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Title: A Military Dictionary and Gazetteer
Author: Wilhelm, Thomas
Language: English
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  Transcriber’s Notes

  Text in italics has been transcribed between _underscores_, bold text
  between =equal signs= and underlined text between ~tildes~. Small
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  represent super- and subscript text, respectively.

  More Transcriber’s Notes can be found at the end of the text.



  A
  MILITARY DICTIONARY
  AND
  GAZETTEER.

  COMPRISING

  ANCIENT AND MODERN MILITARY TECHNICAL TERMS, HISTORICAL ACCOUNTS
  OF ALL NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS, AS WELL AS ANCIENT WARLIKE
  TRIBES; ALSO NOTICES OF BATTLES FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD
  TO THE PRESENT TIME, WITH A CONCISE EXPLANATION OF
  TERMS USED IN HERALDRY AND THE OFFICES THEREOF.

  THE WORK ALSO GIVES VALUABLE GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION.

  COMPILED FROM THE BEST AUTHORITIES OF ALL NATIONS.

  WITH AN APPENDIX CONTAINING THE ARTICLES OF WAR, ETC.


  BY
  THOMAS WILHELM,
  CAPTAIN EIGHTH INFANTRY.

  REVISED EDITION.

  PHILADELPHIA:
  L. R. HAMERSLY & CO.
  1881.


  Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1880, by
  THOMAS WILHELM, U.S.A.,
  In the office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington.


  TO
  BREVET MAJOR-GENERAL AUGUST V. KAUTZ,
  COLONEL EIGHTH REGIMENT OF INFANTRY, U.S.A.,

  BY WHOSE SUGGESTIONS, ENCOURAGEMENT, AND AID THE WORK WAS UNDERTAKEN,
  PERSEVERED IN, AND COMPLETED,

  THIS COMPILATION
  IS, WITH RESPECT AND GRATITUDE, DEDICATED
  BY HIS OBEDIENT SERVANT,
  THE COMPILER.



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.


It is with no small degree of relief that the compiler of this work now
turns from a self-imposed task, involving some years of the closest
application, to write a brief preface, not as a necessity, but in
justice to the work and the numerous friends who have taken the warmest
interest in its progress and final completion.

It is inevitable that in the vast amount of patient and persistent labor
in a work of this kind, extending to 1386 pages, and containing 17,257
distinct articles, there should be a few errors, oversights, and
inconsistencies, notwithstanding all the vigilance to the contrary.

Condensation has been accomplished where it was possible to do so, and
repetition avoided to a great extent by reference, where further
information was contained in other articles of this book.

The contributions to the Regimental Library, which afforded the
opportunity for this compilation, of standard foreign works, were of
infinite value, and many thanks are tendered for them.

To G. & C. MERRIAM, Publishers, for the use of Webster’s Unabridged
Dictionary; J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO., Publishers, Philadelphia; D. VAN
NOSTRAND, Publisher, New York; Maj. WILLIAM A. MARYE, Ordnance
Department, U.S.A.; Maj. W. S. WORTH, Eighth Infantry, U.S.A.; Maj. D.
T. WELLS, Eighth Infantry, U.S.A.; Lieut. F. A. WHITNEY, Adjutant Eighth
Infantry, U.S.A.; Lieut. C. A. L. TOTTEN, Fourth Artillery, U.S.A.;
Lieut. C. M. BAILY, Quartermaster Eighth Infantry, U.S.A.; and Lieut. G.
P. SCRIVEN, Third Artillery, U.S.A., the compiler is indebted for
courteous assistance in the preparation of this volume.

  OCTOBER, 1879.



PREFACE TO THE REVISED EDITION.


In submitting this volume to the public it is deemed proper to say that
the design of the work is to bring together into one series, and in as
compact a form as possible for ready reference, such information as the
student of the science and art of war, persons interested in the local
or reserve forces, libraries, as well as the editors of the daily press,
should possess. In short, it is believed that the work will be useful to
individuals of all ranks and conditions.

The compiler has labored under some disadvantages in obtaining the
necessary information for this volume, and much is due to the
encouragement and assistance received from accomplished and eminent
officers, through which he was enabled to undertake the revision of the
first issue of this work with greater assurance; and among the officers
referred to, Lieut. WILLIAM R. QUINAN, of the Fourth Artillery, U.S.A.,
deserves especially to be mentioned. It may not be out of place here to
state that the compiler takes no credit to himself beyond the labor
contributed in the several years of research, and bringing forward to
date the matter requiring it, with such changes as the advance of time
and improvements demand.

As it was thought best to make this work purely military, all naval
references which appeared in the first edition have been eliminated.

  MAY, 1881.



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED IN THE COMPILATION OF THIS WORK.


ENGLISH AND AMERICAN WORKS.

  A HANDY DICTIONARY OF MILITARY TERMS--Knollys.

  AIDE MEMOIRE TO THE MILITARY SCIENCES--Originally edited by a
  Committee of the Royal Engineers in England (Revised and Enlarged).

  ANALYTICAL DIGEST OF THE MILITARY LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES--Scott.

  A TREATISE ON THE LAW OF EVIDENCE--Greenleaf.

  BEETON’S DICTIONARY OF UNIVERSAL BIOGRAPHY.

  BEETON’S DICTIONARY OF UNIVERSAL GEOGRAPHY.

  CHAMBERS’S ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

  CUSTOMS OF SERVICE FOR NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS OF THE
  ARMY--Kautz.

  CUSTOMS OF SERVICE FOR OFFICERS OF THE ARMY--Kautz.

  CLASSICAL DICTIONARY--Smith.

  DIGEST OF OPINIONS OF THE JUDGE-ADVOCATE-GENERAL--Winthrop.

  DICTIONARY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY--Gardner.

  DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES--Smith.

  DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN BIOGRAPHY AND MYTHOLOGY--Smith.

  DICTIONARY OF GREEK AND ROMAN GEOGRAPHY--Smith.

  DICTIONARY OF ARTS, MANUFACTURES, AND MINES--Ure.

  DICTIONARY OF EVERY DAYS DIFFICULTIES--Shilton.

  DICTIONARY OF SCIENCE, LITERATURE, AND ART--Brande.

  ELEMENTS OF THE ART AND SCIENCE OF WAR--Wheeler.

  ELEMENTS OF MILITARY ARTS AND SCIENCES--Halleck.

  ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

  FRENCH AND ENGLISH PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY--Spiers and Surenne.

  FIELD EXERCISE (English), 1870.

  FIELD-BOOK OF THE REVOLUTION--Lossing.

  HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY--Roberts.

  HAYDN’S DICTIONARY OF DATES--Payne.

  HAYDN’S DICTIONARY OF SCIENCE--Payne.

  HAYDN’S DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE--Payne.

  HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES--Bancroft.

  HISTORY OF THE WAR IN THE PENINSULA AND IN THE SOUTH OF
  FRANCE--Napier.

  HISTORY OF ENGLAND--Knight.

  HISTORY OF THE REBELLION--Tenney.

  INFANTRY, CAVALRY, AND ARTILLERY TACTICS, U.S.A.

  INSTRUCTIONS FOR FIELD ARTILLERY.

  JOMINI’S ART OF WAR--Translated from the French by Captains Mendell
  and Craighill, U.S.A.

  JOMINI’S TREATISE ON GRAND MILITARY OPERATIONS, OR A CRITICAL AND
  MILITARY HISTORY OF THE WARS OF FREDERICK THE GREAT--Translated by
  Colonel S. B. Holabird, U.S.A.

  JOHNSON’S NEW UNIVERSAL ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

  JUDGE-ADVOCATE AND RECORDER’S GUIDE--Regan.

  LAW DICTIONARY--Bouvier.

  LIPPINCOTT’S PRONOUNCING GAZETTEER OF THE WORLD--Thomas.

  MANUAL FOR ENGINEER TROOPS--Duane.

  MAXIMS OF WAR--Napoleon.

  MILITARY BRIDGES--Haupt.

  MILITARY CATECHISM AND HAND-BOOK--Walshe.

  MILITARY DICTIONARY--Duane.

  MILITARY DICTIONARY--Scott.

  MILITARY ENGINEERING--Mahan.

  MILITARY LAW AND COURT-MARTIAL--Benet.

  MILITARY MISCELLANY--Marshall.

  MILITARY SCHOOLS AND COURSES OF INSTRUCTION IN THE SCIENCE AND ART OF
  WAR--Barnard.

  NATIVE RACES OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE--Bancroft.

  NAVAL AND MILITARY TECHNICAL DICTIONARY OF THE FRENCH LANGUAGE--Burns.

  ORDNANCE AND GUNNERY--Benton.

  PICTORIAL FIELD-BOOK OF THE WAR OF 1812--Lossing.

  PRACTICAL TREATISE ON ATTACK AND DEFENSE--Jebb.

  QUEEN’S REGULATIONS AND ORDERS FOR THE ARMY (British).

  REPORT OF COMMISSIONERS OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, 1870.

  REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE, 1878.

  SHIFTS AND EXPEDIENTS OF CAMP-LIFE--Lord and Baines.

  THE ARMIES OF EUROPE--McClellan.

  THE LAST CENTURY OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY, 1767-1867--Fiwald.

  THE MILITARY LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES--Callan.

  THE SOLDIER’S POCKET-BOOK FOR FIELD-SERVICE--Major-General Sir G.
  Wolseley.

  UNITED STATES ARMY REGULATIONS.

  UNITED STATES BRIDGE EQUIPAGE--Prepared by a Board of Engineer
  Officers--Lieutenant W. R. Quinan, 4th U. S. Artillery.

  UNITED STATES REVISED STATUTES.

  WEBSTER’S DICTIONARY--G. & C. Merriam.


GERMAN WORKS.

  DIENST-VORSCHRIFTEN DER KÖNIGLICH PREUSSISCHEN ARMEE--Karl von
  Helldorff.

  DIE LEHRE VOM NEUEREN FESTUNGSKRIEG--W. Rüstow.

  GRUNDZÜGE DER TAKTIK DER DREI WAFFEN, INFANTERIE, KAVALLERIE, UND
  ARTILLERIE--Dr. H. v. Brandt.

  HEERWESEN UND INFANTERIEDIENST DER KÖNIGLICH PREUSSISCHEN ARMEE--A. v.
  Witzleben.

  KRIEGSFEUERWERKEREI ZUM GEBRAUCH FÜR DIE KÖNIGLICH PREUSSISCHEN
  ARTILLERIE--A. Bath.

  KRIEGSWÖRTERBUCH--Carl Ad. Loehr.

  MILITAIR CONVERSATIONS-LEXIKON--Hans Eggert Willibald von der Lühe.


FRENCH WORKS.

  ENCYCLOPÉDIE MILITAIRE ET MARITIME.

  GÉOGRAPHIE PHISIQUE, HISTORIQUE ET MILITAIRE--Théophile Lava.

  LÉGISLATION ET ADMINISTRATION MILITAIRES--M. Léon Guillot.

  SUR LA FORMATION DES TROUPES POUR LE COMBAT--Jomini.



IMPORTANT MAXIMS.


Misfortune will certainly fall upon the land where the wealth of the
tax-gatherer or the greedy gambler in stocks stands, in public
estimation, above the uniform of the brave man who sacrifices his life,
health, or fortune in the defense of his country.

Officers should feel a conviction that resignation, bravery, and
faithful attention to duty are virtues without which no glory is
possible, no army is respectable, and that firmness amid reverses is
more honorable than enthusiasm in success.

It is not well to create a too great contempt for the enemy, lest the
_morale_ of the soldier should be shaken if he encounter an obstinate
resistance.

It would seem to be easy to convince brave men that death comes more
surely to those who fly in disorder than to those who remain together
and present a firm front to the enemy, or who rally promptly when their
lines have been for the instant broken.

Courage should be recompensed and honored, the different grades in rank
respected, and discipline should exist in the sentiments and convictions
rather than in external forms only.--_Jomini._

An army without discipline is but a mob in uniform, more dangerous to
itself than to its enemy. Should any one from ignorance not perceive the
immense advantages that arise from a good discipline, it will be
sufficient to observe the alterations that have happened in Europe since
the year 1700.--_Saxe._

If the first duty of a state is its own security, the second is the
security of neighboring states whose existence is necessary for its own
preservation.--_Jomini’s “Life of Napoleon.”_

A good general, a well-organized system, good instruction, and severe
discipline, aided by effective establishments, will always make good
troops, independently of the cause for which they fight. At the same
time, a love of country, a spirit of enthusiasm, a sense of national
honor, will operate upon young soldiers with advantage.

The officer who obeys, whatever may be the nature or extent of his
command, will always stand excused executing implicitly the orders which
have been given to him.

Every means should be taken to attach the soldier to his colors. This is
best accomplished by showing consideration and respect to the old
soldier.

The first qualification of a soldier is fortitude under fatigue and
privation. Courage is only the second; hardship, poverty, and want are
the best schools for a soldier.

Troops, whether halted, or encamped, or on the march, should be always
in favorable position, possessing the essentials required for a field of
battle.

Some men are so physically and morally constituted as to see everything
through a highly-colored medium. They raise up a picture in the mind on
every slight occasion, and give to every trivial occurrence a dramatic
interest. But whatever knowledge, or talent, or courage, or other
good qualities such men may possess, nature has not formed them
for the command of armies or the direction of great military
operations.--_Napoleon’s “Maxims of War.”_



MILITARY DICTIONARY.



A.


=Aachen.= See AIX-LA-CHAPELLE.

=Aar.= A river in Switzerland, flows into the Rhine opposite and near
Waldshut, in Aargau. Prince Charles, while crossing the river, August
17, 1799, was repulsed by the French generals Ney and Heudelet.

=Aarau.= A city in Switzerland. Peace was here declared, July 18, 1712,
ending the war between the cantons Zurich and Berne on one side, and
Luzerne, Uri, Schuyz, Unterwalden, and Zug on the other.

=Abad= (_Abadides_). A line of Moorish kings who reigned in Seville from
1026 to 1090.

=Abaisse.= In heraldry, when the fesse or any other armorial figure is
depressed, or situated below the centre of the shield, it is said to be
_abaisse_ (“lowered”).

=Abandon.= In a military sense, used in the relinquishment of a military
post, district, or station, or the breaking up of a military
establishment. To abandon any fort, post, guard, arms, ammunition, or
colors without good cause is punishable.

=Abase, To.= An old word signifying to lower a flag. _Abaisser_ is in
use in the French marine, and both may be derived from the still older
_abeigh_, to cast down, to humble.

=Abatement.= In heraldry, is a mark placed over a portion of the
paternal coat of arms, indicating some base or ungentlemanly act on the
part of the bearer.

=Abatis=, or =Abattis=. A means of defense formed by cutting off the
smaller branches of trees felled in the direction from which the enemy
may be expected. The ends of the larger branches are sharpened and the
butts of the limbs or trees fastened by crochet picket, or by imbedding
in the earth, so that they cannot be easily removed. Abatis is generally
used in parts of a ditch or intrenchment to delay the enemy under fire.

=Abblast.= See ARBALEST.

=Abblaster.= See ARBALIST.

=Abdivtes.= A piratical people descended from the Saracens, who lived
south of Mount Ida (Psilorati), in the island of Crete (Candia), where
they established themselves in 825.

=Abduction= (_Fr._). Diminution; diminishing the front of a line or
column by breaking off a division, subdivision, or files, in order to
avoid some obstacle.

=Abencerrages.= A Moorish tribe which occupied the kingdom of Granada.
Granada was disturbed by incessant quarrels between this tribe and the
Zegris from 1480 to 1492. They were finally extinguished by
Abou-Abdoullah, or Boabdil, the last Moorish king of Granada, and the
same who was dethroned by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492.

=Abensburg.= A small town of Bavaria, on the Abens, 18 miles southwest
of Ratisbon. Here Napoleon defeated the Austrians, April 20, 1809.

=Aberconway=, or =Conway=. A maritime city of the Gauls in England,
fortified by William the Conqueror, and taken by Cromwell in 1645.

=Abet.= In a military sense it is a grave crime to aid or abet in mutiny
or sedition, or excite resistance against lawful orders.

=Abgersate.= Fortress of the Osrhoene, in Mesopotamia. The Persians took
it by assault in the year 534.

=Abii.= A Scythian tribe which inhabited the shores of the Jaxartes, to
the northeast of Sogdiana. They were vanquished by Alexander the Great.

=Abipones.= A tribe of Indians living in the Argentine Confederation,
who were formerly numerous and powerful, but are now reduced to a small
number.

=Able-bodied.= In a military sense applies to one who is physically
competent as a soldier.

=Ablecti.= Ancient military term applied to a select body of men taken
from the _extraordinarii_ of the Roman army to serve as a body-guard to
the commanding general or the consul. The guard consisted of 40 mounted
and 160 dismounted men.

=Abo.= A Russian city and seaport, on the Aurajoki near its entrance
into the Gulf of Bothnia. It formerly belonged to Sweden, but was taken
with the whole of Finland by the Russians in the war begun by Sweden in
1741. By a treaty of peace concluded hero in 1743 the conquered
possessions were restored to Sweden. They were ceded to Russia in 1809.

=Abolla.= A warm kind of military garment, lined or doubled, worn by
both Greeks and Romans.

=Abou-girgeh.= A city of Upper Egypt where the French defeated the
Egyptians in 1799.

=Aboukir= (anc. _Canopus_). A village of Egypt on a promontory at the
western extremity of the bay of the same name, 15 miles northeast of
Alexandria. In the bay Nelson defeated the French fleet, August 1, 1798.
This engagement, which resulted in a loss to the French of 11
line-of-battle ships, is known as the “battle of the Nile.” In 1801 a
British expedition under Sir Ralph Abercromby landed at Aboukir, and
captured the place after an obstinate and sanguinary conflict with the
French (March 8). Here also a Turkish army of 15,000 men was defeated by
5000 French under Bonaparte, July 25, 1799.

=Aboumand.= Village of Upper Egypt, near the river Nile, where the
French fought the Arabs in 1799.

=About.= A technical word to express the movement by which a body of
troops or artillery carriages change front.

=Abraham, Heights of.= Near Quebec, Lower Canada. In the memorable
engagement which took place here September 13, 1759, the French under
Gen. Montcalm were defeated by the English under Gen. Wolfe, who was
killed in the moment of victory.

=Abri= (_Fr._). Shelter, cover, concealment; arm-sheds in a camp secure
from rain, dust, etc.; place of security from the effect of shot,
shells, or attack.

=Absence, Leave of.= The permission which officers of the army obtain to
absent themselves from duty. In the U. S. service an officer is entitled
to 30 days’ leave in each year on full pay. This time he may permit to
accumulate for a period not exceeding 4 years. An officer, however, may
enjoy 5 months’ continuous leave on full pay, provided the fifth month
of such leave is wholly distinct from the four-year period within and
for which the 4 months’ absence with full pay was enjoyed. An officer on
leave over this time is entitled to half-pay only.

=Absent.= A term used in military returns in accounting for the
deficiency of any given number of officers or soldiers, and is usually
distinguished under two heads, viz.: _Absent with leave_, such as
officers with permission, or enlisted men on furlough. _Absent without
leave_; men who desert are sometimes reported _absent without leave_, to
bring their crimes under cognizance of regimental, garrison, or
field-officers’ courts; thus, under mitigating circumstances, trial by
general court-martial is avoided. Absence without leave entails
forfeiture of pay during such absence, unless it is excused as
unavoidable. An officer absent without leave for three months may be
dropped from the rolls of the army by the President, and is not eligible
to reappointment.

=Absolute Force of Gunpowder.= Is measured by the pressure it exerts on
its environment when it exactly fills the space in which it is fired.
Various attempts have been made to determine this force experimentally
with widely different results. Robins estimated the pressure on the
square inch at 1000 atmospheres, Hutton at 1800, and Count Rumford as
high as 100,000 atmospheres. While Rodman, by experiments upon strong
cast-iron shells, verified the accuracy of Rumford’s _formulas_, he
found that his estimate of the force was greatly in error. According to
Rodman the pressure is approximately 14,000 atmospheres. Dr. Woodbridge,
another American philosopher and inventor, has shown that, fired in
small quantities, the force of gunpowder does not exceed 6200
atmospheres. This agrees closely with the conclusion arrived at by the
English “Committee on Explosives,” 1875, who found that even in large
guns the force did not exceed 42 tons.

=Absorokas.= A tribe of North American Indians. See CROWS.

=Absterdam Projectile.= See PROJECTILE.

=Abydus.= An ancient city of Mysia on the Hellespont nearly opposite
Sestus on the European shore. Near this town Xerxes placed the bridge of
boats by which his troops were conveyed across the channel to the town
of Sestus, 480 B.C.

=Abyssinia.= A country of Eastern Africa, forming an elevated table-land
and containing many fertile valleys. Theodore II., the king of this
country, having maltreated and imprisoned some English subjects, an
expedition under Lord Napier was sent against him from Bombay in 1867.
On April 14, 1868, the mountain fortress of Magdala was stormed and
taken with but little trouble, and Theodore was found dead on the hill,
having killed himself. The country is at present governed by Emperor
John of Ethiopia, who was crowned in 1872.

=Academies, Military.= See MILITARY ACADEMIES.

=Accelerator.= A cannon in which several charges are successively fired
to give an increasing velocity to the projectile while moving in the
bore. See MULTI-CHARGE GUN.

=Accessible.= Easy of access or approach. A place or fort is said to be
accessible when it can be approached with a hostile force by land or
sea.

=Accintus.= A word in ancient times signifying the complete
accoutrements of a soldier.

=Accolade.= The ceremonious act of conferring knighthood in ancient
times. It consisted of an embrace and gentle blow with the sword on the
shoulder of the person on whom the honor of knighthood was being
conferred.

=Accord.= The conditions under which a fortress or command of troops is
surrendered.

=Accoutre.= To furnish with accoutrements.

=Accoutrements.= Dress, equipage, trappings. Specifically, the
equipments of a soldier, except arms and clothing.

=Accused.= In a military sense, the designation of one who is arraigned
before a military court.

=Acerræ= (now _Acera_). A city in the kingdom of Naples, taken and
burned by Hannibal in 216 B.C. In 90 B.C. the Romans defeated under its
walls the allied rebels commanded by Papius.

=Acerræ.= A city of the Gauls, taken by Marcellus in 222 B.C.

=Achæan League.= A confederacy which existed from very early times among
the twelve states of the province of Achaia, in the north of the
Peloponnesus. It was broken up after the death of Alexander the Great,
but was set on foot again by some of the original cities, 280 B.C., the
epoch of its rise into great historical importance; for from this time
it gained strength, and finally spread over the whole Peloponnesus,
though not without much opposition, principally on the part of
Lacedæmon. It was finally dissolved by the Romans, on the event of the
capture of Corinth by Mummius, 147 B.C. The two most celebrated leaders
of this league were Aratus, the principal instrument of its early
aggrandizement, and Philopœmen, the contemporary and rival, in military
reputation, of Scipio and Hannibal.

=Achern.= A city in the grand duchy of Baden, on the river Acher. Near
this place a monument marks the spot where Marshal Turenne was killed by
a random shot in 1675.

=Acheron.= A small stream in ancient Bruttium. In 330 B.C., Alexander,
king of Epirus, was killed while crossing it.

=Acinaces.= A short sword used by the Persians.

=Aclides.= In Roman antiquity, a kind of missile weapon with a thong
fixed to it whereby it might be drawn back again.

=Acoluthi.= In military antiquity, was a title given in the Grecian
empire to the captain or commander of the body-guards appointed for the
security of the emperor’s palace.

=Aconite.= A poisonous plant. Several ancient races poisoned their
arrows with an extract from this plant.

=Acontium.= In Grecian antiquity, a kind of dart or javelin resembling
the Roman _spiculum_.

=Acquereaux= (_Fr._). A machine of war, which was used in the Middle
Ages to throw stones.

=Acqui.= A walled town of the Sardinian states on the river Bormida in
the division of Alessandria. It was taken by the Spaniards in 1745,
retaken by the Piedmontese in 1746; it was dismantled by the French, who
defeated the Austrians and Piedmontese here in 1794.

=Acquit.= To release or set free from an obligation, accusation, guilt,
censure, suspicion, or whatever devolves upon a person as a charge or
duty; as, the court acquits the accused. This word has also the
reflexive signification of “to bear, or conduct one’s self;” as, the
soldier acquitted himself well in battle.

=Acquittance Roll.= In the British service, a roll containing the names
of the men of each troop or company or regiment, showing the debts and
credits, with the signature of each man, and certificate of the officer
commanding it.

=Acre=, or =St. Jean d’Acre=. A seaport town of Palestine (in ancient
times the celebrated city of Ptolemais), which was the scene of many
sieges. It was last stormed and taken by the British in 1840. Acre was
gallantly defended by Djezzar Pacha against Bonaparte in July, 1798,
till relieved by Sir Smith, who resisted twelve attempts by the French,
between March 16 and May 20, 1799.

=Acre=, or =Acre-fight=. An old duel fought by warriors between the
frontiers of England and Scotland, with sword and lance. This dueling
was also called _camp-fight_.

=Acrobalistes= (_Fr._). A name given by the ancients to warlike races,
such as the Parthians and Armenians, who shot arrows from a long
distance.

=Acropolis.= In ancient Greece, the name given to the citadel or
fortress of a city, usually built on the summit of a hill. The most
celebrated was that of Athens, remains of which still exist.

=Acs.= A village in Hungary on the right bank of the Danube, noted as
the scene of several battles in the Hungarian revolution, that of August
3, 1849, being the most important.

=Acting Assistant Surgeons.= See SURGEONS, ACTING ASSISTANT.

=Action.= An engagement between two armies, or bodies of troops. The
word is likewise used to signify some memorable act done by an officer,
soldier, detachment, or party.

=Actium= (now _Azio_). A town of ancient Greece in Arcanania, near the
entrance of the Ambracian Gulf. It became famous for the great naval
engagement fought near here in 31 B.C. between Octavius and Antony, in
which the former was victorious.

=Active Service.= Duty against an enemy; operations in his presence. Or
in the present day it denotes serving on full pay, on the active list,
in contradistinction to those who are virtually retired, and placed on
the retired list.

=Activity.= In a military sense, denotes attention, labor, diligence,
and study.

=Acto=, or =Acton=. A kind of defensive tunic, made of quilted leather
or other strong material, formerly worn under the outer dress and even
under a coat of mail.

=Act of Grace.= In Great Britain, an act of Parliament for a general and
free pardon to deserters from the service and others.

=Actuarius.= A name given by the Romans to officers charged with the
supplying of provisions to troops.

=Adacted.= Applies to stakes, or piles, driven into the earth by large
malls shod with iron, as in securing ramparts or pontons.

=Adda.= A stream in Italy. The Romans defeated the Gauls on its banks in
223 B.C.

=Addiscombe Seminary.= An institution near Croydon, Surrey, England, for
the education of young gentlemen intended for the military service of
the East India Company; closed in 1861.

=Aden.= A free port on the southwest corner of Arabia. It was captured
by England in 1839, and is now used as a coal depot for Indian steamers.

=Aderbaidjan= (_Fr._). A mountainous province of Persia, celebrated for
raising the finest horses in the province for army purposes.

=Adige= (anc. _Athesis_). A river in Northern Italy formed by numberless
streamlets from the Helvetian Alps. In 563 the Romans defeated the Goths
and Franks on its banks. Gen. Massena crossed it in 1806.

=Adis.= A city in Africa. Xantippe, chief of the Carthaginians, defeated
under its walls the Romans commanded by Regulus.

=Adit.= A passage under ground by which miners approach the part they
intend to sap.

=Adjeighur.= A fortress in Bundelcund, which was captured in 1809 by a
force under the command of Col. Gabriel Martindell.

=Adjourn.= To suspend business for a time, as from one day to another;
said of military courts. _Adjournment without day_ (_sine die_),
indefinite postponement.

=Adjutant= (from _adjuvo_, “to help”). A regimental staff-officer with
the rank of lieutenant, appointed by the regimental commander to assist
him in the execution of all the details of the regiment or post. He is
the channel of official communication. It is his duty to attend daily on
the commanding officer for orders or instructions of any kind that are
to be issued to the command, and promulgate the same in writing after
making a complete record thereof. He has charge of the books, files, and
men of the headquarters; keeps the rosters; parades and inspects all
escorts, guards, and other armed parties previous to their proceeding on
duty. He should be competent to instruct a regiment in every part of the
field exercise, should understand the internal economy of his corps, and
should notice every irregularity or deviation from the established rules
or regulations. He should, of course, be an officer of experience, and
should be selected with reference to special fitness, as so much depends
upon his manner and thoughtfulness in the exercise of the various and
important duties imposed upon him. Unexceptionable deportment is
especially becoming to the adjutant.

=Adjutant-General.= An officer of distinction selected to assist the
general of an army in all his operations. The principal staff-officer
of the U. S. army. The principal staff-officers of generals of lower
rank are called assistant adjutant-generals.

=Adjutant-General’s Department.= In the United States, consists of 1
adjutant-general with the rank of brigadier-general; 2 assistant
adjutant-generals, colonels; 4 lieutenant-colonels, and 10 majors; also
about 400 enlisted clerks and messengers. The officers are generally on
duty with general officers who command corps, divisions, departments,
etc. “They shall also perform the duties of inspectors when
circumstances require it.” The lowest grades must be selected from the
captains of the army.

=Administration.= Conduct, management; in military affairs, the
execution of the duties of an office.

=Administration, Council of.= A board of officers periodically assembled
at a post for the administration of certain business.

=Admissions.= In a military sense, the judge-advocate is authorized when
he sees proper to admit what a prisoner expects to prove by absent
witnesses.

=Adobe= (_Sp._). An unburnt brick, dried in the sun, made from earth of
a loamy character, containing about two-thirds fine sand mixed
intimately with one-third or less of clayey dust or fine sand.

=Adour.= A river in the southwest of France, which Lord Wellington,
after driving the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte across the Pyrenees,
passed in the face of all opposition, on the 26th of February, 1814.

=Adrana.= A river in Germany, at present called Eder. Germanicus
defeated the Germans on its bank in 15.

=Adrianople.= A Turkish city named after the Emperor Adrian;
unsuccessfully besieged by the Goths in the 4th century; the army of
Murad I. took the city in 1361; unconditionally surrendered to the
Russians in August, 1829; peace was declared in this city between Russia
and Turkey, September 14, 1829, and the city relinquished to the Turks.

=Adrumetum=, or =Hadrumetum=. An ancient African city, now in ruins,
situated on the Mediterranean, southeast from Carthage. The Moors took
this city from the Romans in 549, but it was retaken soon after by a
priest named Paul.

=Advance.= Before in place, or beforehand in time; used for advanced;
as, advance-guard, or that before the main guard or body of an army; to
move forward.

=Advanced Covered Way.= Is a _terre plein_ on the exterior of the
advanced ditch, similar to the first covered way.

=Advanced Ditch.= Is an excavation beyond the glacis of the _enceinte_,
having its surface on the prolongation of that slope, that an enemy may
find no shelter when in the ditch.

=Advanced Guard.= A detachment of troops which precedes the march of the
main body.

=Advanced Guard Equipage.= See PONTONS.

=Advanced Lunettes.= Works resembling bastions or ravelins, having faces
or flanks. They are formed upon or beyond the glacis.

=Advanced Works.= Are such as are constructed beyond the covered way and
glacis, but within range of the musketry of the main works.

=Advancement.= In a military sense, signifies honor, promotion, or
preferment in the army, regiment, or company.

=Advantage Ground.= That ground which affords the greatest facility for
annoyance or resistance.

=Adversary.= Generally applied to an enemy, but strictly an opponent in
single combat.

=Advising to Desert.= Punishable with death or otherwise, as a
court-martial may direct. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 51.

=Advocate, Judge-.= See JUDGE-ADVOCATE.

=Adynati.= Ancient name for invalid soldiers receiving pension from the
public treasury.

=Ægide= (_Æges_). A name, according to Homer, for a protecting covering
wound around the left arm in the absence of a shield; used by Jupiter,
Minerva, and Apollo.

=Ægolethron= (_Gr._). A plant. This word means goat and death. It was
believed by the ancients that this plant would kill goats only, if eaten
by them. Xenophon reports that the soldiers of the army of the “Ten
Thousand” tasted of some honey prepared from this plant which caused
them to be affected with hallucinations.

=Ægospotamos= (“Stream of the Goat”). A small river flowing into the
Hellespont, in the Thracian Chersonese; is famous for the defeat of the
Athenian fleet by the Lacedæmonians under Lysander, which put an end to
the Peloponnesian war, and to the predominance of Athens in Greece, 405
B.C.

=Æneatores.= In military antiquity, the musicians in an army, including
those who sounded the trumpets, horns, etc.

=Ærarium Militare.= In Roman antiquity, the war treasury of Rome,
founded by Augustus; in addition to other revenues, the one-hundredth
part of all merchandise sold in Rome was paid into it.

=Æro.= A basket used by the Roman soldiers to carry earth in to
construct fortifications.

=Ærumnula.= A wooden pole or fork, introduced among the Romans by Consul
Marius. Each soldier was provided with one of these poles, which had
attached thereto a saw, hatchet, a sack of wheat, and baggage; and he
was compelled to carry it on a march.

=Affair.= An action or engagement, not of sufficient magnitude to be
termed a battle.

=Affamer= (_Fr._). To besiege a place so closely as to starve the
garrison and inhabitants.

=Affidavit.= In military law is an oath duly subscribed before any
person authorized to administer it. In the U. S. service, in the absence
of a civil officer any commissioned officer is empowered to administer
an oath.

=Afforciament.= An old term for a fortress or stronghold.

=Afghanistan.= A large country in Central Asia, at war with England
1838, and 1878-79.

=Afrancesados= (_Sp._). Name given to the Spaniards who upheld the oath
of allegiance to king Joseph Bonaparte; also called Josephins (in the
Peninsular war).

=Aga.= Rank of an officer in the Turkish army; the same as a general
with us.

=Age.= In a military sense, a young man must be 14 years old before he
can become an officer in the English army, or be entered as a cadet at
Woolwich, in the English military academy. For admission to the military
academy at West Point, U. S., the age is from 17 to 22 years. Men are
enlisted for soldiers at from 17 to 45 in the English army, and in the
U. S. army at from 18 to 35. Officers in the U. S. army may be retired,
at the discretion of the President, at 62 years of age.

=Agema= (_Gr._). In the ancient military art, a kind of soldiery,
chiefly in the Macedonian army. The word is Greek, and denotes
vehemence, to express the strength and eagerness of this corps.

=Agen.= Principal place of the department Lot-et-Garonne, France, on the
right bank of the river Garonne, which has a city of the same name, and
was the scene of many battles.

=Agency.= A certain proportion of money which is ordered to be
subtracted from the pay and allowances of the British army, for
transacting the business of the several regiments comprising it.

=Agent, Army.= A person in the civil department of the British army,
between the paymaster-general and the paymaster of the regiment, through
whom every regimental concern of a pecuniary nature is transacted.

=Agger.= In ancient military writings, denotes the middle part of a
military road raised into a ridge, with a gentle slope on each side to
make a drain for the water, and keep the way dry; it is also used for a
military road. Agger also denotes a work or fortification, used both for
the defense and attack of towns, camps, etc., termed among the moderns,
lines. Agger is also used for a bank or wall erected against the sea or
some great river to confine or keep it within bounds, and called by
modern writers, dam, sea-wall.

=Agiades.= In the Turkish armies are a kind of pioneers, or rather field
engineers, employed in fortifying the camp, etc.

=Agiem-clich.= A very crooked sabre, rounded near the point; an arm much
in use in Persia and Turkey.

=Agincourt=, or =Azincourt=. A village of France, celebrated for a great
battle fought near it in 1415, wherein Henry V. of England defeated the
French.

=Agmen.= Roman name for an army on the march.

=Agminalis.= Name given by the ancients to a horse which carried
baggage, equipments, etc., on its back; now termed pack-horse.

=Agnadello.= Village in the duchy of Milan, on a canal between the
rivers Adda and Serio, celebrated by the victory of Louis XII., king of
France, over the Venetian and Papal troops in 1509, and by a battle
between Prince Eugene and the Duke of Vendôme in 1705.

=Agrigente= (now _Girgenti_). City in Sicily, situated on the
Mediterranean; sacked by the Carthaginians under Amilcar in 400 B.C.,
and taken twice by the Romans in 262 and 210 B.C.

=Aguebelle.= City in the province of Maurienne, in Savoy. The French and
Spaniards defeated the troops of the Duke of Savoy in 1742.

=Aguerri= (_Fr._). A term applied to an officer or soldier experienced
in war.

=Agustina.= See SARAGOSSA, MAID OF.

=Ahmednuggur.= A strong fortress in the Deccan, 30 miles from Poonah,
which was formerly in the possession of Scindia, but fell to the British
arms during the campaign conducted by Gen. Wellesley.

=Aidan= (_Prince_). See SCOTLAND.

=Aid-de-camp.= An officer selected by a general to carry orders; also to
represent him in correspondence and in directing movements.

=Aid-major= (_Fr._). The adjutant of a regiment.

=Aigremore.= A term used by the artificer in the laboratory, to express
the charcoal in a state fitted for the making of powder.

=Aiguille= (_Fr._). An instrument used by engineers to pierce a rock for
the lodgment of powder, as in a mine, or to mine a rock, so as to
excavate and make roads.

=Aiguillettes.= A decoration, consisting of bullion cords and loops,
which was formerly worn on the right shoulder of general officers, and
is now confined to the officers of household cavalry; also worn in the
U. S. army by officers of the adjutant-general’s department,
aids-de-camp, and adjutants of regiments.

=Aiguillon.= A city in France; while in the possession of the English in
1345, it was besieged by the Duke of Normandy, son of Philip de Valois.
According to some authors, cannons were used on this occasion for the
first time in France.

=Aile= (_Fr._). A wing or flank of an army or fortification.

=Ailettes= (_Fr._). Literally “little wings,” were appendages to the
armor worn behind or at the side of the shoulders by knights in the 13th
century. They were made of leather covered with cloth, and fastened by
silk laces. They are supposed to have been worn as a defense to the
shoulders in war.

=Aim.= The act of bringing a musket, piece of ordnance, or any other
missive weapon, to its proper line of direction with the object intended
to be struck.

=Aim-frontlet.= A piece of wood hollowed out to fit the middle of a gun,
to make it of an equal height with the breech; formerly made use of by
the gunners, to level and direct their pieces.

=Aiming Drill.= A military exercise to teach men to aim fire-arms. Great
importance is justly attached to this preliminary step in target
practice.

=Aiming-stand.= An instrument used in teaching the theory of aiming with
a musket. It usually consists of a tripod with a device mounted upon it,
which holds the gun and allows it to be pointed in any direction.

=Ainadin.= Name of a field near Damas in Syria, celebrated by a battle
on July 25, 633, in which Khaled, chief of the Saracens, defeated
Verdan, a general of the Roman army. Verdan lost 50,000 men and was
decapitated.

=Ain-Beda= (Africa). An engagement at this place between the French and
Arabs in October, 1833.

=Ain Taguin.= “Spot of the little desert,” in the province of Algiers;
here the Duke d’Aumale surprised and dispersed the troops of
Abd-el-Kader.

=Air-cylinder.= A pneumatic buffer used in America to absorb the recoil
of large guns. For 10-inch guns, one cylinder is used; for the 15-inch,
two. They are placed between the chassis rails, to which they are firmly
secured by diagonal braces. A piston traversing the cylinder is attached
to the rear transom of the top carriage. When the gun recoils the
piston-head is drawn backwards in the cylinder, and the recoil is
absorbed by the compression of the air behind it. Small holes in the
piston-head allow the air to slowly escape while the gun is brought to
rest. The _hydraulic buffer_ largely used abroad operates in the same
way, water being used in place of air.

=Air, Resistance of.= The resistance which the air offers to a
projectile in motion. See PROJECTILES, THEORY OF.

=Aire.= A military position on the Adour, in the south of France, where
the French were defeated by the English under Lord Hill, on March 2,
1814.

=Air-gun.= An instrument resembling a musket, used to discharge bullets
by the elastic force of compressed air.

=Aix.= A small island on the coast of France between the Isle of Oleron
and the continent. It is 12 miles northwest of Rochefort, and 11 miles
from Rochelle. On it are workshops for military convicts.

=Aix-la-Chapelle= (Ger. _Aachen_). A district in the Prussian province
of the Lower Rhine. Here Charlemagne was born in 742, and died in 814.
The city was taken by the French in 1792; retaken by the Austrians in
1793; by the French 1794; reverted to Prussia 1814. Congress held by
the sovereigns of Austria, Russia, and Prussia, assisted by ministers
from England and France, at Aix-la-Chapelle, and convention signed
October 9, 1818.

=Akerman= (Bessarabia). After being several times taken it was ceded to
Russia, 1812. Here the celebrated treaty between Russia and Turkey was
concluded in 1826.

=Aketon.= Another name for a portion of armor, used in the feudal times,
called the _gambeson_ (which see).

=Akhalzikh= (Armenia). Near here Prince Paskiewitch defeated the Turks
Aug. 24, and gained the city, Aug. 28, 1828.

=Akindschi.= A sort of Turkish cavalry, employed during the war between
the Turks and the German emperors.

=Aklat.= A small town in Asiatic Turkey, taken by Eddin in 1228, and by
the Turks in the 14th century.

=Akmerjid.= A city in the Crimea; an ancient residence of the khan of
Tartary; taken by the Russians in 1771.

=Akoulis.= A city in Armenia, often pillaged by the Persians and Turks;
taken in 1752 by the Persian general Azad-Khan, by whom the majority of
the inhabitants were put to the sword.

=Akrebah.= At this place, about the year 630, Khaled, general of the
Mussulman troops, fought the army of a new prophet named Mosseilamah,
who perished in the combat.

=Ala.= According to Latin authors, this word signifies the wing of an
army, _i.e._, the flanks, on which were placed troops furnished by the
allied nations; also sometimes used to designate a brigade of cavalry
occupying the same position in battle.

=Alabama.= One of the Southern States of the American confederacy, is
bounded on the north by Tennessee, east by Georgia, south by Florida and
the Gulf of Mexico, and west by Mississippi. The celebrated exploring
expedition of De Soto in 1541 is believed to have been the first visit
of the white man to the wilds of Alabama. In the beginning of the 18th
century the French built a fort on Mobile Bay, but the city of that name
was not commenced till nine years later (1711). In 1763, the entire
French possessions east of the Mississippi (except New Orleans) fell
into the hands of the English. Alabama was incorporated first with
Georgia, afterwards, in 1802, with the Mississippi Territory; but
finally, in 1819, it became an independent member of the great American
confederacy. In 1813 and 1814 the Creek Indians waged war on the
settlers and massacred nearly 400 whites who had taken refuge at Fort
Mimms, on the Alabama River. They were, however, soon reduced to
subjection by Gen. Jackson, and after their defeat at Horseshoe Bend,
March, 1814, the greater portion of their territory was taken from them,
and they were subsequently removed to the Indian Territory. On the
outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the temporary capital of the
Confederate States was established at Montgomery, Ala., but it was soon
afterwards removed to Richmond, Va.

=Alabanda= (_Bour Dogan_, or Arab _Hissar_). A city in Asia Minor;
destroyed by Labienus, a Roman general, in 38 B.C.

=Alacays.= Name given by the ancients to a kind of soldiery, and
afterwards to servants following an army.

=Alage.= A mounted guard of the Byzantine emperors, doing duty in the
palace of Constantinople, and defending, in case of danger, the person
of the emperor.

=Alaibeg.= A Turkish commander of regiments of levied troops.

=Alamo, Fort=, or =The Alamo=. A celebrated fort in Bexar County, near
San Antonio, Texas, where a small garrison of Texans bravely resisted a
body of Mexicans ten times their number, and perished to a man, March 6,
1836. This spot has hence been called the Thermopylæ of Texas, and
“Remember the Alamo!” was used as the battle-cry of the Texans in their
war of independence.

=Alanda.= Name of a legion formed by Julius Cæsar from the best warriors
of the Gauls.

=Aland Isles= (Gulf of Bothnia). Taken from Sweden by Russia, 1809. See
BOMARSUND.

=Alani.= A Tartar race; invaded Parthia, 75; were subdued by the
Visigoths, 452, and eventually incorporated with them.

=Alarcos= (Central Spain). Here the Spaniards under Alfonso IX., king of
Castile, were totally defeated by the Moors, July 19, 1195.

=Alares.= Name given by the Romans to troops which were placed on the
wings of an army; these troops were generally furnished by allies.

=Alarm.= A sudden apprehension of being attacked by surprise, or the
notice of such attack being actually made. It is generally signified by
the discharge of fire-arms, the beat of a drum, etc.

=Alarm Gun.= A gun fired to give an alarm.

=Alarm Post.= In the field, is the ground appointed by the
quartermaster-general for each regiment to march to, in case of an
alarm. In a garrison, it is the place allotted by the governor for the
troops to assemble on any sudden alarm.

=Alaska.= A large territory forming the northwest part of North America,
which was purchased by the United States from Russia in 1867, and was
annexed as a county to Washington Territory in 1872. The native
inhabitants are Esquimaux, Indians, and Aleuts, with a few persons of
Russian descent.

=Alba de Tormes.= A city in Spain, where the French defeated the
Spaniards in 1809.

=Albana.= A city in ancient Albania, situated on the coast of the
Caspian Sea; a wall was constructed to the west of the city for the
purpose of staying the progress of the Scythians, by Darius I., or by
Chosrois.

=Albania.= A province in European Turkey, formerly part of the ancient
Epirus, a scene of many battles; a revolt in Albania was suppressed in
1843.

=Albanians=, or =Albaniers=. The inhabitants of the Turkish territory of
Albania, are a very brave and active race, and furnish the best warriors
for the Turkish army.

=Albans, St.= (Hertfordshire, Eng.). Near the Roman Verulam; first
battle of St. Albans took place in May, 1455, between the Houses of
Lancaster and York, wherein the former were defeated, and King Henry VI.
taken prisoner; second battle took place in February, 1461, wherein
Queen Margaret totally defeated the Yorkists and rescued the king.

=Albe.= A city in Naples, situated near the Lake Celano; in ancient
times it was an important city in Samnium.

=Albeck.= A village in Würtemberg where 25,000 Austrians, under the
command of Gen. Mack, were defeated by 6000 French in 1805.

=Alberche.= A river of Spain, which joins the Tagus near Talavera de la
Reyna, where, in 1809, a severe battle was fought between the French
army and the allied British and Spanish troops, in which the former were
defeated.

=Albe-Royale.= A city in Lower Hungary, which sustained several sieges.

=Albesia.= In antiquity, a kind of shield, otherwise called _decumana_.

=Albi.= A city in the department of Tarn, France; pillaged by the
Saracens in 730, and taken by Pepin in 765.

=Albigenses.= A sect of heretics, who were in existence during the 12th
and 13th centuries, and inhabited Albi, France; fought many battles;
went to Spain in 1238, where they were slowly exterminated.

=Albuera.= A small village near the river Guadiana, in Spain, where the
French army under Marshal Soult was defeated by the British and Spanish
forces under Marshal, afterwards Lord, Beresford, March 16, 1811.

=Albufera= (Spain, East Central). A lagoon, near which the French
marshal Suchet (afterwards Duke of Albufera), defeated the Spaniards
under Blake, January 4, 1812; this led to his capture of Valencia,
January 9.

=Alcacsbas= (Portugal). A treaty was concluded here between Alfonso V.
of Portugal and Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile.

=Alcantara.= A creek near Lisbon, on the banks of which a battle was
fought between the Spaniards under Alva and the Portuguese under Antonio
de Crato (prior of the Maltese order).

=Alcantara, Order of.= Knights of a Spanish military order, who gained a
great name during the wars with the Moors.

=Alcassar=, or =Alcacar=. A fortified city in Morocco, situated between
Ceuta and Tangier; the narrowest point of the Strait of Gibraltar. The
Portuguese seized this city in 1468.

=Alcazar-Quiver.= A city near Fez, Northwest Africa, where the Moors
totally defeated the Portuguese, whose gallant king, Sebastian, was
slain August 4, 1578.

=Alcmaer.= A city in Holland; besieged by the Spaniards in 1573 without
success; here the British and Russians were defeated by the French in
1799.

=Aldenhofen.= A village of the Prussian Rhenish province, where the
French, under Gen. Miranda, were defeated by Archduke Charles, March 1,
1793; the Austrians were defeated March 18, 1793.

=Aldershott, Camp.= A moor near Farnham, about 35 miles from London. In
April, 1854, the War Office, having obtained a grant of £100,000,
purchased 4000 acres of land for a permanent camp for 20,000 men;
additional land was purchased in 1856. The camp is used as an army
school of instructions.

=Aldionaire= (_Aldionarius_). A sort of equerry, who in the army was
kept at the expense of his master. Under Charlemagne, the _aldionaires_
were of an inferior rank.

=Alem.= Imperial standard of the Turkish empire.

=Alemanni= (or all men, _i.e._, men of all nations, hence _Allemannen_,
German). A body of Suevi, who took this name; were defeated by
Caracalla, 214. After several repulses they invaded the empire under
Aurelian; they were subdued in three battles, 270. They were again
vanquished by Julian, 356-57. They were defeated by Clovis at Tolbiac
(or Zulpich), 496. The Suabians are their descendants.

=Alemdar.= An official who carries the green banner of Mahomet
(Mohammed), when the sultan assists in ceremonies of solemnity.

=Alençon= (Northern France). Gave title to a count and duke. Martel,
count of Anjou, seized this city, which was retaken by William the
Conqueror in 1048. It was the scene of many battles.

=Aleppo= (Northern Syria). A large town named Berœa Seleucus Nicator
about 299 B.C. It was taken by the Turks in 638; by Saladin, 1193, and
sacked by Timur, 1400. Its depopulation by the plague has been frequent;
60,000 persons were computed to have perished by it in 1797; and many in
the year 1827. On October 16, 1850, the Mohammedans attacked the
Christians, burning nearly everything. Three churches were destroyed;
five others plundered, and thousands of persons slain. The total loss of
property amounted to about a million pounds sterling; no interference
was attempted by the pasha.

=Aleria.= An important city in Corsica, at the mouth of the river
Tavignano; was taken in 259 B.C. by the Romans under Consul Cornelius.

=Alert.= Watchful; vigilant; active in vigilance; upon the watch;
guarding against surprise or danger.

=Alesia=, or =Alisia=. Now called Alise-Sainte-Reine, a city in the
department of Cote-d’Or. This city was besieged and taken by the Romans
in 52 B.C.; it was one of the greatest events of Cæsar’s war in Gaul.

=Alessandria.= A city of Piedmont, built in 1168, under the name of
Cæsarea by the Milanese and Cremonese, to defend the Tanaro against the
emperor, and named after Pope Alexander III. It has been frequently
besieged and taken. The French took it in 1796, but were driven out July
21, 1799. They recovered it after the battle of Marengo, in 1800, and
held it until 1814, when the strong fortifications erected by Napoleon
were destroyed. They have been restored since June, 1856.

=Alet=, or =Aleth=. A small city in the department of Ande, France; was
taken by the Protestants in 1573.

=Aleut.= An inhabitant of the Aleutian Islands. These people differ both
from the Indians of the neighboring continent and the Esquimaux farther
north. They are expert hunters of the seal and other animals. They are
industrious and peaceful, but addicted to drunkenness.

=Aleutian Islands.= A number of islands stretching from the peninsula of
Alaska in North America to Kamtschatka in Asia. The greater number
belong to the territory of Alaska.

=Alfere=, or =Alferez=. Standard-bearer; ensign; cornet. The old English
term for ensign; it was in use in England till the civil wars of Charles
I.

=Alford= (Northern Scotland), =Battle of=. Gen. Baillie, with a large
body of Covenanters, was defeated by the Marquis of Montrose, July 2,
1645.

=Alfuro.= A city in Navarre, Spain. The British proceeded against the
city in 1378, the garrison being absent; they found the women ranged on
the ramparts disposed to defend the place. Capt. Tivet, commander of the
English forces, would not attack the brave women, but retreated and did
not molest the place.

=Algebra.= A peculiar kind of mathematical analysis allied to arithmetic
and geometry.

=Algidus.= A mountain-range in Latium, Italy, where Cincinnatus defeated
the Æqui in 458 B.C.

=Algiers= (now _Algeria_, Northwest Africa). Part of the ancient
Mauritania, which was conquered by the Romans, 46 B.C.; by the Vandals,
439; recovered for the empire by Belisarius, 534, and subdued by the
Arabs about 690. The city of Algiers was bombarded a number of times,
and finally taken by the French in 1830. Algeria at present belongs to
France.

=Algonkins=, or =Alogonquins=. One of the two great families of Indians
who formerly peopled the country east of the Mississippi. The Chippewas
are at present the most numerous race descended from this stock.

=Alhama.= A city in Spain, in the province of Granada. It was a most
important fortress when the Moors ruled Granada, and its capture by the
Christians in 1482 was the most decisive step in the reduction of their
power.

=Alhambra.= The ancient fortress and residence of the Moorish monarchs
of Granada; founded by Mohammed I. of Granada about 1253; surrendered to
the Christians in November, 1491.

=Ali Bey.= Colonel of Turkish cavalry; also the rank of a district
commander.

=Alibi= (_Lat._ “elsewhere”). An alibi is the best defense in law if a
man is innocent; but if it turns out to be untrue, it is conclusive
against those who resort to it.

=Alicante.= A fortified city and seaport in Spain, where the French
defeated the Spaniards in a naval battle, April 1, 1688.

=Alidade.= The movable arm or rule carrying the sights of an
angle-measuring instrument.

=Alien.= In law, implies a person born in a foreign country, in
contradistinction to a natural born or naturalized person.

=Alife= (_Alifa_). A city in the kingdom of Naples, where Fabius
defeated the Samnites in 307 B.C.

=Alighur.= See ALLYGHUR.

=Align.= To form in line as troops; to lay out the ground-plan, as of a
road.

=Alignment.= A formation in straight lines, for instance, the alignment
of a battalion means the situation of a body of men when drawn up in
line. The alignment of a camp signifies the relative position of the
tents, etc., so as to form a straight line from given points.

=Aliwal.= A village on the banks of the Sutlej, contiguous to the
Punjab, where a British division, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Sir Henry
Smith, on the 29th of January, 1846, encountered and defeated a superior
body of Sikhs.

=Aljubarrota= (Portugal). Here John I. of Portugal defeated John I. of
Castile, and secured his country’s independence, August 14, 1385.

=Alkmaer.= See BERGEN-OP-ZOOM.

=Allahabad= (Northwest Hindostan). The holy city of the Indian
Mohammedans, situated at the junction of the rivers Jumna and Ganges;
founded by Akbar, in 1583; incorporated with the British possessions in
1803. During the Indian mutiny several Sepoy regiments rose and
massacred their officers, June 4, 1857; Col. Neil marched promptly from
Benares and suppressed the insurrection. In November, 1861, Lord Canning
made this the capital of the northwest provinces.

=Allecrete.= Light armor used by both cavalry and infantry in the 16th
century, especially by the Swiss. It consisted of a breastplate and
gussets, often reaching to the middle of the thigh, and sometimes below
the knees.

=Allecti Milites.= A name given by the Romans to a body of men who were
drafted for military service.

=Allegiance.= In law, implies the obedience which is due to the laws.
_Oath of Allegiance_ is that taken by an alien, by which he adopts
America and renounces the authority of a foreign government. It is also
applied to the oath taken by officers and soldiers in pledge of their
fidelity to the state.

=Allegiant.= Loyal; faithful to the laws.

=Allia= (Italy). A small river flowing into the Tiber, where Brennus and
the Gauls defeated the Romans, July 16, 390 B.C. The Gauls sacked Rome
and committed so much injury that the day was thereafter held to be
unlucky (_nefas_), and no public business was permitted to be done on
its anniversary.

=Alliage= (_Fr._). A term used by the French to denote the composition
of metals used for the fabrication of cannon, mortars, etc.

=Alliance.= In a military sense, signifies a treaty entered into by
sovereign states for their mutual safety and defense. In this sense
alliances may be divided into such as are offensive, where the
contracting parties oblige themselves jointly to attack some other
power; and into such as are defensive, whereby the contracting powers
bind themselves to stand by and defend one another, in case of being
attacked by any other power. Alliances are variously distinguished
according to their object, the parties in them, etc. Hence we read of
equal, unequal, triple, quadruple, grand, offensive, defensive
alliances, etc.

=Alligati.= A name given by the Romans to prisoners of war and their
captors. A chain was attached to the right wrist of the prisoner and the
left wrist of the warrior who captured him.

=Allobroges.= A powerful race in ancient Gaul; inhabited a part of
Savoy; vanquished by Fabius Maximus, 126 B.C.

=Allocutio.= An oration addressed by a Roman general to his soldiers, to
animate them to fight, to appease sedition, or to keep them to their
duty.

=Allodial.= Independent; not feudal. The Allodii of the Romans were
bodies of men embodied on any emergency, in a manner similar to our
volunteer associations.

=Allonge.= A pass or thrust with a rapier or small sword, frequently
contracted into _lunge_; also a long rein used in the exercising of
horses.

=Allowance.= A sum paid periodically for services rendered. The French
use the word _traitment_ in this sense. The allowances of an officer are
distinct from his pay proper, and are applicable to a variety of
circumstances.

=Alloy.= Is a composition by fusion of two or more metals. The alloy
most used for gun-making is bronze (which see).

=Allumelle.= A thin and slender sword which was used in the Middle Ages,
to pierce the weak parts or joints of armor.

=Ally.= In a military sense, implies any nation united to
another,--under a treaty either offensive or defensive, or both.

=Allyghur.= A strong fortress on the northwest of India, which was
captured, after a desperate conflict, by Lord Lake, in 1803. The French
commander-in-chief, Gen. Perron, surrendered himself after the siege.

=Alma.= A river in the Crimea, near which was fought a great battle on
September 20, 1854, between the Russian and Anglo-French armies; the
Russians were defeated with great loss.

=Almadie.= A kind of military canoe or small vessel, about 24 feet long,
made of the bark of a tree, and used by the negroes of Africa. Almadie
is also the name of a long boat used at Calcutta, often from 80 to 100
feet long, and generally 6 or 7 broad; they are rowed with from 10 to 30
oars.

=Alman-rivets=, =Almain-rivets=, or =Almayne-rivets=. A sort of light
armor derived from Germany, characterized by overlapping plates which
were arranged to slide on rivets, by means of which flexibility and ease
of movement were promoted.

=Almaraz, Bridge of.= In Spain, which on the 18th of May, 1812, was
captured by Lord Hill, when he defeated a large French _corps d’armée_,
which was one of the most brilliant actions of the Peninsular war.

=Almeida.= A strong fortress of Portugal, in the province of Beira. The
capture of it by the Duke of Wellington, in 1811, after it had fallen
into the hands of the French, was deemed a very brilliant exploit.

=Almenara=, or =Almanara=. City in Spain, in the province of Lerida,
where, in 1710, Gen. Stanhope, with 4 regiments of dragoons and 20
companies of grenadiers, defeated a Spanish corps, composed of 4
battalions and 19 escadrons.

=Almeria.= City and seaport in Andalusia, Spain; captured from the Moors
in 1147, by the united troops of Alfonso VII., king of Castile, Garcias,
king of Navarre, and Raymond, count of Barcelona.

=Almexial, Battle of.= Between the Spaniards and Portuguese in 1663. The
Portuguese were commanded by Sanctius Manuel, count of Vilaflor, and the
celebrated Count Frederick von Schomberg, the latter being the veritable
hero of the day. The Portuguese gained a great victory; the Spanish army
was commanded by Don Juan of Austria, son of Philip IV.

=Almissa= (Dalminium). City in Dalmatia, Austria; it was the ancient
capital of Dalmatia, but was ruined by Scipio Nasica in 156 B.C.

=Almogavares.= See CATALANS.

=Almohades.= Mohammedan partisans, followers of El-Mehedi in Africa,
about 1120. They subdued Morocco, 1145; entered Spain and took Seville,
Cordova, and Granada, 1146-56; ruled Spain until 1232, and Africa until
1278.

=Almonacid-de-Zorita.= A town in the province of Guadalaxara, Spain,
where the French defeated the Spaniards in 1809.

=Almora.= City in Bengal, which the English captured in 1815, and still
hold.

=Almoravides.= Mohammedan partisans in Africa, rose about 1050; entered
Spain by invitation, 1086; were overcome by the Almohades in 1147.

=Alney.= An island in the Severn, Gloucestershire, England. Here a
combat is asserted to have taken place between Edmund Ironside and
Canute the Great, in the sight of their armies. The latter was wounded,
and proposed a division of the kingdom, the south part falling to
Edmund. Edmund was murdered at Oxford shortly after, it is said, by
Aedric Streon, and Canute obtained possession of the whole kingdom,
1016.

=Alnwick= (Sax. _Elnwix_). On the river Alne in Northumberland, England,
was given at the Conquest to Ivo de Vesco. It has belonged to the
Percies since 1310. Malcolm, king of Scotland, besieged Alnwick in 1093,
where he and his sons were killed. It was taken by David I. in 1136, and
attacked in 1174, by William the Lion, who was defeated and taken
prisoner. It was owned by King John in 1215, and by the Scots in 1448.
Since 1854 the castle has been repaired and enlarged with great taste
and at unsparing expense.

=Alost.= A city in Belgium, captured and dismantled by Turenne in 1667,
then abandoned to the allies after the battle of Ramillies, in 1706.

=Alps.= European mountains. Those between France and Italy were passed
by Hannibal, 218 B.C.; by the Romans, 154 B.C., and by Napoleon I., May,
1800.

=Alsace.= See ELSASS.

=Altenheim.= A village on the banks of the Rhine, grand duchy of Baden,
where the French under Count de Lorges fought the Imperials, July 30,
1675, neither side being victorious; the French army retreated after the
death of Turenne.

=Altenkirchen.= A town in the Prussian Rhine province, where several
battles were fought during the war of the Republic, in one of which Gen.
Marceau was killed, while protecting the retreat of Gen. Jourdan,
September 20, 1796.

=Altiscope.= A device which enables a person to see an object in spite
of intervening obstacles. In gunnery it is used to point a piece without
exposing the person of the gunner. The simplest form consists of a small
mirror set in the line of the sights, which reflects the sights and the
object aimed at to the eye of the gunner. This form of reflecting sight
is used with the Moncrieff counterpoise carriage, and has been recently
proposed by Col. Laidley (U. S. Ordnance Corps) for small-arms.

=Altitude.= Height, or distance from the ground, measured upwards, and
may be both accessible and inaccessible. Altitude of a shot or shell, is
the perpendicular height of the vortex of the curve in which it moves
above the horizon. Altitude of the eye, in perspective is a right line
let fall from the eye, perpendicular to the geometrical plane.

=Alumbagh.= A palace with other buildings near Lucknow, Oude, India,
taken from the rebels and heroically defended by the British under Sir
James Outram, during the mutiny, September, 1857. He defeated an attack
of 30,000 Sepoys on January 12, 1858, and of 20,000 on February 21.

=Aluminium Bronze.= An alloy of copper and aluminium, having great
strength and hardness. See ORDNANCE, METALS FOR.

=Alure.= An old term for the gutter or drain along a battlement or
parapet wall.

=Alveda.= An ancient city in Spain, where a battle was fought between
Ramire I., king of the Austurias, and the Moors under the famous
Abdolrahman, or Abd-el-Rahm; according to Spanish history, the Moors
lost 60,000 men.

=Amantea=, or =Amantia=. City and seaport in Naples; sustained a siege
against the French in 1806. It is believed that this city is the ancient
_Nepetum_.

=Amazons.= Female warriors. Tribes, either real or imaginary, belonging
to Africa and Asia, among which the custom prevailed for the females to
go to war; preparing themselves for that purpose by destroying the right
breast, in order to use the bow with greater ease. According to Greek
tradition, an Amazon tribe invaded Africa, and was repulsed by Theseus,
who afterwards married their queen. Hence all female warriors have been
called Amazons.

=Amberg.= A town in Bavaria, where the French were defeated by the
Austrians in 1796.

=Ambit.= The compass or circuit of any work or place, as of a
fortification or encampment, etc.

=Ambition.= In a military sense, signifies a desire of greater posts or
honors. Every person in the army or navy ought to have a spirit of
emulation to arrive at the very summit of the profession by his personal
merit.

=Amblef.= Ancient residence of the kings of France on the river of the
same name, in Germany. Here Charles Martel defeated Chilperic II. and
Rangenfroi, mayor of the Neustrians, 716.

=Ambulances.= Are flying hospitals, so organized that they can follow an
army in all its movements, and are intended to succor the wounded as
soon as possible; a two- or four-wheeled vehicle for conveying the
wounded from the field; called also an ambulance-cart.

=Ambuscade.= A snare set for an enemy either to surprise him when
marching without precaution, or to draw him on by different stratagems
to attack him with a superior force.

=Ambush.= A place of concealment where an enemy may be surprised by a
sudden attack.

=Ame.= A French term, similar in its import to the word _chamber_, as
applied to cannon, etc.

=Amende Honorable= (_Fr._). In the old armies, of France, signified an
apology for some injury done to another, or satisfaction given for an
offense committed against the rules of honor or military etiquette, and
was also applied to an infamous kind of punishment inflicted upon
traitors, parricides, or sacrilegious persons, in the following manner:
The offender being delivered into the hands of the hangman, his shirt
stripped off, a rope put about his neck, and a taper in his hand; then
he was led into the court, where he begged pardon of God, the court, and
his country. Sometimes the punishment ended there; but sometimes it was
only a prelude to death, or banishment to the galleys. It prevails yet
in some parts of Europe.

=Amenebourg.= A place in Hanover which was captured from the English by
the French in 1762.

=Amentatæ.= A sort of lance used by the Romans, which had a leathern
strap attached to the centre of it.

=Amentum.= A leathern strap used by the Romans, Greeks, and Galicians,
to throw lances. It was fastened around the second and third fingers, a
knot was tied on it, which at the throwing of the lance loosened itself.

=America.= One of the great divisions of the earth’s surface, so called
from Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine navigator, who visited South America
in 1499. It is composed of two vast peninsulas called North and South
America, extending in a continuous line 9000 miles, connected by the
Isthmus of Panama or Darien, which is only 28 miles wide at its
narrowest part. The physical features of this large continent are on a
most gigantic scale, comprising the greatest lakes, rivers, valleys,
etc., in the world; and its discovery, which may be said to have doubled
the habitable globe, is an event so grand and interesting that nothing
parallel to it can be expected to occur again in the history of mankind.
Upon its discovery, in the latter half of the 15th century, colonists,
settlers, warriors, statesmen, and adventurers of all nations began to
flock to its shores, until after a lapse of nearly four centuries of
wars, struggles, civilization, progress, and amalgamation of the more
powerful races, and weakness and decay of the effete, it ranks in wealth
and enlightenment as the first of the great divisions of the earth. Of
the different races, governments, etc., occupying its area, it is not
necessary here to speak; events of importance in their histories will be
found under appropriate headings in this work.

=Ames Gun.= The rifled guns made by Mr. Horatio Ames, of Falls Village,
Conn., are made of wrought iron on the built-up principle. See ORDNANCE,
CONSTRUCTION OF.

=Amiens.= A city in Picardy (Northern France). It was taken by the
Spaniards March 11, and retaken by the French September 25, 1587. The
preliminary articles of the peace between Great Britain, Holland,
France, and Spain were signed in London by Lord Hawkesbury and M. Otto,
on the part of England and France, October 1, 1801, and the definitive
treaty was subscribed at Amiens, March 27, 1802, by the Marquis of
Cornwallis for England, Joseph Bonaparte for France, Azara for Spain,
and Schimmelpennick for Holland. War was declared in 1803.

=Amisus.= A city in the ancient kingdom of Pontus, fortified by
Mithridates, and captured by Lucullus in 71 B.C.

=Ammedera.= An ancient city in Africa, where the rebel Gildon was
defeated by Stilicho in 398.

=Ammunition.= Is a term which comprehends gunpowder, and all the various
projectiles and pyrotechnical composition and stores used in the
service. See ORDNANCE, AMMUNITION FOR.

=Ammunition Bread.= That which is for the supply of armies and
garrisons.

=Ammunition-chest.= See ORDNANCE FOR CAISSON.

=Ammunition Shoes.= Those made for soldiers and sailors in the British
service are so called, and particularly for use by those frequenting the
magazine, being soft and free from metal.

=Ammunition, Stand of.= The projectile, cartridge, and sabot connected
together.

=Amnesty.= An act by which two belligerent powers at variance agree to
bury past differences in oblivion; forgiveness of past offenses.

=Amnias.= A stream in Asia near which the army of Nicomedes, king of
Bithynia, was defeated by the troops of Mithridates in 92 B.C.

=Amorce= (_Fr._). An old military word for fine-grained powder, such as
was sometimes used for the priming of great guns, mortars, or howitzers;
as also for small-arms, on account of its rapid inflammation. A
port-fire or quick-match.

=Amorcer= (_Fr._). To prime; to decoy, to make a feint in order to
deceive the enemy and draw him into a snare; to bait, lure, allure.

=Amorcoir= (_Fr._). An instrument used to prime a musket; also for a
small copper box in which were placed the percussion-caps.

=Amoy.= A town and port in China, which was taken by the troops under
Sir Hugh Gough, assisted by a naval force, in August, 1841.

=Ampfing.= A village in Bavaria, where Louis, king of Bavaria, defeated
Frederick of Austria in 1322; here Gen. Moreau was attacked by a
superior force of Austrians in 1800, and accomplished his celebrated
retreat.

=Amphea.= A city of Messenia, captured by the Lacedæmonians in 743 B.C.

=Amphec.= A city in Palestine where the Philistines defeated the
Israelites in the year 1100 B.C.

=Amphictyonic Council.= A celebrated congress of deputies of twelve
confederated tribes of ancient Greece, which met twice every year. The
objects of this council were to insure mutual protection and
forbearance among the tribes, and for the protection of the temple of
Delphi.

=Amphipolis= (now _Emboli_). A city situated on the Strymon in
Macedonia; was besieged in 422 B.C., by the Athenians, where Cleon their
chief was killed. Philip of Macedon captured the city in 363.

=Amplitude.= In gunnery, is the range of shot, or the horizontal right
line, which measures the distance which it has run.

=Ampoulette= (_Fr._). A wooden cylinder which contains the fuze of
hollow projectiles.

=Amsterdam.= The capital of Holland. It was occupied by the French
general Pichegru on January 19, 1795, and by the Prussians in 1813.

=Amstetten.= A village on the highway between Ems and Vienna, where the
Russians were defeated by the French under Murat, November 5, 1805.

=Amusette= (_Fr._). A brass gun, of 5 feet, carrying a half-pound leaden
ball, loaded at the breech; invented by the celebrated Marshal Saxe. It
is no longer used.

=Amyclæ.= An ancient town of Laconia, on the right bank of the Eurotas,
famous as one of the most celebrated cities of the Peloponnesus in the
heroic age. It is said to have been the abode of Castor and Pollux. This
town was conquered by the Spartans about 775 B.C.

=Anabash.= In antiquity, were expeditious couriers, who carried
dispatches of great importance in the Roman wars.

=Anacara.= A sort of drum used by the Oriental cavalry.

=Anacleticum.= In the ancient art of war, a particular blast of the
trumpet, whereby the fearful and flying soldiers were rallied to the
combat.

=Anah.= A city in Asiatic Turkey, which was captured and devastated in
1807 by the Wahabites, who were a warlike Mohammedan reforming sect.

=Anam=, or =Annam, Empire of=. Also called Cochin China, an empire in
Southeastern Asia, which became involved in a war with France (1858-62),
concluded by a treaty by which the emperor of Anam ceded the provinces
of Cochin China, Saigon, Bienhoa, and Mytho to France. Subsequently
three other provinces were annexed to France in 1867.

=Anapa.= A city in Circassia which was fortified by the Turks in 1784;
stormed and taken by the Russians in 1791.

=Anarchy.= Want of government; the state of society where there is no
law or supreme power, or where the laws are not efficient, and
individuals do what they please with impunity; political confusion;
hence, confusion in general.

=Anatha.= A fort on an island of the Euphrates; taken by Julian the
Apostate in 363.

=Anatolia=, =Nadoli=, or =Natolia=. The modern name of Asia Minor, a
peninsula in the most western territory of Asia, extending northward
from the Mediterranean to the Euxine, or Black Sea, and eastward from
the Grecian Archipelago to the banks of the Euphrates. It is a part of
the Turkish dominions, and was in ancient times the seat of powerful
kingdoms and famous cities.

=Anazarba=, or =Anazarbus=. A city in Asia Minor, where the Christians
were defeated by the Saracens in 1130.

=Anazehs.= Nomadic Arabs, who infested the desert extending from Damas
to Bagdad; they often laid under contribution the caravans on the way to
Mecca.

=Ancile.= In antiquity, a kind of shield, which fell, as was pretended,
from heaven, in the reign of Numa Pompilius; at which time, likewise, a
voice was heard declaring that Rome would be mistress of the world as
long as she should preserve this holy buckler.

=Ancona.= An ancient Roman port on the Adriatic. In 1790 it was taken by
the French; but was retaken by the Austrians in 1799. It was occupied by
the French in 1832; evacuated in 1838; after an insurrection it was
bombarded and captured by the Austrians, June 18, 1849. The Marches
(comprising this city) rebelled against the papal government in
September, 1800. Lamoriciere, the papal general, fled to Ancona after
his defeat at Castelfidardo, but was compelled to surrender himself, the
city and the garrison, on September 28. The king of Sardinia entered
soon after.

=Ancyra.= A town in ancient Galatia, now _Angora_, or _Engour_, Asia
Minor. Near this city, on July 28, 1402, Timur, or Tamerlane, defeated
after a three days’ battle and took prisoner the sultan Bajazet, and is
said to have conveyed him to Samarcand in a cage.

=Andabatæ.= In military antiquity, a kind of gladiators who fought
hoodwinked, having a kind of helmet that covered the eyes and face. They
fought mounted on horseback, or on chariots.

=Andaman Islands.= A group of small islands in the Bay of Bengal, which
has been used by Great Britain as a penal colony for Hindoos. The Earl
of Mayo, governor-general of India, was assassinated here by a convict,
February 8, 1872.

=Anderlecht.= A town near Brussels, in Belgium, where the French under
Gen. Dumouriez defeated the Austrians, November 13, 1792.

=Andernach.= A city in Rhenish Prussia; near here the emperor Charles I.
was totally defeated by Louis of Saxony, on October 8, 876.

=Andersonville.= A post-village of Sumter Co., Ga., about 65 miles
south-southwest of Macon. Here was located a Confederate military prison
in which Union soldiers were confined during the civil war. So severe
was the treatment which they received here (nearly 13,000 having died),
that a general feeling of horror was excited against the superintendent,
Capt. Henry Wirz; and after the close of the war he was tried for
inhuman treatment of the prisoners, found guilty, and executed
November, 1865. The place is now the site of a national cemetery.

=Andrew, St.=, or =The Thistle, Order of=. A nominally military order of
knighthood in Scotland. The principal ensign of this order is a gold
collar, composed of thistles interlinked with amulets of gold, having
pendent thereto the image of St. Andrew with his cross and the motto,
_Nemo me impune lacessit_.

=Andrew, St., Knights of.= Is also a nominal military order instituted
by Peter III. of Muscovy in 1698.

=Andrussov, Peace of.= This peace was ratified (January 30, 1667)
between Russia and Poland for 13 years, with mutual concessions,
although the latter power had been generally victorious.

=Anelace=, or =Anlace=. A kind of knife or dagger worn at the girdle by
civilians till about the end of the 15th century.

=Anemometer=, or =Wind-gauge=. An instrument wherewith to measure the
direction and velocity of wind under its varying forces,--used in the
Signal service.

=Aneroid Barometer.= A pocket instrument indicating variations in
atmospheric pressure. Used in military surveys to obtain the height of
mountains. It consists of a circular metallic box, hermetically sealed,
from which the air has been extracted. The play of the thin, metallic
cover under atmospheric pressure, is made to operate a hand pointing to
a scale on the dial-face.

=Angaria.= According to ancient military writers, means a guard of
soldiers posted in any place for the security of it. Angaria, in civil
law, implies a service by compulsion; as, furnishing horses and
carriages for conveying corn and other stores for the army.

=Angeliaphori.= Reconnoitring parties of the Grecian army.

=Angel-shot.= A kind of chain-shot. See CHAIN-SHOT.

=Angers.= Principal city of the department of Maine-et-Loire, France. It
was sacked by the Normans during the 9th century; taken and retaken
several times by the Bretons, English, and French.

=Anghiari.= A city of Tuscany, where the Florentines under Berardino
Ubaldini were defeated by the Milanese general Torello, in 1425, and in
1440 the Florentine general Orsini defeated the Milanese general
Piccinino.

=Angle.= In geometry, is the inclination of two lines meeting one
another in a point, or the portion of space lying between two lines, or
between two or more surfaces meeting in a common point called the
_vertex_. Angles are of various kinds according to the lines or sides
which form them. Those most frequently referred to in fortification and
gunnery are:

ANGLE, DIMINISHED, is that formed by the exterior side and the line of
defense.

ANGLE, FLANKED, or SALIENT, is the projecting angle formed by the two
faces of a bastion.

ANGLE, INTERIOR FLANKING, is that which is formed by the meeting of the
line of defense and the curtain.

ANGLE OF ARRIVAL. The angle of arrival is the angle which the tangent to
the trajectory at the crest of the parapet makes with the horizon.

ANGLE OF DEPARTURE, or ANGLE OF PROJECTION, is the angle which the
tangent makes with the horizontal at the muzzle.

ANGLE OF ELEVATION, or ANGLE OF FIRE, in gunnery, is that which the axis
of the barrel makes with the horizontal line.

ANGLE OF FALL, in gunnery, is the angle made at the point of fall by the
tangent to the trajectory with a horizontal line in the plane of fire.

ANGLE OF FIRE, in gunnery, is the angle included between the line of
fire and horizon; on account of the balloting of the projectile, the
angle of fire is not always equal to the angle of departure, or
projection.

ANGLE OF INCIDENCE is that which the line of direction of a ray of
light, ball from a gun, etc., makes at the point where it first touches
the body it strikes against, with a line drawn perpendicularly to the
surface of that body.

ANGLE OF REFLECTION is the angle intercepted between the line of
direction of a body rebounding after it has struck against another body,
and a perpendicular erected at the point of contact.

ANGLE OF SIGHT, in gunnery, is the angle included between the line of
sight and line of fire. Angles of sight are divided into natural and
artificial angles of sight, corresponding to the natural and artificial
lines of sight, which inclose them. See POINTING.

ANGLE OF THE CENTRE is the angle formed at the centre of the polygon by
lines drawn thence to the points of two adjacent bastions.

ANGLE OF THE EPAULE, or SHOULDER, is formed by one face and one flank of
the bastion.

ANGLE OF THE FACE is formed by the angle of the face and the line of
defense produced till they intersect each other.

ANGLE OF THE FLANK is that formed by the flank and curtain.

ANGLE OF THE LINE OF DEFENSE is that angle made by the flank and the
line of defense.

ANGLE OF THE POLYGON is that formed by the meeting of two of the sides
of the polygon; it is likewise called the _polygon angle_.

ANGLE OF THE TENAILLE, or FLANKING ANGLE, is made by two lines
fichant,--that is, the faces of the two bastions extended until they
meet in an angle towards the curtain, and is that which always carries
its point towards the outworks.

ANGLE, RE-ENTERING. An angle whose vertex points inward, or towards the
place. A re-entering angle which is not defended by a flanking fire is
said to be _dead_.

=Angles.= An ancient German tribe from which England derives its name.
They occupied a narrow district in the south of Sleswick, whence some of
them passed over in the 5th century, in conjunction with other Saxon
tribes, into Britain, where they conquered the native Britons, and
established the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. See HEPTARCHY.

=Anglou.= A place in Armenia where a Persian army 4000 strong defeated
and cut to pieces a Roman army of 30,000, in 543.

=Angon.= In ancient military history, was a kind of a dart of modern
length, having an iron beaded head and cheeks; in use about the 5th
century. This sort of javelin was much used by the French. The iron head
of it resembled a _fleur-de-lis_.

=Angora.= See ANCYRA.

=Angouleme.= A city in the department of Charente, France. It was ruined
by the Normans during the 9th century, and devastated several times
during the 16th century.

=Anguis.= A flag adopted by the Romans, which was carried at the head of
a cohort (the tenth part of a Roman legion, consisting of 600 men); this
flag resembled a serpent in shape, and was more commonly called _draco_.

=Angusticlave.= A robe or tunic embroidered with purple studs or knobs,
and with _narrow_ purple stripes, worn by Roman knights, to distinguish
them from members of the senatorian order, who wore a garment with
_broad_ stripes, called _latus clavus_.

=Anholt, Island of= (Denmark). Was taken possession of by England, May
18, 1809, in the French war, on account of Danish cruisers injuring
British commerce. The Danes made an attempt to regain it with a force
which exceeded 1000 men, but were gallantly repulsed by the British
force, not amounting to more than 150, March 27, 1811.

=Animate, To.= In a military sense, is to encourage, to incite, to add
fresh impulse to any body of men who are advancing against an enemy, or
to prevent them from shamefully abandoning their colors in critical
situations.

=Anime= (_Fr._). A sort of ancient cuirass, also called _brigandine_;
was used in Italy until the 17th century, under the name of _anima_, or
_animetta_.

=Anio= (now _Teverone_). A river of ancient Italy, an affluent of the
Tiber. On its banks the Romans gained two great battles over the Gauls,
one by Camillus about 367 B.C., and the other about sixty years
afterwards.

=Aniocrater.= The highest military rank of the Lacedæmonians; one who
commanded the whole army during the absence of the king.

=Anippus.= Name of the light cavalry of the Grecians.

=Anisocycle.= An ancient machine of a spiral form, like the spring of a
watch, used for throwing arrows to a great distance.

=Anitorgis.= A city in Spain, near which Asdrubal, general of the
Carthaginians, gained a memorable battle over the Romans under Scipio
and his brother Publius, in 212 B.C.

=Anjou=, or =Beauge, Battle of=. Between the English and French; the
latter commanded by the Dauphin of France, March 22, 1421. The English
were defeated; the Duke of Clarence was slain by Sir Allan Swinton, a
Scotch knight, and 1500 men perished on the field; the Earls of
Somerset, Dorset, and Huntingdon were taken prisoners. Beauge was the
first battle that turned the tide of success against the English.

=Annals.= A species of military history, wherein events are related in
the chronological order they happened. They differ from a perfect
history, in being only a mere relation of what passes every year, as a
journal is of what passes every day.

=Annatinæ.= Were transport-ships (so called by Julius Cæsar) in which
were transported provisions, etc., to armies and fleets. Also called
_Corbitæ_.

=Anneau d’Or= (_Fr._). A gold ring. In accordance with the example of
the ancients, Francis I. of France instituted a military recompense in
the shape of an _anneau_, for all who distinguished themselves in any
military enterprise.

=Annee de Corbie= (_Fr._). Name given to the year 1636, when the capture
of Corbie (by the Austrians), a small city of the department of the
Somme, France (during the war which Richelieu had decided to undertake
against the Austrian house), nearly caused the overthrow of France.

=Anne, St., Order of.= An order of knighthood, originally established in
Holstein, and carried with the princes of that country into Russia. It
was made a Russian order in 1796, and is now widely diffused.

=Annihilate.= To reduce to nothing; to destroy the existence of; to
cause or cease to be; as, the army was annihilated.

=Annoy.= To injure or disturb by continued or repeated acts; to
incommode or molest; as, to annoy an army by impeding their march, or by
a continued cannonade.

=Annuity.= A sum of money payable yearly, to continue for a given number
of years, for life or forever; an annual allowance. The U. S. government
furnishes annuities and annuity goods to certain tribes of Indians.

=Annul.= To make void, or of no effect; to abrogate; to rescind;--used
of laws, decisions of courts, or other established rules, permanent
usages, and the like, which are made void by competent authority.

=Annunciada.= An order of military knighthood in Savoy, first instituted
by Amadeus I. in the year 1409; their collar was of fifteen links,
interwoven one with another, and the motto “F. E. R. T.,” signifying
_fortitudo ejus Rhodum tenuit_. Amadeus VIII. changed the image of St.
Maurice, patron of Savoy, which hung at the collar, for that of the
Virgin Mary, and instead of the motto above mentioned, substituted the
words of the angel’s salutation. Now extinct.

=Anse des Pieces= (_Fr._). A term for the handles of cannon. Those of
brass have two, those of iron seldom any. These handles serve to pass
cords, handspikes, or levers through, the more easily to move so heavy a
body, and are made to represent dolphins, serpents, etc.

=Antandros= (now _St. Dimitri_). A city of Troas, inhabited by the
Leleges, near which Æneas built his fleet after the destruction of Troy.

=Antecessores=, or =Antecursores=. Light cavalry of the Romans, which
formed the advance-guard of an army while on the march.

=Antemuraille.= In ancient military art, denoted what now the moderns
generally call the outworks.

=Antepilani.= Soldiers of a Roman legion who composed the first and
second ranks in line of battle, and who were accordingly placed in front
of the third rank. The first rank was called _hastati_, the second
_principes_, and the third _pilani_, or _triarii_.

=Antequera.= A city in Spain, formerly fortified; besieged and captured
from the Moors by Ferdinand of Castile, September 16, 1410; he also
defeated under the walls of this city the Moorish king of Toledo, who
had an army of 100,000 men.

=Antesignani.= A name given to the soldiers of the Roman army who
protected the colors, etc.; according to some authorities they were the
_hastati_ or _principes_, and according to others they were a select
detachment consisting of picked soldiers.

=Antestature= (_Fr._). A small intrenchment or work formed of palisades
or sacks of earth.

=Anthony, St., Knights of.= A military order instituted by Albert, Duke
of Bavaria, Holland, and Zealand, when he designed to make war against
the Turks in 1382. The knights wore a collar of gold made in the form of
a hermit’s girdle, from which hung a stick like a crutch, with a little
bell, as they are represented in St. Anthony’s pictures.

=Antibes.= A city in the department of Alpes Maritimes, France. It was
ruined some time after the capture of Marseilles by Cæsar. This city was
fortified by Francis I. and Henry IV.; besieged without success by the
Imperials in 1746.

=Anti-corrosion.= A lacker applied to iron traversing platforms,
gun-carriages, and the outside of guns. See LACKER.

=Antietam.= A small, deep river in Maryland, which empties into the
Potomac about 6 miles above Harper’s Ferry. Here was fought a terrible
battle on September 17, 1862, between the Federals, under Gen.
McClellan, and the Confederates, under Gen. Lee. After his victory at
Bull Run, August 30, Lee invaded Maryland, and was immediately followed
by McClellan. On September 16, Lee was joined by Jackson. The battle on
which was staked “the invasion of Maryland,” in the view of the Federal
government, but in reality the sovereignty of the Union, was near at
hand. On the night of the 15th the greatest part of McClellan’s troops
were in bivouac behind the heights on the left bank of the Antietam,
sheltered from, but within range of, the enemy’s batteries. The morning
of the 16th was occupied in reconnoissance of the enemy’s position, in
rectifying the position of the Federal troops, and perfecting the
arrangements for the attack. At about 3 o’clock P.M. Gen. Hooker crossed
the Antietam by the bridge in the village on the Hagerstown road, and an
adjacent ford, and soon gained the crest of the height on the right bank
of the stream. He then turned to his left and followed down the ridge
under a strong opposition, until brought to a standstill by the
darkness. Gen. Mansfield was ordered to follow Gen. Hooker, so as to be
in a position to support him at daybreak.

At daybreak on the 17th, Gen. Hooker attacked the forces in his front,
and for a time drove them before him. The enemy, however, rallying, and
strengthened from their supporting columns, repulsed him. Gen.
Mansfield’s corps was then drawn to Hooker’s support, and the two masses
repelled the enemy. Gen. Mansfield was killed and Gen. Hooker wounded at
this crisis, and obliged to withdraw from the field. Gen. Sumner’s corps
soon reached this portion of the field and became hotly engaged. This
corps suffered greatly at this period of the contest, Gens. Sedgwick and
Crawford being wounded, and portions of the line were compelled to fall
back. The enemy, however, were checked by the Federal artillery.
Sumner’s corps was soon reinforced, and the lost ground was recovered.
The contest in the mean time on the right was most obstinate, and the
losses in this part of the field were very heavy. Gen. Burnside’s corps,
on the left, was ordered early in the day to carry the bridge across the
Antietam and to attack the enemy’s right. The approaches to the bridge
being in the nature of a defile, and being swept by batteries of the
enemy, the opposite bank of the Antietam was only reached after a severe
struggle. It was afternoon before the heights were in his possession.
The enemy were driven back, and a portion of their line in disorder. By
the most desperate efforts, however, the enemy rallied their retreating
regiments, strengthened their lines with all their available fresh
troops, and opened batteries on the hills.

Gen. Burnside could not maintain his advantage, and was obliged to
withdraw from the extreme position which he had gained to one slightly
in rear. He, however, held his bank of the river completely, and
maintained much ground beyond it which he had taken from the enemy.
During the advance on the left Gen. Rodman was wounded.

Notwithstanding substantial and decided successes of the day, the
Federal forces had suffered so severely during the conflict, having lost
11,426 killed and wounded, and among them many general and superior
officers, that it was deemed prudent by Gen. McClellan to reorganize and
give rest and refreshment to the troops before renewing the attack. The
18th was accordingly devoted to those objects. On the night of the 18th,
however, Gen. Lee withdrew his forces hastily across the Potomac,
abandoning further contest with the Union forces, and yielding all hopes
of further remaining on Maryland soil. The Confederate army is supposed
to have lost nearly 30,000 men during its brief campaign in Maryland.
The Federal forces captured 39 colors, 13 guns, more than 15,000
small-arms, and more than 6000 prisoners.--_Extracts from D. Appleton’s
“History of the Rebellion,” by Tenney, “Lippincott’s Gazetteer,” and
Haydn’s “Dates.”_

=Antioch.= A city in Syria, built by Seleucus 300 B.C.; after the battle
of Ipsus it acquired the name “Queen of the East.” Here the disciples
were first called Christians, A.D. 42. Antioch was taken by the
Persians, 540; by the Saracens about 638; recovered from the Eastern
emperor, 966; lost again in 1086; retaken by the Crusaders in 1098, and
held by them till 1268, when it was captured by the sultan of Egypt. It
was taken from the Turks in the Syrian war, Aug. 1, 1833, by Ibrahim
Pasha, but restored at the peace.

=Antium.= A maritime city of Latium, now _Porto d’Anzio_, near Rome;
after a long struggle for independence it became a Roman colony at the
end of the great Latin war, 340-38 B.C. The treasures deposited in the
Temple of Fortune here were taken by Octavius Cæsar during his war with
Antony in 41 B.C.

=Antonia.= A fortress in Jerusalem on the north side of the area of the
temple, originally built by the Maccabees under the name of Baris, and
afterwards rebuilt with great strength and splendor by the first Herod.
The fortress communicated with the northern and western porticoes of the
temple area, so that the garrison could at any time enter the courts of
the temple and prevent tumults. Josephus describes it as standing on a
rock 50 cubits high, and having everything necessary within itself.

=Antustriones.= A body-guard of the kings or chiefs of the ancient
Germans, which was composed of volunteers.

=Antwerp= (Fr. _Anvers_). The principal port of Belgium; is mentioned in
history in 517; it was pillaged and burnt by the Spaniards and the
inhabitants massacred, November 4, 1576. This event has been termed the
“Spanish Fury.” After Marlborough’s victory at Ramillies, Antwerp
surrendered at once, June 6, 1706; the Barrier treaty concluded here,
November 16, 1715; taken by Marshal Saxe, May 9, 1746; occupied by the
French, 1792-94 and 1814. The Belgian troops, having entered Antwerp,
were opposed by the Dutch garrison, who, after a dreadful conflict,
being driven into their citadel, cannonaded the town with hot shot and
shells, October 27, 1830; the citadel was bombarded by the French,
December 4; surrendered by Gen. Chasse, December 23, 1832. The exchange
burnt, archives, etc., destroyed, August 2, 1858; fortification
completed, 1865.

=Anvil.= An archaism for the handle or hilt of a sword. Also, a little
narrow flag at the end of a lance.

=Anvil.= The resisting cone, plate, or bar against which the fulminate
in a metallic cartridge is exploded. See PRIMER.

=Aosta.= A town in Piedmont, which was captured by the Romans in 24 B.C.

=Aous=, or =Aeas= (now the _Voyussa_). A river in Epirus, Greece, which
flows into the Adriatic Sea; on the banks of this river Philip of
Macedon was twice defeated by the Romans.

=Apaches.= A warlike tribe of savage Indians who infest New Mexico and
Arizona. Until within a few years they were hostile, making frequent
raids into the neighboring Mexican states of Sonora and Chihuahua, and
robbing and murdering the settlers. They are now peaceable, and settled
on reservations (with the exception of a few renegades); but being
entirely uncivilized, their peaceful condition is uncertain. See INDIANS
AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Aparejo.= A kind of pack-saddle used in the American military service.
See PACK-SADDLES.

=Apex.= The tip, point, or summit of anything. The Romans so named the
crest of a helmet, or the part whereon the horse-hair plume was
attached.

=Aphracti.= In the ancient military art, open vessels, without decks or
hatches, furnished only at head and stern with cross-planks, whereon the
men stood to fight.

=Apobates.= A name given by the ancients to warriors who fought mounted
on chariots; they were also called _Anabates_, or _Paraebates_; they
were generally leaders who fought in this manner; their armor and arms
consisted of helmet, breast-armor, lance, javelin, sword, and shield.
These warriors occasionally alighted from the chariots to attack their
adversaries on foot.

=Apology.= In a military sense, when made and accepted, debars the
officer who accepts from bringing forward the matter as a substantive
accusation. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 25.

=Apomaque.= This word, with the Grecians, signified those soldiers who
were disqualified for military service from physical disability or other
causes.

=Appalachee Indians.= A tribe of Indians once powerful in West Florida.
In 1700 a part of them removed into what is now Alabama, and the tribe
soon ceased to exist.

=Apparatus.= Ammunition and equipage for war.

=Appareilles.= Are those slopes that lead to the platform of the
bastion.

=Appastis=, or =Pactis=. A war-tax, which was levied in ancient times
upon the inhabitants of conquered countries.

=Appeal.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 29, 30.

=Appel= (_Fr._). A smart stroke with the blade by a fencer on the sword
of his antagonist on the opposite side to that which he engaged,
generally accompanied with a stamp of the foot, and used for the purpose
of procuring an opening.

=Appian Way.= A Roman road, made by Appius Claudius Cæcus, while censor,
312 B.C.

=Appointe= (_Fr._). This word was applicable to French soldiers only,
during the old monarchy of France, and meant a man who for his service
and extraordinary bravery received more than common pay. There were
likewise instances in which officers were distinguished by being styled
_officers appointes_.

=Appointing Power.= It has been contended by advocates of executive
discretion, that army appointments are embraced in the power granted to
the President in the 2d section of the Constitution, to nominate, and,
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, appoint “all other
officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein
otherwise provided for, and which may be established by law. But the
Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers as
they think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in
the heads of departments.” If due regard, however, be paid to the words
“_whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for_,” the
pretension set up in favor of executive power will receive no support
from the terms of the Constitution. The powers granted to Congress to
_raise_ and support armies, and to make all _rules_ for the _government_
and _regulation_ of the land and naval forces, are necessarily so
comprehensive in character, as to embrace all means which Congress,
according to circumstances, may deem proper and necessary in order to
raise armies, or govern them when raised. Rules of appointment to
office, rules of promotion,--another form of appointment,--and all rules
whatever in relation to the land and naval forces, save the appointment
of the commander-in-chief of those united forces, who is designated by
the Constitution, are hence within the competency of Congress.

=Appointment.= Office, rank, or employment.

=Appointment.= The equipment, ordnance, furniture, and necessaries of an
army.

=Appointments, Military.= The accoutrements of an officer.

=Appointon= (_Fr._). A sort of poniard which was used in ancient times.

=Apprehend.= In a military sense, implies the seizing or confining of
any person; as, to apprehend a deserter, etc.

=Apprenti= (_Fr._). Apprentice. Formerly in the French service they had
apprentices or soldiers among the artillery, who served for less pay
than the regular artillerymen, until they became perfect in their
profession, when they were admitted to such vacancies as occurred in
their respective branches.

=Approach.= The route by which a fortified place or military position
can be approached by an attacking force.

=Approaches.= The trenches or covered roads by which the besiegers
convey ordnance, ammunition, and stores, and march troops to and from
the parallels; also the trenches by means of which the successive
parallels are established.

=Appropriations.= For the support of the U. S. army are made annually;
the bill for the same must originate in the lower house of Congress. The
English army is raised by the queen, and maintained by annual
appropriations by Parliament; the system for the support of armies is
much the same throughout Europe. In the United States, the term is also
used by post and regimental councils of administration in the
expenditure of funds.

=Appui.= See POINT D’APPUI.

=Apri=, or =Apros=. A small town in Thrace, on the river Melas, where
the daring leader of the Catalonians, Berengar de Rocafort, defeated the
Greeks under the Emperor Michael, 1307.

=Apron.= A piece of sheet-lead used to cover the vent of a cannon.

=Apulia.= A province in Southeast Italy, conquered by the Normans, whose
leader, Guiscard, received the title of Duke of Apulia from Pope
Nicholas II. in 1059. After many changes of masters, it was absorbed
into the kingdom of Naples in 1265.

=Aqueduct.= A channel to convey water from one place to another.
Aqueducts in military architecture are generally made to bring water
from a spring or river to a fortress, etc.; they are likewise used to
carry canals over low ground, and over brooks or small rivers; they are
built with arches like a bridge, only not so wide, and are covered by an
arch, to prevent dust or dirt from being thrown into the water,--there
are also subterranean aqueducts, such as pipes of wood, lead, or iron.

=Aquila= (Southern Italy). Near here the Aragonese, under the
condottiere Braccio Fortebraccio, were defeated by the allied Papal,
Neapolitan, and Milanese army under Jacob Caldora, June 2, 1424.
Braccio, a wounded prisoner, refused to take food, and died, June 5.

=Aquila.= The principal standard of a Roman legion. The standard of
Romulus is said to have consisted of a handful of hay, straw, or fern,
affixed to a pole or spear; whence the company of soldiers who served
under it was called _Manipulus_. This primitive standard was soon
superseded by the figures of animals. In 104 B.C. the eagle was
permanently adopted; it was made of silver or bronze, and was
represented with expanded wings.

=Aquilifer.= A name given by the Romans to the officers who carried the
eagles of the legions.

=Aquitaine.= A province in the southwest of France; conquered by the
Romans in 28 B.C.; by the Visigoths, 418; taken from them by Clovis in
507. Henry II. of England obtained it with his wife Eleanor, 1152. It
was erected into a principality for Edward the Black Prince in 1362; but
was annexed to France in 1370. The title of duke of Aquitaine was taken
by the crown of England on the conquest of this duchy by Henry V. in
1418. The province was lost in the reign of Henry VI.

=Arabia.= A tract of land in Western Asia; the terms _Petræa_ (stony),
_Felix_ (happy), and _Deserta_ are said to have been applied to its
divisions by Ptolemy, about 140. Arabia was unsuccessfully invaded by
Gallus, the Roman governor of Egypt, 24 B.C. In 622, the Arabians under
the name of Saracens (which see), followers of Mohammed, their general
and prophet, commenced their course of conquest. The Arabs greatly
favored literature and the sciences, especially mathematics, astronomy,
and chemistry. To them we owe our ordinary (_Arabic_) numerals and
arithmetical notation.

=Aracillum.= A city in Spain. The Cantabrians being besieged in this
city by the Romans, killed each other rather than surrender.

=Aradus= (now _Ruad_). A city of Phœnicia; captured by the Roman general
Ventidius, 38 B.C.

=Aragon.= Part of the Roman Tarraconensis, a kingdom, Northeast Spain,
was conquered by the Carthaginians, who were expelled by the Romans
about 200 B.C. It became an independent monarchy in 1035.

=Aranjuez= (Central Spain). Contains a fine royal palace, at which
several important treaties were concluded. On March 17, 1808, an
insurrection broke out here against Charles IV. and his favorite, Godoy,
the Prince of Peace. The former was compelled to abdicate in favor of
his son, Ferdinand VII., March 19.

=Aransas.= A small river of Texas, which empties into a bay of the same
name, immediately north of Corpus Christi Bay. The Confederate works
near this place were captured by the Federal troops November 20, 1864.

=Arapahoe Indians.= A tribe of Indians associated with the Cheyennes,
who inhabit the country between the South Fork of the Platte River and
the head-waters of the Arkansas. See INDIANS AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Arapiles.= A village of Spain, 4 miles southeast of Salamanca. It was
the scene of the sanguinary engagement called the battle of Salamanca,
in which the allies under Wellington defeated the French under Marmont,
July 22, 1812.

=Arausio= (now _Orange_, Southeast France). Through jealousy of the
Roman proconsul Q. Servilius Cæpio, who would not wait for the arrival
of the army of the consul C. Manlius, both were here defeated by the
Cimbri with much slaughter, 105 B.C.

=Arbalest.= In the ancient art of war, a cross-bow made of steel, set in
a shaft of wood, with a string and trigger, bent with a piece of iron
fitted for that purpose, and used to throw bullets, large arrows, darts,
etc.

=Arbalestina.= In the military system of the Middle Ages, was a small
window or wicket through which the cross-bow men shot their quarrels or
arrows at an enemy besieging a fortified place.

=Arbaletrier d’une Galere= (_Fr._). That part of a galley where the
cross-bow men were placed during an engagement.

=Arbalist=, or =Arblast=. A cross-bow man.

=Arbela= (now _Erbil_). A city in Asiatic Turkey; near here was fought
the third and decisive battle between Alexander the Great and Darius
Codomanus which decided the fate of Persia, October 1, 331 B.C., on a
plain in Assyria, between Arbela and Gaugamela. The army of Darius
consisted of 1,000,000 foot and 40,000 horse; the Macedonian army
amounted to only 40,000 foot and 7000 horse. The gold and silver found
in the cities of Susa, Persepolis, and Babylon, which fell to Alexander
from this victory, amounted to £30,000,000 sterling; and the jewels and
other precious spoil belonging to Darius sufficed to load 20,000 mules
and 5000 camels.

=Arbourg.= A city in Switzerland, whose citadel, which was constructed
in 1600, is an important depot for military stores.

=Arbrier= (_Fr._). Stock of a cross-bow.

=Arc= (_Fr._). A bow; an arch in building.

=Arc à Jalet= (_Fr._). A small cross-bow, used to throw bullets, etc.

=Arc, Elevating.= In gunnery, is an arc attached to the base of the
breech parallel to the ratchets and graduated into degrees and parts of
a degree. A pointer attached to the fulcrum points to the zero of the
scale when the axis of the piece is horizontal. Elevations and
depressions are indicated by the scale. Besides the graduations on the
arc, the ranges (in yards) and the charges for shot and shells are
given.

=Arch.= In military architecture, is a vault or concave building, in
form of a curve, erected to support some heavy structure, or passage.

=Archers.= In military history, a kind of militia or soldiery, armed
with bows and arrows. They were much used in former times.

=Archery.= The use of the bow and arrow; the practice, art, or skill of
archers; the art of shooting with a bow and arrow.

=Arch-gaye=, or =Lance-gaye= (_Fr._). A lance used by the Gauls and
Franks, which consisted of a sharp-pointed piece of iron attached to a
light wooden handle.

=Architonnerre= (_Fr._). A machine made of copper, which threw iron
bullets with great force and noise; it was used in ancient times, being
an invention of Archimedes.

=Architrave.= The master-beam, or chief supporter, in any part of
subterraneous fortification.

=Arch, Triumphal.= In military history, is a stately monument or
erection, generally of a semicircular form, adorned with sculpture,
inscriptions, etc., in honor of those heroes who have deserved a
triumph.

=Arcis-sur-Aube.= A small town in the French department of Aube; here a
battle took place on March 20, 1814, between Napoleon and the allied
forces under Prince Schwartzenberg. The battle, beginning with several
skirmishes on the first day, and ending in a general engagement on the
second day, when the French retreated over the Aube, was not in itself
very important. But Napoleon now formed the plan of operating in the
rear of the allies, and left the road to Paris open; assuming that they
would not venture to proceed without attempting first to secure their
rear. The allies marched, nevertheless, on the capital, and thus decided
the campaign.

=Arco.= A metal composed of 70 parts of pure copper, 27 of zinc, and 3
of lead; used for the brass-work of small-arms.

=Arcola= (Lombardy). The site of battles between the French under
Bonaparte, and the Austrians under Field-Marshal Alvinzi, fought
November 15-17, 1796. The Austrians lost 18,000 men in killed, wounded,
and prisoners, 4 flags, and 18 guns. The French lost about 15,000, and
became masters of Italy.

=Arcot= (East Indies). This city (founded 1716) was taken by Col. Clive
August 31, 1751; was retaken, but again surrendered to Col. Coote,
February 10, 1760; besieged and taken by Hyder Ali, when the British
under Col. Baillie suffered severe defeat, October 31, 1780. Arcot has
been subject to Great Britain since 1801.

=Arcubalist.= See ARBALEST.

=Ardalion.= A river in Algeria. On the banks of this river in 398,
Mascezil, a Roman general, defeated Gildo, a Moorish chieftain, then in
rebellion against Rome.

=Ardebil.= A city in Persia; its citadel was constructed by French
officers; captured by the Turks in 1827.

=Ardres.= A city in the department of Pas-de-Calais, France, it was
dismantled in 1850. This city was captured by the Duke of Burgundy,
brother of Charles V., from the English in 1377; a treaty was concluded
here between Francis I. of France and Henry VIII. of England June 7,
1546; captured by the Spaniards in 1596; returned to France in 1598.

=Area.= In a military sense, is the superficial contents of any rampart
or other work of a fortification.

=Areoscope.= An instrument used for analyzing the air of rooms; used in
English medical corps.

=Ares.= The god of war in Greek mythology, corresponding to the Roman
Mars (which see).

=Argaum.= A village in the Deccan, near to which Gen. Wellesley
(afterwards Duke of Wellington) totally defeated the army of Dawlut Rao
Scindia in October, 1803.

=Argelinos=, or =Algerinos=. The Spaniards so named the foreign legion,
which was sent to them from Algiers by France, during the reign of Louis
Philippe.

=Argent.= This word means silver in French, and is always used in
heraldry to designate that metal. In engraving English shields the part
designated as argent is left white.

=Argentaria= (now _Colmar_, Northern France). Where the Roman Emperor
Gratian totally defeated the Alemanni and secured the peace of Gaul,
378.

=Argentine Republic.= Formerly the Confederation of La Plata, a South
American federal republic, consisting of 14 provinces extending over an
immense area of country. Buenos Ayres, one of its provinces, with the
city of the same name, now the capital, seceded from the confederation
in 1853, and was reunited in 1860. The country is remarkable chiefly for
its internecine wars, revolutions, and struggles, incident to all the
countries colonized by the Spanish race. See BUENOS AYRES.

=Argives.= The inhabitants of Argos, a state of ancient Greece of which
Mycenæ was the capital, and which was ruled by Agamemnon at the time of
the Trojan war. The name is frequently used by Homer to signify the
whole body of the Greeks.

=Argos= (now _Panitza_). An ancient city of Greece; near here, in 272
B.C., Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedon, defeated the army of Pyrrhus,
king of Epirus; the latter was killed.

=Argoulet= (_Fr._). An ancient dragoon. Also an inferior sort of a
musket made at Liege for trading with the negroes.

=Arich= (anc. _Rhinocolura_). A fortress in Lower Egypt. The French
occupied this place in 1793, but were obliged to surrender it in 1800.

=Aries= (_Lat._ “a ram”). An ancient battering-ram. See BATTERING-RAM.

=Arizona.= A Territory of the United States, originally part of New
Mexico, organized February, 1803. For many years known for its Indian
hostilities, and conflicts between the Indians and U. S. troops; also
for frequent terrible massacres of whites.

=Arkansas.= One of the Southwestern States of the Union. It was settled
by the French in 1685, and formed a part of the great tract purchased
from the French in 1803 under the name of Louisiana Territory. It was
organized as a Territory in 1819, and admitted as a State in 1836.
Arkansas passed an ordinance of secession March 4, 1861; was the scene
of several engagements during the civil war, and suffered its share of
the hardships of that eventful period. The battles of Pea Ridge and
Fayetteville were fought in its territory; Arkansas Post was captured in
1863; and Helena and Little Rock were taken the same year.

=Arkansas Indians.= A tribe of Indians allied to the Dakotas, who
formerly resided on the Ohio. At present they number about 200, and live
in the Indian Territory.

=Arkansas Post.= A village in Arkansas, on the Arkansas River, about 40
miles from its mouth, garrisoned by the Confederates during the civil
war. The combined forces of Admiral Porter and Gen. McClernand made an
attack upon the place January 11, 1863, and carried it by storm.

=Arklow.= A town in Ireland, where a battle was fought between the
insurgent Irish, amounting to 31,000, and a small regular force of
British, which signally defeated them, June 10, 1798.

=Arles.= A city in the department Mouths-of-the-Rhone, France; said to
have been founded 2000 B.C.; was formerly a powerful Roman city;
sustained four memorable sieges against the Visigoths, in 425, 429, 452,
and 457; besieged by Clovis I., king of the Franks, 508. The Count of
Barcelona took possession of it in 1156, and Alfonso II., king of
Aragon, in 1167.

=Arlon.= A town in the province of Luxembourg, Belgium. Here the French,
commanded by Jourdan, defeated the Austrians in April, 1793, and again
in April, 1794.

=Arm.= In a military sense, signifies a particular species of
troops,--thus the artillery is an arm, and the cavalry, and infantry,
etc., are each called an arm of the service. The word is also used to
denote an instrument of warfare; a weapon of offense or defense.

=Arm.= To be provided with arms, weapons, or means of attack or
resistance; to take arms.

=Armament.= A body of forces equipped for war;--used as a land force.
All arrangements made for the defense of a fortification with musketry
and artillery.

=Armamentary.= An armory; a magazine or arsenal.

=Arm a Shot, To.= Is to roll rope-yarns about a cross-bar shot in order
to facilitate ramming it home, and also to prevent the ends catching any
accidental inequalities in the bore.

=Armatoles.= A Grecian militia of Thessaly, instituted by Selim I. at
the beginning of the 16th century, to oppose the raids of the
mountaineers called _klephtes_, or brigands. Later the Armatoles and
Klephtes united against the Turks.

=Armatura.= In ancient military history signified the fixed and
established military exercises of the Romans. Under this word is
understood the throwing of the spear, javelin, shooting with bows and
arrows, etc. Armatura was also an appellation given to the soldiers who
were light-armed; and was a name also given to the soldiers in the
emperor’s retinue.

=Armature.= Armor; whatever is worn or used for the protection and
defense of the body.

=Arm-chest.= A portable locker for holding arms, and affording a ready
supply of pistols, muskets, or other weapons. Also used in the military
service for the transportation of rifles, revolvers, etc.

=Arme Courtoise= (_Fr._). This arm was used in tilts or tournaments
during the Middle Ages; it was a kind of sword with a ring or knob
placed at the tip of the blade to prevent it causing a dangerous wound.

=Armed.= Furnished with weapons of offense or defense; furnished with
the means of security or protection; furnished with whatever serves to
add strength, force, or efficiency. _Armed neutrality_, the condition of
affairs when a nation assumes a threatening position, and maintains an
armed force to repel any aggression on the part of belligerent nations
between which it is neutral.

=Armentiers.= A city of the department of the North, France; captured
and burned by the English, 1339; pillaged by the French, 1382; destroyed
by the Calvinists in 1566; occupied by Marshals de Gassion and de
Rantzan, 1645; by Archduke Leopold, 1647; by the French in 1667, and
remained a city of France in accordance with the peace treaty of
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1668.

=Armes de Jet= (_Fr._). Missive weapons; offensive arms or instruments
which act by propulsion, whether by the force of powder, steam, wind, or
mechanism.

=Armet= (_Fr._). A helmet or head-piece much in use in the 16th century,
and worn with or without the beaver.

=Armgaunt.= Worn by military service; as, an armgaunt steed.

=Armiger.= Formerly an armor-bearer, as of a knight; an esquire who bore
his shield and rendered other services. In later use, one next in degree
to a knight, and entitled to a coat of arms.

=Armilausa.= A military uniform coat, worn by the Romans over their
armor.

=Armiludia.= A name given by the Romans to the exercises of arms, and
also applied to the day on which these exercises took place.

