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Title: Index of the PG Works of Various Authors on Napoleon Bonaparte
Author: Various
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Index of the PG Works of Various Authors on Napoleon Bonaparte" ***

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WORKS of VARIOUS AUTHORS on

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE


CONTENTS

##	L. BOURIENNE	MEMOIRS OF NAPOLEON
##	CONSTANT	THE PRIVATE LIFE OF NAPOLEON
##	L. GOLDSMITH	MEMOIRS OF THE COURT OF ST. CLOUD
##	J. ROSE	THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON I , Complete
##	J. LOCKHART	THE HISTORY OF NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE
##	W. SCOTT	LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, Vol. I
##	W. SCOTT	LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, Vol. II
##	W. SCOTT	LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, Vol. III
##	W. SCOTT	LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, Vol. IV
##	P. De SECUR	HISTORY OF THE EXPEDITION TO RUSSIA
##	G. HENTY	AT ABOUKIR AND ACRE
##	G. HENTY	THROUGH RUSSIAN SNOWS
P. CHABOULON	PRIVATE LIFE OF NAPOLEON, Vol. I
P. CHABOULON	PRIVATE LIFE OF NAPOLEON, Vol. II
##	W. SLOANE	THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, Vol. 1
##	W. SLOANE	THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, Vol. 2
##	W. SLOANE	THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, Vol. 3
##	W. SLOANE	THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, Vol. 4
##	F. MAITLAND	THE SURRENDER OF NAPOLEON
##	M. GIBBS	MILITARY CAREER OF NAPOLEON
##	H. WHEELER	THE STORY OF NAPOLEON
##	V. VERESHCHAGIN	"1812", NAPOLEON IN RUSSIA
##	S. WINBOLT'S	ENGLAND AND NAPOLEON (1801-1815)
##	E. LAS CASES	MEMOIRS OF NAPOLEON, Vol. 1
E. LAS CASES	MEMOIRS OF NAPOLEON, Vol. 2
E. LAS CASES	MEMOIRS OF NAPOLEON, Vol. 3
E. LAS CASES	MEMOIRS OF NAPOLEON, Vol. 4
##	J. RAPP	MEMOIRS OF GENERAL COUNT RAPP, First aide-de-camp
##	E. FOORD	NAPOLEON'S RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN
##	A. REVEIL	ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE LIFE OF THE EMPEROR OF FRANCE
##	I. TARBELL	A LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
R. WHATELY	HISTORIC DOUBTS
##	NAPOLEON I	THE OFFICER'S MANUAL--WAR MAXIMS
NAPOLEON I	NAPOLEON'S APPEAL TO THE BRITISH NATION
NAPOLEON I	NAPOLEON'S LETTERS TO JOSEPHINE



TABLES OF CONTENTS OF VOLUMES



MEMOIRS OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, Complete
By Louis Antoine Fauvelet De Bourrienne
His Private Secretary
Edited by R. W. Phipps Colonel, Late Royal Artillery
1891


