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Title: Notes on Diseases of Swine, Sheep, Poultry and the Dog - Cause, Symptoms and Treatments
Author: Korinek, Charles J.
Language: English
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                               OF AMERICA

                                NOTES ON
                        DISEASES OF SWINE, SHEEP,
                           POULTRY AND THE DOG
                     Cause, Symptoms and Treatments

                        CHARLES J. KORINEK, V.S.

    _Graduate of the Ontario Veterinary College, in affiliation with
      the University of Toronto, Canada. Hon. Member of the Ontario
         Veterinary Medical Society. Ex. State Veterinarian for
       Board of Examiners. Author of “The Veterinarian”. Principal
        of the Veterinary Science Association of America. Sixteen
         years of Practical Experience as a Veterinary Surgeon._


                            PUBLISHED BY THE
                               OF AMERICA

                             COPYRIGHT 1917
                                 by the
                               OF AMERICA


  Chapter   I. Diseases of Swine, Cause, Symptoms and Treatment         6
  Chapter  II. Diseases of Sheep and Goats, Cause, Symptoms and
                 Treatment                                             37
  Chapter III. Diseases of Poultry, Cause, Symptoms and Treatment      60
  Chapter  IV. Diseases of the Dog, Cause, Symptoms and Treatment      85


  Points of Swine                        3
  Points of Sheep                       35
  Points of Poultry                     58
  Points of the Dog                     83

                               DISEASES OF


                           CAUSE, SYMPTOMS AND



    1. Mouth.
    2. Nostrils.
    3. Face.
    4. Eyes.
    5. Ears.
    6. Jaws.
    7. Jowl.
    8. Neck.
    9. Shoulder.
    10. Fore flanks.
    11. Chest floor.
    12. Pasterns.
    13. Dew claws.
    14. Sheath.
    15. Belly.
    16. Side or ribs.
    17. Heart girth.
    18. Back.
    19. Loin.
    20. Rump.
    21. Coupling.
    22. Rear flanks.
    23. Tail.
    24. Thigh.
    25. Hocks.


This chapter on diseases of swine has been written with the purpose of
placing in the hands of Students and the Veterinary Profession, a book
of practical worth; hence, all unnecessary technical language or terms
have been eliminated and only such language used as all may read and

The treatment recommended in each disease is one I have used and found
efficient in my many years of practice as a Veterinary Surgeon.

If my readers will study the following chapter carefully, they will save
much unnecessary loss to the swine industry and be of great value to the
community in which they reside.

                                                CHARLES J. KORINEK, V. S.



Nux Vomica, one pound; Hardwood Charcoal, two pounds; Sulphur, two
pounds; Common Salt, three pounds; Sulphide of Antimony, one and one-half
pounds; Glauber Salts, two pounds; Bicarbonate of Soda, four pounds;
Hyposulphite of Soda, four pounds; Nitrate of Potash, one pound; Quassia,
one-half pound; Gentian Root, one pound; Iron Sulphate, one pound;
pulverize and mix well.

To every one hundred pounds of hog weight, give one tablespoonful in
feed or swill once or twice daily. For hogs weighing two hundred pounds,
the dose would be two tablespoonfuls; for a hog weighing fifty pounds,
one-half tablespoonful.

Hogs, like other animals, require tonics, bowel regulators and worm
expellers. For these purposes, I have prescribed under a number of the
diseases of hogs, which I cover in this chapter, the above general
tonic and regulator which I have used in my personal practice with
marked success, especially serving the purpose of aiding hogs in the
convalescence from debilitating diseases and in their recovery from a
general run-down condition.

Aside from its general tonic and regulative effect, this prescription
contains nerve tonics, intestinal antiseptics, laxatives, worm expellers,
and aids digestion, etc.

If regularly given to hogs, and sanitary conditions are maintained,
this tonic and regulator will largely fortify them against contagious


CAUSE.—Sows may abort at any state of pregnancy by slipping, falling,
receiving kicks, or by being caught while crawling through or under
fences. Sows may also abort when allowed to crawl into quarters
where there are other hogs. Contagious diseases, such as Cholera and
Pleuropneumonia also produce abortion. There is also a contagious form of
abortion in sows, but this is very uncommon, as the disease spreads very

SYMPTOMS.—There is no warning given, as a rule; the sows expel their pigs
before any signs of abortion are noticed.

In other cases the sows refuse to eat, become uneasy, shivering and
trembling of the muscles, and straining or labor pains are noticed. As
a rule, when a sow aborts, she will not prepare a bed, as she would

TREATMENT.—Preventive is the only safe and sure treatment, although
when the first signs of abortion appear, and there are no signs of the
membranes coming away, remove the sow to quiet, warm, clean quarters
by herself, and if straining, give one dram of Chloral-Hydrate in her
drinking water every two or three hours.

When a sow aborts, burn the pigs and afterbirth, and disinfect the pens
with a Coal Tar disinfectant. Keep this up for several days, and do not
breed until all discharges from the vagina have ceased flowing.


To administer medicine to hogs may seem easy, but, nevertheless, it is a
difficult task. Never lay a hog on his back to drench him, as in so doing
there is great danger of strangling. The proper method is to stand or set
him on end, holding him up by the ears, and by the use of a bottle with a
piece of hose drawn over its neck, give the medicine very slowly, so as
not to allow a large quantity to accumulate in the mouth or throat at
one time. There is always danger of some of the liquid escaping into the
lungs and causing the hog to strangle, and thus it may produce pneumonia.
However, this is the best method of giving hogs medicine by force.

Hogs will generally take medicine in their feed or drinking water, unless
they are very sick, or the medicine is extremely disagreeable to the


CAUSE.—Injuries, obstructed teats, accumulation of milk in the sow’s bag
after the loss of part or all of her litter. Difficult birth, slight
wounds in the bag permit invasion of germs, which is frequently the
common cause of bag inflammation.

SYMPTOMS.—Heat, pain and swelling in one or more teats. The general body
temperature is elevated one or two degrees above normal. The sow perhaps
refuses her feed, although she will drink water in large quantities.

TREATMENT.—Feed soft, sloppy food and vegetables. Give Epsom Salts, two
to four ounces, in milk or feed. It is also well to milk the sow by
hand, relieving her of the milk three or four times a day. This is very
necessary. Camphorated Oil is very soothing, and I would recommend its
use freely over affected teats.


CAUSE.—Black Tooth, so called in swine, is principally due to injuries
to the teeth received by chewing hard matter, such as bone, etc., which
causes them to decay.

SYMPTOMS.—Toothache. Toothache in swine is similar to that exhibited by
man, in showing loss of appetite, salivation, or slobbering, hanging
the head mostly to the side which is affected, loss of fear of man,
and offensive breath. If the hogs are fed on strongly acid food for any
length of time, their teeth may become dark colored. As the teeth are not
materially injured, so long as decayed tooth substance cannot be noticed,
and while the appetite and chewing facilities of the hog do not appear to
be diminished, no interference will be necessary.

It is customary with some people to examine the teeth of hogs, and if
one tooth is found darker colored than the others, it is supposed to be
the cause of the hog not doing well, if he is in poor condition, and
the tooth is hammered off flush with the jaw, leaving the broken roots,
lacerated gums and nerves to increase the hog’s suffering. If the hog
recovers, it is often concluded that this was a case of Black Tooth.

My advice is, if you are determined to have the tooth out, extract it
properly. Do not break it off. When your hogs are not thriving, give them
the regulator and tonic prescribed on the first page of this chapter.


(_Pyemia Septicemia_)

CAUSE.—Due to the toxic substance produced by germs that invade wounds,
bruises, abscesses, or womb following farrowing, if lacerated.

SYMPTOMS.—The seat of injury becomes swollen, pus may adhere to the hair,
temperature elevated, appetite poor, hog moves about very slowly, becomes
separated from the rest of the drove, lies around in some cool, quiet
place, eventually becomes very weak and poor and dies, if good attention
is not given.

TREATMENT.—Separate from the other hogs and remove to a clean,
comfortable place and wash the seat of injury with some good
disinfectant, as a five per cent Carbolic Acid solution. In cases of
abscess, open it low so as to assure good drainage. Keep clean, cool
water before your hogs at all times. Give mashes made from wheat bran
and hot water, or any good substantial food that is easily digested
containing regulator and tonic prescribed on the first page of this


CAUSE.—Lung worms, poorly ventilated sleeping quarters, sleeping in straw
stacks, in manure heaps, over-heated, filthy pens, where the animals
inhale irritating gases given off the bodies of other hogs, and from
filth. Smoke and dust are very common producers of bronchitis.

SYMPTOMS.—Breathing fast, appetite poor, slight rise in temperature and
coughing. The hog is dull and stupid, refuses food, but drinks water

TREATMENT.—Preventive; avoid the above named causes, but when hogs become
affected, move them to clean, well ventilated quarters, avoiding dust and
gases, disinfect bedding and floors with some good disinfectant, as Crude
Carbolic Acid, sprayed. Also give large doses of the hog regulator and
tonic as prescribed on the first page of this chapter. Feed vegetables,
or any easily digested food, and hot wheat bran mashes.

In case the disease is due to lung worms, confine the animals in a closed
shed and permit them to inhale the steam from Turpentine and water for
a few minutes, by placing water and Turpentine in a tin receptacle
holding about two gallons, and inserting heated bricks or stones into the


This is generally understood by every stockraiser, yet there are some
points many do not know. For instance, you should use in this operation
an antiseptic solution, as Carbolic Acid or Bichloride of Mercury.
Wash thoroughly with antiseptic your hands and knife, also the seat of
operation and make your incision as low as possible to permit the pus to
drain out nicely. If this is not practiced, the pus will become absorbed
into the blood, producing blood poison, which may produce death, or at
the best will cause the hog to become stunted, whereas, if the operation
is performed properly, the hog will thrive, regardless of the shock from
the operation. I may add that it is much better to castrate pigs or
hogs when their stomachs or intestines are empty, and it is always good
practice to feed laxative and easily digested foods sparingly after this


CAUSE.—Vegetables such as potatoes, etc., roots, as carrots, turnips and
sometimes pieces of bone or glass, lodge in the gullet. Paralysis of the
muscular fibres of the gullet is a very common cause of choking in swine.

SYMPTOMS.—The hog is unable to swallow, producing a frothing at the mouth
and, if the obstruction cannot be dislodged, death occurs in a very
short time. Sometimes the obstruction in the gullet may be felt from the
outside with the hand.

TREATMENT.—The administration of small doses of Raw Linseed or Olive
Oil, or Lard, will assist in dislodging the obstruction. Also careful
manipulation of the gullet from the outside with the hand assists in
either forcing it into the stomach or bringing it out through hog’s
mouth. If vomiting can be produced, it will dislodge the obstruction. If
immediate results are not obtained from the above treatments, I would
recommend butchering the hog for meat immediately.


(_Nasal Catarrh_)

CAUSE.—Exposure to cold; a very common condition in cold, wet weather
when hogs are allowed to sleep in manure heaps, straw stacks, or pile up
together, when they become over-heated and later chill. Nasal Catarrh may
also be due to inhaling dust or irritating gases.

SYMPTOMS.—The animal is stupid and feverish, coughing and sneezing
frequently; appetite is poor, eyes watery and inflamed; a discharge
of mucus from the nose will terminate in yellow pus and the nose, if
examined, is found to be inflamed and ulcerated.

TREATMENT.—The best and safest treatment is to provide clean sleeping
quarters, avoid overcrowding in dusty, dirty sheds, especially during
cold weather. Pigs affected with cold in the head should be fed on
laxative food, such as boiled carrots, potatoes, apples, hot wheat bran
mashes and steamed rolled oats.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—Confine the affected hogs to a shed, close windows and
doors and any large cracks; then compel them to inhale steam from the
following mixture: Turpentine, eight ounces; Pine Tar, one pint; Water,
two gallons. Place in tin receptacle in center of shed and heat the above
solution by adding hot bricks or stones to the mixture occasionally.
Compel the hogs to inhale this steam for at least thirty minutes twice
a day. Give chlorate of Potash in twenty grain doses three times a day
in feed or drinking water. This treatment is very successful if the
inflammation has not extended to the lungs.



CAUSE.—Decomposed foods, slops, etc., fed to the mothers, causing them
to give toxic milk. Poorly ventilated, filthy, cold and damp pens,
insufficient exercise, lack of sunlight, raising pigs by hand or with
other sow.

SYMPTOMS.—Frequent movement of the bowels, the passage being of a
grayish-white color and the odor very disagreeable. At this stage of the
disease, reliable remedies must be given or the pig will die very soon.

The discharge from the bowels becomes very thin, the tail and legs become
soiled, loss of appetite, the pigs become weak and dull, hair rough and
it is difficult for them to move about. In very young pigs, treatment is
of little value.

TREATMENT.—As Scours in pigs is a disease frequently caused by faulty
food and insanitary surroundings, a preventive treatment is of great
importance, and much better results are thus obtained than by the use
of medical agents. Medical treatment consists in first cleaning away
the irritant present in the bowels. For this purpose give one to two
teaspoonfuls of Castor Oil. At the time of farrowing all sows should
receive a light diet and be kept in clean, dry quarters. The pigs should
be allowed pure air, sunshine and exercise. If the sow appears hot and
feverish, give one to three ounces of Castor Oil in milk or swill. Avoid
feeding decomposed, moldy food, or sour milk. To check the diarrhoea in
pigs, use the following after the irritant is removed or cleaned out as
above stated: Zinc Sulphocarbolates, thirty grains; Protan, two ounces;
Pulv. Gentian Root, two ounces. Make into sixty capsules or powders and
give one, three or four times a day. The sow should receive a dose about
eight times the size of that of the pigs.


(_Swine Fever_)

CAUSE.—By the Bacillus Sius; contaminated food, stagnant water, filth,
etc., all have a tendency to aid its progress. I have seen farms,
although located in sections where Cholera was prevalent, not in the
least troubled with the malady, perhaps due to careful feeding of
clean foods, care in watering, cleanliness about the pens and sheds
and disinfecting occasionally, but no doubt a better explanation is
that those hogs received tonics, containing worm expellers, at least
four times a year. Many a case of supposed Hog Cholera is due to worms
irritating and producing inflammation of the intestines, followed by
diarrhoea. A person not familiar with the disease calls this “hog
cholera.” In other cases, hogs which are fed swills from restaurants,
hotels, etc., containing soap, washing powders, small particles of glass,
etc., will die with symptoms leading a person to think they had Hog
Cholera, but if a thorough investigation is made the true cause of death
can easily be discovered.

SYMPTOMS.—In true Hog Cholera, the temperature will be elevated two to
four degrees above normal. There will be a loss of appetite, vomiting,
diarrhoea, although there may be constipation when the hog is first
affected. The hog wanders off by itself to some cool, quiet place and
lies down. When it walks it will stagger and show great stiffness in
its hind parts, due to soreness of the intestines. The hair will have a
roughened appearance, the back arched, the eyes inflamed and discharging
pus, red blotches will show themselves back of the ears, inside the legs
and on the abdomen. At this stage the diarrhoea is watery, dark and
tinged with blood, and very offensive in odor, breathing is very fast and
labored. The hog grows very weak and dies.

TREATMENT.—Prevention must always be borne in mind. Do not feed filthy
food. Always feed good, wholesome food, and give clean water to drink.
Watch the condition of hog’s bowels and regulate them by feeding. Burn
manure and bedding and disinfect carefully. Do not permit your hogs to
drink out of running streams of water, especially if Hog Cholera is in
your neighborhood. When buying hogs, it is well to keep them off by
themselves for two or three weeks, as they may be diseased. Do not
permit neighbors, their stock or dogs on premises when Hog Cholera is
raging, as the infection of Hog Cholera can be spread very rapidly by
matter from the affected hogs adhering to the shoes of man, to the feet
of stock and hogs, etc.

