Took pine strips one inch square,
made a frame 4 feet square and 2½ deep; covered sides with news-papers
tacked on, spread papers on the carpet of sitting room near south
window. Set my frame on it covering the top with mosquito bar, set hive
outside with entrance opening into it through a hole cut in paper.
Waited until bees were all quiet then warmed up room to 65°, standing
thermometer against hive; all flew well for five hours, cleaned out
their hive, and as darkness came on, all returned to hive again, making
it a perfect success. The papers were badly soiled. Shall serve the rest
the same if necessary. By flying them this way with but a trifling
expense you need not lose a bee. Winter my bees in cellar with dirt
walls, temperature 40 to 45°, cellar very dry. I use Langstroth hive,
got most of my honey in 20 lb. boxes, two boxes cover a hive—not quite
as salable but I get good deal more honey in large boxes. Box honey
averaged me 24c. per lb., extracted 20c. per lb. Extracted only to give
room for the Queens to lay.

                           D. BASSFORD, Watertown, Wis. Jan. 25th, 1875.

P. S.—Would not advise any man to fly bees in the sitting room without
the full consent of his better half.

                  *       *       *       *       *


  I have no Linden seed on hand at present. The seed should be planted
  in the fall or kept in damp sand and planted _early_ in spring. As a
  general thing the seeds are about two-thirds bad. I think cuttings
  are best to raise plants from. They nearly all grow, if rightly
  handled. I sell the cuttings in spring at 30 cts. per 100, free by

                            THOMAS J. WARD, St. Mary’s, Vigo Co., Ind.

The above answers many inquiries. In the fall of 1871 we gathered and
planted about a half peck of basswood seed, according to the directions
given in Fuller’s Forest Tree Culturist. So few of these came up that we
never used them at all, preferring to get our 4000 for the 10½ acres
from the forests. We have reason to think that basswoods grow better
when partially shaded, than in the open ground. On a part of our lot,
there are about 50 large white oaks; we at first hesitated about
planting the young trees among these, but now find those among them,
have made the best growth of all. Perhaps many of our readers have
noticed the rank vigorous growth that these trees often make when young,
where they stand in a thicket of bushes and briers sometimes in fence
corners. Shading the ground around the roots, from the hot sun, when
young, we think perhaps an important item. Although we have never tried
cuttings, we think it probable they would answer excellently. A tree on
one of our streets that was planted out with some maples about seven
years ago, blossomed last year for the first time, but it was taken up
when so large that it did not begin to grow, until about three years
after transplanting. For reasons mentioned, we should advise close
planting at first, say 10 or 12 feet apart, on a plan similar to the one
given in Vol. 1, pages 2 and 25, for locating hives in the Apiary. When
the trees get crowded, thin out. The timber will soon pay all expenses.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                            Heads of Grain,
                         FROM DIFFERENT FIELDS.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Listen to the patent right vender and do nothing but shake your
  head, says the _Rural New Yorker_, but I don’t approve of that way.
  My Mother often told me when I was little that I would learn to
  _butt_ if I shook my head so much. I will tell you how I served an
  “Agent,” of some kind. I was in my Apiary working with my bees, and
  he laid his satchel on a hive that was near, and while he bothered
  me, he still kept knocking the hive with his satchel. The bees began
  to get cross, but he didn’t think you know. Pretty soon the bees
  came out and “went for him” lively, he began to dodge and slap, but
  he soon grabbed his satchel and began to “beat a retreat,” slapping
  and cracking his head with the satchel and spoiling his fine hat all
  to pieces, he “hollered” back he had enough of the bee business and
  left. It was laughable to see him “light out.”

  V. McBride, [page 11, Jan. No.] says that during the winter of the
  malady, all the bees in Langstroth hives died, and two-thirds in
  others etc. I saw bees in all kinds of hives that died, some in box
  hives from one foot to five feet high and some in some old washing
  machines turned up side down, others in the gable end of a house,
  some in the old straw hives and all kinds of patent hives, and by
  the way they died in all kinds, about the same. Some had the patent
  hives and lost their bees and then blamed the patent hive, but I
  found it was their fault oftentimes, as it makes it a little handier
  for them to divide their bees and to take their honey. They think
  the patent hive ought to make honey without bees almost. I guess the
  “_king_” don’t manage right some how as some of those old farmers
  call them; don’t you think Mr. Root, that it is the King’s fault
  that the bees die?

                                              D. H. OGDEN, Wooster, O.

We guess it must be the _King_ friend O., for we feel sure the _Queen_
is not to blame. Our very best colony in 1873, dwindled down to the
weakest in the spring of ’74. They went down to a mere handful, swarmed
out twice, and it was only by giving them hatching brood several times
that we could barely get the Queen through until July, and then she
proved herself fully equal to what she had been the season before; in
fact she kept putting two or more eggs in a cell all through the spring
months. It is only the _workers_ that die off as soon as brood rearing
commences. The very same process is now going on in our forcing house
(Feb. 5th.) yet the brood will get ahead we think. Keeping the sick bees
warm in the lamp nursery revives them some but they soon die
nevertheless. The idea advanced that it is a kind of _fly_ that kills
the bees, can certainly have nothing to do with our losses.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                          NOW FOR THE HOT-BED.