CONTENTS
PREFACE 1836 EDITION.
PREFACE 1885 EDITION.
AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION.
NOTE.
VOLUME I. — 1769-1800
CHAPTER 1	1769-1783. Authentic date of Bonaparte's birth-His family ruined by the Jesuits-His taste for military amusements-Sham siege at the College of Brienne-The porter's wife and Napoleon-My intimacy with Bonaparte at college-His love for the mathematics, and his dislike of Latin-He defends Paoli and blames his father-He is ridiculed by his comrades-Ignorance of the monks-Distribution of prizes at Brienne-Madame de Montesson and the Duke of Orleans-Report of M. Keralio on Bonaparte-He leaves Brienne.
CHAPTER II.	1784-1794. Bonaparte enters the Military College of Paris-He urges me to embrace the military profession-His report on the state of the Military School of Paris-He obtains a commission-I set off for Vienna-Return to Paris, where I again meet Bonaparte-His singular plans for raising money-Louis XVI, with the red cap on his head- The 10th of August-My departure for Stuttgart-Bonaparte goes to Corsica-My name inscribed on the list of emigrants-Bonaparte at the siege of Toulon-Le Souper de Beaucaire-Napoleon's mission to Genoa-His arrest-His autographical justification -Duroc's first connection with Bonaparte.
CHAPTER III.	1794-1795. Proposal to send Bonaparte to La Vendée-He is struck off the list of general officers-Salicetti-Joseph's marriage with Mademoiselle Clary-Bonaparte's wish to go to Turkey-Note explaining the plan of his proposed expedition-Madame Bourrienne's character of Bonaparte, and account of her husband's arrest-Constitution of the year III- The 13th Vendemiaire-Bonaparte appointed second in command of the army of the interior-Eulogium of Bonaparte by Barras, and its consequences-St. Helena manuscript.
CHAPTER IV.	1795-1797. On my return to Paris I meet Bonaparte-His interview with Josephine -Bonaparte's marriage, and departure from Paris ten days after- Portrait and character of Josephine-Bonaparte's dislike of national property-Letter to Josephine-Letter of General Colli, and Bonaparte's reply-Bonaparte refuses to serve with Kellerman- Marmont's letters-Bonaparte's order to me to join the army-My departure from Sens for Italy-Insurrection of the Venetian States.
CHAPTER V	1797. Signature of the preliminaries of peace-Fall of Venice-My arrival and reception at Leoben-Bonaparte wishes to pursue his success- The Directory opposes him-He wishes to advance on Vienna-Movement of the army of the Sombre-et-Mouse-Bonaparte's dissatisfaction- Arrival at Milan-We take up our residence at Montebello-Napoleon's judgment respecting Dandolo and Melzi.
CHAPTER VI.	1797. Napoleon's correspondence-Release of French prisoners at Olmutz- Negotiations with Austria-Bonaparte's dissatisfaction-Letter of complaint from Bonaparte to the Executive Directory-Note respecting the affairs of Venice and the Club of Clichy, written by Bonaparte and circulated in the army-Intercepted letter of the Emperor Francis.
CHAPTER VII.	1797. Unfounded reports-Carnot-Capitulation of Mantua-General Clarke- The Directory yields to Bonaparte-Berthier-Arrival of Eugène Beauharnais at Milan-Comte Delannay d'Entraigues-His interview with Bonaparte-Seizure of his papers-Copy of one describing a conversation between him and Comte de Montgaillard-The Emperor Francis-The Prince de Condé and General Pichegru.
CHAPTER VIII.	1797. The royalists of the interior-Bonaparte's intention of marching on Paris with 25,000 men-His animosity against the emigrants and the Clichy Club-His choice between the two parties of the Directory- Augereau's order of the day against the word 'Monsieur'-Bonaparte wishes to be made one of the five Directors-He supports the majority of the Directory-La Vallette, Augereau, and Bernadotte sent to Paris-Interesting correspondence relative to the 18th Fructidor.
CHAPTER IX.	1797. Bonaparte's joy at the result of the 18th Fructidor.-His letter to Augereau-His correspondence with the Directory and proposed resignation-Explanation of the Directory-Bottot-General Clarke- Letter from Madame Bacciocchi to Bonaparte-Autograph letter of the Emperor Francis to Bonaparte-Arrival of Count Cobentzel-Autograph note of Bonaparte on the conditions of peace.
CHAPTER X.	1797. Influence of the 18th Fructidor on the negotiations-Bonaparte's suspicion of Bottot-His complaints respecting the non-erasure of Bourrienne-Bourrienne's conversation with the Marquis of Gallo-Bottot writes from Paris to Bonaparte on the part of the Directory Agents of the Directory employed to watch Bonaparte-Influence of the weather on the conclusion of peace-Remarkable observation of Bonaparte-Conclusion of the treaty-The Directory dissatisfied with the terms of the peace-Bonaparte's predilection for representative government-Opinion on Bonaparte.
CHAPTER XI.	1797 Effect of the 18th Fructidor on the peace-The standard of the army of Italy-Honours rendered to the memory of General Hoche and of Virgil at Mantua-Remarkable letter-In passing through Switzerland Bonaparte visits the field of Morat-Arrival at Rastadt-Letter from the Directory calling Bonaparte to Paris-Intrigues against Josephine-Grand ceremony on the reception of Bonaparte by the Directory-The theatres-Modesty of Bonaparte-An assassination-Bonaparte's opinion of the Parisians-His election to the National Institute-Letter to Camus-Projects-Reflections.
CHAPTER XII.	1798. Bonaparte's departure from Paris-His return-The Egyptian expedition projected-M. de Talleyrand-General Desaix-Expedition against Malta-Money taken at Berne-Bonaparte's ideas respecting the East-Monge-Non-influence of the Directory-Marriages of Marmont and La Valette-Bonaparte's plan of colonising Egypt-His camp library-Orthographical blunders-Stock of wines-Bonaparte's arrival at Toulon-Madame Bonaparte's fall from a balcony-Execution of an old man-Simon.
CHAPTER XIII.	1798. Departure of the squadron-Arrival at Malta-Dolomieu-General Barguay d'Hilliers-Attack on the western part of the island- Caffarelli's remark-Deliverance of the Turkish prisoners-Nelson's pursuit of the French fleet-Conversations on board-How Bonaparte passed his, time-Questions to the Captains-Propositions discussed -Morning music-Proclamation-Admiral Brueys-The English fleet avoided Dangerous landing-Bonaparte and his fortune-Alexandria taken-Kléber wounded-Bonaparte's entrance into Alexandria.
CHAPTER XIV.	1798. The mirage-Skirmishes with the Arabs-Mistake of General Desaix's division-Wretchedness of a rich sheik-Combat beneath the General's window-The flotilla on the Nile-Its distress and danger-The battle of Chebreisse-Defeat of the Mamelukes-Bonaparte's reception of me-Letter to Louis Bonaparte-Success of the French army- Triumphal entrance into Cairo-Civil and military organisation of Cairo-Bonaparte's letter to his brother Joseph-Plan of colonisation.
CHAPTER XV.	1798. Establishment of a divan in each Egyptian province-Desaix in Upper Egypt-Ibrahim Bey beaten by Bonaparte at Salehye'h-Sulkowsky wounded-Disaster at Aboukir-Dissatisfaction and murmurs of the army-Dejection of the General-in-Chief-His plan respecting Egypt -Meditated descent upon England-Bonaparte's censure of the Directory-Intercepted correspondence.
CHAPTER XVI.	1798. The Egyptian Institute-Festival of the birth of Mahomet-Bonaparte's prudent respect for the Mahometan religion-His Turkish dress-Djezzar, the Pasha of Acre-Thoughts of a campaign in Germany-Want of news from France-Bonaparte and Madame Fourés-The Egyptian fortune-teller, M. Berthollet, and the Sheik El Bekri-The air "Marlbrook"-Insurrection in Cairo-Death of General Dupuis-Death of Sulkowsky-The insurrection quelled-Nocturnal executions-Destruction of a tribe of Arabs-Convoy of sick and wounded-Massacre of the French in Sicily-projected expedition to Syria-Letter to Tippoo Saib.
CHAPTER XVII.	1798-1799. Bonaparte's departure for Suez-Crossing the desert-Passage of the Red Sea-The fountain of Moses-The Cenobites of Mount Sinai-Danger in recrossing the Red Sea-Napoleon's return to Cairo-Money borrowed at Genoa-New designs upon Syria-Dissatisfaction of the Ottoman Porte-Plan for invading Asia-Gigantic schemes-General Berthier's permission to return to France-His romantic love and the adored portrait-He gives up his permission to return home-Louis Bonaparte leaves Egypt-The first Cashmere shawl in France- Intercepted correspondence-Departure for Syria-Fountains of Messoudish-Bonaparte jealous-Discontent of the troops-El-Arish taken-Aspect of Syria-Ramleh-Jerusalem.
CHAPTER XVIII	1799. Arrival at Jaffa-The siege-Beauharnais and Croisier-Four thousand prisoners-Scarcity of provisions-Councils of war-Dreadful necessity-The massacre-The plague-Lannes and the mountaineers- Barbarity of Djezarr-Arrival at St Jean d'Acre, and abortive attacks-Sir Sidney Smith-Death of Caffarelli-Duroc wounded- Rash bathing-Insurrections in Egypt.
CHAPTER XIX.	1799. The siege of Acre raised-Attention to names in bulletins-Gigantic project-The Druses-Mount Carmel-The wounded and infected- Order to march on foot-Loss of our cannon-A Nablousian fires at Bonaparte-Return to Jaffa-Bonaparte visits the plague hospital-A potion given to the sick-Bonaparte's statement at St. Helena.
CHAPTER XX.	1799. Murat and Moarad Bey at the Natron Lakes-Bonaparte's departure for the Pyramids-Sudden appearance of an Arab messenger-News of the landing of the Turks at Aboukir-Bonaparte marches against them-They are immediately attacked and destroyed in the battle of Aboukir-Interchange of communication with the English-Sudden determination to return to Europe-Outfit of two frigates- Bonaparte's dissimulation-His pretended journey to the Delta- Generous behaviour of Lanusee-Bonaparte's artifice-His bad treatment of General Kléber.
CHAPTER XXI	1799. Our departure from Egypt-Nocturnal embarkation-M. Parseval Grandmaison-On course-Adverse winds-Fear of the English- Favourable weather-Vingt-et-un-Chess-We land at Ajaccio- Bonaparte's pretended relations-Family domains-Want of money- Battle of Novi-Death of Joubert-Visionary schemes-Purchase of a boat-Departure from Corsica-The English squadron-Our escape- The roads of Fréjus-Our landing in France-The plague or the Austrians-Joy of the people-The sanitary laws-Bonaparte falsely accused.
CHAPTER XXII.	1799. Effect produced by Bonaparte's return-His justification- Melancholy letter to my wife-Bonaparte's intended dinner at Sens- Louis Bonaparte and Josephine-He changes his intended route- Melancholy situation of the provinces-Necessity of a change- Bonaparte's ambitious views-Influence of popular applause- Arrival in Paris-His reception of Josephine-Their reconciliation- Bonaparte's visit to the Directory-His contemptuous treatment of Sieyès.
CHAPTER XXIII	1799. Moreau and Bernadotte-Bonaparte's opinion of Bernadotte-False report-The crown of Sweden and the Constitution of the year III.- Intrigues of Bonaparte's brothers-Angry conversation between Bonaparte and Bernadotte-Bonaparte's version-Josephine's version- An unexpected visit-The Manege Club-Salicetti and Joseph Bonaparte -Bonaparte invites himself to breakfast with Bernadotte-Country excursion-Bernadotte dines with Bonaparte-The plot and conspiracy -Conduct of Lucien-Dinner given to Bonaparte by the Council of the Five Hundred-Bonaparte's wish to be chosen a member of the Directory-His reconciliation with Sieyès-Offer made by the Directory to Bonaparte-He is falsely accused by Barras.
CHAPTER XXIV.	1799. Cambacérès and Lebrun-Gohier deceived-My nocturnal visit to Barras -The command of the army given to Bonaparte-The morning of the 18th Brumaire-Meeting of the generals at Bonaparte's house- Bernadotte's firmness-Josephine's interest, for Madame Gohier- Disappointment of the Directors-Review in the gardens of the Tuileries-Bonaparte's harangue-Proclamation of the Ancients- Moreau, jailer of the Luxembourg-My conversation with La Vallette- Bonaparte at St. Cloud.
CHAPTER XXV.	1799. The two Councils-Barras' letter-Bonaparte at the Council of the Five Hundred-False reports-Tumultuous sitting-Lucien's speech- He resigns the Presidency of the Council of the Five Hundred-He is carried out by grenadiers-He harangues the troops-A dramatic scene -Murat and his soldiers drive out the Five Hundred-Council of Thirty-Consular commission-Decree-Return to Paris-Conversation with Bonaparte and Josephine respecting Gohier and Bernadotte-The directors Gohier and Moulins imprisoned.
CHAPTER XXVI.	1799. General approbation of the 18th Brumaire-Distress of the treasury- M. Collot's generosity-Bonaparte's ingratitude-Gohier set at Liberty-Constitution of the year VIII.-The Senate, Tribunate, and Council of State-Notes required on the character of candidates- Bonaparte's love of integrity and talent-Influence of habit over him-His hatred of the Tribunate-Provisional concessions-The first Consular Ministry-Mediocrity of La Place-Proscription lists- Cambacérès report-M. Moreau de Worms-Character of Sieyès- Bonaparte at the Luxembourg-Distribution of the day and visits- Lebrun's opposition-Bonaparte's singing-His boyish tricks- Assumption of the titles "Madame" and "Monseigneur"-The men of the Revolution and the partisans of the Bourbons-Bonaparte's fears- Confidential notes on candidates for office and the assemblies.
CHAPTER XXVII.	1799-1800. Difficulties of a new Government-State of Europe-Bonaparte's wish for peace-M. de Talleyrand Minister for Foreign Affairs- Negotiations with England and Austria-Their failure-Bonaparte's views on the East-His sacrifices to policy-General Bonaparte denounced to the First Consul-Kléber's letter to the Directory- Accounts of the Egyptian expedition published in the Moniteur- Proclamation to the army of the East-Favour and disgrace of certain individuals accounted for.
CHAPTER XXVIII.	1800. Great and common men-Portrait of Bonaparte-The varied expression of his countenance-His convulsive shrug-Presentiment of his corpulency-Partiality for bathing-His temperance-His alleged capability of dispensing with sleep-Good and bad news-Shaving, and reading the journals-Morning business-Breakfast-Coffee and snuff -Bonaparte's idea of his own situation-His ill opinion of mankind -His dislike of a 'tête-à-tête'-His hatred of the Revolutionists -Ladies in white-Anecdotes-Bonaparte's tokens of kindness, and his droll compliments-His fits of ill humour-Sound of bells- Gardens of Malmaison-His opinion of medicine-His memory- His poetic insensibility-His want of gallantry-Cards and conversation-The dress-coat and black cravat-Bonaparte's payments -His religious ideas-His obstinacy.
CHAPTER XXIX.	1800. Bonaparte's laws-Suppression of the festival of the 21st of January-Officials visits-The Temple-Louis XVI. and Sir Sidney Smith-Peculation during the Directory-Loan raised-Modest budget -The Consul and the Member of the Institute-The figure of the Republic-Duroc's missions-The King of Prussia-The Emperor Alexander-General Latour-Foissac-Arbitrary decree-Company of players for Egypt-Singular ideas respecting literary property- The preparatory Consulate-The journals-Sabres and muskets of honour-The First Consul and his Comrade-The bust of Brutus- Statues in the gallery of the Tuileries-Sections of the Council of State-Costumes of public functionaries-Masquerades-The opera-balls-Recall of the exiles.
CHAPTER XXX	1800. Bonaparte and Paul I.-Lord Whitworth-Baron Sprengporten's arrival at Paris-Paul's admiration of Bonaparte-Their close connection and correspondence-The royal challenge-General Mack-The road to Malmaison-Attempts at assassination-Death of Washington-National mourning-Ambitious calculation-M. de Fontanel, the skilful orator -Fete at the Temple of Mars-Murat's marriage with Caroline Bonaparte-Madame Bonaparte's pearls.
CHAPTER XXXI.	1800. Police on police-False information-Dexterity of Fouché-Police agents deceived-Money ill applied-Inutility of political police- Bonaparte's opinion-General considerations-My appointment to the Prefecture of police.
CHAPTER XXXII.	1800. Successful management of parties-Precautions-Removal from the Luxembourg to the Tuileries-Hackney-coaches and the Consul's white horses-Royal custom and an inscription-The review-Bonaparte's homage to the standards-Talleyrand in Bonaparte's cabinet- Bonaparte's aversion to the cap of liberty even in painting-The state bed-Our cabinet.
CHAPTER XXXIII.	1800. The Tuileries-Royalty in perspective-Remarkable observation- Presentations-Assumption of the prerogative of mercy-M. Defeu- M. de Frotte-Georges Cadoudal's audience of Bonaparte-Rapp's precaution and Bonaparte's confidence-The dignity of France- Napper Tandy and Blackwell delivered up by the Senate of Hamburg- Contribution in the Egyptian style-Valueless bill-Fifteen thousand francs in the drawer of a secretaire-Josephine's debts-Evening walks with Bonaparte.
CHAPTER XXXIV.	1800. War and monuments-Influence of the recollections of Egypt- First improvements in Paris-Malmaison too little-St. Cloud taken -The Pont des Arts-Business prescribed for me by Bonaparte- Pecuniary remuneration-The First Consul's visit to the Pritanée- His examination of the pupils-Consular pensions-Tragical death of Miackzinski-Introduction of vaccination-Recall of the members of the Constituent Assembly-The "canary" volunteers-Tronchet and Target-Liberation of the Austrian prisoners-Longchamps and sacred music.
CHAPTER XXXV	1800. The Memorial of St. Helena-Louis XVIII.'s first letter to Bonaparte -Josephine, Hortense, and the Faubourg St. Germain- Madame Bonaparte and the fortune-teller-Louis XVIII's second letter -Bonaparte's answer-Conversation respecting the recall of Louis XVIII.-Peace and war-A battle fought with pins-Genoa and Melas- Realisation of Bonaparte's military plans-Ironical letter to Berthier-Departure from Paris-Instructions to Lucien and Cambacérès-Joseph Bonaparte appointed Councillor of State- Travelling conversation-Alexander and Caesar judged by Bonaparte.
VOLUME II. —1800-1805
CHAPTER I.	1800. Bonaparte's confidence in the army-'Ma belle' France-The convent of Bernadins-Passage of Mont St. Bernard-Arrival at the convent- Refreshments distributed to the soldiers-Mont Albaredo-Artillery dismounted-The fort of Bard-Fortunate temerity-Bonaparte and Melas-The spy-Bonaparte's opinion of M. Necker-Capitulation of Genoa-Intercepted despatch-Lannes at Montebello-Boudet succeeded by Desaix-Coolness of the First Consul to M. Collot-Conversation and recollections-The battle of Marengo-General Kellerman-Supper sent from the Convent del Bosco-Particulars respecting the death of Desaix-The Prince of Lichtenstein-Return to Milan-Savary and Rapp.
CHAPTER II.	1800. Suspension of hostilities-Letter to the Consuls-Second Occupation of Milan-Bonaparte and Massena-Public acclamations and the voice of Josephine-Stray recollections-Organization of Piedmont-Sabres of honour-Rewards to the army of the Rhine-Pretended army of reserve-General Zach-Anniversary of the 14th of July-Monument to Desaix-Desaix and Foy-Bonaparte's speech in the Temple of Mars- Arrival of the Consular Guard-The bones of marshal Turenne- Lucien's successful speech-Letter from Lucien to Joseph Bonaparte- The First Consul's return to Paris-Accidents on the road- Difficulty of gaining lasting fame-Assassination of Kléber- Situation of the terrace on which Kléber was stabbed-Odious rumours -Arrival of a courier-A night scene-Bonaparte's distress on perusing the despatches from Egypt.
CHAPTER III.	1800. Bonaparte's wish to negotiate with England and Austria- An emigrant's letter-Domestic details-The bell-Conspiracy of Ceracchi, Arena, Harrel, and others-Bonaparte's visit to the opera -Arrests-Rariel appointed commandant of Vincennes-The Duc d'Enghien's foster-sister-The 3d Nivoise-First performance of Haydn's "Creation"-The infernal machine-Congratulatory addresses- Arbitrary condemnations-M. Tissot erased from the list of the banished-M. Truguet-Bonapartes' hatred of the Jacobins explained- The real criminals discovered-Justification of Fouché-Execution of St. Regent and Carbon-Caesar, Cromwell, and Bonaparte-Conversation between Bonaparte and Fouché-Pretended anger-Fouché's dissimulation-Lucien's resignation-His embassy to Spain-War between Spain and Portugal-Dinner at Fouché's-Treachery of Joseph Bonaparte-A trick upon the First Consul-A three days' coolness- Reconciliation.
CHAPTER IV.	1800-1801 Austria bribed by England-M. de St. Julien in Paris-Duroc's mission-Rupture of the armistice-Surrender of three garrisons- M. Otto in London-Battle of Hohenlinden-Madame Moreau and Madame Hulot-Bonaparte's ill-treatment of the latter-Congress of Luneville-General Clarke-M. Maret-Peace between France and Austria-Joseph Bonaparte's speculations in the funds- M. de Talleyrand's advice-Post-office regulation-Cambacérès- Importance of good dinners in the affairs of Government-Steamboats and intriguers-Death of Paul I.-New thoughts of the reestablishment of Poland-Duroc at St. Petersburg-Bribe rejected- Death of Abercromby.
CHAPTER V.	1801-1802. An experiment of royalty-Louis de Bourbon and Maria Louisa, of Spain-Creation of the kingdom of Etruria-The Count of Leghorn in Paris-Entertainments given him-Bonaparte's opinion of the King of Etruria-His departure for Florence, and bad reception there- Negotiations with the Pope-Bonaparte's opinion on religion-Te Deum at Notre Dame-Behaviour of the people in the church-Irreligion of the Consular Court-Augereau's remark on the Te Deum-First Mass at St. Cloud-Mass in Bonaparte's apartments-Talleyrand relieved from his clerical vows-My appointment to the Council of State.
CHAPTER VI.	1802. Last chapter on Egypt-Admiral Gantheaume-Way to please Bonaparte- General Menou's flattery and his reward-Davoust-Bonaparte regrets giving the command to Menou, who is defeated by Abercromby-Otto's negotiation in London-Preliminaries of peace.
CHAPTER VII.	1802. The most glorious epoch for France-The First Consul's desire of peace-Malta ceded and kept-Bonaparte and the English journals- Mr. Addington's letter to the First Consul-Bonaparte prosecutes Peltier-Leclerc's expedition to St. Domingo-Toussaint Louverture- Death of Leclerc-Rochambeau, his successor, abandons St. Domingo- First symptoms of Bonaparte's malady-Josephine's intrigues for the marriage of Hortense-Falsehood contradicted.
CHAPTER VIII.	1802-1803. Bonaparte President of the Cisalpine Republic-Meeting of the deputation at Lyons-Malta and the English-My immortality-Fete given by Madame Murat-Erasures from the emigrant list-Restitution of property-General Sebastiani-Lord Whitworth-Napoleon's first symptoms of disease-Corvisart-Influence of physical suffering on Napoleon's temper-Articles for the Moniteur-General Andreossi- M. Talleyrand's pun-Jerome Bonaparte-Extravagance of Bonaparte's brothers-M. Collot and the navy contract.
CHAPTER IX.	1802. Proverbial falsehood of bulletins-M. Doublet-Creation of the Legion of Honour-Opposition to it in the Council and other authorities of the State-The partisans of an hereditary system- The question of the Consulship for life.
CHAPTER X.	1802. General Bernadotte pacifies La vendee and suppresses a mutiny at Tours-Bonaparte's injustice towards him-A premeditated scene- Advice given to Bernadotte, and Bonaparte disappointed-The First Consul's residence at St. Cloud-His rehearsals for the Empire- His contempt of mankind-Mr. Fox and Bonaparte-Information of plans of assassination-A military dinner given by Bonaparte-Moreau not of the party-Effect of the 'Senates-consultes' on the Consulate for life-Journey to Plombieres-Previous scene between Lucien and Josephine-Theatrical representations at Neuilly and Malmaison- Loss of a watch, and honesty rewarded-Canova at St. Cloud- Bonaparte's reluctance to stand for a model.
CHAPTER XI.	1802. Bonaparte's principle as to the change of Ministers-Fouché-His influence with the First Consul-Fouché's dismissal-The departments of Police and Justice united under Regnier-Madame Bonaparte's regret for the dismissal of Fouché-Family scenes-Madame Louis Bonaparte's pregnancy-False and infamous reports to Josephine- Legitimacy and a bastard-Raederer reproached by Josephine-Her visit to Ruel-Long conversation with her-Assertion at St. Helena respecting a great political fraud.
CHAPTER XII.	1802. Citizen Fesch created Cardinal Fesch-Arts and industry-Exhibition in the Louvre-Aspect of Paris in 1802-The Medicean Venus and the Velletrian Pallas-Signs of general prosperity-Rise of the funds- Irresponsible Ministers-The Bourbons-The military Government- Annoying familiarity of Lannes-Plan laid for his disgrace- Indignation of Lannes-His embassy to Portugal-The delayed despatch-Bonaparte's rage-I resign my situation-Duroc- I breakfast with Bonaparte-Duroc's intercession-Temporary reconciliation.
CHAPTER XIII.	1802-1803. The Concordat and the Legion of Honour-The Council of State and the Tribunate-Discussion on the word 'subjects'-Chenier-Chabot de l'Allier's proposition to the Tribunate-The marked proof of national gratitude-Bonaparte's duplicity and self-command-Reply to the 'Senatus-consulte'-The people consulted-Consular decree- The most, or the least-M. de Vanblanc's speech-Bonaparte's reply- The address of the Tribunate-Hopes and predictions thwarted.
CHAPTER XIV	1802-1803. Departure for Malmaison-Unexpected question relative to the Bourbons-Distinction between two opposition parties-New intrigues of Lucien-Camille Jordan's pamphlet seized-Vituperation against the liberty of the press-Revisal of the Constitution-New 'Senatus-consulte-Deputation from the Senate-Audience of the Diplomatic Body-Josephine's melancholy-The discontented-Secret meetings-Fouché and the police agents-The Code Napoleon- Bonaparte's regular attendance at the Council of State-His knowledge of mankind, and the science of government-Napoleon's first sovereign act-His visit to the Senate-The Consular procession-Polite etiquette-The Senate and the Council of State- Complaints against Lucien-The deaf and dumb assembly-Creation of senatorships.
CHAPTER XV	1802. The intoxication of great men-Unlucky zeal-MM. Maret, Champagny, and Savary-M. de Talleyrand's real services-Postponement of the execution of orders-Fouché and the Revolution-The Royalist committee-The charter first planned during the Consulate-Mission to Coblentz-Influence of the Royalists upon Josephine-The statue and the pedestal-Madame de Genlis' romance of Madame de la Valliere-The Legion of Honour and the carnations-Influence of the Faubourg St. Germain-Inconsiderate step taken by Bonaparte-Louis XVIII's indignation-Prudent advice of the Abbe Andre-Letter from Louis XVIII. to Bonaparte-Council held at Neuilly-The letter delivered-Indifference of Bonaparte, and satisfaction of the Royalists.
CHAPTER XVI	1802. The day after my disgrace-Renewal of my duties-Bonaparte's affected regard for me-Offer of an assistant-M. de Meneval-My second rupture with Bonaparte-The Duc de Rovigo's account of it- Letter from M. de Barbe Marbois-Real causes of my separation from the First Consul-Postscript to the letter of M. de Barbe Marbois- The black cabinet-Inspection of letters dining the Consulate- I retire to St. Cloud-Communications from M. de Meneval-A week's conflict between friendship and pride-My formal dismissal-Petty revenge-My request to visit England-Monosyllabic answer-Wrong suspicion-Burial of my papers-Communication from Duroc-My letter to the First Consul-The truth acknowledged.
CHAPTER XVII.	1803. The First Consul's presentiments respecting the duration of peace- England's uneasiness at the prosperity of France-Bonaparte's real wish for war-Concourse of foreigners in Paris-Bad faith of England-Bonaparte and Lord Whitworth-Relative position of France and England-Bonaparte's journey to the seaboard departments- Breakfast at Compiegne-Father Berton-Irritation excited by the presence of Bouquet-Father Berton's derangement and death-Rapp ordered to send for me-Order countermanded.
CHAPTER XVIII.	1803. Vast works undertaken-The French and the Roman soldiers-Itinerary of Bonaparte's journeys to the coast-Twelve hours on horseback- Discussions in Council-Opposition of Truguet-Bonaparte'a opinion on the point under discussion-Two divisions of the world-Europe a province-Bonaparte's jealousy of the dignity of France-The Englishman in the dockyard of Brest-Public audience at the Tuilleries-The First Consul's remarks upon England-His wish to enjoy the good opinion of the English people-Ball at Malmaison- Lines on Hortense's dancing-Singular motive for giving the ball.
CHAPTER XIX.	1803. Mr. Pitt-Motive of his going out of office-Error of the English Government-Pretended regard for the Bourbons-Violation of the treaty of Amiens-Reciprocal accusations-Malta-Lord Whitworth's departure-Rome and Carthage-Secret satisfaction of Bonaparte- Message to the Senate, the Legislative Body, and the Tribunate- The King of England's renunciation of the title of King of France- Complaints of the English Government-French agents in British ports -Views of France upon Turkey-Observation made by Bonaparte to the Legislative Body-Its false interpretation-Conquest of Hanover- The Duke of Cambridge caricatured-The King of England and the Elector of Hanover-First address to the clergy-Use of the word "Monsieur"-The Republican weeks and months.
CHAPTER XX.	1803. Presentation of Prince Borghese to Bonaparte-Departure for Belgium Revival of a royal custom-The swans of Amiens-Change of formula in the acts of Government-Company of performers in Bonaparte's suite-Revival of old customs-Division of the institute into four classes-Science and literature-Bonaparte's hatred of literary men -Ducis-Bernardin de Saint-Pierre-Chenier and Lemercier- Explanation of Bonaparte's aversion to literature-Lalande and his dictionary-Education in the hands of Government-M. de Roquelaure, Archbishop of Malines.
CHAPTER XXI.	1804. The Temple-The intrigues of Europe-Prelude to the Continental system-Bombardment of Granville-My conversation with the First Consul on the projected invasion of England-Fauche Borel-Moreau and Pichegru-Fouché's manoeuvres-The Abbe David and Lajolais- Fouché's visit to St. Cloud-Regnier outwitted by Fouché- My interview with the First Consul-His indignation at the reports respecting Hortense-Contradiction of these calumnies-The brothers Faucher-Their execution-The First Consul's levee-My conversation with Duroc-Conspiracy of Georges, Moreau, and Pichegru-Moreau averse to the restoration of the Bourbons-Bouvet de Lozier's attempted suicide-Arrest of Moreau-Declaration of MM. de Polignac and de Riviere-Connivance of the police-Arrest of M. Carbonnet and his nephew.
CHAPTER XXII.	1804. The events of 1804-Death of the Duc d'Enghien-Napoleon's arguments at St. Helena-Comparison of dates-Possibility of my having saved the Duc d'Enghien's life-Advice given to the Duc d'Enghien-Sir Charles Stuart-Delay of the Austrian Cabinet-Pichegru and the mysterious being-M. Massias-The historians of St. Helena- Bonaparte's threats against the emigrants and M. Cobentzel- Singular adventure of Davoust's secretary-The quartermaster- The brigand of La Vendée.
CHAPTER XXIII.	1804. General Ordener's mission-Arrest of the Duc d'Enghien-Horrible night-scene--Harrel's account of the death of the Prince-Order for digging the grave-The foster-sister of the Duc d'Enghien-Reading the sentence-The lantern-General Savary-The faithful dog and the police-My visit to Malmaison-Josephine's grief- The Duc d'Enghien's portrait and lock of hair-Savary's emotion- M. de Chateaubriand's resignation-M. de Chateaubriand's connection with Bonaparte-Madame Bacciocchi and M. de Fontanes-Cardinal Fesch -Dedication of the second edition of the 'Genie du Christianisme' -M. de Chateaubriand's visit to the First Consul on the morning of the Duc d'Enghien's death-Consequences of the Duc d'Enghien's death-Change of opinion in the provinces-The Gentry of the Chateaus-Effect of the Duc d'Enghien's death on foreign Courts- Remarkable words of Mr. Pitt-Louis XVIII. sends back the insignia of the Golden Fleece to the King of Spain.
CHAPTER XXIV.	1804. Pichegru betrayed-His arrest-His conduct to his old aide de camp- Account of Pichegru's family, and his education at Brienne- Permission to visit M. Carbonnet-The prisoners in the Temple- Absurd application of the word "brigand"-Moreau and the state of public opinion respecting him-Pichegru's firmness-Pichegru strangled in prison-Public opinion at the time-Report on the death of Pichegru.
CHAPTER XXV.	1804. Arrest of Georges-The fruiterer's daughter of the Rue de La Montagne-St. Genevieve-Louis Bonaparte's visit to the Temple- General Lauriston-Arrest of Villeneuve and Barco-Villeneuve wounded-Moreau during his imprisonment-Preparations for leaving the Temple-Remarkable change in Georges-Addresses and congratulations-Speech of the First Consul forgotten-Secret negotiations with the Senate-Official proposition of Bonaparte's elevation to the Empire-Sitting of the Council of State- Interference of Bonaparte-Individual votes-Seven against twenty- His subjects and his people-Appropriateness of the title of Emperor-Communications between Bonaparte and the Senate-Bonaparte first called Sire by Cambacérès-First letter signed by Napoleon as Emperor-Grand levee at the Tuileries-Napoleon's address to the Imperial Guard-Organic 'Senatus-consulte'-Revival of old formulas and titles-The Republicanism of Lucien-The Spanish Princess- Lucien's clandestine marriage-Bonaparte's influence on the German Princes-Intrigues of England-Drake at Munich-Project for overthrowing Bonaparte's Government-Circular from the Minister for Foreign Affairs to the members of the Diplomatic Body-Answers to that circular.
CHAPTER XXVI.	1804. Trial of Moreau, Georges, and others-Public interest excited by Moreau-Arraignment of the prisoners-Moreau's letter to Bonaparte- Violence of the President of the Court towards the prisoners- Lajolais and Rolland-Examinations intended to criminate Moreau- Remarkable observations-Speech written by M. Garat-Bonaparte's opinion of Garat's eloquence-General Lecourbe and Moreau's son- Respect shown to Moreau by the military-Different sentiments excited by Georges and Moreau-Thoriot and 'Tui-roi'-Georges' answers to the interrogatories-He refuses an offer of pardon- Coster St. Victor-Napoleon and an actress-Captain Wright- M. de Riviere and the medal of the Comte d'Artois-Generous struggle between MM. de Polignac-Sentence on the prisoners-Bonaparte's remark-Pardons and executions.
CHAPTER XXVII.	1804. Clavier and Hemart-Singular Proposal of Corvisart-M. Desmaisons- Project of influencing the judges-Visit to the Tuileries-Rapp in attendance-Long conversation with the Emperor-His opinion on the trial of Moreau-English assassins and Mr. Fox-Complaints against the English Government-Bonaparte and Lacuee-Affectionate behaviour-Arrest of Pichegru-Method employed by the First Consul to discover his presence in Paris-Character of Moreau-Measures of Bonaparte regarding him-Lauriston sent to the Temple-Silence respecting the Duc d'Enghien-Napoleon's opinion of Moreau and Georges-Admiration of Georges-Offers of employment and dismissal- Recital of former vexations-Audience of the Empress-Melancholy forebodings-What Bonaparte said concerning himself-Marks of kindness.
CHAPTER XXVIII.	1804. Curious disclosures of Fouché-Remarkable words of Bonaparte respecting the protest of Louis XVIII-Secret document inserted in the Moniteur-Announcement from Bonaparte to Regnier-Fouché appointed Minister of Police-Error of Regnier respecting the conspiracy of Georges-Undeserved praise bestowed on Fouché- Indication of the return of the Bourbons-Variation between the words and conduct of Bonaparte-The iron crown-Celebration of the 14th of July-Church festivals and loss of time-Grand ceremonial at the Invalides-Recollections of the 18th Brumaire-New oath of the Legion of Honour-General enthusiasm-Departure for Boulogne-Visits to Josephine at St. Cloud and Malmaison-Josephine and Madame de Rémusat-Pardons granted by the Emperor-Anniversary of the 14th of July-Departure for the camp of Boulogne-General error respecting Napoleon's designs-Caesar's Tower-Distribution of the crosses of the Legion of Honour-The military throne-Bonaparte's charlatanism -Intrepidity of two English sailors-The decennial prizes and the Polytechnic School-Meeting of the Emperor and Empress-First negotiation with the Holy Sea-The Prefect of Arras and Comte Louis de Narbonne-Change in the French Ministry.
CHAPTER XXIX.	1804. England deceived by Napoleon-Admirals Missiessy and Villeneuve- Command given to Lauriston-Napoleon's opinion of Madame de Stael- Her letters to Napoleon-Her enthusiasm converted into hatred- Bonaparte's opinion of the power of the Church-The Pope's arrival at Fontainebleau-Napoleon's first interview with Pius VII.- The Pope and the Emperor on a footing of equality-Honours rendered to the Pope-His apartments at the Tuileries-His visit to the Imperial printing office-Paternal rebuke-Effect produced in England by the Pope's presence in Paris-Preparations for Napoleon's coronation-Votes in favour of hereditary succession-Convocation of the Legislative Body-The presidents of cantons-Anecdote related by Michot the actor-Comparisons-Influence of the Coronation on the trade of Paris-The insignia of Napoleon and the insignia of Charlemagne-The Pope's mule-Anecdote of the notary Raguideau- Distribution of eagles in the Champ de Mars-Remarkable coincidence.
CHAPTER XXX.	1805 My appointment as Minister Plenipotentiary at Hamburg-My interview with Bonaparte at Malmaison-Bonaparte's designs respecting Italy- His wish to revisit Brienne-Instructions for my residence in Hamburg-Regeneration of European society-Bonaparte's plan of making himself the oldest sovereign in Europe-Amedee Jaubert's mission-Commission from the Emperor to the Empress-My conversation with Madame Bonaparte.
CHAPTER XXXI.	1805 Napoleon and Voltaire-Demands of the Holy See-Coolness between the pope and the Emperor-Napoleon's departure for Italy-Last interview between the Pope and the Emperor at Turin-Alessandria-The field of Marengo-The last Doge of Genoa-Bonaparte's arrival at Milan-Union of Genoa to the French Empire-Error in the Memorial of St. Helen- Bonaparte and Madam Grassini-Symptoms of dissatisfaction on the part of Austria and Russia-Napoleon's departure from Milan- Monument to commemorate the battle of Marengo-Napoleon's arrival in Paris and departure for Boulogne-Unfortunate result of a naval engagement-My visit to Fouché's country seat-Sieyès, Barras, the Bourbons, and Bonaparte-Observations respecting Josephine.
CHAPTER XXXII.	1805. Capitulation of Sublingen-Preparations for war-Utility of commercial information-My instructions-Inspection of the emigrants and the journals-A pamphlet by Kotzebue-Offers from the Emperor of Russia to Moreau-Portrait of Gustavus Adolphus by one of his ministers-Fouché's denunciations-Duels at Hamburg-M. de Gimel -The Hamburg Correspondent-Letter from Bernadotte.
CHAPTER XXXIII.	1805. Treaty of alliance between England and Russia-Certainty of an approaching war-M. Forshmann, the Russian Minister-Duroc's mission to Berlin-New project of the King of Sweden-Secret mission to the Baltic-Animosity against France-Fall of the exchange between Hamburg and Paris-Destruction of the first Austrian army-Taking of Ulm-The Emperor's displeasure at the remark of a soldier-Battle of Trafalgar-Duroc's position at the Court of Prussia-Armaments in Russia-Libel upon Napoleon in the Hamburg 'Corespondent'- Embarrassment of the Syndic and Burgomaster of Hamburg-The conduct of the Russian Minister censured by the Swedish and English Ministers.
CHAPTER XXXIV.	1805 Difficulties of my situation at Hamburg-Toil and responsibility- Supervision of the emigrants-Foreign Ministers-Journals-Packet from Strasburg-Bonaparte fond of narrating Giulio, an extempore recitation of a story composed by the Emperor.
VOLUME III. — 1805-1814
CHAPTER I.	1805. Abolition of the Republican calendar-Warlike preparations in Austria-Plan for re-organizing the National Guard-Napoleon in Strasburg-General Mack-Proclamation-Captain Bernard's reconnoitering mission-The Emperor's pretended anger and real satisfaction-Information respecting Ragusa communicated by Bernard -Rapid and deserved promotion-General Bernard's retirement to the United States of America.
CHAPTER II.	1805. Rapidity of Napoleon's victories-Murat at Wertingen-Conquest of Ney's duchy-The French army before Ulm-The Prince of Liechtenstein at the Imperial headquarters-His interview with Napoleon described by Rapp-Capitulation of Ulm signed by Berthier and Mack-Napoleon before and after a victory-His address to the captive generals- The Emperor's proclamation-Ten thousand prisoners taken by Murat- Battle of Caldiero in Italy-Letter from Duroc-Attempts to retard the Emperor's progress-Fruitless mission of M. de Giulay-The first French eagles taken by the Russians-Bold adventure of Lannes and Murat-The French enter Vienna-Savary's mission to the Emperor Alexander.
CHAPTER III.	1805. My functions at Hamburg-The King of Sweden at Stralsund- My bulletin describing the situation of the Russian armies-Duroc's recall from Berlin-General Dumouriez-Recruiting of the English in Hanover-The daughter of M. de Marbeof and Napoleon-Treachery of the King of Naples-The Sun of Austerlitz-Prince Dolgiorouki Rapp's account of the battle of Austerlitz-Gerard's picture- Eugène's marriage.
CHAPTER IV.	1805. Depreciation of the Bank paper-Ouvrard-His great discretion- Bonaparte's opinion of the rich-Ouvrard's imprisonment-His partnership with the King of Spain-His connection with Waalenberghe and Desprez-Bonaparte's return to Paris after the campaign of Vienna-Hasty dismissal of M. Barbe Marbois.
CHAPTER V	1805-1806. Declaration of Louis XVIII.-Dumouriez watched-News of a spy- Remarkable trait of courage and presence of mind-Necessity of vigilance at Hamburg-The King of Sweden-His bulletins-Doctor Gall -Prussia covets Hamburg-Projects on Holland-Negotiations for peace-Mr. Fox at the head of the British Cabinet-Intended assassination of Napoleon-Propositions made through Lord Yarmouth -Proposed protection of the Hanse towns-Their state- Aggrandisement of the Imperial family-Neither peace nor war- Sebastiani's mission to Constantinople-Lord Lauderdale at Paris, and failure of the negotiations-Austria despoiled-Emigrant pensions-Dumouriez's intrigues-Prince of Mecklenburg-Schwerin- Loizeau.
CHAPTER VI.	1806. Menaces of Prussia-Offer for restoring Hanover to England-Insolent ultimatum-Commencement of hostilities between France and Prussia- Battle of Auerstadt-Death of the Duke of Brunswick-Bernadotte in Hamburg-Davonet and Bernadotte-The Swedes at Lübeck-Major Amiel- Service rendered to the English Minister at Hamburg-My appointment of Minister for the King of Naples-New regulation of the German post-office-The Confederation of the North-Devices of the Hanse Towns-Occupation of Hamburg in the name of the Emperor-Decree of Berlin-The military governors of Hamburg-Brune, Michaud, and Bernadotte.
CHAPTER VII.	1806. Ukase of the Emperor of Russia-Duroc's mission to Weimar- Napoleon's views defeated-Triumphs of the French armies-Letters from Murat-False report respecting Murat-Resemblance between Moreau and M. Billand-Generous conduct of Napoleon-His interview with Madame Hatzfeld at Berlin-Letter from Bonaparte to Josephine- Blücher my prisoner-His character-His confidence in the future fate of Germany-Prince Paul of Wurtemberg taken prisoner-His wish to enter the French service-Distinguished emigrants at Altona- Deputation of the Senate to the Emperor at Berlin-The German Princes at Altona-Fauche-Boiel and the Comte de Gimel.
CHAPTER VIII.	1806. Alarm of the city of Hamburg-The French at Bergdorf-Favourable orders issued by Bernadotte-Extortions in Prussia-False endorsements-Exactions of the Dutch-Napoleon's concern for his wounded troops-Duroc's mission to the King of Prussia-Rejection of the Emperor's demands-My negotiations at Hamburg-Displeasure of the King of Sweden-M. Netzel and M. Wetteratedt.
CHAPTER IX.	1806 The Continental system-General indignation excited by it-Sale of licences by the French Government-Custom-house system at Hamburg- My letter to the Emperor-Cause of the rupture with Russia- Bernadotte's visit to me-Trial by court-martial for the purchase of a sugar-loaf-Davoust and the captain "rapporteur"-Influence of the Continental system on Napoleon's fall.
CHAPTER X.	1806-1807. New system of war-Winter quarters-The Emperor's Proclamation- Necessity of marching to meet the Russians-Distress in the Hanse Towns-Order for 50,000 cloaks-Seizure of Russian corn and timber- Murat's entrance into Warsaw-Re-establishment of Poland-Duroc's accident-M. de Talleyrand's carriage stopped by the mud-Napoleon's power of rousing the spirit of his troops-His mode of dictating- The Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin-His visits to Hamburg-The Duke of Weimar-His letter and present-Journey of the Hereditary Prince of Denmark to Paris-Batter, the English spy-Traveling clerks-Louis Bonaparte and the Berlin decree-Creation of the Kingdom of Saxony- Veneration of Germany for the King of Saxony-The Emperor's uncertainty respecting Poland-Fetes and reviews at Warsaw-The French Government at the Emperor's head quarters-Ministerial portfolios sent to Warsaw.-Military preparations during the month of January-Difference of our situation daring the campaigns of Vienna and Prussia-News received and sent-Conduct of the Cabinet of Austria similar to that of the Cabinet of Berlin-Battle of Eylau-Unjust accusation against Bernadotte-Death of General d'Hautpoult-Te Deum chanted by the Russians-Gardanne's mission to Persia
CHAPTER XI.	1807 Abuse of military power-Defence of diplomatic rights-Marshal Brune -Army supplies-English cloth and leather-Arrest on a charge of libel-Dispatch from M. Talleyrand-A page of Napoleon's glory- Interview between the two Emperors at Tilsit,-Silesia restored to the Queen of Prussia-Unfortunate situation in Prussia- Impossibility of reestablishing Poland in 1807-Foundation of the Kingdom of Westphalia-The Duchy of Warsaw and the King of Saxony.
CHAPTER XII.	1807. Effect produced at Altona by the Treaty of Tilsit-The Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin's departure from Hamburg-English squadron in the Sound-Bombardment of Copenhagen-Perfidy of England-Remark of Bonaparte to M. Lemercier-Prussia erased from the map-Napoleon's return to Paris-Suppression of the Tribunate-Confiscation of English merchandise-Nine millions gained to France-M. Caulaincourt Ambassador to Russia-Repugnance of England to the intervention of Russia-Affairs of Portugal-Junot appointed to command the army- The Prince Regent's departure for the Brazils-The Code Napoleon- Introduction of the French laws into Germany-Leniency of Hamburg Juries-The stolen cloak and the Syndic Doormann.
CHAPTER XIII.	1807-1808. Disturbed state of Spain-Godoy, Prince of the Peace-Reciprocal accusations between the King of Spain and his son-False promise of Napoleon-Dissatisfaction occasioned by the presence of the French troops-Abdication of Charles IV.-The Prince of the Peace made prisoner-Murat at Madrid-Important news transmitted by a commercial letter-Murat's ambition-His protection of Godoy- Charles IV, denies his voluntary abdication-The crown of Spain destined for Joseph-General disapprobation of Napoleon's conduct- The Bourbon cause apparently lost-Louis XVIII. after his departure from France-As Comte de Provence at Coblentz-He seeks refuge in Turin and Verona-Death of Louis XVII-Louis XVIII. refused an asylum in Austria, Saxony, and Prussia-His residence at Mittan and Warsaw-Alexander and Louis XVIII-The King's departure from Milan and arrival at Yarmouth-Determination of the King of England-M. Lemercier's prophecy to Bonaparte-Fouché's inquiries respecting Comte de Rechteren-Note from Josephine-New demands on the Hanse Towns-Order to raise 3000 sailors in Hamburg.
CHAPTER XIV.	1808. Departure of the Prince of Ponte-Corvo-Prediction and superstition -Stoppage of letters addressed to the Spanish troops-La Romana and Romanillos-Illegible notifications-Eagerness of the German Princes to join the Confederation of the Rhine-Attack upon me on account of M. Hue-Bernadotte's successor in Hamburg-Exactions and tyrannical conduct of General Dupas-Disturbance in Hamburg-Plates broken in a fit of rage-My letter to Bernadotte-His reply-Bernadotte's return to Hamburg, and departure of Dupas for Lübeck-Noble conduct of the 'aide de camp' Barrel.
CHAPTER XV.	1808. Promulgation of the Code of Commerce-Conquests by Status-consulte- Three events in one day-Recollections-Application of a line of Voltaire-Creation of the Imperial nobility-Restoration of the university-Aggrandisement of the kingdom of Italy at the expense of Rome-Cardinal Caprara'a departure from Paris-The interview at Erfurt.
CHAPTER XVI.	1808. The Spanish troops in Hamburg-Romana's siesta-His departure for Funen-Celebration of Napoleon's birthday-Romana's defection- English agents and the Dutch troops-Facility of communication between England and the Continent-Delay of couriers from Russia- Alarm and complaints-The people of Hamburg-Montesquieu and the Minister of the Grand Duke of Tuscany-Invitations at six months- Napoleon's journey to Italy-Adoption of Eugène-Lucien's daughter and the Prince of the Asturias-M. Auguste de Stael's interview with Napoleon.
CHAPTER XVII.	1808. The Republic of Batavia-The crown of Holland offered to Louis- Offer and refusal of the crown of Spain-Napoleon's attempt to get possession of Brabant-Napoleon before and after Erfart- A remarkable letter to Louis-Louis summoned to Paris-His honesty and courage-His bold language-Louis' return to Holland, and his letter to Napoleon-Harsh letter from Napoleon to Louis-Affray at Amsterdam-Napoleon's displeasure and last letter to his brother- Louis' abdication in favour of his son-Union of Holland to the French Empire-Protest of Louis against that measure-Letter from M. Otto to Louis.
CHAPTER XVIII.	1809. Demands for contingents from some of the small States of Germany- M. Metternich-Position of Russia with respect to France-Union of Austria and Russia-Return of the English to Spain-Soult King of Portugal, and Murat successor to the Emperor-First levy of the landwehr in Austria-Agents of the Hamburg 'Correspondent'- Declaration of Prince Charles-Napoleon's march to Germany-His proclamation-Bernadotte's departure for the army-Napoleon's dislike of Bernadotte-Prince Charles' plan of campaign-The English at Cuxhaven-Fruitlessness of the plots of England-Napoleon wounded-Napoleon's prediction realised-Major Schill-Hamburg threatened and saved-Schill in Lübeck-His death, and destruction of his band-Schill imitated by the Duke of Brunswick-Oels- Departure of the English from Cuxhaven.
CHAPTER XIX.	1809. The castle of Diernstein-Richard Coeur de Lion and Marshal Lannes, -The Emperor at the gates of Vienna-The Archduchess Maria Louisa- Facility of correspondence with England-Smuggling in Hamburg-Brown sugar and sand-Hearses filled with sugar and coffee-Embargo on the publication of news-Supervision of the 'Hamburg Correspondant'- Festival of Saint Napoleon-Ecclesiastical adulation-The King of Westphalia's journey through his States-Attempt to raise a loan- Jerome's present to me-The present returned-Bonaparte's unfounded suspicions.
CHAPTER XX.	1809. Visit to the field of Wagram.-Marshal Macdonald-Union of the Papal States with the Empire-The battle of Talavera-Sir Arthur Wellesley-English expedition to Holland-Attempt to assassinate the Emperor at Schoenbrunn-Staps Interrogated by Napoleon-Pardon offered and rejected-Fanaticism and patriotism-Corvisart's examination of Staps-Second interrogatory-Tirade against the illuminati-Accusation of the Courts of Berlin and Weimar-Firmness and resignation of Staps-Particulars respecting his death- Influence of the attempt of Staps on the conclusion of peace- M. de Champagny.
CHAPTER XXI.	1809. The Princess Royal of Denmark-Destruction of the German Empire- Napoleons visit to the Courts of Bavaria and Wurtemberg-His return to France-First mention of the divorce-Intelligence of Napoleon's marriage with Maria Louisa-Napoleon's quarrel with Louis-Journey of the Emperor and Empress into Holland-Refusal of the Hanse Towns to pay the French troops-Decree for burning English merchandise- M. de Vergennes-Plan for turning an inevitable evil to the best account-Fall on the exchange of St Petersburg
CHAPTER XXII.	1809-1810. Bernadotte elected Prince Royal of Sweden-Count Wrede's overtures to Bernadotte-Bernadottes's three days' visit to Hamburg- Particulars respecting the battle of Wagram-Secret Order of the day-Last intercourse of the Prince Royal of Sweden with Napoleon- My advice to Bernadotte respecting the Continental system.
CHAPTER XXIII.	1810 Bernadotte's departure from Hamburg-The Duke of Holstein-Augustenburg-Arrival of the Crown Prince in Sweden- Misunderstandings between him and Napoleon-Letter from Bernadotte to the Emperor-Plot for kidnapping the Prince Royal of Sweden- Invasion of Swedish Pomerania-Forced alliance of Sweden with England and Russia-Napoleon's overtures to Sweden-Bernadotte's letters of explanation to the Emperor-The Princess Royal of Sweden -My recall to Paris-Union of the Hanse Towns with France- Dissatisfaction of Russia-Extraordinary demand made upon me by Bonaparte-Fidelity of my old friends-Duroc and Rapp-Visit to Malmaison, and conversation with Josephine.
CHAPTER XXIV	1811 Arrest of La Sahla-My visit to him-His confinement at Vincennes- Subsequent history of La Sahla-His second journey to France- Detonating powder-Plot hatched against me by the Prince of Eckmuhl -Friendly offices of the Duc de Rovigo-Bugbears of the police- Savary, Minister of Police.
CHAPTER XXV.	1811 M. Czernischeff-Dissimulation of Napoleon-Napoleon and Alexander- Josephine's foresight respecting the affairs of Spain-My visits to Malmaison-Grief of Josephine-Tears and the toilet-Vast extent of the Empire-List of persons condemned to death and banishment in Piedmont-Observation of Alfieri respecting the Spaniards-Success in Spain-Check of Massena in Portugal-Money lavished by the English-Bertrand sent to Illyria, and Marmont to Portugal- Situation of the French army-Assembling of the Cortes-Europe sacrificed to the Continental system-Conversation with Murat in the Champs Elysees-New titles and old names-Napoleon's dislike of literary men-Odes, etc., on the marriage of Napoleon-Chateaubriand and Lemereier-Death of Chenier-Chateaubriand elected his successor -His discourse read by Napoleon-Bonaparte compared to Nero- Suppression of the 'Merceure'-M. de Chateaubriand ordered to leave Paris-MM. Lemercier and Esmenard presented to the Emperor-Birth of the King of Rome-France in 1811.
CHAPTER XXVI.	1811 My return to Hamburg-Government Committee established there- Anecdote of the Comte de Chaban-Napoleon's misunderstanding with the Pope-Cardinal Fesch-Convention of a Council-Declaration required from the Bishops-Spain in 1811-Certainty of war with Russia-Lauriston supersedes Caulaincourt at St. Petersburg-The war in Spain neglected-Troops of all nations at the disposal of Bonaparte-Levy of the National Guard-Treaties with Prussia and Austria-Capitulation renewed with Switzerland-Intrigues with Czernischeff-Attacks of my enemies-Memorial to the Emperor-Ogier de la Saussaye and the mysterious box-Removal of the Pope to Fontainebleau-Anecdote of His Holiness and M. Denon-Departure of Napoleon and Maria Louisa for Dresden-Situation of affairs in Spain and Portugal-Rapp's account of the Emperor's journey to Dantzic- Mutual wish for war on the part of Napoleon and Alexander-Sweden and Turkey-Napoleon's vain attempt to detach Sweden from her alliance with Russia.
CHAPTER XXVII.	1812. Changeableness of Bonaparte's plans and opinions-Articles for the 'Moniteur' dictated by the First Consul-The Protocol of the Congress of Chatillon-Conversations with Davoust at Hamburg- Promise of the Viceroyalty of Poland-Hope and disappointment of the Poles-Influence of illusion on Bonaparte-The French in Moscow- Disasters of the retreat-Mallet's conspiracy-Intelligence of the affair communicated to Napoleon at Smolensko-Circumstances detailed by Rapp-Real motives of Napoleon's return to Paris-Murat, Ney, and Eugène-Power of the Italians to endure cold-Napoleon's exertions to repair his losses-Defection of General York-Convocation of a Privy Council-War resolved on-Wavering of the Pope-Useless negotiations with Vienna-Maria Louisa appointed Regent.
CHAPTER XXVIII.	1813. Riots in Hamburg and Lübeck-Attempted suicide of M. Konning- Evacuation of Hamburg-Dissatisfaction at the conduct of General St. Cyr-The Cabinets of Vienna and the Tuileries-First appearance of the Cossacks-Colonel Tettenborn invited to occupy Hamburg-Cordial reception of the Russians-Depredations-Levies of troops- Testimonials of gratitude to Tettenborn-Napoleon's new army-Death of General Morand-Remarks of Napoleon on Vandamme-Bonaparte and Gustavus Adolphus-Junction of the corps of Davoust and Vandamme- Reoccupation of Hamburg by the French-General Hogendorff appointed Governor of Hamburg-Exactions and vexatious contributions levied upon Hamburg and Lübeck-Hostages.
CHAPTER XXIX.	1813. Napoleon's second visit to Dresden-Battle of Bantzen-The Congress at Prague-Napoleon ill- advised-Battle of Vittoria-General Moreau Rupture of the conferences at Prague-Defection of Jomini-Battles of Dresden and Leipsic-Account of the death of Duroc-An interrupted conversation resumed a year after-Particulars respecting Poniatowski-His extraordinary courage and death- His monument at Leipsic and tomb in the cathedral of Warsaw.
CHAPTER XXX.	1813 Amount of the Allied forces against Napoleon-Their advance towards the Rhine-Levy of 280,000 men-Dreadful situation of the French at Mayence-Declaration of the Allies at Frankfort-Diplomatic correspondents-The Duc de Bassano succeeded by the Duke of Vicenza -The conditions of the Allies vaguely accepted-Caulaincourt sent to the headquarters of the Allies-Manifesto of the Allied powers to the French people.-Gift of 30,000,000 from the Emperor's privy purse-Wish to recall M. de Talleyrand-Singular advice relative to Wellington-The French army recalled from Spain-The throne resigned Joseph-Absurd accusation against M. Laine-Adjournment of the Legislative Body-Napoleon's Speech to the Legislative Body-Remarks of Napoleon reported by Cambacérès.
CHAPTER XXXI.	1813. The flag of the army of Italy and the eagles of 1813-Entrance of the Allies into Switzerland-Summons to the Minister of Police- My refusal to accept a mission to Switzerland-Interviews with M. de Talleyrand and the Duc de Picence-Offer of a Dukedom and the Grand Cordon of the Legion of Honour-Definitive refusal-The Duc de Vicence's message to me in 1815-Commencement of the siege of Hamburg-A bridge two leagues long-Executions at Lübeck-Scarcity of provisions in Hamburg-Banishment of the inhabitants-Men bastinadoed and women whipped-Hospitality of the inhabitants of Altona.
CHAPTER XXXII.	1813-1814. Prince Eugène and the affairs of Italy-The army of Italy on the frontiers of Austria-Eugène's regret at the defection of the Bavarians-Murat's dissimulation and perfidy-His treaty with Austria-Hostilities followed by a declaration of war-Murat abandoned by the French generals-Proclamation from Paris-Murat's success-Gigantic scheme of Napoleon-Napoleon advised to join the Jacobins-His refusal-Armament of the National Guard-The Emperor's farewell to the officers-The Congress of Chatillon-Refusal of an armistice-Napoleon's character displayed in his negotiations- Opening of the Congress-Discussions-Rupture of the Conferences.
CHAPTER XXXIII.	1814 Curious conversation between General Reynier and the Emperor Alexander-Napoleon repulses the Prussians-The Russians at Fontainebleau-Battle of Brienne-Sketch of the campaign of France- Supper after the battle of Champ Aubert-Intelligence of the arrival of the Duc d'Angouleme and the Comte d'Artois in France-The battle of the ravens and the eagle-Battle of Craonne-Departure of the Pope and the Spanish Princes-Capture of a convoy-Macdonald at the Emperor's headquarters-The inverted cipher.
CHAPTER XXXIV.	1814. The men of the Revolution and the men of the Empire-The Council of Regency-Departure of the Empress from Paris-Marmont and Mortier- Joseph's flight-Meeting at Marmont's hotel-Capitulation of Paris- Marmont's interview with the Emperor at Fontainebleau-Colonels Fabvier and Denys-The Royalist cavalcade-Meeting at the hotel of the Comte de Morfontaine-M. de Chateaubriand and his pamphlet- Deputation to the Emperor Alexander-Entrance of the Allied sovereigns into Paris-Alexander lodged in M. Talleyrand's hotel- Meetings held there-The Emperor Alexander's declaration- My appointment as Postmaster-General-Composition of the Provisional Government-Mistake respecting the conduct of the Emperor of Austria-Caulaincourt's mission from Napoleon-His interview with the Emperor Alexander-Alexander's address to the deputation of the Senate-M. de Caulaincourt ordered to quit the capital.
CHAPTER XXXV.	1814. Situation of Bonaparte during the events of the 30th and 31st of March-His arrival at Fontainebleau-Plan of attacking Paris- Arrival of troops at Fontainebleau-The Emperor's address to the Guard-Forfeiture pronounced by the Senate-Letters to Marmont- Correspondence between Marmont and Schwartzenberg-Macdonald informed of the occupation of Paris-Conversation between the Emperor and Macdonald at Fontainebleau-Beurnonville's letter- Abdication on condition of a Regency-Napoleon's wish to retract his act of abdication-Macdonald Ney, and Caulaincourt sent to Paris- Marmont released from his promise by Prince Schwartzenberg.
CHAPTER XXXVI.	1814. Unexpected receipts in the Post-office Department-Arrival of Napoleon's Commissioners at M. de Talleyrand's-Conference of the Marshals with Alexander-Alarming news from Essonne-Marmont's courage-The white cockade and the tri-coloured cockade- A successful stratagem-Three Governments in France-The Duc de Cadore sent by Maria Louisa to the Emperor of Austria-Maria Louisa's proclamation to the French people-Interview between the Emperor of Austria and the Duc de Cadore-The Emperor's protestation of friendship for Napoleon-M. Metternich and M. Stadion-Maria Louisa's departure for Orleans-Blücher's visit to me-Audience of the King of Prussia-His Majesty's reception of Berthier, Clarke, and myself-Bernadotte in Paris-Cross of the Polar Star presented to me by Bernadotte.
VOLUME IV. — 1814-1821
CHAPTER I.	1814. Unalterable determination of the Allies with respect to Napoleon- Fontainebleau included in the limits to be occupied by the Allies- Alexander's departure from Paris-Napoleon informed of the necessity of his unconditional abdication-Macdonald and Ney again sent to Paris-Alleged attempt of Napoleon to poison himself-Farewell interview between Macdonald and Napoleon-The sabre of Murad Bey- Signature of the act of unconditional abdication-Tranquillity of Paris during the change of Government-Ukase of the Emperor of Russia relative to the Post-office-Religious ceremony on the Place Louis XV.-Arrival of the Comte d'Artois-His entrance into Paris- Arrival of the Emperor of Austria-Singular assemblage of sovereigns in France-Visit of the Emperor of Austria to Maria Louisa-Her interview with the Emperor Alexander-Her departure for Vienna.
CHAPTER II.	1814. Italy and Eugène-Siege of Dantzic-Capitulation concluded but not ratified-Rapp made prisoner and sent to Kiew-Davoust's refusal to believe the intelligence from Paris-Projected assassination of one of the French Princes-Departure of Davoust and General Hogendorff from Hamburg-The affair of Manbreuil-Arrival of the Commissioners of the Allied powers at Fontainebleau-Preference shown by Napoleon to Colonel Campbell-Bonaparte's address to General Kohler-His farewell to his troops-First day of Napoleon's journey-The Imperial Guard succeeded by the Cossacks-Interview with Augereau- The first white cockades-Napoleon hanged in effigy at Orgon-His escape in the disguise of a courier-Scene in the inn of La Calade- Arrival at Aix-The Princess Pauline-Napoleon embarks for Elba-His life at Elba.
CHAPTER III.	1814. Changes produced by time-Correspondence between the Provisional Government and Hartwell-Louis XVIII's reception in London- His arrival at Calais-Berthier's address to the King at Compiegne- My presentation to his Majesty at St. Ouen-Louis-XVIII's entry into Paris-Unexpected dismissal from my post-M. de Talleyrand's departure for the Congress of Vienna-Signs of a commotion- Impossibility of seeing M. de Blacas-The Abby Fleuriel-Unanswered letters-My letter to M. de Talleyrand at Vienna.
CHAPTER IV.	1814-1815. Escape from Elba-His landing near Cannes-March on Paris.
CHAPTER V.	1815. Message from the Tuileries-My interview with the King- My appointment to the office of Prefect of the Police-Council at the Tuileries-Order for arrests-Fouches escape-Davoust unmolested-Conversation with M. de Blacas-The intercepted letter, and time lost-Evident understanding between Murat and Napoleon- Plans laid at Elba-My departure from Paris-The post-master of Fins-My arrival at Lille-Louis XVIII. detained an hour at the gates-His majesty obliged to leave France-My departure for Hamburg-The Duc de Berri at Brussels.
CHAPTER VI.	1815. Message to Madame de Bourrienne on the 20th of March-Napoleon's nocturnal entrance into Paris-General Becton sent to my family by Caulaincourt-Recollection of old persecutions-General Driesen- Solution of an enigma-Seals placed on my effects-Useless searches -Persecution of women-Madame de Stael and Madame de Recamier- Paris during the Hundred Days-The federates and patriotic songs- Declaration of the Plenipotentiaries at Vienna.
CHAPTER VII.	1815.-[By the Editor of the 1836 edition]-Napoleon at Paris-Political manoeuvres-The meeting of the Champ-de-Mai-Napoleon, the Liberals, and the moderate Constitutionalists-His love of arbitrary power as strong as ever- Paris during the Cent Jours-Preparations for his last campaign- The Emperor leaves Paris to join the army-State of Brussels- Proclamation of Napoleon to the Belgians-Effective strength of the French and Allied armies-The Emperor's proclamation to the French army.
CHAPTER VIII.	1815. -[Like the preceding, this chapter first appeared in the 1836 edition, and is not from the pen of M. de Bourrienne.]- THE BATTLES OF LIGNY AND QUATRE BRAS.
CHAPTER IX.	1815 THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
CHAPTER X.	1815 Interview with Lavallette-Proceedings in the French Chambers- Second abdication of Napoleon-He retires to Rochefort, negotiates with Captain Maitland, and finally embarks in the 'Bellerophon'.
CHAPTER XI.	1815. My departure from Hamburg-The King at St. Denis-Fouché appointed Minister of the Police-Delay of the King's entrance into Paris- Effect of that delay-Fouché's nomination due to the Duke of Wellington-Impossibility of resuming my post-Fouché's language with respect to the Bourbons-His famous postscript-Character of Fouché-Discussion respecting the two cockades-Manifestations of public joy repressed by Fouché-Composition of the new Ministry- Kind attention of Blücher-The English at St. Cloud-Blücher in Napoleon's cabinet-My prisoner become my protector-Blücher and the innkeeper's dog-My daughter's marriage contract-Rigid etiquette- My appointment to the Presidentship of the Electoral College of the Yonne-My interview with Fouché-My audience of the King-His Majesty made acquainted with my conversation with Fouché-The Duke of Otranto's disgrace-Carnot deceived by Bonaparte-My election as deputy-My colleague, M. Raudot-My return to Paris-Regret caused by the sacrifice of Ney-Noble conduct of Macdonald-A drive with Rapp in the Bois de Boulogne-Rapp's interview with Bonaparte in 1815-The Duc de Berri and Rapp-My nomination to the office of Minister of State-My name inscribed by the hand of Louis XVIII.- Conclusion.
CHAPTER XII.	THE CENT JOURS.
CHAPTER XIII	1815-1821.-[This chapter; by the editor of the 1836 edition, is based upon the 'Memorial', and O'Meara's and Antommarchi's works.]- Voyage to St. Helena-Personal traits of the Emperor-Arrival at James Town-Napoleon's temporary residence at The Briars-Removal to Longwood-The daily routine there-The Campaign of Italy-The arrival of Sir Hudson Lowe-Unpleasant relations between the Emperor and the new Governor-Visitors at St. Helena-Captain Basil Hall's interview with Napoleon-Anecdotes of the Emperor-Departure of Las Cases and O'Meara-Arrivals from Europe-Physical habits of the Emperor-Dr. Antommarchi-The Emperor's toilet-Creation of a new bishopric- The Emperor's energy with the spade-His increasing illness- Last days of Napoleon-His Death-Lying in state-Military funeral- Marchand's account of the Emperor's last moments-Napoleon's last bequests-The Watch of Rivoli.
ILLUSTRATIONS
VOLUME I.
I.	NAPOLEON I. (First Portrait)
II.	LETITIA RAMOLINO
III.	THE EMPRESS JOSEPHINE(First Portrait)
IV.	EUGENE BEAUHARNAIS
V.	GENERAL KLEBER
VI.	MARSHAL LANNES
VII.	TALLEYRAND
VIII.	GENERAL DUROC
IX.	MURAT, KING OF NAPLES
VOLUME II.
I.	THE EMPRESS JOSEPHINE (Second Portrait)
II.	GENERAL DESAIX
III.	GENERAL MOREAU
IV.	HORTENSE BEAUHARNAIS
V.	THE DUC D'ENGHEIN
VI.	GENERAL PICHEGRU
VOLUME III.
I.	NAPOLEON (Second Portrait)
II.	MARSHAL NEY (First Portrait)
III.	CAULAINCOURT, DUKE OF VICENZA
IV.	MARSHAL DAVOUST
V.	THE CHARGE OF THE CUIRASSIERS AT EYLAU
VI.	GENERAL JUNOT
VII.	MARSHAL SOULT
VIII.	THE EMPRESS MARIA LOUISA (First Portrait)
IX.	GENERAL LASALLE
X.	MARSHAL MASSENA
XI.	COLOURED MAP OF EUROPE TO ILLUSTRATE THE DOMINION OF NAPOLEON
VOLUME IV.
I.	THE EMPRESS MARIA LOUISA (Second Portrait)
II.	MARSHAL MACDONALD
III.	FACSIMILE OF THE EMPEROR'S ABDICATION IN 1814
IV.	NAPOLEON I. (Third Portrait)
V.	MARSHAL SUCHET
VI.	THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON
VIII.	MARSHAL BLUCHER
IX.	MARSHAL GOUVON ST. CYR
X.	MARSHAL NEY (Second Portrait)
XI.	THE KING OF ROME
XII.	GENERAL BESSIERES



