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Title: Hieroglyfic - or, a Grammatical Introduction to an Universal Hieroglyfic Language
Author: Jones, Rowland
Language: English
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                       A Grammatical Introduction
                   An Universal Hieroglyfic Language;
                              CONSISTING OF
                        ENGLISH SIGNS and VOICES.


          A Definition of all the Parts of the ENGLISH, WELSH,
                       GREEK, and LATIN Languages;

      Some Physical, Metaphysical, and Moral cursory Remarks on the
            Nature, Properties, and Rights of Men and Things.

     And Rules and Specimens for composing an Hieroglyfic Vocabulary
        of the Signs or Figures, as well as the Sounds of Things,
      upon rational and philosophical Principles, and the primitive
                            Meaning of Names.

                             By ROW. JONES.

            “Expatiate free o’er all this Scene of Man,
            A mighty Maze! yet not without a Plan.”

    LONDON: Printed by JOHN HUGHS, near Lincoln’s-Inn-Fields; And
    sold by Messrs. DODSLEY, in Pall-Mall; DAVIS, in Piccadilly;
    SHROPSHIRE, in Bond-Street; ELMSLEY, late VAILLANT, in the
    Strand; OWEN, at Temple-Bar; and CROWDER, in Pater-Noster-Row.
    Of whom may be had, the Origin of Language and Nations, by the
    same Author; Price 5s. and his Postscript 1s. in Sheets. 1768.


The subject of this inquiry, tho’ of that importance as to demand the
care and attention of the ablest writers, is perhaps the least understood
of any branch of science. This being in a great measure owing to the
present corrupt state of languages, and the wrong course and direction of
lexicographers in the investigation of them, the Writer of this essay,
therefore, without presuming to instruct his readers in any common
track of literature, only submits to their perusal some discoveries,
which perhaps may be of service towards the restoration of language
and primitive knowledge, and excite the curiosity of those of greater
learning and penetration, and engage them, if possible, in a research
worthy of their contemplation, the restoration of the first universal
language of mankind. For although the ground-work, which chiefly depends
on the author’s own discoveries, may be sketched out by himself, without
the parts and learning of an Aristotle, yet it must be confessed that the
finishing strokes in any new abstruse branches of literature deserve a
more masterly hand. However, since we are here indiscriminately permitted
a decent exercise of our faculties upon the most serious subjects, it is
to be hoped no unpardonable offence has been committed, in submitting
the following sheets to the judgment and decision of men of candor and
learning. If they should in any degree approve of the writer’s labours,
he will then be justified this intrusion into the province of the
literati, with all his defects and inaccuracies. But should the contrary
happen after an impartial and candid examination, he must then acquiesce
with the common fate of his fellow-labourers, and impute his errors or
mistakes to the intensity of his zeal for the service of mankind, more
particularly Britons of all denominations. But to be condemned unheard,
in a country that boasts so much of its liberties, especially those of
the press, must be without a precedent.

However customary it has been for writers to take notice of the
performances of former authors upon the like subjects, in order to shew
the necessity or utility of their own; yet, as no person ever treated
this subject upon the present plan, and the author is not so vain as to
imagine that any thing he could have advanced might have been sufficient
to attract those that have been long accustomed to the clod-cutting
traces, and the voice of prejudice or mere sounds, and he presumes not
to teach any particular language or doctrine, it shall be declined as
useless in the present case; and we shall proceed here to what seems to
be more proper and necessary for the illustration of the subject in hand,
namely, to transcribe some notes taken in the course of these inquiries,
introductory to a rational grammar. And first of the nature and state of

Man, in the sense of language, is to be considered as a compound of all
beings, a microcosm in his form, and a general intelligent echo of the
divine fiat by his speech; a vegetable, by his manner of growth and
nourishment; an animal by his motion, respiration, and feeling; and a
spiritual being from his thinking or intelligent faculties; his animal
part being probably formed with the other animals, out of the dust of
the earth, and his intelligence in its first state, that tree of life,
breath, or superaddition breathed into his nostrils by the creator,
by which he became a living soul. The essence of this celestial and
terrestrial system or compound being will probably remain indefinable,
until man shall recover his primitive existence, as the tree of life;
tho’ the tree of knowledge of good and evil in the mean time furnish him
with sufficient means for his happiness here, and existence hereafter as
the tree of life; for his organs of sensation, in contact with external
objects and impressions, form in the sensory the various modes of
feeling, and those images are perceived by the will; which has not only a
nilling power of permitting those images to remain without any additional
light, as the mere images of sensation fit only for the government of
animal bodies; but also of willing or presenting them to the reflecting
faculty of the soul for the formation of sentimental ideas, to be
registered in the memory, and employed by the mind in its intelligent,
rational, wise and virtuous operations, for the illumination and conduct
of a reasonable being, appointed by Providence lord of the creation.

The human will being the sole energy of all voluntary motions in man,
and motions continuing in direct lines or courses, if not diverted
therefrom, most probably would have continued its pure intuitive course
and direction towards goodness, virtue, and true happiness, without the
power of nilling or depravely contradicting its original nature, as the
tree of life, had not the serpent interposed and put the fruit of the
tree of knowledge of good and _evil_ in its way. And as man in his state
of innocence, before his fall, must, as the tree or breath of life, have
been furnished with the knowledge of good, so it seems probable that
Moses by the tree of knowledge of good and _evil_, meant the generative
powers, or certain characters or letters representing them, engraved on
the _bark_ of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, furnishing the
first pair, in their state of innocence, with two sorts of ideas or
knowledge, and the means of gratifying their lust, as well as pride or
curiosity of knowing good and evil, like their superiors; mankind before
their fall being probably capable of seeing each others ideas, without
the use of sounds; and of propagation after the manner of the second Adam.

Since those animals, which are endued with the organs of speech, are
incapable of articulating any conceptions, it is reasonable to suppose
that the animal part of man alone, without the assistance of the
intelligent or rational, must be so likewise. It is therefore probable
that the human will, agreeable to the notes or ideas impressed on the
memory, plays upon the fibres, the simple tones of articulation; which
in their passage, with respiration, thro’ the lungs, stomach, windpipe,
larynx, and mouth, are by the glotis, tongue, lips, muscles, and other
organical powers, which assume literal figures, modulated into articulate
sounds, both simple and compound, agreeable to the nature of things and
their ideas, as impressed in the human sensory. And as man is furnished
with ideas chiefly by the means of speech, the tree of knowledge of good
and evil seems to be no improper metaphor of the human voice or _person_,
or the Dryades and Hamadryades, nor the tree of life, of man’s intuitive
state of knowledge and virtue.

It is yet the general opinion that human speech derives its origin
solely from the arbitrary composition or invention of man, without any
connexion with nature or the intervention of Providence. However true
such bold and presumptuous doctrines may be with respect to some of the
corrupt compounded parts, which chiefly occasioned the great variety and
confusion of languages, yet articulate sounds, the materials of speech,
clearly appear to have been the gift of Providence, and always the same
in all countries; as for instance, an Indian, as well as an European, in
expressing the idea of length, will contract and lengthen the organs of
articulation, so as to form an acute sound, and the shape of the letter
i; and to express breadth they will alike extend them, like the letter o,
to express a broad or grave sound; and so in other cases, though they
differ as to the manner of compounding those sounds; more especially
on account of the great loss of primitives amongst the Indians. And
it cannot be otherwise, since the scripture proves that Adam named
things agreeable to their nature, under the inspection and direction of

Again, to suppose man of himself, without the intervention of Providence,
capable of forming the materials of his own speech, must be as absurd
as to imagine that he formed the materials of his own ideas or himself,
since speech depends on the original frame of man, and the shape of
his organs, and abstract and complex ideas on names, as the means of
forming and registering them in the memory. Nor does it appear to be less
so, to imagine dumb men, without inspiration, capable of fixing upon
arbitrary signs of language, or advancing in knowledge, or at least, of
forming so perfect a system, without being previously taught the use of
letters and characters, the elements and principles of languages; more
especially such of the sounds and figures, as were not to be met with
in any other parts of nature, and the unintuitive, vicious, privative,
and negative parts both of knowledge and language, which depend on the
hieroglyfic, sacred, or _secret_ characters. And, whatever may be the
disguise of arbitrary or corrupt dialects, they will all appear upon due
examination to derive their origin from the original tree of knowledge;
and was it not for the difference of climates, constitutions, habits,
manners, and other accidents, which demand the aid of grammar, it seems
probable, since characters represent the figures of things, and letters,
or natural articulate sounds subsist in the very frame of man, the very
ideas causing vibrations in the speaker, are felt by the hearer, and
the elements of speech are universally the same, that languages would
naturally fall, or at least, like the English, incline to their primitive
universal state, and the same combination and construction of particles
into words and sentences, if the particles of all languages were
precisely defined according to their primitive meaning; there being in
man an innate potency of recurring to, as well as an impotency of erring
or deviating from the original modes of speech, as well as perceptions,
and of becoming virtuous and vicious by turns.

Languages, it is true, have been fluctuating, and in particular the
English; which was originally the Celtic or Phrygian, brought by our
ancestors, the Titans, in the first westward migration, from the lesser
Asia, thro’ Greece and Italy into ancient Celtica; and which on the
arrival of the Romans in Italy partook of the Greek dialects, and
furnished the Romans with a considerable part of the Latin tongue. Some
of the Aborigines of Italy, Spain, and Gaul, having afterwards fled
from the Roman yoke into Germany, without their priests and druids, who
had before retired into Britain, their language as well as knowledge
received an ebb, though no foreign admixture. But their priests and bards
denominated in the writings of the British poets, the Luchlin colony,
and in Germany and Italy, by the names of Longobards, and Lombards, _the
great bard nation_, and speaking the British language in Germany, being
drove by the Romans out of Britain, into Germany and Denmark, their
language as well as knowledge received some increase from the mother
tongue; which then in its turn began to sink in Britain. And thus all the
dialects of ancient Celtica are but different dialects of the old Celtic
language, which first made its way into Europe, and so they ought to be
deemed by lexicographers in their definition of vocables. But of all
those dialects, the English in respect to the copiousness, strength, and
simplicity both of its vocables and construction, seems to be the best
fund for an universal language of any upon earth.

It may not perhaps seem improper here to explain some other abstruse
principles in physics and metaphysics, from the meaning of vocables, as
they too seem to explain the principles of rational grammar. There are,
it seems, in physics, discoverable by the signification of words, three
universal principles or genusses of things, namely, space, matter, and
motion; which, as to their essences, if essence, nature, and quality
differ in ought but form, are indefinable. But with respect to their
modes, properties, and forms, space is distance every way, whether
with or without body; with it, it is extension or capacity; without
it, a vacuum; quantity, mensuration, number, place or matter extended,
a continent, an island, length, breadth, figure, thickness, an inch,
a foot, a yard and such things being its modes. Matter, whatever its
essence may be, is an indivisible impenetrable atom or corpuscule; of
which two or more assembled or cohered, form a particle, and larger
cohesions or combinations of those form sensible bodies, which are
chiefly distinguishable in language by their forms; though they have such
properties and modes, as length, breadth, and thickness, or extension,
solidity, or an assemblage excluding all other bodies from its place,
divisibility or the separation of its quantity, mobility, passiveness,
and figure, or that length and breadth without thickness, which present
themselves to the eye. And as to the active qualities of matter, they
seem to be all intentional, as fluidity, softness, rarity, heat, and
other modes of motion; all the rest being passive, and arising merely
from the different texture, disposition, and combination of bodies; or
a privation of the former; as, firmness, hardness, density, coldness,
dryness, and rest. Motion is the successive passage or change from once
place or state to another. Of which there are three sorts expressible
by language, viz. the energic, generative, and local; which with their
various modes or actions are expressible by verbs.

The metaphysical part of man, which derives its origin from the Creator’s
impression, or the essence of the thinking soul, altho’ it has no more
consciousness or knowledge of its own essence, than those of other
beings; nor perhaps the means of its present modes of conception, without
the use of those bodily organs, to which the all-wise Creator was pleased
to confine it for a time, and the presence of internal objects, any
more than the organs of sensation feel the touch without the contact of
external objects, is still in the fool, as well as philosopher, when
furnished with proper organs, equally capable of that innate potency
of expressing its own qualities and actions, as is evident from our
universal acknowledgement of a creator, and the different powers of
those fools who are capable of lucid intervals. And however different
our reasonings may be concerning the attributes of the infinite Creator,
from the variousness of objects and different degrees of volition, there
can be nothing more absurd than to affirm that the human soul cannot be
impressed with the image of its Creator, because at times it expresses
or affects no consciousness of it; consciousness being rather an energic
affirmation or quality of the soul, than its essence, as an involuntary
animal or vegetable motion is an act, rather than the cause of motion.
Such perceptions however as it does express of spiritual beings, have
privative, energic, or moral names; which are formed by the symmetry,
and just measures and proportions of parts and modes of motion; from
whence moral notions also derive their origin, as shall be shewn in the
course of the following work, as shall also as to our mistaking infinite
duration for time.

    Tho’ metaphysics aid the moral plan,
    “The proper study of mankind is man;”
    His language part we now presume to scan,
    A mighty maze to be without a plan;
    ‘A _wild_ where weeds promiscuous shoot,
    Or garden tempting with forbidden fruit;’
    The tree of life, once, branches, stem, and root,
    Of knowledge too, since _vices_ on it shoot.
    The garden cleared of the tares and weeds,
    Gives willing force, and cogitation speeds.
    ‘Then, as life can little more supply,
    Than just to look about us, and to die;
    Expatiate free o’er all this scene of man,
    A mighty maze! yet not without a plan.’
    Plain truth, not _person_, is my utmost hope,
    I tell you truly in the sense of Pope.

_Wild_ signifies a wood, or the place of the higher growth, and is an
emblematical expression for the tree of knowledge of good and evil, the
Υλη, matter or sound of human speech, as ειδος seems to be of its ideal

_Person_ is a compound of pêr-son, _sweet sound_; pêr also signifies any
sweet ripe fruit, as figs or figes, according to the Welsh; which perhaps
resembles that which gave man the denomination of person, _the sound of
the apple or afal_, and to the _fallen_ angel that tempted Eve, the name
of di-afal or devil, _the apple God_; and figes and vices signify the
same thing; the v consonant and digamma being the same, and g being an
inflection of the radical c. See _person_, _wood_, &c. in the vocabulary.

The fall of man has laid us under a sort of charm, which nothing can
remove but a thorough taste of the tree of knowledge, and avoiding its
vicious branches as much as possible. Had that great reasoner Mr. Lock
been so happy as to attend a little more to the tree of knowledge,
instead of intirely rejecting the divine origin of human speech, and
innate principles of thinking, he might have reasoned well upon _right_
principles, instead of misleading and confirming us in our errors, as
without doubt was his intention.

The learned Hermes, the very best of modern grammarians, whose ingenious
performance, had it sooner come to my perusal, might have charmed me
out of my present labours, to acquiesce with his opinions, seems to be
a little affected by this fort of charm, and perhaps is as much deluded
from his subject by the language, learning, and beauties of the Greeks
and Romans, as the late author of the short introduction to the English
language, by some of our modern barbarisms, the very exceptionable parts
of our language.


Grammar is the right method of expressing the ideas of things by signs
and sounds adapted for the sensation of the eye and ear, according to
their hieroglyfic nature, forms, and modes, and that εντελεχεια or
intelligent echo, with which man was originally endued by his Creator.

It consists of three parts or sorts of names, viz. letters, considered as
characters or the figures of things, and as signs of articulate sounds;
their combination into particles and nouns; and their construction into
phrases, propositions, and sentences. And, according to the present state
of languages, etymology may be admitted as a fourth division of grammar.


Letters, as γραμματα or characters, either really or emblematically
personate, and represent things and ideas; and as notes of articulate
sounds signify internal conceptions, and express them to others. They
consist of various sorts, such as simple characters to denote elements
or principles; compounds to express complex ideas, and things; the
dividers of parts; actives, energies, and affirmatives; and privatives,
and negatives. These are the smallest or elementary parts of language,
as atoms are of matter and action of motion; an assemblage thereof form
particles, as of atoms do those of matter; and a combination of either
form more sensible bodies, and so on to the construction of larger forms,
masses or sentences; letters having been formed in their shapes and
sounds, agreeable to ideas and things, and having a natural connection
therewith; and length and breadth affecting the eye in the same manner as
their vibrations do the ear, and a combination of both the human will and

Characters, which consist of irregular lines, circles, or curves, are
incapable of general signs or meanings, or representing many things; but
strait lines, and circles, and their division and multiplication, like
the Roman, only are capable of that hieroglyfic, universal representation
and meaning, which the first universal language must be supposed to
express, and as most other characters seem to be only deviations from
the Roman, from mere affectation, or for the conveniency of sculpture,
there seems to be no great absurdity in supposing that Adam was furnished
with _those_ characters, and instructed in their sounds; that they
continued in general use until the confusion of Babel, when mankind began
to make use of the noise or sounds of cattle instead of human voices;
and that the Romans were furnished with those characters by the Tuscans
on their arrival in Italy. Nor does it seem in the least probable that
those nations which had been destined by Providence to be the possessors
of the most distant countries westward from Asia, who made their way
thither accordingly, along the Mediterranean coasts, through Crete,
Greece, Sicily, Egypt, Mauritania, Tuscany, Spain, Gaul, and Britain,
were in Asia at the time of the confusion. And as those characters
are adapted only for the Celtic, Phrygian, or British language, which
resolves the names of places of the several countries through which it
passed, preferable to the more modern dialects thereof, and Cæsar thought
that Druidism began in Britain; it seems very probable that Mercury,
Gomer, or Hermes, and other Druids, leaders of the western colonies,
were always possest of those _secret_ characters; it being certain that
the Gauls before Cæsar’s time had the use of letters. Besides, ancient
history takes notice of the hieroglyfics, as consisting of the figures
of animals, parts of human bodies, and mechanical instruments invented
by Thoth the first Hermes, which were afterwards translated into Greek,
and deposited in books in the Egyptian temples, and which the learned
supposed to be sacred characters.

The characters of the first language were without doubt simple, requiring
but few rules for their combination and construction; and yet must
have been expressive of all the natural signs and sounds of things;
for such certainly ought to be the construction of a language proposed
for an universal assent; and such in my opinion is the English, whose
vocables are hieroglyfic; and their meaning agreeing with the picturesque
combination. These were the ancient characters, engravings, or γραμματα;
and their sounds were the στοιχα, _the chief sounds_; and which we shall
here proceed to explain, together with the Greek characters.

  Eng. Welsh.  Greek.       Greek names.
  and Roman.

  a, ɑ.        α.           Alpha, the call upon parts.

  b.           β, ϐ.        Beta, upon the beasts of the fields.

  c, k, q.     κ.           Kappa, the action upon parts.

  d, dd.       δ.           Delta, the division or race of things.

  e, ɛ, h, ɜ.  ε, η, ϶, Η.  Epsilon and Heta, the clitoris, erectors, and
                              all the interjectory generative springs.

  f, ff.        φ.           Phi, the penis in action and generative

  g.           γ, Γ.        Gamma, the testicles, or an action about the

  i, j.        ι.           Jota, the rays of the sun upon things.

  l, ll.       λ.           Lamda, things extended or place.

  m.           μ.           Mv, man’s body, and things about as surrounding

  n, ng.       ν.           Nv, in man, or betwixt his thighs, human will
                              and the negatives.

  o.           ο, ω, Ω.     Omicron and Omega, the little and great circle
                              of space, place, and motion.

  p.           π, Ψ, ψ.     Pe and Psi, the penis not in action, and animal
                              and other dead parts.

  r.           ϱ, ρ.        Rho, the eccho or sound of animals, &c.

  s, ſ, z.     σ, Ζ, ζ.     Zigma and Zeta, sounds in general.

  t, T, th.    τ, Θ.        Tau and Theta, man’s possessions, properties,
                              extension, &c.

  v, u, U, w.  υ, Υ.        Upsilon, the upper springs, as man’s face, &c.

  x, ch, wh.   Ξ, ξ, χ.     Chi or _χi_, animal, gutteral, and sounds of
                              superior actions.

