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Title: USDA Farmers' Bulletin No. 175: Home Manufacture and Use of Unfermented Grape Juice
Author: Husmann, George C.
Language: English
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Transcriber Note

Text emphasis denoted as _Italic_.



                    U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

                       FARMERS' BULLETIN No. 175.



          Home Manufacture and Use of Unfermented Grape Juice.


                                   BY


                           GEORGE C. HUSMANN,

            Expert in Charge of Vilicultural Investigations,
                        Bureau of Plant Industry,
                    U. S. Department of Agriculture.



                               WASHINGTON:
                           GOVERNMENT PRINTING
                                  1903.



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.


                            U. S. Department of Agriculture,
                                       Bureau of Plant Industry,
                                       _Washington, D. C., May 28, 1903._

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a paper on Home manufacture
and use of unfermented grape juice, by Mr. George C. Husmann, expert in
charge of viticultural investigations in this Bureau, and to recommend
it for publication as a Farmers' Bulletin.

Part of the matter contained in this paper has already been published
in Bulletin No. 24 of this Bureau on the Manufacture and Preservation
of Unfermented Grape Must, but the widespread interest in the subject
and the demand for information regarding appliances and methods of
manufacture adapted to the ordinary farm and kitchen makes desirable its
wider circulation through the Farmers' Bulletin series.

    Respectfully,

                                                    B. T. Galloway,
                                                       _Chief of Bureau_.

  Hon. James Wilson, _Secretary_.



CONTENTS.


                                             Page.

  Introduction                                   5

  Historical notes                               5

  Composition of the grape                       6

  Causes of fermentation                         6

  Methods of preventing fermentation             6

  Home manufacture                               7

  Manufacture of larger quantities               9

  Useful appliances                             10

  Composition of unfermented grape juice        12

  Flavor and quality in grape juice             12

  Uses of unfermented grape juice               13

  Food value of unfermented grape juice         13

  A few good recipes                            14



ILLUSTRATIONS.


                                             Page.

  Fig. 1. Cloth hand press                       8

       2. Cloth or felt filter                   8

       3. Pasteurizer for juice in bottles       8

       4. Drip bag                               9

       5. Barrel and skid                        9

       6. Sulphur hook                          10

       7. Corking machine                       10

       8. Home-made lever press                 11


      B. P. I.--62.                                  Pom. I.--18.


         HOME MANUFACTURE AND USE OF UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE.



INTRODUCTION.


Unfermented grape juice has no doubt been used ever since wine has
been made from the grape. The following practical suggestions will
enable housewives to put up unfermented juice at the time of the fruit
harvest, and thus to utilize much fruit that is now annually lost
through inability to preserve it in the fresh state. In this form it is
a pleasant, wholesome drink and food well adapted to home use. On some
farms enough such preventable wastes occur almost every year to largely
reduce the possible profits, or even to cause failure to meet the running
expenses of the farm. By preventing these wastes an unprofitable farm may
often be made profitable.



HISTORICAL NOTES.


Galenius, the Greek physician and writer says (A. D. 131): "A good many
Asiatic wines were stored in bottles which were hung in the corner of
fireplaces, where, by evaporation, they became dry." This process was
called "fumarium."

The Greeks had two kinds of wine, "protoplon," or first juice of the
grape before pressing, and "denterion," or pressed juice. The Romans
called them "vinum primarium" and "vinum secondarium." Some of them drank
the juice before fermentation had started, and called it "mustum." After
the must or juice had been through a heating process (called "reduction"
nowadays), they called it "frutum," and when, after long heating, it had
been reduced to one-half or one-third its original volume, they called it
"sapa." This was used by the Romans on their bread and was equivalent to
what we now call grape syrup.

In Europe physicians often send their patients to the wine-growing
districts during vintage time to take daily rations of the fresh juice as
it comes from the crusher. This, however, restricts its use to a brief
season of the year and to the immediate vicinity of the vineyards, or to
individuals who are yet strong enough to undertake the journey.

