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Title: London and its Environs Described, v. 1-6 - Containing an Account of whatever is most remarkable for - Grandeur, Elegance, Curiosity or Use In the City and in - the Country Twenty Miles round it.
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "London and its Environs Described, v. 1-6 - Containing an Account of whatever is most remarkable for - Grandeur, Elegance, Curiosity or Use In the City and in - the Country Twenty Miles round it." ***

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                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                               DESCRIBED.

                                VOL. I.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



[Illustration: _S. Wale delin._ _C. Grignion sc._]



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS
                               DESCRIBED.

                               CONTAINING

               An Account of whatever is most remarkable
                   for GRANDEUR, ELEGANCE, CURIOSITY

                     In the CITY and in the COUNTRY
                         Twenty Miles round it.

                           COMPREHENDING ALSO

        Whatever is most material in the History and Antiquities
                       of this great Metropolis.

            Decorated and illustrated with a great Number of
              Views in Perspective, engraved from original
               Drawings, taken on purpose for this Work.

                    Together with a PLAN of LONDON,
                A Map of the ENVIRONS, and several other
                              useful CUTS.

                            In SIX VOLUMES.

                                VOL. I.

                                LONDON:
              Printed for R. and J. DODSLEY in Pall-Mall.

                                -------

                               M DCC LXI.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 TO HIS

                             ROYAL HIGHNESS


                                GEORGE,


                            PRINCE OF WALES,

                        THIS WORK IS MOST HUMBLY
                             INSCRIBED, BY


                          HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS’s

                    MOST DEVOTED

                         AND OBEDIENT

                              HUMBLE SERVANTS,


                                                        THE PROPRIETORS.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                PREFACE.


IT is hoped that the great variety of new, useful, curious and
entertaining articles which will be found in the following work, will
entitle it to a favourable reception from the public. No pains nor
expence have been spared to give it as much accuracy and perfection as
the nature of such a work will admit of. And though we do not flatter
ourselves that it will be absolutely free from errors or imperfections,
yet we doubt not but the candid reader will find so much to commend,
that he will easily be inclined to excuse some unavoidable deficiencies.

The Environs of London, though they contain many of the most remarkable
seats and places in the kingdom, have never before been included in any
account of that metropolis; and we are persuaded, that the most
intelligent enquirer will here find numberless curiosities, not hitherto
taken notice of by any other writers: besides, we have not only been
particular in our descriptions of whatever is remarkable twenty miles
round; but to assist his observation, we have added a map, which we
flatter ourselves will be found to have some advantages over any other
that has yet appeared. This map, and these descriptions, will serve both
as a guide and an instructor to the travelling Virtuosi, whether natives
or foreigners, in their little excursions to any part of these
delightfully adorned and richly cultivated environs.

In order to render the knowledge of this metropolis as complete as
possible, we have necessarily been obliged, in conformity with our plan,
to treat of what may to some appear little and uninteresting, as well as
of what is great and important. Among these the citizens are
particularly interested in knowing the extent and limits of the wards in
which they reside: and it was absolutely necessary to mention in their
proper places all the several companies that compose their whole body:
and as every inhabitant of the kingdom may, at one time or another, have
occasion to visit or write to their friends or relations residing in
this great city, the names and situation of all the several streets,
lanes, rows, courts, yards and allies could not be omitted. With regard
to these an ingenious gentleman has furnished us with a key, which has
let us into the origin of many of their names; and this part of our work
is farther illustrated by a new and correct plan.

The prints with which the whole is decorated, are all engraved by the
best hands, after original drawings, which were taken on purpose for
this work, from the several objects themselves, at a very great expence;
and we imagine they will not only be considered as an ornament, but that
they will be found of use in illustrating the verbal descriptions.

We beg leave in this place to make our grateful acknowledgments to
several of the nobility and gentry, who have been pleased to favour us
on this occasion with lists and accounts of their pictures, curiosities,
&c. which have greatly enriched and added a value to our work; and being
entirely new, cannot but be acceptable to the public.


[Illustration: _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._ _The Abby Church of
S^t. Peter’s, Westminster._]


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                             DESCRIBED, &c.


† _Those with this mark generally derived their name from the ground
    landlord, who built the street, lane, or alley, &c._

* _From signs._

☐ _From neighbouring places, as churches, &c._

‡ _From trees formerly growing there._

║ _From ridicule._

§ _From their situation, as backwards, forwards, with respect to other
    streets._


                                   A


ABBEY _Church of St. Peter’s, Westminster_. Many have been the fables
invented and propagated by the monks, relating to the original
foundation of this ancient edifice; but the most probable account is
given by those who place it under Sebert, King of the East Saxons, who
died in 616. These say, that this Prince being converted to christianity
by Austin’s discourses, and his uncle Ethelbert’s example, erected this
church on the ruins of a temple dedicated to Apollo, in the island of
Thorney, and caused Mellitus, Bishop of London, to consecrate it to St.
Peter.

As many ridiculous miracles have been related of its foundation, it is
the less surprizing that its dedication should also be represented as
miraculous, and that St. Peter himself, five hundred years after his
decease, should be represented by the monks, as doing honour to the new
fabric, by performing the ceremony himself. For according to the legend,
the King having ordered Mellitus to perform the ceremony, St. Peter
over-night called upon Edricus, a fisherman, and desired to be ferried
over to Thorney, which happened to be then overflowed by the heavy rains
that had lately fallen; the fisherman consented, and having carried over
the Apostle, he saw him consecrate the church amidst a grand chorus of
celestial music, and a glorious appearance of heavenly lights. After
which the Apostle returning, discovered himself to the fisherman, and
bid him tell Mellitus what he had heard and seen, and as a proof of his
divine mission, gave him a miraculous draught of salmon, and then
assured him, that none of his profession should ever want that kind of
fish in the proper season, provided they made an offering of the tenth
fish for the use of the new church; which custom, it seems, was
continued by the fishermen four hundred years after.

This church and its monastery were afterwards repaired and enlarged by
Offa, King of Mercia, but being destroyed by the Pagan Danes, they were
rebuilt by King Edgar, who endowed them with lands and manors, and in
the year 969 granted them many ample privileges.

The church and monastery having again suffered by the ravages of the
Danes, were again rebuilt by Edward the Confessor, who pulled down the
old church, and erected a most magnificent one, for that age, in its
room, in the form of a cross, which afterwards became a pattern for that
kind of building. The work being finished in the year 1065, he caused it
to be consecrated with the greatest pomp and solemnity, and by several
charters not only confirmed all its ancient rights and privileges, but
endowed it with many rich manors, and additional immunities: ordained
that all its lands and possessions, should be subject to none but its
own jurisdiction, and the convent be free from the authority of the
Bishop of London; and the church, by a bull of Pope Nicholas I. was
constituted the place for the inauguration of the Kings of England. In
short, he gave it a charter of sanctuary, in which he declares, that any
person whatsoever, let his crimes be ever so great, who takes sanctuary
in that holy place, shall be assured of life, liberty, and limbs, and
that none of his ministers, nor those of his successors, should seize
any of his goods, lands or possessions, under pain of everlasting
damnation, and that whoever presumed to act contrary to this grant,
should lose his name, worship, dignity, and power, and with the traitor
Judas, be in the everlasting fire of hell. This was the pious language
of St. Edward the Confessor, and from this charter, Westminster Abbey
became an asylum for traitors, murderers, robbers, and the most
abandoned miscreants, who lived there in open defiance of the laws.

This, and King Edward’s other charters, in which he recites the
ridiculous story of its consecration by St. Peter, as above related, its
destruction by the Danes, the grants and privileges of his predecessors,
and those bestowed by himself, drew people thither from all parts, so
that in a short time there was not sufficient room in the Abbey church
for the accommodation of the numerous inhabitants, without incommoding
the monks; he therefore caused a church to be erected on the north side
of the monastery, for the use of the inhabitants, and dedicated it to
St. Margaret.

William the Conqueror, to shew his regard to the memory of his late
friend King Edward, no sooner arrived in London, than he repaired to
this church, and offered a sumptuous pall, as a covering for his tomb;
he also gave fifty marks of silver, together with a very rich altar
cloth, and two caskets of gold; and the Christmas following was solemnly
crowned there, his being the first coronation performed in that place.

The next Prince who improved this great work, was Henry III. who in the
year 1200 began to erect a new chapel to the blessed Virgin; but about
twenty years after, finding the walls and steeple of the old structure
much decayed, he pulled them all down, with a design to enlarge, and
rebuild them in a more regular manner; but he did not live to accomplish
this great work, which was not compleated till 1285, about fourteen
years after his decease. And this is the date of the building as it now
stands.

About the year 1502, King Henry began that magnificent structure which
is now generally called by his name; for this purpose, he pulled down
the chapel of Henry III. already mentioned, and an adjoining house
called the White Rose Tavern; this chapel, like the former, he dedicated
to the blessed Virgin, and designing it for a burial place for himself
and his posterity, he carefully ordered in his will, that none but those
of royal blood should be permitted to lie there.

At length on the general suppression of religious houses, the Abbey was
surrendered to Henry VIII. by William Benson, the Abbot, and seventeen
of the monks, in the year 1539, when its revenues amounted to 3977_l._
6_s._ 4_d._ ¾ _per annum_, a sum at least equal to 20,000_l._ a year at
present. Besides its furniture, which was of inestimable value, it had
in different parts of the kingdom, no less than two hundred, and sixteen
manors, seventeen hamlets, and ninety-seven towns and villages. And tho’
the Abbey was only the second in rank, yet in all other respects it was
the chief in the kingdom; and its Abbots having episcopal jurisdiction,
had a seat in the house of Lords.

The Abbey thus dissolved, that Prince erected first into a college of
secular Canons, under the government of a Dean, an honour which he chose
to confer on the last Abbot. This establishment, however, was of no long
duration, for two years after he converted it into a bishopric, which
was dissolved nine years after by Edward VI. who restored the government
by a Dean, which continued till Mary’s accession to the crown; when she,
in 1557, restored it to its ancient conventual state; but Queen
Elizabeth again ejected the monks, and in 1560 erected Westminster Abbey
into a college, under the government of a Dean, and twelve secular
Canons or Prebendaries, a Schoolmaster, Usher, and forty Scholars,
denominated the Queen’s, to be educated in the liberal sciences
preparatory to the university, and to have all the necessaries of life,
except cloathing, of which they were to have only a gown every year. To
this foundation also belong choristers, singing-men, an organist, twelve
almsmen, &c.

The Abbey church, which was stripped of many of its decorations by Henry
VIII. and was much damaged both within and without during the unhappy
civil commotions that defaced the ancient beauty of most of the
religious houses in this kingdom, has continued from the death of Henry
VII. almost to the present time, without any other considerable repairs,
and was gradually falling to ruin, when the Parliament interposed, and
ordered a thorough reparation at the national expence.

This venerable fabric has been accordingly new coated on the outside,
except that part called Henry the Seventh’s chapel, which is indeed a
separate building: and the west end has been adorned with two new
stately towers that have been lately rebuilt, in such a manner as to be
thought equal in point of workmanship to any part of the ancient
building; but though such pains have been taken in the coating, to
preserve the ancient Gothic grandeur, that this church in its distant
prospect has all the venerable majesty of its former state, yet the
beautiful carving with which it was once adorned, is irretrievably lost;
the buttresses, once capped with turrets, are now made in plain
pyramidical forms, and topped with freestone; and the statues of our
ancient Kings that formerly stood in niches, near the tops of those
buttresses, are for the most part removed, and their broken fragments
lodged in the roof of Henry the Seventh’s chapel. Three of these statues
are still standing next the towers on the north side, and indeed that is
the only side where you can take a view of the Abbey, the other side
being so incumbered with buildings, that even its situation cannot be
distinguished.

What next to the new towers principally engages the attention on the
outside, is the Gothic portico which leads into the north cross, which
by some has been stiled _the Beautiful_, or _Solomon’s Gate_. This was
probably built by Richard II. as his arms carved in stone was formerly
over the gate. It has been lately beautified, and over it is a new
window admirably well executed. Besides these there is little in the
outward appearance capable of engaging the attention, and its principal
beauties are to be found within.

The author of the work entitled _English Architecture_, seems to prefer
the Gothic to the Grecian architecture, as most suited to the purposes
of devotion, and gives this edifice as an instance, “There is in it,
says he, a majesty and grandeur, a sedate, and if we may so speak,
religious dignity, which immediately strikes the imagination; and never
failed to impress on the most insensible observer, that holy awe which
should attend, and which always disposes the mind to devotion.” But this
holy awe, thus mechanically incited, would be as friendly to Paganism as
to Christianity; and indeed, this awe is so far from being holy, that it
is a thing entirely distinct from rational piety and devotion, and may
be felt without any inclination to enter the choir.

Indeed the multiplicity of puerile ornaments profusely lavished, the
strong and beautiful perspective, and that romantic air of grandeur so
visible in this structure, and above all the height of the middle isle
at our first entrance, fill the eye, strike us in a very forcible
manner, and at once raise our admiration and astonishment. To which let
it be added, that the ranges of venerable monuments on each hand, some
of them most magnificent, have a natural tendency to strike the mind
with an uncommon degree of solemnity, and to raise the most serious
reflections.

The extent of the building is very considerable; for it is 360 feet
within the walls, at the nave it is 72 feet broad, and at the cross 195.
The Gothic arches and side isles are supported by 48 pillars of grey
marble, each composed of clusters of very slender ones, and covered with
ornaments. The moment you enter the west door the whole body of the
church opens itself at once to your view, the pillars dividing the nave
from the side isles being so formed as not to obstruct the side
openings, nor is your sight terminated to the east, but by the fine
painted window over Edward the Confessor’s chapel, which anciently, when
the altar was low, and adorned with the beautiful shrine of that
pretended saint, must have afforded one of the finest prospects that can
be imagined.

The pillars are terminated to the east by a sweep, enclosing the chapel
of Edward the Confessor, in a kind of semicircle. And it is worthy of
observation, that as far as the gates of the choir, the pillars are
filletted with brass, but all beyond with stone. Answering to the middle
range of pillars, there are others in the wall, which as they rise,
spring into semiarches, and are every where met in acute angles by their
opposites, and meeting in the roof are adorned with a variety of
carvings. On the arches of the pillars are galleries of double columns
fifteen feet wide, covering the side isles, and enlightened by a middle
range of windows, over which there is an upper range of larger windows,
and by these, together with the four capital windows, facing the north,
east, south and west, the whole fabric is so admirably enlightened, that
in the day you are never dazzled with its brightness, nor incommoded by
its being too dark. But before we leave these capital windows, which are
all finely painted, it is necessary to observe, that in the great west
window is a curious painting of Edward III. to the left of which in a
smaller window is a painting of one of our Kings, supposed to be Richard
II. but the colours being of a water blue the features of the face
cannot be distinguished. On the other side the great window is a lively
representation of Edward the Confessor in his robes, and under his feet
are painted his arms. At the bottom of the walls between the pillars are
shallow niches, arched about eight or ten feet high, on which the arms
of the original benefactors are depicted, and over them are their
titles, &c. but these are almost all concealed by the monuments of the
dead placed before them, many of which are extremely noble, and which we
shall particularly examine after having gone through the several parts
of the edifice.

After viewing the open part of the church, the next thing to be seen is
the choir, which can only be done during the times of divine service.
The grand entrance into it is by a pair of fine iron gates, on each side
of which is a very magnificent tomb. The floor is paved with the finest
black and white marble. The ancient stalls are covered with Gothic acute
arches, supported by small iron pillars, and are painted purple; but
what is most worthy of observation, is an ancient portrait near the
pulpit, of Richard II. sitting in a gilt chair, dressed in a green vest
flowered with gold, with gold shoes powdered with pearls. This piece is
six feet eleven inches in length, and three feet seven inches in
breadth; but the lower part is much defaced.

The next thing worthy of observation is the fine altar enclos’d with a
curious balustrade, within which is a pavement of mosaic work, laid at
the expence of Abbot Ware, in the year 1272, and is said to be one of
the most beautiful of its kind in the world: the stones of which it is
composed are porphyry, jasper, lydian and serpentine. The altar is a
beautiful piece of marble, removed from Whitehall, and presented to this
church by order of her majesty Queen Anne. On each side of the altar are
doors, opening into St. Edward’s chapel.

_Of the several Chapels in Westminster Abbey._ Besides that of Henry
VII. which, as we have already observed, is a separate building, and
will therefore be mentioned by itself when we have finished our survey
of the Abbey, there are ten chapels, round that of St. Edward the
Confessor, which stands as it were in the center, and, as has been said,
is inclosed in the body of the church, at the east end of the choir,
behind the altar; these, beginning from the north cross, and passing
round to the south cross, are in the following order: St. Andrew’s, St.
Michael’s, St. John the Evangelist’s, Islip’s chapel, St. John the
Baptist’s, St. Paul’s, Henry the Fifth’s, St. Nicholas’s, St. Edmund’s,
and St. Benedict’s.

_The Chapel of St. Edward._ The first curiosity that here fixes our
attention, is the ancient shrine erected by Henry III. upon the
canonization of Edward King of England, the third of that name before
the conquest, and the last of the Saxon race; a Prince who owed the
title of Confessor and Saint, to the vast sums he bestowed on the
church, and the sollicitations of the monks, than to his own personal
merit: for he was a bad son, a bad husband, and so bad a king, that he
shewed greater favour to the Normans than to his own people, and by his
folly prepared the way for the conquest. He died in the year 1066, and
was canonized by Pope Alexander III. in 1269. This shrine, which was
once esteemed the glory of England, is now much defaced and neglected.
It was composed of stones of various colours, beautifully enriched with
all the cost that art could devise. No sooner was it erected, than the
wealth of the kingdom flowed to it from all quarters. Henry III. set the
first example, though he afterwards made use of the jewels and treasure
he offered there, to defray the charges of an expedition into France.
Before this shrine was a lamp kept continually burning, on one side
stood a silver image of the blessed Virgin, which with two jewels of
immense value, were presented by Queen Eleanor, the wife of Henry III.
on the other side stood another image of the Virgin Mary, wrought in
ivory, presented by Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury. Here also
Edward I. offered the Scots regalia and chair, in which the kings of
Scotland used to be crowned, which is still preserved and shewn to all
strangers. And about the year 1280, Alphonso, third son to the last
mentioned king, offered here the golden coronet of Llewellyn, Prince of
Wales, and other jewels; but it would almost fill a volume to enumerate
the offerings made at this shrine. Yet it is now so stripped as to
afford no satisfaction, except to the curious; however some of the
stone-work with which it is adorned, is still to be seen. This
stone-work is hollow within, and now incloses a large chest, which Mr.
Keep, soon after the coronation of James II. found to contain the
remains of St. Edward; for it being broken by accident, he discovered a
number of bones, and turning them up, found a crucifix, richly
ornamented and enamell’d with a gold chain of twenty inches long, both
which he presented to his Majesty, who ordered the bones to be replaced
in the old coffin, and enclosed in a new one made very strong, and
clamp’d with iron.

On the south side of this shrine lies Editha, daughter to Goodwyn, Earl
of Kent, and Queen to St. Edward, with whom she lived eighteen years,
and tho’ she was the most accomplished woman of that age, confessed on
her death-bed, that he suffered her to live and die a virgin; and, as an
ancient manuscript in the Cotton library has it, “nathelees, tho’ the
Kinge had a wyfe, he lived ev’moe in chastete, and clennes, wythowten
any fleshley dedes doynge wyth his wyfe the Queen, and so dyd the Queen
on her syde.” She survived her husband eight years, and beheld all the
miseries consequent upon his dying without issue. She was however
treated with great respect by William the Conqueror, who allowed her an
apartment in the King’s palace at Winchester, where she died, and was
interred here, by his express orders.

Near the remains of this Princess lie those of Queen Maud, surnam’d the
Good, the daughter of Malcolm Conmair, King of Scotland, to whom she was
espoused, in order to unite the Saxon and Norman lines, and thereby to
reconcile the affections of the English to the future Kings that should
spring from them. She died on the 11th of May 1118. This excellent
Princess was distinguished by her many virtues, particularly her
humility, and her placing her chief delight in relieving the poor.

On the north side of this chapel is the tomb of Henry III. the pannels
are of polish’d porphyry, and around them is mosaic work of gold and
scarlet. At the corners of the table are twisted pillars, gilt, and
enamell’d, and upon it is placed the effigy of that King in brass gilt,
finely executed. He died in 1272, aged 65, after a troublesome reign of
56 years.

At the feet of the last mentioned Prince lies the effigy of Eleanor,
Queen to Edward I. On the sides of this monument are engraven the arms
of Castile and Leon, quarterly, and those of Ponthieu, hanging on vines
and oak-trees, and round the copper verge is embossed this inscription
in Saxon characters;

              _Icy gist Alianor Jadis Reyne de Angleterre,
                       Femme al. Re. Edward Fiz._

                                That is,

               _Here lies Eleanor, once Queen of England,
                         Wife to King Edward._

It is remarkable, that the body of this Queen was only interred here,
and that her heart was placed in the choir of the friars predicants in
London.

There is also here a large plain coffin of grey marble, composed of
seven stones, four of which form the sides, two the ends, and one the
cover. This rough unpolished tomb incloses the body of the glorious King
Edward I. just mentioned, who was born on the 17th of June 1239. He was
named Edward, in honour of Edward the Confessor, and afterwards surnamed
Long Shanks, from his tall and slender habit of body. This brave Prince
died on the 7th of July 1307, aged 68.

In this chapel is a tomb of black marble, to the memory of Philippa, the
third daughter to William Earl of Hainault, and Queen to King Edward
III. who bestowed a profusion of expence on her tomb, round which were
placed as ornaments, the brazen statues of no less than thirty Kings,
Princes, and noble personages her relations.

Tho’ Edward III. was interred in the same grave as the Queen, he has a
monument erected for him adjoining to hers, covered with a Gothic
canopy. The effigy of this Prince, who died June 21, 1377, lies on a
tomb of grey marble, and at his head are placed the shield and sword
carried before him in France: the latter is seven feet long, and weighs
eighteen pounds. This tomb was, like the former, surrounded with
statues, particularly with those of his children.

Next to this is the tomb of Richard II. and his Queen, over which is a
canopy of wood, remarkable for a painting of the Virgin Mary and our
Saviour still visible. This Prince was murdered on Valentine’s day 1399,
and on the robing of his effigy are curiously wrought, peascod shells
open, and the peas out, perhaps in allusion to his being once in full
possession of sovereignty, which before his murder, was reduced to an
empty title.

Between St. Edward’s shrine, and the tomb of Queen Philippa, under a
large stone, once plated with brass, lies the great Thomas of Woodstock,
Duke of Gloucester, and uncle to the above Richard II. who murdered him
on the 8th of September, 1397, for being too free and too faithful a
monitor.

Here is also a table monument in memory of Margaret, daughter to Edward
IV. by his Queen Elizabeth Woodville; and a small monument of black
Lydian marble finely polished, in memory of Elizabeth Tudor, the second
daughter of Henry VIII who died at three years of age.

_Henry the Fifth’s Chapel_, is only parted from St. Edward’s by an iron
screen, on each side of which are statues as big as the life. His
monument, which is surrounded with iron rails and gates, is of black
marble, and upon it is placed his statue; but what is very remarkable,
it lies without the head. Your guides say, that the body is heart of
oak, and the head of beaten silver; as were also the scepter and other
ensigns of royalty with which this statue was adorned; but that the
value of these occasioned their being sacrilegiously taken away. This is
by some writers represented at a ridiculous tale. Over this tomb is a
chauntry chapel, in which the weapons, armour, and caparisons of Henry
V. were carefully laid up, and remain to this day.

Near this tomb lies enclosed in an old wooden chest, the remains of
Catharine, daughter of Charles VI. King of France, and the consort of
Henry V. She died on the 2d of January 1437, and was honourably interred
in the chapel erected by Henry III. but when her grandson Henry VII.
pulled down that to build his own chapel, her body was taken up, when
the bones appeared firmly united, and thinly covered with flesh; but the
coffin being decayed, was put into a wooden chest, and removed to the
place where it is now seen. This is the account given by those who shew
this venerable dust, the miserable remains of a lady of royal blood, and
of distinguished beauty.

_The Chapel of St. Andrew_, which is next the northern cross, has in the
center a magnificent monument erected to the memory of Sir Francis
Norris, ancestor to the late Sir John Norris. In the reign of Queen
Elizabeth he distinguished himself by his bravery in the Low Countries,
and was created Lord Norris of Rycot. This monument has a fine
representation of an encampment in relief, and is otherwise beautifully
ornamented; but has no inscription.

Against the east wall is a table monument to the memory of Sir John
Burgh, who was killed in 1594, in taking a large Spanish ship, laden
with gold, silver and jewels of inestimable value.

In one corner is an ancient monument of Robert Kirton, that has several
labels in black letters round his portrait, which rests upon eagles
crowned. He died Oct. 3, 1466.

_St. Michael’s Chapel_ has only one monument worthy of notice, which is
  that of Sarah, Duchess of Somerset; and mother to the last Duke of
  that branch of the family. On the base sit two charity boys, one on
  each side, lamenting the loss of their great benefactress, who is
  represented resting upon her arm, under a canopy of state, and looking
  earnestly upon a group of cherubims, issuing from the clouds above
  her. Underneath is a Latin inscription, enumerating her many
  charitable foundations, and informing us that this excellent Lady died
  on the 5th of September 1692.

_St. John the Evangelist’s Chapel_, has in the center a curious monument
  to Sir Francis Vere, a gentleman of the first reputation for learning
  and bravery, who particularly distinguished himself at the battle of
  Newport, in which he commanded in front under Prince Maurice, in the
  service of the States, against the Spaniards. This great warrior was
  30 years in the Dutch service, and in 20 of them commanded the
  auxiliary troops of England. He died on the 28th of August 1608, in
  the 54th year of his age. His monument is a table supported by four
  knights kneeling, on which lie the several parts of a complete suit of
  armour, and underneath the effigies of Sir Francis, lying, as if
  undressed, in a loose gown, on a quilt of alabaster. On the base is a
  short Latin inscription in gold letters, shewing to whom it belongs;
  that he was nephew to the Earl of Oxford, and Governor of Portsmouth
  and the Brille, and that his disconsolate widow consecrated this
  monument to his memory.

  Close to the wall is a monument of Sir George Hollis, nephew to Sir
  Francis Vere, and a Major General under him. On the pedestal is
  represented the siege of a town in relief, where the principal figure
  is a General on horseback holding a battoon, and having one eye
  blemished, perhaps alluding to the siege of Newport, in which Sir
  George also gained great honour, and had a horse killed under him. On
  each side of this pedestal sits a Pallas, lamenting the death of the
  great warrior, who is represented above in the Roman habit, standing
  erect upon a lofty altar, with a cherub supporting the plinth on which
  he stands. Sir George died in January 1626. An ingenious author
  speaking of this monument, says, that Sir George was the first erect
  figure set up in the Abbey; “an attitude, says he, which I am far from
  discommending, for ’tis my opinion, statues should always represent
  life and action: ’tis peculiarly adapted to heroes, who ought never to
  be supposed at rest, and should have their characters represented as
  strong as possible: this before us is bold and manly, though not
  chaste and elegant: ’tis finely elevated too, and the mourning
  Pallases, at the base of it, are both well fancied and well applied.”

  Near Sir Francis’s tomb is that of Aubery de Vere, the last Earl of
  Oxford of that name, and Lieutenant-General of Queen Anne’s forces,
  who died March 12, 1702.

  In this chapel there are also some antique monuments; particularly on
  the right hand, is that of John de Eastney, one of the Abbots, who was
  a great benefactor to this church, and died on the 4th of May 1438. A
  brazen statue of this Abbot in his mass habit, lies upon his tomb. It
  is remarkable, that in breaking up a grave about thirty years ago, his
  body was discovered in a coffin quilted with yellow sattin, having on
  a gown of crimson silk, girded round him with a black girdle; on his
  legs were white silk stockings, and over his face a clean napkin
  doubled up, and laid corner wise. His body and legs are said to have
  been plump and firm, but his face somewhat discoloured.

  There is likewise here the monument of Sir John Harpedon, Knt. who
  died in 1457. He lies in armour, resting his feet on a lion, and his
  head on a greyhound.

_St. Erasmus’s, or Islip’s Chapel_, has but two monuments worthy of
  notice; the first that of John Islip, Abbot of Westminster, the
  founder of this chapel, which he dedicated to St. Erasmus. It is
  adorned with much carving in devices, intaglios, and febuses, alluding
  to the name of the founder, as a person slipping boughs off a tree; an
  eye with the slip of the tree; and a youth sliding from a bough, with
  _I slip_, in a label proceeding out of his mouth. In the middle is
  Islip’s tomb which is a plain marble table, supported by four small
  brass pillars; over it was anciently painted on the roof, a picture of
  our Saviour on the cross. He died in January 1510.

  The other is the tomb of Sir Christopher Hatton, son to Christopher
  Hatton, Lord Chancellor of England. The principal figures are a knight
  in armour, and a lady in deep mourning resting on the ascending sides
  of a triangular pediment, parted in the middle by a trunkless helmet.
  Over their heads is a neat piece of architecture, in the center of
  which is a scroll with their arms, held up by naked boys, one of whom
  holds an extinguished torch reversed over the Knight, to shew that Sir
  Christopher died first; the other over the Lady holds his torch
  upright and burning, to signify that she survived him. The inscription
  informs us, that Sir Christopher died on the 10th of September 1619.

  Over this chapel is a chauntry, in which are two large wainscot
  presses, filled with the effigies of Princes, and others of high
  quality, interred in the Abbey. These effigies, ’tis said, resembled
  the deceased as near as possible, and were formerly exposed at the
  funerals of our Princes and other great personages, in open chariots,
  with their proper ensigns of royalty or honour. Those here deposited
  are all maimed, some stripped, and others in tattered robes; but the
  most ancient are the least injured, which seems as if the value of
  their cloaths had occasioned this ravage; for the robes of Edward VI.
  that were once of crimson velvet, but now appear like leather, are
  left entire; while those of Queen Elizabeth and King James I. are
  taken away, as is every thing of value from all the rest.

_St. John Baptist’s Chapel_, contains several monuments: one at the
  entrance is to the memory of Mrs. Mary Kendall, the daughter of Thomas
  Kendall, Esq; she died in her thirty-third year, and her epitaph
  informs us, that “her many virtues rendered her every way worthy of
  that close union and friendship, in which she lived with Lady
  Catharine Jones; and in testimony of which, she desired that even
  their ashes, after death, might not be divided; and therefore ordered
  herself here to be interred, where she knew that excellent Lady
  designed one day to rest, near the grave of her beloved and religious
  mother, Elizabeth Countess of Kendall.”

  Next to this is a monument erected to the memory of Col. Edward
  Popham, and his Lady, whose statues in white marble stand under a
  lofty canopy, resting their arms in a thoughtful posture upon a marble
  altar, on which lie the gloves of an armed knight. This gentleman was
  an active officer in Cromwell’s army, and his atchievements were here
  inscribed on his tomb. Upon the restoration, the monument was ordered
  to be demolished, and the inscription erased; but at the intercession
  of some of his Lady’s relations, who had eminently served his Majesty,
  the stone whereon the inscription was cut was only turned inwards, and
  no other injury done to his monument.

  In the midst of this chapel is a large table monument for Thomas
  Cecil, Earl of Exeter, Baron Burleigh, Knight of the Garter, and Privy
  Counsellor to King James I. whereon is placed his statue lying down,
  with his Lady on his right side, and a vacant space on his left for
  another. The Lady on his right side is his first wife the Lady Dorothy
  Nevil, daughter to the Lord Latimer; and the vacant space was left for
  his second wife, Frances Bridges, of the noble family of Chandois; but
  as the right side was taken up, she gave express orders in her will,
  not to place her effigy on his left, however, according to the
  inscription, they are all buried together in one vault.

  But the most magnificent monument in this chapel is against the east
  wall, where stood the altar of St. John Baptist; this was erected to
  the memory of Henry Carey, first cousin to Queen Elizabeth, who, on
  being denied the honours of peerage, laid the disappointment so much
  to heart, that he languished for a long time on a sick bed, at which
  the Queen being moved, too late, created him a Baron, and ordered the
  patent and robes to be laid before him, but without effect. He died on
  the 23d of July 1596, aged seventy-two.

  Here also is a monument to Thomas Carey, second son to the Earl of
  Monmouth, who is said to have died of grief in 1648, at the age of
  thirty-three, on account of the untimely fate of his royal master King
  Charles I.

  Here are likewise a few antique monuments, particularly one in which
  the figure of a Bishop properly habited, lies under a Gothic canopy.
  This is supposed to be erected for Thomas Rathal, Bishop of Durham,
  who died in 1524.

  And an ancient stone monument for William of Colchester, whose
  effigies lie with the head supported by an angel, and the feet by a
  lamb.

_St. Paul’s Chapel_, has on the left hand, a lofty monument erected to
  the memory of Sir John Puckering, Knt. and Lord Chancellor in the
  reign of Queen Elizabeth, in which office he died on the 20th of April
  1596. His epitaph in Latin over his effigies, is thus translated:

         The publick care and laws engag’d my breast,
           To live was toilsome, but to die is rest;
         Wealth, maces, guards, crowns, titles, things that fade,
           The prey of Time and sable Death are made.

                           VIRTUE INSPIRES MEN.

             His Wife this statue rears to her lov’d spouse,
                 The test of constancy and marriage vows.
        _I trust I shall see the Lord in the Land of the Living._

  Adjoining to this monument, is one, much decay’d, for Sir James
  Fullerton and his Lady, whose effigies lie upon it, and on a table of
  black marble is the following quaint inscription:

               Here lie the Remains of Sir James Fullerton,
                  Knt. first Gentleman of the Bedchamber
                    to King Charles the First (Prince
                   and King) a generous Rewarder of all
                 Virtue, a severe Reprover of all Vice, a
                   profest Renouncer of all Vanity. He
                  was a firm Pillar to the Commonwealth,
                a faithful Patron to the Catholic Church,
                 a fair Pattern to the British Court. He
                 lived to the Welfare of his Country, to
                  the Honour of his Prince, to the Glory
                  of his God. He died _fuller_ of Faith
                than of Fear, _fuller_ of Resolution than
                of Pain, _fuller_ of Honour than of Days.

  There is a monument erected to the memory of Sir James Bromley,
  Chancellor to Queen Elizabeth, who died on the 12th of April 1587.
  This monument is of alabaster, with pillars of Lydian marble gilt, and
  Sir James is represented lying in his Chancellor’s habit, with his
  four sons and four daughters kneeling on the base.

  In the same chapel is a plain monument of Sir Dudley Carlton, who for
  his services to King James I. and King Charles I. was made Viscount
  Dorchester, and Secretary of State. He died on the 15th of February
  1631, and is represented on his tomb sitting in a half rais’d posture.

  To the east of this monument is another of alabaster to the memory of
  Frances the wife of Thomas Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex, who
  distinguished herself by her humanity and generosity, and died on the
  15th of April 1589. She is represented in a recumbent posture, resting
  on an embroidered cushion, dressed in robes, and with a coronet on her
  head.

  Next to this is the monument of Francis Lord Cottington of Hanworth,
  who died on the 9th of June 1652, and of his Lady who died in 1633.
  This monument is of black touchstone, and remarkably different from
  every other in the Abbey, On the top is a circular frame of gilt
  brass, enclosing the bust of the Lady, and beneath is his Lordship on
  a table monument resting on his left arm, and over a satyr’s head is
  the inscription in English mentioning his Lordship’s titles and
  employments.

_St. Nicholas’s Chapel_ contains several remarkable monuments: near the
  entrance is one of black marble, finely polished, to the memory of the
  Lady Jane Clifford, youngest daughter to the Duke of Somerset, and
  wife to Charles Lord Clifford and Dungarvan, who died Nov. 23, 1679.
  This black monument is adorned with cherubims and a scroll of
  alabaster, whereon is written a long inscription in English,
  containing an account of the Lady’s descent and marriage.

  By the door on the same side, is a monument of alabaster erected for
  Lady Cecil, the daughter of Lord Cobham, who having married Sir Robert
  Cecil, son to William Lord Burleigh, Treasurer of England, died in
  child-bed in 1591. The Latin inscription is a dialogue between herself
  and husband, expressing their mutual affection.

  At some distance is a magnificent temple of various coloured marble,
  erected to the memory of Anne Duchess of Somerset, wife to Edward Duke
  of Somerset. She died on the 16th of April 1618, aged twenty-eight.
  The inscription is in Latin and English, and contains a pompous detail
  of the noble lineage of this great Lady, her alliances and issue.

  In this chapel is likewise a very expensive monument, erected by the
  great Lord Burleigh, to the memory of his wife Mildred, and their
  daughter the Lady Anne, Countess of Oxford, representing a stately
  temple built with porphyry, and other kinds of marble gilt. It is
  divided into two compartments, one elevated over the other. In the
  lower lies Lady Burleigh, in a recumbent posture, with her daughter
  Lady Jane in her arms; and at her head and feet are her children and
  grand-children kneeling. In the upper compartment is the figure of a
  venerable old man, supposed to be the Lord Burleigh, on his knees, as
  if at fervent prayer. The Lady Burleigh died April 4, 1589, aged
  sixty-three, after being forty years married, and her daughter, the
  Lady Oxford, June 5, 1588. On the tomb is a long Latin inscription,
  explaining the figures, and displaying their respective virtues and
  accomplishments.

  The next monument I shall mention in this chapel, is that of the Lady
  Winifrid, married first to Sir Richard Sackville, Knt. and afterwards
  to John Paulet, Marquis of Winchester. On the base are the figures of
  a Knight armed and kneeling, and facing him a Lady in mourning also on
  her knees; behind whose back lies an infant on a baptismal font with
  its head supported by a pillow.

  In the middle of the chapel is a fine raised monument of polished
  marble, to the memory of Sir George Villars and his Lady, whose son
  was raised by King James I. to the dignity of Duke of Buckingham.

  In this chapel are two beautiful pyramids; the largest erected to the
  memory of Nicholas Bagnal, a child of two months old, overlaid by his
  nurse; the other to the memory of Anna Sophia Harley, a child of a
  year old, daughter to the Hon. Christopher Harley Embassador to the
  French King. She died in the year 1600, and her father, as appears by
  the inscription, caused her heart to be inclosed in a cup, and placed
  upon the top of the pyramid.

  There are also in this chapel, a monument to the memory of the Lady
  Elizabeth Fanes, and one or two others, scarcely worth notice.

  _The Chapel of St. Edmund_, has at the entrance a lofty monument with
  Gothic spires erected to the memory of John of Eltham, second son to
  King Edward III. and so called from Eltham in Kent. His statue in
  armour is of white alabaster, the head incircled by a coronet. He died
  in Scotland at nineteen years of age, unmarried, tho’ three different
  matches had been proposed to him, the last of which, to Mary daughter
  of Ferdinand King of Spain, he accepted, but lived not to consummate
  it.

  Next to this is a small table monument, on which lie the effigies of
  William of Windsor, and Blanch of the Tower, the son and daughter of
  Edward III. They took their surnames from the places of their birth,
  and both died in their infancy. They are dressed in the habits of the
  times, the young Prince in a short doublet, of the indecency of which
  Chaucer’s parson complains, and the Princess in a horned head-dress,
  which Stow says, was frightful.

  On another tomb lies the statue of the Lady Frances, Duchess of
  Suffolk, represented dressed in her robes. She was the daughter of the
  famous Charles Brandon by Mary the French Queen, daughter to Henry
  VII. and became Duchess of Suffolk by marrying Henry Grey, Marquis of
  Dorset, who, upon her father’s decease, was created Duke of Suffolk.
  On her tomb are two inscriptions, the first in Latin verse in praise
  of her virtues, and the other in English, shewing her different
  marriages.

  The next is an elegant monument of white marble, erected by John Earl
  of Clare, to the memory of his son Francis Hollis, a youth of great
  bravery, who, after returning from making a campaign in Flanders, died
  on the 12th of August 1622, aged eighteen. He is represented clad in
  Grecian armour, sitting on a Greek altar. A good author mentioning
  this statue, says, that it expresses more juvenile sweetness and
  beauty, than any thing of the kind he ever saw, and that if this
  figure has any fault in character or design, it is being placed in a
  languid sedentary posture, tho’ cloathed in armour, and described as a
  hero in his bloom; a more spirited attitude, he observes, would have
  been more suitable to the person represented, would have given the
  statuary greater latitude to exert his genius, and afforded more
  satisfaction to the spectator. The epitaph on this is as follows:

            What so thou hast of nature or of arts,
            Youth, beauty, strength, or what excelling parts
            Of mind and body, letters, arms, and worth,
            His eighteen years, beyond his years brought forth;
            Then stand, and read thyself within this glass,
            How soon these perish, and thy self may pass;
            Man’s life is measur’d by the work, not days,
            No aged sloth, but active youth hath praise.

  On an altar, in the same taste, but differently ornamented, sits the
  statue of the Lady Elizabeth Russel, the daughter of Lord Russel. This
  statue is of white alabaster, and the Lady is represented in a
  sleeping posture. Your guides say, that she died with a prick of her
  finger; but this story has no other foundation, than a misapprehension
  of the statuary’s design; for having represented her asleep, and
  pointing with her finger to a death’s head under her right foot, it
  has been supposed, by the position of her finger pointing downwards,
  that it was bleeding, and that this had closed her eyes in death;
  though the artist’s design seems rather to allude to the composed
  situation of her mind at the approach of death, which she considered
  only as a profound sleep, from which she was again to wake to a joyful
  resurrection, of which the motto under her feet, is an evident
  illustration; _Dormit, non mortua est_; “She is not dead, but
  sleepeth.” The Latin inscription on the scroll beneath, only tells
  that this monument was erected to her memory by her afflicted sister
  Anne. The device is an eagle, the emblem of eternity, resting on a
  florilege of roses, &c.

  Within the iron rails that inclose this last monument, is a
  magnificent one to the memory of John Lord Russel, son and heir to
  Francis Earl of Bedford, and of his young son Francis, by Elizabeth
  the daughter of Sir Anthony Cook, Knt. This monument is of various
  coloured marble and alabaster, and is adorned with gilding. Lord
  Russel is represented lying in his robes, with his infant son at his
  feet. His Lady, who erected this tomb, was esteemed the Sappho of the
  age, and was not only an excellent poetess, but mistress of the
  learned languages; and five epitaphs on this tomb are of her
  composition, three of which are in Latin, one in Greek, and the other
  in English, which last is here transcribed as a specimen of the rest,
  that are to the same purpose:

             Right noble twice, by virtue, and by birth,
             Of Heaven lov’d, and honour’d on the earth:
             His country’s hope, his kindred’s chief delight,
             My husband dear, more the world’s fair light,
             Death hath me ’reft. But I from death will take
             His memory, to whom this tomb I make.
             John was his name (ah, was!) wretch, must I say;
             Lord Russel once, now my tear-thirsty clay.

  In this chapel is a monument partly enclosed, to the memory of Talbot
  Earl of Shrewsbury and his Lady, who are represented lying on a black
  marble table supported by an alabaster pedestal. This monument is
  adorned with variegated marble finely carved. The inscription contains
  his titles and character, which is a very noble one, and informs us
  that he died on the 8th of February 1617, in the fifty-seventh year of
  his age.

  In this chapel are several other monuments, adorned in their ancient
  manner, with statues lying flat on the backs; and also some other
  monuments affixed to the walls.

  _The Chapel of St. Benedict_, which is that next to the south cross,
  has a monument erected to the memory of Lionel Cranfield Earl of
  Middlesex, Lord High Treasurer of England in the reign of King James
  I. This monument was erected by his relict the Lady Anne, and is of
  black marble, on which are two statues in a recumbent posture,
  representing his Lordship lying in his robes, with his Lady. It has a
  long Latin inscription, representing his various employments and
  honours, and that he finished his life in a retired leisure, and died
  on the 6th of August 1645, aged seventy.

  On the east side, where stood the altar of St. Benedict, is a monument
  of various kinds of marble, in memory of Lady Frances Countess of
  Hertford, who died on the 14th of May 1598, in the forty-fourth year
  of her age. It is of various kinds of marble, and the Countess is in
  the old taste represented in her robes, lying with her head resting on
  an embroidered cushion, and her feet on the back of a lion.

  On the south side of this chapel is a table monument of white marble
  to the memory of George Sprat, the second son of Dr. Sprat, Bishop of
  Rochester, an infant of a year old.