I am positive that if this method were properly practiced by all hog
raisers and feeders, Hog Cholera would be a very rare disease.

SERUM TREATMENT.—This is successful in some cases, and in others
unsuccessful. The latter perhaps is due to poor serums, or the disease
being so far advanced in its progress that the hogs are beyond recovery.
Serum treatment is very expensive and, as it requires a strictly septic
operation of injecting the serum, the average hog raiser or grower is
not qualified to administer the treatment properly. An additional and
necessary expense is the services of a Veterinary Surgeon. Therefore, I
strongly urge adoption of preventive measures as stated. Use some good
disinfectant, such as Crude Carbolic Acid, which destroys the Bacillus
of Hog Cholera. Also administer hog regulator and tonic as prescribed
on first page of this chapter. This will expel worms, tone the system,
regulate the bowels and fortify your hogs against Hog Cholera.


CAUSE.—Worms are perhaps one of the most common causes. Unwholesome,
irritating food or swill containing soap or washing powder have a
tendency to derange the process of digestion.

SYMPTOMS.—Abdominal pain, vomiting, back arched, breathing rapid and
temperature elevated from two to three degrees. There may be diarrhoea
or the animal may be constipated. Vomiting, as a rule, relieves acute
attacks by expelling the irritant from the bowels. When it takes a
chronic form, the hogs become stunted.

TREATMENT.—Endeavor to find out the cause and remove it. If constipated,
give Calomel, fifteen to twenty grains, or, if diarrhoea appears, give
hog regulator and tonic as prescribed on first page of this chapter. Feed
with hot wheat bran mashes. This will expel all worms and aid digestion.



CAUSE.—Liver flukes, intestinal worms, gall stones, lack of exercise,
overfeeding, or a stoppage of the bile duct.

SYMPTOMS.—The white portions of the eyes take on a yellow color, as do
the membranes of the mouth, back arched, hair looks rough, vomiting,
temperature elevated, constipation, although diarrhoea is sometimes
noticed. The urine is passed frequently, and is of a dark amber color.

TREATMENT.—This disease requires careful feeding and plenty of exercise.
Give Calomel, ten to twenty grains, then follow with large doses of
regulator and tonic as prescribed on first page of this chapter. It is
important in this disease, especially if due to worms. Feed clean swill
and vegetables. Give hogs all the pure water they will drink.


CAUSE.—Hogs are subject to various injuries about the kidneys, due to a
large number of hogs piling up, exposure to cold, wet rains, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Small quantities of dark colored urine are passed frequently,
appetite poor, no energy to move about. Hogs lie around a great deal; at
times they may be paralyzed and drag their hind quarters.

TREATMENT.—Apply cloths or blankets wrung out of hot water over the
loin; also give Potassium Acetate in twenty grain doses four or five
times a day in drinking water. Feed soft, sloppy food, containing
regulator and tonic as prescribed on the first page of this chapter. It
contains nerve stimulants, just what is required in paralysis.


CAUSE.—Damp, filthy surroundings seem to favor the growth of embryos of
this worm. They are taken into the digestive canal with the food and
eventually pass to the region of the kidneys, where they find conditions
favorable in which to multiply.

SYMPTOMS.—May produce paralysis of the hind quarters, in which case the
animal would not exhibit such marked tenderness on being pressed over the
loins with the fingers as it would if the weakness of the hind quarters
was due to a sprain or to rheumatism of the loins. Occasionally hogs may
suffer from the presence of one or more worms in the kidneys; but the
ailment is rarely fatal, becoming so only after a long time of suffering
resulting in a degeneration of one or both kidneys. It is almost
impossible to diagnose the presence of worms in the kidneys of hogs,
except by chance through a microscopic examination of the urine. If worms
are found in the kidneys of a hog that has died or has been slaughtered
for food it may then be reasonably supposed that other hogs of the same
herd not acting normal are infected with worms of the same species.

TREATMENT.—Teaspoonful doses of Turpentine in milk three times a week is
the only treatment I could recommend. Preventive measures is the only
practical method of treating a disease of this nature. Give your hogs
pure water and food. Disinfect pens occasionally and keep them clean.


Dip, spray or scrub your hogs with some good Coal Tar disinfectant, but
whatever remedy is used it should be applied more than once which, of
course, causes considerable work where there is a large number of hogs
infested, unless dipped, which is more quickly done. The reason for
repeated applications being necessary is that although the lice which
hogs pick up from the ground, bedding and rubbing places, may be killed
by first application, it often does not affect the nits, which remain
intact and hatch within a week or ten days. A new crop of Lice appears
on the hog from this source. Remove all manure and bedding from pens
and sheds and burn it. Disinfect floors and spray sides of shed, pens
and rubbing places with disinfectants, one part to seventy-two parts of
water, once a month and you will be handsomely repaid for your labor.


(_Inflammation of the Lungs_)

CAUSE.—Sudden changes, exposure to storms, piling up of hogs during cold
nights, or sleeping in manure heaps, old straw stacks, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Pig or hog is taken with shivering spells, is stupid, his back
is arched, loss of appetite, temperature elevated two to four degrees
above normal, short hurried breathing, generally accompanied with cough,
which is deep and hoarse. As a rule the hog is constipated.

TREATMENT.—Place in good, clean, warm, well ventilated quarters, free
from drafts. Keep water before them at all times, adding Saltpeter,
one teaspoonful to every gallon of water. If constipated, do not give
physics; give injections of soap and warm water; also administer about
one-half teaspoonful of Pine Tar on the tongue with a wooden paddle.
This adheres to the tongue and gradually dissolves and gives excellent
results, as it is very soothing to the organs of breathing. During the
convalescent stage, give hog regulator and tonic as prescribed on first
page of this chapter.


CAUSE.—By thread-like worms varying in length from one-half to one and
one-half inches and of brownish-white color. They are found in the
windpipe and tubes leading into the lungs. The adult worms in the lungs
produce large quantities of eggs, which are coughed up with mucus and
become scattered over premises where other hogs are permitted to walk.
The hogs inhale the dust containing the eggs into their lungs, where the
eggs find moisture sufficient for their development.

SYMPTOMS.—Severe coughing spells. Large quantities of mucus will escape
from the nose and mouth. The hog becomes stunted, although he may eat
fairly well, but if not relieved, the worms collect in the Bronchi
and produce sudden death due to suffocation. The worms may set up an
inflammation of the lining membranes of the lungs, which is sometimes
taken for Swine Plague, or Cholera. This disease is not uncommon,
especially in old, filthy, poorly drained hog houses and pastures.

TREATMENT.—Confine the affected hogs to a shed; close the windows and
doors and any large cracks, then compel the hogs to inhale steam from
the following mixture: Turpentine, eight ounces; Pine Tar, one pint;
Water, two gallons. Place in tin receptacle in center of the shed and
heat the above solution by adding hot bricks or stones to the mixture
occasionally. Compel them to inhale this steam for at least thirty
minutes twice a day. Feed wholesome food to which add hog tonic as
prescribed on first page of this chapter. A strong, vigorous hog may have
worms, but it retains its vitality so long as it is well fed.


CAUSE.—By the Sarcoptes Scabei. This parasite burrows under the outer
surface of the skin.

SYMPTOMS.—The parasite usually manifests itself on the skin under the
armpits, thighs and inside of the fore legs. At first small red blotches
or pimples appear, and these gradually spread as the parasites multiply
and burrow under the skin.

TREATMENT.—There is no other way of curing this disease, or of preventing
it, than by killing the parasites and their eggs; not only on the pigs
themselves, but also on the sides of the pens, sheds, rubbing-posts, or
anything that an affected hog rubs against.

When treating this disease, the real aim must be to kill the parasite by
the prompt and continuous use of external remedies, such as washing or
dipping, which is better done with some good disinfectant, one part to
seventy parts water. Repeat this every ten days until cured. Two dippings
are generally sufficient. It is well to feed cooling foods, such as clean
slops and vegetables, containing regulator and tonic as prescribed on
first page of this chapter.


(_Navel or Umbilical_)

CAUSE.—Injuries. Pigs crowding through narrow doorways or openings in
fences, small pigs sleeping with large pigs, and allowed to pile up, or
being thrown about feed troughs when feeding. Weakness and constipation
also predisposes them to Navel or Umbilical Rupture.

SYMPTOMS.—A soft, puffy swelling about the navel or umbilicus, varying
in size from a hazelnut to that of an ostrich egg. When a pig is placed
on its back the intestines will gravitate into the abdominal cavity,
providing the intestines have not adhered to the walls of the rupture.

TREATMENT.—This is more difficult than the Scrotal or Inguinal Rupture
operation, as often times the intestines will adhere to the inner surface
of the rupture and, unless the operation is carefully performed, there
is great danger. Great care must be exercised in preparing the pig by
fasting it for twenty-four hours. After this is accomplished, prepare
an antiseptic solution, Carbolic Acid, five per cent, or Bichloride of
Mercury, one in one-thousandths; also have a needle and absorbent silk or
cat-gut ready. Place the pig on its back, with its head downward. Now,
wash the seat of operation with either antiseptic solution. Then make
an incision through the skin carefully; as stated before, intestines
sometimes adhere to the inner surface of the rupture. If such is the
case, wash the hands in the antiseptic solution and with the fingers
carefully break the adhesions or separate the intestines from their
adhesions. After this is accomplished, sew the inner lining of the
abdominal cavity with absorbent silk or cat-gut. Then sew the outer skin
with cotton or linen cord and your operation is complete. Feed the hog
sparingly for a few days following the operation on easily digested,
laxative foods.



CAUSE.—Irritations of the skin produced by sprinkling hogs with
irritating solutions and powders, or from irritating dips when treating
for lice, etc. Feeding highly nitrogenous food predisposes hogs to this
disease; also filth, poorly drained sheds and pens; is especially common
in young pigs. Nettle Rash is not contagious, but what produces it in one
hog may produce it in several at the same time.

SYMPTOMS.—Red, swollen blotches appear on the skin very suddenly,
especially about the ears and the inside of the thighs, perhaps due to
the skin being thin and deprived of hair. The hog rubs account of the
intense itching, and he will not thrive when in this condition. In most
cases there is a fluid oozing from the blotches, causing dirt and filth
to adhere to the hair. However, if the disease is properly treated, a
recovery is sure to follow in about two weeks.

TREATMENT.—Prevention against this disease is most important, and it
consists in keeping shoats and pigs in clean, well ventilated sheds and
pens. Do not sprinkle them with irritating solutions or powders, or
irritating dips, but when the disease once shows itself give each pig or
hog affected a dose of Epsom Salts, one ounce to every twenty-five pounds
of hog weight, in feed, swill or drinking water. If the weather is hot,
keep them in a clean, cool place, also purify their blood by feeding
regulator and tonic as prescribed on first page of this chapter.

Apply some good Coal Tar disinfectant, one part to one hundred parts of
water. This is non-irritating, and will destroy hog lice, and will heal
the pustules of nettle rash. Apply twice ten days apart. It also must be
borne in mind that pens and sleeping quarters must be disinfected; the
old bedding and manure burned and replaced with good, clean straw or hay.
Feed easily digested food, slops, etc.


CAUSE.—There are a great many things that may produce paralysis of the
hind quarters. For instance, shipping hogs in crates; fractions of thigh
bones; Rickets, due to feeding food that is deficient in mineral matter;
hogs piling up; kicks or injuries to the back; frequently seen in sows
nursing a litter of pigs and in a run-down condition. Constipation and
indigestion also produce paralysis of the hind quarters. Some think it is
caused by worms in the kidneys; this is not always the case. It is true
that the presence of a parasite around the kidneys may cause irritation
of the nerves of the spinal column and result in paralysis. Yet, it is
more often the result of weakness and loss of nervous power of the hind

SYMPTOMS.—Regardless of the cause, the symptoms in either case, for they
cannot be distinguished, are weakness of the back, wriggling of the
hind parts, and finally the hogs sit down on their haunches. After some
effort, they get up and run in a straight line quite fast, but swing to
one side for a while and then go over to the other side, and finally get
down so that they cannot rise, but drag themselves about. The appetite is
good until a day or two before they die.

TREATMENT.—Place the hog in clean, comfortable quarters, with plenty of
fresh water to drink. Give sour milk, fruit or vegetables, containing
regulator and tonic as prescribed on first page of this chapter. It
contains nerve stimulants and blood purifiers. If the hog is constipated,
add two to four ounces of Epsom Salts to its feed.

Treatment of all such cases requires perseverance, recovery being slow
and not always certain.


(_Prolapse of the Anus_)

CAUSE.—Although the pig may look well, he has a weakness of the circular
fibres of the intestines, due to irritating foods that either constipate
or produce diarrhoea.

SYMPTOMS.—Very plain. A protrusion of the rectum all the way from two to
four inches. The pig irritates the protrusion by rubbing it against the
sides of pens, etc.; it cracks, bleeds and in warm weather will become
fly-blown and maggots accumulate in large quantities.

TREATMENT.—In the first stages of this disease, wash the protruded parts
with an antiseptic solution of Carbolic Acid, one teaspoonful to a pint
of water. Give rectal injections of Soap and Warm Water or Sweet Oil,
give about two ounces of Castor Oil internally and feed soft, sloppy
food. In chronic cases of long standing, remove the exposed portion of
the intestine after washing nicely with the antiseptic solution. Remove
the protrusion with a sharp knife and stitch the cut end of intestine
edges to the anus. Feed easily digested food, such as wheat bran, mixed
with flaxseed meal on which boiling hot water has been poured, cooling
before feeding. Also give regulator and tonic as prescribed on first page
of this chapter.


CAUSE.—Hogs consume the eggs that encapsule well matured embryonic worms
with their food or drinking water. These worms multiply very rapidly in
the small intestines and are from one-half to one inch in length.

SYMPTOMS.—No signs are noticed unless the worms are very abundant, as
they are small and difficult to see with the naked eye. The principal
point of attack is in the back part of the small intestines, where
considerable inflammation is set up, especially when there are other
worms, such as the Roundworm, present.

TREATMENT.—Is of little value, as the worms in the intestines are
very difficult to get at, but as their presence causes very little
disturbance, it is hardly worth while treating; however, preventive
measures should be applied by disinfecting, burning manure and bedding.

The following has proven a very effective treatment for Pinworms:
Powdered Quassia, one pound; Sulphur, two pounds; Glauber Salts, one
pound; Powdered Tobacco, one-half pound; Sulphide of Antimony, one
pound; Hyposulphite of Soda, two pounds; Beechwood Charcoal, one pound;
Common Salt, two pounds.

The above must be well powdered and thoroughly mixed. Give one heaping
teaspoonful to every one hundred pounds of hog weight. To small pigs,
give doses in proportion to weight. Place it in their feed or slop twice
a day. In addition to being a vermifuge, it is an alterative and tonic
that should be given pigs and hogs which do not thrive properly. Best
results are obtained in treatment of Pinworm when the principal food
consists of vegetables, mashes and slops.


CAUSE.—Exposure to cold, damp, chilly weather, especially to drafts, or
by a large number of hogs being allowed to pile up during cold nights,

SYMPTOMS.—Chilling, temperature elevated two or three degrees above
normal; breathing fast. The hog will show great pain when pressed over
the lungs by flinching, squealing or grunting; couching suppressed, ribs
rigid; breathing mostly with the muscles of the flanks; appetite poor and
eventually there will be fluids accumulate in the lung cavities. At this
stage, the breathing is labored and difficult. If the ear is pressed over
the lungs, the fluids can be heard, and in the first stage the sound will
be similar to that of rubbing hair between the finger and thumb.