Jan. 22nd, we let the sun in to the pit and at 2 P. M. there was a
perfect jollification, just like a lot of young bees playing in summer.
And they _did_ “spot” things inside the pit at a great rate, showing
they needed a fly. As soon as it began to cool down they all went in to
the hives except some dead ones on the straw, no more than would have
been found if they had flown the natural way, and about two-thirds of a
tea-cupful which were stuck on the sash in groups from one to a dozen.
These latter we brushed out on a dust pan and put in top of one of the
hives, as they were still alive, and said hive was mighty “sassy” too;
seemed strong in bees, plenty of honey, and combs dry. The pit was not
dug till after the ground was frozen 8 inches deep, consequently there
was considerable frost on the glass which we swept off as soon as the
sun loosened it a little. The dampness inside the pit was soon dried and
everything went lovely.

We were going to hoist our hat for the hot-bed, but guess we’ll wait
till spring before we shout too loud.

Don’t forget the “Medley” for we want to see Katie Grimm, Mr. Grimm, and
all the rest.

                                  W. M. KELLOGG, Oneida, Knox Co., Ills.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  A Mr. Abbot, of Wakeman, O., uses leather instead of Quilts. He says
  the leather is cheaper and does not rattle or stick. He fits them
  tight on the top of frames and they did not mould last winter and
  the bees wintered better than under quilts or tight frames. My bees
  in my hot-house when it has been warm enough for them to fly (no
  fire as yet) readily find their way back to their own hives, while
  those on their summer stands (though protected on the top and north
  sides) died by hundreds if not thousands on the snow as they lit and
  tell on it last week.

                                 T. L. WAITE, Berea, O. Feb. 4th. ’75.

We had an intimation some time ago that Mr. Abbot had a remedy for
propolis, above the frames. Leather being porous, might do very well,
but will it not kill bees when pressed down on them? Again, can we get a
piece that will cover a hive for the price of a quilt, and what kind of
leather is best? Mr. Abbot claimed that he had some valuable information
_to sell_, on the subject. We presume most of you have discovered that
those who claim to be possessed of valuable information, _not to be
found in books_, are generally somewhat of a fraud; never mind friend
Abbot, if you have by experimenting got hold of something valuable,
bring it along. We will pay you for your time and trouble.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I had to-day to open the entrance full size to almost all hives.
  Bees keep up a lively hum and are carrying in loads of pollen equal
  to spring work. Considering your mortality from disease and cold in
  the North and your continual _trouble_ and _anxiety_, I think we
  have far the advantage of you.

  I lost one very weak swarm this winter by robbers. This is by far
  the worst enemy I have to contend with.

                          J. B. RAMSEY, Abbeville, La. Jan. 21st, ’75.

And with your advantages, friend R., why do you not build up larger
Apiaries, and raise honey by the car load as do our friends in
California? We can imagine the smile of relief that would spread over
the faces of _some_ of our readers, had they no worse trouble than
_robbers_ to contend with.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  When I ordered the two first volumes I thought I could do without
  GLEANINGS 3rd Vol.—But it won’t DO. Don’t forget the Jan. number.
  ’TWONT DO! No, if “blue eyes” falls down over the boards you _must
  stop and help her up_. In our haste, don’t let us make a God of our

  Have 35 stands in box to be transferred, have adopted the Standard.
  Shall want an extractor etc.

                                C. M. JOSLIN, M. D. St. Charles, Mich.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I examined several of my colonies the 20th of Jan. and found brood
  in all stages, from the egg to the hatching bee. One stock with
  brood on four combs. Lost none to date, though one hive has soiled
  its combs considerably.

                                        H. PEDEN, Mitchellville, Tenn.

From several similar items, we see it is nothing very unusual to find
brood even in Jan., in the Southern and Middle states, whether this is
desirable or not, we are unprepared to say.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Many thanks friend “Novice” for the binder you sent me, I never
  expected such a nice premium. We have every number of “GLEANINGS” in
  its proper place in the binder, and let me tell every bee-keeper, to
  get Emerson’s Binder for “GLEANINGS,” then they can preserve them
  for their children’s children if they like. But “Novice” I never
  said “confound it” if I could not just find the desired number of
  GLEANINGS. No indeed! we always kept them in a drawer by themselves
  so that we always knew just where to find them. (Teach us order and
  precision and then ask such a question as per advertisement.)

  “Novice” tells us to “have every comb built between one and the side
  of the hive” in order to have them straight, but it won’t always
  work unless the old combs have brood or sealed honey at the top. I
  have had the old combs widened out so as to fill the whole space,
  and nothing put in the empty frame at all. I believe this will
  always happen if empty frames are inserted immediately after
  extracting. The remedy is, use the Standard hive, move back the
  division board just to give room for one frame at a time, move back
  the combs till you come to the middle of the brood nest, insert the
  empty frame there, and, Ho! you will have the whole frame nearly
  filled, with nice worker comb, _and eggs too_ before morning
  perhaps. This should only be done when the bees are gathering honey

                                   Ila Michener, Low Banks, Ont., Can.