    Transcriber’s Note: This table is included as an image in the
    HTML version, as some of the characters in it may have more
    than one interpretation.

This alphabet consists of seven vowels or voices, which in their own
nature, actively, and without any super-addition, yield compleat
articulate sounds, particles, or names, and hieroglyfically represent
the elementary or active parts of the human body, and nature, as similar
thereto, namely, a, e or h, i, o, u, w or ω, Υ; and of other characters
or letters, which are called consonants from their yielding articulate
sounds only in company with vowels. Of these b, c, d, f, g, l, m, p,
t, are also hieroglyfic representations of the various parts of the
human body and other things as similar thereto; and they are mutable
and inflectory in the pronominal cases, from the less animate, slow,
and almost silent radical state, both as to the sense and sound, to the
rougher, louder, and more animate and active sounds and things; as for
instance, c, p, τ, the most silent, as expressive of material or passive
substances or local inanimate actions inflect into g, b, d, which are
somewhat louder and rougher, as being expressive of the higher and more
active things and actions of men and animals; and those again into the
still louder and rougher sounds of ch, ff, th, as those are expressive
of the most energic actions or modes of motion; but when g, b, d, are
the radicals of inflection, they again inflect into ng, f, m, dd, n,
and in some dialects the l and r have the aspirates ll and rh for the
radicals, as has been shewn in my former treatises. To the loss of these
inflections may in a great measure be imputed the great variety and
confusion of languages; new dialects having been formed by changing the
radicals and misapplying the inflectories, as father for pater, brother
for frater, and mother for mater. b, c, d, j, k, p, q, t, as yielding
little or no sounds, without the assistance of vowels, are called mutes;
l, m, n, r, f, s, as having imperfect obscure sounds without the company
of vowels, have been distinguished as semivowels; and l, m, n, r, also
as liquids from their flowing in particles, as in, îf, îl, îm, în, îr,
the flow of the sun’s rays, light, motion, liquid, and life or qualities
upon the lower world of beings and things; but the distinctions of mutes
and semivowels seem trifling, as most letters seem to be vowels in some

Here, before we proceed to explain the figures and powers of letters, it
may not perhaps be improper to observe that the parts, affections, and
ideas of the human pair, incorporated, as in the figures at the end of
this essay, were the archetypes or patterns of the original characters,
whose figures and sounds are descriptive of the universe; that letters
and particles have two sounds, the masculine and feminine, the active
and passive, or the short and long; that a particle or syllable cannot in
the genuine sense of language consist of more than two letters; and that
there are not in fact any such things as dipthongs; those now supposed to
be such, being two or three particles of one vowel each, which formerly
was a common method of composition, as appears by the following piece of
ancient poetry; in which there is no consonant made use of, the r being
only a letter of sound.

    Oer iu yr eira ar yr yri,
    Oi riu or awyr i rewi;
    Oer iu yr ia oi riu ri
    Ar eira oer iu yr yri.

Thus Englished.

    From its high hill cold is ice,
    Cold is the snow on Snowden;
    Its nature from the sky to freeze
    On snow so cold is Snowden.

The letter o is an indefinite circle, signifying the universe, motion,
space, the sun’s figure and motion, and all or ol, extension of length,
breadth, and thickness; and it is expressible of parts only by a
diminution of its general sense; as in b-ol, a ball or part of all, or-b,
a circle part, w-or-l-d, a man’s circle part or place of life, b-or-d-er
the circle part of the possessions and 10, one circle, which being
repeated comprehends all numbers. This, like all other original letters,
has two sounds, the long and the short, as in _on_, _one_, _ton_, _tone_;
and its shape or figure was taken from the circumference of the human
pair close together, face to face, which is man’s chief circle place,
signified by the term _world_. The Greek ω is a double υ as has been
explained in my former treatise.

The letter i is an indefinite line, representing man in his primitive
state of innocence, as it does still his body, as a line, without its
extension, and his head and senses by its dot; and in a secondary sense
are expressed by this line and dot, length or heighth towards the sun,
the sun-beams, fire, heat, and other qualities both spiritual and
animal, as still flowing upon man, and other things as relative to him,
and originally perhaps centering in himself, and since his fall only
relatively. But though man and nature have been impaired by original
sin, they still seem to be invested with certain springs, energies, or
returns of those ilations and qualities, as, thinking, willing, voice
articulate, powers generative and growth; whereby the human species may
be extended, and acquire so much knowledge and virtue, as, with the
blessing of Providence, to be capable of being reinstated. The chief
of which springs is expressed by the letter u, a compound of two i’s
signifying man’s compound of male and female, and spirit and matter, with
a c at their bottom, springing them upwards; by y as to the generative
and vegetative parts, which also is expressive of woods and other growth;
it being a compound of i j, and half of the spring c, as not being
expressive of the spirit of man. The i also expresses man as an upright
line placed in the centre of all worldly beings and substances, to whom
they bear a relation, as shall be shewn under adverbs. The u vowel seems
to derive its figure from the human face, the seat of the voice, and
the heart, and the feminine or consonant v from the vagina, if it be
an original letter, but, from its sound, it seems to supply the place
of the digamma. The y or Υ resembles trees, plants and vegetables, and
the j consonant is the half of it, and sometimes made use of instead of
g, to express some of the generative parts and qualities. These vowels
have each two sounds, the high and low, long and short, or grave and
acute, viz. i, as in, _in_, _high_, or _i_, go thou; the u vowel, as,
in, _unction_, _united_; and the y as the u in unction and y in hyssop;
but the w has only one long sound, as in _woman_, _womb_, _wood_, and it
is mostly applicable to spirituals, man, and things belonging to him;
the wh has the gutteral sound of the Welsh ch, or the Greek χ as in
_where_, _why_; the j consonant has the sound of g in _generation_; and
the v consonant that of the soft flowing f of the Welsh, or as in _verb_,
_vice_; thus supplying the softer sound and meaning of the digamma.

The letters a, e, h, ε, η, Η, in their primary sense signify the male and
female posteriors, the clitoris, erectores, &c. the impulse and springs
of generation, and the earth and water place of man; whence a came to be
an expression for the element earth or matter and things hard, rough,
or interjectory, and ε for the element of water and any feminine, soft,
or passive parts or things, but the interjectory aspirate e or _he_ is
masculine, and the ε has one spring resembling that of rain. The a has
properly two sounds, as in _animal_, _have_, or _name_, but not that
of o or the northern a in _all_; the masculine e or he has an aspirate
sound, as in _hero_, and a mute one, as in _echo_; and the feminine ε
was originally sounded soft, like the French cedill ç, as in _fleece_,
_vice_, and the use of this character and sound ought to be continued or
the soft c should be marked with a cedill to prevent the confusion of the
hard and soft sounds of c; but more of this elsewhere.

The letters c, k, q, g, γ, wh, ch, κ, χ, Ξ, ξ signify actions of
different sorts and degrees, viz. c as the half of o, signifying motion,
and k and q, as significant of its sound, signify the modes of common
local motions or actions; and the hard c also represents half the round
of the posteriors, as o doth the whole of the male and female together,
as the feminine or soft c doth the other half; g or γ represent the
testicles or half the gamma, f being the other half, and the generative
and growing parts of man and nature; and the rest are their gutteral
inflections expressive of animal sounds and actions. The palatals should
be sounded hard and short, as in _quick_, the soft c in some cases as the
feminine ε before explained, and s before the vowel i, the superlative
gutteral sorts, as the wh in _where_, _why_, and the Welsh _chwa_,
_chwant_, and g or γ as in _egg_, _edge_. All these characters are
nothing more than compounds of c, h, s, as will be shewn hereafter.

The letters d and b put together, thus, db, as compounds of i and o, or
length and breadth, are expressive of man and woman’s body part, from
the thigh to the part of the body which the elbow reaches, and all other
living beings so extended, as τ does the extension of matter, but being
again divided into d and b, they express living things, or the qualities
of parts and diminutives of bodies, and emblematically spirits and
privatives, as p does parts of matter, as divisor of τ. The d and b ought
to be sounded alike in all languages, as, _de_, _be_, and dd, as _the_,
but letters are farther explained in the former treatise.

T represents man’s legs together, with the feet upwards, and both toes
turned outwards as upright and traverse lines, extension and man in his
temporal state, turned out of paradise, under the sky, topsy turvy, and
all things as relative to him, and the line upon which time or the manner
of reckoning the distances of actions are measured. T sounds alike in
all languages, and th and θ as in _the_, _Thebes_, and those are the
inflections of T.

The letters p, ph, ff, f, π, φ, ψ, signify material or dead parts, or
their qualities, as p divides T; ph is p high, up, or active; the digamma
φ or f, the p inflecting the gamma; and ψ actions of a lesser nature,
as growth. The p and π sound alike in all languages, ph, ff as φυω,
_fusee_, or _fun_, ψ as in _Psalms_, it being only a compound of p, and f
as the v consonant in _verb_, but these letters are farther explained in
the former treatise.

_m_ represents a man’s body and arms or wings from the top of b and d,
or the elbow part of the body, up to the neck, and the world, forms,
and things, as surrounding and belonging to man, as shall be further
explained amongst the particles. It sounds the same in all languages. _n_
is the thighs, with the parts above them, forming a traverse line, and
the vacancy betwixt the same when extended, signifying to be in, or in
existence or possession, having f and d for its auxiliaries, but before
the vowels or springs it expresses a negative or privative; and it has no
particular sound.

Ỻ, L, λ, are T or man’s legs, once put together, separated, and as
divisors of T, which signifies space or extension, are expressive of
particular lengths and breadths, and their places, qualities, &c. The L
or λ is sounded as eel or îl and Ỻ has an aspirate hissing sound in the
Welsh, Spanish, and some other dialects.

The letters r, ϱ, ρ, Ρ, R, represent animals and their parts, and their
mouths as the place of sound; S being added to P, as a sound, forms R,
the sound as well as part of an animal; and they are all to be sounded
as in _viper_, except where they happen to be radical letters, and then
with an aspirate h as in _rhyme_. The S, σ, Z, are also letters of sound,
but express no part of man, and are rather the shape of some animal of
the serpentine kind, the waving of the breath or water, &c. They have
two sounds, the hard and soft, as in _loss_, _zone_. This explanation
of letters, together with what has been given already in my former
treatises, and shall be added amongst the particles, will, it is to be
hoped, be deemed satisfactory, as to the sense and origin of letters,
and the sacred characters; notwithstanding the pretensions lately set up
for those of irregular lines, curves, and windings, which can express
but few things, and the remarks of another ingenious gentleman, as to
the non-entity or insignificancy of the Hieroglyfics; his enquiry having
been confined to the vulgar sorts, or the paintings or engravings of
animals, &c. when it now appears the Hieroglyfics consisted only of those
few sacred or _secret_ characters. The hints and specimens here given of
the method of combining the hieroglyfic figures, being as compleat as
the press will admit of; and a process thereof, thro’ the whole of the
English language, considering the corrupt state of languages, tho’ the
English is as capable of an hieroglyfic combination as any, requiring
much loss of time, trouble, and expence, and perhaps the aid of a Hunter
and a Hill, and some other reasons occurring, the author hopes he shall
be excused for proceeding no further at the present, in the combination
of characters.

Of Particles and Syllables.

A Particle is a simple articulate sound and sign of one or two
characters or letters; but a syllable sometimes by the cutting off of
vowels, becomes a combination of more letters, which is yet commonly
pronounced as a simple articulate sound; there being a natural relation
and agreement betwixt the signs and sounds of letters, and ideas and
things. Particles and syllables were originally framed according to
their hieroglyfic shape, the natural sounds of ideas and things, and the
sense and value of letters, as has been already explained; and therein
the quantity of the action of sound was measured and proportioned to the
motion, action, or energy of the thing to be expressed, as the high,
loud, acute, or short accent, for an active or energic particle, and the
low, grave, and long, for a passive, substantive, or a negative one.

And altho’ some letters, as a, e, y, p, t, and some particles in words
are so fixed by the addition of y, ty, ive, and other terminations,
as of themselves to be always substantive and long, as to quantity
and accent; yet those passive and long letters and particles, by the
addition of an active vowel, consonant, or particle, will become active
and short. Hence the best way of spelling or pronouncing must be to
divide the particles of compound names according to the original manner
of their combination, sense, and sounds, and when a vowel is cut off,
its consonant, with the remaining vowel, or with the most valuable, if
there should be any doubt, as in the following examples, ex-ec-ra-ble,
co-re-spond-ing, pro-ble-m-at-ic-al-ly, un-ec-spect-ed-ly, prin-ce,
o-af, o-ther, o-ver, ub-iqu-i-ty. Those sorts of names and their
compounds according to their significations and nature in language, are
distinguishable into the following sorts, viz. Articles to substantive
and identify names; nouns substantive, or the names of substances;
pronouns, which collectively express nouns and antecedent parts of
sentences; adjectives, which are added to the names of substances, to
express their qualities and accidents; actives, or the names of actions,
verbs, energies, and affirmatives of being, acting, and feeling; adverbs
or additional words, to express quantities, qualities, distances, modes,
and energies of actions and things, with their degrees; prepositions to
denote and connect situations, and conjunctions or connectives of names,
proportions, and sentences.

As the right apprehension of the hieroglyfic primitive language very
much depends on a clear illustration of particles, which as sorts of
compound letters, together with the primitive hieroglyfic letters,
comprehend all the materials of the first universal language, the
following addition is here made to what has been already published on the
etymology of particles; the radicals being placed in each class before
their inflections and transponents. Ab, eb, af, ef; ba, be, fa, fe. These
express the generas and species, as well as causes and effects of animal
life, beings, and growth of the earth and water, both male and female,
as in ab-ba, eb-riety, af-ect, ef-ect, ba-by, be-an, fa-ther, fe-male,
fa-ar-am-er, ba-ar-en-ess.

Ib, if, bi, fi. These are expressive of the qualities flowing from above,
like the sun’s rays upon man and inferior beings, and their return of
life, as in l-ib-eral, l-îf, bi-le, fi-eld.

Ub, uf, bu, fu. These are the springs or returns of the above qualities
in man and other beings, as in ub-erty, h-uf, bu-d, fu-el, ub or
springing upwards.

Ob, of, bo, fo. These signify out of, or from the circle of life or
sight, or dead, as in ob-lation, ob-livion, of-fering, of, bo-dy, bo-ne,

Ac, ec, ag, eg, ach, ech, ang, eng, ca, ce, ga, ge, cha, che, nga, nge.
The first sort of particles denote the several motions and actions
of earth and water or matter, both animate and inanimate, and their
transponents express their contraries, such as, rest, confinement, shuts
or inclosures, as in, ac-t, ec-stacy, ec-ho, ag-ain, eg-g, ach-ieve,
ach-os or cause, spe-ech, bre-ech, ech-uin or a loan, ang-er, eng-age,
ca-ab-age, ca-ge, ce-iling, ce-ll, ke-ep, ga-te, ge-ld, cha-os, che-st,
che-fn or her back, gnad or gned, or finished, kna-ve, kne-ad.

Ic, ig, ich, ing, ci, gi, chi, ngi. These are the principles, qualities,
and beginning of motion, the first or chief action, or creation of heat,
man, and things, and their returns, as in h-ic, or the man action,
ig-menos or proceeded, ig-neous, h-igh, wh-ich, ich-od, ing or acting,
as a man in the line of possession, th-ing, k-ing or ci-ing, the chief
in the line of possession, the rest are the inflections of ci or chief
inflected thus, ci, _a chief_, gi, _his chief_, chi, _her chief_, ngi,
_my chief_.

Uc, ug, uch, ung, cu, qu, chu, ngu. These are the springs or returns
of those acts from man and other beings upwards, and the species of
generations, productions, and energies therefrom, as in uc, uc’s-or,
cl-uck, h-ung, ug-ly, ug-ies, uch-el, cu-san or kiss, cu-r or care, cu-b,
Cu-pid, gu-ide, gu-ilt, gu-st, gu-t, chuck, chu-rl, chu-ith or breath,
know-ledge, gnu-eid or making.

Oc, og, och, ong, co, go, cho, ngo. These are the most occult actions
as proceeding from the hind part of the human circle, or from the sight
part of the circle, occurrences, and coalescence of actions and motions
circular, and their species and productions, as in oc-ult, oc-currence,
og-le, och-i-my or filth to me, och or oh fie, th-ong, co-alescence,
co-herence, go-re, cho-ler, ngo or my memory.

Ad, add, ed, edd, da, dda, de, dde. These are expressive of diminution,
privation and division of earth, water, matter, growth, parts, and
other things; and as such an addition to the goods and possessions of
man, as in add, ad-eg or de-crease, had or seed, ed-ible, da or goods,
dda his goods, de-arth, de-ath, de, dde, the or a thing. Id, idd, di,
ddi, signify the division, qualities, and action of man, or the human
intellect, spirits, and privatives, as in, id-ea, idd-o, or the human
properties, di-vision, di-minish, yn ddi-rgel or secretly.

Ud, udd, du, ddu. These are the spring or return of human intelligence,
as divided or exercised, and their species and negatives, as in, h-ud
or fascination, cy-h-udd-o, to confess one’s crimes, du-bious, du-ll or
judgment, du-tifull, i-ddu-n, to a man.

Od, odd, do, ddo. These signify the division of the circle of motion, or
a circle of actions called time, present and past, as in, oed or age, od
or life, odd or the past action or age, do or it has been done, or it is
past, ddoe or yesterday.

Ah, eh, ih, oh, uh, ha, he, hi, ho, hu. These express the different
impulse or energies of the human passions and affections, and are
explained amongst the adverbs; of which species of names they seem to be.

Ai, ei, ii, oi, ui, and their transponents, signify motions local as of
moving, walking, or driving, actions and affections of generation and
growth, man out of possession, man’s visage, and affirmations of yea, and
the sun’s motion darting its rays by io; but an h is commonly added to
the radical as an additional energy.

Al, el, la, le. The extension of earth and water, or place in general,
and qualities and animal sounds as extended, as al high in alps and
altus, el low or in hell, el-egy, la-nd or surface, le or p-la-ce,
terresti-al, aquati-le, c-all, kn-ell, la-ment, le-gible.

Il, li, signify an ilation and extension of the sun’s rays, so as
to cause light, with its returns, effects, or lights below; and all
intentional qualities, and emblematically intelligence as proceeding
from the divine censory, as in îl-ation, îl-um-ine, ho-îl the sun or the
glorious light, h-îl, its flowing rays and the human race, li-ght, li-u
or colou-r, li-ke, or the action of light, îl-ustrate. Ul, lu, signify
the return or spring of the human light as extended by male and female
in their rays and race, and in a more compounded manner than li, as in
v-ul-tus or visage, r-ule or the light, lu a family.

Ol, lo, signify _all_ or place, or space extended, and the circle of
motion, as in oll or all, b-oll or ball, lo-cus place lo-st.

Am, em, ma, me. These express the existence, forms, and modes of man,
earth, and water, as material beings, as in, am, the about or existences,
am-bit, am-ple, mam, mater or mother, ma-es a field, ma-ith and ma-int,
quantity, size, and extensiveness.

Im, mi, are expressive of man’s present existence or state in this world,
with respect to his superior and more excellent qualities, than his
animal state, as in im-agination, im-mense, im-mortal, im-pulse, im-pio
to shoot upwards, im-adel to depart, mi, me, mi-di-le, me in the divided
place, that is, the line betwixt his superior and inferior beings, myn or
mi-in, by my life.

Um, mu, signify man’s spring of enlarging himself in his present state,
and at last, through death, of returning to an immortal one, as in
um-pire, h-um-an, h-um-ble, n-um-erous, mu-te, d-um-b, mu-af, the
greatest, mu-ch, mu-l-tiply, mum, mu-my, mu-se.

Om, mo, signify all forms, modes, and species, as in om-in-is all in the
lower parts, ombredd or abundance, omnific, mo-on, mo-ns or mo-untain,
mo-r the sea, mo-ral, mo-re.

An, en, na, ne. These signify the existence of earth and water or matter,
and the negative, as in an-y, the earth in, an-au, natural growth, en the
firmament, en-d, en-crease, na no matter, ne-b, nobody, or being, ne-st.