TREATMENT.—Remove the cause. The treatment is satisfactory if applied
in due time. Place in clean, comfortable shed, seeing that it is well
ventilated, omit drafts; apply equal parts of Aqua Ammonia Fort.,
Turpentine and Sweet Oil over the lungs and give two or four ounces of
Castor Oil in milk. Feed easily digested food, such as hot wheat bran
mashes, containing hog regulator and tonic as prescribed on first page of
this chapter. It is also well to feed vegetables.


CAUSE.—Exposure, as in cold, damp houses. Overfeeding also has a tendency
to cause swellings of the joints and muscles.

SYMPTOMS.—Lameness of one or more limbs, swelling of the joints about the
legs and feet. The hog does not care to move, refusing its feed in most
cases: temperature slightly elevated; breathing quick and short; he will
drink water frequently if offered.

TREATMENT.—I am of opinion that Rheumatism in hogs would be a very rare
disease if they were properly provided with clean, dry quarters, with a
liberal quantity of bedding. Do not allow hogs to pile up, as it is very
injurious to them.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—Consists of feeding sloppy food to which add one-half
dram of Sodium Salicylate two or three times a day in their feed.
Vegetables and green grass are very beneficial in this disease, as
they have a cooling effect on the blood. The hog tonic and regulator
recommended on first page of this chapter is very beneficial when given
with food of a sloppy nature.


CAUSE.—Food deficient in mineral matter or lime; filth, lack of exercise,
and crowded quarters, all tend to produce a softening of the bones and
swelling of the joints.

SYMPTOMS.—The pigs affected generally appear in good condition and
seem to be doing well, but suddenly they become paralyzed in the hind
quarters, owing to the weakened condition of the bones, which sometimes
fracture without receiving injury or any additional weight to that of the
pig itself. The bones of the snout, back, limbs and feet bend and become
deformed. The pigs grow weak, poor and stunted and perhaps the best
treatment is to destroy them.

PREVENTIVE TREATMENT.—Careful feeding of good, wholesome food. This
disease is very seldom seen where hogs are frequently fed corn.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—When the first signs of Rickets appear, feed regulator
and tonic as prescribed on first page of this chapter. It contains the
mineral matter needed by the hog.


CAUSE.—Is undoubtedly due to filth or hogs eating food or drinking water
contaminated with well developed eggs or embryos of roundworms, thus
taking them into their digestive canal, where they multiply rapidly and
set up considerable irritation. This worm varies in length from three to
thirteen inches, and is of a reddish-brown color.

SYMPTOMS.—The Roundworm is generally passed with the feces, and can be
readily seen with the naked eye. A hog infested with a large number of
these worms is generally restless, appetite varied. When these worms
develop in large numbers, they obstruct the intestines. In other cases
they irritate and inflame the intestines, causing inflammation and
diarrhoea, and death may be due to either obstruction or inflammation of
the bowels.

TREATMENT.—Treatment is very satisfactory. Withhold all food from
eighteen to twenty-four hours. Then place in one pint of finely ground
feed, Calomel and Santonin, each five grains to every one hundred pounds
of hog weight. For instance, if the hog affected with round worms weighs
two hundred pounds, double the dose by giving ten grains of each of the
above, but if the hog only weighs fifty pounds, give one-half the dose
mentioned, or two and one-half grains of each. This treatment should
be repeated in a week or ten days to assure the expulsion of worms that
might have survived the first dose. Feed sparingly on laxative food, as
bran mashes and vegetables, for a few days following each treatment.


(_Scrotal or Inguinal_)

DEFINITION.—In the male the intestines pass through the wide Inguinal
Canal, through which the cord of the testicle passes. It is not difficult
to recognize this form of rupture, as the scrotum that normally retains
only the testicles is usually enlarged by the bowels entering it.
Sometimes the scrotum almost reaches the ground, and in this case,
both sides of the scrotum, or the sack which contains the testicles,
also contains intestines. If the pig is held up by the hind parts, the
intestines will gravitate back into the abdominal cavity, but as soon
as a pig lies down or stands they again return into the scrotum. The
testicles can be located at the bottom of the enlargement.

CAUSE.—Hereditary tendencies predisposes them to rupture; pigs having
large Inguinal Canals through which the testicle passes; by pigs being
crowded, injured, squeezed at troughs, or passing through narrow
doorways. Weakness and severe straining from constipation also produce

SYMPTOMS.—An enlargement of the sack containing the testicles. Sometimes
there may be a strangulation of the intestines where they fold or twist.
They become inflamed and produce death. The pig dies in great pain, but
fortunately, strangulated ruptures in pigs are very rare, as the scrotum
and canal which the intestines occupy relax and become very roomy.

TREATMENT.—Operation is the only method of relieving or curing Inguinal
or Scrotal Rupture. My advice is to operate as soon as possible. When
the pigs are small, there is less danger. The pig to be operated on
should be fasted for at least twenty-four hours, as it is easier on both
the operator and the pig when the intestines are empty, or nearly so.

The operation which I have found to be very successful is as follows:
Have an assistant hold the pig up by its hind legs. Prepare an antiseptic
solution of Carbolic Acid five per cent, or Bichloride of Mercury, one
in one-thousandths, in a pan. Have a needle threaded with a medium sized
absorbent silk or cat-gut suture. Prepare a clean, sharp knife; wash
the seat of operation with either antiseptic solution. Now, proceed to
locate the testicle by having the hind parts elevated. The intestines
must be pressed back into the abdominal cavity. The testicle will remain
in the sack or scrotum; now grasp the testicle between the fingers and
make the incision through the scrotum and to the lower portion. It may
be necessary to insert two fingers to withdraw the testicle. When the
testicle is located, withdraw it. Before cutting it off it is well to run
a needle containing a thread through the last covering of the testicle
so as to prevent the membrane from returning. After this is securely
done, remove the testicle and sew the inner membranes that envelop the
rupture and testicle with what is called a “tobacco pouch suture.” Draw
it together firmly and tie and cut off suture about one-half inch from
the knot. Your operation is now complete. Do not sew the outer incision
in the scrotum, as it would have a tendency to accumulate dirt and hold
pus. It should have a free drainage. Wash with one of the above mentioned
antiseptics twice daily until thoroughly healed. Also feed laxative foods
that are easily digested.


CAUSE.—Filth, especially common in large hogs when confined to hard
floors or driven over rough, hard roads, or continually kept in filthy
pens. The tissues of the feet become softened, especially those between
the claws. Irritation is set up by germs entering the abrasions.

SYMPTOMS.—The hogs will be noticed going very lame and if closely
examined the above named conditions will be found.

TREATMENT.—Remove the hogs to clean, dry pens containing plenty of clean
bedding, and wash the affected parts with some good disinfectant, as five
per cent solution of Carbolic Acid. Repeat this treatment at least once a
day. In case the feet are badly inflamed, I would advise the application
of hot Flaxseed Meal poultices to the feet. Feed easily digested food, as
it aids materially in the treatment of infectious wounds.


CAUSE.—Decomposed foods. Also slops or stagnant water, washing powders,
broken glassware, etc., from the tables, fed in slops, barley or wheat
beards, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Difficulty in eating, or refusal to eat at all. Stringy
secretions of saliva continually oozing from the mouth. The mouth gives
off a very offensive odor.

TREATMENT.—In this form of sore mouth, remove the cause. Feed soft,
wholesome food, such as wheat bran mashes and vegetables. In cases where
it is due to the lodging of beards of wheat or barley, gag the hog’s
mouth with a piece of wood and remove the beards with forceps. Keep
clean, cool water before them at all times and avoid feeding dry, hard


CAUSE.—Insufficient lime or mineral matter fed prior to farrowing;
constipation is also a fruitful cause.

PREVENTION.—Careful feeding for a few days prior to farrowing of slops,
free from soap or washing powders; cool food, such as wheat bran mashes,
with hog tonic and regulator as prescribed on the first page of this
chapter. This is loosening to the bowels and also contains mineral matter
and blood purifiers which are very valuable in the above mentioned


CAUSE.—Hogs that are very fat, and driven, hauled or shipped to
market when the weather is warm, are frequently stricken with heat or
sun-stroke. Sometimes when hogs are overcrowded and not protected from
the rays of the sun, or from heat, they may become victims of heat or

SYMPTOMS.—First they stagger when walking, then they become very weak
and temperature elevates three or four degrees higher than normal.
Prostration or extreme depression, or sometimes involuntary spasms or
contractions of muscles occur.

TREATMENT.—Prevention. Do not drive, haul or ship during the hottest
part of the day, hogs that are not accustomed to exercise or extreme
heat. Do not crowd hogs in small pens or sheds during the hot months,
as their bodies give off considerable heat in addition to that of the
sun. See that they are protected from the sun. When hauling or shipping
hogs, wet them occasionally with water. It prevents heat stroke. In case
a hog is suffering from heat or sun-stroke, place it in a cool, shady
place and apply ice or cold water to the head only. Also give Saltpeter
in teaspoonful doses every six hours diluted in one ounce of water. Also
give Alcohol, one teaspoonful, every three hours in one ounce of water.
Good recovery is often obtained from the above treatment.


CAUSE.—A white grub that is found in old manure heaps, straw stacks and
hog lots carries eggs containing embryos of the Thorn-headed Worm. The
white grub is eaten by the hog. The larvae of the Thorn-headed Worm is
liberated by the process of digestion and becomes a parasite in the
intestines of the hogs, where it develops into a fully matured worm.
Large numbers of hogs quickly become infested with this parasite, as they
multiply very rapidly. These worms vary from two to twelve inches in
length, and have a whitish color.

SYMPTOMS.—As a general rule, a worm can be seen in the feces. Other signs
are that the hog loses flesh, appetite irregular, constipation, and then
again there may be diarrhoea, especially where there are large numbers of
worms present.

TREATMENT.—First of all, burn all manure or decomposed vegetation
that the hogs are liable to come in contact with. Withhold all food
from eighteen to twenty-four hours and give one teaspoonful of Oil of
Turpentine to every one hundred pounds of hog weight, or if the hog
weighs less than one hundred pounds, doses should be given in proportion.
Follow this treatment for three or, four consecutive days. Turpentine
is easily given to hogs, as they will drink it in milk when well mixed.
Perhaps it is advisable, where a large number of hogs are affected, to
divide them into pens of five or ten hogs, as they are thus less likely
to get an overdose. Feed laxative food. Clean and disinfect troughs and
feeding floors. Also give prescription on first page of this chapter.


CAUSE.—Disorders of the digestive system from overloading the stomach and
causing irritation of the nerves leading to the diaphragm, which is the
membrane that separates the lungs and heart from the intestines, stomach,
liver and spleen. It is a spasm of this membrane that causes a hog or
pig to have “Thumps.” Insufficient exercise; a large number of pigs may
become affected at the same time when closely confined.

SYMPTOMS.—Jerking of the flanks; the pig or hog becomes very weak and
stunted in a very short time.

TREATMENT.—Remove the cause. In pigs, when first affected, careful
feeding and exercise will generally effect a cure. In some cases, where
the pigs are very small, it is well to take them away from the mother,
permitting them to nurse very little. Give them Castor Oil in teaspoonful
doses, and compel them to exercise. It may be necessary to give them
Chloral Hydrate ten to fifteen grains two or three times a day diluted in
a teaspoonful of water. Where the pigs will not eat mashes or drink milk,
give them medicine by force with a teaspoon.

AFTER TREATMENT.—Give hog regulator and tonic as prescribed on first page
of this chapter.


This worm is very uncommon, but occasionally is found in the large

CAUSE.—The eggs become imbedded in the manure, bedding, etc., and then
mix with the food and drinking water and are taken into the digestive
canal where they develop into matured worms. This worm is from one to
three inches in length, the hind extremity of which is very thin, hence
the name, “Whipworm.”

SYMPTOMS.—They produce very little disturbance, even though present in
large quantities, except when other worms assist in their irritating the
lining membranes of the large intestines.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—Withhold all food from eighteen to twenty-four hours,
then give one teaspoonful of Gasoline thoroughly mixed with milk, to
every one hundred pounds of hog weight. Small hogs, reduce the dose in
proportion to their weight. It is advisable to follow this dose for two
or three consecutive days. Feed food that is easily digested, and see
that they have fresh water to drink.

                               DISEASES OF
                             Sheep and Goats


                           CAUSE, SYMPTOMS AND



    1. Mouth.
    2. Nostrils.
    3. Eyes.
    4. Forehead.
    5. Poll.
    6. Ears.
    7. Neck or scrag.
    8. Throat or throttle.
    9. Brisket or breast.
    10. Shoulder vein.
    11. Shoulder.
    12. Legs.
    13. Fore flank.
    14. Heart girth.
    15. Crops.
    16. Back.
    17. Loin.
    18. Rump.
    19. Coupling.
    20. Ribs.
    21. Belly.
    22. Sheath.
    23. Scrotum.
    24. Rear flanks.
    25. Leg of mutton.
    26. Twist.
    27. Tail or dock.
    28. Rump.


This chapter on the diseases of sheep and goats has been written for
the benefit of the Student of Veterinary Science as well as for the
Veterinary Profession.

I feel it will suffice to say that I have endeavored to the best of my
ability to render the matter contained in the following chapter of as
great _practical_ value as possible, to present in the most plain and
concise manner each disease in the form in which it most frequently

I wish to express a hope that this chapter will be appreciated by all
into whose hands it may find its way, more particularly by Veterinary
Students and Practitioners.

                                                CHARLES J. KORINEK, V. S.



CAUSE.—Is usually produced by injuries, or by the ewes being poisoned
from eating poisonous foods, plants, etc. It has never occurred in
infectious form in this country, although sometimes an outbreak is
thought infectious on account of several ewes aborting about the same
time, but all such outbreaks have been traced to some irritating poison
which they had taken with their food or drinking water.

PREVENTIVE TREATMENT.—Remove the aborted lambs or kids and afterbirth
from the yards, and also withdraw the ewe or nanny and place her in
comfortable quarters. She requires care and extra nursing, or she will
become very poor and lose a large portion of her fleece.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—If due to poisonous plants, etc., when the first
symptoms of Abortion or poisoning are noticed, give six to ten ounces of
Castor Oil. Warm the oil so it will run freely. Set the sheep or goat
upon its haunches and pour very slowly. Great care must be exercised so
as not to let any of the oil enter the lungs, as it may produce fatal
pneumonia. Feed food that is easily digested and supply them with pure
water to drink. When the general condition is weak or run down, so to
speak, the following tonic is recommended: Pulv. Gentian Root, one
ounce; Pulv. Nux Vomica, one ounce; Pulv. Potassium Nitrate, one ounce;
Hyposulphite of Soda, three ounces; Protan, three ounces. Mix and make
into twenty-four powders. Give one powder two or three times daily well
back on the tongue.

REMEMBER all tonics are bitter, therefore beware of any so-called tonics
that the animals eat readily, as these possess no real tonic values.


(_Verminous Gastritis—Strongylosis_)

CAUSE.—Due to a worm (Strongylus Contortus) measuring one-fourth to one
inch in length, inhabiting the intestines and the fourth stomach of sheep
and goats. This disease is frequently seen in low, marshy pastures, where
animals infested with the worm pass the ova or egg with the feces, the
eggs developing into an embryotic worm which is again taken with the food
or water by non-infected animals, whereby this disease again attacks the
intestines and fully matured worms develop.