  Near it is the monument of Dr. Gabriel Goodman, the first Dean of this
  church, who founded an hospital, and instituted a school at Rathven in
  Denbighshire, where he was born. He was a person of great piety, and
  was the first who raised the learned Camden from obscurity. He is
  represented kneeling, in his proper habit. He died in 1601.

  _The Tombs in the open parts of the Abbey._

  1. At the corner of the last mentioned chapel is a plain neat monument
  to the memory of Mr. Dryden, adorned with no other ornaments than an
  elegant bust of that great poet. It was erected by the late Duke of
  Buckingham, who thought no inscription necessary to transmit the fame
  of that great poet to posterity; we therefore only see these few
  words, J. DRYDEN, born 1632, died May 1, 1700, and underneath, John
  Sheffield Duke of Buckinghamshire erected this monument, 1720.

  2. High on a pillar is a neat table monument to the memory of Mrs.
  Martha Birch, who died in 1723, in the fiftieth year of her age. The
  inscription also informs us, that she was daughter to Francis Viner,
  Esq; and was first married to Francis Millington, Esq; and after his
  death to Peter Birch, Prebendary of this Abbey; and that she was
  pious, chaste, and prudent.

  3. At a small distance is a plain neat monument, to the memory of
  Abraham Cowley, on which is placed a flaming urn, begirt with a
  chaplet of laurel; expressive emblems of the glory he acquired by the
  spirit of his writings. The Latin inscription and epitaph on the
  pedestal have been thus translated.

  Near this place lies ABRAHAM COWLEY, the Pindar, Horace, and Virgil of
  England; and the delight, ornament, and admiration of this age.

            While, sacred bard, far worlds thy works proclaim,
            And you survive in an immortal fame,
            Here may you bless’d in pleasing quiet lie,
            To guard thy urn may hoary Faith stand by;
            And all thy favourite tuneful Nine repair
            To watch thy dust with a perpetual care.
            Sacred for ever may this place be made,
            And may no desperate hand presume t’ invade
            With touch unhallow’d, this religious room,
            Or dare affront thy venerable tomb;
            Unmov’d and undisturb’d till time shall end.
            May Cowley’s dust this marble shrine defend.

      So wishes, and desires that wish may be sacred to posterity,
      George Duke of Buckingham, who erected this monument for that
      incomparable man. He died in the forty-ninth year of his age,
      and was carried from Buckingham-house, with honourable pomp,
      his exequies being attended by persons of illustrious
      characters of all degrees, and interred August 13, 1667.

  His grave is just before the monument, as appears by a blue stone, on
  which is engraved his name.

  4. The monument of that ancient poet Geoffery Chaucer, was once a
  handsome one in the Gothic stile; but is now defaced by time. Chaucer,
  who is stiled the Father of the English poets, was the son of Sir John
  Chaucer, a citizen of London, employed by Edward III. in negociations
  abroad relating to trade. He was first a student at Cambridge; but
  afterwards studied at Merton College, Oxford; and to perfect himself
  in the knowledge of the laws, entered himself of the Middle Temple:
  thus accomplished, he soon became a favourite at court, and was
  employed as shield-bearer to the King; was a gentleman of the
  bedchamber, and by Edward III. was sent Embassador abroad. However, in
  the succeeding reign he fell into disgrace, and was committed to the
  Tower for high-treason, where he wrote his Testament of Love: but upon
  the death of Richard II. he became a greater favourite at court than
  ever, from his having married the great John of Gaunt’s wife’s sister.
  He was born in 1328, and died in 1400.

  5. The plain monument of Mr. John Phillips, has his bust in relief,
  represented as in an arbour, interwoven with vines, laurel branches,
  and apple-trees; and over it this motto, _Honos erit huic quoque
  pomo_, alluding to the high qualities ascribed to the apple, in his
  excellent poem called _Cyder_. He was author of but few pieces; but
  those were masterly performances. His Blenheim, Splendid Shilling, and
  Lyric Ode to Lord Bolingbroke on Tobacco, have been much admired. He
  was the son of Dr. Stephen Phillips, Archdeacon of Salop, was born at
  Brampton in Oxfordshire on the 30th of December 1676, and died of a
  consumption at Hereford, on the 15th of February, 1708, in the prime
  of his life. The inscription on his monument contains an account of
  his virtues and abilities, and is the strongest testimony of his
  merit, since that alone could inspire his great patron Sir Simon
  Harcourt, Knt. with such a generous friendship for him, as to
  countenance and encourage him in the amplest manner when living; and
  to extend his regard for him even after his death, by erecting this
  monument to his memory.

  6. Next this is Mr. Michael Drayton’s monument. This gentleman was
  esteemed an excellent poet, and learned antiquarian. The inscription
  and epitaph were formerly in gold letters; but are now almost
  obliterated, and are as follow:

              MICHAEL DRAYTON, Esq; a memorable Poet of his
             Age, exchanged his Laurel for a Crown of Glory,
                                Anno 1631.

                Do, pious marble! let thy Readers know
                  What they, and what their Children owe
                  To Drayton’s Name, whose sacred dust
                  We recommend unto thy trust;
                Protect his mem’ry and preserve his story;
                Remain a lasting Monument of his Glory;
                  And when thy Ruins shall disclaim
                  To be the Treasurer of his Name:
                  His Name, that cannot fade, shall be
                An everlasting Monument to thee.

  7. Ben Johnson’s monument is of white marble, and his bust is executed
  with great happiness and spirit; ’tis inclosed with a tablature
  ornamented with a few proper and elegant decorations, consisting of
  emblematical figures: and has no other inscription but the words O
  RARE BEN JOHNSON! This gentleman was the son of a clergyman, and
  educated at Westminster school, while Mr. Camden was Master; but after
  his father’s death, his mother marrying a bricklayer, he was forced
  from school, and being obliged to work for his father, ’tis said, that
  at the building of Lincoln’s Inn, he was sometimes seen at work with
  his trowel in one hand, and Horace in the other. However, Mr. Camden
  having an esteem for him on account of his abilities, recommended him
  to Sir Walter Raleigh. He attended that brave man’s son in his
  travels, and upon his return, entered himself at Cambridge; afterwards
  he wrote a considerable number of plays; became Poet Laureat to King
  James I. and died on the 16th of August 1637, aged 63. His tomb was
  erected by the Earl of Essex, who has inscribed his own name on the
  stone.

  8. Spenser’s tomb is of grey marble, and has suffered greatly by time.
  It was erected in an age when taste was in its infancy in England, and
  yet has something in it venerably plain, and not absurdly ornamental.
  The inscription upon it is as follows:

      Here lies (expecting the second coming of our Saviour Christ
      Jesus) the Body of Edmund Spenser, the Prince of Poets in his
      time, whose divine Spirit needs no other witness than the
      works he left behind him. He was born in London in 1510, and
      died 1596.

  9. Above Spenser’s monument is that of Samuel Butler, the author of
  Hudibrass. By the Latin inscription, it appears, that it was erected
  by John Barber, Esq; Citizen of London, and afterwards Lord Mayor in
  1731, that he who was destitute of all things when alive, might not
  want a monument when dead. Mr. Butler was born at Shernsham in
  Worcestershire in 1612, and died at London in 1680.

  10. A plain and neat monument of white marble in memory of that divine
  poet, John Milton, who died in 1674. Under a very elegant bust made by
  Rysbrack is this inscription:

      In the year of our Lord Christ 1737, this bust of the author
      of _Paradise Lost_ was placed here by William Benson, Esq; one
      of the two auditors of the imprest to his Majesty, &c.

  11. A monument erected to the memory of Thomas Shadwell, is adorned
  with his bust crowned with a chaplet of bays, an urn, and other
  decorations. It was erected to his honour by his son Dr. Thomas
  Shadwell, and the Latin inscription informs us, that he was descended
  from an ancient family in Staffordshire; was Poet Laureat and
  Historiographer in the reign of King William, and died November 20,
  1692, in the fifty-fifth year of his age. This poet was the author of
  several plays; but falling under the lash of Mr. Dryden, was satirized
  by him under the character of Ogg, in the second part of his Absalom
  and Achitophel.

  12. The monument of Matthew Prior, is adorned with great expence. On
  one side of the pedestal stands the figure of Thalia, one of the
  Muses, with a flute in her hand; and on the other History, with her
  book shut; between these statues is Prior’s bust upon a raised altar,
  and over it is a handsome pediment, on the ascending sides of which
  are two boys, one with an hour-glass in his hand run out; the other
  holding a torch reversed. On the apex of the pediment is an urn, and
  on the base of the monument is a long inscription in Latin, mentioning
  the public posts and employments with which he had been intrusted; and
  above we are informed, that while he was writing the history of his
  own times, death interposed, and broke both the thread of his
  discourse and of his life, on the 18th of September 1721, in the
  fifty-seventh year of his age.

  13. The monument of St. Evremond is a very plain one, adorned with a
  bust. The inscription observes, that he was of a noble family in
  Normandy, and was employed in the army of France, in which he rose to
  the rank of a Marshal; but returning to Holland, was from thence
  invited by King Charles II. into England, where he lived in the
  greatest intimacy with the King and principal nobility; more
  particularly with the Duchess of Mazarine. He was of a very sprightly
  turn of humour, as well in his conversation as writings, and lived to
  the age of ninety, when he was carried off by a fit of the strangury,
  on the 9th of September 1703.


  [Illustration: _S. Wale delin._ _C. Grignion sc._ _Monument of
  Shakespear_]


  14. The monument erected to the memory of the immortal Shakespear, a
  print of which we have here given, is worthy of that great dramatic
  writer, and both the design and execution are extremely elegant. Upon
  a handsome pedestal stands his statue in white marble in the habit of
  the time in which he lived, with one elbow leaning upon some books,
  and his head reclined upon his hand, in a posture of meditation. The
  attitude, the dress, the shape, the genteel air, and fine composure
  observable in this figure of Shakespear, cannot be sufficiently
  admired, and the beautiful lines of his upon the scroll are happily
  chosen.

               The cloud-cap’d towers, the gorgeous palaces,
               The solemn temples, the great globe itself;
               Yea, all which it inherits, shall dissolve,
               And like the baseless fabric of a vision,
               Leave not a wreck behind.

  Immediately over his head upon a curious piece of dark-coloured
  marble, is the following inscription, in capital letters raised in
  gold:

                           GULIELMO SHAKESPEAR
                         ANNO POST MORTEM CXXIV.
                          AMOR PUBLICUS POSUIT.

  The heads on the pedestal representing Henry V. Richard III. and Queen
  Elizabeth, three principal characters in his plays, are likewise
  proper ornaments to grace his tomb. In short, the taste that is here
  shewn, does honour to those great names under whose direction, by the
  public favour, it was so elegantly constructed; these were the Earl of
  Burlington, Dr. Mead, Mr. Pope, and Mr. Martin. It was designed by
  Kent, and executed by Scheemakers; and the expence defrayed by the
  grateful contributions of the public.

  Mr. Fleetwood, then Master of Drury Lane Theatre, and Mr. Rich of
  Covent Garden, gave each a benefit, arising from one of his own plays,
  towards it, and the Dean and Chapter made a present of the ground.

  15. The next monument is a very fine one to the memory of Nicholas
  Rowe, Esq; and his only daughter. On a pedestal about twenty inches
  high, which stands on an altar, is a fine bust of Mr. Rowe; near it is
  his Lady in the deepest affliction, and between both, on a pyramid
  behind, is a medalion, with the head of a young Lady in relief. On the
  front of the pedestal is this inscription:

      To the memory of Nicholas Rowe, Esq; who died in 1718, aged
      forty-five, and of Charlotte his only daughter, wife of Henry
      Fane, Esq; who inheriting her father’s spirit, and amiable in
      her own innocence and beauty, died in the 23d year of her age,
      1739.

  Underneath upon the front of the altar are these lines:

             Thy reliques, Rowe! to this sad shrine we trust,
             And near thy Shakespear place thy honoured bust.
             Oh! skill’d, next him, to draw the tender tear,
             For never heart felt passion more sincere:

             To nobler sentiments to fire the brave,
             For never Briton more disdain’d a slave!
             Peace to thy gentle shade, and endless rest,
             Blest in thy genius, in thy love too blest!
             And blest, that timely from our scene remov’d,
             Thy soul enjoys that liberty it lov’d.

             To these so mourn’d in death, so lov’d in life,
             The childless Mother, and the widow’d Wife,
             With tears inscribes this monumental stone,
             That holds their ashes, and expects her own.

  16. Near this last, is a fine monument erected to the memory of Mr.
  John Gay, by the Duke and Duchess of Queensberry, his great patrons.
  His bust is a very good one, and the masks, instruments of music, and
  other devices, are blended together in a group, in allusion to the
  various species of writings in which he excelled, as farce, satire,
  fable, and pastoral. The short epitaph in the front, was written by
  himself, and has given some offence, as the sentiment at first view
  seems by no means proper for a monument;

                  Life is a jest, and all things shew it:
                  I thought so once, but now I know it.

  Underneath are these lines:

               Of manners gentle, of affections mild;
               In wit, a man; simplicity, a child;
               With native humour temp’ring virtuous rage,
               Form’d to delight, at once, and lash the age:
               Above temptation in a low estate,
               And uncorrupted, ev’n among the great.
               A safe companion, and an easy friend;
               Unblam’d thro’ life, lamented in thy end.
               These are thy honours; not that here thy bust
               Is mix’d with Heroes, or with Kings thy dust;
               But that the Worthy and the Good shall say,
               Striking their pensive bosoms—Here lies Gay.
                                                    A. POPE.

  Here lie the ashes of Mr. John Gay, the warmest friend, the gentlest
  companion, the most benevolent man; who maintained independency in low
  circumstances of fortune; integrity, in the midst of a corrupt age;
  and that equal serenity of mind, which conscious goodness alone can
  give, throughout the whole course of his life. Favourite of the Muses,
  he was led by them to every elegant art, refined in taste, and fraught
  with graces all his own. In various kinds of poetry, superior to many,
  inferior to none: his works continue to inspire what his example
  taught; contempt of folly, however adorned; detestation of vice,
  however dignified; reverence of virtue, however disgraced.

      Charles and Catharine, Duke and Duchess of Queensberry, who
      loved his person living, and regret him dead, have caused this
      monument to be erected to his memory.

  17. The next is a most magnificent, lofty and elegant monument,
  erected to the late Duke of Argyle, enclosed with rails, and decorated
  with figures finely executed. The statue of the Duke is spirited even
  at the verge of life. On one side of the base is Pallas, and on the
  other Eloquence; the one looking sorrowfully up at the principal
  figure above, and the other pathetically displaying the public loss at
  his death. Above is the figure of History, with one hand holding a
  book, and with the other writing on a pyramid of most beautiful
  variegated marble, admirably polished, the name and titles of the Hero
  in large gold letters, JOHN DUKE OF ARGYLE AND GR. at which point the
  pen of History rests. His actions are supposed to be contained in the
  book she holds in her other hand, on the cover of which in letters of
  gold are inscribed the date of his Grace’s death, and the years of his
  life. Above is inscribed on this beautiful pyramid in gold letters,
  the following epitaph, said to be written by Paul Whitehead, Esq;

             Britain, behold, if patriot worth be dear,
             A shrine that claims thy tributary tear:
             Silent that tongue admiring Senates heard:
             Nerveless that arm opposing legions fear’d:
             Nor less, O Campbell! thine the pow’r to please,
             And give to grandeur all the grace of ease.
             Long from thy life let kindred heroes trace
             Arts which ennoble still the noblest race.
             Others may owe their future fame to me,
             I borrow immortality from thee.

  On the base of the monument is this inscription:

      In memory of an honest man, a constant friend, JOHN the Great
      Duke of Argyle and Greenwich, a General and Orator exceeded by
      none in the age he lived. Sir Henry Fermer, Baronet, by his
      last will left the sum of five hundred pounds towards erecting
      this monument, and recommended the above inscription.

  19. The monument of Isaac Barrow, D.D. is remarkable for a fine bust
  of that great divine and mathematician, who, as the inscription shews,
  was Chaplain to King Charles II. Head of Trinity College, Cambridge;
  Professor of Geometry at Gresham College in London, and of Greek and
  Mathematics at Cambridge. He died on the 14th of May 1677, aged
  forty-seven.

  19. A table monument of white marble, erected to the memory of Sir
  Richard Cox, who was taster to Queen Elizabeth, and King James I. and
  to the latter steward of the household.

  20. A neat monument erected to the memory of the learned Isaac
  Casaubon, by Dr. Moreton, Bishop of Durham. That profound scholar and
  critic whose name is inscribed upon it, was born in France, and in his
  younger years was keeper of the royal library at Paris; but at length
  being dissatisfied with the Romish religion, he, upon the murder of
  his great patron Henry IV. quitted his native country, and at the
  earnest entreaty of King James I. settled in England, where he died in
  1614, aged forty-five.

  21. Above this last monument, is another for John Earnest Grape, a
  person well skilled in oriental learning, who is represented as large
  as the life, sitting in a thoughtful posture upon a marble tomb, as if
  contemplating on death.

  22. Next to the west corner of the south cross is an ancient monument
  to the memory of that great antiquarian William Camden, who is
  represented in a half length, in the dress of his time, holding a book
  in his right hand, and in his left his gloves. He rests on an altar,
  on the body of which is a Latin inscription, which mentions his
  indefatigable industry in illustrating the British antiquities, and
  his candour, sincerity, and pleasant good humour in private life. He
  died Nov. 9, 1623.

  In this south cross are several stones to be met with on the pavement,
  worthy of notice. Among these is one over the body of Thomas Parr, of
  the county of Salop, born in 1483. He lived in the reigns of ten
  Princes, King Edward IV. King Edward V. King Richard III. King Henry
  VII. King Henry VIII. King Edward VI. Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth,
  King James I. and King Charles I. and was interred here Nov. 15, 1635,
  aged an hundred and fifty-two.

  At a small distance from Parr, is a small white stone, over the body
  of Sir William Davenant, who succeeded Ben Johnson as Poet Laureat to
  King Charles I. and died in 1688, aged sixty-three. On this stone is
  inscribed O RARE SIR WILLIAM DAVENANT! and this probably gave the
  thought of putting the like inscription on the monument afterwards
  erected to his predecessor Ben Johnson.

  Under the pavement near Dryden’s tomb, lie the remains of Francis
  Beaumont, the dramatic writer, who died in London in March, 1615, and
  was buried here without either tomb or inscription.

  Affixed to the pillars in this south cross, are also two table
  monuments; which we shall but just mention, one for Samuel Barton,
  D.D. a Prebendary of this church, who died in Sept. 1715, aged
  sixty-two: and the other to the memory of Anthony Horneck, D.D. who
  was born at Wittenberg in Zealand, but was educated at Oxford, and
  became King’s Divinity Professor and Chaplain, a Prebendary of this
  church, and a Preacher at the Savoy. This gentleman, who was
  remarkable for his piety, died of the stone on the 30th of January,
  1696, aged fifty-six.

  23. On entering the south side, there is next the wall a monument
  erected to the memory of Sophia Fairholm, Countess of Anandale. It is
  the representation of an ancient sepulchre, over which a stately
  edifice is raised, ornamented at the top with the family arms. She
  died in the year 1716, aged forty-six; and the monumental inscription
  informs us, that it was erected by her son the Marquis of Anandale, as
  a mark of his duty and gratitude.

  24. The monument of the brave Sir Cloudesly Shovel, who here appears a
  very unmeaning figure, with a large stiff wig, reposing himself upon
  velvet cushions under a canopy of state; and on the base is
  represented in bas relief, the ship Association in which the Admiral
  last sailed, striking against a rock, with several others perishing at
  the same time, and at the top are two boys blowing trumpets.

  This monument has been highly censured by all persons of taste, tho’
  it is erected to his memory at great expence, and even by his
  Sovereign Queen Anne. The great Mr. Addison has justly exposed it in
  the Spectators, and complains at this brave rough English Admiral’s
  being here represented by the figure of a beau; and also censures the
  inscription, which instead of celebrating the many remarkable actions
  he had performed in the service of his country, only informs us of the
  manner of his death, from which it was impossible to reap any honour,
  tho’ it may excite our pity. The inscription is as follows:

      Sir Cloudesly Shovel, Knt. Rear-Admiral of Great Britain, and
      Admiral and Commander in chief of the fleet—the just reward of
      his long and faithful services. He was deservedly beloved of
      his country, and esteemed, tho’ dreaded by the enemy, who had
      often experienced his conduct and courage. Being ship-wrecked
      on the rocks of Scylly, in his voyage from Toulon, the 22d of
      October 1707, at night, in the 57th year of his age. His fate
      was lamented by all, but especially by the seafaring part of
      the nation; to whom he was a generous patron, and a worthy
      example. His body was flung on the shore, and buried with
      others in the sand; but being soon after taken up, was placed
      under this monument, which his royal Mistress had caused to be
      erected to commemorate his steady loyalty and extraordinary
      virtues.

  25. The monument of George Stepney, Esq; has his bust under a canopy,
  and two naked boys weeping and holding handkerchiefs at their eyes.
  This monument, though the materials are very rich, is allowed to be
  void of design, and but poorly executed. The Latin inscriptions give
  an account of his virtues, his learning and abilities, and the many
  negociations in which he was employed at foreign courts. He died at
  Chelsea in 1706.

  26. A lofty and much more elegant monument for George Churchill, whose
  merits are mentioned in a long Latin inscription, where it is said
  that he was the second son of Sir Winston Churchill, of Dorsetshire,
  Knt. and a not unworthy brother of John Duke of Marlborough: that he
  was early trained to military affairs, and served with great honour by
  sea and land, under King Charles II. King James II. King William III.
  and Queen Anne: that he was Admiral of the English fleet, at the
  burning of the French fleet at La Hogue, in King William’s reign; and
  for his bravery there, made one of the Commissioners of the Admiralty:
  that in the succeeding reign he was made Admiral in chief, and died on
  the 8th of May 1718, aged fifty-eight.

  27. Near that of Churchill’s, is a stately monument erected for Sir
  Palmes Fairborne. Two pyramids of black marble standing on cannon
  balls, have two Moorish Emperors heads in profile on their tops; these
  pyramids are adorned with relievos, on one Sir Palmes is shot while
  viewing the enemy’s lines before the town; and on the other is a
  hearse and six horses bringing him off wounded to the castle. Above in
  a lofty dome are the arms of the deceased, with this motto underneath,
  TUTUS SI FORTIS, and over his arms a Turk’s head on a dagger, by way
  of crest, which he won by his valour in fighting against that people
  in the German war. On this monument is the following inscription:

      Sacred to the immortal memory of Sir Palmes Fairborne, Knt.
      Governor of Tangier, in execution of which command, he was
      mortally wounded by a shot from the Moors, then besieging the
      town, in the 46th year of his age, October 24, 1680.

  His epitaph, wrote by Mr. Dryden, runs thus:

           Ye sacred reliques, which your marble keep,
           Here undisturb’d by wars, in quiet sleep:
           Discharge the trust, which (when it was below) }
           Fairborne’s undaunted soul did undergo,        }
           And be the town’s palladium from the foe.      }
           Alive and dead these walls he will defend:
           Great actions great examples must attend.
           The Candian siege his early valour knew,
           Where Turkish blood did his young hands imbrue;
           From thence returning, with deserv’d applause,     }
           Against the Moors his well-flesh’d sword he draws, }
           The same the courage, and the same the cause.      }
           His youth and age, his life and death combine,     }
           As in some great and regular design,               }
           All of a piece throughout, and all divine.         }
           Still nearer heav’n his virtue shone more bright,  }
           Like rising flames expanding in their height,      }
           The martyr’s glory crown’d the soldier’s fight.    }
           More bravely British General never fell,
           Nor General’s death was e’er reveng’d so well,
           Which his pleas’d eyes beheld before their close,
           Follow’d by thousand victims of his foes.
             To his lamented loss, for times to come,
             His pious widow consecrates this tomb.

  26. On a table monument enriched with military trophies, and raised
  against the wall, is the following inscription:

      To the memory of the honoured Major Richard Creed, who
      attended his Majesty King William the Third in all his wars,
      every where signalizing himself, and never more himself than
      when he looked an enemy in the face. At the glorious battle of
      Blenheim, Ann. Dom. 1704, he commanded those squadrons that
      began the attack; in two several charges he remained unhurt;
      but in a third, after many wounds received, still valiantly
      fighting, he was shot through the head. His dead body was
      brought off by his brother, at the hazard of his own life, and
      buried there. To his memory his sorrowful mother erects this
      monument, placing it near another which her son, when living,
      used to look upon with pleasure, for the worthy mention it
      makes of that great man Edward Earl of Sandwich, to whom he
      had the honour to be related, and whose heroic virtues he was
      ambitious to imitate.

  27. The monument of Sir John Chardin, who distinguished himself by his
  travels into the east, is adorned with a globe, which exhibits a view
  of the different countries he visited, and around it are represented a
  number of geographical instruments.

  28. The monument of Sidney Earl of Godolphin is adorned with a bust
  richly dressed, and has an inscription which mentions the employments
  and honours through which he passed. He died on September 15, 1712,
  aged sixty-seven.

  29. The next is a double monument erected to the memory of Sir Charles
  Harbord, and Clement Cottrel, Esq; On the base is represented in
  relievo a dreadful sea-fight, and on the top in a wreath of laurel is
  this inscription, “To preserve and unite the memory of two faithful
  friends, who lost their lives at sea together, May 28, 1672.” These
  two young gentlemen both perished in the Royal James, with the Earl of
  Sandwich, who commanded in that ship as Vice-Admiral against the Dutch
  in that memorable fight off the coast of Sussex in the reign of King
  Charles II. The Royal James being set on fire, Sir Charles Harbord,
  first Lieutenant, though he might have saved himself by swimming as
  many others did, yet out of pure affection to his worthy Commander,
  chose to die with him. Young Cottrel was a volunteer, and after being
  the first man who had boarded a Dutch ship of 70 guns, and pulled down
  her ensign with his own hands, returned to the Royal James unwounded,
  and also perished with his friends. This gentleman understood seven
  languages, tho’ but twenty-two years of age. This moving story is
  recited at large on the monument.

  30. A tomb erected to the memory of Anne Fielding, the first wife of
  Sir Samuel Morland, Knt. and Bart. chiefly remarkable for having two
  very learned inscriptions: the first, in Hebrew, is to this effect:

      O thou fairest among women! O virtuous woman! The hand of the
      Lord hath done this.

      The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away, blessed be the
      name of the Lord.

  Under this is an Ethiopic inscription, which has been thus translated:

      Come let us lament over this monument, raised for thee by a
      beloved husband; but in certain hope that thou art united with
      Christ.

      This Lady was truly religious, virtuous, faithful, and, as a
      dove, mild and chaste; while she continued in life, she was
      honoured, and, through mercy, is happy in death.

  Under the Ethiopic is this inscription in English:

      Anne, daughter to George Fielding, Esq; and of Mary his wife,
      the truly loving (and as truly beloved) wife of Samuel
      Morland, Knt. and Bart. died Feb. 20, Ann. Dom. 1679–80.

  31. Near this last is a tomb much in the same taste, erected to the
  memory of Carola Harsnet, the second wife of the same Baronet, who
  died in child-bed of her second son, Oct. 10, 1674, in the 23d year of
  her age. Here are two inscriptions, the first in Hebrew, and the other
  in Greek, which have been thus translated:

      Blessed be the Lord, my wife was precious: blessed be thy
      remembrance, O virtuous woman.

      When I think of thy mildness, patience, charity, modesty, and
      piety, I lament thee, O most excellent creature, and grieve
      exceedingly: but not like such as have no faith; for I believe
      and expect the resurrection of those who sleep in Christ.

  32. Between the two former is a beautiful monument to the memory of
  John Smith, Esq; a fine bust in relievo of that gentleman, is
  supported by a weeping figure representing his daughter, both which
  are designed and executed with great judgment and spirit. The Lady
  sits upon an urn, which, with its base and a pyramid behind, unite the
  whole in a most harmonious and agreeable stile. On the base is a Latin
  inscription, setting forth his descent and issue.

  33. Over the door that opens into the cloisters is a noble and elegant
  monument erected for General Wade. In the center is a beautiful marble
  pillar, enriched with military trophies most exquisitely wrought. The
  principal figures, are Fame pushing back Time, who is eagerly
  approaching to demolish the pillar, with all the ensigns of honour,
  with which it is adorned; the General’s head is in a medalion, and the
  whole is executed with great beauty and elegance. The inscription
  underneath runs thus:

      To the memory of George Wade, Field-Marshal of his Majesty’s
      forces, Lieutenant-General of the ordnance, Colonel of his
      Majesty’s third Regiment of Dragoon guards, Governor of
      Fort-William, Fort-Augustus, and Fort-George, and one of his
      Majesty’s most honourable Privy Council. He died March 14,
      1748, aged seventy-five.

  34. A plain neat monument erected to the memory of Robert Cannon, D.
  D. Dean of Lincoln, and Prebendary of this church, who died on the
  28th of March 1722, aged fifty-nine.

  35. An elegant monument of Mrs. Katharine Bovey. Faith is here
  represented with her book closed, and Wisdom lamenting the death of
  her Patroness, between which is the Lady’s head in relief enclosed in
  an annulet of black marble curiously veined. The inscription, which is
  in English, gives an excellent character of the deceased, who died on
  the 21st of January 1726, in the seventy-second year of her age; and
  informs us that Mrs. Mary Pope, who lived with her near forty years,
  in perfect friendship, erected this monument to her memory.

  36. A small table monument to the memory of Mr. Henry Wharton, which
  is only remarkable an account of the distinguished character of the
  person whose name is inscribed upon it. Mr. Wharton was Rector of
  Chartham in Kent, Vicar of the church of Minster in the Isle of
  Thanet, Chaplain to Archbishop Sancroft, and one of the most
  voluminous writers of his years. He died on the 3d of March 1694, aged
  only thirty-one, and was so universally respected by the Bishops and
  Clergy, that Archbishop Tillotson, and several other prelates, with a
  vast body of the clergy, the choir and King’s scholars, all in solemn
  procession attended his funeral, and joined in an anthem composed on
  this occasion by the great Purcell.

  37. A plain neat monument erected to the memory of Dr. Thomas Spratt,
  Bishop of Rochester, who died in 1713, aged seventy seven, and of his
  son Mr. Thomas Spratt, Archdeacon of Rochester, and Prebendary of the
  churches of Rochester, Winchester, and Westminster, whose remains lie
  near those of his father. This monument was erected by John Friend, M.
  D. as a testimony of his respect for those two worthy personages.

  38. A monument for Sir Lumley Robinson, Bart. of Kentwell-Hall in
  Suffolk, who by an untimely death ended his life Aug. 6, 1684, aged
  thirty-six. It is adorned with columns supported by death’s heads, and
  the arms upon the base by a cherub. The sides of the pediment have
  enrichments of laurel branches, &c. and on the top is a vase.

  39. The monument of John Friend, M. D. has an admirable bust of that
  gentleman, standing on a pedestal of fine white veined marble, and
  under it is a long inscription in Latin, setting forth the
  distinguished acquirements, and great abilities of that eminent
  physician.

  40. Mr. Congreve’s monument has an half length marble portrait of that
  gentleman, placed on a pedestal of fine Egyptian marble, and enriched
  with emblematical devices relating to the drama. Underneath is this
  inscription in English:

      Mr. William Congreve died January 19, 1728, aged fifty-six,
      and was buried near this place. To whose most valuable memory
      this monument is set up by Henrietta Duchess of Marlborough,
      as a mark how dearly she remembers the happiness she enjoyed
      in the sincere friendship of so worthy and honest a man; whose
      virtue, candour and wit, gained him the love and esteem of the
      present age; and whose writings will be the admiration of the
      future.

  41. The monument of the Right Hon. James Craggs, Esq; his statue is
  represented leaning on an urn, and was one of the first in the Abbey
  represented standing. The inscription, which is in golden characters,
  shews that he was Principal Secretary of state, and a man universally
  beloved, which is there particularly remarked, because as he was only
  a shoe-maker’s son, it is the more surprizing that in the high station
  to which he was raised by his merit, he should escape envy, and
  acquire the general esteem. He died on the 16th of February 1720. Upon
  the base of this monument are the following lines, written by Mr.
  Pope:

             Statesman, yet friend to truth, of soul sincere,
             In action faithful, and in honour clear!
             Who broke no promise, serv’d no private end;
             Who gain’d no title, and who lost no friend;
             Ennobled by himself, by all approved;
             Prais’d, wept, and honour’d by the Muse he lov’d.


  [Illustration: _S. Wale delin_ _C. Grignion sc._ _Cap^t. Cornwall’s
  Monument_]


  42. On the south side of the great west entrance is a noble monument
  erected to the memory of the brave Captain Cornwall, who after
  distinguishing himself by his heroism, was unhappily slain in the
  battle between the English fleet, commanded by the Admirals Matthews
  and Lestock, and the French. This monument was erected to his honour
  by order of Parliament, and is a noble testimony of the public
  gratitude for his distinguished merit. On the back is a lofty pyramid
  of Egyptian marble beautifully variegated, and finely polished,
  standing on a base of the same marble. Upon this base is a rock of
  white marble, along the different parts of which run sea weeds. Near
  the top stands a fine figure of Fame, placing a medalion of the
  Captain on the summit of the rock, underneath which is a naval crown,
  a globe, the trumpet of Fame, and other ornaments, and behind rises to
  the top of the pediment a palm, entwined with a laurel. On the other
  side of the medalion stands a beautiful figure of Britannia, with the
  British Lion couchant at her feet. Beneath, in an opening of the rock,
  is a Latin inscription on a fine piece of polished porphyry,
  mentioning his descent, and the manner of his death, which happened
  while fighting for his country, on the 3d of February 1743, in the
  45th year of his age, and that the Senate of Britain consecrated this
  monument to his memory. In another opening of the rock, a little
  lower, is represented in bass relief a view of the engagement in which
  this great man perished, and at the bottom of the rock on the sides
  lie cannons, flags, anchors, &c. all of white marble.

  43. The next is an elegant monument for Sir Thomas Hardy, Knt. On the
  back is a lofty pyramid of a bluish coloured marble, at the foot of
  which the statue of the deceased is placed, reclining upon a tomb of
  elegant workmanship, with a naked boy on his left side weeping over an
  urn: the enrichments round the pedestal on which he stands are just
  and proper; and the inscription contains the following short history
  of his life:

      Sir THOMAS HARDY, to whose memory this monument is erected,
      was bred in the royal navy from his youth, and was made a
      Captain in 1693.

      In the expedition to Cadiz, under Sir George Rooke, he
      commanded the Pembroke; and when the fleet left the coast of
      Spain, to return to England, he was ordered to Lagos Bay,
      where he got intelligence of the Spanish galleons being
      arrived in the harbour of Vigo, under convoy of seventeen
      French men of war: by his great diligence and judgment he
      joined the English fleet, and gave the Admiral that
      intelligence which engaged him to make the best of his way to
      Vigo, where all the aforementioned galleons and men of war
      were either taken or destroyed.

      After the success of that action, the Admiral sent him with an
      account of it to the Queen, who ordered him a considerable
      present, and knighted him.

      Some years afterwards he was made a Rear-Admiral, and received
      several other marks of favour and esteem from her Majesty, and
      from her Royal Consort Prince George of Denmark, Lord High
      Admiral of England.

  44. The monument of John Conduit, Esq; is allowed, in point of design,
  to be not inferior to that last mentioned, and there is something in
  the manner which shews them both to be the workmanship of the same
  hand. In the middle of the pyramid is a large medalion of brass, round
  which is a Latin inscription, thus english’d, JOHN CONDUIT, MASTER OF
  THE MINT; this medalion is suspended by a cherub above, and rests on
  another below. This gentleman succeeded his relation the great Sir
  Isaac Newton in that office, and desired to be interred near him, as
  appears from a long Latin inscription on the base. He died May 23d,
  1727, aged forty-nine. Catharine his wife died Jan. 20, 1739, and lies
  interred under the same tomb.

  45. The monument of William Horneck, Esq; is enriched with books,
  plans, and instruments of fortification, alluding to the employments
  of the deceased; who was chief engineer to the royal train of
  artillery, and, as his inscription informs us, learned the art of war
  under the great Duke of Marlborough. He died May 10, 1743.

  46. The monument of Sir Godfrey Kneller, Knt. has a bust of Sir
  Godfrey under a canopy of state, the curtains of which are gilt and
  tied with golden strings, and on each side the bust is a weeping
  Cupid, one resting on a framed picture, the other holding a painter’s
  pallat and pencils. This monument is not however much esteemed.

  On the pedestal is a Latin inscription, signifying that Sir Godfrey
  Kneller, Knt. who lies interred here, was painter to King Charles II.
  King James II. King William III. Queen Anne, and King George I.
  Underneath is his epitaph written by Mr. Pope, which has been also
  much censured:

             Kneller! by Heav’n, and not a master taught!
             Whose art was nature, and whose pictures thought;
             Now for two ages having snatch’d from fate
             Whate’er was beauteous, or whate’er was great,
             Rests crown’d with Princes’ honours, Poets’ lays,
             Due to his merit, and brave thirst of praise.
             Living, great Nature fear’d he might outvie
             Her works; and dying, fears herself may die.

  47. We come now to the monument of Anna Countess Dowager of
  Clanrikard, which is adorned with excellent carving, and a fine statue
  of that Lady resting upon a tomb. The inscription gives an account of
  her descent, marriages, and issue, and informs us, that she died on
  the 14th of January 1732, in the 49th year of her age.

  48. The monument of John Woodward, M. D. is a very beautiful one, and
  the figures most admirably finished. The head of the deceased is
  represented in profile, in a very masterly manner, and the Lady who
  holds it is inimitably performed. The inscription contains a panegyric
  on the parts and learning of the deceas’d.

  49. A neat plain monument erected to the memory of Heneage Twisden, a
  young hero, who fell in the battle of Blairgnies in Hainault, while he
  was Aid de Camp to John Duke of Argyle, who commanded the right wing
  of the Confederate army. He was the seventh son of Sir William
  Twisden, Bart. and a youth of the greatest expectations; but the
  fortune of war put a stop to his rising merit, in 1709, and in the
  29th year of his age.

  Near this monument are two small ones to the memory of two of his
  brothers, Josiah and John; Josiah was a Captain at the siege of
  Agremont, near Lisle in Flanders, and was slain by a cannon shot in
  1708, at twenty-three years of age. John was a Lieutenant in the
  Admiral’s ship, under Sir Cloudesly Shovel, and perished with him in
  1707, aged twenty-three.

  50. A monument erected in honour of Col. James Bringfield, ornamented
  with military trophies, cherubs, &c. and surrounded by a mantling
  enclosing a tablet, on which is inscribed the military preferments of
  the deceased, the manner of his death and burial, and the praises of
  his piety and virtue. He was born at Abingdon in Berks, was Equerry to
  Prince George of Denmark, and Aid de Camp to the Great Duke of
  Marlborough; but was killed by a cannon ball, as he was remounting his
  General on a fresh horse, at the battle of Ramelies, May 12, 1706, and
  was interred at Barechem in Brabant, in the 50th year of his age.

  51. The monument of Mr. Killegrew has been reckoned one of the best
  pieces of sculpture in the whole church, and what is remarkable, is
  cut out of one stone. The embellishments are distinct and very
  picturesque, and the inscription, short, modest, and soldier-like. It
  is as follows:

      Robert Killegrew, of Arwenack in Cornwall, Esq; son of Thomas
      and Charlotte, Page of honour to King Charles II. Brigadier
      General of her Majesty’s forces, killed in Spain in the battle
      of Almanza, April 14, 1707. Ætatis fuæ 47. MILITAVI ANNIS 24.

  52. The next is a monument erected to the memory of Mrs. Mary Beaufoy,
  who is represented in a devout posture, with cherubs crowning her: on
  each side are Cupids lamenting the early decay of a virgin beauty, and
  underneath the arms of her family quarterly upheld by cherubs. On the
  base is the following inscription:

      Reader! whoever thou art, let the sight of this tomb imprint
      in thy mind, that the young and old without distinction, leave
      this world; and therefore fail not to secure the next. This
      Lady was only daughter and heiress to Sir Henry Beaufoy, of
      Guyscliffe, near Warwick, by the Hon. Charlotte Lane, eldest
      daughter of George Lord Viscount Lansborough. She died July
      12, 1705.

  53. After passing by a few monuments unworthy of notice, we come to
  that of Admiral Baker, adorned with a rostral column of curiously
  veined marble, decorated with the prows of galleys, a Medusa’s head,
  and other naval and military trophies, with this short inscription
  underneath:

      To the memory of John Baker, Esq; Vice-Admiral of the White
      Squadron of the British Fleet; who, when he commanded in the
      Mediterranean, died at Port Mahon, Nov. 10, 1736, aged
      fifty-six. He was a brave, judicious and experienced officer;
      a sincere friend, and a true lover of his country.

        _Manet post Funera Virtus._

  54. Next to this is Mr. Priestman’s monument, to which is suspended by
  a knot of ribbons, fastened to a column of variegated marble, a fine
  medalion, with the words HENRY PRIESTMAN, Esq; round the head.
  Underneath are naval trophies and sea instruments; and upon the base
  is an inscription, shewing that the person to whom this monument is
  erected, was Commander in chief of a squadron of ships of war in the
  reign of King Charles II. a Commissioner of the Navy, and one of the
  Commissioners for executing the office of Lord High Admiral of England
  in the reign of King William III. He died Aug. 20, 1712, aged 65.

  55. The monument of Philip Carteret, son to Lord George Carteret, who
  died a King’s scholar at Westminster, ripe for the university, on the
  19th of March 1710, aged nineteen. On the upper part is an admirable
  bust of this noble youth, and underneath a very fine figure of Time
  standing on an altar, and holding a scroll in his hand, whereon is
  written in Sapphic verses, lines to the following import, which he is
  supposed to be repeating:

                Why flows the mournful Muse’s tear,
                  For thee! cut down in life’s full prime?
                Why sighs, for thee, the parent dear!
                  Cropt by the scythe of hoary Time?

                Lo! this, my Boy’s the common lot!
                  To me thy memory entrust;
                When all that’s dear shall be forgot,
                  I’ll guard thy venerable dust.

                From age to age, as I proclaim
                  Thy learning, piety, and truth;
                Thy great example shall enflame;
                  And emulation raise in youth.

  56. A neat monument erected for Edward de Carteret, the son of Sir
  Edward de Carteret, Gentleman Usher to King Charles II. who died on
  the 30th of October 1677, in the eighth year of his age. It is
  ornamented with cherubs and with festoons of leaves and fruit.

  57. The monument of Thomas Levingston, Viscount Teviot, is decorated
  with the arms, supporters, and crest of that nobleman, and with
  military trophies, alluding to his profession of a soldier. On the
  face of the monument is a long inscription in Latin, shewing that he
  was born in Holland, but descended from the Levingstons in Scotland;
  that from his childhood he was trained to arms; and having attended
  the Prince of Orange into Britain, as a Colonel of foot, rose to the
  rank of a Lieutenant-General in the army, and General of the Scotch
  forces, was made Master of the ordnance, and a Privy Counsellor; that
  he secured Scotland to the King by one decisive action on the Spey,
  for which he was advanced to the dignity of a Viscount, and that he
  died on the 14th of Jan. 1710, aged sixty.

  58. A handsome monument erected for the Lord Constable, ornamented
  with a cherub below, and the family arms above. It has this short
  inscription:

      Near this lies the Right Hon. Robert Lord Constable, Viscount
      Dunbar, who departed this life Nov. 23, 1714, in the
      sixty-fourth year of his age.

  59. A plain neat monument for Peter Heylin, D.D. and Prebendary of
  this church, who died on the 8th of May 1662. It is adorned with a
  pediment, and the arms of the deceased, and contains a long
  inscription in Latin, mentioning the most remarkable incidents in his
  life.

  60. The tomb of Charles Williams, Esq; adorned with very remarkable
  scroll-work, and scollopping; what is very singular is, its being
  supported by a death’s head on the wings of Time. This gentleman died
  on the 29th of August 1720, aged eighty-seven.

  61. A small but elegant monument erected to the memory of the
  celebrated Henry Purcell, Esq; well known by his admirable musical
  compositions. The inscription consists of this short and comprehensive
  sentence:

               Here lies Henry Purcell, who left this life,
                 and is gone to that blessed place, where
                   only his harmony can be exceeded. He
                  died Nov. 21, 1697, in his 37th year.