In, ni, are affirmative of existence and non existences, generally as,
in, include, in-carnation, ni or not, ni-d-ulation, ni-ght, ni-m.

Un, nu, as in and ni are affirmations, relative to man, spirits, beings
and things unseen, as, un, one or the uni-verse, un-ite, un-i-versal,
un-i-form, nu-gacity, nu-de, nun or nu-un.

Ap, ep, af, ef, pa, pe, pha, phe. These are the divisors of T, signifying
the extension of this system, into parts of earth and water, or material
substances and things, as, ap, from, ap-erture, pa what part, pe-th or
pa-rt, ep, ef, or eph, privatives and used as terminations as parts of
water, as are op and oph; it being absurd to suppose O all to be a part,
or ip, up, or ub, which imply no extension and are springs upwards, to be
divisible. See the Postscript.

Ar, er, ra, re, signify earth and water or matter, as in ar-able, ac-ar,
bran-ar, fallow-land, e-ar-th, or the elements of both earth and water,
ab-er, running water or harbour, go-er, a rivulet or shore, ra-bet,
ra-ble, er-uption, re-turn, re-flow, re-nt.

Ir, ri, are the sun beams or rays, heat and fire; also heighth, length,
distance, and direct motion, as in ir-a or ir-e, f-ir-e, h-ir or length,
ri heighth, ri-ght, ri-fe, pelyd-ir the rays of the sun.

Ur, ru, signify man inclusive of all his energies, springs, and superior
qualities, as ur-tue or virtue, t-ru-th, ur-th, worth or value, ur-d or
word, ur-dd, hon-ur, or honour, ur-ship or worship, ru-in-wedd, divine
property, ru-ler, rue.

Or, ro, are the circle of extension, place and distance from the line
of possession, as in b-or-der, or, a circle, f-or the things within the
borders of possession, or-der, or from, or-b, ro-me, from me, round.

As, es, is, os, us, sa, se, si, so, su. These are expressive of earth and
water, men and things seen and sounded, the earth’s surface, the place of
rest or lowest place; sound and sight in general, as is and si; os and so
a greater extension thereof; us and iu, the human, sweet, or persuasive
sound or person.

At, et, ath, eth, ta, te, tha, the. These express entities, properties,
extensions, possessions, and limits of earth and water, and other things
under the sky, as in at, ath-wart, et-ernal, eth-icks, ta-me, ta-n or
fire, ta-acs or tax, te-rm, te-mpest, te-mple, te-mion, tha-n, tha-t,
the, the-m, the-re, the-nce, the-ory.

It, ith, ti or ty, thy. These are expressive of entities, properties,
extensions, and existences in general under the firmament, as it, ith or
thine, time, thi-ef, thy, thing, thi-s, ti-ll, it-in-e-rant.

Ut, uth, tu, thu, are the return, spring or extension of man and things
in growth, generation, and volition by labor, industry, and wisdom, as
in ut as, ut-most, ut-erus, ut-ility, ut-terly, mo-uth, tu or thou,
aber-thu, to sacrifice, tu a house or possessions, tu-tor, tu-g. Ot,
oth, to, tho, are the circle and extent of possessions, properties,
motions, and things, as in hot, oth, from thy possession, to, top, to-il,
to-parch, tho, tho-rough, tho-ught.

Ou is woe or a man out of the circle of life; and UU or w is the spring
of springs.

Of those sorts of names are formed the more complex, such as those
names, phrases, or propositions called words merely by a combination
of the proper sorts, either with or without an elision of consonants.
In the latter case, the less expressive, valuable, or necessary may
be cut off when two vowels occur in composition, as its consonant
will in some measure preserve its sound in company with a more worthy
vowel; and all active radical vowels ought to be dropped in the names
of substances and things, as appears by the following examples, viz.
blackish or b-li-ack-ish, _a thing without light_; blessedness or
bi-il-ess-ed-in-ess, _life flowing down upon the world_; brutish,
or ab-ru-ti-ish, _he is from the property of truth_; clamorous or
ac-al-am-or-us, _a great calling action about us_; cliverly, or
ci-liv-erly, _like the water clan_; creating or ac-ci-ir-at-ing,
_the chief or first motion to extension and action_; crocodile or
ac-ir-oc-o-di-il, _an angry acting, deceitful water animal_; dread or
id-ir-ad, _at the fire_; flow or af-il-ow, _a spring of the rays of the
sun_; frost or af-oer-st, _the lower parts at a stand from the cold_; and
cold is from ac-ol-id _to be without sun_; glorifying or ag-lo-ri-fying,
_the doing of an high action in an extensive place_; gnaw or ag-in-w,
_the acting in of an animal_; grass or ag-ar-as, _the action upon the
ground_; place or p-la-ce, _a part of the earth’s_ extension; property or
pe-or-pe-er-ty, _entity or possession of the parts of land and water or
of this globe_; scull or si-cau-al, _the sight shut_; sky or is-kay, _the
covering of below_; slack or is-al-ack, _a low or slow action_; small or
is-am-il, _the rays of the sun about below_; snail or si-in-na-il, _it
is in without light_; speak or si-pe-ak, _the action of the sound part_;
spy or si-pe-y, _the seeing thing_; star or sta-ir, _the standing fires_;
trace or tir-race, _the land race_; and race or ir-ace, is a _long


The article, αρθρα, partakes of the nature of pronouns; and in apposition
or concord with another name, either active or substantive, determines it
to be a substantive, or the name of a substance, with its identity and

There are two sorts of articles, viz. _the_ and _an_; an becomes _a_ or
_any_ before a consonant, and either of them being placed in apposition
to an active convertible name, convert it into a substantive, as _to
form_ into _a form_, _to chase_ into _a chase_. And, names being first
formed in the plural number, both these then stood as signs of the
singular number; but since plural names have been taken as singular, and
new signs have been added thereto to form plurals, _the_ is also put in
apposition to plural names, to indentify the person or thing meant or
spoken of.

Example; Some may still imagine _the_ signification of _an_ article
or _a_ letter, and perhaps more compound names to be indefinable, and
the article to be useless; tho’ _the_ definitions here given thereof
evidently shew _the_ contrary; and the Greeks and Romans not only made
use of the genders ο, η, το, and hic, hæc, hoc, but also of a declining
article at the end of nouns, as the Welsh did _un_ and _yr_, which last
before a consonant sunk into y _the_, inflecting with the following
radical consonant; and other nations have made use of the article. _To_
dispute the utility of the article seems therefore absurd, but it may be
_a_ dispute, whether either determine _any_ particular individual, or
only some third person alluded to, pointed at, meant or spoken of in
discourse, or in the line of possession; ο, η, το, hic, hæc, hoc, this,
that, yr, un, le, ein and der expressing as much.

Of Nouns Substantive.

A Noun Substantive denotes a substance, as a spirit, an animal, a
vegetable, or any other thing that may be conceived to subsist, as
_agreeableness_, _agility_, _acceleration_; which, tho’ their qualities,
_agreeable_, _agile_, _accelerate_, are indefinite or indeterminate, yet
by the signs, _ness_, _ty_, _ion_, signifying substances, properties,
and the sun’s motion, acquire such a determinate meaning as to become
substantives, and to shew their meaning without being joined with any
other word. And all names, whether of substances, qualities, or other
things, to which the articles _an_ or _the_, or any other substantive
signs are joined or set in apposition, are nouns substantive.

There are in the English language more substantive names than seem to be
necessary for an universal language, besides the synonymas of various
other dialects, which are incongruous in sense, with the hieroglyfic
signs, and tend to darken and confound the natural sense and sounds of
names and things. Tho’ the English vocables are explained elsewhere,
we shall here take notice of some peculiarities of that nature in the
English substantives.

Bl-ab, b-abe; ebb, gl-ebe; rib, tr-ibe; kn-ob, gl-obe; t-ub, t-ube; where
the final _e_ should be dropped, and the remaining vowel marked with a
grave accent, as tub, tùb.

B-ack, b-ake; b-eck, b-eke; l-ick, like, link; p-ock, p-oke, m-uck,
p-uke. These might be wrote as lic, lìc.

Ax, sex, ra-dix, ox, ux, as acs or ach as formerly. Ach, be-ach, spe-ech,
st-ich, l-och, n-och, touch.

M-atch, l-etch, itch, b-otch, sm-utch.

H-ac, ar-se, ace, dice, d-oce, d-uce.

H-ag, l-eg, g-ig, l-og, h-ug.

Age, b-adge, coll-ege, edge, se-ige, br-idge, d-oge, l-odge, subterf-uge,

Aight, eight, f-ight, f-ought, o-ught. These eight last classes are
made use of to express the three subsisting sorts of actions, viz. the
local or inanimate, the generative and energic, when the first might be
expressed by c, the second by g, and the third by ch, as, ac, àc, and
aç with a cedille, that is, the acute, the grave, and soft or feminine;
ag, àg, āg for the short, long, and soft of the generative species of
motion; and ach, àch, and āch, the last to be sounded like the Welsh ch
or the English _wh_ in what or where, for the acute, grave, and gutteral
of energies and animal motions; so that these three letters, which the
Welsh inflect so as to express the cases and genders by the difference
of acute, grave, and gutteral, might very well serve for all the uses of
the eight last classes of names, should the whole be deemed necessary.
But, those of the third, fifth, eighth, and ninth classes are compound
sounds expressed by a combination of characters, which ought not to be
kept together but in terminations; they having been corruptly introduced
into languages by the Greeks and Romans, in order to express qualities
and pleasant sounds contrary to the nature of things.

Bre-ad, bl-ade, br-ed, br-eed, ma-id, si-de, c-od, c-ode, b-ud, pr-ude,
should be wrote and accented as ud, ùd.

St-af, st-ave, be-ef, be-eve, l-ife, ol-ive, beho-of, beho-ove, c-ave,
might be made staff and stàf, as formerly.

An-im-al, male, h-ell, h-eel, circ-le, Apr-il, v-ill, b-ile, car-ol,
par-ole, c-ull, b-ull, m-ule, might be wrote and accented al, àl, el, èl,
il, ìl, not eel, ol, òl, ul, ùl; or as the Welsh and Spanish aspirate ll.

H-am, l-ame, sarc-asm, anth-em, th-eme, apoth-egm, cla-im, cl-ime,
quiet-ism, wisd-om, h-ome, mikrocosm, ch-um, h-ume, usm. Here the final e
might be dropped, and the Greek compounds have no particular meaning; all
being alike expressive of the forms of substances and things.

Me-an, m-ane, g-ang, p-en, obsc-ene, chall-enge, p-in, p-ine, th-ing,
mo-ti-on, t-ong, b-un, b-ung. These signify various existences and
things, and are properly accented; but the final e might be exchanged in
writing, for the grave accent, màn.

Attend-ance, abstin-ence, prov-ince, sc-once, d-unce. These may do as to
orthography and accent, and signify the ens or essence of various things,
as, ance of earthly substances, ens those of water, ince of things in
general, once of motion, and unce of man, as in dunce or di-unce a
privative of the human essence.

Ant, ag-ent, m-int, f-ont, h-unt, signify the possession of the earth
and water or property, properties in general, the property of motion
and human property, that is of hunting or driving to and fro in the

G-ap, g-ape, sle-ep, p-eep, tr-ip, tr-ipe, h-op, h-ope, s-up, d-upe,
shap, ship, shop. Here the grave accent might serve for the final e; the
meaning thereof being the division generally of matter into substances or
parts, except the terminations shap, ship, and shop, signifying from high
or high.

Cell-ar, c-are, be-er, p-er, or pear, f-ir, fire, clam-or, st-ore, c-ur,
cens-ure, am-our or am-ur, here the final e might be dropped; and ar
signifies upon, àr earth, er since, èr water, ir high or to, ìr fire, or
from, òr an extension of possession, or a circle, ur or wr a man.

Lam-as, ass, g-aze, ash, be-ast, actr-ess, sque-ese, fl-esh, ap-ish-ness,
apt-ness, ch-est, bl-iss, s-ize, f-ish, l-ist, m-oss, d-oze, osh, c-ost,
b-uss, f-uze, bush, b-ust, might be all expressed and accented as, as,
às, ash, ast to express the affirmations and energies of affections,
properties, and things.

P-at, p-ate, p-et, def-ete, b-it, b-ite, kn-ot, m-ote, c-ut, mute, p-ath,
t-eeth, fa-ith, m-oth, mo-uth. These express the identity and property
of different parts or things, and the final e might be exchanged for the
grave accent.

Abili-ty, agili-ty, ami-ty, du-ty, antipa-thy, apa-thy, sympa-thy. These
signify different general properties and qualities of things.

Aristocra-cy, oligar-chy, ordina-ry, mason-ry, orator-y, lecher-y,
grocer-y, orthodox-y, ha-y, ho-y. The cy and chy signify different
qualities, and the y is the Welsh _the_.

Ma-w, me-w, mo-w, and s or es for substantives of a plural nature. This w
signifies different springs.

Substantives are distinguished by grammarians into appellatives or
general names of things common to many individuals, as _man_, _river_,
_month_, _wind_; and proper names, appropriated only to individuals,
as, _George_, _Britain_, _London_, _October_, _Libs_, which admit of
neither articles or plurality of numbers. But all words, excepting one
or an, according to their natural meaning seem to me to be appellative
and capable of being applied to things of a plural nature, were their
primitive sense understood, as for instance, _George_, which originally
signified _a chief of the circle nation_, as an appellative name of a
magistrate, in the same manner as King, Prince, Duke, or any other;
but when its original meaning was lost, and it came to be adopted as a
Christian name by different families, it was thence supposed to be a
mere arbitrary term, imposed as the name of an individual; and so as
to Britain, London, October, Libs, Thames, Avon, which were originally
appellatives or common expressions for _the sea coast_, _long towns_,
_the eighth month from the spring_, _the west south-west, or Libian
wind_, _the limits of the Iceni_, and _Rivers_. So that these names,
so long as their original meanings were understood, were as much
appellative or common expressions, as man, river, month, wind, or any
other common names, and as capable too of a plural or singular sense,
in concord with the articles or demonstrative pronouns; as, _a_, _the_,
_this_, or _that_, chief of the circle nation or long town, &c. Hence
the distinction of common and proper names seems to be frivolous and

All substantives were originally appellative and plural, and the
articles and demonstrative pronouns were set in apposition or as
terminations thereto, to determine their singular nature as well as the
identity of the individual. But as they are now mostly understood as
the signs of single things, the English method of adding s or es as a
plural termination, should be generally followed as the best method;
unless substantives and their articles should be restored to their
original sense and use; but in either case the particles, an or en, as
terminations of plural names, when the sense will admit of their being
singular, and en does not express the male and female of the same kind,
as men does both man and woman, seem to be improper. Nor is it best so
to continue the use of such plurals, as mice, lice, teeth, feet, geese,
but rather mus, lus, toth, fot, gus, which are so in their nature, as
expressing the little eaters, the little family, the grinders, the movers
and the water nation. It is however certain that the numbers of nouns are
in their nature but two, singular and plural, one and two or many, but
whether they are expressed by one or an, and two or as and es seems not
to be very material, tho’ as and es were the primitive signs, as, _as_
signified the masculine gender, and _es_ the feminine. And numbers and
genders ought to be the same.

There were originally no other distinction of genders of nouns than
the masculine and feminine, and which were distinguishable only by
the signification of vocables; and whatever other arbitrary modes
and distinctions as to genders of nouns and their declensions or
inflections have been arbitrarily made by other nations, the English
still in fact adhere to the original masculine and feminine genders,
the only distinction of nature, _as_ and _es_; for were the meaning
of substantives precisely understood, they would all appear to be
either masculine or feminine, at least, as relative to man and woman,
or according to their active and passive, or hard and soft sounds. Nor
do the English adjectives or pronouns vary as to genders, numbers, or
cases, as has been supposed; but naturally agree in concord, without any
variation or inflection thereof, from their primitive state.

Indeed if the Welsh modes of inflection derive their origin from the
original language, which was musical, and vocables could be reduced to
their true primitive state, perhaps it might be the best way, but as that
might be impracticable or too arduous a task, we may as well stick to
our old English voices, which deviate so very little from the primitive

And, as to any variation of cases or the declension of nouns, the English
still remains in the primitive state of language without any; their
prepositions being fully expressive of the situation and direction of
actions and things, and those of other nations being altogether arbitrary
and calculated more for the sake of variety and preservation of vocables,
than from any necessity, as their prepositions and vocables might in
their primitive state be as expressive, and agree in concord, like the
English, which has no other state or case, than that in which names were
originally formed, or the nominative, as will appear to any one, that
will be at the trouble of a deliberate consideration of the origin,
frame, and construction of the English language, whatever may have been
advanced by our modern grammarians, as to the variation of the genitive
or possessive case.

Of Pronouns or general Personates.

Pronouns, so called from their being supposed to be mere substitutes
of nouns, ought according to their signification to be deemed either
substantives or adjectives; for as general signs they serve to personate,
demonstrate, relate, and interrogate persons, things, and parts of
discourses; and being all demonstrative and interrogative, they are
properly distinguishable only into the following sorts, viz.

    Personals.                      Possessives.      Relatives.

  1. I, me, myself;               my - own, mine;   one, any, none.

  2. Thou or you, thee, thyself;  thy - thine;      this, each, every,

  3. He, she, it, him, her,       her, its - hers;  that, some, another,
     himself, herself;                                such.

  4. We, us, ourselves;           our - ours;       who, whose, whom.

  5. Ye or you, yourselves;       your - yours;     which.

  6. They, them, themselves;      their - theirs;   what.

Tho’ the English, Welsh, Greek, and Latin pronouns are, with the other
parts of speech, all defined in the vocabulary at the end of this
essay, it may not be improper here to observe in general, as to their
signification, that the first personal pronoun substantively, and not
substitutionally signifies man as an indefinite line placed alone or by
himself in the centre of things before his extension or division into U
the male and female spring; the 2d, the-o-U or y-o-U, the _off man_ or
woman; 3d, man extended into T, or in his race and possessions; and hi
and shi, the male and female forms and existences; 4th, mankind; 5th, the
first and second female persons; 6th, all mankind, persons, and things,
except the first second and third persons singular. The possessives
express all things to be _in man_, as one universal possessor; and to
relate to his descendents as their qualities and properties. The relative
and interrogative _which_ is a compound of wch-ich signifying the above
action, as _ich_ means the first act of motion or creation, and uch man’s
utmost return of that act or spring upwards. And so used as a general
relative and interrogative of all actions, as _who_ is of persons, and
_what_ of things, and as to the rest they are particularly explained in
the vocabulary.

The personal pronouns and such of the possessives and relatives as will
not join with substantives in construction, are substantives, and the
rest are adjectives; and pronouns like other English nouns, have no
variation or declension of person, number, gender, or case, but each is
an original, distinct name. So that to attempt any further distinction
of pronouns, like all other unnecessary distinctions, would tend to the
confusion, rather than the illustration of language, and they perhaps
might be better distinguished by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or their original
signification of 1st, 2d, 3d, persons singular and plural; tho’ such
names as have no foundation in nature, may require more arbitrary rules
towards their explanation.

Of Nouns Adjective and Participle.

Adjective and participle nouns are _added_ to substantives and
propositions, as expressive of the attributes or qualities, affections,
and accidents of things, as in the following example; The _preying_ beast
was _daring_; the astonished guese are _fled_, _lost_, or _stolen_; and
he is still _pursuing_ a fled, lost, or stolen gus, in order to make a
_sweet_ morsel of its garbage; but all such sensations are _nauseous_
to human nature. But qualities were originally expressed by the verbal
actives, with few particles, and the compounded sorts were adjected

And qualities being the effects of light, heat, and motion, flowing upon,
warming or penetrating bodies differently modified in various degrees,
and the sensations thence produced in us, as those of colours, tastes,
sounds and feeling, rather than any internal offences or properties of
matter or substances, adjectives assert or express their subsistence
as the attributes of various substances and things, as the following
specimen of English adjectives shews.