SYMPTOMS.—Naturally, the symptoms vary according to the violence of
the attack. In well developed cases, the animal strains to defecate,
and passes shreds of intestinal mucous along with blood-stained
feces. Finally a severe dysentery takes place, the animal becomes
correspondingly weak, and death takes place in two or three days. Some
cases become chronic, in which death does not take place for a month or
more. However, the latter is uncommon. Other signs are staggering gait,
trembling, eyes fixed, showing wild expression, neck turned to one side.
Then the animal appears as if in pain, and looks around at the flank
frequently. There is a chopping of the jaws, and a very free flow of
stringy saliva from the mouth. When an animal dies from the symptoms
just described, it should be cut open and carefully examined for this
particular parasite, which can be easily seen with the naked eye.

TREATMENT.—Very successfully treated when the first symptoms appear by
administering one ounce of Gasoline with a pint of Milk. To lambs or kids
give half the dose. Every precaution should be taken so as to prevent
the drench from entering the lungs. Perhaps the best method is to set
the animals on its haunches and pour the liquid slowly and carefully; if
they cough, let them down. Any drench entering the lungs produces fatal
pneumonia. Feed good nourishing food, and supply them with fresh water to


(_Cold in the Head_)

CAUSE.—Atmospheric changes, sudden exposure to cold, wet weather after
being accustomed to warm, comfortable surroundings, inhaling dust, smoke
and gases or, in fact, anything that will produce an irritation to the
membranes lining the nose; commonly seen in the spring and fall.

SYMPTOMS.—Chilling, elevation of temperature, nose dry, breathing
hurried, sneezing, coughing, dullness, appetite varied. In the first
stages of the malady, the nostrils are considerably inflamed, but in
the course of a few days the temperature subsides and a yellowish-white
discharge flows from the nose continuously.

TREATMENT.—Keep the affected animals dry, omit drafts, feed good,
wholesome food, and provide bedding for them to lie upon. In the first
stages of this malady, it is advisable to confine the animals in a barn,
closing the windows and doors and compelling them to inhale steam from
boiling hot water and Pine Tar. The best method to accomplish this is
by placing a tub about half full of water in the center of the barn and
add about one gallon of Pine Tar. Then heat bricks or stones and place
them into the tub. In this way a large number can be treated at one
time. The sheep should be compelled to inhale this steam for thirty to
forty minutes twice a day. In addition to the above, the following is
very beneficial: Chlorate of Potash, one ounce; Nitrate of Potassi, two
ounces. Make into sixteen powders and give one powder to each sheep in
its drinking water two or three times daily. Feed hot bran mashes and
vegetables if possible.



CAUSE.—Diarrhoea, or Dysentery, is a sign of some irritation of the
intestines resulting in increased secretions, or increased muscular
contraction, or both. The irritation is sometimes the result of chilling
from exposure, improper feeding, as contaminated or frozen foods,
irritating foods, drinking cold or stagnant water, indigestion, organic
diseases of the intestines, or parasitic diseases. (See Strongylosis.)

SYMPTOMS.—Movements from the bowels are frequent, as first consisting of
thin fecal matter, but as this malady progresses it becomes watery and
offensive in smell, and streaked with blood. At first the animal shows
no constitutional disturbances, but eventually it becomes weak and shows
signs of abdominal pain by looking around to the flank, throwing the feet
together, lying down, or moving restlessly. Sometimes this disease is
accompanied by fever, great depression, loss of strength, rapid loss of
flesh; terminating in death.

TREATMENT.—Determine the cause and remove it if possible. When the
disease is due to irritating properties of food which have been fed the
animal, it is well to give a physic of Castor Oil in two to six ounce
doses, according to the size of the animal. When there is debility, want
of appetite, and temperature normal, but continuous water discharge
from the bowels, give Protan, two ounces; Gum Cathechu, one ounce;
Pulv. Ginger, one ounce; Zinc Sulphocarbolates, eight grains. Make into
sixteen powders and give one powder on the tongue every three or four
hours, according to the severity of the attack. Feed food that is easily
digested, as wheat bran mashes, steamed rolled oats, etc. See that the
drinking water is fresh and clean.


(_Foul in the Foot_)

CAUSE.—Foot Rot is produced by inflammation of the soft structures of
the foot between the claws or toes. It may be due to an overgrowth and
inward pressure, etc., or from filth accumulating and hardening between
the claws, producing inflammation and softening or ulceration of the skin
in the interdigital space (between the claws). Under some conditions
several sheep or goats in the same drove become affected at the same
time, leading many to think that the disease is contagious. When Foot Rot
appears in a very short time, among sheep or goats, this condition can
almost always be traced to filth, irritation, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—The animal is observed to limp when walking. On careful
examination of the foot we find it hot, swollen above the claws and in
the soft parts between them, frequently spreading the claws apart to a
considerable extent, or the inflammation may have advanced to softening
and sloughing of the soft structure between the claws. If this condition
is neglected at this stage, deep abscesses form and the pus burrows
under the horny wall, and the joints within the hoof become inflamed and
destroyed, in which case the treatment is difficult and recovery will be
very arduous.

TREATMENT.—In the early stages of the disease, before the pus burrows
beneath the horny structures of the foot, any foreign substances impacted
between the claws should be removed. Then place a trough about one foot
wide, six to eight inches high, and twelve to sixteen feet long, and fill
with water and Coal Tar Dip, diluted in proportions of one part dip to
fifty parts of water. Build a fence on each side of the trough, just wide
enough for one sheep to pass through, and compel every sheep to walk in
the solution slowly.

This treatment should be repeated once or twice a week until the lameness
has disappeared. In cases where deep sloughing has taken place under the
horny structures, saturate a piece of oakum or cotton in the following
liniment: Oil of Origanum, Oil of Pisis, Oil of Turpentine, each four
ounces. Place it between the claws and hold it there by means of a
bandage. Repeat this application every other day. The animals that do not
show signs of improvement under this treatment in a few days invariably
have the joints of the foot affected and should not be driven.


CAUSE.—This condition is produced by animals eating various foliage
(Grass or Shrubbery) at a time when the peculiar poisonous principles are
developed in it, as appears to happen in certain seasons. The disease is
liable to affect a large proportion of animals which are under the same
grazing conditions.

SYMPTOMS.—Generally takes two or three days to develop. The animal
gradually becomes more or less unconscious and paralyzed, staggers when
forced to walk, and it may have great difficulty in keeping on its feet,
it is extremely averse to going down, and leans for support against any
convenient object. It breathes in a snorting manner. The mucous membranes
are tinged with yellow, and the bowels constipated. In other cases
severe diarrhoea follows, and the animal becomes very weak and dies in
convulsions or spasms. Recovery may be expected in cases that are not
marked by severe symptoms.

TREATMENT.—Endeavor to find out the true cause and remove it if possible.
Change range or pasture for a short time; this has successfully
eradicated this malady. The animal showing the above symptoms should
receive four to eight ounces of Castor Oil regardless of whether there
is diarrhoea or constipation. In either case the irritation will be
relieved by its laxative effect. In cases where diarrhoea becomes
chronic, after administering the Castor Oil, the following will be found
very efficient in its control: Protan, three ounces; Ginger, one ounce;
Gum Catechu, two ounces. Make into sixteen powders and place one powder
well back on the tongue every four or six hours. Feed clean, wholesome
food and supply clean, fresh water to drink. Provide shelter for the
animal if the weather is hot.


(_Congestion and Inflammation of the Udder_)

CAUSE.—As a rule, in Garget or Congestion of the Udder in heavy milking
ewes, just before and after lambing, the glands of the udder enlarge,
become hot, tense and tender and a slight pasty swelling extends forward
from the glands on the lower surface of the abdomen. This physiological
condition is looked upon as a matter of course and disposed of in two
or three days when the secretions of milk have been fully established.
General breaking up of the udder may be greatly hastened by the sucking
of a hungry lamb and the kneading it gives the udder with its nose is
beneficial. The above mentioned congestion or Garget may emerge into
active inflammation resulting from continued exposure to cold weather,
standing in cold drafts or injury to the udder from stone, clubs, feet
of other animals, overfeeding or rich food, like cotton seed or soy
bean, sore teats or a ewe losing her lamb in the period of full milking;
serious disturbances of the animal’s health is liable to fall upon the

SYMPTOMS.—The symptoms and mode of attack vary in different cases.
Following exposure to cold drafts or cold, wet weather, there is usually
severe chilling with cold ears and limbs and general dryness and
brittleness of the wool. This is followed by a flush of heat, the ears
and limbs become unnaturally warm and the glands swell up and become
firm and solid in one or both sides of the udder. The muzzle is hot
and dry, temperature elevated two or three degrees above normal, pulse
firm and quick, excited breathing, appetite and rumination suspended,
bowels constipated, urine scanty and the yield of milk may be entirely
suppressed in the affected side.

TREATMENT.—Determine the cause and remove it if possible. Move the
affected animals to comfortable quarters, supply liberal quantities of
bedding for the animal to lie upon. Give two to six ounces of Glauber
Salts dissolved in a pint of hot water. Permit it to cool. Place the ewe
on her haunches and drench carefully. Feed laxative foods as hot bran
mashes, steamed rolled oats and vegetables, supplying the animal with
pure water to drink, to which add two drams of Hyposulphite of Soda, two
or three times a day. In some cases it is advisable to apply Camphorated
Ointment to the udder once or twice a day.



CAUSE.—Gid is produced by a bladder worm, a larva or an egg of the
tapeworm infesting the intestines of dogs, wolves and coyotes. The eggs
of these tapeworms are scattered over the range or pastures in the
droppings of infested dogs, wolves or coyotes, and these when swallowed
in the food or water by the sheep, hatch out and the embryos migrate to
the brain, spinal cord, etc., where they develop into cysts, bladder
worms or water bags, etc. When the organs of sheep, thus infested, are
eaten by dogs, wolves or coyotes, the cyst worms are also likely to be
swallowed and then develop into mature tapeworms.

SYMPTOMS.—In case a large number of embryos become lodged in the brain
of sheep, the first signs will be shown in about eight to twelve days.
Bladder worms produce a congestion of the brain which causes dullness,
dizziness, indicating an affection of the brain, walking or turning in
circles. If the left side of the brain is affected, they will turn to the
left; if the right side is affected, they will turn to the right. The
head eventually droops, the eyes become red and the vision is impaired,
the head very hot over the affected region, the affected sheep become
separated from the flock. Sometimes the sheep are partially or completely

PREVENTION.—Prevention is the only method by which this disease can
be eradicated. Prevent the sheep from becoming infected with these
parasites. Stray dogs, wolves or coyotes should be killed whenever found,
and dogs too valuable to kill should be kept free from tapeworm. Meat
should not be fed to dogs unless cooked or known to be free from tapeworm


(_Head Maggot_)

CAUSE.—Grubs in the head of sheep are produced by the Sheep Gadfly which
is yellowish-gray in color with five well divided rings around its body,
covered over with fine hair and the lower portion of the head white. This
fly is somewhat larger than the ordinary house fly. It attacks sheep and
goats during the Summer and Fall and deposits its larva about the sheep’s
and goat’s nostrils. This larva attaches itself to the mucous membrane of
the nostrils with two hooklets by which it gradually works into the air
cavities of the head, remaining there for about ten months. Then it again
passes from the nostrils, burrows into the ground and becomes a fully
matured Gadfly in six or eight weeks, which completes its life cycle, the
head of the sheep or goat being its intermediate host where the newly
born Gadfly again attaches its larva.

SYMPTOMS.—When sheep or goats are attacked by this Gadfly, they run,
strike at the nose with their front feet, rub the nose on the ground or
against other sheep. In case only three or four larvae gain entrance to
the sinuses of the head, they produce very little, if any, ill effects,
but where they become numerous, they cause the animal to cough and sneeze
continually, discharge from the nose, which is occasionally tinged
with blood. The appetite becomes impaired, the animal shows signs of
emaciation, becomes very weak, raises the nose in the air, but eventually
becomes so weak it reels when walking and finally lies down. It becomes
so weak it cannot toss the head or rise, and dies.

PREVENTION TREATMENT.—Very successful. Paint the sheep’s or goat’s nose
with Pine Tar, or better still, place salt in a trough, covering it with
boards, with holes bored in them just large enough for the animal to
insert its nose. Smear Pine Tar about the holes once or twice a week.
This treatment has proven very efficient in localities where sheep
Gadflies are numerous.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—After the animal once becomes infected with these
grubs, bore holes (trephine) through the skull with a sharp instrument
made for this purpose and remove the grubs.


(_Bloating—Acute Tympanites—Acute Indigestion_)

CAUSE.—Hoven is caused by various kinds of food which produce indigestion
or fermentation and resultant gases in the rumen or paunch. When sheep
are first turned into young clover, they eat so greedily of it that
bloating frequently results. Turnips, potatoes and cabbage may also
produce it. Middlings and corn meal also frequently give rise to it.
In this connection it may be stated that an excessive quantity of any
food, before mentioned, may bring on this disorder, or it may not be due
to excessive eating but to eating too fast. Sometimes the quality of
food is at fault. Grass, clover or alfalfa, when wet with dew or rain
soaked, frequently produce digestive disorders and bloating follows.
Frozen roots or potatoes covered with white frost should be regarded
as dangerous. When food has been eaten too hastily or when it is cold
and wet, the digestive process is imperfectly performed and the food
contained in the paunch ferments, during which process large quantities
of gas are formed. This same result may follow when a sheep is choking,
as the obstruction in the gullet prevents the eructation or passing of
gas from the stomach so that the gas continues to accumulate until severe
bloating results.

SYMPTOMS.—The swelling of the left flank is very characteristic, as in
well marked cases the flank at its upper part rises above the level
of the backbone and when struck with the tips of the fingers emits a
drum-like sound. The animal has an anxious expression, moves uneasily
and is evidently distressed. If relief is not obtained in time the sheep
breathes with difficulty, reels in walking or standing and in a short
time falls down and dies from suffocation. The distention of the stomach
or rumen may become so great that it pushes the diaphragm (the membrane
separating the lung and intestinal cavity) forward against the lungs, so
as to squeeze and stop their movements, thus preventing the animal from
breathing and in some instances the case may be complicated by a rupture
of the stomach.

TREATMENT.—Do not waste any time. Puncture about three inches downward
and forward from the point of the hip bone with a clean sharp knife, or
any instrument that is clean and sharp. A special instrument made for
this purpose, the trocar, is a very useful instrument.

Sometimes bloating becomes chronic, and if such is the case dissolve
two teaspoonfuls of Turpentine in one-half pint of milk and drench the
animal very carefully, as some of this drench may escape into the lungs
and produce fatal pneumonia. Set a sheep upon its haunches to give the
medicine; if it coughs let it down quickly to prevent strangulation.



CAUSE.—Irritant food, damaged food, overloaded paunch or sudden change of
diet may produce this disease. Want of exercise predisposes an animal to
it and it is caused by woody or indigestible food. Food which possesses
astringent (drying) properties tends to check the digestive secretions
and may also act as an exciting cause. Food in excessive quantity may
lead to disorders of the digestion and to this disease. It is very likely
to appear towards the end of the protracted season of drought, therefore
a deficiency of water must be regarded as one of the conditions which
favors its development.