Of late years repeated efforts have been made to prevent the juice from
fermenting and to preserve it in vessels of such size and shape as can be
easily transported, thus rendering its use possible at all times of the
year. Until recently its use has been almost exclusively restricted to
juice for medicinal or sacramental purposes. Unrestricted and general use
has been retarded through lack of knowledge of the principles underlying
the process of manufacture. This lack of knowledge and of the necessary
skill in applying it has resulted in many failures, thus rendering the
production of a good article uncertain and expensive.



COMPOSITION OF THE GRAPE.


The grape contains 12 to 28 per cent of sugar, about 2 to 3 per cent of
nitrogenous substances, and some tartaric and malic acids. The skins
contain tannin, cream of tartar, and coloring matter. The seeds contain
tannin, starchy matters, and fat. The stems contain tannin, diverse
acids, and mucilaginous matter. The value of the juice made from any
grape is determined by the relative proportion and composition of these
various parts.



CAUSES OF FERMENTATION.


It is well known that grapes and other fruits when ripe have the
invisible spores of various fungi, yeasts (ferments), and bacteria
adhering to their skins and stems. When dry these spores are inert, but
after the grapes are crushed and the spores are immersed in the juice
they become active and begin to multiply. If the juice is warm, the
changes take place rapidly; if, on the other hand, it is cool, the change
is slower. But in either case, if left alone, the organisms increase
until the juice ferments. The most favorable temperature for fermentation
is between 65° F. and 88° F. Cold checks, but does not kill, the ferment.
This fermentation, now commonly called the elliptic yeast, changes the
sugar in the grape to alcohol and carbonic-acid gas, and is the leading
factor in converting must[A] into wine. Hence it will be readily seen
that to keep grape juice sweet fermentation must be prevented, and to be
salable the product must be clear, bright, and attractive.

[A] The word "must" as used in wine making invariably refers to the
unfermented juice of the grape and is so used in this publication.



METHODS OF PREVENTING FERMENTATION.


Fermentation may be prevented in either of two ways:

(1) By chemical methods, which consist in the addition of germ poisons
or antiseptics, which either kill the germs or prevent their growth. Of
these the principal ones used are salicylic, sulphurous, boracic, and
benzoic acids, formalin, fluorides, and saccharin. As these substances
are generally regarded as adulterants and injurious, their use is not
recommended.

(2) Mechanical means are sometimes employed. The germs are either removed
by some mechanical means, such as filtering or a centrifugal apparatus,
or they are destroyed by heat, electricity, etc. Of these, heat has so
far been found the most practical.

When a liquid is heated to a sufficiently high temperature all organisms
in it are killed. The degree of heat required, however, differs not
only with the particular kind of organism, but also with the liquid
in which they are held. Time is also a factor. An organism may not be
killed if heated to a high temperature and quickly cooled. If, however,
the temperature is kept at the same high degree for some time, it will
be killed. It must also be borne in mind that fungi, including yeasts,
exist in the growing and the resting states, the latter being much more
resistant than the former. A characteristic of the fungi and their spores
is their great resistance to heat when dry. In this state they can be
heated to 212° F. without being killed. The spores of the common mold
are even more resistant. This should be well considered in sterilizing
bottles and corks, which should be steamed to 240° F. for at least
fifteen minutes.

Practical tests so far made indicate that grape juice can be safely
sterilized at from 165° F. to 176° F. At this temperature the flavor is
hardly changed, while at a temperature much above 200° F. it is. This is
an important point, as the flavor and quality of the product depend on it.

This bulletin being intended for the farmer or the housewife only, the
writer refers such readers as desire to go into the manufacture of grape
juice in a systematic manner for commercial purposes to Bulletin 24,
Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, on the same subject,
this publication treating only of methods that can be applied in every
home.



HOME MANUFACTURE.