=Armilustrium.= This name was given by the Romans to a military festival
which took place on the 19th of October annually. After review the
soldiers offered up sacrifices for the success of the Roman arms.

=Armipotent.= Powerful in arms; mighty in battle.

=Armisonous.= Rustling in arms; resounding with arms.

=Armistice.= A cessation of hostilities between belligerent nations for
a considerable time. It is either partial and local, or general. It
differs from a mere suspension of arms, which takes place to enable the
two armies to bury their dead, their chiefs to hold conferences or
pourparlers, and the like. The terms truce (see TRUCE) and armistice are
sometimes used in the same sense.

=Armless.= Without arms or armor.

=Armlet.= The name of a piece of armor for the arm, to protect it from
the jar of the bow-string.

=Armor.= Defensive arms for the body; any clothing or covering worn to
protect one’s person in battle. In English statutes, armor is used for
the whole apparatus of war, including offensive as well as defensive
arms. The _statutes of armor_ directed what arms every man should
provide. Armor has also been extensively used in England in plating
important fortifications as those of Portsmouth, and also in Germany for
the forts along the frontier.

=Armor-bearer.= One who carries the armor of another; an armiger; an
esquire.

=Armorer.= The person who makes, cleans, or repairs arms.

=Armorial.= Belonging to armor, or to the arms or escutcheon of a
family.

=Armor Plates.= From experiments of the effects of shot and shell on
armor plates in England, the following results have been obtained: Where
it is required to perforate the plate, the projectile should be of hard
material, such as steel, or chilled iron, and the form best suited for
this purpose is the pointed ogeeval. The resistance of wrought-iron
plates to perforation by steel projectiles varies as the squares of
their thickness. Hitting a plate at an angle diminishes the effect as
regards the power of perforation in the proportion of the sine of the
angle of incidence to unity. The resistance of wrought-iron plates to
perforation by steel shot is practically not much, if at all, increased
by backing simply of wood, within the usual limits of thickness; it is,
however, much increased by a rigid backing either of iron combined with
wood, or of granite, iron, brick, etc.

Till quite recently armor plates have been made of wrought iron only, as
numerous experiments in England had served to show that notwithstanding
the enormous resistance of steel to penetration it was unfit for armor
plating,--the damage from the impact of shot not being localized as in
wrought iron. The Italians were led, however, by the experiments with
the 100-ton gun on targets of both metals at Spezzia, 1876, to adopt
steel for their new ships, the “Duilio” and “Dandolo.” Since that time
an armor compounded of steel and wrought iron has been introduced in
England which bids fair to supersede all others. It is made by casting a
heavy facing of steel upon wrought-iron plates. A section of this
compound armor exhibits a gradual change of structure from the hard
steel face to the soft iron backing. Its resistance to penetration is
equal to steel, while in toughness and endurance under the blows of
shot it resembles wrought iron.

To glance at some of the heaviest armor plating afloat, the English
“Inflexible” carries a maximum thickness of 24 inches of iron, the
Italian frigates mentioned above 21.5 of steel, the French “Admiral
Duperré” 21.6 of iron, the Russian “Peter the Great” 14 inches of iron.
In regard to the power of some of the most noted of modern guns, the
12-inch calibres used now by all leading nations will penetrate, at 1000
yards, 16 to 18 inches of iron. The 38-ton English gun of this calibre
has penetrated (at shorter range) 22 inches of iron and 6 inches of teak
backing. The 80-ton Woolwich gun will penetrate 23 inches of iron at
1000 yards. The largest Krupp, 72 tons, will penetrate 26 inches, and
the 100-ton Armstrong 30 inches at the same distance. None of the guns
mentioned would penetrate at a single shot the steel armor of the
Italian ships, but any of them would destroy it in a number of rounds.

=Armory.= A manufactory, or place of deposit for arms. See ARSENAL.

=Armory, National.= The U. S. government establishment for the
manufacture of small-arms at Springfield, Mass.

=Arm-rack.= A frame or fitting for the stowage of arms (usually
vertical) out of harm’s way, but in readiness for immediate use. In the
conveyance of troops by sea arm-racks form a part of the proper
accommodation. Arm-racks are also used in soldiers’ barrack-rooms.

=Arms.= In a general sense, comprehend weapons both of an offensive and
defensive character, but in the usual restricted sense they only embrace
the former, and in modern warfare include the gun and bayonet, the
rifle, the pistol, the carbine, the sword, the lance, cannon, etc., all
of which are noticed under their respective heads. For punishment
inflicted upon soldiers who sell or otherwise dispose of their arms, see
APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 17.

=Arms.= This term is used in heraldry to designate the devices borne on
shields, and includes all the accompaniments, such as the crest, helmet,
supporters, etc.

=Arms, Bells of.= Are tents, used in the English service, mostly of a
conical shape, for containing the small-arms for each company in a
regiment of infantry. The tent is frequently painted with the color of
the facings of the regimental uniforms.

=Arms, Stand of.= A complete set for one soldier, as a rifle and
bayonet, cartridge-box and belt, frequently the rifle and bayonet alone.

=Armstrong Gun.= The Armstrong gun as a breech-loading field-piece first
attracted attention in England about 1850. About 1858 it was adopted by
the British government. This gun was made of wrought iron, and consisted
of a single coiled tube reinforced at the breech with two thin tubes,
the outer one being a coiled tube, the inner being formed by bending a
plate and welding the edges. The coiled tubes were formed by bending
square bars of iron around a mandrel and welding the coils together.
Tubes made in this way offer great resistance to tangential strains. The
intermediate tube was designed to take up the longitudinal strain near
the breech, and for this reason was made differently. The breech was
closed with a vent-piece, slipped by the band into a slot cut in the
piece near the breech, and held in its place by a breech-screw, which
supported it from behind. This screw was made in the form of a tube, so
that its hollow formed a part of the bore prolonged, when the vent-piece
was drawn. Through the hollow screw the charge was passed into the
chamber. The vent was formed in the breech-piece. This gun was a 3-inch
12-pounder, firing a lead-coated projectile. It was followed by the
40-pounder, 110-pounder, and other calibres. Muzzle-loaders were also
made. The breech-loading apparatus did not prove entirely successful in
large guns, and was accordingly discarded except for small calibres. The
method of construction was changed for larger guns, and a plan adopted
which has been adhered to ever since, and is that now used. The barrel
or part surrounding the bore is made of steel tempered in oil; that
portion at and in rear of the trunnions is enveloped by several layers
of wrought-iron tubes, the number of layers depending upon the size of
the gun. These tubes, instead of being joined at their ends by welding,
are hooked on to each other by a system of shoulders and recesses. There
are also projections fitting into corresponding recesses, which serve to
prevent the tubes from slipping within each other. The tube which
immediately surrounds the barrel opposite to the seat of the charge is
called the breech-piece. It is made with its fibres and welds running
longitudinally, so as to resist the recoil of the barrel against the
head of the breech-plug, which is screwed into the breech-piece. The
shunt system of rifling was first applied to muzzle-loading Armstrong
guns, which have fewer grooves than the breech-loaders. The method of
manufacturing originally proposed by Sir William Armstrong has been
greatly modified by Mr. Fraser, of the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich. (See
ORDNANCE, ARMSTRONG CANNON). For some years large numbers of Armstrong
guns were made at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, under the supervision of
the inventor. His works are now located at Elswick, Newcastle-upon-Tyne,
and are known us the Elswick Ordnance Works. To distinguish the system
of gun-construction from the “Woolwich,” which it closely resembles, it
is frequently called the “Elswick” system. The largest, as well as the
most powerful guns ever made, are the 100-ton guns manufactured at
Elswick for the Italian navy. See CANNON AND ORDNANCE, MODERN HISTORY
OF.

=Armstrong Projectile.= See PROJECTILE.

=Army.= A large and organized body of soldiers, consisting of infantry,
cavalry, and artillery, completely armed, and provided with the
necessary stores, etc., the whole being composed of companies,
battalions, regiments, brigades, divisions, and corps, under proper
officers, and the entire force being under the direction of one general,
who is called the general-in-chief, and sometimes the _generalissimo_.
Armies are distinguished by different appellations; as, a _covering
army_, a _blockading army_, an _army of obstruction_, an _army of
reserve_, a _flying army_, etc. An army is said to _cover_ a place when
it is encamped or in cantonments for the protection of the different
passes which lead to a principal object of defense. An army is said to
_blockade_ a place when, being well provided with heavy ordnance and
other warlike means, it is employed to invest a town for the direct and
immediate purpose of reducing it by assault or famine. An _army of
obstruction_ is so called because by its advanced positions and
desultory movements it is constantly employed in watching the enemy. _A
flying army_ means a strong body of horse and foot, which is always in
motion, both to cover its own garrisons and keep the enemy in continual
alarm. For method of providing for armies, see APPROPRIATIONS.

=Army Corps.= See CORPS D’ARMÉE.

=Army Regulations.= This is the name of a work published by the War
Department embodying all the acts of Congress, and the rules laid down
by the President for the management of the army, both in peace and war.
See REGULATIONS.

=Arnaouts=, or =Arnouts, Corps des=. Militia of Greece organized during
the war of Russia against the Porte in 1769.

=Arnheim.= A fortified city in Holland; it was captured by the French in
1672; taken by storm by the Prussians under Gen. Von Bulow in 1815.

=Arnott’s Pump.= An ingeniously arranged machine for forcing pure air
into buildings.

=Arquebusade.= Shot of an arquebuse. Also distilled water from a variety
of aromatic plants, as rosemary, millefoil, etc., applied to a bruise or
wound; so called because it was originally used as a vulnerary in
gunshot wounds.

=Arquebuse=, or =Harquebuse=. An old fire-arm resembling a musket, which
was supported on a rest by a hook of iron fastened to the barrel. It was
longer than a musket, and of large calibre, and formerly used to fire
through the loop-holes of antique fortifications.

=Arquebusier.= A soldier armed with an arquebuse.

=Arques= (Northern France). Near here the league army, commanded by the
Duc de Mayenne, was defeated by Henry IV., September 21, 1589.

=Arracan.= A province of Northeast India. Arracan, the capital, taken by
the Burmese, 1783; was taken from them by Gen. Morrison, April 1, 1825.
The subjugation of the whole province soon followed.

=Arrah.= A town in British India, in the presidency of Bengal, the scene
of several exciting incidents in the Indian mutiny. The English troops
gained a victory here over the mutinous Sepoys in 1857.

=Arras= (Northeast France). The ancient Atrebates; conquered by Cæsar in
50 B.C.; captured and sacked by the Vandals in 407; captured by the
Normans in 880; besieged by Charles VI. in 1414; captured by Louis XI.;
held by the Austrians from 1493 till 1640, when it was taken by Louis
XIII.; besieged by the Spaniards in 1654.

=Arrawak Indians.= A race or collection of tribes of Indians in Guiana,
who were formerly numerous and powerful.

=Array.= Order; disposition in regular lines; hence, a posture for
fighting; as, drawn up in battle array.

=Arrayer.= In some early English statutes, an officer who had care of
the soldiers’ armor, and who saw them duly accoutred.

=Arrest.= The temporary confinement of officers in barracks, quarters,
or tents, pending trial by court-martial, or the consideration of their
imputed offenses previous to deciding whether they shall or shall not be
tried. (See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 65.) Private soldiers are usually
placed under guard; by the custom of the service non-commissioned
officers may be simply placed in arrest in quarters.

=Arrest= (_Old Fr._, now _arret_). A French phrase, similar in its
import to the Latin word _retinaculum_; it consisted of a small piece of
steel or iron, which was formerly used in the construction of fire-arms,
to prevent the piece from going off. A familiar phrase among military
men in France is, _Ce pistolet est en arret_, “this pistol is in arrest
or is stopped.”

=Arreste of the Glacis.= Is the junction of the talus which is formed at
all the angles.

=Arretium.= A city of the Gauls, now in the department of the Yonne,
France, where the Gauls defeated the Romans in a bloody battle in 284
B.C.

=Arrow.= In fortification, a work placed at the salient angles of the
glacis, communicating with the covert way.

=Arrow.= A missile weapon of defense, straight, slender, pointed, and
barbed, to be shot with a bow.

=Arrow-head.= The head of an arrow.

=Arrow-wood.= A species of _Viburnum_, from the long straight stems of
which the Indians dwelling between the Mississippi and the Pacific make
their arrows.

=Arrowy.= Consisting of arrows.

=Arroyo del Molinos.= A small town in Estremadura, Spain, near the river
Guadiana, where Lord Hill, on the 28th of October, 1811, surprised and
defeated the French under Gen. Gerard. Nearly 1500 prisoners were taken,
including Prince d’Aremburg, Gen. Brun, one colonel, two
lieutenant-colonels, a commissaire de guerre, and no less than 30
captains and inferior officers. It was altogether a most brilliant
achievement.

=Arsenal.= A public establishment for the storage or for the manufacture
and storage of arms and all military equipments, whether for land or
naval service. In the United States there are 17 arsenals and 1 armory
(Springfield, Mass.), situated at different points throughout the whole
country convenient for the distribution of _materiel_, as follows:
Alleghany arsenal, at Pittsburg, Pa.; at Augusta, Ga.; Benicia, Cal.;
Fort Monroe, Va.; Fort Union, N. M.; Frankford arsenal, Philadelphia,
Pa.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Kennebec arsenal, Augusta, Me.; New York;
Pikesville, Md.; Rock Island, Ill.; Jefferson Barracks, Mo.; San
Antonio, Texas; Vancouver, W. T.; Washington, D. C.; Watertown, Mass.;
and Watervliet arsenal, West Troy, N. Y.

=Arsouf= (Syria). At a battle here Richard I. of England, commanding the
Christian forces, reduced to 30,000, defeated Saladin’s army of 300,000
and other infidels on September 6, 1191. Ascalon surrendered, and
Richard marched to Jerusalem, 1192.

=Art, Military.= Military art may be divided into two principal
branches. The first branch relates to the order and arrangement which
must be observed in the management of an army, when it is to engage an
enemy, to march, or to be encamped. This branch is called _tactics_. The
same appellation belongs to the other branch of military art, which also
includes the composition and application of warlike machines. See
LOGISTICS, STRATEGY, STRATAGEM, TACTICS, and WAR.

=Arta=, or =Narda=. A town in Albania. The Greek insurgents against the
Porte were defeated here, July 16, 1822.

=Artaxata.= The ancient capital of Armenia; burned by the Roman general
Carbulo, about 59.

=Artemisium.= A promontory in Eubœa, near which indecisive conflicts
took place between the Greek and Persian fleets for three days, 480 B.C.
The former retired on hearing of the battle of Thermopylæ.

=Articles of War.= Are known rules and regulations, fixed by law, for
the better government of an army. The articles of war of the United
States consists of 128 articles. (See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR.) All
that relates to the army not comprehended therein is published in
general orders or in established regulations, issued from time to time
from the War Department, copies of which are furnished and read to the
troops. In England they may be altered and enlarged at the pleasure of
the sovereign, but must be annually confirmed by Parliament under the
Mutiny Act.

=Artifice.= Among the French, is understood as comprehending everything
which enters the composition of fire-works, as the sulphur, saltpetre,
charcoal, etc. See PYROTECHNICS.

=Artificer.= One who makes fire works, or works in the artillery
laboratory, and prepares the shells, fuzes, grenades, etc. It is also
applied to military mechanics, such as carpenters, blacksmiths, masons,
etc.

=Artificial Line of Sight.= Is the right line from the eye to the object
to be hit, passing through the front and rear sights. See POINTING.

=Artillery.= In a general sense, signifies all sorts of great guns or
cannon, mortars, howitzers, petards, and the like, together with all the
apparatus and stores thereto belonging, which are not only taken into
the field, but likewise to sieges, and made use of both to attack and
defend fortified places; also the officers and men of that branch of the
army to which the care and management of such machines have been
confided. (See ORDNANCE.) Artillery, in a particular sense, signifies
the science of artillery or gunnery, which art includes a knowledge of
surveying, leveling, geometry, trigonometry, conic sections, laws of
motion, mechanics, fortifications, and projectiles. See BATTERY, FIELD
BATTERY, FIELD ARTILLERY, SIEGE ARTILLERY.

=Artillery Company, Honorable.= A band of infantry, rifles, and
artillery, forming part of the militia, or city guards of London,
England. It was instituted in 1585; having ceased, was revived in 1610.
In the civil war, 1641-48, the company took the side of the Parliament,
and greatly contributed towards its success. The company numbered 1200
in 1803, and 800 in 1861. Since 1842 the officers have been appointed by
the queen. On the decease of the Duke of Sussex, in 1843, the prince
consort became colonel and captain-general. He died December 14, 1861,
and the Prince of Wales was appointed his successor, August 24, 1863.

=Artilleryman.= A man who manages, or assists in managing, large guns in
firing.

=Artillery-park.= The camp of one or more field batteries; the inclosure
where, during a siege, the general camp of foot artillery, and depots of
guns, _materiel_, etc., are collected.

=Artillery, Royal Regiment of.= Is the collective name for the whole of
the artillery belonging to the British army. There was no regular
regiment or corps of artillery soldiers in the British army till the
time of Queen Anne, when the present royal regiment was formed. Since
that period, from some anomaly which is not easily explained, all the
additions have been made to the same regiment, instead of forming new
regiments, to be combined into a division or corps. The regiment is now
almost an entire army in itself, and to increase the anomaly, it
comprises horse as well as foot. Formerly the foot was divided into
battalions and companies, and the horse into troops, but these terms
have been abolished, in favor of brigade and battery, which apply both
to horse and foot artillery. The regiment now consists of 33,500 men,
thus distributed:

   6 brigades, horse artillery,  30 batteries.
   8    „      field artillery,  62    „
  14    „      garrison art.,   103    „
   3    „      mixed artillery,  19    „
                                ---
                                214

   1    „      coast artillery not in batteries.
   1    „      depot artillery      „    „

Of the above, the field, garrison, and mixed are foot artillery. This
force represents from 1200 to 1300 guns fully equipped for action. Of
the foot artillery, the garrison batteries are readily converted to
field batteries by the addition of a few drivers.

=Artillery Schools.= Are special schools for instruction and training in
artillery, which are organized through all civilized countries. In the
United States, an artillery school was established at Fort Monroe, Va.,
1867. Its object is to train both officers and enlisted men in the
construction and service of all kinds of artillery and artillery
material, and in gunnery and mathematics as applied in the artillery
service. For artillery schools in other countries, see MILITARY
ACADEMIES.

=Artillery, Systems of.= See SYSTEMS OF ARTILLERY.

=Artillery-train.= A number of pieces of ordnance mounted on carriages,
with all their furniture, fit for marching.

=Arx.= In the ancient military art, a fort, castle, etc., for the
defense of a place.

=Arzegages= (_Fr._). Batons or canes with iron at both ends. They were
carried by the Estradiots, or Albanian cavaliers, who served in France
under Charles VIII. and Louis XII.

=Asapes.= An inferior class of Turkish soldiers employed in sieges to
work in intrenchments and perform other pioneer duty.

=Asaraouas.= A tribe in Algeria against whom the French undertook an
expedition in 1837.

=Ascalon= (Syria). A city of the Philistines which shared the fate of
Phœnicia and Judea. The Egyptian army was defeated here by the Crusaders
under Godfrey of Bouillon, August 12, 1099; it was besieged by the
latter in 1148, taken in 1153, and again in 1191. Its fortifications
were destroyed through fear of the Crusaders, by the sultan, in 1270.

=Aschaffenburg.= On the Maine, Bavaria, Southwestern Germany; here, on
July 14, 1866, the Prussians defeated the German Federal army, captured
the town, and took 2000 prisoners.

=Asculum= (now _Ascoli_, Apulia, Southern Italy). Near it Pyrrhus of
Epirus defeated the Romans 279 B.C. Asculum, a city of the Piceni, with
all their country, was conquered by the Consul Sempronius 268 B.C.
Andrea, general of the Emperor Henry VI., endeavoring to wrest Naples
from Tancred, was defeated and slain in 1190.

=Ashantees.= Warlike negroes of West Africa. In 1807 they conquered
Fantee, in which the British settlement of Cape Coast Castle is
situated. On the death of their king, who had been friendly to the
English, hostilities began; and on January 21, 1824, the Ashantees
defeated about 1000 British under Sir Charles McCarthy at Accra, and
brought away his skull with others as trophies. They were totally
defeated August 27, 1826, by Col. Purdon. The governor of Cape Coast
Castle began a war with them in the spring of 1863; but the British
troops suffered much through disease, and the war was suspended by the
government in May, 1864.

=Ashburton Treaty.= Concluded at Washington, August 9, 1842, by
Alexander, Lord Ashburton, and John Tyler, President of the United
States; it defined the boundaries of the respective countries between
Canada and Maine, settled the extradition of criminals, etc.

=Ashdod=, or =Azotus=. An ancient city of Judea, identified with the
site of the modern _Asdood_, about 12 miles northeast of Ascalon. It is
celebrated by Herodotus as having stood a siege of 29 years from
Psammatichus, king of Egypt (about 630 B.C.). It was taken by the
Assyrians under Tartan, the general of Sennacherib (713 B.C.); taken and
destroyed by Judas Maccabæus and his brother Jonathan; restored by
Gabinius, and given by Augustus to Salome.

=Ashdown=, or =Assendune=. Now thought to be Ashton, Berks, England,
where Ethelred and his brother Alfred defeated the Danes in 1171.

=Asia Minor.= See ANATOLIA.

=Askeri Mohammedize.= A name given to the Turkish regular troops
organized according to modern tactics.

=Aslant.= Formed or placed in an oblique line.

=Asow.= An old fortified city in Southern Russia. Towards the end of the
14th century it fell into the hands of Timur; the Turks took possession
of it in 1471; captured by the Cossacks in 1637; besieged without
success by the Turks in 1641, they returned the following year with a
large army to attack the city, when the Cossacks, thinking it impossible
to hold the city against such a force, plundered and burned it; the
Turks then rebuilt the city and fortified it; it was surrendered to
Peter the Great in 1696; the city again came into the Turkish possession
after the peace treaty on the Pruth. In the war between Turkey and
Russia, Asow was besieged by Field-Marshal Munich; it surrendered to
Gen. Lascy, July 4, 1736.

=Aspe.= A village in the department of the Lower Pyrenees, France, where
a small detachment of the French army defeated 6000 Spaniards in 1792.

=Aspect.= An army is said to hold a menacing aspect, when by advanced
movements or positions it gives the opposing enemy cause to apprehend an
attack. A country is said to have a military aspect, when its general
situation presents appropriate obstacles or facilities for an army
acting on the offensive or defensive. An army is said to have an
imposing aspect, when it appears stronger than it really is. This
appearance is often assumed for the purpose of deceiving an enemy, and
may not improperly be considered as a principal _ruse de guerre_, or
feint in war.

=Aspern, Great.= A town near the Danube and Vienna, where a series of
desperate conflicts took place between the Austrian army under the
Archduke Charles, and the French under Napoleon, Massena, etc., on May
21-22, 1809, ending in the retreat of Napoleon on May 22. The loss of
the former exceeded 20,000 men, and of the latter 30,000. The daring
Marshal Lannes was mortally wounded on May 22, and died May 31. The
bridge of the Danube was destroyed and Napoleon’s retreat endangered;
but the success of the Austrians had no beneficial effect on the
subsequent prosecution of the war.

=Aspic= (_Fr._). An ancient piece of ordnance which carried a 12-pound
shot; the piece itself was 11 feet long, and weighed 4250 pounds.

=Aspis.= A large, round, or oblong shield which was used by the heavy
infantry of the ancient Grecians.

=Aspromonte= (Naples). Here Garibaldi was defeated, wounded, and taken
prisoner, August 29, 1862, having injudiciously risen against the French
occupation of Rome.

=Assagai=, or =Assegai=. An instrument of warfare among the Kaffirs.

=Assail.= To attack with violence, or in a hostile manner; to assault,
etc. See ATTACK.

=Assailable.= Capable of being assailed, attacked, or invaded.

=Assas-Bachi.= A superior officer of janissaries, who was also
administrator of the police department in Constantinople, and presided
over public executions.

=Assassins=, or =Assassinians=. Fanatical Mohammedans, collected by
Hassan-ben-Sabah, and settled in Persia about 1090. In Syria they
possessed a large tract of land among the mountains of Lebanon. They
murdered the Marquis of Montferrat in 1192, Louis of Bavaria in 1213,
and the Khan of Tartary in 1254. They were extirpated in Persia about
1258, and in Syria about 1272. The chief of the corps was named “Old Man
of the Mountain.” They trained up young people to assassinate such
persons as their chief had devoted to destruction. From them the word
_assassin_ has been derived.

=Assault.= A furious but regulated effort to carry a fortified post,
camp, or fortress by personal attack, uncovered and unsupported. While
an assault during a siege continues, the batteries of the besiegers
cease, lest the attacking party should be injured. The party which leads
the assault is sometimes called “the forlorn hope.”

=Assaye.= A small town in the province of Bahar, in the Deccan,
celebrated for a battle fought in 1803, between the British army, 4500
strong, under the Duke of Wellington, then Gen. Wellesley, and the
confederated armies of India, numbering 50,000 troops; the latter were
completely routed, leaving 1200 dead on the field, with nearly the whole
of their artillery. Such was the battle of Assaye, which established the
fame of the greatest commander of the age, and fixed the dominion of
Britain over prostrate India.

=Asseerghur.= A strong hill fortress, situated about 12 miles northerly
and easterly from Burhampoor, India. It was taken from the Mahrattas by
the British on two occasions; the first time in 1803, and finally in
1819.

=Asseguay.= The knife-dagger used in the Levant.

=Assembly.= A beat of the drum or sound of the bugle as a signal to
troops to assemble.

=Assens.= A maritime town of Denmark on the island of Funen; here
Christian III. defeated his insurgent subjects in 1535.

=Asser.= An instrument of warfare used by the Romans on their war ships;
it consisted of a heavy pole with an iron head, and was used as a
battering-ram against hostile ships. Other authorities assert that it
was used to destroy the rigging only.

=Assessment of Damages.= In the English army, is the determination by a
committee of officers of the value of the injury done to the barracks
each month, in order that stoppages in liquidation may be made from men
who have committed the damage.

=Assidui Milites.= Roman soldiers who served in the army without
receiving pay.

=Assignment.= If, upon marches, guards, or in quarters, different corps
of the army shall happen to join or do duty together, the officer
highest in rank of the line of the army, marine corps, or militia, by
commission, there on duty or in quarters, shall command the whole, and
give orders for what is needful to the service, unless otherwise
specially directed by the President of the United States, according to
the nature of the case. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 122.

=Assignment of Pay.= By a non-commissioned officer or private, previous
to discharge, is invalid. A transfer subsequent to the discharge is
valid.

=Assinaries=, or =Assinaires=. Festivals which were instituted at
Syracuse, in commemoration of the destruction of the Athenian fleet
commanded by Nicias and Demosthenes.

=Assinarus= (now _Falunara_). A small river in Sicily, near which the
army of Nicias and Demosthenes was defeated 413 B.C.

=Assistant.= In the English army, is the third grade in any particular
branch of the staff, such as the quartermaster-general’s or
adjutant-general’s. After the principal comes the deputy and then the
assistant. In the United States it is the second grade in the staff
branches of the army.

=Assyria.= A name which is usually appropriated to the first of what are
known as the four great empires of the world, but which in geography
nearly corresponds with the modern Koordistan. Its capital was Nineveh,
of which the ancient ruins may still be traced. In 625 B.C., Nineveh was
destroyed by Cyaxares the Mede, and Assyria became a province of Media.

=Astapa= (now _Estepa_). A city in the province of Seville, Spain; it
was besieged by the Romans under Marius; the besieged slew their women
and children and allowed themselves to be cut down to a man before they
would surrender to the Romans.

=Asta-Regia.= A city of Spain (now in ruins); near here the prætor Caius
Atinius gained a victory over the ancient Lusitanians, in 186 B.C.

=Asti=, or =Asta=. A city in Piedmont, Italy. Chevert took its fortress
in 1745.

=Astorga= (anc. _Asturica Augusta_). A city in Spain, which was taken by
the French in 1810.

=Astragal and Fillets=. Are the mouldings at the front end of the chase,
used in the ornamental work of ordnance.

=Astrakhan= (Southeast Russia). Capital of a province of the same name;
it was captured by the Russians in 1554; besieged by the Turks in 1569,
who were defeated with great slaughter; seized by the rebel Stenko Razin
in 1670, who was soon dispossessed of it by his uncle Jacolof. The
province was visited and settled by Peter the Great in 1722.

=Astrolabe.= An instrument for observing the position of the stars, now
disused. A graduated ring with sights for taking altitudes at sea was
also formerly so called.

=Asturias.= An ancient principality in Northwest Spain. Here Pelayo
collected the Gothic fugitives, about 713, founded a new kingdom, and by
his victories checked Moorish conquests. In 1808 the junta of Asturias
began the organized resistance to the French usurpation.

=Asylum, Royal Military.= A benevolent institution erected at Chelsea,
Middlesex, England, for the reception and education of the children of
soldiers of the regular army. The first stone was laid by the Duke of
York, June 19, 1801. The direction and control of the institution are
placed in the hands of commissioners appointed by her majesty, the
principals of which are the commander-in-chief, the secretary of war,
the master-general of the ordnance, and other high officials connected
with the government. In the selection of children for admission
preference, in general, is given:--First, to orphans; second, to those
whose fathers have been killed, or have died on foreign service; third,
to those who have lost their mothers, and whose fathers are absent on
duty abroad; fourth, to those whose fathers are ordered on foreign
service, or whose parents have other children to maintain. There is
also a branch establishment at Southampton, for the maintenance and
education of girls.

=Asylum, Military.= See SOLDIERS’ HOMES.

=As You Were.= A word of command corresponding to the French _remettez
vous_, frequently used by drill instructors to cause a resumption of the
previous position, when any motion of the musket or movement of the body
has been improperly made.

=Atabal.= A kettle-drum; a kind of tabor, used by the Moors.

=Ataghan.= See YATAGHAN.

=Ataman.= A hetman, or chief of the Cossacks.

=Atchevement.= In heraldry, is a term nearly equivalent to arms, or
armorial bearings, and is often used in its abbreviated form of
_hatchment_ when speaking of the arms of a deceased person as displayed
at his funeral or elsewhere.

=Ategar.= The old English hand-dart, named from the Saxon _aeton_, “to
fling,” and _gar_, “a weapon.”

=Ategna.= An important city of ancient Italy. It was taken from the
Republicans by Julius Cæsar, in 45 B.C.

=Atella= (now _San Arpino_). A place in Italy, where the French under
the Duke of Montpensier, general of Charles VIII., had to capitulate and
surrender to Ferdinand II. of Naples, in 1496. The prisoners were
transported to the island of Procida, where the majority of them,
including the Duke of Montpensier, perished by contracting an infectious
disease.

=Ath.= A fortified town in Belgium; it was ceded to France in 1668;
fortified by Vauban; restored to the Spaniards in 1678; captured by the
French under Marshal Catinat in 1697, but was restored in the same year
by the peace of Ryswick. The allies under Field-Marshal d’Auvergne took
it October 1, 1706. It remained in the possession of the Dutch till
1716, when it was given up to the emperor of Austria, with the remainder
of the Spanish Netherlands. Louis XV. of France captured it in 1745.
France lost it by the treaties of 1814-15.

=Athanati.= A corps of picked soldiers belonging to the ancient Persian
army, 10,000 strong, which were called the “Immortals,” for the reason
that, as soon as one of the corps died, another was put in his place.

=Athenry.= A town in Galway, Ireland; near here the Irish were totally
defeated, and a gallant young chief, Feidlim O’Connor, slain in 1316.

=Athens.= A celebrated city, the capital of the modern kingdom of
Greece, situated in the plain of Attica, about 4 miles northeast of the
Gulf of Ægina. It was for several ages the centre of European
civilization. The city is said to have been founded by Cecrops, and
afterwards enlarged by Theseus, who made it the capital of the new state
which he formed by uniting into one political body the 12 independent
states into which Attica had previously been divided. A new era in the
history of the city commences with its capture by Xerxes, who reduced it
almost to a heap of ashes, 480 B.C. This event was followed by the rapid
development of the maritime power of the city and the establishment of
her empire over the islands of the Ægean Sea. Her increasing wealth
afforded her ample means for the embellishment of the city, and during
the half century which elapsed between the battle of Salamis and the
commencement of the Peloponnesian war, the Athenians erected those
masterpieces of architecture which have been the wonder of succeeding
ages. The city was captured by the Lacedæmonians in 404 B.C., and was
conquered by Sulla, the Roman general, 86 B.C., after which it dwindled
into insignificance as a maritime city. Its prosperity continued,
however, under the Roman sway, and it continued to be famous as the
centre of philosophy, literature, and art, many famous buildings having
been erected there by foreign rulers after the decline of its power.
During the Middle Ages it sunk into insignificance. It has successively
belonged to the Goths, Byzantines, Bergundians, Franks, Catalans,
Florentines, Venetians, and Turks. In 1687 the buildings of the
Acropolis suffered severe injury in the siege of Athens by the Venetians
under Morosini. In 1834 Athens was declared the capital of the kingdom
of Greece.

=Athlone.= A town in Roscommon, Ireland, which was burnt during the
civil war in 1641. After the battle of the Boyne, Col. R. Grace held
Athlone for James II. against a besieging army, but fell when it was
taken by assault by Ginkel, June 30, 1691. See AUGHRIM.

=Atilt.= In the manner of a tilter; in the position or with the action
of a man making a thrust. “To run a tilt at men.”

=Atlanta.= A city of Fulton Co., Ga., and the capital of the State. In
its vicinity a battle was fought between the Federal forces under Gen.
Sherman and the Confederates under Gen. Hood, July 22, 1864. The city
was taken by Gen. Sherman on September 2, and held by him until November
15, when he set out on his famous “march to the sea.”

=Atmidometer=, or =Admometer=. An instrument for measuring the rate of
evaporation, used in English medical corps.

=Atrebates.= A Belgic people subdued by Cæsar, 57 B.C.

=Attach.= To place, to appoint. Officers and non-commissioned officers
are said to be attached to the respective army, regiment, battalion,
troop, or company with which they are appointed to act.

=Attache= (_Fr._). The seal and signature of the colonel-general in the
old French service, which were affixed to commissions of officers after
they had been duly examined.

=Attack.= Any general assault or onset that is given to gain a post or
break a body of troops. _False attack_, a feigned or secondary movement
in the arrangements of an assault, intended to divert the attention of
an enemy from the real or principal attack. Such a movement has been
sometimes converted into a real attack, and succeeded when the main
assault, to which it was intended to be subsidiary, had failed. _Attack
of a siege_ is a furious attack made by the besiegers by means of
trenches, galleries, saps, breaches, or mines, etc., by storming any
part of the front attack. _To attack in front or flank_, in
fortifications, means to attack the salient angle, or both sides of the
bastion.

=Attack and Defense.= A part of the sword exercise drill.

=Attacking.= The act of making a general assault or onset for the
capture of a post, fort, etc., or the breaking of a body of troops.
Previous to an assault on a fortified position, the artillery ought to
support the other troops by a combined fire of guns, howitzers, and
small mortars, so that, if possible, the fire may be simultaneous, as
such diversity of projectiles would tend to distract the defenders, and
prevent them from extinguishing any fires among buildings, besides
throwing them into confusion at the moment of assault. In cases of
surprise, when immediate action is required, this method cannot, of
course, be practicable.

=Attention.= A cautionary command addressed to troops preparatory to a
particular exercise or manœuvre. _Gare-a-vous_ has the same
signification in the French service.

=Attestation.= In the English service, is a certificate which is granted
by a justice of the peace within four days after the enlistment of a
recruit. This certificate bears testimony that the recruit has been
brought before the justice in conformity to the Mutiny Act, and has
declared his assent or dissent to such enlistment, and that (if
according to the said act he shall have been duly enlisted) the proper
oaths have been administered to him by the magistrate, and the sections
of the articles of war against mutiny and desertion read to the said
recruit.

=Audenarde.= See OUDENARDE.

=Auditor, Second.= An official connected with the Treasury Department,
whose duties consist in examining all accounts relating to the pay and
clothing of the army, the subsistence of officers, bounties, premiums,
military and hospital stores, and the contingent expenses of the War
Department, etc., and transmitting them with vouchers, etc., to the
Second Comptroller for his decision.

=Auditor, Third.= To him is assigned the duty of examining all accounts
relative to the subsistence of the army, the quartermaster’s department,
and generally all accounts of the War Department other than those
provided for; also all accounts relating to pensions, claims for
compensation for loss of horses and equipments of officers and enlisted
men in the military service of the United States, etc.

=Auditor, Fourth.= Examines all accounts accruing in the Navy
Department, or relative thereto, and all accounts relating to navy
pensions.

=Auerstadt= (Prussia). Here and at Jena, on October 4, 1806, the French
signally defeated the Prussians. See JENA.

=Auget.= A kind of small trough used in mining, in which the saucisson
or train-hose is laid in straw, to prevent the powder from contracting
any dampness.

=Aughrim.= Near Athlone, in Ireland, where, on July 12, 1691, a battle
was fought between the Irish, headed by the French general St. Ruth, and
the English, under Gen. Ginkel. The former were defeated and lost 7000
men; the latter lost only 600 killed and 960 wounded. St. Ruth was
slain. This engagement proved decisively fatal to the interests of James
II., and Ginkel was created earl of Athlone.

=Augusta.= A city and capital of Richmond Co., Ga., on the Savannah
River. It was an important place at the time of the Revolution, and was
captured by the English and Tories in 1779, but surrendered to Col.
Henry Lee, of the Revolutionary army, June 5, 1781.

=Augusta=, or =Agosta=. A well-built and fortified city in the
intendancy of Catania, in Sicily; near here, on April 21, 1676, a naval
battle was fought between the French under Duquesne, and the Dutch and
Spanish fleet under Ruyter, the advantage remaining with the French.
Ruyter was wounded at this battle, and died a few days after at
Syracuse.

=Augusticum.= A bounty that was given by the Roman emperors to their
soldiers upon the latter taking the oath of allegiance for the first
time, or upon a renewal of the oath.

=Aulic Council.= A term applied to a council of the War Department of
the Austrian empire, and the members of different provincial chanceries
of that empire are called aulic councillors.

=Aumacor.= A title similar to general-in-chief, which was given to the
chief of the Saracens during the Crusades.

=Ausen.= A name given by the Goths to their victorious generals. This
word in their language signifies “more than mortal,” _i.e._, demi-gods.

=Aussig.= A village in Prussia, where, in 1426, the army of the margrave
Frederick von Meissen was defeated by the Hussites and Poles under
Jakubko von Wrezezowecez and Prince Sigismund Koribut. The city was
plundered and burned the same night by the Hussites.

=Austerlitz= (Moravia). Here a battle was fought between the French and
the allied Austrian and Russian armies, December 2, 1805. Three emperors
commanded: Alexander of Russia, Francis of Austria, and Napoleon of
France. The killed and wounded exceeded 30,000 on the side of the
allies, who lost 40 standards, 150 pieces of cannon, and thousands of
prisoners; the French loss amounted to about 12,000 men. The decisive
victory of the French led to the treaty of Presburg, signed December 26,
1805.

=Austria, Empire of= (Ger. _Oesterreich_, “eastern kingdom”). One of the
most extensive and most populous of European kingdoms, comprising the
southeast part of Central Europe and more than half the territory of the
Danube. It is composed of a union of different states, some of them at
one time forming independent kingdoms, inhabited by races of people
differing from each other in descent, language, customs, laws, and
religion, held together as one empire by being united under one
sovereign and one central government. This territory, which was
comprised in Noricum and part of Pannonia, was annexed to the Roman
empire in 33, was overrun by Huns, Avars, etc., in the 5th and 6th
centuries, and taken from them by Charlemagne, who united it to Germany
as the “eastern kingdom,” 791-96. In 1156 the country was made a
hereditary duchy by the emperor Frederick I., and in 1453 was raised to
an archduchy. Rodolph, count of Hapsburg, elected emperor of Germany in
1273, acquired Austria in 1278, and from 1493 to 1804 his descendants
were emperors of Germany. On August 11, 1804, Francis II. became
hereditary emperor of Austria. Vienna, the capital, was entered by a
French army November 14, 1805, and evacuated January 12, 1806, Austria
losing Venice and the Tyrol by the treaty of Presburg. Francis renounced
the title of emperor of Germany August 6, 1806. Vienna was again taken
by the French May 13, 1809, but was restored at the peace, October 14
following. In 1848 Lombardy revolted, and Milan and other disaffected
towns formed an alliance with Charles Albert, king of Sardinia, who then
invaded the Austrian territory at the head of a large army, victory
seeming for a time to favor the Italians. In the following year,
however, both the insurgents and their Sardinian ally were repeatedly
defeated by the Austrian forces under Marshal Radetzky, and Lombardy was
again brought under the Austrian sway, but was ceded to Sardinia in
1859. Prussia and Italy declared war against Austria in 1866; but,
through the intervention of Napoleon, peace was concluded the same year,
Austria losing Venice and the Quadrilateral.

=Authority.= In a general acceptation of the term, signifies a right to
command and a consequent right to be obeyed. For the appointment of
officers of the U. S. army, see APPOINTING POWER. It appears that the
sovereigns of Great Britain and other nations have the power to appoint
and dismiss officers at pleasure.

=Autocrat.= A person vested with an absolute independent power, by which
he is rendered unaccountable to any other for his actions. The power of
the Athenian generals or commanders was usually limited, so that, at
the expiration of their office, they were liable to render an account of
their administration. But, on some extraordinary occasions, they were
exempted from this restraint, and sent with a full and uncontrollable
authority; in which sense they were styled autocrats. Somewhat similar
was the Roman _dictator_. This term is sometimes applied to the czar of
Russia.

=Automatic Fire.= A mixture of combustibles used by the Greeks. It was
exploded by the rays of the sun.

=Autonomy.= The power or right of self-government. This was a privilege
jealously preserved in all the important cities of ancient Greece,
nearly every one of which was an independent state. The right to make
their own laws and elect their own magistrates was also granted by the
Romans to some of their cities, and was regarded as a mark of honor.

=Autun= (anc. _Bibracte, Augustodunum_). A town in France, department of
the Saöne-et-Loire. Here, in the year 21, two Roman legions under Silius
gained a victory over Sacrovir, chief of the Ædui, who had assembled a
considerable force to oppose Silius. The Germans besieged it in 355;
captured by the Burgundians in 414; devastated by the Saracens in 731;
burned by the Normans in 888 and 895. This city was besieged without
success by Marshal d’Aumont in 1591. It was also the scene of hostile
operations between Garibaldi and the Germans in the winter of 1870-71.

=Auxerre.= Chief town of the department of Yonne, France. It is supposed
to be on the site of the ancient _Autissiodorum_, which was a
flourishing town before the Roman invasion of Gaul. It successfully
resisted the Huns under Attila, was taken from the Romans by Clovis, and
after his death became a part of the kingdom of Burgundy. The English
took it in 1359, but it was retaken by Du Guesclin. It was finally
united to the kingdom of France by Louis XI. John, “Sans Peur,” duke of
Burgundy (reigned from 1404-19), caused the assassination of Louis, duke
of Orleans, in 1407, which gave rise to a civil war between the
Burgundians and the dukes of Orleans and their allies, which was ended
by the treaty of Auxerre, August 10, 1412.

=Auxiliary.= Foreign or subsidiary troops which are furnished to a
belligerent power in consequence of a treaty of alliance, or for
pecuniary considerations. Of the latter description may be considered
the Hessians that were employed by Great Britain to enslave America.

=Auxiliary War.= See WAR, AUXILIARY.

=Auximum= (now _Osimo_). A town in Italy, 9 miles from Ancona, which
Belisarius (a great general of the Byzantine empire) captured from the
Goths in 539.

=Avallon= (anc. _Aballo_). A town in the department of Yonne, France,
which sustained a long siege and was dismantled during the reign of King
Robert in the 10th century. It was sacked by the Saracens in 731, and
by the Normans in 843; taken by Charles VII. in 1433, retaken by Philip
the Good, duke of Burgundy, in 1455, and pillaged by the troops of the
League in 1593.

=Avant= (_Fr._). Foremost, most advanced towards the enemy; as,
_Avant-chemin couvert_, the advanced covered way which is made at the
foot of the glacis to oppose the approaches of an enemy. _Avant-duc_,
the pile-work which is formed by a number of young trees on the edge or
entrance of a river. They are driven into the ground with battering-rams
or strong pieces of iron, to form a level floor by means of strong
planks being nailed upon it, which serve for the foundation of a bridge.
Boats are placed wherever the _avant-duc_ terminates. The _avant-duc_ is
had recourse to when the river is so broad that there are not boats
sufficient to make a bridge across. _Avant-ducs_ are made on each side
of the river. _Avant-fosse_, the ditch of the counterscarp next to the
country. It is dug at the foot of the glacis. _Avant-garde_,
advance-guard. _Avant-trains_, the limbers of field-pieces on which are
placed boxes containing ammunition enough for immediate service.

=Avars.= Barbarians who ravaged Pannonia and annoyed the Eastern empire
in the 6th and 7th centuries; subdued by Charlemagne about 799, after an
eight years’ war.

=Avein=, or =Avaine=. A village in Luxembourg, where, on May 20, 1635,
the French and Dutch, under Marshals de Chatillon and de Brere, defeated
the Spaniards under Prince Thomas of Savoy. The prince lost 4000 men
killed and wounded, 900 prisoners, and 14 pieces of cannon.

=Aventaile.= The movable part of a helmet.

=Averysborough.= A village of North Carolina, on Cape Fear River, about
40 miles south of Raleigh. During Gen. Sherman’s South Carolina
campaign, in 1865, this place was the scene of an engagement between his
forces and about 20,000 Confederates under Gen. Hardee, who were
intrenched in a swampy neck between Cape Fear and South Rivers in order
to check Sherman’s progress, and gain time for the concentration of Gen.
Johnston’s forces in the rear at Raleigh, Smithfleld, or Goldsboro’. The
position of the Confederates was a strong one to carry by reason of the
nature of the ground, which was very soft; but after four hours’
fighting they were driven back to a second line better and more strongly
held, losing 3 guns and 217 prisoners. Here the fighting was continued
until late in the afternoon, when the entire Federal line advanced and
drove the Confederates within their intrenchments, pressing them so hard
that during the night of March 16, which was stormy, they retreated
towards Smithfield. The Union loss was 12 officers and 65 men killed and
477 wounded.

=Avesnes.= A city in the department of the North, France; ruptured by
Louis XI.; recaptured by the Spaniards in 1559; returned to France in
1659; occupied by the Russians in 1814, and by the Prussians in 1815.

=Avesnes le Sec, Battle of.= The French were defeated by the Austrians
in this battle, September, 1793.

=Avigliana.= A city in Italy where the French defeated the Piedmontese
in 1630.

=Avignon.= A city in Southeastern France; besieged and captured by Louis
VIII. of France in 1226; ceded by Philip III. to the pope in 1273. The
papal seat was removed by Clement V. to Avignon in 1309. In 1348,
Clement VI. purchased the sovereignty from Jane, countess of Provence
and queen of Naples. In 1408 the French, wearied of the schism, expelled
Benedict XIII., and Avignon ceased to be the seat of papacy. Here were
held nine councils (1080-1457). This city was seized and restored
several times by the French kings; the last time in 1773. It was claimed
by the National Assembly, 1791, and was confirmed to France by the
congress of sovereigns in 1815. In October, 1791, horrible massacres
took place here.

=Avis=, or =Aviz=. An order of knighthood in Portugal, instituted by
Sancho, the first king of Portugal, in imitation of the order of
Calatrava, and having, like it, for its object the subjugation of the
Moors. The king of Portugal is grand-master of the order.

=Avranches= (anc. _Abrancæ_). A city in the department of La Manche,
France. It was a place of importance during the Roman period.
Charlemagne fortified it, but it was taken by the Normans in 865. It was
captured by Geoffrey Plantagenet in 1141; by Guy de Thouars in 1203; by
the English in 1418; by the Calvinists in 1562; besieged by the royal
troops in 1591.

=Award.= A judgment, the result of arbitration. In a military sense, the
decision or sentence of a court-martial. To award medals of honor.

=Awkward Squad.= See SQUAD.

=Axel.= A town in the province of Zealand, Holland; captured by escalade
from the Spaniards August 20, 1586, by Prince Maurice of Saxony, who was
then but twenty years of age; captured by assault on May 16, 1747, by
Marshal Maurice de Saxe.

=Axis.= A straight line, real or imaginary, about which a body revolves
is called the axis of rotation. In gunnery, the axis of the piece is the
central line of the bore of the gun.

=Axum=, or =Axoum=. A town in Abyssinia, said to have been the capital
of a kingdom whose people were converted to Christianity by Frumentius,
in the 4th century, and to have been the allies of Justinian, 533;
captured and burned by the Arabs in 1532.

=Aya-Bassi=, or =Bachi=. A non-commissioned grade in the corps of
janissaries, corresponding to that of corporal in modern armies.

=Ayacucho.= A city in Peru; here the Peruvians finally gained their
independence by defeating the Spaniards, December 9, 1824. The Spaniards
lost 6 generals killed, and General Lascerna wounded and taken prisoner;
700 men under Canterac and Valdez, who tried to escape, were forced to
surrender.

=Aylesbury.= A town in Buckinghamshire, England; was reduced by the West
Saxons in 571. St. O’Syth, beheaded by the pagans in Essex, was buried
there, 600. William the Conqueror invested his favorites with some of
its lands, under the tenure of providing straw for his bed-chambers,
three eels for his use in winter, and in summer, straw, rushes, and two
green geese, thrice every year.

=Aylesford.= A town in Kent, England; here, it is said, the Britons were
victorious over the Saxon invaders, 455, and Horsa was killed.

=Azaine= (_Fr._). A name formerly applied to a trumpet in the French
army.

=Azapes.= Auxiliary troops which were levied by the Turks among the
Christians (under their dominion), whom they exposed to the first attack
of the enemy.

=Azay-le-Rideau.= A small town in the department of Indre-et-Loire,
France, formerly fortified; it sustained several sieges during the reign
of Charles VI.

=Azaz.= A fortress which was situated between Aleppo and Antioch;
captured by the Saracens in 688 B.C.

=Azmooz.= A village in Switzerland, where the French under Massena
defeated the Austrians and took 3000 prisoners.

=Azoe=, or =Azov=. A town in Russia in Europe, captured by Tamerlane in
1392, by the Turks in 1471, by the Russians in 1696; returned to the
Turks in 1711; ceded to Russia in 1774. It was bombarded and destroyed
by an allied English and French squadron in 1855.

=Azof, Sea of.= The _Palus Mæotis_ of the ancients, communicates by the
Strait of Yenikale, or Kertch (the Bosphorus Cimmerius), with the Black
Sea, and is entirely surrounded by Russian territory. An expedition
composed of British, French, and Turkish troops, commanded by Sir G.
Brown, arrived at Kertch, May 24, 1855, when the Russians retired, after
blowing up the fortifications. On the 27th the allies marched upon
Yenikale, which also offered no resistance. On the same evening the
allied fleet entered the sea of Azof, and in a few days completed their
occupation of it, after capturing a large number of merchant vessels,
etc. Immense quantities of stores were destroyed by the Russians to
prevent them falling into the hands of the allies.

=Azotus.= See ASHDOD.

=Aztecs.= The ruling tribe in Mexico at the time of the Spanish
invasion, 1519.

=Azure.= A French word used in heraldry to signify blue. In engraving
arms it is always represented by horizontal lines.



B.


=Baalbec.= An ancient city of Syria. From the accounts of Oriental
writers, it was a place of importance down to the time of the Moslem
invasion of Syria. After the capture of Damascus, it was regularly
invested by the Moslems, and after a courageous defense at length
capitulated; sacked and dismantled by the caliph of Damascus, and the
principal inhabitants put to the sword, 748; pillaged by Timour Bey,
1400; afterwards subjected to Turkish supremacy; pillaged August 8,
1860, and the Christian inhabitants massacred by the Mohammedans.

=Bab-el-Thaza.= A place in Algeria where the French fought the Arabs,
April 22, 1842.

=Babylon.= One of the oldest and most celebrated cities in the world,
the ancient capital of the Babylonio-Chaldean empire, was situated in an
extensive plain on the Euphrates, about 60 miles south of Bagdad. The
modern town of Hillah is supposed to occupy a portion of its site. About
588 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, captured Jerusalem, burned
the great temple of Solomon, and carried away the Jews as captives to
Babylon. Cyrus besieged Babylon, took it by stratagem in 538, and put to
death the king Belshazzar, after which the kingdom of Babylon ceased to
exist. The city was occupied by Darius in 518, and taken by Alexander
the Great in 331. Alexander having selected it as the capital of his
empire, died there in 323 B.C.

=Bacchi.= Two ancient warlike machines; the one resembled a
battering-ram, the other cast out fire.

=Bachelier= (_Fr._). A young squire, or knight, who has passed through
his first campaign, and received the belt of the order.

=Bachevaleureux.= A term which, in the old French language, signified
warrior, brave, valiant, etc.

=Backing.= The heavy plating of wood, or of wood and iron, used to
support and strengthen iron plates.

=Back-plate.= A piece of armor for covering the back.

=Back-sight.= See SIGHT, REAR.

=Back-step.= The retrograde movement of a man, or a body of men, without
changing front.

=Backsword.= A sword with one sharp edge. In England, a stick with a
basket handle, used in rustic amusements; the game in which it is used;
called also “single stick.”

=Backwards.= A technical word made use of in the British service to
express the retrograde movement of troops from line into column, and
_vice versa_. Also a word of command in the U. S. service, to cause a
man, or body of men, to march to the rear without changing front.

=Bactria= (now _Bokhara_). A province of the Persian empire; it was
inhabited by a rude and warlike people, who were subdued by Cyrus or his
next successors. It was included in the conquests of Alexander, and
formed a part of the kingdom of the Selucidæ until 255 B.C., when
Theodotus, its governor, revolted from Antiochus II., and founded the
Greek kingdom of Bactria; overthrown by the Parthians 134 or 125 B.C.

=Bacule.= A kind of portcullis or gate, made like a pitfall, with a
counterpoise. See BASCULE BRIDGE.

=Badajos= (Southwest Spain). An important barrier fortress, surrendered
to the French, under Soult, March 11, 1811; was invested by the British,
under Lord Wellington, on March 16, 1812, and stormed and taken on April
6, 1812. The French retreated in haste.

=Badaleers.= Musket-charges of powder in tin or copper tubes, worn
dangling from a shoulder-belt, before the introduction of cartridges.

=Baddesdown Hill=, or =Mount Badon=. Near Bath, England, where Bede says
the Britons defeated the Saxons, 493; others say in 511 or 520.

=Badelaire=, or =Bandelaire= (_Fr._). A short, broad, curved, and
double-edged pointed sword.

=Baden= (Southwest Germany). A grand duchy; broke out in insurrection
and joined by the free city of Rastadt, May, 1849; the Prussians entered
it, and defeated the insurgents commanded by Mierolawski, June 15, 1849.
Noted as the place where the Emperor Napoleon III., the prince regent of
Prussia, and the German kings and princes held an interview, June 16,
1860.

=Badge.= A distinctive mark, token, or sign, worn on the person. _Corps_
badges were worn to distinguish the army corps during the civil war,
1861-65. _Marksmen’s badges_ are given to good shots in most armies.

=Badon, Mount.= The scene of a battle said to have been fought by King
Arthur against the Saxons who invaded his kingdom, and in which the
latter were signally defeated. By some writers Badon has been identified
with Bath, by others in Berkshire.

=Bæcula.= An ancient town in Hispania Tarraconensis, west of Castulo,
where the Romans under Scipio defeated the Carthaginians under
Hasdrubal, 209 B.C.

=Bagaudes.= A name given to the peasants of Gaul, who revolted against
the Romans in 270; they pillaged cities and villages and massacred the
Roman officers; two of the insurgent chiefs, Aliandus and Amandus, were
elected emperors; their reign was of short duration; besieged in their
camp near the confluence of the Seine and Marne, where Saint-Maur is now
situated, they died in arms. This place was named for a long time “Camp
des Bagaudes.”

=Bagdad.= In Asiatic Turkey, built by Al Mansour, and made the seat of
the Saracen empire about 762; taken by the Tartars, and a period put to
the Saracen rule, 1258; often taken by the Persians, and retaken by the
Turks, with great slaughter; the latter took it in 1638, and have held
it since.

=Baggage.= The clothes, tents, utensils of divers sorts, and provisions,
etc., belonging to an army, or part of an army.

=Baggonet.= The old term for bayonet.

=Bagpipe.= The name of a musical warlike instrument, of the wind kind,
used by the Scotch regiments, and sometimes by the Irish. Bagpipes were
used by the Danes, by the Romans, and by the Asiatics. The Greeks also
had an instrument composed of a pipe and blown-up skin. The bagpipe has
been a favorite instrument among the Scots. There are two varieties, the
one with long pipes, sounded with the mouth; the other, with short
pipes, filled with air by a bellows, and played on with the fingers. The
first, the loudest and most ear-piercing of all music, is the genuine
Highland pipe, and was suited to the warlike genius of that people. It
formerly roused their courage to battle, alarmed them when secure, and
collected them when scattered, solaced them in their long and painful
marches, and in time of peace kept up the memory of the gallantry of
their ancestors by the tunes composed after signal victories. The other
is the Irish bagpipe.

=Bags.= Articles used in field fortifications, and in works to cover a
besieging army. _Sand-bags_, which are generally 16 inches in diameter,
and 30 high, are filled with earth or sand, to repair breaches and
embrasures of batteries, when damaged by the enemy’s fire or by the
blast of the guns. They are also placed on parapets, so arranged as to
form a covering for men to fire through. _Earth-bags_ contain about a
cubical foot of earth, and are used to raise a parapet in haste, or to
repair one that is beaten down. They are only employed where the ground
is rocky, or too hard for the pickaxe and spade, and does not afford
ready material for a temporary parapet.

=Bags, Cartridge-.= See CARTRIDGE.

=Bags of Powder.= Are used to blow down gates, stockades, and slight
obstructions. In future wars the higher explosives will probably be used
for such purposes.

=Bahama Isles= (North America). Were the first points of discovery by
Columbus. New Providence was settled by the English in 1629. They were
expelled by the Spaniards in 1641; returned in 1666; again expelled in
1703. These isles were formally ceded to the English in 1783. The
Bahamas profited by blockade-running during the American civil war,
1861-65.

=Bahar.= A province in Northern India; conquered by Baber in 1530.
Bahar, Bengal, and Orissa, a princely dominion, became subject to the
English East India Company in 1765, by the treaty of Allahabad.

=Baiclaklar.= A color-bearer in the Turkish army.

=Baiky.= The ballium, or inclosed plat of ground in an ancient fort.

=Bail.= A stout iron yoke placed over heavy guns and fitting closely
over the ends of the trunnions, to which it is attached by pins in the
axis of the trunnions; used to raise or lower the gun by means of the
gin.

=Baille= (_Fr._). A term formerly used to designate a work or
fortification which served as an outpost or exterior defense.

=Baionnier= (_Fr._). A name formerly given to soldiers who were armed
with a bayonet.

=Baker, Post.= The person who bakes bread for a garrison. In the U. S.
service an enlisted man, who receives additional pay for his labor.

=Bakery=, or =Bakehouse=. See OVENS.

=Balaklava.= A small town in the Crimea, with a fine harbor, about 10
miles from Sebastopol. Near here about 12,000 Russians, commanded by
Gen. Liprandi, were repulsed by a furious charge of heavy English
cavalry, led by Brig.-Gen. Scarlett, under the orders of Lord Lucan,
October 25, 1854. After this, from an unfortunate misconception of Lord
Raglan’s order, Lord Lucan ordered Lord Cardigan, with the light
cavalry, to charge the Russian army, which had reformed on its own
ground, with its artillery in front. This order was most gallantly
obeyed, and great havoc was made on the Russians; but of 670 British
horsemen only 198 returned (termed by Tennyson “The Charge of the Six
Hundred”). On March 22, 1855, a sortie from the garrison of Sebastopol
led to a desperate engagement here, in which the Russians were
vigorously repulsed, with the loss of 2000 men killed and wounded; the
allies lost about 600.

=Balance-step.= An exercise in squad drill, a preliminary to marching.

=Balbec.= See BAALBEC.

=Baldrick=, or =Baudrick=. A girdle, or richly ornamented belt, worn
pendent from one shoulder across the breast, and under the opposite arm.

=Bale=, or =Basel=. One of the largest towns in Switzerland; captured
and burned by the Hungarians in 917. In 1444 there was a bloody battle
fought about a quarter of a mile beyond its gates, called the battle of
St. Jacob, between the Swiss, 1600 strong, and a French army that was
twenty times their number, commanded by the dauphin, afterwards Louis
XII. For ten hours the brave Swiss band kept this large army in check;
but nearly all the Swiss fell, not more than 10, according to some
accounts, escaping alive. This exploit first spread the fame of Swiss
valor, and led to the enrollment of the Swiss body-guard of France. The
treaties of peace between France and Spain, and France and Prussia, were
signed here, July 22, 1795.

=Balearic Islands.= A group of islands in the Mediterranean; conquered
by the Romans 123 B.C.; by the Vandals about 426 B.C., and formed part
of Charlemagne’s empire, 799. They were conquered by the Moors about
1005, and held by them till about 1280, when they were annexed by
Aragon. See MAJORCA and MINORCA.

=Balista.= A machine in ancient warfare used for throwing stones,
burning objects, leaden balls, and even dead and putrefied bodies. The
latter were thrown to cause sickness in besieged cities.

=Balistarium.= A store-room or arsenal in which the Romans stored their
balistas.

=Balister.= A term applied in ancient times to a cross-bow.

=Balistrier.= A name applied to cross-bow men in ancient times.

=Balkan.= The ancient Hæmus, a range of mountains extending from the
Adriatic to the Euxine. Their passage, up to that time deemed
impracticable, was completed by the Russians under Diebitsch during the
Russian and Turkish war, July 26, 1829. An armistice was the
consequence, and a treaty of peace was signed at Adrianople, September
14, following. The Balkan was again crossed by the victorious Russians
in the face of all opposition during the Russian and Turkish war, 1877.

=Balks.= Joist-shaped spars, which rest between the cleats upon the
saddles of two pontons, to support the chess or flooring.

=Ball.= Is a general term applied to every kind of spherical shot fired
from a musket, rifle, or cannon. Leaden balls are chiefly used for the
small-arms and iron for the artillery. See CARTRIDGE, SHOT, SHELLS.

=Ball and Chain.= For serious offenses soldiers are sometimes sentenced
to wear a 6- or 12-pounder ball attached by a chain to the leg.

=Ball-cartridge.= A cartridge containing a ball.

=Ballinamuck.= A town in the county of Longford, Ireland. Here, on
September 8, 1798, the Irish rebels and their French auxiliaries were
defeated and captured.

=Ballistea.= In antiquity, songs accompanied by dancing, used on
occasions of victory.

=Ballistic=, or =Electro-ballistic Machine=. Is a machine designed to
determine by electricity the initial velocity of a projectile. The West
Point ballistic machine, devised for use at the Military Academy by Col.
Benton, of the ordnance department, and since adopted by that
department, consists of a bed-plate of metal supporting an arc placed in
a perpendicular position, and graduated. Suspended perpendicular to the
plane of this arc are two pendulums, having a common axis of motion
passing through the centre. Two electro-magnets are attached to the
horizontal limb of the arc to hold up the pendulums when they are
deflected through angles of 90°. There is also an apparatus which
records the point at which the pendulums pass each other, when they fall
by the breaking of the currents which excite the magnets, two targets
being placed so as to support the wires in a position to be cut by the
projectile. The velocity of the electric currents being considered
instantaneous, and the loss of the power of the magnets simultaneous
with the rupture of the currents, it follows that each pendulum begins
to move at the instant that the projectile cuts the wire, and that the
interval of time corresponds to the difference of the arcs described by
the pendulums up to the time of meeting.

=Ballistic Pendulum.= A machine consisting of a massive block of wood
suspended by a bar. It was devised for experiments on the initial
velocities of cannon-shot. The shot being fired into the block, the
velocity is calculated from the vibrating effect on the pendulum.

=Ballistics.= Is that branch of gunnery which treats of the motion of
projectiles.

=Ballistraria.= Cruciform apertures in the walls of a stronghold,
through which the cross-bow men discharged their bolts. It also
signified a projecting turret, otherwise called a bartizan, such as is
commonly seen in old castles.

=Ballium.= A term used in ancient military art, and probably a
corruption of vallium. In towns, the appellation “ballium” was given to
a work fenced with palisades, and sometimes to masonry covering the
suburbs; but in castles, it was the space immediately within the outer
wall.

=Ballon.= A town in the department of the Sarthe, France, formerly
fortified; captured by the English in 1417; retaken by Charles VII. of
France.

=Balloon.= A bag or hollow vessel, made of silk or other light material,
and filled with hydrogen gas or heated air, so as to rise and float in
the atmosphere; called for distinction an _air_-balloon. Balloons were
used extensively as a means of observation during the American civil
war, 1861-65, and in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870.

=Balloting.= A bounding movement of a spherical projectile in the bore
of a cannon. See INJURIES TO CANNON.

=Ball-proof.= Incapable of being penetrated by balls from fire-arms.

=Ball’s Bluff.= In Virginia, on the banks of the Potomac. On October 21,
1861, by direction of the Federal general C. P. Stone, the heroic Col.
Baker crossed the river to reconnoitre. He attacked the Confederate
camp at Leesburg, and was defeated with great loss. The disaster was
attributed to mismanagement, and in February, 1862, Gen. Stone was
arrested on suspicion of treason, but was afterwards discharged, and at
a later period again given a command. The Federal loss in killed,
wounded, and drowned was probably 1000 men.

=Ballynahinch.= A town in Ireland where a sanguinary engagement took
place between a large body of the insurgent Irish and the British
troops, under Gen. Nugent, June 13, 1798. A large part of the town was
destroyed, and the royal army suffered very severely.

=Balots= (_Fr._). Sacks or bales of wool, made use of in cases of great
emergency, to form parapets or places of arms. They are likewise adapted
for the defense of trenches, to cover the workmen in saps, and in all
instances where promptitude is required.

=Baltic Sea= (Ger. _Ostsee_, or “Eastern Sea”). Separates Sweden and the
Danish Isles from Russia, Prussia, and Germany. Declared neutral for
commerce by treaty between Russia and Sweden, 1759, and Denmark, 1760.
It is often partially frozen. Charles X. of Sweden with an army crossed
the Belts in 1658. Several Baltic expeditions were undertaken by the
British and French against Denmark and Russia.

=Baltimore.= The chief city in Maryland, situated at the head of
navigation on the Patapsco River; it was founded in 1729. On September
12, 1814, the British army under Col. Ross advanced against this place.
He was killed in a skirmish, and the command was assumed by Col. Brooke,
who attacked and routed the American army, which lost 600 killed and
wounded, and 300 prisoners. The projected attack on the town was,
however, abandoned.

=Baltimore= (Ireland). A decayed town; early in the 17th century, the
Algerine pirates plundered the town, carrying away 200 prisoners.

=Baltinglass.= A town in the county of Wicklow, Ireland. Here an action
took place in 1798 between the royalists and the insurgents, in which
the latter were defeated.

=Bamberg.= A town in Bavaria, said to have been founded by the Saxons in
804; taken and pillaged by the Prussians in 1759.

=Bampton.= A town in Devonshire, England. A great battle was fought
here, 614, between the West Saxons and Britons, in which the former were
defeated.

=Ban= (_Fr._). A sort of proclamation made at the head of a body of
troops, or in the several quarters or cantonments of an army, by sound
of trumpet or beat of drum, either for observing martial discipline, or
for declaring a new officer, or punishing a soldier, or the like. At
present such kind of proclamations are given out in the written orders
of the day.

=Ban.= In the former days of France, when the feudal barons, who held
their estates and honors from the king, were summoned to attend him in
time of war, they were called the ban, or the levy first called out;
while the tenants, subordinate to these barons, formed the _Arrière
ban_, or secondary levy.

=Banbury.= A town in Oxfordshire, England. The castle erected by
Alexander de Blois, 1125, has been frequently besieged; in 1646 it was
taken by the Parliamentarians and demolished. At Edgecote, or Danesmore,
near Banbury, Edward IV. defeated the Lancastrians under the Earl of
Pembroke, July 26, 1469, and their leader and his brother were soon
after taken prisoners and executed.

=Bancal= (_Fr._). A curved sabre, which was used in France during the
Republic and the Empire.

=Band, Military.= Consists of a body of musicians attached to each army
regiment or battalion. The law provides for a band at the Military
Academy at West Point, and for each artillery, cavalry, and infantry
regiment. A chief musician, who shall be instructor of music, and for
each artillery and infantry regiment two principal musicians; each
cavalry regiment to have one chief trumpeter. Musicians for regimental
bands are enlisted as soldiers, and formed under the direction of the
adjutant, but are not permanently detached from their companies, and are
instructed in all the duties of a soldier.

=Banda Isles.= Eastern Archipelago, visited by the Portuguese (1511),
who settled on them 1521, but were expelled by the Dutch about 1600.
Rohun Island was ceded to the English in 1616. The Bandas were taken by
the latter in 1796; restored in 1801; retaken, 1811, and restored in
1816.

=Banded-mail.= A kind of armor, which consisted of alternate rows of
leather or cotton and single chain-mail.

=Banderet.= In military history, implies the commander-in-chief of the
troops of the canton of Berne, in Switzerland.

=Banderol.= A small flag used in marking out a camp, etc.; a camp color.

=Bandes= (_Fr._). Bands, bodies of infantry. _Bandes Françaises_; the
French infantry was anciently so called; the term, however, became less
general, and was confined to the _Prevôt des Bandes_, or the judge or
provost-marshal that tried the men belonging to the French guards.

=Banditti.= Bands of robbers who infest the mountainous parts of Italy
and Greece. Formerly they frequently attacked travelers, hurried them
off into their mountain fastnesses, and held them captive until
ransomed.

=Bandoleer.= In ancient military history, a large leathern belt worn
over the right shoulder, and hanging under the left arm, to carry some
kind of warlike weapons.

=Bandoleer.= A little wooden case covered with leather; every musketeer
used to wear 12 of them hanging on a shoulder-belt; each case contained
the charge of powder for a musket. Bandoleers are now superseded by the
cartridge-box.

=Banffshire.= A maritime county in the northeast of Scotland; it was the
scene of many bloody conflicts between the Scots and their Danish
invaders, and was the theatre of almost incessant struggles from 1624 to
1645.

=Bangalore.= A fortified town of Hindostan, in Mysore, which was taken
from Tippoo Saib by Lord Cornwallis in 1791.

=Baniwas.= A tribe of South American Indians living on the Amazon and
the Rio Negro.

=Banner.= Originally a small square flag borne before a banneret, whose
arms were embroidered on it; hence, a military ensign; the principal
standard of a prince or state; a pennon; a streamer.

=Bannered.= Furnished with or bearing banners.

=Banneret.= Was originally a military rank conferred only on such as
were able to bring a certain number of vassals into the field; hence, a
rank corresponding to this; also, a small banner.

=Bannockburn.= In Stirlingshire, Scotland; the site of two battles: 1.
Between Robert Bruce of Scotland and Edward II. of England, June 24,
1314. The army of Bruce consisted of 30,000; that of Edward of 100,000
men, of whom 52,000 were archers. The English crossed the rivulet to the
attack, and Bruce having dug and covered pits, they fell into them and
were thrown into confusion. The rout was complete; the English king
narrowly escaped, and 50,000 were killed or taken prisoners. 2. At
Sanchieburn, near here James II. was defeated and slain on June 11,
1488, by his rebellious nobles.

=Banquette.= Is the step of earth within the parapet, sufficiently high
to enable the defenders, when standing upon it, to fire over the crest
of the parapet with ease.

=Banquette Slope.= Is a slope of earth or timber, placed in rear of the
banquette when the top cannot be reached by an ordinary step.

=Bantam.= In Java; here a British factory was established by Capt.
Lancaster in 1603. The English and Danes were driven from their
factories by the Dutch in 1683. Bantam surrendered to the British in
1811, but was restored to the Dutch at the peace in 1814.

=Bantry Bay.= In the south of Ireland, where a French fleet bringing
succor to the adherents of James II. attacked the English under Admiral
Herbert, May 1, 1689. A French squadron of 7 sail of the line and 2
frigates, armed _en flute_, and 17 transports anchored here for a few
days, but without effect, December, 1796. Mutiny of the Bantry Bay
squadron took place in December, 1801.

=Banyuls-de-Aspres.= A town in the department of the Eastern Pyrenees,
France, which is memorable for the defense which its inhabitants made
in 1793, when they compelled 7000 Spaniards, who had attacked them, to
surrender.

=Bapaume.= A fortified town of France, department of Pas-de-Calais. A
portion of the allied troops advanced to this place after compelling the
French to abandon their fortified position, and to retreat behind the
scarpe, in August, 1793.

=Baptism of Blood.= As the name implies, is the act of being baptized
with blood, and was used specially with reference to soldiers who fought
on their first battle-field. In the old French service, baptism of blood
equalized all grades, and military services, not rank, were the
recognized claims for promotion.

=Baptism of Fire.= A figurative term applied to soldiers who have passed
through their first fire in battle.

=Bar.= A long piece of wood or iron. Bars have various denominations in
the construction of artillery-carriages, as sweep- and cross-bars for
tumbrils, fore, hind, and under cross-bars for powder-carts, shaft-bars
for wagons, and dowel-bars, used in mortar-beds.

=Bar.= In heraldry, is one of those important figures or charges known
as _ordinaries_. It is formed by two horizontal lines passing over the
shield like the fess, but it differs from it in size,--the fess
occupying a third, the bar only a fifth part of the shield. The fess is
also confined to the centre, while the bar may be borne in several parts
of the shield.

=Barb.= The reflected points of the head of an arrow. The armor for
horses was so called.

=Barbacan=, or =Barbican=. In fortification, a watch-tower for the
purpose of descrying an enemy at a distance; advanced works of a place
or citadel, properly the boulevards of the gates and walls; a fort at
the entrance of a tower or bridge, with a double wall; or an aperture or
loop-hole in the walls of a fortress through which to fire upon an
enemy.

=Barbary.= A country in North Africa, considered to comprise Algeria,
Morocco, Fez, Tunis, and Tripoli, with their dependencies (all of which
see). Piratical states (nominally subject to Turkey) were founded on the
coast by Barbarossa about 1518.

=Barbets.= Were peasants of Piedmont, who abandoned their dwellings when
an enemy had taken possession of them. They formed into bodies and
defended the Alps.

=Barbette.= An earthen terrace, raised within a parapet, so high as to
enable guns to be fired over the latter, and therefore with a freer
range than when worked at an embrasure.

=Barbette Carriage.= Is a carriage of the stationary class, on which a
gun is mounted to fire over a parapet; and a barbette gun is any gun
mounted on a barbette carriage.

=Barbette Centre-pintle Carriage.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR,
SEA-COAST CARRIAGES.

=Barbette Front-pintle Carriage.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, SEA-COAST
CARRIAGES.

=Barbole= (_Fr._). A heavy battle-axe, used in ancient times.

=Barboursville=, or =Cabell Court-house=. The capital of Cabell Co., W.
Va. It was the scene of a brilliant action between the Confederate and
Federal forces, in which the latter were victorious, July 18, 1861.

=Barce=, or =Berche= (_Fr._). A small gun, shorter and thicker than a
falconet, which was formerly used on board ship.

=Barcelona.= An ancient maritime city in Northeastern Spain, said to
have been rebuilt by Hamilcar Barca, father of the great Hannibal, about
233 B.C. The city has suffered much by war. The siege by the French, in
1694, was relieved by the approach of the English fleet commanded by
Admiral Russell; but the city was taken by the Earl of Peterborough in
1706; bombarded and taken by the Duke of Berwick and the French in 1714;
taken by Napoleon in 1808, and retained till 1814. It revolted against
the queen in 1841, and was bombarded and taken in December, 1842, by
Espartero.

=Bard.= A fortress and village of Piedmont on the bank of the Dora
Baltea, 23 miles south-southeast of Aosta. The fortress is situated on
an impregnable rock, and arrested for some time Napoleon’s march in the
valley of the Dora, at the outset of his campaign of 1800, almost
compelling him to abandon it. The garrison consisted of 400 men, and was
finally passed only by stratagem. It was subsequently razed by the
French (1800), but has since been restored.

=Bardewick.= A town in Hanover, which was dismantled by Henry the Lion
in 1189.

=Bareilly.= A province of Delhi, Northwest India, ceded to the East
India Company by the ruler of Oude, 1801. A mutiny at Bareilly, the
capital, was suppressed in April, 1816; on May 7, 1858, it was taken
from the cruel Sepoy rebels.

=Barezim.= A small town in Poland, where the Russians were defeated by
the Poles in 1675.

=Barfleur.= An ancient seaport town in the department of Manche, France,
where William the Conqueror equipped the fleet by which he conquered
England, 1066. Near it Prince William, duke of Normandy, son of Henry
I., in his passage from Normandy, was shipwrecked November 25, 1120.
Barfleur was destroyed by the English in the campaign in which they won
the battle of Crécy, 1346. The French navy was destroyed near the cape
by Admiral Russell after the victory of La Hogue in 1692.

=Bari= (Southern Italy). The _Barium_ of Horace was in the 9th century a
stronghold of the Saracens, and was captured by the emperor Louis II., a
descendant of Charlemagne, in 871. In the 10th century it became subject
to the Eastern empire, and remained so till it was taken by Robert
Guiscard, the Norman, about 1060.

=Baril Ardent= (_Fr._). Fire-barrel; a barrel filled with layers of
tarred chips intermixed with powder and primed at each end with a
shell-fuze; it had holes bored in it for the purpose of admitting air to
the burning contents; formerly used for illuminating purposes.

=Baril Foudroyant=, or =D’artifice= (_Fr._). Of the same nature as the
_baril ardent_, with the addition of grenades placed between the layers
of chips. Barils foudroyants were used at the defense of a breech, by
rolling them upon the assailants.

=Barkam.= A fortress on the banks of the Danube. Near here John
Sobieski, king of Poland, was defeated by Pasha Ka-Mehemed, October 7,
1683.

=Barking-irons.= Large dueling pistols.

=Barnacles.= In heraldry, resemble what are now called twitchers, or
instruments used by farriers to curb unruly horses. They are frequently
introduced into coats of arms as a charge.

=Barnet.= A town in Hertfordshire, England. Here, at Gladsmore Heath,
Edward IV. gained a decisive victory over the Lancastrians on
Easter-day, April 14, 1471, when the Earl of Warwick and his brother,
the Marquis of Montacute, or Montague, and 10,000 men were slain.

=Barometer.= An instrument for measuring the weight of the atmosphere.
The form ordinarily used was invented in 1643, by Torricelli. It
consists of a glass tube filled with mercury inverted in an open cup.

=Baron.= In England a title of nobility,--the grade between the baronet
and viscount,--the lowest grade in the House of Lords.

=Barons’ War.= Arose in consequence of the faithlessness of King Henry
III. and the oppression of his favorites in 1258. The barons, headed by
Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, and Gilbert de Clare, earl of
Gloucester, met at Oxford in 1262, and enacted statutes to which the
king objected. In 1263 their disputes were in vain referred to the
decision of Louis IX., king of France. War broke out, and on May 14,
1264, the king’s party were totally defeated at Lewes, and De Montfort
became the virtual ruler of the kingdom. Through treachery the war was
renewed, and at the battle of Evesham, August 4, 1265, De Montfort was
slain, and the barons were defeated. They, however, did not render their
final submission till 1268.

=Barrackpore.= A native town and military cantonment on the river
Hoogly, 16 miles from Calcutta, India. In 1857 it became famous as the
cradle of the formidable mutiny or rebellion of that year. Several
regiments of native troops were stationed at Barrackpore. The men
objected to bite off the ends of the cartridges for the Enfield rifle,
believing the paper to be polluted by animal fat. The troubles connected
therewith--a mere prelude to the fatal outbreak at Meerut in
May--commenced about the beginning of February, and continued to assume
various degrees of intensity, till at last two regiments of Bengal
native infantry had to be disbanded. An intoxicated Sepoy of one of the
disbanded regiments attacked and wounded his officer, Lieut. Baugh, with
sword and pistol. This fellow, whose name was Mungal Pandy, would seem
to have had the equivocal honor of giving the local designation of
Pandies to the entire body of insurgents.

=Barrack-allowance.= In the British army, is a specific allowance of
bread, beef, wood, coals, etc., to regiments stationed in barracks.

=Barrack-guard.= When a regiment is in barracks the principal guard is
called the barrack-guard, the officer being responsible for the
regularity of the men in barracks, and for all prisoners duly committed
to his charge while on that duty.

=Barrack-master.= The officer who superintends the barracks of soldiers.

=Barracks.= Are permanent structures for the accommodation of soldiers,
as distinguished from huts and tents, which have usually a square or
open place in front, for the purpose of drill and parade.

=Barrack-sergeants.= In the British army, are faithful old sergeants who
are selected from the line and placed in charge of barracks, under the
superintendence of the barrack-masters.

=Barrel.= A round vessel or cask, of more length than breadth, and
bulging in the middle, made of staves and headings and bound with hoops.
Powder-barrels are made to contain 100 pounds each, the barrels being
large enough to allow sufficient space for the powder to move when
rolled, to prevent its caking. Also any hollow cylinder or tube, as the
barrel of a gun. See FIRE-BARREL.

=Barricade.= An obstruction formed in streets, avenues, etc., so as to
block up access to an enemy. They are generally formed of overturned
wagons, carriages, large stones, breastworks, abatis, or other obstacles
at hand.

=Barrier.= In a general sense means any fortification or strong place on
the frontiers of a country. It is likewise a kind of fence composed of
stakes and transoms, as over-thwart rafters, erected to defend the
entrance of a passage, retrenchment, or the like. In the middle of the
barrier is a movable bar of wood, which is opened or shut at pleasure.
It also implies a gate made of wooden bars, about 5 feet long,
perpendicular to the horizon, and kept together by two long bars going
across and another crossing diagonally. Barriers are used to stop the
cut made through the esplanade before the gate of a town.

=Barrier Treaty.= A treaty by which the Low Countries were ceded to the
emperor Charles VI., and which was signed by the British, Imperial, and
Dutch ministers November 15, 1715.

=Barritus=, or =Bardites=. A word which not only signified the
battle-cry of the ancient Germans, but all battle-cries were formerly so
called.

=Barrosa=, or =Barosa=. In Southern Spain, where a battle was fought on
March 5, 1811, between the British army, commanded by Maj.-Gen. Sir
Thomas Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedoch, and the French under Marshal
Victor. After a long conflict, the British achieved one of the most
glorious triumphs of the Peninsular war. Although they fought at great
disadvantage the British compelled the French to retreat, leaving nearly
3000 dead, 6 pieces of cannon, and an eagle, the first that the British
had taken. The loss of the British was 1169 men killed and wounded.

=Bar-shot.= An obsolete projectile, consisting of two shot connected by
a bar of iron.

=Bar-sur-Aube.= An ancient town of France, on the Aube, in the
department of Aube, where the French under Oudinot and MacDonald were
defeated by the allies, February 27, 1814.

=Bar-sur-Seine.= A town in the department of Aube, France; often ruined
and sacked during the wars of Burgundy. It was the scene of a severe
engagement between Napoleon and the allies, May 25, 1814.

=Bartholomew, St.= The massacre of St. Bartholomew commenced at Paris on
the night of the festival of this saint. According to Sully 70,000
Huguenots, or French Protestants, including women and children, were
murdered throughout the kingdom by secret orders from Charles IX., at
the instigation of his mother, the queen-dowager, Catherine de Médicis,
August 24, 1572.

=Bartholomew, St.= A West India island held by Sweden. It was colonized
by the French in 1648; and has been several times taken and restored by
the British. It was ceded to Sweden by France in 1785.

=Bartizan.= A small stone closet thrown out upon corbels over doorways
and on other parts of mediæval castles, generally for defensive
purposes, but sometimes for the convenience of the inmates.

=Bascinet.= A light helmet, generally without a visor; so called from
its resemblance to a basin.

=Baschi.= A Turkish title, signifying a superior commander, officer,
chief, etc.; this title is only used in connection with the office
title; the most prominent are:

TOPTSCHJY-BASCHI, general of artillery and inspector of forts, etc.

SOLACKI-BASCHI, sub-commander of the archers.

SANDSCHJACK-DARLARS-BASCHI, chief of the 50 color-bearers.

KONADSCHJY-BASCHI, quartermaster-general.

BOLUCK-BASCHI, colonel of a regiment (Boluck) of 1000 militia.

ODA-BASCHIS, company officers who superintend drill.

=Bascule Bridge.= A kind of draw-bridge with a counterpoise swinging up
and down, and usually a pit behind it, in which the counterpoise falls
or rises as the bridge rises or falls. Bascule is the arrangement of the
counterpoise in bascule bridges.

=Base.= In fortifications, is the exterior side of the polygon, or that
imaginary line which connects the salient angle of two adjacent
bastions.

=Base.= In heraldry, denotes the lower part of the shield.

=Base-line.= In gunnery, is a line traced around the gun in rear of the
vent; also the measured line used to obtain ranges by triangulation.

=Base of Operations.= That secure line of frontier or fortresses, or
strong country occupied by troops, or of sea occupied by fleets, from
which forward movements are made, supplies furnished, and upon which a
retreat may be made, if necessary.

=Base of the Breech.= In gunnery, is the rear surface of the breech of a
gun.

=Basel, Treaty of.= This place gives its name to two important treaties
of peace, concluded here on April 5 and July 22, 1795, between the
representatives of the French Republic, Prussia, and Spain, by which
Prussia withdrew from the coalition against France, took under her
protection all the states of Northern Germany which should like herself
relinquish the war in which the German empire was engaged, and also give
up to the victorious republic her possessions beyond the Rhine; whilst
Spain gave up her portion of St. Domingo, and prepared the way for that
alliance with France which was afterwards productive of consequences so
important.

=Base-ring.= In gunnery, is a projecting band of metal adjoining the
base of the breech, and connected with the body of the gun by a concave
moulding.

=Bashaw.= See PASHA.

=Bashi-Bazouks.= Are irregular troops in the pay of the sultan. Very few
of them are Europeans; they are mostly Asiatics, from some of the
pashalics in Asiatic Turkey; they are wild, turbulent men, ready to
enter the sultan’s service under some leader whom they can understand,
and still more ready to plunder whenever an opportunity offers. During
the Russo-Turkish war of 1854, etc., they had many encounters with the
enemy in that kind of irregular warfare which the Russians intrust to
Cossack horsemen; but the peaceful villagers had almost as much distrust
of the Bashi-Bazouks as of the Russians. They were also partially
employed by the British during the Crimean war.

=Bashkirs.= A race supposed to be descended from the Nogay Tartars, who
inhabit the Russian provinces of Ufa and Yekaterinboorg, in the
governments of Orenburg and Perm respectively. They are but partially
civilized, and are generally employed by Russia as guards on the
frontier of Asia.

=Basientello= (Southern Naples). Here the army of Otto II., in an
ambuscade, was nearly cut to pieces by the Greeks and Saracens, July 13,
982; the emperor barely escaped.

=Basilisk.= An ancient piece of ordnance, which was 10 feet long and
weighed 7200 pounds; so called from its supposed resemblance to the
serpent of that name, or from its size.

=Basillard.= An old term for a poniard.

=Basket-hilt.= The hilt of a sword, so made as to contain and guard the
whole hand.

=Basket-hilted.= Having a hilt of basket-work.

=Baskets.= See GABION.

=Baslard.= A short sword or dagger, worn in the 15th century.

=Basnet.= See BASCINET.

=Basque Provinces= (Northwest Spain, Biscay, Guipuzcoa, and Alva). The
Basques, considered to be descendants of the ancient Iberi, were termed
Vascones by the Romans, whom they successfully resisted. They were
subdued with great difficulty by the Goths about 580, and were united to
Castile in the 13th and 14th centuries.

=Basque Roads= (Western France). Four French ships of the line, riding
at anchor here, were attacked by Lords Gambier and Cochrane (the latter
commanding the fire-ships), and all, with a great number of merchant and
other vessels, were destroyed, April 11-12, 1809. Cochrane accused
Gambier of neglecting to support him, and thereby allowing the French to
escape. At a court-martial Lord Gambier was acquitted.

=Bassée, La.= A town in the department of the North, France, formerly
fortified. It sustained several sieges. Louis XIV. captured it from the
Spaniards and caused it to be dismantled.

=Basseterre Roads=, St. Christopher’s, West Indies. Here the French
admiral, the Comte de Grasse, was repulsed with loss in three desperate
attacks on the British fleet, commanded by Sir Thomas Graves, January
25-26, 1782.

=Basson= (Northern Italy). Here the Austrians under Wurmser were
defeated by the French under Massena, September 8, 1796.

=Bassorah=, =Basrah=, or =Bussorah= (Asia Minor). A Turkish city,
founded by the Caliph Omar about 635. It has been several times taken
and retaken by the Persians and Turks.

=Bass Rock.= An isle in the Frith of Forth, Southern Scotland; granted
to the Landers in 1316; purchased for a state prison, 1671; taken by the
Jacobites, 1690; surrendered, 1694; granted to the Dalrymples, 1706.

=Bastard=, or =Batarde= (_Fr._). An ancient piece of ordnance of about 8
pounds calibre, 9¹⁄₂ feet long, and weighing 1950 pounds. It was
invented by Jean Maurique de Lard, master-general of ordnance under
Charles V. of France in 1535. He also had several bastards cast of a
larger calibre. This term was also applied to guns of an unusual make or
proportion, whether longer or shorter.

=Bastarnæ=, or =Basternæ=. A warlike German people who migrated to the
country near the mouth of the Danube. They are first mentioned in the
wars of Philip and Perseus against the Romans, and at a later period
they frequently devastated Thrace, and were engaged in wars with the
Roman governors of the province of Macedonia. In 30 B.C. they were
defeated by Marcus Crassus, and driven across the Danube, and we find
them, at a later period, partly settled between the Tyras (now
_Dniester_) and Borysthenes (now _Dnieper_), and partly at the mouth of
the Danube, under the name of _Peucini_, from their inhabiting the
island of Peuce, at the mouth of the river.

=Bastia.= A fortified seaport town, and formerly capital of Corsica, on
its northeast coast, and 67 miles from Ajaccio; besieged without success
by the Piedmontese in 1748; captured by the English, 1794.

=Bastide= (_Fr._). In ancient times, a bastion, block-house, fortress,
or outer fortifications.

=Bastile.= Originally, a temporary wooden tower used in warfare; hence,
any tower or fortification.

=Bastile=, or =Bastille= (Paris). A castle built by Charles V., king of
France, in 1369, for the defense of Paris against the English; completed
in 1383, and afterwards used as a state prison. Henry IV. and his
veteran army assailed it in vain in the siege of Paris during the war,
1587-94. On July 14-15, 1789, it was pulled down by the populace, the
governor and other officers seized, conducted to the Place de Grève,
their hands and heads were cut off, and the heads carried on pikes
through the streets.

=Bastinado.= A punishment among the Turkish soldiers, which is performed
by beating them with a cane or flat of a sword on the soles of their
feet.

=Bastion.= A work consisting of two faces and two flanks, all the angles
being salient. Two bastions are connected by means of a curtain, which
is screened by the angle made by the prolongation of the corresponding
faces of two bastions, and flanked by the line of defense. Bastions
contain, sheltered by their parapets, marksmen, artillery, platform, and
guards. They are protected by galleries of mines, and by demi-lunes and
lunettes outside the ditch, and by palisades, if the ditch is inundated.
The _faces_ of the bastion are the parts exposed to being enfiladed by
ricochet batteries, and also to being battered in breach.

BASTION, COMPOSED, is where two sides of the interior polygon are very
unequal, which makes the gorges also unequal.

BASTION, CUT, is that which, instead of a point, has a re-entering
angle.

BASTION, DEFORMED, is when the irregularity of the lines and angles puts
the bastion out of shape; as, when it wants a demi-gorge, one side of
the interior polygon being too short.

BASTION, DEMI, is that which has only one face and one flank, cut off by
the capital,--like the extremities of horn- and crown-works.

BASTION, DOUBLE, is that which is raised on the plane of another
bastion.

BASTION, FLAT, is a bastion built in the middle of the curtain, when it
is too long to be defended by the bastions at its extremes.

BASTIONS, HOLLOW, are those surrounded only with a rampart and parapet,
having the space within unoccupied where the ground is so low that no
retrenchment can be made in the centre in the event of the rampart being
taken.

BASTION, REGULAR, is that which has true proportion of faces, flanks,
and gorges.

BASTIONS, SOLID, are those which have the void space within them filled
entirely, and raised of an equal height with the rampart.

=Bastioned Fort.= A fort having bastions.

=Baston.= A staff or cudgel formerly used in tournaments. In heraldry, a
staff or cudgel generally borne as a mark of bastardy, and properly
containing one-eighth in breadth of the bend-sinister.

=Bat de Mulet= (_Fr._). A pack-saddle used on service when mules are
employed to carry stores. Aparejos in the United States service are used
for a similar purpose. See PACK-SADDLES.

=Batage= (_Fr._). The time employed in reducing gunpowder to its proper
consistency. The French usually consumed 24 hours in pounding the
materials to make good gunpowder. Supposing the mortar to contain 16
pounds of composition, it would require the application of the pestle
3500 times each hour. The labor required in this process is less in
summer than in winter, because the water is softer.

=Bataillon de la Salade= (_Fr._). A name formerly given in France to old
corps which wore a peculiar kind of helmet called salade. See SALADE.

=Batardeau= (_Fr._). A wall built across a ditch or fortification, with
a sluice-gate by which the height of the water in the ditch on both
sides may be regulated. To prevent this wall being used as a passage
across the ditch, it is built up to an angle at the top, and armed with
iron spikes; and to render the attempt to cross still more difficult, a
tower of masonry is built on it.

=Batavia and Batavian Republic.= See HOLLAND.

=Bateau= (_Fr._). A light boat.

=Bateau-bridge.= Is a floating bridge supported by bateaux or light
boats. See PONTONS.

=Bateau d’Avant-garde= (_Fr._). A small light boat attached to the
advance-guard of an army. It is 33 feet in length by 5 feet 6 inches in
breadth.

=Bate Isle.= An island of Hindostan, belonging to the province of
Guzerat, situated at the southwestern extremity of the Gulf of Cutch.
It was formerly a rendezvous for pirates, who were the dread of all
traders on the western coast of India. In 1803 a naval force, consisting
of a British frigate and two Bombay cruisers, succeeded in destroying
several of the pirate boats and vessels; but an attack upon the castle,
though conducted under the fire of the ships, was repulsed with some
loss. In 1807 a treaty was entered into with the chiefs of the island,
whereby they consented to relinquish their piratical practices.

=Bath, Knights of the.= See ORDER OF KNIGHTS OF THE BATH.

=Bat-horse.= A baggage horse which bears the bat or pack.

=Bat-man.= A servant in charge of the bat-horses. The term is now
applied in the English service to a soldier who acts as servant to an
officer.

=Baton.= A truncheon borne by generals in the French army, and
afterwards by the marshals of other nations. Henry III. of France before
he ascended the throne was made generalissimo of the army of his brother
Charles IX., and received the baton as the mark of the high command,
1569.

=Baton.= A staff used by drum-majors of foot regiments.

=Baton Rouge.= A city of Louisiana. It was captured by the Federals
August 5, 1862, after a fierce conflict.

=Batourin.= A town of Russia, 63 miles east of Tcheringov, on the Seim.
It was the residing place of the hetman of the Ukraine Cossacks from
1699 to 1708; captured and sacked by the Russians in 1708.

=Batta.= An allowance made to military officers in the service of the
East India Company in addition to their pay. See HALF-BATTA.

=Battalia.= The order of battle; disposition or arrangement of troops,
brigades, regiments, battalions, etc., as for action. Formerly the term
applied to the main body of an army in array, as distinguished from the
wings.

=Battailant.= Equipped for battle; warlike; a combatant. This word is
now obsolete.

=Battalion.= A body of troops, so called from being originally a body of
men arranged for battle; consisting in European armies of about 800 or
1000 men; in the U. S. service, an aggregation of from two to twelve
companies.

=Battard.= An early cannon of small size.

=Batten.= The sloping of a wall which brings the perpendicular from the
top inside the base.

=Batter.= A cannonade of heavy ordnance, from the first or second
parallel of intrenchment, against any fortress or works. To batter _in
breach_ implies a heavy cannonade of many pieces directed to one part of
the revetment from the third parallel.

=Batterie en Rouage= (_Fr._). Is an enfilading battery, when directed
against another battery.

=Battering.= In military affairs, implies the firing with heavy
artillery on some fortification or strong post possessed by an enemy, in
order to demolish the works.

=Battering Charge.= The charge of powder used in battering. The heaviest
charge used in a gun.

=Battering-pieces.= Are large pieces of ordnance, used in battering a
fortified town or post.

=Battering-ram.= In antiquity, a military engine used to batter and beat
down the walls of places besieged. There were two different kinds of
battering-rams, one rude and plain, the other compound. The former seems
to have been no more than a great beam, which the soldiers bore on their
arms and shoulders, and with one end of it, by main force, assailed the
walls. The compound ram was a large beam with a head of iron, which was
sometimes made to resemble the head of a ram. It was suspended by ropes
to a beam supported by posts, and balanced so as to swing backwards and
forwards, and was impelled by men against the wall. These rams were
sometimes 120 feet in length.

=Battering-train.= A train of artillery used solely for besieging a
strong place, inclusive of mortars and howitzers. See SIEGE-TRAIN.

=Battery.= A battery consists of two or more pieces of artillery in the
field. The term battery also implies the implacement of ordnance
destined to act offensively or defensively. It also refers to the
company charged with a certain number of pieces of ordnance. The
ordnance constitutes the battery; men serve it; horses drag it, and
epaulments may shelter it.

AMBULANT BATTERY, heavy guns mounted on traveling carriages, and moved
as occasion may require, either to positions on the coast or in besieged
places.

BARBETTE BATTERIES are those without embrasures, in which the guns are
raised to fire over the parapet.

BATTERY D’ENFILADE is one that sweeps the whole length of a line, or the
face or flank of any work.

BATTERY DE REVERSE is one which plays upon the rear of the troops
appointed to defend a place.

BATTERY EN ECHARPE is that which plays obliquely.

BREACHING BATTERY. See BREACH.

COVERED, or MASKED BATTERY is when the cannon and gunners are covered by
a bank or breastwork, commonly made of brushwood, fagots, and earth.

CROSS-BATTERIES are two batteries which play athwart each other upon the
same object, forming there an angle, and battering with more effect,
because what one battery shakes the other beats down.

FACINE and GABION BATTERIES are batteries constructed of those machines
where sods are scarce, and the earth very loose and sandy.

FLOATING BATTERIES are such as are erected either on rafts or on the
hulls of ships.

GUN-BATTERY is a defense constructed of earth faced with green sods or
fascines, sometimes of gabions filled with earth. It consists of a
breastwork, epaulment, or parapet; the open spaces through which the
muzzles of the cannon are pointed are called _embrasures_, and the solid
masses between the embrasures, _merlons_; the _genouilleres_ are those
parts of the parapet which cover the carriage of the gun. The platforms
are plank floors made to prevent the cannon from sinking into the
ground; they are made with a slope to check the recoil of the guns, and
to render it more easy to bring them forward again when loaded.

HALF-SUNKEN BATTERY. This term is applied to a battery in which the
earth to form the parapet is derived partly from a ditch in front and
partly from the excavation of the terre-plein. See ARTILLERY, also
CAVALIER.

MORTAR-BATTERIES differ from gun-batteries in this, that the parapets
have no embrasures, and the platforms have no slope, but are exactly
horizontal; the shells being fired quite over the parapet, commonly at
an elevation of 45°.

OPEN BATTERY is a number of cannon, commonly field-pieces, ranged in a
row abreast on some natural elevation of ground, or on an artificial
bank raised for that purpose.

RAISED BATTERY, one whose terre-plein is elevated considerably above the
ground.

REDAN BATTERIES are such as flank each other at the salient and
re-entrant angles of a fortification.

RICOCHET BATTERY, so called by its inventor Vauban, was first used at
the siege of Aeth in 1697. It is a method of discharging cannon with a
very small charge of powder, and with just elevation enough to fire over
the parapet. When properly managed its effects are most destructive; for
the shot, rolling along the opposite rampart, dismounts the cannon and
disperses or destroys the troops. Ricochet practice is not confined to
cannon alone; small mortars and howitzers may be effectually employed
for the same purpose.

SUNKEN BATTERY, where the sole of the embrasures is on a level with the
ground, and the platforms are consequently sunk below it.

=Battery-boxes= are square chests or boxes, filled with earth or dung;
used in making batteries, where gabions and earth are not to be had.
They must not be too large, but of a size that is governable.

=Battery-wagon.= It consists, besides the limber, of a long-bodied cart
with a round top, which is connected with the limber in the same way as
all other field-carriages. The lid opens on hinges placed at the side;
and in the rear is fixed a movable forage-rack for carrying along
forage. One of these wagons accompanies each field battery, for the
purpose of transporting carriage-maker’s and saddler’s tools, spare
parts of carriages, harness, and equipments, and rough materials for
replacing different parts. Both it and the forge are made of equal
mobility with the other field-carriages, in order to accompany them
wherever they may be required to go. See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR.

=Battery, Electric.= The apparatus used to generate a current of
electricity.

=Battery=, or =Traveling Forge=. See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR.

=Battery Gun.= A gun capable of firing continuously a great number of
shots in a short time. Applied to guns mounted upon tripods, stands,
swivels, or carriages. A _magazine cannon_ in contradistinction to a
magazine small-arm. Also called _machine gun_ and _mitrailleur_. Guns of
this kind existed as early as the 14th century. From the arrangement of
the barrels they were called _killing organs_. They have always been
used in various forms, but were comparatively inefficient till recent
times, when the introduction of the metallic cartridge gave the subject
a new importance.

_Puckle’s revolver_, 1718, was ingeniously mounted upon a tripod with
good elevating and traversing arrangements. It had one barrel and a
movable rotating breech containing nine charges. These were fired in
succession, and a new breech, ready charged, was slipped on. Two kinds
of bullets were used,--round bullets against Christians and square ones
for Turks.

_Winans’s steam gun_, invented about 1861 by the celebrated American
inventor and engineer Thomas Winans, of Baltimore, was a battery gun of
large calibre. The shot fell from a hopper into a breech-chamber, and
were projected through the barrel by the sudden admission behind it of
steam under enormous pressure.

The _infernal machine_ with which Fieschi killed Marshal Mortier and a
large number of others in his attempt to assassinate Louis Philippe, in
1835, was a crude form of battery gun, consisting of a row of
gun-barrels fired by a train of powder. Many battery guns are of this
type.

The _Requa battery_--American--used in the civil war, 1861-65, consisted
of a row of 24 barrels on a wheel-carriage, so arranged as to give
either parallel or divergent fire. It was breech-loading, the cartridges
being forced into the barrels by a transverse bar worked by levers. It
was capable of seven volleys a minute.

One of the forms of _mitrailleur_ used in the Franco-Prussian war was
very much the same. The loading-bar was rotating, and had two sets of
chambers. One set was fired while the other was being loaded.

The _Abbertini gun_ used in Europe has 10 barrels arranged as in the
Requa battery. It is worked by a crank. The cartridges are conveyed by
mechanical devices from a box magazine to the rear of the barrels.

The form in which a _cluster of barrels_ is used was probably first
introduced in France, and was made by inserting 25 gun-barrels into the
bore of a brass field-piece, into the breech of which a slot was cut,
the open rear ends of the barrels being flush with the front wall of the
slot. A cylinder-case containing cartridges being placed in the slot, a
set of plungers pushed the cartridges into the barrels. The case was
then replaced by a firing-block containing a lock and pin for each
cartridge.

This was improved by mounting the barrels (37) without the casing and
replacing the cartridge-case by a steel block in which the cartridges
were fired without being pushed into the barrels.

The first successful gun in which the _cluster of barrels_ was made to
revolve was the Gatling. (See GATLING GUN.) In this both the barrels and
the locks revolve. The Gatling gun in its various forms is used by all
the leading nations of Europe. It is used in a variety of ways for field
service, mountain service, flank defense of fortifications, in the
main-tops of ships, etc. It has been mounted upon the backs of camels,
on tripods, swivels, and field-carriages. In Europe its principal rival
is the _Nordenfelt_, in which the barrels are stationary and the breech
mechanism works horizontally. It is probably superior to the Gatling in
the amount of metal thrown in a given time. In mechanism and accuracy it
is inferior. Its principal claim to superiority is that it fires either
volleys or single shots. The recoil, which is always great in
volley-guns, requires a very heavy stand, making it clumsy and unwieldy
compared to the Gatling. Accidents have also happened in its use from
defective mechanism. Among other American battery or machine guns are
the _Lowell_ and _Gardner_, both of which have won enviable reputations.
A late form of the Gardner consists of two barrels fixed in a brass
casing, giving it the external appearance of an ordinary field-piece. It
has less rapidity of fire (its maximum being about 357 shots a minute)
than some other guns, but it is simple, strong, and efficient.

The _Taylor gun_ was something like the Nordenfelt in principle, having
a fixed cluster of barrels and a sliding breech mechanism, firing
volleys or single shots at discretion. A later form of Taylor gun has
the barrels in a horizontal row. The improvement consists in rapidity of
loading. The cartridges are carried in the ordinary paper or wooden
cases, exposing the heads. The gun has a number of upright pieces at the
breech with grooves between them. By drawing the cartridge-case downward
over these uprights the cartridges are caught in the grooves by their
flanged heads. They fall by gravity, and are conducted by suitable
devices in grooved channels to the barrels. This gun, it is believed,
fires more shots a minute than any other, but its mechanism is not so
perfect as several of its rivals.

The _Hotchkiss revolving cannon_ has the largest calibre of the modern
machine guns. It differs from the Gatling in having but one lock for all
the barrels. It is worked by a crank like the Gatling, but the mechanism
is such that during a part of the revolution of the crank the barrels
are stationary. It is during this time that one cartridge is fired and
another case extracted. The rapidity of fire is much less than the
Gatling and most others, but in perfection of mechanism, accuracy, and
other qualities, it is unsurpassed. A peculiar form of brake is fitted
to the wheels of the field-gun to prevent the recoil from moving the
carriage. For the larger sizes both shells and canister are used. The
metallic cartridge-case is of brass. This gun is the invention of B. B.
Hotchkiss, an American, now residing in Paris. His guns are made at the
Hotchkiss Works, near that city, and have been adopted for flank defense
of fortifications and for naval use by several of the continental
powers.

=Battle.= An action or engagement between the forces of two armies. A
battle is either general or partial; general, where the whole or the
greater part of each army is brought into action; and partial, where
only brigades, divisions, or _corps d’armée_ are engaged. But, however
the numbers may vary, the great principles to be applied in delivering
battle are in almost every case the same. Palamedes of Argos is said to
have been the first who ranged an army in order of battle, placed
sentinels round a camp, and excited the soldier’s vigilance by giving
him a watch-word.

BATTLES may be arranged into three general classes, _defensive_,
_offensive_, and _mixed_ battles. In a purely _defensive_ battle, an
army chooses a position in which to await the enemy, and there to give
battle with no other end in view than to hold this position and repulse
the enemy. In a purely _offensive_ battle, an army seeks the enemy and
attacks him wherever he is to be found. A _mixed_ battle, is a
combination of these two. The most common case of this last class is
that in which a position is selected beforehand, where the army awaits
the attack of the enemy, and, at a suitable moment, moves from it, and
attacks the assaulting columns. This case is sometimes known as a
_defensive-offensive_ battle. Details of particular battles and
engagements are given under their respective headings in this work.

=Battle-Abbey.= In Sussex, England; founded by William I. 1067, on the
plain where the battle of Hastings was fought, October 14, 1066. It was
dedicated to St. Martin, and given to Benedictine monks, who were to
pray for the souls of the slain. The original name of the plain was
Hetheland. After the battle of Hastings, a list was taken of William’s
chiefs, amounting to 629, and called the _Battle-Roll_; and among these
chiefs the lands and distinctions of the followers of the defeated
Harold were distributed.

=Battle-array.= Array or order of battle; the disposition of forces
preparatory to a battle.

=Battle-axe.= A weapon much used by the early northern nations, Celtic
and Scandinavian, requiring great strength in its use. Some were held
with one hand, some with two; the former kind could be wielded equally
by horse and foot, but the latter was for foot soldiers only. The
battle-axe has a longer handle, and a broader, stronger, and sharper
blade than the common axe. During the Middle Ages and somewhat earlier,
it was much used in sorties, and to prevent the escalading of a besieged
fortress. The _pole-axe_ differed but little from the battle-axe. The
_black-bill_ and _brown-bill_ were a sort of halbert, having a cutting
part like a woodman’s bill, with a spike projecting from the back, and
another from the head. The _glaive_ was a kind of pole-axe or bill used
by the Welsh.

=Battle-cries.= See WAR-CRIES.

=Battle-ground.= A village of Tippecanoe Co., Ind., where the battle of
Tippecanoe was fought, November 7, 1811, between Gen. Harrison and the
Indians under the chief Tecumseh and his brother the “Prophet.”

=Battlements.= The indentations in the top of old castles, or fortified
walls, in the form of embrasures, for the greater convenience of firing
or looking through.

=Battle of the Giants.= See MARIGNANO.

=Battle of the Herrings.= A name given by historians to an engagement
which took place February 12, 1429, in which Sir John Fastolfe, an
English general at the head of 1500 men, gained a victory over 6000
Frenchmen near Orleans, and brought a convoy of stores in safety to the
English camp before that place. The stores comprised a large quantity of
herrings.

=Battle of the Nations.= See LEIPSIC.

=Battle of the Spurs.= A name given to the battle of Courtrai (which
see); also to that of Guinegate. See GUINEGATE.

=Battle of the Standard.= A name given to a battle between the English
and Scotch at Northallerton (which see).

=Battle of the Thirty.= A name given in English and French history to a
celebrated engagement which took place at a spot known as Midway Oak,
half-way between the castles of Josselin and Ploermel, in France, March
27, 1351. The French general Beaumanoir, commanding at the former place,
being enraged at the English general Bemborough, occupying the latter
position, challenged him to fight. Upon this it was agreed that 30
knights of each party should meet and decide the contest. At the first
onset the English were successful, but Bemborough having been killed,
the French renewed the struggle with redoubled courage, and finally won
the victory.

=Battle-range.= The range corresponding to the maximum “dangerous
space” for the trajectory of any fire-arm. This range is somewhat
greater for such fire-arm employed against mounted troops than against
foot troops. For instance, it is 262 yards for the Springfield rifle
(calibre .45) when used against foot troops, and represents the extreme
range for which the rear sight may be set so as to cover such foot
troops continuously between that point and the firer. There is also a
“dangerous space” of 75 yards behind that point for the foot soldier;
hence the maximum “dangerous space” is 337 yards, and is a continuous
one. For the same arm and against cavalry, the “battle-range” is 291
yards, corresponding to a maximum continuous “dangerous space,” front
and rear, of (291 + 95 =) 386 yards. For the carbine (cal. .45) against
infantry, this range is 204 yards, and the maximum “dangerous space” is
300 yards. Upon the latest model sights (1879) for these two fire-arms,
the letter “_B_” is placed opposite the “battle-range” elevation, and
indicates the most suitable one for firing at an enemy’s line of battle;
with this elevation and the aim taken at the foot, the enemy will be hit
wherever he may be within a range of about 400 yards. The most effective
fire, and one covering the greatest zone of continuous “dangerous
space,” can be secured by causing troops to lie down, to fire at the
feet of the opposing line, and to use the “battle” elevation. The zone
then swept will be round about 500 yards for troops armed with the
service rifle. See DANGEROUS SPACE.

=Battle, The Fearless.= An engagement between the Lacedæmonians under
Archidamus III. and the Arcadians.

=Battre= (_Fr._). To direct one or more pieces of ordnance in such a
manner that any given object may be destroyed or broken into by the
continued discharge of cannon-ball, or other warlike material; it
likewise means to silence an enemy’s fire.

=Battre de Front= (_Fr._). To throw cannon-balls in a perpendicular or
almost perpendicular direction against any body or place which becomes
an object of attack. This mode of attack is less effectual than any
other unless _battering in breach_.

=Baulois.= A piece of punk stuff, used by miners for firing the
saucision, or train.