  62. The next is the monument of William Croft, Doctor in music. On the
  pedestal is an organ in bas relief, and on the top, a bust of the
  deceased,

  63. The tomb of John Blow, Doctor in music, is adorned with cherubs,
  flowers, and a canon in four parts set to music. In the center is an
  English inscription, by which it appears he was organist, composer,
  and master to the children in the chapel royal thirty-five years, and
  organist to this Abbey fifteen years; that he was scholar to Dr.
  Christopher Gibbons; and master to the famous Mr. Purcell, and to most
  of the eminent masters of his time. He died Oct. 1. 1708, in his
  sixtieth year; and his epitaph observes, that his own musical
  compositions, especially his church music, are a far nobler monument
  to his memory than any other that can be raised to him.

  64. We come now to the neat and elegant monument erected to the memory
  of Dr. Boulter, Archbishop of Armagh in Ireland. It is of the finest
  marble beautified with an admirable new invented polish. The bust of
  this worthy Archbishop is finely executed; his long flowing hair has
  all the gracefulness of nature, without the smallest degree of that
  stiffness which belongs to stone; and his venerable countenance
  strikes the beholder with reverence. The ensigns of his dignity
  wherewith the monument is adorned, are most exquisitely fine, and
  every part about it discovers a masterly genius in the sculptor. The
  inscription is inclosed in a beautiful border of porphyry, and is as
  follows:

      Dr. Hugh Boulter, late Archbishop of Armagh, Primate of all
      Ireland, a Prelate so eminent for the accomplishments of his
      mind, the purity of his heart, and the excellence of his life,
      that it may be thought superfluous to specify his titles,
      recount his virtues, or even erect a monument to his fame. His
      titles he not only deserved, but adorned; his virtues are
      manifest in his good works, which had never dazzled the public
      eye, if they had not been too bright to be concealed; and as
      to his fame, whosoever has any sense of merit, any reverence
      for piety, any passion for his country, or any charity for
      mankind, will assist in preserving it fair and spotless, that
      when brass and marble shall mix with the dust they cover,
      every succeeding age may have the benefit of his illustrious
      example. He was born Jan. 4, 1671, was consecrated Bishop of
      Bristol, 1718, translated to the Archbishopric of Armagh,
      1723, and from thence to Heaven, Sept. 27, 1742.

  65. A plain table monument erected to the memory of Dr. Samuel
  Bradford, Bishop of Rochester, who died on the 14th of May 1731, in
  the seventy-ninth year of his age. It contains a long Latin
  inscription scarce legible, surrounded with the arms, and proper
  ensigns of his several dignities.

  66. The next is a monument erected to the memory of Richard Kane, Esq;
  Governor of Minorca, adorned with a curious bust of that gentleman in
  white marble, placed upon a handsome pedestal, whereon are inscribed
  the most remarkable passages of his life. He was born at Down in
  Ireland, Dec. 20, 1661. In 1689 he first appeared in a military
  capacity at the memorable siege of Derry; and after the reduction of
  Ireland, followed King William into Flanders, where he distinguished
  himself, particularly by his intrepid behaviour at the siege of Namur,
  where he was grievously wounded. In 1702, he bore a commission in the
  service of Queen Anne, and assisted in the expedition to Canada; from
  whence he again returned into Flanders, and fought under the Duke of
  Argyle and Greenwich, and afterwards under Lord Carpenter. In 1712, he
  was made Sub-Governor of Minorca, through which island he caused a
  road to be made, which had been thought impracticable. In 1720 he was
  ordered by King George I. to the defence of Gibraltar, where he
  sustained an eight months siege against the Spaniards, when all hope
  of relief was extinguished. For which gallant service he was
  afterwards, by King George II. rewarded with the government of
  Minorca, where he died Dec. 19, 1736, and was buried in the castle of
  St. Philip.

  67. The monument of Percy Kirk, Esq; is adorned with a fine bust of
  that gentleman, on each side of which is a winged seraph, one with a
  dagger in his right hand inverted, and in his left a helmet; the other
  resting on a ball, and holding in his left hand a torch reversed. The
  inscription lets us know, that he was Lieutenant-General of his
  Majesty’s armies; that he was son to Percy Kirk, Lieutenant-General in
  the reign of King James II. by the Lady Mary, daughter to George
  Howard Earl of Suffolk, and that he died Jan. 1, 1741, aged
  fifty-seven.

  68. We come now to the monument erected to the memory of that brave
  commander the Lord Aubrey Beauclerk, ornamented with arms, trophies,
  and naval ensigns, and in an oval nich on a beautiful pyramid of
  dove-coloured marble, is a fine bust of that young Hero. On this
  pyramid is the following historical inscription:

      The Lord Aubrey Beauclerk was the youngest son of Charles Duke
      of St. Albans, by Diana, daughter of Aubrey de Vere Earl of
      Oxford. He went early to sea, and was made a commander in
      1731. In 1740, he was sent upon that memorable expedition to
      Carthagena, under the command of Admiral Vernon, in his
      Majesty’s ship the Prince Frederic, which, with three others,
      was ordered to cannonade the castle of Boccachica. One of
      these being obliged to quit her station, the Prince Frederic
      was exposed, not only to the fire from the castle, but to that
      of Fort St. Joseph, and to two ships that guarded the mouth of
      the harbour, which he sustained for many hours that day, and
      part of the next, with uncommon intrepidity. As he was giving
      his commands upon deck, both his legs were shot off; but such
      was his magnanimity, that he would not suffer his wounds to be
      drest, till he communicated his orders to his first
      Lieutenant, which were, _To fight his ship to the last
      extremity_. Soon after this he gave some directions about his
      private affairs, and then resigned his soul with the dignity
      of a Hero and a Christian. Thus was he taken off in the
      thirty-first year of his age, an illustrious commander of
      superior fortitude and clemency, amiable in his person, steady
      in his affections, and equalled by few in the social and
      domestic virtues of politeness, modesty, candour, and
      benevolence. He married the widow of Col. Francis Alexander, a
      daughter of Sir Henry Newton, Knt. Envoy Extraordinary to the
      Court of Florence and the Republic of Genoa, and Judge of the
      high court of Admiralty.

  Over his inscription is the following epitaph:

            Whilst Britain boasts her Empire o’er the deep,
            This marble shall compel the brave to weep;
            As men, as Britons, and as soldiers mourn:
            ’Tis dauntless, loyal, virtuous Beauclerk’s urn.
            Sweet were his manners, as his soul was great,
            And ripe his worth, tho’ immature his fate;
            Each tender grace that joy and love inspires,
            Living, he mingled with his martial fires;
            Dying, he bid Britannia’s thunder roar,
            And Spain still felt him, when he breath’d no more.

  69. A beautiful monument erected to the memory of Admiral Balchen, on
  which is his bust well executed in the finest white marble. The
  enrichments, arms and trophies, are admirably wrought, but in
  fastening the cable to the anchor this excellent artist has shewn that
  he is no mariner. In the front is a fine representation of a ship in a
  storm. The inscription is as follows:

      To the memory of Sir John Balchen, Knt. Admiral of the White
      Squadron of his Majesty’s fleet in 1744, being sent out
      Commander in chief of the combined fleets of England and
      Holland, to cruize on the enemy, was on his return home in his
      Majesty’s ship the Victory, lost in the Channel by a violent
      storm; from which sad circumstance of his death we may learn,
      that neither the greatest skill, judgment, or experience,
      joined to the most firm unshaken resolution, can resist the
      fury of the winds and waves; and we are taught from the
      passages of his life, which were filled with great and gallant
      actions, but ever accompanied with adverse gales of fortune,
      that the brave, the worthy and the good man, meets not always
      his reward in this world. Fifty-eight years of faithful and
      painful services he had passed, when being just retired to the
      government of Greenwich Hospital to wear out the remainder of
      his days, he was once more, and for the last time, called out
      by his King and Country, whose interest he ever preferred to
      his own, and his unwearied zeal for their service ended only
      in his death; which weighty misfortune to his afflicted family
      became heightened by many aggravating circumstances attending
      it; yet amidst their grief had they the mournful consolation
      to find his gracious and royal Master mixing his concern with
      the general lamentations of the public, for the calamitous
      fate of so zealous, so valiant, and so able a Commander; and
      as a lasting memorial of the sincere love and esteem borne by
      his widow, to a most affectionate and worthy husband, this
      honorary monument was erected by her. He was born Feb. 2,
      1669, married Susannah, daughter of Col. Apreece of Washingly
      in the County of Huntingdon. Died Oct. 7, 1744, leaving one
      son and one daughter, the former of whom, George Balchen,
      survived him but a short time; for being sent to the West
      Indies in 1745, Commander of his Majesty’s ship the Pembroke,
      he died in Barbadoes in December the same year, aged 28,
      having walked in the steps, and imitated the virtue and
      bravery of his good, but unfortunate father.

  70. A noble and elegant monument erected in honour of General Guest.
  It is adorned with a pyramid and base of the most beautiful Egyptian
  porphyry, ornamented with the finest enrichments, and on the latter is
  an admirable bust of the General of white marble. The whole is
  executed in the most delicate and masterly manner. It has this short,
  but apposite inscription:

      Sacred to those virtues that adorn a Christian and a Soldier,
      this marble perpetuates the memory of Lieut. Gen. Joshua
      Guest, who closed a service of sixty years by faithfully
      defending Edinburgh castle against the Rebels, 1745.

  71. The next worthy of notice is the elegant monument of Sir Charles
  Wager. The principal figure here is that of Fame holding a portrait of
  Sir Charles in relief, which is also supported by an infant Hercules.
  The enrichments are naval trophies, instruments of war and navigation,
  &c. on the base is represented in relief the destroying and taking of
  the Spanish galleons in 1708, The inscription is as follows:

                 To the memory of Sir CHARLES WAGER, Knt.
        Admiral of the White, first Commissioner of the Admiralty,
                          And Privy Counsellor;
                     A man of great natural talents,
                      Who bore the highest commands,
               And pass’d through the greatest employments,
            With credit to himself, and honour to his country.
                          He was in private life
                 Humane, temperate, just, and bountiful:
                            In public station,
                   Valiant, prudent, wise, and honest:
                          Easy of access to all;
                   Plain and unaffected in his manners,
                   Steady and resolute in his conduct:
               So remarkably happy in his presence of mind,
                   That no danger ever discompos’d him;
                    Esteemed and favoured by his King;
                   Beloved and honoured by his Country.
                      He died 24 May 1743. Aged 77.

  72. The next tomb in the Abbey that demands our attention, is that
  erected to the memory of John Hollis Duke of Newcastle, by his
  daughter the Countess of Oxford. This is perhaps the loftiest and most
  costly of any in the Abbey. A pediment is supported by beautiful
  columns of variegated marble. The Duke is represented resting upon a
  sepulchral monument, holding in his right hand a General’s staff, and
  in his left a ducal coronet. On one side the base stands a statue of
  Wisdom, on the other, of Sincerity. On the angles of the upper
  compartment sit angels, and on the ascending sides of the pediment sit
  two cherubs, one with an hour-glass, alluding to the admeasurement of
  man’s life by grains of sand; the other pointing upwards, where life
  shall no longer be measured by hours and minutes. On the base is an
  inscription enumerating his Grace’s titles, and several employments;
  his marriage and issue; and informing us that he was born Jan. 9,
  1661–2, and died July 15, 1711.

  73. The monument of William Cavendish Duke of Newcastle is also very
  pompous, but is in the old taste. Under a rich canopy of state lie, as
  the inscription expresses it, “The loyal Duke of Newcastle, and his
  Duchess, his second wife, by whom he had no issue: her name was
  Margaret Lucas, youngest sister to Lord Lucas of Colchester, a noble
  family; for all the brothers were valiant, and all the sisters
  virtuous. The Duchess was a wise, witty, and learned Lady, which her
  many books do well testify: She was a most virtuous, and a loving and
  careful wife, and was with her Lord all the time of his banishment and
  miseries; and when he came home, never parted from him in his solitary
  retirements.” This is the English inscription. The Latin gives his
  titles and employments; and observes, that for his fidelity to King
  Charles I. he was made Captain-General of the forces raised for his
  service in the North, fought many battles, and generally came off
  victorious; but that when the rebels prevailed (being one of the first
  designed a sacrifice) he left his estate, and endured a long exile. It
  then gives his issue by his first wife, and concludes with observing,
  that he died Dec. 27, 1676, in his eighty-fourth year.

  74. On the adjoining pillar is a neat tablet, on which is this
  inscription:

      Grace, eldest daughter of Sir Thomas Mauleverer of Allerton
      Mauleverer in Yorkshire, Bart. born 1622, married unto Col.
      Scott, a member of the Hon. House of Commons 1644, and died
      Feb. 24, 1645.

               He that will give my GRACE but what is hers,
                 Must say her death has not
                 Made only her dear SCOTT,
               But Virtue, Worth, and Sweetness, widowers.

  75. The monument of Dame Mary James is neatly ornamented with an urn,
  wreathed and crowned with a Viscount’s coronet, on a handsome pedestal
  The inscription observes that this Lady was wife to Sir John James, of
  the ancient family of the Lords of Hostrick in Holland, and that she
  died Nov. 6, 1667.

  76. A magnificent and elegant monument of white marble to the memory
  of Sir Peter Warren, done by Roubiliac. Close to the wall is a large
  flag hanging to the flag-staff, and spreading in very natural folds
  behind the whole monument. Before it is a fine figure of Hercules
  placing Sir Peter’s bust on its pedestal; and on the other side,
  Victory, with a laurel wreath in her hand, is seated gazing on the
  bust with a look of melancholy mixed with admiration. Behind her a
  Cornucopia pours out fruit, corn, the fleece, &c. and by it is a
  cannon, an anchor, and other decorations. The inscription is as
  follows:

                           Sacred to the memory
                           Of Sir PETER WARREN,
                           Knight of the Bath,
                     Vice-Admiral of the Red Squadron
                          Of the British Fleet,
                         And Member of Parliament
                 For the City and Liberty of Westminster.

  And a little lower:

        He derived his descent from an ancient Family of IRELAND,
           His fame and honours from his virtues and abilities.
                   How eminently these were displayed,
            With what vigilance and spirit they were exerted,
      In the various services wherein he had the honour to command,
                      And the happiness to conquer,
             Will be more properly recorded in the annals of
                              GREAT BRITAIN.
              On this tablet, affection with truth may say,
                That deservedly esteemed in private life,
             And universally renowned for his public conduct,
                    The judicious and gallant officer
            Possessed all the amiable qualities of the Friend,
                    The Gentleman, and the Christian.
                            But the ALMIGHTY,
                          Whom alone he feared,
         And whose gracious protection he had often experienced,
             Was pleased to remove him from a life of honour
                       To an eternity of happiness,
        On the 29th day of July 1752, in the 49th year of his age.

  On the bottom of the base:

            Susannah, his afflicted wife, caused this monument
                              to be erected.

  77. The monument inscribed to the memory of Sir Gilbert Lort, of
  Stackpole in Pembrokeshire, who died Sept. 19, 1698, was erected to
  his memory by his sister Dame Elizabeth Campbell of Calder in
  Scotland. The author of _The Review of the public buildings_, &c.
  observes, that the two boys here placed on each side a little tomb,
  are in a very pretty taste, and a perfect contrast to each other; one
  representing passionate, exclamatory grief, and the other still and
  silent; and adds, “’Tis pity they are divided by so bad an ornament in
  the middle: had they leaned on a single urn, which, in the antique
  taste, might have been supposed to hold his ashes, they would have had
  a fine effect, and challenged more admiration than many a more pompous
  and expensive pile.”

  78. The monument erected to Hugh Chamberlayne, M.D. was some years ago
  esteemed one of the best pieces in the Abbey; but some of the later
  monuments greatly exceed it. The principal figure lies, as it were, at
  ease, upon a tomb stone, leaning upon his right arm, with his hand
  upon his night cap, and his head uncovered. In his left hand, he holds
  a book, to shew his intense application to study. On each side are the
  emblems of Physic and Longevity; and over his head, is Fame descending
  with a trumpet in one hand, and a wreath in the other. On the top are
  weeping cherubs, and on the pedestal a long Latin inscription, which
  mentions his great knowledge and industry in his profession, his
  humanity in relieving the sick, and his affinities and connections in
  social and private life. He died June 17, 1728, aged sixty-four.

  79. The tomb of Almericus de Courcy, Baron of Kinsale, in Ireland, is
  ornamented with the figure of his Lordship in armour, reposing himself
  after the fatigues of an active life, under a gilded canopy. The
  inscription shews, that he was descended from the famous John de
  Courcy, Earl of Ulster, who in the reign of King John, in
  consideration of his great valour, obtained the extraordinary
  privilege for him and his heirs, of being covered in the King’s
  presence. Almericus de Courcy died Feb. 9, 1719, aged fifty-seven.

  80. The monument of Sir Thomas Duppa is adorned with flowers and
  foliage, and on the top with an urn wreathed. The inscription shews,
  that Sir Thomas in his youth waited upon King Charles II. when Prince
  of Wales, and at length became Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, in
  which office he died April 25, 1694, aged 75.

  81. We come now to a monument that has been much admired, and as much
  censured, that of Dame Elizabeth Carteret, who died on the 26th of
  March, 1717, aged fifty-two. This Lady is represented springing
  upwards, with only one foot fixed to the earth, and a little winged
  seraph descending to receive her; but the disproportions are so great
  between them, that one cannot help thinking, that it is much more
  likely she should pull the aerial messenger down, than he raise her
  one inch from the ground; but what is still worse, her attitude is
  such, that it is impossible she should know that he is coming to give
  her a lift. Below her hovering on the base, is another of these
  heavenly spirits unfolding a very indifferent epitaph.

  82. We come now to the grand and magnificent monument of the great Sir
  Isaac Newton, whose statue is formed recumbent, leaning his right arm
  on four folios, thus titled DIVINITY, CHRONOLOGY, OPTICS, and PHIL:
  PRIN: MATH: and pointing to a scroll supported by cherubs. Over him is
  a large globe projecting from a pyramid behind, whereon is delineated
  the course of the comet in 1680, with the signs, constellations and
  planets. On this globe sits the figure of Astronomy, with her book
  closed, in a very thoughtful composed and pensive mood. Beneath the
  principal figure is a very fine bas relief, representing the various
  labours in which Sir Isaac chiefly employed his time: such as
  discovering the cause of gravitation, settling the principles of light
  and colours, and reducing the coinage to a determined standard. The
  inscription on the pedestal is in Latin, short, but full of meaning,
  intimating, that by a spirit nearly divine, he solved on principles of
  his own, the motion and figure of the planets, the paths of the
  comets, and the ebbing and flowing of the sea; that he discovered the
  dissimularity of the rays of light, and the properties of colours from
  thence arising, which none but himself had ever dreamt of; that he was
  a diligent, wise and faithful interpreter of nature, antiquity, and
  the holy scriptures; that by his philosophy he maintained the dignity
  of the Supreme Being; and by the purity of his life, the simplicity of
  the gospel; and it concludes with a just exclamation, What reason have
  mortals to pride themselves in the existence of so great an ornament
  to the human race! He was born Dec. 25, 1642, and died in 1726.

  So noble a monument erected to real merit, is a greater honour to the
  nation than to the great genius for whom it was raised; in this light
  it is viewed by all Europe.

  83. On the other side of the entrance into the choir is another lofty
  and pompous monument. This last was erected to the memory of Earl
  Stanhope, who is also represented leaning upon his arm in a recumbent
  posture, holding in his right hand a General’s staff, and in his left
  a parchment scroll. Before him stands a cupid resting upon a shield.
  Over a martial tent sits Minerva, holding in her right hand a javelin,
  and in the other a scroll. Behind is a slender pyramid. On the middle
  of the pedestal are two medalions, and on each side the pilasters one.
  In short, under the principal figure is a Latin inscription,
  displaying the merits of this great man, as a soldier, a statesman,
  and a senator: observing, that in 1707, he concluded an advantageous
  peace with Spain; and the same year was sent Embassador to Charles
  III. In 1708, he took Port Mahon: In 1710, he forced his way to the
  gates of Madrid, and took possession of that capital: In 1715, being
  of the Secret Committee, he impeached the Duke of Ormond. In 1717 he
  was made first Commissioner of the treasury, and Chancellor of the
  exchequer; and in July following was created a Peer. He died in 1721,
  in the forty-seventh year of his age.

  84. Mr. Thynne’s monument has always been esteemed a very fine one.
  That gentleman is represented dying, and at his feet is a boy weeping.
  Underneath on a table of black marble in white letters is this short
  inscription:

      Thomas Thynne of Longleate in Com. Wilts, Esq; who was
      barbarously murdered on Sunday the 12th of February, 1682.

  And upon the pedestal the story of his murder is finely represented in
  relief.

  This last observation makes it necessary to give the particulars of
  this murder, which we shall do from a very accurate, tho’ small work,
  from which we have obtained considerable assistance in the description
  of many things relating to the Abbey. The above murder was conspired
  by Count Koningsmark, and executed by three assassins hired for that
  purpose, who shot this unhappy gentleman in Pall-Mall, in his own
  coach. The motive was, to obtain the rich heiress of Northumberland in
  marriage, who in her infancy had been betrothed to the Earl of Ogle,
  but left a widow before consummation; and afterwards married to Mr.
  Thynne; but being scarce fifteen, and her mother extremely tender of
  her, and at the same time desirous of her having issue, prevailed upon
  her husband to travel another year before he bedded her, in which time
  she became acquainted with Koningsmark at the Court of Hanover.
  Whether she had ever given him any countenance is uncertain; but
  having no grounds to hope to obtain her while her husband lived, he in
  this villainous manner accomplished his death: the Lady, however,
  detested this base and inhuman conduct, and soon after married the
  great Duke of Somerset.—At the time this happened, a report was spread
  that Mr. Thynne had formerly debauched a woman of family and
  character, on honourable pretences; but upon his uncle’s leaving him
  10,000_l._ a year; he basely deserted her; whence arose the saying,
  that _he had escaped his misfortune, if he had either married the Lady
  he had lain with, or lain with the Lady he had married_. But we do not
  pretend to insinuate that there was any truth in this story. It may
  probably be only a cruel piece of defamation. _Historical Description
  of Westminster Abbey._

  85. The monument of Dame Grace Gethin, is ornamented with a figure of
  a Lady devoutly kneeling, with a book in her right hand, and her left
  on her breast; on each side is an angel, one holding over her head a
  crown, and the other a chaplet; and on the ascending sides of the
  pediment are two female figures in a mournful posture. It is adorned
  with three different coats of family arms, and on the base is an
  English inscription, which also lets us know that she was married to
  Sir Richard Gethin of Gethin Grott in Ireland; was famed for her
  exemplary piety, and wrote a book of devotions, which Mr. Congreve has
  complimented with a poem. She died Oct. 11, 1697, aged twenty-one.

  86. A monument erected to the memory of two sisters, the daughters of
  Ralph Freke of Hannington in Wilts, Esq; whose busts in relief
  ornament the sides. The inscription observes, that the eldest, named
  Elizabeth, was married to Percey Freke of West Bilney in Norfolk, and
  died on the 7th of April 1714; that Judith the youngest married Robert
  Austin of Tenterden in Kent, and died May 19, 1716: and that they were
  both the best of daughters, the best of wives, and the best of
  mothers.

  87. A large monument of black marble erected to the memory of Sir
  Thomas Richardson, Lord Chief Justice of England in the reign of King
  Charles I. He died in 1634, and his tomb is adorned with his effigy in
  brass, lying in his robes, and his collar of S S.

  88. An ancient monument raised to the memory of William Thynne of
  Botterville, Esq.; it is of marble and alabaster gilt, and is adorned
  with the statue of that gentleman lying at full length. The
  inscription informs us, that he was a polite gentleman, a great
  traveller, and a brave soldier, and that he died on the 14th of March
  1584.

  89. A very handsome monument erected for that learned grammarian Dr.
  Busby, master of Westminster school; who is represented in his gown,
  looking earnestly at the inscription; holding in his right hand a pen,
  and in his left a book open. Upon the pedestal underneath are a
  variety of books, and at the top is his family arms. The inscription
  is a very elegant one, and intimates whatsoever fame the school of
  Westminster boasts, and whatever advantages mankind shall reap from
  thence in future times, are all principally owing to the wise
  institutions of this gentleman, who was born at Lutton in
  Lincolnshire, Sept. 22, 1606, and after being made Master of
  Westminster college was elected Prebendary of Westminster, and
  Treasurer of Wells. He died April 5, 1695.

  90. The next monument, is that erected to the memory of Robert South,
  D.D. who is represented in a recumbent posture in his canonical habit,
  with his arm resting on a cushion, and his right hand on a death’s
  head. In his left he holds a book with his finger between the leaves,
  as if just closed from reading, and over his head is a group of
  cherubs issuing from a mantling. This monument is however very badly
  executed, and the statue is clumsy and unmeaning. It has a long Latin
  inscription, shewing that this celebrated divine was scholar to Dr.
  Busby, and student at Christ Church, Oxford; that by the patronage of
  the Lord Clarendon he was made Prebendary both of Westminster and
  Christ Church, and afterwards rector of Islip, where he rebuilt the
  parsonage house, and founded and endowed a school for the education of
  poor children. He died on the 8th of July 1718, aged eighty-two.

  _The Monuments in the Cloisters._ The most ancient of these are
  towards the east end of the south walk, where lie the remains of four
  Abbots marked in the pavement by four stones.

  The first of these covers the Abbot Vitales, who died in 1082, and was
  formerly covered with brass plates.

  The second is of grey marble, to the memory of Gislebertus Crispinus,
  who died in 1114, and whose effigies may still be traced on the stone.

  Under the third, which is a raised stone of Sussex marble, lies the
  Abbot Laurentius, who died in 1176, and is said to be the first who
  obtained from Pope Alexander III. the privilege of using the mitre,
  ring and globe.

  The last is of black marble, and covers the ashes of Gervasius de
  Blois, who was natural son to King Stephen, and died in 1166. This is
  called Long Meg, from its extraordinary length, it being eleven feet
  eight inches. All these seem to have had their names and dates cut
  afresh.

  In the east walk is a handsome monument erected to the memory of
  Daniel Pulteney, Esq; facing those of the above Abbots; the
  inscription on which is much admired for the purity of the diction,
  and its propriety and elegance, and is as follows:

                                 Reader,
                          If thou art a BRITON,
               Behold this tomb with reverence and regret.
                        Here lieth the remains of
                             DANIEL PULTENEY,
                 The kindest relation, the truest friend,
                 The warmest patriot, the worthiest man;
                    He exercised virtues in this age,
          Sufficient to have distinguished him even in the best.
                           Sagacious by nature,
                          Industrious by habit,
                          Inquisitive with art,
         He gain’d a compleat knowledge of the state of Britain,
                          Foreign and domestic.
            In most the backward fruit of tedious experience,
           In him the early acquisition of undissipated youth.
                    He served the court several years:
              Abroad in the auspicious reign of Queen Anne,
   At home, in the reign of that excellent Prince K. George the First.
                      He served his country always,
                          At court independent,
                         In the senate unbiass’d,
                   At every age, and in every station:
                 This was the bent of his generous soul,
               This was the business of his laborious life.
                      Public men, and public things,
                   He judged by one constant standard,
                     _The true interest of Britain_;
                  He made no other distinction of party,
                          He abhorred all other:
                Gentle, humane, disinterested, beneficent,
                He created no enemies on his own account:
                      Firm, determined, inflexible,
         He feared none he could create in the cause of Britain.
                                 Reader,
            In this misfortune of thy country, lament thy own:
                                 For know
                    The loss of so much private virtue
                          Is a public calamity.

  Almost at the end of the north east walk is a monument against the
  Abbey wall to the memory of the Rev. Mr. William Laurence, the
  inscription on which is remarkable for its quaintness, and is as
  follows:

            With diligence and trust exemplary,
            Did William Laurence serve a Prebendary;
            And for his pains, now past, before not lost,
            Gain’d this remembrance at his master’s cost.
                O! read these lines again, you seldom find
                A servant faithful, and his master kind.
            Short-hand he wrote, his flower in prime did fade,
            And hasty death short hand of him hath made.
            Well couth he numbers, and well measur’d land,
            Thus doth he now that ground whereon we stand,
            Whereon he lies so geometrical,
            Art maketh some, but thus will Nature all.
                                  Ob. Dec. 28. 1621. Ætat. 29.


  [Illustration: _S. Wale delin._ _E. Rooker sc._ _Henry the Seventh’s
  Chapel._]


  _Henry the Seventh’s Chapel._ As this is a separate building from
  Westminster Abbey, we did not think proper to confound it with the
  other chapels; and as it is joined to the Abbey, we did not chuse to
  render it so distinct an article as it would have been, had we given
  it the place it would have demanded in the order of the alphabet. It
  is to be examined at the same time with that edifice, and we have
  followed the example of the architect in uniting them.

  This chapel, which was founded by Henry VII. in the year 1502, and the
  succeeding years, is styled by Leland the wonder of the world. It is
  situated to the east of the Abbey, to which it is so neatly joined,
  that on a superficial view it appears to be one and the same building.
  It is supported by fourteen Gothic buttresses, all beautifully
  ornamented, and projecting from the building in different angles, and
  is enlightened by a double range of windows that throw the light into
  such a happy disposition as at once to please the eye, and afford a
  kind of solemn gloom. These buttresses extend up to the roof, and are
  made to strengthen it by their being crowned with Gothic arches. In
  these buttresses are niches, in which formerly stood a number of
  statues; but these being greatly decayed, have been long taken down.

  This chapel is one of the most expensive remains of the ancient
  English taste and magnificence; there is no looking upon it without
  admiration: yet, perhaps, its beauty consists much more eminently in
  the workmanship than the contrivance. The plate shews the outside,
  where it joins to the Abbey, and gives some idea of the fine taste of
  Gothic architecture in that age, which seems to have been its
  meridian; but it soon fell into the bad taste practised in the time of
  Queen Elizabeth, as may be seen in the tomb of this Queen and her
  predecessor in the side aisles of this chapel.

  This may be sufficient for the outside of this edifice, the entrance
  to which is from the east end of the Abbey, by a flight of steps of
  black marble, under a very noble arch, that leads to the gates opening
  to the body or nave of the chapel: for, like a cathedral it is divided
  into a nave and side isles, to which you may enter by a door on each
  hand. The gates at the entrance of the nave are of brass curiously
  wrought in the manner of frame work, and have in every other open
  pannel a rose and portcullis alternately.

  Being entered, the eye is naturally directed to the lofty ceiling, in
  the most admirable manner wrought with such an astonishing variety of
  figures as is impossible to be described. The stalls on each side are
  of oak, with Gothic canopies, most beautifully carved, as are also the
  seats; and the pavement is of black and white marble, laid at the
  charge of Dr. Killigrew, once Prebendary of this Abbey. The east view
  from the entrance presents you with the brass chapel and tomb of the
  founder, which will be hereafter described, and round it where the
  east end forms a semicircle, are the chapels of the Dukes of
  Buckingham and Richmond. At that end the side isles open to the nave.
  It must not be omitted, that the walls both of the nave and the side
  isles are adorned with the most curious imagery imaginable, and
  contain an hundred and twenty statues of patriarchs, saints, martyrs
  and confessors, under which are angels supporting imperial crowns,
  besides innumerable small ones, all of them esteemed so curious, that
  the best masters are said to have travelled from abroad to copy them.
  The roof of the side isles is flattish, and supported on arches
  between the nave and side isles turning upon twelve stately Gothic
  pillars, curiously adorned with figures, fruitage and foliage. The
  windows, besides a spacious one at the east end, are thirteen on each
  side above and as many below, and were formerly painted, having in
  each pane a white rose, the badge of the house of Lancaster, a B the
  initial letter of the founder’s name, or portcullises crowned, the
  badge of the Beaufort’s family, of which there are some now remaining.

  This chapel was originally designed as a sepulchre appropriated solely
  to the use of those of royal blood; and so far has the will of the
  founder been observed, that none have been yet interred there, but
  those of high quality, whose descent may generally be traced from some
  of our ancient Kings: I shall therefore mention each of these tombs,
  beginning with that which is the most ancient, as well as the most
  astonishing.

  It has been already observed, that in the middle of the east end of
  the nave is situated the magnificent tomb of Henry VII. this is
  enclosed with a screen of cast brass, most admirably designed, and
  executed; this screen is nineteen feet in length, eleven in breadth,
  and the same in height. It is ornamented with statues, of which those
  only of St. James, St. Bartholomew, St. George, and St. Edward, are
  now remaining; and also adorned with other devices alluding to King
  Henry the Seventh’s family; as portcullises, signifying his relation
  to the Beaufort’s by his mother’s side; roses twisted and crowned, in
  memory of the union of the two houses of Lancaster and York, by his
  marriage; and at each end a crown in a bush, alluding to the crown of
  Richard III. found in a hawthorn bush, near Bosworth field, where the
  famous battle was fought in which Richard lost his life. Within the
  rails are the effigies of the royal pair, in their robes of state, on
  a tomb of black marble, the head whereof is supported by a red dragon
  the ensign of Cadwalladar, from whom King Henry VII. was fond of
  tracing his descent, and the foot by an angel.

  At the head of this tomb lie the remains of Edward VI. grandson to
  Henry VII. who died in the sixteenth year of his age, and the seventh
  of his reign. A fine monument was erected to his memory by Queen Mary,
  his sister and successor; it was adorned with curious sculpture
  representing the passion and resurrection of our Saviour; with two
  angels on the top kneeling; and the whole elegantly finished; but it
  was afterwards demolished as a relict of Popish superstition.

  On one side of Henry the Seventh’s tomb in a small chapel, in which is
  the monument of Lewis Stuart Duke of Richmond, and Frances his wife;
  whose statues in cast brass are represented lying on a marble table
  under a canopy of brass curiously wrought, and supported by the
  figures of Faith, Hope, Charity, and Prudence; and on the top is a
  figure of Fame taking her flight, and resting only on her toe.

  On the north side of Henry the Seventh’s tomb is a monument decorated
  with several emblematical figures in brass gilt; the principal is
  Neptune in a pensive posture with his trident reversed, and Mars with
  his head crushed; these support the tomb on which lie the effigies of
  George Villars Duke of Buckingham, the great favourite of King James
  I. and King Charles I. who fell a sacrifice to the national resentment
  by the hand of Felton. His Grace married Catharine, daughter to the
  Earl of Rutland, who erected this monument to his memory, and lies in
  effigy on the same tomb by his side. The Latin inscription, after
  recounting his noble qualities, and high titles, alludes to the story
  of his death.

  Of a later date, and superior in point of design and workmanship, is a
  noble monument erected to the memory of John Sheffield Duke of
  Buckingham, where his Grace’s statue in a Roman habit, is laid in a
  half raised posture on an altar of fine marble: his Duchess is
  represented standing at his feet weeping. On each side are military
  trophies; and over all an admirable figure of Time holding several
  medallions representing the heads of their Graces children. This
  monument is very justly admired. It has been observed, that the Duke
  himself appears the principal figure in the group, and though he lies
  in a recumbent posture, and his Lady is in the most beautiful manner
  placed at his feet, yet her figure is so characterized, as to be only
  a guide to his, and both reflect back a beauty on each other. The
  decorations are allowed to be extremely picturesque and elegant; the
  trophies at his head, the figure of Time above, with the medallions of
  his children, fill up all the spaces with such propriety, that little
  could be added, and nothing appears superfluous. The inscription sets
  forth the Duke of Buckingham’s posts, and his qualifications as a good
  poet, and a fine writer; and over his statue is inscribed in Latin
  sentences to the following purpose:

             I lived doubtful, not dissolute.
             I die unresolved, not unresigned.
             Ignorance and error are incident to human nature.
             I trust in an Almighty and All-good God.
             Thou King of Kings have mercy upon me.

  And underneath:

                For my King often, for my Country always.

      His Grace died in the 57th year of his age, Feb. 24, 1720,
      leaving the publication of his works to the care of Mr. Pope.
      He had three wives; the first, Ursula, Countess of Coventry;
      the second, Catharine, Countess of Gainsborough; the third,
      Catharine, Countess of Anglesey.

  In this isle there is a lofty pyramid supported by two griffins of
  gilt brass, on a pedestal of the most curious marble, erected to the
  memory of Charles Montague, Marquis of Halifax, son to George Montague
  of Horton. He was placed at the head of the treasury in the reign of
  King Charles I. and undertaking the reformation of the coin, which was
  then most infamously clipped, he restored it to its proper value. For
  this, and other public services, he was first created Baron, and then
  Marquis of Halifax.

  Against the east wall at the end of the north isle is a monument in
  the form of a beautiful altar, raised by King Charles II. to the
  memory of Edward V. and his brother Richard, on which is an
  inscription in Latin, to the following purport:

      Here lie the reliques of Edward V. King of England, and
      Richard Duke of York, who, being confined in the Tower, and
      there stifled with pillows, were privately and meanly buried,
      by order of their perfidious uncle Richard the Usurper. Their
      bones, long enquired after and wished for, after lying two
      hundred and one years in the rubbish of the stairs, lately
      leading to the chapel of the White Tower, were on the 17th of
      July 1674, by undoubted proofs discovered; being buried deep
      in that place. Charles II. pitying their unhappy fate, ordered
      these unfortunate Princes to be laid amongst the reliques of
      their predecessors, in the year 1678, and the 20th of his
      reign.

  At the east end of the same isle is a vault in which are deposited the
  bodies of King James I. and Anne his Queen, daughter to Frederic II.
  King of Denmark.

  Over this vault is a small tomb adorned with the figure of a child,
  erected to the memory of Mary the third daughter of James I. who was
  born at Greenwich in 1605, and died at two years old.

  There is also another monument on which is the representation of a
  child in a cradle, erected to the memory of Sophia, the fourth
  daughter of the same King, who was born at Greenwich in 1606, and died
  three days after.

  In the same isle is a lofty monument erected to the memory of Queen
  Elizabeth by King James I. her successor. The inscription represents
  her character, high descent, and the memorable acts of her glorious
  reign, “That she was the mother of her country, and the patroness of
  religion and learning; was herself skilled in many languages, adorned
  with every excellence of mind and person, and endowed with princely
  virtues beyond her sex: that in her reign religion was refined to its
  original purity; peace was established; money restored to its just
  value; domestic insurrections quelled; France delivered from intestine
  troubles; the Netherlands supported; the Spanish Armada defeated;
  Ireland, almost lost by the secret contrivances of Spain, recovered;
  the revenues of both universities improved by a law of provisions;
  and, in short, all England enriched. That she was a most prudent
  Governess, forty-five years a virtuous and triumphant Queen; truly
  religious, and blest in all her great affairs; and that after a calm
  and resigned death in the 70th year of her age, she left her mortal
  part to be deposited in this church, which she established upon a new
  footing, till by the word of Christ she is called to immortality.” She
  died March 24, 1602.

  In the south isle is a lofty and pompous tomb erected to the memory of
  Mary Queen of Scots, the mother of King James I. who flying into
  England from her rebellious subjects, was taken prisoner, tried and
  condemned for conspiring the death of Queen Elizabeth, and on the 8th
  of February 1587, beheaded on a scaffold erected in the hall of
  Fotheringhay Castle, in Northamptonshire. She was afterwards pompously
  interred by order of Queen Elizabeth, in the cathedral church of
  Peterborough; but upon the accession of her son to the throne of
  England, he ordered her remains to be removed from thence, and placed
  near this monument.

  Near the last monument is a tomb enclosed with iron rails, on which
  lies a Lady also finely robed, the effigies of Margaret Douglas,
  daughter of Margaret Queen of Scots by the Earl of Angus. Her son the
  Lord Darnely, father to King James I. is represented foremost on the
  tomb kneeling, with the crown over his head, and there are seven other
  of her children represented round the tomb. This great Lady, though
  she herself never sat on the throne, had, according to the English
  inscription, King Edward IV. to her great grandfather; Henry VII. to
  her grandfather; Henry VIII. to her uncle; Edward VI. to her cousin
  german; James V. of Scotland to her brother; Henry I. of Scotland to
  her son; James VI. to her brother. Having to her great grandmother and
  grandmother two Queens, both named Elizabeth; to her mother, Margaret
  Queen of Scots; to her aunt, Mary the French Queen; to her cousins
  german, Mary and Elizabeth Queens of England; and to her niece and
  daughter-in-law, Mary Queen of Scots. This great Lady died March 10,
  1577.

  In the south side is likewise the monument of Margaret Countess of
  Richmond, mother to Henry VII. by her first husband Henry Tudor. She
  was afterwards married to Humphry Stafford, a younger son to Humphry
  Duke of Buckingham, and at last to Thomas Lord Stanley, Earl of Derby;
  but by the two last had no children. The inscription mentions the
  charities of this humane and generous Princess, particularly her
  founding two colleges at Oxford, Christ Church and St. John’s; and a
  grammar school at Winbourne. She died in July 1509, in the reign of
  her grandson Henry VIII.

  At the east end of this isle is the royal vault of King Charles II.,
  King William III., Queen Mary his Consort, Queen Anne, and Prince
  George.

  Over these royal Personages are their effigies (except that of Prince
  George) in wainscot presses; they are of wax work resembling life, and
  dressed in their coronation robes.

  Another wainscot press is placed at the corner of the great east
  window, in which is the effigy of the Lady Mary Duchess of Richmond,
  daughter to James Duke of Richmond and Lenox, dressed in the very
  robes her Grace wore at the coronation of Queen Anne.

  On leaving this isle you will be shewn in another wainscot press the
  effigies of General Monk, who had a great share in the restoration of
  King Charles II. to the throne of England, and was interred in a vault
  appropriated to him and his family. He is represented in armour, and
  his ducal cap is generally made use of by those who shew this chapel,
  to receive the bounty of those who visit it; these persons having no
  share of the money paid for seeing it.

  Thus have we given a description of every thing remarkable in the
  Abbey, and that venerable pile adjoining to it, called Henry the
  Seventh’s chapel; we have mentioned and described the monuments in
  both that are worthy of notice, and we shall conclude this article
  with the following reflections, extracted from an ingenious writer, on
  this subject.

      “However amiable fame may be to the living, ’tis certain no
      advantage to the dead, whatever dangers they have dared,
      whatever toils they have undergone, whatever difficulties they
      have surmounted; the grave is deaf to the voice of applause,
      and the dust of the noble and vulgar sleep in the same
      obscurity together. ’Tis possible the conscious spirit may
      have an idea of the honour that is paid to his ashes; but ’tis
      much more probable, that the prospect of this imaginary glory,
      while he lived among us, was all the pleasure it ever could
      afford him. I make this observation, because most monuments
      are said to be erected as an honour to the dead, and the
      living are supposed to be the least concerned in them: but one
      man’s fame is made the foundation of another’s, in the same
      manner with the gentleman’s, who ordered this sentence to be
      made his epitaph; HERE LIES SIR PHILIP SIDNEY’S FRIEND. Some
      there are that mention only the names of the persons whose
      dust they cover, and preserve a noble silence with regard to
      the hand that raised them; but even here, the dead can receive
      no benefit from such disinterested affection; but the living
      may profit much by so noble an example. Another thing that
      displeases me is the manner of the inscriptions, which
      frequently mistake the very design of engraving them, and as
      frequently give the lie to themselves. To pore one’s self
      blind in guessing out _Æternæ Memoriæ Sacrum_, is a jest, that
      would make Heraclitus laugh; and yet most of them begin in
      that pompous taste, without the least reflection that brass
      and marble can’t preserve them from the tooth of Time; and if
      men’s actions have not guarded their reputations, the proudest
      monument would flatter in vain. Sepulchral monuments should be
      always considered as the last public tribute paid to virtue;
      as a proof of our regard for noble characters, and most
      particularly as an excitement to others to emulate the great
      example.

      “It is certain there is not a nobler amusement, than a walk
      in Westminster Abbey, among the tombs of heroes, patriots,
      poets, and philosophers; you are surrounded with the shades
      of your great forefathers; you feel the influence of their
      venerable society, and grow fond of fame and virtue in the
      contemplation: ’tis the finest school of morality, and the
      most beautiful flatterer of imagination in nature. I appeal
      to any man’s mind that has any taste for what is sublime and
      noble, for a witness to the pleasure he experiences on this
      occasion; and I dare believe he will acknowledge, that there
      is no entertainment so various, or so instructive. For my
      own part, I have spent many an hour of pleasing melancholy
      in its venerable walks; and have been more delighted with
      the solemn conversation of the dead, than the most sprightly
      sallies of the living. I have examined the characters that
      were inscribed before me, and distinguished every particular
      virtue. The monuments of real fame, I have viewed with real
      respect; but the piles that wanted a character to excuse
      them, I considered as the monuments of folly. I have
      wandered with pleasure into the most gloomy recesses of this
      last resort of grandeur, to contemplate human life, and
      trace mankind thro’ all the wilderness of their frailties
      and misfortunes, from their cradles to their grave. I have
      reflected on the shortness of our duration here, and that I
      was but one of the millions who had been employed in the
      same manner, in ruminating on the trophies of mortality
      before me; that I must moulder to dust in the same manner,
      and quit the scene to a new generation, without leaving the
      shadow of my existence behind me; that this huge fabric,
      this sacred repository of fame and grandeur, would only be
      the stage for the same performances; would receive new
      accessions of noble dust; would be adorned with other
      sepulchres of cost and magnificence; would be crouded with
      successive admirers; and at last, by the unavoidable decays
      of time, bury the whole collection of antiquities in general
      obscurity, and be the monument of its own ruin.”