RECOLLECTIONS OF THE PRIVATE LIFE OFNAPOLEON, Complete
By Constant
Premier Valet De Chambre
Translated By Walter Clark
CONTENTS
VOLUME I.
CHAPTER I.
CHAPTER II.
CHAPTER III.
CHAPTER IV.
CHAPTER V.
CHAPTER VI.
CHAPTER VII.
CHAPTER VIII.
CHAPTER IX.
CHAPTER X.
CHAPTER XI.
CHAPTER XII.
CHAPTER XIII.
CHAPTER XIV.
CHAPTER XV.
CHAPTER XVI.
CHAPTER XVII.
CHAPTER XVIII.
CHAPTER XIX.
CHAPTER XX.
CHAPTER XXI.
CHAPTER XXII.
CHAPTER XXIII.
CHAPTER XXIV.
CHAPTER XXV.
CHAPTER XXVI.
CHAPTER XXVII.
CHAPTER XXVIII.
CHAPTER XXIX.
CHAPTER XXX.
CHAPTER XXXI.

VOLUME II.
CHAPTER I.
CHAPTER II.
CHAPTER III.
CHAPTER IV.
CHAPTER V.
CHAPTER VI.
CHAPTER VII.
CHAPTER VIII.
CHAPTER IX.
CHAPTER X.
CHAPTER XI.
CHAPTER XII.
CHAPTER XIII.
CHAPTER XIV.
CHAPTER XV.
CHAPTER XVI.
CHAPTER XVII.
CHAPTER XVIII.
CHAPTER XIX.
CHAPTER XX.
CHAPTER XXI.
CHAPTER XXII.
CHAPTER XXIII.
CHAPTER XXIV.
CHAPTER XXV
CHAPTER XXVI.
CHAPTER XXVII.
CHAPTER XXVIII.
CHAPTER XXIX.
CHAPTER XXX.
CHAPTER XXXI.

VOLUME III.
CHAPTER I.
CHAPTER II.
CHAPTER III.
CHAPTER IV.
CHAPTER V.
CHAPTER VI.
CHAPTER VII.
CHAPTER VIII.
CHAPTER IX.
CHAPTER X.
CHAPTER XI.
CHAPTER XII.
CHAPTER XIII.
CHAPTER XIV.
CHAPTER XV.
CHAPTER XVI.
CHAPTER XVII.
CHAPTER XVIII.
CHAPTER XIX.
CHAPTER XX.
CHAPTER, XXI.
CHAPTER XXII.
CHAPTER XXIII.
CHAPTER XXIV.
CHAPTER XXV.
CHAPTER XXVI.
CHAPTER XXVII.
CHAPTER XXVIII.
CHAPTER XXIX.
CHAPTER XXX.
CHAPTER, XXXI.
L'ENVOI.
ILLUSTRATIONS
NAPOLEON AT MALMAISON Frontispiece Vol. 1
PRINCE EUGENE
JOSEPHINE
NEY
DAVOUST
BERTHIER
MACDONALD
AUGEREAU
NAPOLEON, 1814 Frontispiece Vol 2.
RAPP
MURAT
LUCIEN BONAPARTE
SOULT
BERNADOTTE
MARIE LOUISA
DUROC
NAPOLEON AND HIS SON Frontispiece Vol 3.
LANNES
JOSEPH NAPOLEON
MASSENA
THE KING OF ROME
JEROME BONAPARTE
LE MARECHAL NEY
OUDINOT



MEMOIRS OF THE COURT OF ST. CLOUD
Being Secret Letters from a Gentleman at Paris to a Nobleman in London


ILLUSTRATIONS
At Cardinal Caprara’s
Cardinal Fesch
Episode at Mme. Miot’s
Napoleon’s Guard
A Grand Dinner
Chaptal
Turreaux
Carrier
Barrere
Cambaceres
Pauline Bonaparte



THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON I
(Volumes, 1 and 2)
By John Holland Rose


CONTENTS
CHAPTER		page
PREFACE		VII
NOTE ON THE REPUBLICAN CALENDAR		XV
VOLUME I
I. PARENTAGE AND EARLY YEARS		1
II. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND CORSICA		24
III. TOULON		44
IV. VENDÉMIAIRE		57
V. THE ITALIAN CAMPAIGN (1796)		77
VI. THE FIGHTS FOR MANTUA		105
VII. LEOBEN TO CAMPO FORMIO		140
VIII. EGYPT		174
IX. SYRIA		201
X. BRUMAIRE		216
XI. MARENGO: LUNÉVILLE		240
XII.THE NEW INSTITUTIONS OF FRANCE		266
XIII. THE CONSULATE FOR LIFE		302
XIV. THE PEACE OF AMIENS		331
XV. A FRENCH COLONIAL EMPIRE:
    ST. DOMINGO--LOUISIANA--INDIA--AUSTRALIA		355
XVI. NAPOLEON'S INTERVENTIONS		386
XVII. THE RENEWAL OF WAR		401
XVIII. EUROPE AND THE BONAPARTES		430
XIX. THE ROYALIST PLOT		446
XX. THE DAWN OF THE EMPIRE		465
XXI. THE BOULOGNE FLOTILLA		462
XXII. APPENDIX: REPORTS HITHERTO UNPUBLISHED ON
    (a) THE SALE OF LOUISIANA;
    (b) THE IRISH DIVISION IN NAPOLEON'S SERVICE		509
ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS, AND PLANS
THE SIEGE OF TOULON, 1793		51
MAP TO ILLUSTRATE THE CAMPAIGNS IN NORTH ITALY		81
PLAN TO ILLUSTRATE THE VICTORY OF ARCOLA		125
THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF RIVOLI		133
FACSIMILE OF A LETTER OF NAPOLEON TO "LA CITOYENNE TALLIEN," 1797		156
CENTRAL EUROPE, after the Peace of Campo Formio, 1797		171
PLAN OF THE SIEGE OF ACRE, from a contemporary sketch		205
THE BATTLE OF MARENGO, to illustrate Kellermann's charge		255
FRENCH MAP OF THE SOUTH OF
  AUSTRALIA, 1807		378
VOLUME II
XXII. ULM AND TRAFALGAR		1
XXIII. AUSTERLITZ		29
XXIV. PRUSSIA AND THE NEW CHARLEMAGNE		51
XXV. THE FALL OF PRUSSIA		79
XXVI. THE CONTINENTAL SYSTEM: FRIEDLAND		103
XXVII. TILSIT		125
XXVIII. THE SPANISH RISING		159
XXIX. ERFURT		174
XXX. NAPOLEON AND AUSTRIA		189
XXXI. THE EMPIRE AT ITS HEIGHT		208
XXXII. THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN		231
XXXIII. THE FIRST SAXON CAMPAIGN		267
XXXIV. VITTORIA AND THE ARMISTICE		300
XXXV. DRESDEN AND LEIPZIG		329
XXXVI. FROM THE RHINE TO THE SEINE		368
XXXVII. THE FIRST ABDICATION		399
XXXVIII. ELBA AND PARIS		435
XXXIX. LIGNY AND QUATRE BRAS		453
XL. WATERLOO		487
XLI. FROM THE ELYSÉE TO ST. HELENA		512
XLII. CLOSING YEARS		539
APPENDIX I: LIST OF THE CHIEF APPOINTMENTS
        AND DIGNITIES BESTOWED BY NAPOLEON


575
APPENDIX II: THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO		577
INDEX		579
MAPS AND PLANS
BATTLE OF ULM		15
BATTLE OF AUSTERLITZ		39
BATTLE OF JENA		95
BATTLE OF FRIEDLAND		121
BATTLE OF WAGRAM		196
CENTRAL EUROPE AFTER 1810		215
CAMPAIGN IN RUSSIA		247
BATTLE OF VITTORIA		310
THE CAMPAIGN OF 1813		336
BATTLE OF DRESDEN		343
BATTLE OF LEIPZIG		357
THE CAMPAIGN OF 1814	to face	383
PLAN OF THE WATERLOO CAMPAIGN		458
BATTLE OF LIGNY		465
BATTLE OF WATERLOO, about 11 o'clock a.m.	to face	490
ST. HELENA		540
FOOTNOTES
INDEX