=Bavaria.= A kingdom in South Germany; conquered from the Celtic Gauls
by the Franks, between 630 and 660. The country was afterwards governed
by dukes subject to the French monarchs. Tasillon II. was deposed by
Charlemagne, who established margraves in 788. Henry the Lion, duke of
Saxony, Bavaria, and Brunswick, was dispossessed in 1180 by the emperor
Frederick Barbarossa (who had previously been his friend and
benefactor.) Bavaria supported Austria in the contest with Prussia in
June, 1866, and took part in the war; made peace with Prussia August 22.
Took part with Prussia against the French in the Franco-Prussian war,
1870.

=Bavier.= The beaver of a helmet.

=Bavin.= The old word for fascine.

=Bayberry Tallow.= A product of the wax myrtle, used as lubricant for
bullets.

=Bayeux.= A city in the department of Calvados, France, 17 miles
west-northwest of Caen; captured and sacked by Henry I. of England in
1106; by Philip of Navarre in 1356; the English took possession of it,
1450; the Protestants in 1561; Lamoricière for the League in 1589, and
the Duke of Montpensier in 1590.

=Baylen.= A town in Southern Spain, where on July 20, 1808, the French,
commanded by Gens. Dupont and Wedel, were defeated by the Spaniards
under Reding, Coupigny, and other generals, whose force amounted to
25,000.

=Bayonet.= A triangular dagger, made with a hollow handle and a
shoulder, to fix on the muzzle of a rifle, so that its presence does not
impede either the charging or firing of the piece. It is said to have
been invented at Bayonne, in France, about 1647, 1670, or 1690. It was
used at Killiecrankie in 1689, and at Marsaglia by the French in 1693,
“with great success against the enemy, unprepared for the encounter with
so formidable a novelty.” Bayonets are sometimes made in other shapes.
See SWORD-BAYONET and TROWEL-BAYONET.

=Bayonet Exercise.= A drill in fencing with the bayonet fixed on the
gun.

=Bayonet Scabbard.= A leather or metallic case for carrying the bayonet
suspended from the belt.

=Bayonne.= An ancient city in Southern France, at the confluence of the
Adour and Nive; held by the British from 1295 till it was taken by
Charles VII. The queens of Spain and France met here in 1565 the cruel
Duke of Alva, it is supposed to arrange the massacre of St. Bartholomew.
Charles IV. of Spain abdicated here in favor of his “friend and ally,”
the emperor Napoleon, May 4, 1808. In the neighborhood of Bayonne was
much desperate fighting between the French and English armies, December
10, 11, and 13, 1813; invested by the British January 14, 1814; on April
14, the French made a sally and attacked the English with success, but
were at length driven back. The loss of the British was considerable,
and Lieut.-Gen. Sir John Hope was wounded and taken prisoner.

=Bayou.= A long and narrow place; a branch of a trench in fortification;
a hose or leathern pipe; the outlet of a lake; a channel for water.

=Baza.= A city in Andalusia, Spain; it was taken by the Spaniards under
Ferdinand V. from the Moors in December, 1489, after a siege of nearly
seven months; in 1810 the Spaniards under Gens. Blake and Freire were
defeated by the French under Marshal Soult.

=Bazar.= The sutler establishment which accompanies a native regiment in
the India service wherever it goes.

=Bazeilles.= A village in the Ardennes, Northeast France. During the
dreadful battle of Sedan, September 1, 1870, Bazeilles was burnt by the
Bavarians, and outrages committed. Of nearly 2000 inhabitants scarcely
50 remained alive, and these indignantly denied having given
provocation. The cause of provocation appears to have been that an old
woman whose husband and sons had been killed had fired upon and killed
two Bavarians.

=Bazoche-des-Hautes.= Near Orleans, Central France. Here a part of the
army of the Loire, under Gen. d’Aurelle de Paladines, was defeated after
a severe action by the Germans under the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg,
December 2, 1870.

=Beach-master.= Formerly a superior officer, appointed to superintend
the disembarkation of an attacking force, who holds plenary powers, and
generally leads the storming-party. His acts when in the heat of action
are unquestioned.

=Beachy Head.= A promontory, Southeast Sussex, England, near which the
British and Dutch fleets, commanded by the earl of Torrington, were
defeated by a superior French force under Admiral Tourville, June 30,
1690; the allies suffered very severely. The Dutch lost 2 admirals, 500
men, and several ships,--sunk to prevent them from falling into the
hands of the enemy; the English lost 2 ships and 400 men. The admirals
on both sides were blamed,--the English for not fighting, the French for
not pursuing the victory.

=Beacon.= A signal-fire to notify the approach of an enemy.

=Bear.= In a military sense, a piece of ordnance is said to _bear_, or
_come_ to _bear_, or is _brought_ to _bear_, when pointed directly
against the object; that is, pointed to hit the object.

=Bear, Order of.= Was a military order in Switzerland, instituted by the
emperor Frederick II. in 1213, by way of acknowledgment for the service
the Swiss had done him, and in favor of the abbey of St. Gall. To the
collar of the order hung a medal, on which was represented a bear raised
on an eminence of earth.

=Beard.= The reflected points of the head of an ancient arrow,
particularly of such as were jagged.

=Beat.= In a military sense, to gain the day, to win the battle, etc.

=Beating the Wind.= Was a practice in use in the ancient method of trial
by combat. If one of the combatants did not appear in the field at the
time appointed, the other was to make so many flourishes with his
weapon, by which he was entitled to all the advantages of a conqueror.

=Beaucéant=, or =Beaucent= (_Fr._). Standard of the Knights Templar; it
was white on one side and black on the other.

=Beaugency.= An ancient town of France, in the department of Loiret, and
situated on the right bank of the Loire. It was at one time surrounded
by walls, flanked with towers and bastions, and defended by a strong
castle, now ruined. In the history of the wars of France Beaugency
occupies a conspicuous place; it was successively in the hands of the
Huns, Saxons, Normans, and English, but the town sustained most damage
during the religious wars of the 16th century.

=Beaumont.= A town in the department of the Somme, France; here the
French routed the allies, June 16, 1815.

=Beaumont.= A village near Sedan, department of Ardennes, Northeast
France. Near here a part of the army of Marshal MacMahon, under De
Failly, which, after vainly endeavoring to reach Metz, was retreating
before the Germans under the crown prince of Prussia, was surprised,
defeated, and driven across the Meuse at Mouzon, August 30, 1870. The
French loss included about 7000 prisoners, many guns, and much camp
equipage. The victory was chiefly gained by the Bavarians.

=Beaune-la-Rolande.= A village in the Loiret, France. Here the French
army of the Loire under Gen. d’Aurelle de Paladines was defeated by the
Germans under Prince Frederick Charles, in an attempt to march in the
direction of Fontainebleau, to relieve Paris, November 28, 1870. The
French loss was reported by the Germans to be 1000 dead and 4000
wounded, with more than 1700 prisoners. Their own loss was also heavy.

=Beauvais= (Northern France). The ancient _Bellovaci_, formerly capital
of Picardy. When besieged by Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, with
80,000 men, the women under Jeanne Fourquet or Lainé, also called de la
Hachette, from her using that weapon, particularly distinguished
themselves, and the duke raised the siege, July 10, 1472. In memory of
this, the women of Beauvais walk first in the procession on the
anniversary of their deliverance.

=Bebra.= A sort of javelin, used by the ancient Germans; it was an
imitation of the _pilum_ of the Romans.

=Bec de Corbin= (_Fr._). A kind of halbert formerly used by the
body-guards of the kings of France.

=Bechlis.= Light cavalry of the Turks, composed of picked men and
horses.

=Bedaines= (_Fr._). Stone bullets which were thrown from catapults
during the Middle Ages.

=Bednore=, or =Nuggur=. A large city of Mysore, India. In 1763 it was
taken and pillaged by Hyder Ali, who subsequently made it the seat of
his own government. It was taken by the British under Gen. Matthews in
1783, but was soon retaken by Tippoo, at the head of a vastly superior
force, when Gen. Matthews and all the principal British officers were
put to death.

=Bedouins.= Wandering tribes of Arabs, living on the plunder of
travelers, etc. They profess a form of Mohammedanism, and are governed
by sheikhs. They are said to be descendants of Ishmael.

=Beds.= Are receptacles for ordnance of large calibre,--_mortar-beds_
serve the same purpose as gun-carriages. They are made of solid timber,
consisting generally of two pieces fastened together with strong iron
bolts and bars. Their sizes depend on the kind of mortar they carry. The
beds for the smaller mortars are made of one solid block only. The
reason that a bed is used for a mortar instead of a wheel-carriage is on
account of the high elevation at which a mortar is usually fired, when
the recoil, instead of forcing the piece backwards, tends to force it
downwards, and this tendency becomes so great at the higher angles that
no wheel-carriage could long sustain the shock.

=Beeren, Gross.= A village of Prussia, 11 miles east-southeast of
Potsdam, well known as the scene of a great victory gained by the
Prussians over the French on August 22-23, 1813.

=Beetles.= In a military sense, are large wooden hammers for driving
down palisades, and for other uses.

=Beetlestock.= The stock or handle of a beetle.

=Befort=, or =Belfort=. A fortified town in the department of Haut-Rhin,
France; sustained several sieges; taken by the Austrians in 1814. Its
citadel was constructed by Vauban.

=Beg=, or =Bey=. A Turkish title, rather vague in its import, and
commonly given to superior military officers, ship-captains, and
distinguished foreigners. More strictly, it applies to the governor of a
small district, who bears a horse-tail as a sign of his rank. Beglerbeg,
or more correctly Beilerbegi (“lord of lords”), is the title given to
the governor of a province who bears three horse-tails as his badge of
honor, and has authority over several begs, agas, etc.

=Begkos=, or =Beikos=. A large village of Anatolia, on the Bosphorus, 8
miles north-northeast of Scutari, said to be the locality of the contest
between Pollux and Amycus, in which the latter was killed. At the
commencement of the Crimean war, the allied fleets anchored in Begkos
Bay, prior to their entering the Black Sea, in January, 1854.

=Behourd=, =Bihourt=, or =Bohourt= (_Fr._). This name was given during
the Middle Ages, to a combat on horseback, lance in hand; also a tilting
of cavaliers, which took place at public amusements.

=Beilan.= A town and mountain-pass of Syria at its northern extremity,
on the east side of the Gulf of Iskanderoon. Here the Egyptian troops
totally defeated the Turks in 1882.

=Belbeys=, or =Belbeis=. A town of Lower Egypt, on the eastern arm of
the Nile, 28 miles north-northeast of Cairo; it is inclosed by earthen
ramparts, and is a station on the route from Egypt to Syria. During the
expedition of the French into Egypt, Gen. Bonaparte had the ancient
fortifications repaired.

=Beleaguer.= To invest a town or fortress, so as to preclude escape; to
besiege; to blockade.

=Belem.= A town of Portugal, on the right bank of the Tagus, near
Lisbon. It is historically interesting as the place from whence Vasco de
Gama set sail on his voyage of oriental discovery; it was taken in
November, 1807, by the French, the royal family of Portugal embarking
from its quay for Brazil as they entered; in 1833, it was occupied by
Don Pedro’s troops.

=Belemnon.= A dart used by the ancient Grecians.

=Belfry=, or =Beffroi=. Among military writers of the Middle Ages, a
movable tower, often several stories high, erected by besiegers for
purposes of attack and defense.

=Belgian-fuze.= See BORMANN-FUZE.

=Belgium.= Late the southern portion of the kingdom of the Netherlands,
and anciently the territory of the Belgæ, who were finally conquered by
Julius Cæsar, 51 B.C.; a revolution commenced at Brussels, August 25,
1830; Antwerp taken (except the citadel), December 23, 1830. The king of
the Netherlands commenced war August 3, 1831, but France sent 50,000
troops to assist Belgium, which effected an armistice. Antwerp was taken
by the French, December 23, 1832, and the French army returned to France
immediately after. For previous history, see FLANDERS.

=Belgrade.= An ancient city in Servia, on the right bank of the Danube.
It was taken from the Greek emperor by Solomon, king of Hungary, in
1086; gallantly defended by John Huniades, against the Turks under
Mahomet II., July to September, 1456, when the latter was defeated with
the loss of 40,000 men; it was taken by Sultan Solyman, 1521, and
retaken by the Imperialists in 1688, from whom it was again taken by the
Turks, 1690; besieged in May, 1717, by Prince Eugene. On August 5, of
that year, the Turkish army, 200,000 strong, approached to relieve it,
and a sanguinary battle was fought at Peterwardein, in which the Turks
lost 20,000 men; after this battle Belgrade surrendered. In 1739 it was
ceded to the Turks, after its fine fortifications had been demolished;
retaken in 1789, and restored at the peace of Reichenbach in 1790. The
Servian insurgents had possession of it in 1806; in 1815, it was placed
under Prince Milosch, subject to Turkey; the fortifications were
restored in 1820; the fortress was surrendered by the Turks to the
Servians about August, 1867.

=Belier= (_Fr._). A battering-ram, invented by the Carthaginians about
441 B.C.; used in ancient times for siege purposes. Also a wooden
machine for driving wedges under a ship’s bottom.

=Bellair.= In North America; this town was attacked by the British
forces under Sir Peter Parker, who, after an obstinate engagement, were
repulsed with considerable loss; their gallant commander was killed
August 30, 1814.

=Belle-Alliance.= A farm-house on the field of Waterloo, Belgium; it is
situated on the right side of the high-road to Brussels and about two
miles from Mount-Saint-Jean. Here Napoleon marshaled his guards for
their last effort at Waterloo; and here Wellington and Blücher met after
the battle was gained by the allies.

=Bellegarde.= A hill fortress of France, in the department of the
Pyrénées Orientales. Here the French under Philip III. were defeated by
Peter III. of Aragon, in 1285; captured by the Spaniards in 1674, and
again by the French under Marshal Schomberg, in 1675; blockaded and
taken by the Spaniards under Ricardos, but was retaken by the French in
the following year.

=Belleisle.= An isle on the southeast of Brittany, France, erected into
a duchy for Marshal Belleisle in 1742, in reward of his military and
diplomatic services, by Louis XV. Belleisle was taken by the British
forces under Commodore Keppel and Gen. Hodgson, after a desperate
resistance, June 7, 1761; restored to France in 1763.

=Belley=, =Bellica=, =Bellicum=, or =Bellicium=. A town in the
department of Ain, France, 39 miles east from Lyons, formerly fortified.
Belley served as a place of arms to Cæsar against the Allobroges; burned
by Alaric in 390; it was in the possession of the dukes of Savoy; it was
ceded to France in 1601.

=Belligerent.= In a state of warfare. Hence any two or more nations at
war are called belligerent powers.

=Bellinzona.= A town in the Swiss canton of Ticino, on the river Ticino.
It has several castles, and was captured and recaptured several times by
the Germans, Swiss, and French.

=Bellipotent.= Powerful or mighty in war.

=Bell-metal.= An alloy of about 78 parts copper and 22 of tin, used in
making bells. It is harder and more sonorous than gun-metal, but much
more brittle.

=Bellovaci.= The most powerful of the Belgæ, dwelt in the modern
_Beauvais_, between the Seine, Oise, Somme, and Bresle. In Cæsar’s time
they could bring 100,000 men into the field, but they were subdued by
Cæsar with the other Belgæ.

=Bellows-house.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, TRAVELING FORGE.

=Bells of Arms.= In the British service, are tents in front of the
quarters of each company of infantry, in which the arms are piled. In
Indian cantonments, the bells of arms are of masonry.

=Beloochistan=, Southern Asia. The ancient _Gedrosia_. The capital,
Kelat, was taken by the British in the Afghan war, in 1839; abandoned in
1840; taken and held for a short time in 1841.

=Belt, Great.= A strait forming the central communication between the
Baltic and the Cattegat; it separates the island of Funen from that of
Seeland. In the winter of 1658, while frozen, it was crossed by Gustavus
Adolphus, king of Sweden, and his army, on his way to besiege
Copenhagen.

=Belts.= Leathern suspenders of different sorts and for various
purposes, viz.: _sword_ belts, to which swords hang; _shoulder_ or
_cross_ belts, broad leathern belts, crossing from the right shoulder,
and to which the pouch is affixed; and leathern straps fixed round the
waist, by which a sword or bayonet is suspended.

=Benares.= A holy city of the Hindoos in India; it was ceded by the
nabob of Oude to the English in 1755; the scene of an insurrection in
1781, which nearly proved fatal to the British interests in Hindostan.
In June, 1857, Col. Neil succeeded in suppressing attempts to join the
Sepoy mutiny.

=Ben-Azzedin.= A place in Algiers, where the French fought the Kabyles,
September 9, 1848.

=Benburb.= Near Armagh (Northern Ireland). Here O’Neill totally defeated
the English under Monroe, June 5, 1646. Moore says that it was “the only
great victory since the days of Brian Boru achieved by an Irish
chieftain in the cause of Ireland.”

=Bend.= In heraldry, is one of the ordinaries, or more important
figures. It is formed of two parallel lines drawn from the dexter to the
sinister base, and consequently passing athwart the shield. It is
supposed to represent a shoulder-belt, or scarf worn over the shoulder.

=Bender= (Bessarabia, European Russia). Was the asylum of Charles XII.
of Sweden after his defeat at Pultowa by the czar Peter the Great, July
8, 1709. The peace of Bender was concluded in 1711; it was taken by
storm, by the Russians, in September, 1770; again taken by Potemkin in
1789; and again stormed in 1809. It was restored at the peace of Jassy,
but retained at the peace of 1812.

=Benevente.= A small town of the province of Alentejo, Portugal, where
Lord Paget, afterwards Marquis of Anglesea, in 1808, greatly
distinguished himself by a brilliant cavalry action, against the French
under Marshal Soult; when Gen. Lefebre Desnouettes, who commanded the
advanced guard of the French forces, was taken prisoner.

=Benevento= (anc. _Beneventum_). An ancient city in South Italy, said to
have been founded by Diomedes the Greek, after the fall of Troy; Pyrrhus
of Macedon, during his invasion of Italy, was totally defeated near
Beneventum, 275 B.C. At a battle fought here, February 26, 1266,
Manfred, king of Sicily, was defeated and slain by Charles of Anjou, who
thus became virtually master of Italy. It was seized by the king of
Naples, but restored to the pope, 1773; it was taken by the French in
1798, and restored to the pope in 1814.

=Bengal.= Chief presidency of British India, containing Calcutta, the
capital. Its governors were delegated by the sovereigns of Delhi till
1340, when it became independent. It was added to the Mogul empire by
Baber about 1529.

=Beni-Abbes.= An Algerian tribe who fought the French, May 16, 1847.

=Beni-Achour.= An Algerian tribe who were defeated by the French,
September 22, 1848.

=Benicke.= A kind of military fête among the Turks, similar to a
tournament, but without the presence of ladies.

=Beni-Mered.= An Algerian tribe who were defeated by the French, May 27,
1836.

=Beni-Yala.= An Algerian tribe who were chastised by the French, May 31,
1847.

=Ben-Nahr.= A place in Algeria where the French defeated the Arabs,
February 7, 1846.

=Bennington.= A post-township of Bennington Co., Vt., 117 miles
southwest of Montpelier. Here a detachment of the English army under
Gen. Burgoyne were defeated by the Americans under Gen. Stark, August
16, 1777, and 600 prisoners captured.

=Ben-Tijour.= A place in Algeria where the French engaged the Arabs,
September 22, 1848.

=Bentonville.= A village in Johnston Co., N. C. Here part of the army of
Gen. Sherman encountered a Confederate army (40,000 strong) under Gen.
Johnston, March, 1865. The attack was made by Gen. Johnston on the left
wing of the Federal army with the intention of overwhelming it before it
could be relieved. Six assaults were gallantly sustained by the Federals
against the combined forces of Gens. Hoke, Hardee, and Cheatham. During
the night Gen. Slocum received reinforcements which rendered his
position impregnable. On March 21, Gen. Sherman ordered a general attack
by his skirmish-line, and the ensuing night Johnston retreated towards
Smithfield, leaving his pickets to fall into Gen. Sherman’s hands. The
Federal loss was 1646; the Confederate loss is unknown, but about 1300
prisoners were taken by the Union forces.

=Beraun.= A walled town of Bohemia, capital of a circle, on the Beraun
River. Here the Austrians defeated the Prussians in 1744.

=Berbers.= The general name usually given to the tribes inhabiting the
mountainous regions of Barbary and the northern portions of the Great
Desert. They were conquered in succession by the Phœnicians, Romans,
Vandals, and Arabs. They are of middle stature, sparely but strongly
built; complexion varies from a red to a yellow brown; hair is, in
general, dark, and eyes dark and piercing. Their manners are austere,
and in disposition they are cruel, suspicious, and implacable. They are
usually at war with their neighbors or among themselves.

=Beresina=, or =Berezina=. A river in Russia, crossed by the French main
army after its defeat by the Russians, November 25-29, 1812. The French
lost upwards of 20,000 men, and their retreat was attended by great
calamity and suffering.

=Bereung.= A description of Swedish militia, consisting of every man in
the kingdom, from 20 to 25 years of age, capable of bearing arms.

=Bergamo.= A fortified city of Lombardy, Italy; captured by the French
in 1698. During the height of the Venetian power, Bergamo was a
dependency on its territory; under Napoleon, it was the capital of the
department of Serio.

=Bergedorf.= A town of North Germany; it was taken from the Duke of
Saxe-Lauenberg in 1736 by the cities of Hamburg and Lubeck; recaptured
in 1412; and again taken by the same two cities in 1720.

=Bergen.= A small town in Germany, about 5 miles from Frankfort. Here
the French, under the Duke of Broglie, defeated the allies under the
Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, April 13, 1759. The allies lost 2500 killed
and wounded, and the French lost about 1800.

=Bergen.= A town in Holland. Here the allies under the Duke of York were
defeated by the French, under Gen. Brune, with great loss, September 19,
1799. In another battle fought October 2, the same year, the duke gained
the victory over Brune; but on the 6th, the duke was defeated before
Alkmaer, and on the 20th entered into a convention, by which his army
was exchanged for 6000 French and Dutch prisoners in England.

=Bergen-op-Zoom=, or =Berg-op-Zoom=. A strongly-fortified town of
Holland, in North Brabant, on the river Zoom. In 1586 it was
unsuccessfully besieged by the famous Duke of Parma, and afterwards, in
1622, it defied the utmost attempts of Spinola, who was forced to
abandon the enterprise after a siege of ten weeks, with the loss of
12,000 men. It was taken by the French under Count Lowendahl in 1747,
and in 1795 was again occupied by them. An attempt made by the British
under Gen. Sir T. Graham (afterwards Lord Lynedoch) to carry the
fortress by storm was defeated; after forcing an entrance, their retreat
was cut off, and a dreadful slaughter ensued; nearly all were cut to
pieces or made prisoners, March 8, 1814.

=Bergerac.= A town in the department of Dordogne, France; it was
formerly fortified, and sustained many sieges; taken by the English in
1345, and retaken by the Duke of Anjou in 1370. Its fortifications were
razed by Louis XIII. in 1621.

=Bergfried, Combat of.= A combat which took place between the French and
Russians, February 3, 1807, in which the latter were repulsed.

=Bergues.= A fortified town in the department of the North, France; it
was captured and recaptured by the Spaniards and French; the last time
by Turenne in 1658.

=Berlin.= Capital of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg; alleged
to have been founded by the margrave Albert the Bear, about 1163. It was
taken by an army of Russians and Austrians in 1760, but they were
obliged to retire in a few days. On October 26, 1806, after the battle
of Jena (October 14), the French entered Berlin; and from this place
Napoleon issued the famous “Berlin decree” or interdict against the
commerce of England, November 20. On November 5, 1808, Napoleon entered
into a convention with Prussia by which he remitted to Prussia the sum
due on the war-debt and withdrew many of his troops to reinforce his
army in Spain. An insurrection commenced here in March, 1848; a treaty
of peace between Prussia and Saxony was signed on October 21, 1866.

=Berme.= A narrow path round fortifications between the parapet and the
ditch, to prevent the earth from falling in.

=Bermuda Hundred.= In Chesterfield Co., Va., on the right bank of the
James River, just above the mouth of the Appomattox. Here on May 16,
1864, the Federal forces under Gen. Butler were attacked by the
Confederates under Beauregard, and after several hours’ severe fighting
Butler was compelled to fall back to his first line of intrenchments,
with a loss of about 2500.

=Bermuda Islands=, or =Bermudas=. A group of islands in the North
Atlantic Ocean, discovered by Juan Bermudez, a Spaniard, in 1527, but
not inhabited until 1600, when Sir George Somers was cast away upon
them. The Bermudas are garrisoned by British troops.

=Bernard, The Great St.= A famous mountain-pass of the Pennine Alps, so
called from a monastery founded on it by Bernardine de Meuthon in 972.
Velan, its highest peak, is about 8000 feet high, covered with perpetual
snow. Hannibal, it is said, conducted the Carthaginians by this pass
into Italy, 218 B.C.; and by the same route, in May, 1800, Bonaparte led
his troops to Italy before the battle of Marengo, June 14, 1800.

=Berne.= The sovereign canton of Switzerland; joined the Swiss League in
1352; the town of Berne was made a free city by the emperor Frederick,
May, 1218; it successfully resisted Rudolph of Hapsburg, 1288. It
surrendered to the French under Gen. Brune, April 12, 1798; the town was
made capital of Switzerland in 1848.

=Berry= (anc. _Biturigum regis_), Central France; held by the Romans
since the conquest by Cæsar, 58-50 B.C., till it was subdued by the
Visigoths; from whom it was taken by Clovis in 507.

=Bersaglieri.= The sharpshooters of the Sardinian army; first employed
about 1848.

=Berserker.= A legendary Scandinavian hero of the 8th century,
celebrated for his strength and valor. He fought without a coat of mail
or helmet, whence his name. The name Berserkers was also applied to a
class of warriors who, under the influence of a sort of demoniac
possession, fought naked, performing marvelous feats of valor,
unmindful or insusceptible of wounds.

=Berwick-on-Tweed.= A fortified town on the northeast extremity of
England; the theatre of many bloody contests while England and Scotland
were two kingdoms; it was claimed by the Scots because it stood on their
side of the river; annexed to England in 1333; and after having been
taken and retaken many times, was finally ceded to England in 1482; in
1651 it was made independent of both kingdoms; the town surrendered to
Cromwell in 1648, and afterwards to Gen. Monk in 1659.

=Besançon.= A fortified city of France, capital of the department of
Doubs; sacked by Attila; captured and ruined by the ancient Germans;
rebuilt by the Burgundians; it was ceded to Spain by the peace of
Westphalia; taken by Louis XIV. on May 15, 1670; united to France in
1678; in 1814 the Austrians besieged it without success.

=Besiege.= To lay siege to or invest any fortified place with armed
forces.

=Besieged.= The garrison that defends the place against the army that
lays siege to it.

=Besiegers.= The army that lays siege to a fortified place.

=Bessarabia.= A frontier province of European Russia, part of the
ancient Dacia. After being possessed by the Goths, Huns, etc., it was
conquered by the Turks in 1474, and ceded to Russia in 1812.

=Bessemer Steel.= See ORDNANCE, METALS FOR.

=Bessi.= A fierce and powerful Thracian people, who dwelt along the
whole of Mount Hæmus as far as the Euxine. After the conquest of
Macedonia by the Romans, 168 B.C., the Bessi were attacked by the
latter, and subdued after a severe struggle.

=Bethoron.= A village of Palestine. Near here Judas Maccabæus gained
advantages on two different occasions over the generals of Antiochus.

=Bethsur.= An ancient city of Palestine, now extinct. The Syrian general
Lysias captured it, 163 B.C., after a severe combat in which Eleazar, a
brother of Judas, perished.

=Béton.= French term for concrete. Much used in permanent
fortifications. See CONCRETE.

=Béton Aggloméré.= A species of concrete invented by M. Coignet. Used in
building arches, aqueducts, cellar walls, etc. It differs from ordinary
béton, having much greater strength and hardness,--qualities derived
from the ramming to which it is subjected.

=Betray.= To deliver perfidiously any place or body of troops into the
hands of the enemy. To discover that which has been intrusted to
secrecy.

=Betty.= A machine used for forcing open gates or doors. See PETARD.

=Bey.= See BEG.

=Beyroot=, or =Beyrout= (anc. _Berytus_). A seaport of Syria, colonized
from Sidon; alternately possessed by the Christians and Saracens; and
after many changes, fell into the power of Amurath IV., since when it
remained with the Ottoman empire up to the revolt of Ibrahim Pasha in
1832. The total defeat of the Egyptian army by the allied British,
Turkish, and Austrian forces, and evacuation of Beyroot (the Egyptians
losing 7000 in killed, wounded, and prisoners, and 20 pieces of cannon),
took place October 10, 1840. Sir C. Napier was the English admiral
engaged. Beyroot suffered greatly in consequence of the massacres in
Syria in May, 1860.

=Béziers.= A city of France, department of Hérault; sacked by the
Vandals in the 5th century; by the Visigoths in the 5th, 6th, and 7th
centuries; by the Saracens in 720; by Charles Martel in 737; in 1209,
this city was taken by the Catholics under Simon de Montfort and Arnaud,
abbé of Citeaux, and was the scene of a barbarous massacre of the
Albigenses; 60,000 inhabitants were slain without consideration of sex
or age (7000 were found dead in the church _de la Magdeleine_, where
they sought refuge from their relentless slayers).

=Bhootan.= A country north of Lower Bengal. Invaded by the British in
December, 1864, in consequence of injurious treatment of an envoy.

=Bhurtpoor= (India). Capital of Bhurtpoor, was besieged by the British,
January 3, 1805, and attacked five times up to March 21, without
success. The fortress was taken by Gen. Lake, after a desperate
engagement with Holkar, the Mahratta chief, April 2, 1805; this led to a
treaty on April 17. On the rajah’s death, during a revolt against his
son, Bhurtpoor was taken by storm, by Lord Combermere, January 18, 1826.

=Biacolytes.= A military organization in the Grecian empire, whose duty
was to prevent the committal of any excesses against life or property.
Their service was analogous to that of the French gendarmes.

=Biagrasso=, or =Abbiategrasso=. A city on the Ticinella, in Lombardy;
here, in 1524, the French were defeated by the Imperialists.

=Bibans=, or =Bibens=. “The Gates of Iron.” A dangerous defile of the
Atlas Mountains, between Algiers and Constantine; it is traversed by a
number of currents. The French, led by the Duke of Orleans and Marshal
Valée, passed through it in 1839.

=Bibaux=, or =Petaux= (_Fr._). In ancient times, were soldiers who
fought on foot, with cross-bow and lance.

=Biberach= (Würtemberg). Here Moreau twice defeated the
Austrians,--under Latour, October 2, 1796, and under Kray, May 9, 1800.

=Bicker.= A word formerly used in the sense of to skirmish; to fight off
and on; to make repeated attacks.

=Bicocca= (Northern Italy). Lautrec and the French were here defeated by
Colonna and the Imperialists, April 29, 1522, and Francis thereby lost
his conquests in Milan.

=Bicoque= (_Fr._). A term used in France to signify a place ill
fortified and incapable of much defense. It is derived from a place on
the road between Lodi and Milan, which was originally a gentleman’s
country-house surrounded by ditches. In 1522, a body of Imperial troops
were stationed in it, and stood the attack of the whole French army,
during the reign of Francis I. This engagement was called the battle of
Bicoque.

=Bicorneurs= (_Fr._). Name given to the militia of Valenciennes.

=Bidarkee.= A skin boat used by the Aleuts.

=Bidassoa.= A river of the Pyrenees, which forms one of the boundaries
of France and Spain, the passage of which is memorable as completing the
endeavors of Lord Wellington to drive the French, under Marshal Soult,
out of the Peninsula into France. In 1808, Marshal Junot crossed the
Bidassoa with the armies of France to invade the Peninsula, and in 1813,
Lord Wellington crossed it, after driving the French out of Spain.

=Bidauts=, or =Bidaux= (_Fr._). An ancient French corps of infantry;
according to some authorities they were armed with two javelins.

=Bien-Hoa.= A fortified seaport town of the French colony in Cochin
China; it was taken from the Annamites by the French under Rear-Admiral
Bonard, December 15, 1861.

=Bienne.= A town of Switzerland; it was captured and burned by the
bishop of Basel in 1367.

=Biga.= A Roman term applied in ancient times to vehicles drawn by two
horses abreast, and commonly to the Roman chariot used in processions or
in the circus. In shape it resembled the Greek war-chariot,--a short
body on two wheels, low, and open behind, where the charioteer entered,
but higher and closed in front.

=Big Bethel.= A village of York Co., Va., near Back River, about 12
miles northwest of Fortress Monroe, on the road from Hampton to
Yorktown, and about 3 miles beyond Little Bethel, on the same road. In
June, 1861, the main body of the Confederate army, under Gen. Magruder,
being in the vicinity of Yorktown, an outpost of considerable strength
was established at Little Bethel, which Gen. Butler, who was in command
at Fortress Monroe, determined to dislodge. Accordingly, on the night of
June 9, two New York regiments were ordered to gain the rear of the
enemy’s position, while a battalion of Vermont and Massachusetts troops
and a New York regiment were to attack in front at break of day. Before
daybreak, through some error, these forces approached and fired into
each other, and thus betrayed their projected movements to the enemy,
who retreated to Big Bethel, where there was another outpost, with works
of some strength in process of erection. Gen. Pierce, who was in command
of the Federal expedition, determined to carry these works. An attack
was ordered, and after nearly three hours’ fighting, the Federals being
exposed to a heavy fire, while the Confederates were almost entirely
protected, Gen. Pierce determined to retreat, which he did in good
order, the enemy falling back the same day to Yorktown. The number of
Federal troops was between 3000 and 4000, while that of the enemy was
nearly 1500. The Federal loss was about 60, that of the Confederates was
small in comparison.

=Big Horn.= A navigable river of the United States, near Fremont’s Peak,
in the Rocky Mountains. It has a northeast course of about 400 miles,
being the longest affluent of the Yellowstone, which, again, is the
largest affluent of the Missouri. A desperate battle was fought on the
Little Big Horn, between the 7th U. S. Cavalry and the Sioux Indians,
June 25, 1876.

=Bigles.= A military corps of Rome, whose particular duty was to furnish
sentinels; the bread which these troops received was called
_bigliaticum_.

=Bihach=, or =Bichacz=. One of the strongest fortress-towns of Croatia,
European Turkey; it has been the scene of frequent contests during the
Turkish wars.

=Bilbo.= A rapier, a sword; so named, it is said, from _Bilboa_, in
Spain, where the best are made.

=Bilboa=, or =Bilbao= (Northeast Spain). Founded about 1300; taken by
the French in 1795; captured and recaptured during the invasion of the
French in 1808; delivered from the Carlists by Espartero, aided by the
British, December 24, 1836.

=Bilboquet.= A small 8-inch mortar, whose bore is only half a caliber in
length. It throws a shell of 60 pounds about 400 toises.

=Bill.= A weapon much used by infantry, in the 14th and 15th centuries,
for defense against cavalry, consisting of a broad, hook-shaped blade,
having a short pike at the back and another at the summit, and attached
to the end of a long staff.

=Billet= (Fr. _Billet de logement_). In England, is a ticket for
quartering soldiers on publicans and others, which entitles each
soldier, by act of Parliament, to candles, vinegar, and salt, with the
use of fire and the necessary utensils for dressing and eating his meat.
In the United States, no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered
in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but
in the manner to be prescribed by law (Art. 3, Amendments to the
Constitution of the United States).

=Bill-hook.= A small hatchet used in European armies in cutting wood for
fascines and other military purposes. The pioneers of the infantry are
always provided with them, and a sufficient supply is issued to
regiments engaged on active service.

=Binche.= A town in the province of Hainaut, Belgium. The French drove
the Austrians out of this place in 1794.

=Bipennis.= A double-headed axe, the weapon which, according to ancient
historians and authors, particularly distinguished those fabulous female
warriors, the Amazons.

=Biporus.= With the ancients this word signified a double-prowed boat,
so that it could change its course to the opposite direction without
turning.

=Bir=, or =Biridjek=. A walled town of Asiatic Turkey, on the Euphrates,
which was ruined by Tamerlane.

=Birse.= A small river in Switzerland, on the banks of which, on August
26, 1444, 1500 Swiss fought an army of about 20,000 men, commanded by
the dauphin of France, afterwards Louis XI. There were but 11 of the
Swiss who survived the day, while their enemy left 8000 men and 1100
horses on the battle-field. On the same river 6000 confederate Swiss
gained a splendid victory over 15,000 Austrians, July 22, 1499.

=Birtha.= See TEKRIT.

=Biscaïen= (_Fr._). A name formerly given to a long-barreled musket, the
range of which was greater than the ordinary musket. Now this
appellation is given to a leaden ball about the size of an egg, which is
used for canister or case-shot.

=Bisceglia.= A fortified seaport town of Naples, on the Adriatic, 21
miles northwest of Bari. Here a celebrated combat took place between 13
Spaniards and the same number of French. Among the latter was the
Chevalier Bayard.

=Biskara=, or =Biskra=. A town of Algeria, on the Kantara, taken by the
French, March 3, 1844.

=Bistritz.= A fortified town of Transylvania, situated on the Bistritz
River. Forming, as it does, the last strong position in the northeast of
Transylvania, it was repeatedly, during 1848-49, the scene of hot strife
between the Hungarian and Austrian generals.

=Bitche.= A town of France, in the department of the Moselle, in a wild
and wooded pass of the Vosges. The Prussians, under Colonel Count von
Wartensleben, attempted to surprise it in 1793, but failed.

=Bithynia.= An ancient division of Asia Minor, separated from Europe by
the Propontus (Sea of Marmora) and the Thracian Bosphorus (Strait of
Constantinople). It contained the famous Greek cities or colonies of
Chalcedon, Heraclea, etc., and at later periods, Nicomedia, Nicæa, and
Prusa. The inhabitants were supposed to be of Thracian origin. The
country is said to have been subdued by Crœsus of Lydia (560 B.C.), and
five years later fell under the Persian dominion. About 440 or 430 B.C.
it became an independent kingdom, under a dynasty of native princes, who
made Nicomedia their capital. It afterwards fell into the hands of the
Romans, and was governed as a province. In 1298, Osman the Turk broke
into the country, and in 1328 Prusa, or Brusa, then its chief town,
became the capital of the kingdom of the Osmanli.

=Bitonto.= A town of Naples where Mortemar and the Spaniards defeated
the Germans, on May 26, 1734, and eventually gained the kingdom of the
Two Sicilies for Don Carlos.

=Biturritæ= (now _Bedarrides_). In the department of Vaucluse, France.
It was a city of the Allobroges, who were totally defeated in its
environs by Domitius Ahenobarbus in 122 B.C.

=Bivouac.= A night-watch in open air. Troops bivouac when they make the
best of it for the night, encamping in the open air. The term was also
applied to a night-guard of the whole army, when apprehensive of
surprise. The word comes from the German bei, “near,” and wache,
“watch.” In recent times it is common for soldiers on the march to use
the _tente d’abri_, or shelter-tent.

=Bizerta=, or =Benzerta=. The most northern town of Africa, and a
fortified seaport of Tunis. It is defended by two castles, which,
however, are commanded by adjacent heights. Though its port now only
admits small vessels, it was formerly one of the best in the
Mediterranean. This city was noted for the piracy of its inhabitants.

=Black.= In blazonry, sable denotes constancy, wisdom, and prudence.

=Black-book.= An ancient book of English admiralty law, compiled in the
reign of Edward III. It has always been deemed of the highest authority
in matters concerning the admiralty in England.

=Blackfeet.= A once powerful and ferocious tribe of American Indians of
Algonkin stock, who infest the country between the Yellowstone and
Missouri Rivers, and are also found in British America. See INDIANS AND
THEIR AGENCIES.

=Blackheath= (Kent, near London). Here Wat Tyler and his followers
assembled, June 12, 1381, and here also Jack Cade and his 20,000 Kentish
men encamped, June 1, 1450. Here the Cornish rebels were defeated and
Flannock’s insurrection quelled, June 22, 1497. The cavern on the ascent
to Blackheath, the retreat of Cade and the haunt of banditti in the time
of Cromwell, was rediscovered in 1780.

=Black Hole.= The appellation familiarly given in England to the dungeon
or dark cell of a prison. The name is associated with a horrible
catastrophe in the history of British India, namely, the cruel
confinement of a party of English in an apartment called the “Black Hole
of Calcutta,” on the night of June 19, 1756. The garrison of a fort at
Calcutta having been captured by the nabob Surajah Dowlah, he caused the
whole of the prisoners taken, 146 in number, to be confined in an
apartment 20 feet square, having only two small windows, which were
obstructed by a veranda. After a night of excruciating agony from heat,
thirst, and want of air, there remained in the morning but 23
survivors.

=Black Rod, Usher of the.= An officer of the English House of Lords,
whose emblem of authority is the wand or rod, with a gold lion on top.
He belongs to the order of the Garter, and keeps the door when the
chapter of that order is in session. His principal duty is to summon the
Commons to the House of Lords when royal assent is given to bills, etc.,
and to take into custody any peer guilty of breach of privilege.

=Black Sea=, or =Euxine=. _Pontus Euxinus_ of the ancients; a large
internal sea between the southwest provinces of Russia and Asia Minor,
connected with the Sea of Azof by the Straits of Yenikalé and with the
Sea of Marmora by the Bosphorus. This sea was much frequented by the
Greeks and Italians till it was closed to all nations by the Turks after
the fall of Constantinople, in 1453. The Russians obtained admission by
the treaty of Kainavdji, July 10, 1774. In 1779 it was partially opened
to British and other traders, since which time the Russians gradually
obtained the preponderance. It was entered by the British and French
fleets, January 3, 1854. A dreadful storm in this sea raged from
November 13 to 16, 1854, and caused great loss of life and shipping, and
valuable stores for the allied armies. By the treaty of 1856 the Black
Sea was opened to the commerce of all nations, the Russians and Turks
not being allowed to keep ships of war on it. In 1871 the Russians were
again permitted to have men-of-war on this sea.

=Black Watch.= Armed companies of the loyal clans (Campbells, Munros,
etc.) employed to watch the Highlands from about 1725 to 1739, when they
were formed into the celebrated 42d Regiment, which was formerly
enrolled “The Royal Highland Black Watch.” Their removal probably
facilitated the outbreak of 1745. They wore dark tartans, and hence
their name.

=Blackwater, Battle of.= In Ireland, August 14, 1598, when the Irish
chief O’Neal defeated the English under Sir Henry Bagnall. Pope Clement
VIII. sent O’Neal a consecrated plume, and granted to his followers the
same indulgences as to Crusaders.

=Bladensburg.= A village of Prince George Co., Md., memorable for the
battle which was fought here August 24, 1814, between the British and
Americans, and which resulted in the capture of Washington.

=Blair-Athol.= A village in Perthshire, Scotland; it was occupied by the
Marquis of Montrose in 1644; stormed by a party under the command of one
of Cromwell’s officers in 1653; and gallantly defended by Sir Andrew
Agnew, in 1746, when besieged by a portion of the Highland army, until
he was relieved by the Hessians under the Earl of Crawford. The pass of
Killekrankie, about two miles from Blair Castle, is famous for the
battle which was there fought in 1689, between the Highlanders under
Viscount Dundee, and King William’s troops under Gen. Mackay.

=Blaise.= A military order instituted by the kings of Armenia, in honor
of St. Blaise the Martyr, anciently bishop of Sebasta, and the patron
saint of Armenia. Justinian calls them Knights of St. Blaise and St.
Mary, and places them not only in Armenia, but in Palestine. They made a
vow to defend the Church of Rome, and followed the rule of St. Basil.
This institution appears to have commenced about the same time with the
Knights Templar and Hospitallers.

=Blakely Gun.= See ORDNANCE, BUILT-UP GUNS.

=Blakely Projectiles.= See PROJECTILE.

=Blamont.= A small town of France, department of Doubs. This small place
was protected by an ancient fortress, which was ruined by the allies in
1814.

=Blanch-Lyon.= A title of one of the English pursuivants-at-arms. See
PURSUIVANT.

=Blank.= The point of a target at which aim is taken, marked with a
white spot; hence, the object to which anything is directed.

=Blank Cartridge.= See CARTRIDGE.

=Blanket-boats.= A practical and highly useful plan for crossing streams
is by means of boats constructed of a single rubber blanket, capable of
carrying a soldier, knapsack, arms, and accoutrements, with only 4
inches of displacement. The size of some of the ordinary blankets is 6
feet long and 4 feet 9 inches wide; but 7 feet by 5 feet would be
preferable. If the height of the boat be made 1 foot, the length will be
4 feet, and the width 2 feet 9 inches, so as to be completely covered by
the blanket. The frame may be made of round sticks, 1 inch and 1¹⁄₂ inch
in diameter, in the following manner:

For the bottom the two end-sticks are 2 feet 9 inches long, and the
side-pieces 3 feet 9 inches long. They are connected by boring a
¹⁄₂-inch hole through the end-pieces, and into the ends of the
side-pieces, into which pins are driven. The top is formed in the same
manner, and both top and bottom of 1¹⁄₂-inch sticks. The side-pieces of
the bottom, and the top and bottom frames are connected by 1-inch round
sticks inserted in ¹⁄₂-inch holes, in the same manner as the upright
pieces are fastened in a chair. To keep the frame from falling apart,
loops of cord are passed from top to bottom, and from side to side, and
twisted with a stick. The rubber blanket is then spread upon the ground,
the frame placed upon it, the sides and eyes turned up and lashed to the
top rail by twine passed through the eyelets. Loops of cord are passed
over these projecting ends, and twisted with a stick, which binds the
parts together. One of these boats having a horizontal area of 11 square
feet, would require 687 pounds to sink it 1 foot, and the average weight
of a man would displace less than 4 inches.

In using these blanket-boats it will be convenient to lash several
together, side by side, upon which soldiers can be transported. The
float can be paddled or a rope may be stretched across, supported by
floats, and the men can pull themselves across. If used for cavalry,
some of the men can hold the bridles of the horses, while the others can
pull, paddle, or pole across the stream, the saddles being placed in the
boats. The frames are abandoned, or used for fuel, when the army has
crossed over.

Several of these boats lashed together, and covered with poles, would
form a raft on which wagons could be carried over; but for artillery,
rafts of wagon-bodies, or something possessing greater powers of
flotation, should be employed. The bill of materials for the frame of a
blanket-boat is: 4 end-pieces, 1¹⁄₂ inches round or square, 2 feet 9
inches long; 4 side-pieces, 1¹⁄₂ inches round or square, 3 feet 9 inches
long; 30 uprights, 1 inch round or square, 1 foot long; 10 pieces across
bottom, 1 inch round or square, 2 feet 9 inches long; 8 double pins,
¹⁄₂-inch in diameter, 3 inches long; 4 pieces of cord or strong twine,
each 9 feet long; 6 pieces of cord or strong twine, each 3 feet long; 1
india-rubber blanket, 6 feet long, 4 feet 9 inches wide, with eyelet
holes around all sides, not more than 6 inches apart, and 30 feet of
twine to lash the blanket to the frame.

=Blanketeers.= A number of operators who, on March 30, 1817, met in St.
Peter’s Field, near Manchester, England, many of them having blankets,
rugs, or great-coats rolled up and fastened to their backs. This was
termed the “blanket meeting.” They proceeded to march towards London,
but were dispersed by the magistracy. It is stated that their object was
to commence a general insurrection. Eventually the ringleaders had an
interview with the cabinet ministers, and a better understanding between
the working-classes and the government ensued.

=Blasting.= The displacement of earth or rock by the use of an
explosive. One of the most important parts of the art of mining in its
various branches of _tunneling_, _shaft-boring_, _well-digging_,
submarine _mining_, etc. The explosive is ordinarily placed in a bore
hole, but in submarine mining this is sometimes dispensed with when a
high explosive like nitro-glycerine is used.

=Blasting Powder.= An explosive in the form of powder used for blasting.
The most powerful blasting powders in common use are made by adding
certain substances to nitro-glycerine, which, by absorbing it, reduce it
to the form of powder, and thus render it comparatively safe against the
shocks and jars of use. (See GIANT POWDER, DYNAMITE.) The term blasting
powder is also specially applied to a powder analogous to gunpowder, but
which contains sodium nitrate in place of potassium nitrate, or
saltpetre.

=Blaubeuren.= A town of Würtemberg, on the Blau; here the French
defeated the Austrians in 1800; the fortress was razed in 1806.

=Blayle= (anc. _Blavia_). A fortified seaport of France, in the
department of Gironde, 20 miles north-northwest of Bordeaux. The Duchess
de Berry was imprisoned in the citadel in 1833. This city was captured
by the French, from the English, in 1339; the Protestants took
possession of it in 1568, and the English tried in vain to take it in
1814.

=Blazonry= (from the German _Blasen_, “to blow”). The art of describing
in technical language the objects or charges borne in a coat of arms,
and the manner of arranging them on a shield. The term originated from
the custom of blowing a trumpet to announce the arrival of a knight, or
his entrance into the lists at a joust or tournament. The blast was
answered by the heralds, who described aloud and explained the arms
borne by the knight.

=Blechstreifen=, or =Blechschienen= (_Ger._) (_Les laisches_, Fr.). Thin
metal plates which the ancient Gauls placed upon the buff coats of
infantry; they were placed between the buff and the lining.

=Bleneau.= A village of France, in the department of the Yonne, about 29
miles west-southwest of Auxerre, celebrated as the place where Turenne
gained a victory over the Prince of Condé in 1652.

=Blenheim= (Ger. _Blindheim_). A village of Bavaria, 23 miles
north-northwest of Augsburg, memorable in connection with Marlborough’s
great victory over the French and Bavarians, August 13, 1704. The
battle, though known in English history by the name of “Blenheim,” did
not occur here, but at the neighboring village of Hochstädt, by which
name it is known to the French and Germans. The French and Bavarian army
consisted of 56,000 men, commanded by Tallard, Marsin, and the Elector
of Bavaria, and opposed to it was the allied army 52,000 strong,
commanded by the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene. The loss of the
French and Bavarians was estimated at from 30,000 to 40,000. Near here,
also, in 1800, the French defeated the Austrians.

=Bleus, Les= (_i.e._ “The Blues”). A name given to the soldiers of the
Republic, by the Royalists, during the wars of La Vendée, on account of
their uniform.

=Blidah.= A considerable town of Algeria, on the border of the Metidjah
Plain; taken by the French in 1830, and permanently occupied by them
since 1838.

=Blieskastel.= A small town of Rhenish Bavaria; near here, on November
19, 1793, 7000 Prussians and Saxons under Gen. Kalkreuth fought the
French, about 20,000 strong, under Gen. Hoche, neither side gaining the
victory. The Prussians held their ground without any great loss until
dark, when, deeming their position untenable, they evacuated it during
the night.

=Blindage.= A temporary bomb-proof or splinter-proof roofing,
constructed of timber and the like, to give cover to magazines,
batteries, hospitals, etc. See BLINDS.

=Blinds.= In military affairs, are wooden frames, composed of four
pieces, either flat or round, two of which are 6 feet long, and the
others 3 or 4 feet, which serve as spars to fasten the two first
together: the longest are pointed at both ends, and the two others are
fastened towards the extremities of the former, at about 10 or 12
inches. Their use is to fix them either upright, or in a vertical
position against the sides of the trenches or sap, to sustain the earth.
Their points at the bottom serve to fix them in the earth, and those at
the top to hold the fascines that are placed upon them; so that the sap
or trench is formed into a kind of covered gallery, to secure the troops
from stones and grenades.

=Blind-shell.= A shell, the bursting charge of which is exploded by the
heat of impact. Used in modern ordnance against armor.

=Blistered Steel.= See ORDNANCE, METALS FOR.

=Block.= See IMPLEMENTS.

=Blockade.= In military art, is an operation for capturing an enemy’s
town or fortress without a bombardment or regular siege. The attacking
party throws up works on the neighboring heights and roads, and part of
the besieging force remains under cover in villages, or in a temporary
camp, ready to repel any sortie attempted by the besieged. The whole
purpose in view is to prevent the besieged from receiving supplies of
any kind, in order that, when food or ammunition is exhausted, they may
be compelled to surrender. Fortresses situated on steep and rocky
eminences, difficult to conquer by bombardment or assault, may often be
reduced by blockade, because the roads or paths for the reception of
supplies are few, and can be guarded by a small number of troops.

=Blockade.= In international law, is the means in time of war of
rendering intercourse with an enemy’s port unlawful on the part of
neutrals; and it is carried into effect by an armed force (ships of
war), which blocks up and bars export or import to or from the place
blockaded. To be valid, a blockade must be accompanied by actual
investment of the place, and it may be more or less rigorous, either for
the purpose of watching the operations of the enemy, or to cut off all
excess of neutral vessels to that interdicted place. To be binding on
neutrals, it ought to be shown that they have knowledge, or may be
presumed to know of the blockade, for which reason a formal notification
of the fact is usually made by the blockading power. The breach of
blockade, which may be effected by coming out of a blockaded port, or
going in, subjects the property so employed to confiscation. On the
proclamation of peace, or from any political or belligerent cause, the
continuance of the investment may cease to be necessary, and the
blockade is then said to be _raised_. The blockading force then
retires, and the port is open as before to all other nations. In the
present century recourse has been had to this means of cutting off
supplies from the enemy on several occasions. The Elbe was blockaded by
Great Britain, 1803; the Baltic, by Denmark, 1848-49 and 1864; the Gulf
of Finland by the allies, 1854; and the ports of the Southern States by
President Lincoln, April 19, 1861.

=Blockader.= One who blockades.

=Block Battery.= In gunnery, a wooden battery for two or more small
pieces, mounted on wheels, and movable from place to place; very ready
to fire _en barbette_, in the galleries and casements, etc., where room
is wanted.

=Block-house.= An edifice or structure of heavy timber or logs for
military defense, having its sides loop-holed for musketry, and often an
upper story projecting over the lower, or placed upon it diagonally,
with projecting corners, to facilitate a firing downward, and in all
directions; the sides and ends are sometimes much like a stockade, and
the top covered with earth; there may also be a ditch around it.
Formerly much used in Germany and America, and used extensively in the
United States as a defense against Indians, and during the civil war,
1861-65, for the protection of important places on railroads, such as
bridges, etc. If exposed to the fire of artillery, block-houses should
be formed of double rows of logs 3 feet apart, with well-rammed earth
between them.

=Bloodhound.= A name given to certain species of the dog, distinguished
for their keenness of scent, and the persistency with which they follow
the track of game. They have been frequently employed during wars to
track partisans, and even in the American civil war, 1861-65, were
employed by the Confederates to track Union prisoners who escaped from
their prisons. In time of peace they are sometimes employed to hunt
felons, fugitive slaves, etc. When they are thus employed they acquire a
peculiarly bloodthirsty and ferocious character.

=Bloreheath.= In Staffordshire, England; here on September 23, 1459, the
Earl of Salisbury and the Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians, whose
leader, Lord Audley, was slain with many Cheshire gentlemen. A cross
commemorates this conflict.

=Bludgeon.= A short stick, with one end loaded, or thicker and heavier
than the other, used as an offensive weapon.

=Blue-light.= A composition, burning with a blue flame, used as a night
signal in ships, or for military purposes. See PYROTECHNY.

=Blunderbuss.= A short gun or fire-arm, with a large bore, capable of
holding a number of balls, and intended to do execution without exact
aim.

=Blyde=, =Bly=, or =Blude= (_Ger._). A kind of a war machine which was
used in ancient times to throw stones; some authors compare it to the
catapult. In the year 1585, at the siege of the castle of Rucklingen,
Albert, duke of Saxony and Lüneburg, was killed by a stone thrown by a
blyde.

=Board of Officers.= A number of officers assembled by military
authority for the transaction of business.

=Board of Ordnance.= A government department, which formerly had the
management of all affairs relating to the artillery and engineering
corps of the British army. This board was abolished after the Crimean
war.

=Board, Pointing.= In gunnery, this is a piece of wood 1 foot long, 2 or
3 inches wide, and 1 inch thick, having a notch cut in the middle of one
side to fit on the stake, and graduated into equal divisions from its
middle. When not in use the pointing cord may be wound on it. This board
is used for directing mortars.

=Boards of Examination.= In the army, are instituted to determine upon
appointments in regiments, and for appointments and promotion in the
medical staff, engineer corps, and ordnance department. They are
composed of army officers.

=Boards of Survey.= In the army, are convened for the purpose of fixing
the responsibility for public property lost, damaged, or destroyed, of
ascertaining what articles of public property may have been lost or
abstracted whenever a soldier deserts, and of taking an inventory of the
public property in charge of a deceased officer.

=Boats, Blanket-.= See BLANKET-BOATS.

=Bobruisk.= A fortified town of Russia, in the government of Minsk. It
is situated on the right bank of the Beresina, and is a station for the
steam-packets navigating the Dnieper and Beresina. It was besieged
ineffectually by the French in 1812.

=Boccacci.= The Italians have a peculiar kind of fire-arm which they
call by this name; it is enlarged towards the muzzle in the shape of a
trumpet. This gun is principally used by the Calabrians.

=Bocchetta.= A celebrated pass of the Apennines, the key of the route
from Novi to Genoa. Redoubts were constructed here by the Imperialists
in 1746 for the defense of the pass. The French traversed this pass when
they entered Italy in 1796.

=Bodegraven.= A fortified town of Holland. On November 28, 1672, it was
captured by the Duke of Luxemburg, who tarnished his victory by
authorizing the town to be pillaged.

=Bodkin.= A dirk or dagger; a word still in use, though Johnson says it
is the oldest acceptation of it.

=Body.= In the nomenclature of modern ordnance, is the part of the piece
in rear of the trunnions.

=Body.= In the art of war, is a number of forces, horse or foot, united
and marching under one commander. _Main_ body of _an army_, sometimes
means the troops encamped in the centre between the two wings, and
generally consists of infantry. The main body on a march, signifies the
whole of the army exclusive of the van- and rear-guards.

=Body of the Place.= The _enceinte_ of a fortress, or main line of
bastions and curtains, as distinguished from outworks.

=Body-guard.= A guard to protect or defend the person; a life-guard.

=Bœotia.= One of the political divisions of ancient Greece, lying
between Attica and Megaris on the south, and Locris and Phocis on the
north, and bounded on the other side by the Eubœan Sea and the
Corinthian Gulf. The tribes of greatest importance who appear as rulers
of Bœotia in the heroic age were the Minyæ and the Cadmeans, or
Cadmeones,--the former dwelling at Orchomenus, and the latter at Thebes.
About 60 years after the Trojan war the Bœotians, an Æolian people who
had hitherto dwelt in Thessaly, having been expelled from that country,
took possession of the land then called Cadmeis, to which they gave
their own name of Bœotia. At the commencement of the historic period all
the ancient tribes had disappeared, and all the cities were inhabited by
Bœotians, the most important forming a political confederacy under the
presidency of Thebes. After the battle of Chæronea (338 B.C.) and the
destruction of Thebes by Alexander three years after, Bœotia rapidly
declined, and so low had it sunk in the time of the Romans, that of all
its great cities there remained only two, which had dwindled into
insignificant towns; of the other great cities nothing remained but
their ruins and their names. The people are represented as a dull and
heavy race, with little susceptibility and appreciation of intellectual
pleasures.

=Bohain.= A small town of France, in the department of Aisne, which fell
into the hands of the Imperialists in 1537, and was recaptured a short
time afterwards.

=Bohemia.= A political and administrative division of the Austrian
empire, bounded on the north by Saxony and Prussian Silesia, east by
Prussia and Moravia, south by Lower Austria, and west by Bavaria. It
derives its name from the Boii, a Celtic people who settled in the
country about 600 B.C., and who were expelled by the Marcomanni in the
time of Augustus. About the middle of the 6th century a numerous army of
Czechs entered the country and subdued it. In 1310 the crown came to the
house of Luxemburg, when Charles IV. united Bohemia with the German
empire. After many vicissitudes it fell to the house of Austria in the
person of the Archduke Ferdinand, brother of Charles V., and
brother-in-law of Louis II., king of Hungary and Bohemia, who was killed
in battle with the Turks near Mohacs, in 1526. In 1619 the Bohemians
revolted against the house of Austria, and offered the crown to
Frederick V., elector palatine, but Frederick was defeated at the battle
of White Mountain in November, 1620, and the country has ever since
remained under the sway of the emperors of Austria.

=Bohmisch-Brod.= A small town of Bohemia. Here the emperor Sigismund
defeated the Hussites in 1434.

=Boii.= An ancient Celtic people who emigrated into Italy, where they
waged war for several centuries against the Romans. They were defeated
at the Vadimonian Lake, 283 B.C. They were finally subdued by Scipio
Nasica, 191 B.C., and expelled front Italy. A portion of them founded
the kingdom of Boiohemum (Bohemia), from which they were expelled by the
Marcomanni in the time of Augustus.

=Bois-le-Duc.= A fortified city of Holland, capital of North Brabant;
besieged and captured by the Dutch in 1629, and by the French in 1794;
surrendered to the Prussian army, under Bulow, in January, 1814.

=Bojano.= A town in the province of Molise, Naples. The site of Bojano
has been identified as that of the famous Samnite city of _Bovianum_,
which played so conspicuous a part in the Samnite, Punic, and Social
wars. Unsuccessfully besieged by the Romans in 314 B.C., it was taken by
them in 311 B.C., and yielded immense spoils. Passing out of their
hands, it was retaken by them in 305 B.C., and once more reverting to
its original owners, was a third time captured by the Romans in 298 B.C.
During the second Punic war it formed the headquarters of the Roman army
on more than one occasion. In the great Social war the confederates made
it their capital. It was surprised by Sulla, and retaken by the Marsic
general, Pompædius Silo. Cæsar established a military colony, and it
afterwards throve under the Roman empire.

=Bojeleschti.= A village of Wallachia, where, in 1828, the Russians
under Gen. von Geismar defeated the Turks, although the latter were
superior in force. The Russians captured 7 guns, 24 ammunition- and 400
bread-wagons, 24 colors, and guns enough to arm 10,000 men. The Cossacks
took 507 prisoners.

=Bokhara.= The ancient _Sogdiana_, a state of Central Asia in
Independent Toorkistan. It was conquered by the Turks in the 6th
century, by the Chinese in the 7th, and by the Arabs about 705. After
many changes of masters it was subdued by the Uzbek Tartars, 1505. The
British envoys, Col. Stoddart and Capt. Conolly, were murdered at
Bokhara, the capital, by the khan in 1843. In the war with Russia,
beginning in 1866, the emir’s army was defeated several times in May and
subsequent months during that year. Peace was made July 11, 1867. The
Russians were again victors, May 25, 1868, and occupied Samarcand the
next day. Further conquests were made by the Russians, and Samarcand was
secured by treaty November, 1868.

=Bolade= (_Fr._). A weapon of the shape of a mace.

=Bologna.= The ancient _Felsina_, afterwards Bononia. A distinguished
city of Italy, capital of the province of the same name; besieged and
taken by Pope Julius II., 1506; taken by the French, 1796; by the
Austrians, 1799; again by the French after the battle of Marengo, in
1800; restored to the Pope in 1815; a revolt suppressed by Austrian
interference, 1831; rebellion in 1848; taken by the Austrians, May,
1849; provisional government formed June 15, 1859; Victor Emmanuel
entered Bologna as sovereign, May 2, 1860.

=Bolster.= A block of wood on the carriage of a siege-gun, and on the
mortar-wagon upon which the gun rests when moving it from place to
place. The first is a _breach_-, the second a _muzzle-bolster_.

=Bolster.= A cushioned or padded part of a saddle.

=Bolt.= A pointed shaft or missile intended to be shot from a cross-bow
or catapult; an arrow; a dart.

=Bolt.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, NOMENCLATURE OF ARTILLERY CARRIAGE.

=Bolt, Palliser.= A screw-bolt for securing armor plates. The end upon
which the screw-thread is cut is larger than the shank.

=Bomarsund.= A strong fortress on one of the Aland isles in the Baltic
Sea, taken by Sir Charles Napier, commander of the Baltic expedition,
aided by the French military contingent under Gen. Baraguay d’Hilliers,
August 16, 1854. The governor Bodisco and the garrison, about 2000 men,
became prisoners, and the fortifications were destroyed.

=Bomb.= A hollow ball or shell of cast iron filled with explosive
materials, and furnished with a fuze, which being ignited when the
missile is discharged from a mortar or howitzer, burns during its
flight, and causes it to explode with destructive violence when it
falls. They are now commonly called shells.

=Bombard.= An ancient piece of ordnance, very short, thick, and wide at
the bore. Some of the bombards used in the 15th century propelled stones
weighing from 200 to 500 pounds each.

=Bombard.= To assault a town or fortress by projecting into it shells,
etc., from mortars, in order to set fire to and destroy the houses,
magazines, and other buildings.

=Bombardelle= (_Fr._). A small bombard which was used in ancient times.
In 1830, one was disinterred near Laon, France; it is the opinion of
some that this bombardelle was manufactured during the reign of Charles
VII., from 1436-40.

=Bombardier.= Is an artilleryman versed in that department of arms which
relates especially to bombs and shells, mortars and howitzers, grenades
and fuzes. In some foreign armies, the bombardiers form a separate
corps. In the British service a bombardier is a non-commissioned grade
in the artillery below that of corporal.

=Bombardment.= Is an attack upon a fortress or fortified town by means
of shells, red-hot shot, carcasses, rockets, etc., to burn and destroy
the buildings, and kill the inhabitants, and by this means compel its
surrender. A bombardment requires little engineering skill; whereas a
regular siege requires the aid of engineers to direct the attack against
fortifications, guns, and soldiery, leaving the inhabitants and
buildings untouched. It is generally regarded by military engineers as a
cruel operation, and in modern times is mostly adopted as an adjunct to
a siege. The stores required for a vigorous bombardment are immense.
Thus, in 1759, Rodney threw 20,000 shells and carcasses into Havre; in
1792, the Duke of Saxe Teschen threw 36,000 shot and shell into Lille in
140 hours; in 1795, Pichegru threw 8000 shells into Mannheim in 16
hours; and in 1807, the English threw 11,000 shot and shell into
Copenhagen in three days. Of the bombardments recorded in history may be
mentioned that of Algiers by Duquesne in 1682-83, by the Venetians in
1784, and by the English in 1816; of Genoa in 1684; of Tripoli in 1685,
1728, and 1747; of Barcelona in 1691; of Brussels in 1694; of Toulon by
the English in 1707; of Prague in 1744, 1759, and 1848; the bombardment
of Lille by the Austrians in 1792; of Le Quesnoy, Breda, Lille, Lyons,
Maestricht, and Mayence in 1793; of Menin, Valenciennes, and Ostend in
1794; of Copenhagen by the English in 1807; of Glogau, Breslau, and
Schweidnitz by the French in 1806-7; of Saragossa by the French in 1808;
of Flushing by the English in 1809; of Antwerp in 1832; of St. Jean
d’Ulloa by the French in 1838; of Beyrout and St. Jean d’Acre by the
English in 1840; of Barcelona by Espartero in 1842; of Mogador by the
French in 1844; and of Odessa by the English and French fleets in 1854.
Vera Cruz was bombarded by Gen. Scott for three days before its
surrender, March 27, 1847. During the civil war recourse was had several
times to this method of reducing fortified places. Among the most noted
were the bombardment by Admiral Farragut for six days, April 18, 1862,
of Forts Jackson and St. Philip (after which they surrendered); the
bombardment of Fort Pulaski, Ga., by Gen. Gillmore, in April, 1862; the
first bombardment of Fort Sumter in August, 1863, which effectually
disabled the fort for immediate defense of Charleston harbor, although
the works remained in the possession of the Confederates; and the second
bombardment, which took place in October following, leaving the place in
ruins. During the Franco-German war Strasburg was bombarded by the
Prussians on August 18, 1870, and after an immense number of shells were
thrown into it with ruinous effect the city surrendered on September 27.
During the siege of Paris it was estimated that for two weeks in
January, 1871, about 500 shells a day were thrown into the city, to the
great destruction of life and property.

=Bomb-chest.= A chest filled with bombs, or only with gunpowder, placed
under ground, to cause destruction by its explosion.

=Bomb-proof.= A term applied to military structures of such immense
thickness and strength that bombs cannot penetrate them.

=Bomb-shell.= A hollow globe of iron, filled with powder, and thrown
from a mortar; a bomb.

=Bone=, =Bona=, or =Bonah=. A fortified seaport town of Algeria, 85
miles northwest of Constantine; it is surrounded by a wall with square
turrets which has four gates. Fort Cigogne is its chief defense; the
French occupied this place in July, 1830.

=Bonn.= A town on the Rhine (the Roman Bonna) was in the electorate of
Cologne; it has been frequently besieged, and was assigned to Prussia in
1814.

=Bonnet.= In fortification, is a small defense work constructed at
salient angles of the glacis or larger works. It consists of two faces
only, with a parapet 3 feet high by 10 or 12 feet broad. There is no
ditch. A larger kind, with 3 salient angles, is called a _priest’s
bonnet_, or _bonnet à prêtre_. The use of the bonnet is to check the
besiegers when they are attempting to make a lodgment.

=Bonneval.= A town of France, formerly fortified; it was partially
destroyed by the English during the 15th century.

=Bontchouk.= A lance ornamented with a horse’s tail. When the kings of
Poland led their armies, boutchouks were carried before them.

=Boomerang.= A very singular missile weapon used by the natives of
Australia. It is made of hard wood, usually from 20 to 30 inches in
length, from 2 to 3 inches wide, and ¹⁄₂ or ³⁄₄ of an inch thick. It is
curved or bent in the middle at an angle of from 100° to 140°. When
thrown from the hand with a quick rotary motion, it describes very
remarkable curves, according to the shape of the instrument and the
manner of throwing it, often moving nearly horizontally a long distance,
then curving upward to a considerable height, and finally taking a
retrograde direction, so as to fall near the place from which it was
thrown, or even very far in the rear of it.

=Booneville.= A river-port, capital of Cooper Co., Mo., situated on the
right bank of the Missouri River, 48 miles northwest of Jefferson City.
During the civil war a Confederate force of about 2500 raw troops was
here attacked by the Federals under Gen. Lyon, June 17, 1861. After a
short conflict the Confederates were routed, abandoning their guns and
camp equipage, which fell into the hands of the Union forces.

=Boothauk.= A fortified pass of Afghanistan, 12 miles to the east of
Cabul. It runs for 5 miles between cliffs 500 feet high, and in some
places only 50 yards wide.

=Boots and Saddles.= In cavalry tactics, a trumpet call which is the
first signal for mounted drill, and for all other formations mounted; it
is also the signal for the trumpeters to assemble.

=Booty.= Is the victors’ share in property captured from the vanquished.
It is generally a military term, the word _prize_ being more frequently
used in the navy.

=Bordeaux=, or =Bourdeaux= (Southwest France). This city was sacked by
the Visigoths, who were driven from it by Clovis; it was ravaged by the
Saracens and Normans in the 8th and 9th centuries. It came into the
possession of the Duke of Gascoyne in 911; in 1653 the city rebelled,
but was taken by the royal troops; Bordeaux was entered by the
victorious British army after the battle of Orthes, fought February 27,
1814.

=Bordure=, or =Border=. In heraldry, coats of arms are frequently
surrounded with a bordure, the object of which is to show that the
bearer is a cadet of the house whose arms he carries. Its character
often has reference to the profession of the bearer; thus a _bordure
embattled_ is granted to a soldier, and a _bordure ermine_ to a lawyer.

=Bore.= Of a piece of ordnance includes all the part bored out, viz.,
the cylinder, the chamber (if there is one), and the conical or
spherical surface connecting them.

=Borghetto.= A town of Italy, on the Mincio, 15 miles southwest of
Verona; it has a castle and a vast fortified causeway. The French here
defeated the Austrians in 1796.

=Borgo Forte.= A town of Italy, in Lombardy, on the Po, 7 miles south of
Mantua. The Austrians were here defeated by the French in 1796.

=Bori.= A Turkish term for military trumpets.

=Boring Cannon.= See ORDNANCE, CONSTRUCTION OF.

=Borissov.= A town of Russia, on the left bank of the Berezina. A
conflict took place here November 23, 1812, between the French and
Russians; near this town, at the village of Studienka, the disastrous
passage of Berezina was effected by the French army, November 26-27,
1812.

=Bormann-fuze.= A fuze which is used for spherical case-shot. The
fuze-case is made of metal (a composition of lead and tin), and consists
of a short cylinder, having at one end a horseshoe-shaped indentation,
_one_ end only of which communicates with the magazine of the fuze
placed in the centre by a channel filled with _rifle_ powder. This
horseshoe indentation extends nearly to the other end of the cylinder, a
thin layer of the metal only intervening. This is graduated on the
outside into equal parts representing seconds and quarter-seconds. In
the bottom of this channel a smooth layer of the composition is placed,
with a piece of wick or yarn underneath it. On this is placed a piece of
metal, the cross-section of which is wedge-shaped, and this, by
machinery, is pressed down upon the composition, sealing it
hermetically. The cylindrical opening is filled with musket powder and
covered with a sheet of tin, which is soldered, closing the magazine
from the external air. Before using the fuze several holes are punched
through this sheet of tin, to allow the flame to enter the shell. On the
side of the fuze the thread of a screw is cut which fits into one cut on
the inside of the fuze-hole, and the fuze is screwed into the shell with
a wrench. The thin layer of metal over the composition is cut through
with a gouge or chisel, or even a penknife, at the interval marked with
the number of seconds which we wish the fuze to burn. To prevent the
metal of this fuze, which is soft, from being driven into the shell by
the explosive force of the charge, a circular piece of iron, with a hole
through its centre, and the thread of a screw on the outside, is screwed
into the fuze-hole before the fuze is inserted. The most important
advantage of this fuze is, that the shells can be loaded, all ready for
use, and remain so any length of time, perfectly safe from explosion, as
the fuze can be screwed into its place, and the composition never
exposed to external fire until the metal is cut through.

=Borneo.= An island in the Indian Ocean, the largest in the world except
Australia; discovered by the Portuguese about 1520; the pirates of this
island were several times chastised by the British government;
incorporated with the British empire, December 2, 1846.

=Bornhoevede.= A village of Holstein, where a battle was fought on July
22, 1227, between Woldemar II., king of Denmark, and Adolphus IV. of
Holstein; the Danes were totally defeated.

=Borodino.= A Russian village on the Moskwa, near which a sanguinary
battle was fought, September 7, 1812, between the French under Napoleon,
and the Russians under Kootoosof, 240,000 men being engaged. Each party
claimed the victory; but the Russians retreated, leaving Moscow, which
the French entered September 14. The French name it the battle of
Moskwa, and it gave Marshal Ney his title of Prince of Moskwa.

=Boroughbridge.= A town in Yorkshire, England, the site of a battle
between the Earls of Hereford and Lancaster and Edward II., March 16,
1322. The latter at the head of 30,000 men pressed Lancaster so closely
that he had not time to collect his troops together in sufficient force,
and being defeated and made prisoner, was led, mounted on a lean horse,
to an eminence near Pontefract, and beheaded by a Londoner.

=Boscobel.= Near Donington, Shropshire, England, where Charles II.
concealed himself after his defeat at Worcester.

=Bosnia.= In European Turkey, formerly part of Pannonia, was governed by
chiefs till a brother-in-law of Louis, king of Hungary, was made king,
1376. He was defeated by the Turks in 1389, and became their vassal.
Bosnia was annexed to the Ottoman empire in 1522. Many efforts have been
made by the Bosnians to recover their independence; they rebelled in
1849, and were subdued by Omar Pasha in 1851.

=Bosniaken.= Formerly light cavalry of the Prussians, resembling the
present Uhlans. Frederick I. formed this cavalry in 1745.

=Bosphorus=, or =Bosporus, Thracian= (now _Strait of Constantinople_).
The ancient name of the strait which connects the Black Sea with the Sea
of Marmora. Darius Hystaspes threw a bridge of boats over this strait
when about to invade Greece, 493 B.C.

=Bosporus.= The country on both sides of the Bosporus Cimmerius, or
Strait of Yenikalé, formed in ancient times the kingdom of Bosporus. The
Scythians conquered Bosporus, 285 B.C.; conquered by Mithridates VI., 80
B.C.; conquered by Cæsar, 47 B.C.; Polemon conquered Bosporus, 14 B.C. A
list of obscure kings given by some writers ends with Sauromates VII.,
344.

=Boss.= The apex of a shield.

=Bosse=, =Bosse à Feu= (_Fr._). A term used in the French artillery to
express a glass bottle which is very thin, contains 4 or 5 pounds of
powder, and round the neck of which 4 or 5 matches are hung after it has
been well corked. A cord 2 or 3 feet in length is tied to the bottle,
which serves to throw it. The instant the bottle breaks the powder
catches fire, and everything within the immediate effects of the
explosion is destroyed.

=Bostanji.= The first Turkish foot-guards, about 12,000 strong; they
guard the imperial castles and accompany the sultans to the field. They
were originally employed as gardeners, guards for the seraglio, etc.
Their number is now greatly reduced.

=Boston.= A city and capital of Massachusetts, situated on the west side
of Massachusetts Bay, at the mouth of Charles River. It was built about
1627. Here originated that resistance to the British authorities which
led to American independence. The act of Parliament laying duties on
tea, papers, colors, etc. (passed June, 1767), so excited the
indignation of the citizens of Boston, that they destroyed several
hundred chests of tea, December 16, 1773. Boston seaport was shut by the
English Parliament, until restitution should be made to the East India
Company for the tea lost, March 25, 1774. The town was besieged by the
British next year, and 400 houses were destroyed. A battle between the
royalist and independent troops, in which the latter were defeated, took
place June 17, 1775; the city was evacuated by the king’s troops, April,
1776. The inhabitants were very zealous against slavery in 1861.

=Boston Massacre.= A name popularly given to a disturbance which
occurred in the streets of Boston on the evening of March 5, 1770, when
a sergeant’s guard belonging to the British garrison fired upon a crowd
of people who were surrounding them and pelting them with snowballs, and
killed 3 men besides wounding several others. The leader of the
townspeople was a black man named Crispus Attucks. The affair is of
historical importance, as it prepared the minds of men for the
Revolutionary struggle which followed.

=Bostra=, or =Bozrah=. A city of Arabia, in an oasis of the Syrian
Desert, 76 miles south of Damascus; it was besieged, captured, and
sacked by the Saracens, who were commanded by Khaled.

=Bosworth Field.= In Leicestershire, England, the site of the thirteenth
and last battle between the houses of York and Lancaster, August 22,
1485, when Richard III. was defeated and slain by the Earl of Richmond,
afterwards Henry VII. Sir William Stanley at a critical moment changed
sides, and thus caused the loss of the battle. It is said that Henry was
crowned on the spot with the crown of Richard found in a hawthorn bush
near the field.

=Bothwell Bridge.= In Lanarkshire, Scotland. The Scotch Covenanters, who
took up arms against the intolerant government of Charles II., and
defeated the celebrated Claverhouse at Drumclog, June 1, 1679, were
totally routed at Bothwell Bridge, June 22, 1679, by the Earl of
Monmouth, and many persons were tortured and executed.

=Botoné=, or =Bottony=. In heraldry, a _cross-botoné_ is a cross of
which the ends are in the form of buds or buttons.

=Bottle Cartridge.= See CARTRIDGE, BOTTLE.

=Bottoming.= The foundation of a roadbed.

=Botzen=, or =Bolzana= (anc. _Pons Drusi_). The capital of the circle of
Etsch in Tyrol. This town was captured by the French in 1809.

=Boucanier= (_Fr._). A long, heavy musket, used by the American
buccaneers, and with such skill as to give the weapon a high degree of
celebrity.

=Bouchain.= A small strongly fortified frontier town of France, in the
department of the North; besieged and captured by Louis XIV. in 1673; by
the Duke of Marlborough in 1711; retaken by the French in 1712, and
ceded to France by the treaty of Utrecht.

=Bouche= (_Fr._). Means the aperture or mouth of a piece of ordnance,
that of a mortar, of the barrel of a musket, and of every species of
fire-arms from which a ball or bullet is discharged.

=Boufarik=, or =Boofareek=. A place in Algeria where the French
encountered the Arabs, October 2, 1832.

=Bouge=, or =Boulge= (_Fr._). An ancient war-club, the head of which was
loaded with lead, also called _plombée_.

=Bougiah= (anc. _Salvæ_). A seaport town of Algeria, which was captured
by the French, October 19, 1833, and successfully defended against the
Arabs, August 25, 1842.

=Bouillon= (Belgium). Formerly a duchy, was sold by Godfrey, its ruler,
to Albert, bishop of Liège, to obtain funds for the crusade, 1095; it
was seized by the French in 1672, and held by them till 1815, when it
was given to the king of the Netherlands, as duke of Luxemburg. It was
awarded to Belgium after the revolution of 1830.

=Boulaf.= A kind of baton or very short mace, formerly used by the
Polish generals.

=Boulak=, or =Boolak=. A town of Lower Egypt, on the right bank of the
Nile; burned by the French in 1799; since rebuilt by Mohammed Ali.

=Boulanger Chronograph.= See CHRONOSCOPES.

=Boulanger Telemeter.= See RANGE FINDERS.

=Boulevard= (_Fr._). An ancient bastion, bulwark, or rampart.

=Boulogne.= A seaport in Picardy, Northern France; was taken by the
British under Henry VIII., September 14, 1544, but restored at the
peace, 1550. Lord Nelson attacked this city, disabling 10 vessels and
sinking 5, August 3, 1801; in another attempt he was repulsed with great
loss. In 1804, Bonaparte assembled 160,000 men and 10,000 horses, and a
flotilla of 1300 vessels and 17,000 sailors, to invade England; it is
supposed that this French armament served merely for a demonstration,
and that Bonaparte never seriously intended the invasion. Sir Sidney
Smith unsuccessfully attempted to burn the flotilla with fire-machines
called catamarans, October 2, 1804. Congreve rockets were used in
another attack, and they set the town on fire, October 8, 1806. The army
was removed on the breaking out of the war with Austria in 1805. Louis
Napoleon, afterwards emperor, made a descent here with about 50
followers, August 6, 1840, without success.

=Bounty.= A premium offered or given to induce men to enlist into the
public service.

=Bourbon, Isle of= (in the Indian Ocean). Discovered by the Portuguese
about 1545. The French here formed a colony in 1653 (according to
others, 1642, 1646, 1649). In 1810, after a gallant resistance, it fell
into the hands of the British, who retained it till the general peace,
1814. In 1815, before the downfall of Napoleon, it was once more
besieged by the English, and along with the Mauritius again fell into
their hands. After the general pacification of Europe, Bourbon was
restored to France, in whose possession it now is; but the adjoining
island has since been retained by its English conquerors.

=Bourdonnante= (_Fr._). A name formerly given to a kind of bombard of a
heavy caliber.

=Bourg-en-Bresse.= A town of France, capital of the department of Ain.
The town was captured by the allies in 1814.

=Bourges.= The capital of the department of the Cher, in France;
captured by Cæsar, 52 B.C.; destroyed by Chilperic, 583; carried by
assault by Pepin, 762; sustained a siege during the reign of Charles
VII., in 1415; captured by the Protestants, 1562; by Henry IV., 1594; by
the Protestants, 1615, and by Marshal Matignon in 1616.

=Bourguignote=, or =Bourgignotte= (_Fr._). A helmet worn by the
Burgundians, from whom it was named. It was of polished iron, with a
visor. Under Louis XIV. their head-dress was changed to a kind of
bonnet.

=Bourlette= (_Fr._). In antiquity, a mace which was garnished with iron
points.

=Bournous=, =Burnoose=, or =Burnos=. A kind of cloak or overcoat, used
by the Arabs, and which constitutes a part of the military clothing of
some corps of the French army.

=Bouton=, or =Boutoou= (_Fr._). A kind of war-club, formerly used by the
Caribs of the Antilles.

=Bovianum= (now _Bojano_). A town of Italy, 10 miles southwest of
Campobasso. It was sacked by the Romans in 311, 305, and 298 B.C. During
the second Punic war it was several times the headquarters of the Roman
army.

=Bouvines= (Northern France). The site of a desperate battle, July 27,
1214, in which Philip Augustus of France was victorious over the emperor
Otho and his allies, consisting of more than 150,000 men. The Counts of
Flanders and Boulogne were taken prisoners.

=Bow.= A weapon made of a strip of wood, or other elastic material, with
a cord connecting the two ends, by means of which, when drawn back and
suffered to return, an arrow is propelled.

=Bow, Cross.= An ancient weapon of offense of the 11th century. Philip
II., surnamed the Conqueror, introduced cross-bows into France. In this
reign Richard I. of England was killed by a cross-bow at the siege of
Chalus.

=Bowie-knife.= A knife from 10 to 15 inches long, and about 2 inches
broad, worn as a weapon in the Southern and Southwestern States of the
United States,--so named from its inventor, Col. James Bowie.

=Bowman.= A man who uses a bow; an archer.

=Bow-shot.= The space which an arrow may pass when shot from a bow.

=Bowstring.= The string of a bow. Also a string used by the Turks for
strangling offenders.

=Bowyer.= The man who made or repaired the military bows was so called.

=Boxer-cartridge.= The metallic cartridge used in the service rifle of
England. See CARTRIDGE.

=Boxtel= (in Dutch _Brabant_). Here the British and allied armies,
commanded by the Duke of York, were defeated by the French republicans,
who took 2000 prisoners and 8 pieces of cannon, September 17, 1794.

=Box Pontons.= See PONTONS.

=Boyaca.= A village of the republic of New Granada, South America,
celebrated for the victory gained by Bolivar over the Spaniards, August
7, 1819, which secured the independence of Colombia.

=Boyau.= In military engineering, is a winding zigzag or trench, made by
besiegers to enable them to approach a town or fortified place under
cover. These trenches are also called zigzags, or approaches.

=Boyne.= A river in Kildare, Ireland, near which William III. defeated
his father-in-law, James II., July 1, 1690. The latter lost 1500 (out of
30,000) men; the Protestant army lost about a third of that number (out
of 30,000). James fled to Dublin, thence to Waterford, and escaped to
France. The Duke of Schömberg was killed, shot by mistake by his own
soldiers as he was crossing the river.

=Brabançons= (_Fr._). Soldiers of fortune, adventurers, freebooters of
Brabant, who, during the Middle Ages, hired their services to those
chiefs who paid them best.

=Bracelet.= In ancient times, a piece of defensive armor for the arm; a
part of a coat of mail.

=Bracket.= The cheek of a mortar-carriage, made of strong plank.

=Braconnière=, or =Bragonnière= (_Fr._). In antiquity, a mail-armor, of
the shape of a petticoat, which was attached to the cuirass, and reached
from the hips to the middle of the thigh, and sometimes below the knee.

=Braga= (anc. _Bracara Augusta_). The capital of the province of Minho,
in Portugal; it is fortified and defended by a citadel. The Suevi were
here vanquished by the Goths in 585.

=Brailoff=, =Brahilow=, or =Ibraila=. A fortified town and the principal
port of Wallachia, European Turkey. In 1770 the town was taken by the
Russians, and almost razed to the ground; rebuilt, and again taken by
the Russians in 1828, after a brave defense. It was restored to Turkey
by the treaty of Adrianople in 1829. During the war of 1854-56, it was
occupied by Russian troops.

=Brake.= That part of the carriage of a movable battery or engine which
enables it to turn.

=Brake.= An ancient engine of war analogous to the cross-bow and
balista.

=Bramham.= In Yorkshire, England; near here the Earl of Northumberland
and Lord Bardolf were defeated and slain by Sir Thomas Rokeby, the
general of Henry IV., February 19, 1408; and Fairfax was defeated by the
royalists under the Duke of Newcastle, March 29, 1643.

=Brand.= The Anglo-Saxon for a burnished sword.

=Brandenburg.= A city in Prussia, founded by the Slavonians. Henry I.,
surnamed the Fowler, after defeating the Slavonians, fortified
Brandenburg, 926, as a rampart against the Huns, and bestowed the
government on Sigefroi, count of Ringelheim, with the title of Margrave,
or protector of the marches or frontiers. Occupied by the French,
October 25, 1806.

=Branding.= Was a mode of punishment, in nearly all armies, inflicted on
soldiers who were convicted of the crime of desertion,--the branding or
marking being with ink, or other similar preparation. This practice is
now discontinued in the American, and several European armies.

=Brandschwaermer= (_Ger._). A small rocket which contained a bullet; it
was fired out of a gun and used for the purpose of setting fire to
straw-thatched buildings.

=Brandywine.= A river in Pennsylvania and Delaware, near which a battle
took place between the British and Americans, in which the latter (after
a day’s fight) were defeated with great loss, and Philadelphia fell into
the possession of the victors, September 11, 1777.

=Brass.= See BRONZE.

=Brassar.= A piece of defensive armor for the arm.

=Brassart.= In plate-armor, joined plates of steel which protected the
upper part of the arm, from the elbow to the shoulder. When the front of
the arm only was shielded, the pieces were called _demi-brassarts_.

=Brasset.= A casque or head-piece of armor.

=Braunau.= A town of Bohemia, Austria; captured by the French, October
28, 1805.

=Bray.= A small town in the department of Seine-et-Marne, France; it was
occupied by the allies, February 12, 1814.

=Brazil.= An empire in South America, was discovered by Vincent Pinzon
in February, and Pedro Alvarez de Cabral, a Portuguese, driven upon its
coasts by a tempest, in 1500. The French having seized Portugal in 1807,
the royal family and nobles embarked for Brazil, and landed March 7,
1808. Brazil declared war against Uruguay in February, 1865; entered
into a treaty with Uruguay and the Argentine Republic against Paraguay,
governed by Lopez, in May, 1865, and war was waged with varying results
up to 1870.

=Breach.= Rupture made in a fortification to facilitate the assault. The
operation by which the opening is produced is called _breaching_, and
the guns used for this purpose are _breaching batteries_. _To repair a
breach_, is to stop or fill up the gap with gabions, fascines, etc., and
prevent the assault. _To fortify a breach_, is to render it inaccessible
by means of chevaux-de-frise, crow’s feet, etc. _To make a lodgment in
the breach._ After the besieged are driven away, the besiegers secure
themselves against any future attack in the breach. _To clear the
breach_, that is, to remove the ruins, that it may be better defended.

=Breach of Arrest.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 65.

=Bread and Water.= A diet used as a military punishment.

=Break Ground.= Is to commence the siege of a place by opening trenches,
etc.

=Breast-height.= In fortification, the interior slope of a parapet.

=Breastplate.= A plate worn upon the breast as a part of defensive
armor.

=Breastwork.= In fortification, a defensive work breast-high, hastily
thrown up, of earth or other material.

=Brechin.= A place in Scotland; sustained a siege against the army of
Edward III., 1333. The battle of Brechin was fought between the Earls of
Huntly and Crawford; the latter was defeated, 1452.

=Breech.= In ordnance, is the mass of solid metal behind the bottom of
the bore, extending to the cascabel. The _base of the breech_ is its
rear surface.

=Breech-block.= The block of metal which closes the bore in
breech-loading arms.

=Breech-loader.= A fire-arm that receives its load at the breech.

=Breech-loading.= Receiving the charge at the breech instead of the
muzzle. A feature of modern small-arms. The principle, however, is very
old, as some of the earliest guns were breech-loaders. A gun of the time
of Henry VIII. still extant is substantially the same as the modern
_Snider_. Puckle’s revolver of 1718 was mounted on a tripod, and was
very much like the _Gatling gun_ in its general features. The first
American patent was to Thornton & Hall, of Massachusetts, 1811. These
guns were extensively issued to U. S. troops. There is a specimen in the
West Point Museum. Prior to 1861 the best known breech-loading
small-arms were _Sharps’_, _Burnside’s_, _Maynard’s_, _Merrill’s_, and
_Spencer’s_. See SMALL-ARMS.

In modern times the _breech-loading_ principle for _heavy ordnance_ has
gained and lost favor at different epochs. On the continent of Europe it
is generally accepted. Italy, however, has committed itself in the
largest calibers to the enormous 100-ton muzzle-loaders of Sir William
Armstrong. The same inventor introduced his breech-loading field-piece
in England about 1850. His principle was approved and adopted for
various calibers about 1858, but partial failures in his system led to
an investigation by a committee of the House of Commons, 1862-63, and
after a tedious discussion, the breech-loading principle was officially
discarded (1866), though many of the guns were retained in the service.
The successful application of hydraulic machinery in handling and
loading heavy guns (1876) confirmed the government in its choice of
muzzle-loaders. The difficulty of muzzle-loading in a turret and the
impossibility of employing the great length of bore necessary to obtain
the best results was, up to this time, the strong argument in favor of
_breech-loaders_. Loading by hydraulic machinery from beneath the deck
through a trap-door outside the turret obviated these objections to
muzzle-loaders, and gave the gunners ample protection by closing the
port, thus placing these guns for the time being on a par with
breech-loaders. The bursting of the 38-ton gun on the “Thunderer”
(1878), however, which has been generally attributed to double loading,
has shaken confidence in hydraulic ramming, and now there is a strong
current in favor of a return to breech-loaders. The splendid performance
of _Krupp_ guns on the practice-ground at Meppen, 1879, and the
numerous misfortunes which have recently befallen the Woolwich and
Elswick systems, have doubtless had their weight in this change of
opinion.

=Breech Mechanism.= The mechanism used for opening and closing the
breech of a fire-arm and securing it against the escape of the gas. In
_small-arms_ this is readily accomplished. The use of the metallic
cartridge-case renders any special gas-check unnecessary, as the case
itself by being expanded against the walls of the chamber serves the
purpose. The various mechanisms used in _small-arms_ have been
classified as follows: 1st, _Fixed chamber_; 2d, _Movable chamber_. The
second class is now obsolete. The _fixed chamber_ class is subdivided
into--1st, _Barrel moves_; 2d, _Breech-block moves_. The first class
comprises many of the _shot-guns_ in use, the second, the best known of
_military arms_. Under this latter class are the following subdivisions:
1st, _Sliding block_; 2d, _Sliding and rotating_; 3d, Rotating about an
axis. We find excellent guns under each of these classes which are
further subdivided as to the direction of the motions. The _Sharps’_ may
be taken as typical of the first of these classes, the _Hotchkiss
magazine_ gun of the second, and the _Springfield_ of the third.

A similar classification may be made for _breech-loading_ devices in
_heavy ordnance_, but the problem here is not so simple. The pressure is
much greater, the masses of metal much larger, and the cartridge must be
used without a case to check the gas. Breech-loaders were impossible
until the problem of checking the gas had been solved. The inventor of
the first successful gas-check was an American, L. W. Broadwell, now
residing abroad. The term _Broadwell ring_ has been applied to all
similar devices. This is a steel ring which fits in a recess reamed out
in the rear of the chamber and abutting upon the breech-block. The
inside of the ring is so shaped as to be pressed by the gas outwards and
backwards, thus closing both the space outside of the ring and between
it and the block. Broadwell is also the inventor of a breech mechanism
which, with a few modifications, is that used by Krupp for all of his
guns. The breech-block slides horizontally through a rectangular slot in
rear of the chamber. In the _Armstrong_ breech-loader, the block called
the vent-piece is taken out and put in through a rectangular orifice on
the top of the gun. It is locked in place by a hollow breech-screw. The
French use a breech-screw with the threads cut away in longitudinal
rows. The female-screw being similarly arranged, a very small rotation
enables it to be entirely withdrawn. Among American devices are
_Thompson’s_, a breech-block which rolls to the side and opens or closes
the bore. _Sutcliffe’s_, a cylindrical block, with its axis parallel to
the one hanging on a pin projecting from the front periphery of the
hollow screw. The block is raised and locked by turning the screw, and
falls into a recess below when the screw is half turned back. _Mann’s_,
in which the gun rotates upwards about the trunnions something like a
shot-gun, and many others.

=Breech-pin.= A strong plug firmly screwed in at the breech of a musket
or other fire-arm.

=Breech-sight.= In gunnery, an instrument having a graduated scale of
tangents by means of which any elevation may be given to a piece.
Correctly speaking, the breech-sight gives the angle made by the line of
aim or sight with the axis of the piece. The base of the breech-sight is
a plate of brass curved to fit the base-ring or line, the scale and
slides are similar to those of the pendulum hausse except that a hole is
made in the plate, instead of a notch to sight through. Breech-sights
are graduated for no _disparts_, a _front-sight_ equal in height to the
dispart being screwed into the top of the muzzle; in the Rodman guns,
into the seat provided for the purpose between the trunnions.
Breech-sights are also frequently held in sockets, and when the
front-sight is placed on the trunnion, the socket is on the side of the
breech. The _pendulum hausse_ (see HAUSSE) is a breech-sight used for
field-guns to correct the error arising from difference of level in the
wheels of the carriage. The _Quinan breech-sight_ (invented by Lieut. W.
R. Quinan, 4th U. S. Artillery) is an improvement on the pendulum
hausse. It is fixed in a socket on the right side of the breech. The
scale has a spirit-level, by means of which it is made vertical. The
front sight is a short tube with cross-hairs fixed in it. The advantages
claimed over the hausse are increased steadiness and accuracy.

=Bregenz=, or =Bregentz=. A town of Tyrol, Austria; it was occupied by
the French in 1799.

=Breisach, Old.= A very old town of the grand duchy of Baden; taken by
Ariovistus when he invaded Gaul. Being regarded as the key to the west
of Germany, it was a prominent scene of action during the Thirty Years’
War, at the conclusion of which it was ceded to the French. During the
next century it frequently changed masters, now belonging to France and
now to Austria; its fortifications were destroyed by the French in 1744,
and during the war of the Revolution, in 1793, part of the town was
burned by them. In 1806 the French handed it over to the house of Baden.

=Breitenfeld.= A village and manor of Saxony, about 5 miles north of
Leipsic. It is historically remarkable for three battles, fought on a
plain in its neighborhood. The first of these, between the Swedes and
the Imperialists, which was fought September 7, 1631, was of the highest
importance to Europe, as it secured the permanency of Protestantism and
the freedom of Germany. Tilly’s pride had reached its highest point
after the fall of Magdeburg, which took place on May 20, 1631; and in
the early part of September of the same year he advanced against the
Saxons with an army of about 40,000 men for the purpose of forcing the
elector, John George I., into an alliance with the emperor. Gustavus
Adolphus, king of Sweden, joined by the Saxons, advanced towards
Leipsic, where Tilly lay, the latter advancing into the plain of
Breitenfeld. The Imperial forces were completely defeated, and their
three most distinguished generals, Tilly, Pappenheim, and Fürstenberg,
wounded. The second battle which Breitenfeld witnessed again, resulted
in the triumph of Swedish valor: it took place on October 23, 1642,
between the Swedes, headed by Torstenson, one of the pupils of Gustavus,
who had invested Leipsic, and the Archduke Leopold, with Gen.
Piccolomini, who were advancing from Dresden to its relief. The Swedes
gained a complete victory over the Imperialists, who fled into Bohemia,
leaving behind them 46 cannon, 121 flags, 69 standards, and the whole of
their baggage. The third battle of which Breitenfeld was the scene was
fought on October 16-18, 1813. See LEIPSIC.

=Bremen= (Northern Germany). Said to have been founded in 788; in 1648
it was erected into a duchy and held by Sweden till 1712; it was taken
possession of by Denmark in 1731, by whom it was ceded to Hanover; it
was taken by the French in 1757, who were expelled by the Hanoverians in
1758; annexed by Napoleon to the French empire in 1810; its independence
restored in 1813; its old franchises in 1815 It became a member of the
North German Confederation in 1866.

=Brenneville= (Northwest France). Here Henry I. of England defeated
Louis VI. of France, who had embraced the cause of William Clinton, son
of Robert, duke of Normandy, August 20, 1119.

=Brenta.= A river which rises in Tyrol and flows, after a course of 90
miles, into the Adriatic Sea, at Porto di Brondolo. On the banks of this
river the French twice defeated the Austrians in 1796.

=Brentford.= A county town of Middlesex, England. Here Edmund Ironside
defeated the Danes, May, 1016. It was taken by Charles I., after a sharp
fight, November 12, 1642.

=Brescelia=, or =Bregelia= (anc. _Brixellum_). A town on the right bank
of the Po, in North Italy. Here the emperor Otho put himself to death in
69. On May 20, 1427, an army under Duke Philip Maria Visconti, of Milan,
was here defeated by an army sent against him by the republic of Venice,
under Francis Carmagnola.

=Brescia.= A town in Northern Italy (the ancient _Brixia_), became
important under the Lombards, and suffered by the wars of the Italian
republics, being attached to Venice. It was taken by the French under
Gaston de Foix in 1512, when it is said 40,000 of the inhabitants were
massacred. It surrendered to the Austrian general Haynau, March 30,
1849, on severe terms; annexed to Sardinia in 1859.

=Breslau.= Capital of the province of Silesia, Prussia; it was burnt by
the Mongols in 1241, and conquered by Frederick II. of Prussia in
January, 1741. A fierce battle took place here between the Austrians and
Prussians, the latter under Prince Bevern, who was defeated November
22,1757. Breslau was taken, but was regained, December 21, the same
year; besieged by the French, and surrendered to them January, 1807, and
again in 1813.

=Bressuire.= A small town of France, department of Deux-Sèvres; it was
fortified during the Middle Ages, and was captured from the English by
the celebrated Du Guesclin in 1373; it was nearly destroyed during the
wars of La Vendée.

=Brest.= A seaport in Northwestern France; besieged by Julius Cæsar, 54
B.C.; possessed by the English in 1378; given up to the Duke of Brittany
in 1390. Lord Berkeley and a British fleet and army were repulsed here
with dreadful loss in 1694. The magazine burnt to the value of some
millions of pounds sterling, 1744; marine hospital, with 50
galley-slaves, burnt, in 1766; the magazine again destroyed by fire,
July 10, 1784. England maintained a large blockading squadron off the
harbor from 1793 to 1815, but with little injury to France. It is now a
chief naval station of France, and from the fortifications and other
vast works of late construction it is considered impregnable.

=Bretigny, Peace of.= Concluded with France, May 8, 1360, by which
England retained Gascony and Guienne, and acquired other provinces;
renounced her pretensions to Maine, Anjou, Touraine, and Normandy; was
to receive 3,000,000 crowns, and to release King John, long a prisoner.
The treaty not being carried out, the king remained and died in London.

=Breuci.= A powerful people of Pannonia, near the confluence of the
Savus and the Danube, took an active part in the insurrection of the
Pannonians and Dalmatians against the Romans, 6 A.D.

=Brevet.= An honorary rank conferred upon an officer, for meritorious
services, above the rank he holds in his own corps. In the U. S. army
rank by brevet is conferred, by and with the advice and consent of the
Senate, for “gallant actions or meritorious services.” A brevet rank
gives no right of command in the particular corps to which the officer
brevetted belongs, and can be exercised only by special assignment of
the President. Officers while so serving under assignment are said to
have _local rank_ (which see).

=Brevet.= To confer rank or title upon by brevet.

=Brevetcy.= The rank or condition of a brevet.

=Bricole.= An improved kind of traces used by the French in drawing and
manœuvring artillery; analogous to the old drag-rope, but having the
addition of a leather strap or girdle with a buckle, to which the drag
is affixed, and an iron ring and hook at the end to drag by.

=Bridge.= A structure usually of wood, stone, brick, or iron, erected
over a river or other water-course, or over a ravine, railroad, etc., to
make a continuous roadway from one bank to the other.

=Bridge.= In gunnery, two pieces of timber which go between the two
transoms of a gun-carriage. Not used in the U. S. service.

=Bridge, Flying.= See PONTONS.

=Bridge, Trail.= See PONTONS.

=Bridge, Train.= See EQUIPAGE.

=Bridge, Trestle.= See TRESTLE BRIDGE.

=Bridges.= When a river is more than 4 feet in depth, or when its bottom
is of mud or quicksand, recourse must be had either to ferrying by means
of boats, rafts, etc., or to military bridges. The latter are always to
be preferred when circumstances will permit their establishment.

Military bridges are composed of a roadway and its supports; the first
consists of beams or balks reaching across the adjacent supports, and
covered with plank called chess.

The supports, from which the bridge takes its name, may be either fixed,
as trestles, gabions, carriages, piles, or floating, as pontons, boats
of commerce, rafts, etc.

Ponton bridges are preferable to all others when a passage by main force
or surprise is to be undertaken. They may be constructed on any stream
of sufficient depth; they may be replaced by rafts when the velocity of
the stream does not exceed 6 feet per second. In swifter currents the
latter are unmanageable, drag their anchors, and are liable to
destruction from floating bodies.

Trestle bridges may be constructed in rivers whose depth does not exceed
9 feet, and whose velocity is not more than 6 feet. They may be employed
with advantage in rivers of moderate depth and gentle current, with
hard, even bottoms. When the bed of the river is uneven the adjustment
of the trestles to the bottom is very tedious, and if the current is
rapid, almost impossible. When the bed is of mud or fine sand, the
settlement of the legs is liable to be irregular.

Gabion bridges are used over marshes and shallow streams. They consist
of gabions constructed in the ordinary way, and of a height necessary to
give a level road; these are placed in rows perpendicular to the axis of
the bridge, are filled with stones, or gravel, and are capped with a
piece of timber on which the balks rest.

Pile bridges are superior in point of stability to all other military
bridges, but requiring much labor and time in their construction; they
are usually restricted to securing the communications in rear of the
army.

=Bridge-head.= A fortification covering the extremity of a bridge
nearest the enemy. The French term for the same is _tête du pont_.

=Bridle.= An instrument with which a horse is governed and restrained,
consisting of a head-stall, a bit and reins, with other appendages,
according to its particular form and uses.

=Bridle.= In gunnery, the piece in the interior of a gun-lock, which
covers and holds in place the tumbler and sear, being itself held by the
screws on which they turn.

=Bridle, Arm Protect.= The term for a guard used by the cavalry, which
consists in having the sword-hilt above the helmet, the blade crossing
the back of the head, with the point of the left shoulder, and the
bridle-arm; its edge directed to the left and turned a little upwards,
in order to bring the mounting in a proper direction to protect the
hand.

=Bridoon.= The snaffle rein of a military bridle, which acts
independently of the bit, at the pleasure of the rider.

=Brieg.= A town of Silesia, Prussia, about 27 miles from Breslau; it was
taken by Frederick II., April 4, 1741; dismantled by the French in 1807.

=Briel=, =Brielle=, or =The Brill=. A fortified seaport town on the
north side of the island of Voorne, Holland. It was the nucleus of the
Dutch republic, having been taken from the Spaniards by William de la
Marck in 1572. This event was the first act of open hostility to Philip
II., and paved the way to the complete liberation of the country from a
foreign yoke. Briel was the first town of Holland which, without
extraneous aid, expelled the French in 1813. The celebrated admirals De
Witt and Van Tromp were natives of this place.

=Brienne=, or =Brienne le Château=. A town of France, department of the
Aube. It has a fine castle, but it is chiefly celebrated as the place
where Napoleon received the rudiments of his military education, and
where, in 1814, a bloody battle was fought between the French and the
allied forces of Russia and Prussia.

=Brier Creek.= In Warren Co., Ga. An American force 2000 strong, under
Gen. Ashe, was defeated on this creek by the English under Prevost,
March 4, 1779.

=Brigade.= A body of troops, whether cavalry, artillery, or infantry, or
a mixed command, consisting of two or more regiments, under the command
of a brigadier-general. Two or more brigades constitute a division,
commanded by a major-general; two or more divisions constitute an army
corps, or _corps d’armée_, the largest body of troops in the
organization of the U. S. army.

=Brigade.= To form into a brigade, or into brigades.

=Brigade.= In the British service the artillery is divided into
brigades, which consist of seven batteries each, under the command of a
colonel. The Household Brigade is composed of the Horse Guards, Life
Guards, and Foot Guards.

=Brigade-Inspector.= An officer whose duty it is to inspect troops in
companies before they are mustered into the service.

=Brigade-Major.= An officer appointed to assist the general commanding a
brigade in all his duties.

=Brigadier-General.= An officer in rank next above a colonel and below a
major-general. He commands a brigade; and this officer is sometimes
called simply brigadier.

=Brigand.= A species of irregular foot soldiers, frequently mentioned by
Froissart. From their plundering propensities comes the modern use of
the term.

=Brigandine=, or =Brigantine=. A coat of mail, consisting of thin,
jointed scales of plate, pliant and easy to the body.

=Brigantes.= The most powerful of the British tribes, inhabited the
whole of the north of the island from the Abus (now Humber) to the Roman
wall, with the exception of the southeast corner of Yorkshire. They were
conquered by Petilius Cerealis in the reign of Vespasian. There was also
a tribe of this name in the south of Ireland.

=Brignais= (anc. _Priscinniacum_). An ancient fortress in France,
department of the Rhone; it was captured in 1361 by bodies of
adventurers, called _Grandes Compagnies_. Prince Jacques de Bourbon made
an effort to dislodge them, but was completely defeated, and died of
wounds received upon this occasion.

=Brihuega.= A town of New Castile, Spain; it was formerly surrounded by
walls, of which traces still exist. Here, in 1710, during the War of the
Succession, the English general Stanhope, owing to the dilatoriness of
his allies in affording him support, was defeated by the Duke of
Vendôme, and compelled to surrender with all his force, amounting to
about 5500 men.

=Brindisi= (anc. _Brundisium_). A fortified seaport of Italy, on a small
bay of the Adriatic; it was the usual place of embarkation for Greece
and the East; taken by the Romans from the Sallentines in 267 B.C., and
was afterwards the principal naval station of the Romans on the
Adriatic. During the civil war between Cæsar and Pompey, this place was
invested by Cæsar in 49 B.C.

=Brins d’Est= (_Fr._). Large sticks or poles resembling small pickets,
with iron at each end. They were used to cross ditches, particularly in
Flanders.

=Brise-mur= (_Fr._). A heavy piece of ordnance which was used during the
15th century to batter down walls, etc.

=Brissarthe.= A village of France, department of Maine-et-Loire. Here
the Normans were defeated in 886 by Robert the Strong.

=Bristol= (West England). Built by Brennus, a British prince, 380 B.C.;
is mentioned in 430 as a fortified city; taken by the Earl of Gloucester
in his defense of his sister Maud, the empress, against King Stephen,
1138; taken by Prince Rupert, 1643; by Cromwell, 1645.

=Brisure.= In fortification, any part of a rampart or parapet which
deviates from the general direction.

=Britain= (called by the Romans _Britannia_, from the Celtic name
Prydhain). The Celts, the ancestors of the Britons and modern Welsh,
were the first inhabitants of Britain; it is referred to by Herodotus,
450 B.C.; invaded by Julius Cæsar, 55-54 B.C.; Aulus Plautus and
Vespasian reduced South Britain, 47. Romans defeated by Boadicea; 70,000
slain, and London burnt; she is defeated by Suetonius; 80,000 slain, 61.
Agricola, governor, conquers Anglesea, and overruns Britain in seven
campaigns, and reforms the government, 78-84. He defeats the Caledonians
under Galgacus; surrenders the island, 84. The Romans held sway in
Britain down to about 420, soon after which time the Saxons invaded
South Britain, and ultimately subdued it. It was merged into the kingdom
of England about 829. See ENGLAND.

=Britain, Great.= The name given in 1604 to _England_, _Wales_, and
_Scotland_.

=Briteste.= A small town of France, in the old province of Guienne;
besieged by the Duke of Vendôme in 1622, who was compelled to retreat,
without accomplishing his object, after firing 2000 shots; he made five
assaults and lost 1500 men.

=British Legion.= Raised by Lord John Hay, Colonel De Lacy Evans, and
others, to assist the queen of Spain against the Carlists in 1835;
defeated them at Hernani, May 5, 1836, and at St. Sebastian’s, October
1.

=Brittany=, or =Bretagne= (Northwest France). The ancient _Armorica_.
Conquered by Julius Cæsar, 56 B.C. Brittany was formerly united to the
monarchy, 1532; held by the Spaniards, 1591; recovered by Henry IV.,
1594. The Bretons took part in the Vendean insurrection in 1791.

=Brixham.= A seaport town in the county of Devon, England. Here William
III. (of Orange) landed in England on November 6, 1688.

=Brizure=, =Brizé=, or =Brisé=. Terms used in heraldry to indicate that
a charge is bruised or broken.

=Broad-axe.= A military weapon used in ancient times.

=Broadsword.= Is a sword with a broad blade, for cutting only, not for
stabbing, and therefore not sharp at the point like a sabre.

=Broadwell Ring.= A gas-check for use in heavy breech-loading guns,
invented by L. W. Broadwell. See BREECH MECHANISM.

=Brod= (Slavonian). A military frontier fortress of Austria, on the
Save, defended by a fort. Here Ziska defeated the emperor Sigismund in
1422.

=Broke.= Sentence of a court-martial depriving an officer of his
commission, or a non-commissioned officer or warrant-officer of his
warrant. Also said of a non-commissioned officer being reduced by order.