Use only clean, sound, well-ripened but not over-ripe grapes. If
an ordinary cider mill is at hand, it may be used for crushing and
pressing, or the grapes may be crushed and pressed with the hands. If
a light-colored juice is desired, put the crushed grapes in a cleanly
washed cloth sack and tie up. Then either hang up securely and twist it
or let two persons take hold, one on each end of the sack (fig. 1, p.
8), and twist until the greater part of the juice is expressed. Then
gradually heat the juice in a double boiler or a large stone jar in a
pan of hot water, so that the juice does not come in direct contact with
the fire, at a temperature of 180° F. to 200° F.; never above 200° F.
It is best to use a thermometer, but if there be none at hand heat the
juice until it steams, but do not allow it to boil. Put it in a glass
or enameled vessel to settle for twenty-four hours; carefully drain
the juice from the sediment, and run it through several thicknesses of
clean flannel, or a conic filter made from woolen cloth or felt may be
used. This filter is fixed to a hoop of iron, which can be suspended
wherever necessary (fig. 2). After this fill into clean bottles. Do not
fill entirely, but leave room for the liquid to expand when again heated.
Fit a thin board over the bottom of an ordinary wash boiler (fig. 3),
set the filled bottles (ordinary glass fruit jars are just as good) in
it, fill in with water around the bottles to within about an inch of
the tops, and gradually heat until it is about to simmer. Then take the
bottles out and cork or seal immediately. It is a good idea to take
the further precaution of sealing the corks over with sealing wax or
paraffin to prevent mold germs from entering through the corks. Should
it be desired to make a red juice, heat the crushed grapes to not above
200° F., strain through a clean cloth or drip bag, as shown in fig. 4
(no pressure should be used), set away to cool and settle, and proceed
the same as with light-colored juice. Many people do not even go to the
trouble of letting the juice settle after straining it, but reheat and
seal it up immediately, simply setting the vessels away in a cool place
in an upright position where they will be undisturbed. The juice is thus
allowed to settle, and when wanted for use the clear juice is simply
taken off the sediment. Any person familiar with the process of canning
fruit can also preserve grape juice, for the principles involved are
identical.

[Illustration: Fig. 1.--Cloth and press.]

[Illustration: Fig. 2.--Cloth or felt filter.]

[Illustration: Fig. 3.--Pasteurizer for juice in bottles: _DB_,
Double bottom. _ST_, Steam pipe. _W_, Water bath. _T_, Thermometer.
(Bottle shows method of adjusting a cork holder of sheet metal.)]

[Illustration: Fig. 4.--Drip bag.]

One of the leading defects so far found in unfermented juice is that
much of it is not clear, a condition which very much detracts from its
otherwise attractive appearance and due to two causes already alluded
to. Either the final sterilization in bottles has been at a higher
temperature than the preceding one, or the juice has not been properly
filtered or has not been filtered at all. In other cases the juice has
been sterilized at such a high temperature that it has a disagreeable
scorched taste. It should be remembered that attempts to sterilize at
a temperature above 195° F. are dangerous, so far as the flavor of the
finished product is concerned.

Another serious mistake is sometimes made by putting the juice into
bottles so large that much of it becomes spoiled before it is used after
the bottles are opened. Unfermented grape juice properly made and bottled
will keep indefinitely, if it is not exposed to the atmosphere or mold
germs; but when a bottle is once opened it should, like canned goods, be
used as soon as possible, to keep it from spoiling.



MANUFACTURE OF LARGER QUANTITIES.


Another method of making unfermented grape juice, which is often resorted
to where a sufficiently large quantity is made atone time, consists in
this:

Take a clean keg or barrel (one that has previously been made sweet).
Lay this upon a skid consisting of two scantlings or pieces of timber of
perhaps 20 feet long, in such a manner as to make a runway (fig. 5). Then
take a sulphur match, made by dipping strips of clean muslin about 1 inch
wide and 10 inches long into melted brimstone, cool it and attach it to
a piece of wire fastened in the lower end of a bung and bent over at the
end, so as to form a hook (fig. 6). Light the match and by means of the
wire suspend it in the barrel, bung the barrel up tight, and allow it to
burn as long as it will. Repeat this until fresh sulphur matches will no
longer burn in the barrel.