THE HISTORY OF NAPOLEON BUONAPARTE
By JOHN GIBSON LOCKHART


CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION	ix
CHAPTER I
Birth and Parentage of Napoleon Buonaparte—His Education at Brienne and at Paris—His Character at this Period—His Political Predilections—He enters the Army as Second Lieutenant of Artillery—His First Military Service in Corsica in 1793.	1
CHAPTER II
Buonaparte commands the Artillery at Toulon—Fall of Toulon—The Representatives of the People—Junot.	9
CHAPTER III
Buonaparte Chief of Battalion at Nice—Fall of Robespierre—He is superseded—Buonaparte at Paris in 1795—The day of the Sections—Commands the Army of the Interior—Marries Josephine de Beauharnois—Appointed to the command of the Army of Italy.	15
CHAPTER IV
The Army of Italy—Tactics of Buonaparte—Battle of Monte Notte—Battle of Millesimo—Battle of Mondovi—Armistice of Cherasco—Close of the Campaign of Piedmont—Peace granted to Sardinia.	24
CHAPTER V
The French cross the Po at Placenza—The Battle of Fombio—The Bridge of Lodi—Napoleon occupies Milan—Resigns, and resumes his command—Insurrection of Pavia—Military Executions—The French pass the Mincio at Borghetto—Beaulieu retreats behind the Adige—Mantua besieged—Peace with the King of the Two Sicilies—The Pope buys a Respite.	30
CHAPTER VI
Wurmser supersedes Beaulieu—Jourdan and Moreau march into Germany, and are forced to retreat again—The Austrians advance from the Tyrol—Battle of Lonato—Escape of Napoleon—Battle near Castiglione—Wurmser retreats on Trent, and is recruited—Battle of Roveredo—Battle of Primolano—Battle of Bassano—Battle of St. George—Wurmser shut up in Mantua.	42
CHAPTER VII
Affairs of Corsica—Alvinzi assumes the Command of the Austrians on the Italian frontier—The three Battles of Arcola—Retreat of Alvinzi—Battle of Rivoli—Battle of La Favorita—Surrender of Mantua—Victor marches on Ancona—Despair of the Pope—Treaty of Tollentino.	50
CHAPTER VIII
Neutrality of Venice—The Archduke Charles—Battle of Tagliamento—Retreat of the Archduke—Treaty of Leoben—War with Venice—Venice conquered.	64
CHAPTER IX
Pichegru—The Directory appeal to Buonaparte—The 18th Fructidor—The Court of Montebello—Josephine—The Treaty of Campo-Formio—Buonaparte leaves Italy.	70
CHAPTER X
Napoleon at Rastadt—He arrives in Paris—His reception by the Directory—His Conduct and Manners—He is appointed to command the Army for the Invasion of England—He recommends an Expedition to Egypt—Reaches Toulon—Embarks.	78
CHAPTER XI
The Voyage to Egypt—Malta surrendered—The French escape Nelson, and take Alexandria—The March up the Nile—The Battle of the Pyramids—Cairo surrenders—The Battle of Aboukir.	88
CHAPTER XII
Buonaparte's Administration in Egypt—Armaments of the Porte—Buonaparte at Suez—At El-Arish—Gaza, Jaffa, Acre—Retreat to Egypt—Defeat of the Turks at Aboukir—Napoleon embarks for France.	96
CHAPTER XIII
Retrospect—Buonaparte arrives in France—The Revolution of the 18th Brumaire—The Provisional Consulate.	111
CHAPTER XIV
The Provisional Consulate—Reforms in France—Pacification of the Chouans—Constitution of the year VIII.—Buonaparte Chief Consul.	125
CHAPTER XV
The Chief Consul writes to the King of England—Lord Grenville's Answer—Napoleon passes the Great St. Bernard—The taking of St. Bard—The Siege of Genoa—The Battle of Montebello—The Battle of Marengo—Napoleon returns to Paris—The Infernal Machine—The Battle of Hohenlinden—The Treaty of Luneville.	135
CHAPTER XVI
Affairs of Naples and of the Pope—The Emperor Paul of Russia—Northern confederacy against England—Battle of Copenhagen—Nelson's Victory—Death of Paul—Expedition to Egypt under Sir Ralph Abercrombie—Battle of Alexandria—Conquest of Egypt—The Flotilla of Boulogne—Negotiations with England—Peace of Amiens.	161
CHAPTER XVII
Peace of Amiens—The Concordat—The Legion of Honour—Buonaparte President of the Cisalpine Republic—First Consul for Life—Grand Mediator of the Helvetic Confederacy—St. Domingo—Toussaint L'Ouverture—Dissatisfaction of England—Trial of Peltier—Lord Whitworth—Rupture of the Peace of Amiens—Detention of English Travellers in France.	168
CHAPTER XVIII
Recommencement of the War—French seize Hanover and Naples—the English seize various French colonies—Scheme of invading England resumed—Moreau—Pichegru—Georges Cadoudal—Captain Wright—Murder of the Duke d'Enghien—Napoleon Emperor of France—King of Italy—Genoa united to the Empire.	189
CHAPTER XIX
New coalition against France—Sweden—Russia—Austria joins the Alliance—Napoleon heads the Army in Germany—Ulm surrendered by Mack—Vienna taken—Naval Operations—Battle of Trafalgar—Battle of Austerlitz—Treaty of Presburg—Joseph Buonaparte King of Naples—Louis Buonaparte King of Holland—Confederation of the Rhine—New Nobility in France.	210
CHAPTER XX
Discontent of Prussia—Death of Pitt—Negotiation of Lords Yarmouth and Lauderdale broken off—Murder of Palm, the bookseller—Prussia declares War—Buonaparte heads the Army—Naumburg taken—Battle of Jena—Napoleon enters Berlin—Fall of Magdeburg, &c.—Humiliation of Prussia—Buonaparte's cruelty to the Duke of Brunswick—his rapacity and oppression in Prussia.	228
CHAPTER XXI
The Decrees of Berlin—Napoleon renews the campaign—Warsaw taken—Enthusiasm of the Poles—Retreat of the Russians—Battle of Pultusk—The French go into winter quarters—Battle of Preuss-Eylau—Taking of Dantzick—Battle of Friedland—Armistice—Expeditions of the English to Calabria, Constantinople, Egypt, and Buenos Ayres—Peace of Tilsit.	240
CHAPTER XXII
British Expedition to Copenhagen—Coalition of France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, against English Commerce—Internal affairs of France—The Administration of Napoleon—his Council of State—Court—Code—Public Works—Manufactures—Taxes—Military Organisation—The Conscription.	258
CHAPTER XXIII
Relations of Napoleon with Spain—Treaty of Fontainebleau—Junot marches to Portugal—Flight of the Braganzas to Brazil—French troops proceed into Spain—Dissensions in the Court—Both parties appeal to Napoleon—Murat occupies Madrid—Charles and Ferdinand abdicate at Bayonne—Joseph Buonaparte crowned King of Spain.	265
CHAPTER XXIV
Insurrection of the Spaniards and Portuguese—Their Alliance with England—Battle of Riosecco—Joseph enters Madrid—First Siege of Zaragossa—Dupont's March into Andalusia—The Battle of Baylen—Dupont Surrenders—Joseph quits Madrid—Situation of Junot—Arrival of Sir Arthur Wellesley—Battle of Roriça—Battle of Vimiero—Convention of Cintra.	275
CHAPTER XXV
Napoleon at Erfurt—At Paris—Arrives at Vittoria—Disposition of the French and Spanish Armies—Successes of Soult—Passage of the Somosierra—Surrender of Madrid—Sir John Moore's Campaign—his Retreat—Battle of Coruña—Death of Moore—Napoleon leaves Spain.	286
CHAPTER XXVI
Austria declares War—Napoleon heads his army in Germany—Battles of Landshut and Eckmuhl—Ratisbonne taken—Napoleon in Vienna—Hostilities in Italy, Hungary, Poland, the North of Germany, and the Tyrol—Battle of Raab—Battle of Wagram—Armistice with Austria.... Progress of the War in the Peninsula, Battle of Talaveyra—Battle of Ocaña—English Expedition to Walcheren.... Seizure of Rome and arrest of the Pope.... Treaty of Schoenbrunn.	296
CHAPTER XXVII
Napoleon divorces Josephine—Marries the Archduchess Maria Louisa—Deposes Louis Buonaparte—Annexes Holland and the whole Coast of Germany to France—Revolution in Sweden—Bernadotte elected Crown Prince of Sweden—Progress of the War in the Peninsula—Battle of Busaco—Lord Wellington retreats to the Lines of Torres Vedras.	309
CHAPTER XXVIII
Events of the year 1811—Birth of the King of Rome—Disgrace of Fouché—Discontents in France—Relations with Russia—Licence System—Napoleon prepares for War with Russia—The Campaign in the Peninsula—Massena's Retreat—Battle of Fuentes d'Onor—Lord Wellington blockades Ciudad Rodrigo—Retreats—Joseph wishes to Abdicate.	320
CHAPTER XXIX
Capture of Ciudad Rodrigo—and of Badajos—Battle of Salamanca—State of Napoleon's Foreign Relations—His Military Resources—Napoleon at Dresden—Rupture with Russia—Napoleon's conduct to the Poles—Distribution of the Armies—Passage of the Niemen—Napoleon at Wilna.	329
CHAPTER XXX
Russia makes Peace with England, with Sweden, and with Turkey—Internal preparations—Napoleon leaves Wilna—The Dwina—Bagrathion's Movements—Battle of Smolensko—Battle of Borodino—Napoleon enters Moscow—Constancy and Enthusiasm of the Russians—Conduct of Rostophchin—The burning of Moscow—Kutusoff refuses to Treat.	343
CHAPTER XXXI
Napoleon quits Moscow—Battles of Vincovo and Malo-Yaraslovetz—Retreat on Verreia—and Smolensko—Repeated Defeats and Sufferings of the French—Smolensko—Krasnoi—Passage of the Beresina—Smorgonie—Napoleon quits the Army—his arrival at Warsaw—at Dresden—in Paris.	354
CHAPTER XXXII
Conspiracy of Mallet—Napoleon's reception in Paris—his Military Preparations—Prussia declares War—Austria negotiates with Napoleon—Bernadette appears in Germany—The Russians advance into Silesia—Napoleon heads his Army in Saxony—Battle of Lutzen—Battle of Bautzen.	371
CHAPTER XXXIII
Napoleon's Interview with Metternich—Advice of his Ministers and Generals—Intelligence from Spain—Battle of Vittoria—Congress of Prague Dissolved—Austria declares War—Battle of Dresden—Death of Moreau—Battle of Culm—Surrender of Vandamme—Battles of Grossbeeren, Wahlstadt, and Dennewitz—Napoleon retires from the Elbe—The Battle of Leipsig—The Battle of Hanau—The Allies on the Rhine.	381
CHAPTER XXXIV
Declaration of the Allies at Frankfort—Revolution of Holland—Liberation of the Pope and Ferdinand VII.—Obstinacy of Napoleon—His Military Preparations—Dissolution of the Legislative Senate.	395
CHAPTER XXXV
The Campaign of France—Battles of Brienne and La Rothiere—Expedition of the Marne—Battles of Nangis and Montereau—Schwartzenberg Retreats—Napoleon again marches against Blucher—Attacks Soissons and is Repulsed—Battles of Craonne and Laon—Napoleon at Rheims—His Perplexities—He Marches to St. Dizier.	406
CHAPTER XXXVI
The Allies approach Paris—Maria Louisa retires to Blois—Marmont and Mortier occupy the Heights of Montmartre—They are defeated—King Joseph escapes—Marmont capitulates—the Allies enter Paris—Napoleon at Fontainebleau—His abdication.	420
CHAPTER XXXVII
Napoleon's Journey to Frejus—Voyage to Elba—his conduct and occupations there—Discontents in France—Return of Prisoners of War—Jealousy of the Army—Union of the Jacobins and Buonapartists—Their intrigues—Napoleon escapes from Elba.	438
CHAPTER XXXVIII
Napoleon lands at Cannes—his progress to Grenoble—Lyons—Fontainebleau—Treason of Labedoyere and Ney—Louis XVIII. retires to Ghent, and Napoleon arrives in Paris.	447
CHAPTER XXXIX
The Hundred Days—Declaration of the Congress at Vienna—Napoleon prepares for War—Capitulation of the Duke d'Angouleme—Insurrection of La Vendée—Murat advances from Naples—Is Defeated—And takes refuge in France—The Champ-de-Mai—Dissatisfaction of the Constitutionalists.	456
CHAPTER XL
Napoleon heads his army on the Belgian frontier—Passes the Sambre at Charleroi—Defeats Blucher at Ligny—Battle of Quatre-Bras—The English fall back on a position previously selected by Wellington—The Battle of Waterloo—Napoleon returns to Paris.	466
CHAPTER XLI
Napoleon appeals in vain to the Chambers—Abdicates for the second time—Is sent to Malmaison—And then to Rochefort—Negotiates with Capt. Maitland—Embarks in the Bellerophon—Arrives at Torbay—Decision of the English Government—Interview with Lord Keith, &c.—Napoleon on board the Northumberland—Sails for St. Helena.	478
CHAPTER XLII
Napoleon at St. Helena—The Briars—Longwood—Charges against the English Government respecting his accommodations and treatment at St. Helena—Charges against the Governor, Sir Hudson Lowe—Napoleon's mode of life at Longwood—His Health falls off—His Death and Funeral—Conclusion.	491
INDEX	507



NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
By Sir Walter Scott, Bart.
Vol. 1 of 4
Napoleons Logement Qua Cont
VIEW OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
Chap. I.	Review of the state of Europe after the Peace of Versailles—England—France—Spain—Prussia—Imprudent Innovations of the Emperor Joseph—Disturbances in his Dominions—Russia—France—Her ancient System of Monarchy—how organised—Causes of its Decay—Decay of the Nobility as a body—The new Nobles—The Country Nobles—The Nobles of the highest Order—The Church—The higher Orders of the Clergy—The lower Orders—The Commons—Their increase in Power and Importance—Their Claims opposed to those of the Privileged Classes,	1
Chap. II.	State of France continued—State of Public Opinion—Men of Letters encouraged by the Great—Disadvantages attending this Patronage—Licentious tendency of the French Literature—Their Irreligious and Infidel Opinions—Free Opinions on Politics permitted to be expressed in an abstract and speculative, but not in a practical Form—Disadvantages arising from the Suppression of Free Discussion—Anglomania—Share of France in the American War—Disposition of the Troops who returned from America,	22
Chap. III.	Proximate Cause of the Revolution—Deranged State of the Finances—Reforms in the Royal Household—System of Turgot and Necker—Necker's Exposition of the State of the Public Revenue—The Red-Book—Necker displaced—Succeeded by Calonne—General State of the Revenue—Assembly of the Notables—Calonne dismissed—Archbishop of Sens Administrator of the Finances—The King's Contest with the Parliament—Bed of Justice—Resistance of the Parliament and general Disorder in the Kingdom—Vacillating Policy of the Minister—Royal Sitting—Scheme of forming a Cour Plénière—It proves ineffectual—Archbishop of Sens retires, and is succeeded by Necker—He resolves to convoke the States-General—Second Assembly of Notables previous to Convocation of the States—Questions as to the Numbers of which the Tiers Etat should consist, and the Mode in which the Estates {viii}should deliberate,	39
Chap. IV.	Meeting of the States-General—Predominant Influence of the Tiers Etat—Property not represented sufficiently in that Body—General character of the Members—Disposition of the Estate of the Nobles—And of the Clergy—Plan of forming the Three Estates into two Houses—Its advantages—It fails—The Clergy unite with the Tiers Etat, which assumes the title of the National Assembly—They assume the task of Legislation, and declare all former Fiscal Regulations illegal—They assert their determination to continue their Sessions—Royal Sitting—Terminates in the Triumph of the Assembly—Parties in that Body—Mounier—Constitutionalists—Republicans—Jacobins—Orleans,	58
Chap. V.	Plan of the Democrats to bring the King and Assembly to Paris—Banquet of the Garde du Corps—Riot at Paris—A formidable Mob of Women assemble to march to Versailles—The National Guard refuse to act against the Insurgents, and demand also to be led to Versailles—The Female Mob arrive—Their behaviour to the Assembly—To the King—Alarming Disorders at Night—La Fayette arrives with the National Guard—Mob force the Palace—Murder the Body Guards—The Queen's safety endangered—Fayette's arrival with his Force restores Order—Royal Family obliged to go to reside at Paris—The Procession—This Step agreeable to the Views of the Constitutionalists, Republicans, and Anarchists—Duke of Orleans sent to England,	88
Chap. VI.	La Fayette resolves to enforce order—A Baker is murdered by the Rabble—One of his Murderers executed—Decree imposing Martial Law—Introduction of the Doctrines of Equality—They are in their exaggerated sense inconsistent with Human Nature and the progress of Society—The Assembly abolish titles of Nobility, Armorial bearings, and phrases of Courtesy—Reasoning on these Innovations—Disorder of Finance—Necker becomes unpopular—Seizure of Church lands—Issue of Assignats—Necker leaves France in unpopularity—New Religious Institution—Oath imposed on the Clergy—Resisted by the greater part of the Order—General View of the operations of the Constituent Assembly—Enthusiasm of the People for their new Privileges—Limited Privileges of the Crown—King is obliged to dissemble—His Negotiations with Mirabeau—With Bouillé—Attack on the Palace—Prevented by Fayette—Royalists expelled from the Tuileries—Escape of Louis—He is captured at Varennes—Brought back to Paris—Riot in the Champ de Mars—Louis accepts the Constitution,	102
Chap. VII.	Legislative Assembly—Its Composition—Constitutionalists—Girondists or Brissotins—Jacobins—Views and Sentiments of Foreign Nations—England—Views of the Tories and Whigs—Anacharsis Clootz—Austria—Prussia—Russia—Sweden—Emigration of the French Princes and Clergy—Increasing Unpopularity of Louis from this Cause—Death of the Emperor Leopold, and its Effects—France declares War—Views and Interests of the different Parties in France at this Period—Decree against Monsieur—Louis interposes his Veto—Decree against the Priests who should refuse the Constitutional Oath—Louis again interposes his Veto—Consequences of these Refusals—Fall of De Lessart—Ministers now chosen from the Brissotins—All Parties favourable to {ix}War,	128
Chap. VIII.	Defeats of the French on the Frontier—Decay of Constitutionalists—They form the Club of Feuillans, and are dispersed by the Jacobins—The Ministry—Dumouriez—Breach of confidence betwixt the King and his Ministers—Dissolution of the King's Constitutional Guard—Extravagant measures of the Jacobins—Alarms of the Girondists—Departmental Army proposed—King puts his Veto on the decree, against Dumouriez's representations—Decree against the recusant Priests—King refuses it—Letter of the Ministers to the King—He dismisses Roland, Clavière, and Servan—Dumouriez, Duranton, and Lacoste, appointed in their stead—King ratifies the decree concerning the Departmental Army—Dumouriez resigns, and departs for the Frontiers—New Ministers named from the Constitutionalists—Insurrection of 20th June—Armed Mob intrude into the Assembly—Thence into the Tuileries—La Fayette repairs to Paris—Remonstrates in favour of the King—But is compelled to return to the Frontiers—Marseillois appear in Paris—Duke of Brunswick's manifesto,	152
Chap. IX.	The Day of the Tenth of August—Tocsin sounded early in the Morning—Swiss Guards, and relics of the Royal Party, repair to the Tuileries—Mandat assassinated—Dejection of Louis, and energy of the Queen—King's Ministers appear at the Bar of the Assembly, stating the peril of the Royal Family, and requesting a Deputation might be sent to the Palace—Assembly pass to the Order of the Day—Louis and his Family repair to the Assembly—Conflict at the Tuileries—Swiss ordered to repair to the King's Person—and are many of them shot and dispersed on their way to the Assembly—At the close of the Day almost all of them are massacred—Royal Family spend the Night in the Convent of the Feuillans,	172
Chap. X.	La Fayette compelled to Escape from France—Is made Prisoner by the Prussians, with three Companions—Reflections—The Triumvirate, Danton, Robespierre, and Marat—Revolutionary Tribunal appointed—Stupor of the Legislative Assembly—Longwy, Stenay, and Verdun, taken by the Prussians—Mob of Paris enraged—Great Massacre of Prisoners in Paris, commencing on the 2d, and ending 6th September—Apathy of the Assembly during and after these Events—Review of its Causes,	182
Chap. XI.	Election of Representatives for the National Convention—Jacobins are very active—Right hand Party—Left hand side—Neutral Members—The Girondists are in possession of the ostensible Power—They denounce the Jacobin Chiefs, but in an irregular and feeble manner—Marat, Robespierre, and Danton, supported by the Commune and Populace of Paris—France declared a Republic—Duke of Brunswick's Campaign—Neglects the French Emigrants—Is tardy in his Operations—Occupies the poorest part of Champagne—His Army becomes sickly—Prospects of a Battle—Dumouriez's Army recruited with Carmagnoles—The Duke resolves to Retreat—Thoughts on the consequences of that measure—The retreat disastrous—The Emigrants disbanded in a great measure—Reflections on their Fate—The Prince of Condé's Army,	199
Chap. XII.	Jacobins determine upon the Execution of Louis—Progress {x}and Reasons of the King's Unpopularity—Girondists taken by surprise, by a proposal for the Abolition of Royalty made by the Jacobins—Proposal carried—Thoughts on the New System of Government—Compared with that of Rome, Greece, America, and other Republican States—Enthusiasm throughout France at the Change—Follies it gave birth to—And Crimes—Monuments of Art destroyed—Madame Roland interposes to save the Life of the King—Barrère—Girondists move for a Departmental Legion—Carried—Revoked—and Girondists defeated—The Authority of the Community of Paris paramount even over the Convention—Documents of the Iron-Chest—Parallel betwixt Charles I. and Louis XVI.—Motion by Pétion, that the King should be Tried before the Convention,	208
Chap. XIII.	The Trial of Louis—Indecision of the Girondists, and its Effects—The Royal Family insulted by the Agents of the Community—The King deprived of his Son's society—The King brought to Trial before the Convention—His First Examination—Carried back to Prison amidst Insult and Abuse—Tumult in the Assembly—The King deprived of Intercourse with his Family—Malesherbes appointed as Counsel to defend the King—and De Seze—Louis again brought before the Convention—Opening Speech of De Seze—King remanded to the Temple—Stormy Debate—Eloquent attack of Vergniaud on the Jacobins—Sentence of —Death pronounced against the King—General Sympathy for his Fate—Dumouriez arrives in Paris—Vainly tries to avert the King's Fate—Louis XVI. beheaded on 21st January, 1793—Marie Antoinette on the 16th October thereafter—The Princess—Elizabeth in May 1794—The Dauphin perishes, by cruelty, June 8th, 1795—The Princess Royal exchanged for La Fayette, 19th December, 1795,	236
Chap. XIV.	Dumouriez—His displeasure at the Treatment of the Flemish Provinces by the Convention—His projects in consequence—Gains the ill-will of his Army—and is forced to fly to the Austrian Camp—Lives many years in retreat, and finally dies in England—Struggles betwixt the Girondists and Jacobins—Robespierre impeaches the Leaders of the Girondists, and is denounced by them—Decree of Accusation against Marat—Commission of Twelve—Marat acquitted—Terror of the Girondists—Jacobins prepare to attack the Palais Royal, but are repulsed—Repair to the Convention, who recall the Commission of Twelve—Louvet and other Girondist Leaders Fly from Paris—Convention go forth in procession to expostulate with the People—Forced back to their Hall, and compelled to Decree the Accusation of Thirty of their Body—Girondists finally ruined—and their principal Leaders perish—Close of their History,	258
Chap. XV.	Views of Parties in Britain relative to the Revolution—Affiliated Societies—Counterpoised by Aristocratic Associations—Aristocratic Party eager for War with France—The French proclaim the Navigation of the Scheldt—British Ambassador recalled from Paris, and French Envoy no longer accredited in London—France declares War against England—British Army sent to Holland, under the Duke of York—State of the Army—View of the Military Positions of France—in Flanders—on the Rhine—in Piedmont—Savoy—on the Pyrenees—State of the War in La Vendée—Description of the Country—Le Bocage—Le {xi}Louroux—Close Union betwixt the Nobles and Peasantry—Both strongly attached to Royalty, and abhorrent of the Revolution—The Priests—The Religion of the Vendéans outraged by the Convention—A general Insurrection takes place in 1793—Military Organisation and Habits of the Vendéans—Division in the British Cabinet on the Mode of conducting the War—Pitt—Wyndham—Reasoning upon the subject—Vendéans defeated—They defeat, in their turn, the French Troops at Laval—But are ultimately destroyed and dispersed—Unfortunate Expedition to Quiberon—La Charette defeated and executed, and the War of La Vendée finally terminated—Unsuccessful Resistance of Bourdeaux, Marseilles, and Lyons, to the Convention—Siege of Lyons—Its Surrender and dreadful Punishment—Siege of Toulon,	274
Chap. XVI.	Views of the British Cabinet regarding the French Revolution—Extraordinary Situation of France—Explanation of the Anomaly which it exhibited—System of Terror—Committee of Public Safety—Of Public Security—David the Painter—Law against Suspected Persons—Revolutionary Tribunal—Effects of the Emigration of the Princes and Nobles—Causes of the Passiveness of the French People under the Tyranny of the Jacobins—Singular Address of the Committee of Public Safety—General Reflections,	307
Chap. XVII.	Marat, Danton, Robespierre—Marat poniarded—Danton and Robespierre become Rivals—Commune of Paris—their gross Irreligion—Gobel—Goddess of Reason—Marriage reduced to a Civil Contract—Views of Danton—and of Robespierre—Principal Leaders of the Commune arrested—and Nineteen of them executed—Danton arrested by the influence of Robespierre—and, along with Camille Desmoulins, Westermann, and La Croix, taken before the Revolutionary Tribunal, condemned, and executed—Decree issued, on the motion of Robespierre, acknowledging a Supreme Being—Cécilée Regnault—Gradual Change in the Public Mind—Robespierre becomes unpopular—Makes every effort to retrieve his power—Stormy Debate in the Convention—Collot D'Herbois, Tallien, &c., expelled from the Jacobin Club at the instigation of Robespierre—Robespierre denounced in the Convention on the 9th Thermidor, (27th July, 1794,) and, after furious struggles, arrested, along with his brother, Couthon, and Saint Just—Henriot, Commandant of the National Guard, arrested—Terrorists take refuge in the Hotel de Ville—Attempt their own lives—Robespierre wounds himself—but lives, along with most of the others, long enough to be carried to the Guillotine, and executed—His character—Struggles that followed his Fate—Final Destruction of the Jacobinical System—and return of Tranquillity—Singular colour given to Society in Paris—Ball of the Victims,	321
Chap. XVIII.	Retrospective View of the External Relations of France—Her great Military Successes—Whence they arose—Effect of the Compulsory Levies—Military Genius and Character of the French—French Generals—New Mode of Training the Troops—Light Troops—Successive Attacks in Column—Attachment of the Soldiers to the Revolution—Also of the Generals—Carnot—Effect of the French principles preached to the Countries invaded by their Arms—Close of the Revolution with the fall of Robespierre—Reflections upon what was to succeed,	364



LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
By Sir Walter Scott, Bart.
Vol. 2
Vincennes
CONTENTS
Chap. I.	Corsica—Family of Buonaparte—Napoleon born 15th August, 1769—His early Habits—Sent to the Royal Military School at Brienne—His great Progress in Mathematical Science—Deficiency in Classical Literature—Anecdotes—Removed to the General School of Paris—When in his Seventeenth Year, appointed Second Lieutenant of Artillery—His early Politics—Promoted to a Captaincy—Pascal Paoli—Napoleon sides with the French Government against Paoli—And is Banished from Corsica—Visits Marseilles, and Publishes the Souper de Beaucaire,	1
Chap. II.	Siege of Toulon—Recapitulation—Buonaparte appointed to the Command of the Artillery at Toulon—Finds every thing in Disorder—His Plan for obtaining the Surrender of the Place Adopted—Anecdotes during the Siege—Allied Troops resolve to evacuate Toulon—Dreadful Particulars of the Evacuation—England Censured on this occasion—Lord Lynedoch—Fame of Buonaparte increases, and he is appointed Chief of Battalion in the Army of Italy—Joins Headquarters at Nice—On the Fall of Robespierre, Buonaparte superseded in Command—Arrives in Paris in May, 1795, to solicit Employment—He is unsuccessful—Retrospect of the Proceedings of the National Assembly—Difficulties in forming a New Constitution—Appointment of the Directory—Of the Two Councils of Elders and of Five Hundred—Nation at Large, and Paris in Particular, Disgusted with their Pretensions—Paris assembles in Sections—General Danican appointed their Commander-in-Chief—Menou appointed by the Directory to Disarm the National Guards—But Suspended for Incapacity—Buonaparte appointed in his Room—The Day of the Sections—Conflict betwixt the Troops of the Convention under Buonaparte, and those of the Sections of Paris under Danican—The latter Defeated with much Slaughter—Buonaparte appointed Second in Command of the Army of the Interior—Then General-in-Chief—Marries Madame Beauharnais—Her Character—Buonaparte immediately afterwards joins the Army of Italy,	14
Chap. III.	The Alps—Feelings and Views of Buonaparte on being appointed to the Command of the Army of Italy—General Account of his new Principles of Warfare—Mountainous Countries peculiarly {iv}favourable to them—Retrospect of Military Proceedings since October, 1795—Hostility of the French Government to the Pope—Massacre of the French Envoy, Basseville, at Rome—Austrian Army under Beaulieu—Napoleon's Plan for entering Italy—Battle of Montenotte, and Buonaparte's first Victory—Again defeats the Austrians at Millesimo—and again under Colli—Takes possession of Cherasco—King of Sardinia requests an Armistice, which leads to a Peace, concluded on very severe Terms—Close of the Piedmontese Campaign—Napoleon's Character at this period,	43
Chap. IV.	Farther Progress of the French Army under Buonaparte—He crosses the Po, at Placenza, on 7th May—Battle of Lodi takes place on the 10th, in which the French are victorious—Remarks on Napoleon's Tactics in this celebrated Action—French take possession of Cremona and Pizzighitone—Milan deserted by the Archduke Ferdinand and his Duchess—Buonaparte enters Milan on the 15th May—General situation of the Italian States at this period—Napoleon inflicts fines upon the Neutral and unoffending States of Parma and Modena, and extorts the surrender of some of their finest Pictures—Remarks upon this novel Procedure,	59
Chap. V.	Directory proposes to divide the Army of Italy betwixt Buonaparte and Kellermann—Buonaparte resigns, and the Directory give up the point—Insurrection against the French at Pavia—Crushed—and the Leaders shot—Also at the Imperial Fiefs, and Lugo, quelled and punished in the same way—Reflections—Austrians defeated at Borghetto, and Retreat behind the Adige—Buonaparte narrowly escapes being made Prisoner at Valeggio—Mantua blockaded—Verona occupied by the French—King of Naples secedes from Austria—Armistice purchased by the Pope—The Neutrality of Tuscany violated, and Leghorn occupied by the French troops—Views of Buonaparte respecting the Revolutionizing of Italy—He temporizes—Conduct of the Austrian Government at this Crisis—Beaulieu displaced, and succeeded by Wurmser—Buonaparte sits down before Mantua,	79
Chap. VI.	Campaign on the Rhine—General Plan—Wartensleben and the Archduke Charles retire before Jourdan and Moreau—The Archduke forms a Junction with Wartensleben, and defeats Jourdan, who retires—Moreau, also, makes his celebrated Retreat through the Black Forest—Buonaparte raises the Siege of Mantua, and defeats the Austrians at Salo and Lonato—Misbehaviour of the French General Valette, at Castiglione—Lonato taken, with the French Artillery, on 3d August—Retaken by Massena and Augereau—Singular escape of Buonaparte from being captured at Lonato—Wurmser defeated between Lonato and Castiglione, and retreats on Trent and Roveredo—Buonaparte resumes his position before Mantua—Effects of the French Victories on the different Italian States—Inflexibility of Austria—Wurmser recruited—Battle of Roveredo—French victorious, and Massena occupies Trent—Buonaparte defeats Wurmser at Primolano—and at Bassano, 8th September—Wurmser flies to Vicenza—Battle of Saint-George—Wurmser {v}finally shut up within the walls of Mantua,	95
Chap. VII.	Corsica reunited with France—Critical situation of Buonaparte in Italy at this period—The Austrian General Alvinzi placed at the head of a new Army—Various Contests, attended with no decisive result—Want of Concert among the Austrian Generals—French Army begin to murmur—First Battle of Arcola—Napoleon in Personal danger—No decisive result—Second Battle of Arcola—The French victorious—Fresh want of Concert among the Austrian Generals—General Views of Military and Political Affairs, after the conclusion of the fourth Italian Campaign—Austria commences a fifth Campaign—but has not profited by Experience—Battle of Rivoli, and Victory of the French—Further successful at La Favorita—French regain their lost ground in Italy—Surrender of Mantua—Instances of Napoleon's Generosity,	111
Chap. VIII.	Situation and Views of Buonaparte at this period—His politic Conduct towards the Italians—Popularity—Severe terms of Peace proposed to the Pope—Rejected—Napoleon differs from the Directory, and Negotiations are renewed—but again Rejected—The Pope raises his Army to 40,000 men—Napoleon Invades the Papal Territories—The Papal Troops defeated near Imola—and at Ancona—which is captured—Loretto taken—Clemency of Buonaparte to the French recusant Clergy—Peace of Tolentino—Napoleon's Letter to the Pope—San Marino—View of the situation of the different Italian States—Rome—Naples—Tuscany—Venice,	130
Chap. IX.	Archduke Charles—Compared with Napoleon—Fettered by the Aulic Council—Napoleon, by a stratagem, passes the Tagliamento, and compels the Archduke to retreat—Gradisca carried by storm—Chusa-Veneta taken—Trieste and Fiume occupied—Venice breaks the Neutrality—Terrified on learning that an Armistice had taken place betwixt France and Austria—The Archduke retreats by hasty marches on Vienna—The Government irresolute—and the Treaty of Leoben signed—Venice makes humiliating submissions—Napoleon's Speech to her Envoys—He declares War against Venice, and evades obeying the orders of the Directory to spare it—The Great Council, on 31st May, concede every thing to Buonaparte—Terms granted,	147
Chap. X.	Napoleon's Amatory Correspondence with Josephine—His Court at Montebello—Negotiations and Pleasure mingled there—Genoa—Revolutionary spirit of the Genoese—They rise in insurrection, but are quelled by the Government, and the French plundered and imprisoned—Buonaparte interferes, and appoints the outlines of a new Government—Sardinia—Naples—The Cispadane, Transpadane, and Emilian Republics, united under the name of the Cisalpine Republic—The Valteline—The Grisons—The Valteline united to Lombardy—Great improvement of Italy, and the Italian Character, from these changes—Difficulties in the way of Pacification betwixt France and Austria—The Directory and Napoleon take Different Views—Treaty of Campo Formio—Buonaparte takes leave of the Army of Italy, to act as French Plenipotentiary at Rastadt,	166
Chap. XI.	Retrospect—The Directory—They become unpopular—Causes of their unpopularity—Also at enmity among themselves—State of Public {vi}feeling in France—In point of numbers, favourable to the Bourbons—but the Army and Monied Interest against them—Pichegru, head of the Royalists, appointed President of the Council of Five Hundred—Barbé Marbois, another Royalist, President of the Council of Ancients—Directory throw themselves upon the succour of Hoche and Buonaparte—Buonaparte's personal Politics discussed—Pichegru's Correspondence with the Bourbons—known to Buonaparte—He despatches Augereau to Paris—Directory arrest their principal Opponents in the Councils on the 18th Fructidor, and Banish them to Guiana—Narrow and Impolitic Conduct of the Directory to Buonaparte—Projected Invasion of England,	178
Chap. XII.	View of the respective Situations of Great Britain and France, at the Period of Napoleon's return from Italy—Negotiations at Lisle—broken off—Army of England decreed, and Buonaparte named to the Command—He takes up his Residence in Paris—Public Honours—The real Views of the Directory discovered to be the expedition to Egypt—Armies of Italy and the Rhine, compared and contrasted—Napoleon's Objects and Motives in heading the Egyptian Expedition—Those of the Directory regarding it—Its actual Impolicy—Curious Statement by Miot—The Armament sails from Toulon, on 19th May, 1798—Napoleon arrives before Malta on 10th June—Proceeds on his course, and, escaping the British Squadron, lands at Alexandria on the 1st July—Description of the various Classes who inhabit Egypt:—1. The Fellahs and Bedouins—2. The Cophts—3. The Mamelukes—Napoleon issues a Proclamation against the Mamelukes—Marches against them on the 7th July—Discontent of the French Troops—Battle of the Pyramids on 21st of July—Cairo surrenders,	192
Chap. XIII.	French Fleet—Conflicting Statements of Buonaparte and Admiral Gantheaume—Battle of Aboukir on 1st August 1798—The French Admiral, Brueyes, killed, and his Ship, L'Orient, blown up—The Victory complete—Effects of this disaster—Means by which Napoleon proposed to establish himself in Egypt—His Administration, in many respects, praiseworthy—in others, his Conduct absurd—He aspires to be regarded an Envoy of the Deity—His endeavours to propitiate the Porte—The Fort of El Arish falls into his hands—Massacre of Jaffa—Admitted by Buonaparte himself—His Arguments in its defence—Replies to them—General Conclusions—Plague in the French Army—Napoleon's Humanity and Courage upon this occasion—Proceeds against Acre to attack Djezzar Pacha—Sir Sidney Smith—His Character—Captures a French Convoy, and throws himself into Acre—French arrive before Acre on 17th March, 1799, and effect a breach on the 28th, but are driven back—Assaulted by an Army of Moslems assembled without the Walls of Acre, whom they defeat and disperse—Personal Misunderstanding and Hostility between Napoleon and Sir Sidney Smith—Explained—Buonaparte is finally compelled to raise the Siege,	216
Chap. XIV.	Discussion concerning the alleged Poisoning of the Sick in the Hospitals at Jaffa—Napoleon acquitted of the charge—French Army re-enter Cairo on the 14th June—Retrospect of what had taken place in Upper and Lower Egypt during Napoleon's Absence—Incursion of Murad Bey—18,000 Turks occupy Aboukir—Attacked and defeated—This Victory terminates Napoleon's career in Egypt—Admiral Gantheaume receives {vii}Orders to make ready for Sea—On the 22d August, Napoleon embarks for France—Arrives in Ajaccio on the 30th September—and lands at Frejus on the 9th October,	236
Chap. XV.	Retrospect of Public Events since the Departure of Napoleon for Egypt—Invasion and Conquest of Switzerland—Seizure of Turin—Expulsion of the Pope—The Neapolitans declare War against France—The French enter Naples—Disgraceful Avarice exhibited by the Directory—Particularly in their Negotiations with the United States of America—Russia comes forward in the general Cause—Her Strength and Resources—Reverses of the French in Italy, and on the Rhine—Insurrections in Belgium and Holland against the French—Anglo-Russian Expedition sent to Holland—The Chouans again in the Field—Great and Universal Unpopularity of the Directory—State of Parties in France—Law of Hostages—Abbé Siêyes becomes one of the Directory—His Character and Genius—Description of the Constitution proposed by him for the Year Three—Ducos, Gohier, and Moulins, also introduced into the Directory—Family of Napoleon strive to keep him in the Recollection of the People—Favourable Change in the French Affairs—Holland evacuated by the Anglo-Russian Army—Korsakow defeated by Massena—and Suwarrow retreats before Lecourbe,	246
Chap. XVI.	General rejoicing on the return of Buonaparte—Advances made to him on all sides—Napoleon Coalesces with Siêyes—Revolution of the 18th Brumaire (Nov. 9)—Clashing Views of the Councils of Ancients, and the Five Hundred—Barras and his Colleagues resign—Proceedings of the Councils on the 18th—and 19th—Sittings removed from Paris to St. Cloud—Commotion in the Council of Five Hundred—Napoleon menaced and assaulted, and finally extricated by his Grenadiers—Lucien Buonaparte, the President, retires from the Hall—Declares the Council dissolved—Provisional Consular Government of Buonaparte, Siêyes, and Ducos,	260
Chap. XVII.	Clemency of the New Consulate—Beneficial change in the Finances—Law of Hostages repealed—Religious liberty allowed—Improvements in the War Department—Pacification of La Vendée—Ascendancy of Napoleon—Disappointment of Siêyes—Committee formed to consider Siêyes' Plan of a Constitution—Rejected as to essentials—A new one adopted, monarchical in every thing but form—Siêyes retires from Public life—General View of the new Government—Despotic Power of the First Consul,	276
Chap. XVIII.	Proceedings of Buonaparte in order to consolidate his power—His great Success—Causes that led to it—Cambacérès and Le Brun chosen Second and Third Consuls—Talleyrand appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs, and Fouché Minister of Police—Their Characters—Other Ministers nominated—Various Changes made in order to mark the Commencement of a new Era—Napoleon addresses a Letter personally to the King of England—Answered by Lord Grenville—Negotiation for peace that followed, speedily broken off—Campaigns in Italy and on the Rhine—Successes of Moreau—Censured by Napoleon for over-caution—The Charge considered—The Chief Consul resolves to bring back, in Person, Victory to the French Standards in Italy—His {viii}Measures for that purpose,	292
Chap. XIX.	The Chief Consul leaves Paris on 6th May, 1800—Has an Interview with Necker at Geneva on 8th—Arrives at Lausanne on the 13th—Various Corps put in motion to cross the Alps—Napoleon, at the head of the Main Army, marches on the 15th, and ascends Mont St. Bernard—On the 16th, the Vanguard takes possession of Aosta—Fortress and Town of Bard threaten to baffle the whole plan—The Town is captured—and Napoleon contrives to send his Artillery through it, under the fire of the Fort, his Infantry and Cavalry passing over the Albaredo—Lannes carries Ivrea—Recapitulation—Operations of the Austrian General Melas—At the commencement of the Campaign, Melas advances towards Genoa—Actions betwixt him and Massena—In March, Lord Keith blockades Genoa—Melas compelled to retreat—Enters Nice—Recalled from thence by the news of Napoleon's having crossed Mont St. Bernard—Genoa surrenders—Buonaparte enters Milan—Battle of Montebello—The Chief Consul is joined by Desaix—Battle of Marengo on the 14th—Death of Desaix—Capitulation on the 15th, by which Genoa, &c., are yielded—Napoleon returns to Paris on the 2d July,	305
Chap. XX.	Napoleon offers, and the Austrian Envoy accepts, a new Treaty—The Emperor refuses it, unless England is included—Negotiations with England—fail—Renewal of the War—Armistice—Resumption of Hostilities—Battle of Hohenlinden—Other Battles—The Austrians agree to a separate Peace—Treaty of Luneville—Convention between France and the United States—The Queen of Naples repairs to Petersburgh—Paul receives her with cordiality, and applies in her behalf to Buonaparte—His Envoy received at Paris with the utmost distinction, and the Royal Family of Naples saved for the present—Rome restored to the authority of the Pope—Napoleon demands of the King of Spain to declare War against Portugal—Olivenza and Almeida taken—Malta, after a Blockade of Two Years, obliged to submit to the English,	324
Chap. XXI.	Internal Government of France—General Attachment to the Chief Consul—Plot to remove him by Assassination—Defeated—Vain hopes of the Royalists, that Napoleon would restore the Bourbons—Infernal Machine—It fails—Suspicion first falls on the Republicans—The actual Conspirators executed—Use made by Buonaparte of the Conspiracy to consolidate Despotism—System of Police—Fouché—His Skill, Influence, and Power—Apprehension entertained by the Chief Consul of the effects of Literature—Persecution of Madame de Staël—The Concordat—Plan for a general System of Jurisprudence—Amnesty granted to the Emigrants—Plans of Public Education—Hopes of a General Peace,	337
Chap. XXII.	Return to the external Relations of France—Her universal Ascendancy—Napoleon's advances to the Emperor Paul—Plan of destroying the British Power in India—Right of Search at Sea—Death of Paul—Its effects on Buonaparte—Affairs of Egypt—Assassination of Kleber—Menou appointed to succeed him—British Army lands in Egypt—Battle and Victory of Alexandria—Death of Sir Ralph Abercromby—General {ix}Hutchinson succeeds him—The French General Belliard capitulates—as does Menou—War in Egypt brought to a victorious Conclusion,	356
Chap. XXIII.	Preparations for the Invasion of Britain—Nelson put in command of the Sea—Attack of the Boulogne Flotilla—Pitt leaves the Ministry—succeeded by Mr. Addington—Negotiations for Peace—Just punishment of England, in regard to the conquered Settlements of the enemy—Forced to restore them all, save Ceylon and Trinidad—Malta is placed under the guarantee of a Neutral Power—Preliminaries of Peace signed—Joy of the English Populace, and doubts of the better classes—Treaty of Amiens signed—The ambitious projects of Napoleon, nevertheless, proceed without interruption—Extension of his power in Italy—He is appointed Consul for life, with the power of naming his Successor—His Situation at this period,	364
Chap. XXIV.	Different Views entertained by the English Ministers and the Chief Consul of the effects of the Treaty of Amiens—Napoleon, misled by the Shouts of a London Mob, misunderstands the Feelings of the People of Great Britain—His continued encroachments on the Independence of Europe—His conduct to Switzerland—Interferes in their Politics, and sets himself up, uninvited, as Mediator in their concerns—Ney enters Switzerland at the head of 40,000 men—The patriot, Reding, disbands his Forces, and is imprisoned—Switzerland is compelled to furnish France with a Subsidiary Army of 16,000 Troops—The Chief Consul adopts the title of Grand Mediator of the Helvetic Republic,	372
APPENDIX
No. I.	Buonaparte's Letter to General Paoli,	381
No. II.	Letter of Napoleon Buonaparte to M. Matteo Buttafuoco, Deputy from Corsica to the National Assembly,	382
No. III.	The Supper of Beaucaire,	388
No. IV.	Letters of Napoleon to Josephine,	392
No. V.	Descent of the French in South Wales, under General Tate,	396
No. VI.	Buonaparte's Camp-Library,	397
No. VII.	Buonaparte, Member of the National Institute, Commander-in-Chief, to the People of Egypt,	398
No. VIII.	Historical Notes on the Eighteenth Brumaire,	399



LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
By Sir Walter Scott, Bart.
Vol. 3.
Hotel de Ville. Paris


CONTENTS
Chap. XXV.	Increasing Jealousies betwixt France and England—Encroachments on the part of the former—Instructions given by the First Consul to his Commercial Agents—Orders issued by the English Ministers—Peltier's celebrated Royalist Publication, L'Ambigu—Peltier tried for a Libel against the First Consul—found Guilty—Angry Discussions respecting the Treaty of Amiens—Malta—Report of Sebastiani—Resolutions of the British Government—Conferences betwixt Buonaparte and Lord Whitworth—Britain declares War against France on 18th May, 1803,	1
Chap. XXVI.	St. Domingo—The Negroes split into parties under different Chiefs—Toussaint L'Ouverture the most distinguished of these—Appoints a Consular Government—France sends an Expedition against St. Domingo, under General Leclerc, in December, 1801—Toussaint submits—He is sent to France, where he dies—The French are assaulted by the Negroes—Leclerc is succeeded by Rochambeau—The French finally obliged to capitulate to an English squadron—Buonaparte's scheme to consolidate his power—The Consular Guard augmented—Legion of Honour—Opposition formed against the Consular Government—Application to the Count de Provence (Louis XVIII.),	16
Chap. XXVII.	Renewal of the War—England lays an Embargo on French Vessels—Napoleon retaliates by detaining British Subjects—Effects of this unprecedented Measure—Hanover and other places occupied by the French—Scheme of Invasion renewed—Napoleon's Preparations—Defensive Measures of England,	27
Chap. XXVIII.	Disaffection begins to arise against Napoleon among the Soldiery—Purpose of setting up Moreau against him—Character of Moreau—Causes of his Estrangement from Buonaparte—Pichegru—The {iv}Duke d'Enghien—Georges Cadoudal, Pichegru, and other Royalists, landed in France—Desperate Enterprise of Georges—Defeated—Arrest of Moreau—of Pichegru—and Georges—Captain Wright—Duke d'Enghien seized at Strasburg—Hurried to Paris—Transferred to Vincennes—Tried by a Military Commission—Condemned—and Executed—Universal Horror of France and Europe—Buonaparte's Vindication of his Conduct—His Defence considered—Pichegru found dead in his Prison—Attempt to explain his Death by charging him with Suicide—Captain Wright found with his Throat cut—A similar Attempt made—Georges and other Conspirators Tried—Condemned—and Executed—Royalists Silenced—Moreau sent into Exile,	38
Chap. XXIX.	General Indignation of Europe in consequence of the Murder of the Duke d'Enghien—Russia complains to Talleyrand of the Violation of Baden—and, along with Sweden, Remonstrates in a Note laid before the German Diet—but without effect—Charges brought by Buonaparte against Mr. Drake and Mr. Spencer Smith—who are accordingly Dismissed from the Courts of Stuttgard and Munich—Seizure—Imprisonment—and Dismissal of Sir George Rumbold, the British Envoy at Lower Saxony—Treachery attempted against Lord Elgin, by the Agents of Buonaparte—Details—Defeated by the Exemplary Prudence of that Nobleman—These Charges brought before the House of Commons—and peremptorily Denied by the Chancellor of the Exchequer,	57
Chap. XXX.	Napoleon meditates a change of title from Chief Consul to Emperor—A Motion to this purpose brought forward in the Tribunate—Opposed by Carnot—Adopted by the Tribunate and Senate—Outline of the New System—Coldly received by the People—Napoleon visits Boulogne, Aix-la-Chapelle, and the Frontiers of Germany, where he is received with respect—The Coronation—Pius VII. is summoned from Rome to perform the Ceremony at Paris—Details—Reflections—Changes that took place in Italy—Napoleon appointed Sovereign of Italy, and Crowned at Milan—Genoa annexed to France,	63
Chap. XXXI.	Napoleon addresses a Second Letter to the King of England personally—Answered by the British Secretary of State to Talleyrand—Alliance formed betwixt Russia and England—Prussia keeps aloof, and the Emperor Alexander visits Berlin—Austria prepares for War, and marches an Army into Bavaria—Her impolicy in prematurely commencing Hostilities, and in her Conduct to Bavaria—Unsoldierlike Conduct of the Austrian General Mack—Buonaparte is joined by the Electors of Bavaria and Wirtemberg, and the Duke of Baden—Skilful Manœuvres of the French Generals, and successive losses of the Austrians—Napoleon violates the Neutrality of Prussia, by marching through Anspach and Bareuth—Further Losses of the Austrian Leaders, and consequent Disunion among them—Mack is cooped up in Ulm—Issues a formidable Declaration on the 16th October—and surrenders on the following day—Fatal Results of this Man's Poltroonery, want of Skill, and probable Treachery,	79
Chap. XXXII.	Position of the French Armies—Napoleon advances towards {v}Vienna—The Emperor Francis leaves his Capital—French enter Vienna on 13th November—Review of the French Successes in Italy and the Tyrol—Schemes of Napoleon to force on a General Battle—Battle of Austerlitz is fought on the 2d December, and the combined Austro-Russian Armies completely Defeated—Interview betwixt the Emperor of Austria and Napoleon—The Emperor Alexander retreats towards Russia—Treaty of Presburgh signed on the 26th December—Its Conditions—Fate of the King of Sweden—and of the Two Sicilies,	95
Chap. XXXIII.	Relative situations of France and England—Hostilities commenced with Spain, by the Stoppage, by Commodore Moore, of four Spanish Galleons, when three of their escort were taken, and one blew up—Napoleon's Plan of Invasion stated and discussed—John Clerk of Eldin's great System of Breaking the Line, explained—The French Admiral, Villeneuve, forms a junction with the Spanish Fleet under Gravina—Attacked and Defeated by Sir Robert Calder—Nelson appointed to the Command in the Mediterranean—Battle of Trafalgar, fought 21st October, 1805—Death of Nelson—Behaviour of Napoleon on learning the Intelligence of this signal Defeat—Villeneuve commits Suicide—Address of Buonaparte to the Legislative Body—Statement of M. de Champagny on the Internal Improvements of France—Elevation of Napoleon's Brothers, Louis and Joseph, to the Thrones of Holland and Naples—Principality of Lucca conferred on Eliza, the eldest Sister of Buonaparte, and that of Guastalla on Pauline, the youngest—Other Alliances made by his family—Napoleon appoints a new Hereditary Nobility—Converts from the old Noblesse anxiously sought for and liberally rewarded—Confederation of the Rhine established, and Napoleon appointed Protector—The Emperor of Austria lays aside the Imperial Crown of Germany, retaining only the Title of Emperor of Austria—Vacillating and Impolitic Conduct of Prussia,	111
Chap. XXXIV.	Death of Pitt—He is succeeded by Fox as Prime Minister—Negotiation with France—The Earl of Lauderdale sent to Paris as the British Negotiator—Negotiation broken off, in consequence of the refusal of England to cede Sicily to France—Temporizing Policy of Prussia—An attempt made by her to form a Confederacy in opposition to that of the Rhine, defeated by Napoleon—General Disposition of the Prussians to War—Legal Murder of Palm, a Bookseller—The Emperor Alexander again visits Berlin—Prussia begins to arm in August 1806, and after some Negotiation, takes the field in October, under the Duke of Brunswick—Impolicy of the Plans of the Campaign—Details—Action at Saalfeld—Battle of Auerstadt, or Jena, on 14th October—Duke of Brunswick mortally wounded—Consequences of this total Defeat—Buonaparte takes possession of Berlin on the 25th—Situations of Austria and Prussia, after their several Defeats—Reflections on the fall of Prussia,	137
Chap. XXXV.	Ungenerous Conduct of Buonaparte to the Duke of Brunswick—The approach of the French Troops to Brunswick compels the dying Prince to cause himself to be carried to Altona, where he expires—Oath of revenge taken by his son—At Potsdam and Berlin, the {vi}proceedings of Napoleon are equally cruel and vindictive—His Clemency towards the Prince of Hatzfeld—His Treatment of the Lesser Powers—Jerome Buonaparte—Seizure of Hamburgh—Berlin Decrees against British Commerce—Napoleon rejects all Application from the Continental Commercial Towns to Relax or Repeal them—Commerce, nevertheless, flourishes in spite of them—Second anticipation called for of the Conscription for 1807—The King of Prussia applies for an Armistice, which is clogged with such harsh Terms, that he refuses them,	162
Chap. XXXVI.	Retrospect of the Partition of Poland—Napoleon receives Addresses from Poland, which he evades—He advances into Poland, Bennigsen Retreating before him—Character of the Russian Soldiery—The Cossacks—Engagement at Pultusk, on 26th November, terminating to the disadvantage of the French—Bennigsen continues his Retreat—The French go into Winter Quarters—Bennigsen appointed Commander-in-chief in the place of Kaminskoy, who shows symptoms of Insanity—He resumes Offensive Operations—Battle of Eylau, 8th February, 1807—Claimed as a Victory by both Parties—The loss on both sides amounts to 50,000 men killed, the greater part Frenchmen—Bennigsen Retreats upon Königsberg—Napoleon offers favourable terms for an Armistice to the King of Prussia, who refuses to Treat, save for a General Peace—Napoleon falls back to the line of the Vistula—Dantzick is besieged, and Surrenders—Russian Army is poorly recruited—the French powerfully—Actions during the Summer—Battle of Heilsberg, and Retreat of the Russians—Battle of Friedland, 14th June—An Armistice takes place on the 23d,	174
Chap. XXXVII.	British Expedition to Calabria, under Sir John Stuart—Character of the People—Opposed by General Reynier—Battle of Maida, 4th July, 1806—Defeat of the French—Calabria evacuated by the British—Erroneous Commercial Views, and Military Plans, of the British Ministry—Unsuccessful Attack on Buenos Ayres—General Whitelocke—is Cashiered—Expedition against Turkey, and its Dependencies—Admiral Duckworth's Squadron sent against Constantinople—Passes and repasses the Dardanelles, without accomplishing anything—Expedition against Alexandria—Rosetta attacked—British Troops defeated, and withdrawn from Egypt, September, 1807—Curaçoa and Cape of Good Hope taken, by England—British Expedition against Copenhagen—its Citadel, Forts, and Fleet, surrendered to the British—Effects of this proceeding upon France and Russia—Coalition of France, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, against British Commerce,	206
Chap. XXXVIII.	View of the Internal Government of Napoleon at the period of the Peace of Tilsit—The Tribunate abolished—Council of State—Prefectures—Their nature and object described—The Code Napoleon—Its Provisions—Its Merits and Defects—Comparison betwixt that Code and the Jurisprudence of England—Laudable efforts of Napoleon to carry it into effect,	218
Chap. XXXIX.	System of Education introduced into France by Napoleon—National University—its nature and objects—Lyceums—Proposed {vii}Establishment at Meudon,	249
Chap. XL.	Military Details—Plan of the Conscription—Its Nature—and Effects—Enforced with unsparing rigour—Its Influence upon the General Character of the French Soldiery—New mode of Conducting Hostilities introduced by the Revolution—Constitution of the French Armies, Forced Marches—La Maraude—Its Nature—and Effects—on the Enemy's Country, and on the French Soldiers themselves—Policy of Napoleon, in his Personal Conduct to his Officers and Soldiers—Altered Character of the French Soldiery during, and after, the Revolution,	252
Chap. XLI.	Effects of the Peace of Tilsit—Napoleon's Views of a State of Peace—Contrasted with those of England—The Continental System—Berlin and Milan Decrees—British Orders in Council—Spain—Retrospect of the Relations of that Country with France since the Revolution—Godoy—his Influence—Character—and Political Views—Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias, applies to Napoleon for Aid—Affairs of Portugal—Treaty of Fontainbleau—Departure of the Prince Regent for Brazil—Entrance of Junot into Lisbon—His unbounded rapacity—Disturbances at Madrid—Ferdinand detected in a Plot against his Father, and Imprisoned—King Charles applies to Napoleon—Wily Policy of Buonaparte—Orders the French Army to enter Spain,	259
Chap. XLII.	Pampeluna, Barcelona, Montjouy, and St. Sebastians, are fraudulently seized by the French—King Charles proposes to sail for South America—Insurrection at Aranjuez—Charles resigns the Crown in favour of Ferdinand—Murat enters Madrid—Charles disavows his Resignation—General Savary arrives at Madrid—Napoleon's Letter to Murat, touching the Invasion of Spain—Ferdinand sets out to meet Napoleon—Halts at Vittoria, and learns too late Napoleon's designs against him—Joins Buonaparte at Bayonne—Napoleon opens his designs to Escoiquiz and Cevallos, both of whom he finds intractable—He sends for Charles, his Queen, and Godoy, to Bayonne—Ferdinand is induced to Abdicate the Crown in favour of his Father, who resigns it next day to Napoleon—This transfer is reluctantly confirmed by Ferdinand, who, with his Brothers, is sent to splendid Imprisonment at Valençay—Joseph Buonaparte is appointed to the Throne of Spain, and joins Napoleon at Bayonne—Assembly of Notables convoked,	272
Chap. XLIII.	State of Morals and Manners in Spain—The Nobility—The Middle Classes—The Lower Ranks—The indignation of the People strongly excited against the French—Insurrection at Madrid on the 2d May—Murat proclaims an Amnesty, notwithstanding which, many Spanish prisoners are put to Death—King Charles appoints Murat Lieutenant-General of the Kingdom, and Ferdinand's Resignation of the Throne is announced—Murat unfolds the Plan of Government to the Council of Castile, and Addresses of Submission are sent to Buonaparte from various quarters—Notables appointed to meet at Bayonne on 15th June—The Flame of Resistance becomes Universal throughout Spain,	289
Chap. XLIV.	Plans of Defence of the Spanish Juntas—Defeated by the ardour of the Insurrectionary Armies—Cruelty of the French Troops, and Inveteracy of the Spaniards—Successes of the Invaders—Defeat of {viii}Rio Secco—Exultation of Napoleon—Joseph enters Madrid—His Reception—Duhesme compelled to Retreat to Barcelona, and Moncey from before Valencia—Defeat of Dupont by Castanos at Baylen—His Army Surrenders Prisoners of War—Effects of this Victory and Capitulation—Unreasonable Expectations of the British Public—Joseph leaves Madrid, and Retires to Vittoria—Defence of Zaragossa,	299
Chap. XLV.	Zeal of Britain with regard to the Spanish struggle—It is Resolved to send an Expedition to Portugal—Retrospect of what had passed in that Country—Portuguese Assembly of Notables summoned to Bayonne—Their Singular Audience of Buonaparte—Effects of the Spanish Success on Portugal—Sir Arthur Wellesley—His Character as a General—Despatched at the Head of the Expedition to Portugal—Attacks and Defeats the French at Roriça—Battle and Victory of Vimeiro—Sir Harry Burrard Neale assumes the Command, and frustrates the Results proposed by Sir Arthur Wellesley from the Battle—Sir Harry Burrard is superseded by Sir Hew Dalrymple—Convention of Cintra—Its Unpopularity in England—A Court of Inquiry is held,	310
Chap. XLVI.	Duplicity of Buonaparte on his return to Paris—Official Statements in the Moniteur—Reports issued by Champagny, Minister of the Foreign Department—French Relations with the different Powers of Europe—Spirit of Resistance throughout Germany—Russia—Napoleon and Alexander meet at Erfurt on 27th September, and separate in apparent Friendship on 17th October—Actual feelings of the Autocrats—Their joint Letter to the King of Great Britain proposing a General Peace on the Principle of uti possidetis—Why rejected—Procedure in Spain—Catalonia—Return of Romana to Spain—Armies of Blake, Castanos, and Palafox—Expedition of General Moore—His desponding Views of the Spanish Cause—His Plans—Defeat of Blake—and Castanos—Treachery of Morla—Sir John Moore Retreats to Corunna—Disasters on the March—Battle of Corunna, and Death of Sir John Moore,	322
Chap. XLVII.	General Belliard occupies Madrid—Napoleon returns to France—Cause of his hurried Return—View of the Circumstances leading to a Rupture with Austria—Feelings of Russia upon this occasion—Secret intrigues of Talleyrand to preserve Peace—Immense exertions made by Austria—Counter efforts of Buonaparte—The Austrian army enters Bavaria, 9th April, 1809—Napoleon hastens to meet them—Austrians defeated at Abensberg on the 20th—and at Eckmühl on the 22d—They are driven out of Ratisbon on the 23d—The Archduke Charles Retreats into Bohemia—Napoleon pushes forward to Vienna, which, after a brief Defence, is occupied by the French on the 12th of May—Retrospect of the events of the War in Poland, Italy, the North of Germany, and the Tyrol—Enterprises of Schill—Of the Duke of Brunswick Oels—Movements in the Tyrol—Character and Manners of the Tyrolese—Retreat of the Archduke John into Hungary,	343
Chap. XLVIII.	Position of the French and Austrian Armies after the Battle of Eckmühl—Napoleon crosses the Danube—Great Conflict at {ix}Asperne, when victory was claimed by both Parties—Battle of Wagram, fought 6th July—Armistice concluded at Znaim—Close of the Career of Schill and the Duke of Brunswick Oels—Defence of the Tyrol—Its final unfortunate Result—Growing Resistance throughout Germany—Its effects on Buonaparte—He Publishes a singular Manifesto in the Moniteur,	360
APPENDIX
No. I.	Instructions by Napoleon to Talleyrand, Prince of Beneventum,	377
No. II.	Further Particulars concerning the Arrest, Trial, and Death of the Duke d'Enghien,	378



LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
By Sir Walter Scott, Bart.
Vol. 4
Mayence


CONTENTS
Chap. XLIX.	Conduct of Russia and England during the War with Austria—Meditated Expedition of British Troops to the Continent—Sent to Walcheren—Its Calamitous Details and Result—Proceedings of Napoleon with regard to the Pope—General Miollis enters Rome—Napoleon publishes a Decree, uniting the States of the Church to the French Empire—Is Excommunicated—Pius VII. is banished from Rome, and sent to Grenoble—afterwards brought back to Savona—Buonaparte is attacked by an Assassin—Definitive Treaty of Peace signed at Schoenbrun—Napoleon returns to France on the 14th November, 1809,	1
Chap. L.	Change in Napoleon's Domestic Life—Causes which led to it—His anxiety for an Heir—A Son of his Brother Louis is fixed upon, but dies in Childhood—Character and influence of Josephine—Strong mutual Attachment betwixt her and Napoleon—Fouché opens to Josephine the Plan of a Divorce—Her extreme Distress—On 5th December, Napoleon announces her Fate to Josephine—On 15th they are formally separated before the Imperial Council—Josephine retaining the rank of Empress for Life—Espousals of Buonaparte and Maria Louisa of Austria take place at Vienna, 11th March, 1810,	17
Chap. LI.	Almost all the Foreign French Settlements fall into the hands of the British—French Squadron destroyed at the Isle of Aix, by Lord Cochrane—and at the Isle of Rosas, by Lord Collingwood—Return to the Proceedings in Spain—Soult takes Oporto—Attacked and Defeated by Sir Arthur Wellesley—Ferrol and Corunna retaken by the Patriots—Battle of Talavera, gained by Sir Arthur Wellesley—Created Lord Wellington—The French Armies take many Towns and Strong Places—Supreme Junta Retreat to Cadiz—The Guerilla System—Growing Disappointment of Buonaparte—His immense Exertions—Battle of Busaco—Lord Wellington's famous Retreat on Torres Vedras,	28
Chap. LII.	Change in Napoleon's Principles of Government—Becomes suspicious of Talleyrand and Fouché—Fouché endeavours, {iv}without the knowledge of Napoleon, to ascertain the Views of England with respect to Peace—His Plan is defeated by a singular Collision with a similar one of Napoleon—and Fouché is sent away as Governor-General of Rome—His Moral and Political Character—Murmurings of the People against the Austrian Alliance—Continental System—Ignorance of Napoleon of the Actual Political Feelings of Great Britain—The License System—Louis Buonaparte—Endeavours in vain to Defend Holland from the Effects of the Continental System—He Abdicates the Throne, and retires to Gratz in Styria—Holland is annexed to the French Empire,	41
Chap. LIII.	Gustavus IV. of Sweden is Dethroned and succeeded by his Uncle—The Crown Prince killed by a fall from his Horse—Candidates proposed for the Succession—The Swedes, thinking to conciliate Napoleon, fix on Bernadotte—Buonaparte reluctantly acquiesces in the Choice—Parting Interview between Bernadotte and Napoleon—Subsequent attempts of the latter to bind Sweden to the Policy of France—The Crown Prince unwillingly accedes to the Continental System—Napoleon makes a Tour through Flanders and Holland—Returns to Paris, and takes measures for extending the Continental System—Seizure of the Valois—Coast along the German Ocean annexed to France—Protest by the Czar against the appropriation of Oldenburg—Russia allows the Importation, at certain Seaports, of various articles of British Commerce—Negotiations for Exchange of Prisoners between France and England; and for a General Peace, broken off by Buonaparte's unreasonable demands,	59
Chap. LIV.	View of Napoleon's gigantic Power—The Empress Maria Louisa delivered of a Son—Criticism on the Title given him, of King of Rome—Speculations in regard to the advantages or disadvantages arising from this Event—Retrospect—Ex-Queen of Etruria—Her severe and unjustifiable Treatment by Napoleon—Lucien Buonaparte is invited to England, where he writes Epic Poetry—Attempt to deliver Ferdinand, defeated—Operations in Portugal—Retreat of Massena—Battles of Fuentes d'Onoro fought by Lord Wellington—On the South Frontier of Portugal, by Lord Beresford—Of Barossa, by General Graham—Enterprise of Arroyo-Molinas—Spaniards defeated under Blake—Valencia captured by the French, and he and his Army made Prisoners of War—Disunion among the French Generals—Joseph wishes to abdicate the Throne of Spain,	72
Chap. LV.	Retrospect of the Causes leading to the Rupture with Russia—Originate in the Treaty of Tilsit—Russia's alleged Reasons of Complaint—Arguments of Napoleon's Counsellors against War with Russia—Fouché is against the War—Presents a Memorial to Napoleon upon the Subject—His answer—Napoleon's Views in favour of the War, as urged to his various Advisers,	86
Chap. LVI.	Allies on whose assistance Buonaparte might count—Causes which alienated from him the Prince-Royal of Sweden—who signs a Treaty with Russia—Delicate situation of the King of Prussia, whose alliance the Emperor Alexander on that account declines—A Treaty with France dictated to Prussia—Relations between Austria and France—in {v}order to preserve them Buonaparte is obliged to come under an Engagement not to Revolutionize Poland—His error of Policy in neglecting to cultivate the alliance of the Porte—Amount of Buonaparte's Army—Levies for the Protection of France in the Emperor's absence—Storming of Ciudad Rodrigo by Lord Wellington—Buonaparte makes Overtures of Peace to Lord Castlereagh—The Correspondence broken off—Ultimatum of Russia rejected—Napoleon sets out from Paris, 9th May, 1812—and meets the Sovereigns his allies at Dresden—A last attempt of Napoleon to negotiate with Alexander proves unsuccessful,	95
Chap. LVII.	Napoleon's Plan of the Campaign against Russia—Understood and provided against by Barclay de Tolly, the Russian Generalissimo—Statement of the Grand French Army—Of the Grand Russian Army—Disaster on the River Wilia—Difficulties of the Campaign, on the part of the French—Their defective Commissariat and Hospital Department—Cause of Buonaparte's determination to advance—His forced Marches occasion actual Delay—Napoleon remains for some days at Wilna—Abbé de Pradt—His intrigues to excite the Poles—Neutralized by Napoleon's engagements with Austria—An attempt to excite Insurrection in Lithuania also fails,	113
Chap. LVIII.	Proceedings of the Army under Prince Bagration—Napoleon's manœuvres against him—King Jerome of Westphalia is disgraced for alleged inactivity—Bagration is defeated by Davoust, but succeeds in gaining the interior of Russia, and re-establishing his communication with the Grand Army—which retreats to Drissa—Barclay and Bagration meet at Smolensk on the 20th July—The French Generals become anxious that Napoleon should close the campaign at Witepsk for the season—He persists in proceeding—Smolensk evacuated by De Tolly, after setting fire to the place—Reduced condition of the French, and growing strength of the Russian Armies—Peace effected between Russia, and England, Sweden, and Turkey—Napoleon resolves to advance upon Moscow,	127
Chap. LIX.	Napoleon detaches Murat and other Generals in pursuit of the Russians—Bloody, but indecisive Action, at Valoutina—Barclay de Tolly's defensive System relinquished, and Koutousoff appointed to the chief command of the Russian Army—Napoleon advances from Smolensk—Battle of Borodino fought, on 5th September—Prince Bagration slain—Koutousoff Retreats upon Mojaisk, and thence upon Moscow—Napoleon continues his Advance on the 12th—Count Rostopchin, Governor of Moscow—His Character—The Russians abandon Moscow, which is evacuated by the Inhabitants—The Grand Russian Army marches through Moscow—Last public Court of Justice held there by Rostopchin, after which he follows the march of the Army,	141
Chap. LX.	On 14th September, Napoleon reaches Moscow, which he finds deserted by the Inhabitants—The City is discovered to be on fire—Napoleon takes up his quarters in the Kremlin—The fire is stopt next day, but arises again at night—Believed to be wilful, and several Russians apprehended and shot—On the third night, the Kremlin is discovered to be on Fire—Buonaparte leaves it, and takes his abode at Petrowsky—The Fire rages till the 19th, when four-fifths of the City {vi}are burnt down—On the 20th, Buonaparte returns to the Kremlin—Discussion as to the Origin of this great Conflagration—Disorganisation and Indiscipline of the French Army—Difficulty as to the Route on leaving Moscow—Lauriston sent with a Letter to the Emperor Alexander—Retrospect of the March of the Russian Army, after leaving Moscow—Lauriston has an Interview with Koutousoff on 5th October—The Result—Armistice made by Murat—Preparations for Retreat—The Emperor Alexander refuses to treat,	151
Chap. LXI.	Murat's Armistice broken off—Napoleon leaves Moscow on 19th October—Bloody Skirmish at Malo-Yarrowslavetz—Napoleon in great danger while reconnoitring—He Retreats to Vereia, where he meets Mortier and the Young Guard—Winzingerode made Prisoner, and insulted by Buonaparte—The Kremlin is blown up by the French—Napoleon continues his Retreat towards Poland—Its Horrors—Conflict near Wiazma, on 3d November, where the French lose 4000 Men—Cross the River Wiazma during the Night—The Viceroy of Italy reaches Smolensk, in great distress—Buonaparte arrives at Smolensk, with the headmost Division of the Grand Army—Calamitous Retreat of Ney's Division—The whole French Army now collected at Smolensk—Cautious conduct of Prince Schwartzenberg—Winzingerode freed on his road to Paris by a body of Cossacks—Tchitchagoff occupies Minsk—Perilous situation of Napoleon,	166
Chap. LXII.	Napoleon divides his Army into four Corps, which leaves Smolensk on their Retreat towards Poland—Cautious proceedings of Koutousoff—The Viceroy's Division is attacked by Miloradowitch, and effects a junction with Napoleon at Krasnoi, after severe loss—Koutousoff attacks the French at Krasnoi; but only by a distant Cannonade—The division under Davoust is reunited to Napoleon, but in a miserable state—Napoleon marches to Liady; and Mortier and Davoust are attacked, and suffer heavy loss—Details of the Retreat of Ney—He crosses the Losmina, with great loss of Men and Baggage, and joins Napoleon at Orcsa, with his Division reduced to 1500 men—The whole Grand Army is now reduced to 12,000 effective men, besides 30,000 stragglers—Dreadful Distress and Difficulties of Buonaparte and his Army—Singular scene betwixt Napoleon and Duroc and Daru—Napoleon moves towards Borizoff, and falls in with the Corps of Victor and Oudinot—Koutousoff halts at Kopyn, without attacking Buonaparte—Napoleon crosses the Beresina at Studzianka—Partouneaux's division cut off by Witgenstein—Severe Fighting on both sides of the River—Dreadful losses of the French in crossing it—According to the Russian official account, 36,000 bodies were found in the Beresina after the thaw,	188
Chap. LXIII.	Napoleon determines to return to Paris—He leaves Smorgoni on 5th December—reaches Warsaw on the 10th—Curious Interview with the Abbé de Pradt—Arrives at Dresden on the 14th—and at Paris on the 18th at Midnight—Dreadful State of the Grand Army, when left by Napoleon—Arrive at Wilna, whence they are driven by the Cossacks, directing their Flight upon Kowno—Dissensions among the French Generals—Cautious Policy of the Austrians under Schwartzenberg—Precarious state of Macdonald—He Retreats upon Tilsit—D'Yorck separates his Troops from the French—Macdonald effects his Retreat {vii}to Königsberg—Close of the Russian Expedition, with a loss on the part of the French of 450,000 Men in Killed and Prisoners—Discussion of the Causes which led to this ruinous Catastrophe,	203
Chap. LXIV.	Effects of Napoleon's return upon the Parisians—Congratulations and Addresses by all the Public Functionaries—Conspiracy of Mallet—very nearly successful—How at last defeated—The impression made by this event upon Buonaparte—Discussions with the Pope, who is brought to France, but remains inflexible—State of Affairs in Spain—Napoleon's great and successful exertions to Recruit his Army—Guards of Honour—In the month of April, the Army is raised to 350,000 men, independently of the Troops left in Garrison in Germany, and in Spain and Italy,	224
Chap. LXV.	Murat leaves the Grand Army abruptly—Eugene appointed in his place—Measures taken by the King of Prussia for his disenthraldom—He leaves Berlin for Breslau—Treaty signed between Russia and Prussia early in March—Alexander arrives at Breslau on 15th; on the 16th Prussia declares War against France—Warlike preparations of Prussia—Universal enthusiasm—Blucher appointed Generalissimo—Vindication of the Crown Prince of Sweden for joining the Confederacy against France—Proceedings of Austria—Unabated spirit and pretensions of Napoleon—A Regency is appointed in France during his absence—and Maria Louisa appointed Regent, with nominal powers,	234
Chap. LXVI.	State of the French Grand Army—The Russians advance, and show themselves on the Elbe—The French evacuate Berlin, and retreat on the Elbe—The Crown-Prince of Sweden joins the Allies, with 35,000 Men—Dresden is occupied by the Sovereigns of Russia and Prussia—Marshal Bessières killed on 1st May—Battle of Lutzen fought on the 2d—The Allies retire to Bautzen—Hamburgh taken possession of by the Danes and French—Battle of Bautzen fought on the 20th and 21st May—The Allies retire in good order—The French Generals, Bruyères and Duroc, killed on the 22d—Grief of Napoleon for the death of the latter—An Armistice signed on 4th June,	244
Chap. LXVII.	Change in the results formerly produced by the French Victories—Despondency of the Generals—Decay in the discipline of the Troops—Views of Austria—Arguments in favour of Peace stated and discussed—Pertinacity of Napoleon—State of the French Interior—hid from him by the slavery of the Press—Interview betwixt Napoleon and the Austrian Minister Metternich—Delays in the Negotiations—Plan of Pacification proposed by Austria, on 7th August—The Armistice broken off on the 10th, when Austria joins the Allies—Sudden placability of Napoleon at this period—Ascribed to the news of the Battle of Vittoria,	256
Chap. LXVIII.	Amount and distribution of the French Army at the resumption of Hostilities—of the Armies of the Allies—Plan of the Campaign on both sides—Return of Moreau from America, to join the Allies—Attack on Dresden by the Allies on 26th August—Napoleon arrives to its succour—Battle continued on the 27th—Death of General Moreau—Defeat and Retreat of the Allies, with great loss—Napoleon {viii}returns from the pursuit to Dresden, indisposed—Vandamme attacks the Allies at Culm—is driven back towards Peterswald—Conflict on the heights of Peterswald—Vandamme is Defeated and made prisoner—Effects of the victory of Culm, on the Allies—and on Napoleon,	268
Chap. LXIX.	Military Proceedings in the North of Germany—Luckau submits to the Crown-Prince of Sweden—Battles of Gross-Beeren and Katzbach—Operations of Ney upon Berlin—He is defeated at Dennewitz, on the 6th September—Difficult and embarrassing situation of Napoleon—He abandons all the right side of the Elbe to the Allies—Operations of the Allies in order to effect a junction—Counter-exertions of Napoleon—The French Generals averse to continuing the War in Germany—Dissensions betwixt them and the Emperor—Napoleon at length resolves to retreat upon Leipsic,	279
Chap. LXX.	Napoleon reaches Leipsic on 15th of October—Statement of the French and Allied Forces—Battle of Leipsic, commenced on 16th, and terminates with disadvantage to the French at nightfall—Napoleon despatches General Mehrfeldt (his prisoner) to the Emperor of Austria, with proposals for an armistice—No answer is returned—The Battle is renewed on the morning of the 18th, and lasts till night, when the French are compelled to retreat, after immense loss on both sides—They evacuate Leipsic on the 19th, the Allies in full pursuit—Blowing up of one of the bridges—Prince Poniatowski drowned in the Elster—25,000 French are made prisoners—The Allied Sovereigns meet in triumph, at noon, in the Great Square at Leipsic—King of Saxony sent under a Guard to Berlin—Reflections,	289
Chap. LXXI.	Retreat of the French from Germany—General Defection of Napoleon's Partisans—Battle of Hannau fought on 30th and 31st October—Napoleon arrives at Paris on 9th November—State in which he finds the public mind in the capital—Fate of the French Garrisons left in Germany—Arrival of the Allied Armies on the banks of the Rhine—General view of Napoleon's political relations—Italy—Spain—Restoration of Ferdinand—Liberation of the Pope, who returns to Rome—Emancipation of Holland,	303
Chap. LXXII.	Preparations of Napoleon against the Invasion of France—Terms of Peace offered by the Allies—Congress held at Manheim—Lord Castlereagh—Manifesto of the Allies—Buonaparte's Reply—State of Parties in France—The Population of France, in general, wearied of the War, and desirous of the Deposition of Buonaparte—His unsuccessful attempts to arouse the National Spirit—Council of State Extraordinary, held Nov. 11th, when new taxes are imposed, and a new Conscription of 300,000 men decreed—Gloom of the Council, and violence of Buonaparte—Report of the State of the Nation presented to Napoleon by the Legislative Body—The Legislative Body is prorogued—Unceasing activity of the Emperor—National Guard called out—Napoleon, presenting to them his Empress and Child, takes leave of the People—He leaves Paris for the Armies,	317
Chap. LXXIII.	Declaration of the Allies on entering France—Switzerland—Schwartzenberg {ix}crosses the Rhine—Apathy of the French—Junction of Blucher with the Grand Army—Crown-Prince of Sweden—Inferiority of Napoleon's numerical Force—Battles of Brienne—and La Rothière—Difficulties of Buonaparte, during which he meditates to resign the Crown—He makes a successful Attack on the Silesian Army at Champ-Aubert—Blucher is compelled to retreat—The Grand Army carries Nogent and Montereau—Buonaparte's violence to his Generals—The Austrians resolve on a general Retreat, as far as Nancy and Langres—Prince Wenceslaus sent to Buonaparte's headquarters—The French enter Troyes—Execution of Goualt, a Royalist—A Decree of Death against all wearing the Bourbon emblems, and all Emigrants who should join the Allies,	333
Chap. LXXIV.	Retrospect of Events on the Frontiers—Defection of Murat—Its consequences—Augereau abandons Franche Comté—Carnot intrusted with the command of Antwerp—Attack on Bergen-op-Zoom, by Sir Thomas Graham—The Allies take, and evacuate Soissons—Bulow and Winzegerode unite with Blucher—Wellington forces his way through the Pays des Gaves—Royalists in the West—Discontent of the old Republicans—Views of the different Members of the Alliance as to the Dynasties of Bourbon, and Napoleon—Proceedings of the Dukes of Berri and Angoulême, and Monsieur—Battle of Orthez—Bourdeaux surrendered to Marshal Beresford—Negotiations of Chatillon—Treaty of Chaumont—Napoleon's contre-projet—Congress at Chatillon broken up,	353
APPENDIX
No. I.	Reflections on the Conduct of Napoleon towards the Prince-Royal of Sweden,	373
No. II.	Extract from Manuscript Observations on Napoleon's Russian Campaign, by an English Officer of Rank,	378



HISTORY OF THE EXPEDITION TO RUSSIA
UNDERTAKEN BY THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON, IN 1812
By General, Count Philip De Segur
IN TWO VOLUMES
Volume One
Volume Two
WITH A MAP AND SEVEN ENGRAVINGS.


TABLE OF CONTENTS.
VOLUME FIRST
BOOK I.
Chap.

—Political relations of France and Russia since 1807
—Prussia.—Frederick William
—Turkey.—Sultans Selim—Mustapha—Mahmoud
—Sweden.—Bernadotte
BOOK II.
Chap.

—Feelings of Napoleon's grandees at the approaching contest—their objections, with Napoleon's replies—real motives which urged him to the struggle
—Arguments against the war by the Dukes of Frioul and Vicenza and the Count de Segur.—Napoleon's replies
—His manner of gaining proselytes to his opinions—his avowals to his own family—his discussions with Cardinal Fesch—his declaration to Prince Kourakin
—Circumstances inclining him to delay the contest—his proposals to England and to Russia—Russian ultimatum
—Preparations for commencement—Talleyrand—opinions of the military—of Napoleon's ministers and generals—fresh obstacles to his departure
BOOK III.
Chap.

—Napoleon's departure from Paris—dispositions of the east of France—of the Germans—assemblage of sovereigns at Dresden
—Arrival in Poland—complaints by the inhabitants of the disorders of his troops—his ineffectual attempts to check them—meeting with Davoust—quarrel between that officer and Berthier—unfavourable impression of Napoleon against the former—arrival at Königsberg
—March from the Vistula to the Niemen—Napoleon's manners with the soldiers—positions of the different corps—dispositions of the army
BOOK IV.
Chap.

—Addresses of Napoleon and Alexander to their respective armies—Position of the Russian forces—Napoleon's plans in consequence—Sketch of the operations of his left and right wings during the campaign
—Passage of the Niemen—Dreadful storm and its fatal effects—Melancholy catastrophe—Napoleon's arrival at Wilna—Political arrangements
—Feelings of the Lithuanians—Napoleon's answer to the address of the Polish confederation—Coolness of the Lithuanians, and discussion of its causes
—Distress of the army and its excesses—Manner in which Napoleon was affected by them
—Arrival of Balachoff from Alexander—Quarrel between Napoleon and Caulaincourt—Progress of the invading army to the 10th of July
—Operations of the King of Westphalia's and of Davoust's divisions—Perilous situation and narrow escape of Bagration
—Napoleon's departure from Wilna—Retreat of the Russian army from Drissa to Witepsk—Arrival of the different French corps at Beszenkowiczi—Different partial actions near Witepsk
—General engagement before Witepsk—French attack ordered to cease in expectation of a decisive battle on the following day—Retreat of the Russians—Napoleon's disappointment—Position of his different corps
BOOK V.
Chap.

—Napoleon's first plans for halting at Witepsk—afterwards abandoned, and his determination to proceed to Smolensk
—Discussions with the officers of his household—their reasons for dissuading him from advancing further, and his replies—Feelings of the army in general
—Operations of Oudinot's corps against that of Wittgenstein—partial successes on both sides—Napoleon determines to change his line of operation
BOOK VI.
Chap.

—Manner in which this manœuvre was effected—The army crosses the Boristhenes—Character of the Jewish and native population
—Surprise of Newerowskoi's corps beyond Krasnoë—Bold retreat of that officer
.—Movements of the main Russian army—Plans of Barclay—his dissension with Bagration—hastens to the relief of Smolensk—about to be surprised by Napoleon—Unsuccessful attack of the French on Smolensk
—Retreat of the Russian army, and fresh disappointment of Napoleon—Ineffectual attempts of Murat to dissuade his farther advance—Capture of Smolensk
—Napoleon's reflections on the conduct of the Russians—Intelligence of Regnier's victory over Tormasof—Opinions of the Emperor's principal officers as to the impolicy of proceeding farther
—State of the allied army—its immense losses from various causes, independent of the enemy—Napoleon's professed intention to stop, but real determination to proceed
—Final evacuation of Smolensk by the Russians after setting it on fire—their army overtaken by Murat and Ney—Death of General Gudin—Battle of Valoutina—Narrow escape of the Russians in consequence of Junot's irresolution
—Results of the battle—Recompenses and rewards conferred by Napoleon—Enthusiasm of the army—Melancholy state of the wounded—Animosity of the Russian population
—Napoleon's plans of moving the Russian peasantry to insurrection—Conduct of their nobles to ward off the danger—Napoleon's hesitation as to the plan he should pursue
—Saint Cyr's victory over Wittgenstein on the 18th of August—Dissension between Murat and Davoust—Discord in the Russian camp in consequence of Barclay's continued retreat—Napoleon's advance to Dorogobouje
BOOK VII.
Chap.

—Manner in which the allied army was supplied on its march—Details of the organization of Davoust's corps
—Napoleon's bulletin and decrees at Slawkowo—Fresh quarrels between Murat and Davoust—Description of the Russian mode of retreat and of Murat's method of pursuit
—Advance to Wiazma and to Gjatz—Refusal of Davoust to obey Murat—Full development of the Russian plan of destroying their cities and towns
—Clamours of the Russians against Barclay—Kutusof sent to supersede him—Great merit of Barclay's plan of retreat
—Near prospect of a battle—Character of Kutusof—Sanguinary and partial action on the 4th of September—Anecdote of Murat—Napoleon's survey of the ground
—Disposition of the Russian army on the field of Borodino—Napoleon's plan of battle
—Plan proposed by Davoust rejected by Napoleon—Feelings of the French army—Proclamation of Napoleon
—Preparations of the Russians—Feelings of their soldiery—Napoleon's anxiety—his indisposition on the night before the battle
—Battle of Borodino on the 7th of September
—Battle of Borodino on the 7th of September (Cont.)
—Battle of Borodino on the 7th of September (Cont.)
—Results of the battle—immense loss on both sides—faults committed by Napoleon—how accounted for—incompleteness of his victory
—Advance to, and skirmish before Mojaisk—Gallantry of fifty voltigeurs of the 33d—Surprising order in the Russian retreat—Napoleon's distress
VOLUME SECOND
BOOK VIII.
Chap.

—The Emperor Alexander's arrival at Moscow after his retreat from Drissa—Description of that city—Sacrifices voted by the nobility and the merchants to meet the threatened danger
—Alarm in consequence of the advance of the French army—Determination of the Governor, Count Rostopchin, and his preparations for destroying the capital—Evacuation of Moscow by the principal part of the inhabitants on the 3d of September
—State of that city just before and after the battle of Borodino—The Governor's departure
IV.—Napoleon advances to Moscow on the 14th of September—Feelings of the army on approaching it—Disappointment at finding it deserted
—Murat's entrance into the city
—Napoleon's entrance into the Kremlin—Discovery of the conflagration of the city
—Danger which he ran in escaping through the flames to Petrowsky—Hesitation as to his future plans
.—His return to the Kremlin—Description of the camps outside the city—System of general plunder—Reproaches made to the army, and vindication of it
—Conduct of Kutusof after abandoning Moscow—Rostopchin sets fire to his seat at Woronowo—Partial actions at Czerikowo and Vinkowo—Anxiety and uneasiness of Napoleon—consultation with his chief officers—Sends Lauriston to the Emperor
—Conference of Lauriston with Kutusof—Artful conduct of the latter—Armistice—Infatuation of Murat—Distress of the French army—Warnings of the impending danger—Napoleon's obstinacy in remaining
—Illusions by which he kept up his own and his army's hopes—Count Daru's advice—Rupture of the armistice—Incapacity of Berthier—Disastrous engagement at Vinkowo—Napoleon determines to leave Moscow
BOOK IX.
Chap.

—Departure from Moscow—Composition of the army
—Battle of Malo-Yaroslawetz
—Distress of the Emperor—Danger which he ran from a sudden attack of the Cossacks
—Field of Malo-Yaroslawetz—Council held by the Emperor—Opinions of Murat, Bessières, and Davoust—Napoleon determines to retreat
—Kutusof's similar determination to retreat from Malo-Yaroslawetz, ineffectually opposed by Sir Robert Wilson—Napoleon's projected plan of retreat
—Mortier's proceedings at Moscow after the departure of the main army—Blowing up of the Kremlin—Devastations committed by both armies—Capture of General Winzingerode—Napoleon's behaviour to him
—Arrival at Mojaisk—Alarming news of the Russian army—View of the field of Borodino
—Abandonment of the wounded in the Abbey of Kolotskoi—Horrible conduct of the suttlers—Massacre of 2000 Russian prisoners—Arrival at Gjatz
—Napoleon's arrival at Wiazma—Reproaches to Davoust for his tardy mode of retreat, and that officer's vindication—Danger of the latter and Eugene—Arrival of Miloradowitch
—Battle between Eugene and Davoust and Miloradowitch, near Wiazma, on the 3d November—heavy loss of the French
—Dreadful snow-storm on the 6th of November—its effects upon the troops
—Arrival of the intelligence of Mallet's conspiracy—impression produced by it upon Napoleon and his officers—Message from Ney—Perilous situation of that marshal
—Defeat and entire dissolution of the Viceroy's corps at the passage of the Wop
—Arrival at Smolensk—Dreadful sufferings of the troops—Bad arrangements of the administrators—Reasons assigned by the latter in their vindication
BOOK X.
Chap.

—Wittgenstein's attack upon Saint Cyr at Polotsk—Retreat of the latter—Want of concert in the movements of the Russian generals
—Junction of the corps of Saint Cyr and Victor at Smoliantzy on the 31st October—Opportunity lost by the latter of defeating the enemy—General view of the state of the army—Errors committed by Napoleon and his commanders
—Napoleon's departure from Smolensk—Dispositions of the Russian army to interrupt his farther retreat—Bravery of Excelmans—Arrival at Krasnoë
—March of Eugene from Smolensk to Krasnoë with the remains of his corps—his narrow escape
—Successful nocturnal attack by Roguet on the Russian camp at Chickowa—Desperate situation of Napoleon—Wilson's fruitless efforts to induce Kutusof to surround and destroy him—Battle of Krasnoë—Bravery of the guard under Mortier
—Napoleon's arrival at Dombrowna—Nocturnal false alarm—General disorganization of the army—Davoust's ineffectual efforts to check it
—Council held at Orcha to determine the farther course of retreat—Opinion of Jomini—Napoleon decides on Borizof—Quits Orcha on the 20th of November without hearing any thing of Ney—Re-appearance of that Marshal after his departure
—Details of Ney's retreat from Smolensk until his arrival at Orcha
—Details of Ney's retreat from Smolensk until his arrival at Orcha (cont.)
BOOK XI.
Chap.