SYMPTOMS.—Appetite diminished; rumination, or chewing the cud, irregular;
tongue coated, mouth slimy, feces passed apparently not well digested
and offensive in odor, dullness and fullness of the flanks. This disease
may, in some cases, assume a chronic character, for in addition to the
above mentioned symptoms, slight bloating of the left flank may be
observed. The animal breathes with great difficulty and grunts with each
respiration. The ears and legs alternately become hot and cold. The
rumination, or cud chewing, at this stage ceases and the usual rumbling
sound in the stomach is not audible. The passage of feces is entirely
suspended and the animal passes only a little mucus occasionally.
Sometimes constipation and diarrhoea alternate; there is a rise in
temperature in many cases. The disease continues for a few days or a week
in this mild form, while the severe form of the disease may last for
several weeks. In the severe form the emaciation and loss of strength
may be very great. There is no appetite, no rumination or rumbling sound
in the stomach or intestines. The mouth is hot and sticky, the eyes have
retracted in their sockets and the milk secretion has ceased. In such
cases the outlook for recovery is unfavorable. The affected animals fall
away in flesh and become very weak, which is shown by the fact that one
finds the animal lying down.

On examination of sheep or goats which have died of this disease, it is
found that the lining membranes of the fourth stomach and intestines,
particularly the small intestines, are red, swollen, streaked with deep
red or blushed lines or spotted. The lining of the third stomach is more
or less softened and may be easily peeled off. The third stomach contains
dry, hard food masses, closely adhering to its walls. In some cases the
brain appears to become affected, probably from the pain endured and
weakness and absorption of poisons generated in the digestive canal. In
such cases there is weakness and a staggering gait; the sheep or goats
do not appear to see, and will consequently run against obstacles. After
a time it falls down and gives up to a violent disordered struggle. This
delirious condition is succeeded by stupor and death.

TREATMENT.—Successful, if fed in its first stages on small quantities
of roots, sweet silage or select grasses or hay. This should be offered
several times daily. Very little food should be allowed if the animal
is constipated, in which case give two to four ounces of Glauber Salts
dissolved in a pint of hot water. When it cools, set the animal on its
haunches and pour slowly and carefully. If they strangle or cough let
them down, as some of the drench may escape into the lungs and produce
lung complications. After the Glauber Salts have acted and if there is
a lack of appetite and the animal does not chew the cud regularly, the
following tonic will be found beneficial: Pulv. Gentian Root, one ounce;
Pulv. Nux Vomica, one ounce; Pulv. Anise Seed, two ounces. Mix thoroughly
and make into thirty-two powders. Give one powder two or three times a
day well back on the tongue. The food must be rather laxative and of
a digestible character. After an attack of this form of indigestion,
ice cold water should be avoided. Food should be given in moderate
quantities, as any excess by overtaxing the digestive functions may bring
on a relapse.


(_Liver Congestion—Inflammation of the Liver_)

CAUSE.—Jaundice or Liver Congestion is due to constipation where there
is an inactive or torpid condition of the bowels and the bile which
passes into the intestines is absorbed and produces a yellow staining of
Jaundice. Jaundice is merely a symptom of a disease and ought to direct
attention to ascertain if possible the cause or causes which give rise
to it. Inflammation of the liver usually occurs as a complication of
infectious diseases. It may also occur as a complication of intestinal
catarrh, or in hot weather from overheating, eating decomposed or
irritating food or from drinking stagnant water.

SYMPTOMS.—The signs are sometimes obscure and their real significance is
frequently overlooked. The most prominent symptoms are the yellowness
of the white of the eyes and of the mucous membranes lining the mouth,
appetite poor, body presents an emaciated appearance, the feces is light
in color, while the urine is likely to be unusually dark and there is
great thirst present. The gait is weak and the animal lies down more
than usual and while doing so frequently has its head around resting on
the side of its chest. Temperature is slightly elevated above normal and
breathing is somewhat hurried.

TREATMENT.—Remove the cause if possible. Give Glauber Salts in three to
four ounce doses, diluted in a pint of hot water permitted to cool and
give at one dose. When drenching, be very careful, as some of the liquid
may escape into the lungs and produce severe complications. Feed green
food or hot bran mashes and supply them with a liberal quantity of pure
water to drink.


CAUSE.—The parasite that produces Liver Fluke in sheep has an oblong,
flat, leaf-like body, brownish in color, measuring from one-fourth to
one-half inch in length. Sheep become infected with this Liver Fluke from
grazing on low marshy pastures infected by the larvae of Liver Fluke.

SYMPTOMS.—A sheep, when first infected with Liver Fluke, generally
thrives as the parasites tend to stimulate the process of digestion,
being located as they are in the liver, but eventually rumination
becomes irregular, the sheep becomes anemic, weak and the visible mucous
membranes of the mouth, nose and eyes become pale, bloodless, taking on
a yellowish color as the disease progresses. Swellings will also appear
under the jaw along the neck and under the lung cavity. The process of
breathing becomes feeble and temperature irregular. Pregnant ewes will
generally abort and nursing ewes’ milk will become so deprived of its
nourishing properties that the lambs become emaciated, although not
necessarily affected with the Liver Fluke.

PREVENTION.—Move to non-infected pastures, supply the animals grazing on
low marshy pastures with a liberal amount of salt, also introduce frogs,
toads, carp, etc., into the marshy ponds, as they destroy the parasite in
its first stages of development, feeding on their intermediate host, the

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—This is of little value. After an animal once becomes
infected with the parasite, it never makes a complete recovery, although
Calomel administered in ten grain doses every two or three weeks appears
to have a very good effect in some cases, if fed freely on nitrogenous
food and permitted to drink well of pure running water.


(_Pneumonia—Congestion of the Lungs—Pulmonary Apoplexy_)

Acute congestion and inflammation of the spongy tissues of the lungs is
frequently seen in sheep, the same as in other animals.

CAUSE.—Sheep that are overdriven are subject to Lung Congestion in acute
or chronic form and sometimes Pulmonary Apoplexy, and especially when in
a plethoric condition are predisposed to inflammation of the lungs. The
exciting cause is very much the same as in different diseases of the air
passage and it is not uncommon for the inflammation to extend from these
parts of the lungs. However, there are a number of causes in addition to
those already mentioned. It frequently results when sheep are accustomed
to warm, comfortable quarters and are changed to cold, drafty pens, or
shipping some distance in open stock cars during cold weather. In fact,
any sudden chilling of the body is a common cause of lung disorders.
Giving fat sheep too much exercise when they are not accustomed to it is
a very frequent cause of Congestion and Inflammation of the Lungs. This
may occur when they are chased by dogs, etc., or when driven to a distant
market at too rapid a gait. Exercise during the hot summer months is
apt to cause congestion of the lung substance, as well as heat stroke.
Dipping sheep during cold weather may chill the body and result in this

SYMPTOMS.—If due to severe exercise, the animal appears greatly exhausted
and the Congestion of the Lungs is marked. Death may occur at this stage
of the disease. Inflammation of the Lungs usually begins with a chill and
is followed by a high fever. The sheep stand most of the time and may eat
nothing, or very little. The breathing is hurried at first, but when the
lungs become badly involved, it is also labored. The character of the
pulse beat varies, depending on the extent of the inflammation and the
stage of the disease. In most cases the pulse is full and quick during
the early stages of the disease. A very weak pulse is present in severe
and fatal cases of Pneumonia. The visible mucous membranes have a red
colored appearance and there may be a slight discharge from the nostrils.
The expression of the face is anxious and distressed in severe cases and
rigors and chilling of the body occur. The respiratory sounds are more or
less normal. The cough at first is deep and dry; later it becomes loose
and moist. It may be accompanied by a hemorrhage during this stage of the
disease. Other respiratory sounds are revealed by placing the ear to the
side of the chest walls and listening to the sound of the lungs. This
cannot be practiced in long wooled sheep with satisfaction, as the chest
walls are so thick that the lung sounds are deadened, or the noise made
by the animal hides the respiratory murmurs in the very early stages of
Inflammation of the Lungs. A crepitating or crackling sound can be heard
in the diseased parts and louder sounds than normal in the healthy areas.
Later when the engorgement of the lung substance occurs and the air
cells become filled with an inflammatory serum, the respiratory sounds
are deadened, but on returning to the normal, a rattling sound occurs.
These symptoms help greatly in determining the animal’s condition and in
watching the progress of the disease. The chances for the recovery depend
on the extent and the acuteness of the inflammation. Careless handling,
exercising, etc., lessen the chances for a favorable termination in
the disease, but good care helps more to bring about recovery than the
medical treatment. The recovery is more unfavorable in fat than in lean
sheep, as the inflammation is usually more severe in the former. The
course is from seven to twenty-one days and it may become chronic if the
irritation is kept up. In such cases, unthriftiness is a prominent sign.

TREATMENT.—The preventive treatment in Pneumonia must not be overlooked.
Briefly, it consists in avoiding such conditions as may predispose the
animal to the disease or act in any way as an exciting cause. Careful
nursing is a very important part of the treatment. The sheep should be
given a comfortable, well ventilated shed and kept as quiet as possible.
If the bowels become constipated, give two or three ounces of Castor Oil
and feed sloppy food. As one attack predisposes the sheep to a second, it
should be protected from severe cold, or the other extreme, heat, for a
month after making a complete recovery.

The following prescription will be found very beneficial: Iodide of
Ammonia, one-half ounce; Chlorate of Potassi, one ounce; Pulv. Nux
Vomica, one ounce. Make into twenty-four powders and give one powder
every four hours well back on the tongue. Continue this treatment until
the animal has recovered.


(_Verminous Bronchitis_)

CAUSE.—Due to a white thread-like worm (Strongylus Filaria) varying in
length from one to three inches. The worms affect and live in the trachea
(windpipe) and bronchial tubes. Infected animals, in coughing, expel
fertilized eggs which develop on the grass and stagnant water. The larvae
are again taken up either in the drinking water or in eating grass or hay
gathered on low marshy soil. Warm wet weather favors their development.

SYMPTOMS.—This worm is liable to attack a number of animals at the same
time. The weakest sheep and young lambs are the first to show signs by
coughing forcibly, distressing, hacking and convulsive in character. A
stringy mucus is sometimes expelled during the spasm of coughing. This
mucus contains worms which can be detected, or their ova observed under
a magnifying glass. In the latter stages of the disease, they cough
severely at night. These attacks have a sub-acute character and prove
very exhausting. The parasite by becoming entwined in balls severely
affects the animal’s breathing which is always remarkably labored in
the latter stages of the disease. The animal refuses to eat, becomes
emaciated, anemic, mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and nose become
very pale and the sheep die in convulsions from suffocation.

PREVENTIVE TREATMENT.—Avoid grazing your sheep on low marshy soil,
especially during warm wet weather. Young lambs and weak ones are
especially susceptible to this disease.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—The writer has tried various treatments as fumigation
with different substances and injection of remedies into the windpipe
by the use of a hypodermic syringe, etc., but none have proven very
successful, from a practical standpoint. I would recommend placing the
affected animals in a tightly closed barn or shed, in the center of which
place a pan of red hot coals and cover with Sulphur.

A person should remain in the barn or shed as long as he possibly can
and after the fumes become so irritating that he cannot endure them
any longer, he should immediately make his exit. The sheep should be
compelled to stay a minute or two longer and then quickly open the
doors and windows. Repeat this treatment once or twice a week. Feed
affected animals well. Give them fresh water to drink and protect them
from exposure. This treatment, as above described, has given very good
results, providing the parasites were not too numerous.



CAUSE.—The mange mite (Psoroptes Communis). This parasite is equipped
with stylets which pierce the skin at the seat where the mange mite
penetrates the skin, and produces small red spots followed by a blister
filled with serum, which ruptures, the serum drying and forming a small
scab. It is in this way that innumerable mange mites cause the piling
up of scabs thus producing a very scaly condition. As Mange advances,
the scaly patches eventually pile up until they attain the thickness of
one-half inch, unless these scabs have been severely rubbed.

SYMPTOMS.—Very easily detected, as a bunch of sheep that have been
recently infected will be uneasy or restless, rubbing against fences,
posts, brush, etc., causing bunches of wool to loosen. The itching seems
to be more intense at night and during warm weather. The affected animals
will even make attempts to bite themselves, due to the agony produced by
the mange mite. If the skin is examined by the aid of a magnifying glass,
the mange mite can be easily noticed, or by scraping the skin with a
knife and placing the scabs on a dark paper and exposed to the warmth of
the sun, the mange mite moving about can readily be seen with the naked
eye. Mangy sheep become very poor and eventually die.

PREVENTION.—This is important, for although the disease is treated with
very good results, the mange mite annoy the sheep until they become very
weak and emaciated and the loss of wool is enormous due to the affected
animal continually rubbing against fences, brush, etc.

TREATMENT.—Consists of using various dips, as Lime and Sulphur, which is
recommended by the United States Bureau of Animal Industry. This is very
effective and inexpensive. Scabby sheep should be dipped a week or ten
days after shearing; two dippings are necessary at the interval of ten
days. After dipping, move to non-infected range or pastures.


(_Louse Fly_)

CAUSE.—The tick that infects sheep has a very small head sunken into its
round body. The head possesses a flexible trunk or snout that penetrates
the skin. Through this trunk, the ticks derive their nourishment by
sucking the blood from the body of the sheep. The tick is also provided
with three pairs of legs. The female lays her young in the form of a spun
egg (cocoon) which is oblong in shape and brown in color. This egg is
cemented to the wool of sheep where young ticks are hatched in about four
to six weeks.

SYMPTOMS.—Long wooled sheep are more susceptible to this tick as their
wool provides shelter for both the tick and its eggs. After shearing the
sheep the ticks have a tendency to leave the body and to migrate to the
legs or to unshorn lambs where their snouts or trunks pierce the skin
which appears to become infected, producing a swelling and inflammation.
The infected sheep run, scratch and bite themselves. When these ticks
become developed in large quantities, they produce a paleness of the
mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth and nose, as the ticks suck large
quantities of blood, which produces an anemic condition. The sheep become
poor, weak and unthrifty.

TREATMENT.—Satisfactorily treated by dipping infected sheep in Coal Tar
dips or Emulsions of Crude Petroleum. Shearing the sheep has a good
effect, but care must be exercised as the ticks then rapidly migrate to
the lambs.

                               DISEASES OF


                           CAUSE, SYMPTOMS AND



    0. Beak.
    1. Comb.
    2. Face.
    3. Wattles.
    4. Ear lobe.
    5. Hackle.
    6. Breast.
    7. Back.
    8. Saddle.
    9. Saddle feathers.
    10. Sickles.
    11. Lesser sickles.
    12. Tail coverts.
    13. Main tail feathers.
    14. Wing bow.
    15. Wing coverts, forming wing bar.
    16. Secondaries, wing bar.
    17. Primaries or flight feathers.
    18. Flight coverts.
    19. Point of breast bone.
    20. Fluff.
    21. Thigh.
    22. Knee joint.
    23. Shank.
    24. Spur.
    25. Toes, or claws.


This chapter, as its title indicates, is to give to the Students and
Veterinary Profession a general view of the diseases of poultry, their
causes, symptoms and treatment in a condensed and yet in a complete form.

Thousands of dollars worth of poultry are lost each year because of the
veterinarians not having for immediate reference a book giving full
information regarding the causes, symptoms, and treatment of diseases,
with reliable and authentic advice on what to do for poultry that are
sick or unthrifty.

If this brief chapter proves itself of value to our students to which it
is most fraternally dedicated, the writer will feel himself amply repaid.

                                                CHARLES J. KORINEK, V. S.



CAUSE.—Produced by a parasite called Cylodites Nudus, which bears a close
resemblance to the parasite causing mange or scabies in the domesticated
animal. Owing to the peculiar construction of their breathing organs
fowls are more susceptible to parasites than animals. In addition to
effecting the lungs, the Air Sac Mite may extend its operations to the
intestines, kidneys, liver and bones.