[Illustration: Fig. 5.--Barrel and skid.]

[Illustration: Fig. 6.--Sulphur hook.]

Then take enough fresh grape juice to fill the barrel one-third full,
bung up tight, and roll and agitate violently on the skid for a few
minutes. Then burn more sulphur matches in it until no more will burn,
fill in more juice until the barrel is about two-thirds full; agitate
and roll again. Repeat the burning process as before, after which fill
the barrel completely with grape juice and roll. The barrel should then
be bunged tightly and stored in a cool place with the bung up, and so
secured that the package can not be shaken. In the course of a few weeks
the juice will have become clear and can then be racked of' and filled
into bottles or jars direct, sterilized, and corked or sealed up ready
for use. By this method, however, unless skillfully handled, the juice is
apt to have a slight taste of the sulphur.


A FEW USEFUL APPLIANCES.

Fig. 7 shows a very practical and inexpensive corking machine. The
illustration shows the cork in place, ready to be driven through the
tapering hole in the machine into the neck of the bottle underneath. The
corks should be put in hot water and allowed to stand for a few minutes
before using in order to soften and make them pliable. This enables one
to use a cork large enough to seal securely.

[Illustration: Fig. 7.--Corking machine.]

Care should be taken to set the bottles on a flat piece of rubber or on
a piece of cloth folded several times, as shown in the figure, so as
to take the jar of the blow when the cork is driven. It is even a wise
precaution to have a pan underneath, as it frequently occurs that bottles
thought to be entirely good have blemishes and break.

[Illustration: Fig. 8.--Home-made lever press. A, Press basket.
B, Press bottom. C, Tub. D, Skids. E, Lever. P, Upright posts. G, Block
and tackle. T, Lever bolt. I, Press block.]

An ordinary cider press is not expensive; nevertheless the majority of
farms do not have one, and it frequently occurs that a farm is located
so far away from any establishment dealing in such implements that the
fruit might spoil or not be sufficiently valuable to justify the purchase
price and time lost and expense incurred in getting it. Fig. 8 gives an
illustration of a lever press, very efficient for this and similar uses,
which any farmer handy with tools can make, the material for which can be
found on almost any farm at any time. The press consists of the following
parts:

Two upright posts (F) set deep and firmly in the ground side by side and
about 12 inches apart. (It is a good idea to attach some deadmen to them
in the ground to prevent them pulling out too easily.) Between these
posts the lever (E) is hung by means of a bolt (T), or the lever may
be hung to the side of a building, or a hole notched into a tree large
enough to admit the end of the lever and a bolt run through that. At the
other end of the lever are two posts, so set that the lever can be raised
up between them by means of block and tackle. The press itself consists
of two timbers (D), on which the press bottom (B) rests, and on this
bottom is the press basket, consisting of the two sides and two ends,
and so constructed that it can be easily taken apart and set up again,
being held together at the ends by means of rods (L). The sides and ends
should be bored full of small holes from three-eighths to one-half inch
in diameter to allow exit for the juice.

After the press is filled, the top (which is made to fit in the inside of
the basket) and cross blocks (1) are put on and the lever is then allowed
to press down on it. A press like this has the advantage that it can be
filled in the evening and left to press until morning while the farmer
sleeps. The precaution, of course, must be taken to set a tub (C) large
enough to hold the juice under the press.

It is perhaps well to state that the longer and heavier the lever the
greater the pressure it exerts. Where it is not convenient to make the
lever very long, weights are placed or hung on the outer extremity of
the lever to increase the pressure. It will thus be seen that with a
little ingenuity a person can adapt the press to suit his individual
requirements.