                  *       *       *       *       *

If it is only yourself that reads GLEANINGS, they might easily be kept
nice “in a drawer,” but we confess that we felt rather flattered a short
time since in visiting several bee friends, to find the last number at
one place conveniently on a stand with a pair of spectacles laid on the
pages to keep the place, and at another the number, (although it had
only been out a week) looked as if some urchin had used it for a
spelling book during a whole term at a country school. It certainly had
been _used_, and we went our way rejoicing. Friend Ila is right about
strait combs, and we thank him for the correction. But beware of
spreading the brood combs however, before the weather is quite warm.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Mr. D. Dubois, Newburg, Orange Co., N. Y., sends us an ingenious plan
for a movable portico to be applied to any kind of a hive. It is made of
two boards 4×11 inches, fastened together at the top like a letter A.
Now imagine the horizontal cross bar on this letter, a button, with a
screw through the centre to hold it up firmly to the hive, and you have
it all. Each end of this button is made with a projection that enters a
slot cut in each of the boards, but not quite through them. By boring a
hole just above the button, we have an upper entrance, with the button
for an alighting board; in the winter by turning this button
perpendicularly, it closes the upper entrance. To keep the portico from
slipping down, a nail is driven just underneath the peak. This allows us
to make the upper and lower story just alike and yet have a portico _if
any body wants one_. After testing hives with, and without, for two
seasons past, we really cannot think it makes any difference either way
with the honey crop. Our friend Dean says a portico encourages the bees
in hanging out of doors, and he wants _his_ bees in the hive. Now if the
spiders should persist in making a new web in these porticos every
morning, as they sometimes do in ours, we can easily lift them off and
put them away. Some will probably always prefer porticos, while others
will not, as in other things.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  DEAR NOVICE:—Please say to the inquisitive ones, through
  “GLEANINGS,” that the $34.45 mentioned on front cover of No. 6, Vol.
  2, was the cost of the iron work mentioned in the same sentence, at
  the factory.

  That the saws, bolts, belting, and lumber ran the bill for materials
  up to about $48.00.

  That I put the machine together myself, without adding to the

  That while the machine does do more accurate work, than I have ever
  succeeded in having done, by more portentous machinery;
  nevertheless, the idea of using human muscles, as the motive power,
  for the amount of work that looms up, prospectively, in the
  immediate future, does not correspond, very well, with the boasted
  ingenuity of this age and nation.

  Therefore I am preparing to “attach” a lever horse power to the
  machine, by means of a belt thrown over a pulley, placed on the
  driving shaft.

  This winter, in these parts, would do no discredit, to an arctic
  region. This morning the mercury fell to 40° below zero, and was
  still going down, when I took it in out of the cold; because it had
  reached (and in fact was a little below) the end of the graduated
  scale, at 40°. The mercury in the cellar, of late, keeps vibrating
  about, and near to the freezing point. Bees quiet.

                   D. P. LANE, Koshkonong, Rock Co., Wis. Feb. 9, ’75.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  How long will it take to feed 25 lbs. of sugar syrup with the
  Universal feeder to an average colony of bees in warm weather?

We have never tested the matter, because we deemed feeding a pint or a
quart a day, more desirable in preparing for winter, than more rapid
feeding. If the bags were made to hold about a quart each, and were
filled morning noon and night, or oftener, we could probably get them to
take 25 lbs. in two or three days, in warm weather.

  How will molasses hhds. answer for holding honey temporarily? Say,
  take one head out—thoroughly clean—heat in the sun—then coat the
  inside with hot wax, using a brush for the purpose. When the honey
  candies there will be no difficulty in getting it out.

We would advise trying the plan you mention. If you pour in a quantity
of melted wax, and run it all over the inside, it will assuredly make it
hold honey.

  How long before you can give us a simple and infallible remedy for
  honey crystalizing? Such would be worth a good deal to me as my
  whole crop is sold in bottles and will not retail well in a solid
  state. For the present, will heating to the boiling point in a
  vessel set in water answer? Must the honey be bottled and sealed
  while hot or will it do as well when cold?

We find no trouble when we follow directions given heretofore, viz.,
heat your honey almost to a boil, fill the jars full, and seal _at
once_, while hot, just as if it were fruit. If not made hot enough, it
will candy again partially. We think the writers who say that _pure_
honey will _always_ candy, a little hasty.

  The frames in my hives rest on a metal rabbet and are not secured at
  the bottom. They slide about very easily. When I send off a load of
  hives to an apiary, I secure the frames by placing half inch strips
  reaching to the bottom board between the combs at each end. It takes
  considerable time to fix them. Can you devise anything that will be
  less bother and answer equally well?

To be sure if we have frames perfectly _movable_, they must of a
necessity be made stationery when we wish to transport colonies and the
question arises as to whether it is advisable to be bothered with any
arrangement for keeping frames fixed, every time we open a hive, just
because we have once in a great while a case that makes such an
arrangement desirable. In moving our bees to the swamp, see Vol. 1, page
75, we put strips between all of the end bars to the frames, except one
hive which was overlooked, but as this hive had not been opened at all,
the bridge of wax from one comb to the next, kept the frames all in
their places. This is generally sufficient for moving short distances,
where the combs have been in use several years, and where they have not
been taken out for some little time before moving. In shipping bees
considerable distances, we know of no plan better than the sticks.
Something could be added to the hive for this when making, but would it
be advisable, when the hive in many apiaries may not require to be moved
in years? In moving the hives in doors and out, even with Metal Corners
as well as rabbets, no preparation is needed, if the hives are carried
so that the frames do not oscillate by the motion of stepping.

  Are Basswood trees ornamental, and of rapid growth? Would they grow
  here? Our climate will admit of the culture of the hardier varieties
  of grapes.

                        G. C. MILLER, Mt. Hanley, Annapolis Co., N. S.

The Basswood is a most beautiful tree for ornament, and when it blooms
the perfume extends for a great distance around. It is a very rapid
grower when once started and we believe is perfectly hardy so far as
frost is concerned.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Bees worked on rye flour all through the month of Dec., and most of
  the month of Jan., but are housed up now on account of cold. I have
  68 colonies mostly in good condition, and think I will have same
  number when spring opens. “Long may you wave.”