ABBOTS LANGLEY, a village in Hertfordshire, situated to the east of
  Kings Langley, and three or four miles to the S. W. of St. Alban’s, to
  whose abbey it once belonged. It is famous for being the birth place
  of Nicholas Breakspeare, who was made Pope by the title of Adrian IV.
  and had his stirrup held by the Emperor Frederic while he dismounted:
  but notwithstanding his pride, it is a still more indelible stain to
  his memory, that when Sovereign Pontiff, he suffer’d his mother to be
  maintained by the alms of the church of Canterbury. This place gives
  the title of Baron to the Lord Raymond, who has a seat in this
  neighbourhood.

ABBS COURT, in the parish of Walton upon Thames in Surrey. The Lord of
  this Manor, which is also called APS, used formerly upon All-Saints
  Day to give a barrel of beer, and a quarter of corn baked into loaves,
  to as many poor as came. This charity was begun in the days of Popery,
  in order, as ’tis supposed, to encourage the prayers for deliverance
  of souls out of purgatory.

ABCHURCH _lane_, 1. Gracechurch street.☐ 2.Lombard street.☐ See _St._
  Mary Abchurch.

ABEL _court_, Rosemary lane.

ABEL’S _buildings_, Rosemary lane.†

ABINGDON _buildings_, Old Palace yard.

ABINGDON _street_, near Old Palace yard.

ACADEMY _court_, Chancery lane.

Acorn _alley_, Bishopsgate street, without.*

ACORN _court_, Bishopsgate street, without.*

ACTON (EAST) a village six miles from London, a little to the north of
  the Oxford Road, noted for the medicinal wells near it, which are
  frequented in the summer months.

ACTON (WEST) a village in the road to Oxford, situated seven miles from
  London.

ADAM-A-DIGGING _yard_, Peter street, Westminster.*

ADAM AND EVE _alley_, 1. Barnaby street.* 2. by West Smithfield.*

ADAM AND EVE _court_, 1. Oxford street.* 2. Tottenham court road.* 3.
  West Smithfield.* 4. Hatchet alley, Whitechapel. 5. Petticoat lane.*

ADAM AND EVE _yard_, 1. Homerton.* 2. Ratcliff highway.*

ADAM’S _court_, 1. Little Broad street.† 2. Pig street.† 3. Sharp’s
  buildings, Duke’s place.† 4. Near Swan’s close.†

ADAM’S _mews_, 1. Audley street.† 2. Charles street near Mount street.†

ADAM’S _yard_, Hockley in the Hole. †

ADDINGTON, a village in Surrey, three miles from Croydon, situated at
  the descent of a high spacious common to which it gives name. Its
  church, though said to be above 300 years old, is still very firm. But
  what is most remarkable, is, that the Lord of the Manor held it in the
  reign of Henry III. by the service of making his Majesty a mess of
  pottage in an earthen pot in the King’s kitchen at his coronation; and
  so late as the coronation of King Charles II. Thomas Leigh, Esq; then
  Lord of the Manor, made a mess according to his tenure, and brought it
  to his Majesty’s table, when that King accepted of his service, though
  he did not taste what he had prepared.

ADDISON’S _yard_, Peter street, Westminster. †

ADDLE _hill_, Great Carter lane, Thames street.

ADDLE _street_, Wood street, Cheapside.

ADMIRALTY _court_. This court, which is held in Doctors Commons, was
  formerly under the direction of the Lord High Admiral, as it is now
  under the Lords of the Admiralty, who here take cognisance of all
  causes relating to merchants and mariners. The proceedings are in the
  Civil Law. The plaintiff gives security to prosecute, and if cast, to
  pay what shall be adjudged, and likewise to stand to all his proctor
  shall transact in his name. But in criminal cases, as the trial of
  pirates, and crimes committed at sea, the process, by a special
  commission, is by a judge, jury and witnesses, a Judge of the Common
  Law assisting: on which occasion the court is commonly held at the
  Session-house in the Old Bailey. The officers of this court are the
  Judge of the Admiralty, who must be a Civilian, an Advocate and
  Proctor, a Register, and a Marshal, who carries a silver oar before
  the Judge.


  [Illustration: _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._ _Admiralty_]


ADMIRALTY _office_, an edifice built with brick and stone, on the west
  side of the street, opposite to Scotland yard. The east front, which
  is that represented in the print, has two deep wings, and is entered
  by a very lofty portico supported by four very large stone columns of
  the Ionic Order, to which there is an ascent by a few steps.

  The importance of this building is what recommends it to notice. The
  portico, which was intended as an ornament, rather disgusts than
  pleases, by the immoderate height and ill shape of the columns.

  In this office are transacted all martime affairs belonging to the
  jurisdiction of the Admiralty, who here regulate the affairs of the
  navy; nominate Admirals, Captains, and other officers to serve on
  board his Majesty’s ships of war, and give orders for the trial of
  those who have failed in their duty, or been guilty of other
  irregularities.

ADMIRALTY _office yard_, Whitehall.☐

ADSCOMB, in Surrey near Croydon, is the seat of William Draper, Esq; the
  paintings and furniture of which are fine.

ADVOCATES _of Doctors Commons_. See DOCTORS COMMONS.

AFFIDAVIT _office_, in Symond’s inn. This office belongs to the Masters
  in Chancery, where one or more of them constantly attend to take
  affidavits, and there all affidavits belonging to the Court of
  Chancery are filed.

AFRICAN COMPANY. The English first sent ships to Africa on account of
  commerce about the year 1553, from which time the trade to that
  country was carried on by private hands till 1588, when Queen
  Elizabeth, by her letters patent, erected a company, for the more
  effectual promoting of that trade, which then was only for gold,
  elephants teeth, and Guinea pepper; for the use of negroes was not yet
  introduced into America.

  This company was greatly encouraged during the reigns of James I. and
  Charles I. but the Dutch taking several forts on the coast of Africa
  from the Portuguese, committed great depredations on the English, upon
  which Charles II. the better to enable his subjects to carry on that
  trade, incorporated a body of merchants, in the year 1662, by the
  title of _The Company of Royal Adventurers of England to Africa_: but
  the subscriptions for carrying on this precarious commerce not
  answering the expectation of the incorporated merchants, they were
  soon involved in debt, and reduced to such difficulties as rendered
  them unable to continue their trade to advantage; wherefore they
  agreed for a certain sum, to surrender their charter to the crown, and
  to assign all their estates and effects both at home and abroad to
  certain merchants, who intended to erect a new company, for the more
  effectual carrying on a trade to Africa: these merchants the King
  incorporated in the year 1672, and these were the Royal African
  company, who had a power to trade from the port of Sallee, to the Cape
  of Good Hope, exclusive of all the King’s other subjects, during the
  term of a thousand years.

  By virtue of this royal grant, the company made a considerable
  progress in erecting forts, and settling factors: but their trade
  being laid open by parliament in the year 1697, they were rendered
  unable to support their forts, it was therefore enacted, that all
  private traders to Africa should pay ten _per cent._ to the company
  for that purpose.

  This duty did not however answer the end for which it was granted, and
  the company was obliged to apply to parliament in the year 1730 for
  relief, when they obtained a certain sum for that purpose, and it was
  enacted that all his Majesty’s subjects treading to and from Africa,
  between Cape Blanco and the Cape of Good Hope, should hereafter be
  deemed a body corporate, and that all the countries, islands, rivers
  and places, together with the forts, should be in the possession of
  this new company; the members of which should not trade to or from
  Africa in their joint capacity, have any joint or transferable stock,
  or borrow money on their common seal. That the persons trading or
  intending to trade to Africa, should pay to the Chamberlain of London,
  the Clerk of the Merchants-hall in Bristol, or the Town Clerk of
  Liverpool, 40_s._ each for the freedom of the new company. That the
  management of the affairs of this new company, should be under the
  direction of a committee of nine persons, to be chosen annually, three
  out of the members in the city of London, three out of those of
  Bristol, and three out of those of Liverpool. That this committee
  should have power to make orders for the government and improvement of
  the forts and factories; to appoint governors, and other officers
  civil and military; to receive annually the sum of 40_s._ and to take
  a list of the names of all the persons making payment.

  It is also enacted, that the committee shall once a year give an
  account of all their transactions to the Commissioners for trade and
  plantations, and likewise lay before the Cursitor Baron of the
  Exchequer, an account, upon oath, of all the money they have received
  within the preceding year, and the application thereof; and the Lords
  of the Admiralty are to give instructions to the Captains of such of
  his Majesty’s ships of war as shall be stationed or ordered to cruize
  within the above limits, to inspect, and make report to them from time
  to time of the state of the forts and settlements, copies of which are
  to be laid before the parliament every sessions.

  This is the state at present of this company, who keep their office in
  Cooper’s court, Cornhill.

AGNES _court_, Little George street.

_St._ AGNES LE CLARE _fields_, near Hoxton, so called from a spring of
  water dedicated to that Saint, and now converted into a cold bath.

AILSBURY _court_, George street.

AILSBURY _street_, 1. By Jermyn street. 2. St. John’s street,
  Clerkenwell green.

AINGER _street_, York street.†

AIR _street_, 1. Piccadilly.† 2. By Mary la bone.† 3. Leather lane.†

AKERSLEY _yard_, Great St. Anne’s street.†

ALAM _yard_, Crutched Friars.

_St._ ALBAN’S, a large and very ancient town in Hertfordshire, 21 miles
  from London, was so called from St. Alban, who suffered in the
  persecution under Dioclesian, and being afterwards canonized, and
  interred on a hill in the neighbourhood of this town, a monastery was
  erected and dedicated to him by King Offa. King Edward I. erected a
  magnificent cross in memory of Queen Eleanor; and King Edward VI.
  incorporated this town by a charter, granting the inhabitants a Mayor,
  a Steward, a Chamberlain, and ten Burgesses: but the Mayor and Steward
  are here the only Justices of peace. Here are three churches, besides
  the ancient cathedral called St. Alban’s, belonging to the monastery,
  which is now a parish church.

  In this ancient edifice is a funeral monument and effigies of King
  Offa, its founder, who is represented seated on his throne; and
  underneath is the following inscription:

                  Fundator Ecclesiæ circa annum 793.
              Quem male depictum, et residentem cernitis alte
              Sublimem solio, MERCIUS OFFA fuit.

                                 That is,

                _The founder of the church, about the year 793.
            Whom you behold ill-painted on his throne
            Sublime, was once for_ MERCIAN OFFA _known._

  On the east side stood the shrine of St. Alban, where the following
  short inscription is still to be seen;

      S. ALBANUS VEROLAMENSIS, ANGLORUM PROTOMARTYR, 17 Junii 293.

  In the south isle near the above shrine is the monument of Humphry,
  brother to King Henry V. commonly distinguished by the title of the
  Good Duke of Gloucester. It is adorned with a ducal coronet, and the
  arms of France and England quartered. In niches on one side are
  seventeen Kings; but in the niches on the other side there are no
  statues remaining. The inscription, which alludes to the pretended
  miraculous cure of a blind man detected by the Duke, is as follows:

                      Piæ Memoriæ V. Opt. Sacrum.
            Hic jacet HUMPHREDUS, Dux ille Glocestrius olim,
            HENRICI Sexti protector, fraudis ineptæ
            Detector, dum ficta notat miracula cœci.
            Lumen erat patriæ, columen venerabile regni,
            Pacis amans, Musisque favens melioribus; unde
            Gratum opus Oxonio, quæ nunc schola sacra refulget.
            Invida sed mulier regno, regi, sibi nequam,
            Abstulit hunc, humili vix hoc dignata sepulcro.
            Invidia rumpente tamen, post funera vivit.

  Which has been thus translated:

                    _Sacred to the memory of the best of men._
            Interr’d within this consecrated ground,
            Lies he, whom HENRY his protector found:
            Good HUMPHRY, Gloc’ster’s Duke, who well could spy
            Fraud couch’d within the blind impostor’s eye.
            His country’s light, the state’s rever’d support,
            Who peace and rising learning deigned to court;
            Whence his rich library at Oxford plac’d,
            Her ample schools with sacred influence grac’d:
            Yet fell beneath an envious woman’s wile,
            Both to herself, her King, and country vile;
            Who scarce allowed his bones this spot of land:
            Yet spite of envy shall his glory stand.

  About 40 years ago in digging a grave, a pair of stairs were
  discovered that lead down into a vault where his leaden coffin was
  found, in which his body was preserved entire, by a kind of pickle in
  which it lay, only the flesh was wasted from the legs, the pickle at
  that end being dried up. Many curious medals and coins are to be seen
  in the church, that have been dug out of the ruins of Old Verulam that
  stood on the other side of the river Ver, or Moore, which runs south
  west of the town.

  Near St. Alban’s is a fort, at a place called by the common people the
  Oyster Hills, which is supposed to have been the camp of Ostorius, the
  Roman Proprætor. This town is the largest in the county, and besides
  the four churches, has several meeting-houses, two charity schools,
  and three fairs, and has on Saturday one of the best markets for wheat
  in England. It gives the title of Duke to the noble family of
  Beauclerc. The great John Duke of Marlborough erected a seat here,
  called Holloway-house, and several neat alms-houses have been built
  here by him and his Duchess.

_St._ ALBAN’S, _Wood street_, on the north side of London, and the east
  side of Wood street, Cheapside, is dedicated to St. Alban, the British
  Proto-Martyr, who suffered under the persecution of Dioclesian. The
  first church in this place was erected in the year 930, and dedicated
  to the same Saint. After various repairs, the old church was pulled
  down in 1634, and another erected, which was destroyed by the fire of
  London thirty-two years after, when the present edifice was built from
  the same model as the former. It is entirely in the Gothic stile, and
  consists of a spacious body, and a handsome tower with pinacles.

  This church is a rectory in the patronage of Eton College, and the
  parish of St. Olave, Silver street, is united to it. The Rector,
  besides other advantages, receives 170_l._ in lieu of tithes.

  Munday in his edition of Stow mentions several uncommon epitaphs in
  this church, from which we have only selected the following:

                 Hic jacet Tom Shorthose,
                   Sine tombe, sine sheet, sine riches,
                 Qui vixit sine gowne,
                   Sine cloake, sine shirt, sine breeches.

_St._ ALBAN’S _street_, Pall-mall.

ALBEMARLE _buildings_, Bond street, so called from the Duke of
  Albemarle, who bought the Earl of Clarendon’s seat, which stood here,
  and afterwards selling the house and gardens, they were laid out into
  streets, whence arose this and the two following streets.

ALBEMARLE _mews_, Dover street.

ALBEMARLE _street_. 1. Piccadilly, 2. St. John’s street, West
  Smithfield.†

  In the possession of Richard Mead, Esq; in Albemarle street, is a book
  bought out of the collection of the famous Cardinal Maximi at Rome; it
  contain 148 accurate and elegant paintings in water colours, done from
  ancient pictures found on the walls, ceilings and floors of the baths
  of Titus, and various other buildings in Rome, some of which have been
  engraved by Bartoli in his _Sepolchri di Nassoni_, and in other books:
  but many of them are to be seen no where else, neither engraved, nor
  on the walls from whence they were first copied, where they are much
  defaced by the weather, the smoke of torches, and other accidents.

  Of these ancient paintings on wall, Mr. Mead has also a very elegant
  little specimen representing Augustus restoring a crown to a conquered
  Prince in the presence of several of his courtiers, among which the
  faces of Mecænas and Horace may be distinguished.—This has been
  engraved and explained by Turnbull.

  An ancient Greek inscription, being eight lines of Hexameter and
  Pentameter verses on a marble brought from Asia, which had been a
  pedestal to a statue of Jupiter Urius. This has been engraved and
  explained by the learned Mr. Chishul in his _Antiquitates Asiaticæ_.

ALCOCK’S _rents_, Barnaby street.†

ALDERMANBURY, Cateaton street. This street was thus named from the
  Guildhall being anciently situated there, till falling to decay, the
  present hall was built at the end of King street, about the year 1420.
  The old hall must have been very ancient, as this street had the name
  of Aldermanbury so early as before the year 1189; and Mr. Maitland
  supposes that Edward the Confessor, who began his reign in 1042, had a
  considerable share in its first foundation.

ALDERMANBURY _Postern_, London wall.

ALDERMAN PARSONS’S _stairs_, St. Catharine’s.†

ALDERMAN’S _walk_, Bishopsgate street.

ALDERMEN. These are twenty-six in number, and each has his separate
  ward, to the government of which he is more immediately to attend.
  Those who have served the office of Lord Mayor, are said to be above
  the chair, and with three of the eldest that are next it, are justices
  of the peace by charter. All the Aldermen keep their wardmote for
  chusing ward officers, and settling the affairs of the ward; for
  redressing grievances, and presenting all defaults found in the ward.
  In the management of these affairs, every Alderman has his deputy,
  chosen out of the common council, and in some of the wards, that are
  very large, the Alderman has two deputies.

ALDERSGATE, which is situated 1265 feet south west of Cripplegate, is,
  in Stow’s opinion, one of the original gates of the city; but this is
  disputed by Maitland, who observes, that the epithet of Alder does not
  necessarily imply its antiquity, as some derive the name of the gate
  from Aldrich, a Saxon; others from the seniors or old men by whom it
  was built; and others from the great number of alder trees, which grew
  in that neighbourhood; whence he imagines that either of these
  opinions is more probable, than that this name was conferred upon it
  on account of its age, particularly as it is no where found to be
  mentioned before the conquest.

  The present gate was built in the year 1616, and being much damaged by
  the fire of London, was repaired in 1670. In a large square over the
  arch is King James I. on horseback, in the same posture as when he
  made his entry through this gate, on his coming to take possession of
  the crown. The arms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, are quartered
  above his head. In a nich on the east side is the prophet Jeremiah,
  with the words of the 25th verse of the 17th chapter of his book; and
  in a nich on the west side stands the prophet Samuel, with the first
  verse of the 12th chap. of 1 Sam. On the south side is King James I.
  in his royal robes, sitting in a chair of state, done in relief. By
  the sides of the gate there are two posterns for the convenience of
  foot passengers: and the apartments above are appropriated to the use
  of the common crier of the city.

  A late author observes, that this gate is so heavy and Gothic a
  structure, that it hardly deserves notice, unless for the sake of the
  bass relief of King James, which, though in an aukward and inelegant
  taste, is a very tolerable piece of workmanship, and may challenge
  some applause.

ALDERSGATE _bars_, in Goswell street, a little beyond the north end of
  Aldersgate street, where the liberties of the city end on that side.

ALDERSGATE _street_, extends from the gate to the corner of Barbican.

ALDERSGATE WARD, is of considerable extent both within and without the
  gate from which it is named, and extends in length from Blowbladder
  street to Aldersgate bars, including part of Noble street, almost all
  Foster lane, St. Martin’s le Grand, Bull and Mouth street, Little
  Britain, and Aldersgate street. The principal buildings are two
  churches, St. Botolph’s and St. Ann’s, Goldsmiths-hall, Cooks-hall,
  Coachmakers-hall, Shaftsbury house, a noble building now used for the
  London lying-in hospital, and London-house. This ward is governed by
  an Alderman, two Deputies, and eight Common Council Men; eight
  constables, nine scavengers, nineteen wardmote inquest men and a
  beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve in the
  several courts in Guildhall in the month of August.

ALDGATE, was one of the four original gates of the city, and that
  through which the Roman vicinal way led to the _trajectus_ or ferry at
  Old Ford. Stow says, that it received its name from its antiquity,
  which Maitland observes is very improbable, though he allows that the
  Saxons might give it the epithet of _Eald_ or _Ald_, from the ruinous
  condition in which they found it when they first possessed themselves
  of this city. However, the first time it is found mentioned, is in a
  charter granted by King Edgar about the year 967.

  Aldgate being very ruinous, was pulled down in the year 1606, and the
  first stone of the present edifice was laid the next year; but this
  work was not finished till 1609. It is observable that in digging the
  foundation, several Roman coins were discovered, two of which Mr. Bond
  the surveyor caused to be cut on stone, and placed on each side of the
  east front. On the same side was placed in a large square the statue
  of King James I. in gilt armour, with a golden lion and a chained
  unicorn couchant at his feet. On the top of the gate was a vane
  supported by a gilt sphere, on each side of which stood a soldier
  holding a bullet in his hand, on the top of the upper battlements. On
  the west side was a figure of Fortune gilt, and standing on a globe,
  with a prosperous sail spreading over her head; under which was carved
  the King’s arms; some what lower on the south side stood Peace with a
  dove perched on her hand, and a gilded wreath in the other; and on the
  north side was the emblem of Charity. Over the arch of the gate was
  also engraven,


                     _Senatus Populusque_ Londinensis
                               _Fecit_ 1609
                           HUMFREY WELD, Maior.


  But all these statues have been removed, and none of these ornaments
  remain, except the representation of the two Roman coins, and the
  inscription.

  The apartments over this gate are appropriated to the use of one of
  the Lord Mayor’s carvers.

ALDGATE _high street_, extends from Aldgate to Leadenhall street.

ALDGATE _street_, extends without Aldgate, to the north east corner of
  the Minories.

ALDGATE WARD, is bounded on the east by Portsoken ward; on the south by
  Tower street ward; and on the west and north, by the wards of
  Langbourn, Lime street and Bishopsgate. It extends from Aldgate to
  Lime street corner in Leadenhall street, and takes in all the streets
  and lanes on the one hand to Bevis Mark and Shoemaker row, and on the
  other to Ironmongers hall in Fenchurch street; to the navy office,
  only a part of which is in this ward, and to the end of River street
  Tower hill; including Poor Jury lane, Crutched Friars, London street,
  Woodroff lane, _&c._ The principal buildings are these four parish
  churches, St. Catharine Cree church, St. Andrew Undershaft, St. James
  Duke’s place, and St. Catharine Coleman; three Jews Synagogues, and
  the Ironmongers, Fletchers and Bricklayers halls. It is under the
  government of an Alderman and six Common Council men, one of whom is
  the Alderman’s deputy, with six constables, nine scavengers, eighteen
  wardmote inquest men, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the
  wardmote inquest, serve as jurors in the several courts of Guildhall
  in the month of January. _Maitland._

ALEXANDER’S _yard_, Water lane, Fleet street.†

ALIENATION OFFICE in the Inner Temple, is one of the offices under the
  Lord Chancellor. Here all writs of covenants and entry upon which
  fines are levied, and recoveries suffered, are carried to have fines
  for alienation, set and paid thereupon. This office is executed by
  three commissioners. _Chamberlain’s Present State._

ALLARD’S _hill_, Rotherhith wall.†

ALLEN’S _street_, Goswell street.†

ALLEN’S _court_, 1. Leadenhall street.† 2. Oxford street.†

ALLEN’S _rents_, Houndsditch, Bishopsgate street without.†

ALLEYN’S COLLEGE at Dulwich. See DULWICH _college_. ALLEYN’S ALMSHOUSE
  in Lamb alley in Bishopsgate street. This charitable foundation, was
  erected in Petty France by Edward Alleyn, a comedian, about the year
  1614, and from thence removed to the above place upon the rebuilding
  of Petty France, now called New Broad street. Ten poor men and women
  are, besides their lodging, allowed about 40_s._ _per annum_, and
  every other year the men have coats and breeches, and the women gowns
  and petticoats. _Maitland._

ALLEYN’S ALMSHOUSE, in Pesthouse lane near Old street, was founded by
  the above Edward Alleyn, about the year 1616, for ten poor men and
  women; who receive 6_d._ per week each, and every other year coats and
  gowns.

ALLEYN’S ALMSHOUSE in Soap yard, Deadman’s Place in Southwark, was also
  founded by the above Edward Alleyn, about the year 1616, for ten poor
  men and women, with an allowance of only 6_d._ per week.

ALLHALLOWS _Barking_ church, at the east end of Tower street, is so
  denominated from its being dedicated to all the Saints, vulgarly
  called Allhallows; and its anciently belonging to the Abbess and
  Convent of Barking in Essex. It escaped the fire in 1666, and carries
  about it the marks of that period when architecture was not well
  understood in England. The church is of considerable extent, and the
  steeple is a plain tower with its turret. It is a vicarage in the
  patronage of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Vicar, besides other
  advantages, receives about 126_l._ a year in tithes.

ALLHALLOWS _Bread street_. The old church was destroyed by the dreadful
  conflagration which laid most of the other churches in ruins; and the
  present edifice was erected in 1684. It consists of a plain body, and
  a square tower divided into four stages with arches near the top. It
  is a rectory, and one of the thirteen peculiars in this city belonging
  to the Archbishop of Canterbury.

  The advowson of this church is in the Archbishop of Canterbury, and to
  this parish that of St. John the Evangelist is united. The Vicar,
  besides glebes, casualties, annual donations, and other advantages,
  receives 1401. a year in lieu of tithes. _Maitland._

  The following monumental inscripton in this church is worthy of a
  place in this work. It is to the memory of Humfrey Levins, a citizen
  and grocer of London, who died in 1682, in the fifty-third year of his
  age, and his son Humfrey, a youth aged fourteen, who died in 1677, and
  lies buried in the same grave.

              Which shall we weep? both merit tears; yet sure
              Tears are but vain, where bliss is so secure.
              Which shall we praise? our eulogy can’t add
              Unto the bless’d, who God’s kind euge had.
              Our duty’s but to imitate and admire
              This happy pair of the celestial choir.

ALLHALLOWS _the Great_, situated on the south side of Thames street, was
  anciently denominated _Allhallows the More_, and _Allhallows ad Fœnum_
  in the _Ropery_, from its vicinity to a hay-wharf or market, and
  situation among ropemakers. The old church with a large cloister on
  the south side, were consumed in the general conflagration in 1666,
  and the present edifice arose in 1683. It was built on Sir Christopher
  Wren’s plan; but in some parts the mason has taken inexcusable
  liberties. The church is 87 feet in length, 60 in breadth, and the
  height to the roof is 33. It is built of stone, and there runs thro’
  the whole, an apparent strength and solidity. The walls are plain and
  massy, the ornaments are few and simple, and the apertures, tho’
  large, in order to enlighten so considerable a breadth, are not
  numerous. The tower is plain, square, and divided into five stages,
  but terminates absolutely square and plain, without spire, turret or
  pinacles. The cornice is supported by scrolls, and over these rises a
  balustrade of solid construction, very proper for the rest of the
  building. _Maitland, and English Architecture._

  Among the funeral monuments in this church, before its being burnt,
  was one in memory of Queen Elizabeth, with the following inscriptions:

       If royal virtues ever crown’d a crown;
         If ever mildness shin’d in majesty;
       If ever honour honour’d true renown;
         If ever courage dwelt with clemency;
       If ever Princess put all Princes down,
         For temperance, prowess, prudence, equity;
       This, this was she, that in despight of death
       Lives still admir’d, ador’d Elizabeth.
     Many daughters have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all.

  _In the figure of a book above her picture_;

   They that trust in the Lord shall be as Mount Sion, which shall not
      be removed.

  _On the right side_;

        Spain’s rod, Rome’s ruin, the Netherlands relief,
        Heaven’s gem, earth’s joy, world’s wonder, nation’s chief.

  _On the left side_;

                  Britain’s blessing, England’s splendor,
                  Religion’s nurse, and Faith’s defender.

  _And beneath_;

        I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, &c.
            Queen Elizabeth died the 24th of March, 1602.

  This church is a rectory, and one of the thirteen peculiars belonging
  to the Archbishop of Canterbury; and to this parish that of Allhallows
  the Less is annexed, by which the profits of the Rector are greatly
  increased. He receives, besides glebes, &c. 200_l._ _per annum_ in
  lieu of tithes.

ALLHALLOWS _Honey lane_, a small church, which stood where the east end
  of Honey lane market is at present situated; but being destroyed by
  the fire of London in 1666, the parish was by act of parliament united
  to the church of St. Mary le Bow.

ALLHALLOWS _the Less_, stood on the south side of Thames street, almost
  adjoining to that of Allhallows the Great; but having suffered in the
  common calamity in 1666, the parish was united to that of Allhallows
  the Great.

ALLHALLOWS _Lombard street_, situated in Bell alley, near the north
  corner of Lombard street, in Langbourn ward. A church stood here under
  the same patronage, before the year 1053; but the present plain,
  well-proportioned building, was erected in the room of that destroyed
  by the fire of London. The body is enlightened by a single series of
  large windows, and the tower is terminated by a plain battlement.

  This church is a rectory, and one of the thirteen peculiars in this
  city belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Rector, besides
  glebes, donations, and casualties, receives 110_l._ a year in lieu of
  tithes. _Maitland._

ALLHALLOWS _London wall_, a small mean edifice, a little to the east of
  Bethlem Hospital, on the outside of London wall. It escaped the fire
  in 1666, and is a rectory, in the King’s gift.

ALLHALLOWS _Staining_, situated near the north end of Mark lane. It is
  said to obtain the name of Staining, from the corruption of the word
  _stoney_, because built at first of stone, when the other churches
  dedicated to all the Saints were of wood. It escaped the fire in 1666.
  The body is well illuminated with Gothic windows, and the square tower
  is crowned with a small turret.

  This church is a curacy, in the gift of the Grocers company. The
  curate receives about 100_l._ a year by tithes. _Maitland, and English
  Architecture._

ALLHALLOWS STAINING SCHOOL, was founded in the year 1658, by Mr. William
  Winter, who endowed it with the sum of 600_l._ the profits arising
  from which, amounting to 26_l._ _per annum_, are employed in
  instructing six boys in reading, writing, and accounts, and putting
  them out apprentice, with each of whom a sum is given not exceeding
  10_l._

ALLHALLOWS _Lane_, near the Steelyard, Thames street.☐

ALLHALLOWS _Stairs_, Allhallows lane, Thames street.

_Lord High_ ALMONER, a clergyman of the highest rank, and frequently the
  Archbishop of York, who has the office of disposing of the King’s
  alms, and for that use receives all deodands, the goods of persons
  found guilty of self-murder, and other sums allowed by his Majesty to
  be disposed of for that purpose. Besides the sums distributed to the
  poor of several parishes, there are many poor pensioners to the King
  below stairs, who have a competency duly paid them, either because
  they are so old as to be unfit for service, or because they are the
  widows of such of his Majesty’s household servants as died poor, and
  were unable to provide for their wives and children in their
  life-times.

  Under the Lord High Almoner, are a Sub-almoner, a Yeoman, and a Groom
  of the Almonry.

ALMONRY, vulgarly called the _Ambry_, receives its name from the alms of
  the Abbey being distributed there, and was originally a chapel
  dedicated to St. Catharine, and not, as Mr. Stow asserts, to St. Anne.
  Near this chapel Abbot Islip erected the first printing-house that
  ever was in England in the year 1474; when Mr. William Caxton, a
  citizen and mercer of London, bringing that invaluable art from
  Holland, became the first printer in Britain. _Maitland._

ALMONRY SCHOOL, situated in the Almonry at Westminster, was founded in
  the year 1677, by Henry Hill, Esq; who also endowed it with 7_l._ a
  year for the education of poor children.

ALMSHOUSES. See a particular account of each under the names of their
  respective founders. The number of persons contained in the several
  Alms-houses and hospitals within the bills of mortality, with the
  children put forth apprentice by the money collected at the feast, &c.
  of the Sons of the Clergy, and the several poor families that
  participate of the king’s annual charity, amount in the whole to about
  8000 persons, and the sum employed for their relief to 80,000_l._
  _Maitland._

ALMSHOUSE _yard_. 1. Little Almonry, Westminster. 2. Dormer’s Hill. 3.
  Little Chapel street. 4. Coleman street. 5. Snow Hill, in which
  Hammond’s almshouse is situated.

_St._ ALPHAGE, in Aldermanbury near London wall, owes its name to its
  dedication to St. Alphage, or Elphege, a noble Saxon Saint, and
  Archbishop of Canterbury, who was murdered at Greenwich by the pagan
  Danes, in the year 1013. This church escaped the flames in 1666, and
  is still standing; tho’ it is as mean a structure as can well be
  conceived.

  The living is a rectory in the patronage of the Bishop of London, and
  the Rector receives about 75_l._ a year in tithes.

AMBLE _court_, near Wellclose square.

AMEN _corner_, at the end of Pater-noster-row, near St. Paul’s. See
  PATER-NOSTER-ROW.

AMERSHAM, or AGMONDESHAM, a small but very ancient borough, in
  Buckinghamshire, situated in a vale between woody hills, 29 miles from
  London. This town does not come within the compass which we have
  prescribed round London, but our map of the environs not being a
  circle, the angles of it take in some few places at a greater distance
  than 20 miles; and these being inserted in our map, we thought we
  could not dispense with taking notice of them, as well as of those
  within the prescribed limits. The town consists of a long street,
  divided about the middle by a shorter cross street; in the
  intersection of which stands the church, said to be the best rectory
  in the county; it being well endowed by Geoffery de Mandeville, Earl
  of Essex, in the reign of King Stephen. There is here a handsome
  market-house, built with brick on arched pillars, about 80 years ago,
  by Sir William Drake, Knt. It has a free school founded in the reign
  of Queen Elizabeth; and here is also a fine seat called Shardelowes,
  the manor of which formerly belonged to the noble family of the
  Russels; but about the time of the restoration it was sold, with the
  borough, to Sir William Drake, Bart. in whose family it still remains.

AMICABLE SOCIETY, in Serjeants-inn Fleet street, was incorporated by a
  charter granted by Queen Anne, in the year 1706, for a perpetual
  Assurance-office for the purpose of making a provision for their
  wives, children, and other relations, after an easy, certain and
  advantageous manner, with power to purchase lands, &c. and to have a
  seal, which is a dove standing upon a serpent, and above in a scroll
  the motto PRUDENS SIMPLICITAS. The number of persons to be
  incorporated was not to exceed 2000. After paying the charges of the
  policy, and 10_s._ entrance-money, each person was to pay 6_l._ 4_s._
  _per annum_, which annual payments have since, by the increase of the
  Society’s stock, been reduced to 5_l._ a year, payable quarterly, and
  from these payments the dividends to claimants are to arise.

  That this Society has been greatly beneficial to the public, evidently
  appears from a state of their yearly dividends from Lady-day 1710, to
  Lady 1757, during which each claim amounted upon an average to 106_l._
  1_s._ 4_d._ but taking the computation only for these twenty-three
  years last past, _viz._ from the year 1734, (when by an order of the
  general court, a part of their yearly income was appropriated for
  augmenting their claims whenever they should happen to be under
  100_l._) the quantum of such claims from the year 1734 to 1757, have
  amounted upon an average to 120_l._ 9_s._ 1_d._ and so considerable
  has been the increase of the dividends for these nine years last past,
  that each claim, during that period, has been advanced upon an average
  to 142_l._ 6_s._ 5_d._

  However, at a general court held May 12, 1757, an order was made for
  farther augmenting the dividends on claims, so as that for the future
  they will not be less than 125_l._ each claim, but yet may happen to
  be considerably more, which has been the case of several former years.

  The advantages from becoming members of this society are such as
  follow:

  To clergymen, physicians, surgeons, lawyers, tradesmen, and
  particularly persons possessed of places or employments for life: to
  such parents, husbands, or wives, and other relations, whose income is
  subject to be determined or diminished at their respective deaths, who
  by insuring their lives by means of this Society, may now in all
  events leave to their families a claim, or right, to receive a sum not
  less than 125_l._ for every five pounds annually paid in, and very
  probably a larger sum, as appears by the above account.

  To married persons, more especially where a jointure, pension, or
  annuity depends on both or either of their lives, by insuring the life
  of the persons intitled to such annuity, pension or jointure.

  To dependents upon any other person intitled to a salary, benefaction,
  or other means of subsistence, during the life of such person, whose
  life being insured in this society, either by themselves, or by the
  person upon whom they are dependent, will intitle them to receive upon
  the death of such person, a sum not less than 125_l._ for each number
  so insured.

  To persons wanting to borrow money, who by insuring their lives, are
  enabled to give a collateral security for the money borrowed.

  To creditors intitled to demands larger than their debtors are able to
  discharge, such debtors may, by a like insurance, secure to their
  creditors their principal sums at their deaths.

  The abovementioned advantages are chiefly with respect to perpetual
  insurances for life; but temporary insurers may find no less advantage
  from this Society, as may plainly appear from the following instance,
  _viz._ _A. B._ has agreed for the purchase of an office or employment,
  but wants 300_l._ or 400_l._ to make up the purchase-money: he is
  willing to assign a share of the profits or income of his office, as a
  security or pledge for the repayment of the principal with interest,
  but cannot obtain a loan of that sum without insuring his life till
  the whole be cleared, which he is enabled to do by the help of this
  Society. For example; He purchases three numbers, on each of which he
  insures his life, and thereby his assigns become intitled to three
  several claims at his death; which claims, by the abovementioned
  provision, will not be less than 125_l._ each, and may probably amount
  to more: he assigns and deposits his policy with the lender: he pays
  to the Society for the yearly contributions on the three numbers no
  more than 5_l._ each, which is considerably less than 5_l._ _per
  cent._ under which rate no other office will insure, and that for one
  year only; at the end of which such offices are at liberty to refuse
  any further insurance: whereas in this Society the insurance continues
  during the life of the insured, unless excluded by the non-payment of
  the quarterly contributions. And every insurer, or their
  representatives, at the end of their insurance may in a great measure
  (if not entirely) reimburse themselves their purchase-money
  (originally paid by them for their numbers) by disposing of them at a
  market price, which they may do without any farther trouble than
  applying to the Society’s office.

  The regulations of the Society are as follow:

  All persons at the time of their admission are to be between the ages
  of twelve and forty-five, and must then appear to be in a good state
  of health.

  Persons living in the country may be admitted by certificates and
  affidavit, forms of which may be had at the office.

  Every claimant is impowered to put in a new life in the room of the
  deceased within twelve calendar months next after the end of the
  current year, for which his or her claim shall be allowed as often as
  the same shall happen, upon payment of 10_s._ entrance.

  Any person may have two or three several insurances, or numbers, on
  one and the same life, whereby such persons will be intitled to a
  claim on each number so insured.

  The affairs of the corporation are managed by a court of twelve
  directors annually chosen within forty days after every 25th of March;
  and the majority of the members assembled at a general court, which is
  never to consist of less than twenty, are impowered to make laws and
  ordinances for the good government of the corporation. The charter
  directs one of the members of the Society to be elected their
  Register, who being also their receiver and accomptant, is therefore
  required by the by-laws to give good security in the sum of 2000_l._
  at least.

  Five members of the Society are annually elected auditors, who are by
  their office to inspect every transaction of the Society, to examine
  all vouchers for receipts and payments, and upon oath to lay before
  the quarterly and annual general courts, the quarterly and annual
  accounts of the Society: and on the day before the holding each court
  of directors, the auditors are to state and enter in the directors
  minute book a balance of the cash of the Society.

  Attendance is daily given at the Society’s office from nine in the
  morning, till two in the afternoon, holidays excepted. _From the
  proposals printed by the Society._

AMSTERDAM _court_, Upper Shadwell.

AMYAS’S ALMSHOUSE was erected in George yard, Old street, in the year
  1655, by Mrs. Susanna Amyas, for eight poor single men or women, who
  have an allowance of 4_l._ _per annum_ each; besides 6_l._ to furnish
  them all with coals, 1_l._ for water, and 1_l._ for one of the eight
  to read prayers daily.

ANABAPTISTS, or, as they chuse to call themselves, Baptists. See an
  account of their several places of worship, under the article BAPTIST.

ANCHOR _alley_. 1. Mint street,Southwark.* 2. Worcester place, Thames
  street.*

ANCHOR AND HOPE _alley_, Green bank, near Wapping.*

ANCHOR _court_, Anchor street, Spitalfields.*

ANCHOR _lane_, Thames street.*

ANCHOR _street_. 1. By Webb’s square, Spitalfields.* 2. Thames street.*

ANCHOR _yard_, Barnaby street, Southwark.*

ANDERSON’S _yard_, Oxford street.†

ST. ANDREW’S _Holborn_, a plain but not inelegant church, situated on
  the south side of Holborn, and at the corner of Shoe lane. It is
  dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle, who was distinguished by being
  the first person Christ called for a disciple; and his suffering
  martyrdom in Achaia. There was a church in this place called by the
  name of the same Apostle, so early as the year 1297. The old church
  escaped the flames in the dreadful fire of London, that proved fatal
  to so many others; but ten years after being found too ruinous for
  repair, was taken down in 1687, and the present structure erected in
  its place, except the tower, which was not finished till the year
  1704.

  This church has a considerable space before it, which is entered by a
  handsome pair of iron gates. It is a neat edifice, with two series of
  windows, and a handsome balustrade round the top. The tower, which
  rises square, consists only of two stages, and round the top is a
  balustrade with a pinacle at each corner; on the crown of each is
  placed a pine apple, from which rises the fanes. On the inside, the
  church is extremely neat and well finished.

  The living is a rectory, said to be worth 600_l._ a year, in the
  patronage of the Duke of Montague. _Stow, Maitland, English
  architecture._

_St._ ANDREW’S _court_, Holborn hill, so called from the above church.

_St._ ANDREW _Hubbard_, a church which stood between St. Botolph’s lane,
  and Love lane, in Little Eastcheap, where the King’s weigh-house now
  stands; but being destroyed by the fire of London, and not rebuilt,
  the parish was united to that of St. Mary at Hill.

_St._ ANDREW _Undershaft_, at the corner of St. Mary Ax in Leadenhall
  street, and in Aldgate ward. There stood in this place a church
  dedicated to the same Saint so early as in 1362, which was pulled down
  in the year 1532, and the present structure erected in its room. It
  obtained the name of _Undershaft_ from a may-pole, which was anciently
  called a shaft, being annually raised in the street near it on
  May-day, and was taller than the steeple.

  This church is a plain gothic structure, with a well enlightened body,
  and a square tower terminated by battlements, with pinacles at the
  corners, within which rises a turret that contains the bell. It is a
  rectory, in the patronage of the Bishop of London. The Incumbent
  receives 120_l._ a year by tithes.

_St._ ANDREW _Wardrobe_, on the east side of Puddledock hill, in Castle
  Baynard ward, took its name from a great royal wardrobe erected there
  in the reign of King Edward III. There was a church on the same spot
  dedicated to St. Andrew in the year 1322: but the present structure
  was not built till the year 1670, when it was erected in the place of
  one burnt by the fire of London. The body is enlightened by two rows
  of windows, and the tower has neither turret, pinacles nor spire.

  This church is a rectory, in the gift of the Crown, and to this parish
  that of St. Ann’s Black Friars is annexed. The Rector receives by act
  of parliament 140_l._ a year in lieu of tithes. _Newc. Repert.
  Eccles._

ANGEL _alley_. 1. Fore street, Lambeth.* 2. King’s street, St. James’s
  square.* 3. Shoe lane.* 4. Gray’s Inn lane.* 5. Long acre.* 6.
  Aldersgate street.* 7. Redcross street.* 8. Whitecross street,
  Cripplegate.* 9. Charterhouse lane.* 10. Coleman street.* 11.
  Fenchurch street.* 12. Leadenhall street.* 13. Houndsditch.* 14.
  Little Moorfields.* 15. Bishopsgate street.* 16. Golden lane, Old
  street.* 17. Stony lane, Petticoat lane. 18. Whitechapel.* 19. Brick
  lane, Spitalfields.* 20. Ratcliff highway.* 21. Nightingale lane, East
  Smithfield.* 22. Pepper Alley, Southwark.* 23. Coal Harbour, Thames
  street.*

ANGEL _court_. 1. King’s street, St. James’s square.* 2. Drury lane.* 3.
  Charing Cross.* 4. Charterhouse lane alley.* 5. Aldersgate street.* 6.
  Friday street.* 7. Grub street.* 8. Camomile street.* 9. Bishopsgate
  street without.* 10. Lamb alley, Bishopsgate street.* 11. Angel alley,
  Aldersgate street.* 12. Foul lane, in the Borough.* 13. Great Windmill
  street.* 14. King’s Bench alley, Southwark.* 15. Redcross street in
  the Park, Southwark.* 16. Leadenhall street.* 17. Little Elbow lane.*
  18. New Gravel lane.* 19. Redcross street, Cripplegate.* 20. Little
  Old Bailey.* 21. Snowhill.* 22. Long acre.* 23. Long ditch,
  Westminster.* 24. Near St. James’s square.* 25. St. Martin’s lane,
  Charing cross.* 26. Near Surrey street in the Strand.* 27. Throgmorton
  street.* 28. White’s alley, Rosemary lane.* 29. Stony lane, Petticoat
  lane.* 30. Shoe lane.*

ANGEL _hill_, Oxford street.*

ANGEL _street_. 1. St. Martin’s le grand.* 2. Little Moorfields.* 3. St.
  George’s fields, Southwark.*

ANGEL AND SUGARLOAF _yard_, in the Minories.*

_St._ ANN’S _alley_, Noble street, Foster lane.