—Capture of Minsk by the Russians—Different opinions in the army as to the causes of their disasters—Rumoured treachery of Schwartzenberg—Napoleon's reproaches to him and Schwartzenberg's reply
—Details of the loss of Minsk—Movements of Dombrowski, Oudinot, and Victor—Distress and malady of Napoleon—Remarkable conversation with Count Daru
—Passage through the Forest of Minsk—Junction of the remains of the grand army with Victor and Oudinot's corps—State of the former
—Preparations for crossing the Berezina
—Preparations for crossing the Berezina (Cont.)
—Circumstances which led the Russian general, Tchaplitz, into error as to the point where Napoleon was to cross the Berezina, and consequences of that error—Napoleon crosses that river at Studzianka on the 27th November
—Capture and destruction of Partouneaux's division
—Attack made by the Russians under Wittgenstein and Platof on the left side, and by Tchitchakof on the right side of the Berezina, and repelled by the French
—The burning of the bridge over the Berezina
—Napoleon's situation during the preceding actions—Passage over the morasses—His manners to his officers
—Napoleon's arrival at Malodeczno—Announcement on the 3d of December of his intention to set out for France
—Increased severity of the winter—Partial actions of Ney and Maison with the Russians between Pleszezenitzy and Malodeczno—Quarrel between Ney and Victor
—Napoleon's arrival at Smorgony—his parting interview with his marshals
BOOK XII.
Chap.

—Napoleon's journey from Smorgony to Paris—Impression produced in the army by his departure—Dreadful effects of the increased cold
—Picture of the sufferings of the army from the cold and the climate
—Arrival at Wilna—Consternation of the inhabitants—Fatal effects of not distributing the provisions collected among the troops—State of the wounded in the hospitals—Arrival of the Russians—Flight of Murat—Evacuation of Wilna—Immense losses which that occasioned—Disaster at Ponari
—Details of Ney's mode of retreat—Losses occasioned to the Russians by the severity of the winter—Arrival at Kowno—Ney's defence and evacuation of that place
—First symptoms of Murat's defection—Arrival at Königsberg
—Marshal Macdonald's retreat from Riga—Details of the defection of the Prussian Army under Yorck
—Marshal Macdonald's retreat from Riga—Details of the defection of the Prussian Army under Yorck (Cont.)
—Marshal Macdonald's retreat from Riga—Details of the defection of the Prussian Army under Yorck (Cont.)
—Marshal Macdonald's retreat from Riga—Details of the defection of the Prussian Army under Yorck (Cont.)
—Conduct of Schwartzenberg and defection of the Austrians—Atrocities committed on the French prisoners at Wilna and Königsberg
—Defection of Murat
—Conclusion
PLATES
Portrait of Napoleon Map of the countries between Paris and Moscow Passage of the Niemen Portrait of Murat, King of Naples Portrait of the Emperor Alexander Conflagration of Moscow Portrait of Marshal Ney Passage of the Berezina



AT ABOUKIR AND ACRE
A Story of Napoleon's Invasion
of Egypt
By G. A. Henty


CONTENTS
Chap.		Page
I.	Making a Friend	11
II.	A Bedouin Tribe	31
III.	Left Behind	49
IV.	The Battle of the Pyramids	66
V.	A Street Attack	86
VI.	The Rising in Cairo	105
VII.	Saved	122
VIII.	An Egyptian Tomb	142
IX.	Sir Sidney Smith	162
X.	A Sea-fight	182
XI.	Acre	199
XII.	A Desperate Siege	217
XIII.	An Independent Command	234
XIV.	A Pirate Hold	251
XV.	Cruising	270
XVI.	A Visit Home	287
XVII.	Abercrombie's Expedition	304
XVIII.	The Battle of Alexandria	322
XIX.	Quiet and Rest	340
ILLUSTRATIONS
"Well, my lad, who are you?"	Frontispiece
Ali and Ayala appeared	144
Edgar hits out	184
With a tremendous Cheer, flung themselves upon the Pirates	256
Giving a Yell of Derision and Defiance	328
Plan of the Battle of the Nile	84
Plan of the Siege of St. Jean D'Acre	209
Plan of the Battle of Alexandria	329



THROUGH RUSSIAN SNOWS
A STORY OF NAPOLEON'S RETREAT FROM MOSCOW
By G.A. Henty


CONTENTS
Two Brothers,
Before the Justices,
In a Fresh Scrape,
The Smuggler's Cave,
Following a Trail,
A Commission,
A French Prison,
Pistol Practice,
A Duel,
Smolensk,
With the Russian Army,
Borodino,
With the Rear-guard,
Ney's Retreat,
In Comfortable Quarters,
An Unexpected Meeting,
ILLUSTRATIONS
Sergeant Julian Wyatt receives the Cross of the Legion of Honour,
"Mark my words, you young scoundrel, I will be even with you yet,"
Julian finds himself a Prisoner among the Smugglers,
"Captain Marshall's pistol fell to the ground, and he staggered back a pace,"
"On the march little Stephanie often chose to be carried on Julian's shoulder,"
"I am the Countess Stephanie Woronski. I am glad to see you,"
The Last of a Veteran of Napoleon's Grande Armée,
Julian introduces Stephanie to his Brother Frank,
Map showing the Route of Napoleon's March to Moscow,
Plan of the Battle of Smolensk,
Plan of the Battle of Borodino,



THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
By William Milligan Sloane
VOLUME I


CONTENTS
Introduction.	1
The Bonapartes in Corsica.	20
Napoleon's Birth and Childhood.	35
Napoleon's School-days.	48
In Paris and Valence.	60
Private Study and Garrison Life.	73
Further Attempts at Authorship.	83
The Revolution in France.	100
Buonaparte and Revolution in Corsica. 	111
First Lessons in Revolution.	123
Traits of Character.	135
The Revolution in the Rhone Valley.	148
Buonaparte the Corsican Jacobin.	160
Buonaparte the French Jacobin.	180
A Jacobin Hegira.	199
"The Supper of Beaucaire"	212
Toulon.	222
A Jacobin General.	236
Vicissitudes in War and Diplomacy.	247
The End of Apprenticeship.	260
The Antechamber To Success.	272
Bonaparte the General of the Convention. 	287
The Day of the Paris Sections.	302
A Marriage of Inclination and Interest. 	313
Europe and the Directory.	324
Bonaparte on a Great Stage.	339
The Conquest of Piedmont and the Milanese. 	352
An Insubordinate Conqueror and Diplomatist.	363
Bassano and Arcola.	378
Bonaparte's Imperious Spirit.	393
Rivoli and the Capitulation of Mantua. 	406
Humiliation of the Papacy and of Venice. 	419
The Preliminaries of Peace—Leoben. 	430
The Fall of Venice.	444
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Napoleon Bonaparte in 1785, aged sixteen.	Frontispiece
 Facing Page
Marie-Lætitia Ramolino Bonaparte "Madame Mère"—Mother of Napoleon	50
Charles Bonaparte, Father of the Emperor Napoleon, 1785.	96
Bonaparte, General in Chief of the Army of Italy.	176
Josephine.	226
Marie-Josephine-Rose Tascher de la Pagerie, called Josephine, Empress of the French.	276
Bonaparte.	326
Map of Northern Italy, illustrating the Campaigns of 1796 and 1797. 	354
Josephine, Empress of the French.	374
Map illustrating the Campaign preceding the Treaty of Campo-Formio, 1797.	414



THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
By William Milligan Sloane
VOLUME II


CONTENTS
Rescue of the Directory	1
The Treaty of Campo Formio	15
Bonaparte and Talleyrand	26
Commotions in European Politics	36
The Expedition To Egypt	46
The Landing in Egypt	55
The Disaster at Acre	65
Aboukir and the Great Desertion	77
"The Return of the Hero"	86
Bonaparte Seizes His Opportunity	100
The Overthrow of the Directory	111
Bonaparte the First Consul	121
Bonaparte Embodies the Revolution	136
A Constitutional Despotism	149
Statesmanship and Strategy	162
Marengo	174
The Peace of Lunéville	190
The Pacification of Europe	203
The Reorganization of France	213
The Code and the University	221
Steps Toward Monarchy	229
The Life Consulate	239
The Threshold of Monarchy	250
Expansion of the Revolutionary System	261
Tension Between England and France	275
France and England in Arms	286
Warnings To Royalists and Republicans	295
Declaration of the Empire	314
The Descent Into England	325
The Coronation of Napoleon I	339
The Third Coalition	354
Trafalgar and Austerlitz	370
Napoleon, War Lord and Emperor	393
The War With Russia	413
The Devastation of Prussia	435
The Continental System	446
ILLUSTRATIONS
General Bonaparte	Frontispiece
Map of Egypt	58
Napoleon—by Ingres	78
Napoleon working by the glimmer of the lamp	128
Map of the Marengo Campaigns	176
Two Maps of Marengo, 14th July, 1800	183-184
Napoleon as First Consul	226
Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul	276
Napoleon as First Consul	326
Napoleon, First Consul—by Ingres	376
Napoleon Bonaparte as First Consul	426



THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
William Milligan Sloane
VOLUME III
CONTENTS
War with Russia: Pultusk	1
Check to the Grand Army: Eylau	12
An Indecisive Victory: Friedland	24
Napoleon and Alexander at Tilsit	39
The Treaty of Tilsit	54
The Path of Napoleonic Empire	66
The New Feudalism	80
The Empires of Land and Ocean	97
French Empire and European Nationality	115
The Awakening of Spain	137
The First Revolt of Nations	153
Napoleon and Alexander at Erfurt	171
The Failure of the Spanish Campaign	182
The Transformation of Austria	192
The Fifth War with Austria—Eckmühl	202
Aspern, Essling, and Wagram	218
The Peace of Schönbrunn	233
Napoleon's Fatal Decision	244
The Austrian Marriage	251
Rigors of the Continental System	262
The Continental System Completed	274
The Course of the Peninsular War	282
Birth of the King of Rome	293
Tension Between Emperor and Czar	303
The Array of Nations	313
The Congress of Kings	325
The Invasion of Russia—Borodino	335
The Evacuation of Moscow	346
The Retreat from Russia	357
The Horrors of the Beresina	368
The Prodigal's Return	378
The Revolt of the Nations	388
The First Campaign in Saxony	401
The Nations in Grand Array	413
ILLUSTRATIONS
The Emperor Napoleon	Frontispiece
Map of the Battle of Eylau	14
Map of the Battle of Heilsberg	28
Map of the Battle of Friedland	36
Napoleon—by Ingres	50
Queen Hortense	98
Napoleon in his Study	146
Map of the Spanish Campaign	184
Joseph Bonaparte	196
Map of the Battle of Eckmühl	212
Two Maps of the Battles of Aspern and Essling	221
Map of the Battle of Wagram	228
Eugène Beauharnais	246
Napoleon Bonaparte in 1809	296
Map of the Russian Campaign, 1812	340



THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
By William Milligan Sloane


CONTENTS
The Last Imperial Victory	1
Politics and Strategy	11
The End of the Grand Army	23
The Frankfort Proposals	37
The Invasion of France	47
Napoleon's Supreme Effort	59
The Great Captain at Bay	71
The Struggles of Exhaustion	84
The Beginning of the End	101
The Fall of Paris	111
Napoleon's First Abdication	123
The Emperor of Elba	137
Napoleon the Liberator	151
The Dynasties Implacable	164
Ligny and Quatre Bras	175
The Eve of Waterloo	189
Waterloo	199
The Surrender	212
St. Helena	224
Soldier, Statesman, Despot	247
Napoleon and the United States	268
Napoleon's Place in History	285
Historical Sources	303
General Bibliography	307
Index	355
ILLUSTRATIONS
Empress Marie Louise	Frontispiece
Napoleon in 1813	50
Napoleon, François Charles Joseph, Prince Imperial; King of Rome; Duke of Reichstadt	98
Map of the Field of Operations in 1814	104
The King of Rome	148
Map of the Campaign of 1815	194
Napoleon, François Charles Joseph, Duke of Reichstadt, etc., etc., son of Napoleon Bonaparte	200
Napoleon sleeping by Las Cases on board the Bellerophon	224
Napoleon at St. Helena	230
Napoleon I	274



THE SURRENDER OF NAPOLEON
Rear-Admiral Sir Frederick Lewis Maitland, K.C.B.
CONTENTS
 Page MEMOIR OF SIR FREDERICK MAITLAND xxv
NARRATIVE.
[The summary of the contents of the Narrative given here is that prefixed to the original edition. Sir Walter Scott's notes are printed at pp. 70, 84, 155, 165, 208, 223, 225, and 229.]

Captain Maitland sets sail in the Bellerophon, with sealed instructions 1
He arrives off l'Isle Dieu. Proceeds off Rochefort 2
Reconnoitres the French ships of war under l'Isle d'Aix 3
Is joined by the Cephalus 4
Captain Maitland hears of the victory of Waterloo. On June 30 receives a communication, sent from Bourdeaux within a quill, respecting the probable flight of Buonaparte by sea 4, 5
Blockades Rochefort, Bourdeaux, and la Teste d'Arcasson 8
Destroys his prizes 9
A man and boy in a flat punt saved 10
(p. xvi)Captain Maitland watches the frigates at l'Isle d'Aix closely 11
Receives Sir Henry Hotham's instructions 12, 13, 14, 16
The Mouche schooner, with Savary and Las Cases with a flag of truce, approaches the Bellerophon 21
Secret orders from Sir Henry Hotham 21, 22, 24
Letter of Count Bertrand, announcing Napoleon's intention of sailing to North America 26
The captain's answer to Bertrand 29
Conversation with Savary and Las Cases 31
Receives private information by a row-boat 35
Captain Maitland guards the Mamusson passage 36
The white flag is hoisted at Rochelle 37, 38
The Bellerophon fires a royal salute 37
The French frigates appear ready to put to sea 38
English guard-boats continue to row near the frigates 38
British flag of truce, its colour 39
The Mouche schooner, with Las Cases and General Lallemand, returns to the Bellerophon 39, 40
Communication delivered from Napoleon 42
Captain Maitland's reply 42
Buonaparte stated to be at Rochefort, but is at l'Isle d'Aix 44
Design for effecting the escape of Buonaparte in a cask on board of a Danish vessel 45
Las Cases, with General Gourgaud, returns to the Bellerophon 46
They bring an important letter from Bertrand 47
List of Napoleon's suite 51
The Emperor's letter to H.R.H. the Prince Regent 54
Captain Maitland promises to receive Buonaparte 56
Captain Sartorius is despatched to England, with a letter from Captain Maitland, and with General Gourgaud 58
Advice of Buonaparte's wish to escape repeatedly given 62
(p. xvii)July 15, Napoleon reaches the Bellerophon, in the barge of that ship. He comes on board. His uniform described 67, 68
Napoleon cheered by the crew of l'Épervier 69
His address to Captain Maitland 69
The ship's officers are introduced to him 71
His small knowledge of English 72
He examines the Bellerophon 72
Conversations between Napoleon and Captain Maitland 73, 74, 75, 76, 90, 95, 106
Buonaparte's naval opinions 73, 74, 77
Breakfast on board the Bellerophon 78
Rear-Admiral Sir Henry Hotham arrives off Rochefort. His conference with Captain Maitland 79, 80
The Admiral comes on board the Bellerophon 81
Conversation at dinner 83
Buonaparte's portable library and camp bed 82, 84
He breakfasts on board the Admiral's ship 85, 91
Attachment for him evinced by the officers of his suite 92, 228
The Bellerophon sets sail for Torbay 93, 96
Buonaparte speaks of Sir Sydney Smith 96
The passage to England described 98, 105, 107
Card-parties 99
The captain's despatch to Lord Keith 100
His conversation with Countess Bertrand relative to a portrait of Napoleon 103
Speaks with the Swiftsure, Captain Webley 104
Count Las Cases 107
English coast in sight 107
The Bellerophon anchors in Torbay 108
Buonaparte's exclamation on viewing the shore 108
Admiral Lord Keith's orders 109
English newspapers read by Napoleon 112
Observations of Madame Bertrand 114, 120
Persons refused admission on board the Bellerophon 115
(p. xviii)Lord Keith's approval of Captain Maitland's line of conduct 116, 117
Concourse of spectators in boats 115, 118
Remarks of Buonaparte respecting the fishermen 119
The ships sail for Plymouth 119
Observations on the breakwater 121
Communications of civility interchanged between Buonaparte and Lord Keith 117, 122
Lord Keith's precautions 123, 125
Buonaparte complains of the guard-ships 127
The Lords of the Admiralty approve of Captain Maitland's proceedings 128
Napoleon's letter to the Regent is forwarded 129
He is considered as a general officer 130
Orders received from the Admiralty 130
Sir Richard and Lady Strachan come alongside the ship 131
Napoleon's compliment on seeing Mrs Maitland 132
Admiral Lord Keith is introduced to Napoleon 134
Repugnance of the prisoners to their banishment to St Helena 129, 134
Crowd of boats round the ship 135
Buonaparte's habits on board ship 136
Bertrand, Savary, and Lallemand fear proscription 137, 140, 142
Buonaparte informed that he was to be sent to St Helena 139
Sir Henry Bunbury visits him 140
He complains bitterly 141
He writes again to the Regent 142
Captain Maitland's letter favourable to Savary and Lallemand 145, 152
Buonaparte shows himself on deck 147
Countess Bertrand much agitated at the thoughts of her husband going to St Helena 149
Lallemand is reproved by Captain Maitland 150
(p. xix)Buonaparte's assertion that "he would not go to St Helena" 148, 151, 164
Extravagant conversation of the attendant generals 151
Mr O'Meara 153
Countess Bertrand attempts to cast herself into the sea 153
Her retrospect of Buonaparte's conduct 154, 156
Her impatience. She writes to Lord Keith 155
She is overheard by the generals 157
Buonaparte's inquiries as to St Helena 158
Report of an attempt to escape 159
Rumour of an intention of serving a Habeas Corpus to bring Buonaparte ashore 162
Ship prepared for sea 162
The Northumberland ordered to convey Buonaparte 162
The Bellerophon weighs anchor 164
Service of a subpœna on Buonaparte frustrated by keeping the lawyer at bay 165
Note respecting writs of Habeas Corpus and subpœnas 165
Buonaparte again writes to the Regent 168
He keeps entirely to the cabin; prepares a protest 169
Buonaparte's protest 170
He declares himself to be the guest of England, and no prisoner 171
Captain Maitland's observations thereon 174
Conversation on this subject with Count Las Cases 176
Buonaparte speaks of the Army of the Loire, and of his party 178
Mr O'Meara requested by Buonaparte to become his surgeon 179
The Northumberland in sight 180
Arms required to be delivered up 181
Lists of articles essential for the Trench officers and ladies forwarded to Plymouth 182
Sir George Cockburn is introduced to Buonaparte 182
Buonaparte permitted to wear his sword 183
(p. xx)He requests an interview with Captain Maitland 183
He expresses his wish of living on a small estate in England 185
He speaks in favour of Savary and Lallemand 185
Captain Maitland's letter to Count Bertrand 186
Lord Keith's order to the captain to deliver up General Buonaparte and others 187
General Gourgaud 190
Countess Bertrand's remonstrances 192
A misunderstanding and reconciliation 193
Napoleon returns thanks to Captain Maitland 194
He speaks with regard of Count Bertrand 195
Search of the baggage 196
The box of money temporarily taken charge of 197
Parting of Buonaparte with the captain 200
Buonaparte, accompanying Admiral Lord Keith, quits the Bellerophon 200
Count Montholon's polite intimation to Captain Maitland 201
The captain declines the present of a portrait 202
Savary and Lallemand; their affecting parting with Napoleon in the presence of Captain Maitland 203
The Northumberland sails for St Helena 204
Description of Napoleon Buonaparte 205
His manners and conversation 206
Anecdotes 207, 210, 215, 216
He speaks of his wife and his son 211
Their pictures 211, 212
Conversation respecting Kleber and Dessaix 213
Napoleon's resources in money 214
The midshipmen act plays 217
Buonaparte's observations on the British cavalry, and relative to the Duke of Wellington 218, 219
Character of Count Bertrand 222
Countess Bertrand, a daughter of General Dillon 222
Savary, Duke of Rovigo, described 224
(p. xxi)Savary, Lallemand, and Planat are sent to Malta, and allowed to go to Smyrna 225
Character of Lallemand 225
Count and Countess Montholon 226
Count Las Cases and his son 227
APPENDIX.
On what terms Captain Maitland received Buonaparte on board his ship; and documents relating thereto 231
ADDITIONAL APPENDIX.
1. List of officers borne on the books of H.M.S. Bellerophon in July 1815 241
2. Letter from Ephraim Graebke, assistant-surgeon on board the Bellerophon, to his mother, giving an account of Napoleon's surrender, dated July 30, 1815 242
3. Extracts from Memoirs of an Aristocrat, by a Midshipman of the Bellerophon [George Home] 246
(p. xxiii) ILLUSTRATIONS.
Portrait of Sir Frederick Maitland
Frontispiece From an engraving by Henry Meyer, after Samuel Woodford, R.A.
Portrait of Lady Maitland
lxviii From a miniature at Lindores.
Chart of the Basque Roads 1
Portrait of Napoleon
68 From a sketch taken on board the Bellerophon by Colonel Planat.
Napoleon on board the Bellerophon
108 From the picture by W. Q. Orchardson, R.A., in the Tate Gallery.
H.M.S. Bellerophon at Plymouth
132 From the picture by J. J. Chalon, R.A., in the Painted Hall at Greenwich.
Tumbler given to Captain Maitland by Napoleon
202 Photograph from the original at Lindores.
Facsimile of part of Sir Walter Scott's Notes on the "Narrative"
230 Photograph from the original at Lindores.



MILITARY CAREER OF NAPOLEON THE GREAT
By Montgomery B. Gibbs


CONTENTS
Chapter I.
Page
Boyhood Days and Early Career	9
Chapter II.
Bonaparte's Campaign in Italy, 1796-7	45
Chapter III.
Expedition to Egypt	107
Chapter IV.
Passage of the Alps and Battle of Marengo	141
Chapter V.
Ulm and Austerlitz	175
Chapter VI.
The Battle of Jena	211
Chapter VII.
The Battle of Eylau	230
Chapter VIII.
Friedland and Peace of Tilsit	241
Chapter IX.
War with Spain	253
[6]
Chapter X.
War with Austria. 1809	274
Chapter XI.
The Battle of Wagram	288
Chapter XII.
Campaign of Russia	305
Chapter XIII.
The Campaign of 1813	347
Chapter XIV.
The Invasion of France	373
Chapter XV.
Exile to Elba	409
Chapter XVI.
The Hundred Days. Waterloo	435
Chapter XVII.
Conclusion	489

Index	507
ILLUSTRATIONS
Page
Napoleon Bonaparte "Snuff-Box" Portrait	Frontispiece
Bonaparte at the Siege of Toulon	11
Bonaparte Escapes Capture at Lonato	27
Bonaparte at the Bridge of Arcola	43
Bonaparte at the Battle of Rivoli	59
Bonaparte and the Sleeping Sentinel	75
Bonaparte at the Battle of St. George	91
Siege of Mantua	107
Bonaparte as General-in-Chief of the Army of Italy	123
Battle of the Pyramids	139
Bonaparte at the Siege of Acre	155
Return of the French Army from Syria	171
Napoleon Crossing the Alps	187
French Troops Crossing the Great St. Bernard	203
Capitulation of General Mack at Ulm	219
Battle of Austerlitz	235
Meeting Between Napoleon and Francis II. of Austria	251
Napoleon at the Battle of Jena	267
Entry of Napoleon Into Berlin	283
Napoleon at the Battle of Eylau	299[8]
The 14th line at Eylau	315
Napoleon at the Battle of Friedland	331
Review of Troops in the Place du Carrousel, Paris	347
Insurrection in Madrid	363
Napoleon at the Battle of Wagram	379
Arrival of the Grand Army At Moscow	395
Retreat From Moscow, "1812"	411
Departure of Napoleon for Paris	427
Return of Napoleon from Elba	443
Napoleon on the Heights at Ligny	459
Preparations for the Advance of the Old Guard at Waterloo	475
Napoleon at Waterloo	491



THE OFFICER'S MANUAL
NAPOLEON'S MAXIMS OF WAR
CONTENTS
RECOMMENDATION.
PREFACE.
NAPOLEON'S
MAXIM  I.
MAXIM  II.
MAXIM  III.
MAXIM  IV.
MAXIM  V.
MAXIM  VI.
MAXIM  VII.
MAXIM  VIII.
MAXIM  IX.
MAXIM  X.
MAXIM  XI.
MAXIM  XII.
MAXIM  XIII.
MAXIM  XIV.
MAXIM  XV.
MAXIM  XVI.
MAXIM  XVII.
MAXIM  XVIII.
MAXIM  XIX.
MAXIM  XX.
MAXIM  XXI.
MAXIM  XXII.
MAXIM  XXIII.
MAXIM  XXIV.
MAXIM  XXV.
MAXIM  XXVI.
MAXIM  XXVII.
MAXIM  XXVIII.
MAXIM  XXIX.
MAXIM  XXX.
MAXIM  XXXI.
MAXIM  XXXII.
MAXIM  XXXIII.
MAXIM  XXXIV.
MAXIM  XXXV.
MAXIM  XXXVI.
MAXIM  XXXVII.
MAXIM  XXXVIII.
MAXIM  XXXIX.
MAXIM  XL.
MAXIM  XLI.
MAXIM  XLII.
MAXIM  XLIII.
MAXIM  XLIV.
MAXIM  XLV.
MAXIM  XLVI.
MAXIM  XLVII.
MAXIM  XLVIII.
MAXIM  XLIX.
MAXIM  L.
MAXIM  LI.
MAXIM  LII.
MAXIM  LIII.
MAXIM  LIV.
MAXIM  LV.
MAXIM  LVI.
MAXIM  LVII.
MAXIM  LVIII.
MAXIM  LIX.
MAXIM  LX.
MAXIM  LXI.
MAXIM  LXII.
MAXIM  LXIII.
MAXIM  LXIV.
MAXIM  LXV.
MAXIM  LXVI.
MAXIM  LXVII.
MAXIM  LXVIII.
MAXIM  LXIX.
MAXIM  LXX.
MAXIM  LXXI.
MAXIM  LXXII.
MAXIM  LXXIII.
MAXIM  LXXIV.
MAXIM  LXXV.
MAXIM  LXXVI.
MAXIM  LXXVII.
MAXIM  LXXVIII.
Transcriber's Notes



THE STORY OF NAPOLEON
By Harold F. B. Wheeler
CONTENTS
CHAP.	 	PAGE
I.	Napoleon the Boy	15
II.	The Schooldays of Napoleon	21
III.	Napoleon as Officer and Author	29
IV.	Napoleon and the Corsican Volunteers	41
V.	The Eve of the Reign of Terror	47
VI.	Napoleon's First Fight with the English	57
VII.	Napoleon the Soldier of Fortune	65
VIII.	"The Spark of Great Ambition"	74
IX.	The Italian Campaign	82
X.	The Expedition to Egypt	91
XI.	From Cairo to Fréjus	99
XII.	How Napoleon Seized the Reins of Government	106
XIII.	The Passage of the Alps	111
XIV.	Blessings of Peace	124
XV.	The Dawn of the Empire	131
XVI.	The Threatened Invasion of England and its Sequel	138
XVII.	The War of the Third Coalition	146
XVIII.	The Prussian Campaign	155
XIX.	The Polish Campaign	168
XX.	Friedland and Tilsit	174
12XXI.	Napoleon's Commercial War with Great Britain	181
XXII.	The Genesis of the Peninsular War	192
XXIII.	Glory at Erfurt and Humiliation in Spain	206
XXIV.	The Austrian Campaign	219
XXV.	The Austrian Campaign—Continued	233
XXVI.	The War in Poland and Tyrol	241
XXVII.	A Broken Friendship and What it Brought	253
XXVIII.	The Russian Campaign	265
XXIX.	The Triumphal Entry into Moscow—and after	276
XXX.	The March of Humiliation	284
XXXI.	The Beginning of the End—The Leipzig Campaign	291
XXXII.	The Conquest of the Conqueror	302
 	Index	315
ILLUSTRATIONS
Napoleon I., Emperor of the French	J. L. David	Frontispiece
 	 	PAGE
Napoleon at Brienne	Réalier Dumas	24
"It is the Emperor!"	H. de T. Glazebrook	86
Installation of Napoleon as First Consul	L. Couder	108
The Death of General Desaix	A. Le Dru	118
On the Sands at Boulogne	A. C. Gow, R.A.	132
Napoleon giving the Eagles to his Army	L. David	140
Napoleon Decorating his Soldiers at Boulogne	F. G. Roussel	146
The Night before Austerlitz	A. Dawant	152
The Battle of Friedland	Horace Vernet	176
The Retreat from Moscow	V. Werestchagin	266
After Moscow: "Advance or Retreat?"	V. Werestchagin	280
Marshal Ney defending the Rear-Guard	Adolphe Yvon	288
1814	J. L. E. Meissonier	302
The Flight from Waterloo	A. C. Gow, R.A.	308
Napoleon on Board the Bellerophon	Sir W. Q. Orchardson, R.A.	312