SYMPTOMS.—Unthriftiness is first noticed, but after the parasites
become numerous, the fowl shows signs of difficult breathing, perhaps
terminating in bronchial pneumonia. In some cases death occurs without
apparent cause. The bird will be inactive, becomes separated from the
rest of the flock, comb pale, head drawn close to the body, wings hang
pendulous, lose flesh, breathing becomes hard, coughing, sneezing and a
rattling from the mucus in the windpipe is heard. Death is produced from

TREATMENT.—Separate the sick from the healthy fowls. Disinfect coops
and runways of both sick and healthy birds with Crude Carbolic Acid,
undiluted. Also fumigate the fowls in their coops with steam from hot
water and Pine Tar. This may be done by placing the water and Tar in a
pan and then inserting a hot stone or brick in the solution. This perhaps
is the simplest method of fumigation. Also mix Sulphur in their feed


(_Hemorrhage of the Brain_)

Due to the rupture of a blood vessel of the brain and pressure from the
escaping blood.

CAUSE.—Mechanical injuries, straining when laying eggs (hens are
frequently found dead on the nest from this cause), overfeeding,
stimulating food, etc., all tend to produce apoplexy.

SYMPTOMS.—Appear very suddenly, bird is seen to walk unsteadily, falls,
or perhaps is found dead.

TREATMENT.—In mild attacks, apply cold water or ice to fowl’s head until
thoroughly cooled. Give one-half grain of Calomel, feed soft food,
compel the bird to exercise. Owing to the loss of blood a tonic will
be necessary. Pulv. Gentian Root, Pulv. Saltpeter, Capsicum and Ferri
Sulphate Pulv. equal parts one ounce. Mix and place one teaspoonful in
feed for every twenty-five fowls. This tonic purifies and builds up the
blood, just what is needed in this particular condition.



CAUSE.—Due to fungi.

SYMPTOMS.—The first noticeable sign is the whitish appearance of the
comb due to gray spots about the size of a pin head. As the disease
progresses, this condition spreads to other parts of the body; the
feathers look rough and dry and break easily. The fowl grows weaker,
refuses to eat and if not properly treated, dies.

TREATMENT.—Remove the scabs by separating the feathers and using a brush.
Apply Sulphur Ointment. Repeat this treatment after two or three days.
Great care must be taken to prevent the fowl from chilling or taking


CAUSE.—Lodgment in the beak or food canal of a foreign substance, such as
a kernel of corn, sunflower seed, bone, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Fowl jerks its head suddenly and frequently attempts to
swallow. If a close examination is made the foreign body can be felt from
the outside.

TREATMENT.—For the removal of such obstructions, no special treatment
is needed further than to use care and avoid any injury to the beak or
throat. Feed nutritious food, as wheat bran mashes and vegetables and see
that they have a liberal quantity of good pure water at all times.


(_Infectious Entero Hepatitis of Turkeys_)

CAUSE.—Due to a protozoa taken into the system with the food or drinking
water. This parasite enters the caeca which becomes inflamed and
discolored and the liver is enlarged and studded with yellowish spots
about the size of a pea.

SYMPTOMS.—Although this disease is termed Blackhead, the discoloration
of the head is not necessarily present in all cases; neither is this
condition confined to this particular disease. One of the first symptoms
is loss of appetite, followed in most cases by diarrhoea. The fowl
becomes weak and loses weight rapidly. Examination of the liver after
death will determine whether or not death has been caused by Infectious
Entero Hepatitis. The dead birds should be burned to prevent the spread
of the disease.

TREATMENT.—Prevention is one of the most important factors as this
disease is very contagious and the protozoa once implanted in the turkey
runs is almost impossible to eradicate. Provide clean, well ventilated
coops and feed clean, wholesome food and good fresh water to drink.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—Give Bismuth Salicylate and Quinine Sulphate each one
grain two to three times a day. Also mix Hyposulphite of Soda in the
proportion of two to four grains to every fowl in their drinking water
twice daily. Disinfect coops and runs with Crude Carbolic Acid, undiluted.


CAUSE.—Insanitary conditions. Communicated by direct contact.

SYMPTOMS.—Young chicks become emaciated and die quickly. Older birds
withstand the parasite much longer, but in time show signs of uneasiness
by dusting themselves frequently. The comb and wattles become pale and
bloodless, the feathers rough, dry and brittle. The birds grow weak, poor
and eventually die.

TREATMENT.—Dust the birds with the following: Sulphur, one part;
Napthaline, one part; Tobacco Dust, twenty-eight parts and seventy parts
of middlings. Powder finely and mix well together and dust the birds once
daily. Also sprinkle freely in the dust baths.


CAUSE.—Exposure to dampness, cold drafts of air, inhaling irritating
gases, vapors or dust. The fowls should be carefully examined, as
bronchitis is occasionally caused by the presence of gapeworms.

SYMPTOMS.—Loss of appetite, the bird moves about slowly, breathing with
difficulty and making a sort of whistling sound accompanied by a cough.
As the disease progresses, there will be a peculiar bubbling sound from
breathing due to an excessive accumulation of mucus in the windpipe. At
this stage of the disease the bird becomes very weak and if not properly
treated and cared for will rapidly lose strength, the feathers will
become rough, head and wings droop, and the bird dies.

TREATMENT.—This disease is most satisfactorily treated by placing
the affected birds in warm, dry, well ventilated quarters, admitting
sunlight if possible, but excluding all drafts of air. Feed stale bread,
middlings, etc. Also place the fowls in a moderately air tight coop
and compel them to inhale steam from hot water and Turpentine. This is
readily done by placing the water and Turpentine in a pan and then insert
a hot stone or brick in the solution. Force them to inhale this steam
from twenty to thirty minutes twice a day. Also add Chlorate of Potash to
their drinking water, one teaspoonful to every twenty-five aged fowls. To
chicks add one-fourth teaspoonful to every twenty-five. If the weather
is favorable and the above treatment is followed, bronchitis yields very


(_Corns—Deep Bruises—Abscesses_)

CAUSE.—Sharp-edged or narrow perches which bruise the feet or where the
perches are high, heavy fowls often injure their feet by alighting on
stones or other hard objects.

SYMPTOMS.—The bird limps or hobbles about, moving with great difficulty.
Examination will show the foot to be hot and tender to the touch.

TREATMENT.—Wash with clean, warm water and in some cases it is advisable
to apply Hot Flaxseed poultices. When soft spots or abscesses develop,
lance them with a clean, sharp knife. After abscesses and bruises are
opened, treat them antiseptically by washing with a solution of Carbolic
Acid, one teaspoonful to a pint of water. The foot should be bandaged to
keep out dust and dirt.


CAUSE.—Exposure; poorly constructed coops which admit rain or drafts.
Weak birds are very susceptible to Catarrh.

SYMPTOMS.—The bird is dull, moves about slowly, coughing or sneezing;
appetite is poor, the mucous membrane of the air passage becomes inflamed
and the breathing difficult, especially through the nose. The discharge
from the nostrils at first watery, becomes mucus-like and thick and
sticky, closing the nose, causing the bird to breathe wholly through the
mouth with a wheezing sound.

TREATMENT.—The cause of Catarrh shows the necessity of clean and
comfortable quarters for the fowls. Keep the birds strong and vigorous by
feeding clean, nourishing food.

MEDICAL TREATMENT.—To each fowl administer in their drinking water or
feed: Chlorate of Potash, one grain, twice daily.


(_Sore Head—Warts_)

CAUSE.—These diseases are due to low forms of parasites or fungi and
occur most frequently in wet weather especially if the coops are leaky
and allow the rain to fall on the droppings, causing mold or fungi. Poor
ventilation and lack of light also promotes the growth of fungi.

SYMPTOMS.—The disease is usually confined to the head and affects
principally young chickens, pigeons and turkeys, but rarely ducks and
geese. The infection appears in form of yellowish warts or nodules about
the nose, eyelids, comb, wattles, under the wings, or any unfeathered
place. The warts vary in size from that of a pin head to the size of a
pea and they discharge a fluid which at first is thin and watery but as
the disease progresses, it becomes thick and sticky, yellow in color and
fetid in smell. At this stage the appetite is poor, the feathers appear
rough, and where the eyelids are affected, as in most cases, the bird
cannot see, fails to eat, becomes emaciated, loses weight and strength
rapidly and if not properly treated, dies.

TREATMENT.—This disease is very contagious, therefore the coops and
runs should be disinfected with Crude Carbolic Acid, undiluted. In the
drinking water add Hyposulphite of Soda in the proportion of one to two
grains to each fowl (one-half grain to chicks). Wash the nodules or warts
about the head with Carbolic Acid solution, one teaspoonful to a quart of
water. Feed easily digested food, such as vegetables or warm bran mashes.


CAUSE.—Lack of exercise, overfeeding, tainted or moldy food, infection,
or impure blood.

SYMPTOMS.—Birds suffering from this disease seldom show signs of sickness
and it is well to dissect the fowl after death to ascertain the exact
cause. If death is caused by Congestion of the Liver, the organ will be
greatly enlarged and easily torn.

TREATMENT.—If the fowls are fat and sluggish, compel them to exercise by
driving them about. Also give fifteen to twenty grains of Epsom Salts
to each affected fowl. Feed laxative foods that are easily digested, as
vegetables and warm bran mashes. They are cooling and relieve congestion.


(_Pulmonary Congestion_)

CAUSE.—Exposure; the bird chills, causing contraction of the blood
vessels near the surface of the body, thereby forcing a large quantity of
blood to the internal organs; the small blood vessels in the lungs become
distended with blood and rupture.

SYMPTOMS.—Rapid and difficult breathing; the bird appears stupid and
sleepy and does not care to move about; appetite poor, wings drooping,
plumage ruffled, a thick mucus, colored with blood, escapes from the
mouth, comb and wattles show a dark-red color from lack of oxygen in the
blood. This disease is of very short duration, the bird dying within a
few hours. It is very common among young chicks and turkeys that are
permitted to run out in the early spring rains.

TREATMENT.—Medical treatment is of no value, as the disease progresses
so rapidly that the bird dies shortly after the first symptoms appear.
Sanitary surroundings, good light, pure air and exercise are essential.
Do not allow the birds to stand out in the cold or rains, especially
during the molting season. Keep your poultry strong and vigorous by
feeding clean, nourishing food and give them pure water to drink.


(_Intestinal Obstruction_)

CAUSE.—Irritation of the membranes lining the intestines, caused by dry
feed, glass or gravel; may also be due to parasitic worms. Obstruction
may occur in any part of the intestines although the external opening is
the part most frequently affected.

SYMPTOMS.—Bird appears dull and stupid, walks with difficulty and
attempts frequently to expel the obstructing material. The appetite
is poor and the feathers rough. By examination and manipulation the
obstruction may be located. Dried masses of excrement by adhering to the
feathers sometimes block the outer opening of the intestines.

TREATMENT.—Remove the waste matter clinging to the feathers with warm
water or by clipping the feathers off. If the Cloaca is obstructed, give
injections of Sweet Oil or Olive Oil with a small bulb syringe. Also
give one to two grains of Calomel and feed clean food and soft mashes
containing Pulv. Gentian Root, one grain to each fowl twice daily. This
stimulates the worm-like movement of the bowels and assists in expelling
their contents.


(_Obstruction, Paralysis, Inflammation, Catarrh_)

CAUSE.—Errors in feeding; birds that are not fed regularly are
predisposed to any of the above conditions; may also be due to swallowing
large pieces of bone, thread, nails, pins, glass, gravel, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Loss of appetite, frequent attempts to swallow, crop greatly
distended and hard on pressure; eventually the food decomposes and a
liquid may escape from the mouth and nose. The bird appears dull, stupid
and sleepy, comb pale, feathers rough, beak open, owing to pressure on
the windpipe. If caused by swallowing sharp objects, they may penetrate
the crop and skin, causing a gangrenous condition. Grain in the crop will
sometimes send out sprouts of considerable lengths.

TREATMENT.—If no sharp objects are present, give two teaspoonfuls
of Sweet or Olive Oil. This will lubricate the esophagus and crop.
Manipulate the crop upward, forcing the food gently through the mouth,
adding oil occasionally. If, however, sharp objects penetrate the crop
it is best to remove them through an artificial opening. Clip the
feathers from around the intended seat of operation and wash the clipped
surface with a Carbolic Solution, one teaspoonful to a pint of water. The
incision should not be over one-half inch long and should be made as high
as possible and in the center of the crop. After removing the contents,
sew up with ordinary thread and needle and wash occasionally with the
above antiseptic solution. The operation is not difficult and will be
successful if the parts are not too badly inflamed.

After-treatment consists of feeding very little food until the crop is
fairly well healed. Feed soft bran mashes and vegetables. To the drinking
water add Boracic Acid, one grain, twice daily. It relieves the catarrhal
condition that is present, such as irritations of the crop and intestines.


(_Gastro-Intestinal Catarrh—Enteritis_)

CAUSE.—Inflammation of the digestive organs can be traced in every
instance to the quality or quantity of food and water consumed. The food
or water may contain parasites, or large quantities of mustard, pepper,
or may be moldy or tainted.

SYMPTOMS.—Loss of appetite, the feathers appear rough, the crop is
sometimes paralyzed and distended with gas, the bird moves slowly, the
droppings vary in color from a white to a yellow or a green and finally
becomes tinged with blood; at this stage there is a rise in temperature
accompanied by great thirst and signs of pain. Mild cases of simple
diarrhoea if not properly treated when first symptoms appear, will
develop the same severe conditions described above.

TREATMENT.—Determine the cause and remove it if possible. See that
the food is clean and nutritious, the coops well ventilated, the runs
well lighted. Sunlight is very beneficial. Avoid exposures, drafts and
dampness. Place oatmeal in their drinking water, also give two grains of
Bismuth mixed with dough and make into a small pill. Give one every six

When in addition to the above symptoms a bloody discharge is present,
give six drops of Tincture of Catechu every four hours. Warm mashes made
of bran or oatmeal are very nourishing and soothing to the intestinal



CAUSE.—Due to a specific germ. The disease is very contagious and
is communicated by direct contact. Great care should be exercised,
therefore, when showing or buying birds. Any new birds to be added to the
flock should be kept in separate pens for a week or two to make sure they
are in good condition.

SYMPTOMS.—The first symptoms are similar to those of catarrh or cold.
A clear, watery liquid escapes from the eyes and nostrils, the head
is drawn in toward the body, the feathers appear rough, the breathing
fast, the temperature rises from three to five degrees above normal.
The bird walks about as if blind, sneezing, swallowing with difficulty,
and showing signs of great weakness. If the mouth is open small white
spots or elevations will be seen on the back of the tongue. There may
be diarrhoea of a green or yellow color. As the disease progresses the
discharge from the nose and eyes becomes thick and stringy, obstructing
the air passages and gathering in large quantities between the eyelids.
The mouth, throat and tongue are very much inflamed and swollen and in
most cases it is impossible for the bird to make a sound. Recovery is
doubtful after the disease has reached this stage.

TREATMENT.—Isolate the affected birds in some clean, warm, light, well
ventilated quarters, excluding drafts. Dissolve thirty grains of Chlorate
of Potash in one ounce of water and one ounce of Glycerine, and to the
average sized fowl give one teaspoonful three or four times a day. To
chicks give one-fourth the dose. When the scum loosens in the back part
of the tongue, remove gently. Care should be taken so as to prevent
bleeding. Feed soft, nourishing food.