=Brondolo.= A fortified village of Northern Italy, on the Brenta-Nuova;
it was formerly a flourishing town; destroyed by the Genoese in 1380.

=Broni.= A town of Redmont, in the province of Alessandria, about 11
miles southeast of Pavia. In its vicinity is the castle of Broni,
celebrated in history as the place where Prince Eugène obtained a
victory over the French in 1703.

=Bronnitza.= A town of Russia, in the government of Novgorod, on the
Masta. Here the Swedes defeated the Russians in 1614.

=Bronze.= See ORDNANCE, METALS FOR, BRONZE.

=Bronze.= Gun-barrels are bronzed by acting upon them with the chloride
or butter of antimony, or with hydrochloric or nitric acids, when the
surface of the iron gets partially eaten into, and covered with a thin
film of oxide, after which the gun-barrel is thoroughly cleaned, oiled,
and burnished. A brownish shade is thus communicated to the barrel,
which protects it from rust, and at the same time renders it less
conspicuous to an enemy.

=Brooke Gun.= See ORDNANCE, CONSTRUCTION OF.

=Brooklyn.= A city and seaport of the United States, at the extremity of
Long Island, opposite New York City. In 1776 this part of Long Island
was one of the principal localities of the war of independence. Here on
August 27, 1776, was fought the first great battle of the Revolutionary
war after the Declaration of Independence. The American army occupied
Manhattan, Governor’s, and Long Islands, a large force being placed by
Washington under the command of Gen. Greene in a fortified camp
extending from Wallabout Bay to Gowanus Cove. Unfortunately, Gen. Greene
was taken sick, and four days before the battle the command was given to
Gen. Putnam. On August 22 the British forces under Lord Howe landed and
encamped at the western point of Long Island. About midnight on the 26th
the British attacked the American left, and about daybreak on the 27th
the Hessians under Von Heister attacked the centre, and were met bravely
by the American forces; but an important pass through the hills on their
right, called the Jamaica Pass, being left unguarded, a select body of
English troops poured through, followed by Percy and Cornwallis with the
main army, and, attacking them from the flank and rear, drove the
patriots in confusion with heavy loss. On the night of the 29th,
Washington succeeded, under cover of a dense fog, in withdrawing all his
troops from Brooklyn to New York, and finding it impossible to defend
that city, he removed his forces to the heights of Harlem. During the
civil war Brooklyn was not surpassed by any city in her zeal for the
cause of the Union.

=Brother Officers.= Those of the same regiment.

=Brother Soldier.= See SOLDIER.

=Brownbill.= The ancient weapon of the English foot soldiers,
resembling a battle-axe.

=Browning.= See BRONZE.

=Bruges.= A city in Belgium. In the 7th century it was the capital of
Flanders, and in the 13th and 14th centuries had become almost the
commercial metropolis of the world. It suffered much through an
insurrection in 1488, and the consequent repression. It was incorporated
with France in 1794, with the Netherlands in 1814, and with Belgium in
1830.

=Brumaire.= A division of the year in the calendar of the French
Republic. It is derived from the Latin _bruma_, “winter,” and included
the time from October 23 to November 21. The celebrated 18th Brumaire,
which witnessed the overthrow of the Directory and the establishment of
the sway of Napoleon, corresponds with November 9, 1799, of the
Gregorian calendar.

=Brunanburg= (supposed by some to be near Ford, Northumberland,
England). Anlaf, with an army of Northmen from Ireland, and Constantine
III., king of Scots, landed at the mouth of the Humber, and were
defeated with very great slaughter at Brunanburg by Athelstan in 937.

=Brunette, La.= An ancient fortress of Piedmont; dismantled by the
French in 1798.

=Brünn.= Capital of Moravia. Its citadel was blockaded by the Hungarians
in 947; the town was besieged by the Swedes in 1645, and by the
Prussians in 1742; entered by the French under Murat, November 18, 1805,
and by the Prussians, July 13, 1866.

=Brunswick.= A city of Germany, the capital of a duchy of the same name.
It was formerly fortified; besieged in 1761, and a combat took place
under its walls in 1813.

=Brunt.= The troops who sustain the principal shock of the enemy in
action are said to bear the brunt of the battle.

=Bruttium= (now _Calabria Ultra_). In Southern Italy; the Bruttians and
Lucanians defeated and slew Alexander of Epirus at Pandosia, 326 B.C.
They were conquered by Rome 277 B.C.

=Brüx=, or =Brix=. A town of Bohemia, on the river Bila. Here the
Prussians defeated the Austrians in 1759.

=Bruyeres-sous-Laon.= A town of France, in the department of the Aisne.
It was captured and pillaged by the Normans in 882; sacked by the
English in 1358 and 1373; Jean de Luxembourg took possession of it in
1433, and the Calvinists in 1567.

=Brzesc Litewski.= A fortified town of Russia, in the government of
Grodno. Here the Russians defeated the Poles in 1794. The Poles were
13,000 strong, out of which 500 were taken prisoners, 300 escaped, and
the remainder fell on the field of battle.

=Buccellarii.= An order of soldiery under the Greek emperors, appointed
to guard and distribute the ammunition bread, though authors are
somewhat divided as to their office and quality.

=Bucephalus.= The celebrated horse of Alexander the Great, which no one
could ride except that monarch, and which is said to have carried
Alexander through all his Indian campaigns. He died about 327 B.C., and
Alexander built the city of Bucephala, on the Hydaspes, in his honor.

=Bucharest.= The capital of Wallachia; preliminaries of peace were
ratified at this place between Russia and Turkey, May 28, 1812. The
subsequent war between these powers altered many of the provisions of
this treaty. Bucharest was occupied by the Russians, Turks, and
Austrians successively in the Crimean war. The last quitted it in 1856.

=Buck and Ball.= A cartridge for small-arms. See CARTRIDGE,
BUCK-AND-BALL.

=Buck-board.= A simple four-wheeled vehicle, consisting of a board
resting on the axle-trees, forming a spring seat by its elasticity.

=Buckler.= A kind of shield or piece of defensive armor, anciently used
in war. It was often 4 feet long, and covered the whole body.

=Buckshot.= A small leaden bullet, weighing about 165 to the pound.

=Buda=, or =Ofen=. A free city of the Austrian empire, on the west bank
of the Danube, opposite Pesth, and with it the capital of Hungary. It
was taken by Charlemagne in 799; and sacked by Solyman II. after the
battle of Mohatz, when the Hungarian king, Louis, was killed, and
200,000 of his subjects carried away captives, 1526. Buda was sacked a
second time, when the inhabitants were put to the sword, and Hungary was
annexed to the Ottoman empire, 1541. Retaken by the Imperialists, under
the Duke of Lorraine, and the Mohammedans delivered up to the fury of
the soldiers, 1686. It suffered much in 1848, and was entered without
resistance by the Austrians, January 5, 1849. Here the emperor Francis
Joseph was crowned king of Hungary, June 8, 1867. See PESTH.

=Buderich.= A town of Rhenish Prussia, on the left bank of the Rhine,
opposite Wesel. Here the Duke of Lorraine was defeated by the emperor
Otho I. It was taken by the French in 1672; burned by the French in
1813.

=Budge-barrel.= A small barrel with only one head; on the other end a
piece of leather is nailed, which is drawn together with a string, like
a purse. It is used for carrying powder from the magazine to the
battery, in siege or coast service.

=Buena Vista.= A celebrated battle-field of Mexico, situated about 90
miles southwest of Monterey and 7 miles from Saltillo, famous for the
victory gained there by an American force not 5000 strong, under Gen.
Zachary Taylor, over a Mexican army four times their number under Santa
Anna, February 22-23, 1847. Gen. Taylor, on the way from Victoria to
Monterey, having learned that Santa Anna was threatening him with an
overwhelming force, decided to withdraw his troops from their camp at
Agua Nueva to a position more favorable for withstanding a superior
force, which had been selected a little south of the small village of
Buena Vista, at a point where the road passed through a mountain gorge
called Angostura. Accordingly, on the afternoon of February 21, the camp
at Agua Nueva was broken up, and Santa Anna, believing the American
forces were retreating, eagerly pursued them until he was drawn into
their chosen position. After a useless summons to surrender, on the
afternoon of the 22d the Mexicans opened the attack on the American
left, but they made no impression, while they suffered severe loss.
During the night the Mexicans occupied a position on the heights to the
east of the American lines with the intention of forcing their left
flank, and it was here that the fighting commenced on the 23d, and
continued during the day with varying success, finally resulting in the
repulse of the enemy. Meanwhile a force of Mexican cavalry had been
detached to attack the American camp at Buena Vista, but was gallantly
repulsed. The final attack was made against the American centre--where
Gen. Taylor commanded in person--by Santa Anna himself, with his entire
reserve, but he was met with such a deadly fire from the American
batteries that he was obliged to draw off his much-diminished forces,
and during the night he fell back to Agua Nueva. The American loss in
killed and wounded was about 700; the Mexicans lost about 2000.

=Buenos Ayres.= A province of the Argentine Republic, with a capital of
the same name. A British fleet and army took the city with slight
resistance, June 27, 1806; retaken August 12, 1806. Gen. Whitelock and
8000 British entered Buenos Ayres, and were severely repulsed, July 5,
1807; independence of the province declared July 19, 1816; a prey to
civil war for many years. It seceded from the Argentine Republic in
1853, and was reunited to it in June, 1860.

=Buffalo.= See PACK AND DRAUGHT ANIMALS.

=Buffalora.= A town of Italy, on the river Ticino. In its environs in
1636, the French and Spanish armies met in combat, in which the former
were victorious. There is a bridge at this place crossing the Ticino,
over which a division of the invading army of Austria marched, April 29,
1859. This was the first act of overt hostility in the war between
Austria and Sardinia.

=Buff Coat.= A close military outer garment, with short sleeves, and
laced tightly over the chest, made of buffalo-skin, or other thick and
elastic material, worn by soldiers in the 17th century as a defensive
covering.

=Buffer, Pneumatic.= See AIR CYLINDERS.

=Buffers.= See HURTER.

=Buff Jerkin.= Originally a leathern waist-coat; afterwards one of a
buff color, worn as an article of dress by sergeants and catchpoles;
used also as a dress.

=Buff Leather.= A sort of leather prepared from the buffalo, which,
dressed with oil, makes what is generally called buff-skin. In European
armies, troopers’ breeches, shoulder-belts, and sword-belts are made of
this leather.

=Buff Stick.= A wooden stick covered with buff leather, used by soldiers
in cleaning their equipments.

=Bugle-horn=, or =Bugle=. The old Saxon horn, now used by all infantry
regiments. By its soundings their manœuvres are directed, either in
advancing, skirmishing, or retreating.

=Bugler.= One who plays a bugle.

=Built-up Guns.= See ORDNANCE.

=Bukors.= Kettle-drums of the Swedish cavalry.

=Bulgaria.= Anciently _Mœsia_, now part of European Turkey. The
Bulgarians were a Slavonian tribe, who harassed the Eastern empire and
Italy from 499 to 678, when they established a kingdom. They defeated
Justinian II., 687; but were subdued, after several conflicts, by the
emperor Basil in 1018. After defeating them in 1014, having taken 15,000
Bulgarian prisoners, he caused their eyes to be put out, leaving one eye
only to every hundredth man, to enable him to conduct his countrymen
home. The kingdom was re-established in 1086; but after many changes,
was annexed to the Ottoman empire, 1396.

=Bull.= A fort which the English possessed in Canada, and which
constituted one of their military depots; it was captured by the French,
March 27, 1756.

=Bulletin.= A brief statement of facts respecting some passing events,
as military operations, etc.

=Bullet-mold.= An implement containing a cavity of the proper shape into
which lead is poured to form a bullet.

=Bullet-proof.= Capable of resisting the force of a bullet.

=Bullets.= Are projectiles of lead to be discharged from various kinds
of small-arms. The first bullets used were round, and were designated by
the number weighing one pound. The sizes employed were very large. Until
quite recently the round ball still held its place with rifles and
smooth-bores. Various devices were used for making it take the grooves
of the rifle,--a guard-patch being among the best. (See SMALL-ARMS.) It
was with this that the early settlers of America won their reputation as
marksmen. Robins, in 1742, showed the superiority of the conical form,
but it was not till about 1840 that round balls were generally
discarded. The conical bullet was often used in grooves with an
increasing twist, and gave wonderfully accurate results at short range.
For long ranges, long bullets are necessary, and these require uniform
twists, which are now generally used in military arms. Various forms of
the elongated bullets were used. Most of these bullets had an expansive
base, either hollow or plugged with wood; the design being to force the
soft lead outward, so as to cause it to fit the grooves of the rifle,
and thus give the bullet a rotation around its long axis during the
motion forward. (See SMALL-ARMS.) This rotation, as is well known,
increases the range and precision. Bullets were formerly cast, but now
they are more frequently stamped in steel dies, and, as in
breech-loading arms, the bullet takes the grooves by compression; the
exploding base is omitted. The form of bullet now used in military arms
is the cylindrical conoidal. The tendency recently has been to reduce
the caliber. (See PROJECTILES.) Copper bullets are used by the
Circassians. Bullets of stone were used in 1514; iron ones are mentioned
in the _Fœdera_, 1550, and leaden ones were made before the close of the
16th century.

=Bullets, Explosive.= Oblong bullets carrying a percussion-cap on the
front end and sometimes containing a small charge of powder in a cavity,
used to blow up caissons and magazines. There is a strong sentiment
against the use of these bullets in firing at troops.

=Bullets, Express-.= An explosive bullet of great killing power, used in
hunting large game. It is of large caliber but quite light, being much
shorter than the ordinary rifle-bullet. A cylindrical cavity bored in at
the point carries a small metallic cartridge-case filled with powder. It
is fired with a large charge of powder, which, owing to its lack of
weight, gives it a high initial velocity and a very flat trajectory up
to about 200 yards, obviating the necessity for an elevating sight. _The
Winchester Express-bullet_ (a good type of those made in America) has a
caliber of .50, weighs 300 grains, and is fired with 95 grains of
powder, giving an initial velocity of 1640 feet. It is made of pure
lead, the softness of which increases its deadliness. The shock from
this bullet will bring down the largest game. See EXPRESS-RIFLE.

=Bullets, Grooved.= Bullets having grooves, or cannelures. These grooves
were originally used to increase the relative resistance of the air on
the _rear_ of the bullet, thus assisting the rotation in keeping the
point to the front. In muzzle-loading arms they also increased the
_setting up_ of the bullet to take the grooves. They are now used to
hold the lubricant, and to facilitate the swaging action of the grooves
and lands in breech-loading guns. For the other form of modern bullets,
see BULLETS, PATCHED.

=Bullets, Patched.= One of the forms of modern rifle-bullets. The bullet
has wrapped around its cylindrical portion a layer of thin paper called
the _patch_. The bullet is perfectly smooth. The other form has grooves,
or cannelures. (See BULLETS, GROOVED.) The lubricant for the patched
bullet is a greased wad or disk of wax, placed between powder and
bullet. The _grooved bullet_, carrying its own lubricant, is best
adapted to shallow lands and grooves. The _patched bullet_ to sharp
lands. The grooved bullet would seem to be the best for military
service, as the cartridge-case can be tightly crimped upon it, making
the case waterproof. For very long range the best shooting has been done
with patched bullets.

=Bullets, Percussion-.= See BULLETS, EXPLOSIVE.

=Bullock.= See PACK AND DRAUGHT ANIMALS.

=Bull Run Battles.= See MANASSAS.

=Bull’s-eye.= In gunnery and archery, is the centre of a target.

=Bulwark.= In fortification, a rampart or bastion; an outwork for
defense; that which secures against an enemy; a shelter or means of
protection.

=Bunker Hill.= A hill in Charlestown, now part of Boston, Mass., which
gave its name to the first important battle of the American Revolution.
The Americans learning that Gen. Gage, who was in command of the British
forces in Boston, intended to fortify Bunker Hill, determined to
forestall his design, and for this purpose a detachment of 1000 men
under Col. Prescott was ordered on the night of June 16, 1775, to throw
up a breastwork on the hill. After a consultation, however, it was
decided to fortify instead another eminence which was nearer to Boston,
known as Breed’s Hill. During the night they worked with such activity
that by daybreak a strong redoubt was nearly completed. Upon its
discovery by the British on the morning of the 17th, they opened fire on
it from the ships in the harbor, and Gen. Gage sent about 3000 men under
Howe and Pigot to attack it. They landed under cover of the fire from
the guns, and setting fire to Charlestown, advanced to the attack. The
Americans awaited their approach in silence until the whites of their
eyes could be seen, then poured a deadly fire into their ranks, causing
them to retreat in disorder. They were rallied by Howe, and again
advanced over the same ground with a like result as on the first attack.
Clinton now arrived with reinforcements, and an attack was made on three
sides of the redoubt at once. The ammunition of the Americans being now
exhausted they met their assailants with clubbed muskets, but the
superiority of the British in numbers being so great, Col. Prescott
ordered a retreat. This was effected across Charlestown Neck, where they
were exposed to a galling fire from the ships in the harbor. During the
retreat Gen. Warren was killed, and the Bunker Hill monument erected to
commemorate this engagement now stands near the spot where he fell. The
British loss was over 1000 killed and wounded; the Americans lost less
than half that number.

=Bureaux.= See Military Departments throughout this work under
appropriate headings.

=Buren.= A town of Switzerland, canton of Berne. It was the scene of
several combats. The Spaniards under Gilles de Barlemont took
possession of it in 1575.

=Burford.= A town in the county of Oxford, England. It is celebrated for
a battle fought between Cuthred, king of the West Saxons, and Ethelbald,
king of the Mercians; and for a victory by Fairfax in 1649 over the army
of Charles I. at Edgehill, in its vicinity.

=Burganet=, or =Burgonet=. A kind of helmet used by the French.

=Burgos.= A city of Spain, capital of the new province of the same name,
was founded in 844; sacked by the French in 1808; in 1812 the castle was
four times unsuccessfully besieged by Wellington, who, however, took it
in the following year, when the French blew it up, as well as the
fortifications.

=Burguete.= A town of Navarre, Spain. Here the army of Charlemagne was
defeated in 778.

=Burgundy.= A large province in France, derives its name from the
Burgundians, a Gothic tribe who overran Gaul in 275, but were driven out
by the Emperor Probus; they returned in 287, and were defeated by
Maximin. In 413 they established a kingdom, comprising the present
Burgundy, large parts of Switzerland, with Alsace, Savoy, Provence,
etc., Gondicaire, their leader, the first king. It was conquered by the
Franks, 534. Annexed to France, 1477.

=Burhampoor.= A town of Hindostan, in the province of Bengal. It is one
of the military stations of the British government; and the cantonments,
consisting of a grand square inclosing a fine parade ground, command the
notice of the traveler. It was captured by the English troops under Col.
Stevenson in 1803.

=Burial Honors.= See FUNERAL HONORS.

=Burich.= A small town in the circle of Lower Rhine; its fortifications
were burned by the French in 1672.

=Burkersdorf.= A village of Austria, where a combat took place between
the Prussians and Austrians, July 21, 1762, in which the former were
victorious.

=Burley.= The butt end of a lance.

=Burlington Heights.= Here a fierce contest took place between the
British and the U. S. forces, June 6, 1813. The British carried the
heights.

=Burmah=, =Burma=, or =Birmah=. Also called the Burmese empire, or
kingdom of Ava, formerly the most extensive and powerful state in
Farther India. The most celebrated ruler of the country was Alompra, the
founder of the present dynasty, who reigned about the middle of the 18th
century. The Burmese became involved in a war with the English 1824-26,
which terminated in the curtailment of their power and the loss of
several provinces.

=Burning, Quickness of.= The relative quickness of two different powders
may be determined by burning a train laid in a circular or other groove
which returns into itself, one-half of the groove being filled with
each kind of powder, and fire communicated at one of the points of
meeting of the two trains; the relative quickness is readily deduced
from observation of the point at which the flames meet.

=Burnish.= In a military sense, is to give a peculiar lustre to a
gun-barrel or other part of a rifle by rubbing it with a piece of steel.
It is generally forbidden as injurious to the gun.

=Burque= (_Fr._). A kind of cuirass which was worn with the brigantine.

=Burr.= In gunnery, a round iron ring, which serves to rivet the end of
the bolt, so as to form a round head.

=Burrel-shot.= Small shot, nails, stones, pieces of old iron, etc., put
into cases to be discharged from any piece of ordnance. Very seldom
used.

=Bursting.= The simplest method of bursting open strong gates is, to
explode a bag of gunpowder containing 50 or 60 pounds suspended near the
middle of the gate upon a nail or gimlet, by means of a small piece of
port-fire inserted at the bottom, and well secured with twine.

=Busaco.= A hamlet in the province of Beira, Portugal. Here the British
under Wellington repulsed an attack of the French under Masséna,
September 27, 1810. The French lost about 4000 killed and wounded; the
English loss did not exceed 1300.

=Busby.= A military coiffure, or cap, or bear-skin; the French
_colbach_.

=Bushiere= (on the Persian Gulf). Attacked by sea by Sir H. Leeke, and
by land by Gen. Stalker, was taken December 10, 1856. The place proved
stronger than was expected, and was bravely defended.

=Bushing a Gun.= Inserting a piece of metal about an inch in diameter
(near the bottom of the bore) through the centre of which the vent has
been previously drilled. It is screwed in. The object of bushing a piece
is to prevent deterioration of the vent, or provide a new one, when this
has already occurred. In bronze pieces pure copper is always used in
bushing, as it is not so liable to run from heat as gun-metal. Only
rifled and bronze pieces are bushed.

=Bushwhackers.= This term was used during the civil war to designate a
class of men who claimed to be non-combatants in the presence of a
superior force, and who, to outward appearance, pursued their peaceful
avocations, but who did not hesitate, when an opportunity offered, to
slay stragglers, and pick off soldiers from ambush. When caught in the
commission of such acts they were treated with merciless severity.

=Buskins.= A kind of shoe, or half-boot, adapted to either foot,
formerly part of the Roman dress. They are now worn by some European
armies.

=Butin= (_Fr._). Booty or pillage. At the beginning of the French
monarchy, and for a long time after its establishment, a particular spot
was marked out by the prince or general, to which all persons belonging
to the victorious army were directed to bring every species of booty
that might have fallen into their hands. This booty was not divided, or
appropriated according to the will and pleasure of the prince or
general, but was thrown into different lots, and drawn for in common.
The soldiers who distributed these spoils were called _Butiniers_.

=Butler Projectile.= See PROJECTILE.

=Butrinto.= A fortified maritime town of European Turkey, opposite
Corfu. The town and fortress are of Venetian construction; taken by the
French from the Venetians in 1797.

=Butt.= In gunnery, is a solid earthen parapet, to fire against in the
proving of guns, or in practice.

=Butt=, or =Butt-end=. That extremity of a musket which rests against
the shoulder when the piece is brought up to a position of firing.

=Button.= In gunnery, is a part of the cascabel, in either a gun or
howitzer, and is the hind part of the piece, made round in the form of a
ball.

=Buttress.= A sustaining wall at right angles to the main wall, which it
is intended to strengthen.

=Buxar.= A town in Bengal near which, on October 23, 1764, Major,
afterwards Sir Hector, Munro (with 857 Europeans and 6215 Sepoys) gained
a great victory over the troops of the nabob of Oude, 40,000 in number;
6000 of these were killed, and 130 pieces of cannon taken.

=Byblos.= An ancient town of Egypt, on the Delta of the Nile. Here the
Athenians sustained a memorable siege against the Persians, 456 B.C.

=Byrnie.= Early English for body-armor.

=Byssa.= An ancient cannon for throwing stones.

=Byzantium.= See CONSTANTINOPLE.



C.


=Cabas= (_Fr._). A basket made of rushes, used in ancient Languedoc and
Rousillon, for the purpose of conveying stores and ammunition.

=Cabasset=, =Cabacet=, or =Capacète=. A kind of helmet, lighter than the
morion, terminating in a rounded top. It was also called _Cervelière_,
because it only covered the upper part of the head.

=Cabeira= (Asia Minor). Here Mithridates, king of Pontus, was defeated
by Lucullus, 71 B.C.

=Cabell Court-house.= See BARBOURSVILLE.

=Cabezon de la Sal.= A town of Spain, in the province of Valladolid. It
is celebrated as the scene of one of the first battles of the Peninsular
campaign, in which the Spaniards were signally defeated by the French.

=Caboched=, or =Cabossed=. A heraldic term from the old French word
_caboche_, “head.” When the head of an animal is borne without any part
of the neck, and exhibited full in face, it is said to be _caboched_.

=Cabrera.= One of the Balearic Islands, 10 miles south of Majorca.
Celebrated in the annals of war for the number of French prisoners who
were there decimated by hunger, disease, and other physical and mental
tortures.

=Cabul=, or =Cabool=. A city of Afghanistan, taken by Subuctajeen,
grandfather of Mohammed, founder of the Gaznevide dynasty, and by Nâdir
Shah in 1738. In 1809, the sovereign Shah Soojah was expelled by Futleh
Khan; and in 1818, Cabul came into the hands of Dost Mohammed, a clever
and ambitious chieftain. In 1839, the British restored Shah Soojah; but
in November, 1841, a dreadful outbreak took place. The British civil
officer, Sir William McNaughten, was massacred, and the British
commenced a most disastrous retreat. Of about 3849 soldiers, and about
12,000 camp-followers, only one European, Dr. Dryden, and four or five
natives escaped. In the same year (September 16), General, afterwards
Sir George, Pollock retook the town, and rescued Lady Sale and many of
the prisoners. After destroying many public buildings he left Cabul,
October 12, 1842.

=Cabule= (_Fr._). A machine of war, used during the 12th century to
throw stones, etc.

=Cache.= A hidden reservoir of provision (to secure it from bears) in
Arctic travel. Also, a deposit of dispatches, etc.

=Cadence.= A uniform time and pace in marching, indispensable to the
correct movements of bodies of troops.

=Cadency, Marks of.= In heraldry, are marks on the shields of younger
members of families, by which they are distinguished from the elder and
from each other.

=Cadet, Military= (Fr. _cadet_, “younger,” “junior”). Is a youth
studying for the military service in a school established for military
training, such as the Military Academy at West Point, N. Y., the Royal
Military Academy at Woolwich, England, the Polytechnic School at Paris,
etc. (See MILITARY ACADEMIES.) There are also medical and engineer
cadets, who are youths undergoing special instruction for the public
service in the several professions implied by their names.

=Cadetship.= The rank or commission of a cadet; as, to get a cadetship.

=Cadiz= (anc. _Gades_). A fortified maritime city of Spain, in the
province of the same name. The Carthaginians became masters of Cadiz
during the first Punic war, but the Romans obtained possession of it in
206 B.C. It was taken and pillaged by the Earl of Essex in 1596, and was
blockaded in 1656 by Admiral Blake, who captured two rich galleons. It
was besieged by the French from February, 1810, until August, 1812.
Captured by the Duc d’Angoulême, October 3, 1823, and held till 1828;
declared a free port in 1829.

=Cadore.= A town of Venice, 22 miles northeast from Belluno. This place
stands on the Piave, and is distinguished as the birthplace of Titian.
In 1797 the French obtained a victory over the Austrians near this town.

=Caen.= A city of France, in Normandy. A place of importance before 912,
when it became the capital of the possessions of the Normans, under whom
it flourished. It was taken by the English in 1346 and 1417; but was
finally recovered by the French, July 1, 1450. Here were buried William
the Conqueror (1087) and his queen (1083).

=Caernarvon.= A town in North Wales. In the castle (founded in 1283 or
1284) Edward II. was born, April 25, 1284; and the town was chartered by
Edward I. in the same year. The town suffered by the civil war of
Charles, but was finally retained for the Parliament.

=Caffa=, =Kaffa=, or =Theodosia=. A town in European Russia, in the
Crimea, at the end of a large bay on the northern shore of the Black
Sea. In 1770 the Russians took this place by assault, and in 1774 it was
ceded with the rest of the Crimea to the khan of Tartary, who made it
his residence.

=Caffraria=, and =Caffre War=. See KAFFRARIA.

=Cahors.= A town of France, capital of the department of Lot. It is
supposed to have been the capital of the _Cadurca_, before the conquest
of Gaul. It was captured by assault in 1580, by Henry IV.

=Caic.= See CAIQUE.

=Caiffa.= See KAIFFA.

=Cai-fong.= In China, capital of Honan, on the right bank of the
Hoang-ho. It was besieged by 100,000 rebels in 1642. The commander of
the relieving forces, in order to drown the enemy, broke down the
embankments of the river. It is said all the besiegers and 300,000 of
the citizens perished.

=Cairo=, or =Grand Cairo=. The modern capital of Egypt, partially built
by the Saracens in 969; it is surrounded by stone walls which are
surmounted with antique battlements; taken by the Turks from the
Egyptian sultans, 1517; taken by the French under Napoleon Bonaparte;
they entered the city July 23, 1798; captured by the British and Turks,
when 6000 French capitulated, June 27, 1801; massacre of the Mamelukes,
March 1, 1811.

=Caisson.= In gunnery, is a carriage used for conveying ammunition for a
field battery. It is a four-wheeled carriage, consisting of two parts,
one of which is a limber similar to that of a gun-carriage, and
connected in a similar way by a wooden stock and lunette. On the
axle-body of the rear part, and parallel to the stock, are placed three
rails upon which are fastened two ammunition-boxes, one behind the
other, and similar to the one on the limber; so that the caisson has
three ammunition-boxes, which will seat nine cannoneers. The interior
compartments of the ammunition-boxes vary according to the nature of the
ammunition with which they are loaded. In the rear of the last box is
placed a spare wheel-axle of iron, with a chain and toggle at the end of
it. On the rear end of the middle rail is placed a carriage-hook similar
to a pintle-hook, to which the lunette of a gun-carriage whose limber
has become disabled may be attached, and the gun carried off the field.
The caisson has the same turning capacity and mobility as the
gun-carriage, so that it can follow the piece in all its manœuvres, if
necessary. It also carries a spare wheel, spare pole, etc. See ORDNANCE,
CARRIAGES FOR, THE CAISSON.

=Cake-powder.= See GUNPOWDER.

=Caking.= To prevent powder caking, the barrels should be taken outside
the magazine and rolled on boards.

=Calabozo.= A town of Venezuela, South America; it was captured by
Bolivar, 1820.

=Calabria= (anc. _Messapia_). A region of Southern Italy; it was
conquered by the Romans 266 B.C. It formed part of the kingdom of the
Ostrogoths under Theodoric, 493; was reconquered (for the Eastern
empire) by Belisarius, 536; subdued by the Lombards and joined the duchy
of Benevento, 572. After various changes, it was conquered by Robert
Guiscard, the Norman, 1058.

=Calabuss.= An early kind of light musket with a wheel-lock. Bourne
mentions it in 1578.

=Calagurris= (now _Calahorra_, Spain). A town of the Vascones and a
Roman municipium in Hispania Tarraconensis, near the Iberus (Ebro),
memorable for its adherence to Sertorius and for its siege by Pompey and
his generals (78 B.C.), in the course of which mothers killed and salted
their children.

=Calais.= A fortified seaport town of France, department of
Pas-de-Calais, on the Strait of Dover. The town and harbor are defended
by a castle and several forts, and can be rendered inaccessible by land
by flooding the adjacent ground, which is low and marshy. It was taken
by Edward III. after a year’s siege in August, 1347; retaken by the Duke
of Guise, January, 1558. It was taken by the Spaniards, April, 1596;
restored, 1598. Louis XVIII. landed here in 1814, after his exile.

=Calasiries=, or =Calosires=. One of the two divisions (the other being
the Hermotybii) of the warrior-caste of Egypt. Their greatest strength
was 250,000 men, and their chief abode in the western part of the Delta.
They formed the king’s body-guard.

=Calatafimi.= A town of Sicily, province of Trapani. Here, in May, 1860,
Garibaldi defeated the royalist troops under Gen. Landi.

=Calatañazor.= A small town of Spain in Old Castile. Here Al-Mansoor
gained a great victory over the Christians in 1001.

=Calatayud.= A town of Spain, province of Saragossa. It was captured
from the Moors by Alfonso of Aragon in 1118; taken from the descendants
of Alfonso by the king of Castile in 1362.

=Calatrava, The Order of.= Was founded in 1158 by Sancho III. of
Castile. For a long period the war against the Moors was carried on
almost entirely by the knights of Calatrava. The knights bear a cross
gules, fleur-de-lised with green, etc.

=Calcans.= The bucklers of the Turks were so called during the Middle
Ages.

=Calcinato.= A town of Italy, on the river Chiese. The Duke of Vendôme
here defeated the Austrians under Count de Reventlau in 1706.

=Calcium-light.= A brilliant light produced by projecting the
oxyhydrogen flame upon a surface of lime. Called also the
Drummond-light.

=Calcutta.= Capital of Bengal and British India; the first settlement of
the English here was made in 1689. The town was attacked and taken by an
army of 70,000 horse and foot and 400 elephants (146 of the British were
crammed into the “Black-Hole prison,” a dungeon about 16 feet square,
from whence 23 only came forth alive next day), June 20, 1756; it was
retaken by Clive, January 2, 1757.

=Caldiero.= A village of Northern Italy. Here, just before the battle of
Arcola, the French under Napoleon I. were repulsed by the Austrians
under Alvinzi in 1796, and in 1805 were beaten under Masséna by the
Archduke Charles.

=Caledonia.= The name given by the Romans to that part of Britain north
of the Wall of Antoninus, and afterwards applied to the whole of the
country now known as Scotland. The inhabitants were called Caledonii
until about the beginning of the 4th century, when they began to be
spoken of as Picts and Scots. In 84 they were defeated under their chief
Galgacus by the Roman general Agricola, and a great part of the country
was overrun by the Romans, who formed many encampments there; but the
country was never reduced to a Roman province.

=Caliano.= A town of the Tyrol, Austria, on the left bank of the Adige.
Here the Venetians were defeated by the Austrians in 1487.

=Caliber=, or =Calibre=. From the Latin _qua librâ_, “what pound,”
applied first to the weight of a bullet, then to the diameter, which
determined the diameter of the gun, now signifies the diameter of the
bore of a cannon or any fire-arm, and is expressed in inches or
fractional parts of an inch, as a 15-inch gun; a Springfield rifle,
caliber .45. Cannon are sometimes also designated by the weight of metal
which they throw, as a 24-pounder.

=Caliber-rule.= A gunner’s calipers; having two scales, to determine the
weight of a ball from its diameter, and conversely.

=Calicut= (now _Kolikod_). A town in Southwestern India; the first
Indian port visited by Vasco de Gama, May 20, 1498. It was seized by
Hyder Ali, 1766, and taken by the English, 1790.

=California= (from the Spanish _Caliente Fornalla_, “hot furnace,” in
allusion to the climate). Was discovered by Cortez in 1537; others say
Cabrillo in 1542; and visited by Sir Francis Drake, who named it New
Albion in 1579. The Spaniards established missionary and military
stations in California, 1698; it became subject to Mexico in 1823;
became independent in 1836; occupied by the army of the United States in
1846; ceded to the United States, 1848; admitted into the Union as a
sovereign State, 1850.

=Caligæ.= A kind of half-boots worn by the Roman soldiers. These
soldiers were sometimes called _Caligati_.

=Caliper-compass.= An instrument by which the bore of cannon,
small-arms, etc., is measured; said to have been invented by an
artificer of Nuremberg, 1540.

=Caliver.= A hand-gun or arquebuse; probably the old name for the
match-lock or carabine.

=Call.= A military musical term, signifies a signal given by a trumpet,
bugle, or drum.

=Callao.= A fortified seaport of Peru. Lord Cochrane gallantly cut out
the “Esmeralda,” a Spanish ship-of-war, from under the guns of the fort
in 1821. Its roadstead (the best on the Peruvian coast) was the scene of
a combat between the Spaniards and the Independents; the Colombians took
it in 1826. The attempt of the Spanish admiral Nuñez to bombard Callao
on May 2, 1866, was defeated by the Peruvians.

=Calle, La.= A seaport on the coast of Algeria. The French, who
possessed it before the revolution of 1789, lost it during that epoch;
again occupied it in 1815, but lost it in 1827. It has been in the
possession of the French since the conquest of Algeria.

=Callinger.= One of the hill-forts of Bundelcund. From its position and
size, Callinger must at one time have been a place of great strength. It
was stormed by the British in 1812.

=Calmar.= See KALMAR.

=Calones.= A term applied to menials of the Roman armies; also slaves
belonging to the Roman soldiers, who followed their masters to the wars.

=Calore.= A river in Italy; on its banks the Romans (composed of
slaves), commanded by Tiberius (Gracchus), defeated the Carthaginian
general Hanno in 215. After the battle each Roman (slave) who could
present the head of an enemy slain by him was granted his freedom.

=Calpee=, or =Kalpee=. A city of India, in Bundelcund, on the right bank
of the river Jumna. It was conquered by the British in 1803, and in May,
1858, was captured by Gen. Rose from the mutinous Sepoys, it being the
headquarters of the Gwalior contingent.

=Caltrop=, or =Crow’s-foot=. An instrument with 4 iron points, so
disposed that, three of them being on the ground, the other projects
upward. They are scattered on the ground where an enemy’s cavalry are to
pass, to impede their progress by endangering the horses’ feet.

=Calumet.= A kind of pipe used by the North American Indians for smoking
tobacco, having the bowl usually of soft red stone, and the tube a long
reed ornamented with feathers. The calumet is used as a symbol or
instrument of peace. To accept the calumet is to agree to the terms of
peace, and to refuse it is to reject them. The calumet is used to seal
or ratify contracts and alliances, and to receive strangers kindly.

=Calvi.= A seaport on the island of Corsica, situated on a peninsula in
the Gulf of Calvi. It is strongly fortified and has a good port. It was
captured by the English in 1794, after a siege of 51 days.

=Calvi.= A decayed town of Naples. Here the French gained a victory over
the Neapolitans, December 9, 1798.

=Cam.= A river in England. On its banks was fought a battle between the
Saxons and Danes during the reign of Edward I.

=Camail.= Ancient armor, consisting of a guard for the throat made of
chain-mail coming down from the helmet.

=Cambrai=, or =Cambray=. A fortified city of France, department of the
North. It was fortified by the Romans; besieged and captured by
Childebert in 535; taken by Edward III., king of England, in 1337; in
1544 by Charles V.; by the Spaniards in 1595; captured by the French and
annexed, 1667; taken by Clairfait, the Austrian general, on September
10, 1798. The French were defeated at Cæsar’s camp, in the neighborhood,
by the allied army under the Duke of York, April 24, 1794. Cambray was
seized by the British under Sir Charles Colville, June 24, 1815. Several
important treaties were entered into at this place.

=Cambria.= See WALES.

=Cambridge.= The Roman _Camboricum_ and the Saxon _Granta_; a town of
England, in Cambridgeshire. It was burned by the Danes in 870 and 1010.
Roger de Montgomery destroyed it with fire and sword, to be revenged of
King William Rufus. During Wat Tyler’s and Jack Straw’s rebellion, the
rebels entered the town, seized the University records and burned them
in the market-place, 1381.

=Cambuskenneth= (Central Scotland). Here Wallace defeated the English
under Warrenne and Cressingham, September 10, 1297.

=Camden.= A village in Kershaw Co., S. C. Gen. Gates was defeated here
August 16, 1780, by Lord Cornwallis, and April 25, 1781, Gen. Greene was
here defeated by Lord Rawdon. During the civil war this place was
captured, February 24, 1865, by the Federal forces under Gen. Sherman,
and the bridge over the Wateree, the railroad depot, and a considerable
quantity of stores, etc., burned by the 15th Corps.

=Camel.= See PACK AND DRAUGHT ANIMALS.

=Camelford.= A town of England, in Cornwall. It was the scene of a
famous battle between King Arthur and his nephew Modred in 543, in which
the former was victorious. The West Saxons, under Egbert, had a battle
with the Britons here in 823.

=Cameron Highlanders.= The designation given to the 79th Regiment of
Infantry in the British service, in consequence of the corps having been
raised by Allan Cameron of Erroch in 1793. This gallant regiment, which
wears the Highland garb, performed distinguished services in the
Peninsula and at Waterloo, and has been engaged in the principal warlike
struggles of more recent times.

=Camisado.= A shirt formerly worn by soldiers over their uniform, in
order to be able to recognize one another in the darkness, in a night
attack.

=Camisado.= An attack by surprise at night, or at break of day, when the
enemy is supposed to be in bed, by soldiers wearing the camisado.

=Camouflet= (_Fr._). A small mine containing about 10 pounds of powder,
sufficient to compress the earth all around it without disturbing the
surface of the ground. It is sometimes formed in the wall or side of an
enemy’s gallery, to blow in the earth and cut off the retreat of the
miner.

=Camp.= From the Latin word _campus_, a “plain”; is the whole extent of
ground covered by an army when under canvas. Its breadth should not
exceed the line occupied by the troops when drawn out in order of
battle. As a general rule, camps should be located in a position
convenient to wood and water, with the front close and well covered, and
the rear perfectly open.

=Campaign.= A connected series of military operations, forming a
distinct stage or step in a war. Formerly, when troops kept the field
only during the summer months, the term was used to include all that was
done from the time an army took the field until it went again into
winter quarters. In modern times, when no ordinary degree of cold is
allowed to arrest military operations, the term is frequently used to
include all steps taken to accomplish one immediate object.

=Campaigner.= One who has served in an army several campaigns; an old
soldier; a veteran.

=Camp and Garrison Equipage.= All the tents, fittings, utensils, etc.,
carried with an army, applicable to the domestic rather than to the
warlike wants of the soldier. The allowance of camp and garrison
equipage to U. S. troops is prescribed in general orders from the War
Department.

=Campania= (Southern Italy). Was occupied by Hannibal and various cities
declared in his favor, 216 B.C.; conquered by the Romans, 213. Its
capital was Capua (which see).

=Camp-bedstead.= A bedstead made to fold up within a narrow space, as
used in war; a trestle bedstead.

=Campbell’s Station.= A post-village of Knox Co., Tenn. Here on November
16, 1863, Gen. Burnside, marching from Knoxville to meet the Confederate
forces under Gen. Longstreet, was attacked by them, and after several
hours’ fighting succeeded in repulsing them. Burnside then withdrew to
the neighborhood of Knoxville and fortified his position.

=Camp-boy.= A boy that serves in camp.

=Campeachy.= A city of Central America, and the principal seaport of
Yucatan. The country was discovered about 1517, and settled in 1540.
This city was taken by the English in 1659; by the buccaneers in 1678,
and by the freebooters of St. Domingo in 1685. These last burnt the town
and blew up the citadel.

=Campestre.= A kind of girdle or apron worn by Roman soldiers around
their waists at certain exercises, where the rest of their bodies
remained naked.

=Camp-followers.= The sutlers, traders, and dealers generally; also
civilian employés, servants, and women who follow troops, and are
amenable to the regulations and restrictions of the service.

=Camp-guard.= A camp-guard consists of one or two rows of sentinels
placed around a camp, and relieved at regular intervals. The number of
rows of sentinels, and the distance between each man, will depend upon
the character of the ground and the degree of danger apprehended.

=Campidoctores.= Officers who drilled the Roman soldiery.

=Camp, Intrenched.= Is a position fortified by field-works, which may be
selected by an army in the field, for important operations during a
campaign or a war,--such as to secure itself while covering a siege, or
in winter quarters to accommodate a corps of observation, while the
active army is engaged elsewhere, or to defend a position near a
fortified place.

=Camp of Instruction.= Is an encampment of troops in the field to
habituate them to the duties and fatigues of war. They may be either
temporary or permanent. Of the latter description are the camps at
Aldershott, England, and the Curragh of Kildare, Ireland.

=Campo Formio.= A town of Northern Italy; here a treaty was concluded
between France and Austria, the latter yielding the Low Countries and
the Ionian Islands to France, and Milan, Mantua, and Modena to the
Cisalpine Republic, October 17, 1797. By a secret article the emperor
gained the Venetian dominions.

=Campo Mayor.= A stronghold which covers the district between the
Guadiana and the Tagus, where the French, retreating from this place in
March, 1811, were suddenly confronted by a large British force under
Marshal Beresford, and a combat ensued which was disastrous to the
French.

=Campoos.= Regiments of infantry in the service of the Mahratta
confederates.

=Campo Santo.= A town of Northern Italy, situated on the Panaro. In 1743
a sanguinary battle was fought here between the Spanish and Austrian
forces.

=Camp Out, To.= To rest for the night without a standing roof; whether
under a light tent, a screen of boughs, or any makeshift that the
neighborhood may afford.

=Camprodon.= A fortified town of Catalonia, Spain. This town was taken
by the French in 1689, and again in 1794.

=Camp-stool.= A portable seat used on campaigns. It is usually made with
crossed legs, so as to fold up, and with a full-sized seat of leather or
canvas, or else of strips of dressed hide.

=Canada, Dominion of.= A country of North America which embraces all of
the American possessions of Great Britain lying north of the United
States. It was discovered by John and Sebastian Cabot, June 24, 1497;
the French founded Quebec in 1608. The English general Wolfe captured
Quebec in 1759, and the conquest of Canada was completed in 1760. The
Americans under Montgomery invaded Canada, and surprised Montreal,
November, 1775; expelled by Carleton, March, 1776; the Americans under
Gen. Hull again invaded Canada; defeated at Brownstown, August 8, and
surrendered August 16, 1812. The Americans took York April 27, Fort
George May 27, 1814; they were defeated at Chippewa July 25, and peace
was signed at Ghent, December 24, 1814. Several rebellions took place in
Canada, but were speedily suppressed. Invasions of Canada by armed
Fenians from the United States were attempted in 1866 and 1870, but were
repelled without difficulty.

=Cananore.= A seaport town of British India, in the presidency of
Madras; it is the chief military station of the British in Malabar. In
1501 a small fort was built here by the Portuguese, which was taken by
the Dutch in 1664. These were subsequently driven out by Tippoo Saib,
and in 1790 the British took possession.

=Candahar=, or =Kandahar=. A fortified city of Afghanistan; stands in a
fertile plain, 200 miles southwest from Cabool. This city is supposed to
have been founded by Alexander the Great. Candahar was held by Tartary,
India, and Persia in turn. During all the disasters of the Afghan war,
the British succeeded in holding possession of the city, 1839-42.

=Candia= (anc. _Crete_). An island in the Mediterranean Sea. It was
conquered by the Romans, 68 B.C.; seized by the Saracens, 823; retaken
by the Greeks, 960; sold to the Venetians, 1204; gained by the Turks
after a 24 years’ siege, during which more than 200,000 men perished,
1669; ceded to the Egyptian pasha, 1830; restored to Turkey, 1840; in
1866 the Christian inhabitants revolted against the Turks, and demanded
an annexation to the kingdom of Greece. This war excited much sympathy
among Christian nations, but the Cretans were subdued in 1869.

=Candle Bombs.= Pasteboard shells filled with pyrotechnic compositions
which make a brilliant display upon explosion. They are used for
signaling, and are made up with a powder charge attached to one side; a
strand of quick-match leads to the charge when placed in the mortar. The
mortars used are very light, being simply hollow cylinders of stout
paper, sole-leather, or wood. They are made very light for ease of
transportation.

=Candy.= A kingdom of Ceylon; it was taken by a British detachment,
February 20, 1803, who capitulated June 23, following, anxious to
evacuate the place on account of its unhealthiness; on the third day
many were treacherously massacred at Columbo. The war was renewed in
October, 1814; the king made prisoner by Gen. Brownrigg, February 19,
1815, and the sovereignty vested in Great Britain, March 2, 1815.

=Canister.= In the U. S. service, a round of canister consists of a
hollow tin cylinder filled with cast iron or lead balls, which vary in
size and number with the caliber and kind of piece; the cylinder is
closed at the bottom by a thick cast-iron plate, and at the top by one
of sheet-iron. The interstices between the balls are filled with dry
sawdust, the object of which is to give more solidity to the mass, and
to prevent the balls from crowding on one another when the piece is
fired. In the English service this is called case-shot.

=Canister-shot.= One of the lead or iron balls in a round of canister.

=Cannæ.= A town of Naples, province of Terra di Bari. It is celebrated
for the great victory gained there by Hannibal over the Romans, in the
summer of 216 B.C. The loss of the Romans is stated by Livy at 45,000
infantry and 3000 cavalry.

=Cannon.= A military engine of which the general form is that of a
hollow cylinder closed at one end, and variously mounted, used for
throwing balls and other instruments of death by force of gunpowder.
Cannons are made of iron, brass, bronze, and sometimes of steel rods
welded together, and are of different sizes. They are classified, from
their nature, _guns_, _howitzers_, and _mortars_; also from their use,
as _field_, _mountain_, _prairie_, _sea-coast_, and _siege_; also as
_rifled_ and _smooth-bore_. See ORDNANCE.

The following are the most famous cannon of all ages, arranged according
to the diameter of the bore:

1. The _Tsar Pooschka_, the great bronze gun of Moscow, cast in 1586;
bore 36 inches, weight 86,240 pounds; threw a stone ball weighing 2000
pounds.

2. _Mallet’s Mortar_, English, 1857-58; built up of cast and wrought
iron; bore 36 inches; cast-iron shell weighing 2986 pounds.

3. The _Malik-I-Mydan_, “Master of the Field,” the great bronze gun of
Bejapoor, India; cast 1538; bore 28.5 inches; basalt ball, 1000 pounds.

4. _The Bronze Gun of Mahomet II._, A.D. 1464; bore 25 inches; granite
ball, 672 pounds.

5. The _Dulle-Griete_ of Ghent, wrought iron, A.D. 1430; bore 25 inches;
stone ball, 700 pounds.

6. The _Dhool-Dhanee_, bronze gun of Agra, India; bore 23.2 inches;
stone balls, 520 pounds.

7. _Mons Meg_ of Edinburgh; wrought iron, A.D. 1455; bore 20 inches;
stone ball, 400 pounds.

8. _Rodman Gun_, American, 1863; cast iron; bore 20 inches, weight
117,000 pounds; cast-iron solid shot weighing 1080 pounds.

The most powerful cannon the world has ever seen have been made within
the present decade (1870-80). They are rifles.

The _100-ton Armstrong guns_ sold to Italy to arm the “Duilio” and
“Dandolo”; bore 17 inches, weight of oblong shot of chilled iron 2000
pounds, charge of _Fossano powder_ 552 pounds. _Muzzle-loading._

The _80-ton Woolwich guns_ made to arm the “Inflexible”; bore 16 inches,
weight of shot 1700 pounds, charge of _cubical powder_ 440 pounds.
_Muzzle-loading._

The _72-ton Krupp guns_; bore 15.75 inches, weight of steel shot 1700
pounds, charge of _prismatic powder_ 452 pounds. Guns all steel.
_Breech-loading._

=Cannonade.= The act of discharging shot or shells from cannon for the
purpose of destroying an army, or battering a town, ship, or fort;
usually applied to an attack of some continuance.

=Cannon-ball.= A ball usually made of cast iron, to be thrown from
cannon.

=Cannon Baskets.= The old English phrase for gabions.

=Cannon-bullet.= A cannon-ball.

=Cannoneer.= A man who manages cannon.

=Cannoneering.= The use of cannon.

=Cannoneers’ Seats.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, NOMENCLATURE OF
ARTILLERY CARRIAGES.

=Cannon-lock.= A contrivance, like the lock of a gun, placed over the
vent of a cannon to explode the charge.

=Cannon-metal.= An alloy of copper with about 9 per cent. of
tin;--called also _gun-metal_.

=Cannon-perer.= An ancient piece of ordnance throwing stone shot.

=Cannon-proof.= Proof against cannon.

=Cannon Royal.= A 60-pounder of 8¹⁄₂ inches bore.

=Cannonry.= Cannon collectively; artillery.

=Cannon-shot.= A ball for cannon.

=Canonnière= (_Fr._). This name was given formerly to a tent which
served to shelter four canonniers, but later the term was applied to all
infantry tents which contained seven or eight men.

=Canonnière= (_Fr._). An appellation formerly given to a gun-proof
tower; it also designated an opening in the walls of cities, forts,
etc., through which the defenders of these places could fire on an enemy
without being exposed.

=Canonniers= (_Fr._). Artillerymen, gunners. In 1671, during the
administration of Louvois in France, the name of _canonniers_ was given
to the first company of the regiment of the king’s fusileers; in April,
1693, this regiment was named _artillerie royal_, but the first company
retained the name of _canonniers_.

=Canonniers Gardes-côtes= (_Fr._). Were instituted in 1702, by Louis
XIV. of France, for the service of coast batteries. They are similar to
the Artillery Coast Brigade in the British service.

=Canstadt=, or =Cannstadt=. A town of Würtemberg, on the river Neckar.
In the vicinity a battle was fought in 1796, between Gen. Moreau and the
Archduke Charles of Austria.

=Cantabri.= A rude race of ancient mountaineers who lived in Cantabria,
the northern part of Spain, near the Bay of Biscay. They made a brave
resistance to the Romans in the Cantabrian war, 25-19 B.C. They are said
to have been of Iberian origin.

=Cantabrum.= A large banner used during the time of the Roman emperors,
and borne on festive occasions.

=Canteen.= A tin vessel used by soldiers to carry water on the march, or
in the field. It is usually suspended by a strap from the shoulder. In
the British service the canteen is made of wood. The name is also
applied to the store authorized within the precincts of British barracks
for the sale of liquors, small stores, etc. (See POST TRADER.) A leather
or wooden chest divided into compartments, and containing the table
equipage of an officer when on active service, is also called a canteen.

=Canterbury= (the _Durovernum_ of the Romans). A town in Kent, England.
Its cathedral was sacked by the Danes, 1011, and burnt down, 1067;
rebuilt, 1130; again burnt down, 1174, and again rebuilt. During the
civil war in England, Cromwell’s dragoons used Canterbury Cathedral as a
stable.

=Cantinière= (_Fr._). Women who are authorized to establish themselves
in the barracks or follow the troops in time of war, selling them
liquors and provisions. The _cantinières_, whether attached to regiments
or barracks, are selected from the wives of non-commissioned officers or
privates, and wear a uniform. See VIVANDIÈRE.

=Cantle.= The hind-bow or protuberance of a saddle; also written
_cantel_.

=Canton.= The only city in China with which Europeans were allowed to
trade till the treaty of August 29, 1842. In 1856 a serious
misunderstanding arose between Great Britain and China, on account of
the Chinese having boarded the “Arrow,” a small vessel, lying in the
Canton River, with a British colonial register. The Canton forts were
taken, and Canton was bombarded by Sir Michael Seymour in 1856, and in
the following year the Chinese fleet was entirely destroyed. In 1858
Canton was taken, and the forts at the mouth of the Pei-ho River were
taken by the allied French and English forces.

=Canton.= One of the nine honorable ordinaries in heraldry. It occupies
a corner of the shield either dexter or sinister, and is a third of the
chief.

=Cantonments.= In the general operations of European armies are
temporary resting-places. In cantonments the men are not under canvas,
as in camps, but occupy during an armistice, or in intervals between
active operations, adjacent towns and villages. In India cantonments are
permanent places, being regular military towns, distinct and at some
little distances from the principal cities.

=Cantonné.= In heraldry, when a cross is placed between four other
objects it is said to be _cantonné_.

=Canusium= (now _Canosa_). An important and very ancient city of Apulia,
in Italy. It was probably founded by the Greeks. Here a battle took
place between the Carthaginians under Hannibal, and the Romans under
Marcellus, 209 B.C.; it lasted two days; the first day the
Carthaginians were victorious, but on the second day the Romans gained
the victory after committing great havoc among their adversaries. It was
captured by the Romans, 318 B.C.

=Canvas.= A coarse hempen or linen cloth which is extensively used in
the form of tents, etc.

=Cap-a-pie= (_Fr._). “Head to foot.” In military language of the Middle
Ages, this term was applied to a knight or soldier armed at all points,
with armor for defense and weapons for attack.

=Caparison.= The bridle, saddle, and housing of a military horse.

=Cape Breton.= A large island of British North America, separated from
Nova Scotia by the Gut of Canso. Said to have been discovered by Cabot,
1497; by the English in 1584; taken by the French in 1632, but was
afterwards restored, and again taken in 1745, and retaken in 1748. The
fortress of Louisburg was captured by the English, July 26, 1758, when
the garrison were made prisoners, and 11 French ships were captured or
destroyed. The island was ceded to England, February 10, 1763.

=Cape Coast Castle.= In Southwest Africa; it was settled by the
Portuguese in 1610, but it soon fell to the Dutch; it was demolished by
Admiral Holmes in 1661. All the British factories and shipping along the
coast were destroyed by the Dutch admiral, Ruyter, in 1665. It was
confirmed to the English by the treaty of Breda, in 1667. See ASHANTEES.

=Cape Colony.= See CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.

=Capeline= (_Fr._). A helmet without a visor, nearly in the form of a
round head; it was formerly worn by infantry.

=Cape of Good Hope.= In Southern Africa; long held by the Dutch; was
captured by the British, September 16, 1795; restored to the Dutch at
the general peace, but was again taken by the British, January 9, 1806;
it still belongs to the British, though a severe desultory warfare has
often been carried on with the native tribes.

=Capital.= In technical fortification, is an imaginary line bisecting
the salient angle of a work.

=Capitulation.= The surrender of a fortress or army on stipulated
conditions.

=Caponiere.= A covered passage across the ditch of a fortified place,
for the purpose either of sheltering communication with outworks or of
affording a flanking fire to the ditch in which it stands. If the
caponiere is protected only on one side, it is single; if on both sides,
and covered, it is double.

=Capote.= A heavy coat with a hood, worn by soldiers, sailors, and
others.

=Cappadocia.= An ancient province of Asia Minor, now included in Asiatic
Turkey. It was conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia, and was ruled by
independent kings after the time of Alexander the Great until 17, when
Tiberius reduced it to a Roman province.

=Cappel.= A village of Switzerland. Here the reformer Ulric Zwinglius
was slain in a conflict between the Catholics and the men of Zurich, in
October, 1531.

=Capri= (anc. _Capreæ_). An island near Naples, the sumptuous residence
of Tiberius, memorable for the debaucheries he committed during the last
seven years of his life. Capri was taken by Sir Sidney Smith, April 22,
1806; taken from the British, October 4, 1808, by a French force under
Gen. Lamarque.

=Caps.= The head-dress or shako of such troops as are not supplied with
helmets.

FORAGE CAPS are the cloth undress head-covering of the officer or
soldier.

=Caps.= In gunnery, are the leathern plugs, or bungs, used to prevent
rain or rubbish from collecting in the bore of the guns and howitzers.
There are also cannon caps for similar purposes, used for mortars.

=Caps, Percussion-.= Are small metal covers, inlaid with detonating
powder, and placed on the nipple of a rifle or revolver. The hammer,
striking on the outer surface of the cap, causes the powder to explode
and ignite the charge.

=Cap-square.= A strong plate of iron which comes over the trunnion of a
cannon, and keeps it to its place.

=Capstan.= A strong, massy column of timber, formed somewhat like a
truncated cone, and having its upper extremity pierced to receive bars,
or levers, for winding a rope round it, to move great weights, or to
exert great power; used in moving heavy guns considerable distances;
called also a _crab_.

=Capsules.= Copper caps for percussion-locks.

=Captain.= In a limited and technical sense, is the title of an officer
who commands a troop of cavalry, a company of infantry, or a battery of
artillery. He is the next in rank below a major, and in the U. S. army
is responsible for the camp and garrison equipage, the arms, ammunition,
and clothing of his company.

There is no position in the army that will give as much satisfaction in
return for an honest, capable, and conscientious discharge of his duty
as that of captain or commanding officer of a company. There is a reward
in having done his full duty to his company, that no disappointment of
distinction, no failure can deprive him of; his seniors may overlook him
in giving credits, unfortunate circumstances may defeat his fondest
hopes, and the crown of laurel may never rest upon his brow, but the
reward that follows upon the faithful discharge of his duty to his
company he cannot be deprived of by any disaster, neglect, or injustice.

He receives it whenever he looks upon his little command, and sees the
harmony, comfort, and discipline that prevail; he feels it when he comes
to part with his men in the due course of promotion, or as they
individually take their discharge after a faithful service; he remembers
it when, in after-years, no matter if rank and honors have in the mean
time fallen upon him, he meets an old soldier who, with respect and
affection, still calls him his captain.

He is a small sovereign, powerful and great within his little domain,
but no imbecile monarch ever suffered more from intrigues, factions, and
encroachments than an incapable company commander; no tyrant king must
contend more with rebellions, insurrections, and defections than an
arbitrary and unjust captain, and no wise and beneficent ruler ever
derived more heartfelt homage, more faithful services, or more patriotic
devotion than a just, competent, and faithful commander receives from
his company. They will love him truly, they will obey him faithfully,
and whilst there is life they will stand by him in the hour of battle.

The command of a company divides itself into two kinds of duty,
requiring very different capacity, viz., _Government_ and
_Administration_. The former requires force of character, judgment, and
discretion, and has often been well performed without much capacity for
the latter. Administration requires a certain amount of knowledge
absolutely indispensable to a discharge of a duty.

_Government._--Under this head may be included instruction in tactics
and discipline, the preservation of order and subordination, and the
cultivation of a military spirit and pride in the profession among the
men. It involves the appointing and reduction of non-commissioned
officers, and the subject of rewards and punishments.

_Administration._--Providing the clothing and subsistence, and keeping
the accounts of soldiers in order, that they may be paid, and attending
to the transportation of the men and their supplies, belong under this
head. They involve the keeping of the records of the company, and the
pay and clothing accounts of the men; the drawing and distributing of
supplies, and the care and accountability of public and company
property. The efficient administration of the affairs of a company
greatly facilitates the discipline and government of the company, makes
the men content and cheerful in the performance of their duties, and
attaches them to their commander.

=Captaincy.= The rank, post, or commission of a captain.

=Captaincy-general.= The office, power, territory, or jurisdiction of a
captain-general.

=Captain-General.= This was the proper appellation of a
commander-in-chief till Marlborough’s time, if not later. The rank is
sometimes still given on extraordinary occasions. It was born by the
Marquis of Wellesley during his government in India, and is applied to
the governor-general of the Canadas. In the United States, the governor
of a State is captain-general of the militia. _Captain-lieutenant_, an
officer, who with the rank of a captain, and pay of lieutenant,
commands a company or troop.

=Captainry.= The power, or command, over a certain district;
chieftainship; captainship.

=Captainship.= The condition, rank, post, or authority of a captain or
chief commander. Also skill in military affairs; as, to show good
captainship.

=Captive.= A prisoner taken by force or stratagem in war, by an enemy;
made prisoner, especially in war; kept in bondage or confinement.

=Captivity.= The state of being a prisoner, or of being in the power of
the enemy, by force or the fate of war.

=Captor.= One who takes, as a prisoner or a prize.

=Capture.= The act of taking or seizing by force; seizure; arrest; as,
the capture of an enemy. The thing taken; a prize; prey taken by force,
surprise, or stratagem.

=Captured Property.= As civilization has advanced during the last
centuries, so has likewise steadily advanced, especially in war on land,
the distinction between the private individual belonging to a hostile
country and the hostile country itself, with its men in arms. The
principle has been more and more acknowledged that the unarmed citizen
is to be spared in person, property, and honor, as much as the
exigencies of war will admit. A victorious army appropriates all public
money, seizes all public movable property until further direction by its
government, and sequesters for its own benefit or that of its government
all the revenues of real property belonging to the hostile government or
nation. The title to such real property remains in abeyance during
military occupation, and until the conquest is made complete. As a
general rule, the property belonging to churches, to hospitals, or other
establishments of an exclusively charitable nature, to establishments of
education, or foundations for the promotion of knowledge, whether public
schools, universities, academies of learning, or observatories, museums
of the fine arts, or of a scientific character,--such property is not to
be considered public property; but it may be taxed or used when the
public service may require it. Classical works of art, libraries,
scientific collections, or precious instruments, such as astronomical
telescopes, as well as hospitals, must be secured against all avoidable
injury, even when they are contained in fortified places whilst besieged
or bombarded. And if they can be removed without injury, the ruler of
the conquering state or nation may order them to be seized and removed
for the benefit of the said nation. The ultimate ownership is to be
settled by the ensuing treaty of peace.

The United States acknowledge and protect, in hostile countries occupied
by them, religion and morality; strictly private property; the persons
of the inhabitants, especially those of women; and the sacredness of
domestic relations. Offenses to the contrary are rigorously punished.
This does not interfere with the right of the victorious invader to tax
the people or their property, to levy forced loans, to billet soldiers,
or to appropriate property, especially houses, land, boats or ships, and
churches for temporary and military uses. Private property can be seized
only by way of military necessity, except the owner forfeits his right
to it by committing a crime or offense against the victorious power. All
captures and booty belong, according to the modern law of war, primarily
to the government of the captor. See STORES, MILITARY.

=Capua.= A town of Naples, in the province of Terra di Lavoro; took the
part of Hannibal when his army wintered here after the battle of Cannæ,
216 B.C., and, it is said, became enervated through luxury. In 211, when
the Romans retook the city, they scourged and beheaded all the surviving
senators; many of them having poisoned themselves after a banquet
previous to the surrender of the city. During the Middle Ages, Capua was
successively subjugated by the Greeks, Saracens, Normans, and Germans.
It was restored to Naples in 1424, and was taken, November 2, 1860, by
Garibaldi.

=Capuchons= (_Fr._). A society formed in France from 1181 to 1183, for
the suppression of the brigandage of the _Routiers_; they exterminated
7000 brigands in an engagement near Verdun.

=Caracas= (South America). Part of Venezuela, discovered by Columbus in
1498. It was reduced by arms, and assigned as property to the Welsers,
German merchants, by Charles V.; but for their tyranny they were
dispossessed in 1550, and a crown governor appointed. The province
declared its independence, May 9, 1810.

=Caracole= (Sp. _caracol_). A French term used in horsemanship or the
manège to denote a semi-round or half-turn. When cavalry advance to
charge in battle they sometimes perform caracoles in order to perplex
the enemy, and excite a doubt whether they will attack the flank or the
front.

=Caravaggio.= A walled town of Italy, in the province of Bergamo. Here a
battle was fought, September 15, 1448, between the Milanese and
Venetians, in which the latter were defeated.

=Carberry Hill.= In Southern Scotland; here on June 15, 1567, Lord Hume
and the confederate barons dispersed the royal army under Bothwell, and
took Mary, queen of Scots, prisoner. Bothwell fled.

=Carbine.= A short light musket, used by cavalry. It is so called from a
kind of light horse (Carabins), whose weapon it was. They were employed
by Henry II. of France in 1559.

=Carbineers=, or =Carabineers=. Dragoons armed with carbines, who
occasionally acted as infantry. All regiments of light-armed horse were
formerly called carbineers; but since the establishment of hussars and
lancers, they have, for the most part, lost that denomination.

=Carbon.= See CHARCOAL.

=Carcass.= In gunnery, is a spherical shell having three additional
holes, of the same dimensions as the fuze-hole, pierced at equal
distances apart in the upper hemisphere of the shell, and filled with a
composition which burns with intense power from 8 to 10 minutes, and the
flame issuing from the holes sets fire to everything combustible within
its reach; it is used in bombardments, setting fire to shipping, etc.,
and is projected from cannon like a cannon-shell.

=Carcassonne= (anc. _Carcaso_). A city in the south of France, capital
of the department of Aude. It was taken from the Visigoths by the
Saracens in 724.

=Carchera.= A name given by the Corsicans to their cartridge-belts.

=Cardiff.= A seaport and county town of Wales, in Glamorganshire.
Cardiff is an ancient place, and is surrounded by walls, in which were
four gates. Its castle, once large and strongly fortified, was erected
about the year 1079. Robert, duke of Normandy, was confined in it for 28
years after the battle of Tinchebria. This fortress was afterwards taken
and partially destroyed by Cromwell.

=Cardigan.= A town in Cardiganshire, Wales. It was an important town
about the Norman conquest, and the Normans were frequently defeated
before mastering it. The town suffered much in the struggles between the
Welsh and the Normans.

=Cardinal Points.= The four intersections of the horizon with the
meridian, and the prime vertical circle, or north and south, east and
west. In astrology, the cardinal points are the rising and setting of
the sun, the zenith and nadir.

=Caria.= An ancient province in the extreme southwest of Asia Minor. It
was conquered by Cyrus, 546 B.C.; by Dercyllidas, a Lacedæmonian, 397.
Caria was absorbed in the Turkish empire.

=Carignan.= A small town about 12 miles from Sedan, department of
Ardennes, Northeast France. At the plain Douzy, near this place and the
encampment of Vaux, a part of MacMahon’s army, retreating before the
Germans, turned round and made a stand, August 31, 1870. After a long
and severe engagement, in which the positions were taken and retaken
several times, the Germans turned the flank of their enemies, who were
compelled to fall back upon Sedan, where they were finally overcome,
September 1.

=Caripi.= A kind of cavalry in the Turkish army, which, to the number of
1000, are not slaves, nor bred up in the seraglio, like the rest, but
are generally Moors, or renegade Christians, who have obtained the rank
of horse-guards to the Grand Seignior.

=Carisbrooke Castle.= In the Isle of Wight, England; it is said to have
been a British and Roman fortress; was taken in 530, by Cerdic, founder
of the kingdom of the West Saxons. Here Charles I. was imprisoned in
1647.

=Carizmians.= Were fierce shepherds living near the Caspian Sea; having
been expelled by the Tartars, they invaded Syria in 1243. The union of
the sultans of Aleppo, Hems, and Damascus was insufficient to stem the
torrent, and the Christian military orders were nearly exterminated in a
single battle in 1244. In October they took Jerusalem. They were totally
defeated in 1247.

=Carlaverock Castle.= In Southern Scotland; it was taken by Edward I. in
July, 1300.

=Carlisle.= A frontier town of England, in the county of Cumberland,
wherein for many ages a strong garrison was kept. Just below this town
the famous Picts’ wall began, which crossed the whole island to
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and here also ended the great Roman highway. The
castle was destroyed by the Danes, 875, restored in 1092 by William II.;
was the prison of Mary, queen of Scots, in 1568. Taken by the
Parliamentary forces, in 1645, and by the young Pretender, November 15,
1745; retaken by the Duke of Cumberland, December 30, same year. The
cathedral was almost ruined by Cromwell in 1648.

=Carlisle.= Capital of Cumberland Co., Pa. This town was shelled by the
Confederates, July, 1863.

=Carlow.= A town in Southeastern Ireland; the castle, erected by King
John, surrendered after a desperate siege to Rory Oge O’Moore, in 1577;
again to the Parliamentary forces in 1650. Here the royal troops routed
the insurgents, May, 1798.

=Carlowitz=, or =Karlowitz=. A town of the Austrian empire, on the
Danube. Here, in 1699, a treaty was concluded between Turkey and
Austria; and here Prince Eugène defeated the Turks in 1716.

=Carlsruhe=, or =Karlsruhe=. Capital of the grand duchy of Baden; built
by the Margrave Charles William, 1715. It was occupied by the Prussians,
June 25, 1849, who aided to suppress the revolution, and enabled the
grand duke to return, August 18, 1849.

=Carmagnola.= A town of Piedmont, on the river Po. It was captured by
Catinat troops in 1691; taken by the French Republican troops in 1795.

=Carmel, Knights of the Order of Our Lady of Mount.= A semi-religious
order of knighthood instituted by Henry IV. of France, and incorporated
with the order of the Knights of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. The order
consisted of 100 gentlemen, all French, who were to attend the king in
his wars, and had considerable revenues assigned them.

=Carnatic.= A district of Southern Hindostan, extending along the whole
coast of Coromandel. Hyder Ali entered the Carnatic with 80,000 troops
in 1780, and was defeated by the British under Sir Eyre Coote, July 1
and August 27, 1781, and decisively overthrown, June 2, 1782. The
Carnatic was overrun by Tippoo in 1790. The British have possessed
entire authority over the Carnatic since 1801.

=Carnifex Ferry.= Over the Gauley River, West Virginia. A force of about
5000 Confederates under Gen. Floyd, who occupied a strong position here,
became engaged with a Federal brigade of the troops under Gen. Rosecrans
on the afternoon of September 10, 1861, when some severe fighting
occurred until night put an end to the contest. The Federals intended to
renew the attack in the morning with a stronger force, but during the
night Gen. Floyd withdrew his troops across the river, burned the
ferry-boats and the bridge which he had constructed, thus cutting off
pursuit, but leaving his camp, baggage, small-arms, and munitions of war
in the hands of the Federals.

=Carolina, North.= See NORTH CAROLINA.

=Carolina, South.= See SOUTH CAROLINA.

=Caroling.= A custom of the ancients before going to war, which
consisted of singing, etc.

=Carpet Knight.= A man who obtains knighthood on a pretense for services
in which he never participated.

=Carpi.= In Northern Italy; here Prince Eugène and the Imperialists
defeated the French, July 9, 1701.

=Carquois= (_Fr._). A quiver of iron, wood, leather, etc., which was
worn slung over the right shoulder.

=Carrago.= A kind of fortification, consisting of a great number of
wagons placed round an army. It was employed by barbarous nations, as,
for instance, the Scythians and Goths.

=Carreau=, =Quarreau=, or =Carre= (_Fr._). A bolt or dart, with a large
steel head, for a cross-bow.

=Carriage.= A gun-carriage is designed to support its piece when fired,
and also to transport cannon from one point to another. It consists of
two cheeks, connected together and with a stock by assembling bolts. The
front part supports the piece, and rests upon an axle-tree furnished
with wheels, the rear end of the stock or trail resting on the ground.
See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR.

=Carriage, Casemate.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, SEA-COAST CARRIAGES.

=Carriage, Field-.= See FIELD-CARRIAGE.

=Carriage, Mountain.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR.

=Carriage, Prairie.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR.

=Carriage, Sea-coast.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR.

=Carriage, Siege.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR.

=Carrical=, or =Karical=. A seaport town of Hindostan, on the coast of
Coromandel. It was formerly strongly fortified, but is now thoroughly
dismantled. It came into possession of the French in 1759; was taken by
the English in 1803; and restored to the French in 1814.

=Carrick.= An old Gaelic term for a castle or fortress, as well as for a
rock in the sea.

=Carrickfergus.= A seaport town in the county of Antrim, Ireland. Its
castle is supposed to have been built by Hugh de Lacy in 1178. The town
surrendered to the Duke of Schömberg, August 28, 1689. The castle
surrendered to Thurot, a French naval officer, in 1760.

=Carrick’s Ford.= Over the Cheat River, Virginia. On July 13, 1861, a
force of Confederates under Gen. Garnett, retreating from Laurel Hill,
were pursued and here attacked by Union troops under Gen. Morris, and
after a few attempts to make a stand, were completely routed, and Gen.
Garnett killed.

=Carroccio= (_Ital._). A very large four-wheeled carriage, which was
used by the Crusaders during the Middle Ages. On its platform, which was
large enough to hold 50 persons, was erected a tower surmounted with a
cross and a standard, and to it was attached a bell, which indicated the
passing of the carroccio. Before engaging in battle, an effigy of Christ
of life size was placed on the platform and at its feet an altar; then a
mass was held. A number of knights guarded it, and it was drawn by oxen
richly caparisoned. Its invention is attributed to the people of
Lombardy.

=Carron.= A village in Stirlingshire, Scotland, on a stream of the same
name, falling into the river Forth. It is noted for its extensive
iron-works. The carronade, a peculiar kind of gun, derives its name from
this place.

=Carrousel.= A species of knightly exercise in imitation of the
tournament, common in the courts of Europe till the beginning of the
18th century. It usually consisted in tests of skill in horsemanship,
and in the use of the lance, sword, and pistol, the competitors being
mostly dressed as were the knights of former times.

=Cart.= In a military sense, is a vehicle mounted on two wheels, and
drawn by hand or by horses or oxen. See HAND-CART, HAND SLING-CART.

=Cartagena.= A city and fortified seaport of Spain, is in the province
of Murcia, and on a bay of the Mediterranean. It was built by Hasdrubal,
the Carthaginian general, 242 B.C.; taken by Scipio, 210. It was
subsequently taken by the Goths, and did not begin to rise into
importance again till the time of Philip II. It was taken by a British
force under Sir John Leake in 1706; retaken by the Duke of Berwick,
1707.

=Cartagena=, or =Carthagena=. A fortified city of New Granada, South
America. It was taken by the French in 1544, and subsequently by the
English under Sir Francis Drake, in 1585, who plundered it and set it on
fire; pillaged by the French in 1697; bombarded by Admiral Vernon in
March, 1740; and unsuccessfully besieged by the English in 1741. In the
contest with the mother-country, Cartagena was first besieged by
Bolivar, and afterwards by Morillo, to whom it surrendered. It was
subsequently reduced by the independent troops.

=Carte=, or =Quarte=. A movement of the sword in fencing, as tierce and
carte. Also a movement of the rifle bayonet drill.

=Carte-blanche.= In a military sense, means a full and absolute power
which is lodged in the hands of a general of an army, to act according
to the best of his judgment, without waiting for superior instructions
or orders. It likewise strictly means a blank paper, to be filled up
with such conditions as the person to whom it is sent thinks proper.

=Cartel.= As a military term it is used to denote an agreement between
two belligerents for the exchange of prisoners.

=Cartel-ship.= A vessel used in exchanging prisoners or carrying
proposals to an enemy.

=Carthage.= An ancient and celebrated city in Africa, the renowned rival
of Rome. It was founded by the Phœnicians, and was one of the latest
settlements made by them on the African coast of the Mediterranean,
about the middle of the 9th century B.C. No record of the early history
of Carthage has been preserved. First alliance of Carthaginians and
Romans, 509 B.C.; the Carthaginians in Sicily were defeated at Himera by
Gelo, 480 B.C.; they took Agrigentum, 406 B.C., and were defeated by
Agathocles, 310 B.C. The first Punic war began (which lasted
twenty-three years) in 264 B.C., and ended in 241 B.C. Hamilcar Barcas
was sent into Spain, and took with him his son, the famous Hannibal, 237
B.C. Hannibal conquered Spain as far as the Iberus, 219 B.C. The second
Punic war began (which lasted seventeen years) in 218 B.C., and ended in
201 B.C. The third Punic war commenced 149 or 150 B.C.; Carthage taken
and burned by order of the senate, 146 B.C. A colony settled at Carthage
by C. Gracchus, 122 B.C.; its rebuilding planned by Julius Cæsar, 46
B.C., and executed by his successors; it was taken by Genseric the
Vandal in 439; retaken by Belisarius, 533; taken and destroyed by
Hassan, the Saracenic governor of Egypt, 698.

=Carthage.= The capital of Jasper Co., Mo., on Spring River. Near here,
on July 5, 1861, an engagement took place between some of Gen. Lyon’s
troops under Col. Sigel, and a superior force of Confederates under Gen.
Rains and Col Parsons. The Union loss was 13 killed and 21 wounded.

=Carthoun.= The ancient cannon royal, carrying a 66-pound ball, with a
point-blank range of 185 paces, and an extreme one of about 2000. It was
12 feet long and of 8¹⁄₂ inches diameter of bore.

=Cartouch.= A roll or case of paper, etc., holding a charge for a
fire-arm.

=Cartouch.= In gunnery, a case of wood, about 3 inches thick at the
bottom, bound about with marline, holding about 400 musket-balls,
besides 8 or 10 iron balls of a pound each, to be discharged from a
howitzer, for the defense of a pass, etc. It also implies an article
made of leather, to sling over the shoulder of the gunner, who therein
carries the ammunition from the tumbril for the service of the
artillery, when at exercise in the field.

=Cart-piece.= An early battering cannon mounted on a peculiar cart.

=Cartridge.= _For cannon_, is the powder charge and its case. The case
is a cylindrical bag of flannel, wildbore, or serge, in which the charge
is placed. The mouth is closed by tying with twine, forming the _choke_,
which is always turned towards the muzzle when the gun is charged. For
chambered pieces the mouth of the cartridge-bag is closed with a
_cartridge-block_ to give it a proper form. For some services the
cartridge is attached to the projectile, in others it is carried
separately. See ORDNANCE, AMMUNITION FOR.

For _small-arms_, is the complete charge when the powder and lead are in
the same case; if separate, it applies only to the powder and its case.
A case containing powder only is called a _blank cartridge_.
Cartridge-cases for military small-arms were formerly made of paper. In
loading the gun the case was torn and the powder and ball put in
separately. By using an inflammable paper the cartridge was afterwards
used entire, especially in pistols and breech-loaders. Paper cases made
very strong and reinforced by metallic heads are still much used in
breech-loading shot-guns. Linen or cloth cases were also used at one
period.

The introduction of breech-loaders into the military service has led to
the universal adoption of _metallic cartridges_. The cases are cylinders
of copper or brass, closed at the breech end, and holding both powder
and bullet, the latter being retained in the case by a slight crimp. A
small quantity of fulminate in the base inflames the powder upon being
struck by the firing-pin. England is behind all other nations in the use
of the _Boxer cartridge_, the case of which is made by a _wrapping_ of
thin sheet-brass. In the manufacture of metallic cartridges the United
States leads the world. Millions were supplied the Turks in their late
war with Russia by the Winchester Arms Company, of New Haven, Conn.
Metallic cartridge are _reloading_ and _single fire_. _Reloading_
cartridges have an external primer, which can be renewed for successive
loadings. The _single fire_ have the fulminate inside the base, and
cannot readily be reloaded. The copper cartridges for the U. S. service
rifle, made at Frankford Arsenal, Pa., are of this latter class.

=Cartridge-bag.= See CARTRIDGE.

=Cartridge-bags.= See ORDNANCE, AMMUNITION FOR, AMMUNITION FOR FIELD
SERVICE.

=Cartridge-belt.= A belt for carrying small-arm cartridges. A form
extensively used in the Western United States, called the
_prairie-belt_, has a number of leather or canvas loops sewed on the
outside in which the cartridges are stuck.

=Cartridge-block.= See ORDNANCE, AMMUNITION FOR, STRAPPED AMMUNITION.

=Cartridge, Bottle.= A metallic cartridge, so called from its shape. It
contains a larger charge than the ordinary cylindrical cartridge for the
same caliber. The cartridge used in the Martini-Henry is of this shape.

=Cartridge-box.= A leathern case, with cells for cartridges, which are
protected by a flap of leather. This box is suspended by a leathern
strap, which passes over the left shoulder and under the right arm of
the wearer, or is suspended from the waist-belt, as in the U. S.
service.

=Cartridge, Buck-and-ball.= A cartridge containing a round musket-ball
and 3 buckshot, formerly much used in smooth-bore muskets.

=Cartridge, Buckshot.= Containing a charge of buckshot. Formerly used in
muskets, but now obsolete for military purposes.

=Cartridge, Centre Primed.= A metallic cartridge in which the fulminate
is placed in the centre of the cartridge head or base.

=Cartridge, Multi-ball.= A metallic cartridge recently proposed by Capt.
E. M. Wright, U. S. Ordnance Corps, in which two or more bullets or
pieces of lead are substituted for the ordinary bullet, with the idea of
doing more execution at short ranges.

=Cartridge-paper.= A stout paper formerly used in making military
cartridges.

=Cartridge, Reloading.= See CARTRIDGE.

=Cartridge, Rim-fire.= A metallic cartridge in which the fulminate is
placed in the rim surrounding the head. This rim being struck at any
point, explodes the powder. Formerly much used in pistols and magazine
guns. These cartridges are not _reloading_.

=Cartridge, Single-fire.= See CARTRIDGE.

=Casale=, or =Casal=. A town of Piedmont, the capital of a province of
the same name, on the river Po. Here the French defeated the Spaniards
in 1640. In May, 1859, an Austrian reconnoitring party, who had advanced
from Vercelli, were here repulsed by the Sardinian Bersaglieri
(riflemen).

=Casal Nova.= A village in Spain, where a corps of Lord Wellington’s
army had an affair with the French troops under Marshal Masséna, during
their retreat from Portugal on March 14, 1811.

=Cascabel.= In gunnery, is the projection in rear of the breech, and is
composed of the _knob_, the _neck_, and the _fillet_. It is used to
facilitate the handling of the piece in mounting and dismounting it, and
moving it when off its carriage.

=Cascans.= In fortification, are holes in the form of wells, serving as
entrances to galleries, or giving vent to the enemy’s mines.

=Case-hardening.= The process of converting the surface of iron into
steel. Formerly much used in making small-arms. The parts to be
hardened, such as the _hammer_, _tumbler_, etc., were inclosed in an
airtight iron box, filled with charcoal, bones, particles of horn, or
other carbonizing substance. The box and its contents were then
submitted to prolonged heat. The process is that of incomplete
cementation (which see).

=Casemate.= Was originally a loop-holed gallery excavated in a bastion,
from which the garrison could fire on an enemy who had obtained
possession of the ditch without risk of loss to themselves. The term was
afterwards applied to a bomb-proof vault in a fortress, which is
designed for the protection of the garrison, without direct reference to
the annoyance of the enemy. A casemated battery consists of such a vault
or vaults, with openings for the guns.

=Casemate Carriage.= A gun-carriage used in casemates. See ORDNANCE,
CARRIAGES FOR.

=Casemate Gun.= A gun mounted in a casemate.

=Casemates Nouvelles= (_Fr._). Arched batteries which are constructed
under all the openings of revetments or ramparts. The different forts of
Cherbourg are defended by these casemates; the works erected around
Dover Castle come likewise under this description; the works at Fort
Columbus, N. Y., are erected on the same principle.

=Casemate Truck.= Consists of a stout frame of wood mounted upon three
barbette traverse wheels. The front wheel is pivoted so as to change
direction. It is used to move cannon and heavy weights through posterns
and along casemate galleries.

=Casernes.= In fortification, are buildings for the soldiers of the
garrison to live in; generally erected between the houses of fortified
towns and the rampart. In a general acceptation, casernes signify
barracks.

=Case-shot.= In the U. S. service, a case-shot is a hollow cast-iron
projectile filled with musket-balls. The projectile has thinner walls
than the ordinary shell. To fill it a tube is inserted in the fuze-hole,
the balls are introduced, and melted sulphur or rosin is poured in to
fill up the interstices and keep the balls in position. When this has
solidified the tube is withdrawn, leaving a vacant space for a small
bursting charge. This description answers for the two kinds used,--the
spherical case for the 12-pounder smooth-bore and the oblong case for
rifle guns. Case-shot should be burst in the air a short distance in
front of the troops fired upon. Time-fuzes are, therefore, used with
both; the Bormann-fuze for the former, and the paper fuze for the
latter. In Europe this ammunition is called _shrapnel_, from the
inventor. There the term case-shot is applied to what is called in the
United States _canister_,--that is, a thin case filled with bullets,
used for short range without fuzes, the case being disrupted in the gun.

=Cashier.= To dismiss from the service with ignominy. An officer thus
dismissed is understood to be excluded from the service thereafter. A
dismissed officer may be restored; a cashiered officer is deemed
unworthy of the indulgence.

=Cashmere.= A province of Northern India; was subdued by the Mohammedans
in the 16th century; by the Afghans in 1752; by the Sikhs in 1819; and
ceded to the British in 1846, who gave it to the Maharajah Gholab-Singh,
with a nominal sovereignty.

=Casing.= The cast-iron case of converted guns (which see).

=Casks, Raft of.= See RAFT OF CASKS.

=Casque=, or =Cask=. A piece of defensive armor, to cover and protect
the head and neck in battle; a helmet.

=Cassano.= A town of Lombardy, 16 miles from Milan, on the river Adda.
In 1259, Eccelino Romana, chief of the Ghibelines, was here defeated and
killed. In 1705 the French under the Duke of Vendôme gained a victory
over the Imperialists, commanded by Prince Eugène; and in 1799, Suwarrow
inflicted a defeat on the French under Moreau.

=Cassel.= A city of Germany, 90 miles northeast from
Frankfort-on-the-Main. It was the capital of Westphalia under Napoleon
I.; besieged by the allies in 1761; taken by the allies November 1,
1762; captured by the Russians in September, 1813.

=Cassel.= A town of France, department of the North. On April 11, 1677,
the Marshal de Luxemburg near here defeated the Prince of Orange, who
lost 4000 dead and 3000 prisoners. The French occupied Cassel, June 19,
1707.

=Casse-tête= (_Fr._). A mace or war-club, made of very hard wood, used
formerly in savage warfare.

=Cassine.= A small house, especially in the open country; applied also
to a house standing alone, where soldiers may lie hid, or may take a
position.

=Cas, St.= A village on the coast of France, in the department Côte du
Nord. Here, in 1758, a landing of the British under Lord Cavendish was
repulsed, and 100 years afterwards a column was inaugurated to
commemorate the event.

=Castalla.= A town of Spain, 24 miles northwest of Alicante. The
Spaniards under O’Donnell were here defeated by the French under Delort,
August 21, 1812.

=Casteggio.= A town of Northern Italy, in the division of Alessandria.
On June 9, 1800, the battle of Montebello was gained by the French under
Lannes over the Austrians in the neighborhood of this place. On May 20,
1859, another engagement was fought here between the Austrians under
Count Stadion and the French and Sardinian troops, in which the latter
were victorious.

=Castel-a-Mare.= A seaport town of Sicily. Richelieu defeated the
Spanish fleet here in 1648; and in 1799 a battle was fought between the
French under Marshal Macdonald and the allied English and Neapolitans.

=Castel Fidardo.= Near Ancona, Central Italy. Near here Gen. Lamoricière
and the papal army of 11,000 men were totally defeated by the Sardinian
general Cialdini, September 18, 1860. Lamoricière with a few horsemen
fled to Ancona, then besieged; on September 29 he and the garrison
surrendered.

=Castellan.= A governor or constable of a castle.

=Castellated.= Adorned with turrets and battlements, like a castle.

=Castellation.= The act of fortifying a house and rendering it a castle.
Now obsolete.

=Castelnaudary.= A town of France, department of Aude. It suffered
greatly in the wars of the Middle Ages, and under its walls the Duke of
Montmorency was made prisoner by the royal troops in 1632.

=Castiglione.= A fortified town of Lombardy, 22 miles northwest from
Mantua. Here, in 1796, the French under Augereau gained a decisive
victory over the Austrians. The French commander was afterwards made, on
account of this battle, Duc de Castiglione. In 1859 the battle of
Solferino also occurred in its neighborhood.

=Castillejos.= In Northern Africa; here, in January, 1860, was fought
the first decisive action of the war between Spain and Morocco. Gen.
Prim, after a vigorous resistance, repulsed the Moors under Muley Abbas,
and advanced towards Tetuan.

=Castillon.= A town of France, in the department of Gironde. It is
celebrated as the scene of the battle between the forces of Henry VI. of
England and Charles VII. of France, in July, 1453, in which the English
met with a signal defeat, their leader, the Earl of Shrewsbury, and his
son being slain.

=Casting.= The rejection of horses deemed unfit for further cavalry use.

=Casting Cannon.= See ORDNANCE, CONSTRUCTION OF.

=Cast Iron.= See ORDNANCE, METALS FOR.

=Castle.= A name given to a building constructed as a dwelling, as well
as for the purpose of repelling attack. The name is especially given to
buildings of this kind constructed in Europe in the Middle Ages, and
which were generally surrounded by a moat, foss, or ditch.

=Castlebar.= A town of Ireland. French troops under Humbert landed at
Killala, and, assisted by Irish insurgents here, compelled the king’s
troops under Lake to retreat, August 27, 1798; but were compelled to
surrender at Ballinamuck.

=Castlecomer.= A town of Ireland; in the rebellion of 1798 this town was
attacked by the rebels, and nearly destroyed by fire.

=Castle-guard.= The guard which defends a castle.

=Castles.= In heraldry, castles are often given as charges in the
shields of persons who have reduced them, or been the first to mount
their walls in an assault.

=Cast-metal Gun.= See ORDNANCE, CAST-METAL CANNON.

=Castrametation.= Is the art of laying out camps, and of placing the
troops so that the different arms of the service shall afford support to
each other in the best manner.

=Cast Steel.= See ORDNANCE, METALS FOR.

=Casualties.= In the military service, is a word which includes all
losses in numerical strength of officers by death, dismissal, or
resignation, and of enlisted men by death, desertion, or discharge; also
all losses in fighting strength caused by wounds.

=Casus Belli.= A Latin phrase used with reference to any event, or
complication between sovereign powers, which gives rise to a declaration
of war.

=Catafalco.= In ancient military architecture, a scaffold of timber,
decorated with sculpture, paintings, etc., for supporting the coffin of
a deceased hero during the funeral solemnity.

=Catalans.= The inhabitants of Catalonia, Spain. Their language,
costume, and habits are quite distinct from those of the rest of their
countrymen. In energy, industry, and intelligence they greatly surpass
the rest of the Spaniards. They were considered brave warriors.

=Catalaunian Plain.= The ancient name of the wide plain surrounding
Châlons-sur-Marne, in the old province of Campagne, France, celebrated
as the field of battle where the West Goths, and the forces under the
Roman general Aetius, gained a great victory over Attila in 451. A wild
tradition tells that three days after the great fight, the ghosts of the
fallen myriads appeared on the plain, and renewed the conflict.

=Catalonia.= An old province of Western Spain, was settled by the Goths
and Alani about 409; conquered by the Saracens, 712; recovered by Pepin
and Charlemagne; united with Aragon in 1137. It formed part of the
Spanish marches and the territory of the Count of Barcelona.

=Catania= (anc. _Catana_). A town near Mount Etna, Sicily. The ancient
city was founded by the Phœnicians or Greeks, and was nearly as old as
Rome. It was taken by the Athenian general Nicias about 413 B.C., and
was an important city under the Romans. In August, 1802, the town was
held by Garibaldi and his volunteers, in opposition to the Italian
government. He was captured on August 29.

=Cataphract.= The old Roman term for a horseman in complete armor.

=Cataphracta.= In the ancient military art, a piece of heavy defensive
armor, formed of cloth or leather, fortified with iron scales or links,
wherewith sometimes only the breast, sometimes the whole body, and
sometimes the horse too, was covered.

=Catapult= (Lat. _catapulta_). An engine of war used by the ancients,
somewhat resembling a cross-bow. In the catapult a string or rope,
suddenly freed from great tension, gave a powerful impulse to an arrow
placed in a groove. There were great catapults, fixed upon a scaffold
with wheels, which were used in sieges, and small ones, carried in the
hand, which were employed in the field.

=Cataract.= A portcullis.

=Catawba Indians.= A tribe of aborigines who formerly inhabited the
Carolinas. A remnant still exists on a reservation on the Catawba River.
See INDIANS AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Cateau Cambresis.= In Northern France, where on April 2 and 3, 1559,
peace was concluded between Henry II. of France, Philip II. of Spain,
and Elizabeth of England. France ceded Savoy, Corsica, and nearly 200
forts in Italy and the Low Countries to Philip.

=Caterva.= In ancient military writings, a term used in speaking of the
Gaulish or Celtiberian armies, denoting a body of 6000 armed men. The
word is also used to denote a party of soldiers in disarray; in
opposition to _cohort_ or _turma_, which signify in good order.

=Cat-o’-nine-tails.= An instrument of punishment formerly used to flog
offenders in the army, consisting of nine pieces of line or cord
fastened to a piece of thick rope, and having three knots at intervals.

=Cattaro.= A fortified town of Dalmatia, Austria, at the bottom of the
Gulf of Cattaro. This town was captured by the British in 1813, and till
1814 belonged successively to Austria and France.

=Catti.= An ancient German tribe, attacked but not subdued by the
Romans; absorbed by the Franks in the 3d century.

=Caudine Forks.= Two narrow mountain-gorges or defiles near the town of
Caudium, in ancient Samnium. They are celebrated in connection with a
humiliating disaster which the Roman army suffered in 321 B.C.

=Caution.= An explanation given previous to the word of command, by
which soldiers are called to attention, that they may execute any given
movement with unanimity and correctness.

=Cavalcade.= In military history, implies a pompous procession of
horsemen, equipages, etc., by way of parade, to grace a triumph, public
entry, or the like.

=Cavalier.= Originally meant any horse-soldier, but in English history
is the name given to the party which adhered to King Charles I., in
opposition to the Roundheads, or friends of the Parliament.

=Cavalier.= In fortification, is a defense-work constructed on the
terre-plein, or level ground of a bastion. It rises to a height varying
from 8 to 12 feet above the rampart, and has a parapet about 6 feet
high. Its uses are to command any rising ground held by the enemy within
cannon-shot, and to guard the curtain, or plain wall between two
bastions, from being enfiladed. A cavalier battery--used in siege
operations--is a battery of which the terre-plein, or platform of earth
on which the gun stands, is above the ordinary level of the ground.

=Cavalot.= An obsolete cannon carrying a ball weighing one pound.

=Cavalry.= That part of a military force which consists of troops that
serve on horseback. In European armies cavalry are generally classed as
heavy, medium, and light,--cuirassiers and dragoons, lancers, hussars,
etc. In the U. S. service all mounted soldiers are simply called
cavalry.

=Caveating.= In fencing, implies a motion whereby a person in an instant
brings his sword, which was presented to one side of his adversary, to
the opposite side.

=Cavesson.= A sort of nose-band of leather or iron, which is put on the
nose of a horse, to assist in breaking or training him.

=Cavin.= In military affairs, implies a natural hollow, sufficiently
capacious to lodge a body of troops, and facilitate their approach to a
place. If it be within musket-shot, it is a place of arms ready made,
and serves for opening the trenches, free from the enemy’s shot.

=Cavriana.= A village of Northern Italy. The tower of this place formed
one of the principal positions of the centre of the Austrian army, from
which it was driven by the Franco-Sardinian forces, under Napoleon III.
and Victor Emmanuel, at the battle of Solferino, June 24, 1859.

=Cawnpoor=, or =Cawnpore=. A town of Hindostan, on the right bank of the
Ganges. It is an important British military station. It was garrisoned
during the mutiny in June, 1857, by native troops under Sir Hugh
Wheeler; these troops broke out into revolt. Nana Sahib, who had long
lived on friendly terms with the British, joined the rebels; he took
Cawnpoor, June 26, after a three weeks’ siege, and in spite of a treaty,
massacred great numbers of the British, without respect to age or sex,
in the most cruel manner. Gen. Havelock defeated Nana Sahib July 16, at
Futtehpore, and retook Cawnpoor, July 17. Sir Colin Campbell defeated
the rebels here on December 6, following.

=Cayenne.= French Guiana, South America; settled by the French, 1604-35.
It afterwards came successively into the hands of the English (1654),
French, and Dutch. The last were expelled by the French in 1677. Cayenne
was taken by the British, January 12, 1809, but was restored to the
French in 1814.

=Cedar Creek.= In Northern Virginia. While encamped on this creek on the
morning of October 19, 1864, the army of Gen. Sheridan was suddenly
attacked before daylight by the Confederate troops under Gen. Early, its
left flank turned, and the whole line driven back in confusion about 4
miles, with the loss of 24 pieces of artillery. Gen. Sheridan, who was
at Winchester on his return from Washington, on hearing of this
disaster, hastened to the scene of action, reformed his corps, and
awaited the attack of the enemy, which was made and handsomely repulsed
about 1 P.M. About 3 P.M. Sheridan attacked the enemy and completely
routed him, recovering his own artillery and capturing 30 pieces
besides, thus converting into a brilliant victory what threatened to be
a great disaster. About 2000 prisoners and 300 wagons and ambulances
fell into Sheridan’s hands, and many of his own men who had been taken
prisoners in the morning were recovered.

=Cedar Mountain.= A sugar-loaf eminence about 2 miles west of Mitchell’s
Station, Culpeper Co., Va. On August 9, 1862, a sanguinary conflict took
place here between the Confederate forces under Gens. Jackson and Ewell,
and part of Gen. Pope’s army under Gen. Banks, night putting an end to
the contest. The Federals being largely outnumbered, suffered severely,
and fell back about a mile, but without disorder. Their loss was about
1500, 300 of whom were taken prisoners. A considerable quantity of
ammunition, stores, etc., also fell into the hands of the Confederates.

=Celeres.= The life-guards which attended Romulus in the infancy of
Rome, were so called. They were laid aside by Numa Pompilius. Celeres
were properly distinguished from other troops, by being lightly armed
and acting always on foot.

=Cells.= Places of solitary confinement in which soldiers are placed, as
punishment for serious crimes.

=Celtiberi=, or =Celtiberians=. An ancient and warlike people of Spain,
who are renowned in history for their long and obstinate resistance to
the Romans. In the second Punic war, after giving important aid to the
Carthaginians, they were induced by the generosity of Scipio to accept
the alliance of Rome. They revolted against Rome in 181 B.C., but were
appeased by Gracchus in 179. War was renewed in 153, and continued with
varying success until after the capture of Numantia, 134 B.C. In spite
of this great blow the Celtiberi again renewed the war under Sertorius,
and it was only after his fall that they began to adopt the Roman
language, dress, and manners.

=Cement.= Hydraulic cements are much used in building permanent
fortifications. The cement used by the Romans in their great sea-walls,
aqueducts, etc., which are still standing as monuments of their civil
engineering, was _pozzuolana_, a volcanic earth from near _Baiæ_, Italy.
It is still an article of export from Italy. The most noted modern
cement is Portland, made artificially in England by burning a mixture of
the chalk and clay from the valley of the Medway.

=Cementation.= In metallurgy, is the process of converting metals by
absorption under great heat. Specially applied to the conversion of iron
into steel by causing it to absorb carbon. The iron bars are imbedded in
charcoal and exposed to prolonged heat in a closed furnace. The
qualities of the resulting steel vary with the degree and duration of
the heating. The bars, when removed, are called _blistered steel_ from
their appearance. See ORDNANCE, METALS FOR, BLISTERED STEEL.

=Cenotaph.= The empty tomb of a hero, or monument erected in honor of a
person, without the body of the deceased being interred in or near it.

=Centesimation.= In ancient military history, a mild kind of military
punishment, in cases of desertion, mutiny, and the like, when only every
one hundredth man was executed.

=Central America.= Includes the republics of Guatemala, San Salvador,
Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica (which see). They declared their
independence September 21, 1821, and separated from the Mexican
Confederation July 21, 1823. The states made a treaty of union between
themselves March 21, 1847. There has been among them since much anarchy
and bloodshed.

=Centre.= A point equally distant from the extremities of a line,
figure, or body; the middle point or place of anything.

=Centre of an Army.= The body of troops occupying the place in the line
between the wings. See TARGET.

=Centre of Gravity.= The point of a body about which all its parts are
balanced. This is a matter of great importance in cannon, both for
mechanical manœuvres and for ordinary handling. In all large guns in the
United States, and in many in Europe, the axis of the trunnions passes
through the centre of gravity of the gun. Such guns have no
preponderance, and need no support in firing except the trunnions. This
innovation was introduced by the genius of Rodman, and brought many
advantages in the handling of heavy guns. In projectiles, the _centre of
gravity_, or _inertia_, is also a thing of moment. Spherical projectiles
in which this point does not coincide with the _centre of figure_ are
said to be eccentric, and are subject to certain deviations (see
PROJECTILES); _deviation_ of the relative position of these points
influences the flight also of rifle projectiles.

=Centre of the Bastion.= In fortification, is the intersection made by
the two demi-gorges.

=Centrifugal Gun.= A form of machine gun in which balls are thrown from
a chambered disk rotating with great speed.

=Centrobaric Method.= The method ordinarily used to determine by
calculation the centre of gravity of a projected gun. The principle used
is that the volume generated by any surface in revolving about a fixed
axis is measured by the product of the surface into the path described
by its centre of gravity. The moments of the weights of the several
parts are referred to an axis usually taken tangent to the knob of the
cascabel. The sum of these moments, divided by the weight of the piece,
gives the distance of the centre of gravity from the assumed axis. In
homogeneous guns, the volumes of the several parts can be used instead
of the weights.

=Centurion.= A military officer among the ancient Romans, who commanded
a (_centum_) hundred men.

=Century.= In an ancient military sense, meant a hundred soldiers, who
were employed in working the battering-ram.

=Cephalonia.= One of the Ionian Islands; was taken from the Ætolians by
the Romans 189 B.C., and given to the Athenians by Hadrian in 135. It
was conquered by the Normans in 1146, afterwards passed into the
possession of the Venetians, and was taken by the English in 1819.

=Cephisus.= A river in Attica, near which Walter de Brienne, duke of
Athens, was defeated and slain by the Catalans in 1311.

=Cercelée=, or =Recercelée=. In heraldry, is a cross circling or curling
at the ends, like a ram’s horn.

=Cercle= (_Grand-cercle_), Fr. A form observed under the old government
of France, by which it was directed that every evening at a specific
hour the sergeants and corporals of brigade should assemble to receive
orders, the former standing in front of the latter. Subsequent to the
grand cercle, a smaller one was made in each regiment, when general or
regimental orders were again repeated to the sergeants of each regiment,
and from them communicated to the officers of the several companies.

=Ceremonies, Stated Military.= Exercises, such as parades, reviews,
inspections, escorts of the color, escorts of honor, funeral honors,
guard-mounting, etc.

=Cerignola.= A town of South Italy, in the province of Capitanata. Here,
in 1503, the French were defeated by the Spaniards, and the Duke of
Nemours, who commanded the former, was slain.

=Cerro Gordo.= A celebrated mountain-pass in Mexico, about 60 miles
northwest of Vera Cruz. Here an army of about 12,000 Mexicans under
Santa Anna was totally defeated by about 8000 U. S. troops under Gen.
Scott, April 18, 1847. The Mexicans lost about 1000 killed and wounded,
besides 3000 prisoners; the American loss was 431 killed and wounded.

=Certificate of Disability.= See DISABILITY.

=Certificate of Merit.= See MERIT, CERTIFICATE OF.

=Cessation of Arms.= An armistice or truce, agreed to by the commanders
of armies, to give them time for a capitulation, or for other purposes.

=Ceuta.= A fortified seaport of Morocco, opposite Gibraltar. The castle
stands on the highest point of the ancient _Abyla_, one of the pillars
of Hercules, terminating a peninsula. This was a Mauritanian town under
the Romans, and in 1415 was taken from the Moors by the Portuguese. In
1580 it passed into the possession of the Spanish, in whose hands it
afterwards remained.

=Ceylon= (anc. _Taprobane_). An island in the Indian Ocean. It was
invaded by the Portuguese Almeyda, 1505, but it was known to the Romans
in the time of Claudius, 41. The Dutch landed in Ceylon in 1602; they
captured the capital, Colombo, in 1503. Intercourse with the British
began in 1713. A large portion of the country was taken by them in 1782,
but was restored in 1783. The Dutch settlements were seized by the
British, 1795. Ceylon was ceded to the British by the peace of Amiens in
1802. The British troops were treacherously massacred or imprisoned by
the Adigar of Candy, at Colombo, June 26, 1803. The complete sovereignty
of the island was assumed by England in 1815.

=Chæronea= (_Bœotia_). Here Greece was ruined by Philip, 32,000
Macedonians defeating 30,000 Thebans, Athenians, etc., August 6 or 7,
338 B.C. Here Archelaus, lieutenant of Mithridates, was defeated by
Sylla, and 110,000 Cappadocians were slain, 86 B.C.

=Chain.= A chain made of a kind of wire, divided into links of an equal
length, is made use of by military engineers for setting out works on
the ground, because cord lines are apt to shrink and give way.

=Chain-ball.= See PROJECTILE.

=Chain-mail.= A kind of armor made of interlaced rings, both flexible
and strong; much used in the 12th and 13th centuries.

=Chain-shot.= See PROJECTILE.

=Chair.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, NOMENCLATURE OF ARTILLERY
CARRIAGE.

=Chalcedon.= In Asia Minor, opposite Byzantium, colonized by Magarians
about 684 B.C. It was taken by Darius, 505 B.C.; by the Romans, 74;
plundered by the Goths, 259 A.D.; taken by Chosroes the Persian, 609; by
Orchan the Turk in 1338.

=Chalcis.= An ancient Greek city, of great antiquity, the capital of the
island of Eubœa. It rose to great eminence, but finally became a
tributary of Athens, from whose sway it revolted several times, being as
often, however, subdued, and held until the downfall of the Athenian
empire at the close of the Peloponnesian war. In later times it was
successively occupied by the Macedonians, Antiochus, Mithridates, and
the Romans. It joined the Achæans in the last war against the Romans,
and the town was in consequence destroyed by Mummius. The modern city of
Egripo, or Negropont, built on its site, for a time in possession of the
Venetians, was taken by the Turks in 1470.

=Chalgrove.= In Oxfordshire, England. At a skirmish here with Prince
Rupert, June 18, 1643, John Hampden, of the Parliament party, was
mortally wounded. A column was erected to his memory, June 18, 1843.

=Challenge.= The act of a sentinel in questioning or demanding the
countersign from those who appear at his post.

=Challenge.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 26, 27, and 28.

=Challenge of Members of Courts-martial.= When a member shall be
challenged by a prisoner, he must state his cause of challenge, of which
the court shall, after due deliberation, determine the relevancy or
validity, and decide accordingly; and no challenge to more than one
member at a time shall be received by the court.

=Châlons-sur-Marne.= A town of France, in the department of Marne. Here
the emperor Aurelian defeated Tetricus, the last of the pretenders to
the throne termed the Thirty Tyrants, 274; and here in 451 Aetius
defeated Attila the Hun, compelling him to retire into Pannonia.

=Chamade.= A signal made for parley by beat of drum.

=Chamber.= Of a mine, that place where the powder is deposited.

=Chamber.= In howitzers, and mortars of the old model, was the smallest
part of the bore, and contained the charge of powder. In the howitzers
the chamber was cylindrical, and was united with the large cylinder of
the bore by a conical surface; the angles of intersection of the conical
surface with the cylinders of the bore and chamber were rounded (in
profile) by arcs of circles. In the 8-inch howitzer, the chamber was
united with the cylinder of the bore by spherical surface, in order that
the shell might, when necessary, be inserted without a sabot. The
chamber is omitted in _all_ cannon of the late models, the cylinder of
the bore terminating at the bottom in a semi-ellipsoid. The old chambers
were subcaliber. The first use of a chamber _larger_ than the bore
occurred, it is believed, in a gun invented by an American named Ferris.
The gun had a great range. One of the most important improvements in
recent ordnance consists in the use of this chamber. The English, who
deserve the credit of first appreciating it, now use it in all their
largest guns. See ORDNANCE, HISTORY OF.

=Chambersburg.= The capital of Franklin Co., Pa. This place was the
scene of several exciting incidents during the civil war. It was
occupied by a party of Confederate cavalry under Gen. Stuart in 1862, by
a part of Gen. Ewell’s forces in June, 1863, and next month almost
totally destroyed by fire by a party of Confederate cavalry under Gen.
McCausland.

=Chamfron=, or =Chamfrain=. The frontlet of a barbed or armed horse,
usually having a spike between the eyes.

=Champ de Mars.= An open square in front of the Military School, Paris,
which was used for the great meetings of the French people, reviews,
etc.

=Champigny.= A town of France, department of the Seine, 8 miles
east-southeast of Paris. On November 30, 1870, a force of 120,000 French
under Gens. Trochu and Ducrot, who made a sortie from Paris, were met
near here by the Germans, and some severe fighting ensued, with great
loss on both sides, the French holding the taken possessions until the
contest was renewed, December 2, when the French were compelled to
retreat.

=Champion Hills.= In Hinds Co., Miss., west of Jackson. Here the
Confederate forces under Gen. Pemberton were defeated by the Union
troops under Gen. Grant, May 16, 1863.

=Champlain, Lake.= An extensive body of water forming part of the
boundary between the States of Vermont and New York, and extending
northward a few miles beyond the Canada line. It was the scene of
engagements between the Americans and British during the war of
independence. On its waters also, in 1814, Commodore Macdonough gained a
victory over the British fleet.

=Chancellorsville.= A small village of Spottsylvania Co., Va., near the
Rappahannock River, about 65 miles north by west from Richmond. This
place was the scene of several sanguinary conflicts between the Federal
army of the Potomac under Gen. Hooker and the Confederates under Gen.
Lee. On April 28, 1863, the Federal army crossed the Rappahannock; on
May 2, Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson furiously attacked and routed the right
wing, but was mortally wounded by his own party firing on him by
mistake. Gen. Stuart took his command, and after a severe conflict on
May 3 and 4, with great loss to both parties, the Federals were
compelled to recross the Rappahannock. The struggle was compared to that
at Hougoumont during the battle of Waterloo.

=Chandelier.= In military engineering, a wooden frame, which was filled
with fascines, to form a traverse in sapping.

=Chanderee=, or =Chandhaire=. A town of India in the province of Malwa.
Its fortress, formerly deemed impregnable, consists of a strong rampart
of sandstone flanked by circular towers, and is situated on a high hill.
During the native wars, being a place of importance, it was frequently
besieged.