ANN’S _alley_, East Smithfield.

_St._ ANN’S _Aldersgate_, on the north side of St. Ann’s lane, in the
  ward of Aldersgate within, is dedicated to St. Ann the mother of the
  Virgin Mary. The old church in this place perished in the fire 1666,
  and the present was raised in its place about three years after. It is
  a very plain edifice: the body is enlightened by a few large windows,
  cased with rustic. The tower, which is very plain, is also
  strengthened at the corners with rustic, and from its top rises a
  turret and spire.

  The church is a rectory in the patronage of the Bishop of London, and
  the parish of St. John Zachary is annexed to it. The Rector receives
  140_l._ _per annum_, in lieu of tithes.

_St._ ANN’S _Black Friars_, stood on the east side of Churchyard alley,
  in the precinct of Black Friars, and the ward of Faringdon without;
  but having suffered in the fatal calamity of 1666, and not being
  rebuilt, the parish was annexed to that St. Andrew Wardrobe.

_St._ ANN’S _Limehouse_, arose from the great increase of houses and
  inhabitants, by which the village of Limehouse, a hamlet of Stepney,
  became joined to the metropolis, and it was resolved that here should
  be one of the fifty new churches appointed by act of parliament to be
  built within the bills of mortality. The foundation was laid in the
  year 1712, and the present structure finished in 1729; but the
  inhabitants of this hamlet not applying to parliament to have it
  erected into a parish till the year 1729, it was not consecrated till
  1730. This hamlet and part of that of Ratcliff, having been
  constituted a distinct parish from that of Stepney, the sum of
  3500_l._ was given by parliament to be laid out in fee simple towards
  the support of the Rector; besides which the church wardens were to
  pay him annually the sum of 60_l._ to be raised by burial fees.

  This church is of a very singular construction, the body is not one
  plain building, but is continued under separate portions. The door
  under the tower has a portico, covered with a dome supported by
  pilasters, and to this door there is an ascent by a flight of plain
  steps. Its square tower has a large Corinthian window adorned with
  columns and pilasters. The corners of the tower are also strengthened
  by pilasters, which on their tops support vases. The upper stage of
  the tower is plain, and extremely heavy, and from this part rises a
  turret at each corner, and a more lofty one in the middle.

  The advowson of this rectory, which is not to be held in commendam, is
  in the Principal and Scholars of King’s hall, and Brazen-nose College,
  Oxford. _Maitland._

_St._ ANN’S _Soho_, owes its foundation to the same cause as the former,
  the increase of public buildings; the inhabitants of the parish of St.
  Martin’s in the Fields became much too numerous to be contained in the
  church, and therefore applying to parliament, this was erected in the
  year 1686, in a spot of ground then called Kemp’s Field, and the
  parish to which it belongs was separated from St. Martin’s in 1678.

  The walls of this church are of brick with rustic quoins. The tower,
  which is square, is strengthened with a kind of buttresses, and at the
  springing of the dome, which supports the lanthorn, there are urns on
  the corners with flames. The lanthorn, which is formed of arches, is
  surrounded with a balustrade at the bottom, and a turret over it is
  well shaped, and crowned with a globe and fane.

  The advowson of this church is settled upon the Bishop of London, and
  the Rector; instead of tithes, receives from the parishioners 100_l._
  a year, which, together with the glebe, surplice fees, and Easter
  book, amount to about 300_l._ _per annum_. _Maitland._

_St._ ANN’S _court_, Dean street, Soho.☐

ANN’S _court_, East Smithfield.

ANONYMOUS _New street_, Coverlead’s fields.

ANSON’S _alley_, Broad St. Giles’s.†

_St._ ANTHOLIN’S _Church yard_, Budge row.

_St._ ANTHONY, vulgarly called _St._ ANTHOLIN’S, Budge row, a plain but
  well-proportioned church, with a neat spire. The former church in this
  place was destroyed by fire in 1666, and the present edifice finished
  in 1682. It is built of stone, and is of the Tuscan order, firm and
  massy. The length of the church is 66 feet, and the breadth 54. The
  roof is a cupola of an elliptic form, enlightened by four port hole
  windows, and supported by composite columns. The steeple consists of a
  tower, and a neat spire.

  The living is a rectory, with the parish of St. John Baptist annexed
  to it, and the advowson is in the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul’s. The
  Rector receives 120_l._ a year in lieu of tithes.

_St._ ANTHONY’S HOSPITAL and SCHOOL, an ancient foundation in
  Threadneedle street. See the FRENCH EPISCOPAL CHURCH _in Threadneedle
  street_.

ANTILOPE _alley_, King’s street Westminster.*

ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY. A society of Antiquaries was formed in this city
  about the year 1580, by some of the most learned men in the kingdom:
  but having been frequently interrupted and discontinued, very little
  can be said concerning the same till the year 1717, when it was again
  revived by a number of gentlemen studious of antiquity in general, but
  more particularly desirous to obtain all possible knowledge of the
  antiquities of their own country. With this view they agreed to meet
  one evening in every week under certain regulations; they encouraged
  correspondencies with all parts of the kingdom; they subscribed an
  annual sum to defray the expence of engraving on copper-plates, what
  should be thought deserving to be so preserved, and limited their
  number to 100. And in this manner they continued their weekly meeting
  with great reputation, till his Majesty King George II. was graciously
  pleased to grant them a royal charter of incorporation, dated Nov. 2,
  1751; and to declare himself their founder and patron.

  Under this charter they became a body corporate, by the name of the
  Society of Antiquaries of London, with a power to have and use a
  common seal, to sue and be sued, and to take, hold, and enjoy by
  purchase, gift, or otherwise, any lands, tenements or hereditaments,
  not exceeding in the whole 1000_l._ _per annum_. And it is therein
  directed, that the Council of the said Society shall at all times
  consist of 21 persons, the President for the time being always to be
  one; and the said charter appoints Martin Folkes, Esq; to be the first
  President, and also 20 other persons therein named to be the first
  Council, empowering them within two months from the date thereof, to
  nominate, chuse and admit, as Fellows of the said Society, such
  persons as shall excel in the knowledge of the antiquities and history
  of this and other nations, and be eminent for piety, virtue, integrity
  and loyalty. This first President and Council are to continue till the
  23d day of April next ensuing, on which day, in every year thereafter,
  the Council and Fellows are to assemble to nominate and elect a
  President, and Council for the ensuing year; and it is particularly
  directed that eleven of the former Council shall be continued, and ten
  other persons chosen out of the members of the Society: ten and no
  more of the Council being to be changed annually. The President is
  empowered to nominate four persons of the Council to be his Deputies,
  and supply his place in case of sickness or absence, and the
  President, Council, Fellows, or any twenty-one or more, are empowered
  to make statutes, rules, orders and by-laws, for the government and
  direction of the said Society, their estates, goods, &c. and for the
  admission and amoval of all and every the members and officers
  thereof. And the President, Council and Fellows, may appoint
  treasurers, secretaries and clerks, may have and employ one serjeant
  at mace, and such other servants as they think necessary. And lastly,
  if any abuses or differences shall arise, the Archbishop of
  Canterbury, the Lord Chancellor or Keeper of the Great Seal, the Lord
  Privy Seal, and the two Secretaries of State for the time being, are
  appointed Visitors, with full power for any three of them to compose
  and redress such differences and abuses: provision is also made to
  fill up any vacancies that may happen by the death of the President or
  any of the Council.

  On the receipt of this charter, the first President and Council
  nominated and admitted, by a writing dated the 14th of November 1751,
  all the former members, together with some others, in the whole 121,
  to be Fellows of the said Society of Antiquaries of London, and soon
  after drew up a body of statutes for the good government thereof,
  which, was unanimously agreed to and confirmed in the month of July
  1752.

  It was herein enacted, that the number of members should not exceed
  150, but that number being very soon filled up, and several men of
  quality and fortune, as well as persons of great learning and
  eminence, being continually applying to become members, which they
  could not be till vacancies should happen by death, the Society
  thought proper in the year 1755, to enlarge their number to 180, (to
  which they are limited at present) exclusive of Peers, Privy
  Councillors and Judges, that should be chosen after that time. A
  little before this the Society gave up the management of their estate
  and revenues, the payment of monies, and the publication of their
  papers and drawings, (which before were in the body in general, and
  thereby attended with many inconveniences,) entirely to the care of
  their Council, which are now a standing committee for that purpose;
  and thereby the government of this Society is become nearly the same
  as that of the Royal Society, which was doubtless a proper pattern to
  copy after.

  On the 23d of April, being St. George’s day, the Society annually
  elect their Council and officers, _viz._ a President, a Treasurer, two
  Secretaries, and a Director, who has the care of all their
  publications. Then the President appoints four of the Council to be
  his Deputies or Vice-presidents: and after the election is over, the
  Society dine together at their own expence. Martin Folkes, Esq; was
  annually elected President till his death in 1754, since which time
  the Rt. Hon. Lord Willoughby of Parham has been every year chosen.

  Every person desirous to be elected a Fellow of this Society, except
  Peers, Privy Counsellors, or Judges of Great Britain or Ireland, must
  be recommended by three or more of the members, in a paper signed by
  themselves, specifying the name, addition, profession, and chief
  qualification of the candidate, and also the place of his abode. When
  this has been read at one of the Society’s meetings, and then hung up
  in their public room during the time of four other meetings, the
  election is determined by ballot. Peers, Privy Counsellors, and judges
  of Great Britain or Ireland, if proposed by any single member, must be
  balloted for immediately. Every new member must pay an admission fee
  of five guineas, and sign the obligation, whereby he promises, that he
  will to the utmost of his power promote the honour and interest of the
  Society, and observe the statutes and orders thereof. Which being done
  he is led up to the chair, when the President or Vice-President
  rising, takes him by the hand and says these words, _viz._ I do, by
  the authority and in the name of the Society of Antiquaries of London,
  admit you a Fellow thereof.

  Every member must further pay one guinea annually for the use of the
  Society, or ten guineas at once in lieu of all contributions.

  The meetings of this Society are on Thursday evenings weekly, from
  about six till nine o’clock, at their house in Chancery lane: their
  business is to receive, read and consider all informations from their
  own members, or others, concerning the Antiquities of all nations,
  (for which purpose they admit eminent foreigners to be correspondent
  members) but they more particularly attend to the study of the ancient
  history, customs, manners, grants, charters, coins, medals, camps,
  churches, cities, and all monuments whatever, ecclesiastical,
  military, or civil, which are found in or relate to Great Britain and
  Ireland. And the communications they have received concerning these
  matters must be very valuable, as may be judged by the many curious
  remains of antiquity they have caused to be engraven on copper-plates,
  and permitted lately to be sold; tho’ as yet they have not thought fit
  to publish any of their dissertations. They have a small but choice
  library, which is increasing daily, also a fine collection of prints
  and drawings.


  _A_ TABLE _of the_ ANTIQUITIES _engraved and published by the_ SOCIETY
                      _of_ ANTIQUARIES _of_ LONDON.


             Num.         VOLUME _the_ FIRST.        │  Price.
                                                     │  _l. s.
                                                     │     d._

                  The general title and catalogue in │ 0  1  0
                    Latin.                           │

               1. A brass lamp, found at St.         │ 0  1  0
                    Leonard’s  hill near Windsor,    │
                    presented  by Sir Hans Sloane,   │
                    Bart.                            │

               2. Ulphus’s horn, a piece of great    │ 0  1  0
                    antiquity, preserved in the      │
                    cathedral at York.               │

               3. The font in St. James’s church  at │ 0  1  0
                    Westminster.                     │

               4. The portrait of King Richard II.   │ 0  2  0
                    from an ancient picture in  the  │
                    choir of Westminster abbey.      │

               5. Three ancient seals, with their    │ 0  1  0
                    reverses; the first of Cottingham│
                     abbey in Yorkshire, the  second │
                    of Clare-hall in Cambridge,  and │
                    the third the chapter  seal of   │
                    the church of St.  Etheldred at  │
                    Ely.                             │

               6. The ruins of Walsingham priory in  │ 0  0  9
                    Norfolk.                         │

               7. Waltham cross in Middlesex.        │ 0  1  0

               8. A plan of the remaining walls and  │ 0  1  0
                    city of Verulam.                 │

            9–12. Four views of the ruins of Fountain│ 0  3  0
                    abbey in Yorkshire.              │

          13, 14. Three views of the gate of St.     │ 0  2  6
                    Bennet’s abbey in Norfolk.       │

              15. The tomb of Robart Colles and      │ 0  0  6
                    Cecili his wife at Foulsham   in │
                    Norfolk.                         │

              16. The shrine of King Edward the      │ 0  2  0
                    Confessor in Westminster  abbey. │

              17. The north front of the gate at     │ 0  1  0
                    Whitehall.                       │

              18. The north front of King’s street   │ 0  1  0
                    gate in Westminster.             │

              19. Plans of the two preceding gates.  │ 0  0  6

              20. Coins of King Henry VIII,  Edward  │ 0  1  0
                    VI, Q. Elizabeth, and  K. James  │
                    I. Also a portrait of  Q. Eliz.  │
                    from a painting in enamel.       │

           21–26. The tournament of K.  Henry VIII,  │ 0  6  0
                    Feb. 12, 1510;  from an ancient  │
                    roll in the Heralds office.      │

              27. The ruins of Furness abbey in      │ 0  1  6
                    Lancashire.                      │

           28–33. The Barons letter in the  reign of │ 0  6  0
                    King Edward I, Feb.  12, 1300, to│
                    Pope Boniface  VIII; with the    │
                    seals appendent thereto.         │

              34. An antique brass head, dug up at   │ 0  1  0
                    Bath in 1727.                    │

          35, 36. Three views of Colchester castle in│ 0  2  0
                    Essex, with a ground plot        │
                    thereof.                         │

          37, 38. Tables of English gold  and silver │ 0  3  0
                    coins, shewing the  several      │
                    species coined in each reign.    │

              39. Tutbury castle in Staffordshire.   │ 0  1  0

              40. Melbourn castle in Derbyshire.     │ 0  1  0

              41. Lancaster castle.                  │ 0  1  0

              42. Pontefract castle in Yorkshire.    │ 0  1  0

              43. A gold seal of Pope Alexander  IV; │ 0  1  0
                    with gold and silver coins,      │
                    struck in France and Flanders,   │
                    relating to the history of       │
                    England.                         │

              44. Knaresborough castle in Yorkshire. │ 0  1  0

              45. A portrait of Dr. Tanner,  Bishop  │ 0  1  0
                    of St. Asaph.                    │

              46. Tickhill castle in Yorkshire.      │ 0  1  0

              47. A plan of the Roman roads in       │ 0  1  0
                    Yorkshire.                       │

              48. A Roman tessellated pavement, found│ 0  1  6
                    near Cotterstock in              │
                    Northamptonshire in 1736.        │

              49. A ancient chapel, adjoining to the │ 0  1  0
                    Bishop’s palace at Hereford.     │

           50–52. Three Roman tessellated pavements, │ 0  5  0
                    found at Wellow near Bath in     │
                    1737.                            │

          53, 54. Ancient seals and their reverses,  │ 0  2  6
                    from the Dutchy office of        │
                    Lancaster.                       │

              55. Gold and silver medals of Mary     │ 0  1  3
                    Queen of Scots, and Lord Darnley;│
                    with others of Queen Anne, Prince│
                    Henry, and K. Charles I.         │

              56. Gold and silver coins of several   │ 0  1  3
                    English Kings, Prince Edward, and│
                    Q. Elizabeth.                    │

              57. A Roman sudatory, lately found at  │ 0  1  0
                    Lincoln.                         │

           58–60. Ancient seals, from the Dutchy     │ 0  4  6
                    office at Lancaster.             │

              61. Winchester cross.                  │ 0  1  0

              62. The decree of the university of    │ 0  2  6
                    Oxford in 1534, against the      │
                    jurisdiction of the Pope in      │
                    England.                         │

              63. A plan of the Tower liberties, from│ 0  2  0
                    a survey in 1597.                │

              64. Chichester cross.                  │ 0  1  0

              65. Three views of the Roman           │ 0  1  0
                    _Retiarii_.                      │

           66–68. The portrait of Sir Robert Cotton, │ 0  5  0
                    Bart. with two plates of         │
                    fragments of an ancient copy of  │
                    the book of Genesis,  illuminated│
                    with elegant figures; and an     │
                    historical dissertation on the   │
                    said book.                       │

              69. The standard of ancient weights and│ 0  2  6
                    measures, from a table in     the│
                    Exchequer.                       │

              70. A view of the court of wards and   │ 0  5  0
                    liveries, as fitting; with a     │
                    brief historical account of that │
                    court.                           │

                                                     │      ——

                                                Total│ 4  7  9


N. B. This FIRST VOLUME may be had together for _four pounds_.


             Num.        VOLUME _the_ SECOND.        │  Price.
                                                     │  _l. s.
                                                     │     d._

            1, 2. Plans for rebuilding the city of   │ 0  2  0
                    London after the great fire.     │

               3. A portrait of Mr. Holmes, keeper of│ 0  1  0
                    the records in the Tower.        │

               4. Ancient deeds and seals.           │ 0  1  0

               5. A view of the Savoy from the river │ 0  1  0
                    Thames.                          │

               6. The warrant for beheading K.       │ 0  1  6
                    Charles.                         │

               7. An ancient wooden church at        │ 0  1  0
                    Greensted in Essex, the shrine of│
                    St. Edmund the King and Martyr,  │
                    and the seal of the abbot of St. │
                    Edmund’s Bury in Suffolk.        │

               8. Gloucester cross.                  │ 0  1  0

               9. Three tessellated Roman pavements, │ 0  2  0
                    found at Winterton in            │
                    Lincolnshire, in 1747; with one  │
                    at Roxby, a town in that         │
                    neighbourhood.                   │

              10. Doncaster cross.                   │ 0  1  0

              11. Sandal castle in Yorkshire.        │ 0  1  0

              12. The Savoy hospital in the Strand,  │ 0  1  0
                    with the chapel.                 │

              13. Clithero castle in Lancashire.     │ 0  1  0

              14. A plan of the ground and buildings │ 0  1  0
                    of the Savoy.                    │

          15, 16. A view of the cathedral church and │ 0  3  0
                    priory of Benedictines at        │
                    Canterbury, with the effigies of │
                    Eadwin a monk of that convent,   │
                    between the years 1130 and 1174, │
                    both drawn by himself; with a    │
                    printed account of the said      │
                    drawings.                        │

              17. An ancient lamp in two views, a    │ 0  1  0
                    vase, and two bells, all of      │
                    brass.                           │

                                                     │     ———

                                                Total│ 0 19  6


N. B. All these numbers of the SECOND VOLUME may be had together for
  _seventeen shillings_.

Complete sets, or any single numbers, of these prints may be had at Mr.
  _Tovey’s_ in _Westminster-hall_, and Mr. _Boydell’s_ the corner of
  _Queen street, Cheapside_; and at the Society’s house in _Chancery
  lane_.


APOLLO _court_, Fleet street.

APOTHECARIES COMPANY. This company was incorporated with that of the
  Grocers by King James I. in the year 1606; but they were soon
  separated, and in 1617 incorporated by the name of the Master, Wardens
  and Society of the art and mystery of Apothecaries of the city of
  London, at which time there were only 104 Apothecaries shops within
  the city and suburbs.

  This company is governed by a Master, two Wardens, and twenty-one
  Assistants, to whom belong a livery of 144 members, whose fine is
  16_l._ The Apothecaries have the privilege of being exempt from parish
  and ward offices.

APOTHECARIES HALL. This edifice is situated in Blackfriars, and has a
  pair of gates leading into an open court handsomely paved with broad
  stones, at the upper end of which is the hall built with brick and
  stone, and adorned with columns of the Tuscan order. The ceiling of
  the court room and hall is ornamented with fret work, and the latter
  wainscotted fourteen feet high. In the hall room is the portraiture of
  King James I. and also the bust of Dr. Gideon Delaun, that King’s
  apothecary, who was a considerable benefactor to the company. In this
  building are two large laboratories, one chemical, and the other for
  galenical preparations, where vast quantities of the best medicines
  are prepared, for the use of apothecaries and others, and particularly
  of the Surgeons of the royal navy, who here make up their chests.

  The Apothecaries company have a spacious and beautiful physic garden
  at Chelsea, which contains almost four acres, and is enriched with a
  vast variety of plants both domestic and exotic. This was given by Sir
  Hans Sloane, Bart. on condition of their paying a quit rent of 5_l._
  _per annum_, and annually delivering to the President and Fellows of
  the Royal Society, at one of their public meetings, fifty specimens of
  different sorts of plants, well cured, and of the growth of this
  garden, till the number of specimens amounts to 2000.

APPLEBY’S _court_, Barnaby street.†

APPLEBEE’S SCHOOL is kept in St. Saviour’s churchyard in Southwark, and
  was founded in 1681 by Mrs. Dorothy Applebee, who endowed it with
  20_l._ _per annum_, for instructing thirty poor boys in reading,
  writing and arithmetic.

APPLETREE _yard_, York street, St. James’s square.‡

ARCH _row_, the west side of Lincoln’s inn fields.

ARCHBISHOP’S _wall_, near Lambeth.

ARCH _yard_, Harrison’s court, near Brook street.

ARCHDEACON. As the bishopric of London includes the ancient kingdom of
  the East Saxons, which contained the counties of Middlesex, Essex, and
  part of Hertfordshire, it has five archdeaconries, _viz._ those of
  London, Essex, Middlesex, Colchester, and St. Alban’s. It is the
  office of these Archdeacons to visit annually the several cures in
  their respective archdeaconries, in order to enquire into the
  deportment of the several incumbents, as well as parish officers; to
  advise them gravely to reform what is amiss, and in case of contumacy
  to inflict pains and penalties, for which they receive procuration
  from every parish priest within their jurisdiction.

ARCHES, an ecclesiastical court in Doctors Commons, formerly kept in Bow
  church Cheapside, where the church and tower being arched, the court
  was from thence called _The Arches_, and still retains the name. As
  this is the highest court belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury,
  hither all appeals in ecclesiastical matters within that province are
  directed. The judge of this court is stiled the _Dean of the Arches_,
  from his having a jurisdiction over a Deanry in London, consisting of
  13 parishes or peculiars exempt from the Bishop of London’s
  jurisdiction. The other officers are a register, or examiner, an
  actuary, a beadle or crier, and an apparitor; besides advocates,
  procurators, or proctors. See DOCTORS COMMONS.

ARCHER’S _alley_, Peter street, near Bishopsgate street.†

ARCHER _street_, Great Windmill street.†

ARGYLE _buildings_, a new and very handsome street, regularly built,
  between Oxford road and Marlborough street; near the center is the
  Duke of Argyle’s house, a very plain edifice, with a small area, and a
  wall before it.

ARGYLE _street_, great Marlborough street.†

ARLINGTON _street_, runs parallel to the upper end of St. James’s
  street, it having Park Place on the south, and Portugal street on the
  north. It is magnificently built.

ARMOURERS, a company incorporated by King Henry VI. about the year 1423,
  by the title of _The Master and Wardens, Brothers and Sisters of the
  fraternity of or guild of St. George, of the men of the mysteries of
  the Armourers of the city of London_. The same Prince also honour’d
  the company by becoming one of their members. To this company, which
  formerly made coats of mail, is united that of the brasiers, who are
  jointly governed by a Master, two Wardens, and 21 Assistants. Their
  livery consists of eighty members, whose fine is 25_l._

  The armourers and brasiers hall is an old plain brick building near
  the north east corner of Coleman street.

ARNOLD’S _court_. 1. Barbican. 2. New lane, Shad Thames.†

ARNOLD’S _yard_, Barbican, Aldersgate street.†

ARTICHOKE _alley_. 1. Barnaby street.* 2. Holiwell street, Shoreditch.*

ARTICHOKE _court_. 1. Cannon street, Walbrook.* 2. Whitecross street.*

ARTICHOKE _hill_, Ratcliff Highway.*

ARTICHOKE _lane_. 1. Virginia street.* 2. Near the Hermitage, Wapping.*
  3. Newington Causeway, Southwark.*

ARTICHOKE HEAD _lane_, near the Hermitage.*

ARTICHOKE _yard_. 1. Shoreditch.* 2. Newington Causeway, Southwark.*

ARTILLERY GROUND. The Old Artillery Ground was a little north east of
  what is now Devonshire square in Bishopsgate street. This was
  originally a spacious field called Tassel Close, from its being
  planted with tassels for the use of the clothworkers. It was
  afterwards let to the cross-bow makers, who used to shoot there; but
  being at length inclosed with a brick wall, served as an artillery
  ground, to which the gunners of the Tower repaired every Thursday,
  when they levelled brass pieces of large artillery against a butt of
  earth raised for that purpose. The last Prior of St. Mary Spital
  granted to the gunners of the Tower this artillery ground for thrice
  ninety nine years, for the use and practice of great and small
  artillery; and King Henry VIII. gave the company a charter. Hence this
  artillery ground became subject to the Tower; the streets, &c. compose
  one of the Tower hamlets, and the inhabitants are still summoned on
  juries belonging to the courts held on Tower hill.

  In the year 1585, the city being put to great trouble and expence by
  the continual musters and training of soldiers, some brave and active
  citizens, who had obtained experience both at home and abroad,
  voluntarily exercised themselves, and trained up others in the use of
  arms, so that within two years there were almost three hundred
  merchants, and other persons of distinction, qualified to teach the
  common soldiers the management of their guns, pikes, and halberts, as
  well as to march and countermarch. These met every Thursday, each
  person by turns bearing office from the corporal to the captain, and
  some of these gentlemen had the honour of having a body of forces
  under their command at the great camp of Tilbury, in the year 1588,
  when the Spaniards sent against us their pretended invincible Armada,
  and these commanders were generally called Captains of the Artillery
  Garden.

  This noble exercise became afterwards discontinued for a long time,
  but was renewed in the year 1610, when several gentlemen having
  obtained the permission of King James I. undertook at their private
  expence a weekly exercise in the same artillery ground, and in the
  year 1662, erected an armoury, in which they placed 500 sets of arms,
  of extraordinary beauty and workmanship. The Artillery company now
  greatly increased, and the people resorted to the artillery ground to
  learn to defend themselves and their country; and even many gentlemen
  from every county went thither to learn martial exercises, in order to
  teach them to the militia, in the distant parts of the kingdom.

  At length this company being so much increased that this artillery
  ground was scarcely able to contain them, for they amounted to about
  6000: they removed to the New Artillery Ground near the upper end of
  Moorfields, where they still continue to assemble.

  King Charles II. when Prince of Wales enlisted himself into this
  company, as did his brother James Duke of York, at the same time; who
  after the restoration took upon himself the command, and named it his
  own company.

  The Artillery company consists of about 300 men. It is governed by a
  President, Vice-president, Treasurer and Court of Assistants. The Lord
  Mayor, Aldermen and Sheriffs for the time being, &c. with the Field
  Officers of the militia or trained bands, are of the honorary court,
  these with 24 gentlemen annually elected, compose the court of
  Assistants. His Majesty is Captain-General, and all the other officers
  are elected annually, and serve by rotation.

  The New Artillery Ground is a spacious square walled round. In the
  center of the north side is the Armoury, a neat building of brick and
  stone strengthened with rustic quoins at the corners; before it is a
  flight of steps, and there are a few others at the door, which is in
  the center, and is large, lofty, and adorned with a porch formed by
  two Tuscan columns and two pilasters supporting a balcony. The front
  is ornamented with a pediment supported at the corners by quoins. On
  the top are placed several large balls, and on the apex of the
  pediment is a lofty flag staff. On each side the main building, stands
  at some distance backwards a small edifice, where the provisions are
  dress’d at the company’s feasts. The hall of the armoury is hung round
  with breast-plates, helmets and drums; and fronting the entrance is a
  handsome pair of iron gates which lead to a spacious staircase,
  painted with military ornaments, and adorned with the statue of a man
  dressed in a compleat suit of armour. This staircase leads into a very
  spacious room, which has the King’s arms over one fire place, and
  those of the company over the other. It has two chandeliers, and is
  adorned with very fine guns, swords and bayonets, presented by the
  officers of the company, and handsomely disposed on the walls. There
  are here also tables hung up, containing the names of the subscribers
  to the iron gates and other ornaments, among whom is King George I.
  who gave 500_l._ Besides the rooms already mentioned, there are two
  others above, and two below.

ARTILLERY _court_, Prince’s row, Finsbury, so called from the artillery
  ground near it.

ARTILLERY _lane_. 1. Bishopsgate street without, thus named from its
  being built on the Old Artillery ground. 2. Fair street, Horsley down.

ARTILLERY _street_, near Bishopsgate without, Spitalfields. It had also
  its name from its being built on the old artillery ground there.

  _Society for the encouragement of_ ARTS, MANUFACTURES _and_ COMMERCE.
  The public spirit of this age is perhaps in no instance more
  remarkably shewn than in the flourishing condition of this valuable
  Society, whose sole object is the improvement of the polite and
  commercial arts in all their various branches, by exciting industry
  and emulation amongst all who can be moved either by honorary or
  pecuniary rewards. It was set on foot by Lord Folkstone, Lord Romney,
  Dr. Hales, and seven or eight private gentlemen, who were brought
  together by the unwearied pains of Mr. William Shipley, a person
  little known, who had long laboured to reduce into practice a scheme
  he had projected for this purpose. Their first meeting was at
  Rathmill’s coffee-house, March 22d 1754, when those noble Lords
  approved and patronized the undertaking. At their next meeting they
  determined to make a beginning, by proposing rewards for the discovery
  of cobalt, for the encouragement of boys and girls in the art of
  drawing, (thereby to improve manufactures in taste and elegance,) and
  for the planting of madder in this kingdom. And now money being
  wanted, a voluntary subscription was begun, to which the two noblemen
  before named, did not only generously contribute much more than they
  would let appear, but engaged moreover to make good the deficiencies
  at the end of the year: a promise they most honourably fulfilled. Soon
  after this, a plan was drawn up by one of the members (Mr. Baker) for
  forming, regulating and governing the Society, which being printed and
  dispersed, the great utility of such a society became so well
  understood, that immediately several noblemen and gentlemen offered
  themselves as members, and ever since that time its increase has been
  so extraordinary, that it consists at present of above 1000 members,
  many of whom are of the greatest quality and fortune: and it can now
  afford to offer premiums to the amount of near 2000_l._ _per annum_.

  The officers of this Society are a President, eight Vice-presidents, a
  Register, and a Secretary; and these are to be chosen by ballot
  annually on the first Tuesday in March. Every person desiring to be a
  member of this Society, must be proposed by some member of the same at
  one of their meetings, by delivering in the name, addition, and place
  of abode of such person, signed by himself; which must be read by the
  Secretary, and balloted for at the next meeting, and if two thirds of
  the members then present are for admitting such person, he shall be
  deemed a perpetual member on payment of twenty guineas, or a
  subscribing member on payment of any sum not less than two guineas,
  and continuing such payment annually: but tho’ two guineas a year is
  the most common subscription, all the members that are noblemen, and
  even some gentlemen, subscribe five guineas, and several others four
  or three. There are also ladies that are subscribers; eminent
  foreigners are likewise admitted to be honorary members. At first they
  had a Treasurer, but now their money is placed in the Bank of England,
  in the names of the President and Vice-presidents, three whereof are
  impowered to draw any sum the Society shall order to be paid. And the
  accounts of the receipts and payments are constantly examined and
  balanced on the last day of every month, by a committee appointed for
  that purpose. Their proceedings are regulated by a body of rules and
  orders established by the whole Society, and printed for the use of
  the members. All questions and debates are determined by holding up of
  hands, or by ballot if required, and no matter can be confirmed
  without the assent of a majority at two meetings. They invite all the
  world to propose subjects for encouragement, and whatever is deemed
  deserving attention is referred to the consideration of a committee,
  which after due enquiry and deliberation make their report to the
  whole Society, where it is approved, rejected or altered. A list is
  printed and published every year, of the matters for which they
  propose to give premiums, which premiums are either sums of money, and
  those sometimes very considerable ones, or the Society’s medal in gold
  or silver[1], which they consider as the greatest honour they can
  bestow. All possible care is taken to prevent partiality in the
  distribution of their premiums, by desiring the claimants names may be
  concealed, and by appointing committees, (who when they find occasion
  call to their assistance the most skilful artists) for the strict
  examination of the real merit of all matters and things brought before
  them, in consequence of their premiums.

Footnote 1:

    The weight of the Society’s medal in gold is about six guineas, and
    proportionably in silver. On one side Minerva, as Goddess of Wisdom,
    is represented introducing Mercury with a purse in his hand, as the
    God of commercial arts, to Britannia sitting on a globe: the
    inscription in the Circle, ARTS. AND. COMMERCE. PROMOTED. at the
    Bottom, SOCIETY. INST. LONDON. MDCCLIIII. on the reverse is only a
    wreath of laurel, the rest being left blank, that the name of the
    person to whom, and the occasion for which each medal is given, may
    be engraved thereon. The dye was made by Mr. Pingo, and is thought
    to be well done.

  The Society’s office is opposite to Beaufort Buildings in the Strand:
  their meetings are every Wednesday evening at six o’clock, from the
  second Wednesday in November to the last Wednesday in May, and at
  other times on the first and third Wednesday of every month. They are
  exceedingly well attended, and ’tis pleasing to behold with how
  laudable a zeal every one endeavours to promote the public good, by
  encouraging whatever may improve the arts and manufactures, or
  increase the commerce of this kingdom and its colonies. They are not
  incorporated, nor seem much to want a charter, as their business can
  be carried on very well without one, and the expence would be too
  considerable; but it is hoped their generous disinterested intentions,
  and their extensive views to promote the trade, the riches and honour
  of their country, will in time recommend them to partake the royal
  bounty, and that they will long continue to prove themselves to be,
  what they are at present, as respectable and useful a society as ever
  was established in any nation.

ARUNDEL _stairs_, Arundel street.†

ARUNDEL _street_, Strand, so called from Lord Arundel’s house there.

ARUNDELIAN LIBRARY. See ROYAL SOCIETY.

ASHENTREE _court_. 1. White Friars. 2. Shoreditch.

ASHFORD, a village near Stains in Middlesex, adorned with the seats of
  the Earl of Kinoul, and the Duke of Argyle.

ASHTED, a village in Surrey, near Epsom Wells, in one of the finest
  situations in England, was lately in the possession of Sir Robert
  Howard, brother to the Earl of Berkshire, who erected a noble edifice
  in this place, which he enclosed with a park. This afterwards became
  the estate and seat of Mr. Fielding, uncle to the late Earl of
  Denbigh. The church, which stands on the side of the park, has several
  fine monuments.

ASKE’S HOSPITAL, a handsome edifice at Hoxton, erected by the
  Haberdasher’s company in the year 1692, pursuant to the will of Robert
  Aske, Esq; who left 30,000_l._ for building and endowing it, in order
  to afford lodging and board for twenty poor men of that company, and
  for as many boys to be instructed in reading, writing, and arithmetic.
  Each of the pensioners hath an apartment consisting of three neat
  rooms, with proper diet at a common table, and firing; the annual sum
  of 3_l._ and a gown every second year: which, together with the
  salaries of the chaplain, clerk, butler, porter, and other domestics,
  amount to about 800_l._ _per annum_.

  A plan of the building was drawn by Dr. Hook, a learned mathematician
  of Gresham College, and upon his model it was erected in an
  advantageous situation, fronting the east, with grass plats before it,
  adorned with rows of lime trees, and inclosed with a handsome wall and
  iron gates. On the piers of the great gates at the south end, are two
  stone statues, representing two of Aske’s Hospital men, in full
  proportion. The principal part of the building is only one story high
  with garrets; where a portico with twenty-one stone pillars extends on
  a line on each side of the chapel, which is placed in the middle, and
  on each side above these pillars is a range of twenty-two very small
  windows. The pillars of the chapel extend to the top of the first
  story, and that edifice rising considerably above the rest of the
  building, is terminated by a handsome pediment; with a clock, under
  which is the effigies of the founder in stone, cloathed in his gown,
  and holding in his hand a roll of parchment, which seems to be his
  last will. Under him is the following inscription:

                  ROBERTO ASKE _Armigero, hujus Hospitii
                 Fundatori, Socie. Haberda. B. M. P. C._

  And on one side of him is this inscription:

                   _Anno Christi_ MDCLXXXII. _Societas
                 Haberdasheorum_ de London _hoc Hospitium
                   condiderunt, ex Legato & Testamento_
               ROBERTI ASKE _Armigeri, ejusdem Societatis;
                       ad viginti Senum Alimenta, &
                      totidem Puerorum Educationem._

  On the other side this inscription:

                 _The worshipful Company of Haberdashers
                built this Hospital, pursuant to the gift
                   and trust of_ R. ASKE, _Esq; a late
                  worthy Member of it, for the relief of
                twenty poor Members, and for the Education
                 of twenty Boys, sons of decayed Freemen
                            of that company._

  Fronting the entrance of the chapel is a large pair of very handsome
  iron gates, and at each end of the hospital is an edifice of the same
  height as the chapel.

ASS _park_, Wheeler street, Spitalfields.

ASSURANCE OFFICE, for granting annuities to be paid to the heirs of a
  person after his death. See AMICABLE SOCIETY. For the offices of
  Assurance from fire, &c. see the names by which they are
  distinguished, as HAND IN HAND, LONDON, UNION, SUN FIRE OFFICE, &c.

ASYLUM, or House of Refuge for Orphans and other deserted girls of the
  poor, within the bills of mortality, situated near Westminster-bridge,
  on the Surrey side. Underneath the article MAGDALEN HOSPITAL, the
  reader will find a noble foundation formed for the reception of those
  unhappy women, who have been abandoned to vice; but wisely repenting
  of their folly, resolve to reform. This charitable foundation of which
  we are now going to give a description, was founded at the same time,
  in order to preserve poor friendless and deserted girls, from the
  miseries and dangers to which they would be exposed, and from the
  guilt of prostitution.

  The evils this charity is intended to prevent, are not chimerical, but
  founded on facts. It too often happens, that by the death of the
  father, a mother intitled to no relief from any parish, is left with
  several helpless children, to be supplied from her industry; her
  resource for subsistence is usually to some low occupation, scarcely
  sufficient to afford bread and cloathing, and rarely the means of
  instruction. What then must become of the daughters of such parents,
  poor and illiterate as they are, and thereby exposed to every
  temptation? Necessity may make them prostitutes, even before their
  passions can have any share in their guilt. Among these unhappy
  objects, very agreeable features are frequently seen disguised amidst
  dirt and rags, and this still exposes them to greater hazards; for
  these are the girls which the vile procuress seeks after; she trepans
  them to her brothel, even while they are yet children, and she cleans
  and dresses them up for prostitution. But what is still more dreadful,
  maternal duty and affection have been so thoroughly obliterated, that
  even mothers themselves have been the seducers: they have insnared
  their children to the house of the procuress, and shared with her the
  infamous gain of initiating their daughters in lewdness: or if this
  has not been the case, they have too often been prevailed on, for a
  trifling consideration, to conceal and forgive the crime of the
  infamous bawd.

  These and other considerations induced a number of Noblemen and
  Gentlemen, who had approved of a proposal from John Fielding, Esq; one
  of the Justices for the Liberties of Westminster, to hold their first
  meeting on the 10th of May 1758, for carrying into execution a plan of
  this Asylum. Several other meetings were soon after held, in which the
  rules and orders for the reception and management of the children were
  established, and the lease of a house, lately the Hercules Inn near
  Westminster-bridge, agreed for. This house was soon fitted up, and
  furnished, and the first children admitted on the 5th of July
  following.

  The rules and orders established are as follows:

  I. The qualification of a perpetual Guardian is a benefaction of
  thirty guineas or upwards, at one payment.

  II. That of an annual Guardian is a subscription of three guineas or
  upwards per annum.

  III. Ladies subscribing the said sums, will be considered as Guardians
  of this charity, and have a right of voting at all general elections,
  by proxy, such proxy being a Guardian, or they may send a letter to
  the board, naming therein the person they vote for, which shall be
  considered as their vote. It is esteemed by the Guardians a benefit to
  the charity, for the Ladies occasionally to visit the house, and
  inspect the management of the children; the matron being ordered to
  attend such Ladies, and to give them all necessary information: and,
  whatever observations they may then make, or whatever hints, at other
  times, may occur to them, for the good of the charity, if they will be
  pleased to transmit them by letter to the Secretary, or to the
  Committee, who meet every Wednesday in the forenoon at the Asylum,
  they will be immediately taken into consideration, and have all
  respectful regard shewn to them.

  IV. Those Gentlemen and Ladies, who have already subscribed lesser
  sums than thirty guineas, by making up their subscriptions to that
  sum, within a year, will be entered in the subscription book as
  perpetual Guardians.

  V. There is to be an annual general meeting of the Guardians on the
  second Wednesday in March.

  VI. A general quarterly meeting is to be held on the second Wednesday
  in July, the second Wednesday in January, the second Wednesday in
  April, and the second Wednesday in October, for auditing the accounts,
  and making laws and rules for the government of the charity, and for
  other business.

  VII. A Committee is appointed, to consist of thirty Guardians, who are
  to meet every Wednesday at eleven o’clock in the forenoon at the
  Asylum, to transact the business of the charity; and they are, from
  time to time, to report their proceedings to the following general
  court, and any three of the said gentlemen constitute a quorum. In
  these Committees are a President, Vice-president, and a Treasurer.

  VIII. The officers and servants of the house, are a Physician, two
  Surgeons, an Apothecary and a Chaplain.

  A Secretary, who keeps the accounts of the hospital, and does all such
  other business as is commonly done by Secretaries, Clerks, and
  Registers, at other charities.

  A Matron, who superintends the affairs of the house, takes care of the
  provisions and furniture, delivers an account of the current expences
  weekly to the Secretary, to be laid before the Committee. She is to
  see that the children are properly employed, that they are attentive
  to their learning, and that they behave with decency; that the
  teachers do their duty, and that they treat the children with
  humanity. The servants under her, are teachers of reading, knitting,
  sewing, &c. a cook, a house-maid, and a servant man.

  IX. The objects to be admitted are Orphans, the daughters of
  necessitous parents, residing in parishes where they have no relief,
  and deserted girls within the bills of mortality, from eight to twelve
  years of age; but infirm children are not admitted, as the objects of
  this charity are to be constantly employed in every branch of good
  housewifry.

  X. Each object applying for admission, must produce such certificate
  of her age and necessity, as shall be satisfactory to the Guardians
  then present; and in all cases, wherein, during the infancy of this
  Asylum, more objects shall apply for admission than the Asylum can at
  once receive, the names of the objects not admitted are entered in a
  book kept for that purpose, and a notice is sent to the persons,
  signifying the certificate of each child, of the first opportunity of
  taking in such children that shall happen afterwards; in filling up
  all which, the children, before refused, have the preference as they
  stand upon the entry: each of the above certificates must be signed by
  two substantial housekeepers, of the parish where the object resides.

  XI. The children are regularly and alternately employed in reading,
  knitting, sewing, and in the business of the kitchen, to which latter
  employment four are appointed weekly, to be with the cook, to assist
  her, and to receive from her the necessary instructions in plain
  cookery, curing provisions, and other employments of the kitchen. They
  likewise make the beds, clean the rooms, assist in washing, and
  ironing the linen, and in other household business, according to their
  respective ages and abilities, at the discretion of the matron.

  XII. The Chaplain on Sundays preaches, and performs the other parts of
  divine service, and catechises the children. Prayers also are read on
  the other days of the week, by the matron or teacher; and some portion
  of scripture is read by those of the children who are best able. They
  have also, each of them, a common prayer book, and the new testament;
  and other good books are likewise provided for them.