Eggs are frequently found with two yolks. This condition is produced by
two ovary capsules bursting at about the same time and gaining entrance
together into the oviduct where they are concealed in the same shell.
Double-yolked eggs are larger than normal and may injure the oviduct when
expelled. When hatched they produce twins or abnormal chicks.



CAUSE.—Generally due to irritating, indigestible food, causing
inflammation of the membraneous lining of the intestinal cavity.

SYMPTOMS.—The abdomen becomes enlarged, is tender to the touch and
contains a watery fluid, the movement of which can be heard in most cases
by pressure on the swollen parts. The bird appears stupid, the comb pale
and the appetite poor.

TREATMENT.—Unless the bird is very valuable, treatment is not advisable.
In case the bird is valuable, give one grain of Potassium Iodide twice
daily in the feed or drinking water. Also feed nourishing food as
beef-scraps, vegetables, wheat bran mashes, etc.


(_Difficult Laying; Obstruction of the Oviduct_)

CAUSE.—Due to the eggs being too large, the bird too fat, or to the
absence of the secretions lubricating the oviduct.

SYMPTOMS.—The first signs are scarcely noticeable but soon the feathers
appear rough, the bird becomes dull and moves slowly, making frequent
efforts to expel the egg.

TREATMENT.—Remove the egg by injecting Sweet Oil, assisting the bird
with gentle pressure. In some cases it is well to puncture the egg and
collapse the shell. If the bird is very fat, reduce by careful feeding.
If the bird is of normal size, the trouble is probably due to the absence
of lubricating secretions of the oviduct, in which case the following
tonic should be given: Pulv. Ferri Sulphate, Pulv. Gentian Root, each
one dram. Mix and make into thirty powders. Give one powder two or three
times a day in their feed for a week or ten days.


CAUSE.—Is usually due to lack of shell-building material in the food; in
such case the shell of the egg is thin and easily broken and the fowl
craving the lime contained in the egg shell, naturally contracts the

TREATMENT.—Supply ground bone and oyster shells. Feed green food such as
cabbage, kale, potatoes, carrots, etc.


(_Soft-Shelled Eggs_)

CAUSE.—Deficiency of shell material; or it is possible that fright
sometimes causes premature expulsion of the eggs before the shell is

TREATMENT.—Feed ground bone, oyster shells. They contain egg shell
producing material. Perhaps the best results are obtained when mixed with
wheat bran. Also feed vegetables such as cabbage, potatoes and carrots.


(_Feather Eating_)

CAUSE.—Irritation of the skin due to lice, mites, or to lack of exercise
and improper food.

TREATMENT.—Feed meat, ground bones and vegetables. Place the food where
the fowls are compelled to scratch and work to obtain it. Dust the fowls
with Powdered Aloes.

If due to lice, treat the same as recommended under the heading of Lice.


(_Verminous Trachea Bronchitis_)

CAUSE.—A red, parasitic worm, the male measuring about one-fifth of an
inch and the female one-half an inch in length. Fowls become infected
by eating worms containing this parasite or its eggs, and by coming in
contact with other birds suffering from the disease.

SYMPTOMS.—The most noticeable symptom is frequent gaping; the Gapeworms
attach themselves by their mouths to the walls of the windpipe where
they suck the blood which nourishes them; they cause irritation and
inflammation of the windpipe, bronchial tubes and lungs; breathing is
difficult and the bird loses strength rapidly; windpipe eventually
becomes totally obstructed and the bird dies from suffocation and
exhaustion. Young, weak chickens are more susceptible to this disease
than strong ones.

TREATMENT.—Separate the sick birds from the healthy ones. Clean and
disinfect the coops and runs. Burn all manure. Remove the worms from the
windpipe by the use of a feather, from which the fan has been stripped,
leaving only a small brush at the end. Dip the feather into Oil of
Turpentine or Coal Oil, removing the surplus liquid by drawing the
feather between the fingers. Now insert the feather into the windpipe of
the bird and by turning gently you will dislodge the worms from their
attachments. Repeat this treatment once a day for two or three days.
Disinfect coops and runs with undiluted Crude Carbolic Acid. Feed good
nutritious food as wheat bran mashes, etc.


CAUSE.—Result of insanitary conditions and lack of care. Communicated by
direct contact with infected birds, or by infected coops or brooders.

SYMPTOMS.—The head soon becomes denuded of feathers, and also sore by
being constantly scratched with the feet. If not properly treated the
chicks weaken and die.

TREATMENT.—An ointment made of one part Sulphur and four parts Lard well
mixed and applied two to three times will exterminate the lice. If the
fowl is run down in condition, feed good nutritious food as wheat bran


Withhold all food for at least eighteen hours; then feed stale bread
moistened with boiled milk every three hours. When they are three or
four days old, feed rolled oats, ground corn moistened with pure water,
finely chopped meat and boiled vegetables. Feed them often and you will
be well repaid by their rapid growth, strength, and the low death rate.
After they reach the age of one week or ten days, watch them closely and
regulate their feed to their apparent needs.



CAUSE.—Irritation of the oviduct; improper secretion of albumen or
internal egg-producing material.

TREATMENT.—Careful feeding will overcome this condition. Warm wheat bran
mashes, ground bone, beef scraps, all tend to allay the irritations of
the oviduct and stimulate the secretions of albumen.


CAUSE.—Obstruction of the bile duct, due to rich, nitrogenous food and
insufficient exercise.

SYMPTOMS.—Disease is not easily detected. The yellow color of the wattles
and comb is the first symptom; the appetite is variable, the feathers
appear rough and dry, the head is retracted, and the bird finally dies
owing to the absorption of bile in the blood.

TREATMENT.—Change food. Feed upon a vegetable diet, also give one grain
of Calomel, which is particularly useful in a case of sluggish liver
in poultry. Also give one grain of Pulv. Gentian Root and one grain of
Bicarbonate of Soda, twice daily in feed.


(_Scabies of the Body_)

CAUSE.—Due to a parasite that resembles the mite.

SYMPTOMS.—When the affected bird is closely examined large quantities of
scales or scabs are found in the soft feathers. The appetite is poor;
the bird walks slowly about showing signs of uneasiness. If the disease
is allowed to run its course, the bird grows weak and eventually dies.
The disease is easily transmitted from one bird to another and should be
treated without delay.

TREATMENT.—Disinfect roost, coops and pens with undiluted Crude Carbolic
Acid. Apply to the irritations that present themselves on the body of the
birds: Sulphur Ointment twice a week and feed good nourishing food as
wheat bran mashes and vegetables.


(_Inflammation of the Mouth_)

CAUSE.—Irritations, injuries, or micro-organisms. It is sometimes caused
by nothing more than a dry condition of the mucous membrane due to the
bird breathing through the mouth when suffering from respiratory diseases.

SYMPTOMS.—Dryness of the mucous membrane of the mouth; especially the
part covering the tongue, which becomes hard and ragged, forming rough
edges along its sides. These dried portions become loose and partially
detached from the tongue, interfering with its movements and causing more
or less pain and annoyance.

TREATMENT.—Do not forcibly detach these pieces, but assist nature to
remove them. This can be accomplished by mixing Glycerine and Water,
equal parts, and dropping into the mouth with an ordinary syringe or
dropper. It is advisable to add Boracic Acid, one teaspoonful to every
gallon of drinking water, which will prevent the entrance of parasites
into the blood.


CAUSE.—These grow spontaneously in favorable surroundings, as the
interior of poultry houses and brooders containing numerous cracks and

SYMPTOMS.—This mite is a blood-sucker; irritates the skin and sometimes
causes sores to form on the body of the chick. The birds grow stupid and
weak and die rapidly if not properly treated. Older fowls withstand the
irritation of mites much longer, but do not thrive, or lay regularly, and
will finally die if the insects become too numerous. The insect may be
transmitted to horses, cattle, and even to man.

TREATMENT.—Paint the roosts and spray the interior of the coops and runs
with Crude Carbolic Acid, undiluted, being very careful that the solution
reaches the bottoms of the cracks and crevices. Also paint the interior
of brooders with the same solution.


(_Leg Weakness—Gout—Paralysis_)

CAUSE.—Damp coops and pens, lack of ventilation and improper food.

SYMPTOMS.—Fowl refuses to stand or walk, and on examination, the legs are
found to be swollen and painful, especially about the joints. In some
cases suppuration of the joints takes place and they become open running
sores. The bone finally becomes diseased and the fowl dies.

TREATMENT.—Preventive measures are first to be considered. See that the
coops and pens are clean and dry. Avoid drafts. Feed vegetables, also
wheat bran mashes. Give internally Salicylic Acid, one-half grain, twice
daily. When the legs are swollen and sore apply Zinc Ointment once or
twice daily.



CAUSE.—Due to a mite that burrows under the scales of the leg.

SYMPTOMS.—White, scaly-looking scabs form about the upper part of the
foot. The feet and legs become swollen and painful as the disease
progresses and if not checked will result in lameness, inflammation of
the joints, and the toes may slough off. Great care is necessary as the
disease is very easily transmitted from one bird to another.

TREATMENT.—Use boiling water or Crude Carbolic Acid, undiluted, on the
perches. Wash the feet and legs with warm water and soft soap. Dry well
and apply Carbolated Ointment. Repeat the above treatment every other day
for a week.


(_Aphtha; Thrush_)

CAUSE.—A vegetable parasite called Oidium Albicans.

SYMPTOMS.—Inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the mouth, throat,
gullet and crop, which finally terminates in white ulcerations. Other
symptoms are swelling of the head, poor appetite and a rapid loss in
weight and strength.

TREATMENT.—Isolate the sick from the healthy fowls. Give as much sunlight
as possible, feed nourishing food, such as warm oatmeal mashes, kale,
potatoes, etc. Add one grain each of Chlorate of Potash and Boracic Acid
to a tablespoonful of water and give three or four times a day or oftener
if they will drink it. A good disinfectant must be used to prevent the
disease from spreading and I would recommend the use of undiluted Crude
Carbolic Acid about the coops and poultry runs.


CAUSE.—This dreaded disease is caused by the Bacillus of Tuberculosis.
Damp, ill-ventilated, and poorly-lighted coops are favorable to the
development of the disease.

SYMPTOMS.—Except in advanced stages, this disease is not easily detected
as it affects various organs, and considerable experience in post-mortems
and a skillful use of the microscope is required to successfully diagnose
a case.

TREATMENT.—Preventive measures should be practiced as the disease is
incurable. Do not expose the fowls to cold wet weather. See that the
coops are well ventilated and lighted and feed no contaminated food.


CAUSE.—Constipation is perhaps the most common cause, the hard droppings
causing irritation of the vent which is followed by inflammation and
suppuration of the membranes lining the rectum and oviduct.

SYMPTOMS.—Frequent straining due to irritation. As the disease progresses
a pus-like discharge is noticed. The disease may extend into the rectum
or oviduct. The bird appears stupid, the plumage rough, the comb pale,
and if not properly treated, dies a lingering death.

TREATMENT.—Preventive treatment is the best. Feed green food occasionally
and warm bran mashes. This prevents constipation. When the bird strains
frequently and a discharge is present the following solution should be
injected: Sugar of Lead, two drams; Zinc Sulphate, one dram. Mix with two
quarts of water. Inject about one ounce with a syringe twice daily until
the discharge has ceased.


(_Fowl Cholera_)

CAUSE.—Germ (Bacilli of Fowl Cholera) gaining entrance to the body
through the bowels, lungs or wounds of the skin. Death results from
toxic material produced while the germs are multiplying.

SYMPTOMS.—All poultry, cage or wild birds are subject to this disease.
The first symptoms are loss of appetite; diarrhoea is present and the
discharge is almost white in color and tinged with transparent mucus. The
affected bird becomes separated from the flock, seems weak and stupid and
appears to be asleep; feathers are rough, the wings droop and the head
is drawn in toward the body; crop is generally full, owing to improper
digestion. The comb is pale and bloodless, the temperature raised from
three to five degrees above normal and the bird loses weight rapidly; it
may die with convulsions and cries, or without a sound or struggle.

TREATMENT.—To grown fowls, give Zinc Sulphocarbolates in one-half grain
doses three times a day in their food or drinking water. To chicks,
dissolve thirty grains of Zinc Sulphocarbolates in two quarts of water.
Saturate feed, as stale bread, etc., and give three times a day. Zinc
Sulphocarbolates is an antiseptic especially prepared for septic
conditions of the intestines, and very useful in treatment of White
Diarrhoea and Fowl Cholera. In severe cases of diarrhoea, give Bismuth
Salicylate, one grain, three times daily in feed or make into a pill with
dough. When the fowls will eat, feed them clean, nitrogenous food that
they can digest easily, as oatmeal mashes. It is also necessary to give
them pure water to drink at all times. Disinfection of the premises is
another essential factor in the treatment of this disease, and undiluted
Crude Carbolic Acid is a disinfectant that we can rely upon at all times.

I cannot recommend vaccination as the serum is very difficult and
expensive to produce and different breeds of birds require varying doses,
therefore, vaccinating poultry for White Diarrhoea or Fowl Cholera is not
attended with any great degree of success.


CAUSE.—Few fowls are entirely free from worms. The soil over which the
chicks are permitted to run may be infected, or the food may contain the
eggs or embryos of worms.

SYMPTOMS.—The presence of worms in fowls may not be at once detected,
since only a close observer would notice them in the droppings. If the
birds eat well but remain poor, and the feathers appear rough and the
comb and wattles pale, there is reason to suspect the existence of worms.

TREATMENT.—Preventive treatment is the best. Sprinkle the runs and
coops regularly with Crude Carbolic Acid, undiluted. Give two drops of
Turpentine in twice this quantity of Sweet or Olive Oil. This dose should
be repeated in from six to eight days so as to insure the expulsion
of the newly hatched worms or those that may have survived the first

                             DISEASES OF THE


                           CAUSE, SYMPTOMS AND



    1. Forehead.
    2. Junction of nose and forehead.
    3. Nose.
    4. Nostrils.
    5. Muzzle.
    6. Temple.
    7. Ears.
    8. Occiput.
    9. Posterior angle of jaw.
    10. Neck.
    11. Withers.
    12. Saddle.
    13. Loins.
    14. Croup.
    15. Dewlap.
    16. Brisket.
    17. Arm.
    18. Shoulder.
    19. Point of elbow.
    20. Ribs.
    21. Flank.
    22. Forearm.
    23. Knee or wrist.
    24. Pastern.
    25. Toes.
    26. Buttock.
    27. First thigh.
    28. Stifle.
    29. Second Thigh.
    30. Point of hock.
    31. Front of hock.
    32. Pastern.
    33. Toes.
    34. Cheeks.
    35. Tail or stern.
    36. Sheath.


In offering this chapter for the consideration of the Students as well
as to the Veterinary Profession and others who are interested in the
study of diseases of the dog I feel it will suffice to say that I have
endeavored to the best of my ability to render the matter contained in
the following chapter of as great practical value as possible, to present
in the most plain and yet concise manner the nature, causes, symptoms,
treatment, and prevention of each disease in the form in which it most
frequently occurs.

I wish to express a hope that this chapter will be favorably received by
all Students of Veterinary Science and the Veterinary Profession.

                                                CHARLES J. KORINEK, V. S.




CAUSE.—Irritations or injuries to the ear. Washing dogs with irritating
soap and not properly drying them causes dogs to have an itchy sensation
which they constantly aggravate by scratching the ear with the paw and
shaking the head and flopping the ears violently, resulting in this

SYMPTOMS.—The dog will be noticed carrying the head to one side and
shaking it frequently in a violent manner. It will also scratch the
ear with the paw involuntarily. When the inner surface of the ear is
carefully examined it will be found extremely swollen and have an
abnormal appearance, will be stiff and extend out from the head. Great
heat and pain will be evinced when pressure is applied. The puffy
swelling inside the ear will contain a serous fluid which is very
offensive in odor.