For ordinary purposes a press basket 3 feet square and 2 feet high will
be found a very convenient size. This will accommodate a ton of crushed
grapes.



COMPOSITION OF UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE.


Herewith are given the component parts of a California and a Concord
unfermented grape juice, the former being analyzed by the California
Experiment Station, the latter by the Bureau of Chemistry, United States
Department of Agriculture:

                               Concord.    California.

                              _Per cent._  _Per cent._
  Solid contents                20.37        20.60
  Total acids (as tartaric)       .663         .53
  Volatile acids                  .023         .03
  Grape sugar                   18.54        19.15
  Free tartaric acids             .025         .07
  Ash                             .255         .19
  Phosphoric acids                .027         .04
  Cream of tartar                 .55          .59


This table is interesting in so far that California unfermented grape
juices are made from Viniferas or foreign varieties, whereas the Concord
is a Labruska or one of our American sorts. The difference in taste and
smell is even more pronounced than the analysis would indicate.



FLAVOR AND QUALITY IN GRAPE JUICE.


In the making of unfermented grape juice a great deal of judgment can be
displayed and many variations produced so as to suit almost any taste by
the careful selection of the varieties of grapes from which it is made.
From the Mission grape, for instance, when fully ripe, a juice would
be obtained that would be delicate and simply sweet, without any other
taste; from the Muscat we would get that rich musky flavor found in our
leading raisins; in the Concord that sprightly foxy taste so well known;
in the Catawba or Isabella that fragrance so peculiarly their own, and in
the Iona a pleasing, mild, yet just pronounced enough aroma and taste to
strike the right spot. Thus we might continue along the list.

Equally as pronounced variations in color can be had, as, for instance,
almost colorless, yellow, orange, light red, red, and a deep purple.

The writer has often been asked what kind of grapes should be used in
making unfermented grape juice, when, as a matter of fact, it can be made
from any grape; not only this, but unfermented juice is made from other
fruits as well, for instance, apples, pears, cherries--and berries of
different kinds yield excellent juices. It is really good judgment in
selecting the right varieties when planting for fruit production. That
also determines the quality of our unfermented juice. For instance, the
richer, sweeter, and better in quality the fruit we use, the richer,
sweeter, and better will be our unfermented juice. If, on the other hand,
the fruit is sour, green, and insipid, the juice will be likewise. As
stated before, the intention of this bulletin is to show how to avoid
some wastes, and to increase income by utilizing those products of which
there is a surplus, and instead of, as is usually done, letting them rot,
convert them into something that can be kept, used, and disposed of at
any time when desired, or when fresh fruit is not available.



USES OF UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE.


The uses are indeed many. It is used in sickness, convalescence, and good
health; as a preventive, restorative, and cure; by the young, by persons
in the prime of life, and by those in old age. It is used in churches for
sacramental purposes; at soda fountains as a cool and refreshing drink;
in homes, at hotels, and at restaurants as a food, as a beverage, as a
dessert, and in many other ways. When people become accustomed to it they
rarely give it up. When properly prepared, unfermented grape juice can be
made to please the eye by its color and attractive appearance, the sense
of smell by its aroma or fragrance, the palate by its pleasant flavor.

It is food and drink, refreshment and nourishment, all in one. Not a by
product, but made from fruit going to waste--one of the blessings given
us, that some are too careless, others too ignorant, to make use of.



FOOD VALUE OF UNFERMENTED GRAPE JUICE.


The effects of unfermented grape juice on the human system have been
studied for a number of years, especially at the so-called grape cures
so long in vogue in Europe. A smaller number of investigations have been
made in laboratories.

It is quite generally claimed that using a reasonably large amount
of unfermented grape juice with an otherwise suitable mixed diet is
beneficial and that digestion is improved, intestinal fermentation
diminished, and that gains in body weight result. It should not be
forgotten that the abundant diet and hygienic methods of living practiced
at the grape cures play an important part, but even taking all this into
account it seems fair to conclude that some of the good results can be
directly attributed to the unfermented grape juice.