There are no adjectives terminating in b except _ib_, which signifies
life to beings, as in glib _liquid_, and bib to _drink_; for ab, eb, ob,
ub, signifying from or out of life, would be improper to express life
to things, as descending upon, and penetrating them, so as to give them
motion, growth, generation, and sensation. Nor is there any adjective
terminating in the letter p, it being expressive only of the parts of
matter, as divisor of a, e, o, and t.

Ac, ec, ic, oc, uc, and their softer inflections, are expressive of the
different modes of motion, as local, generative, and energic actions
and their contraries, as in, weak, _our action_, black, _shut from the
light_, slack and lag, _a low or earthly action_, meek, _a feminine
action_, epic, _an action past_, like _the first action of light_, high,
_man acting_, light, _its active property_, coasting, _acting along the
edge or lower part of the possessions_, big, _a thing swoln with heat_,
nigh, _acting in_, mock, _the motion of the cheek_, strong, _the property
of the sun’s motion below_, much, _the upper parts_.

Ad, ed, id, od, ud, signify an addition and division of qualities
emanating on men, animals, and substances of earth and water, as in bad,
_an earthly life_, broad, _an addition of country_, dead, _matter without
the addition of quality_, sad, _a low addition or quality_, glad, _that
of being high_, mad, _the addition of being dumb_, or, _a brute_, red,
_a diminution of the colour of light_, aged, _a past or diminished
action_, cold, _the passive quality of being deprived of the sun’s
action_, blind, _deprived of animal light_, mid, _dividing the center
of existence_, insipid, _a thing deprived of the internal taste_, arid,
_the earth deprived_, calid, _deprived of a covering from the heat_,
tid, _property diminished_, acid, _deprived of action_, acrid, _depraved
action of fire_, wild, _deprived of volition_, odd, _deprived of or out
of the circle of possession_, ward, _the spring or the division of man
and woman_, rude, _the privation of truth_, crude, _a rude action_.

Af, ef, if, uf, with the inflections ave and ive, affirm the various
state and situation of men and things in life, as, deaf, _he is deprived
of sense_, safe, _he is standing_, slavish, _he is low_, brave, _he is
a warm or spirited being_, chief, _he is the first_, active, _it is the
property of action_, dative, _he or it is giving to_, accusative, _it
is acting at us_, abusive, _he is from us_, captive, _he is taken_,
abortive, _he is from the border of possessions_, adjective, _it is cast
to_, gruff, _he is an angry man_, bluff, _he is an hairy man_.

Al, el, il, ol, ul, express the qualities of earth and water, as to the
parts of extension and place, the ilation of the sun’s light thereon, all
extension and human intelligence, as in, actual, _upon or in the state
of action_, aerial, _in the state of air_, adverbial, _in the state of
an adverb_, real, _upon the return of matter_, usual, _upon the state of
us_, genial, _in the state of generation_, bestial, _upon the property
of the lower beings_, annual, _upon the return of the year_, able,
_from hell_, or _being deprived of light_, ample, _an extensive place_,
genteel, _the first race_, level, _the place of the female extension_,
single, _acting in a place_, little, _an extension of the rays of light_,
agile, _the acting light_, chill, _without light_, civil, _a race living
together_, evil, _privation of light_, idle, _about a place_, oll or
all, _a circle extended_, whole, _man’s place of action_, full, _man
enlightened_, artful, _the light of man upon properties_, dull, _without
human light_.

Am, im, om, um, are expressive of the different forms, modes, and
existences of the circumambient bodies, as lame, _the mode of crawling_,
warm, _man covered about_, dim, _without extension_, firm, _the fire
about_, some, _the things seen and sounded_, dumb, _an earthly being_.

An, en, in, on, un, signify existences of earth, water, and motion in
general, and of man, as, mean, _me in earth_, human, _an earthly one_,
sane, _sound one_, profane, _from purity_, clean, _an action of light
upon matter_, ashen, _the lower one_, oak being the higher, even,
_springing_, serene, _the stars in_, divine, _God in_, supine, _the low
and up in_, benign, _being in_, twain, _two in_, one or un, _the spring
or man in_, alone, _in the state of one_, none, _no one in_, boon, _the
food one_, wrong, _a man from acting upright_, dun, _the daily one_,
young, _the growing one_.

Ar, er, ir, or, ur, are properties of earth, water, fire, extension,
and human nature, as in clear, _the action of light upon_, dear, _upon
thee_, near, _the not upon_, bitter, _the biting water_, eager, _water
from action_, tender, _thin water_, dire, _he is hot_, intire, _in
possession_, sore, _from the lower_, future, _the man in embrio to be
born_, pure, _a man’s part_, immature, _too soon at man_.

As, es, is, os, us, affirm the different qualities of mankind and things,
as, base, _a low or earthy thing_, adverse, _a spring downwards_,
diverse, _a divided spring_, worse, _a low man_, aguish, _it is from a
spring_, apeish, _he is a son_, wise, _he is man_, actuose, _it is all
active_, close, _it is all shut_, globose, _it is all round as a ball_,
jocose, _it is all joy_, noise, _it is all nose_, as voice is all vocal,
or the sound of the cheeks, upish, _he is up_, abstruse, _from our
property_, astonish, _it is the tone of an ass or brutes_, babish, _that
of a baby_, copious, _a copy of man_, ingenious, _internally generated in

At, et, it, ot, ut, with their inflections and compounds signify property
or in possession and existence, as, great, _the action of fire at or upon
the possessions_, last, _upon the lowest possession_, agast, _acting
upon the lowest possession_, past, _a thing in the lowest possession or
existence_, vacant, _a thing without possession or property_, radiant,
_a division of rays upon the possessions_, sweet and secret, _female
properties_, absent, _without possession or property_, agent, _acting in
possession_, fit, _it is property_, apt, _a proper thing_, first, _the
fire of life to the lower possessions_, instinct, _in action within_,
white, _the upper property_, or _the firmament_, hot, _the action of the
sun on things_, absorpt, _without a part of the circle of possession_,
both, _man and woman_, moist and most, _things on the ground_, abrupt,
_from the earth up into the possessions_, just, _the property of
mankind_, curst, _a man’s action of the lower property_, occult, _actions
without the property of light_, ancient, _one first in possession_,
decent, _fair in possession_, acute, _a springing property_.

Y, ly, ty, thy, are expressive of properties, existences, and qualities
generally, as in, any _the one in action or possession_, many, _the more
in action or possession_, dry, _the thing without water_, airy, _the
air_, ashy, _the ash_, barrenly, _the barren race_, brotherly, _the
brother race_, happy, _the hap_, holy, _the high all_, sappy, _the sap_,
forty, _the four tyes, times, rounds or tens_, swarthy, _the men of
lower property_, wry, _from upright_; and thus are definable all other
English, Greek, Welsh, and Latin adjectives. These have been taken at
random, and the Greek and Latin terminations of adjectives being all in
as, es, eis, os, òs, oos, ous, us, on, and er, are mere affirmatives, by
the sight, sound, spring, and motion of things.

So that adjectives and participles are names, which imply assertions
and attributes, as those of qualities, affections, and properties of
substances and things generally; but making no compleat sense, nor
determining any particular thing without being joined to another word as
_a daring_, _a daring man_. In the English language they are not varied
in respect to genders, numbers, cases, or otherwise, except as to the
degrees of comparison.

The three degrees of comparison mentioned by grammarians, are the
positive, comparative, and superlative; the positive is the state in
which the name was originally put; the comparative is formed by adding
_er_, a spring beyond the original state, to the quality, where they
will agree in concord, as, deep, _deeper_, _deepest_, high, _higher_,
_highest_, sweet, _sweeter_, _sweetest_; _est_ signifying a spring beyond
the limits of the possessions; forming the superlative degree; but where
those syllables will not so agree with the names and in participles, as
in _aerial_, _ingenious_, _copious_, _daring_, _loving_, _loved_, the
comparative must be formed, by setting _more_, that is, mo-er a great
spring, in apposition to the name; and the superlative by the addition of
_most_, signifying a spring beyond the limits of the possessions.

Of Prepositions

A Preposition is a substantive part of speech set before other names,
most commonly substantives, either in apposition, as, _before a noun_,
or in composition, as, _preposition_, to denote the situation or place
of action, or rest of the things, to which they are joined; at the same
time implying their similar relations or kindred; and connecting the
names of substances, as, _from_ this book, _with_ the pen of the writer;
or _from thence_, it may be inferred that prepositions are of themselves
significant of things. But the use of prepositions or the names of cases
are best understood from the following explanation thereof.

It is observable that O is an universal expression for the circle of
motion and extension; that i signifies a perpendicular line or man placed
in its center; and that this line, with a traverse one, expressed by T or
⊥ and signifying mankind and other beings and things as extended, and
the properties of man denote the nominative case, or that in which they
were first named; and all the other cases, as they happen upon, up or
down, or to or from either of these lines, are distinguished as in the
following example.


These prepositions are definable as follows.

In, with, within, to, into, unto, at, towards. In, signifies man placed
in the center of existences, as a middle being, partaking of, and
connecting matter with spirit; with is the spring of i into male and
female, and T their possessions inflected; within is the same in the
circle of possession: to is T-O, the property of motion from T to the
circle of motion; into the same within the possessions; unto, at, and
towards, the same towards man or the line of possession; afore, before,
against, signify things or parts in and out of the borders of possession.

After, behind, since, according to. After is off T or the border of
possession; behind is to be after man in possession; since, having been
in possession; according to, agreeing together in acting; between,
betwixt, among, amongst, for, from, about; for, the parts or things of
the circle of possession; about and from the parts or things within the
circle of possessions of men; between and betwixt, the line i dividing
the possessions; among and amongst, the things about the circle of
possession. Above, up, on, upon; above, the upper spring of the human
sight; up, the spring part, on and upon the sky.

Under, below, beneath, down. Under, not sprung within or up the
possessions; down, not sprung in; below, from being up; beneath, to be
not in possession.

Out, of, from, out of, without. Out, from the possessions of men and
things; of, the things within the borders; from, the surrounding parts
therein; without, out of possession.

By, through, over, over and above, besides, beyond, except, until. By,
the part; besides, below the part; beyond, by the upper covering; thro’,
from the possessions; over, from the spring of sight; except, acting out
of the possession part; until, during the spring or possession of light;
the two last names serve also for conjunctions.


A Conjunction is an active part of speech, that connectively or
disjunctively joins together words and sentences, as the names of
actions, as prepositions do those of substances. They have been divided
by grammarians into various sorts; tho’ the only significant distinction
seems to be into copulatives, connectives, and disjunctives, as the two
former sorts absolutely connect and coalesce both the sentences and
their meaning, or when the expression is only of mere local or inanimate
motion, barely move on, connect, and continue the sentence or discourse,
without any compatibility of meaning; and the latter sorts conditionally,
exceptionably, or interrogatively do the same. Of the first class are,
and or ond, _on in division or discourse_, but, _be it as or by man and
things soon_, yet, _it is or springs_, also, _on so_, likewise, _the
same way_, still, _light on things_, altho’, _upon to_, notwithstanding,
_not opposing the former action_, however, _be the spring of action as
it may_, nevertheless, _without any spring_, as, _the earth seen_, as
well as, _its surface or under it out of sight_, for, _the part in the
circle_, therefore, _the parts and spring within the circle_, wherefore,
_the parts in which circle_, because, _by our own actions_, that,
_towards possession_. And the disjunctives are the following; or, _the
promiscuous things within the circle of possession_, either, _action
or matter_, nor, _not the things promiscuously within the circle of
possession_, neither, _no action or rest_, till or untill, _during the
spring of light on the possessions_, whilst or while, _the action of the
upper light on the possessions_, if, _life or is it life?_ unless, _my
spring out_, except, _acting from the parts of possession_, besides, _by
the side_; and with which sense the Welsh, Greek and Latin conjunctions
correspond, as appears by an analysis thereof at the end of this essay.

An example of their use and construction.—Was it pride _and_ folly, _or_
avarice and envy, that caused the confusion of human speech? It was
_neither_ the one or the other, _but_ the effect of some supernatural
cause, _as_, the scripture informs us. _Nor_ is it probable, that so
great a deviation could have naturally happened; _unless_ there was some
very great wilful perversion of the original language, _whilst_ mankind
were contending for possessions _as well as_ power. _Nevertheless_
the first language is _still_ recoverable, _notwithstanding_ its many
divisions and great disguise, _if_ the subject be adverted, after a
right method. And _altho’_ it may be _also_ attended with some labor to
mankind, _except_ those already skilled in languages, _yet_ it may be
attained by any English reader, that will endeavour it, _for_, _however_
languages may differ, as to the manner of combination or construction
of names and sentences, they are certainly one and the same in their
principles, and _likewise_ in their particles; _because_ the letters and
particles of all languages appear by this essay to be still the same.
_Besides_, as human speech derives its origin from a supernatural cause,
its various dialects cannot differ as to their materials. _Wherefore_
then so many different opinions concerning these matters, _but_ from our
own remissness? Let us _therefore_ exert our faculties in the laudable
undertaking of recovering the first universal language, _that_ we may be
thereby restored to our senses, which seem to be equally perverted.


Verbs are either simple or compound. The simple are those springs or
energic signs in human speech, which, mark the relation and connection
of the subject and attribute of a proposition; and affirm or deny the
agreement or disagreement betwixt things, as, man _is_ an animal.
Compound or concrete verbs also include adjectives and participles; or
the qualities and attributes of the subject of a proposition, as, man
_thinks_ or think is; sometimes only the subject, as _mae_, _eimi_, _I
am_, or _sum_; and frequently the subject, affirmation and attribute,
as, _walketh_, man is upon action. In some dialects verbs have been so
modified, as to denote or imply the modes, times, persons, genders, and
numbers of the things affirmed; and nominally distinguished, as verbs
active, passive, neuter, personal, impersonal, regular, irregular,
auxiliary, and substantive; tho’ according to their real use and
signification, all verbs seem to be substantive and auxiliary, and
either singly, or conjunctively, with adjectives or participles, formed
into attributive or compound verbs, express all modes of actions and
affirmations, as appears by the following instances; sum, I am, or,
_it is man’s existence_, es, the second person created or the feminine
gender, est, the second, first, and a third person born of the first and
second, fui, _I have lived or been_, fuisti, _thou hast lived or been_,
fuit, he the person born, hath lived or been; amo, I love or _am for a
woman_, the first person, amas, the feminine the second person, amat,
the third person produced, the third person, am-avi for ui in fui, _he
has loved or been loved_, the past tense; doceo, I teach or _give the
lowering action to man_, the first person, doc-es, the second person
or feminine gender, doc-et the third proceeding from the other two,
doc-ui, as in fui, I have lived or been taught, the past tense; lego I
read or _recall_, the first person, leg-is the second, leg-it the third,
and leg-i, _man read_ the past; audio, I hear, or, _spring the passive
sense_, au-di-is, au-di-it and au-di-vi, I have lived or been heard;
and the conjugating particles seem to be the degrees of comparison, as,
a, e, i, or as, es is, male, female, mankind, or earth, water and fire,
or motion and existences in general; and the persons of U _man_, and
thence all things of the masculine gender the first person, as, es, or is
signifying the feminine in different degrees and qualities, the second,
and at, et, it, the rest of mankind and things, the third person, am-us,
em-us, im-us, all men of the male kind of the first person plural, atis,
etis, itis, all except the first person singular of the second, and ant,
ent, int, all mankind and things in different degrees, except the first
and second person singular, of the third person plural; and thus may be
explained all the Latin and Greek modes of conjugating verbs.

Verbs are farther distinguished by grammarians into active, passive,
and neuter, as being expressive of actions, passions, or neither the
one or the other, but mere being or existing, as, _I love_, _am loved_,
_live_, _walk_, _or stand_; tho’ according to the signification of words,
there does not seem to be any real ground for the latter distinction,
for _to love_, _to be loved_, _to live_, _sleep or rest_, must signify
either actions, active passions and energies, or their privation and
passiveness. So that the distinction in this respect might be more
properly made into active and passive only, agreeable to the masculine
and feminine, the only proper distinction of nouns as to genders; all
actions, substances, and things, at least, as having relation to mankind,
being either masculine or feminine, and the distinctions made by the
Greeks and Romans being mostly arbitrary and contrary to the meaning of
words which ought to determine the genders of nouns.

Verbs have a designation of person, corresponding with the personal
pronouns; of number with the singular and plural of nouns, of tenses
as representing present, past, and future actions and things; and of
modes or the manner in which they ought to be expressed. But whatever
necessity there may be for a great variety of modes and tenses in
dialects, constructed upon arbitrary principles, it does not appear that
any more than one is needful for a natural language, or that the modes of
conjugating verbs or any other, are in fact expressible by human speech
any otherwise than by the whole form or order of inflection and things.
And tho’ present, past, and future, seem to be necessary expressions,
according to our present mode of conception, yet they are not in reality
any representation of time, but of our manner of dividing or reckoning
the changes of motions or number of actions in extension, which in the
eternal state of spirits, or perhaps in a vacuum, might be deemed as one
intire action or the present tense.

Simple verbs or affirmatives are all substantive and incapable of being
inflected themselves, but serve as auxiliaries in the affirmations and
inflections of compound verbs, tho’ alone, without the assistance of
compound verbs sufficient to express every mode of affirmations, of
actions and things, and fully correspond with the nouns and pronouns,
as for instance, _I am doing_, _have done_, _may_, _can_, _will_,
_shall_, _must_, or ought to do; thou, _art doing_, hast done, &c; he,
she, a man, or, John _is doing_, _hath done_, _speaks_, _speaketh_, &c.
We _are_ or _were doing_, _have done_, &c; besides, _id_, _ed_, with
their inflections ith and eth, and also _is_, added as affirmations in
the third person singular to compound verbs; which express attributes,
affirmations, and persons, and sometimes the subject and number, tho’
the number is commonly implied by the noun or pronoun. In the following
specimen of conjugating verbs, the persons, number, and actions or
tenses are expressed by different words, with very few variations of

The Modes of Conjugating VERBS.

  Numbers. Persons.
                                    The present,

                         Absolute.               Conditional.

            1 {  I   { am, be, have, do,     } may, can, would,
              {      { love, teach, read,    } should, or ought,
              {      { hear.                 } to be, have, do, love,
              {      {                       } teach, read, hear.
              {      { are, be, have,        }
  Singular. 2 { you  { do love,              }
              {      { teach, read, hear.    }
              {      { is, hath, doth,       }
              { he   { loveth or loves,      }
            3 {      { teaches, reads,       }
              {      { hears.                }

              {      { are, be, have, do,    }
            1 { we,  { love, teach,          }
              {      { read, hear.           }
  Plural.   2 { ye,
            3 { they,


                         Absolute.               Conditional.

            1 {  I   } was, have been,       } might, could, would,
              {      } had, did,             } should, ought to have been,
              {      } loved, taught or      } had, done, loved, taught or
              {      } teached, read, heard. } teached, read, heard.
  Singular. 2 { you
              {      { was, or hath been,    }
              { he   { had, done, loved,     }
            3 {      { taught, read, heard.  }

              {      { were, or have been,   }
            1 { we,  { had, done, loved,     }
              {      { taught, read, heard.  }
  Plural.   2 { ye,
            3 { they,

                                 and future tenses.

                         Absolute.               Conditional.

            1 {  I   } shall, will or must   } shall, will, or must
              {      } be, had, done, loved, } have been, had,
              {      } taught, read, heard.  } done, loved, taught,
              {      }                       } read, heard.
  Singular. 2 { you
              { he
            3 {

            1 { we,
  Plural.   2 { ye,
            3 { they,


            1   Let me be, have, do, love, } Let us be, have, &c.
                teach, read, hear.         }
  Singular. 2   Be, have, do, love,        } Be, have, &c. ye      Plural.
                teach, read, hear, thou    }
            3   Let him be, have, do,      } Let them be, have, &c.
                love, teach, hear.         }

         Infinitive.                     Participle.

     To be, have, do, love,          Being, having, doing,
      teach, read, hear.              loving, &c.       present.

     To have been, had, done,        Been or having,
       loved, taught, read, heard.     had, &c.          past.