  The number of children in the house in April 1759, were forty-two, and
  the sums raised for the support of this charitable foundation, at the
  same time, amounted to 2032_l._ 4_s._ 9_d._

AUDLEY’S _rents_, Whitecross street.†

AUDLEY _street_, Grosvenor square.†

AVE-MARY _lane_, Ludgate street. See PATER-NOSTER ROW.

AVERY _farm_, Chelsea.

AVERY _row_, by May-fair.

AUGMENTATION OFFICE in Dean’s yard, Westminster. This office belongs to
  a corporation, established by an act passed in the second and third
  years of the reign of Queen Anne, for the better maintenance of the
  poor Clergy, by the augmentation of small livings. This body corporate
  consists of the Lords of the Privy Council, the Lords Lieutenants and
  Custos Rotulorum, the Archbishops, Bishops, and Deans of cathedrals,
  the Judges, the King’s Serjeants at law, the Attorney, Sollicitor, and
  Advocate General, the Chancellors and Vice-Chancellors of the
  Universities, the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of London, and the Mayors of
  all other cities within the kingdom; seven of whom may compose a
  court, provided three of that number be a Privy Counsellor, a Bishop,
  a Judge, or one of the King’s Council, and this court may appoint
  committees of Governors, and invest them with such powers as they
  think proper.

  The business of the Governors is to find out the value of every
  benefice under 80_l._ a Year, with the distance of each from London,
  &c. and to lay the state thereof before his Majesty, with the value of
  the tenths, first-fruits, &c. in order that the royal bounty may be
  applied to support those of the clergy, who are in the greatest
  distress: and this corporation has actually augmented a great number
  of small livings.

AUSTIN FRIARS, near Broad street, was a priory founded for the Friars
  Eremites, of the order of St. Augustine, in the year 1253, by Humphrey
  Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, The Friars of this priory were
  Mendicants, and continued in the possession of this place till its
  dissolution by King Henry VIII. since which time the greatest part has
  been pulled down, and many handsome houses built; but a part of the
  old church belonging to the priory is still standing. King Edward VI.
  granted all the church, except the choir, to a congregation of
  Germans, and other strangers, who fled hither for the sake of
  religion, ordering it to be called _the Temple of the Lord Jesus_, and
  several successive Princes have confirmed it to the Dutch, by whom it
  is still used as a place of divine worship. It is a large and spacious
  Gothic edifice, supported by two rows of stone pillars. At the east
  end are several steps, which lead to a large platform, on which is
  placed a long table with seats against the wall, and forms round, for
  the use of the Holy Communion, and the windows on one side have
  painted on them in several places, the words JESUS TEMPLE. On the west
  end over the screen is a library, thus inscribed, _Ecclesiæ
  Londino-Belgicæ Bibliotheca, extructa sumptibus_ Mariæ Dubois 1659. It
  contains several valuable manuscripts, among which are the letters of
  Calvin, Peter Martyr, and other foreign reformers.

_St._ AUSTIN’S _Church_, at the north west corner of Watling street, in
  the ward of Faringdon within, was dedicated to St. Austin the monk,
  the English Apostle. The old church having suffered in the dreadful
  conflagration in 1666, has been rebuilt, and the parish of St. Faith
  united to it. It is a rectory, and the advowson is in the Dean and
  Chapter of St. Paul’s. The Rector receives 172_l._ _per annum_ in lieu
  of tithes.

AUSTIN _street_, in Castle street, near Shoreditch.

AX _alley_, Leadenhall street.*

AX _yard_. 1. King’s street, Westminster.* 2. Norfolk street in the
  Strand.* 3. Little Britain.* 4. Blackman street.* 5. King’s street,
  Blackman street.*

AX AND BOTTLE _yard_, St. Margaret’s hill.*

AYLOFFE _street_, Goodman’s Fields.†

AYRE’S ALMSHOUSE, in White’s alley, Coleman street, was founded by Mr.
  Christopher Ayre, Merchant, for six poor men and their wives, who
  committed it to the care of the Leather-sellers company, who annually
  pay each couple 4_l._


  [Illustration: Decoration]



                                   B.


  BAB’S _alley_, Mint street, Southwark.†

BAB’S _mays_, or _mews_, Jermain street.†

BACK _alley_. 1. Back hill, Hatton wall.§ 2. Back hill, Southwark.§ 3.
  Bear alley, Fleet ditch.§ 4. Bowling alley, Westminster.§ 5. Bridge
  yard, Tooley street.§ 6. St. Catharine’s lane.§ 7. Church lane, Tooley
  street.§ 8. Church lane, Whitechapel.§ 9. Churchyard alley, Tooley
  street.§ 10. Cloth fair, West Smithfield.§ 11. Crown court, King’s
  street, Tooley street.§ 12. East lane, Rotherhith.§ 13. Great garden,
  St. Catharine’s lane.§ 14. Green bank, Wapping.§ 15. March street,
  Wapping.§ 16. St. Martin’s le Grand.§ 17. Mill street.§ 18. Playhouse
  yard, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.§ 19. Three Foxes court, Long
  lane, West Smithfield.§

BACK _court_, Symond’s Inn, Chancery lane.

BACK _hill_. 1. Hatton wall.§ 2. Southwark.§

BACK _lane_. 1. Bethnal green.§ 2. Elephant lane, Rotherhith.§ 3.
  Hackney.§ 4. Islington.§ 5. Lambeth Butts.* 6. Lambeth marsh.§ 7. Near
  Rag fair, Rosemary lane.§ 8. Near Sun Tavern fields.§ 9. Three Hammer
  alley, Tooley street.§

BACK _Round court_ in the Strand.§

BACK _side_. 1. St. Clement’s in the Strand.§ 2. Middle Shadwell.§

BACK _street_. 1. Cloth fair.§ 2. Horsley down.§ 3. Lambeth.§ 4. St.
  Clement’s Danes.§ 5. Old street square.§

BACK STREET SCHOOL, at Lambeth, was founded by Archbishop Tenison, about
  the year 1704, for the education of poor girls, who are cloathed and
  taught: they are at present twenty; but their number is to be
  increased according to the improvement of the estate. _Maitland._

BACK _way_, near Shepherd’s Market, Curzon street.§

BACK _yard_. 1. Angel alley, Little Moorfields.§ 2. Bell alley, Coleman
  street, Lothbury.§ 3. Brick lane, Old street.§ 4. Bullhead court,
  Jewin street.§ 5. Great Garden, St. Catharine’s.§ 6. Little
  Bartholomew close.§ 7. Marigold lane.§ 8. Newcastle street.§ 9.
  Nightingale lane.§ 10. Old Gravel lane.§ 11. Pelican court, Little
  Britain.§ 12. Peter lane, St. John’s street.§ 13. Pickleherring
  street. 14. Redcross alley, Jewin street.§ 15. Richmond street.§ 16.
  Ropemaker’s fields, Limehouse.§ 17. Rotherhith wall.§ 18. Rupert
  street.§ 19. Saltpetre bank. 20. Shakespear’s walk.§ 21. Shipwright
  street, Rotherhith.§ 22. Short’s street.§ 23. Silver street, Tooley
  street.§ 24. St. Margaret’s hill.§ 25. St. Saviour’s Dock head.§ 26.
  Stamford buildings.§ 27. Star street, Wapping wall.§ 28. Sun alley,
  Golden lane.§ 29. Swan alley, Golden lane. 30. Three Colt street.§ 31.
  Tooley street.§ 32. Turnmill street, Cowcross.§ 33. Vineyard.§ 34.
  Upper Ground street.§ 35. Upper Well alley, Wapping.§ 36. Wentworth
  street.§ 37. White’s yard, Rosemary lane.§ 38. Woolpack alley,
  Houndsditch.§

BACK CLOISTER _yard_, Westminster.§

BACK _Brook street_, David street, by Grosvenor square.

BACON _alley_, Woolpack alley, Shoreditch.

BACON _street_. 1. Brick lane, Spitalfields.* 2. Club row, Spitalfields.

BADGER’S _alley_, Shoreditch.†

BADGER’S _Almshouse_, at Hoxton, was founded by Mrs. Allen Badger, in
  the year 1698, for six poor men and their wives, who are only allowed
  twenty shillings a year each couple.

BADGER’S _rents_, St. John’s passage, St. John’s street.†

BAG AND BOTTLE _alley_, Old street.*

BAG AND BOTTLE _yard_, Old street.*

BAGNEL’S _rents_, Denmark street.†

BAGNIO _court_, Newgate street, thus named from the Bagnio there.

BAGNIO _lane_, leading into Bagnio court, Newgate street.

BAGSHAW’S _rents_, Portpool lane, Leather lane.†

BAILEY’S _alley_, in the Strand.†

BAILEY’S _court_, 1. Bell yard, Fleet street.† 2. Cock hill.† 3. Fashion
  street.† 4. Sheer lane.† 5. In the Strand.†

BAILEY’S _place_, Little Tower hill.†

BAILEY’S _yard_, Broadway, Westminster.†

BAINHAM’S _street_, Southwark.†

BAIN’S _hill_, Upper Shadwell.†

BAKEHOUSE _court_, Godalmin street.

BAKERS, this company is very ancient, though it does not appear to have
  been incorporated till about the year 1307. It is governed by a
  Master, four Wardens, thirty Assistants, and 195 Livery men, whose
  fine is 10_l._

BAKERS HALL, a plain edifice in Hart lane, Tower street, and formerly
  the dwelling house of John Chicheley, Chamberlain of London.

BAKER’S _alley_. 1. Church lane, Whitechapel.† 2. Farmer’s street,
  Shadwell.† 3. Goswell street.† 4. Hart street.† 5. King’s street,
  Westminster.† 6. Monkwell street.† 7. St. John’s street.† 8. In the
  Strand. 9. Stony lane.† 10. Swallow street.†

BAKER’S ARMS _alley_, Rosemary lane.*

BAKER’S _buildings_, Old Bethlem.†

BAKER’S _court_, Halfmoon alley, Bishopsgate street.†

BAKER’S _passage_, Jermain street.†

BAKER’S _row_. 1. Cold Bath fields.† 2. Whitechapel.†

BAKER’S _yard_. 1. Tower hill. 2. Milford lane.

BALAAM’S _court_, King David’s Fort.

BALDWIN’S _court_. 1. Baldwin’s gardens.† 2. White street.* 3. Cloak
  lane, Dowgate hill.†

BALDWIN’S _gardens_, Leather lane.†

BALDWIN’S _square_, Baldwin’s gardens.†

BALDWIN’S _street_, Old street.†

BALDWIN’S _yard_. 1. Baldwin’s gardens. 2. Narrow alley, Stone lane.†

BALE’S _court_, Cow cross, Smithfield.†

BALL _alley_. 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Cannon street.* 3. Kingsland
  road.* 4. Lime street, Leadenhall street.* 5. Lombard street.* 6.
  London Wall.* 7. Long alley, Moorfields.* 8. St. Catharine’s lane.* 9.
  Wheeler street, Spitalfields.*

BALL _court_. 1. Giltspur street, without Newgate.* 2. Mincing lane,
  Fenchurch street.* 3. Old Bailey.* 4. Poor Jury lane, within Aldgate.*

BALL _yard_. 1. Beech lane.* 2. Giltspur street.* 3. Golden lane.*

BALLAST _wharf_. 1. Cock hill, Ratcliff. 2. Lower Shadwell.

BALSOVER _street_, Oxford street.†

BAMBURY _court_, Long Acre.

BANCROFT’S beautiful Almshouse, School and Chapel at Mile End, were
  erected by the Drapers company in the year 1735, pursuant to the will
  of Mr. Francis Bancroft, who bequeathed to that company the sum of
  28,000_l._ and upwards, in real and personal estates, for purchasing a
  site, and building upon it an almshouse, with convenient apartments
  for twenty-four almsmen, a chapel, and school room for 100 poor boys,
  and two dwelling-houses for the schoolmasters, and endowing the same.
  He also ordered that each of the almsmen should have 8_l._ and half a
  chaldron of coals yearly, and a gown of baize every third year; that
  the school boys should be cloathed and taught reading, writing and
  arithmetic; that each of the masters, besides their houses, should
  have a salary of 30_l._ _per annum_, and the yearly sum of 20_l._ for
  coals and candles, for their use, and that of the school; with a
  sufficient allowance for books, paper, pens and ink; that the
  committee of the court of assistants should have 5_l._ for a dinner,
  at their annual visitation of the almshouse and school; and that 3_l._
  10_s._ should be given for two half yearly sermons to be preached in
  the parish churches of St. Helen and St. Michael Cornhill, or
  elsewhere, in commemoration of this foundation, at which the almsmen
  and boys were to be present. To each of these boys, when put out
  apprentices, he gave 4_l._ but if they were put to service they were
  to have no more than 2_l._ 10_s._ to buy them cloaths.

  The edifice is not only neat but extremely elegant, consisting of two
  wings and a center detached from both of them. In the middle of the
  front is the chapel, before which is a noble portico, with Ionic
  columns, and coupled pilasters at the corners, supporting a pediment,
  in the plane of which is the dial. There is an ascent to the portico
  by a flight of steps, and over the chapel is a handsome turret. On
  each side of the portico, are two houses like those in the wings. The
  construction of the wings is uniform, lofty and convenient: twelve
  doors in each open in a regular series, and the windows are of a
  moderate size, numerous, and proportioned to the apartments they are
  to enlighten. The square is surrounded with gravel walks. with a large
  grass plat in the middle, and next the road the wall is adorned with
  handsome iron rails and gates. In short, the ends of the wings next
  the road being placed at a considerable distance from it, the whole is
  seen in a proper point of view, and appears to the greatest advantage.

  It is worthy of remark, that this Bancroft, who left so large a sum
  for erecting and endowing this fine hospital, and even ordered two
  sermons to be annually preached in commemoration of his charity, was,
  according to the last edition of _Stow’s Survey_, one of the Lord
  Mayor’s officers, and by informations and summoning the citizens
  before the Lord Mayor, upon the most trifling occasions, and other
  things not belonging to his office, not only pillaged the poor but
  also many of the rich, who rather than lose time in appearing before
  that Magistrate, gave money to get rid of this common pest of the
  citizens, which, together with his numerous quarterages from the
  brokers, &c. enabled him to amass annually a considerable sum of
  money. But by these and other mercenary practices, he so incurred the
  hatred and ill-will of the citizens of all ranks and denominations,
  that the persons who attended his funeral obsequies, with great
  difficulty saved his corpse from being jostled off the bearers
  shoulders in the church, by the enraged populace, who seizing the
  bells, rang them for joy at his unlamented death.

BANDYLEG _alley_, Fleet ditch.║

BANDYLEG _walk_. 1. Maiden lane, near Deadman’s place.║ 2. Queen street,
  in the Park, Southwark.║

BANE _court_, Cold Bath square.

BANGOR _court_. 1. Shoe lane. 2. White street.


  [Illustration: _S. Wale_ _J. Green sc. Oxon._ _The Bank._]


BANK OF ENGLAND. This is a noble edifice, situated at the east of St.
  Christopher’s church, near the west end of Threadneedle street. The
  front next the street is about 80 feet in length, and is of the Ionic
  order raised on a rustic basement, as is represented in the print, and
  is in a good style. Through this you pass into the court yard, in
  which is the hall. This is of the Corinthian order, and in the middle
  is a pediment. The top of the building is adorned with a balustrade
  and handsome vases, and in the face of the above pediment is engraved,
  in relievo, the Company’s seal, Britannia sitting with her shield and
  spear, and at her feet a Cornucopia, pouring out fruit. The hall,
  which is in this last building, is 79 feet in length, and 40 in
  breadth; it is wainscoted about eight feet high; has a fine fretwork
  ceiling, and is adorned with the statue of King William III. which
  stands in a nich at the upper end; on the pedestal of which is the
  following inscription:

                                    Ob
                               Legibus vim,
                          Judiciis Auctoritatem,
                           Senatui Dignitatem,
                       Civibus universis Jura sua,
                    Tam Sacra, quam Civilia Restituta,
                   Et illustrissimæ Domus Hannoverianæ
                   In Imperium Britannicum Successione
                           Posteris confirmata,
                             Optimo Principi,
                             GULIELMO TERTIO,
                             Conditiori suo,
                      Grato Animo posuit, dicavitque
                          Hujus Ærarii Societas,
                   A. C. MDCCXXXIV. harumque Ædium. I.

                            _In English thus_:

                   For restoring efficacy to the Laws,
                   Authority to the Courts of Justice,
                        Dignity to the Parliament,
            To all his Subjects their Religion and Liberties,
                    And confirming these to Posterity,
          By the succession of the illustrious House of Hanover
                          To the British Throne,
                To the best of Princes, WILLIAM THE THIRD,
                           Founder of the Bank,
               This Corporation, from a Sense of Gratitude,
                         Has erected this Statue,
                     And dedicated it to his Memory,
                    In the Year of our Lord MDCCXXXIV.
                   And the first Year of this Building.

  Farther backward is another quadrangle, with an arcade on the east and
  west sides of it; and on the north side is the accomptant’s office,
  which is 60 feet long, and 28 feet broad. Over this, and the other
  sides of the quadrangle, are handsome apartments, with a fine
  staircase adorned with fretwork, and under it are large vaults, that
  have strong walls and iron gates, for the preservation of the cash.
  The back entrance from Bartholomew lane is by a grand gateway, which
  opens into a commodious and spacious court yard for coaches, or
  waggons, that frequently come loaded with gold and silver bullion; and
  in the room fronting the gate the transfer office is kept.

  The Bank was established by act of Parliament in the year 1693, under
  the title of _The Governor and Company of the Bank of England_, in
  consideration of a loan of 1,200,000_l._ granted to the government,
  for which the subscribers received eight _per cent._ By this charter,
  the Company are not to borrow under their common seal, unless by act
  of parliament; they are not to trade, or suffer any person in trust
  for them to trade in goods or merchandize; but may deal in bills of
  exchange, in buying or selling bullion, and foreign gold, or silver
  coin, &c.

  By an act passed in the 8th and 9th years of the reign of King William
  III. they were empowered to enlarge their capital to 2,201,171_l._
  10_s._ It was then also enacted, that bank stock should be a personal
  and not a real estate; that no contract, either in word or writing,
  for buying or selling bank stock, should be good in law, unless
  registered in the books of the bank within seven days, and the stock
  transferred within fourteen days; and that it should be felony,
  without benefit of clergy, to counterfeit the common seal of the Bank,
  any sealed bank bill, any bank note, or to alter or erase such bills
  or notes.

  In the 7th of Queen Anne, the Company were, by another act, impowered
  to increase their capital to 4,402,343_l._ and at the same time they
  advanced 400,000_l._ more to the government; and in 1714, they
  advanced the sum of 1,500,000_l._

  In the third year of the reign of King George I. the interest of their
  capital was reduced to 5_l._ _per cent._ when the Bank agreed to
  deliver up as many Exchequer bills as amounted to two millions, and to
  accept of an annuity of 100,000_l._ _per annum_. It was also declared
  lawful for the Bank to call for from their members, in proportion to
  their interests in the capital stock, such sums, as in a general court
  should be found necessary; but if any member should neglect to pay his
  share of the money so called for, at the time appointed, by notice in
  the London Gazette and fixed up in the Royal Exchange, it should be
  lawful for the Bank, not only to stop the dividend of such member, and
  to apply it towards the payment of the money so called for, but also
  to stop the transfers of such defaulter, and to charge him with an
  interest of 5_l._ _per cent._ _per annum_, for the money so omitted to
  be paid; and if the principal and interest should be three months
  unpaid, the Bank should have power to sell so much of the stock
  belonging to the defaulter as would satisfy the same. This stock is
  now called Bank Circulation, every proprietor of which receives 5_l._
  _per cent._ _per annum_, but is obliged to advance, if called for,
  1000_l._ for every 100_l._ so paid in.

  The Bank afterwards consented to have the interest of two millions
  still due from the government, reduced from 5 to 4 _per cent._ The
  Company also purchased several other annuities, that were afterwards
  redeemed by the government, and the national debt due to the Bank was
  reduced to 1,600,000.

  At length in 1742, the Company agreed to supply the government with
  1,600,000_l._ at 3_l._ _per cent._, by which means the government
  became indebted to the Company 3,200,000_l._ the one half carrying 4,
  and the other 3 _per cent._

  In 1746, the Company consented that the sum of 986,800_l._ due to them
  in Exchequer bills unsatisfied, on the duties for licences to sell
  spirituous liquors by retail, should be cancelled, and in lieu thereof
  to accept of an annuity of 39,442_l._ the interest of that sum at
  4_l._ _per cent._ The Company also agreed to advance the farther sum
  of 1,000,000_l._ upon the credit of the duties arising by the malt and
  land tax, at 4_l._ _per cent._ for Exchequer bills to be issued for
  that purpose, in consideration of which the Company were enabled to
  augment their capital with 986,800_l._ the interest of which, as well
  as that of the other annuities, was reduced to 3_l._ 10_s._ _per
  cent._ till the 25th of December 1757, and from that time they carry
  only 3_l._ _per cent._

  In short, several other sums have since been raised by the Bank for
  the service of the government: but the above is sufficient to give a
  full idea of the nature of the several species of annuities; only it
  may be proper to add, that what is called Bank Stock is entirely
  distinct from these, and may not improperly be termed, the trading
  stock of the Company, since with this they discount bills, and deal
  very largely in foreign gold, &c. which they only buy by weight, which
  trade is so very considerable, as to render a share in this stock very
  valuable, tho’ it is not equal in value to the East India stock. The
  Company make dividends of the profits half yearly. _Pocket Library._

                  *       *       *       *       *

  The transfer days at the Bank altered in 1758, are now as follows:

  Bank stock, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday.
  Reduced annuities, Monday, Wednesday and Friday.
  Three _per cent._ 1726,  }
  Consolidated annuities,  } ditto.
  Three _per cent._ 1757,  }
  Three ½ _per cent._ 1756, }
  Three ½ _per cent._ 1758, } Tu. and T

The hour of transfer is from eleven to twelve o’clock, and the hours of
payment of dividends from nine to eleven, and from twelve to one; except
on the following Holidays.


                         Holidays at the Bank.

                       January│
                             1│Circumcision
                             6│Epiphany
                            25│St. Paul.
                            30│K. Charles I. Mart.
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                          Feb.│
                             2│Purific. V. Mary
                            24│St. Matthias
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                          Mar.│
                            25│Lady Day
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                         April│
                            23│St. George
                            25│St. Mark
                            26│D. of Cumb. born
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                           May│
                             1│St. Philip & Jac.
                            29│K. Ch. II. restor.
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                          June│
                             4│Pr. Wales born
                            11│St. Barnabas
                            21│Midsummer Day
                            22│Inaug. K. Geo. II.
                            24│St. John Baptist
                            26│K. Geo. II. pro.
                            29│St. Peter & Paul
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                          July│
                            25│St. James
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                          Aug.│
                             1│Lammas Day
                            24│St. Bartholomew
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                         Sept.│
                             2│London burnt
                            21│St. Matthew
                            29│St. Michael
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                          Oct.│
                            18│St. Luke
                            22│K. Geo. II. crown.
                            28│St. Simon & Jude
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                      November│
                             1│All Saints
                             2│All Souls
                             4│K. William born
                             5│Powder Plot
                             9│Ld. Mayor’s Day
                            10│K. Geo. II. born
                            28│Q. Elizabeth’s Ac.
                            30│Pr. Wales born
                    ──────────┼────────────────────
                      December│
                            21│St. Thomas
                            25│Christmas Day
                            26│St. Stephen
                            27│St. John
                            28│Innocents


                           Moveable Holidays.


  Shrove Tuesday.
  Ash Wednesday.
  Good Friday.
  Easter Monday.
  Easter Tuesday.
  Easter Wednesday.
  Ascension Day.
  Whitsun Monday.
  Whitsun Tuesday.
  Whitsun Wednesday.


  This Company is under the direction of a Governor, Deputy Governor and
  twenty-four Directors, who are annually elected at a general court, in
  the same manner as the Governor and the Directors of the East India
  company. Thirteen are sufficient to compose a court of Directors, for
  managing the affairs of the Company; but if both the Governor and
  Deputy Governor should be absent two hours after the usual time of
  proceeding to business, the Directors may chuse a chairman by
  majority, all their acts being equally valid, as if the Governor or
  Deputy Governor were present.

BANK END _stairs_, Bank side.

BANK SIDE _row_. 1. Millbank. 2. Vine street, Southwark.

BANK’S _court_. Knave’s acre.†

BANK’S _yard_, Bunhill row.†

BANNER’S _rents_, Portpool lane.†

BANNISTER’S _yard_, Water lane, Black Friars.†

BANNISTER’S _alley_. 1. Broad St. Giles’s.† 2. Nightingale lane, East
  Smithfield.†


  [Illustration: _S. Wales delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._ _Banqueting
  House._]


BANQUETING HOUSE, Whitehall, so called from there being originally in
  this place an edifice in which our Kings had public entertainments.
  This was a small part of the ancient palace of Whitehall, which was
  destroyed by fire in 1697, and only the Banqueting House, and one
  court left standing. See the article WHITEHALL.

  In the reign of King James I. the Banqueting House being in a ruinous
  condition, that Monarch formed the design of erecting a palace on the
  spot, worthy the residence of the Kings of England. The celebrated
  Inigo Jones was employed to draw the plan of a noble edifice; this was
  done, and the present structure erected, as a small part of the great
  intended work, for the reception of ambassadors, and other audiences
  of state. The engraved view of it, which is here given, will best
  illustrate what follows.

  This is a regular and august building which has three stories. The
  lowest has a rustic wall, with small square windows, and by its
  strength happily serves for a basis for the orders. Upon this is
  raised the Ionic, with columns and pilasters, and between the columns
  are well-proportioned windows, with arched and pointed pediments. Over
  these is placed the proper entablature, and on this is raised a second
  series of the Corinthian order, consisting of columns and pilasters
  like the other; column being placed over column, and pilaster over
  pilaster. From the capitals are carried festoons, which meet with
  masks and other ornaments in the middle. This series is also crowned
  with its proper entablature, on which is raised the balustrade with
  Attic pedestals between, which crown the work. Every thing in this
  building is finely proportioned, and as happily executed. The
  projection of the columns from the wall has a fine effect in the
  entablatures, which being brought forward in the same proportion,
  gives that happy diversity of light and shade so essential to fine
  architecture. _English Architecture._

  To render this edifice as perfect as possible, the ceiling is finely
  painted by the celebrated Sir Peter Paul Rubens, who was ambassador
  here in the time of Charles I. The subject is the entrance,
  inauguration, and coronation of King James I. represented by Pagan
  emblems. It is esteemed one of his most capital performances, and may
  be justly esteemed one of the finest ceilings in the world. This great
  apartment is at present converted into a chapel, for the service of
  which certain select preachers were appointed out of each university,
  by King George I. to preach here every Sunday; for this each are
  allowed a stipend of 30_l._ a year.

BANSTED, a village in Surrey, situated between Dorking and Croydon,
  famous for producing a great number of walnuts; but much more for its
  neighbouring Downs, one of the most delightful spots in England, on
  account of the agreeable seats in that neighbourhood; for the
  extensive prospect of several counties on both sides the Thames, and
  even of the royal palaces of Windsor and Hampton Court; and for the
  fineness of the turf, covered with a short grass intermixed with
  thyme, and other fragrant herbs, that render the mutton of this tract,
  though small, remarkable for its sweetness. In these Downs there is a
  four miles course for horse races, which is much frequented.

BAPTISTS, a sect of dissenters, thus denominated from their baptizing by
  immersing the body all over, and from their not considering infants as
  proper subjects of baptism. They are principally divided into two
  classes, termed general and particular. The general Baptists, who with
  Arminius maintain the doctrine of universal redemption, consist of
  only six congregations, who have their meeting-houses as follows:

  1. Fair street, Horsely down. 2. Glasshouse yard, Pickax street, near
  Aldersgate bars. 3. Mill yard, Rosemary lane. 4. Pinner’s hall, Broad
  street, in the afternoon. 5. Paul’s alley, Redcross street, where are
  two different congregations, who maintain their own Minister. 6. Queen
  street, in the Park, Southwark.

  The particular Baptists, who with Calvin believe that none will be
  saved but the elect, and that all the rest of mankind are doomed to
  eternal misery, are much more numerous, and have the following
  meetings.

  1. Angel alley, Whitechapel. 2. Artillery street, Spitalfields. 3.
  Brewers hall, Addle street. 4. Cherry Garden lane, Rotherhith. 5.
  Church lane, Limehouse. 6. Collier’s rents, White street, Southwark.
  7. Curriers court, near Cripplegate. 8. Devonshire square, Bishopsgate
  street without. 9. Dipping alley, Horselydown, Southwark. 10. Duke’s
  street, near Pepper street. 11. Eagle street, Red lion street,
  Holborn. 12. Flower de luce yard, Tooley street. 13. Glasshouse
  street, Swallow street. 14. Goat yard passage, Horselydown. 15.
  Johnson’s street, Old Gravel lane. 16. Little Wild street, Great Wild
  street. 17. Little Wood street, Cripplegate. 18. Maze Pond street,
  Southwark. 19. Maidenhead court, Great Eastcheap. 20. New Way, Maze,
  Southwark. 21. Pennington’s street, Virginia street. 22. Pepper
  street, Southwark. 23. Rose lane, Limehouse. 24. Rosemary branch
  alley, Rosemary lane. 25. Rotherhith. 26. St. John’s court, Little
  Hart street. 27. Sheer’s alley, White street, Southwark. 28. Snow
  fields. 29. Unicorn yard, St. Olave’s. 30. Union yard, Horselydown
  lane. 31. Vinegar row, Shoreditch.

BAPTIST _court_, by Boswell court, Carey street.*

BAPTIST’S HEAD _court_, Whitecross street.*

BARBERS. The art of surgery was anciently practised in this city by none
  but the Barbers, who were incorporated by letters patent granted by
  King Edward IV. in the Year 1461, and in 1512 an act was passed to
  prevent any persons besides the Barbers practising surgery within the
  city of London, and seven miles round. At length several persons, who
  were not Barbers, being examined and admitted as practitioners in the
  art of surgery, the parliament united them in the thirty-second year
  of the reign of King Henry VIII. by the appellation of _the Masters or
  Governors of the mystery or commonalty of Barbers and Surgeons of the
  city of London_; and by this act all persons practising the art of
  shaving, are strictly enjoined not to intermeddle with that of
  surgery, except what belongs to drawing of teeth. Thus this company
  obtained the name of Barber-Surgeons, which they continued to enjoy
  till the eighteenth year of the reign of his present Majesty King
  George II. when the Surgeons applying to Parliament to have this union
  dissolved, were formed into a separate company; though the Barbers
  were left in possession of the hall and theatre, and were constituted
  a body politic, under the name of _the Master, Governors and
  Commonalty of the mystery of Barbers of London_.

  This company has a Master and three other Governors, a court of
  Assistants of twenty-four members, and a very numerous livery.

BARBERS HALL, a fine edifice on the west side of Monkwell street,
  consisting of a spacious hall room, a court room, theatre, library,
  and other commodious offices. The grand entrance from Monkwell street
  is enriched with the company’s arms, large fruit, and other
  decorations. The court room has a fretwork ceiling, and is also
  adorned with the pictures of King Henry VIII. and the court of
  Assistants, in one fine piece; a portrait of King Charles II. and
  other paintings. The theatre contains four degrees of cedar seats, one
  above another, in an elliptical form, and the roof is an elliptical
  cupola; this room is adorned with a bust of King Charles I. the
  figures of the seven liberal sciences, and the twelve signs of the
  Zodiac; the skins of a man and woman on wooden frames, in imitation of
  Adam and Eve; the figure of a man flayed, done after the life, all the
  muscles appearing in their due place, and proportion; the skeleton of
  an ostrich; an human skeleton, with copper joints, and five other
  skeletons of human bodies. But as this furniture was introduced by the
  Surgeons, it is now of no use, and the theatre is entirely deserted.

  This Hall is one of the works of that great architect Inigo Jones, and
  is a masterpiece in its kind, that elegant simplicity which
  characterises all his works, giving the spectator the highest
  satisfaction.

BARBER’S _alley_, Brown’s lane, Spitalfields.*

BARBER’S POLE _alley_, St. Margaret’s hill, Southwark.*

BARBICAN, Aldersgate street, so called from a high watch tower which
  stood there, from which a view might be taken of the whole city.
  Barbican, according to Camden, being an Arabic word signifying a watch
  tower.

BARE _lane_, Gravel lane.

BAREMERE’S ALMSHOUSE, in Almshouse yard, Hoxton, which was built about
  the year 1701, by the Rev. Mr. Baremere, a Presbyterian Minister, for
  eight poor women, who have no other allowance but half a chaldron of
  coals each _per annum_. _Maitland_.

BARE _yard_, Bucklersbury.

BAREHOUSE _yard_, Silver street, Wood street.

BARKER’S _rents_, Paul’s alley, Red cross street.†

BARKING, a large market town in Essex, situated ten miles from London,
  on a creek that leads to the Thames, from whence fish is sent up in
  boats to London, the town being chiefly inhabited by fishermen. The
  parish has been so much enlarged by lands recovered from the Thames,
  and the river Rothing, which runs on the west side of the town, that
  it has two chapels of ease, one at Ilford, and another called New
  chapel, on the side of Epping forest, and the great and small tithes
  are computed at above 600_l._ _per annum_. At a small distance from
  the town, in the way to Dagenham, stood a large old house, where the
  gunpowder plot is said to have been formed.

BARKING _alley_, Tower street, by Tower hill, so called from the church
  of Allhallows, Barking.

BARLAM’S _mews_, New Bond street.†

BARLOW’S _court_, Coal yard, Broad St. Giles’s.

BARNABY _street_, Tooley street, Southwark.

BARNES, a village in Surrey, almost encompassed by the Thames. It lies
  between Mortlake and Barn Elms, and is seven miles from London, and
  five from Kingston.

BARNET, a market town in Hertfordshire, situated in the road to St.
  Alban’s, eleven miles from London, on the top of a hill, whence it is
  called High Barnet, and also Chipping, or Cheaping Barnet, from King
  Henry the Second’s granting the monks of St. Alban’s the privilege of
  holding a market here; the word Cheap, or Chepe, being an ancient word
  for a market. As this place is a great thoroughfare, it is well
  supplied with inns. The church is a chapel of ease to the village of
  East Barnet. Here is a free school founded by Q. Elizabeth, and
  endowed partly by that Princess, and partly by Alderman Owen, of
  London, whose additional endowment is paid by the Fishmongers company,
  who appoint 24 governors, by whom the master and usher are chosen to
  teach seven children gratis, and all the other children of the parish
  for 5_s_ a quarter. Here is also an almshouse founded and endowed by
  James Ravenscroft, Esq; for six widows.

  This place is remarkable for the decisive battle fought there between
  the houses of York and Lancaster, on Easter day, 1468, in which the
  great Earl of Warwick, stiled _the Setter up, and Puller down of
  Kings_, was slain, with many others of the principal nobility. The
  place supposed to be the field of battle, is a green spot, a little
  before the meeting of the St. Alban’s and Hatfield roads: and here, in
  the year 1740, a stone column was erected, on which is inscribed a
  long account of that battle.

BARNET (EAST) a pleasant village in Hertfordshire, near Whetstone and
  Enfield Chace, formerly much frequented on account of its medicinal
  spring, which was discovered in a neighbouring common about an hundred
  years ago. The church is a mean edifice; but the rectory is very
  beneficial.

  Here is the fine seat of the Lord Trevor, to which Queen Elizabeth
  gave the name of Mount Pleasant.

BARNET’S _yard_, Mill bank.†

BARON’S ALMSHOUSE, in Elbow lane, Shadwell, was founded in the year
  1682, by George Baron, for fifteen poor women, who also endowed it
  with 5_l._ 4_s._ _per annum_ for bread.

BARRAT’S _rents_, Stepney Causeway.†

BARRET’S _court_, Horselydown, Fair street.†

BARROW’S _rents_, Windmill hill.†

BARTHOLOMEW _close_, near Smithfield, so called from its being situated
  near the church of St. Bartholomew the Great.

BARTHOLOMEW _court_. 1. Houndsditch. 2. Throgmorton street.

_St._ BARTHOLOMEW’S _Church_, situated at the south east corner of
  Bartholomew lane, behind the Royal Exchange, was one of the churches
  consumed in the general conflagration in 1666, and this structure
  arose in its place. It consists of a very irregular body, with a tower
  suited to it, the top of which, instead of pinnacles, a spire, or
  turrets, is crowned with arches, supported by columns of the
  Corinthian order. It is a rectory, in the gift of the Crown, and the
  Rector receives 100_l._ a year in lieu of tithes.

BARTHOLOMEW _lane_, extends from Threadneedle street to Lothbury, and is
  so named from St. Bartholomew’s church at the corner.

_St._ BARTHOLOMEW _the Great_, situated near the east end of Duck lane,
  on the north east side of Smithfield, escaped the flames in 1666, and
  is a large plain church, with a tower crowned with a turret. It is a
  rectory in the patronage of the Earl of Holland, The Rector’s profits,
  besides casualties, amount to about 60_l._ _per annum_.

_St._ BARTHOLOMEW _the Less_, is seated on the south east side of
  Smithfield, adjoining to St. Bartholomew’s Hospital. It was founded in
  the year 1102, and belonged to the neighbouring convent of the same
  name; but as it was not destroyed by the fire in 1666, it remains in
  the same state it was in before that dreadful calamity. It is a low
  building, composed of brick and rough stone plaistered; and consists
  of a roofed body with Gothic windows, and a tower with a corner
  turret. This church is a vicarage, in the gift of the Lord Mayor,
  Aldermen, and Common Council, who upon receiving the grant of the
  church and hospital, covenanted to pay the Vicar 13_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._
  _per annum_, which, with an allowance from the hospital, and
  casualties, amounts to about 120_l._ _per annum_.

_St._ BARTHOLOMEW’S HOSPITAL, on the south east of Smithfield, for the
  cure of the poor, sick and lame, formerly belonged to the Priory of
  St. Bartholomew in Smithfield; but both the priory and hospital being
  dissolved by K. Henry VIII. that Monarch, in the last year of his
  reign, founded the hospital anew, and endowed it with the annual
  revenue of 500 marks, upon condition that the city should pay the same
  sum, which proposal was readily embraced, and the managers of this
  foundation were incorporated by the name of _The Hospital of the
  Mayor, Commonalty and Citizens of London, Governors for the poor,
  called Little St. Bartholomew’s, near West Smithfield_. Since that
  time the hospital has received prodigious benefactions from great
  numbers of charitable persons, by which means not only the poor of
  London and Southwark, but the distressed of any other parts of the
  King’s dominions, and from foreign countries, are taken in, whether
  sick or maimed, and have lodging, food, attendance, and medicines,
  with the advice and assistance of some of the best Physicians and
  Surgeons in the kingdom, who belong to the hospital, and attend the
  patients as occasion requires; they have also matrons and nurses, to
  look after and assist them; and at their discharge when cured, some,
  who live at a considerable distance, are relieved with money, cloaths,
  and other necessaries, to enable them to return to their several
  habitations. Pity it is that so noble and humane a foundation should
  want any thing to render it perfect, and that every sick person who is
  admitted, except such as have suffered by sudden accidents, as the
  fracture or dislocation of a bone, should be obliged to deposit or
  give security for the payment of a guinea, in case of death, in order
  to defray the expence of the funeral; for by this some of the poorest
  and most miserable, and consequently the most proper objects, are
  unhappily excluded from reaping the benefit they might otherwise
  receive from it: but this is also the case of several of the other
  hospitals of this city; however many thousands of persons labouring
  under the most dreadful diseases and wounds, are annually cured at
  this hospital, and in those of Kent street in Southwark, and the Lock
  at Kingsland, both of which are dependent on it. Besides all this,
  there are great numbers of out-patients, who receive advice and
  medicines gratis.

  The ancient hospital which escaped the fire of London becoming
  ruinous, it was found absolutely necessary in the year 1729 to rebuild
  it; a plan for that purpose was formed, and a grand edifice erected,
  by subscription, which was designed to be only one out of four noble
  detached piles of building, to be afterwards raised, about a court or
  area 250 feet in length, and 60 in breadth.

  The original design is now nearly compleated, and this hospital
  altogether forms a very elegant building, or rather buildings, for the
  sides which compose the quadrangle do not join at the angles, as is
  usual, but by four walls, each having a large gate which admits you
  into the area, as may be seen in the print. Here is a staircase
  painted and given by Mr. Hogarth, containing two pictures with figures
  large as the life, which for truth of colouring and expression may vie
  with any thing of its kind in Europe. The subject of the one is the
  Good Samaritan, the other the Pool of Bethesda.

BARTLET’S _buildings_, Holborn.†

BARTLET’S _court_. 1. Bartlet’s street.† 2. Holborn hill.†

BARTLET’S _passage_, Fetter lane.†

BARTLET’S _street_, Red Lion street, Clerkenwell.†

BARTON _street_, Cowley street, Westminster.†

BARTON’S _rents_, Shoreditch.†

BARTRAM’S _yard_, Nightingale lane.†

BASINGHALL, a very ancient building now called Blackwell hall, which
  see.

BASINGHALL _court_, Basinghall street.†


  [Illustration: _S Wale del._ _B. Green sculp._ _S^t. Bartholomew’s
  Hospital._]


BASINGHALL _street_, Cateaton street, extends on the east and north
  sides of Blackwell hall, anciently called Basing hall. Tho’ this
  street is neither uniform nor regularly built, it has many handsome
  houses inhabited by merchants. It received its name from its belonging
  to the family of the Basings. _Stow._ See BLACKWELL HALL.

BASING _lane_, Bread street, Cheapside.†

BASKET _alley_, 1. Golden lane. 2. Goswell street.

BASKET-MAKERS, a fraternity by prescription, and not by charter;
  however, they have the honour of being reckoned one of the city
  companies. This community is governed by two Wardens and forty-eight
  Assistants; but has neither livery nor hall.

BASSHAW’S _rents_, Love lane, Bank side, Southwark,

BASSISHAW _ward_, so called from a corruption of Basinghall, once the
  principal house in it, is bounded on the north by Cripplegate ward, on
  the west by that and Cheap wards, and on the south and east by Coleman
  street ward. See the article BLACKWELL HALL.

  This ward is very small, it only consisting of Basinghall street. Its
  principal buildings are St. Michael’s church, also called Bassishaw
  church; Blackwell hall; Coopers hall; Masons hall; and Weavers hall.

  It is governed by an Alderman, his Deputy, four Common Council men,
  seventeen wardmote inquestmen, two scavengers, two constables, and a
  beadle: and the jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest in this ward,
  serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month of March.

BATCH’S _walk_, Ratcliff highway.†

BATEMAN’S BRIDGE _yard_, Upper Ground street, Southwark.†

BATEMAN’S _street_, May fair.†

BATTERSBY _court_, near King street, Westminster.†

BATTERSEY, a village in Surrey, situated on the river Thames, four miles
  from London, and at the same distance from Richmond. The gardens about
  this place are noted for producing the finest asparagus. It gave the
  title of baron to the late Lord Viscount St. John, who had a seat
  here, which is a plain old building. Here Sir Walter St. John founded
  a free school for twenty boys.

BATES _street_, Ratcliff highway.†

BATH _court_, Queen street.

BATH _street_. 1. Cold Bath fields, thus named from the Cold Bath near
  it. 2. Welbeck street, thus named from the Earl of Bath.

BATTLEBRIDGE. 1. Gray’s inn lane, 2. Mill lane, Tooley street,
  Southwark; it was so called from Battle’s abbey; it standing over a
  water-course, which flows out of the Thames, and formerly belonged to
  that abbey. This bridge was therefore built and repaired by the Abbots
  of that house. _Stow._

BATTLEBRIDGE _stairs_, near Mill lane, Tooley street.

BATT’S _rents_, Whitechapel Common.†

BAXTER’S _court_, Church street, Hackney.†

BAYNARD’S CASTLE _lane_, Thames street, so called from a castle of that
  name built there by William Baynard Lord of Dunmow. _Camden._

BAYNING’S ALMSHOUSE, in Gunpowder alley, Crutched Friars, was erected in
  the year 1631, by Paul Viscount Sudbury, for ten poor housekeepers;
  but being surrendered to the parish, they have made it their
  almshouse.

BEACH _lane_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate‡

BEACONSFIELD, a small town in Buckinghamshire, in the road to Oxford,
  about 23 miles from London. It has several good inns, and is
  remarkable for being the birth-place of Mr. Waller, the celebrated
  poet, who had a great estate, and a handsome seat here, which is still
  in the possession of Edmund Waller, Esq; his descendant. There is a
  fine monument erected in the church yard, to the memory of Mr. Waller
  the poet.