Grape juice contains the same kinds of nutrients as other foods. The
percentage of water is high, and thus it resembles liquid foods more
closely than solid foods. It is sometimes compared with milk, the most
common liquid food. It contains less water than milk, more carbohydrates,
and less protein, fat, and ash. Carbohydrates, largely present in the
form of sugar, are the principal nutritive ingredients. It is evident,
therefore, that grape juice is essentially an energy yielding food, and
may help the body to become fatter, though it can not materially assist
in building nitrogenous tissue. Sugars in moderate amounts are wholesome
foods, and grape juice offers such material in a reasonably dilute as
well as palatable form. Undoubtedly the agreeable flavor increases the
appetite, a by no means unimportant consideration.



A FEW GOOD RECIPES.


GRAPE NECTAR.

Take the juice of 2 lemons and 1 orange, 1 pint of grape juice, 1 small
cup of sugar, and a pint of water. Serve ice cold. If served from punch
bowl, sliced lemon and orange add to the appearance.


AN INVALID DRINK.

Put in the bottom of a wineglass 2 tablespoonfuls of grape juice; add to
this the beaten white of 1 egg and a little chopped ice; sprinkle sugar
over the top and serve. This is often served in sanitariums.


GRAPE PUNCH.

Boil together 1 pound of sugar and half a pint of water until it spins a
thread; take from the fire and when cool add the juice of 6 lemons and
a quart of grape juice. Stand aside overnight. Serve with plain water,
apollinaris, or soda water.


GRAPE SHERBET.

For 8 persons mix 1 pint of grape juice (unfermented), juice of lemon and
1 heaping tablespoonful of gelatine, dissolved in boiling water; freeze
quickly; add beaten white of 1 egg just before finish.


GRAPE ICE CREAM.

One quart of unfermented grape juice, 1 quart of cream, 1 pound of sugar,
and the juice of 1 lemon.


SYLLABUB.

One quart of fresh cream, whites of 4 eggs, 1 glass of grape juice, 2
small cups of powdered sugar; whip half the sugar with the cream, the
balance with the eggs; mix well; add grape juice and pour over sweetened
strawberries and pineapples, or oranges and bananas. Serve cold.


BOHEMIAN CREAM.

One pint thick cream, 1 pint grape-juice jelly; stir together; put in
cups and set on ice. Serve with lady fingers.

Besides the recipes just given many more are enumerated, such as grape
ice, grape lemonade, grape water ice, grape juice and egg, baked bananas,
snow pudding, grape gelatine, junket and grape jelly, tutti-frutti jelly,
grape float, grape jelly, grape juice plain, grape soda water, and scores
of others.


FARMERS' BULLETINS.

The following is a list of the Farmers' Bulletins available for
distribution, showing the number, title, and size in pages of each.
Copies will be sent to any address on application to any Senator,
Representative, or Delegate in Congress, or to the Secretary of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. The missing numbers have been
discontinued, being superseded by later bulletins.