                                      J. F. MONTGOMERY, Lincoln. Tenn.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  DEAR NOVICE:—I am in favor of deep frames for these reasons:
  Experience has convinced me that bees winter better and breed
  earlier in deep than in shallow frames. In hollow trees: the natural
  home of the bee (and the one they like most) the depth is always
  greater than the width. In shallow frames they have to spread out so
  thin, or cluster on the cold honey, that it makes it much harder to
  keep up the necessary warmth. They seem to think they must have bees
  where they have honey; and I have noticed these outside guards often
  get chilled and die at their post. The natural place for bees to
  store honey, is in the top of their combs; and when they want to
  know what they have in store they look for it there; hence we often
  see them start from the cluster run over the honey as if estimating
  it then pass into the cluster, doubtless to report. When the honey
  is directly over them I think they are more fully impressed with its
  possessions. A hive 12×12 and 16 inches in depth I believe is the
  best size and shape for wintering. Such a hive will allow plenty of
  honey in the top and enough empty comb at the bottom for the bees to
  cluster on, and keep in a round form which is certainly the best.
  But it will be said shallow frames are handier—should we not try to
  please our bees as well as ourselves? Again they swing together too
  badly—cannot some fixture be made to keep them apart? What says

                            CHAS. WILKINS, Ott, Oregon. Dec. 4th, ’75.

But bees die in hollow trees nearly, if not quite as badly as in hives;
as new swarms generally select these vacated hollow trees, we forget
that not one colony, but a half dozen may have occupied the tree in a
dozen years. We know bees run over the combs, frequently, but we can
hardly accept the idea that they do it exactly for the reason mentioned.
We do not use shallow frames for the reason that they are handier. See
pages 16, Vol. 1, and 29, Vol. 2. If hives and frames are properly made,
they can be made to hang true even when 16 inches deep.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I wish to have all understand that my one dollar Queens are the
  poorest. My prices are for a Queen $1.00, for a choice Queen $2.00,
  for a tested Queen $5.00.

                                       J. W. HOSMER, Janesville, Minn.

The above was sent us by a subscriber, who had written Mr. H. in regard
to $1.00 Queens. We are alone responsible for Mr. Hosmer’s name
appearing in our list. He wrote us that he had been selling Queens for
$1.00 for some years; shortly after he sent us (we presume by mistake)
75c. the second time. As he made no reply in regard to a query as to how
we should use this, we took the liberty of keeping his name in during
the year.

We need hardly repeat that we never intended dollar Queens, to include
such as had been _tested_ and found _poor_; and we do not wish to
include the names of any who propose to do this, in our list.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I make a hive, 12 frames about 11×13 inches, inside measure, frames,
  division boards, entrance blocks, bottom and cover, with one cotton
  cloth feeder as you recommend, painted three coats, all complete for
  $1.50. If you wish, you can say through GLEANINGS that I will give
  one of my hives complete for a sample to any one that will send you
  a club of 10 new subscribers for GLEANINGS, from Canada, (no patent
  on it) for 1875 by your giving them the certificate showing that
  they have done so.

                                  D. A. JONES, Tecumseth, Can. Feb. 8.

Many thanks friend J. We would be very glad to offer _you_ something in
this case, but at 50c each there is scarcely any margin at all after
paying expenses.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  FRIEND NOVICE:—My hives are 15½ inches wide for ten frames; would
  they be any better if narrower? Will bees work as well in small
  frames for surplus honey as in boxes? Do you think the bee business
  will ever be over-done in the United States?

                              H. LIBBY, Lewiston, Me. Dec. 14th, 1874.

If you mean that you put ten frames in a space of 15½ inches we should
advise using eleven frames instead of ten. If you mean 15½ is the length
of top bar, we should consider it as good as any unless you use your
hives two story, in which case a little longer frame might be better.
Small frames put inside of larger ones, have often been tried but there
are many difficulties; they must be made very accurately, to stay in
place, the bees do not seem to like so much wood in their way, every
thing is covered with propolis, and their owner generally concludes that
the arrangement is too much bother to use on a large number of hives. We
have just as much fear that too much butter and cheese will be produced,
or too many eggs, as that the market will ever be overstocked with
honey. What has been the result with small fruits? Remember too that
they are perishable goods, while honey will keep safely for years.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  In answer to _J. H. Irwin_ in Feb. No., page 22: He can find as much
  comb honey in Langstroth frames as he may need, by writing Paul
  Dunken, Freeman, Cass Co., Mo. He has 500 to 700 frames.

                           W. G. SMITH, St. Louis, Mo. Feb. 4th, 1875.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I thought it was quite settled now that to raise brood, bees are
  obliged to have farina in some shape, but I was amazed to find what
  a quantity they consume, by starting my three colonies with only
  brood and 25 or 30 bees to a hive. I thought I was liberal in
  supplying them and they got on swimmingly at first, then the dead
  brood commenced appearing and I gave them more pollen and all went
  well again. I found out too that _very young bees_ in an emergency
  like that, gather pollen as well as older ones.

                                      ANNIE SAUNDERS, Woodville, Miss.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  In ’73 my bees paid in honey sold $22.50, in ’74 about $12.00 per
  hive. I have had your experience for the last two years in the loss
  of bees.

                                H. W. MINER, Saranac, Ionia Co., Mich.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Excellent season for bees, had between 1500 and 2000 lbs. surplus in
  boxes. Sold, for from 18 to 25c per lb. Box hive man—can see no
  better way yet.