BEADLES _court_, Eagle street, Holborn.

BEAK _street_, Swallow street, Piccadilly, so called from most of the
  houses belonging to Col. Beak.

BEAL’S _wharf_, Mill street, Tooley street.†

BEAR _alley_. 1. Addle hill, Thames street.* 2. Fleet ditch.* 3. London
  wall.*

BEAR _court_, Butcher row, Ratcliff.*

BEARBINDER _lane_, Swithin’s lane, Cannon street.

BEAR GARDEN, Bank side, Southwark.

BEAR _lane_, Gravel lane, Southwark.†

BEAR KEY, or Bear quay, near the Custom house. There are two streets of
  this name, Great and Little Bear Key, which lead from Thames street to
  the water side. On the key opposite to them, are landed vast
  quantities of corn, and formerly much bear, a small sort of barley,
  now little used in England; tho’ a great deal of it is brewed into ale
  and beer in Dublin, and from this grain Bear key undoubtedly took its
  name.

BEAR _Key stairs_, Bear key.

BEAR’S _court_, Butcher row, Ratcliff cross.

BEAR’S FOOT _alley_, Bank side.

BEAR _street_, Leicester fields.

BEAR _yard_. 1. Fore street, Lambeth.* 2. Long walk, King John’s court.*
  3. Silver street.* 4. Vere street, Claremarket.*

BEAR AND HARROW _court_, Butcher row, Temple bar.*

BEAR AND RAGGED STAFF _court_, Drury lane.*

BEAR AND RAGGED STAFF _yard_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

BEARDLEY’S _yard_, Wapping wall.†

BEAUCHAMP _street_, Leather lane, Holborn.†

BEAUFORT’S _buildings_, in the Strand.†

BECK’S _rents_. 1. Ropemaker’s fields, Limehouse.† 2. Rosemary lane,
  Little Tower hill.†

  _Lords of the_ BEDCHAMBER, fourteen officers of great distinction,
  under the Lord Chamberlain; the first of whom is Groom of the Stole.
  They are usually persons of the highest quality, and their office is,
  each in his turn, to wait one week in the King’s bedchamber, and there
  to lie all night on a pallet bed by the King, and to supply the place
  of the Groom of the Stole in his absence. They also wait upon the King
  when he eats in private; for the cupbearers, carvers, and sewers do
  not then wait. The Groom of the Stole has 2000_l._ a year, and the
  rest of the Lords of the Bedchamber 1000_l._ a year each. See GROOM OF
  THE STOLE.

  _Grooms of the_ BEDCHAMBER, eight officers of considerable rank under
  the Lords of the bedchamber, each of whom has a salary of 500_l._ _per
  annum_.

BEDDINGTON, in Surrey, the seat and manor of the ancient family of the
  Carews, is a noble edifice; but the wings are too deep for the body of
  the house; for they should either have been placed at a greater
  distance, or not have been so long. The court before them is fine, as
  is the canal in the park, which lies before this court, and has a
  river running through it. All the flat part of the park is taken up
  with very fine gardens, which extend in vistas two or three miles. The
  orangery is said to be the only one in England that is planted in the
  natural ground, and the trees, which are above an hundred years old,
  were brought out of Italy by Sir Francis Carew, Bart. They are,
  however, secured in the winter by moveable covers. The pleasure house,
  which was also built by Sir Francis, has the famous Spanish Armada
  painted on the top of it, and under it is a cold bath. The church is a
  beautiful small Gothic pile, built of stone, in the north and south
  isles of which are several stalls after the manner of cathedrals: and
  here is also two charity schools, one for boys, and the other for
  girls.

BEDFORD _buildings_, near Gray’s inn.

BEDFORDBURY, Chandos street.

BEDFORD _court_. 1. Bedford street, Covent Garden. 2. Red Lion street,
  Holborn. 3. In the Strand.

BEDFORD HOUSE. See BLOOMSBURY _square_.

BEDFORD _mews_, a street of stables near Grays inn walks.

BEDFORD _passage_, Southampton street.

BEDFORD _row_, near Gray’s inn.

BEDFORD _street_. 1. Covent garden, a handsome broad street. It takes
  its name from the Duke of Bedford, who is at least ground landlord. 2.
  Red Lion street, Holborn; a very handsome strait and well built
  street, inhabited by persons of distinction.

BEDLAM, or BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL. See BETHLEM.

BEDNAL, or BETHNAL GREEN. See BETHNAL GREEN.

BEDNAL, or BETHNAL GREEN road, Mile End.

BEDWARD’S _court_, White street.†

BEEHIVE _alley_, Snow hill.*

BEEHIVE _court_, Little St. Thomas Apostles.*

BEER _lane_, a crooked lane leading from Tower street into Thames
  street, opposite the Custom house.

BEGGAR’S ALMS _alley_, Rosemary lane.

BEGGAR’S BUSH _yard_, Gravel lane.

BEGGAR’S _hill_, Maid lane, Southwark.

BELL _alley_. 1. Aldersgate street without.* 2. Austin Friars.* 3. Budge
  row.* 4. Canon street, Walbrook.* 5. Coleman street, Lothbury, where
  there are two allies of this name.* 6. Dean street, Ratcliff highway.*
  7. Dock head.* 8. Fenchurch street.* 9. Golden lane.* 10. Goswell
  street.* 11. Great Carter lane.* 12. Great Eastcheap.* 13. Green
  alley, Tooley street.* 14. Kingsland road.* 15. King street,
  Westminster.* 16. Labour-in-vain hill, Thames street.* 17. Lamb
  street.* 18. New stairs, Wapping.* 19. Old Bedlam.* 20. Old street.*
  21. Saffron hill.* 22. Snow hill.* 23. Spital yard.* 24. Thieving
  lane.* 25. Tooley street, Southwark.* 26. Turnmill street.* 27.
  Walbrook.*

BELL _yard_, Bishopsgate street, without.*

BELL AND BEAR _alley_, Great Eastcheap.*

BELL _court_. 1. Gray’s inn lane.* 2. Great Carter lane.* 3. Grub
  street.* 4. Moorfields.* 5. St. Martin’s le grand.* 6. Thomas street.

BELL _dock_, Wapping.*

BELL _lane_. 1. Lisham green.* 2. By Crispin street, Spitalfields.*

BELL _wharf_. 1. Tooley street. 2. Lower Shadwell.*

BELL _wharf stairs_. 1. Lower Shadwell.* 2. Thames street.*

BELL _inn yard_. 1. St. Margaret’s hill.* 2. In the Strand.*

BELL SAVAGE _inn yard_, Ludgate hill. This inn was so called from its
  being kept by Isabella Savage, who was called in French _Belle
  Sauvage_, or lovely Savage. _Fullers Church Hist_.

BELL _yard_. 1. Barnaby street.* 2. Coleman street.* 3. Fleet street.*
  4. Fore street, Lambeth.* 5. Gracechurch street.* 6. Great Carter
  lane.* 7. King’s street, Westminster.* 8. Little St. Martin’s lane,
  Charing cross.* 9. Long alley, Moorfields.* 10. Mincing lane.* 11.
  Mount street.* 12. New Fish street hill.* 13. Old Fish street hill.*
  14. Rosemary lane.* 15. St. Margaret’s hill, Southwark.* 16. Stony
  lane.* 17. Vine street.* 18. Whitechapel.* 19. Whitehorse street,
  Ratcliff.*

BELL’S _alley_, St. Catherine’s lane.†

BELL’S _court_, St. Michael’s lane.

BELL’S _rents_. 1. Barnaby street.† 2. Mint street.†

BELL’S _wharf_, Millbank.†

BELLOWS _yard_. 1. In Fore street.* 2. In the Minories.*

BELSYSE, in Middlesex, is situated on the south west side of Hampstead
  hill, and was a fine seat belonging to the Lord Wotton, and afterwards
  to the late Earl of Chesterfield: but in the year 1720, it was
  converted into a place of polite entertainment, particularly for
  music, dancing, and play, when it was much frequented on account of
  its neighbourhood to London: but since that time it has been suffered
  to run to ruin.


  [Illustration: _S. Wale del._ _ B. Green sculp._ _Belvedere House._]


BELVEDERE HOUSE, this belongs to Sampson Gideon, Esq; is situated on the
  brow of a hill, near Erith in Kent, and commands a vast extent of a
  fine country many miles beyond the Thames, which is about a mile and
  half distant. This river and navigation add greatly to the beauty of
  this scene, which exhibits to the eye of the delighted spectator, as
  pleasing a landskip of the kind as imagination can form. The
  innumerable ships employed in the immense trade of London, are beheld
  continually sailing up and down the river. On the other side are
  prospects not less beautiful, tho’ of another kind. This gentleman has
  very judiciously laid out his grounds, and made many beautiful vistas.
  The house is but small, tho’ an addition has been made of a very noble
  room; this and two others are finely furnish’d with pictures, of which
  follows a catalogue. The collection, though not numerous, is very
  valuable, it containing none but pieces which are originals by the
  greatest masters, and some of them very capital.


                           In the Long Parlour.

                        │   Height.│  Breadth.│Painted by
                        │ Feet Inc.│ Feet Inc.│

    View of Venice      │          │          │

    Ditto, with the Doge│        2.│      4  6│_Canaletti._
      marrying the sea  │          │          │

    Its companion       │          │          │

    Time bringing truth │      2  5│      3  0│_Rubens._
      to light, a sketch│          │          │

    The Alchymist       │      3  1│      4  2│_Teniers._

    Portrait of Sir John│      3  1│      2  7│_Holbein._
      Gage              │          │          │

    A landskip          │      2  0│      2  4│_G. Poussin._

    Battle of the       │      1  1│      1  6│_Rottenhammer._
      Amazons           │          │          │

    The unjust Steward  │      2  7│      4  6│_Quintin Matsys._

                              In the Lobby.

    Noah’s Ark          │      1  9│     2  10│_Velvet Brughel._

    St. Catherine       │      2  6│      2  0│_Leonardo da Vinci._

    Van Trump           │     2  10│      2  4│_Francis Hals._

    Vulcan, or the      │      4  6│      5  9│_Bassan._
      element of Fire   │          │          │

    A picture of horses,│      1  8│      1  4│_Wouverman._
      its companion     │          │          │

    Two insides of      │      0  0│      0  0│_De Neef._
      churches, small   │          │          │

    A Dutch woman and   │      1  9│      1  6│_Sir Ant. More._
      her three children│          │          │

    Rembrant painting an│     2  10│      2  0│_by himself._
      old woman         │          │          │

    A courtezan and her │      2  4│      2  4│_Giorgione._
      gallant           │          │          │

    The golden age      │      2  0│      3  2│_Velvet Brughel._

    Snyders with his    │      5  4│      4  0│_Rubens._
      wife and child    │          │          │

    Rebecca bringing    │      4  6│      3  2│_De la Hyre._
      presents to Laban │          │          │

    Boors at cards      │      2  0│      2  0│_Teniers._

    The element of Earth│      4  6│      5  9│_Jai. Bassan._

    Marriage in Cana of │      4  0│      5  0│_P. Veronese._
      Gallilee          │          │          │

    Two landskips       │      2  0│      3  2│_G. Poussin._

    The genealogy of    │      3  0│      2  3│_Albert Durer._
      Christ            │          │          │

    Beggar boys at cards│      2  0│      1  4│_Salvator Rosa._

    Herod consulting the│      1  4│      2  8│_Rembrant._
      wisemen           │          │          │

    Marriage of St.     │      2  8│      3  2│_Old Palma._
      Catherine         │          │          │

    two fine bas        │          │          │_by Soldani_
      relievos in brass,│          │          │
      one Bacchus and   │          │          │
      Ariadne, the other│          │          │
       Ceres teaching   │          │          │
      Triptolemus the   │          │          │
      use of the plough │          │          │

                              In the Saloon.

    The conception,     │      7  8│      7  8│_Murillo._
      painted for an    │          │          │
      altar piece       │          │          │

    The flight into     │          │          │_Ditto._
      Egypt, its        │          │          │
      companion         │          │          │

    Vulcan, Venus,      │      5  6│      8  4│_Tintoret._
      Cupid, and sundry │          │          │

    figures, an         │          │          │
      emblematic subject│          │          │

    Mars and Venus      │      5  8│      4  3│_P. Veronese._

    Christ among the    │      5  2│      6  6│_L. Giordano._
      Doctors           │          │          │

    Duke of Buckingham’s│      5  8│      5  6│_by himself._
      mistress, her     │          │          │

    three children, and │          │          │
      a son of Rubens   │          │          │

    A landskip          │     4  10│      6  2│_Claude._

    Leopold’s gallery   │          │          │_Teniers._

    Teniers, own        │      3  2│      4  2│_Ditto._
      gallery, its      │          │          │
      companion         │          │          │

BEMBRIDGE’S _rents_, Moor lane, Moorfields.†

BEMBRIDGE _street_, St Giles’s pound.†

BEN _court_, Grub street.†

BENJAMIN _street_. 1. Cow cross.† 2. Longditch, Westminster.† 3. Red
  Lion street, Clerkenwell.† 4. Swallow street.†

_St._ BENNET FINK, was dedicated to St. Benedict, vulgarly called St.
  Bennet, an Italian saint, the founder of the order of Benedictine
  monks; and received the additional name of _Fink_ from its rebuilder
  Robert Fink. It is situated on the south side of Thread-needle-street.
  The old church being destroyed in the general conflagration in 1666,
  the present edifice was erected in its room. The body is of an
  irregular form, enlightened by large arched windows, which reach to
  the roof; this is incompassed with a balustrade, and crowned with a
  lantern: a dome rises upon the whole extent of the tower, and on its
  top rises a turret.

  This church is a curacy in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of
  Windsor, who generally supply it with one of their own Canons. The
  Curate receives 100_l._ a year in lieu of tithes.

_St._ BENNET’S _Gracechurch street_, is situated at the south west
  corner of Fenchurch street. The old church being much damaged by the
  fire in 1666, was taken down, and the present structure erected in its
  place, which is built principally of stone, and is a regular,
  convenient, and neat edifice, without the expence of columns and
  porticos. It has a handsome balustrade at the top, and a very high
  spire of the obelisk kind, the base of which is supported by four
  porticos.

  This church is a rectory in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of
  St. Paul’s; and the parish of St. Leonard Eastcheap is annexed to it.
  The Rector receives 140_l._ a year in lieu of tithes.

_St._ BENNET’S _Paul’s Wharf_, is so called from its being consecrated
  to St. Benedict, and its vicinity to that wharf. It is situated at the
  south west corner of St. Bennet’s hill, and the old church being
  destroyed by the fire of London in 1666, this was erected in its
  place, from a design of Sir Christopher Wren. It is a neat structure;
  the body is well proportioned: the tower has rustic corners, and its
  turret and small spire are raised from the crown of a dome.

  This church is a rectory, the collation to which is in the Dean and
  Chapter of St. Paul’s. The parish of St. Peter Paul’s Wharf is united
  to it, and the Rector receives 100_l._ a year in lieu of tithes.

  _St_. BENNET’S _Sherehog_, stood opposite to St. Sythe’s lane, in St.
  Pancras lane, and in the ward of Cheap. In the year 1323, it went by
  the name of St. Osyth, from its being dedicated to a queen and martyr
  of that name; but she was divested of the tutelage of this church, by
  Benedict Shorne, a fishmonger of London, who was a rebuilder,
  repairer, or benefactor to it; and Shorne his surname, being corrupted
  into Shrog, was at last converted into Sherehog. This church sharing
  the common fate of the general conflagration in 1666, and not being
  rebuilt, the parish was annexed to that of St. Stephen’s Walbrook.
  _Newc. Rep. Eccl. Paroch._

BENNET _street_, a short street, westward into Arlington street,
  Piccadilly.

BENNET’S BRIDGE _lane_, Upper Ground street, Southwark.†

BENNET’S _court_. 1. Beggars hill, Southwark.† 2. Canon row.† 3. Drury
  lane.† 4. Limehouse causeway.† 5. Long lane, Southwark.† 6. The
  Strand.† 7. White street.†

BENNET’S _hill_, Thames street, thus named from the church of St.
  Bennet’s Paul’s Wharf.

BENNET’S _street_. 1. Longditch.† 2. Near the Upper ground, Southwark.†
  3. St. James’s street.†

BENNET’S _yard_, near Tufton street.†

BENSON’S _alley_, Shoreditch.†

BENTINCK _street_, Berwick street.

BERKHAMSTED, an ancient town in Hertfordshire, situated 30 miles to the
  N. W. of London. It was anciently a Roman town, and here some of the
  Saxon kings kept their court. William the Conqueror here swore to the
  nobility to preserve the laws made by his predecessors; and here Henry
  II. kept his court, and granted the town all the laws and liberties it
  had enjoyed under Edward the Confessor. It was a borough in the reign
  of Henry III. and James I. to whose children this place was a nursery,
  made it a corporation, by the name of the Bailiff and Burgesses of
  Berkhamsted St. Peter; the Burgesses to be twelve, to chuse a
  Recorder, and Town Clerk, to have a prison, _&c._ but in the next
  reign it was so impoverished by the civil wars, that the government
  was dropp’d, and has not been since renewed. Its market is also much
  decayed. The town, though situated on the south side of a marsh,
  extends itself far in a broad street, and handsome buildings, and is
  pleasantly surrounded with high and hard ground, full of pastures,
  hedgerows, and arable land. What remains of the castle, which is but
  one third of it, was not long ago the seat of the Careys, and is now
  the seat of the family of the Ropers. Here is a spacious church
  dedicated to St. Peter, which has eleven of the Apostles on its
  pillars, with a sentence of the creed on each, and on the twelfth
  pillar is St. George killing the dragon. The other public buildings
  are, a free school, which is a handsome brick structure, well endowed,
  the King being patron, and the Warden of All Souls College in Oxford,
  Visitor; and a handsome almshouse, built and endowed by Mr. John Sayer
  and his wife, who gave 1300_l._ for that purpose.

BERKLEY SQUARE, near Hyde Park road, contains about three acres, and is
  well built on the north, east and west sides.

  The following is an account of the choice and valuable collection of
  pictures and prints of John Barnard, Esq; at his house in Berkley
  square.

  A holy family, by Parmegiano, well preserved, and the characters very
  fine. It was out of the Count de Platembourg’s collection at
  Amsterdam.

  A crucifixion, by Paulo Veronese, about three feet high; there is a
  fine group of figures at bottom, and the figures on the cross are
  remarkably well drawn.

  Christ calling to Zaccheus; and the Angel appearing to St. John in the
  wilderness; both by Paulo Veronese, in his finest manner and highest
  colouring.

  A præsepe, or nativity, by Jacomo Bassan; the light comes from the
  child, and has a surprizing effect, being in his highest colouring.
  These three last are upright narrow pictures, oval at top, and were
  originally designed for some elegant little chapel.

  Christ led to be crucified, by the same master; the colouring is the
  richest; and the expression is much finer than one often sees of
  Bassan.

  Adam ploughing and Eve spinning, by Domenico Fetti: this picture is
  finely coloured, and the character of Eve is prettier than can well be
  expressed; it was in the collection of Monsieur Biberon at Paris, and
  Monsieur Crozat mentions it in his work, along with two others of the
  same subject, one of which belongs to the King of France.

  A holy family, with a little St. John presenting a cross, by Guido.
  This picture, which is but fifteen inches high, may be truly said to
  be in his very finest manner; the characters of the Virgin and St.
  Joseph are inexpressibly fine, and it is in the best preservation. It
  was in the Duke de Tallard’s collection.

  The martyrdom of a female saint, by Correggio. This picture came out
  of the same collection as the last, and is much of the same size; it
  is in his first manner, but yet visibly of his hand; the colouring and
  some of the characters are fine. The Duke of Tallard had it out of the
  collection of Monsieur Crozat, where it was always esteemed a true
  picture of Correggio.

  A holy family, with a little St. John presenting a dish of fruit, by
  Simone da Pesaro, commonly called Cantarini, who was the best disciple
  of Guido. The figures are half length as big as life. True pictures of
  this master are very scarce in England, and this is one of his best,
  and in the highest preservation.

  The Virgin with the child in her lap, half length, as big as life, by
  Vandyck. The character of the Virgin is as sweet, and the colouring as
  fine, as any thing of this master’s painting. This was out of the
  collection of Monsieur Biberon, and there is an old print of this
  picture.

  A holy family, by the same master. This is the small picture, but the
  characters of the Virgin and child, and the sweetness and mellowness
  of the colouring, are at least equal to the large one. There is a
  print of this by Bolswert.

  A head of St. Peter, with a fish in his hand, by Spagnoletto. The
  expression and force in this picture are extremely great. There is a
  mezzotinto print engraved after it by Mr. MacArdell.

  Pharoah and his host drowned in the Red sea, about five feet wide, by
  Valerio Castelli. The character of Moses is very great, and the
  colouring throughout is remarkably fine.

  The conversion of St. Paul, by Luca Jordano, with many figures and
  horsemen, about six feet wide. This is one of his best, in the free
  and spirited style, for which he was most famous.

  A battle, by the same master, not quite so large. The composition in
  this picture is better, and the figures seem more alive and in motion,
  than in almost any battle pieces to be met with.

  Tobit burying the dead, by Benedetto Castiglione, in the style of
  Nicola Poussin, which master (in his latter time) he particularly
  studied and imitated; and he succeeded therein so well, in this
  picture, both in the composition and drawing, that was not his name
  upon it, several of the best judges have declared, they should not
  only have taken it for a true picture of that master, but also for a
  very fine one of him.

  A landskip, by Claude Lorrain, near four feet wide; the subject is a
  warm evening; it is in the highest preservation, not in the least
  turned black, and in his very finest taste and manner of painting: the
  keeping, and that harmony and tenderness of tints, for which that
  master was so famous, are remarkably conspicuous in this picture, and
  the figures, which are but few, are much better than one generally
  sees in his works.

  A præsepe, by Pietro da Cortona: the composition and the harmony of
  colours in this picture are very fine.

  The entombing of Christ, by Federico Barocci: the dead body is rather
  disagreeable, but some of the characters are very fine. This was out
  of the Duke D’Auvergne’s collection at Paris.

  The adoration of the Magi, by Rubens: this is only a sketch for a
  large picture, yet it is so finished, that at a proper distance the
  characters are as expressive, and the colouring as rich as in a
  finish’d picture.

  St. Thomas, who disbelieves putting his finger in the wound in
  Christ’s side, by Michael Angelo Caravaggio. This is also a sketch,
  but the dignity in the characters, and the fine large folds of
  drapery, shew it to be the work of a great master. Mr. Barnard has a
  print of this picture etch’d by the master himself, which is extremely
  scarce.

  The stoning of St. Stephen, by Filippo Lauri. Though the figures in
  this picture are rather larger than those which are in his very best
  manner, yet they are finely drawn, and the gaiety and beauty of the
  colouring, together with the fine keeping observed in the distant
  figures, make it a very pleasing and fine picture.

  Christ’s agony in the garden, by the same master. The figures in this
  are smaller than in the preceding; and the fine characters, and
  correctness of drawing of the figures, joined to the beautiful
  colouring, have always made this picture, though a very small one,
  esteemed by the greatest judges as one of his best.

  The same subject in a round, about a foot diameter, by Carlo Maratti;
  the angels heads are fine, and the colouring pleasing. This picture
  belonged to Mr. Jarvis the painter, who had a companion to it by the
  same hand, the subject a dead Christ; he valued them very highly.

  A holy family, by the same master, about one foot seven inches high;
  this is painted in his best time and finest colouring.

  A Silence, by Nicolo Poussin: the subject a landskip, the evening, in
  which a little boy is running away with a Satyr’s musical instrument
  as he lies asleep; other figures are lying and leaning in a reposed
  manner. Though this picture is only about seventeen inches wide, and
  the figures but small, yet they are as genteel, and as correctly
  drawn, as in any of his finest pictures.

  The woman taken in adultery, by Sebastian Ricci. The greatness of the
  design the dignity and propriety of the characters, particularly the
  woman, and the harmony of the colours, shew him to be (tho’ a modern
  master) equal to most of the greatest that went before him.

  Two misers counting and setting down their money; the same subject,
  but with some variation as that at Windsor, by Quintin Matsys of
  Antwerp, who repeated this picture several times.

  An old man’s head with a ruff, painted by Rembrant. It is thought to
  be the portrait of Ephraim Bonus the Physician, as it bears a great
  resemblance to the print of him engraved by Rembrant himself, but in
  the picture he is much older. The light and shade in this picture is
  extremely fine. Mr. Houston, an excellent engraver in mezzotinto, has
  engraved a very fine print after this picture.

  A fine landskip with Tobit and the Angel, near three feet wide, by the
  same master; the effect of colours in this picture is surprising.

  A Magdalene’s head, by Guido.

  An historical subject, a woman and three children, _&c._ by Solimene.
  This is better coloured, and more finished, than one generally sees of
  this master.

  Angels holding a mitre over St. Ambrose, a finished sketch for a large
  picture, by the same master. The character of St. Ambrose is very
  fine, and the draperies are in a great style of painting.

  Susannah and the Elders, by Le Moine. The colouring of the woman, who
  is near naked, is very fine, and the composition and the landskip are
  very agreeable.

  A little boy and girl naked in a landskip of a garden, by Albano, in
  his richest colouring.

  A battle, by Bourgognone, about two feet wide; this is clearer and
  better coloured than most of his pictures usually are.

  Two landskips, by Gaspar Poussin, about two feet two inches wide each.
  They are in his finest green manner, and extremely well preserved.

  Another landskip, by the same master, a little larger but upright, and
  also in his richest and best manner.

  A landskip with rocks, and a man lying reading, by Salvator Rosa,
  about two feet two inches wide. This is one of those pictures that
  were engraved and published by direction of Mr. Pond some years ago:
  it belonged then to Mr. Kent.

  A landskip, its companion, by Bartolomeo, a disciple of the above
  master. The figures and water in this picture are remarkably fine.

  A landskip, a warm evening, about the same size, by Jean Asselin,
  commonly called Crabacci, with cattle in the water by Berchem in his
  finest manner. Mr. Major, an engraver of great merit, has made a very
  capital print from this picture.

  A landskip with cattle and figures, by Cuyp, its companion. The
  sun-shine, for which this master is so famous, is particularly fine in
  this picture.

  Venus and Adonis with Cupids, by Van Baelen, in a landskip about the
  same size as the above, by Velvet Brughell, who has introduced dogs,
  _&c._ painted with the utmost life and spirit. This is as fine a
  coloured picture as can possibly be met with.

  A landskip about the same size, with a flock of sheep, _&c._ by
  Francesco Mille. The composition is fine, and this is one of his
  richest pictures.

  A piece of ruins, by Viviano, about the same size.

  A piece of ruins, by Ghisolfi, with a man sitting by the side of the
  Tiber.

  A sea calm with English yachts, by William Vandevelde. The keeping,
  the figures, and the water, are uncommonly fine in this picture.

  A canal with boats on it, and a bridge at the end, with buildings on
  each side, by Canaletti. This picture, for the fineness of the water,
  and the justness of the perspective, is allowed to be one of the very
  finest of this master.

  A landskip with figures, fishing, &c. by Zuccharelli, about 2 feet 9
  inches wide. This picture from the fineness of the figures, and the
  uncommon richness of the colouring, has been always deemed at least
  equal to any thing this great master ever painted.

  A holy family, with a little St. John sitting on a lamb, by
  Scarcellini de Ferrara, after a design of Augustine Caracci; it is a
  small picture, but the characters and colouring are remarkably sweet
  in it.

  A very masterly sketch of the miraculous cross of St. Antonio de
  Padua, by Seb. Ricci. This at a little distance, has all the effect of
  a finish’d picture.

  Christ and the two disciples at Emaus, by Elsheimer. The story is
  finely told, and there is great expression in the figures: this
  picture is a curiosity, not only from the great scarceness of the
  works of this master, but there are in it two different candle lights,
  and a moon light, which have an uncommon, and yet pleasing effect.

  The Virgin supporting a dead Christ, by Lubin Baugin, called in
  France, Le Petit Guide, from his happy manner of imitating the stile
  of that great master, of which this little picture, among others, is a
  proof: this was out of the Duke de Tallard’s collection.

  A sea monster swimming away with a woman, by Albert Durer, who has
  engraved a print of the same subject: this is extremely well
  preserved, and there is a much better keeping observed in it than is
  usual in pictures of that age.

  A camelion with a thistle and flies, most exquisitely painted after
  the life, by Van Aelst.

  A group of various flowers with insects in a glass of water, by a
  master who has mark’d the picture with [Albrecht Durer’s mark] This in
  point of finishing, is perhaps carried as high as art, colours, and
  the finest pointed pencils can possibly arrive.

  A man sitting smoaking, and other back figures, by David Teniers. This
  is in his finest stile, both for colouring and expression.

  Two men with a little dog going to enter a cottage; a smaller picture
  by the same master. Mr. Major has engraved a print from this, and
  call’d it the Friendly Invitation.

  There are other smaller pictures, good in their kind, such as the
  Virgin and Child, by Rottenhammer, highly finished and coloured.

  The same subject, the school of Caracci, if not of him.

  The Virgin and Child with a bird, and a little St. John, by Sebastian
  Bourdon, richer coloured than common of this master.

  A holy family and St. Catherine, by Schidoni.

  An angel drawing an arrow from the side of St. Sebastian, finely
  coloured by Gerrard Seghers.

  Alpheus and Arethusa, Glaucus and Scylla, by Filippo Lauri, in his
  best manner.

  A ship on fire, by Vandevelde: the effect surprizingly fine.

  A landskip, by Wynants, highly finish’d, &c.

  The same Gentleman has also a collection of about twelve thousand
  prints, engraved and etched by the most celebrated masters of the
  three last centuries, much the greatest part of which are not only in
  the highest preservation, but also of the finest impressions; and of
  many of the matters, there are either all, or very near the whole
  work; they are contained in about 50 large volumes, besides above 60
  volumes in sculpture and architecture. The principal part of this
  collection of prints are engraved and etched by Andrea Mantegna, Marco
  Antonio Raimondi, Ugo da Carpi, Silvestra and Marco de Ravenna, Julio
  Bonafoni, Augustino Venetiana, Martinus Rota, Adamo of Mantua, Andrea
  del Sarto, Parmegiano, Primaticcio, Schidoni, Sisto Badalocchi,
  Baroccio, Carnillo Procaccino, Michael Angelo Caravaggio, Guercino,
  Spagnoletto, Paulo Veronese, Palma, Giulio Carpioni, Domenico Canuti,
  Odoardo Fialetti, Paulo Farinati, Ventura Salembeni, all the
  Caracci’s, Battista Franco, Guido Rheni, Simone Cantarini, Elisabetta
  Sirani, Claude Lorrain, Gaspar Poussin, Crescentio, Horizonti,
  Francesco Bolognese, Paul Brill, Both of Italy, Salvator Rosa, Pietro
  Testa, Castiglione, Bourgognone, Carlo Maratti, Luca Jordano, Rubens,
  Vandyck, and others, after him the whole work, Jordaens Rombouts,
  Cornelius de Wael, Vosterman, Martinus Secu, Albert Durer, Lucas Van
  Leiden, Hisbin, Geo. Pens, the Visschers, Rembrant near the whole
  work, Ostade, David Teneirs, Both, Bega, Berchem, Paul Potter, Stoop,
  Ad. Vandevelde, Bamboccio, Hondius, Fyt, Jean Miele, Molenaer, Hollar,
  Bloemart, Sebastian Bourdon, Le Brun, La Hyre, Mignard, Della Bella,
  Callot, Mellan, Spierre, Perelle, Coypel, Pittau, Morin, Edelinck,
  Masson, Drevet, Nanteuil, and many other excellent masters: also a
  very considerable collection of original drawings by most of the
  greatest Italian, and some of the best Flemish and Dutch masters.

BERKLEY _street_, Hyde park road; thus called from its being near the
  Lord Berkley of Stratton’s mansion house.

BERMEETER’S ALMSHOUSE, in St. John street Bethnal green, was founded by
  Mr. Bermeeter, for six poor women, and by him endowed with 30_l._ _per
  annum_.

BERMONDSEY SCHOOL, was founded in the year 1718, by Mr. Josiah Bacon,
  who bequeatheth the sum of 700_l._ for purchasing land, and erecting a
  school upon it, which he endowed with 150_l._ a year, for educating
  sixty poor children of the parish of St. Mary Bermondsey street,
  called by corruption Barnaby street. See _St._ MARY MAGDALEN’S
  BERMONDSEY.

  The district of Bermondsey appears in William the Conqueror’s survey
  to have been a royal manor, in which were twenty five husbandmen, and
  twenty-three cottagers. _Maitland._

BERNARD’S or BARNARD’S INN, situated on the south side of Holborn, near
  Fetter lane, was anciently called Mackworth’s Inn, and is one of the
  Inns of Chancery. This Society consists of a Principal and twelve
  Antients, besides other members, who are obliged to be in commons a
  fortnight in two terms, and ten days in each of the other two, on the
  penalty of forfeiting five shillings a week.

BERRY _court_. 1. Liquorpond street.†. 2. Love lane, Wood street,
  Cheapside.† 3. St. Mary Ax.

BERRY _street_. 1. Piccadilly.† 2. Near St. Mary Ax, Leadenhall street.†

BERWICK _street_, Old Soho.

BETHLEHEM _court_, Old Bethlehem.†

BETHLEM, or BEDLAM HOSPITAL, originally a priory, was founded in the
  year 1247, by Simon Fitzroy, of London, or according to Stow, Simon
  Fitz Mary, Sheriff of London, on the east side of the place now called
  the quarters of Moorfields, and of the burial ground of Old Bethlem.
  This priory consisted of brothers and sisters, who wore a star upon
  their copes and mantles, probably in commemoration of the star that
  guided the wisemen in their visit to our Saviour at his birth; and
  these monks were to receive the Bishop and the Canons of Bethlehem,
  whenever they should come to England. But King Henry VIII. giving this
  house to the city of London, it was converted into an hospital for the
  cure of lunatics; but not without a certain weekly expence, paid
  either by their relations or the parish.

  This hospital being, however, in an incommodious situation, and
  becoming both ruinous, and unable to receive and entertain the great
  number of distracted persons, whose friends sued for their admission,
  the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council, granted the Governors a
  piece of ground along the south side of the lower quarters of
  Moorfields, upon which the foundation of the present hospital was laid
  in April 1675, and notwithstanding its being the most magnificent
  edifice of its kind in Europe, was only fifteen months in erecting, as
  appears by an inscription on its front.

  This noble edifice is 540 feet in length, and 40 feet in breadth, and
  is finely situated. The middle and ends, which project a little, are
  adorned with pilasters, entablatures, foliages, and other ornaments,
  and rising above the rest of the building, have each a flat roof with
  a handsome balustrade of stone, in the center of which is an elegant
  turret. That in the middle is adorned with a clock, and three dials, a
  gilt ball, and a vane on the top.


  [Illustration: S. Wale del.   B. Green sculp. _Bethlem._]


  [Illustration: S. Wale del.   B. Green sculp. _London Bridge._]


  This building upon the whole shews more the good intentions, than the
  good taste of the founders of this charity, the style of architecture
  being very improper for an hospital for madmen. Simplicity and
  regularity was all that should have been aimed at, and if there was a
  necessity for pilasters, those of the Tuscan order would have suited
  the design much better than Corinthian; but without regarding the
  application, the middle pavilion, which is elegant, should have
  certainly been larger and more principal. The entrance is grand, and
  the figures on the piers, one representing raving, and the other
  melancholy madness, are finely expressed, and do honour to their
  author Mr. Cibber, father of the late Poet Laureat. Since the first
  erecting of this edifice, two wings have been added, in order to
  contain a number of incurables. And before this fabric is a handsome
  wall 680 feet in length, which, like the structure itself, is built
  with brick and stone. It incloses a range of gardens neatly adorned
  with walks of broad stone, grass plats and trees, wherein those of the
  lunatics who are well enough to be suffered to go about, are allowed
  to walk there and enjoy the benefit of the fresh air. In the middle of
  this wall is a large pair of fine iron gates, and by them a small
  entrance for the admission of those who come out of curiosity to visit
  this hospital; on each side towards the top of these gates are placed
  the two statues, in the manner represented in the print.

  The expence of erecting this edifice, besides that of building the
  wings, amounted to near 17,000_l._

  The inside chiefly consists of two galleries one over the other, which
  cross the wings, and are 193 yards long, thirteen feet high, and
  sixteen feet broad; without including the cells for the patients,
  which are twelve feet deep. These galleries are divided in the middle
  by two iron grates, by which means all the men are placed at one end
  of the house, and all the women at the other, and in each gallery
  servants lie, to be ready at hand on all occasions. In the middle of
  the upper gallery is a large spacious room, where the Governors, and,
  in the lower, where the weekly Committee meet, and the Physician
  prescribes for the patients; besides, above there are convenient
  apartments for the steward of the house, the porter, matron, nurse and
  servants; and below stairs all necessary offices for keeping and
  dressing the provisions; for washing, and other necessary offices
  belonging to so large a family; and also a bathing place for the
  patients, so contrived, as to be an hot or cold bath, as occasion
  requires.


  [Illustration: _S. Wale delin._ _C. Grignion sc._ _Figures on Bethlem
  Gate_]


  There are generally above 200 lunatics maintained in this hospital,
  each of whom has a small room or cell to himself, where he is locked
  up on nights, and in this room is a place for a bed; but where the
  patients are so senseless as not to be fit to make use of one, they
  are every day provided with fresh clean straw. Those are judged the
  fittest objects that are raving and furious, and yet capable of cure.

  As to the method of admitting them, they are brought on Saturday, when
  the Committee meets, to be viewed by them and the Physician; and if a
  person be judged a fit object, a warrant is drawn up for his admission
  by the clerk of the hospital, to be signed by the President, or, in
  his absence, by the Treasurer. Those who put in the patient are
  obliged to give a bond, signed by two persons, to take him away when
  discharged, or if he dies, to be at the expence of burying him. Their
  friends, who put them in, are obliged to provide them with cloaths;
  but there is a wardrobe from whence they are supplied, when neglected
  by those friends: for though, when raving and furious, they suffer but
  little from the weather; yet in their intervals, they frequently
  contract other distempers, care of which is also taken, as well as of
  their lunacy, whether those distempers be external or internal; and
  though formerly every patient paid 5_s._ a week, they now not only pay
  nothing, but after their recovery and leaving the hospital, are
  furnished with medicines to prevent a relapse. When a patient is
  cured, he is called before a Committee of the Governors and
  Physicians, who examine him, and being found fit to be discharged, the
  Physician gives a certificate to that purpose, and then the steward of
  the house takes care to have him delivered to his friends.

  The hospitals of Bethlem and Bridewell being made one corporation,
  they have the same President, Treasurer, Governors, Clerk, Physician,
  Surgeon, and Apothecary; yet each hospital has its proper steward and
  inferior officers, and a particular committee is chosen out of the
  Governors for each. Out of that appointed for Bethlem, there are six
  who meet every Saturday, to examine the steward’s account of expences
  for the preceding week, and to sign it after it is approved; they also
  view the provisions, examine the patients that are to be received or
  discharged, and have the direction of other affairs belonging to this
  hospital.

BETHNAL GREEN, a village near Mile End, and lately one of the hamlets of
  Stepney, from which parish it was separated by an act of parliament in
  the 13th year of his present Majesty’s reign. The old Roman way from
  London led thro’ this hamlet, and joining the military way from the
  west, passed with it to Lea Ferry at Old Ford. Within this hamlet,
  Bonner, Bishop of London, had a palace, and the Trinity House have a
  hospital for twenty-eight decayed seamen, who have been masters of
  ships or pilots, or their widows. See TRINITY HOSPITAL.

  The church built pursuant to the above act, is placed at the north
  east corner of Hare street, Spitalfields, and is a neat, commodious
  edifice, built with brick coped and coined with freestone; and the
  tower, which is not high, is of the same materials. It is remarkable,
  that though the village of itself is small, yet as part of
  Spitalfields anciently belonged to that hamlet, this parish contains
  1800 houses, and the parishioners are computed to amount to above
  15000.

BETT’S _alley_, Anchor street.†

BETT’S _street_. 1. By Knockfergus.† 2. Ratcliff Highway.†

BEVIS _lane_, Duke’s place.

BEVIS MARKS, St. Mary Ax. Here was once a very large house with several
  courts and gardens, which belonging to the Abbot of Bury in Suffolk,
  was called Bury’s Marks, corruptly Bevis Marks. This house being
  demolished, the ground has many houses built upon it, and among the
  rest a synagogue of Jews. _Stow._

BEVIS MARKS SCHOOL, was founded in the in the year 1731, by Isaac de
  Costa Villa Real, a Portuguese Jew, who also endowed it with the
  annual sum of 80_l._ for cloathing and educating twenty Jew girls of
  his nation.

BEWLEY’S _rents_, Holiwell court.†

BIGG’S _alley_, Thrall street, Spitalfields.†

BIGG’S or BETT’S _rents_, Rosemary lane, Tower hill.

BILL _alley_, Billiter lane.

BILLET _yard_, Billiter lane.

BILLINGSGATE, a great fish market in Thames street; which is only a
  large water-gate, port, or harbour, for small vessels, laden with
  fish, oranges, lemons, Spanish onions, and in summer, with Kentish
  cherries; here the Gravesend boats wait to take in their fare; and
  here the woodmongers and coalmen meet at about eight or nine o’clock
  every morning, this being a kind of exchange for those concerned in
  the coal trade.

  Billingsgate is however most famous for being the greatest fish market
  in England, and the only port for fish in London, which has occasioned
  several acts of parliament, to prevent the fishmongers monopolizing
  that considerable article of food. By these acts it is made lawful for
  any person to buy fish in that market, and to sell it again in any
  other market or place in the city of London, or elsewhere, by retail;
  but no fishmonger, or other person, is to engross or buy more than
  shall be for his own sale or use, on pain of forfeiting 20_l._ for
  every such offence, and no fishmonger, or other person, is to expose
  to sale any fish at Billingsgate by retail that was before bought in
  the same market.

BILLINGSGATE _dock_, Thames street.

BILLINGSGATE _ward_, is situated on the side of the Thames, and is
  therefore bounded by that river on the south; as it is on the east by
  Tower street ward, on the west by Bridge ward, and on the north by
  Langbourn ward. It contains a part of Thames street, and Little
  Eastcheap, which lie in the same direction, and those leading from one
  of those streets to the other, as St. Mary at hill, Love lane,
  Botolph’s lane, Pudding lane, and on the other side of Little
  Eastcheap, a considerable part of Rood lane, and Philpot lane. The
  most remarkable buildings are the churches of St. Mary at hill, St.
  Margaret Pattens, and St. George, Botolph lane; Butchers hall, and the
  King’s weigh-house.

  This ward is governed by an Alderman, and ten Common Council men, one
  of whom is Deputy, eleven constables, six scavengers, fourteen
  wardmote inquestmen, and a beadle.

  The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest, serve as jurors in the
  courts of Guildhall in the month of May.

BILLITER _lane_, Leadenhall street. It was anciently called Belzeter’s
  lane, from its first builder and owner, which was at length corrupted
  to Billiter lane. _Maitland._

BILLITER _square_, Billiter lane.

BILTON’S _alley_, Freeman’s lane, Horselydown.†

BINGLE’S _lane_, Poplar.†

BINHAM’S _yard_, near St. James’s square.†

BIRCHIN _lane_, Cornhill. Stow observes that it was anciently called
  Birchover’s lane, from Birchover, the first builder and owner, and
  that this name was corrupted to Birchin lane.

BIRD’S _alley_, Fashion street.†

BIRD’S _court_, Philip lane.†

BIRD’S _street_, 1. Brook’s street.† 2. Green Bank, Wapping.† 3. Orchard
  street.†

BIRD’S _wharf_, White Friars stairs.†

BIRD’S _yard_, Chick lane, Smithfield.†

BIRD CAGE _alley_. 1. Anchor street.* 2. In the Borough.* 3. St.
  Margaret’s Hill, Southwark.*

BIRDCATCHERS _alley_, Whitechapel.

BIRD IN HAND _alley_, Cheapside.*

BISHOP’S _court_. 1. Ailsbury street. 2. Brook’s street. 3. Chancery
  lane, from the Bishop of Chichester’s house near that place. 4.
  Coleman street. 5. Durham yard in the Strand. 6. Fore street. 7.
  Gray’s Inn lane. 8. Little Old Bailey. 9. Lothbury. 10. Old Soho. 11.
  Old street.