   16. Leguminous Plants. Pp. 24.
   21. Barnyard Manure. Pp. 32.
   22. The Feeding of Farm Animals. Pp. 32.
   24. Hog Cholera and Swine Plague. Pp. 16.
   25. Peanuts: Culture and Uses. Pp. 24.
   27. Flax for Seed and Fiber. Pp. 16.
   28. Weeds: And How to Kill Them. Pp. 32.
   29. Souring and Other Changes in Milk. Pp. 23.
   30. Grape Diseases on the Pacific Coast. Pp. 15.
   31. Alfalfa, or Lucern. Pp. 24.
   32. Silos and Silage. Pp. 32.
   33. Peach Growing for Market. Pp. 24.
   34. Meats: Composition and Cooking. Pp. 29.
   35. Potato Culture. Pp. 24.
   36. Cotton Seed and Its Products. Pp. 16.
   37. Kafir Corn: Culture and Uses. Pp. 12.
   38. Spraying for Fruit Diseases. Pp. 12.
   39. Onion Culture. Pp. 31.
   40. Farm Drainage. Pp. 24.
   42. Facts About Milk. Pp. 29.
   43. Sewage Disposal on the Farm. Pp. 20.
   44. Commercial Fertilizers. Pp. 24.
   45. Insects Injurious to Stored Grain. Pp. 24.
   46. Irrigation in Humid Climates. Pp. 27.
   47. Insects Affecting the Cotton Plant. Pp. 32.
   48. The Manuring of Cotton. Pp. 16.
   49. Sheep Feeding. Pp. 24.
   50. Sorghum as a Forage Crop. Pp. 20.
   51. Standard Varieties of Chickens. Pp. 48.
   52. The Sugar Beet. Pp. 48.
   53. How to Grow Mushrooms. Pp. 20.
   54. Some Common Birds. Pp. 40.
   55. The Dairy Herd. Pp. 24.
   56. Experiment Station Work--I. Pp. 31.
   57. Butter Making on the Farm. Pp. 16.
   58. The Soy Bean as a Forage Crop. Pp. 24.
   59. Bee Keeping. Pp. 32.
   60. Methods of Curing Tobacco. Pp. 16.
   61. Asparagus Culture. Pp. 40.
   62. Marketing Farm Produce. Pp. 28.
   63. Care of Milk on the Farm. Pp. 40.
   64. Ducks and Geese. Pp. 48.
   65. Experiment Station Work--II. Pp. 32.
   66. Meadows and Pastures. Pp. 28.
   68. The Black Rot of the Cabbage. Pp. 22.
   69. Experiment Station Work--III. Pp. 32.
   70. Insect Enemies of the Grape. Pp. 23.
   71. Essentials in Beef Production. Pp. 24.
   72. Cattle Ranges of the Southwest. Pp. 32.
   73. Experiment Station Work--IV. Pp. 32.
   74. Milk as Food. Pp. 39.
   75. The Grain Smuts. Pp. 20.
   76. Tomato Growing. Pp. 30.
   77. The Liming of Soils. Pp. 19.
   78. Experiment Station Work--V. Pp. 32.
   79. Experiment Station Work--VI. Pp. 28.
   80. The Peach Twig-borer. Pp. 16.
   81. Corn Culture in the South. Pp. 24.
   82. The Culture of Tobacco. Pp. 24.
   83. Tobacco Soils. Pp. 23.
   84. Experiment Station Work--VII. Pp. 32.
   85. Fish as Food. Pp. 30.
   86. Thirty Poisonous Plants. Pp. 32.
   87. Experiment Station Work--VIII. Pp. 32.
   88. Alkali Lands. Pp. 23.
   89. Cowpeas. Pp. 16.
   91. Potato Diseases and Treatment. Pp. 12.
   92. Experiment Station Work--IX. Pp. 30.
   93. Sugar as Food. Pp. 27.
   94. The Vegetable Garden. Pp. 24.
   95. Good Roads for Farmers. Pp 47.
   96. Raising Sheep for Mutton. Pp. 48.
   97. Experiment Station Work--X. Pp. 32.
   98. Suggestions to Southern Farmers. Pp. 48.
   99. Insect Enemies of Shade Trees. Pp. 30.
  100. Hog Raising in the South. Pp. 40.
  101. Millets. Pp, 28.
  102. Southern Forage Plants. Pp. 48.
  103. Experiment Station Work--XI. Pp. 32.
  104. Notes on Frost. Pp, 24.
  105. Experiment Station Work--XII. Pp. 32.
  106. Breeds of Dairy Cattle. Pp. 48.