"1812" NAPOLEON I IN RUSSIA
By Vassili Verestchagin
Illustrated from Sketches and Paintings by the Author


CONTENTS
 	 	Page
 	Introduction	1
 	On Progress in Art	16
 	Realism	24
I	Napoleon	53
II	The Burning of Moscow	180
III	The Cossacks	220
IV	The Grande Armée	227
V	The Marshals	256
FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS
 	 	Page
Vassili Verestchagin	Frontispiece
A Dispatch	 	72
Russian Grenadiers	 	78
At Borodino	 	92
Looking towards Moscow	 	108
Disillusion	 	128
On the Way Home	 	145
Bivouac	 	155
Despair	 	162
At a Council of War	 	176
Armed Peasant	 	186
In a Russian Church	 	197
Ney and the Staff	 	252



ENGLAND AND NAPOLEON
(1801-1815)
Compiled By S. E. Winbolt
CONTENTS
DATE	TITLE	PAGE
Introduction	 	v
1801. Battle of the Baltic	Campbell	1
1801. State of Ireland	"Diary of Lord Colchester"	3
1801. Golf and Football	Strutt	8
1802. Party Speeches of Sheridan and Canning	Stanhope	9
1803-1815. Typical Vessels of the Royal Navy	Clowes	13
1803. Desire for Pitt's Return to Office	Stanhope	15
1803. Canning on Addington	Stanhope	17
1803. Notes by Pitt on the War, Germany, and Napoleon	Stanhope	18
1803. Gun-boats for Defence	"Diaries of George Rose"	20
1804. The Poor in Manufacturing Towns	"Gentleman's Magazine"	21
1804. Wheat, Flour, and Bread	"Gentleman's Magazine"	24
1805. England and the Mediterranean (I.)	Pitt	25
England and the Mediterranean (II.)	Nelson	26
1805. The Blow that Killed Pitt (I.)	Pitt	27
The Blow that Killed Pitt (II.)	Canning	28
1805. Routine on a British Man-of-War	Clowes	29
1805. Nelson's Plan for Trafalgar	Clowes	32
1805. Trafalgar	Southey{viii}	34
1806. The Younger Pitt	Scott	43
1806. Ministry of All the Talents	Earl of Malmesbury	44
1806. Military Plans	Lord Colchester	46
1807. Catholic Emancipation (I.)	Lord Colchester	47
Catholic Emancipation (II.)	Malmesbury	50
1807. Party Politics	Leigh Hunt	52
1807. Berlin Decrees	Colchester	53
1809. Corunna (I.)	Colchester	55
Corunna (II.)	Charles Wolfe	55
1809. Public Economy	"Diaries of George Rose"	57
1809. Resignation of Portland	Colchester	58
1809. Duel of Canning and Castlereagh	Colchester	59
1806-1809. Military Expenses	Colchester	60
1809. Talavera: Protest by Lords	Protests of the Lords	61
1810. Walcheren Expedition	Colchester	62
1810. Wellington's Difficulties in Spain	Wellington's Despatches	65
1811. The Regency	Colchester	71
1811. Fête at Carlton House	Colchester	73
1812. Weaving Machines	Byron's Letters	76
1812. Badajoz	Wellington's Despatches	79
1812. Murder of Perceval	Colchester	84
1812. Sheridan's Last Utterances in the House	Moore	85
1813. Sir Stapleton Cotton's Military Services	Colchester	86
1813. Vittoria	Wellington's Despatches	87
1814. Deposition of Napoleon	Byron's Letters	95
1814. Capture of Toulouse	Wellington's Despatches	96
1814. Duke of Wellington's Thanks	Colchester	102
1814. Negotiations with Buonaparte	Southey	105
1815. Interview with Napoleon in Elba	Vivian	109
1815. Waterloo	Wellington's Despatches	112



MEMOIRS OF THE LIFE, EXILE,
AND CONVERSATIONS, OF THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON
By The Count De Las Cases
ILLUSTRATIONS
VOLUME I.
 	PAGE.
Portrait of the Emperor Napoleon, to face the title.
Napoleon on board the Bellerophon	26
Portrait of Charles Bonaparte	66
Portrait of Letizia Bonaparte	69
Residence of the Emperor at Longwood	264

VOLUME II.

Portrait of the Empress Josephine, to face the title.
Portrait of Marshal Bertrand	33
Map of Saint Helena	39
Portrait of Prince Talleyrand	64
Eugene Beauharnois claiming his Father's Sword	186

VOLUME III.

Portrait of Sir Hudson Lowe, to face the title.
Ground Plan of Longwood	21
The House in which Napoleon was Born	113
The Burning of Moscow	164
Napoleon's Return from Elba	302

VOLUME IV.

Portrait of Count De Las Cases, to face the title.
Napoleon at Saint Helena	149
Death of Napoleon	386
Statue of Napoleon on the Place Vendome	388
Tomb of Napoleon	399



MEMOIRS OF GENERAL COUNT RAPP
FIRST AIDE-DE-CAMP TO NAPOLEON
Written By Himself, And Published By His Family


CONTENTS
Chapter I.-Commencement of the Author's military career.-His promotion.-Certificate from Desaix.-Good fortune in Egypt.-Introduction to, and character of, Napoleon.-Servile conduct of the old nobility.	1
Chap. II.-Napoleon's temper.-His flatterers.-His clemency.	8
Chap. III.-Napoleon's attachment to his family.-Lucien's opposition to the views of Napoleon.-Napoleon's bounty to Rapp.-Rapp's intercession for Requier and Damas.-Is unsuccessful.-Writes to Requier.-Letter intercepted and carried to Napoleon.-The Emperor greatly incensed at it.-Rapp apologizes.-Is restored to favour.-Marries.-Bernadotte's disgrace with the Emperor.-His restoration to favour.	12
Chap. IV.-Napoleon's courage.-Infernal machine.-The Emperor's escape.	19
Chap. V.-Napoleon's readiness to receive advice.-His contempt for ignorance.-His partiality to the game of vingt et un.	22
Chap. VI.-The third Austrian war.-The French victorious.-The Austrian army shut up in Ulm.-Summoned to surrender.-Negotiation conducted by M. de Segur.-The enemy surrender.-Napoleon's joy.	26
[Pg ii] Chap. VII.-The remainder of the Austrians pursued.-Defeated by Murat.-Werneck's capitulation; disregarded by Count Hohenzollern.-Correspondence.-Napoleon's proclamation.	40
Chap. VIII.-The French march towards Vienna.-The Russians defeated.-Napoleon's instructions to Murat on the occupation of Vienna.	50
Chap. IX.-Anecdote of the Emperor and Madame de Brunny.-The advance of the French troops.-Stratagem in crossing the Danube.-Austerlitz.-The advance-guard of the French repulsed by the Russians.-The Russians completely defeated.-Rapp wounded.-His promotion.-Napoleon's kindness to him.-His recovery.-The Emperor's instructions to Rapp.-Peace concluded.	54
Chap. X.-The conduct of Prussia.-Rapp's mission.-Its object.-His return.-The Grand Duchess of Darmstadt offends the Emperor.-Her punishment.-The French troops attacked by some Prussian detachments.-Rapp's appointment to the command of the military division at Strasburg.-He receives instructions.-The Emperor arrives at Mentz.-Rapp joins him at Wurtzburg.-His mission to the Grand Duke of Baden.-The impatience of the Prussian Generals to commence the war.-Character of Prince Louis.-Demand of Prussia.-Napoleon's proclamation.-Prussians defeated at Schleitz.-Rapp sent to the King of Prussia.-Recalled.-Mission of De Montesquiou.-His treatment.	66
Chap. XI.-The calculations of the Duke of Brunswick.-He is disconcerted at the movement of the French.-Manouvres.-Napoleon issues orders.-Battle of Auerstadt and Jena.-The French victorious.-Rapp instructed to pursue the Russians.-He enters Weimar.-The King of Prussia makes overtures.-Napoleon's conduct.-He sends Duroc to visit the wounded.-Head-quarters [Pg iii] established at Weimar.-Movements of the enemy.-Attacked and routed by Bernadotte at Halle.-Napoleon visits the field of battle.-Goes to Dessau.-His treatment of the old Duke.	79
Chap. XII.-The Prussians closely pursued by the French.-Surrender of a corps before Magdeburg.-Misfortunes of Prussia.-The French prepare to march on Berlin.-Napoleon's instructions to Davoust.	89
Chap. XIII.-The French set out for Potsdam.-Anecdote of the Emperor and a female native of Egypt.-State of Potsdam.-Flight of the Court.-Deputations to the Emperor.-Their reception.-Napoleon's observations to the Duke of Brunswick's envoy.-Head-quarters at Charlotteenburg-Napoleon's proclamation.	93
Chap. XIV.-Napoleon reviews the third corps.-Effect of the proclamation on the troops.-Surrender of 25,000 Prussians.-The Duke of Weimar abandons his command.-Blucher surrenders.-Napoleon's despatch to General Belliard.-Blucher allowed to retire to Hamburg.	101
Chap. XV.-Arrest of Prince Hatzfeld as a spy.-Napoleon's determination to have him executed.-Intercession for him.-The release of the Prince.-His letter to Count Rapp.-Embassies to the Emperor.-Rapp authorised to settle the affairs of the Court of Weimar.-The Duke permitted to return to his estates.-His letter of thanks to Rapp.	107
Chap. XVI.-Surrender of the Prussian fortresses.-Arrest of the Prince of Wurtemberg.-Head-quarters at Posen.-State of Poland.-Entry into Warsaw.-The Emperor's reception.-Anecdotes of the Poles and of the French soldiers.-Passage of the Vistula.	114
[Pg iv]Chap. XVII.-Affairs with the Russians.-Battle of Pultusk.-Rapp's wounds.-His appointment to the government of Thorn.-Blucher's letter to him.-He intercedes for Blucher.-Is made Governor of Dantzic.-Contributions levied.-Napoleon's dissatisfaction with Prussia.	124
Chap. XVIII.-Fourth Austrian war (1809.)-Battle of Esslingen.-Schill's insurrection.-Napoleon's feeling.-Battle of Wagram.-Rapp's accident.-Rapp obtains the pardon of some conspirators.	136
Chap. XIX.-Attempt of a young German to assassinate Napoleon.-Conversation and conduct of the assassin.	141
Chap. XX.-Execution of the young German.-Peace concluded.-Rapp's reception in Munich.-Situation of Bavaria.-Trait of the King of Wurtemberg.-Napoleon's return to Fontainebleau.	147
Chap. XXI.-Divorce of Josephine.-Marriage of Napoleon and Maria-Louisa.-Napoleon displeased with Rapp; sends him to Dantzic.-Rapp at Dantzic.-Character of his garrison.-He gives offence to the Russian Resident.	151
Chap. XXII.-Napoleon's dissatisfaction with Rapp, for evading the anti-commercial decrees.-Douane established at Dantzic.-Discontent in the North of Germany.-Rapp's representations.-Napoleon's ignorance of the German Character.	158
Chap. XXIII.-Napoleon repairs to Dantzic.-Conversation between the Emperor and Rapp.	164
Chap. XXIV.-Napoleon proceeds to Konigsberg.-His intentions.-The advance of the French troops. Their arrival at Wilna.-Commencement of the Russian war.	168
Chap. XXV.-Flight of the Russians.-Their rear-guard defeated by the King of Naples.-His report of the engagement.-Dispute [Pg v] between the King of Westphalia and Vandamme.	171
Chap. XXVI.-Rapp leaves Dantzic.-State of the roads.-Arrives at Wilna.-Opening of the Polish Diet.-Speech of the President.-Eloquence and negotiations of the Abbé de Pradt.	176
Chap. XXVII.-Activity of the Emperor.-His instructions to Hautpoult.-Distress of the army.-Hopes of Napoleon.-The Russian Patriarch's denunciation of the French.	186
Chap. XXVIII.-Battle of Smolensko.-Escape of the Russian army.-Junot's inactivity.-He is in disgrace with the Emperor.-Intercessions in his favour.-Rapp named for the command of the Westphalian corps, instead of Junot.-Character of Junot.-He is allowed to resume his command.-Irruption of Tormasoff.-Napoleon's instructions to the Duke de Belluno.	190
Chap. XXIX.-Kutusow takes the command of the Russian army.-His qualifications; his losses.-Rapp sent to reconnoitre.-Napoleon's conversation before the battle of Borodino.-Proclamation.	197
Chap. XXX.-Battle of Borodino.-Rapp's wounds.	204
Chap. XXXI.-Retreat of the Russians.-Occupation and burning of Moscow.	209
Chap. XXXII.-The Emperor's delay at Moscow; its motives and consequences.-His instructions to the Duke de Belluno.-Deplorable state of the French army.-Rapp's recovery.-The Emperor's anxiety about the wounded.	213
Chap. XXXIII.-Retreat of the French.-The Emperor's despatch to Mortier.-Battle at Malojaroslawitz.-Napoleon visits the field of battle.-Surprised by some Cossacks.-Rapp's conduct: the Emperor loads him with eulogiums.-General Winzengerode taken prisoner.-His treatment.	221
[Pg vi]Chap. XXXIV.-Deplorable condition of the French.-Mallet's conspiracy.-The Emperor's surprise.-The French cross the Borysthenes.-Attacked by the Russians.-Retreat of the French.-Marshal Ney's courage.	230
Chap. XXXV.-Continuation of the Retreat.-Capture of Witepsk.-Loss of the magazines.-State of the weather.-Disasters of the French.-Attacked by the Cossacks.	235
Chap. XXXVI.-The Emperor's solicitude for Ney.-Receives information of his escape from the Russians.-Embarrassment of the French.-Battle of the Beresina.-Surrender of Partonneau's division.-Retreat of the French upon Wilna.-Napoleon sets out for Paris.-His instructions.-Rapp proceeds to Dantzic.	242
Chap. XXXVII.-Description of the town and garrison of Dantzic.-Rapp's preparations.-His difficulties.-Losses of the garrison by disease.-Scarcity of provisions.-Breaking up of the ice.	254
Chap. XXXVIII.-Conduct of the Allies.-General Detrées sent to reconnoitre.-Skirmishes between the French and Allies.-The Russians defeated at Langfuhr, and Ohra.	262
Chap. XXXIX.-Destructive ravages of the epidemic.-Expedition against Quadendorf.-Defeat of the Russians.-Ignorance of the garrison of the progress of events.-The epidemic disappears.-The Russian signals set on fire.-Attempts to seduce the troops of the garrison.-Review of the garrison on the glacis.	271
Chap. XL.-The garrison's efforts to obtain provisions; its difficulties.-Rapp sends an expedition into the Nerhung.-Is successful.-He demands a loan from the Dantzickers.-Accusation against the senator Piegeleau.-Conduct of the Duke of Wurtemberg.-News of the victories of Lutzen [Pg vii] and Bautzen.-Its effect on the French troops.-The Russians defeated.-The Allies solicit an armistice.-Rapp receives the ribbon of the order of La Réunion.-Napoleon's despatch to Rapp.	282
Chap. XLI.-Conditions of the armistice.-Duke of Wurtemberg raises obstacles to the fulfilment of them.-His subterfuges.-Rapp's letter to the Prince de Neuchâtel.-Scarcity of provisions.-Recommencement of hostilities.	292
Chap. XLII.-Attempts of the besiegers.-Engagement between the garrison and the Russians at the advanced posts.-Details.-A second engagement.-The Russians take Langfuhr.-Their intentions.-Rapp's preparations.-Ohra put in a state of defence.-The Russians attack Kabrun.-Their fleet fire on the French batteries; but are repulsed.-Overflowing of the Vistula.-Combined attack by the land and sea forces of the besiegers.	303
Chap. XLIII.-Severity of the weather.-Scarcity of provisions.-Attack of the Russians.-Their defeat.-Situation, and plan of operations.-State of Dantzic, the magazines, and the surrounding fortresses.-Condition of the garrison.-Disaffection of the German troops.-Means used to decoy them.-Rapp capitulates.-The Emperor Alexander annuls the capitulation.-Rapp protests and surrenders.	323
Chap. XLIV.-The garrison taken prisoners to Kiow.-Their liberation.-The state of France in 1814.-Rapp's treatment at Court.-The return from Elba.-Conversation between Napoleon and Rapp.-Rapp's appointment to the command of the army of the Upper Rhine.-Napoleon's arrangements.-His letter to the allied Sovereigns.-Rapp sets out for Alsace.-State of public feeling.-Enthusiasm of the women at Mulhausen.	337
[Pg viii]Chap. XLV.-Preparations of the Allies.-Napoleon's letter to Rapp.-Rapp receives fresh funds.-The Emperor's despatch to Rapp.	352
Chap. XLVI.-Amount and division of the French troops.-Rapp receives news of the battle of Waterloo.-His determination.-Rapp's advanced posts attacked.-Movements of the Allies.-The success of the French.-Their retreat.	357
Chap. XLVII.-Effect of the news of the battle of Waterloo.-Disposition of Rapp's troops.-Battle of Lampertheim.-Designs of the Allies.-Rapp throws himself into Strasburg.-Prince of Wurtemberg's conduct.-Military convention signed.	364
Chap. XLVIII.-Mutiny of the garrison of Strasburg.-A description of their conduct.-Dissolution of the army.-Rapp's letter to the King.-Its effect.-Rapp's death.-Conclusion.	375
APPENDIX.
Letter from General Rapp to the Duke of Wurtemberg.	405
Answer	407
Letter from the Duke of Wurtemberg to his Excellency Count Rapp.	409
Answer	410
Letter from the Duke of Wurtemberg to General Count Rapp.	411
Answer	413
Letter from the Duke of Wurtemberg to General Rapp.	415
Capitulation of Dantzic.	417
Letter from the Duke of Wurtemberg to General Rapp.	424
Answer	426
Letter from Count Rapp to the Duke of Wurtemberg.	428
To the same.	430



NAPOLEON'S RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN OF 1812
By Edward Foord
Illustrated


CONTENTS
CHAPTER		PAGE
I.	The Preliminaries	1
II.	Napoleon's Army and its Generals	20
III.	The Russian Army and its Generals	41
IV.	The First Stage of the Campaign. Operations from Kovno to Vitebsk	59
V.	The Operations about Smolensk	108
VI.	The Operations in Volhynia and on the Düna	159
VII.	Smolensk to Borodino	183
VIII.	The Occupation and Destruction of Moscow	220
IX.	The French Sojourn in Moscow	241
X.	The First Stages of the Retreat	263
XI.	The Operations in Napoleon's Rear during September and October	286
XII.	The French Retreat. Maloyaroslavetz to Orsha	307
XIII.	Orsha to the Berezina	344
XIV.	Conclusion of the Campaign. Losses and Results	374
Appendices A to E	392
Bibliography	405
Index	409
ILLUSTRATIONS
1.  Bad News from Paris
2.  The Emperor Alexander I of Russia
3.  Prince Eugène, Son of the ex-Empress Josephine
4.  Details of the Uniforms of the Infantry of the French Army in 1812
5.  Marshal Davout
6.  Prince Joseph Anthony Poniatowski, Nephew of Stanislaus Augustus, the last King of Poland
7.  Field-Marshal Prince Barclay de Tolly
8.  Field-Marshal Prince Golénischev-Kutuzov
9.  General Prince Bagration, Commander of the Second Russian Army in 1812
10.  Joachim Murat, King of Naples
11.  The Old Fortifications of Smolensk
12.  Marshal Oudinot, Duke of Reggio
13.  The First Battle of Polotsk
14.  General of Cavalry Count Platov
15.  Marshal Ney
16.  Moscow from the Sparrow Hills
17.  Napoleon's First View of Moscow
18.  Napoleon Watching the Burning of Moscow
19.  The Kremlin, Moscow
20.  Marshal Victor, Duke of Belluno
21.  The Church of Vasilii Blagorennyi at Moscow
22.  The Council of War after the Battle of Maloyaroslavetz
23. Marshal Gouvion St. Cyr
24.  Count Wittgenstein
25.  Armed Russian Peasants in Ambush in the Woods waiting to cut off French Stragglers
26. The Retreat of the French from Moscow
27. Russian Grenadiers Pursuing the French Army
28. Napoleon, Berthier, Murat, and Rapp (in the order named) round camp fire
29.  General Baron Eblé
30.  Crossing the Berezina
31.  Marshal Ney Supporting the Rear-guard during the Retreat from Moscow
32.  Napoleon's Travelling Kitchen
MAPS AND PLANS
Plan of Battle of Saltanovka
"        "    Smolensk
"        "    Lubino
"        "    Gorodeczna
"        "    Borodino
"        "    Vinkovo
"        "    Maloyaroslavetz
"        "    Polotsk (2nd)
"    Order of French Retreat, October 31
"    Battle of Viasma
"        "      Krasnoï
"    Passage of the Berezina
"    Battle of Polotsk (1st)

Map of Theatre of War, showing positions of opposing forces at opening of campaign and movements on both sides up to occupation of Moscow      (folding, at end of volume)
Map of Theatre of War, showing positions of opposing forces at the evacuation of Moscow and movements on both sides to the end of the campaign      (folding, at end of volume)



THE N A P O L E O N   GALLERY
Illustrations Of The Life And Times
Of The Emperor Of France


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
I.	The Action at St. Roche's
II.	Entering Milan
III.	"What a Lesson for Man!"
IV.	The Battle of Rivoli
V.	Napoleon at Lonato
VI.	Defending the Redoubt of Monte Legino
VII.	Preliminaries of the Peace of Leoben
VIII.	Crossing the Bridge at Arcola
IX.	The Cisalpine Republic
X.	The Battle of the Pyramids
XI.	The Revolt of Cairo
XII.	The Fight at Benouth
XIII.	The Speech at the Pyramids
XIV.	"All whom I command are my Children"
XV.	Buonaparte pardoning the Rebels at Cairo
XVI.	The Plague of Jaffa
XVII.	"You are the Greatest of Men!"
XVIII.	Napoleon inscribing his Name on Mount Sinai
XIX.	Napoleon at Malmaison
XX.	The Battle of Marengo
XXI.	The Battle of Aboukir
XXII.	The Review by the First Consul
XXIII.	Buonaparte at Mount St. Bernard
XXIV.	The Death of Desaix
XXV.	The Coronation of Napoleon
XXVI.	The First Corps crossing the Maine
XXVII.	The Fourth Corps at Donawerth
XXVIII.	The Emperor's Arrival at Augsburg
XXIX.	Napoleon crowned King of Italy
XXX.	Napoleon crossing the Rhine at Kehl
XXXI.	The Fourth Corps entering Augsburg
XXXII.	Napoleon addresses the Army
XXXIII.	The Surrender of Ulm
XXXIV.	Napoleon receiving the Keys of Vienna
XXXV.	The Morning of Austerlitz
XXXVI.	Presentation of Austrian Ensigns to the French Senate
XXXVII.	The Seventy-sixth Regiment recovering its Colors
XXXVIII.	The Night before the Battle of Austerlitz
XXXIX.	The Battle of Austerlitz
XL.	Napoleon's Interview with the Austrian Emperor
XLI.	Statues on the Column of the Grand Army
XLII.	The Duchess of Weimar and Napoleon
XLIII.	Napoleon receiving the Deputies of the Senate
XLIV.	The Sword of Frederick the Great
XLV.	The Battle of Jena
XLVI.	Marshal Ney at Elchingen
XLVII.	Napoleon's Clemency
XLVIII.	The Field of Battle at Eylau
XLIX.	The Battle of Friedland
L.	The Simplon Pass
LI.	Battle of Essling
LII.	Napoleon wounded at Ratisbon
LIII.	"The Combat at Somo Sierra"
LIV.	Napoleon's Interview with the Prussian Queen
LV.	The Retreat from Moscow
LVI.	The Death of the Duke of Montebello
LVII.	Napoleon at the Tomb of Frederick the Great
LVIII.	The Peasant of the Rhine
LIX.	The Redoubt of Kabrunn
LX.	"Is it True that Things are going so badly?"
LXI.	The Battle of Moscow
LXII.	The Skirmish
LXIII.	"Every one to his own Calling"
LXIV.	The Death of Poniatowski
LXV.	Napoleon at Lutzen
LXVI.	The Battle of Montmirail
LXVII.	Napoleon at Montereau
LXVIII.	Napoleon's Farewell at Fontainbleau
LXIX.	The Battle of Hainau
LXX.	Napoleon at Arcis-sur-Aube
LXXI.	Filial Anxiety of a Conscript
LXXII.	The Turnpike of Clichy
LXXIII.	The Return from Elba
LXXIV.	Napoleon at Charleroi
LXXV.	Napoleon at Waterloo
LXXVI.	Napoleon saluting Wounded Foes
LXXVII.	Napoleon in 1815
LXXVIII.	Taking the Oath of Allegiance
LXXIX.	A Soldier's Farewell
LXXX.	A Soldier at Waterloo
LXXXI.	A Field Hospital
LXXXII.	Arc de Triomphe de l'Etoile
LXXXIII.	Death-bed of Napoleon
LXXXIV.	Napoleon as Lieutenant-Colonel
LXXXV.	The Triumphal Column
LXXXVI.	Statue of Napoleon by Chaudet
LXXXVII.	Apotheosis
LXXXVIII.	Napoleon, Emperor
LXXXIX.	The Death-mask of Napoleon
XC.	The Funeral Procession at the Arc de Triomphe
XCI.	Esplanade of the Hotel des Invalides
XCII.	The Catafalque, Dôme des Invalides
XCIII.	The Funeral Car
XCIV.	Opening the Casket
XCV.	Royal Court of the Hotel des Invalides



A LIFE of NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
With A Sketch Of Josephine,
Empress Of The French
By Ida M. Tarbell


CONTENTS
THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON:

CHAPTER	 	PAGE

I.	Youth and Early Surroundings.-School Days at Brienne	17

II.	In Paris.-Lieutenant of Artillery.-Literary Work.-The Revolution	27

III.	Robespierre.-Out of Work.-First Success	43

IV.	Courtship and Marriage.-Devotion To Josephine	53

V.	Italian Campaign.-Rules of War	61

VI.	Return To Paris.-Egyptian Campaign.-The 18th Brumaire	89

VII.	Statesman and Lawgiver.-The Finances.-The Industries.-The Public Works	105

VIII.	Return of the Émigrés.-The Concordat.-Legion of Honor.-Code Napoleon	119

IX.	Opposition to the Centralization of the Government.-Prosperity of France	133

X.	Preparations for War with England.-Flotilla at Boulogne.-Sale of Louisiana	143

XI.	Emperor of the French People.-King of Italy	151

XII.	Campaigns of 1805, 1806, 1807.-Peace of Tilsit	163

XIII.	Extension of Napoleon's Empire.-Family Affairs	179

XIV.	Berlin Decree.-Peninsular War.-The Bonapartes on the Spanish Throne	191

XV.	Disasters in Spain.-Erfurt Meeting.-Napoleon at Madrid	199

8XVI.	Talleyrand's Treachery.-Campaign of 1809	211

XVII.	Divorce of Josephine.-Marriage with Marie Louise.-Birth of the King of Rome.	221

XVIII.	Trouble with the Pope.-The Conscription.-The Tilsit Agreement Broken	229

XIX.	Russian Campaign.-Burning of Moscow.-A New Army	241

XX.	Campaign of 1813.-Campaign of 1814.-Abdication	253

XXI.	Elba.-The Hundred Days.-The Second Abdication	265

XXII.	Surrender to English.-St. Helena.-Death	279

XXIII.	The Second Funeral	295


SKETCH OF JOSEPHINE-EMPRESS OF THE FRENCH:

I.	Family.-Early Surroundings.-Alexander de Beauharnais.-Marriage.-Separation from Husband	325

II.	Josephine in the Revolution.-Imprisoned at Les Carmes.-Struggle for Existence.-Marriage with Bonaparte	334

III.	Bonaparte Goes to Italy.-Josephine at Milan 1796-1797.-Triumphal Tour in Italy.-Bonaparte Leaves for Egypt	346

IV.	Bonaparte is Made First Consul.-Josephine's Tact in Public Life.-Her Personal Charm.-Malmaison	360

V.	The Question of Succession.-Marriage of Hortense.-Josephine Empress of the French People.-The Coronation	371

VI.	Etiquette Regulating Josephine's Life.-Royal Journeys.-Extravagance in Dress	386

VII.	Josephine not Allowed to Go to Poland.-Fear of Divorce.-The Reconciliation of 1807-1808.-The Campaign of 1809 and its Effect on Napoleon	399

9VIII.	Napoleon Returns to France.-Josephine's Unhappiness.-Napoleon's View of a Divorce.-The Way in Which the Divorce was Effected	413

IX.	After the Divorce.-Navarre.-Josephine's Suspicions of the Emperor.-Her Gradual Return to Happiness	423

X.	Effect on Josephine of Disasters in Russia.-Anxiety During Campaign of 1813.-Flight from Paris.-Death in 1814	440

 	Handwriting of Napoleon at Different Periods	453

 	Table of the Bonaparte Family	464

 	Chronology of the Life of Napoleon Bonaparte	469

 	Index	477





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