                            J. F. TEMPLE, Ridgeway, Lenawee Co., Mich.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  GLEANINGS is indispensable, but my wife says I get some new hobby
  from every number.

                                        WM. H. ROOT, Port Byron, N. Y.

Tell your wife that healthy, wholesome hobbies are always productive of
good, and that we shall always strive to have GLEANINGS teach none

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Can I make a bee hive and use a movable frame such as Mr. Quinby
  describes, without paying for the individual right? And if I have to
  pay for the right, who is the proper person to be paid? and how much
  will it cost to make and use for myself, say one or more?

                                           T. H. APPLE, Meadville, Pa.

We are happy to be able to say that you may make hives, in any way you
desire, so far as we know, without the least necessity of paying any
body a right for any thing.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  We got up a resolution at our convention, to apply to our
  Legislature for a law to label all packages of honey with the
  producer’s name, and let the seller be responsible for adulteration,
  if not mentioned,—subject to a penalty when detected, etc., etc. Can
  you give us advice how to act?

                                                            M. QUINBY.

We do not know that we are able to give any advice in the matter. Would
not the law like many others be dropped and forgotten because no one
would enforce it? It seems to us that the great work is to educate
consumers to know _honey_ and to demand it. This is all that we have to
rely on in a great variety of goods, and that establishment that once
gets a name of dealing only in _genuine_ commodities, has its fortune
made. People are learning rapidly. If any one likes the _cheap_ honey
let them use it.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I have given my bees some rye flour, they take it first rate, for
  the last two days they have been carrying it in pretty freely. It is
  bolted flour such as the bakers use. Is it as good as the unbolted
  or not? I have not lost a colony yet and they all have sealed honey
  enough to spring them I think, but I have commenced to feed for
  brood rearing; feed syrup made of white sugar.

  Now friend Novice, I want some advice. I want to adopt some other
  hive than the Buckeye, but I want a two story hive that I may
  procure, not box honey, but frame honey, and I want the frames in
  both stories alike so I may use them interchangeably.

                         T. B. PARKER, Goldsboro, N. C. Feb. 1st, ’75.

The bolted flue flour, is just as good as the unbolted, except that the
bees sink down in it. If mixed with bran or sawdust it does very well.
When they can choose, bees always prefer rye and oats, to wheat flour.

Use the Langstroth frame by all means, if you are going to have a two
story hive. If you have not seen the L. frame you had better have us
send you a sample by mail. We should also use the Simplicity hives to
hold them, for then you can have both stories also, just alike, and
perfectly interchangeable. We can furnish a one story hive, frames,
quilt, and all complete for $1.75, and _two of these_ makes a complete
two story hive. We decidedly prefer the L. frames for two story, on
account of their shallowness, any of the other frames loom up so tall
when placed one above the other. We think we have ample evidence that
the Langstroth hive winters equally as well as any deeper frame in any

Our only reason for giving a preference to the Standard frame over the
Langstroth, under any circumstances, is that more than 10 L. frames,
placed side by side, make a hive inconvenient to make and inconvenient
to handle. Therefore if you are going to get your surplus _above_ the
brood combs, use the L. frame every time. The Quinby would come next to
it, as it is much the same thing on a larger scale, but the American,
Gallup, or Standard, are not suitable to be used two stories as a
general thing. Single instances ’tis true, may sometimes seem to point
otherwise, but we have _gleaned_ the above from a large number of
reports extending over several years. Any of the frames will we think,
work very well on the plan given on another page by friend Joiner, but
the last three mentioned would stand a little the most compactly.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  Do you believe a pure Queen fertilized by a black drone will produce
  pure drones? and do you believe pure Queens fertilized by such
  drones, will produce pure stock, and do you allow such drones in
  your Apiary? What would you charge for—say 3 cards 4×5 inches each
  of drone comb filled with fresh laid drone eggs from your imported
  Queen, with bees enough to keep up the heat, and send by express in
  May next?

                                   GEORGE K. HUFFMAN, Effingham, Ills.

So much time has been wasted in discussing this question that it is
questionable whether it be best to hazard an opinion, until we can be
_sure_ of solving the question positively. If a black Queen could be
fertilized, _beyond mistake_, by an Italian drone, we might readily
decide the matter, for we should then have one or two banded workers,
and black drones invariably. Will those who are equal to this task, if
any such there be, please experiment and report. Will. R. King, of
Franklin, Ky., did claim to have made such an experiment, but evidence
was brought forward almost immediately, showing that his statements were
only a series of falsehoods. [See page 93, Vol. 1.] We see no reason at
present to doubt the experiments of Langstroth and Berlepsch; besides we
find Italian workers, in almost all Apiaries of black bees in our
vicinity, but the colonies producing them show only black drones.

So long as our object is honey, and we only procure Italians because
they gather _more_ honey, we cannot see that the question matters
particularly either way. Every Apiary of 50 colonies should have at
least one Imported Queen, and all colonies should be made with Queens
reared from this one. You will then have good bees in every hive without
bothering about drones at all. All Apiaries of less than 50 stocks can
have an Imported Queen’s daughter—as they cost but $1.00 each, you can
buy 4 or 5 if need be, until you get one whose workers suit you. Every
one who rears Queens _for sale_ should _certainly_ have an Imported
Queen. At the low price at which they are now offered there is no excuse
for such blundering, and if our readers would decide to patronize none
but those having _bona fide_ Imported Queen mothers, advertisers would
make haste to supply themselves. The plea that Imported Queens do not
always produce three banded workers, we think a mistake. All the reports
from Queens of the Nunn importation agree without an exception that the
workers are not only three banded, but that they are quite superior as
honey gatherers. James Bolin’s letter just at hand is a sample of one of

  The idea of judging a Queen by her _looks_ and granting a diploma
  etc., on the strength of it, is simply ridiculous. Concerning
  Imported Queens, I would say that I obtained one of friend Nunn and
  if there are any better ones anywhere I would like to know it. Her
  progeny and those of Queens reared from her are the very best
  workers I have in my Apiary.