The feminine or endearing inflections of the second persons _thou_ and
_ye_ have been omitted, as needless, since they all agree with the
pronouns _you_ and _ye_, and the only changes are from are and be to
_art_ and _beest_, have to _hast_, were to _wert_, shall and will to
_shalt_ and _wilt_, and might to _mightest_, and do to _dost_; but to
make use of them in the masculine gender, would be depreciating it. And
the participle perfect, being superfluous, it has been likewise omitted;
for as _ing_ the present is compleat, so is _ed_ for the past or the
privative of springs or actions.

The signification of the conjugating verbs in the four languages is as
follows, viz. 1. Am, mae, ειμι, sum, _in full form of existence_; be, fi,
φυω, fio, _I live_; can, dichon, δυναμαι, possum, _in act_ or able to
act; may, amhay, ωμει, sim, _about acting_; would, could, should, might,
ought, buasun, ειην, essem, _the will or act sprung or past_; shall,
will, must, byddaf, εσομαι, ero, _the lower acting up, the spring of
human light, the lower things sprung up_; was oeddun, ῆν, eram, _man or
spring past_; have been, bum, ῆμην, fui, _acted in life_. 2. Are, ere,
or art, beest, wit, or idwit, εις, es, _the lesser spring, and it is the
spring of life_. 3. Is, it is, fi, id, idiu, εστι, est, _it is seen,
sounded, smelt_, &c; hath, _it acts_; had or ha-ed, _action past_; hadst,
_a female action past_; do or dost, _motion past_. 4. Are, ym, εσμην,
sumus, _men in the spring_; were, buasom, εμεθα, eramus, _men sprung_.
Let, bydd, εστο, esto, _extend_ or take thy place; to be, bod, ειναι,
esse, _the property of motion to beings_, which converts substantives
into adjectives; ing, _in action_; it is not, nid, ουκ εστι, non est,
_there is no motion_.

All English verbs which vary from this mode of inflection being erroneous
and irregular, ought not to be established by grammatical rules, but
restored to the primitive state in the present tense, and marked in
the past tense with the proper accent; or if it should appear to be
necessary, to add proper conjugations. But as verbs lose their qualities
or active state in the past tense, the English verbs ending in d and t
in the past tense, have been very properly diminished and substantived,
and accordingly contracted in their sounds, of ed to that of d and t, as
taught from teached, when the ch was accented hard, and a like the German
a or o, felt for feeled, checkt for checked, slept for sleeped, left for
leaved, gilt for gilded, bled for bleeded, fed for feeded, had for haed,
fed for feeded, fled for flyed, sold for selled, and such others as are
so contracted without any other variation, that are capable of a past
tense, except, _let_, _put_, _do_, _think_, and other imperatives, which
can form no perfect past tense, without the aid of the auxiliary verb
_have_, to express some degree of human energy or return to the creative
fiat. And as all other tenses seem to be arbitrary and indefinite, the
best way of expressing the minuter divisions of actions must be by
adverbs or numerals.

And as there is no sort of foundation or necessity for the participle
perfect, the best way of correcting those verbs which are supposed to
be irregular therein, would be to drop it as superfluous, and fully
as well expressed by the past tense, as help, helped, without holpen,
cleave, cleaved, or cleft, instead of cleave, clave, clove and cloven,
hang hanged, for hang hung. And as to the forming a regular past tense,
by reducing irregular verbs to their primitive state in the present
tense, the following may perhaps be no improper observation, viz. _all_
in fall, before the corrupt sound of the northern a, as that of o, was,
as it ought to be, accented, like _ale_ in pale, and marked with a long
accent, as signifying _from high_; its past tense accented short, as
_all_ in shall; and wrote _fall_ and not fell; the e not having then
taken the place of a, nor a, that of o; shake, signifying _a passionate
action of a subject_, is properly accented and wrote in the present
tense, but its past tense having partaken of the northern accent, it
then came to be wrote and accented _shook_, instead of _shaked_, which,
notwithstanding its long establishment by vulgar custom ought to be
rectified accordingly; and so as to swear, heave, freeze, abide, strike,
dig, and various other instances, where the e has assumed the place of a,
a of o, o of a, e, i, or u, of i, or any other change of vowels from the
present, to form the past tense; except such as _do_ and _did_, which are
different words, and of themselves incapable of any inflection. And the
English terminations _an_ and _en_, borrowed from the northern dialects,
add nothing to the meaning of our names, but the English, or Engli-Saxon
names, are of a southern or Celtic origin, and as fully expressive of the
meaning to which they are applied without them; except where they are
added to form the singular number, or to active names as substantiving
articles, as in all other Celtic dialects.


Adverbs are certain energic or active particles or _additional_ verbs
added to, or joined with other names in propositions, to denote the
degrees and manner of things, as to quantity, situation, quality,
motion, and rest. Of quantity, as less, lesser, least, much, more,
most, great, greater, greatest, long, longer, longest, short, shorter,
shortest, broad, broader, broadest. Of situation or place, as where,
whither? up, down, above, below, high, higher, highest, here, there,
yonder, far, farther, farthest, within, without, upwards, downwards,
forwards, backwards, and such as are expressive of the situation of
bodies in motion, or at rest. Of qualities, as wisely, knowingly,
sensibly, decently, likely, fairly, warmly, foolishly, beastly, coldly,
hardly, and such as express intentional qualities. Of motion and rest;
as comprehending affirmatives, interrogatives, interjectories, and those
improperly called adverbs of time, as, when? now, anon, then, yesterday,
to-day, to-morrow, henceforwards, ever, never, how often? often,
oftener, oftenest, once, twice, thrice, seldom, however, away, begone,
adieu, speedily, slowly, verily, yes, yea, no, why, however, perhap,
alternately, as, alack, ha, alas, ho, oh.

There are no other sorts of adverbs, expressive of the order, time, or
manner of things, as appears by the definition of those of the four
languages in the vocabulary; nor does it thence appear that there is in
fact above three sorts of adverbs, namely, quantity or extension or bulk
of bodies; quality or an illation of light, heat and motion thereon,
and penetrating the same, expressed by _ly_, as _ty_ does extension in
substantiving qualities; and motions energic, animate, and local, with
the contraries, as privation, rest, and matter. And the degrees, like
adjectives, are compared by adding _er_ and _est_, as comparative and
superlative, to the positive or the state or degree of beings and things
in act, or putting _more_ or _most_ in apposition thereto.

The degrees of distance and situation, are reckoned like prepositions,
upon lines, upright, across, or slantways, extended from the centre of
action or existence in our system where man is supposed to stand; or upon
man as a mikrocosm standing up with arms extended; his head representing
the unseen celestial system, being the superlative degree upwards, the
extent of his sight or the sky, the comparative, his body or the world,
the positive, upwards, downwards, and crosswise, his limbs below the
parts of generation, as representing the parts below the earth’s surface
or growth part, the comparative downwards, and beyond it the superlative,
the extent of view, the comparative sideways, and beyond it the
superlative, as appears by the definition of Adverbs in the vocabulary.
And tho’ interjections are supposed to add nothing to the sentence, they
certainly express the sorts and degrees of energy with which the whole is


Having thus explained the several parts of a rational grammar, it now
remains only to lay down some general rules for their construction,
into simple and compound sentences, according to their natural concord,
government, and arrangement.

All the parts of speech, which were originally only particles of one
or two letters, having naturally coalesced and united, in more complex
names, and words or propositions, without the assistance of art, so
in all languages, like the English, in which respect both the simple
and complex names still retain their primitive state, without any loss
of their natural powers of construction, by any arbitrary addition or
combination of artificial signs or modes of concord, like the Greek and
Latin, the parts both simple and complex being precisely understood,
will still be governed by their meaning, and naturally coincide in
sentences, in the same manner as the ideas of a person unacquainted
with the artificial rules of logick, are by their natural relation
logically connected and formed into regular thesises, hypothesises and
synthesises. As for instance; a person, who perfectly knows the meaning
of the parts, can in his mind form and express the following sentences;
two and two of any thing are, _is_ or is to be sounded four, and not
three; and should they happen to be horses, whether with or without
shoes, they must be the horses of some man, rather than those of a cow;
but if they are delivered, in whatever place they stand, it must be to
and from some place, and by and to some body, or if they should only be
called, it ought to be done by their right names. Or; supposing Adam,
_i_, or any one know myself or himself to be the first man, inhabiting
space, and that his length and breadth of extension, was at all times or
upon all motions, and as much more, as he or i might by the extension of
the arms acquire, without dispossessing another, were our own property,
i might, as the first existence and proprietor here of the kind, call
myself the first, one, or i. If I had a wife and a son, who had a wife
and a son, and had been taught to tell seven in English, with their
precise meaning, I might as my next relation, as well as the second
person in existence, name my wife two or thou, my son, as the third in
being and possession, I might name he, him, or three, which make up the
number of the singular stock; and as to the plural number or stock, the
first and second person of the singular, and the son which sprung from
them, with his son being four in number, and the first spring of the
second stock might be named _we_, as the first person plural; the two
wives _ye_, the second persons plural of the kind or genders; and all
other persons excepting those of the singular number, as the grandson
and his offspring, the sixth person from the first or the third in the
second generation or plural number, _they_. Then if the first man or any
other perfectly understood the meaning of all other names and energies,
which appear to be as equally related to the nature of things as these,
he could have no difficulty of putting them together according to true
concord, as the meaning and signification would not permit him to err;
nor indeed is the English to be taught by any other significant rules.
The parts of speech being precisely understood, the best way then of
acquiring the right English construction, is carefully to observe the
manner and style of the best English writers, and to procure an habit
thereof by reading and writing, rather than be perplexed by innumerable
tedious and unmeaning rules of phrases, sentences, distinctions, and
variations of names, from their natural order; for which there is no sort
of foundation in the English, or any other language of nature.

But since the English language is that here proposed as an universal one,
it may not however be improper to take some little farther notice of the
rules of English Syntax. In all languages to form a right sentence the
words must agree in construction with one another, as to case, number,
gender, and person, either according to the natural order of things, or
some arbitrary mode of concord and government, by a variation of the
terminations substituted in lieu thereof in particular languages. But the
English doth so only from the sense of the words, without any variation
of terminations, except that es or s signifying the feminine gender,
is sometimes added to form the plural number of substantives, and the
substantive verb _is_, or the pronouns _it_, _with_ its inflections, to
form the third person singular of verbs, and as and es in some instances,
to express the masculine and feminine genders.

And though it has no other case but the nominative, or any variation
of cases at all, yet all English verbs agree with the substantives in
number and person, without any exception; and the state or situation of
substantives are expressed by prepositions set in apposition thereto in
the same manner as the articles; nor have the adjectives any variations,
besides the degrees of comparison; and yet both they and participles
agree with the substantives in gender, number and case; and when two
substantives of different sorts of things come together, the place,
state, or case of the last is expressed by the preposition _of_ or-’s,
signifying _of his_; unless the latter substantive is of the same sort
with, or explains the former; in which case they are both of the same
case, state, or situation. Conjunctions, adverbs, and relatives, serve to
connect sentences, as prepositions do words. The relatives _who_, _what_,
and _which_, and all other English names as well as things, must agree
with the antecedents as their originals, whether persons, actions, or
substantives. When two verbs come together, the latter is to be in the
infinitive mode.


    _An additional vocabulary of primitive nouns defined, with a
    separate explication of pronouns, adverbs, conjunctions, and
    prepositions; which compleats what has been already published,
    of the English, Welsh, Greek, and Latin primitive names, and
    fully explains the nature and origin of all the vocables and
    parts of those several languages._

ODIO HABEO. These signify to turn from one with a scornful note of
exclamation, or scornful motion or manner.

ABLE; GALLU, DICHONI; DUNAMAI, POSSUM. To be up or high in existence.

ACCIPIO, CAPIO, RAPIO. To enter into possession of places and things.

ACCURATE; DYFAL, MANWL; AKRIBOS; EXQUISITUS. Active in running to, seeing
small things, and above active in things.

ACORN; MES; BALANOS; GLANS, the lesser or beast food.

acting quality or property.

ADDO, PONO, to act, put, or add, from one thing to another.

divide or advert the action of the great high light or the sun.

upon the lower covering.

ADVERB; RHAGFERF; EPIRREMA; ADVERBIUM, signify additional or increased
verbs. See the vocabulary of adverbs.

with equal spring or warmth, or equally in the division of the high light.

AIR; AUIR; AER; AER, water and fire, the earth’s spring.

ALE, BEER; CORW; ZUTHOS; CEREVISIA, the nourishing, feeding, and
rejoicing liquid in a secondary sense.

ALL or OLL, WHOLE; OLL, CUBOL; PAS, OLOS; Omnis, Totus, all space,
extension, and existence.

AM, to be; BOD, MAE; EIMI; SUM, to live or be in existence.

beings without sight.


possessions, or the country, or luminaries from in a primary sense.

ANT, PISMIRE; MYRGRYG; MYRMOS; FORMICA, the community, or the little
active millions in a secondary sense.

CYNOCEPHALUS, a man dog, an offspring or a dog like man.

APPLE, PUPIL of the EYE; GLEINI; GLENE; PUPILLA, our action, spring, or
part of light.

spot or possession.

TELUM, JACULUM, upon the line, stretch or spring.

ARTERY; RHEDWELI; AORTE; ARTERIA, the spring of life.

AS MUCH; CYMAINT; TOSOS; TANTUS, the first action or motion seen in

ASH; ONEN; OREINE; ORNUS, FRAXINUS, the lowest, highest, or brittle one.

ZETEO; QUÆRO, EXAMINO, QUÆSO, acting after, seeing for, &c.

AGELE, PLETHOS; CÆTUS, GREX, TURBA, many living or being together in the
same part, place or country.

DILIGENS, it is slavish, everlasting or never-failing.



BASHFULNESS; GWILDER; AIDOS; VERECUNDIA, a man full low and inactive.

BASTARD; ORDDERCHFAB; NOTHOS; NOTHUS, a lesser son of the house, as born
of a concubine, dwelling in the house, and not spurious, as when the
father is unknown.

be, move or live within the circle of existence.

BEAKE, BILL; PIG, GYLFIN; RHUNCHOS; ROSTRUM, the place of food, the nose
or small divided end or edge.



BEG; GOFYN ELUSEN; LISSOMAI; IMPLORO, acting or asking earnestly for food
or the palace gift.

BEGUILE; TWILLO; DELEO; DECIPIO, to be without light or sight.

BLAMELESS; DIGWL; AMUMON; INCULPATUS, to be unculled, or without

BOLD or BALD; HY; ITES; AUDAX, the high and active.


BOSOM; MYNWES; KOLPOS; SINUS, the hollow inside part of man.

BRANCH; CANGEN; ERNOS; RAMUS, a spring on a lower.

BRANDISH; CYNHYRFU; PALLO; VIBRO, to lift up or move the foot, arm, or
other thing, with a spring so as to give it a shake.

BRIGHTNESS; DISGLEIRDEB; AIGLE; SPLENDOR, the action of the high light on
the lower parts.

BROIL; CRASU; OPTAO; TORREO, to heat without water.

BRUSH, YSCUBO; KOREO; VEREO, to spring upon the lower parts.

BUG or WOODLOUSE; CYNRHON; LORIS; CIMEX, a thing with a spear end acting
into another thing.


CABBAGE; BRESYCH; KROMBE; BRASSICA, a shut upon the springing up.

CABLE; RHAFANGOR; KALOS; RUDENS, a shut from acting.


CANON; CANON; KANON; CANON, a shut upon action.

CARD; CRIBO; KNAPTO; CARMINO, acting into a thing with an edge.

CARVE; CARFIO; GLAPHO; SCULPO, acting into or upon a thing.

CATTLE; ANIFALTYN; KTENOS; JUMENTUM, the acting or drawing animals.

CAVIL; CELLWAR; SKOPTO; CAVILLOR, acting or seeking to catch one slyly by

CAVITY; CEUEDD; KOTULE; CAVITAS, a place shut from sight.

CHAFE or be ANGRY; DIGIO; ECHTHEO; INDIGNOR, to be heated or fired.

CHAPEL; CAPAL; KLISIA; CAPELLA, the primitive places of devotion being
open and uncovered like Stonehenge, these signify such places covered at
the top.

marketman, or the chief of buying and selling, formerly set over all
sorts of sales and markets.

CHARIOT; CERBYD; RHAIDON, ARMA; CURRUS, RHEDA, the running or fighting
car or carriage.

CHASTE; DIHALOG; AGNOS; CASTUS, undefiled or covering or keeping close
the female property.

CHICKEN; CIW; POLOS; PULLUS, the first of the animal.

CLOSET; CELL; MUCHOS; CELLA, a shut out of sight, or the resort of the

COAL; GLO; ANTHRAX; CARBO, a thing that has the action of the sun or
fire, that is, a burning thing.

COFFER, COFFIN; ARCH, CIST; KIBOTOS; ARCA, a covering upon man or other


COME; CYNHYRCHU; IKNEOMAI; VENIO, to be together in one place.

CONDUIT; MYNEDIAD; AMARA; MEATUS, a water shut so inclosed as to go

CONE; CYN; CONOS; CONUS, a thing high and solid.

the list of conjunctions hereafter.

CRAB, CRANC; KARKINOS; CANCER, an inclosed thing in the water.

CRIER; RHYNGYLL; KERUX; PRÆCO, one that calls or speaks between.

CROW; BRAN; KORAX; CORVUS, a braying or croaking animal.

CROWD; GYR; AGURIS; COETUS, a company of men or animals.

the crust or covering upon.



DAMAGE; DAMUEN, COLLED; BLABE; DAMNUM, for the place of the cattle.

DANGER; PERYGL; KINDUNOS; PERICULUM, a place where the fire acts upon the

DASH; YSIGO, TARO; PROSKROUO; ALLIDO, to act or throw from high to the

DAUGHTER; MERCH; THUGATER; FILIA, my race or female offspring.

DEFILE, HALOGI; MIAINO; FÆDO, to act in or upon one, or deprive one of
his daughter.

DEPTH; DYFNDER; BATHOS; PROFUNDITAS, the ground of a dark part.

DINNER; CINIO; ARISTOS; PRANDIUM, a meal at the breaking up of the first
plowing of the day.

DISSIPATE; DIFRODI; DIASPAO; DISSIPO, to deprive the country.

DISTASTE; CAWDD; PTAISMA; OFFENSA, separate or go off this part?

DO; GWNEID; AGO; AGO, to act or move.

DOWRY; CYNESGAETH; PHERNE; DOS, the female gift.

DRONE; EILIW, DIFFIGR; PHUKOS; FUCUS, one deprived of his sight or other
energic force.

DROUGHT; SYCHDER; AUCHMOS; SICUTAS, the action of the firmament upon the
lower parts, or being deprived of water.

DWARF; COR, NAR; NANOS; NANUS, one not high grown, or just upon the


ENDEVOR; YMGAIS; PEIRASO; CONOR, to get up from being down or below.

ENRAGE; SWMBYLU; KENTEO; STIMULO; to act or prick into.

EQUAL; GWASTAD, CYSTAL; OMALOS; ÆQUUS, even, upon the same stand or

ESTABLISH; SEFYDLU; BEBAIO; STABILIO, to rest the beast, or make them
stand upon a particular part or spot.

action in extension, this world or during all spring.

EXCUSE; ESGUSODI; APOLOGEOMAI; EXCUSO, to speak for the absent.

EXERCISE; YMARFER; ASKEO; EXERCEO, to be out upon the spring.

EXTINGUISHED; DIFOD; SBENNUO; EXTINGUO, to put a thing out of its


FABLE; CHWEDL; AINOS; APOLOGUS, speaking of actions past.

FABRICATE; GWNEITHR; TEUCHO; FABRICO, the action or work of a man, or
man’s hand, or in building.

FADE; GWIFO; MARAINO; MARESCO, to be from springing, or growing, or dying.

FAN; WYNTYLL; LIKMOS; VENTILABRUM, wind sprung by the hand.

FASTING; IMPRYDIOL; NESTIS; JEJUNUS, lessening food or the season of

FASTEN or FIX; YMWTHIO; PEGNUO; COMPINGO, acting a thing lower in.

FATE; COEL, DAMWAIN; AISA; SORS, where the action stands still or the
thing falls.