BISHOP’S _yard_, Charles street, Grosvenor square.

BISHOPSGATE, is situated 1440 feet north west of Aldgate. Mr. Strype
  imagines that it was erected by Erkenwald Bishop of London about the
  year 675, a conjecture founded only on the effigies of two Bishops
  wherewith this gate was formerly adorned, and from which it might take
  its name: but it is probable that it was not erected so early, since
  Mr. Stow could not find it mentioned before the year 1210.

  In the reign of King Henry III. the Anseatic company residing in this
  city, in consideration of several privileges granted them, obliged
  themselves and their successors, not only to keep this gate in repair,
  but to defend it, whenever it should be attacked by an enemy: and by
  this company it was rebuilt in a beautiful manner in the year 1479. On
  the south side over the gateway, was placed a stone image of a Bishop
  with a mitre on his head; he had a long beard, eyes sunk, and an old
  mortified face, and was supposed to present St. Erkenwald. On the
  north side was another Bishop with a smooth face, reaching out his
  right hand to bestow his benedictions, and holding a crosier in his
  left, who is thought to have been the courtly Bishop William the
  Norman: this last was accompanied by two other figures in stone,
  supposed to be King Alfred, and his son Eldred Earl of Mercia. The
  present structure is a plain neat edifice erected in 1735. On the top
  over the gateway, which is very lofty, is the city arms supported by
  dragons; and on each side of the gate is a postern for the convenience
  of foot passengers.

BISHOPSGATE _street_ extends from Cornhill, thro’ the gate, to Norton
  Falgate, that part between the gate and Cornhill being called
  Bishopsgate street within, and all without the gate, Bishopsgate
  street without.

BISHOPSGATE _ward_, which takes its name from the gate, that stands
  almost in its center, is bounded on the south by Langbourn ward; on
  the west by Broad street ward; and Moorfields on the east by Aldgate
  ward, Portsoken ward, and part of the Tower liberty; and on the north
  by Shoreditch: thus this ward extends from the bars near Spital
  square, on both sides of the way, (including near half of Houndsditch)
  as far as the pump at the corner of St. Martin’s Outwich; and winds by
  the west corner of Leadenhall, down Gracechurch street, to the south
  west corner of Fenchurch street. The principal places in this ward
  are, the parish churches of St. Botolph without Bishopsgate, St.
  Ethelburga’s, and Great St. Helen’s; Leatherfellers hall, Gresham
  college, and the London Workhouse.

  This ward is under the government of an Alderman and two Deputies, one
  within, and the other without the gate, six Common Council men,
  thirteen wardmote inquest men, seven constables, seven scavengers, and
  a beadle. The jurymen returned by the inquest men are to serve in the
  several courts of Guildhall in the month of December

BISSEL’S _court_, Wapping.†

BIST’S _gardens_, in the Mint, Southwark.†

BITT _alley_, Turnmill street.

BLACK _alley_, Turnmill street.

BLACK AND WHITE _alley_. 1. Old Bailey. 2. Tower hill.

BLACK AND WHITE _court_, Old Bailey.

BLACK BELL _alley_. Petticoat lane.*

BLACK BIRD _alley_. 1. St. John’s street, Spitalfields.* 2. Spicer
  street.*

BLACK BOY _alley_. 1. Chick lane.* 2. Barnaby street.* 3. Blackman
  street, Southwark.* 4. Fore street, Lambeth.* 5. In the Minories.* 6.
  Near Peter’s Hill, Thames street.* 7. Rosemary lane.* 8. Saltpetre
  Bank.*

BLACK BOY _court_, Long Acre.*

BLACK BOY _yard_. 1. In the Minories.* 2. Saltpetre Bank.*

BLACK BULL _alley_, Petticoat lane, Whitechapel.*

BLACK BULL _yard_, Whitechapel.*

BLACKBURN’S _alley_, Rotherhith wall.†

BLACKBURN’S _court_, Portpool lane.†

BLACKBURN’S _mews_, Grosvenor street.†

BLACK DOG _alley_. 1. Bowling alley, Dean’s yard, Westminster.* 2. East
  Smithfield.*

BLACK DOG _yard_. 1. Near Vauxhall.* 2. Shoreditch.*

BLACK EAGLE _court_, Whitechapel.*

BLACK EAGLE _street_, Brick lane, Spitalfields.*

BLACK EAGLE _yard_, Black Eagle street.*

BLACK FIELDS, Horselydown.

BLACK FRIARS, near Fleet ditch, was a monastery of that order, otherwise
  called Preaching Friars. This monastery was erected by Robert Kilwarby
  Archbishop of Canterbury, about the year 1276, who also built the
  church of Black Friars, to which King Edward I. and Queen Eleanor were
  great benefactors, and even the reputed founders. This church was
  large and richly furnished with ornaments. In the monastery several
  parliaments were held, and the Emperor Charles V. who was also King of
  Spain, lodged there in the year 1522. There the ancient Kings had
  their records and charters kept, as well as at the Tower: and, tho’
  this monastery was dissolved with the rest by King Henry VIII. yet in
  the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Black Friars was inhabited by many
  noblemen and gentlemen; parliaments still continued to be often held
  there, and being a place of refuge, malefactors frequently took
  shelter in its liberties, and the inhabitants were free from arrests:
  but these pernicious privileges have been many years lost; and as it
  has been lately made part of the ward of Faringdon within, the
  shopkeepers and tradesmen are obliged to be free of the city; two
  Common Council men are annually elected out of it, and added to the
  number that used to serve this ward.

BLACK FRIARS _bridge_. The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Common Council of
  this city, have been empowered by a late act, to build a bridge cross
  the Thames from Black Friars to the opposite side in the county of
  Surrey; to fill up the channel of Bridewell dock, or Fleet ditch, and
  to purchase and pull down such buildings as shall be thought proper
  for forming and widening streets and avenues. This bridge is to have a
  free and open passage thro’ the arches of 750 feet at least within the
  banks of the river. A sufficient number of glass lamps are to be fixed
  on proper parts of it, to burn from sun setting to sun rising; and a
  number of watchmen placed for the security of passengers.

  For the erecting and support of this work, when finished, they are to
  receive as toll, any sum they shall direct, not exceeding the
  following rates:

  For every coach, chariot, berlin, chaise, chair or calash, drawn by
  six horses, 2_s._

Drawn by four horses, 1_s._ 6_d._

Drawn by less than four, 1_s._

For every waggon, wain, cart or car, drawn by four or more horses, or
  other beasts, 1_s._

For either of the same carriages drawn by less than four horses, &c.
  6_d._

For every horse, mule or ass, laden or unladen, and not drawing, 1_d._

For every foot passenger on Sunday, 1_d._

And every other day ½d.

Upon the credit of these tolls, the Lord Mayor and Common Council are
impowered to raise any sums of money not exceeding 30,000_l._ in one
year, till they have raised 160,000_l._ in the whole, which they are not
to exceed.

BLACK FRIARS _school_, was founded by Peter Joy, Esq; in the year 1716,
  who also endowed it with 160_l._ 17_s._ 3_d._ _per annum_, for
  cloathing and instructing forty boys and thirty girls, in reading,
  writing and accounts. This school he left in trust with the Governors
  of Sion College, who allow the master 40_l._ and the mistress 30_l._ a
  year.

BLACK FRIARS _stairs_, near Fleet ditch.

BLACKHEATH, a large plain on the south of Greenwich, on which Watt
  Tyler, the Kentish rebel, mustered 100,000 men. In this place, which
  is admired for the fineness of its situation, and its excellent air,
  is a noble house built by Sir Gregory Page, Bart. a view of which we
  have here given.

  This is a very magnificent edifice, built in the modern taste,
  consisting of a basement state and attick story. The wings contain the
  offices and stables, which are joined to the body of the house by a
  colonade. It stands in the midst of a park with a large piece of water
  before it. The back front has an Ionic portico of four columns, but
  having no pediment does not make so agreeable a figure as could be
  wished.

  This is one of the finest seats in England belonging to a private
  gentleman; it is adorned with many capital pictures, a list whereof is
  here given; and the gardens, park, and country around, render it a
  most delightful seat: yet this fine edifice was begun, raised, and
  covered, in the space of eleven months. At a small distance is the
  College erected by Sir John Morden, Bart. for a particular account of
  which see MORDEN COLLEGE.


  [Illustration: _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sc. Oxon._ _S^r. Gregory
  Pages Seat._]


     A Catalogue of the Pictures of Sir GREGORY PAGE, Baronet, at his
                          House at _Blackheath_.

                        │   Height.│  Breadth.│Painted by
                        │ Feet Inc.│ Feet Inc.│

    Sampson and Dalilah │      5  6│      8  3│_Vandyke._

    St. Cyprian a ¾     │      4  3│     3  1½│_Ditto._
      length            │          │          │

    The three royal     │      2  0│      3  8│_Ditto._
      children  ½       │          │          │
      lengths           │          │          │

    Juno and Ixion      │      6  0│      8  0│_Rubens._

    Rubens and his      │      6  8│      6  3│_Ditto._
      mistress          │          │          │

    Rubens, two figures,│      5  3│      8  0│_Ditto and Snyders._
      fowls and fruit   │          │          │

    Figures by Rubens, a│      2  3│      3  1│_Ditto and Brughel._
      landskip          │          │          │

    David and Abigail   │      6  2│     6  9½│_Ditto._

    A maid milking a    │      4 10│      6  7│_Jordans of Antwp._
      goat              │          │          │

    The good Samaritan  │      7  0│      7  8│_Systi Baldelochi._

    The return of the   │      7  0│      9  0│_Chev. Calabreze._
      prodigal son      │          │          │

    Moses striking the  │      7  0│      9  0│_Valerio Castello._
      rock              │          │          │

    The woman taken in  │      3  8│      5  2│_Paul Veronese._
      adultery          │          │          │

    Moses and Pharaoh’s │      4  4│      6  0│_Paul Veronese._
      daughter          │          │          │

    A counsellor, his   │    3  10½│     4  9½│_Titian._
      wife and daughter │          │          │

    Peter’s denial of   │      4  2│     4  10│_M. A. daCaravagio._
      our Saviour       │          │          │

    A holy family       │      2  2│      1  0│_Parmegiano._

    Moses striking the  │      3  1│    4  10½│_Giacomo Bassan._
      rock              │          │          │

    A landskip with     │      2  4│    3  10½│_Ditto._
      cattle            │          │          │

    The angels appearing│      4  2│      5  5│_Bassan._
      to the shepherds  │          │          │

    History of Cupid and│     1  10│     2  2½│_Luca Giordano._
      Psyche, twelve    │          │          │
      pieces            │          │          │

    Venus, Cupid and    │     1  1½│     1  4½│_Philippo Lauro._
      Satyrs            │          │          │

    Venus, Cupid and    │     1  1½│     1  4½│_Ditto._
      Satyrs            │          │          │

    A landskip with     │      2  0│      1  6│_Salvator Rosa._
      figures           │          │          │

    A landskip with     │      2  0│      1  6│_Francisco Mola._
      figures           │          │          │

    Judith and          │     4  4½│     3  11│_Manfredo._
      Holofernes        │          │          │

                        │    3  10½│     3  2½│_Lewis Carrachi._

    A sacrifice         │      3  2│      4  3│_Nich. Poussin._

    A Venus, Cupid and  │      2  2│      1  8│_Ditto._
      Satyrs            │          │          │

    Daphne changed into │     2  2½│      1 10│_Nich. Poussin._
      a laurel          │          │          │

    A landskip with     │      3  0│      4  3│_Gaspar Poussin._
      figures           │          │          │

    Architecture and    │      3  9│      5  3│_Viviano._
      figures           │          │          │

    Architecture and    │      3  2│     4  4½│_Ditto._
      figures           │          │          │

    Joseph and his      │      3  0│      4  2│_Paraccini._
      brethren          │          │          │

    Jacob embracing     │      3  0│      4  2│_Ditto._
      Benjamin          │          │          │

    A landskip with     │      2  0│      2  9│_Claude Lorrain._
      figures           │          │          │

    A landskip with     │      2  6│     3 11½│_Francisco Mille._
      figures           │          │          │

    A landskip with     │      1  5│      1 10│_Ditto._
      figures           │          │          │

    Three figures ½     │      3 10│      3  1│_after Car.
      lengths           │          │          │Maratti._

    A quarter length    │      2  9│      2  0│_Albert Durer._

    A battle piece      │      2  3│      3  2│_Bourgognone._

    A battle piece      │      2  3│      3  2│_Ditto._

    An holy family      │      3  0│      3  9│_Solomini._

    Paris and Helena    │      2  0│     3  2½│_L’Araise._

    The judgment of     │      3  9│     4  1½│_Pompeio._
      Solomon, gallery  │          │          │
      chimney piece     │          │          │

    Hector and          │      3  4│      3  6│_Imperialis._
      Andromache,       │          │          │
      drawing  room     │          │          │
      chimney piece     │          │          │

    Coriolanus, saloon  │      3  9│      3  9│_Imperialis and
      chimney piece     │          │          │Masucci._

    Architecture and    │      4  8│     4  0½│_Paulo Panini._
      figures, dressing │          │          │
      room chimney piece│          │          │

    Architecture with   │      2  5│     2  4½│_Ditto._
      figures,          │          │          │
      bedchamber chimney│          │          │
      piece             │          │          │

    Ditto, yellow       │     3  4½│      3  3│_Ditto._
      bedchamber chimney│          │          │
       piece            │          │          │

    Ditto, library      │     4  7½│     4  0½│_after Panini._
      chimney piece     │          │          │

    Ditto, yellow       │     2  10│     3  7½│_Harding aft.
      dressing room,    │          │          │Panini._
      ditto             │          │          │

    Ditto, red dressing │      3  6│     3  4½│_Ditto._
      over the chimney  │          │          │
      piece, ditto      │          │          │

    Ditto, store room   │     2  9½│     2  8½│_Ditto._
      chimney piece,    │          │          │
      ditto             │          │          │

    Ditto, over the     │      1  9│      3  3│_after P. Panini._
      doors of the red  │          │          │
      drawing room      │          │          │

    Ditto, over the     │      1  9│      3  3│_Harding aft.
      doors of the red  │          │          │Panini_
      drawing room      │          │          │

    Ditto, with figures │      2  4│      3  8│_Ditto._
      over the door in  │          │          │
      the saloon        │          │          │

    Ditto, ditto        │      2  4│      3  8│_Ditto._

    A landskip with     │     3  8½│     3  8½│_Lambert._
      figures, dining   │          │          │
      room chimney piece│          │          │

    A landskip with     │     2 10½│     3  2½│_Ditto._
      figures, green    │          │          │
      dressing room     │          │          │
      chimney piece     │          │          │

    A landskip with     │     2  4½│     2  4½│_By_
      figures, green    │          │          │
      bedchamber chimney│          │          │
      piece             │          │          │

    Fruit and flowers,  │      2  5│      2  5│_By_
      breakfast chimney │          │          │
      piece             │          │          │

    Pharaoh’s daughter  │     2  3½│     1 10½│_Chev. Vanderwerff._
      and Moses         │          │          │

    Message by the      │      2  2│     1  7½│_Ditto._
      angels to the     │          │          │
      shepherds         │          │          │

    King Zeleucus giving│      2  4│      1  8│_Ditto._
      his kingdom to his│          │          │
      son               │          │          │

    Shepherds and       │     1  10│     1  5½│_Chev. Vanderwerff._
      shepherdesses     │          │          │
      dancing           │          │          │

    Hercules between    │     1  11│      1  5│_Ditto._
      Virtue and Vice   │          │          │

    Roman Charity       │    1  11½│      1  5│_Ditto._

    Joseph and          │     1  11│     1  5½│_Ditto._
      Potipher’s wife   │          │          │

    Mary Magdalen       │     1  11│      1  6│_Ditto._
      reading in a      │          │          │
      grotto            │          │          │

    Bathsheba bathing   │     1  10│     1  3½│_Ditto._

    Our Saviour and Mary│      2  4│     1  8½│_Ditto._
      Magdalen          │          │          │

    Venus and Cupid     │     1  5½│      1  0│_Ditto._

    Chevalier           │   2  1  0│     2  2½│_Ditto._
      Vanderwerff, his  │          │          │
      wife and daughter │          │          │

    Adam and Eve        │      1  6│      1  0│_Peter Vanderwerff._

       and Stratonica   │      1  6│      1  0│_Ditto._

    A landskip with many│      2  8│      3  8│_Sir D. Teniers._
      figures, a fair at│          │          │
      Ghen              │          │          │

    Ditto with figures  │      2  8│     3  9½│_Ditto._

    Fruit and flowers   │      2  7│      2  0│_Van Huysan._

    Ditto               │      2  7│      2  0│_Ditto._

    Fruit and flowers   │      2  0│      1  9│_Van Huysan._

    Ditto               │      2  0│      1  9│_Ditto._

    Ditto               │      1  3│      1  0│_Ditto._

    A view of Venice,   │      2  4│      3  8│_Harding af.
      over the saloon   │          │          │Canaleti._
      door              │          │          │

    Ditto, ditto        │      2  4│      3  8│_Ditto._

    Architecture, over  │      2  6│      4  0│_Ditto after
      the door in the   │          │          │Panini._
      gallery           │          │          │

    Ditto, ditto        │      2  6│      4  0│_Ditto._

    The golden age      │      2  1│      2  8│_Limburg._

    The great church at │      2  7│      2  3│_De Witt._
      Harlem            │          │          │

    A landskip with     │      0  7│      0 10│_Velvet Brughel._
      figures           │          │          │

    Ditto               │     0  4½│      0  6│_Ditto._

    A poulterer’s shop  │      1  5│      1  3│_Old Meiris._

    A fishmonger’s shop │      1  5│      1  3│_Ditto._

    A water piece       │      0 10│      1  1│_Zagtleven._

    An hunting piece    │      2  2│      2  8│_Berchem._

    An Italian playing  │      1  2│      1  0│_Brower._
      on the guitar     │          │          │

    A landskip with     │     1 10½│     2  2½│_Wouvermans._
      figures and cattle│          │          │

    A landskip with     │      1  6│     1  10│_Wouvermans._
      figures and cattle│          │          │

    The holy family     │      2  3│      1  7│_Scalchen._

    Ditto               │      2  3│      1  7│_Ditto._

    A woman with a torch│     1  0½│    0  10½│_Ditto._

    A schoolmaster      │      1  2│     0  11│_Gerard Dowe._

    The offering of the │      1  4│      1  0│_Polenburgh._
      kings             │          │          │

    Two small figures,  │     1  3½│     1  6½│_Young Meiris._
      Venus and Adonis  │          │          │

    A landskip with     │     1  7½│      2  7│_Edema._
      cattle            │          │          │

    A landskip with     │      2  0│     2  5½│_Craddock._
      fowls and a dog   │          │          │


                      In the Gallery    52 pictures

                        Drawing room          13

                        Saloon                 8

                        Dressing room         32

                        Bedchamber             1

                        Library                1

                        Dining room            2

                        Attick story           9

                                              ——

                                         118  In
                                             all


  BLACK HORSE _alley_. 1. Barbican.* 2. Near Snow hill.*

BLACK HORSE _court_. 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. In the Minories. 3. Old
  Change.* 4. White street, Southwark.* 5. Windmill street.*

BLACK HORSE _yard_. 1. Green street, Leicester fields.* 2. In the
  Curtain, Hog lane, Shoreditch.* 3. Gravel lane, Houndsditch.* 4.
  Gray’s Inn lane.* 5. Harrow alley, Petticoat lane.* 6. Nightingale
  lane.* 7. Pickax street.* 8. Poor Jewry lane, within Aldgate.* 9.
  Tottenham Court road.* 10. Townditch, Little Britain.* 11. Tower
  hill.* 12. Whitechapel.* 13. Great Windmill street.*

BLACK JACK _alley_. 1. East Smithfield.* 2. Great Windmill street.* 3.
  Old street.*

BLACK LION _alley_, Wentworth street.*

BLACK LION _court_. 1. Bank side.* 2. Foster lane.* 3. Old Change.*

BLACK LION _stairs_, near York Buildings.*

BLACK LION _yard_. 1. Bedfordbury.* 2. Stony lane, Petticoat lane.* 3.
  Whitechapel.*

BLACKMAN’S _court_. 1. Great Peter street.* 2. Price’s alley.*

BLACKMAN’S _street_, St. George’s church, Southwark.*

BLACK MARY’S _hole_, a few stragling houses near the Cold Bath fields,
  in the road to Hampstead. It took its name from a Blackmoor woman
  called Mary, who about thirty years ago lived by the side of the road
  near the stile in a small circular hut built with stones.

BLACKMOOR’S HEAD _yard_, near St. James’s square.*

BLACKMOOR _street_, Clare-market.*

BLACKMOOR’S _alley_. 1. Farthing fields.* 2. Green bank, Wapping.* 3.
  St. Martin’s lane, Charing cross.*

BLACK RAVEN _alley_. 1. Coleman street.* 2. Leadenhall street.* 3. Near
  Fishmongers hall in Thames street.*

BLACK RAVEN _court_. 1. Chiswell street.* 2. Golden lane.* 3. Grub
  street. 4. Leadenhall street.* 5. St. Olave’s street.* 6. Seething
  lane.*

BLACK RAVEN _passage_, Fetter lane.*

BLACK ROD, an officer of the King’s palace, so called from his carrying
  a black staff, is the chief of the four Gentlemen Ushers of the
  presence chamber, and attends the House of Lords every day during the
  sitting of Parliament, where his seat is within the bar. When the King
  sends to order the House of Commons to attend him in that house, he
  always sends the Black Rod. This gentleman is also employed in fitting
  up the House of Lords before the meeting of the Parliament; he
  introduces the Lords into that house, and to his custody delinquents
  are committed by the Lords. This gentleman is likewise Usher to the
  order of the Garter.

BLACK’S _alley_, East Smithfield.

BLACK’S _fields_, Shad Thames.

BLACKSMITHS, an ancient guild, or fraternity, which was continued by
  prescription, till the Blacksmiths were incorporated by letters patent
  granted by Queen Elizabeth, and confirmed by King James I.

  This company is governed by a Master, three Wardens, and twenty-one
  Assistants, and has a livery of 220 members, whose fine is 8_l._ They
  have a pleasant hall on Lambeth hill, for the dispatch of their
  affairs.

BLACKSMITHS _yard_, Upper Ground, Southwark.

BLACK SPREAD EAGLE _alley_. 1. Blackman street.* 2. Kent street.* 3.
  Turnmill street.*

BLACK SPREAD EAGLE _court_. 1. Blackman street.* 2. Finch lane,
  Cornhill.*

BLACK SWAN _alley_. 1. Golden lane.* 2. Corbet’s court, Eagle street.*
  3. Holiwell street.* 4. Little Carter lane.* 5. Opposite Garlick Hill,
  Thames street.* 6. London wall.* 7. St. Margaret’s hill.*

BLACK SWAN _court_. 1. Bartholomew lane.* 2. Canon street.* 3. Golden
  lane.* 4. In the Maze.* 5. Market street.* 6. St. Paul’s Church yard.*
  7. Shore ditch.* 8. Great Tower street.*

BLACK SWAN _yard_. 1. Brown’s lane.* 2. In the Borough.* 3. Newington
  Butts.* 4. Ropemakers fields, Limehouse.*

BLACK SWAN INN _yard_, Holborn.*

BLACKWELL, Poplar.

BLACKWELL _hall_, Basinghall street, a very ancient edifice, employed
  for several ages as a market for all kinds of woollen cloth brought to
  London. This edifice was originally called Basing’s Haugh or Hall;
  probably from the family of the Basings, who first built the house,
  and whose arms were placed in many parts of it, painted on the walls,
  and cut in the stone-work. From this family, who were owners also of
  the adjoining ground. Stow supposes, that “the ward itself took its
  name, as Coleman street ward of Coleman, and Faringdon ward, of
  William and Nicholas Faringdon.” Of this family the same author
  observes, that Solomon Basing was Mayor in the year 1216; and that to
  Adam Basing his son, who was also afterwards Mayor, King Henry III.
  gave the advowson of the church at Basing Hall, and several liberties
  and privileges.

  In the 36th year of Edward III. this house was inhabited by Mr. Thomas
  Bakewell, whence it obtained the name of Bakewell Hall; a name that
  was afterwards corrupted to that of Blackwell Hall. At length it was
  purchased, with the garden and appurtenances, of King Richard II. by
  the city, for the sum of 50_l._ and from that time has been chiefly
  employed as a weekly market for all the broad and narrow woollen
  cloths brought out of the country.

  This house at length growing ruinous, was rebuilt in the form of a
  handsome store house in the year 1558, at the charge of 2500_l._ but
  an hundred and eight years after was destroyed by the fire of London,
  and again rebuilt in 1672; this last is the present edifice.

  It is a square building with a court in the middle surrounded with
  warehouses, and has two spacious entrances for carriages, one from
  Basinghall street, and the other opposite to it by Guildhall. This
  last is the principal front, and has the door-case adorned with two
  columns of the Doric order, with their entablature, and a pediment, in
  which are the King’s arms, and a little lower the city arms enriched
  with Cupids, _&c._

  In this edifice are the Devonshire, Gloucester, Worcester, Kentish,
  Medley, Spanish, and Blanket Halls, in which each piece of cloth pays
  one penny for pitching, and a half-penny per week resting; and the
  profits, which are said to amount to about 1100_l._ _per annum_, are
  applied towards the support of Christ’s Hospital, the Governors
  whereof have the whole management of these warehouses. There are
  several statutes relating to the regulation of this market, with
  respect to the factors, and others concerned.

BLACKWELL HALL _court_, London Wall, Basinghall street. ☐

BLACKWELL HALL _passage_, Cateaton street. ☐

BLACKWELL HALL _yard_, Basinghall street. ☐

BLAKE’S _alley_, Holiwell lane. †

BLAKE’S _court_, Catharine street, in the Strand. †

BLAKE’S _yard_, Old street. †

BLAND _court_, Narrow street. †

BLAND’S _dock_, Rotherhith. †

BLAND’S _yard_, In the Minories. †

BLANK _yard_, Great Pearl street.

BLECHINGLY, a small parliamentary borough in Surrey, said to have
  enjoyed that privilege ever since parliaments had a being, and yet it
  has no market. The Bailiff, who returns the members, is annually
  chosen at the Lord of the Mannor’s court. The town, which is five
  miles from Ryegate, and twenty from London, being situated on a hill,
  on the side of Holmsdale, affords a fine prospect, as far as Sussex
  and the South Downs, and from some of the ruins of the castle, which
  are still visible, tho’ in the midst of a coppice, one may take a view
  to the west into Hampshire, and to the east into Kent. Here is a free
  school and an almshouse; but the spire of the church was consumed by
  lightning and all the bells melted in the year 1606.

BLEEDING HEART _yard_, Cross street, Hatton garden. †

BLENHEIM _street_, Oxford street.

BLEWGATE _fields_, Ratcliff Highway.

BLEWIT’S _buildings_, Fetter lane. †

BLEWIT’S _court_, Fetter lane. †

BLICK’S _row_, Oxford row. †

BLIND BEGGARS _alley_, Cow Cross. †

BLOOD’S _ground_, Mersham street. †

BLOODWORTH’S _dock_, Wapping. †

BLOODWORTH’S _yard_, Wapping wall.

BLOODY BRIDGE, King’s Road, Chelsea.

BLOOMSBURY, the district thus named was anciently a village denominated
  Lomsbury, in which were the King’s stables, till they were destroyed
  by fire in 1354. _Maitland._

BLOOMSBURY _church_. See ST. GEORGE’S _Bloomsbury_.

BLOOMSBURY _court_, Bloomsbury market.

BLOOMSBURY _market_, by Bloomsbury square.


  [Illustration: _S. Wale delin._ _C. Grignion sculp._ _Bedford House._]


BLOOMSBURY _square_, Southampton street, Holborn. This square has been
  lately embellished with many goodhouses, and the grass plats in the
  middle surrounded with neat iron rails. The north side is entirely
  taken up with Bedford House, which is elegant, and was the design of
  Inigo Jones. Besides the body of the house, are two wings, and on each
  side the proper offices. One of the wings is a magnificent gallery in
  which are copies of the Cartoons at Hampton Court, as large as the
  originals, by Sir James Thornhill. Behind the house are extensive
  gardens, which command a view of the country, and particularly of
  Highgate and Hampstead.

BLOSSOM’S INN _entry_, Blossom’s Inn yard, Laurence lane, Cheapside.

BLOSSOM’S INN _yard_, Honey lane market, Cheapside.

BLOSSOM’S _street_. 1. Briant street. 2. White-Lion street, Norton
  Falgate.

BLOWBLADDER _street_, from Cheapside to St. Martin’s le Grand. It
  obtained its present name from the bladders formerly sold there, when
  the shambles were in Newgate street.

BLOW’S _court_, Saffron hill. †

BLUE ANCHOR _alley_. 1. Barnaby street. * 2. Brook’s street, near
  Ratcliff Cross. * 3. Bunhill row. * 4. Cable street. * 5. Green Bank.
  * 6. Great Minories. * 7. Old street. * 8. Pesthouse row. * 9. Petty
  France. * 10. Rosemary lane. * 11. St. Catharine’s. * 12. Tooley
  street. * 13. Tower ditch. * 14. Whitecross street, Cripplegate. *

BLUE ANCHOR _court_. 1. Butcher row, without Temple Bar. * 2. Coleman
  street. * 3. Salisbury court, Fleet street.

BLUE ANCHOR _road_, West lane, Rotherhith wall. *

BLUE ANCHOR _yard_. 1. Green Bank. * 2. Little Tower hill. * 3. London
  wall. * 4. Petty France, Westminster. * 5. St. Catharine’s lane. * 6.
  Rosemary lane. *

BLUE BALL _alley_. 1. In the Mint, Southwark. * 2. Saffron hill. *

BLUE BALL _court_. * 1. Artichoke lane. * 2. Canon street. * 3. Drury
  lane. * 4. Little Hart street, Covent Garden. * 5. Salisbury court,
  Fleet street. *

BLUE BALL _yard_, Fell street, Little Wood street. *

BLUE BELL _yard_. 1. Dirty lane. * 2. Petty France, Westminster. *

BLUE BEAR _alley_. 1. Blackman street. * 2. Field lane. * 3. White
  street. *

BLUE BEAR _court_. 1. Canon street. * 2. Chick lane. * 3. Friday street.
  * 4. Rosemary lane. *

BLUE BOAR _yard_. 1. Field lane, Holborn. * 2. Great Russel street. *

BLUE BOAR HEAD _yard_, King’s street, Westminster. *

BLUE BOAR INN _yard_, Whitechapel. *

BLUE BOAR’S HEAD _alley_. 1. Barbican. * 2. White street. *

BLUE BOAR’S HEAD INN _yard_, Whitechapel.*

BLUE _court_, Saffron hill.

BLUE CROSS _street_, Hedge lane, Charing cross.

BLUE GATE _alley_, Whitecross street, Southwark.*

BLUE GATE _field_, Upper Shadwell.

BLUE GATE _street_. 1. Dirty lane, Blackman street. 2. Ratcliff Highway.

BLUE GATE _yard_. 1. Carter’s Rents. 2. East Smithfield. 3. Harrow yard,
  Whitechapel.

BLUE HART _court_, Little Bell alley.*

BLUE MAID _alley_, St. Margaret’s hill.*

BLUE POST _alley_, Blue Gate field.

BLUE _yard_, Gravel lane.

BLUNDERBUSS _alley_, 1. King’s Gate street.* 2. St. Thomas Apostles.*

BOAR _alley_, Grub street, Fore street.*

BOARDED _alley_, Baldwin’s gardens.

BOARDED _entry_. 1. Crutched Friars. 2. London wall. 3. Surrey street.

BOAR’S HEAD _alley_. 1. Whitechapel.* 2. White street.*

BOAR’S HEAD _court_. 1. In the Borough.* 2. Fleet ditch.* 3. Gracechurch
  street.* 4. Grub street.*

BOAR’S HEAD _yard_. 1. Petticoat lane.* 2. West Smithfield. *

BOAR’S HEAD INN _yard_, Compter lane, St. Margaret’s hill.*

BOATBUILDERS _yard_. 1. Bank side. 2. College street.

BOCK’S _alley_, Wapping wall.†

BODD’S _court_, Philip lane, London wall.†

BODDINGTON _court_. Cloak lane, Dowgate hill.*

BODDY’S BRIDGE _yard_, Upper Ground.

BODDY’S _rents_, Gravel lane.†

BOLT AND TUN _alley_. 1. In the Strand.* 2. Whitechapel.*

BOLT AND TUN _court_, Fleet street.*

BOLT _court_, Fleet street.

BOND’S _stables_, by Fetter lane.†

BOND’S _stables yard_, near Fetter lane.†

BOND’S _street_, Piccadilly.†

BOND’S _court_, Walbrook.†

BOND’S _rents_, Marigold street, Rotherhith wall.†

BOND’S _yard_, White Horse street, Ratcliff.†

BOOK’S _alley_, Wapping wall.†

BOOKER’S _gardens_, Leadenhall street.†

BOOT _alley_. 1. Abchurch lane.* 2. Grub street, Fore street,
  Cripplegate.* 3. Kent street, Southwark.* 4. St. James’s street,
  Westminster.* 5. Upper Ground street, Southwark.*

BOOT _passage_, Piccadilly.*

BOOT _Street_. 1. Hoxton.* 2. Brick lane, Spitalfields.*

BOOTH _street_, Spitalfields.†

BOOTH _yard_, Wapping.†

BOROUGH, a street in the borough of Southwark, extending from London
  bridge to St. Margaret’s hill.

BOROUGH COURT. This is a court of record by prescription, and is held
  every Monday by the Lord Mayor’s steward, at the hall on St.
  Margaret’s hill, Southwark, where are tried actions for any sum of
  money, damage, trespasses, &c. To this court belong three attornies,
  who are admitted by the steward. _Maitland._ See _St._ MARGARET’S
  HILL.

  There are also, besides this, three courts leet held in the Borough;
  for it contains three liberties or manors, viz. the Great Liberty, the
  Guildable, and the King’s manor, in which are chosen constables,
  aleconners, &c. and other business is dispatched peculiar to such
  courts. In this neighbourhood court leets are also kept at Lambeth,
  Bermondsey, and Rotherhith.

BOSS _alley_. 1. Near Trig stairs, Thames street. 2. St. Mary hill. 3.
  Shad Thames.

BOSS _court_, Peter’s hill, Thames street.

BOSVILL’S _rents_, George street, Spitalfields.†

BOSVILLE _court_, 1. Devonshire street, Theobald’s row.† 2. Carey
  street, Lincoln’s Inn fields.†

BOSTWICK’S _alley_, Whitechapel.†

BOSTWICK’S _street_, Old Gravel lane.†

_St._ BOTOLPH’S _Aldersgate_, so denominated from St. Botolph, a monk
  born in Cornwall, is situated at the south east corner of Little
  Britain, and tho’ the fire in 1666 did not reach this edifice, it from
  that time fell into decay, and was great part of it rebuilt in 1757.
  It is a plain brick edifice with a tower supported on a kind of arch
  work, and crowned with an open turret, and its fane. It is a curacy in
  the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster Abbey; but is
  subject to the Bishop and Archdeacon of London, to whom it pays
  procuration.

_St._ BOTOLPH’S _Aldgate_, situated on the east side of Houndsditch,
  fronting the Minories. The old church escaped the fire in 1666, and
  stood till the year 1741, when it was taken down, and the present
  edifice finished in 1744. It is built with brick, and is a plain,
  massy, and yet elegant structure. It consists of a body of a regular
  shape, and a lofty and well-proportioned steeple, formed of a tower
  and spire. Its greatest ornament is a bold rustic with which it is
  strengthened at the corners. This church is a curacy, and the
  impropriation is held in fee of the Crown. The Curate, besides other
  considerable advantages, receives 400_l._ a year by tithes. _Newc.
  Rep. Eccles._

_St._ BOTOLPH’S _Billingsgate_, a rectory, the church whereof formerly
  stood opposite to Botolph lane, in Thames street, in Billingsgate
  ward; but being destroyed by the fire of London, and not rebuilt, the
  parish was by act of parliament annexed to St. George’s Botolph lane.

_St._ BOTOLPH’S _Bishopsgate_, opposite the north end of Houndsditch.
  The old church escaping the general conflagration in 1666, at length
  fell into decay, and the present structure was raised by act of
  parliament, at the expence of the parish. It is a massy and spacious
  edifice. The body is well built with brick, and well enlightened, and
  the roof hid by a handsome balustrade. On the inside the roof is
  arched, except over the galleries, and two rows of Corinthian columns
  support both the galleries and arch which extends over the body of the
  church, and is neatly adorned with fret work, from which hang several
  handsome gilt branches. The steeple, tho’ heavy, has an air of
  magnificence. In the center of the front is a large plain arched
  window, decorated at a distance with pilasters of the Doric order.
  Over this window is a festoon, and above that an angular pediment; on
  each side is a door crowned with windows, and over these others of the
  porthole kind; above these last rises a square tower crowned with a
  dome, whose base is circular, and surrounded by a balustrade in the
  same form; by the side of which, on the corners of the tower, are
  placed urns with flames. From this part rises a series of coupled
  Corinthian columns, supporting other urns like the former, and over
  them rises the orgive dome, crowned with a very large vase with
  flames. The Author of _The Critical Review_ says, that he thinks this
  steeple more in taste than most about town; and that the parts of
  which it is composed are simple, beautiful and harmonious. The author
  of _The English Architecture_, however, observes, “That the placing of
  a window in the middle of the street, where the principal door should
  have been, is an error of the first magnitude. The most unlearned eye
  must perceive a strange imperfection in this, though without knowing
  what it is; and there is something in the highest degree disgustful,
  at being shut out by a dead wall at the proper and natural entrance.”
  But in justification of the architect, it may be alledged, that this
  being the east end, he might not be allowed to form a door in the
  center, where the altar is placed under a noble arch beneath the
  steeple; and that much greater improprieties than this are daily seen,
  from the idle custom which has generally prevailed of placing the
  altar to the east in spight of any inconveniences it may occasion, as
  in St. Clement’s in the Strand, St. Dunstan’s in Fleet street, and
  many others. This church is a rectory, the patronage of which is in
  the Bishop of London. The Rector, besides other considerable
  advantages, receives about 200_l._ a year by tithes,

BOTOLPH _lane_, Little Eastcheap.†

BOTOLPH’S _alley_, Botolph lane.†

BOTOLPH’S _court_, Durham yard.

BOTOLPH’S _wharf_, Thames street.†

BOTTLE _alley_, Bishopsgate street without.*

BOTTLE OF HAY _yard_, Islington road.*

BOTTLE _yard_, Bottle alley.*

BOULTON _street_, Hyde Park road.†

BOURNE’S _Almshouse_, in Kingsland Road, was erected in the year 1734,
  by the company of Framework-knitters, pursuant to the will of Thomas
  Bourne, Esq; who bequeathed to that company 1000_l._ to purchase
  ground, and erect a building upon it of twelve rooms, for that number
  of poor freemen or their widows, and endowed this almshouse with
  2000_l._ to be laid out in a purchase of 80_l._ a year.

BOW, a village in Middlesex, a little to the east of Mile End, also
  called Stratford le Bow; is named Bow, from the stone arches of its
  bridge built over the river Lea, by Maud the wife of Henry I. Its
  church built by Henry II. was a chapel of ease to Stepney; but was
  lately made parochial.

  This village is inhabited by many whitsters and scarlet dyers, and
  here has lately been set up a large manufactury of porcelain, which is
  brought to such perfection as to be very little inferior to that of
  China.

BOW _church_, in Cheapside. See _St._ MARY LE BOW.

BOW _church yard_, Cheapside.

BOW _lane_. 1. Cheapside, so named from the church of St. Mary le Bow,
  near the north west end of it. 2. New Gravel lane. 3. Poplar.

BOW _road_, Mile end, leading to the village of Stratford le Bow.

BOW _street_. 1. A very handsome street by Covent Garden. 2. Long Ditch.
  3. St. Giles’s Broad street. 4. Sutton street, Hog lane, Soho.

BOWL _alley_, St. Saviour’s Dock head.

BOWL _court_, Shoreditch.

BOWL _yard_, St. Giles’s Broadway.

BOWLING _alley_. 1. Cow Cross. 2. Dean’s yard, Westminster. 3. Thames
  street. 4. Tooley street. 5. Turnmill street. 6. Whitecross street,
  Cripplegate.

BOWLING GREEN. 1. Bandy Leg walk. 2. Near Hospital walk.

BOWLING GREEN _alley_, Hoxton.

BOWLING GREEN _passage_, Queen street, Southwark.†

BOWLING GREEN _field_, Blue Maid’s alley.†

BOWLING GREEN _lane_, Bridewell walk, Clerkenwell.

BOWMAN’S _court_. 1. Gardiner’s lane, King’s street, Westminster.† 2.
  Salisbury court, Fleet street.†

BOWSON’S _yard_, Quaker’s street.†

BOWYERS, or makers of long and cross bows, a company by prescription,
  but in 1620, tho’ the use of bows and arrows were entirely laid aside,
  they were incorporated by King James I. by the name of the _Master,
  Wardens, and Society of the mystery of Bowyers of the city of London_.
  They consist entirely of other trades, and are governed by a Master,
  two Wardens, and twelve Assistants, with thirty Liverymen, who at the
  time of their admission pay a fine of 8_l._ Tho’ they had formerly a
  hall, they have none at present.

BOWYER’S _court_. 1. Fenchurch street.† 2. Monkwell street.†

BOWYER’S _yard_, Wapping.†

BOX’S _alley_, Wapping wall.†

BOXFORD’S _court_, New street, Shoe lane.†

BOXHILL, near Dorking in Surrey, received its name from the box trees
  planted on the south side of it, by the Earl of Arundel, in the reign
  of King Charles I. but the north part is covered with yews. Upon this
  hill, which extends in a continued chain into Kent, there is a large
  warren; and as its top affords a most enchanting prospect, it is much
  frequented by the gentry from Epsom, who come to divert themselves in
  the labyrinths formed in these delightful groves; and for their
  accommodation arbours are made, in which refreshments of all sorts are
  sold. The river Mole runs under the foot of this hill, for a quarter
  of a mile together.

BOXWOOD _court_, New street square.

BOY AND BELL _alley_, Brick lane, Spitalfields.*

BOYLE’S HEAD _court_, in the Strand.*

BOYLE’S LECTURE, was founded by the Hon. Robert Boyle, who by his last
  will left an annual salary of 50_l._ for some learned Divine to preach
  eight sermons in the year, in proof of the christian religion, against
  Atheists, Deists, Pagans, and Mahometans, without descending to any
  controversies that subsist among Christians. These Lectures to be in
  the first Mondays of the months of January, February, March, April,
  May, September, October, and November. In such churches as the
  Trustees should from time to time appoint. This Lecture has been
  carried on by very learned men, and are now generally preached at Bow
  church in Cheapside.

BRABANT _court_, Philpot lane.

BRACKLEY _street_, Litton street, Bridge-water gardens.†

BRACKLEY’S _yard_, Barnaby street.†

BRADLEY’S _alley_, Queen street.†

BRADSHAW’S _rents_, Portpool lane.†

BRAND’S _court_, Ratcliff Narrow street.

BRAND’S _yard_, in the Minories.†

BRANDY _yard_, in the Minories.

BRANK’S _yard_, Nightingale lane.†

BRATT’S _rents,_ Ducking pond row, Whitechapel common.

BRAY’S _rents_, Rag fair.†

BRAZEN _court_, Hartshorn lane, in the Strand.║

BRAZE’S _bridge_, St. Olave street.†

BRAZIL WAREHOUSE _yard_, Trinity lane.

BRAZILE’S _rents_, East Smithfield.†

BREAD _street_, Cheapside, thus named from a bread market kept there
  before the fire of London. _Maitland._

BREAD STREET _alley_, Bread street hill.

BREAD STREET _hill_, Thames street.


                        _End of the_ FIRST VOLUME.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



  ● Transcriber’s Notes:
     ○ The tables on page 187 and following pages, were reformated from
       multiple, separate tables to one larger table for each volume.
     ○ Pound, shilling and pence abbreviations (_l. s. d._) were
       regularized to be italic.
     ○ Missing or obscured punctuation was silently corrected.
     ○ Typographical errors were silently corrected.
     ○ Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation were made consistent only
       when a predominant form was found in this book.
     ○ The use of a carat (^) before a letter shows it was intended to
       be a superscript, as in S^t Bartholomew.
     ○ Text that was in italics is enclosed by underscores (_italics_).





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