                             JAMES BOLIN, West Lodi, O. Jan. 7th, ’75.

Friend H. had better have sealed drone brood instead of eggs, it can
then be sent safely by mail without bees. We can send it at the same
price we do eggs from our Imported Queen, viz., 25c for a piece 2×3
inches. We have little faith however that the drones can be made

                  *       *       *       *       *

  I have a hot-bed and my bees are doing well in it. I have about 60
  plants in it, I think they help the atmosphere a great deal.

                       A. N. DRAPER, Upper Alton, Ills. Feb. 1st, ’75.

                  *       *       *       *       *

  My boy had when we came here a small box of sun-flower seeds, which
  he kept as one of his playthings, last spring he accidentally spilt
  them down in the garden by the fence, and, old as they were, they
  came up profusely. They looked so thrifty, I took it into my head I
  would transplant them. I went to work and set them all around in the
  fence out of the way where there would nothing else grow to
  advantage, and if you will believe me, I had an enormous crop; and
  behold when they blossomed the bees went at them in earnest, and
  after the bees got through with them, there were several quarts of
  seed. I sold a dollar’s worth to my druggist, and the balance I fed
  out to my hens, and as a writer of old has said, I found nothing so
  good and nourishing for laying hens as sun-flower seeds. Then I cut
  off the heads and place them near the bee hives, fill them with
  sugar and water, and that suits the bees to a T. So you see I was to
  no expense, and they paid well, I write this that others may be
  benefitted as well as myself, by so doing.

  Common sense, philosophy and religion, alike teach us to receive
  with becoming reverence, all undoubted facts, whether in the natural
  or spiritual world; assured that however mysterious they may appear
  to us they are beautifully consistent in the sight of Him whose
  “understanding is infinite.”

                      DR. R. HITCHCOCK, South Norwalk, Conn. Feb. 2nd.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                       _ADVERTISERS’ DEPARTMENT_

                  *       *       *       *       *

                            CLUBBING LIST.

       We will send GLEANINGS
       With The American Bee Journal               ($2.00) $2.25
       With The Bee-Keeper’s Magazine               (1.25)  1.75
       With The Bee World                           (2.10)  2.60
       With All three, The Bee Journals of America          5.00
       With American Agriculturist                 ($1.60) $2.10
       With Prairie Farmer                         ($2.15)  2.65
       With Rural New Yorker                       ($2.50)  3.00
       With National Agriculturist                 ( 1.25)  1.75
       With Scientific American                    ($3.15)  3.65
       With Fruit Recorder and Cottage Gardener    ($1.00)  1.50

                 [_Above rates include all Postage._]

                  *       *       *       *       *

                         Books for Bee-Keepers.

              =SENT= post-paid on receipt of price.
              Langstroth on the Hive and Honey Bee  $2.00
              Quinby’s Mysteries of Bee Keeping      1.50
              Bee Keeper’s Text Book, muslin,         .75
              Bee Keeper’s Text Book, paper,          .40

                  *       *       *       *       *

                              Good Books.

These, though not specially designed for Bee-keepers, have a tendency to
inculcate principles that ensure success in bee-keeping as well us
almost all other rural pursuits.

The first on the list should be in the hands of every one who has
planted grape vines to shade the hives, as we have advised.

Any of these books will be forwarded by mail, _post-paid_, on receipt of

           Fuller’s Grape Culturist                     $1.50
           Fuller’s Small Fruit Culturist                1.50
           Fuller’s Strawberry Culturist                  .20
           Fuller’s Forest Tree Culturist                1.50
           Henderson’s Gardening for Profit              1.50
           Henderson’s Practical Floriculture            1.50
           Tim Bunker Papers                             1.50
           Ten Acres Enough                              1.25
           Roosevelt’s Five Acres too Much               1.50
           Art of Saw Filing (Holly)                      .75
           Window Gardening                              1.50
           Leuchar’s How to build Hot-Houses             1.50
           Play and Profit in my Garden. Rev. E. P. Roe  1.50
           Waring’s Draining for Profit and Health       1.50
           Onion Culture                                  .20
           Purdy’s Small Fruit Instructor                 .25

                  *       *       *       *       *

                        Averill Chemical Paint.

              THE _ONLY_ RELIABLE.
              THE _MOST_ BEAUTIFUL.
              THE _MOST_ ECONOMICAL.
              THE _MOST_ DURABLE.
                      Requires no oil thinner or drier.
                      Requires no waste of time in mixing,
                      Has stood _eight years’ criticisms_
                      With _yearly increased popularity_
                      And _yearly increased_ sales.

Is sold by the gallon only, in packages of from 1 to 40 gallons each, in
Purest White and any Color or Tint desired.

Address, for sample card of colors and price list,

                      Averill Chemical Paint Co.,
            Office and Factory 132 & 134 East River Street,
                            CLEVELAND, OHIO.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                             ITALIAN BEES.