=Chandernagore.= The principal settlement of the French in Bengal, which
is encompassed by the British district of Hooghly. In 1757 this
settlement was taken by the British, but restored in 1763. In 1793 it
was again taken by the British, but restored to the French a second time
in 1816.

=Chandore.= A fortified town of British India, 130 miles northwest from
Bombay. In 1804 and 1818 this place capitulated to the British.

=Chantier= (_Fr._). A square piece of wood, which is used for the
purpose of raising anything. It serves to place barrels of gunpowder in
a proper manner, and frequently to try pieces of ordnance instead of
frames.

=Chantilly.= A post-village of Fairfax Co., Va. Here, on September 1,
1862, the Confederate troops of Gen. Lee attacked a part of Gen. Pope’s
army, under Gens. Reno, Stevens, and Kearney, and a severe conflict
ensued, lasting into the night, and resulting in the death of Gens.
Stevens and Kearney.

=Chape.= The metallic part put on the end of a scabbard, to prevent the
point of the sword or bayonet from piercing through it.

=Chapeau.= In a military sense, a hat, cap, or other head-covering.

=Chapeau Bras.= A military hat which can be flattened and put under the
arm.

=Chaperon.= A hood or cape worn by Knights of the Garter.

=Chaplain.= A clergyman with a military commission, giving him the
spiritual charge of soldiers. There are 30 post and 4 regimental
chaplains in the U. S. army.

=Chaplain-General.= In the British service, the officer at the head of
the chaplain’s department.

=Chaplet.= In heraldry, is always composed of four roses, the other
parts being leaves.

=Chappe= (_Fr._). A barrel containing another barrel, which holds
gunpowder. It likewise means a composition of earth, horse-dung, and
wad, that covers the mouth of a cannon or mortar.

=Chapultepec.= A strong fortress of Mexico, situated about 2 miles
southwest of the metropolis. It consists of an eminence rising to the
height of about 150 feet, with a strong castle on top. During the
Mexican war it was deemed necessary by Gen. Scott, for strategic
reasons, to capture this last outward defense of the capital prior to
the attack on the city itself. This was gallantly effected on September
13, 1847, and next day the city was entered by the American forces, thus
virtually ending the war. Preparations for the assault were commenced on
the night of September 11, and before the evening of the 12th, owing to
the skillful arrangement of Gen. Scott’s artillery, the exterior
defenses began to give way. Next day was determined on for the attack.
The American forces were so placed that the assault could be made
simultaneously from different sides at a preconcerted signal, which
would be the temporary cessation of the cannonade from their batteries.
It was given, and the attacking forces advanced, Gen. Quitman’s division
from the south, and Gen. Pillow from the wooded slope on the west, Gen.
Smith’s brigade supporting Quitman, Pillow supported by the division of
Gen. Worth, and the batteries throwing shells into the fort over the
heads of their friends. Under a heavy fire of musketry the attacking
forces advance, and step by step they gain every disputed point,
scaling-ladders are brought into requisition, an entrance effected, and
the defeated Mexicans, dislodged and retreating, are pursued to the very
gates of their capital. The American loss during the three days was 833
killed and wounded.

=Charcoal.= One of the ingredients of gunpowder. It is made by
distilling small sticks of wood in closed retorts. Willow, alder,
poplar, and dogwood are some of the woods used. In distilling the heat
should be kept below redness. Charcoal should be light in weight, and
have a velvety fracture. It inflames at about 460° Fahr. Its
composition and properties vary with the nature of the wood and mode of
distillation employed.

Charcoal obtained from light wood is the best for gunpowder, as it is
more combustible and easy to pulverize, and contains less earthy
matters. Willow and poplar are used for this purpose in the United
States and black elder in Europe. The wood must be sound and should not
be more than 3 or 4 years old, and about 1 inch in diameter; branches
larger than this should be split up. It is cut in the spring when the
sap runs freely, and is immediately stripped of its bark. The smaller
branches are used for fine sporting powder.

The operation of charring may be performed in pits, but the method now
almost universally used in making charcoal for gunpowder is that of
_distillation_. For this purpose the wood is placed in an iron vessel,
generally of a cylindrical form, to which a cover is luted; an opening
with a pipe is made to conduct off the gaseous products, and the wood is
thus exposed to the heat of a furnace. The progress of distillation is
judged of by the color of the flame and smoke, and sometimes by
_test-sticks_, which are introduced through tubes prepared for the
purpose.

_Properties._--The charcoal thus obtained should retain a certain degree
of elasticity, and should have a brown color, the wood not being
entirely decomposed. As it readily absorbs one-twentieth of its weight
of moisture, which diminishes its inflammability, it should be made only
in proportion as it is required for use. Wood generally contains 52 per
cent. of carbon, but distillation furnishes not more than 30 to 40 per
cent. of charcoal.

As it is desirable to have charcoal for gunpowder very combustible, it
must be prepared at a low temperature, and must be light.

_Accidents._--When recently prepared charcoal is pulverized and laid in
heaps, it is liable to absorb oxygen with such rapidity as to cause
spontaneous combustion. This has been the cause of serious accidents at
powder-mills, and hence it is important not to pulverize charcoal until
it has been exposed to the air for several days. When charcoal has not
absorbed moisture, and is mixed with oxidizing substances, it may be
inflamed by violent shocks or by friction. This is the principal cause
of the accidents which occur in the preparation of explosive mixtures
which contain charcoal. See GUNPOWDER.

=Chard.= A town of England, in Somersetshire. Here the royalists were
defeated in the civil wars between Charles I. and the Parliament.

=Charenton.= A town of France, in the department of the Seine. It stands
on the Marne, over which there is a bridge, which was frequently the
scene of bloody conflicts between the citizens and the soldiers during
the French revolutions. It now forms a portion of the fortifications of
Paris.

=Charge.= The act of rushing on the enemy with a view to come to close
fighting. It is also sometimes applied to the temporary command of a
detachment, troop, company, or battery. A charge likewise means the
statement of the crime for which an officer or soldier is brought before
a court-martial.

=Charge.= The quantity of powder with which a piece of artillery is
loaded. The charge corresponding to the maximum velocity in the
projectile is called the _maximum charge_. The longer the gun the
greater the maximum charge. In the early days of artillery, when powder
was used in the form of _dust_, a very large charge was necessary. After
the introduction of grained powder it was reduced gradually to about
one-fourth the weight of the shot. At the time of the recent departures
in ordnance, the charge for smooth-bore guns was from one-fifth to
one-eighth the weight of the projectile; for howitzers, from one-eighth
to one-twentieth; for mortars the charge varied with the range, the
largest being about one-ninth. For rifle guns the disproportion was
greater than for smooth-bores, the average being about one-tenth. In
small-arms, the charge for the old smooth-bore musket was about
one-third the weight of the ball. When the rifle was introduced, this
proportion was retained till the oblong bullet began to be used, when
the charge was relatively much diminished, till it fell to about
one-tenth. The tendency lately has been to increase it. In some of the
best-known rifles of the present day the charge is about one-fifth,--a
majority use more than one-sixth. The same tendency is still more
observable in heavy ordnance. The largest _Krupp_, _Woolwich_, and
_Armstrong_ guns use a charge greater than _one-fourth_ the weight of
the projectile.

=Charge.= The position of a weapon fitted for attack; as, to bring a
weapon to the charge.

=Charge.= In heraldry, the figures represented on a shield are called
charges, and a shield with figures upon it is said to be charged. The
charges in a shield ought to be few in number, and strongly marked, both
as regards their character and the mode of their representation. The
family shield belonging to the head of the house almost always is
simpler,--_i.e._, has fewer charges than the shields of collaterals, or
even of junior members.

=Charger= (Fr. _cheval de bataille_). A horse kept by an officer for
military purposes.

=Chariot.= In antiquity, a war car or vehicle.

=Charleroi.= A strongly fortified town of Belgium, in Hainaut. This
place was fortified by Vauban. Several great battles have been fought
near this town, especially in 1690 and 1794. Charleroi was besieged by
the Prince of Orange, 1672 and 1677; but he was soon obliged to retire.
Near here, at Ligny, Napoleon attacked the Prussian line, making it fall
back upon Wavres, June 16, 1815.

=Charleston.= A port of entry and the chief city of South Carolina,
founded in 1672. On Sullivan’s Island, about 7 miles below,
communicating with the harbor, a garrison of about 400 Americans under
Col. Moultrie sustained an assault from 9 British ships of war, and
gallantly repulsed them, on June 28, 1776. The city was afterwards
besieged, and after a gallant resistance of nearly six weeks surrendered
to the British, May 12, 1780, being held by them till 1782. In the civil
war (1861-65) it was here the first gun was fired, which resulted in the
reduction of the famous Fort Sumter. In the latter part of the war it
was bombarded and besieged by the Federal troops. Its evacuation by the
Confederates and its occupation by the Federals followed, February 18,
1865.

=Chase.= In gunnery, is the conical part of the gun in front of the
reinforce.

=Chase-ring.= In gunnery, is a band at the front end of the chase.

=Chassepot.= A species of rifle. See SMALL-ARMS.

=Chasseurs.= A French word signifying “hunters,” applied in various
forms to light troops in the French service, organized at different
times, either as infantry or cavalry, as _chasseurs à pied_, _de
Montague_, _de Vincennes_, for infantry, and _chasseurs à cheval_,
_d’Afrique_, _Algeriens_, etc., for cavalry. They have organizations in
other armies also corresponding to these, such as the _jägers_ in the
Austrian army, and the _cacciatore dei Alpi_ of the Garibaldian troops
in the Italian war of 1859-60.

=Chassis.= A traversing frame or movable railway, along which the
carriage of a heavy gun in barbette, or casemate, moves backward and
forward in action. See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, SEA-COAST CARRIAGES.

=Chastleton.= A parish of England, in Oxfordshire, 5 miles from Chipping
Norton. Here, in 1016, Canute defeated Edmund Ironside.

=Châteaudun.= An old city in Northwest France, the residence of the
heroic Dunois, who died in 1468. Here were massacred July 20, 1183,
about 7000 Brabançons, fanatic mercenaries who had been hired to
exterminate the Albigenses by the Cardinal Henry, abbot of Clairvaux, in
1181. They had become the scourge of the country, and the “Capuchons”
were organized for their destruction. Châteaudun was captured by the
Germans after a severe conflict of about 9 hours, October 18, 1870.
Barracks had been erected in the town, and the Garde Mobile fought
bravely. The town was re-occupied by the French, November 6.

=Château Thierry.= A town of France, in the department of Aisne. It is
built on the slope of a hill, capped by the ruins of a castle, which is
said to have been erected by Charles Martel in 730. In 1814 this place
was the scene of several conflicts between the allied army and the
French troops.

=Chatham.= A town of England, in the county of Kent, on the Medway. It
is a principal station of the royal navy. There is a fine station and
military arsenal close to Chatham, containing vast magazines and
warehouses, in which there are all kinds of stores, and where all the
operations necessary for building and fitting out ships of war are
carried on. There are also extensive barracks for infantry, royal
marines, artillery, and engineers. Chatham is defended by forts on the
heights, by which it is partly surrounded. There are also very extensive
fortifications about Chatham, called the Lines, which are defended by
ramparts, palisades, and a broad, deep ditch. On June 10, 1667, the
Dutch fleet under Admiral Ruyter sailed up to Chatham and burnt several
men-of-war. The entrance into the Medway is now defended by Sheerness
and other forts.

=Chatillon-sur-Seine.= A town of France, department of Côte-d’Or, 43
miles north-northwest of Dijon, on the Seine. Here a congress was held
by the four great powers allied against France, at which Caulaincourt
attended for Napoleon, February 5, 1814; the negotiations for peace were
broken off on March 19, following.

=Chattanooga.= A village of Hamilton Co., Tenn. During the civil war it
was the scene of many exciting incidents between the contending forces.
It was attacked by Gen. Negley in June, 1862; occupied by Gen.
Rosecrans, July, 1863, and in the same year were fought in its vicinity
a succession of the most momentous battles of that eventful epoch,
commencing September 23, 1863, with Gen. Grant’s attack on Gen. Bragg.
The movements were under direction of Gens. Sherman and Thomas, and
resulted, after three days’ severe fighting around Chattanooga,
Missionary Ridge, and Lookout Mountain, in the total defeat of the
Confederates, and their pursuit back into Georgia.

=Chaumont, Treaty of.= Entered into between Great Britain, Austria,
Russia, and Prussia, and signed by these powers respectively March 1,
1814. This treaty was succeeded by the celebrated treaty of Paris, April
11, following, by which Napoleon renounced his sovereignty over France.

=Chausses.= In the armor of the Middle Ages, were defense-pieces for the
legs. Some were made of padded and quilted cloth, with metal studs; some
of chain-metal, some of riveted plates, and some of banded mail. It was
not unusual to fasten them by lacing behind the leg.

=Chauvinisme= (_Fr._). An exaggerated idea of the qualities of a leader,
as Chauvin, a character in a French play (from whom the name is
derived), is represented to have had of his leader, Bonaparte.

=Checky.= In heraldry, when the field of any charge is composed of small
squares of different tinctures, it is said to be _checky_.

=Cheeks.= In the construction of artillery-carriages, are the parts
between which the piece is placed and upon which the trunnions are
supported. See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, NOMENCLATURE OF ARTILLERY
CARRIAGE.

=Chelone=, or =Tortoise=. In military antiquity, the form of battle
adopted by the Greeks in besieging fortified towns. It served to protect
the besiegers in their approach to the walls. This invention was formed
by the soldiers placing their shields over their heads, in a sloping
position, similar to the tiles of a house. The first rank stood erect,
the second stooped a little, the third still more, and the last rank
knelt. They were thus protected from the missile weapons of the foe, as
they advanced or stood under the walls of an enemy. The chelone was
similar to the _testudo_ of the Romans. See TESTUDO.

=Chelsea.= A parish of England, in Middlesex, on the Thames. Chelsea
Hospital is the great national asylum for decayed and maimed soldiers,
and one of the noblest institutions of the kind in Europe. The
institution was founded by Charles II. in 1682. Connected with the
hospital is the Military Asylum, a noble establishment, founded in 1801,
for the education and maintenance of the children of soldiers. See
ASYLUM.

=Chemin-des-Rondes= (_Fr._). A beam from 4 to 12 feet wide, at the foot
of the exterior slope in a permanent fortification. It is sometimes
covered in front by a hedge, or low wall, or small parapet of earth.

=Chemise.= In mediæval fortification, an additional escarp or
counter-guard wall, covering the lower part of the escarp.

=Cherasco.= A town of Piedmont, situated on the Tanaro. A peace was
concluded here between Louis XIII. of France and the Duke of Savoy, in
1631. On April 26, 1796, the place was taken by the French, and here,
three days after, the “Armistice of Cherasco” was concluded between the
Sardinian commissioners and Napoleon, by which the latter obtained the
right of free passage for his troops through the Sardinian states; and
the treaty that followed gave to the French republic Savoy, Nice, and
the possessions of Piedmont to the westward of the highest ridge of the
Alps.

=Cheraw.= A village of Chesterfield Co., S. C. It was a Confederate
depot of supplies during the civil war, and was captured with all its
stores by Gen. Sherman, March 3, 1865.

=Cherbourg.= A fortified seaport town and important naval station of
France, department of Manche, on the English Channel. Edward III. of
England unsuccessfully laid siege to Cherbourg in 1346, but in 1418 it
was given up to the British. The French regained it in 1450, but the
English again took it in 1758.

=Cheriton Down.= In the county of Hants, England. Here Sir William
Waller defeated the royalists under Lord Hopton, May 29, 1644.

=Cherokee Indians.= A tribe of aborigines who formerly occupied the
southern portion of the Appalachian Mountains, and a large tract of
country on both sides of the range. In 1838 they were removed by the
U. S. government to the west of the Mississippi, into what is now Indian
Territory, and the portion of the tribe that now remains have a
civilized government and a written language. For numbers, etc., see
INDIANS AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Cherusci.= One of the most celebrated of all the German tribes at the
time of Cæsar. Being excited to hostilities by the tyranny and rapacity
of the Romans, they entered into a confederation with the neighboring
tribes, and, under their leader Arminius, defeated a Roman army at
Teutoburg Forest, in A.D. 9. Germanicus, a Roman general, afterwards
tried to avenge this disgrace to their honor by subduing them, but was
unsuccessful. Owing to their own internal dissensions they were
subsequently subdued by the Chatti, another German tribe.

=Chesses.= Are the platforms which form the flooring of military
bridges. They consist of two or more planks, ledged together at the
edges by dowels or pegs.

=Chest, Ammunition-.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, THE CAISSON.

=Chest, Military.= Is a technical name for money and negotiable
securities carried by an army, and intended to defray its current
expenses. In the British military system this department is managed by
the commissariat; in the United States, by the paymaster-general and
commissary-general.

=Chester.= A city of England, in the county of Cheshire. The British
_Caerleon_ and the Roman _Deva_, the station of the Twentieth Legion,
_Valeria Victrix_, quitted by them about 477. The city was first built
by Edelfleda about 908. Chester was ravaged by the Danes in 980; taken
after three months’ siege for the Parliament in 1645. A projected attack
of Fenians on Chester Castle was defeated by the vigilance of the
authorities and the arrival of the military, February 11-12, 1867.

=Cheval-de-frise.= A piece of timber traversed with wooden spikes,
pointed with iron, 5 or 6 feet long, used to defend a passage, stop a
breach, or make a retrenchment to stop cavalry.

=Chevalet= (_Fr._). A sort of bell-tent, formerly used in the French
service, when an army encamped. It resembled in some degrees the wigwam
of an Indian.

=Chevalier= (_Fr._). A horseman; a knight. A member of certain orders of
knighthood. In heraldry, a horseman armed at all points.

=Chevet= (_Fr._). A small wedge which is used in raising a mortar. It is
placed between the frame and swell of the mortar.

=Cheviot Hills.= A mountain-range extending along the border between
Scotland and England; the scene of many conflicts between the Scotch and
English.

=Chevrette.= An engine for raising guns or mortars into their
carriages.

=Chevron.= The arrow-headed stripes on the arm, by which the rank of a
non-commissioned officer is indicated.

=Chevron.= In heraldry, is an ordinary representing the rafters of a
house, and supposed to betoken the accomplishment of some memorable
work, or the completion of some business of importance, generally the
foundation of his own family by the bearer.

=Cheyenne Indians.= A tribe of aborigines dwelling east of the Rocky
Mountains, and divided into three bands. For numbers, etc., see INDIANS
AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Chiari.= A town of Northern Italy, near the Oglio. In 1701, Marshal
Villeroi was near this town defeated by Prince Eugène.

=Chicane.= To dispute every foot of ground, by taking advantage of
natural inequalities, etc.

=Chickahominy.= A river in Eastern Virginia, which, rising about 16
miles northwest of Richmond, flows southeastwardly into the James. Along
the margins of the river was the scene of Gen. McClellan’s operations in
1862.

=Chickamauga.= A village of Hamilton Co., Tenn. During the civil war a
continuous series of combats were fought here, between the forces of
Gens. Rosecrans and Bragg, but without decisive results, September
19-20, 1863.

=Chickasaw Indians.= A warlike tribe of aborigines which formerly
occupied Alabama and a portion of Mississippi. They removed into the
Indian Territory in 1837. See INDIANS AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Chief.= The head or leader of any band or community; a commander.

=Chief.= In heraldry, an ordinary formed by a horizontal line occupying
the upper part of the escutcheon. Any object borne in the upper or chief
part of the shield is said to be _in chief_, though the chief be not
divided off from the rest of the field as a separate portion.

=Chief of Staff.= In the U. S. service a chief of staff with the rank of
brigadier-general was provided by law for the lieutenant-general
commanding the army. The senior staff-officer of a general is sometimes
designated as the chief of staff. See OFFICERS, STAFF-, and STAFF.

=Chieftain.= A captain, leader, or commander; a chief; the head of a
troop, army, or clan.

=Chieftaincy.= Chieftainship. The rank, office, or quality of a
chieftain.

=Chili.= An independent republic of South America, bordering on the
Pacific Ocean. It was invaded by Almagro in 1535, he being sent by
Pizarro to subdue the country. In the 16th and 17th centuries violent
contests raged between the Spaniards and Indians, both parties suffering
severely. The country continued a vice-royalty of Spain till 1810, when
a revolution commenced which terminated in its independence in 1817.

=Chilled Iron.= Cast iron hardened by pouring it into iron molds. Much
used in manufacturing armor-piercing projectiles. The celebrated
Palliser shot is of this kind.

=Chilled Shot.= See PROJECTILES.

=Chillianwallah, Battle of.= In India, between the Sikh forces in
considerable strength and the British commanded by Lord (afterwards
Viscount) Gough, fought January 13, 1849. The Sikhs were completely
routed, but the loss of the British was very severe. On February 21,
Lord Gough attacked the Sikh army under Shere Singh in its position at
Goujerat, with complete success, and the whole of the enemy’s camp fell
into the hands of the British.

=China.= The “Celestial Empire,” in Eastern Asia, for which the Chinese
annals claim an antiquity of from 80,000 to 100,000 years B.C., is
allowed to have commenced about 2500 B.C.; by others to have been
founded by Fohi, supposed to be the Noah of the Bible, 2240 B.C. We are
told that the Chinese were acute astronomers in the reign of Yao, 2357
B.C. Towards the close of the 7th century B.C. the history of China
becomes more distinct. Thirty-two dynasties have reigned, including the
present. See important cities of China throughout this work.

=China, Great Wall of.= One of the most remarkable structures known in
history, supposed to have been erected about 220 B.C. by the first
emperor of the Tsin dynasty as a protection against the invasions of the
Tartars. It traverses the northern boundary of China, and extends about
1250 miles. Including a parapet of 5 feet, the total height is 20 feet,
thickness of base 25 feet, and at the top 15 feet. Towers or bastions
occur at intervals of about 100 yards. Earth inclosed in brick-work
forms the mass of the wall, but for more than one-half its length it is
little else than a heap of gravel and rubbish.

=Chinese Fire.= A pyrotechnic composition, consisting of 16 parts of
gunpowder, 8 of nitre, 3 of charcoal, 3 of sulphur, and 3 of
iron-borings.

=Ching-Hai.= A fortified seaport town of China. At this place, in
October, 1841, the Chinese were signally defeated by the British.

=Ching-Kiang-Foo.= A fortified city of China, on the Yang-tse-Kiang
River. It was taken by the British, after a determined resistance on the
part of the Mantchoo garrison, July 21, 1842.

=Chinook.= An artificial language or jargon originated by the Hudson Bay
Company for communicating with different tribes of Indians. It consists
of about a hundred words, some coined, some French, and some of Indian
origin. It is still extensively used as a sort of court language by the
different tribes along the Pacific coast, from California to Behrings
Strait.

=Chinook Indians.= A collection of races of Indian tribes inhabiting the
Lower Columbia in Washington Territory and Oregon.

=Chippewa.= A village of Canada West, memorable for the victory gained
by the Americans, 1900 strong, under Gen. Brown, over 2100 British
troops under Gens. Rial and Drummond, July 4, 1814.

=Chippewa Indians=, or =Ojibways=. A tribe of aborigines who inhabit
portions of Michigan, Wisconsin, and the basin of Lake Superior. In the
early settlement of the country they were allies of the French, and
waged inveterate warfare against the Sioux. In 1855 they ceded their
lands to the United States, and are now placed on reservations. See
INDIANS AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Chivalry= (Fr. _Chevalerie_, from chevalier, “knight,” or “horseman”).
The system of knighthood, together with the privileges, duties, and
manners of knights. The qualifications or character of knights, as
valor, dexterity in arms, courtesy, etc.

=Chlorate of Potassa.= Chlorate of potassa is formed by passing a
current of chlorine, in excess, through lime-water, and then treating
the mixture with the chloride of potassium or by the carbonate or
sulphate of potassa. The chlorate of potassa and chloride of calcium are
formed,--the former crystallizes, the latter remains in solution. It is
soluble in water, but not sensibly so in alcohol. It is a more powerful
oxidizing agent than nitre, and, when mixed with a combustible body,
easily explodes by shock or friction. It is inflamed by simple contact
with sulphuric acid, and thus affords a simple means of exploding mines.

=Chlorates.= Oxidizing agents used in _explosives_ (which see). Chlorate
of potassa is the salt ordinarily used.

=Chocks.= See IMPLEMENTS.

=Choctaw Indians.= A tribe of aborigines which formerly lived in
Mississippi, along the Yazoo River. They are now settled in Indian
Territory, and are partially civilized. See INDIANS AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Choczim=, or =Chotyn=. A fortified town of Bessarabia, Southern Russia,
on the Dniester. Here the Turks were defeated by the Poles in 1621, and
again in 1673; the Turks were again defeated at this place by the
Russians in 1739.

=Choke.= The tied end of a cartridge; also the constriction of a
rocket-case, etc.

=Choker.= An implement used by engineers to compress and test the
circumference of a fascine. It consists of two strong pieces of wood
about 4 feet long joined by a chain. Two rings inserted in the chain
mark the length of the circumference required.

=Chokey.= An East Indian guard-house and prison.

=Cholet.= A town of France, in the department of Maine-et-Loire. Here,
during the Vendean war, two actions were fought in 1793, in both of
which the royalists were defeated. In the first they lost their brave
general, Bonchamps; and the second drove them across the Loire, thus
virtually deciding the war against them.

=Chosroes.= See KHOSROO.

=Chotyn.= See CHOCZIM.

=Chouans.= The name which a band of peasants received who fought for the
monarchy against the convention in Maine and Normandy in 1793. They
received their name from their leader, Jean Cattereau, nicknamed
“Chouan,” and were with great difficulty subdued, their final submission
not taking place till 1803.

=Christian Charity, Knights of the Order of.= Was the name of an order
instituted by King Henry III. of France for the support of maimed
officers and soldiers who had done good service in the wars. Henry IV.
placed it under the charge of the marshals and colonels of France, and
by means of it many of those who had served their country faithfully
were enabled to spend the latter portion of their lives in peace and
above want. The order formed the germ of that noble hospital, the
_Invalides_, which was founded by Louis XIV., and which served as a
model for the English hospitals of Greenwich and Chelsea. On the
founding of the hospital the order was superseded.

=Christiansand.= A fortified seaport of Norway, and capital of a
government of the same name. This place was founded in 1641 by Christian
IV., and was taken by the British in 1807.

=Christ, Order of.= When the Templars were expelled from France, and
their property confiscated by Philippe le Bel, they were received into
Portugal, and their order revived there in 1317 under this title. Noble
descent and three years’ military service against the infidel were
required for admission.

=Chrome Steel.= See ORDNANCE, METALS FOR.

=Chronograph.= See CHRONOSCOPE.

=Chronoscope.= An instrument for measuring minute intervals of time. The
term is specially applied by military men to instruments for obtaining
initial velocities. The _gun-pendulum_ and _ballistic-pendulum_ were
formerly used for this purpose, but are now nearly obsolete. All modern
chronoscopes use electricity as a transmitting agent. The general method
of applying it is to have the current-bearing wires pass through two
targets placed in the path of the projectile. These wires are cut by the
projectile, and the interval between the successive ruptures is recorded
by a delicate time-keeper. Knowing the distance between the targets, the
velocity is obtained by dividing this space, expressed in feet, by the
number of seconds in the interval. Chronoscopes differ in the kind of
time-keeper employed. One of the largest classes of chronoscopes use the
pendulum.

The _electro-ballistic machine_ of Col. Benton (U. S. Ordnance
Department) may be taken as a type of this class. It consists of two
pendulums having equal times of vibration suspended from the same
horizontal axis. When the pendulums are deflected, one to the right the
other to the left, through angles of 90°, pieces of soft iron attached
to them come in contact with electro-magnets, which serve to hold them
up. Each of these magnets is excited by a current passing through one of
the targets. When the targets are ruptured the pendulums fall, and in
passing each other record the point of meeting by operating a delicate
bent lever attached to one of them, which leaves a dot of ink on the arc
in front of which the pendulums vibrate. The _interval of time_ between
the rupture of the two targets is obtained from a table of arcs and
corresponding times. Col. Benton has also invented an instrument called
_velocimeter_, in which he uses threads instead of electro-magnets to
hold up the pendulums. The threads pass through the targets, and when
they are cut the pendulums fall as before. This method has found
considerable favor where great accuracy is not required.

_Schultz’s chronoscope_ uses as a time-keeper a tuning-fork, which, in
its vibrations, traces a waved line upon a revolving cylinder. The
rupture of each of the targets is recorded by an electric spark
deposited on the cylinder near the waved line. The number of waves
between the spark spots gives the _interval of time_ when the _period of
vibration_ or _tarage_ of the fork is known. The vibration of the fork
is sustained by electro-magnets, which alternately attract and release
the branches, an interrupter being placed in the circuit. When the
current passing through the targets is broken an induced current is
generated, which deposits the spark on the cylinder in leaping a short
break in the circuit. When the first target is broken, by an ingenious
contrivance the current is made through the second target before the
shot reaches it. The _tarage_ of the fork is obtained by placing a
second’s pendulum in the target current, which ruptures the current in
each vibration, and produces a series of spark spots on the cylinder.
The number of waves between successive spots gives the number of
vibrations to the second.

_Boulanger’s chronograph_ is the simplest of all chronoscopes. It uses a
rod held up vertically by a magnet, which is excited by a current
through the first target. The current through the second target, when
broken, releases a spring knife-blade, which, moving sideways, marks the
rod in its fall. The _interval of time_ is obtained from the distance
through which the rod has fallen, as shown by the position of the mark.
The end of the scale is marked when both currents are simultaneously
broken.

=Chrystler’s=, or =Chrysler’s Field, Battle of=. The name of an
engagement which took place at Chrystler’s farm, on the St. Lawrence
River, November 11, 1813, between the American forces under Gen. Boyd
and the British troops under Lieut.-Col. Morrison, in which neither
party gained a victory, but the advantage was with the British.

=Chunar, Treaty of.= Concluded between the nabob of Oude and Governor
Hastings, by which the nabob was relieved of his debts to the East
India Company, on condition of his seizing the property of the begums,
his mother and grandmother, and delivering it up to the English,
September 19, 1781.

=Churubusco.= A village or hamlet of Mexico, on the Rio de Churubusco,
about 6 miles south of the city of Mexico. This place was the scene of a
battle between the American forces under Gen. Winfield Scott, marching
on the city of Mexico, and the Mexicans, defending the approaches to
their capital, under President Santa Anna. The battle of Contreras was
fought on the same day. The Americans were victorious in both battles,
taking 3000 prisoners, and capturing 37 pieces of ordnance. The entire
Mexican army was dispersed, their ancient capital captured, and an
honorable peace ensued.

=Chusan.= One of a group of islands off the east coast of China. This
island, called the “key of China,” was taken by the British in 1840 and
1841, and held by them until the terms of their treaty with China were
fulfilled by the latter power.

=Cimbres.= A chain of mountains in Mexico. On April 28, 1862, the
advance-guard of the French, commanded by Gen. Count de Lorencez,
encountered and defeated in a defile of this chain a Mexican force 6000
strong under Gen. Saragosa, who had fortified themselves and placed 18
pieces of artillery in position.

=Cimbri.= A warlike tribe of ancient Europe, which, in conjunction with
the Teutones and others, invaded the south of Europe, and successively
defeated six Roman armies, until in the end they were conquered by Caius
Marius, 101 B.C. They had previously devastated Gaul and Spain, and are
said to have lost from 100,000 to 140,000 men in the battle with Marius.

=Cimeter.= A short sword with a convex edge or recurvated point, used by
the Persians and Turks.

=Cimier= (_Fr._). A heavy ornament which the ancient knights or
chevaliers in France and in other countries were accustomed to wear upon
their helmets; small figures were afterwards substituted in their stead.

=Cincinnati, Order of.= A society which was founded in the United States
by officers of the Revolutionary army in 1783. Its object was to keep
alive the feelings of friendship and patriotism engendered by common
toils and perils, and to assist those who were in need through the
vicissitudes of the war. In 1787, Washington was elected president of
the order.

=Cinquain.= In ancient military history, was an order of battle, to draw
up 5 battalions, so that they might make 3 lines, that is, a van, main
body, and reserve.

=Cintra.= In Portugal. Here was signed an agreement on August 22, 1808,
between the French and English, the day after the battle of Vimeira. As
it contained the basis of the convention signed on August 30, following,
it has been termed the convention of Cintra. By it Junot and his army
were permitted to evacuate Portugal free, in British ships. The
convention was publicly condemned, and in consequence a court of inquiry
was held at Chelsea, which exonerated the British commanders. Wellington
and Napoleon both justified Sir Hew Dalrymple.

=Cipher.= A preconcerted enigmatical system of communication. Much used
in war when dispatches are liable to interception by the enemy,--both
for written communication and for signaling.

=Circassia.= A country in Asia on the north side of the Caucasus. The
Circassians are said to be descended from the Albanians. They were
unsubdued, even by Timour. Circassia was surrendered to Russia by Turkey
by the treaty of Adrianople, 1830. The Circassians under their great
leader Schamyl resisted the authority of Russia. They were defeated by
Orbelliani in June, November, and December, 1857. Orbelliani subdued
much of the country, and expelled the inhabitants, April, 1858. Schamyl,
their leader, was captured and treated with much respect, September 7,
1859. The last of the Circassian strongholds captured and the war
declared at an end, June 8, 1864.

=Circitores.= So were named, in the Roman armies, the men who inspected
the sentinels.

=Circuit-closer.= A device for closing an electrical circuit. In torpedo
warfare the term is applied to an apparatus used to explode submarine
mines.

=Circumferenter.= An instrument used by engineers for measuring angles.

=Circumvallation.= Works made by besiegers around a besieged place
facing outwards, to protect their camp against attacks from a hostile
army operating in the rear. It usually consists of a chain of redoubts,
either isolated or connected by a parapet.

=Cisalpine.= This--that is, the south--side of the Alps.

=Citadel.= A fort of 4 or 5 bastions in or near a town. It serves two
purposes, enabling the garrison of a town to keep the inhabitants in
subjection, and in case of siege forming a place of retreat for the
defenders, thus enabling them to hold out after the rest of the town has
been captured. It must fully command the fortifications of the city, and
have a large space around it clear of buildings.

=Citate.= A place close to the Danube, where the Russian general
Gortschakoff, intending to storm Kalafat, threw up redoubts, which were
stormed by the Turks under Omar Pasha, January 6, 1854. The fighting
continued on the 7th, 8th, and 9th, when the Russians were compelled to
retire to their former position at Krajowa, having lost 1500 killed and
2000 wounded.

=City Point.= A village of Prince George Co., Va., on the James River,
at the mouth of the Appomattox. During the civil war, Gen. Grant fixed
his headquarters at this point in 1864, and during his subsequent
operations against Richmond it was the base of supplies for his army.

=Ciudad Real.= A town of Spain, capital of a province of the same name,
about 100 miles south of Madrid. The French under Sebastian here
defeated the Spaniards in March, 1809.

=Ciudad Rodrigo.= A fortified town of Spain, in the province of
Salamanca. It was occupied by the Portuguese in 1706, and during the
Peninsular war was the object of frequent contention between the French
and the allies. In June, 1810, the French under Masséna invested the
town, and, after a gallant defense by the Spaniards, it was forced to
surrender, July 10. In January, 1812, after a siege of 11 days, the
place was assaulted, and after a bloody struggle the British succeeded
in capturing the town. This storming was one of the most brilliant
events in English military annals.

=Civic Crown.= Among the ancient Romans, was a crown given to any
soldier who had saved the life of a citizen. It was composed only of
oaken boughs, but accounted more honorable than any other.

=Civière= (_Fr._). A small hand-barrow, which is carried by two men, and
is much used by the artillery.

=Civil Authority.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 59.

=Civil War.= See WAR, CIVIL.

=Civilized Warfare.= See WAR, also HONORS OF WAR.

=Civita Castellana.= A town of Italy, 24 miles north from Rome. In its
neighborhood an engagement took place between the Neapolitans under Mack
and the French under Macdonald, on December 4, 1798.

=Civita Vecchia.= The principal seaport of the Papal States, in Italy,
built on a bay of the Mediterranean. It was frequently sacked in the
different wars. In April, 1849, a French force of 6000 men, under Gen.
Oudinot, landed here on its way to Rome, where the republic had been
proclaimed, and a triumvirate appointed. The French troops overthrew the
republic and restored the pope to Rome, from which he had fled in 1848.

=Civitella del Tronto.= A fortified town of Italy, in the province of
Abruzzo Ultra. Here the Neapolitan garrison surrendered to the
Piedmontese general Mezzacapo on March 20, 1861.

=Clarigation.= In Roman antiquity, a ceremony which always preceded a
formal declaration of war. The chief of the heralds went to the
territory of the enemy, where, after some solemn prefatory indication,
he, with a loud voice, intimated that he declared war against them for
certain reasons specified, such as injury done to the Roman allies, or
the like.

=Claymore= (_Gaelic_, signifying great glaive, or sword). Properly a
great two-handed sword, used by the Highlanders only.

=Clayonages= (_Fr._). A species of hurdle, with which the timber-work of
a gallery is covered. It is likewise used in saps.

=Clermont.= A town of France, department of Oise, 16 miles by rail
south-southeast of Beauvais. It was burned by the English in 1359;
besieged by Marshal de Boussac in 1430; captured by the English in 1434;
taken by Henry IV. in 1595, and occupied by the Prince de Condé in 1615.

=Clermont-Ferrand.= A city of France, capital of the department
Puy-de-Dôme. It was captured by the Vandals in 408; besieged without
success by the Visigoths in 473. It was taken by Thierry in 506; sacked
by Pepin in 761; captured by the Normans in 853. The great council in
which the crusades originated was held here in 1095.

=Clice= (_Fr._). A long and curved Turkish sabre.

=Clide= (_Fr._). A machine of war, used during the Middle Ages to throw
rocks on besieging parties.

=Clifton Moor= (England). Here the Scotch insurgents were defeated by
the royal troops in 1745.

=Clipeus.= A large shield worn by the ancient Greeks and Romans, which
was originally of a circular form, made of wicker-work or wood covered
over with ox-hides several folds deep, and bound round the edge with
metal.

=Clontarf.= A place near Dublin, Ireland, the site of a battle fought on
Good Friday, April 23, 1014, between the Irish and Danes, the former
headed by Brian Boroihme, monarch of Ireland, who defeated the invaders,
after a long and bloody engagement. Brian was wounded, and soon
afterwards died. His son Murchard also fell, with many of the nobility;
11,000 Danes are said to have perished in the battle.

=Close Column.= A column of troops in which the subdivisions are at less
than full distance,--that is, less than the length of one of the
subdivisions.

=Clostercamp.= A village of Rhenish Prussia. Here the French gained a
victory on October 15-16, 1760.

=Closterseven= (Hanover), =Convention of=. Was entered into September 8,
1757, between the Duke of Cumberland, third son of George II., and the
Duke of Richelieu, commander of the French armies. By its humiliating
stipulations, 38,000 Hanoverians laid down their arms, and were
dispersed. The duke immediately afterwards resigned all his military
commands, and the convention was soon broken by both parties.

=Clothing.= The President of the United States is authorized to
prescribe the kind and quality of clothing to be issued annually to the
troops of the United States. The manner of issuing and accounting for
clothing shall be established by general regulations of the War
Department. The clothing of the British army is determined by a
permanent board, composed of the commander-in-chief and a certain number
of general officers, who act under the authority of the sovereign.

=Club, To.= To throw into confusion, to deform through ignorance or
inadvertence. To _club a battalion_, to throw it into confusion. This
happens through a temporary inability in the commanding officer to
restore any given body of men to their natural front in line or column,
after some manœuvre has been performed.

=Coa.= A river in Portugal, province of Beira. The spur which separates
the Coa from the Agueda incloses the plateau of Fuentes d’Onore, famous
for the battle of 1811, which was fought by Masséna with the English.
See FUENTES D’ONORE.

=Coat-armor.= Coats of arms; armorial ensigns.

=Coat of Arms.= A habit formerly worn by knights over their armor. It
was a short-sleeved coat or tunic reaching to the waist, and embroidered
with their armorial ensigns and various devices. Any representation of
the armorial devices upon such a habit; an armorial device.

=Coat of Mail.= A piece of armor covering the upper portion of the body,
consisting of a net-work of iron rings.

=Coblentz.= A fortified town of Rhenish Prussia, situated at the conflux
of the Rhine and Moselle, opposite the great Prussian fortress of
Ehrenbreitstein. In 1794 this place was taken by Napoleon I., and made
the capital of the department of the Rhine and Moselle.

=Cocherel.= Near Evreux, Northwest France. Here Bertrand and Du Guesclin
defeated the king of Navarre, and took prisoner the Captal de Buch, May
16, 1364.

=Cochin.= A city of Hindostan, presidency of Madras. It was held by the
Portuguese in 1503; by the Dutch in 1663; was taken by the British in
1796, and ceded to them in 1814.

=Cockade= (Fr. _cocarde_). The word signified originally a cocked-hat,
or a hat with the broad flap looped up on one side, and then applied to
the knot of ribbon with which the loop is ornamented. The word is now,
however, restricted to signify an appendage worn on the hat of military
and naval officers.

=Cock-feather.= In archery, the feather which stood up on the arrow,
when it was rightly placed upon the string, perpendicularly upon the
cock or notch.

=Code.= A compilation or collection of laws made by public authority, as
the _Code Napoléon_.

=Code.= A list of signal symbols. See SIGNALING.

=Codogno.= A town of Italy, in the province of Milan, between the Adda
and the Po. Here the Austrians were defeated by the Spaniards in 1746,
and by the French in 1796.

=Coehorn.= So named from the military engineer, Baron Van Coehorn, who
invented it. It is a small howitzer, or mortar, generally 4³⁄₅ inches
caliber. These implements of war, being easily moved and adjusted, and
taking little powder, are found very useful in sieges, if grouped in
great numbers.

=Coehorn Beds.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, MORTAR BEDS.

=Coeverden=, =Coevorden=, or =Koevorde=. A fortified town of Holland; it
was captured by the French in 1795.

=Coffer.= In fortification, a hollow lodgment, sunk in the bottom of a
dry ditch, from 6 to 7 feet deep, and from 16 to 18 feet broad. Its
length corresponds with the whole breadth of the said ditch, from side
to side. The besieged generally make use of these coffers to repulse the
besiegers when they attempt to pass the ditch; they are distinguished
only by their length from _caponnières_. They are covered with joists,
hurdles, and earth, raised 2 feet above the bottom of the ditch, so as
to serve the purposes of a loop-holed parapet.

=Cohort.= A division of the ancient Roman armies, consisting of about
600 men, divided into centuries. It was the tenth part of a legion, and
its number, consequently, was under the same fluctuation as that of the
legions. In the time of the empire the cohort often amounted to 1000
men.

=Coif.= Was originally an iron skull-cap, worn by knights under their
helmets; it was introduced before 1259. It is now especially applied in
Great Britain to a cap worn by sergeants-at-law.

=Coimbra.= An ancient city of Portugal, capital of the province of
Beira. It appears to have been originally built by the Goths; from them
it passed to the Moors, from whom it was finally conquered in 1064 by
Fernando the Great, aided by the gallant Cid. It was taken by the troops
under the British colonel Kent, October 7, 1810.

=Coin= (Fr. _coin d’artilleur_). In gunnery, a kind of wedge to lay
under the breech of a gun, in order to raise or depress the metal.
Written also _quoin_.

=Colberg=, or =Kolberg=. A strongly fortified seaport of Prussian
Pomerania. It stands on a hill, surrounded with swamps which can be laid
under water, and is chiefly remarkable for the protracted sieges it has
undergone. In 1102, Duke Boleslaus, of Poland, besieged it in vain. It
endured long sieges in the Thirty Years’ War and in the Seven Years’
War, and again in 1807, when it was most gallantly defended against the
French.

=Colchester.= The chief town in the county of Essex, England. It was
taken from the Danes in 921 by Edward the Elder, who founded the castle.
It was ravaged by the plague in 1348, in 1360, and again in 1665. In
1648 it was taken by Lord Goring for Charles I., but was retaken by
Fairfax after a siege of 11 weeks, when the castle was dismantled.

=Cold Harbor.= A village of Hanover Co., Va., about 10 miles northeast
of Richmond. During the civil war a series of desperate struggles took
place in and around this place (May 28-June 3, 1864) between the forces
of Gens. Grant and Lee, resulting in a loss of probably 13,000 men on
the Federal side.

=Coldstream.= A border-town of Scotland, in Berwickshire, on the left
bank of the Tweed. Near this place is the famous ford where the English
and Scottish armies formerly crossed the Tweed. Here Gen. Monk raised
the regiment still known as the Coldstream Guards.

=Coldstream Guards.= A regiment in the Foot Guards, or Household
Brigade, is the oldest corps in the British army except the First Foot.
It was raised at Coldstream in 1660, by Gen. Monk, and was first called
Monk’s regiment, but when Parliament consented to give a brigade of
guards to Charles II., this corps, under its present name, was included
in it.

=College of Arms.= See HERALD’S COLLEGE.

=Collet= (_Fr._). In gunnery, that part of a cannon which is between the
astragal and the muzzle.

=Colmar.= A city of France, capital of the department of Haut-Rhin. This
city had an active share in the civil wars under Rodolph of Hapsburg and
Adolphe of Nassau; it was captured by the Swedes in 1632; by the French
in 1635 and 1673. It was ceded to France by the peace of Ryswick in
1697. Occupied by the Bavarians on January 3, 1814.

=Colocotroni.= See KOLOCOTRONI.

=Cologne.= A fortified city of Prussia, the capital of the province of
Rhenish Prussia, on the left bank of the Rhine. It is a fortress of the
first rank. It was taken by the French in 1795, and assigned to Prussia
in 1814.

=Colombia, United States of.= A republic of South America, known by this
name since 1861, but formerly called New Granada. It united with
Venezuela in 1819, and established one central government for the
purpose of resisting Spain, but in 1829 was separated from it, and soon
after another republic--that of Ecuador--was formed from it, three
republics being thus formed out of what was formerly but one.

=Colombo.= A fortified seaport town and capital of Ceylon; it was
fortified in 1638 by the Portuguese, who were expelled by the Dutch in
1666; the latter surrendered it to the British, February 15, 1796. The
British troops were murdered here in cold blood by the Adigar of Candy,
June 6, 1803.

=Colonel.= The title of the highest officer of a regiment, ranking next
below a brigadier-general, and above a lieutenant-colonel. The rank of
captain in the navy corresponds with this title.

=Colonel, Lieutenant-.= The rank next below that of colonel.

=Colonia do Santissimo Sacramento= (_i.e._, Colony of the Most Holy
Sacrament). A fortified maritime town of South America, in Uruguay,
opposite Buenos Ayres. On August 31, 1845, it was taken by the English
and French fleets.

=Colonial Corps.= Are certain regiments forming part of the regular army
of the British empire, and paid for out of the imperial revenues. The
native troops of India are paid from the Indian revenues.

=Colorado.= One of the United States, bounded on the north by Dakota and
Nebraska, on the east by Nebraska and Kansas, on the south by New
Mexico, and on the west by Utah. In 1857 an exploring party started
through its territory, but were driven back by hostile Indians. The
country is now, however, being rapidly settled, owing to its great
fertility and the presence of auriferous deposits.

=Color-bearer.= The bearer of the colors.

=Color-Guard, The.= In the U. S. infantry, consists of the color-bearer
and a guard of 7 corporals in each regiment. They must all be good
soldiers. The color-guard is attached to the right centre company in the
line, and its post on the field is one of honor as well as danger.

=Colorno.= A fortified castle in Italy, on the banks of the Po; it was
captured by the Marquis de Maillebois, from the Austrians under the
Prince of Würtemberg, in 1734.

=Colors.= A military term applied to banners or flags carried by each
regiment of infantry. The banners of the cavalry are called standards.
Each U. S. regiment has two colors, one national and one regimental.

=Colors.= In heraldry, the colors generally used are red, blue, black,
green, and purple, which are called gules, azure, sable, vert or
sinople, and purpure. Colors and metals, when engraved, are generally
indicated by dots and lines: _or_, gold, by dots; _argent_, silver, is
left plain; _gules_, red, is indicated by perpendicular lines from top
to bottom; _azure_, blue, by horizontal lines from side to side;
_sable_, black, by horizontal and perpendicular lines crossing each
other; _vert_, green, by diagonal lines from right to left; and
_purpure_, purple, by diagonal lines from left to right.

=Color-Sergeant.= Is the sergeant detailed to carry the regimental
colors. He is usually selected for military deportment and soldierly
bearing, and when carrying the colors is escorted by a guard of 7
corporals. In the British service he has a distinct rank, but in the
U. S. service he ranks no higher than other sergeants.

=Colt’s Pistol.= The most celebrated of modern revolvers. Invented by an
American, Col. Samuel Colt; first patented in 1835, and perfected about
1845. It has kept pace with the times, and is still one of the first of
its kind.

=Columbia.= The capital of South Carolina, situated on the left bank of
the Congaree River. It was taken by Gen. Sherman’s army, February 17,
1865, and was then much injured by fire.

=Columbiad Gun.= See ORDNANCE, CONSTRUCTION OF.

=Column.= Signifies, in military evolutions, a mass of soldiers several
ranks in depth as opposed to _line_. There may be columns of brigades,
of regiments, of divisions, or of companies, presenting a front of
limited width, but a depth depending on the number of elements in the
column. In a battalion the formation is called _open column_ when the
distance between the elements of the column is such as to admit of their
wheeling into line; when the distance is only a few yards it is termed
_close column_; when intermediate between these two, it is “column at
half distance.” Battalions are drawn up in column with either the right
or left in front, or the battalions may be doubled upon their centres.
To pass from column into line is to “deploy”; to pass from line to
column is to “ploy.” Sometimes the name column is given to a small army,
especially when engaged in active operations. In drawing up troops for
action, as a general rule, the French prefer the column, the Americans
and English the formation in line.

=Column, Military.= Among the Romans, a column on which was engraven a
list of the forces in the Roman army, ranged by legions in their proper
order. They had another kind of _military column_ called _columna
bellica_, standing before the temple of Janus, at the foot of which the
consul declared war by throwing a javelin towards the enemy’s country.

=Column, Triumphal.= A column erected among the ancients in honor of a
hero, and decorated with various kinds of crowns, corresponding to the
number of his achievements in battle. Each crown had its particular
name, as _vallaris_, which was filled with spikes, in memory of his
having faced a palisade; _muralis_, adorned with little turrets or
battlements, for having mounted an assault; _navalis_, of prows and
beaks of vessels, for having vanquished at sea; _obsidionalis_, or
_graminalis_, of grass, for having raised a siege; _ovans_, of myrtle,
which expressed an ovation, or minor triumph; and _triumphalis_, of
laurel, for a grand triumph.

=Comanche Indians=, or =Comanches=. An extremely warlike and predatory
tribe of Mexico and Texas. They have a reservation in Indian Territory
with some Kiowas and Apaches. See INDIANS AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Combat.= An engagement of no great magnitude, or one in which the
parties engaged are not armies.

=Combustion.= The phenomena attending intense chemical actions which are
accompanied by heat and light. Usually restricted to the burning of
bodies by their union with oxygen. It is difficult to draw the line
where combustion ends and _explosion_ begins.

=Combustion, Velocity of.= Is the space passed over by the surface of
combustion in a second of time, measured in a direction perpendicular to
its surface. It has been determined that the velocity of combustion of
dry French war-powder is 0.48 inch, and of English powder, which
American powder closely resembles, is 0.4 inch.

=Comes.= Was with the Romans an officer with territorial jurisdiction in
the provinces, and especially on the frontiers.

=Comigne= (_Fr._). A shell of extreme magnitude, which takes its name
from the person who originally invented it.

=Comines=, or =Commines=. A town of France, situated on the Lys,
opposite the Belgian town of the same name. Near here Oliver de Clisson
defeated the Flemings in 1382.

=Command.= In fortification, the height of the top of a parapet above
the ground or another work.

=Command.= A body of troops, or any naval or military force or post,
under the command of a particular officer. The word command, when
applied to ground is synonymous with overlook; and any place thus
commanded by heights within range of cannon is difficult to defend, if
the enemy have been able to seize the heights.

=Command.= The 62d Article of War (new, 122) states who shall command
when different corps of the army happen to join or do duty together, but
as the wording of this article has been interpreted differently by
different officers, it is thought best to give a decision rendered by
President Fillmore on October 25, 1851, in General Orders from the War
Department. The 62d Article of War provides that “If upon marches,
guards, or in quarters, different corps of the army shall happen to
join, or to do duty together, the officer highest in rank of the _line_
of the army, marine corps, or militia, by commission there, on duty, or
in quarters, shall command the whole and give orders for what is needful
to the service, unless otherwise specially directed by the President of
the United States, according to the nature of the case.” The
interpretation of this act has long been a subject of controversy. The
difficulty arises from the vague and uncertain meaning of the words
“line of the army,” which neither in the English service nor in our own
have a well-defined and invariable meaning. By some they are understood
to designate the regular army as distinguished from the militia; by
others as meant to discriminate between officers by ordinary commissions
and those by brevet; and finally, by others, to designate an officer not
belonging to the staff.

The President states that “He has maturely considered the question, and
finds himself compelled to differ from some for whose opinions he
entertains a very high respect. His opinion is, that although these
words may sometimes be used in a different sense (to be determined by
the context and subject-matter), in the 62d Article of War they are used
to designate those officers of the army who do not belong to the staff,
in contradistinction to those who do, and that the article intended, in
the case contemplated by it, to confer the command exclusively on the
former.” In the discussion which took place in 1828 relating to ordinary
rank and rank by brevet, the then Secretary of War (Gen. Porter) says,
“Rank in the line of the army or lineal rank, as understood by the
President, is applicable to the existing organization of that portion
only of the army which is intended for field operations or the exertion
of physical force against an enemy. It is commonly used in
contradistinction to the staff,” etc. He then goes on to show that in
the 62d Article it has another meaning,--House Document 58, 20th
Congress, 2d session, page 13. In the same discussion, Mr. Drayton, as
chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs of the House of
Representatives, expresses the same opinion. He says, “Rank in the
_line_ of the army is conceived to be rank in a military body specially
organized for the exertion of physical force, or in other words, for
combating an enemy; and an officer in such a body has a direct and
paramount command over the troops which compose it. The expressions
‘rank in the line of the army,’ ‘rank in the line,’ ‘lineal rank,’ _are
generally used in contradistinction to staff appointments_.” He adds,
“and to rank which confers upon officers only an occasional right to
command, including brevet officers,” etc. Thus we see that these
gentlemen admit that these words, in their proper and usual
signification, are employed to distinguish the combatant from the staff
or non-combatant portions of the army.

If we look at the policy of the law, we can discover no reasons of
expediency which compel us to depart from the plain and ordinary import
of the terms; on the contrary, we may suppose strong reasons why it may
have been deemed proper, in the case referred to by the article, to
exclude officers of the staff from command. In the first place, the
command of troops might frequently interfere with their appropriate
duties, and thereby occasion serious embarrassment to the service. In
the next place, the officers of some of the staff corps are not
qualified by their habits of education for the command of troops, and
although others are so qualified, it arises from the fact that (by laws
passed long subsequently to the article in question) the officers of the
corps to which they belong are required to be appointed from the “line
of the army.” Lastly, officers of the staff corps seldom have troops of
their own corps serving under their command, and if the words “officers
of the line” are understood to apply to them, the effect would often be
to give them command over the officers and men of all the other corps
when not a man of their own was present, an anomaly always to be
avoided, where it is possible to do so. Whatever doubts may be
entertained on this subject in regard to the officers of other staff
corps, none can exist in regard to those of the Medical Department and
the Pay Department. The law of 1847 expressly excludes them from
command. Now the officers of these corps are not a distinct and
independent body, but are a part of the army, and as they cannot
command, it follows that when on duty they must be commanded.

=Commandant.= An officer who has the command of a garrison, fort,
castle, regiment, company, etc.; called also commander.

=Commander-in-Chief.= The title given to the officer who has supreme
command of the land or naval forces of a nation. The President is _ex
officio_ commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States.

=Commands.= In the military service there are two kinds, the
_preparatory command_, such as _forward_, which indicates the movement
that is to be executed, and the _command of execution_, such as MARCH,
or HALT, or in the manual of arms, the part of the command which causes
the execution. The tone of command is animated, distinct, and of a
loudness proportioned to the number of men under instruction.

Each _preparatory command_ is pronounced in an ascending tone of voice,
but always in such a manner that the _command of execution_ may be more
energetic and elevated.

The _command of execution_ is pronounced in a tone firm and brief. The
trumpet ought to be used for giving commands whenever it can be done to
advantage.

=Commilitones.= This word had with the Romans the same significance as
the English words _comrade soldiers_.

=Commissariat.= A name given to the organized system whereby armies are
provided with food and daily necessaries. In the old Roman armies the
duty of supplying troops was performed by the _quæstors_, who filled the
place of the commissary officers of our own times. In the U. S. service
this department is under charge of an officer of the rank of
brigadier-general, called the commissary-general of subsistence.

=Commissary.= In general means any one to whom the power or authority of
another is committed; used in military affairs in relation to officers
who have charge of the subsistence of troops, musters, etc.

=Commissary of Muster.= See MUSTER.

=Commissary Sergeants.= In the U. S. service, are sergeants who are
selected from the line of the army, by the Secretary of War; they must
be steady and reliable men, and their duties are to assist the
commissary officer in receiving, storing, preserving, issuing, selling,
and accounting for the subsistence supplies at their posts, according to
the regulations for the subsistence departments.

=Commission.= A writing, generally in the form of a warrant or
letters-patent, authorizing the performance of duties, or exercise of
powers belonging to another. Instruments bearing this title are issued
by the Executive to officers in the army or navy, who, on confirmation
of their appointment, are known as _commissioned_ officers. The practice
of buying and selling all commissions under the rank of colonel, which
formerly prevailed in the British army, was abolished in 1871.

=Commissioned.= One having a commission; furnished with a commission;
empowered or authorized to act; as, a commissioned officer.

=Common Time.= In marching, the length of the direct step in common time
is 28 inches, and the cadence is at the rate of 90 steps per minute.

=Communication, Line of.= A fantastical name applied by Belidor to mines
with immense charges, which he proposed to use for the destruction of
countermines, and which were used successfully in the attack of
Schweidnitz, under Frederick II.

=Commutation.= Is the conversion of allowances, such as fuel, forage,
and quarters, into their money value.

=Comorn.= A royal free town of Hungary, 48 miles from Buda. Its citadel
is considered one of the strongest in Europe. Its works and
intrenchments extend about 7 miles along the banks of the rivers (Waag
and Danube), and it requires for its defense at least 15,000 men and 400
pieces of artillery. It has the reputation of being impregnable, and
justified it in the Hungarian war, for the Austrians besieged it from
October, 1848, to September, 1849, and only became masters of it at last
in virtue of a capitulation.

=Compagnies de Discipline= (_Fr._). “Companies of discipline.” These
companies were created by Napoleon I. in 1802; the basis of their actual
organization was laid by a royal order, dated April 1, 1818. This order
fixes the number of companies at 10, 6 of fusileers and 4 of pioneers,
the former to be composed of soldiers of the army who were guilty of
indiscipline, and the latter to be formed of men of the former who were
deemed incorrigible. The number of companies is now reduced to 7, who
are stationed in Algeria. There are also 4 companies similarly organized
which are stationed in the French colonies.

=Compagnies d’Ordonnance= (_Fr._). The name of a corps of cavalry, which
was organized in France by Charles VII. in 1439; it numbered 16
companies, and the entire strength was 9600 men. This was the first
regular cavalry organized in France.

=Company= (Fr. _compagnie_). In military organization, is a body of men
commanded by a captain, and forming an aliquot part of a regiment or
battalion. In the British service a full company consists of about 100
men, and a regiment of infantry generally comprises 10 or 12 companies,
or if there is more than 1 battalion, each has this number of companies.
The captain of each company is assisted by 2 subalterns. In the U. S.
army each regiment of infantry is divided into 10 companies, and each
company has a captain and 2 lieutenants. The artillery and cavalry
regiments are divided into 12 companies each, and the former has a
captain and 4 lieutenants to each company. See ORGANIZATION.

=Company Column.= The successive improvements that have been made in
fire-arms during the last hundred years have been followed by a gradual
diminution of the depth of tactical formations, until to-day the “open
order,” or the formation as skirmishers, is the only one adopted under
the fire of the enemy. In the most recent development of the “open
order” the company, composed of 250 men, is recognized as the “fighting
unit,” while the battalion, composed of 4 companies, is regarded as the
“tactical unit,”--that is, the smallest body of men that can be safely
employed independently.

The adoption of breech-loaders has not changed the principles of
strategy and grand tactics, nor has it diminished the number of lines in
which armies are drawn up to give and receive battle. It has simply
demonstrated the impossibility of attacking positions in battalion
columns, and, as a consequence, has necessitated a division of the
troops into smaller fractions, which, under fire, can be moved with the
greatest rapidity and least exposure, thereby insuring the least loss of
life. Hence the formation of troops in “company column” in the German
and other European armies.

In the German army, the company is formed in three ranks; the tallest
men are in the front rank; the most adroit and best shots are selected
for the third rank, because the special duties of this rank require
these qualities; the distance between ranks is 2 feet. The company is
divided into divisions (or platoons). If the divisions consist of 20 or
more files, they are divided into subdivisions (or half platoons); the
subdivisions are again divided into sections of not less than 4, nor
more than 6 files. If the company be of full strength, it will have a
front of 72 files; each division will contain 36 files; each subdivision
18 files; and each section 6 files. The battalion consists of 4
companies.

The “company column” is formed in the following manner: The battalion
being in line, at the command to “form company column,” the third rank
of each even division of the right wing faces about, marches 12 paces to
the rear, halts, and faces to the front; the first and second ranks of
the uneven divisions face to the left, and place themselves 6 paces in
rear of the first and second ranks of the even divisions; the third rank
of the uneven subdivisions faces to the left, and, filing in front of
the third rank of the even division, forms with it a third division in
double rank. The movement is executed in the uncadenced step. The column
when formed consists practically of 3 platoons in double rank. In the
left wing the movement is similarly executed; the even subdivisions
ploying in rear of the uneven subdivisions. The third division of each
column is called the “shooting division.”

In the French army the company is formed in 2 ranks, and is normally
divided into 4 sections, the first two of which constitute the first
platoon, the last two the second platoon. The “company column” is always
formed on the second section from the right, which stands fast; the
distance between sections is 6 paces.

The “company column” in Italy, Austria, and Russia, as in France, varies
very slightly from the German.

With a battalion of 8 or 10 companies, subdivisions may be dispensed
with, and, so long as this organization is retained in England and
America, the “company column” will not therefore become a necessity.
Should the regimental system of 3 battalions, of 4 companies each, be
adopted, all of the advantages claimed for the “company column”
can be secured by adopting the double column of fours for each
company.--_Armies of Asia and Europe_, UPTON.

=Compass, Prismatic.= A pocket instrument for measuring horizontal
angles by means of the magnetic meridian. It is much employed in the
military service for sketching the general features of a country, and in
reconnoissances. It consists of a small glass-covered box containing a
magnetized needle attached to a graduated card. A sight-vane with a fine
wire stretched longitudinally in the slot is hinged to one side of the
box. On the opposite side is a prism. To use it the sight-vane is turned
up to the perpendicular. The eye is applied to the prism, and the wire
directed on the object. The division in the card coinciding with the
reflection of the wire gives the angle with the meridian.

=Compassionate Allowances.= In the British service, are grants of
allowances which are made to the legitimate children of deceased
officers of the land forces in all cases in which the widow of the
officer would be entitled to be placed on the pension-list, provided it
be shown that they are deserving objects of the sovereign’s bounty, and
are in distressed circumstances.

=Compiègne.= A town of France, department of Oise. It was besieged by
the English in 1430, who failed to capture it owing to the brave defense
made by its governor, Flavia. Joan of Arc, who came to the assistance of
this town, was taken prisoner by the English besiegers. The emperor
Napoleon III. and the king of Prussia met here on October 6, 1861.

=Complement of the Curtain.= That part in the interior side of a
fortification which makes the demi-gorge.

=Complement of the Line of Defense.= The remainder of the line of
defense after the angle of the flank is taken away.

=Compliment.= The military mark of respect shown by a body of troops to
official personages, to an officer, or to another body of troops.

=Compositions, Pyrotechnic.= See PYROTECHNY.

=Compound Armor.= See ARMOR PLATES.

=Compression Strain.= See ORDNANCE, STRAINS UPON.

=Compulsion=, or =Inevitable Necessity=. Is a constraint upon the will
whereby an officer is urged to that which his judgment disapproves, and
which, it is to be presumed, his will (if left to itself) would reject.
As punishments are, therefore, only inflicted for the abuse of that free
will which God has given to man, it is highly just and equitable that an
officer should be excused for those acts which are done through
unavoidable force and compulsion.

=Comrade.= A soldier who acts as the friend of another soldier,
rendering him friendly services, etc. Each soldier generally has one
special friend who is recognized as his comrade. The term comrade is
also extended so as to include all the members of a particular corps,
branch of the service, or the army generally.

=Concarneau.= A maritime town of France, department of Finistère; it was
taken by Du Guesclin in 1373, and by the Leaguers in 1576. The town is
defended by a fort and surrounded by ancient walls.

=Concave Order of Battle.= See ORDER OF BATTLE, CONCAVE.

=Concepcion.= A port of Chili, capital of a province of the same name.
In 1554, 1555, and 1603, it was taken and burnt by the Araucanians. A
portion of it was again devastated by the Araucanians in 1823.

=Concord.= A town of Middlesex Co., Mass., 11 miles from Boston. Here,
on April 19, 1775, one of the first conflicts took place between the
Americans and the British troops. A monument is erected at this place to
commemorate the event.

=Concrete.= A coarse building mortar, containing broken stone, gravel,
etc., used much in fortifications.

=Condé.= A town of France, in the department of the North. It is
strongly fortified and has a military arsenal. In 1793 this town was
taken by the Austrians.

=Condemned Property.= In the military service, property must be
condemned by an inspector before it can rightfully be destroyed.

=Condottieri.= A name given in the 14th century to the leaders of
certain bands of military adventurers in Italy, who, for booty, offered
their services to any party in any contest, and often practiced warfare
on their own account purely for the sake of plunder. The _Compagnies
Grandes_ in France at about the same period were somewhat similar to the
condottieri, and were so powerful at one time that in 1361 they routed
the king’s forces at Brignais, and slew Jacques de Bourbon, constable of
France.

=Conduct Unbecoming an Officer and a Gentleman.= See UNGENTLEMANLIKE OR
UNOFFICERLIKE, and APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 60 and 61.

=Confederate Projectiles.= See PROJECTILE.

=Confederate States of America=, or =Southern Confederacy=. The efforts
of the Southern States for the extension of slavery, and the zeal of the
Northern States for its abolition, with the consequent political
dissensions, led to the great secession of 1860-61. On November 4, 1860,
Abraham Lincoln, the Republican candidate, was elected President of the
United States. Hitherto, a President in the interest of the South had
been elected. On December 20, South Carolina seceded from the Union; and
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia
(except West Virginia), Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina seceded
early in 1861. Jefferson Davis was inaugurated President of the Southern
Confederacy at Montgomery, Ala., February 18, 1861. For important events
of the civil war which ensued, see the different States of America
throughout this work, and the names of battles, etc., which were fought
during this war. On the 20th day of August, 1866, the President (Andrew
Johnson) proclaimed the insurrection at an end, and that peace, order,
tranquillity, and civil authority existed throughout the whole of the
United States.

=Confederation of the Rhine.= The league of the German states, formed by
Napoleon Bonaparte, July 12, 1806, when he abolished the Holy Roman
Empire, and the emperor of Germany became emperor of Austria. In
December it consisted of France, Bavaria, Würtemberg, Saxony, and
Westphalia; 7 grand duchies, 6 duchies, and 20 principalities. The
princes collectively engaged to raise 258,000 troops to serve in case of
war, and established a diet at Frankfort. This league terminated with
the career of Bonaparte in 1814. It was replaced by the _Germanic
Confederation_, and it, in its turn, was replaced by the _North German
Confederation_.

=Confiscation.= The appropriation to the public use of private property.
A right which is conferred under certain circumstances by the laws of
war. See CONTRABAND OF WAR.

=Conflans= (near Paris), =Treaty of=. Between Louis XI. of France and
the Dukes of Bourbon, Brittany, and Burgundy, October 5, 1465. By its
provisions Normandy was ceded to the Duke of Berry, and an end was put
to the “War of the Public Good.” It was confirmed by the treaty of
Peronne, 1468.

=Congreve Rocket.= See ROCKET.

=Coni=, or =Cuneo=. The capital of a province of the same name in
Piedmont. It was once a fortified place, and had to undergo several
sieges. After being taken and retaken, the victory of Marengo gave it
into the hands of the French, who demolished the fortifications and
turned them into promenades.

=Connecticut.= One of the original States of the American Confederation,
and the most southwestern of the New England States. The country was
early explored by the Dutch, but the first permanent settlements were
made by English emigrants in 1634. In 1637 the settlers were much
annoyed by Indians, who were shortly afterwards subdued, however, in
engagements at Mystic and Fairfield, and never after gave any serious
trouble. The State took an active part in the cause of American
independence, and also in the late war for the Union, and throughout
both these eventful contests she sustained eminent distinction as well
for the wisdom of her statesmen as for the bravery and patriotism of her
soldiers.

=Conquer.= To gain or acquire by force; to take possession of by violent
means; to gain dominion over; to subdue; to reduce, etc. To gain the
victory; to overcome.

=Conqueror.= One who conquers; one who subdues and brings into
subjection or possession by force or by influence.

=Conquest.= The act of conquering or acquiring by force; the act of
overcoming or subduing opposition by force; subjugation; victory.

=Conquisitores.= So were called the recruiting officers of the Romans.

=Consarbruck.= A village of Rhenish Prussia where the French were
defeated by the Duc de Lorraine, August 11, 1675.

=Conscription.= A system of enrolling men for military service, which is
in vogue in France and some other foreign countries. Voluntary
enlistments being so very few, the compulsory system of keeping up the
armies is deemed indispensable. An account is kept of all the youths who
reach the age of 20 in one year, and out of these the number required
for the army is drawn by lot.

=Consigne= (_Fr._). Parole or countersign.

=Constable.= The title in the Middle Ages of the highest military
officer in France under the king. The term comes from the low Latin
phrase _comes stabuli_, count of the stables.

=Constable of the Tower.= In England, is a general officer who has the
chief superintendence of the Tower, and is lord-lieutenant of the Tower
Hamlets. He holds his appointment by letters-patent from the sovereign,
and is not removable at pleasure.

=Constantine=, or =Constantina=. A fortified city of Algeria, capital of
a province of its own name. It stands on the site of the ancient Cirta,
celebrated as the bulwark of Numidia. It is built upon a high rock,
formed into a species of peninsula by the Rummel. It was besieged by the
French in 1836, but held out till October, 1837, when it was taken by
assault.

=Constantinople.= A celebrated city of Turkey in Europe, the capital of
the Ottoman empire. It was formerly called _Byzantium_, but having been
rebuilt by the emperor Constantine in 328, it received his name. No
city in the world has been subjected to as many numerous and celebrated
sieges, yet it was only taken twice,--by the Crusaders in 1204 (held by
them till 1261), and by the Turks under Mohammed II., May 29, 1453,--an
event which completed the extinction of the Roman empire in the East.

=Contest.= In a military sense, to struggle to defend; as, the troops
contested every inch of ground. Earnest struggle for superiority,
defense, or the like; strife in arms.

=Continental.= A term adopted by the Americans in the Revolutionary war
in contradistinction to British.

=Contingent.= This term is applied to the quota of troops furnished to
the common army by each member of a confederation of states; the
proportion of troops or money furnished by each party to an alliance.

=Contingent.= In the British service, the sum paid monthly to each
captain of a troop, company, or battery, to defray the expense of
stationery, the care of arms, and other minor demands. A contingent
account is also the account, sent in by a staff-officer, of money
expended for miscellaneous purposes.

=Contours.= Are the lines in which a site or ground surface is cut by
horizontal planes, usually taken at equidistances.

=Contraband of War.= Are such articles as a belligerent has by the law
of nations the right of preventing a neutral from furnishing to his
enemy. Articles contraband of war are, in general, arms and munitions of
war and those out of which munitions of war are made. Contraband
articles are subject to confiscation; but very arbitrary interpretations
have been affixed to the term by powerful states, when able to enforce
them by arms. Thus, provisions are held contraband of war when it is the
object to reduce the enemy by famine. But with respect to these and
other articles not in their nature contraband, it seems to be the
practice that the belligerent should purchase them from the neutral for
a reasonable equivalent, instead of confiscating.

=Contramure.= In fortification, is a wall built before another
partition-wall to strengthen it, so that it may receive no damage from
the adjacent buildings.

=Contravallation.= In fortification, is an intrenchment formed in the
same manner as the line of circumvallation, to defend the besiegers
against the enterprises of the garrison. An army forming a siege lies
between the line of circumvallation and contravallation. The trench of
this line is towards the town, at the foot of the parapet, and is never
made but when the garrison is numerous enough to harass and interrupt
the besiegers by sallies. This line is constructed in the rear of the
camp, and by the same rule as the line of circumvallation, with this
difference, that, as it is only intended to resist a body of troops much
inferior to a force which might attack the circumvallation, its parapet
is not made so thick, nor the ditch so wide and deep.

=Contre-forts= (_Fr._). Brick-work which is added to the revetment of a
rampart on the side of the terre-plein, and which is equal to its
height. Contre forts are used to support the body of earth with which
the rampart is formed. They are likewise used in the revetments of
counterscarps, in gorges and demi-gorges, etc. Contre-forts likewise
form a part of the construction of powder-magazines, which are
bomb-proof.

=Contreras.= A celebrated battle-field of Mexico, about 14 miles south
of the capital. Here, on August 19 and 20, 1847, the American forces
under Gen. Scott defeated and totally routed, with loss of all his
artillery, the Mexican general Valencia.

=Contribution.= In a military sense, is an imposition or tax levied on
the people of a conquered town or country.

=Control Department.= In the British service, is the department which
performs all the administrative duties of the army, in fact, all duties
neither combatant, educational, nor scientific. It has a sub-department
which performs all work connected with supply and transport, and to
which is attached the “Army Service Corps,” a body of men officered by
the control department, and employed as butchers, bakers, military
train, dispensers, hospital attendants, and those engaged in
non-combatant duties generally.

=Controller.= In the British service, the highest grade in the control
department. The officers holding it--three in number--rank with
major-generals. A _deputy controller_ belongs to the second grade in the
control department. Officers holding it rank with lieutenant-colonels.

=Convalescent.= A soldier who though discharged from hospital is not
sufficiently recovered to do duty.

=Convention.= In a military sense, is an agreement made between hostile
armies for some well-defined purpose, such as the evacuation of a fort,
territory, etc. One of the most celebrated conventions of modern times
was that of Cintra (1808), between the French and the English generals.

=Conversion.= A change of front, as of a body of troops attacked in the
flank.

=Conversion, Bridge by.= See PONTONS.

=Converted Guns.= A term applied to cast-iron guns lined with wrought
iron or steel tube. See ORDNANCE, PALLISER and PARSONS GUNS.

=Convex Order of Battle.= See ORDER OF BATTLE, CONVEX.

=Convoy.= In the military service, is a train of wagons laden with
provisions or warlike stores, or a detachment of troops appointed to
guard such a train.

=Cooling of Cannon.= See ORDNANCE, CONSTRUCTION OF.

=Coptic Legion.= In 1799 the French army in Egypt not receiving any
reinforcements, grew weaker every day through loss in combat and
disease, when Gen. Kleber, who commanded after the departure of
Napoleon, formed a corps of Copts, or native Christians, about 600
strong, which was known by this name. They were armed the same as the
French troops.

=Cordon.= In military operations, is a line of sentries inclosing or
guarding any particular space of ground, to prevent the passage of
persons other than those belonging to the army. The word also applies in
fortifications to a row of stones made round on the outside, and placed
between the termination of the slope of the wall, so as not to be
offensive to the eye.

=Córdova.= A city of Spain, capital of the province of the same name,
founded about 152 B.C.; taken by the Goths in 572, and made the capital
of an Arab kingdom in 756. It was rescued from the Arabs by Ferdinand
III. of Castile in 1236; was taken by the French under Dupont and
disgracefully ravaged, June 8, 1808; surrendered to Joseph Bonaparte,
January, 1810, and abandoned by the French in 1813.

=Corduroy Road.= A roadway formed of logs laid side by side across it,
as in marshy places; so called from its rough or ribbed surface,
resembling corduroy. See CORDWAY.

=Cordway.= This way or road is made over extensive marsh tracks, and is
constructed as follows, from the description of material usually
abounding in such places: Trees and poles of almost any description will
be found to answer. Cut as many as is thought requisite. Divide them
into three classes,--_ground-poles_, _cross-poles_, and _stringers_. The
ground-poles should be the largest and heaviest. The cross-poles are
comparatively short lengths, and lie across the ground-poles with their
ends projecting some distance beyond. They are laid closely together,
and then secured and bound down by the stringers which lie on them. A
tree-nail driven in here and there serves to keep all in place by
nipping the cross-poles tightly. The ends of the ground-poles and
stringers may be either scarfed and tree-nailed, or laid side by side
and tied with withers or strips of suitable bark. This road is quickly
made and found very useful in transporting the supplies of an army over
a wet, marshy country.

=Core.= When cannon are cast hollow, after the plan of Rodman, a core is
used to make the bore. It consists of a hollow cast-iron pipe, fluted on
the outside, called the _core-barrel_. This is wrapped with rope and the
molding sand is plastered over the rope. A water-pipe entering the
core-barrel and reaching nearly to the bottom, and another leaving it
near the top, are used to maintain a circulation of water through it,
thus cooling the casting from the interior.

=Corea=, or =Korea=. Is an extensive peninsular country in Northeastern
Asia, whose limits are not accurately known. It is bounded east by the
Sea of Japan, south by the Strait of Corea, and west by the Whang-hai,
or Yellow Sea. Corea was first subjected by the Tartars, but in about
1120 B.C. the Chinese appear to have gained possession of the country
The Japanese conquered and held it between the years 1692 and 1698, when
it again fell under the sway of China, and still pays a small annual
tribute to the emperor.

=Corfu.= The capital and principal town of the Ionian Islands. It was
first occupied by the Phæcians, and then by the Liburnians; but the
accounts of it are somewhat mythical until its settlement by the
Corinthians about 734 B.C., and through its commerce it soon after
acquired a considerable importance. It soon quarreled with the
mother-country, and after many vicissitudes of fortune passed under the
dominion of the Romans about 229 B.C. The town is defended by two
fortresses, and garrisoned by British troops since 1864, though
belonging to the kingdom of Greece.

=Corinth.= An ancient and celebrated city of Greece, the capital of a
department of the same name, situated on the Isthmus of Corinth. It was
totally destroyed by L. Mummius, the Roman consul, and burnt to the
ground, 146 B.C. It remained in ruins for a century, and was rebuilt in
the year 46 by Julius Cæsar, after which it again arose to be a populous
and prosperous city. After the taking of Constantinople it fell into the
hands of the Turks, from whom it was retaken in 1687 by its former
possessors, the Venetians. In 1715 it was again possessed by the Turks,
who held it till 1823, when it was taken by the Greeks.

=Corinth.= A village in the northeast of Mississippi, about 90 miles
east of Memphis. It was evacuated by the Confederates under Beauregard,
May 29, 1862, and next day occupied by the Federal forces under Gen.
Halleck. The Confederates, under Gens. Van Dorn, Price, and others,
attempted to take this place, but they were thoroughly defeated after
several desperate struggles by Gen. Rosecrans, October 3-5, 1862. The
Confederate loss in prisoners alone was nearly 3000.

=Corinthian War.= Began 395 B.C.; received this name because it was
carried on mostly in the neighborhood of Corinth; waged by a confederacy
of the Athenians, Thebans, Corinthians, and Argives against the
Lacedæmonians. It was closed by the peace of Antalcidas, 387 B.C.

=Corium.= Leather body-armor, formed of overlapping leaves or scales,
worn by Roman soldiers, and those of other nations. Its use was
continued in England till the reign of Edward I.

=Cork.= A city of Ireland, capital of the county of the same name; built
in the 6th century, it was garrisoned by Henry II., 1172; taken by
Cromwell in 1649. The Earl of Marlborough besieged and took this city
from King James’s army, 1690.

=Cornet= (Ital. _cornetta_, a “small flag”). Is the lowest grade of
commissioned officers in the cavalry, equivalent to ensign in the
infantry, his duty being to bear the standard. In the U. S. army there
are no cornets.

=Cornet.= In the military history of the ancients, an instrument much in
the nature of a trumpet: when the cornet only sounded, the ensigns were
to march alone without the soldiers; whereas, when the trumpet only
sounded, the soldiers were to move forward without the ensigns. A troop
of horse was so called.

=Cornette-blanche= (_Fr._). An ornament which in ancient times served to
distinguish French officers who were high in command. It was worn by
them on the top of their helmets. It likewise meant a royal standard,
and was substituted in the room of the royal pennon. The
cornette-blanche was only unfurled when the king joined the army; and
the persons who served under it were princes, noblemen, marshals of
France, and old captains, whose orders came direct from the king.

=Coroneia.= An ancient town of Bœotia. The Athenians were here defeated
by the Bœotians, and their leader, Tolmides, slain, 447 B.C. The
Athenians, Thebans, Argives, and Corinthians having entered into a
league, offensive and defensive, against Sparta, Agesilaus, after
diffusing the terror of his arms from his many victories, even into
Upper Asia, engaged the allies at Coroneia and achieved a great victory
over them, 394 B.C.

=Corporal.= In the military service, is a non-commissioned officer next
in rank below a sergeant. He is distinguished by two chevrons worn on
the arm.

=Corporal, Lance.= A private soldier who acts as corporal. He wears one
chevron, but has no increase of pay.

=Corporal-Major.= In the British service, a troop corporal-major is the
non-commissioned officer of the highest rank in a troop of the Household
Cavalry; his position and authority are the same as those of a
color-sergeant of infantry. A regimental corporal-major is the
non-commissioned officer of the highest rank in each of the three
regiments of Household Cavalry, and corresponds to a sergeant-major of
infantry.

=Corporal’s Guard.= Used to indicate a detachment of several men under
arms. May be applied to a squad equal to that usually placed under the
charge of a corporal for drill, police, guard duty, etc. Generally made
use of in a derisive manner.

=Corps.= A body of men; especially a body of troops; an organized part
or division of an army.

=Corps d’Armée.= In the military organization of large armies two or
more divisions form a _corps d’armée_, or army corps, which is complete
in itself as an army, with everything needed for service. In European
states, where large standing armies are kept, this custom of dividing
them into corps, each under an officer of very high rank, and quartering
them in different provinces, is followed even in times of peace.

=Correspondence, Official.= Is correspondence carried on officially
between military officers and various departments of the service, such
as orders, reports, letters, indorsements, etc. All official
correspondence between the heads of the different departments of the
staff of any command and its commander must pass through the
adjutant-general, assistant adjutant-general, or adjutant of the
command, as the case may be. Communications to or from a commander and
those under his command must pass through the adjutant-general,
assistant adjutant-general, or adjutant on duty with it; excepting only
such communications between a disbursing officer and the chief of his
particular branch of the staff as relate exclusively to the ordinary
routine of business in their own department. All communications, whether
from an inferior to a superior, or _vice versa_, are, as a general rule,
to be passed through the intermediate commanders. The same rule governs
in verbal applications: for example, a lieutenant seeking an indulgence
must apply through his captain, the captain through the adjutant, and so
on. All correspondence relating to or involving the _personnel_ of the
army when forwarded to the Secretary of War for his orders, must be
forwarded through the adjutant-general for the consideration of the
general of the army.

=Corridor.= The covered way lying round the whole compass of the
fortifications of a place.

=Corselet.= A little cuirass, or piece of armor to cover the front of
the body, worn formerly by pikemen.

=Corsica.= An island in the Mediterranean, held by the French. This
island has been successively occupied by the Carthaginians, Romans,
Goths, Saracens, Franks, the popes, and Genoese; and lastly by the
French, in whose possession it now remains, and to whom it was ceded by
the Genoese in 1768. This island was held by the British from June,
1794, to Oct. 22, 1796.

=Cortege.= The official staff, civil or military.

=Corus=, =Corupedion=, or =Cyropedium=. A plain in Phrygia, Asia Minor,
where the aged Lysimachus was defeated by Seleucus, and slain, 281 B.C.
These two were the only survivors of Alexander the Great’s generals.

=Corygaum.= An insignificant village in the presidency of Bombay;
historically interesting in connection with the final subjugation of the
Peishwa of the Mahrattas. On Jan. 1, 1818, it was defended for nine
hours by a mere handful of men under Capt. Staunton, against a native
force numbering at least 3000 infantry and about 20,000 cavalry, the
struggle terminating in the repulse of the assailants after terrible
slaughter.

=Cossacks= (Russ., _Kasacks_). A military organization of irregulars in
the Russian service. They contribute much to the military strength of
Russia; but several insurrections, of which the most alarming was that
of 1773, have taken place since they became subjects to the Russian
government.

=Cossova.= A plain in Servia. Here Amurath I. totally defeated the
Christian army (Servians, Hungarians, etc.), September, 1389; but was
himself killed by an expiring soldier. At this place, in 1448, John
Huniades was defeated by a Turkish army four times larger than his own.

=Costa Rica.= The most southern state of Central America; bounded north
by Nicaragua, northeast by the Caribbean Sea, south by New Granada, and
south and west by the Pacific. The government of Costa Rica was
established in 1832, and is accounted as the best and most liberal in
Central America.

=Coston’s Lights.= Colored pyrotechnical compositions used for night
signaling. Sometimes used in the form of a pistol cartridge.

=Cotice=, or =Cost=. In heraldry, one of the diminutives of the bend. It
is a fourth part of the bend, and is usually borne in couples, with a
head between.

=Couchant.= In heraldry, a beast lying down, with his head up, is
_couchant_. If the head is down, he is _dormant_.

=Coulmiers.= A village 10 miles west of Orleans, Central France. Here
the Bavarians under Gen. Von der Tann were defeated by the French army
of the Loire under Gen. d’Aurelle de Paladines, who took about 2000
prisoners, Nov. 9, 1870, and regained Orleans.

=Council of War.= A conference of officers in military or naval warfare,
on some matter in which the commander wishes to fortify his judgment by
an appeal to that of others. The commandant of a garrison generally
solicits the opinion of a council of war before surrendering to
besiegers.

=Counter-approach.= A trench by which the besieged proceeds to meet the
approaches of the besiegers. It is generally zigzag.

=Counter-arch.= A vertical arch connecting the top of the counter-forts.

=Counter-battery.= A battery which returns the fire of an opposing
battery.

=Counter-changed.= In heraldry, when several metals and colors are
intermixed, one being set against the other, they are said to be
counter-changed.

=Counter-forts.= Interior buttresses constructed for the purpose of
strengthening masonry revetments.

=Counter-guards.= Sometimes called couvre-faces, are works constructed
in permanent fortifications to cover a bastion or demi-lune. They
consist of two faces forming a salient angle.

=Counterhurters.= In gunnery, are pieces of iron bolted to the rails on
which the gun-carriage moves to check it in front and rear. See
ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, SEA-COAST CARRIAGES.

=Countermand.= To revoke, as a former command; to direct or order in
opposition to an order previously given, thereby annulling it, or
prohibiting its execution.

=Countermarch.= A change of direction of a company or battalion in
column from front to rear, by a flank movement, retaining the same
ground.

=Countermine.= A gallery underground so constructed as to facilitate the
formation of mines, by means of which those of the enemy may be reached
and destroyed.

=Countermine.= To oppose by means of a countermine; to frustrate the
designs of, by sinking a well and gallery in the earth, in search of an
enemy’s mine.

=Counter-parole.= A word given in any time of alarm, as a signal.

=Counterpoise Carriage.= A gun-carriage which, applied to a gun mounted
in _barbette_, allows it to recoil behind the parapet or other shelter,
and by means of a counterpoise brings it, or assists in bringing it,
again into _battery_ after it has been loaded. Among the best known of
these carriages are _Moncrieff’s_ and _King’s_,--the former invented by
Capt. Moncrieff, of the British army, and the latter by Capt. W. R.
King, of the U. S. Engineers. In Moncrieff’s carriage the counterpoise
is a heavy weight between the cheeks of the top carriage. In King’s the
weight is in a well under the pintle-block, and is attached to the
carriage by a wire cable.

=Counter-round.= A body of officers, whose duty it is to visit and
inspect the rounds and sentinels.

=Counterscarp.= In fortification, is the vertical or nearly vertical
side of the ditch nearest to the besiegers, and opposite to the scarp or
escarp. It is generally faced or _revetted_ in permanent works, to
render the descent into the ditch difficult.

=Counterscarp Galleries.= Galleries under the counterscarp at the
salients, for the purpose of flanking the ditch.

=Countersign.= In military discipline or manœuvres, is a watch-word
given by the commanding officer of an army or garrison daily, in order
that a friend may be distinguished from an enemy. The countersign is
given to sentinels, and others who are immediately concerned. It is
given in garrison to prevent unauthorized persons from passing the
guards. The countersign is usually the name of a battle.

=Counter-swallowtail.= In fortification, is a kind of an outwork very
much resembling a single tenaille.

=Counter-trenches.= Are trenches made against the besiegers, which
consequently have their parapets turned against the enemy’s approaches,
and are enfiladed from several parts of the place on purpose to render
them useless to the enemy, if they should chance to become masters of
them; but they should not be enfiladed or commanded by any height in the
enemy’s possession.

=Counter-vair.= A heraldic fur. It differs from _vair_ by having its
cups or bells of the same tinctures placed base against base, and point
against point. The tinctures are _or_ and _azure_.

=Coup de Grace.= A finishing or decisive stroke.

=Coup de Main.= A sudden and vigorous attack, for the purpose of
instantaneously capturing a position.

=Coup d’Œil.= The gift of rapidly grasping and turning to the best
account the contingencies of war, and the features of the country which
is its scene.

=Couped= (Fr. _coupé_). A term in heraldry, used to describe the head or
any limb of an animal cut off from the trunk, and smooth. When crosses,
bends, bars, etc., are cut so as not to touch the sides of the
escutcheon, they are also said to be couped.

=Coupe-gorge= (_Fr._). Literally means cut-throat. It is used in a
military sense to signify any spot or position which affords an enemy so
many advantages that the troops who occupy it must either surrender or
be cut to pieces.

=Coupures.= In fortification, are passages cut through the glacis, of
about 12 or 15 feet broad, in the re-entering angle of the covert way,
to facilitate the sallies of the besieged. They are sometimes made
through the lower curtain, to let boats into a little haven built in the
_re-entrant_ angle of the counterscarp of the outworks.

=Courçon= (_Fr._). A long piece of iron which is used in the artillery
and serves to constrain or tighten cannon.

=Courier.= In a military sense, means a messenger sent post or express
to carry dispatches of battles gained, lost, etc., or any other
occurrences that happened in war.

=Courland.= A duchy of Livonia, subjected to Poland in 1582, conquered
by Charles XII. of Sweden in 1701; Ernest Biren, duke, 1737; his son,
Peter, 1769; annexed to Russia, March, 1795.

=Couronement=, or =Couronnement=. In fortification, implies the most
exterior part of a work when besieged.

=Courtel.= A military implement which served both for a knife and a
dagger.

=Court-martial.= In the army, a tribunal for the examination and
punishment of offenders against martial law or against good order and
discipline. Under the present construction of law, members of
courts-martial become judges and jurors. In ancient feudal times the
lords had arbitrary power over vassals who held their lands by tenure of
military service, and punished them as they saw fit, and courts of
chivalry took cognizance of offenses committed by the nobles. With the
decline of feudalism the system of military despotism became obnoxious
to the English people, and although the necessity for a standing army
was admitted in time of peace, it could only exist with the consent of
Parliament. The first military act passed after the accession of William
to the throne of England is believed to have laid the foundation of the
present system of courts-martial, which has also been adopted to a
certain extent in the American service. Parliament having been notified
that a body of English and Scotch troops who were ordered to Holland had
mutinied, that body passed, on April 3, 1689, an act for punishing
mutiny, desertion, etc., which has been renewed annually by Parliament
to the present day. It authorized the king to grant commissions to
certain officers to hold courts-martial for the trial of crimes
committed by officers and soldiers. Similar acts were at different times
passed in relation to offenses committed in the navy. A court-martial is
a court of limited and special jurisdiction called into existence by
force of express statute for a special purpose, and to perform a
particular duty; and when the object of its creation is accomplished it
ceases to exist. The law presumes nothing in its favor. He who seeks to
enforce its sentences, or to justify its conduct under them, must set
forth affirmatively and clearly all the facts which are necessary to
show that it was legally constituted, and that the subject was within
its jurisdiction. And if in its proceedings or sentence it transcends
the limits of its jurisdiction, the members of the court and its officer
who executes its sentence are trespassers, and as such are answerable to
the party injured in damages in the courts of common law. Courts are
classed into general, garrison, summary, regimental, and
field-officers’, according as the authority convening, the nature of the
offenses to be inquired into, the punishment to be awarded, or other
circumstances may determine. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 72 to 114;
also TRIAL.

=Court of Honor.= Is a military court authorized by the regulations of
the Prussian service, convened for the purpose of sustaining the honor
of the service and of individuals, and of punishing officers who may be
found guilty of conduct deviating even in the least from the principles
which actuate military men as men of honor. The court of honor of a
regiment consists of all commissioned officers in it, except the
prosecutor, the defendant, near relations, officers appearing as
witnesses in the case, officers on leave, detached service, under
arrest, or awaiting trial before any court; and has for its regular
business management a council of honor, consisting of the senior
captain, senior first lieutenant, and senior second lieutenant. The
court has jurisdiction over all acts or omissions (not provided for by
any fixed laws) which are unofficerlike or ungentlemanly in their
nature, particularly such as contracting debts, improper choice of
society, excessive use of intoxicating liquors, gambling, quarrels,
carelessness or neglect of duty, and scandal. With the exception of
general officers, all officers of the standing army, the reserve, the
landwehr, and those of the retired list are subject to the laws of the
court of honor. The court to investigate the conduct of a field-officer
is made up of the field-officers of the division to which the officer
belongs.

=Court of Inquiry.= In the military service of the United States, is a
legally constituted court which may be ordered by the President or by
any commanding officer to examine into the nature of any transaction of,
or accusation or imputation against, any officer or soldier upon a
demand by the officer or soldier whose conduct is to be inquired into.
It may consist of one, two, or three officers, and a judge-advocate or
other suitable person as recorder, all of whom are sworn. It has the
same powers as a court-martial to summon witnesses and to examine them
on oath. Courts of inquiry cannot award punishment, but must report to
the officer by whose order they were assembled. (See APPENDIX, ARTICLES
OF WAR, 115 to 121; also INQUIRY, BOARD OF.) In the British service
courts of inquiry are not regulated by any statute or standing
regulation, but depend on the will of the sovereign, or of the superior
officer convoking the court, both as to the officers who may compose it,
and as to every particular of its constitution. It is not a judicial
body, but is rather a council, having no power to compel the attendance
of witnesses not of the army or navy, nor to administer oaths.

=Courtrai.= A fortified town of Belgium, on the river Lys. Here Robert,
count of Artois, who had defeated the Flemings in 1297, was defeated and
slain by them, July 11, 1302. The conflict was named the “Battle of the
Spurs,” from the number of gilt spurs collected.

=Coussinet à Mousquetaire= (_Fr._). A bag formerly worn by a French
soldier on his left side beneath the cross-belt. It hung on a hook near
the butt of his musket. It likewise signifies a wedge used to support
the mortar in its frame.

=Coutere.= A piece of armor which covered the elbow.

=Coutras.= In Southwestern France. Here Henry of Navarre totally
defeated the Duc de Joyeuse and the Royalists, October 20, 1587.

=Cover.= Natural or artificial protection from the fire of the enemy,
the former being afforded by hills, woods, banks, walls, etc., the
latter by fortifications constructed for the purpose. To cover is, in
military language, to stand exactly behind another man.

=Covering.= Standing exactly in front or in rear of another man or an
object.

=Covering-fascines.= Are those made of stout picket stuff, not less than
1 inch thick, without any mixture of small brush-wood. They may be used
in place of planks for the superstructure of wooden bridges; and may
also be used, if no stout planks or spars are to be had, for the roofs
of field powder-magazines. They may be made of the usual diameter of 9
inches. Their length will depend upon the special purpose for which they
are intended. The withes should be particularly good.

=Covert Way=, or =Covered Way=. Is a road or broad path outside the
fosse or moat of a fortified place, between the counterscarp and the
glacis. It is usually about 30 feet wide, and sunk so far below the
crest of the glacis that soldiers standing upon it cannot be seen by the
besiegers; hence the name. The covert way is broad enough to allow
troops to form on it, either to act defensively or make sorties; and to
increase this accommodation enlarged portions, called _places of arms_,
are made at certain spots.

=Covinarii.= The soldiers who fought on the _covinus_ were so called.

=Covinus.= A kind of war-chariot used by the ancient Britons and
Belgians.

=Cowardice.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 42.

=Cow-boys.= A band of marauders in the time of the American Revolution,
consisting mostly of refugees who adhered to the British side, and who
infested the so-called “neutral ground” lying between the American and
British lines, plundering all those who had taken the oath of allegiance
to the Continental Congress. See SKINNERS.

=Cowpens.= A village in Spartanburg Co., N. C. At this place Gen. Morgan
defeated Col. Tarleton, January 17, 1781; it is said that Tarleton lost
300 men in killed and wounded, and about 500 prisoners. The American
loss was also considerable.

=Cracow.= A city in Austrian Poland, on the left bank of the Vistula. It
was taken by Charles XII. in 1702; taken and retaken several times by
the Russians and other confederates. The Russians were expelled from the
city March 24, 1794; but it surrendered to the Prussians June 15, the
same year, and in 1795 was awarded to Austria. It was occupied by 10,000
Russians, who followed the defeated Poles, September, 1831. It was
finally incorporated with the Austrian empire, November 16, 1846.

=Cradle.= A narrow frame-work of heavy timbers upon which heavy guns are
sometimes placed, to be moved upon rollers.

=Crakers.= Choice soldiers were so called in the time of Henry VIII.

=Crakys.= An old term for great guns.

=Crampets.= The cramp rings of a sword scabbard.

=Crampton’s Gap.= A pass in the South Mountains, Frederick Co., Md. A
stubborn fight of four or five hours took place here September 14, 1862,
between part of Gen. McClellan’s army under command of Gen. W. B.
Franklin and a portion of the Confederate army under Gen. Cobb, which
was defending the pass. The Confederates were forced to retire, having
suffered severe loss in killed and wounded.

=Cranon.= In Thessaly, Northern Greece. The Macedonians under Antipater
and Craterus defeated the confederated Greeks, twice by sea, and once by
land, near Cranon.

=Craonne.= A town of France, in the department of Aisne. Here Victor and
Ney defeated the Prussians under Blücher, after a severe contest, March
7, 1814.

=Crater.= The pit left by the explosion of a military mine.

=Cravant.= See CREVANT-SUR-YONNE.

=Crécy=, or =Cressy=. A village in France, department of the Somme,
famous for a great victory obtained over the French, under Philip of
Valois, by Edward III. of England, August 26, 1346. In this battle fell
the king of Bohemia, the Count of Flanders, 8 other sovereign princes,
80 bannerets, 1200 knights, 1500 gentlemen, 4000 men-at-arms, with the
Duke of Alençon and the flower of the French nobility. The English army
was drawn up in three lines; of which the first was commanded by Edward,
prince of Wales, assisted by the Earls of Warwick and Oxford; the second
led by the Earls of Arundel and Northampton; while the third, or body
reserve, was posted along the summit of a hill, under the command of the
king in person, attended by the Lords Mowbray, Mortimer, and others. The
English loss in this battle was very small.

=Crécy-sur-Serre.= A town of France, department of Aisne. Its castle was
taken and razed by Louis le Gros in 1115. The English took the town in
1339, 1358, and 1373; it was taken by the forces of the League in 1589;
and it was burned by the Spaniards in 1662.

=Creedmoor.= About 10 miles east of New York, noted for its splendid
rifle range, which was established in 1871.

=Creek Indians.= Formerly a numerous and powerful tribe dwelling in
Georgia and Alabama. Their number was much reduced by the war of 1814,
in which year they waged war against the United States, but were subdued
by Gen. Jackson. Of the survivors most removed beyond the Mississippi,
and are now settled in Indian Territory, where they are rapidly
advancing in the art of civilization. For numbers, etc., see INDIANS AND
THEIR AGENCIES.

=Creil.= A town of France, department of the Oise. It was ravaged
several times by the Normans; taken by the king of Navarre in 1358; by
the English in 1434; by Charles VII. in 1441; pillaged by the Calvinists
in 1567, and occupied by forces of the League in 1588.

=Cremaille.= In field fortification, is when the inside line of the
parapet is broken in such a manner as to resemble the teeth of a saw.
This advantage is gained by the measure, that a greater fire can be
brought to hear upon the defile than if only a simple face was opposed
to it; and consequently the passage is rendered more difficult.

=Crémaillère= (_Fr._). An indented or zigzag line of intrenchment.

=Cremona.= A fortified city of Northern Italy, the capital of the
province of the same name. It was besieged by the Gauls in 200 B.C.; by
Primus, a general of Vespasian, in 69; by Frederick Barbarossa in 1160.
Prince Eugène took possession of it in 1702; it was taken by the French
in 1796 and 1800.

=Crenaux= (_Fr._). In fortification, small openings or loop-holes, made
through the walls of a fortified town or place. They are extremely
narrow towards the enemy, and wide within; so that the balls from the
besiegers can scarcely ever enter, whereas two or three soldiers may
fire from within.

=Crenelle=, or =Crenel=. A term used sometimes to denote a battlement,
but more frequently an embrasure in a battlement. The adjective
crenellated is employed to signify that a building is supplied with
crenelles.

=Crépy.= A town of France, department of the Oise; it was captured and
sacked by the English in 1339; by the Duke of Lancaster in 1373;
occupied by the Burgundians in 1418; by Pothon and Xaintrailles in 1419;
it was besieged by the Duke of Burgundy in 1420; taken by the English
and their allies in 1431; by Charles VII. in 1433; by the Duc de Mayenne
in 1588.

=Crépy en Laonois.= A town of France, department of Aisne. It was sacked
by the English in 1339 and 1373, and taken by the Burgundians in 1418
and 1420. A treaty of peace was concluded here between Spain and France,
September 18, 1544.

=Crescent.= The figure or likeness of the new moon borne in the Turkish
flag or national standard; also the standard itself.

=Crescent.= The name of three orders of knighthood; the first instituted
by Charles I., king of Naples and Sicily, in 1268; the second by René of
Anjou, in 1448; and the third by the sultan Selim, in 1801. Of these the
last is still in existence, and is remarkable for the fact that none but
Christians are eligible. See CRESCENT, TURKISH ORDER OF.

=Crescent.= In heraldry, is used both as a bearing or charge, and as a
difference or mark of cadency. In the latter case it designates the
second son, and those that descend from him.

=Crescent, Turkish Order of the.= In 1799, after the battle of Aboukir,
the sultan Selim III. testified his gratitude to Nelson by sending him a
crescent richly adorned with diamonds. Selim was flattered by the value
which the English admiral seemed to attach to this gift, and it was this
circumstance which determined him, in 1801, to found the order of the
Crescent, which is only conferred on Christians who have done service to
the state. The second person on whom it was conferred was Gen.
Sebastiani, for his defense of Constantinople against the English fleet
in 1807.

=Cressit.= A small crease or dagger.

=Crest.= Signifies the line which marks the top of a parapet. It is
sometimes called the interior crest. The exterior, or sub-crest, is the
line marking the meeting of the exterior and superior slopes.

=Crest.= In feudal times was the distinctive ornament of the helmet;
hence the term is frequently applied to the helmet itself. In heraldry
the crest is shown as an appendage to the shield, placed over it, and
usually borne upon a wreath. It is generally either some portion of the
coat-armor, or a device commemorative of some incident in the history
of a family, and often contains an allusion to the office of the bearer.

=Crete.= In fortification, implies the earth thrown out of the ditch in
a fortification, trench, etc. The most elevated part of a parapet or
glacis.

=Crete.= See CANDIA.

=Crevant-sur-Yonne.= In Northern France; besieged by John Stuart, earl
of Buchan, with a French army, July, 1423, and relieved by the Earl of
Salisbury with an army of English and Burgundians; after a severe
contest the French were totally defeated.

=Creveldt.= Near Cleves, Western Prussia. Here, on June 23, 1758, Prince
Ferdinand of Brunswick defeated the French under the Count of Clermont.

=Crimea.= A peninsula of Southern Russia, formed by the Sea of Azof and
the Black Sea. It was the _Taurica Chersonesus_ of the ancient Greeks,
by whom it was colonized about 550 B.C. Here was founded the kingdom of
_Bosporus_, which formed part of the dominions of Mithridates, king of
Pontus, whose descendants continued to rule the country under Roman
protection until the irruption of the Goths, Huns, etc., 258 A.D. It
fell into the hands of the Mongols in the 13th century, was subjected to
the Ottoman yoke in 1475, and was ceded to Russia in 1783. War having
been declared against Russia by England and France, March 28, 1854, an
expedition against the Crimea was determined on. Accordingly, the allied
British, French, and Turkish forces, amounting to 58,000 men, commanded
by Lord Raglan and Marshal St. Arnaud, sailed from Varna September 3,
and landed on the 14th, 15th, and 16th without opposition at Old Fort,
near Eupatoria, about 30 miles from Sebastopol. On the 20th they
attacked the Russians (40,000 to 50,000 strong), who were intrenched on
the heights of Alma, supposed to be unassailable. After a sharp contest
the Russians were totally routed. It was the scene of several other
engagements during the continuance of the war, until the proclamation of
peace in April, 1856. The allies quitted the Crimea July 12, following.

=Crimes, Capital.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 21, 22, 23, 39, 42,
43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 56, 57, 105, and Section 1343.

=Crimes, Military.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR.

=Crimisus.= A river in Sicily, near which Timoleon defeated the
Carthaginians, 339 B.C.

=Crimping-houses.= Houses in which persons were entrapped into the army;
hence the name of “crimp sergeant.” In a riot in London some of these
receptacles were destroyed by the populace, in consequence of a young
man who had been enticed into one being killed in endeavoring to escape,
September 16, 1794.

=Criques= (_Fr._). Small ditches which are made in different parts of a
ground for the purpose of inundating a country, in order to obstruct the
approaches of an enemy.

=Croatia.= A province of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. This region was
anciently inhabited by the Pannonians, who were conquered by the Romans
in the reign of Augustus. It was conquered by Coloman, king of Hungary,
in 1102, and was with that country united to Austria in 1526.

=Croats.= In military history, light irregular troops were so called;
generally people of Croatia. They were ordered upon all desperate
services, and their method of fighting was the same as the Pandours.

=Crochert.= A hagbut or hand-cannon, anciently in use.

=Cronstadt.= A seaport and fortress of Russia, about 20 miles west from
St. Petersburg. It was founded by Peter the Great in 1710, the island
having been taken from the Swedes by him in 1703. A Swedish fleet was
defeated here by the Russians in 1790, and in 1855 an English fleet,
commanded by Sir Charles Napier, proceeded to the Baltic, with the view
of taking this place or destroying its fortifications; but either from
the inadequacy of the means placed at his disposal, or from the great
strength of the forts, no attempt was made upon them.

=Cropedy Bridge.= Near Banbury, Oxfordshire, England. Here the royalists
defeated Sir William Waller and the army of Parliament, June 29, 1644.

=Cross-belts.= Belts worn over both shoulders, and crossing the breast.

=Cross-bow.= A weapon formerly used in discharging arrows, formed by
placing a bow crosswise on a stock.

=Crossen.= A town of the Prussian province of Brandenburg. In 1758 this
place was taken by the Russians.

=Cross-fire.= The crossing of lines of fire from two or more points or
places.

=Cross, Victoria.= See VICTORIA CROSS.

=Crotchet.= In fortification, an indentation in the glacis of the
covered way at a point where a traverse is placed.

=Crotchet.= The arrangement of a body of troops, either forward or
rearward, so as to form a line nearly perpendicular to the general line
of battle.

=Croton=, or =Crotona=. One of the most celebrated of the Greek colonies
in Southern Italy, founded about 710 B.C. About 510 a Crotoniat army of
100,000 men, under Milo, defeated a greatly superior force of Sybarites
on the banks of the Tracis, took the city of Sybaris, and utterly
destroyed it. (See SYBARIS.) In the second Punic war the Bruttians, with
the assistance of the Carthaginian general Hanno, succeeded in making
themselves masters of the city of Crotona, with the exception of the
citadel, which held out until induced to surrender on terms. The ravages
of this war completed the decay of the city, and it sunk into the
condition of an obscure provincial town.

=Crown.= The emblem of sovereignty in modern Europe. It was originally
an Oriental decoration, and was adopted by Alexander the Great from the
kings of Persia. In modern states crowns were of various forms, till
heralds devised a regular series of them to mark the various gradations
of sovereignty, from that of the emperor down to what are called the
coronets of counts and barons. In England, so entirely has the crown
been regarded as the symbol of sovereignty, that the word is frequently
used as synonymous with the monarchy.

=Crown, Civic.= See CIVIC CROWN.

=Crown, Mural.= See MURAL CROWN.

=Crown, Obsidional.= See OBSIDIONAL CROWN.

=Crown, Triumphal.= See TRIUMPHAL CROWN.

=Crown, Vallary.= See VALLARY CROWN.

=Crowning.= A term in fortifications generally applied to the operation,
by the besieged, of establishing works on the crest of the glacis or
summit of the breach. It is sometimes used when describing the movements
of troops, to signify that they have reached the top of a hill or
parapet, which they are said to have crowned.

=Crown-work.= A term used in fortification to signify a work consisting
of two or more fronts of fortification, joined by two long branches to
the ditch of another work, a river, a village, etc. It is generally used
to defend a bridge or suburb.

=Crows=, or =Absorokas=. A tribe of Indians inhabiting the northern part
of Wyoming Territory and the southern part of Montana. They are divided
into two bands, and belong to the Dakota family. See INDIANS AND THEIR
AGENCIES.

=Crows-foot.= An implement of metal with four points, so formed that, in
whatever way it falls, there is one point upward; intended to injure the
feet of horses; a caltrop.

=Crucible, Steel.= Steel melted in crucibles; cast steel. See ORDNANCE,
METALS FOR.

=Crusader.= A knight engaged in the Crusades.

=Crusades.= From the Latin _crux_, a “cross.” A term applied to the
military expeditions undertaken by Christian powers in the 11th, 12th,
and 13th centuries for the recovery of Palestine, or the “Holy Land,”
from the Mohammedans. They were originated by Peter the Hermit, an
enthusiastic French officer of Amiens, who turned pilgrim. There were in
all eight crusades, from 1096 to 1270. The last one ended in the
Christians being driven out of Syria.

=Ctesiphon= (afterwards _Al Madayn_). On the Tigris, the splendid
capital of Parthia, was taken by Trajan in 116, and by Alexander Severus
(who made 100,000 captives), 198. Its defenses deterred Julian from the
siege, 363. Through the cowardice or treachery of the defenders, it was
taken by Omar and the Saracens, 637, and utterly destroyed. He built
Cufa near it with the remains.

=Cuba.= An island in the Caribbean Sea, at the mouth of the Gulf of
Mexico. It is the largest of the West Indian group, belongs to Spain,
and is the most important of the Spanish colonial possessions. It was
discovered by Columbus, October 28, 1492, and the Spaniards formed their
first settlement on it in 1511, and have remained in possession ever
since. Havana, a city of Cuba, was taken by the British in 1762, but was
restored to Spain the following year. In May, 1850, and August, 1851,
unsuccessful attempts to revolutionize the island were made by bands of
adventurers under a Spaniard named Narcisso Lopez. In the latter
expedition, the whole 450 who landed were either slain in fight or taken
prisoners. In 1868 the inhabitants revolted against Spain, and declared
a republic. Spain at once proceeded to crush them into submission, but
the patriots held out until, in 1878, abandoning all hope of assistance
or recognition from abroad, they were obliged to succumb, and the
Spaniards resumed full control of the country.

=Cubical Powder.= See GUNPOWDER.

=Cuddalore= (India). On the coast of the Carnatic, was acquired by the
English in 1681. It was reduced by the French in 1758, but recaptured in
1760 by Sir Eyre Coote. Again lost in 1781, it underwent a destructive
siege by the British under Gen. Stuart, in 1783, which was continued
until peace was signed, when it reverted to them, 1784.