FATHER; TAD; PAPPAS, PATER; PAPPA, PATER, the seeding property, or a part
of our property.

FEMALE; BENW; THELUS; FEMINA; signify the mother of the male.


FETTER; TROEDOG; PEDE; PEDICA, a shut upon the feet.

FIBRE; MANWYTHI; IS; FIBRA, the sounding small veins within.

FIELD; MAES; AGROS; AGER, pasture or ploughed ground.

FILE; LLIF; RHINE; LIMA, the sharp flower.

FILL; LLENWI; ADO; SATIO, adding to place or extended parts.

FILLET; TALAITH; KREDEMNON; VITTA, upon or about the head.

FILTH; BYDREDDI; THOLOS; SORDES, the things along the ground.


FIRTREE; FYNIDWYDD; ELATE; ABIES, the long strait growth.

FLEAS; CHWAIN; PSULLOS; PULEX, the leapers or flyers.


FLOW; LLIFO; RHEO; FLUO, in a primary sense signify an ilation of the
sun’s rays, or of its return of life, as growth, the flowing or reflowing
of water, and other similar things.

FLY; HEDEG; IPTAMAI; VOLO, to spring forward or lengthwise.

FLY; GWYBED; MUIA; MUSCA, the blown things.

FORBID; GWAHARDD; EIRGO; VETO, the action of woe, or stopping upon an
action of driving.

FORM; FURF; MORPHE; FORMA, things in the circle of life or existence in
their primitive sense.

FOUNDATION; SYLFAEN; THEMELON; FUNDAMENTUM, the quality of things, or the
origin of property.

FOUR; PEDAIR; TESSARES, TETOR; QUATUOR, are expressive of the firmament
or light, mentioned in Genesis to be the work of the fourth day of the
creation, as appears by my former treatise upon this subject.

FREE; RHYDD; ELEUTHEROS; LIBER, in their primary sense signify the action
or flow of the sun’s rays.


FRIGHTEN; DYCHRYNU; ATUSO; TERREFACIO, from the action of the high fire
or thunder.

FRINGE; GODRE; KROSSOS; FIMBRIA, the edge round a thing.

FROTH; EWIN; APHROS; SPUMA, springing on the water.

FULL; LLAUN; PLEOS; PLENUS, in their primary sense signify the hand or
other things extended with bodies.


FURY; CYNDDAREDD; ERINNUS; FURIA, an infusion of fire.


GARDEN; GARDD; ORCHOS; HORTUS, were the first inclosed grounds, which
in Britain and other countries from an apprehension of deluges, were at
first on the entrances of mountains, promontories or garths.


GAZE; YMSYNIED; THEAOMAI; CONTEMPLOR, to think or look on a thing or

GIRD; GREGISU; ZONNUO; CINGO, about a man’s lower covering.

GLEBE; GLYB, PORFA; BOLOS; GLEBA, the place of feeding or growth.

GLITTER; DISGLEIRIO; AMARUSSO; FULGO, the action of the high light upon
the lower parts.

GNASH; RHINCIAN; RHOIGEO; STRIDEO, the sound of acting between two things.

GO or MOVE; MYNED; BAINO; EO, man going, moving or springing.

GOOD; DAIONUS; AGATHOS or EVS; BONUS, the root or spring of us.

GRAPE; GRAWNWIDD; STAPHULE; UVA, a growth from fire and the spring of

generations that cover the ground.

GREEDY; AWYDDUS; LABROS; AVIDUS, for growing or increasing.

GROVE; LLWYN; ALSOS; LUCUS, a part extended with woods.

GROUND; LLAWR; OUDAS; SOLUM, the part of the earth under and round about

GUEST; LLETEIWR; XENOS; HOSPES, a lodger and boarder for a short time.


HALF; HANER; HEMISUS; DIMIDIUS, divided in the middle.

HALTER; TENYN; PHIMOS; CAMUS, a thing to draw up.

HAMMER; MORTHYL; SPHURA; MALLEUS, a great stroke to drive in a lower

HAPPY; DEDWYDD; OLBIOS; FELIX, a joyful thing or springing property to
man, all life and high life.

HEARTH; AILWYD; ESCHARA; FOCUS; a thing under or covered by fire.

HEIGHT; UCHELDER; UPSOS; ALTITUDO, the high possession or the parts seen

HELM; LLIW; OIAX; GUBERNACULUM, the driver or chief of a family, country,
a ship or other thing.

HELMET; HELM; KORUS; GALEA, a covering upon the upper part.

HELP; CYMORTH; ONEMI; JUVO, to assist one up, or with food, or other
comforts of life.

HOARSENESS; CRYGDER; BRANGCHOS; RACEDO, a stoppage in the throat.

HOBGOBLIN or ELF; ELLYLL; MORMO; LARVA, light or appearances in the night.

HOGSHEAD; CERWIN; KERAMOS; DOLIUM, a large vessel, a wine vessel, or the
head or chief vessel.

HOPE; GOBETH; ELPIS; SPES, the future, high or all joyful thing.


HOWL; UDO; OLOLUSO; ULULO, the noise of a dog, an owl, &c.

HUMMING; BWM; BOMBOS; BOMBUS, a low noise or sound, which has not the
least resemblance to the human voice, like that of a bittern or heron.

HUMBLE; UFEDD; IKETES; SUPPLEX, from being high.


IAMBIC; TROED-IO; IAMBOS; IAMBUS, the principles of speech and music, the
short and long feet, or the Iopæan song and dance.

JAVELIN; PICELL; AKON; JACULUM, a thing acting up or darting.


IMPLORE; IMOFYN; LISSOMAI; IMPLORO, acting with force about, or earnestly
seeking things.

INFANT; IFANC; NEPION; INFANS, life just in action or existence.


INTERPRET; DEONGLI; ERMENEUO; INTERPRETOR, to prate between, or to divide
or distinguish a confused mass of speech or things.

INTIRE; CYFAN; OULOS; INTEGER, together or in one place of existence.

ISTHMUS; ISDWIFOR; ISTHMOS; ISTHMUS, the land betwixt two waters or seas.

ITCH; CRACH; PSORA; SCABIES, a covering upon, from the lower parts.

JUDGE; BARNU; DIKASO; JUDICO, the bar one or the chief speaker.


KERNEL; CNYLLUN; PUREN; NUCLEUS, the inclosed pure one, or part of the

KICK; PUIO; PAIO; FERIO, to spring the paw or foot.


KNOT; COLWM; KOMBOS; NODUS; shut altogether.




LEAN; CUL; ISCHNOS; MACER, a thing acting or growing only in length.

LEATHER; CROEN; BURSA; CORIUM, the skin or covering of an animal

LEAVEN; SURDOES, CHWYDDDOES; ZUME; FERMENTUM, the sour, swoln, or heating

LENGTH; HYD; MEKOS; LONGITUDO, action or extension lengthwise.

LEISURE; SEGURYD; SCHOLE; OTIUM, being without motion or sound.

LEVEL; GWASTADHAI; NASSO; ÆQUO, to be standing together, even, either
high or low, or up or down.

LIKE; CYFELIB; ALINGKIOS; SIMILIS, in their primary sense signify life
and light, which are alike.

LOIN; LWYN; ISCHIS; LUMBUS, upon an animal within.

LOITER; YMAROS; IAUO; COMMOROR, to stand still without motion.

LUXURY; TRYTHYLLWCH; STRENOS; LUXUS, acting beyond the power or property
of man.


MEADOW; GWERGLADD, LEIMON; PRATUM, the place of the greater growth or


MELT; TODDI; MELDO; LIQUEFACIO, to diminish or destroy the compactness of
a body, to make it flow or resemble honey.

MEMBER; AELOD; ARTHRON; MEMBRUM, the spring parts, branches or shanks
about a man.

MERCURY; MORIWR; ERMES; MERCURIUS, the great seaman, his wings alluding
to the sails of ships and their swift motion.

MERCY; TRUGAREDD; ELEOS; MISERICORDIA, in their primary sense is to
help one over or out of the water, and emblematically out of any other
trouble. It may be no improper phrase to be made use of to the old
carrier of Acheron.

MIDDLE; CANOL; MESOS; MEDIUS, the most inclosed or shut of all.

MILD; GWAR; PRAOS; MITIS, a thing without much fire or action.

MILT; BLEDDYN; SPLEN; SPLEN, the life or spring of the human flood or its

MIND, SOUL; MEDDWL, ENAID; THUMOS, NOUS; ANIMUS, the life and light of

MINGLE; CYMYSGU; KERANNUMI; COMMISCEO, to be together in, or possessing
one place.

or comfort to man.

MONSTER; ANGENFIL; PELOR; MONSTRUM, a man with a female belly or a
privative male.

MYRTLE; MYRWYDD; MYRTOS; MYRTUS, numerous leaves on its top.


NECK; GWDDF; AUCHEN; CERVIX, the breath inclosure.

NECKLACE; AURDORCH; ORMOS; MONILE, surrounding the neck or a golden

NEIGHBOUR; CYMYDOG; GEITON; VICINUS, living in the same place or together.

NERVES; GIAU; NEURON; NERVUS, the spring of growth or life.

NIPPLE; TIDEN; THELE; PAPILLA, the flowing part.

NOISE; TROEST; DOUPOS; STREPITUS, the sound of the two feet.

NUMBNESS; FERDOD; MALKE; FRIGUS, a great privation of heat.


OAR; RHWYF; ERETMOS; REMUS, the rank or order of rowing.

OATH; LLW; ORKION; JURAMENTUM, upon the light of man.

OBSCURE; TYWYLL; AMAUROS; OBSCURUS, the circumambient air without light.

OINTMENT; IRAD; MURON; UNGUENTUM, a softening at the fire.

OLD AGE; HENAINT; GERAS; SENECTUS, acting to the last or utmost action.

ONION; WINWYN; KROMMUON; CÆPE, a round, inclosed or shut thing.

ORGAN; ORGAN; ORGANON; ORGANUM, the human tone, song or music.

OVERTAKE; CYRHAEDD; OREGO; PORRIGO, acting or reaching the confines or


PAGE; GWAS TROED; AKOLOUTHON; PEDISSEQUUS, a foot-servant, a follower, or
a horse follower.


PAVEMENT; PALMENT; DAPEDON; PAVIMENTUM, a good footing in the house or



PEEL; RHISGLO; OLOPTO; DECORTICO, all off the covering or lower part.

PENTHOUSE; PENTYS; GEISON; SUGGRUNDA, the top of the lower house.

PERFORATE; TYLLU; TRUPAO; PERFORO, in, to or through a thing.

PERFUME; PERAROGLI; THUMIAO; SUFFIO, sweet smelling exhalations, as those
of fruit, flowers, &c.

PERSON; PERSON; PROSOPON; PERSONA, are defined in the former Lexicon, to
signify sweet sound from pêr-son; but _pêr_ also signifies an apple or
any other ripe sweet fruit, as figgs or figes, according to the Welsh,
which resemble that which perhaps gives man the denomination of person,
or the sound of the apple; and the word _vices_ seems to derive its
origin from _figes_; the v consonant and the digamma being of the same
signification, and g its other half, only the inflection of the radical
c, and _diafal_ and _fall_, the Welsh names of the devil or fallen angel,
being from afal an apple, as the English word _fall_ seems to be.


or addition of good qualities from above on the lower parts.

PLOW; ARU; AROO; ARO, to spring or dig up the earth.

PLUCK; DEORI; DREPO; DECERPO, acting or drawing a thing up or from.

POCKET; COD; PERA; PERA, a thing to shut upon.

POOL; PWLL or LLYN; LIMNE; STAGNUM, the part of standing water.

POTAGE; CAWL; ZOMOS; JUSCULUM, the pot action, the common or kitchen
right, and culinaries.

POUND; PWIS; LITRA; LIBRA, one round or a small thing.

PRAISE; MAWL; AINOS; LAUS, a great spring of light upwards from below.

PRECIPICE; GORWARED; KREMNOS; PRÆCIPITIUM, up downward, or from an high
part to a lower part.

before another word or thing, with which it has some relation or

PRESENT; OFFRWM; PROSPHORA; OBLATUM, a thing sent before a visit by way
of gift, as anciently accustomed, or an offering for an altar.

PRINCE; BRENIN; KOIRANOS; PRINCEPS, the chief or first in action or most

PROMISE; ADDEWID; ENGUESIS; SPONSIO, a saying or answering for a thing in

PRONE or READY; PAROD; PRENES; PRONUS, the part from in.

PRONOUN; RHAGENW; ANTONUMIA; PRONOMEN, instead of a noun; or rather a
primitive or first noun.

PROVOKE; GYRRU; ERETHO; IRRITO, to heat or fire.

PROW; YBLAEN; PRORA; PRORA, the part from before.

PUFF; CHWIFF; PNOE; FLATUS; a flowing up from a man with his breath.

PUSH; GUTHEO; OTHEO; PELLO, to spring the foot or put from.


QUARREL; IMRAFAELIO; ERESCHELEO; RIXOR, the lower acting for being higher.

QUICK; CUIT; OKUS; VELOX, the action of the upper light.


RAGE; CYNDDAREDD; LUSSA; RABIES, a great growth or action of heat.

RAIN; UMBREDD; OMBROS; IMBER, the water springing all about.

RAW; AMRWD; OMOS; CRUDUS, without boiling or fire.


REMAIN; AROS; MENO; MANEO, to be upon or within a thing or place.

REMEMBER; ATGOFIO; MNAOMAI; RECORDOR, to spring back to the mind or

RESOUND; ATSYNIO; ANTECHEO; RESONO, to spring back, or return a sound or

RETURN; TROIAT; NESTEO; REDEO, to spring towards or nearer to.

RIBBAND; RHYMIN; AMPUX; VITTA, a thing about the upper part of a man, or
the high band.


ROAD; FORDD; POREIA; VIA, ADITUS, the part from to.

ROD; GUIALEN; RAPIS; VIRGA, the springing one.

ROPE; RHAF; AMPRON; FUNIS, about a lower thing.


SALUTE; CYFARCH; ASPASOMAI; SALUTO, to bow the head or knee, or to meet
together with the like address.

SCARIFY; FLEIMIO; SKARIPHAOMAI; SCARIFICO, to act into the lower parts or
into man.

SEARCH; CHWILIO; ICHNEUO; SCRUTOR, to be upon the action of seeing or

SECT; TYB NEULLTUOL; AIRESIS; SECTA, a flying or differing from the
general opinion.

SELL; GWERTHU; POLEO; VENDO, to put a price or value upon animals.

SEVEN; SAITH; EPTA; SEPTEM, action standing still.

SHOOT; BRIGIN; PHRYGANON; SURCULUS, its end out of the earth in existence.

SHRUB; PRYSWYDD; THAMNOS; FRUTEX, the lower, lesser or underwood.

SIGH; OCHAIN; GOAO; GEMO, the acting or sounding of woe, or the
interjection O.

SIGN; ARWYDD; SEMA; SIGNUM, the sight or view of any thing within.

SIMPLE; IMPLYG; APLOOS; SIMPLEX, one part, place or action.

SLANDER; ENLLIBIO; STEMBO; CALUMNIOR, to lessen in the land.

SLOW; DIOFAL; GLICHROS; LENTUS, being from a high spring or not alert.

SNEEZE; TISSIO; PTAIRO; STERNUO, acting or sounding up in the lesser
sounding past.

SNOW; ODI; NIPHO; NINGO, the privative water.

SOB; EBYCHIO; LUSO; SINGULTIO, man’s sounding or springing upwards.

SOCK; SOCH; EMBATES; SOCCUS, a shut or covering about the foot or lower

SOLE; PLAN, GWADAN; PESA; PLANTA, a thing upon the surface of the ground.

SOME; RHIW; ENIOS; QUIDAM, one spring or existence.

SOMEBODY; RHIW UN; AMOS; ALIQUIS, one person or man.

SOMETHING; RHIW BETH; TI; ALIQUID, some extension or property.


SON in LAW; CHWEGR; GAMBROS; GENER, born before marriage.


SOUTHWIND; DEHEUWINT; NOTOS; NOTUS, the wind of the right or sunside.

SPARKLE; GUREICHIONEN; SPINTHER; SCINTILLA, a single springing out of the

SPECTATOR; EDRICHWR; THEOROS; SPECTATOR, the man acting to see things.

SPHERE; PEL; SPHAIRON, SPHAIRA, the extension of parts as seen.

SPIDER; PRYFGOP; ARACHNES; ARANEA, the acting or inclosing worm.

SPOT or BLEMISH; MAN, BRICHEUN; KELIS; MACULA, the place one stands or
acts upon in its first sense, and allusively any hidden part or blemish.

SPOUSE; PRIODASEN; NYMPHA; SPONSA, our rib or female part.

SPRING; GUREDD; EAR; VER, the action of man and of the lower parts
upwards, or the return of intentional qualities ilating and penetrating

SPRINKLE; YSGEINTIO; SKEDASO; SPARGO, the lesser parts of water acting

lower thing.

SQUEEZE; GWASCU; BLITTO; EXPRIMO, to bring things from, out, to, in or
together, and squeeze is from ex-weeze.

STAKE; CLEDR; SKOLOPS; PALUS, inclosed parts or things.

STAMMERING; ATAL; PSELLOS; BALBUS, a stop from speaking up.

STAMP; SATHRU; KATAPATEO; PROCULCO, to stand upon a thing or place.

STICK; BACH, PASTWN; BAKTON; BACULUS, a thing to shut upon another thing.

STRAIT; UNION, JAWN; ORTHO; RECTUS, signify the rays of light darting
in a direct line upon, and giving increase to our globe for the common
utility of man and beast; which being the distribution of Providence
gives a general title to the benefit, use, and enjoyment thereof,
as tenants in common, but so as not to exclude any co-partner of his
existence. But when mankind became corrupted and fond of dominion and
distinction, Providence was pleased to divide the earth amongst different
families or nations, as appears in Genesis, and ancient authors; and
those nations and families have granted their possessions and rights
to one another, which seems to be the only natural origin of exclusive
rights and dominion; though political rights may derive their origin from

STRANGLE; TAGU; ANCHO; STRANGULO, to flatten the neck.

STRAY; CRWYDRO; ALAOMAI; VAGOR, to be upon the round in the country.

STREET; CWM; KOME; VICUS, long villages, in which tribes or certain
portions of the people co-inhabited.

STREW; TANU; STOREO; STERNO, to extend upon the surface of the ground
under the sky.

STUMBLE; TRIPIO; PTAIO; CÆSPITO, the foot up from the possession of the
lower parts.

SUCH; CYFRIW; TOIOS; TALIS, the above and below equal.

SUFFER; GODDEF; PACHO; PATIOR, it is an action of woe.

SUNBEAM; PELYDR; AKTIN; RADIUS, the action of the firmament towards the

SUPPLANT; BACHELLU; SPHALLO; SUPPLANTO, to spring the foot or lower part.

SUPPOSE; DODI DAN; UPOLITHEMI; SUPPONO, to put the lowest or last, up or

SUSPECT; EDRYCH AT; ANABLEPO; SUSPECTO, to look at our actions.

foot, upon the face of the earth or downward.

SWARM; HAID; SMENOS; EXAMEN, it is gone, or all about.

SWEAR; TYNGU; OMNUMI; JURO, by man or all his internal property.

SWEETNESS; MELYSDER; DEUKOS; DULCEDO, the property of the high great
light on things below.

SWORD; CLEDDYF; XEPHOS, AOR; ENSIS, a thing to act with or keep from.


THINK; MEDDYLIO; ENNOEO; COGITO, the action or exercise of the internal

THIRST; SYCHED; DIPSA; SITIS, the water drawn up by fire.

THONG; CARAI; IMAS; LORUM, a shut about an under thing.

THRESHOLD; RHINIOG; BELOS; LIMEN, the limits between the ins and outs.

THROW; TAFLU; BALLO; JACIO, to spring a thing up or slantwise.

TIARA; TALAITH; KIDARIS; TIARA, a covering upon the chief actor or

TIE; TIDO; DEO; LIGO. These in their primary sense signify the property
or attraction of the firmament.

TONGUE; TAFOD; GLOSSA; LINGUA, the flow of things.