  107. Experiment Station Work--XIII. Pp. 32.
  108. Saltbushes. Pp. 20.
  109. Farmers' Reading Courses. Pp. 20.
  110. Rice Culture in the United States. Pp. 28.
  111. Farmers' Interest in Good Seed. Pp. 24.
  112. Bread and Bread Making. Pp. 39.
  113. The Apple and How to Grow It. Pp. 32.
  114. Experiment Station Work--XIV. Pp. 28.
  115. Hop Culture in California. Pp. 27.
  116. Irrigation in Fruit Growing. Pp. 48.
  117. Sheep, Hogs, and Horses in the Northwest. Pp. 28.
  118. Grape Growing in the South. Pp. 32.
  119. Experiment Station Work--XV. Pp. 31.
  120. Insects Affecting Tobacco. Pp. 32.
  121. Beans, Peas, and other Legumes as Food. Pp. 32.
  122. Experiment Station Work--XVI. Pp. 32.
  123. Red Clover Seed: Information for Purchasers. Pp. 11.
  124. Experiment Station Work--XVII. Pp. 32.
  125. Protection of Food Products from Injurious Temperatures. Pp. 26.
  126. Practical Suggestions for Farm Buildings. Pp. 48.
  127. Important Insecticides. Pp. 42.
  128. Eggs and Their Uses as Food. Pp. 32.
  129. Sweet Potatoes. Pp. 40.
  130. The Mexican Cotton-Boll Weevil. Pp. 30.
  131. Household Tests for Detection of Oleomargarine and Renovated
         Butter. Pp. 11.
  132. Insect Enemies of Growing Wheat. Pp. 40.
  133. Experiment Station Work--XVIII. Pp. 32.
  134. Tree Planting in Rural School Grounds. Pp. 38.
  135. Sorghum Sirup Manufacture. Pp. 40.
  136. Earth Roads. Pp. 24.
  137. The Angora Goat. Pp. 48.
  138. Irrigation in Field and Garden. Pp. 40.
  139. Emmer: A grain for the Semiarid Regions. Pp. 16.
  140. Pineapple Growing. Pp. 48.
  141. Poultry Raising on the Farm. Pp. 16.
  142. The Nutritive and Economic Value of Food. Pp. 48.
  143. The Conformation of Beef and Dairy Cattle. Pp. 44.
  144. Experiment Station Work--XIX. Pp. 32.
  145. Carbon Bisulphid as an Insecticide. Pp: 28.
  146. Insecticides and Fungicides. Pp. 16.
  147. Winter Forage Crops for the South. Pp. 36.
  148. Celery Culture. Pp. 32.
  149. Experiment Station Work--XX. Pp. 32.
  150. Clearing New Land. Pp. 24.
  151. Dairying in the South. Pp. 48.
  152. Scabies in Cattle. Pp. 24.
  153. Orchard Enemies in the Pacific Northwest. Pp. 39.
  154. The Fruit Garden: Preparation and Care. Pp. 20.
  155. How Insects Affect Health in Rural Districts. Pp. 20.
  156. The Home Vineyard. Pp. 24.
  157. The Propagation of Plants. Pp. 24.
  158. How to Build Small Irrigation Ditches. Pp. 28.
  159. Scab in Sheep. (In press.)
  160. Game Laws for 1902. Pp. 56.
  161. Practical Suggestions for Fruit Growers. Pp. 28
  162. Experiment Station Work--XXI. Pp. 32.
  163. Methods of Controlling the Boll-Weevil. Pp. 16.
  164. Rape as a Forage Crop. Pp. 16.
  165. Culture of the Silkworm. Pp. 32.
  166. Cheese Making on the Farm. Pp. 16.
  167. Cassava. Pp. 32.
  168. Pearl Millet. Pp. 16.
  169. Experiment Station Work--XXII.
  170. Principles of Horse Feeding.
  171. The Control of the Codling Moth.
  172. Scale Insects and Mites on Citrus Trees.
  173. A primer of Forestry.
  174. Broom Corn.


       *       *       *       *       *


Transcriber Note


All illustrations have been move so as to not split paragraphs.





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