=Cuenca.= A city of Spain, in New Castile, about 84 miles from Madrid.
It was captured from the Moors by the kings of Castile and Aragon in
1176.

=Cuirass= (Fr. _cuir_, leather). Originally a jerkin, or garment of
leather for soldiers, so thick and strong as to be pistol-proof, and
even musket-proof. The name was afterwards applied to a portion of armor
made of metal, consisting of a back-plate and breastplate hooked or
buckled together. The cuirass is worn in the British army by the Life
Guards and the Horse Guards.

=Cuish.= Defensive armor for the thighs, written also _cuisse_.

=Cul-de-sac= (_Fr._). The “bottom of a bag.” A passage with only one
outlet; a position in which an army finds itself, with no way of exit
but to the front.

=Cullen Rifle.= See MAGAZINE GUNS.

=Cullen’s-wood.= In Ireland. A horrible slaughter of the English by the
Irish took place at a village near Dublin on Easter or _Black_ Monday,
so called from this massacre, March 30, 1209. The English were a colony
from Bristol inhabiting Dublin, whence they went to divert themselves at
Cullen’s-wood, when the O’Byrnes and O’Tooles fell upon them, and
destroyed 500 men, besides women and children.

=Culloden=, or =Drummossie Moor=. A wide heath in Scotland, 3 miles east
of Inverness, on which the Duke of Cumberland gained a decisive victory
over the Highland army in their attempt to restore the Stuart dynasty to
the throne, in 1746.

=Culpeper Court-house.= See FAIRFAX.

=Culverin.= A long cannon used from the 14th to the 16th century;
generally carried a shot of 18 pounds. The gun at Dover Castle, called
Queen Elizabeth’s pocket-pistol, is a specimen of a large culverin. A
_demi-culverin_ was a similar piece, carrying a 9-pound shot.

=Cumæ.= An ancient and celebrated Greek city on the coast of Campania,
about 6 miles north of Cape Misenum. The Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians
attacked it by sea, and were defeated by Hieron, 474 B.C. In 420 the
Samnites laid siege to the city, and after repeated attacks succeeded in
carrying it by assault. It was given up to pillage and its inhabitants
put to the sword. In the second Punic war Hannibal made an attempt upon
the city, but was repulsed by Sempronius Gracchus. It was chosen by the
Gothic kings as the depository of their regalia and valuables, and was
the last place in Italy that held out against Narses.

=Cumberland Gap.= Is a natural gap in the Cumberland Mountains, about 80
miles in length, and about 150 miles south by east from Lexington, Ky.
During the civil war it was an important strategic point, and was held
at different times by each of the contending forces. It was held by the
Confederates without any serious interference until Chattanooga was
occupied by the forces of Gen. Mitchell, when it was evacuated about
June 18, 1862, and occupied on the same day by the Union general Geo. W.
Morgan. It was held by him until September 17, when he was compelled to
evacuate it. It was again occupied by the Confederates, who to the
number of 2000 under Gen. Frazer surrendered to Gen. Burnside, September
9, 1863. A large quantity of stores and 10 pieces of artillery were
captured.

=Cunaxa.= In Mesopotamia, near the Euphrates, where Cyrus the Younger
was defeated and slain by his brother Artaxerxes II., against whom he
had conspired, 401 B.C.

=Cunette=, or =Cuvette=. A trench in the bottom of a dry ditch; an
obstacle in the passage of an enemy (especially if filled with water),
and also acting as a drain.

=Cunnersdorf=, or =Kunnersdorf=. A village in Bohemia, 12 miles
north-northwest of Buntzlau. On August 12, 1759, Frederick the Great
with 50,000 men attacked the Austrian and Russian army of 90,000 in
their camp near this place, and at first gained considerable advantages;
but pursuing them too far, the Austrians and Russians rallied, and
gained a complete victory. The Prussians lost 200 pieces of cannon and
30,000 men in killed and wounded.

=Curaçoa.= An island in the Caribbean Sea, settled by the Spaniards
about 1527, was seized by the Dutch in 1634. In 1800 the French settled
on part of this island, quarreled with the Dutch, who surrendered it to
a British frigate. It was restored to the Dutch in 1802; taken from them
by the British in 1807, and again restored in 1814.

=Curiet.= A breastplate made of leather.

=Current Series.= In military administration, orders issued from
established commands, such as divisions, departments, etc., being
numbered in regular order for each year; this term is frequently used
when referring to orders issued in the year passing or current, when the
expression is employed.

=Currier.= A small musketoon with a swivel mounting.

=Currytown.= A village in Montgomery Co., N. Y., noted for the attack on
and murder of its settlers by nearly 500 Indians and a few loyalists,
commanded by a Tory named Doxstader, July 9, 1781. The settlers were
unsuspicious of danger, and were generally at work in the fields when
the enemy fell upon them. After killing and capturing all they could,
the Indians set fire to the buildings, and drove away most of the cattle
and horses in the neighborhood. Next day Col. Willett, who was at Fort
Plain when the attack was made, pursued the enemy with about 150 men,
attacked and killed about 40 of them, and recovered all their plunder.

=Curtain.= In fortification, is that part of the rampart or wall between
two bastions or two gates.

=Curtail=, or =Curtald=. An ancient piece of ordnance, apparently a
short one.

=Curtatone.= Near Mantua, Northern Italy. Here the Austrians under
Radetzky crossed the Minco, and defeated the Italians after a severe
conflict, May 29, 1848.

=Customs of the Service.= Sometimes called common law of the army.
Signifies generally a right or law not written, but established by long
usage. To render a custom valid it has been said that the following
qualities are requisite: 1, habitual or long established practice; 2,
continuance without interruption; 3, without dispute; 4, it must be
reasonable; 5, certain; 6, compulsory; 7, customs must be consistent
with each other. It may be said that the common law of the army derives
its force from the tacit consent of those in the service. Gen. Kautz
states that officers of the army have certain duties to perform that are
governed by certain laws, rules, and regulations, which are interpreted
and executed in a certain way, called “Customs of the Service.” A
knowledge of these rules of the service, and their application,
constitutes the military profession, and is the true art of war. To this
extent it is an exact science, and may be acquired by application and
experience.

=Custozza.= Near Verona, Northern Italy. Here the Italians were
defeated by Marshal Radetzky, July 23, 1848; and here they were again
defeated June 24, 1866, after a series of desperate attacks on the
Austrian army. The Italians were commanded by their king, Victor
Emmanuel, and the Austrians by the Archduke Albrecht.

=Cut Off, To.= To intercept, to hinder from union or return. In a
military sense this phrase is variously applicable, and extremely
familiar.

TO CUT OFF AN ENEMY’S RETREAT is to manœuvre in such a manner as to
prevent an opposing army or body of men from retiring, when closely
pressed, either to their intrenchments or into a fortified town from
which they had marched or sallied.

=Cut up, To.= To destroy promiscuously. When the cavalry are sent in
pursuit of a flying enemy, the latter are generally cut up.

=Cuttack= (anc. _Catac_). A province in the East Indies, ceded to the
East India Company in 1803. Cuttack, the capital, was taken by Col.
Harcourt, October 14, 1803. This province was captured by the Mahrattas
in 1750.

=Cuzco.= A city of Peru, capital of a department, and the ancient
capital of the Peruvian empire, in South America. This city was entered
by Pizarro in November, 1533, and taken by him in August, 1536, after a
five months’ siege.

=Cylinder-gauge.= See INSPECTION OF CANNON.

=Cylinder-staff.= See INSPECTION OF CANNON.

=Cyprus.= The most eastern island in the Mediterranean, near the mouth
of the Gulf of Iskanderoon. It was divided among several petty kings
till the time of Cyrus of Persia, who subdued them. It was taken by the
Greeks in 477 B.C., and ranked among the proconsular provinces in the
reign of Augustus. It was conquered by the Saracens, 648 A.D., but
recovered by the Greeks in 957. It was reduced by Richard I. of England
in 1191, and given by him to Guy de Lusignan, who became king in 1192,
and whose descendants governed it until 1489, when it was sold to the
Venetians. It was taken by the Turks in August, 1571, and held by them
until June, 1878, when it was awarded to England by the “Peace Congress
of Berlin.”

=Czaslau.= A town of Bohemia, 45 miles east-southeast of Prague. Here
Frederick the Great gained a victory over the Austrians, May 17, 1742.



D.


=Dacia.= The land of the Daci or Getæ. It comprised the various
countries now known as Eastern Hungary, Transylvania, Wallachia, and
Moldavia. The Getæ came originally from Thrace, and were divided into
various tribes, and seem to have been the most valiant of the Thracian
barbarians. Curio, the first Roman general who ever penetrated as far
north as the Danube, did not venture to assail them. Julius Cæsar,
however, is said to have intended their subjugation. In 10 B.C.,
Augustus sent an army up the valley of the Maros. From this time a
continual war was waged by the Dacians against the Romans, who actually
compelled the latter, in the reign of Domitian, to pay a tribute. In 101
A.D. the Emperor Trajan crossed the Theiss, and marched into
Transylvania, where he fought a great battle near Thorda. The Daci, who
were commanded by their famous chief Decebalus, were defeated. A second
expedition of the emperor’s (104 A.D.) resulted in the destruction of
their capital, the death of Decebalus, and the loss of their freedom. In
270 and 275 A.D. the Romans abandoned the country to the Goths, and the
colonists were transferred to Mœsia. After a series of vicissitudes,
Dacia fell into the possession of the Magyars in the 9th century.

=Dacota.= See DAKOTA.

=Dadur.= A town of Beloochistan, 5 miles to the east of the Bolan Pass.
It is said to be one of the hottest places in the world, and is
celebrated as the place where, in November, 1840, the British troops
routed a Kelat force.

=Dag.= A thick, clumsy pistol, used in the 15th and 16th centuries.

=Dagen.= A peculiar kind of poniard.

=Dagger.= A weapon resembling a sword, but considerably smaller, being
used for stabbing at close quarters. Daggers are generally two-edged,
and very sharp towards the point.

=Daghestan.= A province of Russia, on the west coast of the Caspian Sea.
It was conquered by the czar Peter in 1723; restored to Persia, 1735;
but re-annexed to Russia by Alexander I. in 1813.

=Dague= (_Fr._). Dagger, a short thick poniard which was formerly used
when individuals engaged in single combat.

=Dahlgren Gun.= So named from Admiral Dahlgren, its inventor. An
improved form of ordnance used for howitzers, heavy artillery, and
especially in naval gunnery. It having been demonstrated that in
ordinary cast guns the weight of the metal forward is greater than is
needed, and that by far the greatest strain in firing is at the breech,
Dahlgren greatly increased the relative size and weight of the breech,
with the best results. These guns are chiefly used by the U. S. forces.
See ORDNANCE, CONSTRUCTION OF.

=Dahme.= A town of Prussia, on the river of the same name. It is
defended by a strong citadel, and inclosed by walls. Here, in 1713, the
French were defeated by the Prussians.

=Dahomey.= An independent state of Guinea, Western Africa, extending
along the coast from Fort Badagry on the east, to the river Volta, which
separates it from Ashantee on the west. The Dahomans, who came into
possession of this tract of country about the beginning of the 18th
century, are for the most part tall, well formed, and intelligent, and,
for an African race, singularly honest and far advanced in agriculture.
With the exception of a few Mohammedans, whose religious belief is in no
way interfered with, they are all pagans, and practice fetish-worship.
The king is the most absolute of despots, having entire control over the
lives and property of his subjects. Wholesale murder is one of the chief
features in religious and state ceremonies, and the most valued
ornaments of the royal residence are human skulls. As many as 2000 human
victims are sometimes sacrificed at one “grand custom.” Of the regular
army of 12,000, about one-half are Amazons (devoted to celibacy), who
are described as much more effective soldiers than their male companions
in arms; but at the same time as blood-thirsty and ferocious as
tigresses.

=Dahra.= In Algeria; on June 18, 1845, above 500 Kabyles at war with the
French, were suffocated in a cave by smoke, the fire having been kindled
by order of Gen. Pelissier, afterwards Duke of Malakoff. They had fired
on a messenger bearing an offer of truce. The massacre was condemned by
Soult, the minister of war, but justified by Marshal Bugeaud.

=Dakota.= A Territory in the north central part of the United States. It
was organized under a territorial form of government March 2, 1861, but
very extensive alterations have since been made in its boundaries. The
Territory has been greatly disturbed by marauding bands of Sioux
Indians, or Dakotas, who were in 1862 and 1863 especially daring and
aggressive, and though they have frequently been defeated by U. S.
troops, notably under Gens. Sully and Sibley in 1863, they are still
very troublesome, necessitating the frequent intervention of troops for
the protection of the settlers.

=Dakota Indians.= A numerous and powerful tribe or collection of tribes
of Indians of common stock, often called Sioux, who formerly roamed over
the territory between the Missouri and Mississippi, but have moved
farther west since 1851, and are settled on agencies in Dakota, Montana,
Nebraska, etc. A great proportion of them still preserve their nomadic
habits and are still frequently troublesome. See INDIANS AND THEIR
AGENCIES.

=Dalecarlians.= Natives of Dalecarlia, Sweden, who revolted against
Christian of Denmark, 1521, and placed Gustavus Vasa on the throne of
Sweden.

=Dalmatia.= A narrow strip of territory extending along the Adriatic
Sea; bounded north by Istria and Croatia, and east by Bosnia and
Herzegovina. In ancient times Dalmatia was a considerable kingdom, and,
after many unsuccessful attempts, was first subjugated by the Romans in
the time of Augustus. After the fall of the Western empire, Dalmatia,
which had formed the most southern part of the province of Illyricum,
was captured by the Goths, from whom it was taken by the Avari (490),
who in their turn yielded it to the Slavonians about 620. It continued
under the rule of the Slavonians until the beginning of the 11th
century, when King Ladislaus of Hungary incorporated a part of it with
Croatia, while the other part, with the title of duchy, placed itself
under the protection of the Venetian republic. The Turks afterwards made
themselves masters of a small portion, and by the peace of Campo-Formio
(1797), the Venetian part, with Venice itself, became subject to
Austrian rule, and when Austria, in 1805, had ceded this part to
Napoleon, it was annexed to the kingdom of Italy; afterwards (1810) to
Illyria. Since 1814, excepting the Turkish portion, it has been reunited
with Austria.

=Damages, Barrack.= In the British service, is the term applied to the
injuries done to barracks, barrack furniture, etc., by soldiers, when
the actual perpetrator cannot be discovered. The term is also applied to
the sum levied from the company or regiment generally, to make good the
injury. Damages to arms, clothing, etc. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR,
17.

=Damascus.= A city of Syria, in Asiatic Turkey. During the time of the
Hebrew monarchy, it was the capital of Syria, but afterwards passed
successively under the rule of the Assyrians, Persians, Macedonians,
Romans, and Saracens; and finally, in 1516, it was captured by the Turks
(under Sultan Selim I.), in whose hands it has remained ever since.
Damascus was at one time celebrated for the manufacture of sword-blades
of the finest temper and most exquisite workmanship, but the process by
which such unequaled specimens of art were perfected appears no longer
to exist.

=Damaskin.= A certain kind of sabre; so called from the manufacture of
Damascus.

=Dame= (_Fr._). Among miners any portion of earth which may remain after
the explosion of a mine has taken place. It likewise means a piece of
wood with two handles used to press down turf or dirt in a mortar.

=Damietta.= A city of Lower Egypt, on the east branch of the Nile. It
was taken by the Crusaders, 1219; lost, 1229; retaken by Louis IX., June
5, 1249; surrendered as his ransom when a prisoner, May 6, 1250.

=Damnonii=, =Dumnonii=, or =Dumnunii=. A powerful people who inhabited
the southwest of Britain, comprising Cornwall, Devonshire, and the
western part of Somersetshire, from whom was called the promontory
Damnonium (now Cape Lizard), in Cornwall.

=Danai.= An ancient name of the Greeks, derived from Danaus, king of
Argos, 1474 B.C.

=Danala.= A city in the territory of the Trocmi, in the northeast of
Galatia, notable in the history of the Mithridatic war as the place
where Lucullus resigned the command to Pompey.

=Dancetté.= One of the lines of partition in heraldry, differing from
indented only in the greater size of the notches. See INDENTED.

=Danes=, or =Northmen=. Natives of Denmark; during their attacks upon
Britain and Ireland they made a descent on France, where, in 895, under
Rollo, they received presents under the walls of Paris. They returned
and ravaged the French territories as far as Ostend in 896. They
attacked Italy in 903. Neustria was granted by the king of France to
Rollo and his Normans (Northmen), hence Normandy, in 911. The Danes
invaded England, Scotland, and Ireland with varying successes from 783
to 1084.

=Dangerous Space.= That zone, partly before and partly beyond the object
fired at (the sights having been correctly elevated), which is _covered_
by the trajectory; the object may be displaced to the front or rear of
its correct range-point, a distance equal, in the aggregate, to the
depth of this zone, and still be struck by the projectile. “Dangerous
space” is calculated under the assumption that the gun when fired is 56
inches from the ground, that it is aimed at a point 34 inches from the
ground, and that the stature of a man is 68 inches; and that the head of
a man on horseback is 8 feet above the ground. The “dangerous space”
will, of course, be increased by the firer lying down and aiming at his
adversary’s feet. A part of the “dangerous space” is near the muzzle of
the gun in the rising branch of the trajectory; the rest of it is in the
falling branch; these two parts being continuous up to and including the
“battle-range” (which see). The “dangerous space” varies with the weapon
used and the object fired at; and for the same arm diminishes as the
range increases beyond “battle-range”; up to this point it increases
with the range. A perfect understanding of this subject is essential to
effective infantry fire upon the field of battle. Valuable tables will
be found upon it in Laidley’s “Rifle Firing.”

=Dannebrog.= The ancient battle-standard of Denmark, bearing the figures
of a cross and crown. It was fabled to have fallen from heaven at the
battle of Volmar, in Esthonia (1219), during a crusade against the
heathens. It was twice taken in battle and twice recaptured. In 1500 a
mere fragment remained.

=Dannebrog, Order of the.= Is the second of the Danish orders of
knighthood. It is said to have been founded in 1219, but fell into
decay, and was restored in 1671.

=Dannevirke=, or =Dannewerke=. A series of earthworks considered almost
impregnable, stretching across the long narrow peninsula of Sleswick,
Holstein, and Jutland,--said to have been built during the “stone age.”
It was rebuilt in 937 by Thyra, queen of Gormo the Old, for which she
was named _Dannabod_, “the pride of the Danes.” It was again repaired
between 995 and 1000. Near here the Prussians, aiding the duchies,
defeated the Danes, April 23, 1848.

=Dantzic=, or =Danzig=. A city of Prussia; is surrounded with ramparts,
mounted with cannon, and the town may be considered as being one of the
strongest fortresses in Prussia. In the 10th century it was known as the
capital of Pomerali; it passed with that province, in 1295, under the
authority of Poland; but in 1308, Ladislaus IV. ceded the whole to the
Teutonic knights, who held it till 1454. In that year it was again
seized by the Poles; and in 1575, having refused to acknowledge Stephen
Bathory, it had to sustain a siege by that monarch, and was taken in
1577. From 1360 to 1641 it was one of the principal towns in the
Hanseatic League. When this league was dissolved, Dantzic joined Lubeck,
Hamburg, and Bremen; and these four cities, down to a very late period,
retained their name of Hanse Towns. In 1734 it was forced to surrender
to the Russians and Saxons, who were then besieging Stanislaus of
Poland. In 1793 it was occupied by the Prussians. It was taken by the
French in May, 1807, after a long siege, by Marshal Lefevre, who thence
acquired his title of duke of Dantzic. After Bonaparte’s disastrous
campaign in Russia, it was blockaded and obliged to surrender, after a
long and able defense by Gen. Rapp. At the peace of Paris, in 1814, it
reverted to Prussia.

=Dardanelles=, or =Hellespont= (anc. _Hellespontus_). A narrow strait
between Europe and Asiatic Turkey, connecting the Sea of Marmora and the
Ægean Sea. As it is the key to Constantinople, there are on both shores
of this narrow channel numerous forts and batteries, there being 8 on
the European and 7 on the Asiatic side. It was here the invading armies
of Xerxes crossed on a bridge of boats to enter Europe. The passage of
the strait was achieved by the British under Sir John Duckworth,
February 9, 1807; but he repassed with great loss, March 2, two castles
occupying the sites of the ancient Sestos and Abydos, hurling down
stones of many tons weight upon the British. The allied English and
French passed the Dardanelles at the sultan’s request, October, 1853.

=Dart.= A pointed, missile weapon, intended to be thrown by the hand; a
short lance; a javelin; hence, any missile weapon.

=Dartmouth.= A seaport town of England, in Devonshire; it was burnt by
the French in the reigns of Richard I. and Henry IV. In a third attempt
(1404) the invaders were defeated by the inhabitants, assisted by the
valor of the women. In the war of the Parliament, Dartmouth was taken,
after a siege of four weeks, by Prince Maurice, who garrisoned the place
for the king (1643); but it was retaken by Gen. Fairfax by storm in
1646.

=Dauphin= (_Dolphin_), _Fr._ An ornamental handle on brass guns over the
trunnions, so called from its resemblance to that fish.

=Dauphiné.= An old province of Southeast France, successively held by
the Allobroges, Burgundians, and Lombards; was, about 723-24, delivered
from the invading Saracens by Charles Martel. Its counts were called
dauphins; and when it was ceded to Philip of Valois, in 1349, the title
of dauphin was given to the eldest son of the king of France, to whom it
continued to be applied till the revolution of 1830.

=David’s Day, St.= The 1st day of March is annually commemorated by the
Welsh, in honor of St. David. Tradition states that on St. David’s
birthday, 540, a great victory was obtained by the Welsh over their
Saxon invaders, and that the Welsh soldiers were distinguished by order
of St. David by a leek in their caps.

=Dax.= A well-built town of France, department of Landes. It is
surrounded by an old wall, flanked with towers, and is also protected by
a castle. Dax was taken by the English in the 12th century, and remained
in their possession till the middle of the 15th century.

=Day-book.= In the British service, is a sort of private
memorandum-book, in which the pay-sergeant enters all details of
expenditure other than pay under each man’s head. These entries are made
at the moment, and afterwards transferred to the ledger.

=Day’s March.= See MARCH.

=Dead Angle.= In fortification, is any angle or piece of ground which
cannot be seen, and which therefore cannot be defended from behind the
parapet of the fortification.

=Dead-head.= In casting a cannon, is the surplus metal in the top of the
mold; called also the _sprue_.

=Dead March.= A piece of solemn music intended to be played as an
accompaniment to a funeral procession.

=Dead Pay.= Was the pay formerly drawn for soldiers really dead, whose
names were kept on the rolls; and whose pay was appropriated by
dishonest officers.

=Dead-shot.= An unerring marksman.

=Debark.= To leave a ship or boat and pass to the land; to go on shore;
as, the troops debarked at 4 o’clock; disembark.

=Deblai.= The hollow space or excavation formed by removing earth for
the construction of parapets in fortification. Thus the ditch or fosse
whence the earth has been taken represents the _deblai_, while the earth
itself, so removed, constitutes the _remblai_.

=Deblayer un Camp= (_Fr._). To evacuate a camp for the purpose of
cleaning and purifying the ground.

=Debouch.= A military term, signifying to march out from a wood, defile,
or other confined place into open ground; also an outlet or available
issue by which an army can march out.

=Débris= (_Fr._). Remains, ruins of a building or town which has been
sacked; broken remains of an army after defeat.

=Debruised.= A term in English heraldry used to indicate the restrained
position of an animal in a coat of arms, by having any of the ordinaries
laid over it.

=Decagon.= In fortification, is a polygon figure, having 10 sides, and
as many angles; and if all the sides and angles be equal, it is called a
regular decagon, and may be inscribed in a circle. The sides of a
regular decagon are in power and length equal to the greatest segment of
a hexagon, inscribed in the same circle and cut in extreme and mean
proportion.

=Decamp, To.= To march an army or body of men from the ground where it
before lay encamped. It also signifies to quit any place or position in
an unexpected manner.

=Decanus.= In Roman military history, a petty officer who presided over
the 10 soldiers of his contubernium, or those living in the same ten.

=Deccan.= An extensive region of India; invaded by the Mohammedans in
1294. About 1686-90, Aurungzebe I. recovered the Deccan, but soon lost
great part of it to the Mahrattas. A large part of the Deccan was ceded
to the English in 1818.

=Deceased Officers and Soldiers.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 125,
126.

=Dechargeurs= (_Fr._). Are men appointed to attend the park of
artillery, and to assist the non-commissioned officers, etc., who are
employed on that service. It is the duty of the former to keep a
specific account of articles received and consumed, in order to enable
the latter to furnish their officers with accurate statements.

=Decimation.= A military punishment inflicted among the Romans on
cowardly or mutinous troops. It consisted in selecting by lot one-tenth
of the whole body of troops who misbehaved, and putting them to death.
There have been a few instances of this species of punishment in modern
times. In 1642 the Archduke Leopold employed it against a regiment of
cavalry; Marshal Créqui also had recourse to it against the mutinous
garrison of Trèves, and before the battle of Waterloo Blücher is said to
have punished in this manner a body of mutinous troops.

=Decisions.= In courts-martial, the majority of votes decides all
questions as to the admission or rejection of evidence, and on other
points involving law or custom. If equally divided, the doubt is in
favor of the prisoner.

=Declaration of Independence.= This celebrated document by which the
thirteen United Colonies of America announced their intention of taking
their affairs into their own hands, renouncing their allegiance to Great
Britain, and asserting their freedom, was drawn up by Thomas Jefferson,
and received the unanimous approval of the delegates in the Congress of
the Colonies, July 4, 1776.

=Declaration of War.= The formal announcement by a government of its
intention to wage war against another, is a proceeding which is observed
among all civilized nations. In the United States the declaration of war
is a power exercised by Congress alone. During the age of chivalry, a
herald made declaration of war at the enemy’s court, his tabard on his
arm.

=Decompte= (_Fr._). Signifies a liquidation or balance, which from time
to time was made in the old French service, between the captain of a
company and each private soldier for money advanced or in hand.

=Decoration Day.= The anniversary, in the United States, on which
flowers are placed on soldiers’ graves, and which is observed on May 30.
This day was set apart for the purpose mentioned soon after the war of
the Rebellion, 1861-65.

=Decoration, Military.= A medal, cross of honor, etc., bestowed for
distinguished services.

=Decorations.= In pyrotechny, are the compositions which are placed in
the heads of rockets, in paper shells, etc., to make a brilliant display
when the receptacle is burst.

=Decouplé.= In heraldry, signifies severed or disjoined, so that the
ends stand at a distance from one another, as a _chevron decouplé_.

=Decoy.= To lead or to entice into a snare; to lead into danger by
artifice; to entrap. An enemy is said to be decoyed when a small body of
troops draws them in to action, whilst the main body lies in ambush
ready to act with the greatest effect.

=Decrement.= Is a heraldic term by which the wane of the moon is
indicated. _Decrescent_ and _decours_ are also used in the same sense. A
moon _decrescent_ is a half-moon with her horns turned to the sinister.

=Decurion.= An officer in the Roman cavalry, who commanded a decuria,
which was a body consisting of 10 men.

=Deeg.= A strong fortress of Hindostan, in the province of Agra, which
was captured by the British arms under Gen. Lake in 1804.

=Deep.= A term used in the disposition or arrangements of soldiers
placed in ranks before each other; hence, two deep, three deep, etc.
_Deep line of operations_, a long line.

=Default.= A military offense, in the British service, is so called.

=Defaulter.= A soldier who has been guilty of a military offense. It is
generally applied to men sentenced to confinement to barracks, and
attaches to them until the completion of their punishment.

=Defaulter Book.= The book in which the defaulter sheets are contained.
The regimental defaulter book containing regimental, and the company
defaulter book company, defaults.

=Defaulters’ Sheet.= For every soldier there are two sheets of foolscap
paper, in one of which, called his company defaulter sheet, are entered
all offenses and the punishments awarded. The other, called the
regimental defaulter sheet, contains only offenses for which a man has
been punished by more than seven days confined to barracks, or other
awards considered of equal gravity.

=Defeat.= This word expresses the complete want of success of an army; a
repulse signifying less, and a rout more, than defeat.

=Defeat.= To resist with success; as, to defeat an assault.

=Defection.= The act of abandoning a person or cause to which one is
bound by allegiance or duty, or to which one has attached himself.

=Defend.= To secure against attack; to maintain; as, to defend a town;
to defend a cause.

=Defender.= One who defends; one who maintains, supports, protects, etc.

=Defense.= In military law, is the defendant’s answer to the plea; an
opposing or denial of the truth or validity of the plaintiff’s case; the
method of proceeding adopted by the defendant to protect himself against
the plaintiff’s action.

=Defense.= In fortification, consists of all sorts of works that cover
and defend the opposite posts; as flanks, parapets, casements, etc.

=Defense, Active.= Comprehends every species of offensive operation
which is resorted to by the besieged to annoy the besiegers.

=Defense, Distant.= Consists in being able to interrupt the enemy’s
movements by circuitous inundations; to inundate, for instance, a
bridge, when a convoy is passing, or to insulate batteries, the heads of
saps or lodgments which have been made in the covert way. By this
species of defense an enemy’s communications may be perpetually
intercepted, and his approaches so obstructed as to force him to leave
dangerous intervals.

=Defense, Line of.= Represents the flight of a rifle-ball from the place
where the soldiers stand, to scour the face of the bastion. The line of
defense should never exceed the range of a rifle. It is either _fichant_
or _rayant_. The first is when it is drawn from the angle; the last,
when it is drawn from a point in the curtain, ranging the face of the
bastion in fortification.

=Defense, Lines of.= Are the distances between the salient angle of the
bastion and the opposite flank; that is, the faces produced to the
flanks.

=Defense, Passing.= Is chiefly confined to inundations, and is effected
by letting out water in such a manner that the level ground which lies
round a fortified town or place may be entirely overflowed, and become
an inert stagnant pool.

=Defensive.= A force is said to be on the defensive, or to assume a
defensive attitude, when it takes up a position to receive an attack.

=Defensive War.= See WAR, DEFENSIVE.

=Defilading=, or =Defilement=. The art of arranging the plan and profile
of works, so that their lines shall not be liable to enfilade, nor their
interior to plunging or reverse fire.

=Defile.= A narrow passage, or road, through which troops cannot march
otherwise than by making a small front and filing off.

=Defile, To.= To reduce a body of troops into a small front, in order to
march through a defile; also, to defilade.

=Deformer= (_Fr._). In a military sense, signifies to break; as,
_deformer une colonne_, to break a column.

=Dégat= (_Fr._). The laying waste an enemy’s country, particularly in
the neighborhood of a town which an army attempts to reduce by famine,
or which refuses to pay military exactions.

=Degorgeoir= (_Fr._). A sort of steel pricker used in examining the vent
of a cannon; a priming wire.

=Degradation.= In military life, the act of depriving an officer forever
of his commission, rank, dignity, or degree of honor, and taking away at
the same time every title, badge, or privilege he may possess.

=Degraded.= In heraldry, means placed upon steps or degrees.

=Degsestan, Battle of.= See SCOTLAND.

=Dehors.= In the military art, all sorts of outworks in general, placed
at some distance from the walls of a fortification, the better to secure
the main places, and to protect the siege, etc.

=Delaware.= One of the Middle States of the United States, and one of
the original thirteen. It derives its name (as do the Delaware River and
Bay and Delaware Indians) from Thomas West, lord de la Warr, who visited
the bay in 1610, and died on his vessel at its mouth. It was first
settled by the Swedes and Dutch, but came into possession of the English
in 1664, and formed part of the grant to William Penn in 1682. In 1701
it was separated from Pennsylvania, though subject to the same governor
down to the period of the Revolution, to the success of which it
contributed its full share, and for the maintenance of the results of
which it has ever been a zealous advocate.

=Delaware Indians.= A tribe of aborigines, called by themselves
_Lenni-Lenape_, who formerly lived on the Delaware River, but are now
settled in Indian Territory, on the Wichita Agency, with the Caddos. See
INDIANS AND THEIR AGENCIES.

=Delf.= A heraldic charge representing a square sod or turf, the term
being probably derived from the word _delve_, to dig. A _delf tenné_ is
the appropriate abatement for him who revokes his challenge, or
otherwise goes from his word.

=Delhi.= A celebrated city of Northern India, situated on an offset of
the river Jumna. The city was taken by a British army under Lord Lake,
September 8, 1803, and has ever since continued under British rule. In
1857 it was held by the Sepoys, who murdered several English subjects,
but was retaken, after a successful assault, September, 1857.

=Deliver Battle.= A term taken from the French _livrer bataille_,
meaning to enter practically upon a contest; the opposing armies being
in sight of each other.

=Dellamcotta.= A fortress of Northern Hindostan, in the province of
Bootan, commanding the principal pass into that province. It was stormed
by the British troops in 1773, which so alarmed the Booteans that they
petitioned for peace. The fortress was then restored to them.

=Dellis.= Were Bosnian and Albanian horsemen, who served without pay in
the Turkish armies.

=Delphi= (now _Castri_). An ancient town of Phocis, Greece, celebrated
on account of its oracle of Apollo. Its temple was burnt by the
Pisistratidæ, 548 B.C. A new temple was raised by the Alcmæonidæ. The
Persians (480 B.C.) and the Gauls (279 B.C.) were deterred from
plundering the temple by awful portents. It was, however, robbed and
seized by the Phocians, 357 B.C., which led to the Sacred War, and Nero
carried from it 300 costly statues in 67 A.D.

=Demembré=, or =Dismembered=. A heraldic term signifying that the
members of an animal are cut from its body.

=Demerara and Essequibo.= Colonies in Guiana, South America, founded by
the Dutch in 1580, were taken by the British, under Maj.-Gen. Whyte,
April 22, 1796, but were restored at the peace of Amiens, 1802. They
again surrendered to the British under Gen. Grinfield and Commodore
Hood, September, 1803, and became English colonies in 1814.

=Demi=, or =Demy=. In heraldry, an animal is said to be demi when only
the upper or fore half of it is represented.

=Demi-bastion.= A piece in fortification, which generally terminates
the branches of crown-works or horn-works towards their head.

=Demi-brigade.= A half brigade.

=Demi-cannon.= A kind of ordnance, anciently used, carrying a ball of
from 30 to 36 pounds in weight.

=Demi-culverin.= A kind of ordnance anciently used, carrying a ball of 9
or 10 pounds in weight.

=Demi-distances= (_Fr._). Half distances; as, _serrez la colonne à
demi-distances_, close to the column at half distances.

=Demi-file= (_Fr._). Is that rank in a French battalion which
immediately succeeds to the _serre-demi-file_, and is at the head of the
remaining half of its depth.

=Demi-gorge.= In fortification, is half the gorge or entrance into the
bastion, not taken directly from angle to angle, where the bastion joins
the curtain, but from the angle of the flank to the centre of the
bastion, or the angle which the two curtains would make by their
prolongation.

=Demihag.= A long pistol, much used in the 16th century.

=Demi-lance.= A light lance; half-pike. Also a light horseman who
carried a lance.

=Demi-lune.= In fortification, is a work constructed beyond the main
ditch of a fortress, and in front of the curtain between two bastions,
intended to defend the curtain; a ravelin.

=Demi-parallel.= In fortification, is a place of arms formed between the
second and third parallels to protect the head of the sap.

=Demi-pike.= A kind of spontoon, 7 feet long, used by infantry or for
boarding.

=Demi-place d’Armes.= In fortification, a circular trench constructed
upon the prolongation of the lines of the covered way, to the right and
left of the zigzags, to cover the troops employed in their defense.

=Demi-revetment.= A revetment of the scarf only to the height protected
by the glacis.

=Demmin.= A town of Prussia, on the river Peene, on the borders of
Pomerania and Mecklenburg. It is a town of considerable antiquity,
having been a place of importance in the time of Charlemagne, and is
noted for the number of sieges it has sustained. Its fortifications were
destroyed in 1759. In 1807 several engagements took place here between
the French and Russians.

=Demonstration.= In military operations, is an apparent movement, the
chief object of which is to deceive the enemy, and induce him to divide
his force, as if to meet dangers from various quarters. When thus
divided and weakened, he may be attacked with greater chance of success.

=Denain.= A village of France, department of the North. It is celebrated
in history as the scene of the decisive victory gained in 1712 by
Marshal Villars over the allies commanded by Prince Eugène.

=Denbigh.= The capital town of the county of the same name, North Wales.
In ancient times it was a place of great military importance. The
castle was gallantly held by Col. William Salisbury for the king during
the civil wars of the revolution, but finally surrendered to the
Parliamentary forces under Gen. Mytton.

=Dendermonde.= A town of Belgium, in the province of East Flanders. It
is fortified, and has a citadel dating from 1584, and possessing the
means of laying the surrounding country under water in case of an
attack. Louis XIV. besieged it in vain in 1667, but Marlborough, aided
by a long drought, succeeded in taking it in 1706.

=Denmark.= A kingdom of Northern Europe, which, with Sweden and Norway,
was originally called Scandinavia. In ancient times it was occupied by a
fierce and warlike people, whose principal occupation was piracy. In 832
the Danes landed in England, and there established two kingdoms, and two
centuries afterwards the conquest of England was completed by Canute,
king of Denmark. In the 15th century Christian I. connected Norway,
Sleswick, and Holstein with the crown of Denmark, but in consequence of
siding with Napoleon, Denmark was obliged to cede Norway to Sweden in
1814. In 1848 Sleswick and Holstein revolted, the duchies being aided by
Prussia and other powers of the Germanic Confederation, who, however,
concluded a peace on their own account, July 2, 1850. The duchies
continued the war, were defeated at Idstet, July 25, 1850, and peace was
restored by the intervention of the powers in January, 1851. Hostilities
again commenced in 1863, and were terminated by the peace of Vienna in
1864, Denmark renouncing all claim on Sleswick-Holstein.

=Dennewitz.= A small village in the province of Brandenburg, Prussia.
Here was fought, on the 6th of September, 1813, a battle between 70,000
French, Saxons, and Poles, commanded by Marshal Ney, and 45,000
Prussians, under Gen. Tauentzien. Both armies more than once drove each
other from their positions, but the Prussians finally prevailed, and Ney
gave orders to retreat. At this moment Bernadotte, crown-prince of
Sweden, appeared at the head of a large army, and turned the retreat of
the French army into a complete rout.

=Denonciateur= (_Fr._). In a general sense, may not improperly be called
a military informer. So rigid indeed were the regulations (even in the
most corrupt state of the French government) against every species of
misapplication and embezzlement, that if a private dragoon gave
information to the commissary of musters of a troop horse that had
passed muster, having been used in the private service of an officer, he
was not only entitled to his discharge, but received, moreover, 100
livres in cash, and became master of the horse and equipage, with which
he retired unmolested. The officer was summarily dealt with.

=Densimeter.= An apparatus for obtaining the specific gravity of
gunpowder by immersing it in mercury. It consists of an open vessel
containing mercury, a frame supporting a glass globe communicating by a
tube with the mercury in the open vessel, and joined at top to a
graduated glass tube, which communicates by a flexible tube with an
ordinary air-pump. Stop-cocks are inserted in the tubes above and below
the glass globe, and a diaphragm of chamois-skin is placed over the
bottom orifice and one of wire cloth over the top orifice of the globe.
The arrangement allows the globe to be filled with mercury to any mark
on the graduated tube, or with gunpowder and mercury. The globe can be
taken off and weighed in both cases. The specific gravity is obtained
from the relation between the weights in the two cases.

=Density.= The density or specific gravity of gunpowder is one of its
most important properties. In the form of dust, the velocity of
combustion increases rapidly with the density up to about 1.60, when it
decreases. In grained powder the velocity of combustion decreases as the
density increases. For English or American powder this velocity is about
four-tenths of an inch per second. For French and most of the
continental powders, which are less dense than the English, it is about
forty-eight-hundredths of an inch. The excellent preservative qualities
of English and American powders are largely due to their high
densities,--the standard being about 1.75. A certain degree of density
is absolutely essential to grain powder to prevent the inflamed gases
from penetrating the pores of the powder and flashing off the whole mass
to the destruction of the gun. In the manufacture of powder the density
depends, first, upon the amount of trituration to which the ingredients
are subjected in the incorporating mill; second, upon the pressure
employed to form the cake; and, third, upon the degree of moisture it
contains when subjected to these operations, particularly the last. The
pressure-gauge is not a reliable measure of the _density_ given to a
powder, though a good indication of the _hardness_, with which density
must not be confounded. Dry powder meal offers a great resistance to
compression, but becomes very hard,--the work being consumed in
consolidating the surface particles. To obtain uniform density a certain
amount of moisture is necessary to assist the particles in their
movement. As much as 6 per cent. of moisture is used in making prismatic
powder.

=Department Commander.= See GEOGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENT, COMMANDER OF.

=Department, Military.= A military subdivision of a country. The whole
territory of the United States is divided into military departments,
each under a general officer. See GEOGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENT, COMMANDER OF.

=Department of War.= That department of a government which takes charge
of all matters relating to war. See SECRETARY OF WAR.

=Depenses= (_Fr._). In a military sense, implies secret service money.

=Deploy.= Signifies a military movement, in which a body of troops is
spread out in such a way that they shall display a wider front and a
smaller depth than before deploying. To _ploy_ is to execute the reverse
of this movement.

=Deployment.= The act of unfolding or expanding any given body of men,
in order to extend their front.

=Deposits, Soldiers’.= Soldiers in the U. S. service may deposit with
the paymaster any portion of their savings, in sums not less than $5,
the same to remain so deposited until final payment on discharge.
Interest on deposits at the rate of 4 per cent. per annum will be paid
on final settlement upon each deposit from the date thereof to date of
discharge. No interest is payable, however, upon any deposit of less
than $50, or upon any sum, whatever its amount, which has been on
deposit for a less period than six months prior to date of discharge.
Deposits are forfeited by desertion.

=Depot.= Any place at which military stores are deposited for the use of
an army. It also signifies a fort or other suitable place appropriated
for the reception of recruits, or detached parties belonging to
different regiments. In fortification, the term is likewise used to
denote a particular place at the trail of the trenches out of the reach
of the cannon of a besieged place. It is here that besiegers generally
assemble when ordered to attack the outworks, or support the troops in
the trenches when there is reason to imagine the besieged intend making
a sally.

=Depredate.= To take plunder or prey; to commit waste; as, the troops
depredated on the country; also, in an active sense, to plunder or
pillage; to spoil; to lay waste.

=Depressed Gun.= Any piece of ordnance having its mouth depressed below
the horizontal line.

=Depression.= The pointing of any piece of ordnance so that its shot may
be projected short of the point-blank.

=Depth.= A technical word, peculiarly applicable to bodies of men drawn
up in line or column. The depth of a battalion or squadron is the number
of men in rank and file from front to rear.

=Deputy-Marshal.= In the British service, is the senior sergeant-major
of each regiment of Foot Guards, who sees after and makes out the routes
of deserters, and receives an allowance for so doing.

=Deraser= (_Fr._). To cut off the superfluous clay from a gun-mold
previous to its being placed in the pit.

=Derayeh, El.= A town of Arabia, nearly in the centre of the district
called El Nedjed. It is tolerably well fortified, but after a siege of
seven months, in 1819, it was nearly destroyed by the troops of Ibrahim
Pasha.

=Derbend=, or =Derbent=. A town of Russia, the capital of the province
of Daghestan. It is surrounded by strong walls and flanked and
strengthened by massive bastions. It was taken from Persia by Russia in
1722, restored to the former power in 1735, and retaken by the
Muscovites in 1795.

=Derivation= (_Fr._). Drift of rifle projectiles. See PROJECTILES.

=Descend.= In a military sense, means to make an attack or incursion as
if from a vantage-ground.

=Descents.= In fortification, are the holes, vaults, and hollow places
made by undermining the ground.

=Descents into the Ditch.= Cuts and excavations made by means of saps in
the counterscarp, beneath the covert way. They are covered with thick
boards and hurdles; and a certain quantity of earth is thrown upon the
top in order to obviate the bad effects which might arise from shells,
etc.

=Descriptive Book.= A book in which descriptive lists of the soldiers
belonging to a company are kept.

=Descriptive List of Soldier.= A paper giving a short history of the
soldier, a description of his person, and the statement of his account.
It accompanies him wherever he goes, being intrusted to his detachment
or company commander.

=Descriptive Memoir.= This memoir, which should always accompany a
sketch of a topographical reconnoissance, is intended to convey that
information relating to the natural features of the ground not expressed
upon the sketch; to express that information for which there are no
conventional signs, and to present those facts relative to the ground
which become important by being considered in connection with the
probable military operations to be undertaken.

=Desenzano.= A town of Lombardy, in the province of Brescia. Garibaldi,
in command of the Italian volunteers, defeated an Austrian force near
this place in 1859.

=Desert.= To quit a service without permission; to run away; as, to
desert from the army; to forsake in violation of duty; as, to desert
one’s colors.

=Deserter.= A soldier who absconds, during the period for which he is
enlisted, from the service of the army or navy. In England this crime
was by certain old statutes made punishable with death, but now the
punishment is left to the discretion of a court-martial. In the United
States, deserters in the time of war may be sentenced to death, but in
time of peace the penalty for this offense is lighter.

=Desertion.= The act of absence from duty without intention to return.
See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 47.

=Despatch=, or =Dispatch=. An official military letter sent by the
commander of an army in the field to the authorities at home. The term
is also applied to the military letters giving an account of military
operations sent by subordinate officers holding detached commands to the
general of an army in the field. See DISPATCHES.

=Detach.= To separate for a special object or use; as, to send out a
body of men on some particular service, separate from that of the main
body.

=Detached Bastion.= In fortification, is that basis which is separated
from the enceinte by a ditch.

=Detached Works.= In fortification, are such outworks as are detached,
or at a distance from the body of the place; such as half-moons,
ravelins, bastions, etc.

=Detachment.= In military affairs, an uncertain number of men drawn out
from several regiments or camps equally, to march or be employed as the
general may think proper, whether on an attack, at a siege, or in
parties to scour the country. A detachment of 2000 or 3000 men is a
command for a general officer, 800 for a colonel, 500 for
lieutenant-colonel, 200 or 300 for a major, 80 or 100 for a captain, 40
for a lieutenant, 12 for a sergeant, and 6 for a corporal.

=Detachment, Gun.= The men required for the service of a piece of
artillery.

=Detachment, Manœuvring.= The men required for mechanical manœuvres of a
siege or sea-coast gun.

=Detail for Duty.= Is a roster, or table, for the regular performance of
duty either in camp or garrison. The general detail is regulated by the
adjutant-general, according to the strength of the several corps. The
adjutant of each regiment superintends the detail of officers and
non-commissioned officers for duty, and orderly sergeants detail the
privates.

=Detmold.= A town of Northwestern Germany, capital of the principality
of Lippe-Detmold, on the Werra. In the vicinity is the battle-field on
which the army of Varus was destroyed by the Germans under Arminius, in
9 A.D.

=Detonating Powder.= A term applied in chemistry to fulminating mercury
and silver, and to other compounds which suddenly explode when struck or
heated. Some of these compounds have been much used for the ignition of
gunpowder in percussion locks.

=Detonation.= The instantaneous conversion of an explosive into gas; a
term applied to the phenomena attending the explosion of certain
substances, such as _nitro-glycerine_, _chloride of nitrogen_, _iodide
of nitrogen_, _gun-cotton_, the _picrates_, etc. Detonation, or
explosion of the first order, is distinguished from ordinary explosion,
or explosion of the second order, by the different way in which the
explosion is propagated. Ordinary explosion proceeds by inflammation,
being nothing more than a rapid combustion. Detonation is propagated by
vibration. A detonating agent is a substance used to produce the
_initial vibration_, or “impulse of explosion.” The exploder, or cap,
used for this purpose is usually primed with fulminate of mercury, a
substance having a wide range in bringing about detonation in the high
explosives.

=Dettingen.= A village of Bavaria, on the Maine. It is noted for a
victory gained by the English, under George II., over the French,
commanded by Marshal Noailles, in 1743.

=Devastation.= In warfare, is the act of destroying, laying waste,
demolishing, or unpeopling towns, etc.

=Deviation of Projectiles.= See PROJECTILES.

=Device.= The emblem on a shield or standard.

=Devicotta.= A fort and seaport town in the south of India, and district
of Tanjore. It was taken in 1749 from the rajah of Tanjore.

=Devonshire.= A maritime county in the southwest peninsula of England,
between the Bristol and English Channels. The Saxons failed to conquer
Devonshire till the 9th century. It was ravaged by the Danes in the 9th
and 10th centuries, and by the Irish in the 11th century. In 1688 the
Prince of Orange landed at Tor Bay, in this county.

=Deyrah=, or =Dehra=. A town of Northern Hindostan, and the principal
place of the British province designated the Deyrah Doon. During the
Nepaul war in 1815, the Deyrah Doon became the scene of military
operations, and acquired a mournful celebrity by the obstinate defense
made by the Goorkhas at Kalunga, or Nalapani, in the siege of which the
British lost a considerable number of men, including their gallant
commander, Gen. Gillespie.

=Diable= (_Devil-carriage_), _Fr._ A truck-carriage on four trucks, for
carrying mortars, etc., to short distances; it is provided with
draught-hooks at each end, so as to be drawn to front or rear.

=Diameter.= In both a military and geometrical sense, implies a right
line passing through the centre of a circle, and terminated at each end
by the circumference thereof.

=Diaphragm Shell.= An obsolete spherical shell formerly used in the
English service, so named from the arrangement of the interior.

=Diapré.= A term applied in heraldry to fields and charges relieved by
arabesque and geometrical patterns. This ornamentation, not affecting
the heraldic value of the objects to which it was applied, was generally
left to the fancy of the painter.

=Diarbekir.= A city of Asiatic Turkey, and capital of the pashalic of
Diarbekir. This place was successively taken, retaken, and destroyed, in
the ancient wars between the Persians and Romans. It was pillaged by
Tamerlane in the year 1393; and was successively taken and retaken by
the Persian kings, until it was conquered by Selim, the first sultan of
the Osmanli Turks, in the year 1515. In 1605 it again fell into the
power of Persia; but it was afterwards retaken by the Turks, under whose
dominion it has since continued.

=Dictator.= In the earliest times, was the name of the highest
magistrate of the Latin Confederation, and in some of the Latin towns
the title was continued long after these towns were subjected to the
dominion of Rome. In the Roman republic the dictator was an
extraordinary magistrate, irresponsible and endowed with absolute
authority. The dictatorship could not lawfully be held longer than six
months. Dictators were only appointed so long as the Romans had to carry
on wars in and out of Italy, or when any vigorous measure had to be
acted upon. The limits of his power were as follows: he could not touch
the treasury; he could not leave Italy; and he could not ride through
Rome on horseback without previously obtaining the permission of the
people.

=Dideon’s Formulas.= Certain equations relating to the trajectory of a
projectile in the air, obtained by Capt. Dideon of Metz by integrating
the differential equations of the trajectory under certain assumptions
as to the law of the resistance, etc. See PROJECTILES, TRAJECTORY, IN
AIR.

=Diego.= A very strong and heavy sword.

=Diest.= A town of Belgium, in Southern Brabant, on the Demer. This town
was taken by the Duke of Marlborough in 1705, but retaken by the French,
and dismantled, in the same year. Since 1830 it has been surrounded with
fortifications and made a place of great strength.

=Dietary, Military.= See SUBSISTENCE OF ARMIES and FOOD.

=Dieu et Mon Droit= (_Fr._). “God and my Right.” The motto of the royal
arms of England, first assumed by Richard I., to intimate that he did
not hold his empire in vassalage of any mortal. It was afterwards
assumed by Edward III., and was continued without interruption to the
time of William, who used the motto _Je maintiendray_, though the former
was still retained upon the great seal. After him Anne used the motto
_Semper eadem_; but ever since her time _Dieu et mon droit_ has
continued to be the royal motto.

=Differences.= In heraldry, are marks introduced into a coat of arms to
distinguish brothers and their descendants from the father or head of
the house, while he is alive; marks of cadency being used for a similar
purpose after his death.

=Differential Pulley.= A hoisting apparatus consisting of an endless
chain and two pulleys of slightly different diameters. The chain winds
upon one while unwinding from the other. It is attached to a crane, and
used to hoist heavy shot to the muzzle of large cannon.

=Dijon.= An ancient walled city of France, chief town of the department
of Côte-d’Or. It has been several times captured in war. It was attacked
by the Germans under Gen. Beyer, October 30, 1870. The heights and
suburbs were taken by Prince William of Baden, and the town surrendered
October 31.

=Dike=, or =Dyke=. A channel to receive water; also a dam or mound, to
prevent inundation. Dikes differ from sluices; the former being intended
only to oppose the flowing of other water into a river, or to confine
the stream by means of strong walls, pieces of timber, or a double row
of hurdles, the intervals of which are filled with earth, stones, or
pebbles.

=Dimachæ.= In ancient military affairs, were a kind of horsemen,
answering to the dragoons of the moderns.

=Dimidiation.= In heraldry, a mode of marshaling arms, adopted chiefly
before quartering and impaling according to the modern practice came
into use, and subsequently retained to some extent in continental,
though not in English heraldry. It consists in cutting two coats of arms
in halves by a vertical line, and uniting the dexter half of one to the
sinister half of the other. Coats of husband and wife were often so
marshaled in England in the 13th and 14th centuries.

=Diminish.= In a military sense, means to decrease the front of a
battalion; to adopt the columns of march, or manœuvre according to the
obstructions and difficulties which it meets in advancing.

=Diminished Angle.= Is that formed by the exterior side and line of
defense in fortification.

=Diminutions.= A word sometimes used in heraldry for differences, marks
of cadency, and brisures, indifferently.

=Dinan.= A town of France, in the department of Côtes-du-Nord, situated
on the Rance. This place was often besieged during the Middle Ages; in
1373 was taken by Du Guesclin, and in 1379 by De Clisson.

=Dinant.= A town of Belgium, on the Meuse, 14 miles south from Namur. It
was taken by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, in 1466, when 800 of its
inhabitants were taken by twos, tied back to back, and thrown into the
Meuse. The town was also razed to the ground; but in 1493 it was
rebuilt. In 1554 and 1675 it was again taken by the French.

=Dinapore=, or =Dinapoor=. A town of British India, in the presidency of
Bengal, on the Ganges. It is an important military station, containing
extensive barracks and cantonments for English and native troops.

=Dindigul.= Capital of a district in the south of India, in the
presidency of Madras. It was captured by the British troops, under Col.
Stuart, in 1790.

=Dipping of the Muzzle.= A piece of artillery when fired has been
explained by the action of the vent in bringing increased pressure on
the elevating screw or quoin, the reaction from which throws down the
muzzle.

=Direct Fire.= See FIRE, DIRECT.

=Directing Sergeant.= When a company is being drilled in marching, a
sergeant distinguished for precision in marching is selected, who is
called a directing sergeant, and placed in front of the guide on the
line established. This sergeant is charged with the direction and step,
and marches on points selected by himself directly in front of him. The
right guide of the company marches straight in the trace of the
directing sergeant.

=Direction.= In military mechanics, signifies the line or path of a body
in motion, along which it endeavors to force its way, according to the
propelling power that is given to it.

=Direction.= In gunnery, is that element of pointing which relates to
the movement of the piece around an imaginary vertical axis. The
direction is given when the plane of sight passes through the object.
Elevation is a movement about a horizontal axis.

=Directory.= In the history of France, the name given by the
constitution of 1795, to an executive body composed of five members of
the French republic. They assumed authority in a moment of immense
peril. France was environed with gigantic adversaries, while distrust,
discontent, and the malice of rival factions made her internal
administration almost hopeless. The frantic heroism of her soldiers
saved her from spoliation by the foreigner; but, on the contrary, the
home policy of the Directory was deplorable. In 1799 the Directory was
overthrown by the _coup d’état_ of the 18th Brumaire, November 9, 1799,
and was succeeded by the Consulate.

=Dirk.= Is a short dagger which at various times and in various
countries has been much used as a weapon of defense. It is still worn by
Highland regiments in the British service.

=Dirk-knife.= A clasp-knife, having a large, dirk-like blade.

=Disability.= State of being disabled; want of competent physical or
intellectual power. When a soldier becomes disabled from exposure,
accidents, or other causes, he is discharged from the service on a
surgeon’s certificate of disability, which enables him to draw a
pension.

=Disarm.= To deprive of arms; to take away the weapons of; to deprive of
the means of attack or defense.

=Disarmament.= The act of disarming.

=Disarmed.= Soldiers divested of their arms, either by conquest, or in
consequence of some defection.

=Disarmer.= One who disarms.

=Disarray.= To throw into disorder; to break the array of.

=Disarray.= Want of array or regular order; disorder.

=Disbanding.= Is the breaking up of a military organization and the
discharge of soldiers from military duty.

=Disbursing Officer.= An officer whose special function is to make
disbursements of money.

=Discharge.= From military service, is obtained by non-commissioned
officers and privates by expiration of term of service, which varies in
different countries; on surgeon’s certificate of disability, and by
special authority for various reasons, when recommended by the
commanding officer. Soldiers are also discharged with ignominy for great
offenses, being in some cases stripped of their decorations and drummed
out of the service.

=Disciplinarian.= An officer who pays particular regard to the
discipline or the soldiers under his command.

=Discipline.= In military and naval affairs, is a general name for the
rules and regulations prescribed and enforced for the proper conduct and
subordination of the soldiers, etc. This is the technical meaning. In a
higher sense discipline is the _habit of obedience_. The soldier
acquires the habit of subordinating his own will, pleasure, and
inclinations to those of his superior. When the habit has become so
strong that it is second nature, the soldier is disciplined.

=Discomfit.= Defeat, rout, overthrow.

=Discretion.= _Se rendre à discrétion_, surrendering unconditionally to
a victorious enemy.

=Disembarkation.= The act of landing troops from a boat or ship. The
term has lately been applied to the act of quitting a railway train.

=Disembody.= To disarm a military body, and to dispense with its
services.

=Disengage.= To separate the wings of a battalion or regiment, which is
necessary when the battalion countermarches from its centre and on its
centre by files. It likewise means to clear a column or line which may
have lost its proper front by the overlapping of any particular
division. It also signifies to extricate oneself and the troops
commanded from a critical situation. It likewise means to break suddenly
from any particular order in line or column, and to repair to some
rallying-point.

=Disengage.= In fencing, means to quit that side of an adversary’s blade
on which one is opposed by his guard, in order to effect a cut or thrust
where an opportunity may present.

=Disgarnish.= To take guns from a fortress.

=Disgarrison.= To deprive of a garrison.

=Dishelm.= To deprive of the helmet; to take the helmet from.

=Dish of a Wheel.= Is the inclination outward of the spokes when
fastened in the nave.

=Dislodge.= To drive an enemy from a position.

=Dismantle.= To render fortifications incapable of defense, or cannon
unserviceable.

=Dismiss.= To discard, or deprive an officer of his commission or
warrant. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OR WAR.

=Dismount.= To dismount the cavalry is to use them as infantry. Guards,
when relieved, are said to dismount. They are to be marched with the
utmost regularity to the parade-ground where they were formed, and from
thence to their regimental or company parades, previously to being
dismissed to their quarters. To dismount cannon, is to break their
carriages, wheels, etc., so as to render them unfit for service. It also
implies dismounting by the gin, etc.

=Disobedience of Orders.= Any infraction, by neglect or willful
omission, of orders. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 21.

=Dispart.= In gunnery, half the difference between the diameter of the
base-ring at the breech of a gun and that of the swell of the muzzle. In
guns which have no front sights, it is therefore the tangent of the
natural angle of sight to a radius equal to the distance from the rear
of the base-ring, or base-line, to the highest point of the swell of the
muzzle, measured parallel to the axis. For convenience the muzzle sight
is usually made equal in height to the dispart in modern guns,--giving a
natural line of sight parallel to the axis of the piece.

=Dispatches.= Official messages. In war, important dispatches which have
to pass through the enemy’s country, or in the vicinity of his forces,
are only intrusted to officers to whom their contents can be confided.
Dispatches are frequently in cipher, especially when telegraphed or
signaled with a liability to interception. See DESPATCH.

=Disperse.= To scatter any body of men, armed or unarmed, who may have
assembled in an illegal or hostile manner. The cavalry are generally
employed on these occasions.

=Displaced.= Officers in the British service are sometimes displaced
from a particular regiment in consequence of misconduct, but they are at
liberty to serve in any other corps.

=Display, To.= In a military sense, is to extend the front of a column,
and thereby bring it into line.

=Displayed.= In heraldic usage, means expanded; as, an eagle displaced,
or what is commonly known as a spread eagle.

=Displume.= To deprive of decoration or ornament; to degrade.

=Dispose.= To dispose cannon, is to place it in such a manner that its
discharge may do the greatest mischief.

=Disposition.= In a general sense, is the just placing of an army or
body of men upon the most advantageous ground, and in the strongest
situation, for a vigorous attack or defense.

=Disposition de Guerre= (_Fr._). Warlike arrangement or disposition.
Under this head may be considered the mode of establishing, combining,
conducting, and finally terminating a war, so as to produce success and
victory.

=Disrespect to a Commanding Officer.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 20.

=Disrespectful Words.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 19.

=Distance.= In military formation, signifies the relative space which is
left between men standing under arms in rank, or the interval which
appears between those ranks.

=Distance of the Bastion.= In fortification, is the term applied to the
exterior polygon.

=Distances of Objects.= See POINTING.

=Distribution.= Means, generally, any division or allotment made for the
purposes of war; also minor arrangements made for the supply of corps.

=District, Military.= One of those portions into which a country is
divided, for the convenience of command, and to insure a co-operation
between distant bodies of troops.

=Disvelloped=, or =Developed=. Are heraldic terms applied to the colors
of a regiment, or army, when they are flying.

=Ditch.= In fortification, is an excavation made round the works, from
which the earth required for the construction of the rampart and parapet
is obtained. Ditches are of two kinds, wet and dry; but in modern
fortification the dry ditch is considered preferable to the wet one.
When the excavation is on the side farthest from the enemy it is called
a trench.

=Diu.= A once celebrated island and fortress of Hindostan, in the
peninsula of Kattywar. In 1515 the Portuguese gained possession of it;
they fortified it, and in ten years rendered it impregnable against all
the powers of India. With the decline of Portuguese power it fell into
decay, and was plundered by the Arabs of Muscat in 1670.

=Diversion.= An attack upon an enemy in a place where he is weak and
unprovided, in order to draw off his forces from making an irruption
elsewhere; or a manœuvre, where an enemy is strong, which obliges him to
detach part of his forces to resist any feint or menacing attempt of his
opponent.

=Divest.= To strip of clothes, arms, or equipage.

=Divine Service.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 52.

=Division.= In military matters, is one section of an army, comprising 2
or more brigades, commanded by a general officer. In regimental
formation, 2 companies of a regiment or battalion constitute a division,
when in column.

=Dizier, St.= A town of France, on the Marne. The emperor Charles V.
besieged and took this place in 1544; and in its neighborhood Napoleon
defeated the allies in two battles fought January 27 and March 26, 1814.

=Djokjokarta.= A Dutch residency of Java, near the middle of the south
coast of that island. The town of the same name is the seat of a Dutch
resident and a native sultan, who has a body-guard of young females,
completely armed and equipped, some of whom do duty on horseback. It was
taken by the British in 1812.

=Dobrudscha= (anc. _Scythia Minor_). A name used to denote the
northeastern portion of Bulgaria. The Dobrudscha has long been a famous
battle-ground. Some of the earliest incidents of the Russian war of
1854-56 took place here.

=Dolabra.= A rude ancient hatchet. They are represented on the columns
of Trajan and Antoninus, and abound in all museums. When made of flint,
which was their earliest and rudest form, they are usually called
_celts_.

=Dôle.= A town of France, in the department of Jura, on the right bank
of the Doubs. In 1479 it was taken by Louis XI., when the greater part
of the town was destroyed, and many of its inhabitants were put to the
sword. It subsequently came into the hands of the Spaniards, and was
fortified by Charles V. in 1530. In 1636 it was ineffectually besieged
by the Prince of Condé. In 1668 it was taken by the French; and again in
1674, when its fortifications were destroyed.

=Dolphins.= Two handles placed upon a piece of ordnance with their
centres over the centre of gravity, by which it was mounted or
dismounted. They are no longer in use in the U. S. service.

=Domingo, San.= The capital of the Spanish part of the island of Hayti,
in the West Indies. About the year 1586 the city was sacked by Sir
Francis Drake.

=Dominica.= An island in the West Indies, belonging to the Leeward
group, lying about 20 miles to the north of Martinique. This island was
discovered by Columbus in 1498, and was claimed alternately by England,
France, and Spain: it was finally ceded to Great Britain in 1763.

=Dommage= (_Fr._). In a general acceptation of the term, signified in
the old French service, the compensation which every captain of a troop,
or company, was obliged to make in consequence of any damage that their
men might have done in a town, or on a march.

=Donabue.= A town in India, in the British province of Pegu. In 1825,
during the Burmese war, it maintained a successful resistance against
the assault of a British force under the command of Brigadier Cotton;
and here in 1853, during the last war with the same nation, the British
troops suffered a repulse in an encounter with a Burmese force, losing
several officers.

=Donauwörth.= A town of Bavaria, situated at the confluence of the
Wernitz and the Danube. Here Marlborough stormed and carried the
intrenched camp of the Bavarians in 1704, and on October 6, 1805, the
French under Soult obtained a victory over the Austrians under Mack.

=Donelson, Fort.= A position on a slight bend of the Cumberland River,
in Tennessee, which was strongly fortified by the Confederates during
the civil war. On the afternoon of February 14, 1862, Commodore Foote
commenced with his gunboats an attack on this place, but met with a
decided reverse. Meantime, Gen. Grant’s army, advancing from the capture
of Fort Henry, gradually approached, and surrounded the fort, with
occasional skirmishing on the line. Next day the Confederates attacked
them, but were repulsed with loss, and finding all hope of
reinforcements unavailing, they surrendered the fort on the 16th. About
10,000 prisoners, 40 pieces of artillery, and a large quantity of stores
of all kinds fell into Gen. Grant’s hands.

=Dongola, New=, or =Maraka=. A town on the Nile, and capital of a
province of the same name, in Nubia. Ibrahim Pasha took it from the
Mamelukes in 1820.

=Donjon=, or =Dungeon=. The principal tower or keep of a castle or
fortress. It was so called either from being placed on a _dun_ or
elevation, natural or artificial, or because, from its position, it
dominated or commanded the other parts of the fortress. From the
circumstance that the lower or under-ground story of the donjon was used
as a prison, has come the modern meaning of the word dungeon.

=Doolee.= A palanquin litter, used in Indian armies, to carry sick and
wounded men.

=Dormans.= In Northeast France. The Huguenots and their allies under
Montmorency were here defeated by the Duke of Guise, October 10, 1575.

=Dormant.= (_Fr._). Sleeping. In heraldic representation, an animal
_dormant_ has its head resting on its fore-paws, whereas an animal
_couchant_ has its head erect.

=Dornach.= A village of Switzerland, 20 miles northeast from Soleure,
remarkable for the victory obtained by the Swiss over the Austrians,
July 22, 1499, and which gave Switzerland her independence.

=Dorogoboozh=, =Dorogobush=, or =Dorogobouge=. A town of Russia, in the
government of Smolensk. At this place the French were defeated by the
Russians, October 12, 1812.

=Dosser.= In military matters, is a sort of basket, carried on the
shoulders of men, used in carrying the earth from one part of a
fortification to another, where it is required.

=Dossière= (_Fr._). Back-piece of a cuirass.

=Douai=, or =Douay=. A fortified town of France, on the small river
Scarpe, 18 miles south from Lille. This place was taken from the
Flemings by Philip the Fair in 1297; restored by Charles V. in 1368. It
reverted to Spain, from whom it was taken by Louis XIV. in 1667. It was
captured by the allies, under the Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugène,
in 1710, but was retaken by the French, September 8, 1712.

=Double.= To unite, as ranks or files, so as to form one. _To double
upon_, to inclose between two fires.

=Double-quick.= Performed in the time called double-quick; as, a
double-quick step or march.

=Double-quick.= To move, or cause to move, in double-quick time.

=Double-rank.= A line formed of double files.

=Double-shell.= A shell used in the 7-inch English rifles. It is 27
inches long, and has a large cavity. To strengthen it against outside
pressure it has three internal longitudinal ribs projecting about an
inch into the cavity.

=Double-shotting.= Is an increase of the destructive power of ordnance
by doubling the shot fired off at one time from a gun. Sometimes three
shots are fired at once, in which case the piece is said to be
_treble-shotted_.

=Double-time.= The fastest time or step in marching, next to the run,
requiring 165 steps, each 33 inches in length, to be taken in one
minute. The degree of swiftness may vary in urgent cases, and the number
of steps be thus increased up to 180 per minute.

=Doubling.= The putting of two ranks of soldiers into one.

=Doublings.= The heraldic term for the linings of robes or mantles, or
of the mantlings of achievements.

=Doullens.= A town of France, 15 miles northeast of Amiens. This place
was taken by the allies in 1814.

=Doune.= A village of Perthshire, Scotland. The ruins of Doune Castle, a
large and massive fortress built about the 14th century, are situated on
the point of a steep and narrow elevation. Doune was held for Prince
Charles in 1745, and here he confined his prisoners taken at Falkirk,
among the rest the author of the tragedy of “Douglas.”

=Douro.= A large river in Spain and Portugal, which was crossed in 1809
by the British army under the Duke of Wellington, when he surprised the
French under Marshal Soult, and won the battle of Oporto.

=Dover= (anc. _Dubris_). A city and seaport of England, in the county of
Kent, on Dover Strait. The city is defended by Dover Castle, which is
built on chalk-cliffs 320 feet high, and is a fortress of great strength
and extent. The castle is said to have been founded by the ancient
Romans. Near here Julius Cæsar is said to have first landed in England,
August 26, 55 B.C., and here King John resigned his kingdom to Pandolf,
the pope’s legate, May 13, 1213.

=Dowletabad.= A celebrated city and fortress of Hindostan, province of
Hyderabad, deemed impregnable by the natives; but notwithstanding its
strength, it has been frequently taken.

=Drabants.= A company of 200 picked men, of which Charles IX. of Sweden
was captain.

=Draft.= A selecting or detaching of soldiers from an army, or any part
of it, or from a military post; also from any company or collection of
persons, or from the people at large for military service.

=Draft.= See DRAUGHT.

=Draft, To.= To draw from a military band or post, or from any company,
collection, society, or from the people at large; to detach; to select.
Written also _draught_.

=Dragon.= An old name for a musketoon.

=Dragon et Dragon Volant= (_Fr._). Some old pieces of artillery were
anciently so called. The Dragon was a 40-pounder; the Dragon Volant a
32-pounder. But neither the name nor the size of the caliber of either
piece is now in use.

=Dragonner= (_Fr._). According to the French acceptation of the term, is
to attack any person in a rude and violent manner; to take anything by
force; to adopt prompt and vigorous means; and to bring those people to
reason by hard blows, who could not be persuaded by fair words.

=Dragoon.= From the old fable that the dragon spouts fire, the head of
the monster was worked upon the muzzle of a peculiar kind of short
muskets which were first carried by the horsemen raised by Marshal
Brissac in 1600. This circumstance led to their being called dragoons;
and from the general adoption of the same weapon, though without the
emblem in question, the term gradually extended itself till it became
almost synonymous with horse-soldier. Dragoons were at one time a kind
of mounted infantry, drilled to perform the services both of horse and
foot. At present, dragoon is simply one among many designations for
cavalry, not very precise in its application. This term is not now used
in the U. S. service.

=Dragoon, To.= Is to persecute by abandoning a place to the rage of the
soldiers.

=Dragoon Guards.= In the British service, seven regiments of heavy
cavalry bear this title.

=Drag-rope.= This is a 4-inch hemp rope, 28 feet long, with a thimble
worked into each end, one of the thimbles carrying a hook. Six handles,
made of oak or ash, are put in between the strands of the rope, and
lashed with a marline. It is used to assist in extricating carriages
from different positions by the men, for dragging pieces, etc.

=Drag-rope Men.= The men attached to light or heavy ordnance, for the
purpose of expediting movements in action. The French _servans à la
prolonge_ are of this description.

=Drain=, or =Drein=. In the military art, is a trench made to draw water
out of a ditch, which is afterwards filled with hurdles and earth, or
with fascines or bundles of rushes, and planks, to facilitate the
passage over the mud.

=Drake.= A small piece of artillery, no longer used.

=Draught.= The act of drawing men from a military band, army, or post,
or from any company or society; draft; detachment; also, formerly, a
sudden attack or drawing upon an enemy.

=Draughted.= The soldiers of any regiment allotted to complete other
regiments are said to be draughted, or drafted.

=Draught-hook.= Either of two large hooks of iron fixed on the cheeks of
a gun-carriage, two on each side, used in drawing the gun backward and
forward.

=Drawbridge.= A bridge of which the whole or part is made to be let
down, or drawn or turned aside, to admit or hinder communication at
pleasure, as before the gate of a town or castle. It is called
_bascule_, _swivel_, or _rolling_ bridge according as it turns on a
hinge vertically, on a pivot horizontally, or is pushed lengthwise on
rollers.

=Drawing.= In a military sense, is the art of representing the
appearances of all kinds of military objects by imitation or copying,
both with and without the assistance of mathematical rules.

=Drawn Battle.= A fight from which the combatants withdraw without
either side claiming the victory.

=Draw off, To.= In a military sense, means to retire; also to abstract
or take away; as, to draw off your forces. To _draw on_ is to advance;
also to occasion; as, to draw on an enemy’s fire. To _draw over_ is to
persuade to revolt; to entice from a party. To _draw out_ is to call the
soldiers forth in array for action. To _draw up_ is to form in battle
array. To _draw out a party_ is to assemble any particular number of
armed men for military duty. The French say, _faire un detachement_.

=Drayton-in-Hales=, or =Market Drayton=. A town of England, in
Shropshire. Here the partisans of the house of York defeated the
Lancastrians in 1459.

=Dresden.= The capital of the kingdom of Saxony, and one of the best
built towns of Europe. Taken by Frederick of Prussia in 1756; by the
Austrians in 1759; bombarded in vain by Frederick, July, 1760. On August
26-27, 1813, the allies were defeated in a terrible battle by the French
under the walls of this city; and about a mile from it is a granite
block, surmounted by a helmet, marking the spot where Moreau fell in the
conflict, while conversing with the emperor Alexander.

=Dress.= A word of command for alignment of troops; also of the
alignment itself.

=Dressers.= See GUIDES.

=Dress, Full.= Dress uniform. The French is _grande tenue_, or _grande
uniforme_.

=Dress Parade.= Parade in full uniform; one of the ceremonies prescribed
in tactics.

=Dress, To.= To cause a company or battalion to take such a position or
order as will preserve an exact continuity of line in the whole front,
or in whatever shape the command is to be formed. Soldiers dress by one
another in ranks, and the body collectively by some given object. To
_dress the line_ is to arrange any given number of soldiers, so as to
stand perfectly correct with regard to the several points of an
alignment that have been taken up.

=Dress Uniform.= The dress prescribed for occasions of ceremony.

=Dreux.= An old town of France, in the department of the Eure and Loire,
on the Blaise. In 1188 this town was burned by the English; and in 1562
the Prince of Condé was taken prisoner in a severe action fought between
the Huguenots and Roman Catholics in its neighborhood.

=Drift.= A tool used in driving down compactly the composition contained
in a rocket, or like firework.

=Drift.= A deviation peculiar to oblong rifle projectiles. See
PROJECTILES.

=Drill.= Is a general name for the exercises through which soldiers and
sailors are passed, to qualify them for their duties. There are many
varieties of drill,--that of the cavalry, infantry, and artillery,--all
have different drills conformable to their different organizations.

=Drill-Sergeant.= A non-commissioned officer, whose office it is to
instruct soldiers as to their duties, and to train them to military
evolutions.

=Drogheda.= A seaport town of Ireland, in the counties of Meath and
Louth, built on both sides of the Boyne. From the 14th to the 17th
century, Drogheda was the chief military station in Ulster. In 1641 the
town was besieged by O’Neal and the northern Irish forces, but was
gallantly defended by Sir Henry Tichbourne, and after a long blockade
relieved by the Marquis of Ormond, who also relieved it a second time
when invested by the Parliamentary army under Col. Jones. In 1649,
Cromwell was twice repulsed in besieging this town; but in the third
attempt he was successful, when most of the garrison were slaughtered.
This place surrendered to William III. the day after the battle of the
Boyne, which was fought in 1690 at Oldbridge, 4 miles west of Drogheda.

=Drum.= A musical instrument of percussion, formed by stretching a piece
of parchment over each end of a cylinder formed of thin wood, or over
the top of a caldron-shaped vessel of brass; the latter is hence called
a kettle-drum. The large drums which are beaten at each end are called
_double drums_, or _bass drums_, and are used chiefly in military bands.
Kettle-drums are always used in pairs; one of which is tuned to the
key-note, the other to the fifth of the key. The drum is principally
used for military purposes, especially for inspiring the soldiers under
the fatigue of march or in battle. It is supposed to be an Eastern
invention, and to have been brought into Europe by the Arabians, or
perhaps the Moors. In the French army the drum is now, to some extent,
abolished.

=Drum.= To execute on a drum, as a tune;--with _out_, to expel with beat
of drum; as, to drum out a deserter, etc.; with _up_, to assemble by
beat of drum; to gather; to collect; as, to drum up recruits, etc.

=Drumclog.= In Western Scotland; here the Covenanters defeated Graham of
Claverhouse, June 1, 1679. An account of the conflict is given by Walter
Scott, in “Old Mortality.”

=Drum-head.= The head or upper part of a drum.

=Drum-head Court-martial.= A court-martial called suddenly by the
commanding officer to try offenses committed on the line of march, and
which demand an immediate example. This method is not resorted to in
time of peace.

=Drum-Major.= Is that person in a regiment of infantry who has command
of the drummers and teaches them their duty. He also directs the
movements of the regimental band, while on parade.

=Drummer.= The soldier who plays a drum. The majority of drummers are
boys, generally the sons of soldiers. In former times it was the part of
a drummer’s duty to flog men sentenced to corporal punishment.

=Drumming Out.= The ceremony of ignominiously discharging a soldier from
the service. The culprit is marched out of the garrison at the point of
the bayonet, the drummers or musicians playing the “Rogue’s March.”

=Drum-stick.= A stick with which a drum is beaten, or shaped for the
purpose of beating a drum.

=Drunk on Duty.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 38.

=Druses.= A warlike people dwelling among the mountains of Lebanon,
derive their origin from a fanatical Mohammedan sect which arose in
Egypt about 996, and fled to Palestine to avoid persecution. They now
retain hardly any of the religion of their ancestors. In 1860, in
consequence of disputes, the Druses attacked their neighbors, the
Maronites, whom they massacred, it was said, without regard to age or
sex. This led to a general massacre of Christians soon after. But the
Turkish troops, with French auxiliaries, interfering on behalf of the
Christians, invaded Lebanon in August and September, when the Druses
surrendered, giving up their chiefs, January, 1861.

=Dry Camp, To Make a.= Troops on the march are said _to make a dry camp_
when they are compelled by exhaustion, or other causes, to camp at a
place where there is no water. For such camps water is usually
transported with the troops.

=Dualin.= See EXPLOSIVES.

=Dubicza=, or =Dubitza=. A town and fort of European Turkey, in Bosnia,
on the Unna. The Austrians took this town in 1738.

=Dublin.= The capital city of Ireland, on the Liffey, close to its
entrance into Dublin Bay. It is alleged that this city has been in
existence since the time of Ptolemy. In the earlier part of the 9th
century, Dublin was taken by the Danes, who infested it for several
centuries thereafter. In 1169 it was taken by storm by the English under
Strongbow. From about this period the history of Dublin is that of
Ireland.

=Ducenarius.= An officer in the Roman armies who commanded two
centuries.

=Dudgeon.= A small dagger (rare).

=Duel.= Was the old form of a combat between two persons, at a time and
place indicated in the challenge, cartel, or defiance borne by one party
to the other. A duel generally takes place in the presence of witnesses,
called seconds, who regulate the mode of fighting, place the weapons in
the hands of the combatants, and enforce compliance with the rules
which they have laid down. In the United States the practice of fighting
duels, being declared illegal by statutes, is very seldom resorted to.

=Dueling.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 26, 27.

=Duffadar.= A rank in the East Indian Native Cavalry, corresponding with
that of sergeant.

=Duffadar, Kot.= A non-commissioned officer in the East Indian Native
Cavalry, corresponding with a troop sergeant-major.

=Duffadar Major.= A rank in the East Indian Native Cavalry,
corresponding with that of regimental sergeant-major.

=Duke.= From the Latin _dux_, a “leader,” a title that first came into
use when Constantine separated the civil and military commands in the
provinces. This title was successively borrowed by the Goths and Franks,
and since the time of the Black Prince, who was created first duke in
England (Duke of Cornwall) in 1335, it has been a title of the nobility,
ranking next below the blood royal.

=Dukigi-Bachi.= Second officer in the Turkish artillery, who commands
the Topelas, or gunners and founders.

=Duledge.= A peg of wood which joins the ends of the felloes, forming
the circle of the wheel of a gun-carriage; and the joint is strengthened
on the outside of the wheel by a strong plate of iron, called the
_duledge plate_.

=Dumdum.= The name of a town and of a valley in India, well known in the
military history of the country; it is 8 miles to the northeast of
Calcutta, having extensive accommodations for troops, and a
cannon-foundry. The place is famous in connection with the mutiny of
1857, as the scene of the first open manifestation on the part of the
Sepoys against the greased cartridges.

=Dumfries.= A royal burgh and parish of Scotland, the capital of
Dumfriesshire, on the Nith. This town was exposed to repeated calamities
from the invasions of the English during the border wars. In this town
John Comyn, the competitor for the Scottish throne, was stabbed by
Robert Bruce in 1305.

=Dünaburg.= A strongly fortified town of Western Russia, on the Düna. It
is of great military importance, owing to the strength of its
fortifications. It was founded by the Knights of the Sword in 1277.

=Dunbar.= A seaport town of Scotland, in Haddingtonshire, at the mouth
of the Frith of Forth. On the high rocks at the entrance to the new
harbor are a few fragments of the ruins of an old castle, which was once
very strong, and an important security against English invasions. Edward
I. took it, and Edward II. fled thither after the battle of Bannockburn;
it was demolished in 1333, and rebuilt in 1336; it was successfully
defended in a siege of six weeks against the Earl of Salisbury by Black
Agnes, countess of Dunbar, in 1338; it sheltered Queen Mary and
Bothwell in 1567; and in the same year it was destroyed by the regent
Murray. In 1650, Cromwell, at the “Race of Dunbar,” defeated the
Scottish army under Leslie.

=Dunblane=, or =Dumblane=. A town and parish of Scotland, in Perthshire,
on the Allan. Not far from this place is Sheriffmuir, where, in 1715, a
battle was fought between the royal troops and the followers of the
Pretender.

=Dungan Hill= (Ireland). Here the English army, commanded by Col. Jones,
signally defeated the Irish, of whom 6000 are said to have been slain,
August 8, 1647.

=Dungeon= (originally _Donjon_, which see). A prison; a dark and
subterraneous cell or place of confinement.

=Dunkirk.= A fortified seaport town in the extreme northern part of
France, in the department of the North. In 1558 the English, who had for
some time held possession of the town, were expelled from it by the
French, who, in the ensuing year, surrendered it to the Spaniards. In
the middle of the 17th century it once more passed into the hands of the
French, who, after a few years’ occupation of it, again restored it to
Spain. In 1658 it was retaken by the French and made over to the
English. It was sold to the French king by Charles II. in 1662. In 1793
it was attacked by the English under the Duke of York, who, however, was
compelled to retire from before its walls with severe loss.

=Dunnottar.= A parish of Scotland, in Kincardineshire. It contains the
castle of Dunnottar, now in ruins. In the time of the civil wars, this
was the fortress in which the Scottish regalia were deposited. After
being besieged by Cromwell’s forces for six months, it capitulated; but,
before this, the regalia were secretly conveyed from it.

=Dunsinane.= In Perthshire, Scotland. On the hill was fought the battle
between Macbeth, the thane of Glammis, and Siward, earl of
Northumberland, July 27, 1054. Macbeth was defeated, and it was said
pursued to Lumphanan in Aberdeenshire, and there slain, 1056 or 1057.

=Durazzo= (anc. _Epidamnus_). A town of Albania, European Turkey. It is
fortified, and is a place of considerable antiquity. Durazzo was founded
about 627 B.C. by a conjoined band of Corcyræans and Corinthians under
one Phaleus, a Heracleidan. It became a great and populous city, but was
much harassed by the internal strifes of party, which ultimately led to
the Peloponnesian war. Under the Romans it was called _Dyrrachium_
(whence its modern name). Here Pompey was for some time beleaguered by
Cæsar. In the 5th century it was besieged by Theodoric, the Ostro-Goth;
in the 10th and 11th centuries by the Bulgarians; and in 1081 it was
captured, after a severe battle, by the Norman, Robert Guiseard of
Apulia.

=Düren.= A town of Prussia, on the Roer. This was a Roman town, and is
mentioned by Tacitus by the name of _Marcodurum_. Charlemagne held two
diets here in 775 and 779, when on his way to attack the Saxons. It was
taken by assault and burned by Charles V., after an obstinate
resistance, in 1543. In 1794 it fell into the hands of the French, but
was ceded to Prussia in 1814.

=Dürkeim.= A town of Rhenish Bavaria, 20 miles north from Landau. The
summit of a height near this town is crowned by a rampart of loose
stones 6 to 10 feet high, 60 to 70 feet wide at the base, and inclosing
a space of about two square miles called the _Heidenmauer_ (“heathens’
wall”), which the Romans are said to have built to keep the barbarians
in check, and where Attila is said to have passed a winter, after having
wrested the fortress from the Romans, when passing on his way to Rome.

=Durrenstein.= A town of Austria, on the Danube. In the neighborhood, on
a rock, are the ruins of the castle in which Richard Cœur de Lion was
imprisoned in 1192. In 1805 the Russian and Austrian armies were
defeated here by the French.

=Duties.= This word is used in military parlance to express the men
paraded for any particular duty, such as guards, etc.

=Duty.= There is no word oftener used in military parlance than this. In
the technical sense it refers to the various services necessary for the
maintenance, discipline, and regulation of armies,--as _signal duty_,
_staff duty_, _the duties of a sentinel_, etc. To be _on duty_ is to be
in the active exercise of military functions; to be _off duty_ is to
have these functions temporarily suspended; to be _put on duty_ is to be
assigned to duty by order of a superior. Military duties are variously
classed as _duties of detail_, which are recurring and governed by a
roster, such as guard, fatigue, etc.; _special duties_ which are
determined by appointment, selection, or order; _extra duty_, continuous
special duty of enlisted men, entitling them to pay; _daily duty_, short
terms of special service for enlisted men. In a higher and broader sense
_duty_ is that which is due one’s country. It covers all the soldier’s
obligations, and forms his simplest and sublimest rule of action.

=Dyer Projectile.= See PROJECTILE.

=Dynamite=, called in the United States “giant powder,” is formed by
mixing nitro-glycerine with certain porous substances, and especially
with certain varieties of silica or alumina, these substances absorbing
the nitro-glycerine. It was invented in 1867 by the Swedish engineer
Nobel, who proposed to prevent the frequent and unexpected explosions of
nitro-glycerine, at the same time without sacrificing any of its power.
This he effected by the use of certain silicious earths as a base for
the absorption of the nitro-glycerine, the experiment resulting in the
new compound which he called dynamite, its transportation and handling
being no more dangerous than that of ordinary gunpowder. It is not
liable to spontaneous explosion like pure nitro-glycerine, nor can it
be exploded by moderate concussion; when unconfined, if set fire to, it
will burn without explosion; it may be safely kept at any moderate
temperature; is inexplosive when frozen, and acts effectively under
water. Its effects are proportional to the quantity of nitro-glycerine
held in absorption; but under circumstances where a sustained bursting
pressure is required, not being as instantaneous in its action as
nitro-glycerine, its effects are more powerful than those of an equal
weight of the pure material. The best absorbent of nitro-glycerine for
the formation of dynamite is a silicious earth found at Oberlohe,
Hanover. During the siege of Paris, a scientific committee of
investigation, engaged in experimenting on different substances as a
substitute for this earth, selected as the best silica, alumina, and
boghead cinders. Any of these, they declared, when combined with
nitro-glycerine, formed a substance which possessed all the remarkable
qualities attributed to the dynamite of Nobel. During the siege of Paris
dynamite was used successfully by the French engineers to free a
flotilla of gunboats caught in the ice on the Seine, below Charenton, by
simply placing a quantity of it on the surface of the ice. The explosion
dislodged the ice for a great distance, and the masses thus loosened,
being directed into the current by the aid of a small steamer, floated
down the stream, and left the river open. There are various other
compounds of nitro-glycerine, such as dualin, glyoxiline, etc., all
differing in the matter used as a base, they being generally some
explosive substances; but none of them appears to have come into such
general use or to be as reliable as dynamite. Many preparations of
chlorate and picrate of potassium have also been used from time to time
as explosive agents; but their great sensibility to friction or
percussion renders them extremely dangerous; they are, therefore, not
liable to come into general use. A preparation of potassium chlorate and
sulphur, not liable to explode by concussion, but very sensitive to
friction, is used with great effect as a charge for explosive bullets.

=Dynamometer.= An instrument for measuring the force of recoil in a
small-arm, consisting usually of a spiral spring so arranged as to be
compressed by the butt of the gun in firing. An index shows the number
of pounds required to produce a similar compression. The instruments now
used by the U. S. Ordnance Department are graduated to show the effect
of the recoil in _foot-pounds_ or _units of work_. This sensible change
was made at the suggestion of Lieut. Henry Metcalfe of that department.



E.


=Eagle.= In heraldry, is used as an emblem of magnanimity and fortitude.
In the Roman armies the eagle was used as a military standard, and even
previous to that time the Persians under Cyrus the Younger used the same
military emblem. In modern times, France, Russia, Prussia, Austria, and
the United States have adopted the eagle as a national military symbol.
The Austrian eagle is represented as double-headed.

=Eagle, Black.= A Prussian order of knighthood, founded in 1701; united
with the order of the Red Eagle, or order of Sincerity, instituted by
the margraves of Bayreuth.

=Earl Marshal.= Of England, is one of the officers of state; is the head
of the college of arms, which has jurisdiction in descents and
pedigrees; determines all rival claims to arms; and he grants
armorial-bearings, through the medium of the kings-of-arms, to parties
not possessed of hereditary arms.

=Early Cannon.= See ORDNANCE, HISTORY OF.

=Earth-bag.= See BAGS.

=Earth-house=, or =Eird-house=. The name generally given throughout
Ireland and Scotland to the underground buildings (which in some places
are called also “Picts’ houses”) which served to hide a few
people and their goods in time of war. The earth-house is a single
irregularly-shaped chamber, from 4 to 10 feet in width, from 20 to 60
feet in length, and from 4 to 7 feet in height, built of unhewn and
uncemented stones roofed by unhewn flags, and entered from near the top
by a rude doorway, so low and narrow that only one man can slide down
through it at a time. Implements of various kinds have been found in
them,--such as bronze swords, gold rings, etc.

=Earthworks.= In fortification, is a general name for all military
constructions, whether for attack or defense, in which the material
employed is chiefly earth.

=East Indian Army.= In 1861 the British Secretary of State for India
brought forward a measure for reorganizing the Indian army, which has
been passed into a law. The British portion of the Indian army is to
form part of the queen’s army generally, with certain honorary
distinctions, and is to take its turn at home and in the colonies like
the rest; but the expenses are to be paid out of Indian, not Imperial
revenues. The native portion is to be wholly in India; in its
reconstruction many improvements are made to lessen the chances of
future revolt.

=Ebersberg=, or =Ebelsberg=. A town of Upper Austria, on the Traun, 8
miles northwest from Ens, remarkable for being the scene of the defeat
of the Austrians by the French in 1809.

=Eboulement= (_Fr._). The crumbling or falling of the walls of a
fortification.

=Ebro.= A river in Spain, the scene of a signal defeat of the Spaniards
by the French under Lannes, near Tudela, November 23, 1808; and also of
several important movements of the allied British and Spanish armies
during the Peninsular war (1809-13).

=Eccentric.= A device applied to the truck wheels of top carriages and
beds of mortars in sea-coast artillery to give either rolling or sliding
friction at will. The wheels turn on axle-arms which project
eccentrically from the ends of an axle passing through both cheeks; when
the axle is turned the axle-arms carry the wheels up or down; when at
the lowest point the weight of the carriage is borne by the wheels, and
the system moves on rolling friction; the wheels are then said to be _in
gear_; when _out of gear_, or at their highest points, the wheels do not
touch the rails or platform plates, but the cheeks rest on them, and the
carriage moves upon sliding friction. A similar device is attached to
the chassis near the pintle to enable it to be readily traversed when
_in gear_, and give it stability when _out of gear_.

=Eccentric Projectiles.= A spherical projectile in which the centre of
inertia does not coincide with the centre of figure. Such projectiles
are subject to great deviations, which can be predicted as to direction
by knowing the position of the centre of inertia of the shot in the bore
of the gun. (See PROJECTILES, DEVIATION OF.) The side of the ball upon
which the centre of inertia lies can be found by floating it in a bath
of mercury, and marking the highest point where it comes to a state of
rest; the centre of inertia lies nearest the opposite side; its exact
position is determined by a kind of balance called the _eccentrometer_;
the ball is placed in the balance with the marked point nearest the
fulcrum; the distance of the centre of inertia or gravity from the
fulcrum is obtained by dividing the product of the counterbalancing
weight and its distance from the fulcrum by the weight of the
projectile.

=Echarge, Feu=, or =Feu d’Echarge=. Is employed to signify that a column
of troops is struck at a very oblique angle.

=Echaugette.= In military history, signifies a watch-tower, or kind of
sentry-box.

=Echelon.= A military term applied to a certain arrangement of troops
when several divisions are drawn up in parallel lines, each to the right
or the left of the one preceding it, like “steps,” or the rounds of a
ladder, so that no two are on the same alignment. Each division by
marching directly forward can form a line with that which is in advance
of it. There are two sorts of echelon, _direct_ and _oblique_, the
former of which is used in an attack or retreat.

=Eckmühl=, or =Eggmühl=. A small village of Bavaria, on the Great Laber.
This place is celebrated for the important victory gained by the French
over the Austrians on April 22, 1809, and which obtained for Davoust the
title of Prince of Eckmühl.

=Eclaireurs= (_Fr._). A corps of grenadiers raised by Bonaparte in
France, who from their celerity of movements were compared to lightning.

=Eclopes= (_Fr._). A military term to express those soldiers who, though
invalids, are well enough to follow the army. Among these may be classed
dragoons or horsemen whose horses become lame and cannot keep up with
the troop or squadron. They always march in the rear of a column.

=Ecole Polytechnique.= A celebrated military school in Paris,
established in 1794, chiefly for the artillery service. The examinations
for the schools are public to all France. It not only furnishes officers
of artillery, but also civil and military engineers of every
description. The pupils of this school defended Paris in 1814 and 1830.

=Economy.= In a military sense, implies the minutiæ or interior
regulations of a regiment, troop, or company. Hence regimental economy.

=Ecorcheurs= (_Flayers_). A name given to bands of armed adventurers who
desolated France and Belgium during the 15th century, beginning about
1435, and they at one time numbered 100,000. They are said to have
stripped their victims to their shirts, and flayed the cattle. They were
favored by the English invasion and the civil wars.

=Ecoutes.= Small galleries made at equal distances in front of the
glacis of the fortifications of a place. They serve to annoy the enemy’s
miners, and to interrupt them in their work.

=Ecreter= (_Fr._). To batter or fire at the top of a wall, redoubt,
epaulement, etc., so as to dislodge or drive away the men that may be
stationed behind it, in order to render the approach more easy. _Ecreter
les pointes des palissades_ is to blunt the sharp ends of the palisades.
This ought always to be done before you attack the covert way, which is
generally fenced by them.

=Ecu= (_Fr._). A large shield which was used by the ancients, and
carried on their left arm, to ward off the blows of sword or sabre. This
instrument of defense was originally invented by the Samnites. The Moors
had _ecus_, or shields, sufficiently large to cover the whole of their
bodies. The _clipei_ of the Romans only differed from the _ecu_ in
shape; the former being entirely round, and the latter oval.

=Ecuador=, or =Equator=. A South American republic, founded in 1831,
when the Colombian republic was divided into three; the other two being
Venezuela and New Granada. Gen. Franco was here defeated in battle by
Gen. Flores, August, 1860. Several insurrections have taken place in
Ecuador since 1860.

=Edessa=, or =Callinhoe=. An ancient city of Mesopotamia. In 1144 the
Edessenes were defeated by the Saracen chief Nur-ed-deen, and all who
were not massacred were sold as slaves. After many vicissitudes, it fell
successively into the hands of the sultans of Egypt, the Byzantines, the
Mongols, Turkomans, and Persians; the city was finally conquered by the
Turks, and has ever since formed a portion of the Turkish dominion. Its
modern name is Oorfa.

=Edge.= The thin or cutting part of a sword or sabre.

=Edgehill.= An elevated ridge in Warwickshire, England, 7 miles
northeast from Banbury. Here was fought, on Sunday, October 23, 1642,
the first great battle of the civil war, between the royalist forces
under Charles I. and the Parliamentarians under the Earl of Essex.
Prince Rupert, who led the right wing, charged with his cavalry the left
wing of the Parliamentarians, broke it, and pursued it madly to Keinton.
Essex with his force defeated the right wing of the royalists.

=Edinburgh.= The metropolis of Scotland, situated about 1¹⁄₂ miles from
the Firth of Forth. It was taken by the Anglo-Saxons in 482; retaken by
the Picts in 695; city fortified and castle rebuilt, 1074; besieged by
Donald Bane, 1093. The city was taken by the English in 1296;
surrendered to Edward III. in 1356. It was burnt by Richard II., 1385,
and by Henry IV., 1401. A British force landed from a fleet of 200
ships, in 1544, and burned Edinburgh. The castle surrendered to Cromwell
in 1650. The young Pretender occupied Holyrood September 17, 1745, and
the battle of Preston Pans took place September 21, 1745.

=Effective.= Fit for service; as, an army of 30,000 effective (fighting)
men.

=Efficient.= A thoroughly trained and capable soldier. It is also a term
used in connection with the volunteers. A volunteer is said to be
efficient when he has performed the appointed number of drills and fired
the regular number of rounds at the target, in the course of the year.

=Egham.= A village in the northwest of Surrey, 18 miles west of London.
In the vicinity is Runnymede, a meadow on the Thames, where King John
conferred with his barons before signing the Magna Charta in 1215.

=Egypt.= A country in Northeast Africa. On the division of the Roman
empire (395 A.D.) Egypt became a part of the dominions of Arcadius,
ruler of the Eastern empire. But, owing to religious feuds of the
Jacobites and Melchites, it became a province of Persia (616) for twelve
years. In 640 the governor, Makaukas, endeavored to make himself
independent, and invited the arms of the Arabs, and Amrou easily
conquered Egypt. Although Alexandria was retaken by Constantine III.,
the Arabs drove him out and maintained their conquest, and Egypt
remained an appendage of the caliphate. It afterwards passed into the
dynasty of the Turks, and was administered by pashas. Constant
rebellions of the Mamelukes, and the violence of contending factions,
distracted the country for more than two centuries. The most remarkable
event of this period was the French invasion by Bonaparte in 1798,
which, by the conquest of Alexandria and the battle of the Pyramids
against the Mamelukes, led to the entire subjection of the country, from
which the French were finally expelled by the Turks and British in 1801,
and the country restored to the Ottoman Porte. The rise of Mohammed Ali
in 1806 imparted a galvanic prosperity to Egypt by the destruction of
the Mamelukes, the formation of a regular army, and the introduction of
European civilization. He considerably extended its boundaries, even
into Asia; but in 1840 he was dispossessed of his Asiatic conquests. The
treaty of London, however, in 1841, confirmed the viceroyalty of Egypt
as a fief of the Ottoman empire to him and his descendants.

=Ehrenbreitstein.= A town and fortress of Rhenish Prussia, situated on
the right bank of the Rhine, directly opposite Coblentz, with which it
is connected by a bridge of boats. The fortress of Ehrenbreitstein
occupies the summit of a precipitous rock 490 feet high, and has been
called the Gibraltar of the Rhine, on account of its great natural
strength and its superior works. It is capable of accommodating a
garrison of 14,000 men, and provisions for 8000 men for ten years can be
stowed in its vast magazines. Ehrenbreitstein was besieged in vain by
the French in 1688, but fell into their hands in 1799, after a siege of
fourteen months. Two years after, the French, on leaving, at the peace
of Lunéville, blew up the works. It was assigned, however, to Prussia by
the Congress of Vienna in 1814, and under that country was restored and
thoroughly fortified. It is now one of the strongest forts in Europe.

=Eighty-ton Gun.= A large Woolwich gun designed as an armament for the
“Inflexible.” Its construction was authorized in March, 1874, and the
gun was ready for proof in October, 1875. When first made it weighed 81
tons, having a caliber of 14¹⁄₂ inches. It was bored during the progress
of the experiments to 16 inches, and was given an enlarged chamber. The
experiments were conducted by the celebrated “Committee on Explosion.”
See ORDNANCE, RECENT HISTORY OF.

=Eilau-Preussisch.= A town of Prussia, government of Königsberg. It is
chiefly celebrated for the victory gained there by the French over the
united Prussian and Russian armies, February 8, 1807.

=Einsiedeln.= A small town of Switzerland, in the canton of Schwytz. It
contains a fine abbey, which was rifled by the French in 1798.

=Ejector.= The device used in breech-loading small-arms to throw out the
metallic cartridge-case after it is fired.

=Ejector Spring.= The spring which operates an ejector.

=El Arish.= A village of Lower Egypt on the Mediterranean, on the route
from Egypt to Syria. It is but little more than a fort and a few houses,
and was taken by the French in 1799; and here the French general Kleber
signed, in 1800, a convention with Sir Sydney Smith, engaging to leave
Egypt with his troops.

=Elath=, or =Eloth=. A seaport situated at the head of that gulf of the
Red Sea, to which it gave its name. It was a fortified port in the time
of Solomon; revolted against Joram; was retaken by Azariah; and was
eventually conquered by Rezui, and held by the Syrians till it became a
Roman frontier town. Under the Mohammedan rule it rose for a while to
some importance, but has now sunk into insignificance.

=Elba.= An island belonging to the kingdom of Italy, in the
Mediterranean Sea, between Corsica and the coast of Tuscany, from the
latter of which it is separated by a channel 5 miles in breadth. Elba
has been rendered famous in history from having been Napoleon’s place of
exile from May, 1814, till February, 1815.

=El Boden.= A mountain-range, near Ciudad Rodrigo, in Spain, where the
British troops distinguished themselves against an overwhelming French
force in 1811.

=Elbow-gauntlet.= An ancient piece of armor, a gauntlet of plate
reaching to the elbow, adopted from the Asiatics in the 16th century.

=Elbow-piece.= An ancient piece of armor, a metal plate used to cover
the junction of the rere-brace and rant-brace, by which the upper and
lower half of the arm were covered.

=Elchingen.= A village of Bavaria, on the Danube, 7 miles northeast from
Ulm. Here the Austrians were defeated by the French in 1805. For this
victory Marshal Ney received the title of Duke of Elchingen.

=Electric light.= An intense light produced by passing an electric
current between points of carbon forming electrodes of the circuit.
There are many forms of the apparatus. It will be extensively used in
future wars for lighting harbor channels, approaches to forts, etc.

=Elements.= In a military sense, signify the first principles of
tactics, fortification, and gunnery.

=Elephant.= See PACK AND DRAUGHT ANIMALS.

=Elevate, To.= Is to raise the muzzle of the cannon or rifle so that the
latter shall be directed at a point above that which it is intended
shall be struck.

=Elevating Arc.= In gunnery, is an arc attached to the base of the
breech parallel to the ratchets and graduated into degrees and parts of
a degree. A pointer attached to the _fulcrum_ points to the zero of the
scale when the axis of the piece is horizontal. Elevations and
depressions are indicated by the scale. Besides the graduations on the
arc, the ranges (in yards) and charges for shot and shell are given.

=Elevating Bar.= An iron bar used in elevating guns or mortars having
ratchets at the breech.

=Elevating Screw.= The screw by means of which the breech of a cannon is
raised, the result being to depress the muzzle.

=Elevating Sight.= See SIGHT, ELEVATING.

=Elevation.= In gunnery, is one of the elements of pointing, being the
movement of the axis of a piece in a vertical plane as distinguished
from _direction_ or its movement horizontally. The elevation is usually
positive,--that is, the gun is pointed above the horizontal. When it is
pointed below, it is said to be depressed. The word is also used to
express degree, or as a synonym for _angle of elevation_. The sights or
elevating apparatus of guns are graduated on the theory that the object
is in the horizontal plane of the piece, or that the line of sight is
horizontal, which is not always the case in practice. When the elevation
is determined by sights the angle of elevation is the angle between the
line of sight and the axis of the piece, when these lines are in the
same vertical plane,--or the angle between the line of sight and a plane
containing the axis of the piece and a horizontal line intersecting it
at right angles, when they are not. The graduations of tangent scales
and fixed breech-sights give this angle in degrees. The graduation of
the pendulum hausse gives the angle correctly only when the line of
sight is horizontal. When the elevation is given by elevating arcs or
gunner’s quadrant, the angle of elevation becomes the angle of fire, or
the angle which the axis of the piece makes with the horizontal.
Elevation is necessary to overcome the effect of gravity on the
projectile. The degree of elevation increases with the range. _In vacuo_
the elevation corresponding to the maximum range is 45°. In the air the
angle of maximum range diminishes with the velocity and increases with
diameter and density of the ball. It is greater in mortars than in
howitzers, and greater in howitzers than in guns. In mortars it
approximates to 42°; in guns it is about 37°.

=Ellisburgh.= A village of Jefferson Co., N. Y. In 1814 an engagement
took place here between the Americans and British, in which the latter
were defeated.

=Elmina.= A fortified town and seaport of West Africa, founded by the
Portuguese in 1481; was the first European settlement planted on the
coast of Guinea. It was taken by the Dutch in 1637, and was ceded by
them to Portugal. It was burned by the British troops in 1873.

=Elsass= (Fr. _Alsace_). One of the old German provinces, having the
Rhine on the east and the Vosges Mountains on the west. It was ceded to
France in 1648; but after the Franco-German war was annexed by Prussia,
under treaty of May 10, 1871.

=Elswick Compressor.= An arrangement for compressing friction plates
used in the English navy to take up the recoil of gun-carriages upon
their slides. The 7 friction plates arranged longitudinally under the
carriage and attached to its lower part, have alternating between them 6
long flat bars attached at their ends to the slide by bolts passing
through them, but allowing them a side motion. The plates and bars are
tightly clamped by short rocking levers, the lower ends of which act on
the outside plates. The levers are worked by collars on a threaded
shaft, which catch their upper ends. The shaft is called the compressor
shaft, and has a handle or crank on the outside of each cheek or
bracket,--one is called the _adjusting lever_, the other the _compressor
lever_. The first is used to give an initial compression to suit the
charge, the other is operated by the recoil being forced down by a
tripper on the slide. Two forms of the compressor are used,--one for the
_single plate_, the other for the _double-plate carriage_. In the
double-plate carriage the adjusting lever can be set to any degree of
compression without causing any motion in the compressor shaft or lever.

=Elswick Gun.= Armstrong gun (which see).

=Elvas.= A strong frontier town of Portugal, in the province of
Alemtejo, situated on a rocky hill, 10 miles northwest from Badajos. It
is one of the most important strongholds in Europe. The arsenal and
bomb-proof barracks are capable of containing 6000 or 7000 men. In 1808
it was taken and held for five months by the French.

=Emaum Ghaur.= In Scinde, was a strong fortress in the Thur or Great
Sandy Desert, separating that province from the rajpoot state of
Jessulmere. It was captured by Sir Charles Napier in January, 1843.

=Embark.= To put or cause to go on board a vessel or boat; as, to embark
troops. To go on board of a ship, boat, or vessel; as, the troops
embarked for Egypt.

=Embarkation.= The act of putting or going on board of a vessel.

=Embaterion.= A war-song of the Spartans, accompanied by flutes, which
they sung marching in time, and rushing on the enemy. The origin of the
embaterion is lost in antiquity.

=Embattle.= To arrange in order of battle; to draw up in array, as
troops for battle; also, to prepare or arm for battle.

=Embattle.= To furnish with battlements. “_Embattled_” house.

=Embattlement.= An indented parapet; battlement.

=Embezzlement.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 60.

=Emblazonry.= See BLAZONRY.

=Emblee= (_Fr._). A prompt, sudden, and vigorous attack, which is made
against the covert way and outworks of a fortified place.

=Embody.= To form or collect into a body or united mass; as, to embody
troops.

=Embrasseur= (_Fr._). A piece of iron, which grasps the trunnions of a
piece of ordnance, when it is raised upon the boring machine, to widen
its caliber.

=Embrasure.= In fortification, is an opening in the parapet, or a hole
in the mask wall of a casemate through which the guns are pointed. The
_sole_ or bottom of the embrasure is from 2¹⁄₂ to 4 feet (according to
the size of the gun) above the platform upon which the gun stands.
Parapet embrasures are smallest at the interior opening, which is called
the mouth, and is from 1¹⁄₂ to 2 feet wide. The widening of the
embrasure is what is called the _splay_. The sole slopes downward about
one in six. Its exterior line, or its intersection with the exterior
slope, is usually made half the length of the sole. The line which
bisects the sole is called the _directrix_. The sides are called cheeks.
The masses of earth between embrasures are called _merlons_. When the
directrix makes an angle with the direction of the parapet, the
embrasure is _oblique_. The embrasures of casemates have in horizontal
section a shape something like an hour-glass. The nearest part is called
the throat. This is sometimes closed with iron shutters.

=Embrocher.= A vulgar term used among French soldiers to signify the act
of running a man through the body; literally to _spit him_.

=Emery.= A powder made by grinding a mineral,--corundum,--used by
soldiers for cleaning their arms.

=Eminence.= A high or rising ground, which overlooks and commands the
low places about it. Such places, within cannon-shot of any fortified
place, are a great disadvantage, if the besiegers become masters of
them.

=Emir=, or =Emeer=. An Arabic word, equivalent to “ruler,” is a title
given to all independent chieftains, and also to all the actual or
supposed descendants of Mohammed through his daughter Fatima. In former
times, the title of Emir was borne by the leaders in the religious wars
of the Mohammedans, and by several ruling families.

=Emissary.= A person sent by any power that is at war with another, for
the purpose of creating disaffection among the people of the latter.

=Emousser= (_Fr._). To blunt, to dull. In a military sense, it signifies
to take off the four corners of a battalion, which has formed a square,
and to give it, by those means, an octagon figure; from the different
obtuse angles of which it may fire in all directions.

=Emperor= (_Imperator_). Among the ancient Romans, signified the
general of an army, who, for some extraordinary success, had been
complimented with this appellation. Subsequently it came to denominate
an absolute monarch or supreme commander of an empire. In Europe, the
first who bore the title was Charlemagne.

=Empilement= (_Fr._). From _empiler_, to pile up. The act of disposing
shot and shell in the most secure and convenient manner. This generally
occurs in arsenals and citadels.

=Emprise.= A hazardous attempt upon the enemy.

=Encamp.= To form and occupy a camp; to halt on a march, spread tents,
and remain for a night or for a longer time; as, an army or company.

=Encampment.= The pitching of a camp. The act of pitching huts or tents,
as by an army, for temporary lodging, or rest; the place where an army
or company is encamped. There are _intrenched_ camps, where an army is
intended to be kept some time, protected against the enemy; _flying_
camps, for brief occupation; camps of _position_, bearing relation to
the strategy of the commander; and camps of _instruction_, to habituate
the troops to the duties and fatigues of war.

=Enceinte.= In fortification, denotes generally the whole area of a
fortified place. Properly, however, it means a cincture or girdle, and
in this sense the _enceinte_ signifies the principal wall or rampart
encircling the place, comprising the curtain and bastions, and having
the main ditch immediately outside it.

=Encircle.= To pass around, as in a circle; to go or come round; as, the
army encircled the city.


=Encombrer= (_Fr._). In fortification, to fill up any hollow place, such
as a stagnant lake, etc., with rubbish.

=Encompass.= To describe a circle about; to go around; to encircle; to
inclose; to environ; as, an army encompasses a city; a ship’s voyage
encompasses the world.