TOP; CRIB; KOLOPHON; FASTIGIUM, the sky or covering the high end.

TOUCH; CNITHIO; THEGO, PSALLO; TANGO, acting upon the upper covering or

TRACK; OL; ICHNOS; VESTIGIUM, the shadow or sign of a person or other
thing going before another, or a continued action upon the ground.

TREAD; TROEDIO; PATEO; CALCO, to put the foot upon the ground or pat.

TRIFLE; OVERBETH; LEROS; NUGAMENTUM, possession without place, or a thing
without spring.



TRUMPET; UTGORN; SALPINGX; TUBA, the springing horn.

TRUNK; CYFF; KORMOS; TRUNCUS, an animal inclosure or shut; or what is
used as such.

TUMB or TOMB; BEDD; TAPHOS; TUMBA, the covering or inclosing of a body.


TWIN; ILL DEUODD; DIDUMOS; GEMINUS, a double offspring or race.


VEHEMENT; ANGERTHOL; SPHODIOS; VEHEMENS, a great action or the property.

VEIN; WITHEN; PHLEPS; VENA, the place of life, as containing the water of




VICTUAL; BWYD; SITIA; SIBARIA, the chief property or support of life.

VIOLET; LLYS-ION; ION; VIOLA, the palace of Jove.

VIPER; WIBER; ECHIS; VIPERA; the little hot stinger.

VIRTUE; GWREDD; ARETE; VIRTUS, the spring or property of man

UNDERGO; MYNEDTAN; UPDUOMAI; SUBEO, to move below an upper.

UNJUST; ANGHYFIAWN; ADIKOS; INJUSTUS; unequal right, or an unequal
division of that property inherently in man.

cattle understanding or living together without distinction.


WALK; CERDDED; BAINO; AMBULO, a man upon action.


WAR; CAD; MACHE; PUGNA, at action, upon the spring, great action or the
paws in action.

WAISTCOAT; HUG; CHITON; TUNICA, under the upper or lower coat.

WEAVE; GWEI; UPHAO; TEXO, acting the web, or making or covering the lower.

WEB; GWE, YSTOF; ISTOF; STAMEN, TELA, the lower strata or its covering.

WEEP; WYLO; KLAIO; FLEO, to be from the rays of light, as plants weeping.

WET, WATER; DYFRIO; DEUO; RIGO, to spring up water.

WHALE; MORFIL; KETOS; COETUS, the chief or greatest sea animal.

WHETSTONE; HOGALEN; AKONE; COS, acting upon the edge or upper part of a

WHEY; MAIDD; ORROS; SERUM, the water part of the cattle liquid, after a
separation of the coagulated parts.

WHISPER; SISIAL; THRULLOS; SUSURRUS, a lesser or lower sound than calling
or talking.

WHISTLE; CHWIBANU; POPPISO; SIBILO, the pipe sound of man or other animal.


WILLOW; HELIG; ITEA; SALIX, the water kind.

WILD BEAST; GWYDDFIL, THER; FERA, the wood or country animal.

WINE; GWIN; OINOS; VINUM, a divine liquid.

WING; ADEN; PTERON; ALA, a thing towards the sky, or from below, up or
high. ALA or MACHALE also signify the arm-pit, or below the arm or wing
of man; from whence the wings of birds are named.

WITNESS; TYST; MARTYR; TESTIS, a dying for his country.

WOMB; CROTH; METRA; UTERUS, the mother earth or covering of the human

WONDER; RHYFEDDU; THAUMASO; MIROR, the energy of man and animals on
beholding or contemplating the sun, with its emanation upon the lower orb.

WOOD, WILD; COED, WYLLT; HYLE; SYLVA, the place of the highest growth
or spring; and emblematically the origin of the spring, flow or growth
of human speech, or articulate sounds or voice, as coming from the tree
of knowledge of good and _evil_; mankind being probably before the fall
capable of seeing each others ideas or thoughts, so far as they were
capable of conversing or disputing in the state of innocence. And this
sort of converse may be that of the Serpent and Eve, and may not be
improperly termed _species_, _gwedd_ or _eidos_, whence idiom, iaith, and

WORM; PRYF; SKOLEX, VERMIS, the first form of existence.

WORSHIP; ADDOLI; THRESKEUO; COLO, to the holy, or holy Trinity.

Prepositions of the English, Welsh, Greek, and Latin.

Above, on, up, upon; ar, gar, ub; ari, uper; super, supra. Ar
hieroglyfically means a man’s arse and in a general sense the earth upon
which we are, as er does the females, and the passive element water;
hence ari; up, ub, is the spring of p or the higher parts; on, is the
circle of motion and possession; so that upon is to be upon the spring or
in motion; super, uper and supra is the spring from below up; above, the
upper spring or bounds of the human sight.

Below, beneath, under, down; tan, odditan, ob, obri; kato, upo,
upenerthe; sub, subter, infra. Under, not sprung up the possessions;
down, from springing or being up; below, from being up; beneath, a thing
not in the possessions; infra, in the earth part; sub, below up; subter,
below the upper possessions; upo, from up; kato from the top covering;
upenerthe, from springing to the top; obri, from springing; ob, from
life; tan, under the surface of the earth; and some of those in the
hieroglyfic sense also signify the generative parts.

In, with, within, into, unto, at, to, towards; in, cyn, oddifewn, intho,
at, i, tuagat; en, xun, entos, para, es, pros; in, cum, intus, inter,
intra, apud, ad, versus. In, signifies man placed in the middle of
existences, and as betwixt matter and spirit; with, from U-T or th by
inflection, is the spring of i, man, into male and female, and his line,
race and possessions; within, is the same in the circle of possession;
to, is the circle of motion and property under the sky; into, the same
within the possessions; unto, at, ad, towards, the same, springing to
man or the line of possession, or at T or the tree; inter, into, intra,
intho, oddifewn, entos, signify in the possessions; tuagat acting
towards; cum, xun, together as one; i, the line of life towards the sun,
or man in an hieroglyfic sense; para, the part upon; pros, the part upon
from; versus, a spring towards us.

Out, of, from, out of, without; O, or, oddiwrth, oddiallen; ek, extos,
peu, apo; ex, de, a, ab, extra, sine. Ut, signifying the part a man
possesses, out, is from the part man possesses or stands upon; O is
the circle of view from any place one is upon or possesses; or, is a
material sound upon O, signifying a border; of, the border or possession
part; from, the surrounding parts; without, out of the line or circle
of possession; oddiwrth, oddiallan, and the rest, signify out of the
possessions or parts.

About, for; am, amfi; amphi; circum. About, is the things within the
circle of man’s possession; am is duration and existences, beings and
things about him in this life or world; amfi, amphi, the things about me;
circum, things together, surrounding or acting about a man; for, is the
things of the circle of possession.

Afore, before, against; rhag, cin, oflaen, erbyn; pro, gar, anti; pro,
præ, ante. Cin is action in or the chief or first action or motion;
rhag, the fire, or first action or motion, afore and before, in or from
the borders of possession; gar, acting before; pro and præ the first
possessions or countries; erbyn, the seen in or springing before; anti
and ante, the first or beginning of earthly possessions; contra, far from
being together within.

After, behind, since, according to; gwedi, arol, tuol, ynol; upo, epi,
usteron, epithen, kâta; post, ex, secundum. The Greek terms signify the
parts from; after, from T or the possession; behind, to be after hi or
man in the possessions; since, to be after being together; according to,
agreeing together in acting; post the part from the possessions, ex, out
of action; ar ol, upon the shade or the part covered from the sun behind
a person; tu ol, the shade or form from; yn ol, in the shade; gwedi, an
action past.

By, through, over, over and above, besides, beyond, except; wrth, trwy,
eithr, tros, tros hynu, ond hynu, draw, tu draw; dia, ana, peri, pros,
atar, pera; per, trans, præter, ultra. By, the living or dwelling part;
with, the possessions by man; dia, the part of the earth possessed; per
peri, præter, pera, the part upon either of earth or water; trwy and
through, possessions of land and water beyond the circle of view; over,
from the view of the part upon; tros, trans and pros, the part from both
of earth and water; except, taking out; ond hynu, but that; drau or tu
drau, the other side or off the side of the part one possesses or place
he stands upon; besides, by the side or below the parts; ultra, beyond
the possessions or parts seen; beyond, by the upper covering.

Between, betwixt, among, amongst; rhyng, ymysg; ei, en, metaxu;
inter. These signify the line i, dividing the things in the circle of
possession, and the things in and about the circle of possession.

The Conjunctions of the English, Welsh, Greek, and Latin.

And; a, ac, ag; te, kai; et, que. And or ond, on in division or
discourse; ac, and ag, its inflection, and also, a, dropping the c and
g before a consonant, signify actions in general; te, et, yet, and the
Welsh etto, signify, again; kai and que, signify an action.

If, unless, except; os, ai, oni; ei, me; si, nisi. Ai, ei, is it the
action of the earth or water? If, life, or is it life? Os, is it seen off
or from? Si, is it, or is it seen. Nisi, is it not? Unless, my spring
out; except, taking from the parts of the possession; Oni, not from; Me,
from me.

But, yet, still, also, likewise, notwithstanding, although; ond, etto,
erhyn, eisoes, yn lleiaf; aute, eti, omos, alla; autem, sed, tamen,
quoque, etiam, lix, licet, etsi, saltem. But, by man and things seen;
etto and yet, it is or it springs; hence, eti, aute, autem, tamen, etiam;
also, on so; ond, it is moving; likewise, the same way; still, light
on things, although, upon to; notwithstanding, not opposing the former
action; however, be the spring of action as it may; nevertheless, without
any spring; erhyn, eisoes and omos, hitherto; sed, see it or if it be
seen; quoque, acting therein, or and in which; the rest signify to be
above ground at least.

For, because, therefore, as, as well as; er, am, mor, fel, am hynu, or
achos, herwydd; eri, gar, dia, oti, os, ara, ar ou; propter, nam, tam,
tamquam, quia, ergo; for, is the proving by the evidence of the things
within the circle of possession or in the world; there, in therefore,
er, eri and herwydd, signify the spring, and, therefore, the parts and
spring within the circle; as, the earth seen; as well as, its surface or
under it out of sight; wherefore, the parts in which circle; gar and ara,
by the earth growth; am, am hynu, nam, tam and tamquam, by all things
existing about us; os, by the visible circle of things; dia and oti, by
the things possessed; quia, by your own existence; ou, by the spring of
the circle; because, by the actions of the visible things of this world
or our own actions; mor, by the things about the circle or world; fel, by
the light; or achos, by the actions of the part of the world about us.

Or, either; neu, ai, aill; nai, eite; næ, aut, vel, sive. Or, signifies
the circle of possession and of and from, as it is at a distance from
us, but in this respect the things therein promiscuously, either the one
thing or the other, as have any relation to each other; either, ai, eite
and aut, action or matter; vel, sight or light; aill, action or light;
sive, seen or not; neu and næ, in or spring.

Nor, neither; na, nac, nid, nis; mete, oude, oute; nec, neque, neu. Nor,
not in the world or existence, neither, no action or rest; na, no matter;
nac, no action or matter; nid and nis, no sight or sound, or it is not;
mete, oude or oute, the privation of things; neu, no spring; nec and
neque, no action.

Till, until; tra, cyd; eos ke, eoke; usque ad; till or until, during
the spring of light upon the possessions; cyd, so long as things remain
together; tra, during the possession of the earth; the rest signify
during the co-existence of things.


I, me, mine; mi, fi, fy; ego, eme, emos; ego, me, meus; i at first
represented man, as a line, without his extension in matter, or in his
first spiritual state, but now, as having relation to, and connection
with matter; me, mi, and eme, from am-i or iam, signify this i or line,
existing or extended with its ambient possessions. Hence T, which is
this line extended, under heaven, came to be the hieroglyfic expression
for extension and general things; and P its divider, for possessions,
properties, terrestial parts and particular things; ego or egu, the
springing U or man; emou and mei, its genitive or possessive case,
signify the things and possessions about man; mine is my in, in me or
my property; emos and meus signify the things seen about us; fi and fy
inflect from mi.

You or thou, thee, thine; ti, dy; su, sos; tu, tuus. You from y-o-u
signifies the off man, thou from th-o-u, the off man or woman; thee,
ti, and tu, are the same; thine, is the off man’s in or possessions;
dy, thy possession; su the female U or woman; tuus, and sos, the female

He, she, him, her, his, hers, it; fe or fo, hi, ith or ei; autos, aute,
auto; ille, illa, illud, is, ea, id, ipse, ipsa, ipsum, suus, sua, suum.
He or hi, the higher acting man; she, the lesser, lower, or female man;
him, the higher man about; her, the more passive spring; his, of man;
hers of a woman; it, ith, id, ille, autos, &c. signify man’s extension in
his race and possessions.

We, us, ours; ni, ein; hemeis, hemeteros; nos, noster. We or wi, those in
possession; us, the men seen; ours, of man; ni, the men in possession;
ein, belonging to us; emeis, the men about; nos or nus, in us; noster,
our possessions; emeteros, our surrounding possessions; o-ur, being the
circle of man.

Ye, you, yours; chwi, eich; umeis, umeteros; vos, vester. Chwi, the from
us; ye, those from; umeis, the females about; vos, those from; yours,
of those from; eich, of the from us; umeteros and vester, the female

They, them, theirs; hwynt, eu; autoi, ekeinoi, spheteroi; illi, isti.
These signify mankind, their race, spring, and possessions. Thus far as
to the personal and possessive pronouns; now as to the demonstratives and

This, that; hwn, hon, hyn; autos, aute, touto, ekeinos; hic, is, ille.
This, the man seen; that, the possession at; hwn, the man acting in; hyn,
he in action; hic, the man acting; is and ille, the man seen; ekeinos,
the man seen acting in the circle of possession; autos the same.

Any, some, one; un, yr un, peth; ostis, eis, enios, deina; aliquis,
quidam, quicunque, ullus. Un signifies man in existence, as a mikrocosm
representing our system of beings; one, is from un; any, is the earth in
existence; some, the seen existences; yr un the one spring of existence;
enios and eis, in existence; ullus, a man seen; aliquis, another man
seen; ostis, the things about in the possessions; peth, a part or thing.

None; neb; outis, oudeis; nullus. Nullus, no man seen; outis and oudeis,
no thing or possession; none, no one; neb, nobody.

Another; arall; allos, eteros; alius, alter, uter. Arall, allos, alius,
signify the second; alter, uter and another, the second possession.

Who, which, what, that; pwi, pa, pa un; os, he, o, poios, poia, poion,
tis, os, ti; qui, quæ, quod, quis, quæ, quid, is, ea, id. These as
interrogatives signify which one, and what part or thing, and that one
or thing? and as relative pronouns serve to express any antecedent part,
member or thing in a sentence, as who or wch-U, the above man, which or
wch-ich, the above action and what or wch-at, at the above; qui or uch-i,
the above man, quæ or uch-æ, the above woman, and quod, the above thing.

Adverbs of Place.

Within, here, endwise, straight, upright; in tho yma, ofeun, tu fewn,
insyth, cyfing, ar inion; endon, entautha, orthos, stenos, en brachei,
eiso; intus, introrsum, hic, vere, arrecte, strictim, anguste. Within,
intho, endon, intus and introrsum, signify the line of man’s existence,
as his house, possession, or the part of space occupied by him, or taken
up by his extension; endwise towards the sky or bounds of view; cyfin,
shut close together, in length without breadth; strait, aright, arrecte
and strictim, to be shut or pent up from roving to and fro; orthos, the
possessions within the borders; stenos, to be within the possessions; en
brachei, in the high country; inion, in the line; in syth, in the place
standing upon; here, the length possessed by one; hic, him acting; ima,
man or the line in the centre of existences or things; entautha, things
in possession; eiso, within the circle or borders of the possessions.

Above, aloft, atop, upwards, lengthwise, longwise; uchod, bri, ar hyd,
ar fynu, ar dyn, ar hir bell; uperthen, ano, elkedon; supra, sursum,
sublime, tractim, longule. Tractim, the sun’s property of drawing
upwards, above, from or beyond the bounds of view; bri, the high country
or the firmament part; ar fynu, upon the upright; ar hyd, upon the
length; ar dyn, upon the sun’s attracting property, or upon a draft;
uperthen, the upper part of the line of possession; elkedon, the line of
fire drawing upwards; ano, the sky; supra, above the earth; sursum, above
the part possessed, or man standing up; sublime, up in the region of
light; aloft, high from or above the part possessed; atop, at the top or
the sky; upwards, upon the spring up; up, the spring of p.

Beneath, below, aground, down, under; isod, obri, tan, ilawr; upo,
upenerthe, arden; sub, subter, humi, deorsum, funditus. Isod, below the
circle of possessions; ilawr, to the ground; arden, from being up;
funditus the bottom; deorsum and humi, from or below the part a man is
upon; the rest are explained under the prepositions.

Out, without, outwards, abroad, of, from, around; o, allan, oddiallan,
o amglych; exo, ektos, exothen, thurase, amphi; ex, foras, circum,
extrorsum. Extrorsum, out of the border of a man’s inhabited possessions;
allan, above the place inhabited; O, the circle of possessions; around,
the circle of the earth inhabited; abroad, from the neighbourhood; foras,
below the part of the circle; exothen, out of the inhabited possessions;
the rest are explained under the prepositions.

Before, facing, onwards, forwards, ahead, throughly; mlaen, rhagbron, ir
trwyn, oflaen, peneithaf; pros, porro, panuge; coram, prorsum, porro,
penitus. Before, the part from man’s view; facing, the part seen in
action; porro, the part from; prorsum, the part from man’s standing or
being; coram, the border of the possessions; peneithaf and penitus, the
farthest end; ir trwyn, to the end of the possessions.

Behind, astern, after all; in ol, yn olaf; ta ustata; postremo. Yn ol,
in the shade of the man in possession; yn olaf its superlative degree;
after all, off the possession of the shade; astern, below the possessions
upon; behind, to be at the back; postremo, the last part of the place
possessed; ta ustata, the last possessions.

Near, nigh; agos; engus; prope. Prope, the part from; agos, engus, and
nigh, the first motion or action from; near, in the part upon.

Far, far away; o lar bid, imhell, hirbell; porrothen, apothen, makran;
longe, procul, ultra, ulterius, eminus. These signify beyond the
neighbourhood or the part inhabited upwards and sideways; as far, from
the part upon; o lar byd, from the dwelling place; imhell, out of the
sight upon the line of life; hirbell, very much so; porrothen, a part
from the place inhabited; longe, an extensive place; procul, the upper
country; ultra and ulterius, the country seen above.

Amongst, amidst, intermixedly, astray, largely, widely, hither and
thither; rhong, rhoth, amisg, ar led, inganol, ima a thraw; metaxu, ana
meson, deuro, kakeise, plateos, dapsilos; large, late, intermixte, ample,
medie, huc atque illuc. Amysg, amidst, amongst, metaxu and intermixte,
separating the things in the lower circle of possessions; astray, acting
below the possessions; hither and thither, from the part possessed to the
firmament; rhong, dividing the things within the circle of possession;
inganol, inclosing all; ar lêd, large, late, upon a wide place at large
about the ground; ima a thraw the part upon, and that from; dapsilos,
the coasts from the part upon; rhoth and euros, the extension of the
particles of light below; medie, dividing the parts possessed, as earth
and water; huc atque illuc, to the man in possession, and him out of
possession, the race of man or him in the sky; ample, the place about.

There, thereabout; yno, aco, o amgylch; ekei, autothi; illic, ibi. There,
upon T or in the firmament; illic, ibi, and circiter, the firmament; os,
osonte, ekei and autothi, the circle of the possessions in the sky; y no,
aco and o amgylch, the circle of the possessions about a man.

Hence; oddiyma; enthende; hinc. Oddiyma, from the possessions about a
man; hinc and hence, from him in possession or action; enthende, from the
part in possession.