Italian queens bred from imported mothers—a month earlier than in the
North. Purity and safe arrival guaranteed. Also full colonies of
Italians in Langstroth hives for sale at $15.00 per colony.

Address Dr. J. P. H. BROWN, Augusta, Ga.

                  *       *       *       *       *

      _=CLUB=_ RATES on 175 Papers. Send for
      _=CLUB=_ List including AGENTS’ RATES on
      _=BOOKS=_ by mail post-paid—400 in List—
      _=BOOKS=_ BINGHAMS’ Agency, Sparta, Wis.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                            TO BEE-KEEPERS!


                               A SUCCESS—

in wintering Bees on their summer stand. Circular free. Say where you
see this notice.

                  Address     KEYES & FINN,
              3p                  Clyde, Jasper Co., Iowa.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Names of responsible parties will be inserted in either of the following
departments, at a uniform price of 10c. each insertion, or $1.00 per

                  *       *       *       *       *

                             $1.00 Queens.

_Names inserted in this department the first time without charge._

                  *       *       *       *       *

Those whose names appear below, agree to furnish Italian Queens the
coming season for $1.00 each, under the following conditions; No
guarantee is to be assumed of purity, safe delivery or any thing of the
kind, only that the Queen be reared from a choice, pure mother. They
also agree to return the money at anytime when customers become
impatient of such delay as may be unavoidable.

Bear in mind that he who sends the best Queens, put up neatest and most
securely, will probably receive the most orders. Special rates for
warranted and tested Queens, furnished on application to any of the

            G. W. Dean. River Styx. Medina Co., Ohio.
            J. Oatman & Co., Dundee, Ills.              3t2
            Dr. J. P. H. Brown, Augusta, Georgia.
            R. S. Becktell, New Buffalo, Mich.
            M. E. McMaster, Shelbyville, Missouri.      2tl
            Eli Coble, Corsinville, Marshall Co., Tenn. 2tl

                  *       *       *       *       *

                          Hive Manufacturers.

Who agree to make such hives, and at the prices named, as those
described on our circular.

Geo. T. Wheeler, Mexico, N. Y.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Bees and Supplies, never before offered, will be furnished by M. QUINBY,
St. Johnsville, Montgomery Co., N. Y. Send for circular and price list.

                  *       *       *       *       *

Send for our large Illustrated Premium List and Terms to Agents. It
contains a large list of goods at Grange Prices. Write now to H. A.
KING, 37 Park Row, N.Y.

[Illustration: National Agriculturist]

Established 1859. A large double quarto, 16-page Illustrated Family
paper. (_formerly Bee-Keepers Journal and National Agriculturist._) It
POULTRY, GARDENING, and FRUIT GROWING, besides the elaborate departments
of BEE-CULTURE, Ladies or Home and Fireside, and Youth’s Departments, a
first-class Family paper, interesting, instructive, making young eyes
sparkle and all hearts glad.

                             CLUBBING LIST.

 Send for a copy of my Clubbing List, of which I give a specimen: I will
                     send the National Agriculturist
 [$1.25] and Chicago Advance [$3.00] both one year to new
 subscribers for                                                   $3 00

 Or National Agriculturist with The Phrenological Journal [$3] for  3 00

 Or National Agriculturist with Harper’s Weekly [$4] for 4.50 or
 Frank Leslie’s for                                                 4 25

TRY THE NATIONAL AGRICULTURIST five months and a present for =50= cents,
or =$1.25= a year; much less to members of granges and clubs. Great
Illustrated Premium, Grange Price List, and Sample Copy, all sent free.
Large Cash Commission to Agents.

Address =H. A. KING=, 37 Park Row, New York City, Box 2289.

                  *       *       *       *       *


Advertisements will be received at the rate of ten cents per line,
Nonpariel space, each insertion, cash in advance; and we require that
every Advertiser satisfies us of his responsibility and intention to do
all that he agrees, and that his goods are really worth the price asked
for them.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                         MUTH’S ADVERTISEMENT.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                              HONEY JARS.

          One pound (square) Jars, per gross             $6.50
          Two pound (square) Jars, per gross              8.50
          One pound (square) Jars, Flint glass per gross  9.00
          Two pound (square) Jars, Flint glass per gross 11.00
          Corks for and 2 lb. jars                         .75
          Tin Foil Caps, per gross                        1.20
          Labels, per gross                                .75
          A thousand labels address printed to order      5.00
          One qt. fruit jars, Mason’s patent, per gross  18.00
          Labels for same, per gross                       .65
          A thousand labels address printed to order      4.25
          Uncapping Knives, as good as any, each           .50
          Uncapping Knives, per doz                       4.50
          Alsike Clover Seed, per bushel                 15.00
          Alsike Clover Seed, per peck                    4.00
          Alsike Clover Seed, per pound                    .35

                         LANGSTROTH BEE HIVES,

Straw Mats, Bee Veils etc., at reasonable rates.

For further particulars, Address,

                             1tf        CHAS. F. MUTH. Cincinnati, Ohio.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                             THE BEE WORLD.

Our Bee Journal of the Southern States. Issued monthly at $2.00 per
year. Sample copies free.

                                 Address A. F. MOON & Co. Rome, Georgia.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                             BASSWOOD TREES

                 One foot and under, per hundred $2.00
                 From one to two feet             5.00
                 From two to six feet             8.00
                 From six to ten feet            15.00
                 From ten to fifteen feet        30.00

The one foot and under, sent by mail for 75c. per hundred, extra.
General nursery stock, such as Fruits and Grape vines of all kinds,
Apples and Cherries. Evergreens, Osage Orange plants etc., for hedges,
specialties. Maple trees also at low figures.