=Encounter.= A meeting with hostile purpose; hence, a combat; a battle.

=Encounter.= To come against face to face; to engage in conflict with;
to oppose; as, two armies encounter each other.

=Encounters.= In military affairs, are combats or fights between two
persons only. Figuratively, battles or attacks by small or large armies.

=Encroachments.= The advancement of the troops of one nation on the
rights or limits of another.

=Enemy.= In military language, the opposing force; as, “We have met the
enemy, and they are ours.”

=Enfans Perdus.= Forlorn hope, in military history, are soldiers
detached from several regiments, or otherwise appointed to give the
first onset in battle, or in an attack upon the counterscarp, or the
breach of a place besieged; so called (by the French) because of the
imminent danger to which they are exposed.

=Enfield Rifle-musket.= The service arm of Great Britain prior to the
adoption of breech-loaders; manufactured at Enfield, England, at the
royal small-arms factories. It was first extensively introduced in 1853,
and was used during the Crimean war. It had three grooves, with a twist
of about one turn in 6 feet. Before the adoption of the Martini-Henry,
large numbers of those guns were utilized by converting them into
breech-loaders on the Snider principle. The Enfield rifles, though very
serviceable weapons, much better than the Belgian and Austrian arms
imported to the United States during the civil war, were in almost every
respect inferior to the old Springfield (U. S.) rifle-musket, nearly of
the same caliber (.58), the Enfield being .577. All those weapons have
now given place to various breech-loading arms.

=Enfilade.= Is to fire in the direction of the length of a line of
parapet or troops; to “rake it,” as the sailors say. In the siege of a
fortress, the trenches of approach are cut in a zigzag, to prevent the
defenders enfilading them from the walls.

=Enfilading Batteries.= In siege operations are one of the classes of
batteries employed, the other classes being _counter_ and _breaching_
batteries. Enfilading batteries are located on the prolongation of the
faces and flanks of the works besieged, to secure a raking fire along
the terre-pleins.

=Engage.= To gain for service; to enlist.

=Engage.= To enter into conflict; to join battle; as, the armies engaged
in a general battle.

=Engagement.= A general action or battle, whether by land or sea.

=Engarrison.= To protect any place by a garrison.

=Engen.= In Baden; here Moreau defeated the Austrians, May 3, 1800.

=Enghien=, or =Steenkirk=. In Southwestern Belgium. Here the British
under William III. were defeated by the French under Marshal Luxemburg,
July 24, 1692.

=Engineer, Military.= An officer in the service of a government, whose
duties are principally to construct fortifications, to make surveys for
warlike purposes, to facilitate the passage of an army by the
construction of roads and bridges; in short, to execute all engineering
works of a military nature. He is also called upon to undertake many
works which more properly belong to the business of a civil engineer,
such as the survey of the country, the inspection of public works, and,
in short, all the duties of a government engineer.

=Engineering.= The business of the engineer; the art of designing and
superintending the execution of railways, bridges, canals, harbors,
docks, the defense of fortresses, etc.

=Engineer Corps.= In modern nations, the necessity for a corps of
staff-officers, trained to arrange for and overcome the embarrassments
of the movements of an army in the field, has been thoroughly
demonstrated, and hence, in European armies, a trained staff of officers
is organized for this purpose. In the United States a force of about 300
officers and enlisted men are engaged in these duties. See SAPPERS AND
MINERS.

=Engineers, Topographical.= See TOPOGRAPHICAL ENGINEERS.

=England.= The southern and larger division of the island of Great
Britain, and the principal member of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
and Ireland. It was so named, it is said, by Egbert, first king of the
English, in a general council held at Winchester, 829. It was united
with Wales, 1283; with Scotland in 1603; and Ireland was incorporated
with them, January 1, 1801. For previous history, see BRITAIN; and for
further details of battles, etc., see separate articles.

=Enlargement.= The act of going or being allowed to go beyond the
prescribed limits; as the extending the boundaries of an arrest, when
the officer is said to be enlarged, or under arrest at large.

=Enlargement.= Enlargements of the bore and vent are injuries suffered
by all cannon that are much used. The term is technically applied to
certain injuries to brass cannon. See INJURIES TO CANNON.

=Enlistment.= The voluntary enrollment of men in the military or naval
service.

=Enniscorthy.= A town of Ireland, in the county of Wexford, on the river
Slaney. It arose in the Norman castle, still entire, founded by Raymond
le Gros, one of the early Anglo-Norman invaders. Cromwell took this
place in 1649; and the Irish rebels stormed and burned it in 1798.

=Enniskillen.= A town of Ireland, in the county of Fermanagh. This place
is famous for the victory, in 1689, won by the troops of William III.,
under Lord Hamilton, over a superior force of James II., under Lord
Gilmoy. The banners taken in the battle of the Boyne hang in the
town-hall of Enniskillen.

=Enniskillen Dragoons.= A British regiment of horse; it was first
instituted from the brave defenders of Enniskillen, in 1689.

=Enrank.= To place in ranks or in order.

=Enroll.= To place a man’s name on the roll or nominal list of a body of
soldiers.

=Ensconce.= To cover as with a fort.

=Enseigne= (_Fr._). The colors. The French designate all warlike symbols
under the term _enseigne_; but they again distinguish that word by the
appellations of _drapeaux_, colors, and _etendards_, standards.
_Drapeaux_ or colors are particularly characteristic of the infantry;
_etendards_ or standards belong to the cavalry.

=Ensemble.= Together; the exact execution of the same movements,
performed in the same manner, and by the same motions. It is the union
of all the men who compose a battalion, or several battalions or
companies of infantry and cavalry, who are to act as if put in motion by
the same spring.

=Enshield.= To cover from the enemy.

=Ensiform.= Having the shape of a sword.

=Ensign-bearer.= One who carries a flag; an ensign.

=Ensigncy.= The rank or office of an ensign.

=Ensisheim.= In Eastern France; here Turenne defeated the imperial army,
and expelled it from Alsace, October 4, 1674.

=Entanglement.= Abatis, so called, when made by cutting only partly
through the trunks, and pulling the upper parts to the ground, where
they are picketed.

=Entanglement, Wire.= Formed by twisting wire round stout stakes or
trees 7 feet apart. The wires are placed about a foot or 18 inches above
the ground. The trees-pickets or trees are in two or three rows,
arranged checkerwise, the wires crossing diagonally.

=Enter, To.= To engage in; to enlist in; as, to enter an army.

=Enterprise.= An undertaking attended with some hazard and danger.

=Enterpriser.= An officer who undertakes or engages in any important and
hazardous design.

=Entire=, or =Rank Entire=. A line of men in one continued row by the
side of each other. When behind each other, they are said to be in file.

=Entonnoir= (_Fr._). The cavity or hole which remains after the
explosion of a mine. It likewise meant the tin case or port-feu which is
used to convey the priming powder into the vent of a cannon.

=Entrench, To.= Is to construct hastily thrown-up field-works for the
purpose of strengthening a force in position. See INTRENCH.

=Entrepôts.= Magazines and places appropriated in garrison towns for the
reception of stores, etc.

=Envelope.= In fortification, a work of earth, sometimes in the form of
a single parapet, and at others like a small rampart; it is raised
sometimes in the ditch, and sometimes beyond it. Envelopes are
occasionally _en zigzag_, to inclose a weak ground, where that is
practicable, with single lines. Envelopes, in a ditch, are sometimes
called sillons, contregardes, conserves, lunettes, etc.

=Environ, To.= To surround in a hostile manner; to hem in; to besiege.

=Enzersdorf.= A fortified town of Austria, 8 miles east from Vienna.

=Epaule.= In fortification, denotes the shoulder of a bastion, or the
place where its face and flank meet and form the angle, called the angle
of the shoulder.

=Epaulement= (Fr. _epaule_). In siege works, is a portion of a battery
or earthwork. The siege batteries are generally shielded at one end at
least by epaulements, forming an obtuse angle with the main line of the
battery. The name is often given erroneously to the parapet of the
battery itself, but it applies properly to the flanking return only.
Sometimes the whole of a small or secondary earthwork, including the
battery and its flanks, is called an epaulement; and sometimes the same
name is given to an isolated breastwork intended to shield the cavalry
employed in defending a body of besiegers.

=Epaulette.= A shoulder-knot worn by commissioned officers of the army
and navy, as a mark of distinction. The insignia of their rank are
usually marked on officers’ epaulettes.

=Epauletted.= Furnished with epaulettes.

=Ephebi.= In Grecian antiquity, the name given to the Attic youth from
the age of 18, till they entered upon their 20th year. During this
period they served a sort of apprenticeship in arms, and were frequently
sent, under the name of _peripoli_, to some of the frontier towns of
Attica to keep watch against foreign invasion.

=Epibatæ.= In Grecian antiquity, the name given to soldiers whose duty
it was to fight on board ship. They corresponded almost exactly to the
marines of modern naval warfare. The term is sometimes found in Roman
authors to denote the same class of soldiers, but the general phrase
adopted by them is _milites classiarii_, or _socii navales_.

=Epignare= (_Fr._). A small piece of ordnance which does not exceed one
pound in caliber.

=Epigoni.= A term which signifies “heirs” or “descendants.” It was
applied to the sons of the seven chiefs who conducted an expedition
against Thebes to restore Polynices, and who were all killed except
Adrastus. Ten years later the Epigoni--namely, Alcmæon, Thersander,
Diomedes, Ægialeus, Promachus, Sthenelus, and Euryalus--renewed the
enterprise and took Thebes. The war of the Epigoni was celebrated by
several ancient epic and dramatic poets.

=Epinglette= (_Fr._). An iron needle with which the cartridge of any
large piece of ordnance is pierced before it is primed.

=Epinikian.= Pertaining to, or celebrating, victory; as an epinikian
ode.

=Epirus.= A celebrated country of ancient Greece, lying between the
Ionian Sea and the chain of Pindus.

=E Pluribus Unum.= “One out of many.” A motto adopted by the United
States since their declaration of independence, in 1776.

=Epouvante= (_Fr._). A sudden panic with which troops are seized, and
under which they retreat without any actual necessity for so doing.

=Eprouvette= (_Fr._). A small mortar to prove the strength of gunpowder.
There are different sorts of eprouvettes, according to the fancy of
different nations who use them. Some raise a weight, and others throw a
shot, to certain heights and distances. As a test of gunpowder the
eprouvette is comparatively worthless, and it has been generally
superseded by instruments for measuring the initial velocity obtained by
firing the powder in the particular gun for which it is intended. A
short mortar is, however, still used, to a certain extent, for testing
the power of modern blasting powders, such as the mixtures of
nitro-glycerine. A very small charge and a heavy shot of chilled iron
which enters two or three inches only into the mortar are used. The
square roots of the ranges (other things being equal) give the relative
powers of the different powders, nearly.

=Equalize.= To render the distribution of any number of men equal as to
the component parts. To _equalize a battalion_, to tell off a certain
number of companies in such a manner that the several component parts
shall consist of the same number of men.

=Equation of Time.= See TIME, MEAN SOLAR TIME.

=Equerry.= Any person who is appointed to attend the sovereign, or
prince of the royal blood, upon out-door excursions, and who has the
care and management of their horses.

=Eques Auratus.= A heraldic term for a knight.

=Equestrian.= A man who rides on horseback; a horseman; a rider.

=Equestrian Order.= Among the Romans, signified their knights or
equites; as, also, their troopers or horsemen in the field.

=Equip, To.= To furnish an individual, a corps, or an army with
everything that is requisite for military service, such as arms,
accoutrements, uniforms, etc.

=Equipage.= In military matters, is the name given to the necessaries of
the soldier. The equipment of a private is often used as a name for the
whole of his clothes, arms, and accoutrements, collectively. The
equipage of the camp is of two kinds, _camp_ and _field_ equipage.

=Equipments, Cannoneers’.= Include the _hausse pouch_, _cartridge
pouches_, _primer pouches_, and _thumb-stall_, used in the field
service. The equipments for a field-piece are the _tampion_ and _strap_,
_vent cover_ and _tarpaulin_. Other things used in service of cannon are
called _implements_, which see.

=Equipments, Horse.= In the mounted service, comprise the _bridle_,
_halter_, _watering bridle_, _saddle_, _saddle-bags_, _saddle blanket_,
_nose-bag_, _lariat_, _curry-comb_, _brush_, etc.

=Equipments, Infantry.= Comprise the personal outfit of the soldier,
excluding arms proper and clothing. A set of equipments is called a
_kit_ (which see). The standard equipments for infantry include the
_knapsack_, _belts_, and _plates_, _cartridge-box_, _bayonet-scabbard_,
_haversack_, and _canteen_. The knapsack, haversack, and canteen are
only used in marching. In the United States there is a strong tendency
towards discarding the knapsack; a roll made of the blanket, piece of
shelter-tent, or overcoat, being frequently used instead. A clothing-bag
is also sometimes used to take its place. The best manner of arranging
and slinging the various articles carried, for the comfort and health of
the soldier, is still an open question. In future wars it is probable
that an intrenching tool will be added to the soldier’s equipment. The
equipments for a cavalry soldier in the United States are very much the
same as for infantry.

=Equipments, Signal.= The _flags_, _staffs_, _flying torches_, _fort
torches_, _flame shades_, _haversacks_, _telescopes_, etc., used in
signaling. A set of equipments for one man is called a _signal kit_.

=Equites.= An order of equestrian knights introduced among the Romans by
Romulus.

=Eretria.= One of the most celebrated of ancient cities, and, next to
Chalcis, one of the most powerful in Eubœa. After the Peloponnesian war,
the city was governed by tyrants.

=Erfurt.= A town of Prussian Saxony, on the river Gera; it was founded
in 476. Erfurt was ceded to Prussia in 1802. It capitulated to Murat,
when 14,000 troops surrendered, October 16, 1806. In this city Napoleon
and Alexander met, and offered peace to England, September 27, 1808. The
French retreated from Leipsic to Erfurt, October 18, 1813. This place
was restored to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna.

=Ericius.= In Roman antiquity, a military engine, so named from its
resemblance to a hedge-hog. It was a kind of chevaux-de-frise, placed as
a defense at the gate of the camp.

=Erie, Fort.= A strong fortification in Upper Canada, on the northern
shore of Lake Erie. Here the British were defeated by the Americans,
August 15, 1814.

=Erlau.= A fortified town of Hungary, the old castle of which was
frequently besieged during the Turkish wars, both by Moslem and
Christian.

=Eryx.= A city and mountain in the west of Sicily, 6 miles from Drepana,
and a short distance from the sea-shore. The possession of the town of
Eryx was contested by the Syracusans and Carthaginians. A great battle
was fought off the town between the fleets of the two nations, in which
the Syracusans were victorious. The town subsequently changed hands more
than once, but it seems to have owned the Carthaginian supremacy at the
time of the expedition of Pyrrhus, 278 B.C. Though taken by that
monarch, it once more fell into the hands of its original conquerors,
who retained it till the close of the first Punic war.

=Erzroom=, =Erzroum=, or =Erzrum=. A fortified town of Armenia (Asiatic
Turkey), on the river Kara-Soo, a branch of the Euphrates. Its position
renders it an important military post. In 1210 it was taken by the
Seljooks, who are said to have destroyed here 100 churches; taken by the
Ottoman Turks in 1517. It was taken by the Russians in 1829, but was
restored to Turkey in the following year.

=Escadron= (_Fr._). Squadron. Froissart was the first French writer who
made use of the word escadron to signify a troop of horse drawn out in
order of battle. The term escadron is more ancient than the word
battalion.

=Escalade.= From the Latin _scala_, a ladder. In siege operations, a
mode of gaining admission within the enemy’s works. It consists in
advancing over the glacis and the covert way, descending, if necessary,
into the ditch by means of ladders, and ascending to the parapet of the
curtain and bastions, and are either procured on the spot, or are sent
out with the siege army. The leaders constitute a forlorn hope.

=Escale= (_Fr._). A machine used to ply the petard.

=Escape of Gas.= See GAS-CHECK and BREECH MECHANISM.

=Escarp.= In fortification, the surface of the ditch next the rampart,
the surface next the enemy being termed the counterscarp. Called also
scarp.

=Escarp Galleries.= Galleries constructed in the escarp for the purpose
of flanking the ditch caponnière.

=Escarpment.= Ground cut away nearly vertically about a position, in
order to render it inaccessible to the enemy.

=Escort.= A body of troops attending an individual as a guard. The term
is also applied to a guard placed over prisoners on a march, to prevent
their escape, and to the guard of a convoy of stores.

=Escort, Funeral.= See FUNERAL ESCORT.

=Escort of Honor.= A body of troops attending a personage of rank by way
of military compliment.

=Escort of the Color.= The military ceremony of sending for and
receiving the colors of a battalion.

=Escouade= (_Fr._). In the old French service generally meant the third
part of a company of foot or a detachment. Companies were divided in
this manner for the purpose of more conveniently keeping the tour of
duty among the men. We have corrupted the term, and called it squad.

=Escuage.= An ancient feudal tenure by which the tenant was bound to
follow his lord to war or to defend his castle.

=Espadon.= In old military works, a kind of two-handed sword, having two
edges, of a great length and breadth; formerly used by the Spanish.

=Espauliere= (_Fr._). A defense for the shoulder, composed of flexible,
overlapping plates of metal, used in the 15th century; the origin of the
modern _epaulette_.

=Espiere.= A town of Belgium, 8 miles from Courtrai, where the allied
Austrian and English army defeated the French, May 22, 1794.

=Espingard=, or =Epingare= (_Fr._). An ancient name for a small gun
under a 1-pounder. They were used as early as the 14th century.

=Espingole=, or =Spingole= (_Fr._). A blunderbuss; a kind of blunderbuss
which, in early times, was loaded with several balls; the charges were
separated from each other by tampions in which a hole was made, and thus
the balls were fired in succession.

=Espinosa de la Monteros.= A town of Spain, on the Trueba, 50 miles
from Burgos. The French defeated the Spaniards here in 1808.

=Esplanade.= In fortification, is the open space intentionally left
between the houses of a city and the glacis of its citadel, so that the
enemy may not be able to erect breaching batteries under cover of the
houses. In old works on fortification, the term is often applied to the
glacis of the counterscarp, or the slope of the parapet of the covered
way towards the country.

=Espontoon= (_Fr._). A sort of half pike, about 3 feet in length, used
in the 17th century. The colonels of corps as well as the captains of
companies always used them in action. This weapon was also used by
officers in the British army.

=Espringal.= In the ancient art of war, a machine for throwing large
darts, generally called muchettæ.

=Esprit de Corps= (_Fr._). This term is generally used among all
military men in Europe. It may not improperly be defined a laudable
spirit of ambition which produces a peculiar attachment to any
particular corps, company, or service. Officers without descending to
mean and pitiful sensations of selfish envy, under the influence of a
true _esprit de corps_ rise into an emulous thirst after military glory.
The good are excited to peculiar feats of valor by the sentiments it
engenders, and the bad are deterred from ever hazarding a disgraceful
action by a secret consciousness of the duties it prescribes.

=Esquimaux.= The tribes inhabiting Greenland and Arctic America. Those
inhabiting the continent are found in sparse settlements from Behring
Strait to Labrador. They are generally peaceable. Some of these in
Greenland have been civilized by the influence of the Danes.

=Esquire.= In chivalry, was the shield-bearer or armor-bearer to the
knight. He was a candidate for the honor of knighthood, and thus stood
to the knight in the relation of a novice or apprentice. When fully
equipped each knight was attended by two esquires.

=Essedarii.= In Roman antiquity, gladiators who fought in a heavy kind
of chariot called _esseda_ or _essedum_. The _esseda_ (which derived its
name from the Celtic word _ess_, signifying a carriage) was a ponderous
kind of chariot much used in war by the Gauls, the Belgæ, and the
Britons. It differed from the currus in being open before instead of
behind; and in this way the owner was enabled to run along the pole,
from the extremity of which, or even from the top of the yoke, he
discharged his missiles with surprising dexterity.

=Essek=, or =Eszek=. A town and fortress of the Austrian empire, in
Sclavonia, on the Drave. It contains an arsenal, barracks, and other
military buildings. There were several battles fought here between the
Turks and Germans. It was finally taken from the Turks in 1687, since
which time it has continued in the hands of the house of Austria.

=Essling.= A village of Lower Austria, on the left bank of the Danube, 6
miles east of Vienna. Between this village and that of Aspern the French
were repulsed by the Austrians in a severe engagement in 1809. See
ASPERN.

=Establish.= A technical phrase to express the quartering of any
considerable body of troops in a country. Thus it is common to say, the
army took up a position in the neighborhood of ----, and established the
headquarters at ----.

=Establishment.= The quota of officers and men in an army, regiment,
troop, or company.

=Establishment, Peace.= Is the reduced condition of an army suited to a
time of peace.

=Establishment, War.= Is the augmentation of regiments to a certain
number, by which the whole army of a country is considerably increased,
to meet war exigencies.

=Estacade= (_Fr._). A dike constructed of piles in the sea, a river, or
a morass, to check the approach of an enemy.

=Estafette= (_Fr._). A military courier, sent express from one part of
an army to another.

=Esthonia=, or =Revel=. A Russian province, said to have been conquered
by the Teutonic knights in the 12th century; after various changes it
was ceded to Sweden by the treaty of Oliva in 1660, and finally to
Russia by the peace of Nystadt in 1721, having been conquered by Peter
in 1710.

=Estimates.= Army estimates are the computation of expenses to be
incurred in the support of an army for a given time.

=Estimating Distances.= See POINTING.

=Estoc= (_Ital._). A small dagger worn at the girdle, called in
Elizabethan times a _tucke_.

=Estoile.= See ETOILES.

=Estradiots=, or =Stradiots=. Grecian and Albanian horsemen, some of
whom were employed in the Italian wars by Charles VIII.; their favorite
weapon was the zagaye; besides this they had a broadsword, and club
slung on the bow of the saddle, with sleeves and gauntlets of mail.

=Estramacon= (_Fr._). A sort of two-edged sword formerly used. A blow
with the edge of a sword.

=Etat Major= (_Fr._). The staff of an army, including all officers above
the rank of colonel; also, all adjutants, inspectors, quartermasters,
commissaries, engineers, ordnance officers, paymasters, physicians,
signal-officers, judge-advocates; also, the non-commissioned assistants
of the above officers.

=Etoiles= (_Fr._). Small redoubts which are constructed by means of
angles rentrant and angles sortant, and have from 5 to 8 salient points.
This species of fortification has fallen into disuse, and are superseded
by square redoubts, which are sooner built and are applicable to the
same purpose of defense.

=Etoupille= (_Fr._). An inflammable match, composed of three threads of
very fine cotton, which is well steeped in brandy mixed with the best
priming gunpowder.

=Etruria=, or =Tuscia= (hence the modern name _Tuscany_). A province of
Italy, whence the Romans, in a great measure, derived their laws,
customs, and superstitions. The subjugation of this country forms an
important part of early Roman history. A truce between the Romans and
Etrurians for forty years was concluded in 351 B.C. The latter and their
allies were defeated at the Vadimonian Lake, 310 B.C.; with the Boii
their allies, 823 B.C., and totally lost their independence about 265
B.C.

=Eubœa.= The largest island in the Ægean Sea. Two of its cities, Chalcis
and Eretria, were very important, till the former was subdued by Athens,
506 B.C., and the latter by the Persians, 490. After the Persian war
Eubœa became wholly subject to Athens. It revolted in 445, but was soon
subdued by Pericles. After the battle of Chæronea, 338, it became
subject to Macedon. It was made independent by the Romans in 194, but
was afterwards incorporated in the province of Achaia. It now forms part
of the kingdom of Greece.

=Eupatoria=, or =Koslov=. A town of Russia, on the west coast of the
Crimea. In September, 1854, the allied English and French armies landed
near here, and the town soon after was occupied by a small detachment.
The Turks subsequently occupied it, and in 1855 it was attacked by the
Russians, who, however, were repulsed by the Turks, and the Anglo-French
ships of war, lying in the neighboring roadstead.

=Eureka Projectile.= See PROJECTILE.

=Europe.= The least extensive, but most civilized of the five great
divisions of the globe. It is bounded by the sea in all directions,
except the east, where it is separated from Asia by a boundary-line,
formed by the river Kara, the Ural Mountains and River, and the Caspian
Sea. For military and naval events which occurred in Europe, see
separate articles.

=Eurymedon= (now _Kapri-Su_). A small river in Pamphylia, celebrated for
the victory which Cimon gained over the Persians on its banks, 469 B.C.

=Eustace, St.= In Lower Canada; the rebels were defeated here, December
14, 1837, and compelled to surrender their arms. Their chiefs fled.

=Eustatius, St.= A West India island, which was settled by the Dutch in
1632; taken by the French in 1689; by the English in 1690; again by the
British forces under Rodney and Vaughan, February 3, 1781. It was
recovered by the French, November 26, same year. It was again captured
by the British in 1801 and 1810, and restored to the Dutch in 1814.

=Eutaw Springs.= A small affluent of the Santee River, in South
Carolina. On its banks was fought, September 8, 1781, the battle of
this name. Gen. Greene, determining to dispossess the British of their
remaining posts, with about 2000 men attacked their forces under Col.
Stuart. The British were routed and fled; but finding in their flight
some objects affording shelter, rallied and repulsed their assailants,
and Gen. Greene finding it impossible to dislodge them, retreated to his
camp with 500 prisoners. The British loss was about 1000; the American
about 600.

=Euxine Sea.= See BLACK SEA.

=Evacuate.= To withdraw from a town or fortress, in consequence either
of a treaty or a capitulation, or of superior orders.

=Evagination.= An unsheathing or drawing out of a sheath or scabbard.

=Evesham.= A borough and market town of England, in Worcestershire, on
the Avon. Near this place a battle was fought between Prince Edward, son
of Henry III., and Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, August 4, 1265.

=Evidence.= Is that which makes clear, demonstrates, or ascertains the
truth of the very fact or point in issue. Hearsay evidence, the
declaration of what one has heard from others. This species of evidence
is not admissible in courts-martial.

=Evocati.= Were a class of soldiers among the Romans, who, after having
served their full time in the army, entered as volunteers to accompany
some favorite general. Hence they were likewise called _emereti_ and
_beneficiarii_.

=Evocation.= A religious ceremony which was observed among the Romans at
the commencement of a siege, wherein they solemnly called upon the gods
and goddesses of the place to forsake it and come over to them. When any
place surrendered they always took it for granted that their prayer had
been heard.

=Evolutions.= Are the movements of troops in order to change position.
The object may be to maintain or sustain a post, to occupy a new post,
to improve an attack, or to improve a defense. All such movements as
marching, countermarching, changing front, forming line, facing,
wheeling, making column or line, defiling, deploying, etc., come under
the general heading of evolutions.

=Evreux= (anc. _Mediolanum_). A city of France, capital of the
department of Eure. It has sustained several sieges, and was burned by
Henry I. of England in 1119.

=Examination, Boards of.= See BOARDS OF EXAMINATION.

=Exarchs.= Were appointed by the Byzantine emperors of the East, to
govern Central Italy after its conquest by Belisarius and Narses, 548.
They ruled from 568 to 752, when Eutychus, the last, was overcome by
Astolphus the Lombard.

=Exauctoratio.= In the Roman military discipline, differed from the
_missio_, which was a full discharge, and took place after soldiers had
served in the army twenty years; whereas the exauctoratio was only a
partial discharge; they lost their pay, indeed, but still kept under
their colors or vexilla, though not under the aquila or eagle, which was
the standard of the legion; whence instead of _legionarii_, they were
called _subsignani_, and were retained till they had either served their
full time, or had lands assigned them. The exauctoratio took place after
they had served seventeen years.

=Excavation.= The art of cutting or otherwise making hollows in the
earth; also the cavity formed.

=Exchange.= The act of two officers changing regiments, battalions, or
batteries. The mutual giving up of an equal number of prisoners by
hostile states or armies. In this sort of exchange an officer, according
to his rank, is reckoned as equal to a certain number of men or of
officers of a lower grade than his own.

=Excubiæ.= In ancient warfare, the watches and guards kept in the day by
the Roman soldiers. They differed from the _vigiliæ_, which were kept in
the night.

=Execution, Military.= Is the pillaging or plundering of a country by
the enemy’s army. Military execution also means every kind of punishment
inflicted in the army by the sentence of a court-martial; which is of
various kinds, including putting a soldier to death by shooting him,
which is the ordinary punishment of deserters to the enemy, mutineers,
etc. This form of death is considered less disgraceful than hanging by
the neck.

=Exempt.= Not subject, not liable to. Men of certain age are exempt from
serving in the militia. An aide-de-camp and brigade-major are exempt
from all regimental duties while serving in those capacities. Officers
on courts-martial are sometimes exempt from all other duties until the
court is dissolved.

=Exercise.= The practice of all those motions and actions, together with
the whole management of arms, which are essential to the perfection of a
soldier, and the rendering him fit for service.

=Exercise, Artillery.= Is the method of teaching the regiments of
artillery the use and practice of all the various machines of war
belonging to that particular arm of the service.

=Exon.= In England, an officer of the Yeomen of the Royal Guard; an
exempt.

=Exostre= (_Fr._). Bridge of the _Helepole_ or movable tower of the
ancients, by which they passed upon a wall during a siege.

=Expanding System of Projectiles.= See PROJECTILES, RIFLE.

=Expedient.= A stratagem in warfare.

=Expedition.= Is an enterprise taken by sea or by land against an enemy,
the fortunate termination of which depends on the rapidity and
unexpected nature of its movements. It is usually intrusted to a
commander of acknowledged talents and experience.

=Expense Magazines.= Are small powder-magazines containing ammunition,
etc., made up for present use. There is usually one in each bastion.

=Experiments.= The trials or applications of any kind of military
machines in order to ascertain their practical qualities and uses.

=Expiration of Service.= The termination of a soldier’s contract of
enlistment.

=Explode.= To burst with a loud report; to detonate, as gunpowder, or a
shell filled with powder or the like material.

=Explosion.= The sudden enlargement of the volume of a body by its
conversion into gas or vapor. (See EXPLOSIVES.) The explosion of powder
may be divided into three distinct parts, viz.: ignition, inflammation,
and combustion, all of which see under their proper headings.

=Explosives.= Substances the elements of which under certain conditions
suddenly undergo a chemical rearrangement into gases, giving rise to
great pressures on surrounding bodies. Modern writers recognize two
different kinds of explosions,--_explosions of the 1st order_, or
_detonations_, and _explosions of the 2d order_, or _rapid combustions_.
Detonating explosions are practically instantaneous. The explosion is
supposed to be propagated by a vibration throughout the mass. Ordinary
explosions are propagated by inflammation. _Gunpowder_, which may be
taken as a type of explosives of the 2d order, burns at a certain rate,
depending upon the density. When a charge is fired the inflammation
spreads from the point of ignition to all parts of the charge,--each
grain is successively enveloped and burned from surface to centre. The
_velocity of inflammation_ is the greater in proportion to the degree of
confinement from the increased tension of the gases. The _velocity of
combustion_ is the rate at which the solid grains are burned. It is
measured by the distance passed over by the burning surface (the line
being taken perpendicular to the surface) in the unit of time. Time thus
enters into the explosion of gunpowder and gives it its peculiar value
as a ballistic agent.

In the _detonating explosives_, the case is very different. These bodies
may be supposed to be made up of molecules containing so many atoms of
carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, etc., so placed as to be held in a state of
equilibrium by their mutual attractions and repulsions, but this
equilibrium is unstable; that is to say, each atom has only a very small
arc of vibration in which the molecule is stable. If by any cause an
atom is forced beyond this limit the equilibrium of the whole mass is
destroyed, and the elements instantly rearrange themselves under the
influence of the chemical affinities which obtain under the particular
conditions of the explosion. This kind of explosion is brought about in
various ways,--by percussion, concussion, heat, etc.,--some bodies being
susceptible to one mode of firing more than another. The theory which
offers the best explanation of the various phenomena is that the
molecular balance is peculiarly susceptible to overturn by certain
vibrations. The vibrations given out by the explosion of the fulminates
seem to have the widest range in bringing about the detonation of
different substances. For this reason the fulminate of mercury is the
universal _detonating agent_. Its own susceptibility to explosion by
heat, percussion, and the electric spark especially fits it for this
work. Wet gun-cotton requires in addition to the fulminate a “primer” of
dry gun-cotton.

=Explosives, Composition of.= _Ordinary explosives_ of which gunpowder
is the type are _mechanical mixtures_ of two essential ingredients,--one
a combustible, the other an oxidizing agent. The combustible is usually
carbon,--sometimes associated with hydrogen. It may be sulphur or any
substance having a great affinity for oxygen. Organic substances
containing carbon and hydrogen are frequently used. In the chemical
reaction the carbon is oxidized to carbonic acid and the hydrogen to
water with the evolution of great heat.

The oxidizing substances ordinarily used are the nitrates and chlorates.
Mixtures containing nitrates are the most stable, since the nitrate is
comparatively slow to give up its oxygen. The chlorate mixtures are
sensitive to friction and percussion, and explode with great quickness.
Many of them are unsafe to handle. A new mode of preparing chlorate
mixtures has been suggested which avoids this danger. A _combustible
liquid_ is used, being absorbed in cakes or lumps of potassium or other
chlorate.

_Detonating explosives_ are _chemical compounds_. Among them are
_chloride_ and _iodide of nitrogen_. Both are dangerous, violent
explosives of which no practical use has been made.

The _fulminates_ are salts of fulminic acid. The _fulminate of mercury_
is the one in common use. See FULMINATES.

The _nitro-substitution_ compounds form a large class, comprising the
most important of the higher explosives. They are all formed by the
action of nitric acid on organic substances containing oxygen, carbon,
and hydrogen. This action is to replace hydrogen (H) in the organic
substance by hyponitric acid (NO₂) (in the acid), equivalent for
equivalent. Sulphuric acid is generally mixed with the nitric, though it
plays no direct part in the reaction, being used to absorb the water
formed and prevent the dilution of the nitric acid.

_Nitro-glycerine_, the most powerful explosive in common use, is formed
by the action of the acids on glycerine. See NITRO-GLYCERINE.

_Nitro-starch_ and _nitro-mannite_ are analogous substances, formed by
the action of the acids on starch and sugar.

_Gun-cotton_ is produced by the action of the acids on cotton-wool--a
form of cellulose. See GUN-COTTON.

There are varieties of all these compounds produced, by the
substitution of different numbers of equivalents of hyponitric acid, but
the names are specially given to the most highly nitrated forms.

_Picric acid_, the salts of which form the well-known _picrates_, is
made by the action of the acids on carbolic acid.

To heighten the effect of the lower forms of nitro-substitution
compounds they are usually mixed with an oxidizing agent, such as
_nitrate_ or _chlorate_, which supplies the deficient oxygen. This is
exemplified in Schultz’s wood powder (which see), and Reeve’s gun felt.

The picrates are similarly treated. Ammonium picrate mixed with nitre
forms Abel’s _picric_ powder (Burgess’s powder). This has been used as a
bursting charge for shells.

Mixtures of two high explosives have also been used, as in glyoxiline,
invented by Prof. Abel, which is gun-cotton saturated with
nitro-glycerine.

Explosive effect depends upon three elements,--1st, the volume of the
gases produced taken at a standard temperature; 2d, the heat evolved in
the chemical reaction; 3d, the time consumed in the development of the
gases. Explosive effect is directly proportional to the first two of
these elements, and inversely proportional to the third. According to
Bertholet, nitro-glycerine gives out twice as much heat and three and a
half times as much gas as an equal weight of gunpowder, but this gives
no idea of their relative explosive effects, as the element of time in
the detonating explosives is so short that it cannot be calculated. So
nearly is this element absent that we may consider these explosions as
almost perfect Impulsive Forces. To secure _ballistic effect_ requires
the gradual application of force. When motion is imparted to a body the
inertia developed is inversely proportional to the time consumed in
imparting it. This resistance to motion becomes enormously great when
the detonating explosives are used. For this reason their ballistic
effect is small. The force which should give the projectile motion is
expended in producing molecular changes in both projectile and gun. The
same quality, however, fits them especially for blasting and torpedoes,
where shattering effect is desirable.

=Express Rifle.= A modern sporting rifle of great killing power, used in
hunting large or dangerous animals. They were first introduced in
England, and have become celebrated in the hands of African travelers
and explorers. The principle consists in using large charges of powder
and a light bullet, which gives a very high initial velocity and a
trajectory practically a right line for 150 or 200 yards, hence the term
“Express.” To increase the killing power of the bullet it is made of
pure lead and has a hollow point. Upon striking game the bullet spreads
outwardly, giving a fearful death-wound. Moreover, for specially ugly
game a small explosive cartridge can be dropped into the cavity in the
point, making it an explosive bullet. (See BULLETS, EXPRESS.) In England
a caliber as large as .57 is used for some Express rifles. In the United
States a caliber of .45 or .50 is considered sufficient.

=Expugn.= To conquer; to take by assault.

=Expugnable.= Capable of being expugned, forced or conquered.

=Expugnation.= The act of taking by assault; conquest.

=Expugner.= One who expugns or conquers.

=Extend.= A term peculiarly applicable to light infantry movements, when
the files are frequently loosened, and the front of the line extended
for the purpose of skirmishing. When the divisions of a column are made
to occupy a greater space of ground, they are said to extend their
front.

=Exterior Crest.= The crest of the exterior slope of a parapet.

=Exterior Form of Cannon.= See ORDNANCE, EXTERIOR FORM.

=Exterior Side.= In fortification, is the side of the polygon, upon
which a front of fortification is formed.

=Exterior Slope.= In fortification, is the slope given to the outside of
a parapet. It is found by experience that earth of common quality will
naturally acquire a slope of 45°, even when battered by cannon. This
inclination is therefore given to the slope.

=External Injuries to Cannon.= See INJURIES TO CANNON.

=Extortion.= Under the modern laws of war, honorable men no longer
permit the use of any violence against prisoners in order to extort
information or to punish them for having given false information.

=Extrados= (_Fr._). The exterior surface of a regular arch, used in the
construction of powder-magazines.

=Extraordinaries of the Army.= In the English service, the allowances to
troops beyond the gross pay in the pay office, come under this head.
Such are the expenses for barracks, marches, encampments, staff, etc.

=Extraordinarii.= In the ancient Roman army, a select body of men
consisting of the third part of the foreign cavalry and a fifth of the
infantry. These were carefully separated from the other forces borrowed
from the confederate states, in order to prevent any treacherous
coalition between them. From among the extraordinarii a more choice body
of men were drawn, under the name of _ablecti_. See ABLECTI.

=Eylau=, or =Eilau=. Usually called Prussian Eylau, a town in the
government of Königsberg, celebrated for the battle fought here between
Napoleon and the allies--Russians and Prussians--under Bennigsen,
February 8, 1807. The French force amounted to about 80,000, and the
allies numbered 58,000, but were superior in artillery. The French
claimed the victory, chiefly because the allied forces, unable to
recruit their strength, were ordered to retreat from the field on the
night of the battle, and to retire upon Königsberg. The loss of the
allies is estimated at about 20,000, while that of the French must have
been considerably greater.



F.


=Face.= A term of varied application. In fortification, it is an
appellation given to several parts of a fortress, as the _face of the
bastion_, which is the two sides, reaching from the flanks to the
salient angles. The _prolonged or extended face_ is that part of the
line of defense which is terminated by the curtain and the angle of the
shoulder. Strictly taken, it is the line of defense _rayant_, diminished
by the face of the bastion.

=Face.= In tactics, is the turning of a soldier on his heels as a “right
face”; also the word of command for the movement. _To face_ is to turn
on the heels.

=Face of a Piece.= In gunnery, is the terminating plane perpendicular to
the axis of the bore.

=Face of a Place.= In fortification, is the front comprehended between
the flanked angles of two neighboring bastions, composed of a curtain,
two flanks, and two faces; and is sometimes called the _tenaille of the
place_.

=Faces of a Square.= The sides of a battalion when formed in square.

=Fachon.= An Anglo-Norman term for a sword or falchion.

=Facing.= A covering, a plating.

=Facings.= The movements of soldiers by turning on their heels to the
right, left, right-about, left-about, etc. _To put one through one’s
facings_, is to examine into his elementary knowledge, to test his
pretensions.

=Facings.= Are also the cuffs and collars of a military coat, and are
generally of a different color from that of the coat.

=Faction.= In ancient history, one of the troops or bodies of combatants
in the games of the circus, especially of the horse-races.

=Faction.= A term applied in an ill sense to any party in a state that
offers uncompromising opposition to the measures of the government, or
that endeavors to excite public discontent upon unreasonable grounds.

=Faction= (_Fr._). The duty done by a private soldier when he patrols,
goes the round, etc., but most especially when he does duty as a
sentinel. The French usually say, _entrer en faction_, to come upon
duty; _etre en faction_, to be upon duty; _sortir de faction_, to come
off duty.

=Factionnaire= (_Fr._). _Soldat factionnaire_, a soldier that does every
species of detail duty. The term _factionnaire_ was likewise applicable
to the duty done by officers in the old French service.

=Faenza= (anc. _Faventia_). A town in Central Italy, 19 miles southwest
of Ravenna. Faventia is noted in history as the place where Carbo and
Norbanus were defeated with great loss by Metillus, the general of
Sulla, in 82 B.C.

=Fæsulæ.= See FIESOLE.

=Fag-end.= Is the end of any rope. This term is also applied to the end
of a rope when it has become untwisted. _To fag out_, to wear out the
end of a rope or a piece of canvas.

=Fagnano.= A village of Italy, 12 miles from Verona. In 1799 a battle
was fought here between the Austrians and French.

=Fagots.= See FASCINES.

=Fagots.= In military history, were men hired to muster by officers
whose companies were not complete; by which means they cheated the
public of the men’s pay, and deprived the country of its regular
establishment.

=Failure.= An unsuccessful attempt; as, the failure of an expedition.

=Faint.= To lose courage or spirit; to become depressed or despondent.

=Faint-hearted.= Wanting in courage; depressed by fear, easily
discouraged or frightened; cowardly, timorous.

=Fairfax=, or =Culpeper Court-house=. A village, the capital of Culpeper
Co., Va., on the Orange and Alexandria Railroad. This place was an
important strategic point during the civil war (1861-65).

=Fairfield.= A village of Fairfield Co., Conn., situated on Long Island
Sound. It was settled in 1659; it was burned in 1779 by order of Gov.
Tryon.

=Fair Haven.= A village of Bristol Co., Mass., on Buzzard’s Bay. The
town was attacked by the British on September 7, 1788, but they were
repulsed without loss.

=Fair Oaks.= A locality in Henrico Co., Va., on the Richmond and York
River Railroad, about 7 miles east of Richmond. Here a severe battle
took place between the Federals under Gen. McClellan and the Confederate
army under Gen. Johnston, May 31-June 1, 1862, in which the latter were
defeated, although the former obtained no decisive results from their
success. The Union loss was estimated at 5500; the Confederate was
somewhat greater.

=Fakir.= A word derived from the Arabic _fakhar_, and designating a
member of an order of mendicants or penitents, chiefly in India and the
neighboring countries. They live either separately as hermits or
solitary mendicants, or unite in large gangs, carrying arms and a
banner, beating drums, and sounding horns, whenever they approach a town
or village.

=Falarique= (_Fr._) Falarica; combustible darts or arrows of various
thicknesses, generally about 3 feet long; close behind the head was
lodged the combustible matter by which shipping, etc., was set on fire;
it was projected from a bow or catapult.

=Falcair= (_Fr._). A soldier who was armed with a falcarius or short
crooked sword.

=Falchion.= A curved sword, or small cimeter.

=Falcon.= An ancient form of cannon, 7 feet in length, carrying a ball
of 4 pounds in weight.

=Falconet.= A small cannon anciently used, a little exceeding 6 feet in
length, and carrying a ball of 2 pounds in weight.

=Falczi, Peace of.= Concluded between Russia and Turkey, July 2, 1711,
the Russians giving up Azof and all their possessions on the Black Sea
to the Turks. The Russians were saved from imminent destruction by the
address of Catharine, the empress. In 1712 the war was renewed, and
terminated by the peace of Constantinople, April 16, 1712.

=Falerii.= A city of ancient Etruria, which was situated west of the
Tiber. The inhabitants, who were called Falisci, joined with those of
Veii in assisting the Fidenates against the Romans, and were among the
most dangerous enemies of Rome. In 241 B.C. the city was destroyed, and
a Roman colony was settled in the time of the triumvirs.

=Falkirk.= A town of Scotland, in Stirlingshire. Sir William Wallace was
defeated in a battle near Falkirk by Edward I., and here, also, the
royal army was defeated by the adherents of the house of Stuart in 1746.

=Falkoping.= A town of Sweden, near which, in 1338, Margaret, queen of
Denmark, defeated Albert, king of Sweden, and took him prisoner.

=Fall.= The surrender or capture of a place after it has been besieged.

=Fall.= The rope rove through blocks, used with gins and shears for
raising weights, and with the crab for moving them.

=Fall.= The descent of a body by the attraction of the earth.

=Fall Foul, To.= To attack; to make an assault.

=Fall In.= A word of command for men to form in ranks, as in parade,
line, or division, etc.

=Falling Bodies, Laws of.= When a body falls freely _in vacuo_ it is
actuated by a force which may be taken as constant, consequently its
velocity will be uniformly accelerated. The constant increment to the
velocity in one second is called the _acceleration_, and is a measure
of the force. (See FORCE OF GRAVITY.) The velocity acquired at the end
of a certain time will be found by multiplying the force of gravity by
the number of seconds. The laws of falling bodies are given by the
following equations:

  _v_ = _gt_

  _v_ = √(2_gh_)

        _v_²
  _h_ = -----
        2_g_

In which _v_ is the velocity acquired, _h_ the height fallen through,
_g_ the force of gravity, and _t_ the time in seconds. These laws are
approximately true for dense or heavy bodies falling for a few seconds
in the atmosphere. For longer periods, _v_ is less than that due to _h_
under the above laws. For full discussion, see FINAL VELOCITY.

=Falling Branch.= That part of the trajectory of a projectile in which
it approaches the earth.

=Fall Out, To.= To quit the rank or file in which you were first posted.
Dirty soldiers on a parade are frequently ordered to fall out, and
remain in the rear of their companies. The phrase is applicable in a
variety of other instances.

=Fall Upon, To.= To attack abruptly.

=Falots= (_Fr._). Small lanterns fixed upon the end of a stick or pole.
Small lamps likewise used, attached in the same manner, for the purpose
of carrying them readily about to light a camp, or besieged towns, as
occasion may require.

=False Alarm.= An alarm or apprehension which is either designedly or
unintentionally created by noise, report, or signals, without being
dangerous.

=False Attack.= An approach which is made as a feint for the purpose of
diverting an enemy from the real object of attack.

=False Fires.= Lights or fires employed for the purpose of deceiving an
enemy. When an army is about to retire from a position during the night
false fires are lighted in different parts of the encampment to impose
upon the enemy’s vigilance.

=False Lights.= In debarkations under cover of the night, may likewise
be used as signals of deception, when it is found expedient to attract
the attention of the invaded country towards one part of the coast or
territory, whilst a real attack is meditated against another.

=False Muster.= An incorrect statement of the number of effective
soldiers and horses. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 14.

=False Return.= A willful report of the actual state of a brigade,
regiment, troop, or company, by which the commander-in-chief of the war
department is deceived as to the effective force of such regiment or
company. See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 8.

=Famagosta=, or =Famagusta=. A seaport town of the island of Cyprus, on
the east coast, built on the ruins of the ancient Arsinoe. In 1571
Famagosta was taken by the Turks, and the town was almost entirely
destroyed by an earthquake in 1735.

=Fanfare=. The French name of a short and lively military air or call,
executed on brass instruments.

=Fang, To.= To pour water into a pump in order to fetch it, when
otherwise the boxes do not hold the water left on them.

=Fanion= (_Fr._). A small flag which was sometimes carried at the head
of the baggage of a brigade. It was made of serge, and resembled in
color the uniform livery of the brigadier, or of the commandant of any
particular corps.

=Fantassin= (_Fr._). A foot-soldier. This term is derived from the
Italian _fante_, a _boy_, the light troops in the 14th and 15th
centuries being formed of boys who followed the armies and were formed
into corps with light arms, hence the origin of the word _infantry_.

=Fantee=, or =Fanti=. A maritime country of Guinea, inhabited by a tribe
of the same name, who are now under English protection.

=Farcy.= A horse disease of the absorbents, affecting the skin and its
blood-vessels; is of the nature of mange, and allied to glanders.

=Farrier.= In a general acceptation of the term, any person who shoes
horses, or professes to cure their diseases. In a practical military
sense, a man appointed to do the duty of farriery in a troop of cavalry.
Troop farriers should be under the immediate superintendence and control
of a veterinary surgeon. There is one farrier allowed to each troop of
cavalry in the U. S. army.

=Farrier-Major.= A person who was formerly appointed by the colonel of a
dragoon regiment to superintend the farriers of troops. He has since
been superseded or replaced by a veterinary surgeon.

=Fasces.= Bundles of rods usually made of birch, but sometimes of elm,
with an axe projecting from the middle of them, which were carried
before the chief magistrates of ancient Rome, as symbols of their power
over life and limb. They were borne by the lictors, at first before the
kings; in the time of the republic, before consuls and prætors; and
afterwards before the emperors.

=Fascine.= A long cylindrical fagot of brushwood, used to revet the
interior of batteries and embrasures, and for many other purposes of
military engineering.

=Fascines, Covering.= See COVERING-FASCINES.

=Fastness.= A fast place; a stronghold; a fortress or fort; a place
fortified; a castle, etc.

=Fatigue.= The cause of weariness; labor; toil; as, the fatigues of war.

=Fatigue.= The labors of military men, distinct from the use of arms.

=Fatigue Call.= A particular military call, sounded on the bugle or
drum, by which soldiers are called upon to perform fatigue duties.

=Fatigue Dress.= The working dress of soldiers.

=Fatigue Party.= A party of soldiers on fatigue.

=Faulcon.= A small cannon.

=Faulx= (_Fr._). An instrument nearly resembling a scythe. It was often
used to defend a breach, or to prevent an enemy from scaling the walls
of a fortified place. This weapon was first resorted to with some
success, when Louis XIV. besieged Mons. On the surrender of that town,
large quantities of faulx, or scythes, were found in the garrison.

=Fausse Braye.= In fortification, was a parapet constructed at a lower
elevation than the main parapet, and between the foot of the parapet and
the edge of the ditch. It was used only in permanent fortification, and
has long been obsolete.

=Fayetteville.= A small town, capital of Washington Co., Ark. On April
18, 1863, this place, which was garrisoned by two regiments of Federal
troops under Col. Harrison, was attacked by the Confederate general
Cabell, with about 2000 men; and after six hours’ severe fighting the
Confederates were repulsed.

=Fayetteville.= A town of Cumberland Co., N. C., on the left bank of the
Cape Fear River. On April 22, 1861, the arsenal at this place
surrendered to the Confederates, and about 35,000 stand of arms, besides
some cannon and a considerable quantity of ammunition, fell into their
hands. The town was taken by Gen. Sherman in March, 1865.

=Fecial.= Pertaining to heralds, and the denunciation of war to an
enemy; as, fecial war.

=Federal States.= Are those united by treaty as one state, without
giving up self-government,--as in Switzerland or the United States of
North America. The Federals were the people of the Northern of the
United States of America during the great conflict in 1861-65; their
opponents were styled the Confederates.

=Fehrbellin.= A town of Prussia, 22 miles northwest from Potsdam. The
elector of Brandenburg defeated the Swedish army near this town in 1675.

=Feint.= In military or naval matters, a mock attack or assault, usually
made to throw an enemy off his guard against some real design upon his
position.

=Feint.= In fencing, a seeming aim at one part when another is intended
to be struck.

=Felloes.= In artillery, the parts of the wheel which form its
circumference. There are generally seven in each wheel.

=Feltre= (_Fr._). A Roman cuirass made of strong woolen cloth.

=Fence.= Self-defense by the use of the sword; fencing; the art and
practice of fencing or sword-play.

=Fencer.= One who fences; one who teaches or practices the art of
fencing with sword or foil.

=Fence-roof.= A covering of defense.

=Fencible.= Capable of being defended, or of making or affording
defense.

=Fencible.= A soldier enlisted for the defense of the country, and not
liable to be sent abroad.

=Fencible Light Dragoons.= A body of cavalry raised voluntarily in
various counties of England and Scotland in 1794, to serve during the
war in any part of Great Britain. This force was disbanded in 1800.

=Fencibles.= In England, regiments raised for a limited service, and for
a definite period. The officers rank with the militia.

=Fencing.= The art of using skillfully a sword or foil in attack or
defense; the art or practice of self-defense with the sword.

=Fenian.= A name formerly applied among the Celts to bodies of troops
somewhat similar to our modern militia. They derived their name from
Finn McCumhail, a famous Celtic chief. In modern times the name was
assumed by an association formed for the liberation of Ireland, whose
principal headquarters was in the United States, but ramifications of
which extended through Great Britain, Ireland, and the colonies. In 1866
the Fenians attempted to invade Canada, and succeeded in crossing the
frontier; but they were soon dispersed, and their leaders arrested by
the U. S. authorities for violation of the neutrality laws. In 1867
there were several demonstrations made by them in England and Ireland,
but their leaders were promptly arrested, and after some were executed,
and others sentenced to long terms of imprisonment, the movement was
crushed.

=Fer= (_Fr._). Iron. Figuratively, this word is used for a sword or
dagger; as, _manier le fer_, to wear the sword, to follow the profession
of arms.

=Fer à Cheval= (_Fr._). In fortification, a horseshoe, a small round or
oval work, with a parapet, generally made in a ditch or in a marsh. It
further means, according to the French acceptation of the term, a work
constructed for the purpose of covering a gate, by having within it a
guard-house, to prevent the town from being taken by surprise.

=Ferdwit.= In ancient military history, a term formerly used to denote a
freedom from serving upon any military expedition; or, according to
some, the being acquitted of manslaughter committed in the army.

=Fere Champenoise, La.= A town of France, in the department of the
Marne, 20 miles from Epernay. In 1814 the French were defeated here by
the allies.

=Fere, La.= A fortified town of France, in the department of the Aisne,
on an island in the Oise. It has an arsenal and a school of artillery.
This town was taken by the Spaniards in 1530; and by the allies in 1814.

=Ferentarii.= Among the Romans, were auxiliary troops lightly armed;
their weapons being a sword, arrows, and a sling. We have also mention
of another sort of Ferentarii, whose business was to carry arms after
the army, and to be ready to supply the soldiers therewith in battle.

=Ferozeshah.= A village in Hindostan, situated a few miles from the left
bank of the river Sutlej. Here the British, commanded by Sir Hugh Gough,
attacked the intrenchments of the Sikhs, and carried their first line of
works, December 21, 1845; but night coming on, the operations were
suspended till daybreak next day, when their second line was stormed by
Gen. Gilbert, and 74 guns captured. The Sikhs advanced to retake their
guns, but were repulsed with great loss, and retreated toward the
Sutlej, December 22; and recrossed that river unmolested, December 27.
The loss of the British was reckoned at 2415.

=Ferrara.= A city of Italy, and the capital of one of the Æmilian
provinces of the same name. It was subdued by the Lombards in the 8th
century, and taken from them by Pepin, about 752, who gave it to Pope
Stephen II. About 1208 it fell into the hands of the house of Este, and
in 1598 Pope Clement VIII. obtained the sovereignty. The French under
Masséna took Ferrara in 1796; but it was restored to the pope in 1814.
An Austrian garrison held it from 1849; it retired in June, 1859, and
the people rose and declared for annexation to Sardinia, which was
accomplished in March, 1860.

=Ferrara.= A sword of excellent temper, made of steel from Ferrara,
Italy. The kind most prized was manufactured by Andrea di Ferrara; hence
such a sword was often called an Andrea-Ferrara.

=Ferries, Rope.= See PONTONS.

=Ferrol.= A seaport town of Spain, province of Corunna, and an important
naval station. This place was unsuccessfully attacked by the British in
August, 1800. Marshal Soult captured Ferrol, January 27, 1809.

=Ferry.= A water conveyance made use of to cross a river, or branch of
the sea.

=Fetter.= To put fetters upon; to shackle or confine the feet with a
chain; to bind; to enchain. Deserters are sometimes fettered while
undergoing punishment for the crime of desertion.

=Feu-de-joie.= A salute fired by musketry on occasions of public
rejoicing, so that it should pass from man to man rapidly and steadily,
down one rank and up the other, giving one long continuous sound.

=Feu Rasant= (_Fr._). A grazing fire, or a discharge of musketry or
cannon, so directed that the balls shall run parallel with the ground
they fly over, within 3 or 4 feet of the surface.

=Feud.= A contention or quarrel; especially an inveterate strife between
families, clans, or parties in a state; deadly hatred; contention
satisfied only by bloodshed.

=Feudal.= Consisting of, or founded upon, feuds or fiefs; embracing
tenures by military system; as, the feudal system.

=Fez.= A red cap without a brim, worn by Turkish soldiers and others.

=Fez.= A city of Morocco, Africa; it was founded by Edris, a descendant
of Mohammed, about 787; was long capital of the kingdom of Fez. After
long-continued struggles it was annexed to Morocco about 1550.

=Fichant.= In fortification, said of flanking fire which impinges on the
face it defends; that is, of a line of defense where the angle of
defense is less than a right angle.

=Fidenæ.= An ancient city of Latium, on the left bank of the Tiber, 5
miles from Rome. The proximity of the two cities brought them early into
collision, and we find that Fidenæ was engaged in successive wars with
the early Roman kings. After the expulsion of the Tarquins Fidenæ
entered into a league with the Sabines and Latins to effect their
restoration, but the attempt proved abortive, and, deserted by their
allies, the Fidenates were compelled to surrender to the Roman arms. The
city afterwards continued its struggles against Rome, but without
success, and, though there is no record of its destruction, it had
dwindled into an insignificant village before the close of the Roman
republic.

=Fidentia= (now _Bargo S. Domingo_). A town in Cisalpine Gaul, on the
Via Æmilia, between Parma and Placentia, memorable for the victory which
Sulla’s generals gained over Carbo, 82 B.C.

=Fief.= An estate held of a superior on condition of military service; a
fee; a feud.

=Field.= A cleared space or plain where a battle is fought; also, the
battle itself. _To take the field_ means to commence active operations
against an enemy.

=Field.= In heraldry, the surface of a shield; hence, any blank space or
ground on which figures are drawn or projected.

=Field Allowance.= In the British service, is an allowance granted to
officers in camp at home, or on a campaign, to enable them to repay
themselves the expense of purchasing camp equipage, bat-horses, etc. It
is divided into ordinary and extraordinary field allowance, the former
being granted in time of peace, the latter in that of war.

=Field Artillery.= That portion of the artillery which is used in the
field. In the U. S. army the 3-and 3¹⁄₂-inch rifle guns, Gatling, and
12-pounder smooth-bore, constitute the field artillery. See ARTILLERY.

=Field-battery.= Is a certain number of pieces of artillery so equipped
as to be available for attack or defense, and capable of accompanying
cavalry or infantry in all their movements in the field. There are
allotted to a field-battery 4 pieces in time of peace and 6 in time of
war, and it is divided into _mounted artillery_, which usually serves
with infantry, and _horse artillery_, which ordinarily serves with
cavalry. The main difference between the two consists in the cannoneers
of the latter being mounted; in rapid evolutions of the former they are
conveyed on the gun-carriages. See ARTILLERY.

=Field-bed.= A folding bed used by officers while on campaigns or in the
field.

=Field-carriage.= Field-gun carriages consist of two short cheeks of
wood, bolted upon a stock and wooden axle-body, in a recess which fits
the iron axle on which the wheels are placed. The stock terminates in a
_trail_ and _trail-plate_ which rests on the ground, and has on the end
a strong ring called the _lunette_, which is placed on the pintle-hook
when the piece is limbered. In the stock is placed an elevating
screw-box of bronze in which the elevating screw fits. They have also
_limbers_ (which see).

=Field-colors.= Small flags of about a foot and a half square, carried
along with troops for marking out the ground for the squadrons and
battalions; camp-colors.

=Field-day.= A term used when a regiment is taken out to the field, for
the purpose of being instructed in the field exercise and evolutions.

=Fielded.= Being in the field of battle; encamped. This term is now
obsolete.

=Field-equipage.= Military apparatus for field service.

=Field Forge.= See FORGE.

=Field-glass.= A binocular telescope, used by officers in field service.

=Field-gun.= A small kind of gun, or cannon, used on the battle-field; a
field-piece.

=Field-Marshal= (_Mareschal_, _Feldmarschall_, _Feldzeugmeister_). The
commander of an army; a military officer of high rank in France,
Germany, and other nations, and the highest military officer in England.
Formerly a captain-general was occasionally appointed, who had rank
higher even than a field-marshal.

=Field-officer.= Is a colonel, lieutenant-colonel, or major of a
battalion or regiment, as distinguished from general officers, who are
superior to field-officers in rank; from line-officers, who are
inferior; and from staff-officers, general or regimental, who may be of
rank superior, equivalent, or inferior to that of field-officers.

=Field-officer’s Court.= In the U. S. service, a court-martial
consisting of one field-officer empowered to try cases, subject to
jurisdiction of garrison and regimental courts, takes the place of the
latter courts in time of war, but cannot be held in time of peace.

=Field of the Cloth of Gold.= A name given to an open plain between
Ardres and Guisnes, where Henry VIII. of England had an interview in
1520 with Francis I. of France. The nobility of both kingdoms embraced
the opportunity to display their magnificence with the utmost emulation
and profusion of expense.

=Field-park.= The spare carriages, reserved supplies of ammunition,
tools, and materials for extensive repairs and for making up ammunition,
for the service of an army in the field, form the field-park, to which
should be attached also the batteries of reserve.

=Field-piece.= A small cannon which is carried along with armies, and
used in the field of battle.

=Field Service.= Service performed by troops in the field.

=Field-staff.= A staff formerly carried by gunners in the field, and
holding lighted matches for discharging cannon. It is no longer used.

=Field Telegraph.= See TELEGRAPH, FIELD.

=Field-train.= In the British service, a department of the Royal
Artillery, consisting of commissaries and conductors of stores,
responsible for the safe custody of the ammunition, for the formation of
proper depots of shot, etc., between the front and the base of
operations, and that a due proportion shall be constantly at the service
of each gun during an engagement.

=Field-works.= Are intrenchments and other temporary fortifications
thrown up by an army in the field, either as a protection from the
onslaught of a hostile force, or to cover an attack upon some
stronghold. All works which do not come under the head of permanent
fortification are called field-works.

=Fiesole= (anc. _Faesulæ_). One of the most ancient Etruscan cities,
situated about 3 miles from Florence. This city was first mentioned in
225 B.C. during the great Gaulish war. Hannibal encamped here after
crossing the Apennines. The city was next destroyed by Sulla in the
Social war (90-89 B.C.), who afterwards dispatched thither a military
colony. About the beginning of the 11th century, it was destroyed by the
Florentines, and many of its inhabitants compelled to remove to the city
of Florence.

=Fife.= A wooden wind instrument, which is used with the snare-drum for
playing military music. The music is produced by blowing through a hole
in a reed or tube, while the escape of air is regulated by the fingers
stopping or opening a number of other holes in different parts of the
pipe.

=Fife-Major.= The chief or superintendent of the fifers of a regiment.

=Fifer.= One who plays a fife; there is one fifer allowed to each
company of infantry in the U. S. army. Fifers are also employed aboard
men-of-war, and in the marine corps.

=Fight.= To strive or contend for victory, in battle or in single
combat; to defeat, subdue, or destroy an enemy, either by blows or
weapons; to contend in arms;--followed by _with_ or _against_.

=Fight.= To carry on, or wage, as a conflict, or battle; to win or gain
by struggle, as one’s way; to sustain by fighting, as a cause. To
contend with in battle; to war against, as, they fought the enemy in two
pitched battles. To cause to fight; manage or manœuvre in a fight.

=Fight.= A battle; an engagement; a contest in arms; a struggle for
victory, either between individuals or between armies, ships, or
navies. A duel is called a single fight or combat.

=Fighter.= One who fights; a combatant; a warrior.

=Fighting.= Qualified for war; fit for battle; as, “A host of fighting
men.” Also, occupied in war; being the scene of war; as, a fighting
field.

=Fight, Running.= That in which the enemy is continually chased.

=Figueras.= A town in the northeast of Spain, province of Gerona. On a
height near the town is the citadel of San Fernando, the strongest
fortress of Spain, and the key of the Pyrenees on their south side. It
has accommodation for 2000 men.

=Figure.= In fortification, the plan of any fortified place, or the
interior polygon. Of this there are two sorts, regular and irregular; a
regular figure is that where the sides and angles are equal; an
irregular one where they are unequal.

=File.= A line of soldiers drawn up behind each other, in
contradistinction to rank, which refers to men standing beside one
another. The general term means two soldiers, consisting of the front
and rear rank men. To _file_ is to advance to or from any given points
by files; as, to file to the front, etc. To _file off_, or to _defile_,
is to wheel off by files from moving in a spacious front, and march in
length. _Flank file_, is the extreme file on the right or left of a
squadron or troop, battalion or company, etc. _Indian files_, a line of
men advancing or retreating from either of the flanks, from the centre
or from any proportion of a line in succession to one another.

=File Firing.= Firing by files.

=File-leader.= Is the soldier placed in front of any file, or the man
who is to cover all those who stand directly in the rear of him, and by
whom they are to be guided in all their movements.

=Filibuster.= A lawless military adventurer, especially one in quest of
plunder; a freebooter; a pirate; applied especially to the followers of
Lopez in his expedition to Cuba in 1851.

=Filings.= Are movements to the front, rear, or flanks by files.

=Fillet.= A molding used on cannon of old pattern.

=Fillibeg=, or =Filibeg=. A little plaid; a kilt or dress reaching
nearly to the knees, worn in the Highlands of Scotland, and by the
soldiers of Highland regiments in the British service.

=Fillibuster.= See FILIBUSTER.

=Final Velocity.= In gunnery, is the technical term for the uniform
velocity which a projectile would acquire in falling through an
indefinite height in the air. A body falling in _vacuo_ is uniformly
accelerated, its velocity being continually increased. In the atmosphere
the case is different. Since the resistance of the air increases with
some power of the velocity greater than the square, it follows that at
some point in the descent the retardation becomes equal to the
acceleration, and the body will move with uniform velocity. This is
called “final velocity,” and is one of the most important elements in
the theory of projectiles. Every projectile has its own “final
velocity.” Other things being equal, that projectile is best which has
the greatest “final velocity.” The “final velocity” of a given
projectile will depend upon its weight on the one hand, and the extent
of surface and the way it is presented to the air on the other. The
extent and form of the surface directly opposed to the action of the air
will largely determine the resistance. The best form, as determined by
the experiments of Borda, is the _ogival_. The resistance, other things
being the same, may be taken as proportional to the area of greatest
cross-section. The weight in spherical projectiles is proportional to
the cube of this dimension. It follows from these general principles
that large projectiles are better than small, dense better than light,
solid better than hollow, in regard to their final velocities; moreover,
that oblong projectiles are better than spherical, ogival-headed oblong
better than flat-headed, and long rifle projectiles better than short,
in the same regard.

=Finding.= Before a court-martial deliberates upon the judgment, the
judge-advocate reads over the whole proceedings of the court; he then
collects the votes of each member, beginning with the youngest. The best
mode of doing so is by slips of paper. The Articles of War require a
majority in all cases, and in cases of sentence of death two-thirds. It
is not necessary to find a _general_ verdict of guilt or acquittal upon
the whole of every charge. The court may find the prisoner guilty of
part of a charge, and acquit him of the remainder, and render sentence
according to their finding. This is a _special_ verdict.

=Finland.= A Russian grand duchy; in the middle of the 12th century was
conquered by the Swedes, who introduced Christianity. It was several
times conquered by the Russians (1714, 1742, and 1808), and restored
(1721 and 1743); but in 1809 they retained it by treaty.

=Fire.= In the art of war, a word of command to soldiers of all
denominations to discharge their fire-arms, cannon, etc. It likewise
expresses a general discharge against an enemy. To be “under fire” means
to be exposed to the attack of an enemy by cannonade or fusilade. The
fire in artillery may be either direct, ricochet, rolling, plunging,
horizontal, or vertical, according to the nature of the projectile and
the angle of elevation. A fire is said to be _direct_, when the
projectile hits the object without striking any intermediate one;
_ricochet_, when the projectile strikes the ground or water under a
small angle of fall, penetrates obliquely to a certain distance, and is
then reflected at an angle greater than the angle of fall. This action
may recur frequently, depending, as it does, on the nature of the
surface struck, the initial velocity, shape, size, and density of the
projectile, and on the angle of fall. It is employed in siege-works to
attain the face of a work in flank, or in reverse; and in the field, or
on water, when the object is large, and the distance is not accurately
known. The character of ricochet fire is determined by the angle of
fall. It is _flattened_ when this angle does not exceed 4°, and
_curvated_ when the angle is between 6° and 15°. Against troops the
angle of fall should not exceed 3°. A particular kind of ricochet fire
called _rolling_ is produced by placing the axis of the piece parallel,
or nearly so, with the ground. It was formerly much used when the
conditions were favorable in the field service, where it was very
effective, as the projectile never passes at a greater distance above
the ground than the muzzle of the piece. The projectile was solid round
shot; rifled projectiles are unsuited to this kind of fire. When the
object is situated below the piece, the fire is said to be _plunging_.
This kind of fire is particularly effective against the decks of
vessels. Under low angles of elevation the fire of guns and howitzers is
said to be _horizontal_. The fire of mortars under high angles of
elevation is called _vertical_.

=Fire-alarm.= An alarm given of a fire or conflagration. In military
barracks or camp, it is sounded on drum or bugle, or the discharge of
fire-arms by the guard.

=Fire, Angle of.= See POINTING.

=Fire-arms.= Every description of arms charged with powder and ball. See
special headings.

=Fire-arrow.= A small iron dart, furnished with a match impregnated with
powder and sulphur, used to fire the sails of ships.

=Fire-ball.= See PYROTECHNY.

=Fire-bavin.= A bundle of brushwood used in fire-ships.

=Fire-bucket.= A bucket to convey water for extinguishing fires. To each
set of quarters in a garrison there are allotted a certain number of
fire-buckets.

=Fire-cross.= An ancient token in Scotland for the nation to take up
arms.

=Fire, Curved=, or =Curvated=. See FIRE.

=Fire, Direct.= See FIRE.

=Fire-eater.= One notoriously fond of being in action.

=Fire, Effects of.= See PROJECTILES, EFFECTS OF.

=Fire, Enfilade.= Fire in the direction of the length of a parapet or a
line of troops.

=Fire-engine.= A hydraulic or forcing pump for throwing water to
extinguish fires.

=Fire, Greek.= See GREEK FIRE.

=Fire-hoops.= A combustible invented by the Knights of Malta to throw
among their besiegers, and afterwards used in boarding Turkish galleys.

=Fire, Line of.= See POINTING.

=Firelocks.= Were fire-arms formerly used by foot-soldiers; they were so
called from their producing fire of themselves, by the action of the
flint and steel. They were first made use of in 1690, but it is not
ascertained when they were first invented. About the middle of the last
century a firelock was called, by military writers, _asnapbaan_, which
being a low Dutch word, seems to indicate its being a Dutch invention.

=Fire-master.= In the artillery, was a commissioned officer who gave the
directions and proportions of all ingredients for each composition
required in fireworks, whether for the service of war, or for rejoicings
and recreation.

=Fire-master’s-mate.= In the artillery, a commissioned officer whose
duty was to aid and assist the chief fire-master; and he was required to
be skilled in every kind of laboratory works.

=Fire, Oblique.= That which strikes a parapet or a body of troops in a
slanting direction.

=Fire-pan.= A pan for holding or conveying fire; especially, the
receptacle for the priming in a gun.

=Fire, Plane of.= See POINTING.

=Fire, Plunging.= See FIRE.

=Fire-pot.= A small earthen pot, into which is put a charged grenade,
and over that, powder enough to cover the grenade; the whole covered
with a piece of parchment, and two pieces of quick-match across lighted;
it breaks and fires the powder, as also the powder in the grenade, which
has no fuze, that its operations may be quicker; it burns all that is
near it. These are no longer used.

=Fire Rasant.= Is produced by firing the artillery and small-arms in a
line parallel with those parts of the works you are defending.

=Fire, Reverse.= Is that which strikes the rear of a parapet or body of
troops.

=Fire, Ricochet.= See FIRE.

=Fire, Slant.= Is when the shot strikes the interior slope of the
parapet, forming with it a horizontal angle, not greater than 30°.

=Fire Stone.= A composition placed in a shell with the bursting charge,
to set fire to ships, buildings, etc. It is made by stirring nitre,
sulphur, antimony, and rosin in a mixture of melted tallow and
turpentine. It is cast in molds made of rocket-paper. A priming of fuze
composition is driven in a hole to insure its ignition.

=Fire-swab.= The bunch of rope-yarns sometimes secured to the tampion,
saturated with water to cool the gun in action, and to swab up any
grains of powder.

=Fire, Tables of.= In artillery, are tabulated statements for each
piece, showing the range and time of flight for each elevation, charge
of powder, and kind of projectile. Their purpose is to assist the
artillerist in attaining his object without waste of time and
ammunition, and also to regulate his aim when the effect of shot cannot
be seen on account of the dust and smoke of the battle-field. The first
few shots generally produce a great effect on the enemy, and it is very
important that they should be directed with some knowledge of their
results, which, in the field, can only be attained by experience, or
from the data afforded by a table of fire. Tables of fire for different
kinds of cannon may be found in the Ordnance and Artillery Manuals.

=Fire, Vertical.= See FIRE.

=Fire-workers.= In the British service, were formerly subordinate to the
fire-master and his mate; had afterwards the rank of youngest
lieutenants in the regiment of artillery, but now that rank is
abolished, and they are all second lieutenants. They were supposed to be
well skilled in every kind of laboratory-work, which knowledge is an
essential qualification in every officer of that branch of the service.

=Fireworks.= Are various combustible preparations used in war. See
PYROTECHNY.

=Firing.= The act of discharging fire-arms.

=First Sergeant.= The ranking non-commissioned officer in a company. He
has immediate charge of all enlisted men of the company and company
property; has command of it during formations, and calls the roll. He
also makes all details, keeps the roster, etc. See ORDERLY SERGEANT.

=Fishguard.= A seaport town of South Wales, county of Pembroke. About
2¹⁄₂ miles south of this town a French force of 1400 men, under Gen.
Tate, landed on February 22, 1797, and next day surrendered to a few
militia and volunteers not half their number.

=Fishtail Wind.= A term in target practice with small-arms for a rear
wind which is variable in direction.

=Fish Torpedoes.= See TORPEDOES.

=Fissure.= A narrow chasm where a small breach has been made, as in a
fort, citadel, etc.

=Five Forks.= A name given to a locality in Dinwiddie Co., Va., the
junction of the White Oak and Ford’s road with the one leading to
Dinwiddie Court-house. An important battle was fought here April 1,
1865. The possession of this radiating centre was one of great strategic
importance, inasmuch as by Ford’s road the Southside Railroad could be
reached, and, indeed, the whole country which the intrenched Confederate
lines were intended to cover. The attempt to gain possession of this
position had been made (March 30-31) by Gen. Sheridan, with momentary
success (March 31), during the absence of most of the Confederate force,
engaged in fighting Warren on the White Oak road, but which now being
recalled, regained possession, driving Sheridan back towards Dinwiddie
Court-house. On the morning of April 1 Sheridan renewed the attempt, and
after a day of very severe fighting compelled the surrender of nearly
all the Confederate force, pursuing such as escaped till after dark.
Over 5000 prisoners were captured with 5 guns. The Union loss was not
above 1900 all told. The effect of this decisive battle was to
determine Lee to abandon Petersburg, which he did undercover of night
(April 2), but not before his entire outer line of works had been
carried during the day. One week later Lee surrendered his army at
Appomattox Court-house.

=Fix Bayonets.= A word of command in the manual exercise, whereby the
bayonets are fixed on the rifles.

=Fixed Ammunition.= Consists of a projectile and its cartridge which are
attached to the same block of wood called a _sabot_. See ORDNANCE,
AMMUNITION FOR.

=Flag, Black.= A flag of a black color, displayed as a sign that no
mercy will be shown to the vanquished, or that no quarter will be given.

=Flag, Garrison.= In the U. S. army the garrison flag is the national
flag, and is 36 feet fly and 20 feet hoist. It is furnished only to very
important posts, or those having large garrisons, and is hoisted only on
gala days and great occasions.

=Flag of the Prophet= (_Sanjak-Sheriff_). Is the sacred banner of the
Mohammedans. It was originally of a white color, and was composed of the
turban of the Koreish, captured by Mohammed. A black flag was, however,
soon substituted in its place, consisting of the curtain that hung
before the door of Ayeshah, one of the prophet’s wives. This flag is
regarded by the Mohammedans as their most sacred relic; it was brought
into Europe by Amurath III. It was covered with forty wrappings of silk,
deposited in a costly casket, and preserved in a chapel in the interior
of the seraglio, where it is guarded by several emirs, with constant
prayers. The banner unfolded at the commencement of a war, and likewise
carefully preserved, is not the same, although it is believed by the
people to be so.

=Flag of Truce.= A white flag carried by an officer sent to communicate
with the enemy. The flag signifies his errand, but the enemy are not
bound to receive him, though it would be a violation of the rules of war
to injure the messenger, unless he persisted in his endeavor to
communicate after due warning given. The term is often extended to the
party which accompanies the flag, which consists generally of an
officer, a trumpeter or bugler, who sounds to attract attention, and
sometimes of an additional soldier who carries the flag.

=Flag, Post.= In the U. S. army, is the national flag, and is 20 feet
fly and 10 feet hoist; it is furnished to all posts garrisoned by
troops, and is hoisted only in pleasant weather.

=Flag, Red.= Is frequently used by revolutionists as an emblem of
defiance. It is used in the U. S. service as a danger-signal at target
practice, and on a man-of-war as a signal that the ship is receiving or
discharging her powder.

=Flags.= See COLORS, STANDARDS, etc.

=Flags.= The national flag of the United States consists of 13
horizontal stripes, alternately red and white; the union to consist of
20 stars, white, in a blue field; one star to be added to the union on
the admission of every new State; the addition to be made on the 4th day
of July succeeding such admission. There are flags which are symbols of
individual authority. Among such are royal standards, flag-officers’
flags, etc. An admiral’s flag is usually the flag of the country which
such admiral serves, with the exception of the union. The flag of the
admiral, vice-admiral, and rear-admirals of the United States is
rectangular and consists of 13 alternate red and white stripes. The
admiral hoists this at the main; the vice-admiral at the fore; the
rear-admiral at the mizzen. Should there be two rear-admirals present,
the junior hoists a flag at the mizzen similar to the one described,
with the addition of two stars in the upper left-hand corner. The
commodore’s flag differs from that of the admiral’s in form alone, it
being a swallow-tail instead of a rectangular. Should the President go
afloat, the American flag is carried in the bows of his barge or hoisted
at the main of the vessel on board of which he may be. In foreign
countries the royal standard is worn at ceremonies in honor of the
sovereign or at which the sovereign may be present. The highest flag in
the British navy is the anchor and cable, the next is the union, and the
lowest the blue. Flags are said to be at half-mast when they are hoisted
but half the height at which they are ordinarily worn, and in this
position designate mourning. _To strike or lower the flag_, to pull it
down upon the cap, in token of respect, submission, or, in an
engagement, of surrender. _Dipping the flag_ is a salute to a fort or
passing vessel by lowering it slightly and hoisting it again.

=Flag-staff.= The staff on which a flag is fixed.

=Flag, Storm.= In the U. S. army, is the national flag, and is 8 feet
fly and 4 feet 2 inches hoist; it is furnished to all occupied military
posts and national cemeteries, and will be hoisted in stormy or windy
weather. It is also to be used as a recruiting flag.

=Flam.= A peculiar tap upon a drum. This word was formerly made use of
in the British service, signifying a particular tap or beat upon the
drum, according to which each battalion went through its firings or
evolutions.

=Flambeau.= A kind of torch made of thick wicks, covered with wax, and
used in the streets at night, at illuminations and in processions.

=Flanchière= (_Fr._). A part of horse armor which covered the flanks and
croup as far as the houghs.

=Flanconade.= In fencing, a thrust in the side.

=Flanders.= The principal part of the ancient Belgium, which was
conquered by Julius Cæsar, 51 B.C. It became part of the kingdom of
France in 843, and was governed by counts subject to the king, from 862
till 1369. Flanders was subjected successively to Burgundy (1384),
Austria (1477), and Spain (1555). In 1580 it declared its independence,
but afterwards returned to its allegiance to the house of Austria. In
1792 the French invaded imperial Flanders, and occupied it till 1814. In
1814 a portion of Flanders was given to the king of the Netherlands.
Since the revolution of 1831, it has belonged to Belgium.

=Flank.= A word of very extensive application in military matters. It
literally means sides or ends of any fortification, or encampment, or
body of troops. Thus a writer has described flanks as “certain
proportions of offensive or defensive forces extended to the right and
left of a main body.” In fortification the term means any part of the
work defending another by a fire along the outside of its parapet.

=Flank Casemate Carriage.= Is a gun-carriage which is especially adapted
to the mounting of the 24-pound iron howitzer in the flanks of
casemate-batteries, for defending the ditch.

=Flank Company.= A certain number of men drawn up on the right or left
of a battalion. Thus when there are grenadiers they compose the right,
and the light infantry the left flank company. Grenadiers and light
infantry are generally called flank companies, whether attached or not
to their battalions; rifle corps are always flankers.

=Flank, Concave.= Is that which is made in the arc of a semicircle
bending outwards.

=Flank, Covered.= The platform of the casemate, which lies hid in the
bastion. These retired flanks were a great defense to the opposite
bastion and passage of the ditch; because the besiegers could not see
nor easily dismount their guns.

=Flank Defense Carriage.= See ORDNANCE, CARRIAGES FOR, SEA-COAST
CARRIAGES.

=Flank, Directing.= In drill, that by which companies march,--_i.e._,
that at which is placed the guide, who directs and regulates the march.

=Flank En Potence.= Is any part of the right or left wing formed at a
projecting angle with the line. See POTENCE.

=Flank Files.= Are the two first men on the right and the two last men
on the left of a battalion, company, etc. When a battalion is drawn up
three deep, its flank files consist of three men, or, as the French call
it, file and demi-file. When four deep, the flank files are termed
double files; so that a column formed from any of these alignments will
have all its relative flank files, be the depth of formation what it
may.

=Flank, Inner.= That which is nearest the point on which a line rests,
or which is farthest from the enemy. In drill, it is that nearest the
point from which the line is dressed.

=Flank, Leading.= When the line breaks into column in order to attack an
enemy, it is the flank which must always preserve the line of _appui_ in
all movements in front. The first battalion, or company of every column
which conducts, is called the head or leading flank of that column.

=Flank, Oblique.= Or second flank, in fortification; that part of the
curtain from whence the face of the opposite bastion may be discovered,
and is the distance between the lines _rasant_ and _fichant_, which are
rejected by some engineers, as being liable to be ruined at the
beginning of a siege, especially when made of sandy earth. This second
flank defends very obliquely the opposite face, and is to be used only
in a place attacked by an army without artillery.

=Flank of a Bastion.= In fortification, that part which joins the face
to the curtain, comprehended between the angle of the curtain and that
of the shoulder, and is the principal defense of a place. Its use is to
defend the curtain, the flank, and the face of the opposite bastion, as
well as the passage of the ditch; and to batter the salient angles of
the counterscarp and glacis, from whence the besiegers generally ruin
the flanks with their artillery.

=Flank, Outward.= Of a line or battalion, the extreme file on the right
or left of a division, subdivision, or section, according to the given
front, when the battalion is at close or open column, and which is the
farthest wheeling point from line into column, or from column into line.
It is likewise called the _reverse_ flank.

=Flank, Prolonged.= In fortification, is the extending of the flank from
the angle of the epaule to the exterior side, when the angle of the
flank is a right one.

=Flank, Second.= See FLANK, OBLIQUE.

=Flank, To.= In fortification, is to erect a battery which may play upon
an enemy’s works on the right or left without being exposed to his line
of fire. In evolutions, to take such a position in action as either to
assist your own troops, or to annoy those of your enemy by attacking
either of his flanks, without exposing yourself to all of his fire. To
_outflank_, a manœuvre by which an army, battalion, troop, or company
outstretches another, and gets upon both or either of his flanks. In an
extensive acceptation of the term, when applied to locality, it means to
possess any range or opposite parts, or territory, whence you might
invade your neighbors.

=Flanker.= A fortification jutting out so as to command the side or
flank of an enemy marching to the assault or attack. Riflemen and all
light troops are also called flankers, from the fact of their acting on
the flanks.

=Flanker, To= (Fr. _flanquer_). In fortification, to fortify the walls
of a city with bulwarks or countermines.

=Flanking.= Is the same in fortification as defending.

=Flanking Angle.= In fortification, that composed of the two lines of
defense, and pointing toward the curtain. See TENAILLE.

=Flanking Party.= Any body of men detached from the main army to act
upon the flanks of an enemy. See FLANKER.

=Flanks of a Frontier.= Are certain salient points in a national
boundary, strong by nature and art, and ordinarily projecting somewhat
beyond the general line. The effect of these flanks is to protect the
whole frontier against an enemy, as he dare not penetrate between, with
the risk of their garrisons, reinforced from their own territories,
attacking his rear, and cutting off communication between him and his
base.

=Flash.= The flame which issues from any fire-arm or piece of ordnance
on its being fired.

=Flash in the Pan.= An explosion of gunpowder without any communication
beyond the vent. When a piece is loaded, and, upon the trigger being
drawn, nothing but the priming takes fire, that piece is said to flash
in the pan.

=Flask, Powder-.= A measure formerly made of horn, used to carry powder
in, with the measure of the charge of the piece on the top of it.

=Flathead Indians.= A tribe of aborigines, so called from the practice
which prevailed among them of binding some solid substance on the
foreheads of their children so as to cause a depression of the skull.
They are located on an agency in Montana. See INDIANS AND THEIR
AGENCIES.

=Flaw.= A crack or small opening in a gun or its carriage is so called.

=Fleau d’Armes= (_Fr._). An ancient offensive weapon; the part used for
striking was armed with sharp iron spikes.

=Flèche.= Literally an arrow; but applied in fortification to a work
resembling a redan, except that it is raised upon the terre-plein
without a ditch. It is in short a field-work, having faces and small
flanks hastily run up to shelter a small number of men, and form an
outwork to some more powerful fortification.

=Fleece, Order of the Golden.= One of the most eminent orders of
knighthood in Europe, was founded in 1430 by Philip III., duke of
Burgundy. By its foundation his successors were declared hereditary
grand-masters; and thus the title passed to the imperial house of
Austria with the Burgundian inheritance, and thence to the Spanish line
of the same house after the death of the emperor Charles V. When the
Spanish Netherlands, however, became Austrian, and the Bourbons became
monarchs of Spain, the grand-mastership was claimed by the archdukes of
Austria. Hence at present the Spanish and Austrian sovereigns alike
confer the order, and at both courts it gives the highest rank.

=Fletch, To.= To feather an arrow.

=Fletcher.= The man who made or repaired the military bows was so
called. Also called _bowyer_.

=Fleur-de-lis= (_Fr._). This celebrated emblem is derived from the white
lily of the garden, or from the flag or iris. The Franks of old had a
custom at the proclamation of their king, to elevate him upon a shield
or target, and place in his hand a reed or flag in blossom, instead of
a sceptre; and from that time the kings of the first and second race in
France are represented with sceptres in their hands like the flag with
its flowers, these flowers subsequently becoming the armorial bearings
of France. In later times their arms were azure, three fleur-de-lis
_or_. Many English and Scotch families bear the fleur-de-lis in some
portion of their arms, and generally with some reference to France.

=Fleurus.= A small town in Belgium, in the province of Hainault. It has
been the scene of several conflicts, the last and most important being
the battle fought June 26, 1794, between the army of the French republic
under Jourdan and the allies under the Prince of Saxe-Coburg. The allied
forces were compelled for a time to evacuate Flanders.

=Flight.= Is used figuratively for the swift retreat of an army or any
party from a victorious enemy. It is likewise applicable to missile
weapons or shot; as, a flight of arrows, a flight of bombs, etc.

=Flight, Time of.= In gunnery, the flight of a shot or shell is the time
during which it is passing through the air from the piece to the first
graze.

=Flight, To Put to.= To force your enemy to quit the field.

=Flint.= In the flint-lock musket, the stone which was fixed to the cock
or gun-lock by which the sparks were elicited that discharged the piece.

=Flint-lock.= A musket lock with a flint fixed in the hammer for
striking on the cap of the pan; also the musket itself.

=Flint Weapons.= Believed to have been used by the primitive
inhabitants, have from time to time, in more or less number, been turned
up with the plow and the spade, and dug out from ancient graves,
fortifications, and dwelling-places. They do not differ in any material
respect from the flint weapons still in use among uncivilized tribes in
Asia, Africa, America, etc. The weapons of most frequent occurrence are
arrow-heads, spear-points, dagger-blades, and axe-heads, or celts.

=Flo.= An arrow was formerly so called.

=Floating Batteries.= These are used in defending harbors, or in attacks
on marine fortresses. The most remarkable instance of their employment
was by the French and Spaniards against Gibraltar, in the memorable
siege which lasted from July, 1779, to February, 1783. During the
Russian war, 1854-55, they rendered good service before Kinburn. Now
they are only used for defensive purposes.

=Floating-bridge.= A kind of double bridge, the upper one projecting
beyond the lower one, and capable of being moved forward by pulleys,
used for carrying troops over narrow moats in attacking the outworks of
a fort. See BRIDGE, FLYING.

=Flodden Field.= The last point of the Cheviots, the place where King
James IV. of Scotland, after crossing the border on August 22, 1513,
with an army of over 30,000 men, took up his position, and where, on
September 9, the bloody battle was fought in which the king was killed,
and the Scottish army destroyed.

=Flogging.= A barbarous punishment formerly inflicted in the British
army and navy. It was generally administered with a whip, or
“cat-of-nine-tails,” on the bare back. This mode of punishment formerly
existed in the American army and navy.

=Flood-gate.= In fortified towns, is composed of 2 or 4 gates, so that
the besieged by opening the gates may inundate the environs so as to
keep the enemy out of gunshot.

=Florent, St.= A fortified seaport town of Corsica, on the gulf of the
same name, 6 miles west from Bastia. This town was taken by the British
in 1793.

=Florida.= One of the United States of America, which was discovered by
Sebastian Cabot, in the year 1497. Its conquest was accomplished by the
Spaniards in 1539. It was plundered by Sir Francis Drake in 1585; and by
Davis, a buccaneer, in 1665. It was invaded by the British in 1702; and
again by Gen. Oglethorpe in 1740. In 1763 it was ceded to Britain, but
in 1781 was recovered by Spain, and confirmed to her by the peace of
1783. In 1821 it was purchased from Spain by the United States. A war
with the Seminole Indians commenced in 1835. After great trouble and
expense they were subdued and emigrated to the Indian Territory in 1842.
In 1839 its constitution was formed, and in 1845 it was admitted into
the Union. Florida seceded from the Union on January 10, 1861, and was
one of the first to return to the Union, October 25, 1865.

=Flourish.= The waving of a weapon or other thing; a brandishing; as,
the flourish of a sword.

=Flourish.= To execute an irregular or fanciful strain of music, by way
of ornament or prelude, as, a flourish of trumpets.

=Flugelman.= The leader of a file; one who stands in front of a body of
soldiers, and whose motions in the manual exercise they all
simultaneously follow; a fugelman.

=Flushed.= A term frequently applied when men have been successful; as,
flushed with victory, etc.

=Flushing.= An important seaport of the Netherlands, in the island of
Walcheren, on the north side of the Scheldt, where that river enters the
North Sea. It was the first town which declared against the Spaniards in
1572. In 1585 the Prince of Orange pledged it to Queen Elizabeth as
security for a loan which she made to the people of the Netherlands in
their struggle against Philip II. of Spain. The English held it till
1616. At the commencement of the 19th century it came into the
possession of the French, and in 1809 was bombarded by the British
composing the Walcheren expedition, under Lord Chatham, when it suffered
severely. Admiral Ruyter was born here in 1607.

=Flute.= A wind instrument which is sometimes used in military bands,
but never in service.

=Fly.= The length of a flag. The dimension at right angles to the staff.
The other dimension is called the _hoist_.

=Flying Army.= A strong body of cavalry and infantry which is always in
motion, both to cover its own garrisons and to keep the enemy in
continual alarm.

=Flying Artillery.= Artillery trained to very rapid evolutions. In
passing from one part of the field to another, the men spring upon their
horses in horse artillery, or on the ammunition-chests in light
artillery.

=Flying Bridges.= See PONTONS.

=Flying Camp.= A camp or body of troops formed for rapid motion from one
place to another.

=Flying Colors.= Colors unfurled and left to wave in the air. Hence to
return or come off with flying colors is to be victorious, to get the
better.

=Flying Party.= A detachment of men employed to hover about an enemy.

=Flying Sap.= See SAP.

=Flying Shot.= A shot fired at something in motion, as a bird on the
wing, a ship under sail, etc.; also, one who fires thus.

=Flying Torch.= The torch used on a staff in signaling.

=Fodder.= See FORAGE.

=Foe.= An enemy in war; a national enemy; a hostile army; an adversary.

=Foeman.= An enemy in war.

=Fogey.= An old-fashioned or singular person; an invalid soldier or
sailor.

=Foil.= A long piece of steel of an elastic temper, mounted somewhat
like a sword, which is used to learn to fence with; it is without a
point, or any sharpness, having a button at the extremity covered with
leather.

=Foil.= To render vain or nugatory as an effort or attempt; to
frustrate; to defeat; to baffle; to balk; as, the enemy attempted to
pass the river, but was _foiled_; he _foiled_ his adversaries.

=Foin.= A thrust with a pike or sword.

=Foissonnement.= A term used in fortification to signify the increase in
bulk of earth after its excavation. This increase varies from one-eighth
to one-twelfth generally.

=Folding Boat.= A boat of a jointed framework covered with canvas, used
in campaigning and by voyageurs.

=Followers, Camp-.= See CAMP-FOLLOWERS.

=Follow Up.= To pursue with additional vigor some advantage which has
already been gained; as, to follow up a victory.

=Fone.= Formerly the plural of Foe. Now obsolete.

=Fontainebleau.= A town and parish of France, in the department of the
Seine and Marne, 37 miles southeast from Paris. There is a celebrated
royal palace here encompassed by parks and gardens, mentioned in
history, ever since the 13th century, as the residence of the monarchs
of France. This place was entered by the Austrians, February 17, 1814.
Here Napoleon resigned his dignity, April 4, and bade farewell to his
army, April 20, 1814.

=Fontenoy.= A village in Belgium, in the province of Hainaut, 5 miles
southwest of Tournay. Here was fought the most famous contest in the War
of the Austrian Succession, on May 11, 1745, between the French under
Marshal Saxe and the allies (English, Dutch, and Austrians) under the
Duke of Cumberland. After a hard-fought battle the allies were forced to
retreat. The loss on both sides was stated at about 7000 men.

=Food.= Food has two functions, building up the body, and supplying it
with force. Substances used as food may be divided into elements which
are oxidizable and those conducive to chemical changes. Milk contains
all the necessary elements in the best form. The nourishing elements of
foods are usually classed under the heads of albuminates, fats,
carbo-hydrates, and salts. In regard to the part played by the
condiments used in flavoring and seasoning, and such things as tea,
coffee, chocolate, alcohol, etc., little is positively known beyond the
fact that some of them are useful in exciting the salivary and
alimentary secretions. The amount of food necessary to health and vigor
varies with the kind and amount of occupation, the character of the
climate, and specifically with the individual. Playfair and Parkes give
the following as the average daily allowance of anhydrous food for an
adult, in avoirdupois ounces:

_In quietude._

  Albuminates        2.5
  Fats               1.
  Carbo-hydrates    12.
  Salts               .5
                    ----
    Total           16.

_Hard labor or campaigning._

  Albuminates        6.  to  7.
  Fats               3.5 to  4.5
  Carbo-hydrates    16.  to 18.
  Salts              1.2 to  1.5
                    ------------
    Total           26.7 to 31.0

_European standard, for moderate work._

  Albuminates        4.587
  Fats               2.964
  Carbo-hydrates    14.257
  Salts              1.058
                    ------
    Total           22.866

From 70 to 90 ounces of water in addition to this are usually consumed
per day.

The ration of the U. S. army resolved into anhydrous elements gives the
following:

_Soft bread, with ²⁄₃ fresh beef, ¹⁄₃ salt pork and beans._

  Albuminates        3.93
  Fats               4.15
  Carbo-hydrates    12.37
  Salts              1.19
                    -----
    Total           21.64 and .26 coffee.

_Same with rice instead of beans._

  Albuminates          3.47
  Fats                 4.11
  Carbo-hydrates      12.50
  Salts                1.14
                      -----
    Total             21.22 and .26 coffee.

_Hard bread, ²⁄₃ fresh beef, ¹⁄₃ salt pork and beans._

  Albuminates          4.99
  Fats                 4.09
  Carbo-hydrates      15.26
  Salts                1.23
                      -----
    Total             25.57 and .26 coffee.

_Hard bread, bacon and beans._

  Albuminates          4.10
  Fats                 9.06
  Carbo-hydrates      15.26
  Salts                1.29
                      -----
    Total             29.71 and .26 coffee.

The following table, compiled from standard authorities, gives an
alimentary analysis of 100 parts of various substances used as food, by
means of which the nutritive value of all ordinary diets may be
calculated:

  --------------------------------+------+-------+-----+-------+------
                                  |Water.|Albumi-|Fats.|Carbo- |Salts.
                                  |      | nates.|     |  Hy-  |
                                  |      |       |     |drates.|
  --------------------------------+------+-------+-----+-------+------
  Meat (best quality), beefsteak  | 74.4 | 20.5  | 3.5 |   ... |  1.6
  Meat (average like soldiers),   |      |       |     |       |
  less ¹⁄₅ for bone               | 75.  | 15.   | 8.4 |   ... |  1.6
  Meat (very fat, stall fed)      | 63.  | 14.   |19.  |   ... |  3.7
  Salt beef (Girardin)            | 49.1 | 29.6  | 0.2 |   ... | 21.1
  Salt pork (Girardin)            | 44.1 | 26.1  | 7.  |   ... | 22.8
  Fat pork (Letheby)              | 39.  |  9.8  |48.9 |   ... |  2.3
  Bacon (salted and smoked)       |      |       |     |       |
  (Letheby)                       | 15.  |  8.8  |73.3 |   ... |  2.9
  Fish (Letheby)                  | 78.  | 18.1  | 2.9 |   ... |  1.
  Poultry, less bone ¹⁄₆ (Letheby)| 74.  | 21.   | 3.8 |   ... |  1.2
  Butter                          |  6.  |   .3  |91.  |   ... |  2.5
  Eggs (less ¹⁄₁₀ for shell)      | 73.5 | 13.5  |11.6 |   ... |  1.
  Cheese                          | 36.8 | 33.5  |24.3 |   ... |  5.4
  Bread (wheat, average quality)  | 40.  |  8.   | 1.5 | 49.2  |  1.3
  Biscuit, hard                   |  8.  | 15.6  | 1.3 | 73.4  |  1.7
  Wheat flour (average)           | 15.  | 11.   | 2.  | 70.3  |  1.7
  Rice                            | 10.  |  5.   | 0.8 | 83.2  |   .5
  Oatmeal                         | 15.  | 12.6  | 5.6 | 63.   |  3.
  Cornmeal                        | 13.5 | 10.   | 6.7 | 64.5  |  1.4
  Peas (dry)                      | 15.  | 22.   | 2.  | 53.   |  2.4
  Beans (dry)                     | 16.  | 22.5  | 2.2 | 49.9  |  4.7
  Potatoes, Irish                 | 74.  |  1.5  | 0.1 | 23.4  |  1.
  Potatoes, sweet                 | 70.2 |  1.5  | 0.3 | 23.5  |  2.9
  Yams                            | 74.  |  2.   | 0.5 | 16.2  |  1.3
  Carrots                         | 85.  |   .6  | 0.25|  8.4  |   .7
  Parsnips                        | 82.4 |  1.125| 0.54|  6.39 |  1.
  Turnips                         | 90.5 |  1.1  | ... |  4.   |   .5
  Cabbage                         | 91.  |   .2  | 0.5 |  5.8  |   .7
  Milk (average)                  | 88.3 |  3.5  | 3.1 |  4.5  |   .5
  Cream                           | 66.  |  2.7  |26.7 |  2.8  |  1.8
  Sugar                           |  3.  |  ...  | ... | 96.5  |   .5
  --------------------------------+------+-------+-----+-------+------

=Foot.= The foot-soldiers; the infantry, usually designated as the foot,
in distinction from the cavalry.

=Foot.= To gain or lose ground foot by foot, is to do it regularly and
resolutely; defending everything to the utmost extremity, or forcing it
by dint of art or labor.

=Foot Artillery.= Artillery troops serving on foot. Heavy artillery.

=Foot-band.= A band of infantry.

=Foot-bank.= See BANQUETTE.

=Foot-boards.= The transverse boards on the front of a limber, on which
the cannoneers rest their feet when mounted.

=Foot-fight.= A conflict by persons on foot; in opposition to a fight on
horseback.

=Foot Guards.= Guards of infantry. The flower of the British infantry,
and the garrison ordinarily of the metropolis, comprise 3 regiments, the
Grenadier, Coldstream, and Scots Fusilier Guards, in all 7 battalions,
and 6307 officers and men of all ranks.

=Footing.= To be on the same footing with another, is to be under the
same circumstances in point of service; to have the same number of men,
and the same pay, etc.

=Footman.= A soldier who marches and fights on foot.

=Foot-pound.= In mechanics, is the unit of work. It is simply a
contraction for “one pound raised through a height of one foot.” See
WORK.

=Foot-soldier.= A soldier that serves on foot.

=Foot-ton.= In England the power of modern ordnance is estimated by the
energy of the shot in foot-tons, divided by the number of inches in the
shot’s circumference. The formula for calculating it is

         _WV_²
  _E_ = -------
        2π_r.g_

in which _W_ is the weight of the shot in tons (English), _V_ is the
velocity, 2π_r_, the circumference of the shot in inches, and _g_ the
force of gravity;

  _WV_²
  -----
   _g_

is the living force of the shot, and is equal to twice the quantity of
work it is capable of doing. This divided by the circumference gives a
very fair estimate of its power in penetrating armor, as the resistance
to penetration increases with the size of the projectile. This unit is
also used to estimate the resisting power of armor-plating against shots
of various sizes.

=Forage.= The hay, corn, fodder, and oats required for the subsistence
of the animals in the army. The allowance of forage in the U. S. army is
fixed by regulations at 14 pounds of hay and 12 of grain to each horse,
and 14 pounds of hay and 9 of grain to each mule in the public service.
Generals, field-officers, staff-officers, and cavalry officers receive
forage for a certain number of private horses while actually kept in
service.

=Forage.= To collect supplies both for man and beast, from an enemy by
force, from friends by impressment, but giving to friends receipts, to
be paid ultimately.

=Forage Cap.= A small low cap worn by soldiers when not in full dress.

=Forage-master.= See WAGON-MASTER.

=Foragers.= A detachment of soldiers who forage or collect stores for an
army.

=Foraging.= Is properly the collection of forage or other supplies
systematically in towns or villages, or going with an escort to cut
nourishment for horses in fields. Such operations frequently lead to
engagements with the enemy. Foraging parties are furnished with
reaping-hooks and cords. The men promptly dismount, make bundles with
which they load their horses, and are prepared for anything that may
follow. The word foraging is sometimes inaccurately used for marauding.

=Forbach.= A small town of France, in the department of the Moselle, now
a part of German Lorraine. It was occupied by the Prussians, January 10,
1814. During the Franco-Prussian war it was taken by the German generals
Von Goeben and Von Steinmetz, after a fierce contest, in which the
French were defeated and compelled to retreat, August 6, 1870.

=Forcat.= A rest for a musket in ancient times.

=Force.= In its military application, signifies an army of all
branches,--artillery, cavalry, and infantry. It is sometimes used in the
plural number, but with the same signification; as, “commander of the
forces;” and occasionally we find the word used in another sense, thus,
“He is in great force.” To force, in broadsword exercise, is to break an
adversary’s sword-guard, and either wound him or expose him to a wound.

=Force.= To obtain or win by strength; to take by violence or struggle;
specifically, to capture by assault; to storm, as a fortress. Also to
impel, drive, wrest, extort, get, etc., by main strength or violence;
with a following adverb, as _along_, _away_, _from_, _into_, _through_,
_out_, etc.

=Force.= To provide with forces; to reinforce; to strengthen by
soldiers; to garrison.

=Force of Gravity.= The force by virtue of which all terrestrial bodies
fall to the earth when unsupported. As a terrestrial force it may be
considered constant for the same place, but as it is practically the
resultant of the earth’s attraction and the centrifugal force arising
from its rotation, and as the earth is neither homogeneous nor a perfect
sphere, it will vary slightly with the latitude, being greatest at the
poles and least on the equator, and it will also vary in an
insignificant degree from place to place in the same latitude. Gravity
is distinguished in dynamics as the only constant force with which we
have to do. It differs also from all others in this, that its measure is
independent of mass. Other forces are measured by the product of the
mass moved into the velocity imparted in the unit of time; but as
gravity impresses the same velocity upon all masses, great or small,
mass is properly omitted in its measure. The velocity impressed by it
during each second of its action, or the _acceleration_, is about
32.1808 feet in latitude 45°, about 32.0977 at the equator, and 32.2629
at the poles. This number in gunnery is indicated by the algebraic
symbol _g_. Its exact value at any place is best determined by the
length of the simple second’s pendulum at that place. The value for _g_
for bodies falling in the air is very nearly true for dense substances
presenting small surfaces, when the fall is limited by a few seconds.
For the ordinary time of flight of projectiles it can be used without
material error.

=Force, To.= To force an enemy to give battle, is to render the
situation of an enemy so hazardous, that whether he attempts to quit his
position, or endeavors to keep it, his capture or destruction must be
equally inevitable. In either of such desperate cases, a bold and
determined general will not wait to be attacked, but resolutely advance
and give battle, especially if circumstances should combine to deprive
him of the means of honorable capitulation. To _force_ a passage, is to
oblige your enemy to retire from his fastnesses, and to open a way into
the country which he had occupied. This may be done either by _coup de
main_, or renewal of assaults. In either case, the advancing body should
be well supported and its flanks be secured with the most jealous
attention.

=Forced.= Exerted to the utmost; urged; hence, strained, urged to
excessive or unnatural action; as, a forced march.

=Forces, Effective.= All the efficient parts of an army that may be
brought into action are called effective, and generally consist of
artillery, cavalry, and infantry, with their necessary appendages, such
as hospital staff, wagon-train, etc. Effective forces of a country; all
the disposable strength, vigor, and activity of any armed proportion of
native or territorial population. The navy of a country must be looked
upon as part of the effective force of the country, to which is added
the marines.

=Forcing.= The operation of making a bullet take the grooves of a rifle.
This was formerly effected in various ways, by flattening the bullet in
its seat with the ramrod, by using a patch, etc. (See PROJECTILES,
BULLETS.) The term is not much used at the present day.

=Ford.= A place in a river or other water where it may be passed by man
or beast on foot, or by wading. A ford should not be deeper than 3 feet
for infantry, 4 feet for cavalry, and 2¹⁄₂ feet for artillery. These
limits must be lessened if the stream be swift. A bottom of large stones
is bad for cavalry and impracticable for carriages; gravel is the best
bottom; a sandy bottom, though good at first, is apt to deepen when many
troops pass.

=Ford.= To pass or cross, as a river or other water, by treading or
walking on the bottom; to pass through by wading; to wade through.

=Fordable.= Capable of being waded or passed through on foot, as water.

=Fording.= The act of passing over a ford.

=Fore.= In advance; at the front; in the part that precedes or goes
first.

=Fore-arm.= To arm or prepare for attack or resistance before the time
of need.

=Fore-fence.= Defense in front. The term is now obsolete.

=Forefront.= The foremost part or place; as, the forefront of the
battle.

=Foreign.= Not of one’s country; not native; alien; from abroad.

=Foreign Enlistment Act.= 59 Geo. III. c. 69 (1819), forbids British
subjects to enter the service of a foreign state, without license from
the king or privy council, and also the fitting out or equipping ships
for any foreign power to be employed against any power with which the
British government is at peace. In 1606 Englishmen were forbidden to
enter foreign service without taking an oath not to be reconciled to the
pope. The act was suspended in 1835 on behalf of the British Legion.

=Foreign Legion.= Foreigners have frequently been employed as
auxiliaries in the pay of the British government. An act (18 & 19 Vict.
c. 2) for the formation of a Foreign Legion as a contingent in the
Russian war (1855) was passed December 23, 1854. On the peace, in 1856,
many of the Foreign Legion were sent to the Cape of Good Hope.

=Foreign Service.= In a general sense, means every service but home. In
a more confined and native acceptation of the term, it signifies any
service done out of the United States or the depending territories.

=Foreland.= In fortification, a piece of ground between the wall of a
place and the moat.

=Fore Rank.= The first rank; the front.

=Fore-spurrer.= One who rode before. This term is now obsolete.

=Foreward.= The van; the front.

=Forfeit.= To render oneself by misdeeds liable to be deprived of; as, a
soldier forfeits pay by sentence of court-martial for offenses
committed.

=Forge.= Every field-battery is provided with a forge. It consists,
besides the limber, of a frame-work, on which are fixed the bellows,
fire-place, etc. Behind the bellows is placed the coal-box, which has to
be removed before the bellows can be put in position. In the limber-box
are placed the smith’s tools, horseshoes, nails, and spare parts (iron)
of carriages, harness, etc. The weight of the forge equipped for
field-service is 3383 pounds for the battery, and 3370 pounds for the
reserve. A forge for red-hot shot is a place where the balls are made
red-hot before they are fired off. It is built about 5 or 6 feet below
the surface of the ground, of strong brick-work, and an iron grate, upon
which the balls are laid, with a very large fire under them.

=Forlorn Hope.= Officers and soldiers who generally volunteer for
enterprises of great danger, such as leading the attack when storming a
fortress, etc. Formerly it was applied to the advanced guard before the
enemy, even on a march. See ENFANS PERDUS.

=Form.= To form, in a general acceptation of the term, is to assume or
produce any shape or figure, extent or depth of line or column, by means
of prescribed rules in military movements or dispositions. To _form on_
is to advance forward, so as to connect yourself with any given object
of formation, and to lengthen the line.

=Formation of Troops.= The term formation is applied to that particular
arrangement of the troops composing any unit, when this latter is ready
for battle, or is prepared to execute a movement.

That portion of the formation on the side towards the enemy is called
the _front_; the side opposite to the front is termed the _rear_; the
lateral extremities are called _flanks_.

Any row of soldiers placed parallel to the front is called a _rank_; a
row perpendicular to the front is called a _file_; the number of ranks
measures the _depth_ of the formation.

Troops drawn up so as to show an extended front, with slight depth, are
said to be _deployed_; when the depth is considerable and the front
comparatively small, they are said to be in _ployed_ formation. See
ORDER, ORDER OF BATTLE, CONCAVE, ORDER OF BATTLE, CONVEX.

=Formers.= Are round pieces of wood that are fitted to the diameter of
the bore of a gun, round which the cartridge-paper, parchment, lead, or
cotton is rolled before it is served.

=Formigny.= A village of France, in the department of Calvados, 10 miles
northwest from Bayeux, where a battle was fought in 1450, between the
French and English, the latter being defeated, and thereby forced to
abandon Normandy.

=Formosa.= An island in the China Sea belonging to China. The Dutch
became masters of it in 1632, but they were expelled by the pirate
Coxinga, whose successors ruled it till 1683. It was invaded by the
Japanese in 1874, to avenge the murder of some of their people.

=Fornova= (Parma, Italy). Near here Charles VIII. of France defeated the
Italians, July 6, 1495.

=Fort.= Technically applied to an inclosed work of the higher class of
field fortification; but the word is often used in military works much
more loosely.

=Fort Adams.= A fortification situated on Brenton’s Point, 1 mile west
of the town of Newport, R. I., and commanding the entrance to the
harbor. It was first garrisoned in 1841, and is established on the old
fort which formerly occupied the position.