Thence; oddiyno; autothen; illinc. Illinc, from the place in the
firmament here; thence, from the sky; O ddiyno and autothen, from the
possessions yonder. Hither, hitherward, homeward, toward this way,
hitherto, hereabout; tu ima, tu ac ima, fordd ima, dyro; proseti, entha,
deuro, mechri, taute; huc, adhuc, hactenus, horsum, aliquorsum, retro,
erga, versus. Tu ima, this side of the possessions; tu ac ima, the side
of the possessions acting here; fordd ima, the way to these possessions;
hyd yma, upon the length here; proseti, the part from to the possessions;
entha, into the possessions; dyro and deuro, acting or coming here;
mechri, about acting into the possessions; taute, the possession from
that of man; huc and adhuc, acting towards man; hactenus, that part into
possession; horsum, he from, to where man is; aliquorsum, another, which
is from, to where man is; retro, returning from the possessions from;
hither, from the firmament here; towards and the rest signify upon the
spring to or home.

Thither, thitherto, that way; tu aco, fordd aco; ekeise, tede, ode;
illuc, istuc. Thither and thitherto, from the sky or top of T, to the
possessions at its bottom; tu aco, to the possessions from the sky;
ekeise, from the possessions in the sky lower; tede, from the high
possessions at T; ode, from the circle of T; illuc, from the place of
light hither; istuc, from the place above to the lower possessions.

Where, somewhere, any where, whither, somewhither, which way, wherein,
whereto; pale, ible, tuafle, i riw le, tua riw le, i riw fan; pou, poi,
poi ti ophelos, epiachou, pothi; ubi, quid, quo, quoquo, quorsum, aliquo,
aliquorsum, alicubi, uspiam. Where, somewhere and any where, acting
or springing upwards from the part one is upon; whither, somewhither,
wherein, whereto and which way, acting upwards from one part, place or
possession to another; the Welsh signify, what place, to what place,
towards what place, to one place and to some place, and are fully
explained elsewhere; poi and pou the part from up; poi ti ophelos, the
part from up, towards what or some place; epiachou, from the part acting
upwards; pothi, the part from the possessions; ubi, springing to the high
parts; quo, from upwards; quorsum, from the place of man’s existence
upwards; aliquorsum, from another place of man’s existence upwards;
alicubi and uspiam, from the part of man’s existence upwards above the

Elsewhere; yn lle arall, yn yr uchelder; allachou, allathi; alibi.
Elsewhere, from the lower place to the upper firmament; yn lle aral, in
another or high place; yn yr uchelder, in the firmament; allachou, in the
place above; allathi, in the high possessions; alibi, the high firmament.

Across, askant, askew, awry, aslant, aslope, athwart, crosswise,
traverse, oblique; yn groes, ar wyr, ar osgo, ar draws, ar gam; plagios,
parableden, endiastrophos; oblique, ex obliquo, torte. Torte is a top one
on the upright line; oblique, from being an upright line; endiastrophos,
an horizontal or meridian line; parableden, a traverse or contrary to
an upright line; plagios, a plane one; ar gam, one upon the superficies
of the earth; ar draws, one upon the traverse; ar osgo, upon the slope;
ar wyr, from an upright; traverse, turned towards the surface; athwart,
at the earth part; aslope, low to the place part; aslant, low towards
the ground; awry, from an upright spring; askew, acting lower than the
spring; askant, acting low towards the ground.

Apart, asunder, aside, besides, separately, severally, apiece; urtho i
hun, ar neilldu, ar ben i hun, heb lau hyn, ar ddidol; choris, idia, kath
ekaston, epi toutois, alla te; seorsim, seperatim, singulatim, præterea.
Apart, a divided piece of earth or thing; asunder, the ground under;
aside, the part by the side; separate, a part of the earth or thing out
of or below the possessions; several, below the high spring; urtho i hun,
a man by the side of the possessions; ar neill du, upon the other side;
ar ben i hun, at his own end; heb lau hyn, without the assistance of this
hand; ar ddidol, upon the division of place or culling; choris, below
the borders; idia, the divided part; kath ekaston, by himself below the
possessions; epi toutois, above the extent of the lower possessions;
alla te, the upper or another possession; seorsim, below the circle or
borders of the parts possessed; singulatim, the low inhabitant beholding
or contemplating immensity; præterea, before the possessions of earth and

Everywhere; pob, pob lle, pob man; pantachou; ubique. These seem to
express space, as pob, the parts from; pob lle and pob man, the parts of
extension and existence of matter; pantachou, all upwards; ubique, beyond
the higher parts, though inadequate to the ideas of space or extension.

No where; nid yn un man, nid yn un lle; oudame, oudamou; nusquam. These
signify in no part or place, or the negatives of where, which have been
already explained.

Adverbs of Time.

When, whence; pan, pa bryd, or hyn, o hyn amser; otan, opothen; quando,
quum, unde. Pan, the part in; pa bryd, the part in season; o hyn amser,
from this circle upon; otan, the circle in possession; opothen, the
circle from the possession; when and whence, springing or acting in;
unde, the spring in possession; hence quum and quando.

How long? how often? pa hyd, cynfynyched, pa sal gwaith? mechri ou,
posakis? quamdiu, quoties? How long, what length of spring or action; how
often, what action above in; pa hyd, what length of action or possession;
cynfynyched, how often from the first; pa sal guaith, what spring of
action; mechri ou, what acting about from the first; posakis, what acting
and standing still; quamdiu, what rounds of the division of the spring;
quoties, in what possession.

Once, only, only but; un waith, un amser, yn unig; apax, monon; semel,
tantum, solummodo. Once, one action; only, one quality; un waith, one
action, or going; un amser, one round of what is upon; yn unig, in one
action; apax, from the action or first action; monon, the motion of the
circle or one motion; semel, upon the lower round; tantum, whilst in

Twice, secondly; dwywaith, ailwaith; dis, deuteron; bis, secundo. These
signify a division of the lower circle of motion or action.

Thrice, thirdly; teirgwaith, yn drydydd; treis, triton; ter, tertio.
These signify the action of the third day’s creation, viz. the division
or separation of land and water.

Four times, fourthly; pedairgwaith, yn bedwaredd; tetrakis, tetartos;
quater, quarto. The division of the luminaries or the action of the
fourth day.

Often, oftentimes, many times; mynych, llaergwaith; pollakis, polloston,
sunachos; sæpe, multoties, sæpenumero. Often off or above ten;
oftentimes, above ten times; many times, the small things; mynych,
bordering on the highest; llawar gwaith, the action of the circle of
the hand upon the fingers, as well as a part of the action of the whole
circle; pollakis, a part of all the lower action; polloston, a part of
the lower possessions; sunachos, from the first action; sæpe, a thing,
from standing still; sæpenumero, a thing from standing still in the
spring of existence.

So often; cynfynyched; tosakis; toties. So often, the lower circle above
ten; cynfynyched, the first action bordering on the highest; tosakis and
toties, the action of the lower or lesser circle of life.

Yesterday; doe; echthes; heri. Heri, the action from; yesterday, or
yest-heri-day, the action of the day past; doe, the division or day from
or past; echthes or ech-doe, the d inflecting into th, the action of the
past division.

Erst, at first, in time past, formerly, before hand, before time,
heretofore, yore, aforetime, agone, long ago, a great while ago,
laterally; erhyn, cynt, cynhyn, or blaen, er ys talm, ymlaen llaw, gynt
oll, er ys meitin; archen, protos, emprothen, pro tou prin, apotoude,
enteuthen, palai; primo, antehac, olim, antea, abhinc, jamdudum, pridem.
Jamdudum, during the spring of time; prin, primo, protou, protos, first,
emprothen and pridem, from the beginning of fire or motion in the lower
existences; er, the spring; erst, the spring of the lower possessions;
formerly, the spring of forms; ago, the action from; while, the flowing
of the upper light; cynt, the first action of worldly possessions; cyn
hyn, before this time or existence; or blaen, ymlaen, and ymlaen llaw,
from or before the existence of this place; gynt oll and olim, before all
existence here; antehac and antea, in the possession before the present;
archen, the beginning of the present earth; er ys meitin, er ys talm and
er hyn, this spring or possession; abhinc, from the beginning of action;
yore, the circle of time from; palai, the part upon action.

Betimes; yr inion bryd; en deonti; tempore. These signify directly in

Now, already, ever, evermore, always; yn aur, erioed, aur hon, byth, pob
amser, yn wast adol, pryd hyn, yndragywydd; nun, aei, diapantos, ede;
nunc, jam, jamjam, semper, sempiternum, perpetuo. Now, nun, and nunc, yn
aur, aur hon, ever and evermore, in the spring; byth, the life; pryd hyn,
the part upon the length; yn dragywydd, in the duration of the spring;
yn wastdol, in the state of all things; jam, the existence; semper, the
existence part; already, ready up; always, upwise; aei, motion or action;
hede, the length; diapantos, all possessions; erioed, the spring of age.

Never; erioed ni fu, byth ni bu; oude pote, mede pote; numquam. These
signify not in life, spring or existence.

To-day, in the morning, to-morrow; heddiw, yn y bore, y fory; temeron,
proi, aurion; hodie, mane, cras. Day, heddiw and hodie, is the division
of action; temeron, the part in action; morning, bore and fory, the
spring of all terrestial existences; proi, the part from in; aurion, the
spring in motion; mane, the spring in the earth; cras, the action of the
sun or light below.

A night; yn y nos; nuktos; nocte. In y nos, in no sight or light; noctu
and the rest, in no firmament act.

Next; ong, nesaf; engistos; proxime. Ong, moving on; next, the out to us;
nesaf, the thing from us; the rest are the same.

Still, yet, also, item, likewise, alike, again, eftsoon, encore, afresh,
anew, while, well nigh, almost; hyd hyn, etto, hefyd, ymhellach, yn
debig, drachefn, eilwaith, yn newydd, tra, hyd tra, hyd oni, cyd ac,
trwy, pan, pryd, agos, oddieithr ych ydig, haeach; eti, alla, all’ ede,
omos, all’omos, omoios, mechri tou, mechri nun, proseti, au, authis,
empalin, neosti, achris, an, eos an, mikron dein, para mikron; adhuc,
tamen, etiam, similiter, dum, iterum, rursum, item, nove, recenter, fere,
ferme. Still, an emanation of light upon the lower parts; yet, etto,
eti, etiam, item and iterum, the firmament upon the lower parts; also,
another sound or sound up; again, acting in; eilwaith, another action;
au, a spring; authis, the spring of the lower possessions; empalin,
things up in existence; pan, a part or thing in existence; alla, being
up; all’ ede, it is up; omos, all together; all’omos, up all together;
mechri tou, until this time; mechri nun, until now; proseti, from the
first to this time; neosti, newydd, nove and anew, it is in spring,
action, or possession; an, the earth in; eos an, the from in; while,
the emanation of the high light; well nigh, springing up in action;
almost, up from below the surface; hyd hyn, this length; tra, the earth’s
duration; hyd tra, so long as the earth endures; hyd oni, so long as
life or motion; cyd ac, action together; truy, the duration of spring;
pryd, the part upon the length; agos, the action from; haeach, the action
from; oddieithr ych ydig, little from the possession; mikron dein, until
in possession; para mikron, until the part upon; adhuc, to this time;
tamen, the parts about in; dum, the spring of matter; rursum, the return
of spring to the parts about man; fere and ferme, the spring about;
recenter, a return of action upon the possessions.

Anon, forthwith, immediately, presently, quickly, soon; ar frys, ar
fyned, yn fuan, yn gyflym, ar fyr; autothen, parautika, autika de mala,
amesos, tacheos; illico, protinus, immediate, statim, cito. Anon, upon
moving or going; cito, together; soon, so on; forthwith, from the
possessions with; immediate and immediately, me at thee in the line of
possession; presently, before sent for; quickly, acting to you; ar frys,
upon haste; ar fyned, upon going; yn fyan, speedily; yn gyflym, hastily;
ar fyr, shortly; autothen, springing from hence; para autika, springing
from any part to him in possession; autika de mala, springing to the
possession from any place of existence; amesos, in the midst; tacheos, on
the same part together; illico, from hence; protinus, the part from to
the possessions; statim, from any part or coast to the possessions.

Henceforth, henceforward, hereafter; o-hyn-allan, ynol hyn, rhag llaw;
apo, toutou, exes; dehinc, deinceps. These signify from hence, from this
time, and from hence below or forward.

Then; yno; tote, tunc. Tunc, the things or possessions in action; then,
the things or possessions in; tote, the things in the circle of beings;
yno, in the circle.

Thence, thereafter, thenceforward, thenceforth; othyno, ar ol hynu;
autothen, opote; illinc, posteaquam. These are defined before.

Soon after; yn fuan arol; oligo; paulo post. Oligo, after the action
from; paulo post, little after; the rest are explained before.

Somewhile, awhile, sometimes, longwhile; rhiw amser, ambell waith,
weithia, enyd o amser, yn hir o amser; epi chronon, pote, makran den;
aliquamdiu, aliquando, longe diu. Rhiu amser, the spring of existence;
chronon, the round of existence; makran, things acting about; the rest
are explained before.

Seldom; yn anaml, yn anfynych; spanios; raro. Spanios, a less part in
motion; seldom, less acting about; yn anaml and yn anfynych, things and
existences less numerous; raro, things from the earth.

Prematurely, oversoon; cin tymor; prooros; præmature. Cin tymor, before
the circle of existence; prooros, before the term; præmature, before the
things in possession; oversoon, an action before its spring or season.

Annually, yearly; pob blwyddyn; kat etos; quotannis. Yearly, every
spring upon earth; annual, every spring up of the earth’s existence; kat
etos, every spring of motion, age or action; pob blwyddyn, every life or
existence upon the spring.

Alternately, one after another; pob yn ail; enallax; alternatim. Pob yn
ail, every other in; enallax, in another action; alternatim, another into

At length, lastly, finally, ultimately; mhen enyd; yn olaf, yn ddiweddaf;
yr diwedd; pote, talentaion, ta ustata, echatos; tandem, postremo,
ultimo. Mhen enyd, at the end of a length; yn olaf, the aftermost; yn
ddiweddaf, the endmost; yr diwedd, the end; pote, out of possession; ta
ustata, the last part of possession; echatos, the utmost round; tandem,
after or below the part in possession; postremo, after the things or
possessions in being; ultimo, futurity or last time; at length, the end
of a line, possession or other thing; lastly, the place of the lowest

Adverbs of Quantity, Quality, and the Manner of Motions, Energies, and
rest of Things.

How many, how much; pa nifer, pa rifedi, pa sawl un, pa gymaint; posi,
oson, poson; quot, quantum. These signify the parts of springs, actions
and things interrogatively.

So much, so many; yn gymaint, cynifer; toson, tosouton; tantum, tot.
These signify the parts and actions seen.

More; mwy; mallon; magis. These signify a greater spring of many and much.

Less; llai; elatton; meion; minor. These signify the beginning of action
or the edge of place.

Absolutely, wholly; yn hollal; entallos; absolute. These signify the
whole or all, as quality; the qualities of the different sorts of things
being expressed by al, el, il, ol, ul, and their transponents, according
to the nature of the expression, and generally in the English, by _ly_
the flow of the sun’s rays, or _y_ the, to form Adverbs from Adjectives.

Adjectively; yn adroedd; epitheton; adjective. These signify something
cast to, as its quality to a substantive.

Affectionately, passionately, pathetically; yn hoffus, yn ofydus; yn
wynfydus; pathetikos, agapetos; pathetice. These are expressive of the
qualities or energies of those passions.

Agedly; yn henaidd; palaios; seniliter, the qualities of age or being
long in action.

Articulately; yn gymalog; enarthros; articulatim, articulate sounds, or
the sounds of the joints.

Bodily; yn gorphorol; somatikos; corporaliter, like the body.

Cirumstantially; yn amgylcheddol; peristatikos, circumstantialiter, like
standing about.

Coldly; oerlyd; psuchros; frigide, as deprived of the sun’s heat.

Fiercely; yn fyrnig; agrios; ferociter, as the action of fire.

Naturally; yn naturiol, anianol; kata physin; naturaliter, as the
internal properties of things diffused towards man.

Usually; yn arferol; koine; usualiter, as usual.

Wisely; yn fynwyrol; sophes; sapienter, like the sight of man.

Worthily; yn yrddasol; axios; digne, like the property or value of man.

As; mal; os; ut, the surface of the ground, the possessions extended or
the earth seen.

Why, wherefore; pa achos; par o; cur, what action, motion or spring.

Therefore; felly; outos; ita, ergo, the action, spring or thing as seen.

Alack, alas; och, ai ho, gwae fi; ai, O, omoi, ouai; ah, eh, hei, heu,
ehu, væ. These are interjections or energies of the passions of dislike
and lamentation.

Aha: aha, wi; euge; euge, a good spring or pleasing interjection.

Adieu, hail, farewell; bydd iach; vale, salve, live well, spring and
enjoy the ilation of the sun.

Amen; amen; amen, outos genoito; amen, ita fiat. Am-en for heaven, and
let it be so.

Some sketches of the creation, the original and present state of men and
animals in our system of beings, the fall of man and other obscure scenes
of antiquity, have been drawn from the sacred characters made use of by
the Priests and Druids to preserve their original, ancient and secret
knowledge, in order to illustrate the present subject, and setting the
present confused, deluded, or enchanted state of language and knowledge
in a right course and direction. But the press not admitting of their
being exhibited in that order and mode, which seemed to be necessary
for a compleat transmission of the sacred hieroglyfics, the following
specimen must suffice for the present.


1. The state of man previous to the formation of Eve and his essential
modes. 2. His compound state or the nonessential modes and division into
parts and actions. 3. Emblems of concupiscible appetites, innate parental
traces, energies and passions acquired by the fall. 4. The state of man
and woman after the fall, as enchanted and confined to place or matter.
5. The Serpent, an emblem of speech. 6. A theta instead of the Coptic
kei, an emblem of man’s primitive state, &c. 7. Birds; but the round U is
made use for the Coptic e. 8. Beasts and Bulls. 9. Fishes. 10. Twigs and
trees. But more of this hereafter.

And as all letters are thus deriveable from the parts of man, resembling
all other things, Adam might be very well instructed, in their use in
paradise;—And, the divisions of time appear to have been made from the
days of the creation. See the former treatise.

    O’er plants celestial, that fell below,
    And grafs of _serf_ which now together grow,
    With her sword flaming round the living stem,
    Guarding its fruit upon the side of Shem,
    Expatiate free! ’tis the scene of man,
    A mighty maze! beyond my present plan;
    ‘A wild where weeds and flowers promiscuous shoot;
    Or garden, tempting with forbidden fruit.
    Together let us beat this ample field;
    Try what the open, what the covert yield.’
    Here to dispel prolific nature’s charm,
    Prudence forbids; tho’ far from real harm;
    And science shuns the Sympathetic touch;
    So here we finish, lest we _feel_ too much.
    Withall affirming of the birth of tongue.
    If _Hiero_’s right, others must be wrong.


Transcriber’s Note: Changes made to the text to correct probable
printer errors are listed below. 1760s spelling remains unchanged.
Greek ligatures (and mid-word ϛ) have been modernised to separate
letters (and στ). Greek letters were occasionally printed reversed
or upside down, probably because the typesetter wasn’t familiar with
the alphabet, and this has been corrected without further note.

    Page 13, “elitoris” changed to “clitoris” (the clitoris,
    erectors, and)

    Page 17, upper case Ψ changed to ψ for consistency with the
    other letters in the list.

    Page 21, “frem” changed to “from” (proceeding from the hind

    Page 32, “diminition” changed to “diminution” (a diminution of
    the colour)

    Page 33, italics added (_a circle extended_)

    Page 39, “particples” changed to “participles” (with adjectives
    or participles)

    Page 42, verb “read” added to table, under first person present
    absolute. The reader should also note the likelihood that the
    future absolute is incorrect.

    Page 43, “or” changed to “for” (for as _ing_)

    Page 43, “or” changed to “of” (it is the spring of life)

    Page 43, “loose” changed to “lose” (as verbs lose their

    Page 60, vocabulary entry “Neiighbour” changed to “Neighbour”

    Page 64, “distrubution” changed to “distribution” (the
    distribution of Providence)

    Page 75, “Extrorsium” changed to “Extrorsum” (Extrorsum, out of
    the border)

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