                         3t5d    J. L. GREEN, Granger, Medina Co., Ohio.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                            ITALIAN QUEENS.

_No Black Bees_ to interfere with pure fertilization. _Unwarranted_
Queens $1.00. _Warranted_ $3.00. Bred from daughters of imported or home
bred Queens. Full Colonies Italian Bees $13.00. Address

                         3t8p   J. OATMAN & CO., Dundee, Kane Co., Ills.

                  *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: AMERICAN
           BEE JOURNAL.]

Every Bee-Keeper should subscribe for this Monthly. It is the =oldest
and best= scientific and practical Journal of Apiculture in the World.
The most successful and experienced Apiarians in this country and Europe
contribute to its pages. Terms, $2.00 a year in advance. =Send a Stamp
for a Sample Copy.= Address, THOMAS G. NEWMAN,

                                                     Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                             IMPORTED BEES.

For the past seven years we have Imported bees from Italy and have
failed nearly every time, by lack of knowledge of the true conditions
necessary for so long a journey, and on account of the carelessness of
the shippers. But we are now succeeding so well that we receive ninety
per cent of the Queens alive.

We claim to be

                     The only regular Importers of
                    _ITALIAN BEES IN THIS COUNTRY._

We received over _One Hundred Queens_ in the season of 1874. Our Queens
come from the best districts of Italy. They are all young.

We winter 60 Imported Queens in our Apiary, and will sell them in full
colonies in the spring, safe arrival guaranteed.

         Price: Colony of Italians with Imported Queen  $20.00
         Price: Colony of Italians with home bred Queen  15.00

Our hives are good, well painted movable frame hives. For particulars

                                             CH. DADANT & SON, Hamilton,
                                             Hancock Co., Ills.

                  *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: 50]

=The Bee-Keepers’ Magazine=, edited by H. A. KING, the only ILLUSTRATED
MAGAZINE treating of Bee-Culture in the United States. 32 pages. Terms,
$1.25 a year with a present. The 64 page specimen number, with beautiful
life-like chromo of Italian bees and honey plants (price 50 cents), sent
free with the MAGAZINE five months for 50 cents. Agents wanted. Address
W. B. COBB, Publisher, 75 Barclay Street, N. Y.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                      125 COLONIES PURE ITALIANS.

We have purchased of the late Dr. T. B. Hamlin’s stock of Bees, 125
_COLONIES PURE ITALIANS_ in Langstroth’s Improved Hives, 10 frames,
which we offer at the reduced price of $13.00 per colony, delivered on
cars at Edgefield Junction, Tenn.

                                          3t6p          BARNUM & PEYTON.

                  *       *       *       *       *

                         FLORAL GUIDE FOR 1875.

=Published Quarterly.=—JANUARY NUMBER just issued, and contains over
=100= PAGES, =500= ENGRAVINGS, descriptions of more than =500= of our
best =Flowers and Vegetables=, with Directions for Culture, COLORED
PLATE, etc.—The most useful and elegant work of the kind in the
world.—Only =25= cents for the year.—Published in English and German.


                                          =JAMES VICK, Rochester, N. Y.=

                  *       *       *       *       *

                            SEEDS AND BULBS.


sent with a specimen of =The American Garden=, a new Illustrated Journal
of Garden Art, edited by James Hogg, on receipt of ten cents.

                                  BEACH, SON & CO., Seedsmen,
                        3tfx              76 Fulton St., Brooklyn, N. Y.

                  *       *       *       *       *

=CATNIP= SEED for sale at 25c per oz. Address A. A. RICE, Seville,
Medina Co., O. 11tf

                  *       *       *       *       *

                   TERMS:  STRICTLY CASH IN ADVANCE.

One Copy One Year 75 Cents, or with Lithograph of Apiary, size 12×16,
Mailed Free, Postpaid, $1.00, or Lithograph will be sent as a Premium
for Two Subscribers at 75 cents each.

 Any person  Three Subscribers at 75 Cents each,      25 Cents for their
   obtaining         may retain                          trouble.

 Any person  Five  Subscribers at 75 Cents each,      75 Cents for their
   obtaining         may retain                          trouble.

 Any person  Ten   Subscribers at 75 Cents each,    2.50 Cents for their
   obtaining         may retain                          trouble.

Any number above Ten will be sent at the rate of Fifty Cents each.

Names may be sent at any time during the year, and whenever a club is
reached, we will credit back the amount previously sent us in excess of
the Club Rates. In this way any of the

    Articles Mentioned on our PRICE LIST may be Secured as PREMIUMS.

Please mention when names are intended for Clubs. An acknowledgment will
be sent in all cases on receipt of money—for any purpose whatever—by
return mail. Volumes I, & II, may be counted on the same terms, as we
have a

        Large Supply of BACK NUMBERS Provided for new Beginners!

As we cannot take the space in future numbers to go over the same ground
again, and Volume One contains the entire Fundamental Principles and

                  Ground Work for Starting an Apiary.


                          TRANSCRIBER’S NOTES

 1. The Table of Contents was duplicated as printed. Not all of the
      items appear to exist in this publication.
 2. Silently corrected typographical errors and variations in spelling.
 3. Retained anachronistic, non-standard, and uncertain spellings as
 4. Enclosed italics font in _underscores_.
 5. Enclosed bold font in =equals=.

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