=Fort Adjutant.= In the British service, is an officer holding an
appointment in a fortress,--where the garrison is often composed of
drafts from different corps,--analogous to that of adjutant in a
regiment. He is responsible to the commandant for the internal
discipline, and the assignment of the necessary duties to particular
corps. Fort adjutants are staff-officers, and receive additional pay.

=Fort Ann.= A village of Washington Co., N. Y., on the Champlain Canal.
A fortification, from which the place derives its name, was erected here
during the wars with the French, in 1756. It was captured from the
Americans about 1779.

=Fort Barrancas.= Situated on the north side of the entrance to
Pensacola harbor, and has been occupied since October 24, 1820, when it
was ceded by Spain to the United States. During the civil war it was
captured by the Confederates (1861), and held by them until the
following year.

=Fort Caswell.= An old brick work situated on Oak Island, at the mouth
of Cape Fear River, North Carolina. On the outbreak of civil war it fell
into the hands of the Confederates, who held it until the fall of Fort
Fisher, in 1865.

=Fort Columbus.= See GOVERNOR’S ISLAND.

=Fort Constitution.= Is situated in Portsmouth harbor, N. H. It was
established in 1808, and garrisoned by U. S. troops; but as early as
1806 the post was occupied. It consisted of an earthwork, built by the
English government, and named William and Mary. A new work was commenced
in 1863, having its foundation outside the old one.

=Fort Covington.= A village of Franklin Co., N. Y., on Salmon River,
about 18 miles northwest of Malone. Here the American army suffered
greatly during the winter of 1813-14.

=Fort Delaware.= A casemated fort on Pea Patch Island, in the Delaware
River. It was a military prison during the civil war.

=Fort Donelson.= See DONELSON, FORT.

=Fort Duquesne.= See PITTSBURG.

=Fort Erie.= In Upper Canada; this fort was taken by the American
general Browne, June 3, 1814. After several conflicts it was evacuated
by the Americans, November 5, 1814.

=Fort Fairfield.= A village of Aroostook Co., Me. It contains a barrack,
and is chiefly interesting from its having been a military post during
our trouble with England in 1839.

=Fort Fisher.= A strong earthwork on the east side of Cape Fear River,
about 20 miles south of Wilmington, N. C., and one of the principal
defenses of that port. On December 24-25, 1864, the forces of Gen.
Butler attempted to take it, but unsuccessfully; but on January 15,
1865, it was taken by storm by the Union army and navy, and over 2000
Confederate prisoners and 169 pieces of artillery were captured.

=Fort George.= A fortification in Inverness, Scotland, on the extremity
of a low peninsula, projecting upwards of a mile into the Moray Firth.
It has barracks for about 3000 men, and is the most complete
fortification in Great Britain.

=Fort George.= See FORT WILLIAM HENRY.

=Fort Griswold.= An old Revolutionary fort near New London, Conn. The
traitor Arnold massacred the garrison and burned the town in 1781.

=Fort Hamilton.= A strong fortification on the Narrows, defending the
entrance of New York harbor.

=Fort Independence.= A fortification on Castle Island, in Boston harbor,
Mass., which forms one of the defenses of the harbor. It was commenced
in 1833, and completed in 1851.

=Fort Jackson.= A fort on the right bank of the Mississippi River, about
80 miles below New Orleans. On April 18, 1802, Admiral Farragut, then
captain, commenced the bombardment of this fort and Fort St. Philip on
the opposite bank of the river, and after six days’ and nights’
continuous firing, succeeded in passing with his fleet; and destroying
the Confederate flotilla, the forts surrendered.

=Fort La Fayette.= A fort surrounded by water in the Narrows, at the
entrance of New York harbor, immediately in front of Fort Hamilton. It
was used during the civil war as a prison. This fort was recently
destroyed by fire.

=Fort Lee.= A village of Bergen Co., N. J., on the Hudson River, at the
foot of the Palisades. It was once a noted military post, and was
captured by the British in 1776.

=Fort McAllister.= See MCALLISTER, FORT.

=Fort McHenry.= Is situated on Whetstone Point, a peninsula formed by
the junction of the northwest branch of the Patapsco with the main
river, about 3 miles from Baltimore, Md. The site was first occupied as
a military post by the erection of a water-battery in 1775 for the
defense of the town. In 1794 the fort was repaired, and a star or
pentagon fort of brick-work added, when it was ceded to the United
States and called by its present name.

=Fort Mackinaw.= See MACKINAW.

=Fort Macon.= Situated on the eastern extremity of Bogue Banks, near
Beaufort harbor, N. C. It was surrendered to Gen. Burnside after a siege
of about two weeks, in which he was aided by the blockading gunboats,
April 25, 1862.

=Fort-Major.= A commandant of a fort in the absence of the governor.
Officers employed as fort-majors, if under the rank of captains, take
rank and precedence as the junior captains in the garrisons in which
they are serving. He is a staff-officer.

=Fort Marion.= At St. Augustine, Fla.; was erected by the Spaniards more
than 100 years ago, and formerly called the Castle of St. Mark.

=Fort Mifflin.= Is one of the old Revolutionary fortresses, situated
near the junction of the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers. It is one of
the defenses of the city of Philadelphia.

=Fort Monroe.= A massive work of granite surrounded by a moat, situated
at Old Point Comfort, Elizabeth City Co., Va. It was established in
1818, in which year a reservation of about 250 acres for defensive
purposes was here ceded to the United States by the State of Virginia.
It is the largest military work in the United States, and during the
civil war was an important naval rendezvous. The artillery school of the
army is established at this post.

=Fort Morgan.= Situated at the entrance to anchorage in Mobile Bay, on
the site of the old Fort Bowyer, which bore such an important part in
the war of 1812-15, the Americans under Maj. Lawrence having here
repulsed with great loss a combined land and sea attack of the British
and their Indian allies, September 15, 1814.

=Fort Moultrie.= One of the defenses of Charleston harbor, S. C., on the
west shore of Sullivan’s Island, about 5 miles east-southeast of
Charleston. It received its name in honor of Col. Moultrie, an officer
of the Revolution, who here successfully resisted an attack from 9
British vessels in 1776. It was abandoned by the Federal troops in
December, 1860, and was seized by the Confederates, who fired from it
some of the first shots of the civil war. It has been garrisoned by
U. S. troops since the close of the war.

=Fort Niagara.= On the right bank of the Niagara River, in the county of
the same name, in the State of New York. It was established by La Salle
in 1678; captured by the British under Sir William Johnson in 1759;
surrendered to and occupied by the United States in 1796. In the war of
1812-15 it was but feebly garrisoned, and on December 19, 1813, a force
of 1200 British crossed the river, and took it by surprise, killing 65
of the garrison.

=Fort Ninety-Six.= A stockaded fort which was situated in Abbeville
District, 6 miles from the Saluda River. It received its name from being
96 miles from the frontier fort Prince George, on the Keowee River. This
fort was the scene of many exciting events during the Revolutionary war.
With a garrison of about 350 Tories under Lieut.-Col. John Cruger, it
was besieged by the Americans under Gen. Greene for twenty-seven days,
May-June, 1781; but just as his efforts were about to be crowned with
success, Gen. Greene was obliged to retreat, to avoid falling into the
hands of a vastly superior British force, which was coming to relieve
the beleaguered garrison.

=Fort Ontario.= An inclosed work on the west bank of Oswego River, built
in 1755, on the site of Fort Oswego. Here were the scenes of many
stirring events in the wars between France and England, and of a
skirmish in 1814.

=Fort Pickens.= A fort on Santa Rosa Island, Pensacola harbor, Fla.
Lieut. A. J. Slemmer in January, 1861, after evacuating Fort Barrancas,
held this post against the Confederates until reinforced.

=Fort Pillow.= In Lauderdale Co., Tenn., by land about 40 miles north of
Memphis. It was erected by the Confederates during the civil war. It
was bombarded by Federal gunboats, and evacuated by the Confederates,
June 4, 1862. On April 12, 1864, it was captured by the Confederates,
when took place an indiscriminate slaughter of the negro troops
garrisoned there.

=Fort Plain.= A Revolutionary fortress, which was situated near the
junction of Osquaga Creek and the Mohawk, in Montgomery Co., N. Y. For a
while it was an important fortress, affording protection to the people
in the neighborhood, and forming a key to the communication with the
Schoharie, Cherry Valley, and Unadilla settlements. On August 21, 1780,
a party of 500 Tories and Indians marched up within cannon-shot of this
fort, burned 53 dwellings and as many barns, destroyed the crops, and
carried off everything of value. Sixteen of the inhabitants were slain,
and between 50 and 60 persons, chiefly women and children, were taken
prisoners.

=Fort Pulaski.= Located on Cockspur Island, at the head of Tybee Roads,
commanding both channels of the Savannah River. It was named after a
Polish patriot who fought in the American war of the Revolution, and
died in consequence of wounds received in the attack on Savannah,
October, 1779. During the civil war, being in possession of the
Confederates, it surrendered to the Federals under Gen. Hunter, April
10, 1862.

=Fort Schuyler.= An old Revolutionary fort, which occupied the site of
old Fort Stanwix, and was built on the present site of Rome, N. Y. It is
celebrated in early American history as among the strongest forts on the
then northern frontier.

=Fort St. David.= A town of Hindostan, on the sea-coast of the Carnatic,
situated on the river Tripapalore. After the capture of Madras by the
French in 1746, the English were besieged here without success; and from
this period it continued the head of the English settlements till 1758,
when it was taken by Lally, after a short siege, and the fortifications
were destroyed.

=Fort St. Philip.= Situated on the left or north bank of the Mississippi
River, nearly opposite Fort Jackson (which see).

=Fort Sumter.= A fort celebrated in the annals of the civil war. It is
situated on a small island in Charleston harbor, S. C., between 3 and 4
miles from the city. April 12-13, 1861, it was bombarded and captured by
the Confederates, who thus inaugurated the civil war. It was reduced to
a ruinous condition during the siege of Charleston, in the summer of
1863, but was held by the Confederates until February 18, 1865.

=Fort Taylor.= An inclosed casemated pentagonal brick-work in Key West
harbor, Fla., commenced 1845.

=Fort Trumbull.= Situated in the harbor of New London, Conn., on the
west side of the Thames River. It is an inclosed work, and was commenced
in 1839.

=Fort Wadsworth.= A permanent fortification on Staten Island, west of
the Narrows, commanding the entrance on that side of New York harbor,
distant from Fort Hamilton 1 mile.

=Fort Wagner.= See MORRIS ISLAND.

=Fort Washington.= A strong earthwork erected during the Revolutionary
war upon the highest eminence on Manhattan Island, at a point now
between 181st and 186th Streets, New York City. During the Revolutionary
war it fell into the hands of the English, and nearly 3000 Americans
were captured.

=Fort Wayne.= A U. S. fortification in Wayne Co., Mich., just below
Detroit. It is intended to command the navigation of the Detroit River.

=Fort William Henry.= A Revolutionary fort near the head of Lake George,
N. Y. During the wars of the colonies it was captured by the French and
Indians in 1757.

=Fort Winthrop.= One of the defenses of Boston harbor, Mass., on
Governor’s Island, the former site of old Fort Warren. It is a small
inclosed quadrangular work, with exterior open barbette batteries;
commenced 1844.

=Fort Wood.= On Bedloe’s Island, New York harbor, and in the city of New
York, 1¹⁄₂ miles southwest of the Battery. It was erected in 1841, and
mounted 71 guns.

=Fort Wool.= A large unfinished inclosed casemated work or “rip-rap”
foundation, formerly called Fort Calhoun, designed for the defense of
Hampton Roads, Va.

=Fortalice.= A small outwork of a fortification; a fortilage;--called
also _fortelace_.

=Forted.= Furnished with or guarded by forts; strengthened or defended,
as by forts.

=Forth.= The ancient name for ford.

=Forth Mountains.= A range in the county of Wexford, Ireland, celebrated
for being the rendezvous of 15,000 insurgents, who, in 1798, met here
previous to the attack and capture of the town of Wexford.

=Fortifiable.= Capable of being fortified.

=Fortification.= Is the art of fortifying a town, or other place; or of
putting it in such a posture of defense that every one of its parts
defends, and is defended by some other parts, by means of ramparts,
parapets, ditches, and other outworks; to the end that a small number of
men within may be able to defend themselves for a considerable time
against the assaults of a numerous army without; so that the enemy in
attacking them must of necessity suffer great loss. There are various
kinds of fortification, as _defensive_ and _offensive_, _natural_,
_artificial_, and _permanent_. _Defensive fortification_ is the art of
surrounding a place by works so disposed as to render it capable of a
lasting defense against a besieging army. _Offensive fortification_
comprehends the various works employed in conducting a siege. _Natural
fortification_ consists of those obstacles which nature affords to
retard the progress of an enemy; such as woods, deep ravines, rocks,
marshes, etc. _Artificial fortification_ is that which is raised by
human ingenuity to aid the natural advantages of the ground, or supply
its deficiencies. It is divided into _permanent_ and _field
fortification_. _Permanent fortification_ is intended for the defense of
towns, frontiers, and seaports, and is constructed of durable materials
in time of peace; while _field fortification_ being raised only for the
temporary purpose of protecting troops in the field, its materials are
those afforded by local circumstances and a limited time. For the
principal parts of a regular fortress, see BANQUETTE, BASTION,
BATARDEAU, BERM, CAPONNIERE, CAVALIER, CITADEL, CORDON, COUNTERSCARP,
COVERED WAY, CROWN-WORK, CUNETTE, CURTAIN, DITCH, EMBRASURES, ENCEINTE,
ENVELOPE, EPAULEMENT, ESCARP, ESPLANADE, FACES, FLANK, FLÈCHE, or ARROW,
FRAISES, GLACIS, HORNWORK, LINES, LOOP-HOLES, LUNETTES and TENAILLONS,
OUTWORKS, PALISADES, PARALLELS, or PLACES OF ARMS, PARAPET, RAMPS,
RAMPART, RAVELIN, REDAN, REDOUBT, REVETMENT, SALLYPORTS, SLOPE INTERIOR,
STAR FORT, TENAILLE, TERRE-PLEIN, TÊTES DE PONT, TRAVERSES, ZIGZAGS, or
BOYAUX OF COMMUNICATION.

=Fortification, Elementary.= By some likewise called the theory of
fortification, consists in tracing the plans and profiles of a
fortification on paper, with scales and compasses; and examining the
systems proposed by different authors, in order to discover their
advantages and disadvantages.

=Fortification, Front of.= Consists of all the works constructed upon
any one side of a regular polygon, whether placed within or without the
exterior side. Some authors give a more limited sense to the term “front
of fortification,” by confining it to two half bastions joined by a
curtain.

=Fortification, Irregular.= Is that in which, from the nature of the
ground or other causes, the several works have not their due proportions
according to rule; irregularity, however, does not necessarily imply
weakness.

=Fortification, Practical.= Consists in forming a project of a
fortification, according to the nature of the ground, and other
necessary circumstances, to trace it on the ground, and to execute the
project, together with all the military buildings, such as magazines,
storehouses, barracks, bridges, etc.

=Fortification, Regular.= Is that in which the works are constructed on
a regular polygon, and which has its corresponding parts equal to each
other.

=Fortification, Semi-permanent.= During the civil war in America,
1861-65, it became necessary to construct strong fortifications for
large cities in a short time. These circumstances gave rise to a new
kind of fortification combining certain of the arrangements of both
permanent and field works, which were called semi-permanent works.

=Fortified.= Strengthened and secured by forts.

=Fortify.= To strengthen and secure by forts, batteries, and other works
of art; to render defensible against an attack by hostile forces, or
capable of standing a siege.

=Fortilage.= A little fort; a block-house. Now obsolete.

=Fortin.= A little fort; a field fort; a sconce; a fortlet. Now
obsolete.

=Fortlet.= A little fort.

=Fortress.= Is a fortified city or town, or any piece of ground so
strongly fortified as to be capable of resisting an attack carried on
against it, according to rule. Also, as a verb, to furnish with
fortresses; to guard; to fortify.

=Forward.= A word of command given when troops are to resume their march
after a temporary interruption.

=Fosseway.= One of the military Roman roads in England, so called from
the ditches on both sides.

=Fotheringay.= A village of England, in Northamptonshire. Richard III.
was born in the castle of this place, and Mary, queen of Scots, was
imprisoned and executed here. James I. razed it to the ground after his
accession to the throne.

=Foucade=, or =Fougade=. A small mine.

=Fougasses.= A description of small mines, constructed in front of the
weakest parts of a fortification, as the salient angles and faces not
defended by a cross-fire.

=Fougass Shell.= A row of loaded shells in a box divided into two
compartments. The lower compartment is filled with powder. The box is
only just covered by the earth. The fougass is fired by a fuze,
electricity, or a tube which explodes when trodden upon.

=Fougass, Stone.= A sort of natural mortar formed by an excavation in
the ground. At the bottom of the excavation is placed the charge in a
box, over this comes a shield of wood, and over that again is placed
about 5 cubic yards of stones, each of which should weigh not less than
1 pound. The excavation is in the shape of a frustrum of a cone, and
makes an angle of about 40° with the horizon. The charge is about 80
pounds of powder, and the stones will fall over a parallelogram about
110 yards by 120 yards.

=Fougeres.= A town and parish of France, 28 miles northeast from Rennes.
This town was the scene of many engagements between the English and the
French, from the 11th to the 15th centuries.

=Fougette= (_Fr._). An Indian sky-rocket, a species of firework which is
frequently used by the Asiatics. It is made of the hollow tube of the
bamboo, of a very large size, filled with the usual composition of
rockets. The rod is only a part of the same bamboo, the greater part of
which is cut away.

=Foughard.= Near Armagh, Northern Ireland. Here Edward, brother of
Robert Bruce, after invading Ireland in 1315, was defeated by Sir John
Bermingham in 1318. Bruce was killed by Roger de Maupis, a burgess of
Dundalk.

=Fouiller= (_Fr._). To search. In a military sense, it signifies to
detach small bodies of infantry round the flanks of a column that is
marching through a wood, for the purpose of discovering an ambuscade,
and of giving timely notice that it may be avoided. The same precaution
is necessary when a body of men advance towards or enter a village.

=Fouling.= The action of gunpowder in dirtying the bore of a gun. Cannon
for this and other reasons are sponged after each round.

=Foundation.= In military architecture, is that part of a building which
is underground, or the mass of stone, brick, etc., which supports a
building, or upon which the walls of a superstructure are raised; or it
is the coffer or bed dug below the level of the ground to raise a
building upon.

=Founder.= A person who casts cannon, etc.

=Foundery.= In military matters, the art of casting all kinds of
ordnance, such as cannon, mortars, etc.

=Foundry.= A place for casting all kinds of ordnance; a foundery.

=Four.= A place of confinement in Paris to which vagabonds and persons
who could not give any satisfactory account of themselves were
committed; and when once shut up had their names registered, and were
enlisted for the old French government. These Fours added annually 2000
men at least to the king’s regular army; by which means the capital was
relieved of a multitude of thieves, pickpockets, etc.

=Fourage= (_Fr._). Forage; in the artillery, it is used figuratively to
signify hay, straw, or anything else of vegetable growth, which is used
to ram into the bore of a cannon for the purpose of cleansing it.

=Fourager= (_Fr._). To forage, or look about for provender and
provisions. It likewise means among the French to ravage, desolate,
pillage, and waste a country for the purpose of throwing the inhabitants
into disorder. The word is derived from _foras agere_, or to seek for
forage in the field.

=Fourier= (_Fr._). A quartermaster belonging to a cavalry or infantry
regiment. In France there were _fouriers-majors_ who composed a part of
the cavalry stall. _Sergeant-fourier_ and _corporal-fourier_ answer to
our quartermaster-sergeant.

=Fourniment= (_Fr._). A horn formerly used, which held about 1 pound of
gunpowder to prime cannon. It was likewise used by cavalry and infantry
soldiers, who slung it across their shoulders. The artillerists kept it
in a belt.

=Fowley.= A decayed seaport town of England, in the county of Cornwall,
at the mouth of a small river of the same name. It became famous in the
old French wars, and in 1347 sent 37 tall ships to the siege of Calais.
It was burned by the French in 1457.

=Fowling-piece.= A term sometimes applied to shot-guns of large caliber
and great power, for shooting ducks, geese, and other large birds.

=Fox.= The old English broadsword.

=Fox Indians.= A tribe of American aborigines of the Algonkin stock,
associated with the Sacs. They formerly dwelt in the southern part of
Iowa, but now occupy lands in Indian Territory. See INDIANS AND THEIR
AGENCIES.

=Fraisers= (_Fr._). To plait, knead, or drill. In a military sense to
fraise or fence; as, _fraiser un battalion_, is to fraise or fence all
the infantrymen with pikes, to oppose the irruption of cavalry, should
it charge them in a plain. At present it means to secure a battalion by
opposing bayonets obliquely forward, or crossways in such a manner as to
render it impossible for horsemen to act against it.

=Fraises.= Rows of palisades planted horizontally, or nearly so, as at
the edge of a ditch, or on the steep exterior of a parapet. Fraises are
generally 7 or 8 feet long, and about 5 inches thick. When an army
intrenches itself, the parapets of the retrenchment are often fraised in
the parts exposed to an attack. To _fraise a battalion_ is to line or
cover it every way with bayonets, that it may withstand the shock of a
body of horse.

=France.= A country of Western Europe, which was known to the Romans by
the name of Gaul (which see). In the decline of their power it was
conquered by the Franks, a people of Germany, then inhabiting Franconia,
where they became known about 240. These invaders gave the name to the
kingdom (_Franken-ric_, Frank’s Kingdom); but the Gauls, being by far
the more numerous, are the real ancestors of the modern French. For
details of important events in France, see separate articles.

=Franches= (_Fr._). _Les compagnies franches_, free companies, were
bodies of men detached and separated from the rest of the army, having
each a chief, or commandant. They consisted chiefly of dragoons,
hussars, etc., and their peculiar duty was to make irruptions into an
enemy’s country. They may not improperly be called land-pirates, as
their chief occupation was to harass and plunder the enemy and his
adherents, in whatever manner they could, without paying any regard to
military forms. The persons who composed these corps were termed
partisans. They always accompanied the main army in time of war, and
were distributed among the different garrison towns in France during
peace. They were common to every power in Europe; the Pandours and
Hulans were of this description. They were the worst afflictions of war;
and generally as fatal to their friends as to their enemies.

=Francisque= (_Fr._). A battle-axe; an ancient weapon formed like an
axe, used principally by the Franks.

=Franco-Prussian War.= The origin of this dreadful series of sanguinary
conflicts is ascribed to the jealousy of the emperor of the French of
the greatly increased power of Prussia, in consequence of the
successful issue of the war with Denmark in 1864, and more especially
of that with Austria in 1866. By these events the German Confederation
was annulled, and the North German Confederation established under the
supremacy of the king of Prussia, whose territories were also enlarged
by the annexation of Hanover, Hesse-Casel, Nassau, Frankfort, and other
provinces. This great augmentation of the power of Prussia was mainly
due to the policy of Count Bismarck-Schönhausen, prime minister. In
March, 1857, a dispute arose through the emperor’s proposals for the
purchase of Luxemburg of the king of Holland, which was strongly opposed
by Prussia, but the affair was eventually settled, by a conference of
the representatives of the great powers declaring Luxemburg neutral.
Both governments, however, had prepared for the impending struggle, and
the crisis came when Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
consented to become a candidate for the throne of Spain, about July 3,
1870. This was violently denounced by the French government, and
eventually, after some negotiation and the intervention of Great
Britain, the prince, with the consent of his sovereign, declined the
proffered crown. This submission did not satisfy the French government
and nation, and the demand for a guarantee against the repetition of
such an acceptance irritated the Prussian government, and led to the
termination of the negotiations. War was declared by the emperor July
15, 1870, and actually commenced about July 23. It did not end until
January 27, 1871, and France was overrun by the victorious Prussians and
their auxiliaries. On May 10, 1871, a definitive treaty of peace was
concluded at Frankfort-on-the-Main, and on account of the rapid payment
of the war expenses the last German soldier left French soil in July,
1873. For important battles and engagements during the war, see separate
articles.

=Franconia= (Ger. _Franken_). An old duchy, afterwards a circle of the
Germanic empire, between Upper Saxony, the Upper and Lower Rhine,
Swabia, Bavaria, and Bohemia. Since 1806, it has been divided between
the grand duchies of Baden and Hesse, and the kingdoms of Bavaria and
Saxony.

=Franc-Tireurs.= Literally free-shooters, a name given to French
soldiers during the Crimean war, who were stationed as sharpshooters. In
the republican wars the name was also given to certain corps of light
infantry. During the Franco-German war the name was also applied to a
class of combatants among the French, who carried on a partisan warfare.

=Frankfort-on-the-Main.= A city of Prussia, province of Hesse-Nassau, to
which it was annexed in 1866. It is situated on the right bank of the
Main. Said to have been a free city in 1174, and suffered much by the
wars of France. It was entered by the Prussians, who exacted heavy
supplies, July 16, 1866.

=Frankfort-on-the-Oder.= A well-built town of Prussia, capital of the
province of Brandenburg, 48 miles southeast from Berlin. It suffered
much from marauders in the Middle Ages, and in the Thirty Years’ War.
Near Frankfort, on August 12, 1759, Frederick of Prussia was defeated by
the Russians and Austrians. See CUNNERSDORF.

=Franklin.= In the southern part of Tennessee, near the boundary-line of
Alabama. A severe engagement took place here between the Union and
Confederate forces under Gens. Schofield and Hood respectively, November
30, 1864.

=Franks.= A name given to a combination of the Northwestern German
tribes about 240, which invaded Gaul and other parts of the empire with
various success.

=Fraser Gun.= See ORDNANCE, WOOLWICH GUN.

=Fraud.= See APPENDIX, ARTICLES OF WAR, 60.

=Fray.= Affray; combat; duel; broil; contest.

=Frazier’s Farm, Battle of.= See GLENDALE.

=Fredericia.= A fortified town of Denmark, in Jutland, on the Little
Belt. It was besieged and taken by Prussia in 1864.

=Fredericksburg.= A city of Spottsylvania Co., Va., on the south bank of
the Rappahannock River. On December 10, 1862, Gen. Burnside and the
Federal army of the Potomac crossed the small deep river of the
Rappahannock. On December 11, Fredericksburg was bombarded by the
Federals and destroyed. On the 13th commenced a series of most desperate
yet unsuccessful attacks on the Confederate works, defended by Gens.
Lee, Jackson, Longstreet, and others. Gen. Hooker crossed the river with
reserves, and joined in the conflict in vain. The Federal army recrossed
the Rappahannock December 15 and 16. This battle was one of the severest
of the war. Fredericksburg was the scene of several bloody battles
during the civil war.

=Frederickshald.= A town of Norway, at the influx of the Tistedals-elf
into the Idefiord, 55 miles southeast from Christiania. Charles XII. of
Sweden was killed here in the trenches before the fortress of
Fredericksteen, on December 11, 1718.

=Frederickshamm=, or =Hamina=. A fortified town of Finland. The treaty
which ceded Finland to Russia was signed here in 1809.

=Freebooter.= One who wanders about for plunder; a robber; a pillager; a
plunderer.

=Freebootery.= The act, practice, or gains of a freebooter; freebooting.

=Freebooting.= Robbery; plunder; a pillaging. Also acting the
freebooter; practicing the freebooter; robbing.

=Freehold.= A village, the capital of Monmouth Co., N. J. Near here was
fought the battle of Monmouth, June 28, 1778.

=Free-lances.= Were roving companies of knights and men-at-arms, who,
after the Crusades had ceased to give them employment, wandered from
state to state, selling their services to any lord who was willing to
purchase their aid in the perpetual feuds of the Middle Ages. They
played their most prominent part in Italy, where they were known as
_Condottieri_ (which see).

=Fregellæ= (_Fregellanus_; now _Ceprano_). An ancient and important town
of the Volsci, on the Liris, in Latium, conquered by the Romans, and
colonized 328 B.C. It took part with the allies in the Social war, and
was destroyed by Opimius.

=Fregosa=, or =Fregose= (in the plural _Fregosi_). A Genoese family,
which in the 14th century gained distinction among the popular party,
and by their rivalry with the Adorni occasioned frequent civil wars.
Fregoso (Domenico), became doge of Genoa in 1370. He conquered the isle
of Cyprus and was deposed in 1378. Pietro was a brother of the
preceding; he commanded the armament which conquered Cyprus in 1373, and
in 1393 was elected doge. Thomas was elected doge in 1415; being
attacked by Alfonso of Aragon and the Duke of Milan, he made a brave
resistance, and was forced to retire from Genoa in 1421. Pietro was
elected in 1450, and for eight years maintained his power against
Alfonso of Aragon and the Adorni; he was killed in an attempt to expel
the French from Genoa in 1459. There were several other doges of this
family in Genoa.

=Fréjus.= A town of France, in the department of the Var, 45 miles
northeast from Toulon. It was here that Bonaparte landed on his return
from Egypt in the autumn of 1799; and here also he disembarked after his
escape from Elba in 1814.

=French Fury, The.= A name given, in history, to the attempt made by the
Duke of Anjou to carry Antwerp by storm, January 17, 1583. The whole of
his force was either killed or taken captive in less than an hour.

=Frenchtown.= In Canada; it was taken from the British by the American
general Winchester, January 22, 1813, during the second war with the
United States. It was retaken by the British forces under Gen. Proctor
January 24, and the American commander and troops were made prisoners.

=French Projectile.= See PROJECTILE.

=Fréteval.= A town of France, in the department of Loir-et-Cher, 9 miles
northeast from Vendôme. In 1194 the army of Philip Augustus was defeated
here by the English.

=Friction Plates.= Plates used to check the recoil of guns. See RECOIL
and ELSWICK COMPRESSOR.

=Friction Primer.= In gunnery, consists of a short tube of metal
inserted into a hole near the top of a larger tube, and soldered in that
position. The short tube is lined with a composition made by mixing
together one part of chlorate of potassa and two of sulphuret of
antimony, formed into a paste with gum-water. A serrated wire passes
through the short tube and hole opposite to it in the side of the long
one, the open end of the short tube being compressed with nippers, and
the wire at the end of the serrated part doubled under to prevent
displacement. The other end of the wire is doubled and twisted by
machinery. The long tube is filled with rifle-powder, its upper end
being covered with shellac-varnish blackened with lamp-black, and its
lower end closed with shoemaker’s wax and dipped into varnish. One great
advantage of the friction tube is that it gives an enemy at night no
clue to the position of a piece as does the lighted port-fire or
slow-match.

=Friedland.= A town of East Prussia, in the circle of Königsberg, on the
Alle. This place is famous for being the scene of the battle gained by
Napoleon I. over the Russians and Prussians on June 14, 1807, and which
led to the peace of Tilsit.

=Frill.= Was an ornamental appendage to the shirt which officers and
soldiers generally wore with regimentals. A small aperture was usually
made at the top to admit the hook and eye of the uniform coat. Enlisted
men generally wore frills detached from the coat.

=Frisians.= Were an ancient Teutonic race, dwelling together with the
_Batavi_, the _Bructeri_, and the _Chauci_, in the extreme northwest of
Germany, between the mouths of the Rhine and Ems. They became
tributaries of Rome under Drusus, and for a time remained faithful to
the Roman alliance; but, in 28, they were driven to hostilities by the
oppression of their protectors, and although partially subdued, they
again rose against the Romans under Civilis. They were defeated and
compelled to embrace Christianity in 689 and 785.

=Frisrutter.= An instrument made of iron, and used for the purpose of
blocking up a haven or a river. The beams through which the upright bars
pass must be 12 feet in length, and the upright bars that go through the
beam must be of that length so that when one of these iron _frisrutters_
is let down into a haven or river, the perpendicular bars of this iron
instrument shall be deep enough to reach at high water within 5 feet of
the surface.

=Friuli.= An old province of Italy, belonging to Venice; made a duchy by
Alboin the Lombard, when he established his kingdom about 570. It was
conquered by Charlemagne; and Henri, a Frenchman, made duke, who was
assassinated in 799. It was conquered by Venice in 1420.

=Frock.= In the British service, the undress regimental coat of the
guards, artillery, and royal marines.

=Frogged.= A term used in regard to uniforms, and applied to stripes or
workings of braid or lace, as ornaments, mostly on the breast, on the
plain cloth of which a coat is made.

=Fronde= (_Fr._). A sling. This weapon was used in France by the
Huguenots at Sancerre, as late as the year 1572, in order to save their
powder. There were two kinds: one which was used in throwing a stone
from the arm, and the other that was fixed to a lever, and was so
contrived that a large quantity of stones might be thrown out of a
machine, either from a camp into a besieged town, or from a town into
the enemy’s camp. This machine has been used since the invention of
cannon. The fronde or sling was used by the Romans on three different
occasions, viz.: when they sent their light-armed men, called _velites_,
forward to skirmish before a general engagement; when they wished to
drive the enemy from under the walls of a town which they were preparing
to storm, and finally to harass and wound the men in the enemy’s works.
This weapon, in fact, together with the bow and arrow, may be numbered
among the primitive arms of mankind.

=Fronde, Civil Wars of the.= These occurred in France in the minority of
Louis XIV. (1648-53), during the government of the queen, Anne of
Austria, and Cardinal Mazarin, between the followers of the court and
the nobility, and the Parliament and the citizens. The latter were
called _Frondeurs_ (_slingers_), it is said, from an incident in a
street quarrel.

=Front.= A word of command signifying that the men are to face to their
proper front; also to cast their eyes to the front after dressing.

=Front.= The foremost rank of a battalion, squadron, or any other body
of men. The _front of a gun_ is the direction in which the muzzle
points; but when a field-piece is limbered, its front is the direction
in which the pole points. The _front of a work_ or fortification is the
side it presents to the enemy. The _front of an army_, except in
retreating, is the side towards the enemy. A column is said to be _right
in front_ when it is formed by facing or wheeling to the right.

=Front, Bastioned.= A curtain connecting two half bastions.

=Front of Operations.= See STRATEGY.

=Frontal.= A front piece; something worn on the forehead or face; or the
metal face-guard of a soldier.

=Fronted.= Formed with a front; as, fronted brigades.

=Frontier.= That part of a country which fronts or faces another
country; the marches; the border, confines, or extreme part of a
country, bordering on another country; hence, a fortified or guarded
position. Also, lying on the exterior part; as, a frontier town.
Acquired on a frontier; as, frontier experience.

=Frontiera.= A town of Portugal, in the province of Alemtejo, 15 miles
from Estremos. The Spaniards were defeated here in 1663 by the
Portuguese under Schomberg.

=Froschweiler.= See WORTH.

=Frumentarius.= A Roman soldier, whose duty was to bring supplies of
provisions to the army, and the earliest notice of all hostile
movements. They were also, under the Roman empire, officers who acted as
spies in the provinces, and reported to the emperor whatever seemed
worthy of note. They appear to have derived this appellation from their
gathering news in the same way that the Frumentarii or purveyors
collected corn.

=Fuel.= The matter or aliment of fire; anything capable of ignition.
There is a certain allowance of fuel made by government to regiments and
companies. Officers in the U. S. army, at the present time, buy their
fuel; in other countries it is furnished.

=Fuente-la-Higuera.= A city of Spain, in the province of Valencia. At
this place Jourdan, Soult, and Suchet, after the rout of Salamanca, met
with their retreating forces, and held a council how best to get back
into France, when Ballesteros, by refusing to obey Wellington’s order,
opened the way for them to Madrid, in October, 1812.

=Fuenterabia.= A very ancient city of Spain, in the province of
Guipuzcoa. The Prince of Condé was repulsed here by the admiral of
Castile, 1638. In 1794 the French completely dismantled the place.

=Fuentes de Onore.= A small town of Spain, 16 miles from Ciudad Rodrigo.
It was the scene of some sharp fighting in May, 1811, between the French
and the British.

=Fugitive.= One who flees from his station or duty; a deserter; one who
flees from danger. One who has fled or deserted and taken refuge under
another power, or one who has fled from punishment.

=Fugleman= (an incorrect method of pronouncing _flugelman_). A
well-drilled intelligent soldier advanced in front of the line, to give
the time in the manual and platoon exercises. The word _flugel_ is
derived from the Germans, and signifies a wing; the man having been
originally posted on the right wing.

=Fulcrum.= A cast-iron post at the breech of large cannon used as a
support for an iron bar in giving elevations; called also _ratchet
post_.

=Full Charges.= The charges of powder required in actual service.

=Full Pay.= The full amount of an officer’s regimental pay. When an
officer receives that he is said to be on full pay.

=Full Pay, Retired.= In the British service, an officer of 30 years’
full pay is permitted to retire on the full pay of his regimental rank,
with a rank one step higher than that which he holds by brevet or
otherwise.

=Full Sap.= See SAP.

=Full Uniform.= See DRESS UNIFORM.

=Fulminate.= A salt of fulminic acid. Fulminate of mercury is the most
useful. It explodes readily by percussion, by a heat of 367° Fahr., when
touched with strong sulphuric or nitric acid, by sparks from flint and
steel and by the electric spark. It is used for percussion-caps,
primers, fuzes, etc. From its peculiar power to produce detonations it
is the detonating agent for modern blasting powders, containing
nitro-glycerine, also, for gun-cotton. _Detonating caps_, or
_exploders_, are copper caps containing from 3 to 25 grains of the
fulminate. In ordinary blasting, where the tube fuze is used, the cap is
placed on the end of the fuze and crimped around it. The cap is then
buried a short distance in the blasting charge, or cartridge. See
EXPLOSIVES.

=Fumigation.= To correct and purify an infectious or confined
atmosphere, such as is often found in transports, fumigations are
necessary. The materials recommended for the purpose are brimstone with
saw-dust; or nitre with vitriolic acid; or common salt with the same
acid.

=Fund.= There are several kinds of funds in the U. S. service, viz.:
post fund, which is constituted by the troops baking their own bread and
thereby saving 33¹⁄₃ per cent., the difference between bread and flour;
the post trader also pays an assessment of 10 cents a month for every
officer and soldier in the garrison, which is carried to the credit of
the fund. This fund is used to defray expenses of the post bakery,
garden, school, library and reading-room, chapel, printing-press, etc.
Fifty per cent. of the post fund, after deducting expenses of the
bakery, is set aside and transferred to the regimental treasurer; this
constitutes a regimental fund, which is appropriated exclusively for the
maintenance of a band, and, when a regiment does not have access to a
post library, for the purchase of books and papers. The savings arising
from an economical use of rations of the company (excepting the savings
of flour) constitute the company fund, which is kept in the hands of the
company commander, and disbursed by him _exclusively for the benefit of
the enlisted men of the company_, as follows: For enlisted men’s mess,
for garden seeds and utensils, for purchase of books, papers, etc., when
the company does not have access to a post library or reading-room, and
for such exercise and amusements as may be, in the judgment of the
commanding officer, for the benefit or comfort of the enlisted men of
the company.

=Funeral Honors.= If an officer dies when on duty with his regiment, or
engaged on staff employ, he is buried with military honors. His hat,
epaulettes, and sword are placed upon the coffin, soldiers support it,
and officers bear the pall; the troops march at a slow and solemn pace,
with arms reversed; the drums are muffled; the band plays the dead
march; and after the body has been lowered into the grave, a party of
infantry, cavalry, or artillery, fire three volleys over it, and then
retire. The strength of the funeral party, as it is called, depends upon
the rank of the deceased. Artillery officers are sometimes honored by
discharges of cannon. When a cavalry officer is buried his horse follows
the _cortege_. When the funeral of an officer entitled, when living, to
a salute, takes place at or near a military post, minute-guns are fired
while the remains are being borne to the place of interment; but the
number of such guns is not to exceed that which the officer was entitled
to as a salute when living. After the remains are deposited in the
grave, a salute corresponding to the rank of the deceased officer will
be fired,--three salvos of artillery, or three volleys of musketry.

In the event of a flag-officer of the navy, whether of the United States
or of a foreign country, dying afloat, and the remains are brought
ashore, minute-guns are fired from the ship while the body is being
conveyed to the shore. If it be in the vicinity of a military post, the
flag of the latter is displayed at half-staff, and minute-guns are fired
from the post while the procession is moving from the landing-place.
These minute-guns are not to exceed in number that which the officer was
entitled to, as a salute, when living. During the funeral of a civil
functionary entitled, when living, to a salute, the flag is displayed at
half-staff, and minute-guns fired as before; but neither salutes nor
salvos are fired after the remains are deposited in the grave. On the
death of an officer at a military post, the flag is displayed at
half-staff, and kept so, between the hours of reveille and retreat,
until the last salvo or volley is fired over the grave, or if the
remains are not interred at the post, until they are removed therefrom.
Funeral honors are likewise accorded to enlisted men. During the funeral
of an enlisted man, the flag is displayed at half-staff, and is hoisted
to the top after the final volley or gun is fired. All military posts in
sight, or within 6 miles of each other, display their flags at
half-staff upon the occasion of either one doing so. The same rule is
observed toward a vessel-of-war.

On all occasions where the flag is displayed at half-staff, it is
_lowered_ to that position from the top of the staff. It is afterwards
_hoisted_ to the top _before_ being finally lowered.

=Furl, To.= In regard to military colors, is opposed to their exposure;
and is used to express the act of folding them so as to be cased.

=Furlough.= The term is usually applied to the absence with leave of
non-commissioned officers and other enlisted men, and may be granted at
the discretion of the commanding officer.

=Furlough.= To furnish with a furlough; to grant leave of absence.

=Furnace.= In mining, signifies a hollow or excavation which is made in
the earth and is charged with gunpowder, for the purpose of blowing up a
rock, wall, or any part of a fortification.

=Furnish.= To provide; to equip; as, to furnish one with arms for
defense.

=Furniture.= In a military sense, applies to certain articles which are
allowed in barracks, to which are added household utensils, etc. Horse
furniture, are ornaments and embellishments which are adopted by
military men when they are mounted for service or parade, consisting
chiefly of housings, saddle-cloth, etc.

=Furruckabad.= A fortified town, and capital of a district of the same
name, in the province of Agra, Hindustan, about a mile from the Ganges.
Lord Lake defeated Holkar at this place in 1804.

=Fürth.= A town of Franconia, situated at the confluence of the Rezat
and Pegnitz, 4 miles northwest from Nuremberg. In 1632 a battle was
fought here between Gustavus Adolphus and Wallenstein, in which the
latter had the advantage.

=Fuse.= See FUZE.

=Fusil.= A light musket; a steel which strikes fire out of a flint; a
tinder-box; the piece of steel which covers the pan of a fire-arm.

=Fusil à Chevalets.= A species of fusils upon rests, which was
recommended by Marshal Vauban, to be used at the commencement of a
siege, about 50 or 100 toises in front of the glacis, at the entrances
of narrow passages, etc.

=Fusiliers.= In the British service, were formerly soldiers armed with a
lighter fusil or musket than the rest of the army; but at present all
regiments of foot carry the same rifle. Fusilier is therefore simply a
historical title borne by a few regiments. The royal regiment of Scotch
Fusiliers was raised in 1678; the royal regiment of Welsh Fusiliers was
raised in 1685, and another royal regiment of Welsh Fusiliers was raised
in 1688-89. It is always presumed that these corps like the guards
possess an _esprit de corps_, which is peculiar to themselves. The
Fusilier regiments never had any ensigns, their junior officers ranked
as second lieutenants, taking precedence of all ensigns, and the 7th or
Royal Fusiliers have no second lieutenants, so that their junior
officers rank with the rest of the army according to the date of their
several commissions, as lieutenants. Fusilier regiments wear a bear-skin
head-dress. Among the French when pikes were in use, each regiment had
only 4 fusiliers, exclusive of 10 grenadiers, who carried the fusil or
musket. Among the French there was a distinct regiment of fusiliers
under the immediate command of the master of the ordnance.

=Fusillade.= A simultaneous discharge of fire-arms in a military
exercise; as, a grand fusillade. To shoot down by a simultaneous
discharge of fire-arms. “Fusillade them all.”

=Fusils à l’Eppe= (_Fr._). Fusils with long bayonets, shaped like a
cut-and-thrust sword. These weapons were recommended as extremely useful
in the rear rank of a battalion, or in detached bodies that are
stationed for the defense of baggage, etc.

=Fusils, Mousquets= (_Fr._). A sort of fusil which was invented by
Marshal Vauban, and which was so contrived that in case the flint did
not strike fire, the powder might be inflamed by means of a small match
which was fixed to the breech.

=Fustuarium.= In Roman antiquity, a method of inflicting capital
punishment upon any soldier guilty of theft, desertion, or similar
crimes. When the accused had been found guilty he was made to stand in
front of the legion to which he belonged. One of the tribunes then
touched him lightly with a stick, and all the soldiers immediately
rushed upon the criminal and beat him to death with clubs (fustes). If
he escaped--as he was allowed to do if he could, but which was rarely if
ever possible--he was forbidden ever to return to his native country,
and his nearest relatives were not allowed to receive him into their
houses. This method of capital punishment continued to be enforced even
under the empire.

=Futtehghur.= A town of Hindostan, British district of Furruckabad, on
the western bank of the Ganges. In the vicinity is the British military
cantonment. Holkar, the Mahratta chief, appeared before the place in
1804, and was preparing for the assault of the fort, when the arrival of
the British army under Lord Lake drove him into precipitate flight.

=Fuyard= (_Fr._). A runaway; a coward. _Un corps fuyard_, a regiment
that has been in the habit of running away.

=Fuze.= In gunnery, is a contrivance for igniting the bursting charge in
a hollow projectile at any point of its flight. The simplest
classification of fuzes is the _time fuze_, the _percussion fuze_, and
the _concussion fuze_, which are usually defined as follows:

FUZE, CONCUSSION. Is a fuze that is operated by the shock of discharge,
or the shock of impact, excluding direct percussion effects. It is
especially applicable to hollow spherical projectiles. The usual
difference between the concussion and percussion fuze is, that the
former explodes no matter what point of the projectile strikes, whereas
the latter requires the projectile to strike at or near the front end;
but these are exceptions to the rule.

FUZE, PERCUSSION. As shown below, is a fuze that receives no flame from
the charge in the gun, but at the moment of impact a flame is generated
by means of fulminates, which produces the explosion of the charge in
the shell. Most varieties of this fuze consist essentially of a brass or
pewter _fuze-plug_, or case which contains an iron or steel _plunger_
terminating in a nipple which carries a common percussion-cap; the
_plunger_ is held in its place at the lower end of the fuze-plug by a
collar-screw, wire, or other device; when the projectile strikes the
plunger breaks loose, and by its inertia is driven forward with such
force as to explode the cap and ignite the charge. This form of fuze is
used for rifle-shells.

FUZE, TIME. This fuze is composed of a case of paper, wood, or metal,
inclosing a column of burning composition ignited by the charge in the
gun; it burns for a certain time, at the end of which the flame is
communicated to the bursting charge of the projectile. This fuze is used
for both shells and case-shot.

=Fuze, Blasting.= A fuze used to fire charges in mines and quarries. It
consists usually of a flexible tube filled with a slow-burning
composition. The tube is made of various materials, and is usually
waterproof. In Beckford’s fuze the composition is encased in flax, which
is covered with gutta-percha, and wound with varnished tape. This fuze
is used extensively in England.

=Fuze-Composition.= See LABORATORY STORES.

=Fuze, Electric.= A fuze ignited by the passage of an electric current.
It is used for firing torpedoes, for the simultaneous discharge of guns
and charges in mining. The principle used is the heating of the wire by
the current at a point of resistance. The point of resistance is called
the _bridge_. Being surrounded by a priming of powder or other
explosive, its sudden heating causes ignition in the fuze. The _bridge_
is made in various ways,--by connecting the current wires by a fine
platinum wire; by passing the current through a chemical mixture
rendered conducting by containing a salt of copper; also by filing the
main wire nearly in two, and rubbing the cut with a lead-pencil.

=Fuze-implements.= Are the fuze-cutter, fuze-setter, fuze-mallet,
fuze-saw, etc. See IMPLEMENTS.

=Fuze, Safety.= A name given to a blasting fuze filled with
quick-burning composition, but sufficiently long to be ignited at a safe
distance from the charge.

=Fuze, Tape.= So called from its shape. May be quick or slow burning.

=Fuzes, Combination.= Are fuzes combining the principles of the simple
fuzes. The term is specially applied to _time-percussion_ fuzes, which
are so arranged as to burst either at the end of a certain time or upon
striking the object. No very exact classification of fuzes has ever been
made. If we consider all the operations necessary to the action of the
fuze, only certain time fuzes can be considered simple. Concussion fuzes
usually depend for their action upon some operation which takes place
between the discharge and the time of impact, which bestows a character
of sensitiveness which would, if existing at the time of loading, make
them too dangerous to handle. Percussion fuzes, also, must have a
similar supplementary operation, but this usually takes place at the
time of discharge, or upon impact. It is by this means that the
safety-pin, screw, or wire holding the plunger is removed or broken. For
these reasons these fuzes are ordinarily _time-concussion_ and
_concussion-percussion_, respectively. A fuze, however, usually takes
its name from the immediate cause of the explosion. If this is due to
the explosion of a fulminate by a direct blow, it is a percussion fuze.
If the shock acts in a different way, it is called concussion. If the
explosion takes place at the end of a given time, we have a time fuze.
There are also fuzes which may be called _centrifugal-percussion_,
_concussion-chemical_, _concussion-friction_, etc., examples of which
will be given. It is readily seen that it is difficult to make a
classification which will cover all the ingenious devices which have
been invented.

The simplest time fuze is one which is ignited by the flame of
discharge. In the U. S. field and siege service the paper fuze is used
for rifle projectiles, both shells and case-shot, and in the field
service the Bormann for spherical. For larger spherical projectiles, the
paper case is inclosed in a hollow plug of wood, as in mortar-shells,
and in a brass plug in the sea-coast service. In the latter the outer
end of the plug is closed with a brass cap having a crooked chaume, to
prevent the burning composition from being extinguished in striking
water. In the U. S. service percussion fuzes are used only for
rifle-shells. The fuze ordinarily employed is, strictly speaking, a
_concussion-percussion_, since the safety wire must be ruptured by the
shock of impact before the cap can be exploded.

The time fuze already described can be used in smooth-bore guns and in
muzzle-loading rifles; but in breech-loading guns or guns without
windage, the fuze composition cannot be ignited directly by the flame of
discharge,--one of the strongest arguments in favor of muzzle-loaders.
The time fuze for breech-loading guns is ignited by an interior
contrivance, usually a plunger and cap; it is, consequently, a
_percussion-time_ fuze. Such is the nature of the _Armstrong time fuze_
and the time fuzes used in Germany and Russia. Time fuzes are absolutely
necessary to the successful use of case-shot or shrapnel, which must be
burst in the air. The latest invention in time fuzes is the substitution
of clock-work for the column of burning composition as a time-keeper,--a
Yankee idea which has not yet received any official recognition, or been
subjected to public test.

The Boxer fuze, used extensively in England, is a time fuze consisting
of a column of composition driven in a wooden plug, which is closed at
the lower end. In some forms of the fuze small longitudinal channels
filled with rifle-powder communicate with the bursting charge. The
time-scale is a row of holes in the side of the plug, one of which is
bored through to the composition in setting the fuze. The flame
communicates with the charge either through the side hole directly, or
by the side channels downwards through the end of the plug. Two kinds of
fuzes are used,--the _simple time fuze_ for muzzle-loaders, and the
_percussion-time_ for breech-loaders.

The Splingard fuze, invented by Captain Splingard, of the Belgian
service, is a good example of a _time-concussion_ fuze. It consists of
a column of pure composition surrounding a hollow spindle of plaster of
Paris. The composition is ignited by the flame of discharge, and burns
away, leaving the spindle unsupported. When the projectile strikes, the
part of the spindle above the unburned composition breaks off, and the
flame fires the bursting charge through the hole in the stump. If the
spindle fails to break, the charge is fired when the entire column has
been consumed. This fuze is specially applicable to spherical
projectiles.

The concussion fuze formerly used in Prussia was a
_time-concussion-chemical_ fuze. The burning of a column of composition
left a glass tube containing sulphuric acid to be broken, by a lead
ball, by the shock of impact. The acid coming in contact with a mixture
of chlorate potash, sulphur, and white sugar, produced a flame which
fired the bursting charge.

The _Beebe concussion fuze_ for spherical projectiles, invented by
Captain Beebe, U. S. Ordnance Corps, was a _concussion-friction_ fuze. A
contrivance equivalent to a friction-primer buried in the
bursting-charge, and offering great resistance to motion in the powder,
was fired by the sudden movement of an attached weight upon impact. The
shock of discharge also played a part in detaching the fuze from the
fuze-plug.

The _German percussion fuze_, now commonly used in Krupp guns, may be
called _centrifugal-percussion_. The safety-pin passes through a hole
from the outside of the shell. This pin is thrown out by the rotation of
the shot, leaving but slight resistances to the motion of the plunger.

In the English _cap-percussion fuze_ the corresponding safety-pin is
pulled out by a tape by hand just before loading.

The _Pettman general service fuze_, used in England, is a _percussion_
fuze of unusual form, equally applicable to spherical or oblong
projectiles. It consists, essentially, of a hollow screw-plug containing
a ball covered with detonating composition, which is freed from its
bearings by the shock of discharge, and explodes the shell upon impact
by striking the walls surrounding it. The detonating ball sometimes
fails in breech-loading guns, the motion of the projectiles being too
steady to shake it out of its seat. For this reason a _plain_ ball, as
it is called, is placed in the upper part of the fuze, and held between
two disks. These separate upon discharge, and the ball is thrown
outwards by the rotation opposite an annular groove in the lower plug or
disk filled with fulminate, which is exploded upon impact, the lower
plug being driven against the ball by its inertia. This fuze is,
properly, a _concussion-percussion_ fuze.

=Fyroz=, or =Feroze= (written also _Ferose_, _Firoz_, _Firouz_,
_Feyrouz_, and _Firuz_). A Persian word signifying “victorious,” and
forming the name of several ruling kings in Persia and Hindostan.



G.


=Gabion.= A kind of basket made of osier twigs, of a cylindrical form,
having different dimensions, according to the purpose for which it is
used. Filled with earth, these gabions serve in sieges to carry on the
approaches under cover, when the assailants come near the fortification.
Batteries are often made of gabions, which likewise serve for revetments
in constructing parapets of loose earth.

=Gabionage.= Gabions when used for fortification.

=Gabionnade.= A work hastily thrown up; especially, one formed chiefly
of gabions. A _parapet en gabionnade_ is a parapet constructed of
gabions.

=Gabions, Corrugated Iron.= Are gabions made of corrugated iron. For
this purpose, the corrugated sheet should be 6 feet long, 33 inches
wide, and of iron weighing three-quarters of a pound to the square foot.

The corrugations running transversely, the sheet is easily bent into a
cylindrical form, in which it is retained by two clamps, the holes for
which are punched near the corners of the sheet. The chief advantage
claimed for the corrugated over the hoop gabion is, the readiness with
which it can be put together in the field. It is also rather more
portable, and stakes are dispensed with; but it is inferior to the hoop
gabion in stiffness.

=Gad.= The point of a spear, or an arrowhead; a steel spike on the
knuckle of a gauntlet.

=Gadaru= (_Fr._). A very broad Turkish sabre.

=Gadling.= A spike or sharp-pointed boss on the knuckle of a gauntlet; a
gad.

=Gaeta.= A strongly fortified maritime town of the Neapolitan province
of Terra di Lavoro, 40 miles northwest from Naples. It is one of the
strongest places in the kingdom, and its harbor is the same as it was in
the time of the Romans. In 1799 and in 1806 it was taken by the French,
and in 1849 Pope Pius IX. sought an asylum here. When Garibaldi took
possession of Naples for Victor Emmanuel in September, 1860, Francis
II., the last Bourbon king of Naples, took refuge in Gaeta, and remained
until the town was taken by Gen. Cialdini, in February, 1861, after a
siege of several weeks’ duration.

=Gætulia.= An ancient country of Africa, situated south of Mauritania
and Numidia, and embracing the western part of the desert of Sahara. Its
inhabitants belonged to the great aboriginal Berber family of North and
Northwestern Africa. They were a savage and warlike race, and their
first collision with the Romans was during the Jugurthine war, when they
served as light horse in the army of the Numidian king. Cornelius Cossus
Lentulus led a force against them, and for his success obtained a
triumph and the surname of _Gætulicus_. The ancient Gætulians are
believed to be represented in modern times by the Tuaricks.

=Gaffles.= The steel lever with which the ancients bent their
cross-bows.

=Gage.= A challenge to combat; that is, a gauntlet, glove, cap, or the
like, cast on the ground by the challenger, and taken up by the acceptor
of the challenge.

=Gages= (_Fr._). Wages. Among the French this term signified the fruits
or compensations which were derived by individuals from appointments
given by the crown, whether of a military, civil, or judicial nature, or
for service done at sea or by land.

=Gain.= To conquer; to get the better; as, we gained the day, etc. To
_gain ground_, implies to take up the ground which a retiring enemy
vacates.

=Gaine de Flamme= (_Fr._). A sort of linen sheath or cover, into which
the staff of a flag or pendant is put.

=Gaine de Pavillon= (_Fr._). A cloth or linen band, which is sewed
across the flag, and through which the different ribbons are interlaced.

=Gaines’s Mill.= In Hanover Co., Va., about 20 miles northeast of
Richmond. Here, on June 27, 1862, was fought one of the “seven days’
contests” between the Confederate forces under Gen. Lee and the Federals
under Gen. McClellan, in which the latter were victorious.

=Gain-pain.= Bread-gainer; a term applied in the Middle Ages to the
sword of a hired soldier.

=Gaiters.= A sort of cover for the leg, usually made of cloth, and are
either long, as reaching to the knee, or short, as only reaching just
above the ankle; the latter are termed half-gaiters, and are worn by
infantry soldiers in Europe.

=Galatia.= An ancient province of Asia Minor; in the 3d century B.C.,
the Gauls under Brennus invaded Greece, crossed the Hellespont, and
conquered Troas, 278; were checked by Attalus in a battle about 239; and
then settled in what was called afterwards Gallogræcia and Galatia. The
country was ravaged by Cn. Manlius, 189 B.C., and was finally annexed to
the Roman empire, 25 B.C.

=Galatone.= A very ancient town in the south of Italy, in the province
of Otranto, about 9 miles northeast of Gallipoli. In the struggle
between Joanna, queen of Naples, and Alfonso, Galatone having declared
for the former, was besieged by Alfonso, and its ramparts destroyed.

=Galea.= Among the Romans, a light casque, head-piece, or morion, coming
down to the shoulders, and commonly of brass; though Camillus, according
to Plutarch, ordered those of his army to be of iron, as being the
stronger metal.

=Galeated.= Covered, as with a helmet.

=Galet= (_Fr._). A round stone thrown from a sling or bow.

=Galicia.= A province of Northwest Spain, was conquered by D. Junius
Brutus, 136 B.C., and by the Vandals, 419, and was subdued by successive
invaders.

=Galicia.= A kingdom or province of the Austrian empire, which formerly
constituted a part of Poland. East Galicia was acquired by the emperor
of Germany at the partition in 1772; and West Galicia at that of 1795.
The latter was ceded to the grand duchy of Warsaw in 1809; but recovered
by Austria in 1815.

=Gall.= To injure; to harass; to annoy; as, the troops were galled by
the shot of an enemy.

=Gallant.= Noble in bearing or spirit; brave; high-spirited; courageous;
heroic; magnanimous; as, a gallant youth; a gallant officer.

=Gallantly.= In a gallant manner, spirit or bearing; nobly; bravely; as,
to fight gallantly; to defend a place gallantly.

=Gallantry.= Bravery; courageousness; heroism; intrepidity; as, the
troops attacked the fort with great gallantry.

=Gallas.= A warlike race occupying the south and east of Abyssinia. They
first appear in history in the 16th century, when they extended their
conquests from the interior of Africa, laying waste by constant
incursions the countries of Eastern Africa to the mountains of
Abyssinia. Politically they do not form a single nation, but are divided
into numerous tribes, forming separate kingdoms and states, which are
frequently at war with each other.

=Gallery.= An underground passage, whether cut in the soil or built in
masonry; it forms the communication between the inner and exterior works
of a fortified place. When prepared for defense, it is a defensive
gallery. In military mines, galleries are the underground passages
leading to and connecting the mine chambers. _Scarp and counterscarp
galleries_ are covered passages built in the scarp and counterscarp to
give a flanking fire in the ditch.

=Gallery Descent of a Ditch.= Is the term applied when the besiegers
cross the ditch by an underground passage.

=Gallet= (_Fr._). See JALET.

=Galling Fire.= A sustained discharge of cannon or small-arms, which by
its execution greatly annoys the enemy.

=Gallipoli.= An important town and seaport of Turkey in Europe, in the
province of Rumili, is situated on the peninsula of the same name at the
northeast extremity of the Dardanelles, and about 130 miles
west-southwest of Constantinople. It was once fortified, but its only
defense now is a sorry square castle with an old tower. In 1357 the town
was taken by the Turks, and formed the earliest Turkish possessions in
Europe. In 1854 the allied armies of England and France occupied it.

=Gallipoli.= An important commercial seaport of Italy, in the Neapolitan
province of Terra di Otranto. It has a good harbor, and in time of war
is an important position, being strongly protected by fortifications and
a castle. In 450 the town was sacked by the Vandals; in 1284 it was
destroyed and almost depopulated by Charles of Anjou; and during
subsequent centuries suffered severely from the Venetians, French,
Spaniards, and Turks. In 1809 it repulsed an attack from the English
flotilla.

=Gallop.= A mode of running by a quadruped, particularly by a horse, by
lifting alternately the fore feet and the hind feet together, in
successive leaps or bounds. A word of command in the cavalry service.

=Galloper.= A carriage on which very small guns are conveyed, having
shafts on which the gun may be conveyed without a limber. This carriage
is no longer used.

=Gallowglass.= In ancient times, a heavy-armed foot-soldier of Ireland
and the Western Isles.

=Galway.= A seaport town of Ireland, and capital of Galway County. It
was originally surrounded with walls. It was conquered by Richard de
Burgo in 1232; in 1690 the city declared for King James, but was taken
by Gen. Ginckel immediately after the battle of Aughrim, July 12, 1691.

=Gamala.= A town and strong fortress in Palestine, frequently mentioned
by Josephus. Its site, though so remarkable and minutely described, had
been forgotten for nearly 18 centuries; but it has latterly been
identified with _El-Hossn_, which lies to the east of the Sea of
Tiberias, nearly opposite the town. In the Jewish rebellion it revolted
against Agrippa, who besieged it for seven months, but without success.
It was afterwards, however, taken by Vespasian after a spirited
resistance, and an indiscriminate slaughter of the inhabitants took
place, 4000 being put to the sword, and 5000 being said to have thrown
themselves from the walls, and to have been dashed to pieces on the
rocks below.

=Gambado.= A case of leather, formerly used to defend the leg from mud,
and in riding on horseback.

=Gambeson= (_Fr._). A term which the French formerly applied to a coat
of mail that was worn under the cuirass. It was likewise called _cotte
gamboisée_. It was made of two strong cloths interwoven with pointed
worsted.

=Gamelle= (_Fr._). A wooden or earthen bowl formerly used among the
French soldiers for their messes. It generally contained the quantity of
food which was allotted for 3, 5, or 7 men belonging to the same room.
The porridge-pots of the navy were made of wood, and held a certain
allowance. During the monarchy of France, subaltern officers and
volunteers were frequently punished for slight offenses by being sent to
the _gamelle_, and excluded from their regular mess; they were put upon
short allowance according to the nature of their transgression.

=Gantlope= (_Fr._). Corruptly _gauntlet_, from the French _gant_, a
glove. A military punishment, which consisted in passing along the whole
line, and receiving a blow from every man’s iron glove or gauntlet
(_gantelet_). Whips and canes were subsequently used; this mode of
punishment is now obsolete.

=Gaol.= A withe used for binding fascines or securing gabions.

=Gap.= An opening for a passage or entrance; an opening which implies a
breach. _To stand in the gap_, to expose one’s self for the protection
of something; to make defense against any assailing danger. _To stop a
gap_, to secure a weak point; to repair a defect.

=Gap.= A small town of France, capital of the department Hautes Alps. It
was sacked and almost wholly reduced to ashes by Victor Amadeus of Savoy
in 1692.

=Gar.= The general term used by the Saxons for a weapon of war.

=Garamantes.= A Libyan people of the old race called _Amazergh_, who in
ancient times inhabited the largest oasis of the desert of Sahara. When
the Romans became masters of North Africa, they found it necessary to
repress the barbarian tribes, and accordingly Cornelius Balbus Gaditanus
the younger, as pro-consul, was sent against this people. He succeeded
in defeating them, and obtained the honors of a triumph; but, owing to
their nomadic character, he was unable thoroughly to subdue them.

=Garçon-Major= (_Fr._). An officer, so called in the old French service.
He was selected from among the lieutenants of a regiment to assist the
aid-majors in the general details of duty.

=Garda, Lake of.= A lake of Northern Italy, lying between the provinces
of Lombardy and Venice. In 1796 the battle of Rivoli was fought near its
eastern shore, in which Bonaparte defeated Wurmser.

=Gardant.= In heraldry, is said of an animal which is represented
full-faced, and looking forward.

=Garde= (_Fr._). Guard. _Garde de l’armée_, the grand guard of an army.
Guards in the old French service were usually divided into three sorts:
_guards of honor_, _fatigue guard_, and the _general’s guard_. That was
called a _guard of honor_ in which the officers and men were exposed to
danger. A _fatigue guard_ belonging to a garrison or camp. A _general’s
guard_ was mounted before the door or gate of a house in which the
commanding officer resided.

=Garde-General d’Artillerie= (_Fr._). An officer was so called under the
old government of France, who had charge of all the ordnance and stores
belonging to his majesty for the land service. He gave receipts for all
ammunition, etc., and his bills were paid by the treasurer-general of
the army.

=Garde, Imperiale= (_Fr._). See GUARDS, IMPERIAL.

=Garde, Nationale= (_Fr._). See NATIONAL GUARDS.

=Garde Pluie= (_Fr._). Literally means a fence, or cover against rain.
This machine was originally invented by a Frenchman, and submitted to
the Prussians, who adopted it for the use of their infantry. Under the
cover of them, the besieged, or the troops stationed in the posts
attacked, would be able to keep up a brisk and effective discharge of
musketry during the heaviest fall of rain, and thereby silence or
considerably damp the fire of the enemy.

=Gardelegen.= A small town of Prussian Saxony, situated about 30 miles
north-northwest of Magdeburg, on the Milde. It was destroyed by Duke
Dervan in 633, and rebuilt about 924. It remained a free town until
1478.

=Gardens.= In ancient military history, places of resort to practice
military exercises.

=Gardes Blancs= (_Fr._). Were Roman militia, composed of picked men.

=Gardes Costes=, or =Côtes= (_Capitaineries_), Fr. The maritime
divisions, into which France was formerly divided, were so called. Each
division was under the immediate superintendence of a captain, named
_capitaine gardes-costes_, who was assisted by a lieutenant and an
ensign. Their duty was to watch the coast, and to attend minutely to
everything that might affect the safety of the division they had in
charge.

=Gardes de la Porte= (_Fr._). A company so called during the monarchy of
France, and of so ancient a date, indeed, with respect to original
institution, that it appears to have been coeval with it. Mention is
made of the _gardes de la porte_ in the oldest archives or records
belonging to the king’s household, in which service they were employed,
without being responsible to any particular treasurer as other companies
were. This company consisted of 1 captain, 4 lieutenants, and 50 guards.
The captain and officers received their commissions from the king. The
first took an oath of fidelity to the king in person, and received the
bâton from his hands. The duty he did was purely discretionary, and
depended on his own will. The lieutenants served by detachment, and took
their tour of duty every quarter. Their specific service consisted in
guarding the principal gate belonging to the king’s apartments. They
were relieved at night by the body-guards, and delivered the keys to a
brigadier belonging to the Scotch garrison.

=Gardes du Corps= (_Fr._). The body-guards. Under the old French
government, they consisted of a certain number of gentlemen or cavaliers
whose immediate duty was to attend the king’s person. They were divided
into four companies, under as many captains, whose tour of duty came
every quarter. They took rank above the _gens d’armes_ and the king’s
light cavalry. The first and most ancient of the four companies was
called the Scotch company, which was established by Charles VII. of
France in 1423.

=Gardes Françaises= (_Fr._). The French guards. In 1563 Charles IX.,
king of France, raised a regiment for the immediate protection of the
palace. The colonel of the gardes Française was on duty throughout the
year, and was entitled to the _bâton de commandement_ in common with the
four captains of the body-guards. Peculiar privileges were attached to
every officer belonging to this body. No stranger, not even a native of
Strasburg, Savoy, Alsace, or Piedmont, could hold a commission in the
French guards. In the revolution of 1789 they took a very active and
leading part.

=Gardes-magazins= (_Fr._). In the old French service there were two
sorts of magazine guards,--one for the military stores and the other for
the artillery. The first was subject to the grand master, and the second
was appointed by the secretary at war. _Gardes particuliers des magazins
d’artillerie_, officers appointed by the grand master of ordnance for
the specific purpose of attending to the ammunition, etc. Their pay was
in proportion to the quantity of stores with which they were intrusted.

=Gardes Suisses= (_Fr._). A celebrated Swiss corps in the French army,
constituted “Gardes” by royal decree in 1616. They comprised upwards of
2000 men, were always unswerving in their fidelity to the Bourbon kings,
and are chiefly remarkable for their heroic end. On August 10, 1792,
they withstood the Parisian revolutionary mob, and defended the palace
of the Louvre till almost every man was cut down. During the resistance
they offered, the royal family was enabled to escape to such shelter as
the National Assembly afforded. _Gardes Suisses du corps du Roi_, one
hundred Swiss guards who were immediately attached to the king’s person.
They were a select body of men who took an oath of fidelity to the king,
and were formed into a regular troop. But in the last period of the
monarchy of France, the principal duties of the one hundred Swiss guards
consisted in domestic and menial attendance.

=Garigliano.= A river in Southwestern Italy. After long waiting and
refusing to recede a step, the great captain Gonsalvo de Cordova made a
bridge over this river December 27, 1503, and surprised and totally
defeated the French army. Gaeta surrendered a few days after.

=Garland.= A sort of chaplet made of flowers, feathers, and sometimes of
precious stones, worn on the head in the manner of a crown. Both in
ancient and modern times it has been customary to present garlands of
flowers to warriors who have distinguished themselves. A beautiful young
woman was generally selected for that purpose.

=Garlasco.= A market-town of Northern Italy, 24 miles from Novara. The
Austrians, when they invaded Italy in 1849, crossed the Po near this
place.

=Garnished.= In heraldry, any charge is said to be garnished with the
ornaments set on it.

=Garnish-nails.= Diamond-headed nails, formerly used to ornament
artillery carriages.

=Garret.= A turret or battlement. Now obsolete.

=Garreted.= Protected by turrets. Now obsolete.

=Garrison.= A body of troops stationed in a fort or fortified town to
defend it against an enemy, or to keep its inhabitants in subjection. A
strong place, in which troops are quartered for its security. _In
garrison_, in the condition of a garrison; doing duty in a fort or as
one of a garrison. _Garrison town_, is a strong place, in which troops
are quartered and do duty for the security thereof, keeping strong
guards at each post, and a main-guard in or near the market-place. As a
verb it means to place troops in, as in a fortress, for its defense; to
furnish with soldiers; as, to garrison a fort or town. To secure or
defend by fortresses manned with troops; as, to garrison a conquered
territory.

=Garrison Court-martial.= Is a legal tribunal for the examination and
punishment of offenders against martial law, or against good order and
military discipline. It is composed of three members and a
judge-advocate. See COURT-MARTIAL, and TRIAL; also JUDGE-ADVOCATE.

=Garrison Gin.= The largest size gin. See GIN.

=Garrison Guns.= Guns used in fortifications. Fortress guns.

=Garrison des Janissaries= (_Fr._). The _élite_ or flower of the
Janissaries of Constantinople was frequently sent into garrison on the
frontiers of Turkey, or to places where the loyalty of the inhabitants
was doubted. The Janissaries did not indeed assist in the immediate
defense of a besieged town or fortress, but they watched the motions of
all suspected persons, and were subject to the orders of their officers,
who usually commanded the garrison.

=Garter, Order of the.= One of the most ancient and illustrious of the
military orders of knighthood. It was instituted by Edward III. of
England, and dates from about the year 1350, though some writers say
1344. Its origin is variously related. In Rastel’s “Chronicles” it is
stated that this order was devised by Richard I. at the siege of Acre,
when he is said to have caused 26 knights to wear thongs of blue leather
about their legs. But the common account is, that the Countess of
Salisbury happened at a ball to drop her garter, and that the king took
it up and presented it to her, at the same time exclaiming, _Honi soit
qui mal y pense_,--“Evil be to him who evil thinks,” in reference to the
smiles which he observed the action had excited among some of the
bystanders; adding “that shortly they should see that garter advanced to
so high an honor and renown, as to account themselves happy to wear it.”
It is founded in honor of the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, St. Edward
the Confessor, and St. George; but the last, who had become the tutelary
saint of England, was considered its special patron; and for this reason
it has always borne the title of “The Order of St. George,” as well as
of “The Garter,” and those who wore it were called “Knights of St.
George.” The number of knights companions was originally 26, including
the sovereign, who is chief of the order; but in 1786 a statute was
passed to the effect that this number should be irrespective of princes
of the royal family, and illustrious foreigners on whom the honor might
be conferred. The well-known emblem of the order is a dark-blue ribbon
edged with gold, bearing the motto _Honi soit qui mal y pense_ in golden
letters, with a buckle and pendant of gold richly chased, and is worn on
the left leg below the knee. The mantle is of blue velvet, and on the
left breast a star is embroidered. The hood and surcoat are of crimson
velvet, and lined with white taffeta. The hat is of black velvet, with a
plume of white ostrich feathers, in the centre of which there is a tuft
of black herons’ feathers, all fastened to the hat by a band of
diamonds. The collar is of gold, and consists of 26 pieces, each in the
form of a garter. The “George” is the figure of St. George on horseback
encountering the dragon; it is worn to the collar, and there is a lesser
“George” pendent to a broad, dark-blue ribbon over the left shoulder.

=Garter King-of-Arms.= Is the principal king-of-arms in England. Though
held by the same person, they are distinct offices. The first was
instituted for the service of the order of the Garter (which see), not
on its first foundation, but afterwards by Henry V. as sovereign, with
the advice and consent of the knights-companions. The peculiar duty of
Garter king-of-arms is to attend upon the knights at their solemnities,
to intimate their election to those who are chosen by the order, to call
them to be installed at Windsor, to cause their arms to be hung up over
their stalls, and to marshal their funeral processions, and those of
royal personages, and of members of higher nobility. In the capacity of
principal king-of-arms, he grants and confirms arms, under the authority
of the earl marshal, to whom he is not subject as Garter king-of-arms.
All new grants or patents of arms in England are first signed and sealed
by him, and then by the king (of arms) of the province to which the
applicant belongs.

=Gas-check.= The device used in breech-loading cannon to prevent the gas
from escaping at the breech. (See BROADWELL RING and BREECH-LOADING.)
Also a term applied by the English to the soft metal sabot in the rear
of rifled projectiles.

=Gasconade.= To boast; to brag; to vaunt; to bluster. The term was
originally derived from the Gascons, or people of Gascony, in France,
who it seems have been particularly distinguished for extravagant
stories.

=Gasconader.= A great boaster; a blusterer.

=Gascony.= Formerly a district in the southwest of France, situated
between the Bay of Biscay, the river Garonne, and the Western Pyrenees.
It derived its name from the Basques, or Vasques (Lat. _Vascones_), who,
driven by the Visigoths from their own territory on the southern slope
of the Western Pyrenees, crossed to the northern side, and settled here.
In 602, after an obstinate resistance, the Vasques were forced to submit
to the Franks. They now passed under the sovereignty of the dukes of
Aquitania, who for a time were independent of the crown, but were
afterwards conquered by King Pepin, and later by Charlemagne.
Subsequently it became incorporated with Aquitania, and for a time
became part of the English possessions, but was afterwards reconquered
by the French.

=Gastein=, =Badgastein=, or =Wilbad-Gastein=. A village of Austria, 49
miles south of Salzburg. On August 14, 1865, a convention was concluded
here between Austria and Prussia, to make arrangements relative to the
government of the duchies of Sleswick, Holstein, and Lauenburg, which
their combined forces had wrested from Denmark.

=Gate.= A door of strong planks with iron bars to oppose an enemy. Gates
are generally fixed in the middle of the curtain, from whence they are
seen and defended by the two flanks of the bastions. They should be
covered with a good ravelin, that they may not be seen or enfiladed by
the enemy. The palisades and barriers before the gates within the town
are often of great use.

=Gateshead.= A borough in Durham, on the Tyne, opposite Newcastle. At
Gatesheadfell, William I. defeated Edgar Atheling in 1068.

=Gateway.= The passage or opening in which a gate or large door is hung.
The gateway being a most important point in all fortified places, is
usually protected by various devices. It is flanked by towers with
loop-holes, from which assailants may be attacked, and is frequently
overhung by a machicolated battlement, from which missiles of every
description were poured upon the besiegers.

=Gath.= One of the five chief cities of the Philistines, was situated on
the frontiers of Judah, and was in consequence a place of much
importance in the wars between the Philistines and the Israelites. It
formed in fact the key of both countries, and was strongly fortified.

=Gatling Gun.= Is a machine gun, the 1 inch composed of six and the ¹⁄₂
inch of ten rifled barrels of steel, made to revolve around a central
axis parallel to their bores, by means of a hand crank. As each barrel
comes opposite to the hopper on the left side of the cylinder, a
self-primed metal case cartridge falls into a groove of the
cartridge-carrier, is pressed into the breech by a plunger, and held
there until exploded by the firing-pin. The empty case is withdrawn from
the barrel by an extractor attached to the cylinder containing the
firing-pin. With each revolution of the crank the 1-inch gun fires once,
and the ¹⁄₂-inch gun three times. The ¹⁄₂-inch gun is reduced to caliber
.45 inch, in order to use with it the projectile of the breech-loading
musket.

=Gaucho.= One of the native inhabitants of the pampas of La Plata, of
Spanish-American descent, celebrated for independence, horsemanship, and
rude, uncivilized mode of life.

=Gaugamela= (now _Karmelis_). A village in the district of Aturia, in
Assyria, the scene of the last and decisive battle between Alexander and
Darius Codomannus, 331 B.C., commonly called the battle of Arbela. See
ARBELA.

=Gauges.= In gunnery, are brass rings with handles, to find the diameter
of all kinds of shot with expedition. Also instruments of various kind
for verifying the dimensions of cannon and projectiles and the various
parts of small-arms. Modern small-arms are made on the _interchangeable
principle_, each part being accurately made to gauges. This principle
has revolutionized the manufacture of small-arms. It was first
introduced at the U. S. armory, at Harper’s Ferry, by Maj. Wade, of the
Ordnance Corps.

=Gaul=, or =Gallia=. The ancient name of France and Belgium. The
natives, termed by the Greeks Galatæ, by the Romans Galli or Celtæ, came
originally from Asia, and invading Eastern Europe, were driven westward,
and settled in Spain, North Italy, France and Belgium, and the British
Isles.

=Gauntlet= (Fr. _gantelet_). A large glove of mail; a covering for the
hand with plates of metal on the back, worn as a part of the defensive
armor in ancient times. A long glove, covering the wrist; as, a
riding-gauntlet. _To take up the gauntlet_, to accept a challenge. _To
throw down the gauntlet_, to offer or send a challenge; to defy.

=Gauntlet.= A kind of military punishment; the gantelet used in the
expression _to run the gauntlet_. See GANTLOPE.

=Gauntleted.= Wearing a gauntlet.

=Gawelgur.= A strong fortress of Hindostan, in the dominions of the
Nizam or ruler of Hyderabad. It was taken by Gen. Wellesley, December
14, 1803, after a siege of two days, but was restored to the rajah on
the conclusion of peace.

=Gaza.= A city of the Philistines, of which Samson carried off the
gates, about 1120 B.C. It was taken by Alexander after a long siege,
332, and near it Ptolemy defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes, 312 B.C. It was
taken by Saladin, 1170; by Bonaparte, March, 1799; and by the Egyptians
in 1831.

=Gaze.= In heraldry, when a beast of the chase is represented as
_affronté_, or full-faced, it is said to be at _gaze_.

=Gazette.= To announce or publish in a gazette; to announce officially;
as an appointment either civil or military. All commissions in the
British army, militia, fencible, and volunteer corps must be gazetted.

=Gazons.= In fortification, pieces of fresh earth, or sods, covered with
grass, and cut in the form of a wedge, about a foot long and half a foot
thick, to line the outsides of a work made of earth, as ramparts,
parapets, banquettes, etc. The first bed of gazons is fixed with pegs of
wood, and the second bed is so laid as to bind the former, by being
placed over its joints, and so continued till the works are finished.
Between those it is usual to sow all sorts of binding weeds or herbs, in
order to strengthen the rampart.

=Gear.= Warlike accoutrements; military harness; equipage.

=Geat.= The hole through which the metal is conveyed to the mold in
casting ordnance.

=Gebegis.= Armorers among the Turks were so called.

=Gebelis.= A Turkish corps of picked men.

=Gebelus.= Every Timariot in Turkey, during a campaign, is obliged to
take a certain number of horsemen, who are called gebelus, and to
support them at his own expense. He is directed to take as many as would
annually cost 3000 _aspres_ for subsistence.

=Gela.= In ancient times, a very important city on the southern coast of
Sicily. It was founded by a Rhodian and Cretan colony, in 690 B.C. In
505 B.C., Cleander made himself tyrant, and the colony reached its
highest pitch of power under his brother Hippocrates, who subdued almost
the whole of Sicily, with the exception of Syracuse. Gelon, the
successor of Hippocrates, pursued the same career of conquest, and
Syracuse itself fell into his hands, and was even made his principal
residence, Gela being committed to the government of his brother Hiero.
After many vicissitudes during the Carthaginian war in Sicily, it
ultimately fell into decay. Its ruin was completed by Phintias, tyrant
of Agrigentum, who, a little before 280 B.C., removed the inhabitants to
a town in the neighborhood which he had founded, and to which he gave
his own name. It occupied what is now the site of Terra Nova.

=Gelibach.= A sort of superintendent or chief of the gebegis, or
armorers, among the Turks. He is only subordinate to the _toppi bachi_,
or the grand master of the Turkish artillery.

=Gellia Gens.= A plebeian family; was of Samnite origin and afterwards
settled at Rome. There were two generals of this family in the Samnite
wars, Gellius Status in the second Samnite war, who was defeated and
taken prisoner 305 B.C., and Gellius Egnatius in the third Samnite war.

=Gembloux.= A town of Belgium, on an affluent of the Sambre, 11 miles
northwest from Namur. The French gained a victory over the Austrians
near this town in 1794.

=Genappe.= A village of Belgium, in Southern Brabant, on the banks of
the Dyle, 18 miles southeast from Brussels. Several military actions
took place here in 1815, both before and after Waterloo, between the
French and the allied forces.

=Gendarmes=, or =Gens d’Armes= (men-at-arms). Originally, and up to the
time of the first French revolution, the most distinguished cavalry
corps in the service of the Bourbon kings, to whom they formed a sort of
body-guard. Under existing arrangements the gendarmes constitute a
military police, and comprise both cavalry and infantry. The force
consists principally of soldiers taken from the army, generally on
account of intelligence and good conduct. The men receive much higher
pay than the rest of the army, of which, however, the corps is a part,
and they are liable in cases of emergency to be sent on active service.

=Gendarmery= (Fr. _gendarmerie_). The body of gendarmes or gens d’armes.

=General.= A term for the roll of the drum which calls the troops
together. To “beat the general” is a phrase drawn from the French drum
instructors, “_Battre la Generale_.”

=General.= The highest military title in the U. S. army, and the highest
military title below that of field-marshal in European armies. A general
ordinarily commands no body of men less than an army or _corps d’armée_.

=General, Adjutant-.= See ADJUTANT-GENERAL.

=General, Brigadier-.= See BRIGADIER-GENERAL.

=General, Colonel.= An honorary title, or military rank, which is
bestowed in foreign services. Thus the Prince of the Peace in Spain was
colonel general of the Swiss guards.

=General Court-Martial.= See COURT-MARTIAL.

=General de Battaile=, or =General Major=. A particular rank or
appointment, whose functions correspond with those of a cidevant marshal
of France. This situation is intrusted to a general officer, and is only
known among the armies of Russia, and some other Northern powers. He
takes precedence in the same manner that our major-generals do
of all brigadier-generals and colonels, and is subordinate to
lieutenant-generals.

=General des Galères= (_Fr._). Commander of the galleys, an officer of
high rank and extensive jurisdiction in France.

=General des Vivres= (_Fr._). Commissary of stores; a sort of chief
commissary or superintendent-general of stores, whose functions were to
provide ammunition, bread, and biscuit, for the army.

=Generalissimo.= The chief officer in command of an army. This word is
used in most foreign languages. It was first used to designate the
absolute authority of Cardinal Richelieu, when he went to command the
French army in Italy.

=General, Lieutenant-.= The second rank among general officers, and next
below that of general. The normal command of a lieutenant-general is
that of a division, but he is sometimes intrusted with the command of an
entire army.

=General, Major-.= The rank next below that of lieutenant-general, and
above brigadier-general. He usually commands a division; a general of
division.

=General Officers.= Are all officers whose authority extends beyond the
immediate command of a regiment, and who have either separate districts
or departments at home, or commands on foreign service. A brigade is the
smallest body of men constituting the command of a general officer. In
an army of very large proportions, the normal sequence of command would
be the following: The general commanding-in-chief, generalissimo,
captain-general, or field-marshal would command the whole force; the
generals would have separate _corps d’armée_; the lieutenant-generals,
wings of those _corps d’armée_; the major-generals, divisions in the
wings; and brigadier-generals, brigades in the divisions. In practice,
however, an army is rarely large enough to allow of this exact scheme of
military hierarchy being carried out; and general officers are also
frequently assigned to high commands without regard to seniority. In the
U. S. service there are one general, one lieutenant-general (whose
offices expire with the present incumbents), three major-generals, and
six brigadier-generals. The President is _ex officio_ commander-in-chief
of the army. In the English service the sovereign is captain-general,
and under the sovereign is the commander-in-chief, who takes rank as
field-marshal. In the staff corps the word general is also used, as
surgeon-, quartermaster-, adjutant-general, etc., to denote that the
holder of the office has charge of his special department, and does not
necessarily imply that he is a general officer. The chiefs of staff
departments, however, in the U. S. service are usually of the rank of
brigadier-general. In the German armies, and among the sovereigns of the
North, there are certain generals of cavalry, and others of infantry,
who take rank of all lieutenant-generals. In these armies it is usual
for generals, lieutenant-generals, and major-generals to take their
routine of duty, and rise progressively in the infantry or cavalry corps
to which they were originally appointed, until they arrived at a chief
command: whereas in France and other countries a major-general might be
employed to take charge of either infantry or cavalry, without any
regard being paid to the particular line of service in which he was
bred.

=General Orders.= See ORDERS.

=General’s Guard.= See GARDE.

=Generalship.= The office of general; the exercise of the functions of a
general; the skill and conduct of a general officer; military skill in a
commander.

=Geneva.= A walled town of Switzerland, and the capital of a small
canton, at the western extremity of the lake of the same name. In 1784
and 1794 revolutions took place in the city and state of Geneva; in 1798
it was taken by the French, and, till 1813, it was the capital of the
department Leman, in the French empire, under Napoleon I. In 1814 it
joined the Helvetic Confederation.

=Geneva, Convention of.= In October, 1863, an international convention
was held at Geneva, Switzerland, comprising 14 governments, including
Great Britain, France, Austria, Russia, Prussia and Italy, who were
represented by delegates, and propositions were drawn up forming the
“Red Cross Society,” for the succor of the wounded in time of warfare.
It gave aid to the sick and wounded during the Franco-German war, and
its flag is recognized by all powers as neutral.

=Genius.= In a military sense, natural talent or disposition to every
kind of warlike employment, more than any other; or, the aptitude a man
has received from nature to perform well and easily that which others
can do but indifferently and with a great deal of pains.

=Genoa.= A fortified maritime city in Northwestern Italy, once a
celebrated republic, now the capital of a province of Northwestern
Italy. From the 11th to the 18th century Genoa was the capital of a
flourishing republic; it was bombarded by the French in 1684, and
submitted to the Austrians in 1746; but, in consequence of a citizen
having been abused by an Austrian officer, the inhabitants rose and
massacred most of the soldiery, and drove away the remainder. The
republic in 1798 assumed the French form of government, with the title
of Ligurian republic, and in 1805 it was annexed to the French empire.
In 1815 it was ceded to the king of Sardinia, and in 1859 the French
troops landed here on their route to oppose the Austrian army, which had
invaded Sardinia.

=Genouillère.= That part of the parapet of a battery which remains above
the platform and under the gun, after the opening of the embrasure has
been made. The name is derived from the French _genou_, the knee. The
height of the genouillère is regulated by that of the gun-carriage,
generally from 2 to 3 feet.

=Gens.= In Roman antiquity, a clan, embracing several families, whose
bond of alliance was a common name and certain religious rites
performed in common. Persons of the same gens were called _gentiles_,
while those of the same family were designated _agnati_.

=Gens= (_Fr._). A word in much desultory use among the French,
signifying, in the general acceptation of it, people, servants,
soldiers, etc. This word is likewise used to distinguish bodies of men
that are in opposition to each other.

=Gens d’Armes.= See GENDARMES.

=Gentilhommes de la Garde= (_Fr._). Gentlemen of the guard. Commonly
called _Au bec de corbin_, or the battle-axe, from the weapon which they
carried. This company went through many alterations during the monarchy
of France. During the last years of that government it consisted of 200
guards, under the command of a captain, a lieutenant, and an ensign. The
captain had the power of giving away the subaltern commissions, and had,
moreover, the entire management of the rest; every vacancy being in his
gift. They marched in file, each holding his battle-axe, before the king
on days of public ceremony. When the company was first raised, its
particular duty was to attend the king’s person, and to be constantly
near him on the day of battle.

=Gentlemen-at-arms= (formerly called the _Gentlemen-Pensioners_). The
body-guard of the British sovereign, and, with the exception of the
yeomen of the guard, the oldest corps in the British service. It was
instituted in 1509 by Henry VIII., and now consists of 1 captain, 1
lieutenant, 1 standard-bearer, 1 clerk of the cheque, and 40 gentlemen,
who must all be retired military officers of service and distinction.
The attendance of gentlemen-at-arms is now rarely required, except on
the occasion of coronations and important state ceremonies.

=Geographical Department, Commander of.= Is assimilated to the commander
of a separate army, with the same powers and duties in similar cases
over all the troops within the limits of the department. In all
countries he derives his authority to command from the highest power of
the government. In the United States he is assigned by order of the
President, who alone can relieve him, and who also fixes the limits or
boundaries of the department. His duties are mainly derived from customs
of service. The only duties defined by statute relate to general
courts-martial, which he can convene, and his action is final on all
cases tried by such courts, except in the case of a general officer, or
where the sentence of the court extends to the loss of life or the
dismissal of a commissioned officer. In time of war he is authorized by
existing laws to execute the death penalty in cases of persons convicted
as spies, mutineers, deserters, or murderers, and in cases of guerrilla
marauders convicted in time of war of robbery, burglary, arson, rape,
assault with intent to commit rape, or violation of the laws of war. See
DEPARTMENT, MILITARY.

=Geographical Division, Military.= In the United States a geographical
military division consists of a number of geographical military
departments, usually under the command of a general officer.

=Geometry.= That branch of mathematics which investigates the relations,
properties and measurements of solids, surfaces, lines, and angles; the
science which treats of the properties and relations of magnitudes. Its
usefulness extends to almost every art and science. It is by the
assistance of geometry that engineers conduct all their works, take the
situation and plans of towers, the distances of places, and the measure
of such things as are only accessible to the sight. It is not only an
introduction to fortification, but highly necessary to mechanics. On
geometry, likewise, depends the theory of gunnery, mining, mechanics,
hydraulics, pneumatics, etc.

=George, Lake.= A beautiful sheet of water in the State of New York. Its
length is 36 miles; its breadth from 1 to 3 miles. Lake George was the
scene of important military operations during the French and Indian war
of 1755-59. Here stood Fort George, Fort William Henry, and other works.

=George, St.= Patron of England and Russia, is reputed to have been born
in Palestine in the 3d century. According to the legend, he became a
prince in Cappadocia, and was distinguished for his exploit of rescuing
a king’s daughter from a dragon. He was a Christian, and suffered
martyrdom at Nicomedia, April 23, 303, for having torn down the edict of
Diocletian against Christians, the emperor himself being then in the
city.

=George, St., Banner of.= Is white with red cross. According to Sir N.
H. Nicolas, the cross of St. George was worn as a badge over the armor
of every English soldier “in the 14th and subsequent centuries, even if
the custom did not prevail at a much earlier period,” to indicate that
he was in the service of the crown. On the invasion of Scotland by
Richard II. in 1386, it was ordained that every man of the English party
should wear a sign of the arms of St. George both before and behind. A
similar ordinance was adopted by Henry V. for the government of his army
in France. The cross of St. George forms a part of the British standard.

=George, St., Knights of.= See GARTER, ORDER OF THE.

=George, The.= The badge of the order of the Garter exhibiting the
figure of St. George on horseback piercing the falling dragon, which
lies on a mount. See GARTER.

=Georges Conspiracy.= Took place in France; Gens. Moreau and Pichegru,
and Georges Cadoudal, who was commonly known by the name of Georges, and
others were arrested at Paris, charged with a conspiracy against the
life of Bonaparte, and for the restoration of Louis XVIII., February,
1804. Pichegru was found strangled in prison, April 6, and 12 of the
conspirators, including Georges, were executed, and others imprisoned,
June 22. Moreau was exiled and went to America; in 1813 he was killed
before Dresden.

=Georgia.= Called by the Russians Grusia, a considerable country of
Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian, to the north of
Armenia, and forming a government of Russia. The Georgians are skilled
in the bow, and are thought to be the best soldiers in Asia. Georgia was
formerly one kingdom, the inhabitants of which were Christians; but, in
1639, when it was conquered by the Persians, the country was divided
between two native princes, by themselves called kings, but by the
Sophia styled governors. Each of these had a guard of Mohammedan horse
in their pay. In 1802 it was annexed to Russia.

=Georgia.= One of the original States of the United States, bounded on
the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, on the east by South Carolina
and the Atlantic Ocean, south by Florida, and west by Florida and
Alabama. It was named in honor of King George II., who granted a charter
for establishing a colony there in 1732; but a permanent settlement was
not made till the following year, when Oglethorpe established himself at
what is now Savannah. The colony soon became involved in several
contests with the Spaniards of Florida, who claimed the territory. In
1739 Oglethorpe invaded Florida, but without much success. In 1742 the
Spaniards retaliated by invading Georgia; but they also effected
nothing. The next noteworthy event in the history of the colony was a
war with the Cherokees in 1761, which was terminated by their suing for
peace, after their country had been laid waste. They were afterwards
peaceable, and were removed to the Indian Territory in 1838. In the war
of the Revolution Georgia warmly sided with the colonies, and, in
consequence, suffered severely at the hands of the British, who overran
the country, and captured Savannah, December 29, 1778. In the following
year (October, 1779) the Americans and French attempted to retake it,
but were repulsed with severe loss. In the civil war (1861-65), Georgia
took an active part against the Union, and suffered severely in
consequence. Atlanta was captured September 2, 1864, after which Gen.
Sherman marched with his army through the State to the sea over an area
extending from 20 to 60 miles in width, destroying railroad
communication, etc., and ending with the capture of Savannah, December
20, 1864. This magnificent military movement effectually humbled the
State, and in 1866 the President issued a proclamation declaring it no
longer in a state of insurrection.

=Gerasa=, or =Jerash=. An ancient city of Syria, whose site is now
marked by very extensive and magnificent ruins, situated about 35 miles
east of the Jordan, at the eastern extremity of the land of Bashan, and
on the borders of the great desert of Hauran. But little of its early
history is known. In the time of the Antonines it had arrived at the
height of its splendor and prosperity. It was taken by Alexander Jannæus
in 85 B.C.; the Jews burned it at the commencement of their last war
with the Romans; it was taken and plundered by Annius, the general of
Vespasian, and in 1122 its castle was destroyed by Baldwin II. of
Jerusalem.

=Gerbe.= An ornamental firework. See PYROTECHNY.

=Gerberoi.= In Normandy, north of France. Here William the Conqueror was
wounded in battle by his son Robert, who had joined the French king,
Philip I., 1078.

=Gerit= (_Fr._). A Turkish dart 2¹⁄₂ feet long.

=Germany= (Lat. _Germania_). The name given to a large portion of
Central Europe, composed of a number of independent states united
together, and forming the German empire. In the time of Julius Cæsar the
Germans were the most formidable and warlike of all the European
barbarians. They long withstood the attempts of the Romans to subdue
them; and, although that people conquered some parts of the country,
they were expelled before the close of the 3d century. In the 5th
century the Huns and other tribes prevailed over the greater portion of
Germany. In the latter part of the 8th century Charlemagne subdued the
Saxons and other tribes, and was crowned emperor at Rome, December 25,
800. At the extinction of his family the empire became elective, 911,
and was generally obtained by a member of the house of Hapsburg from
1437 to 1806, when the emperor Francis Joseph II. formally renounced the
title of emperor of Germany, having assumed that of emperor of Austria
two years previously. The Confederation of the Rhine was formed July 12,
1806; the Germanic Confederation, June 8, 1815; and the North German
Confederation, August 18, 1866. In consequence of the success of the
Prussian arms in the war with France (1870-71) the new empire of Germany
was founded, and the king of Prussia declared emperor, January 18, 1871.

=Germinal Insurrection.= That of the faubourgs of Paris, suppressed on
12th Germinal, year III. (April 1, 1795).

=Gerona.= A strong town of Spain, in Catalonia, at the confluence of the
Oña and Ter, the latter of which flows through the town. It is built in
the form of a triangle, at the foot of a steep mountain, and is
surrounded by walls flanked with fortifications, and covered by a fort
erected on a hill to the north of the town. It was besieged 28 times,
and taken 5 times. In June, 1808, it successfully resisted the French,
but after suffering much famine surrendered December 12, 1809.

=Gesate=, or =Gessate= (_Fr._). Formerly a Gallic mercenary soldier, who
volunteered his services beyond his native country. These adventurers,
or knights-errant, were called _gesates_, either on account of the gese,
or large dart, which they carried, or, as Polybius imagines, on account
of the subsistence they received, which was called by that name.

=Geserne.= The Anglo-Norman term for battle-axe.

=Geses and Materes.= Were weapons adopted by the Allobroges (a body of
ancient Gauls so called), independently of the broad cut-and-thrust
sword which the Swiss still wear. These instruments were only one cubit
long; half the blade was nearly square; but it terminated in a round
point that was exceedingly sharp. Not only the Romans, but the Greeks
received it into their armies. The former retained the full appellation
and called it _gese_, but the latter corrupted it into _ysse_. This is
the only weapon with which those soldiers were armed that escorted
malefactors, who were condemned to death, to the place of execution. The
term _gese_ was also applied to a sort of a javelin.

=Gestic.= Pertaining to deeds or feats of arms; legendary.

=Gettysburg.= Capital of Adams Co., Pa., situated near the southern
border of the State, 8 miles from “Mason and Dixon’s line.” Here three
days’ severe fighting took place on July 1-3, 1863, between the invading
Confederate army under Gens. Lee, Longstreet, and Ewell, and the
Federals under Gen. George G. Meade.

On the morning of July 1, Maj-Gen. Reynolds, in command of the 1st
Corps, advanced on the Emmittsburg road from Marsh Creek to Gettysburg,
arriving about 10 o’clock A.M., and marched directly through the town,
and soon after encountered a body of the enemy, which were driven back
by Gen. Buford’s cavalry, which allowed the 1st Corps to form up in
order of battle on a ridge northwest of the town, which sloped to the
west into a little open valley. Beyond this valley was a ridge of higher
land thickly wooded. Across this valley the line of Gen. Reynolds
advanced somewhat hastily, almost before it was well formed, and soon
encountered a heavy force of the enemy’s infantry, and was compelled to
fall back, which it did in good order, and by a movement of its left
centre against the enemy while falling back secured a large number of
prisoners. The Confederate line being broken soon after, Gen. Reynolds
again prepared to go forward. His line advanced as before, and drove the
enemy from the valley and over the ridge at the farthest side, with a
severe loss by the heavy fire of the foe. While reconnoitring on this
ridge Gen. Reynolds was killed by a shot from the enemy. The 11th Corps
now arrived and Gen. Howard took command of the whole field, Gen. Schurz
commanding the 11th Corps. At about half-past 2 P.M. the enemy again
advanced in force against the 1st Corps, which slowly fell back to its
original position northwest of the town. The Confederate force advanced
across the open space in line of battle, whilst their batteries shelled
the position of the 1st Corps to cover the advance, but it met a fire so
sharp and well served that it caused it to reel and fall back; the line
was again formed and reinforced and once more advanced, but with no
better success. By this time the line was increased by three more of the
enemy’s divisions, and another charge was made by the whole force of the
enemy. Their superior numbers enabled them to threaten both flanks of
the Federal force, and notwithstanding a brave resistance the 1st Corps
was compelled to fall back to the town. By this movement the 11th Corps
was uncovered, and a heavy advance completely on its right flank
compelled it to retire. The enemy advanced and took possession of the
town, while the two corps of the Union troops fell back and occupied the
west slope of the hill south of the town, held by Gen. Steinwehr. At
dusk the 3d and 12th Corps arrived and next morning the 5th, making in
all six corps, which were placed in position by Gen. Meade, the line
stretching in a semicircle, having its convex centre toward Gettysburg,
with the extreme toward the south and west. The heights on which they
were posted sloped gently down from their front. The key of Gen. Meade’s
position was Cemetery Hill, a little distance south of the town, and on
the northern slope of which the town itself is situated. The enemy
having been largely reinforced during the night were prepared to give
battle on the morning of the 2d, having formed line on a ridge which ran
nearly parallel to the extreme of that on which the Federal forces were
formed, and separated from them by a valley varying in width from 1 to 2
miles.

On the ridge occupied by Gen. Meade 100 guns were in position facing the
enemy, with reserve artillery in the rear about equidistant from the
flanks. The enemy had nearly 150 guns in position. During the forenoon
of the 2d no movement of importance took place, but about noon Gen. Lee
ordered a general attack on the Federal centre and left. His movement
being discovered by the Union commanders they were prepared, and the 3d
Corps, commanded by Gen. Sickles, was advanced more to the left and
front in order to be in a more commanding position to repel the
Confederate attack. He had hardly got into position when the enemy
attacked. Having bravely resisted their furious onslaught for about two
hours, and not receiving the expected reinforcements, the 3d Corps was
compelled to fall back to its previous position, when a most desperate
assault was made upon it by Longstreet’s troops; but this part of the
line being promptly strengthened it repulsed all the efforts of
Longstreet, with great loss, however, on both sides. With the advance of
Longstreet a part of the enemy advanced on the centre of the Union line,
and meeting with stubborn resistance the battle grew fearful. The enemy
pressed forward unrestrained. Gens. Sickles, Hancock, and Gibbon were
wounded. The 1st and 2d Corps wavered and the enemy pressed up to the
very guns of the batteries, which were exposed to capture; but the 6th
Corps, although wearied with marching, hurried up with shouts to the
support, and the enemy staggered and drifted slowly back, and being
pushed on their left flank by a strong force of the Federals, they
retired. At this time a desperate dash was made by the Confederates on
the extreme right, which had been weakened to support the centre and
left. For a short time the attack was furious, but the Federals being
speedily supported the enemy were kept in check, and finally retired
about 9 o’clock P.M., having lost the day in every quarter.

The battle commenced again on the morning of the 3d by an artillery fire
from the Confederate lines, and an aggressive movement of the right of
the Federal forces under Gen. Slocum to drive Gen. Ewell farther back.
This attack met with a prompt response from the latter, but Gen. Slocum
having been reinforced by part of the 3d and 5th Corps, the struggle was
evenly contested for some time, when additional reinforcements having
arrived, the tide of battle was turned in favor of the Union troops,
causing the enemy to retire, and at 11 o’clock A.M. a general quiet
prevailed. The movements of the morning against Gen. Meade thus far had
been made to cover up the designs of the Confederates. The battle of the
previous day had demonstrated that the issue of the struggle turned on
the occupation of Cemetery Hill, the key of Gen. Meade’s position. To
get possession of this spot was therefore the object of the enemy.
Therefore Lee massed about 115 guns so as to subject the artillery on
Cemetery Hill to more than a half circle of cross-fires. At about 1
o’clock P.M. the signal-gun was fired and the cannonading commenced. The
fire of the enemy was concentrated on the position held by the 2d and
11th Corps. It drew a most terrific response from the Federal batteries,
and as has been described by a spectator in the Confederate army, the
almost simultaneous discharge of over 200 guns “made the air hideous
with most discordant noise. The very earth shook, and the hills and
rocks seemed to reel like a drunken man. For one hour and a half this
most terrific fire was continued, during which time the shrieking of
shell, the crash of fallen timbers, the fragments of rocks flying
through the air, shattered from the cliffs by solid shot, the heavy
muttering from the valley between the opposing armies, the splash of
bursting shrapnel, and the fierce neighing of wounded artillery horses,
made a picture terribly grand and sublime.” At the termination of the
firing, the left of the Union line was assaulted twice, which were
handsomely repulsed with severe loss to the Confederates. And thus ended
the memorable battle of Gettysburg. The forenoon of the 4th was devoted
to the burial of the dead, and in the afternoon the Confederate forces
commenced to retreat, leaving the Federal forces in possession of the
hard-fought field, which covered the Union troops with the highest
honor and glory, but at a terrible sacrifice. During the three days the
Confederate losses were 18,000 killed and wounded, and 13,000 missing, a
large part of the latter prisoners; making a total of 31,000. The Union
losses were 16,500 killed and wounded, and 6600 missing, chiefly
prisoners captured on the first and second days, making a total loss of
not less than 23,000--_Extracts from D. Appleton’s “History of the
Rebellion,” by Tenney, “Lippincott’s Gazetteer,” and “Haydn’s Dates_.”

=Ghaut=, or =Ghât=. A term in India signifying a pass through a range of
hills; also a flight of stairs descending to the rivers for the
accommodation of bathers, and as landing-places for boats.

=Ghent= (Fr. _Gand_). An ancient fortified city of Belgium, capital of
East Flanders, situated at the confluence of the Lys and Scheldt. It
commenced to acquire importance in the 12th century, when its
fortifications were completed. In the 14th century, having revolted
against the Duke of Burgundy, it was subdued after seven defeats, in
some of which it suffered a fearful slaughter of its citizens. It again
revolted against Charles V. in the 16th century, was again subdued, made
to pay a heavy fine, and forced to pay for the erection of a citadel to
keep it in subjection. The French became masters of Ghent in 1678, 1708,
1745, 1792, and again in 1795. The city was united to the kingdom of the
Netherlands after the peace of Paris (1814), and is now a rich and
populous city of Belgium. In this city on December 24, 1814, the terms
of the treaty were agreed on, between the United States and British
envoys, which put an end to the war of 1812-15.

=Gheriah.= A town of British India, in the presidency of Bombay. It was
the principal post of Angria, a famous piratical prince, whose fort here
was taken, and his whole fleet destroyed, by Admiral Watson and Col.
Clive, in conjunction with the Mahrattas in 1756.

=Ghizni=, or =Ghuznee=. A fortified city of Afghanistan, built on a hill
7720 feet above the level of the sea, 90 miles from Cabul. It was the
capital of a powerful empire of the same name, and is sometimes called
the second Medina, from the great number of illustrious persons who have
been interred there. The old town of Ghuznee was destroyed in the 12th
century, and the modern one stands on a site about 3 miles from the
ruins of the other. It was stormed and taken by Lord Keane in 1839. In
1842 the garrison surrendered to the Afghans, from whom, however, it was
again taken in the same year by the British forces under Gen. Nott.

=Ghoor=, =Ghore=, or =Ghour=. A large district of Afghanistan. This was
formerly one of the Persian governments; but in the 12th century its
chiefs became independent, overturned the Ghiznian empire, and carried
their arms as far as Benares. One of their slaves founded the
Mohammedan kingdom of Delhi about 1206. This country was overrun in the
13th and 14th centuries by the armies of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. Its
capital is Ghoor, which was taken by the king of Kharezim, and was
subsequently sacked by the armies of Genghis and Tamerlane, from which
it has never recovered, and is now scarcely known.

=Ghorchana.= The irregular Sikh yeomanry who served in the wars in the
Punjab between the Sikhs and the English.

=Ghyretty.= Cantonments 14 miles from Calcutta. It is a palace built by
Mr. Dupleix, which the British took by force in 1797, and imprisoned the
principal French colonists of Chandernagore there.

=Giambeux.= Greaves; armor for the legs, in ancient times. See JAMBEUX.

=Giant Powder=, or =Dynamite=. See DYNAMITE.

=Giants, Battle of the.= See BATTLE OF THE GIANTS.

=Giberne= (_Fr._). A sort of bag in which the grenadiers held their
hand-grenades. It was worn like a powder-flask.

=Gibraltar.= A fortified seaport town and garrison, occupying a
promontory in the south of Spain, at the entrance from the Atlantic into
the Mediterranean, 60 miles southeast from Cadiz. It consists of a high
and rocky mountain running from north to south, about 3 miles in length,
and three-fourths in width, its highest point being 1439 feet above the
level of the sea. The “rock” was first fortified in the modern style in
the reign of Charles V. It was surprised by the English under Sir George
Booke in 1704, soon after the commencement of the War of the Spanish
Succession, and it has been a British dependency ever since. It has been
repeatedly besieged, and always without success,--first in 1720, next in
1727, and lastly in 1779, when it stood a siege of upwards of three
years and a half, the French and Spaniards using their utmost endeavors
to capture it; but every effort was bravely repulsed by the governor,
Gen. Elliott.

=Gibraltar of America.= See QUEBEC.

=Gib-staff.= In England, a staff to gauge water, or to push a boat.

=Gin.= In military mechanics, is a machine for raising great weights: it
is composed of three long legs, one of them being longer than the rest,
and called the _pry-pole_. The other two are kept at a proper distance
by means of two iron bars fixed on one of the legs by a staple passing
through a hole at one end; the other end has a hook which enters into a
staple fixed into the other leg so as to be taken off or put on at
pleasure. At about 3 feet from the bottom is a windlass, upon which the
cable is wound; and the three legs are joined together at the top by an
iron bolt, about which they move; to this bolt is also fixed an iron
clevis to which is hooked the blocks and fall. When the gin stands
upright with legs at a proper distance, one end of the cable is
fastened to a gun, mortar, or other weight; and the other passes through
the pulleys and about the roller, which is turned round by means of
hand-spikes passing through the holes in the end of the roller; whilst a
man holds the cable tight, the gun is raised to the height required, so
that the carriage may be put under it. The modern gin has a windlass
with pawl and ratchet attachments. There are three different kinds of
gins,--the _field and siege_, the _garrison_, and the _casemate_ gins;
and they only differ in their size and weight.

=Gindi.= Turkish horsemen, who perform extraordinary feats.

=Gingals=, =Ginjauls=, or =Gingauls=. Large muskets used in India by the
natives, with a rest, somewhat similar to those invented by Marshal
Vauban for the defense of forts.

=Gingee.= A strong town on the coast of Coromandel, once the capital of
a kingdom of the same name, 85 miles from Madras. Towards the end of the
18th century, the Great Mogul unsuccessfully besieged this place for a
period of three years. In 1750 it was taken by the French, who, in 1761,
ceded it to the British.

=Gionules= (_Fr._). Turkish volunteer cavalry, renowned for their
bravery.

=Girandole= (_Fr._). Any firework turning upon a wheel; a wheel whose
circumference is studded with rockets.

=Girandole= (_Fr._). In fortification, several chambers in mines
connected for the defense of the place of arms of the covered way.

=Girondists.= An important party during the French revolution,
principally composed of deputies from the Gironde. At first they were
ardent republicans, but after the cruelties of August and September,
1792, they labored to restrain the cruelties of the Mountain party, to
which they succumbed. Their leaders, Brissot, Vergniaud, and many others
were guillotined October 31, 1793, at the instigation of Robespierre.

=Gironné=, or =Gyronné=. A term used in heraldry to indicate that the
field is divided into six, eight, or more triangular portions of
different trenches, the points of the triangles all meeting in the
centre of the shield.

=Gisarm.= A scythe-shaped weapon, with a pike projecting from one side,
formerly borne by foot-soldiers on the end of a long staff. It was used
as