TREATMENT.—With a clean, sharp knife open the abscess and allow the
bloody fluid to escape. Then dress the wound twice a day with clean
cotton and a solution made from Tincture of Iodine, one dram, to one-half
ounce of water. To prevent the dog from scratching and flopping the ears,
which would cause further irritation, bind the ears to the head by means
of a bandage or hood. Feed clean, wholesome, laxative food and compel him
to exercise, as good physical condition and clean surroundings assist
materially in healing wounds of the flesh.


(_Congestion of the Brain_)

CAUSE.—Congestion or rupture of the blood vessels of the brain, which
causes a sudden arrest of sense and motion, the dog lying as if in a
deep sleep. It seldom attacks young, but occurs frequently in fat dogs,
especially if aged and not accustomed to exercise.

SYMPTOMS.—They are very hard to detect, as the dog generally becomes
unconscious before any violent symptoms are noticed, but there is
generally unsteadiness in the walk, dizziness, deafness, blindness,
constipation, etc., preceding an attack, but only a careful observer will
notice them.

TREATMENT.—As this is a very dangerous disease, no time should be
lost. The first thing is to relieve the head from the accumulation of
blood to prevent further congestion and avoid inflammatory action. To
accomplish this place the head well up and apply cold to the head by
means of pounded ice in a cloth bag. Loosen the collar around the neck
and apply hot packs to the feet to induce the flow of blood to the lower
extremities. Also give a physic consisting of one to two grains of
Calomel. After the dog recovers from the fit great care will be required
to prevent a second attack. The diet should be light and nutritious.
Always avoid feeding too large a quantity at one time, to prevent
overloading of the stomach. Also avoid excitement or excessive exercise
on a hot day. A cathartic as Calomel should be administered when a dog
shows any signs of constipation.


CAUSE.—In some instances I believe it is hereditary, although in others
no influence of this nature can be discovered. This affection frequently
follows organic diseases of the chest. The spasms of difficult breathing
may be directly due to irritants inspired into the lungs, such as smoke,
gas, or dust and cold air containing infectious matter. Overfeeding
frequently produces this condition, as an abnormal distention of the
stomach presses against the lungs and causes them to become inactive
and spasmodic contraction of the muscular fibers of the bronchial tubes
follows. Dogs with narrow chest cavities are predisposed to asthma, which
condition is hereditary.

SYMPTOMS.—This disease is attended with difficulty of breathing and
a sensation of constriction of the chest, giving rise to wheezing,
coughing and general nervousness. The animal becomes emaciated, the hair
has a rough, faded appearance, although it will continue to eat well.
Constipation is generally associated with this disease.

TREATMENT.—Place the animal in clean, comfortable surroundings, exercise
carefully as violent exercise would tend to aggravate the disease. Feed
sparingly on nitrogenous food that is easily digested; also administer
Fowler’s Solution of Arsenic, four drops, twice daily. This can be
placed on the food, as the dog will take it readily. If the bowels are
constipated, give one to two tablespoonfuls of Castor Oil. Good care and
careful feeding play a very important part in the treatment of asthma.


CAUSE.—Either the extreme of overfeeding and insufficient exercise or of
overworking and insufficient supply of food. Contraction of the neck of
the womb or atrophy of the ovaries may produce barrenness. There are also
other conditions that produce failure to breed, such as inflammation or
growths in the womb or ovaries, leucorrhea, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—If due to Leucorrhea there will be a white, glary discharge
from the vagina, which looks like curdled milk. It sometimes accumulates
in the uterus and comes away in large quantities and there is a fetid
smell. The animal generally becomes debilitated. In other cases, where
there is a contraction of the womb or atrophy of the ovaries, no abnormal
conditions will be noticed except that the animal fails to conceive when

TREATMENT.—Use both local and constitutional treatment. Feed sparingly on
nitrogenous food that is easily digested. Allow to exercise moderately
and the bitch may become fertile, if no morbid conditions are present.
If the animal is constipated administer one to two ounces of Castor Oil
and if in a run-down, debilitated condition give Pulv. Nux Vomica, Pulv.
Ginger Root, Pulv. Ferri Sulphate, each one dram. Make into thirty-two
capsules and give one capsule three times daily.


CAUSE.—Sudden change of temperature, etc., choking, drenching,
inhalations of irritating material as certain vapors, dust, etc.,
containing infectious material; accumulations of gas in the stomach
containing particles of food may be regurgitated up into the esophagus
frequently producing bronchitis.

SYMPTOMS.—The chief symptoms consist of fever, hurried breathing with
a sense of tightness about the chest, but not always acute pain. The
cough is severe and dry at first, but later expectoration commences.
The discharge that is raised from the bronchial tubes at first is a
clear, thin mucus, but afterwards it becomes thicker, more abundant and
purulent. It is difficult for persons not accustomed to examining the
chest to always distinguish the disease from pneumonia, if the case is
one of severity. In mild cases the symptoms need not usually occasion
much alarm.

TREATMENT.—This disease may be prevented frequently by giving five to
ten grains of Dover’s Powder as soon as it is discovered that the dog
has taken a cold. It is best given in the evening then placing the dog
in a warm bed; also give some warm stimulants to drink as Tincture of
Capsicum, five to fifteen drops in a teaspoonful of luke warm water. In
the morning, give one to two grains of Calomel. If the above does not cut
the disease short, then keep the dog confined to warm quarters and give
inhalations of steam from hot water and Turpentine. For the cough, which
is usually troublesome, give the following mixture: Potassium Chlorate,
one dram; Liquor Ammonia Acetate, three ounces; Vini Ipecac, two drams;
Tincture of Camph. Co., one-half ounce; Aqua Chloroform, quantity
sufficient to make four ounces. Give one to two teaspoonfuls three or
four times daily. Also feed nutritious food that is easily digested and
permit the animal to have access to pure cold water.


There is considerable difference in the extent of injury from the burns
produced by hot vapors, fluids, etc. In some cases, which are only
superficial, there will be slight inflammation or redness produced, while
in others the burn may be of severity and cause the death of the skin,
followed by sloughing.

TREATMENT.—For Burns and Scalds of ordinary severity, I have derived
excellent results from equal parts of Raw Linseed Oil and Lime Water, as
it removes the soreness and restores the part to its normal condition.
In cases where the skin is sloughed off, in addition to the above
recommended, dust with Boracic Acid, two ounces; Corn Starch, two ounces;
Tannic Acid, one-half ounce; Iodoform, two drams. Mix and powder finely.
Place in sifter top can and apply two or three times daily to the moist,
sloughing surface.


CAUSE.—Filth and dust, especially in long-eared hunting dogs, as the
inner surface of the ear becomes dirty and damp from wading streams and
running through tall, wet grass. This condition is not serious at first,
but it will irritate the dog so as to cause him to shake his head and
scratch the ear with his paw. Permit no filth to enter the ear as this
will assist to develop a Canker, which becomes very painful.

SYMPTOMS.—The dog shakes the head violently and scratches the ears with
the paw and even howls from the severe pain produced. The ears will
be moist and have a poked-out appearance, due to the swelling. As the
disease progresses, there will be a very disagreeable discharge from
the ear that can be very easily detected some distance from the animal.
Ulceration eventually follows, affecting the internal structure of the
ear, which condition is very difficult to treat.

TREATMENT.—Remove the cause, if possible. Then inject ten to fifteen
drops of the following solution: Mild Chloride of Mercury, fifteen
grains; Lime Water, four ounces. Shake well and apply to the ear as above
mentioned two to three times a day. Place a small piece of cotton in the
ear after each injection. Also place a hood over the ears or bandage them
down with a cloth.


(_Cold in the Head_)

CAUSE.—The most common, perhaps, is exposure, especially after a dog has
been used to warm closed quarters. Dogs used for hunting purposes, when
in a poor condition, with their system weakened, are often victims of

SYMPTOMS.—Slight dullness. May not take food very well, hair standing
to some extent, pulse not much affected, throat becomes sore. After the
congestion passes off, exudation takes place, followed by discharge and
it may be very profuse, but it need not alarm you. There is generally
impaired secretion of urine, but breathing not much affected in most
cases. We also have a discharge from the nose in other diseases, such as
Distemper, Bronchitis, Pneumonia, etc.

TREATMENT.—The treatment should be constitutional as well as local. Place
the animal in clean, well-ventilated quarters; feed good nourishing food,
which is quite important. The following prescription is very beneficial
in suppressing the secretion from the nostrils: Ferri Hypophosphitis,
five grains; Quinine Sulphate, three grains; Pulv. Nux Vomica, two drams;
Arsenous Acid, one-half grain. Make into twelve capsules and give one
capsule two or three times a day. Give inhalations of steam from hot
water and Oil of Eucalyptus for one-half hour twice daily. Permit the
dog to exercise if the weather is favorable. If constipated give rectal
injections and feed laxative food. Avoid giving physics in Catarrh,
especially if there is fever present.


(_St. Vitus Dance_)

CAUSE.—Due to an irritation of the nervous system. It is especially
associated with debility, although it may follow constitutional diseases,
such as Distemper, etc. It is sometimes caused by a direct injury to the
brain or spinal cord.

SYMPTOMS.—A continuous twitching of the muscles which is noticeable even
though the animal sleeps. The muscles of the head may be affected, or
those of one or both fore limbs or of a hind limb. An animal affected
with Chorea will show an unsteady gait when walking and usually becomes
very poor, although it will have a very good appetite at all times.

TREATMENT.—In severe cases the dog will not, as a rule, respond to
treatment. In milder cases, if taken in hand early, improvement may be
brought about, but seldom a complete recovery. Many drugs have been
tried in the treatment of Chorea, but the superiority of one medicine
over another has not been practically demonstrated. Fowler’s Solution of
Arsenic given in from two to eight drop doses has been tried in a large
number of cases and in my experience it has given the best results. The
drug should be given at first in small doses and gradually increased as
tolerance is established. If the physiological action of the Arsenic
becomes manifested it should be discontinued for a few days. In severe
cases, Sedatives are indicated. Of these, either Bromide of Potassi or
Sodii should be given in ten to twenty grain doses, prepared in gelatin
capsules and administered three or four times a day. Attention to the
digestive organs and to the diet is necessary during the treatment. If
the dog is constipated one or two tablespoonfuls of Castor Oil should be
administered. Feed nitrogenous food that is easily digested and provide
comfortable sleeping quarters.


CAUSE.—Worms, indigestible or decomposed irritating food, compaction or
obstruction, calculus, strictures of the intestines or it may be due to
liver complication and animals swallowing sharp bones, etc. Several forms
of poisoning may produce Colic.

SYMPTOMS.—The dog evinces severe abdominal pain, usually with
constipation and often vomiting. As a rule, there is no fever or
quickness of the pulse. The pain, which is spasmodic, is relieved on
pressure as the dog prefers to lie on his abdomen in many instances. The
dog frequently eats green grass as this causes him to vomit, which is
nature’s method of relieving the digestive tract of irritating material.

TREATMENT.—In cases which are not very severe, the application of hot
cloths to the abdomen frequently affords relief. Ginger, ten to twenty
grains, dissolved in a teaspoonful of water may relieve a mild attack,
but when the above treatment fails the following is recommended: Fluid
Extract of Cannabis Indica, one dram; Chloroform, one dram; Tincture
of Capsicum, ten drops; Oil of Peppermint, ten drops; Morphine, three
grains; water, quantity sufficient to make one fluid ounce. Give ten to
fifteen drops every hour, if necessary. A physic is indicated in the
majority of cases of Colic for the purpose of removing irritants or
obstructions from the intestines. Calomel, one to two grains, is a very
efficient drug, while Castor Oil is given with great difficulty and it
should be administered only where diarrhoea is a complication of Colic.
Rectal injections of warm water is very beneficial in the treatment of
intestinal obstructions. It is good practice to give a dog some vermifuge
after an attack of Colic, as worms frequently produce it.


CAUSE.—Insufficient exercise, overfeeding or feeding decomposed or
irritating foods. Dogs are predisposed to indigestion as they frequently
swallow a large quantity of indigestible food without masticating it.
Poor care and exposure to cold also frequently produce Constipation.

SYMPTOMS.—Constipation is often a complication of other diseases, the
feces is dry-looking and may be more or less covered with a mucus. A
prominent symptom is straining, attempts to defecate, the appetite is
greatly impaired, the dog acts dull and stands with the head down or
goes off to some quiet place and lies down. Protrusion of the rectum
or piles may occur, especially if the animal has eaten freely of dry,
indigestible food. Colicky pains are sometimes manifested. Constipation
occurring from causes other than a complication of diseases seldom takes
on a serious form.

TREATMENT.—When a dog becomes constipated, all dry, indigestible food
should be withheld. A soft, easily digested diet should be fed sparingly
and a liberal supply of water allowed. In some cases it is well to
exercise the dog. A physic of two to four ounces of Castor Oil should
be given, but overdosing with physics avoided. The action of the physic
should be assisted by injecting into the rectum warm, soapy water. Tonics
which assist digestion by stimulating secretions of the bowels, should be
administered, as Ferri Sulphate, one-half dram; Quinine, one-half dram;
Pulv. Nux Vomica, one-half dram; Gentian Root, one dram. Mix and make
into twelve capsules and give one capsule three or four times a day.

The above treatment must be persisted in until the constipated condition
is relieved.


CAUSE.—Among the common causes of Diarrhoea and Dysentery can be
mentioned irritating foods, sudden change in feed, decomposed matter,
irritation from intestinal worms, imperfect mastication of food and its
imperfect preparation for digestion, eating more food than the digestive
organs can well digest, debilitated condition and irritation from
indigestible food. The immediate cause is perhaps the irritated condition
of the mucous membranes lining the intestines and a profuse secretion
from the intestinal glands, nature’s own method of removing poisonous or
infectious matter from the digestive canal.

SYMPTOMS.—Undue amount of liquid feces, the dog weakly and sickly, the
coat staring and perhaps a sort of curdled fluid passes with the feces.
If the fecal matter is tinged with blood, then it is called Dysentery,
and this is more serious than common Diarrhoea. These conditions are
generally associated with other diseases and should be examined very
carefully for complications.

TREATMENT.—Treatment consists of keeping the dog as quiet as possible,
feed sparingly on clean, easily digested food, as raw eggs, etc. It may
be necessary to give a dose of physic, as Castor Oil in two to four
ounce doses which is an excellent remedy for expelling irritants from
the bowels without griping. After the cause or irritant from within the
intestines is removed administer Protan, one-half ounce; Gum Catechu,
one-half ounce; Zinc Sulphocarbolates, two grains. Make into sixteen
capsules and give one capsule every four hours. This dose is prepared
for a dog weighing forty pounds. To larger dogs or puppies give the same
medicine in doses proportionate to their weight.


CAUSE.—Is due to a specific bacteria that is developed spontaneously,
although I am of the opinion that insanitary surroundings, as dark, damp,
ill-ventilated quarters play a very active part in its causation as well
as food that is decomposed, contaminated or deficient in nitrogenous
matter, or any condition that has a tendency to weaken the dog’s

SYMPTOMS.—The first symptom revealed is a bad cold. The dog chills, the
eyes become inflamed and a thin watery discharge oozes from them as well
as from the nostrils, and, as the disease progresses, this thin watery
discharge takes on a pus-like character, becomes thick, yellow, tinged
with blood, sticky and very offensive in smell. The dog vomits and has a
dry, husky cough, the temperature rises from two to four degrees above
normal, the pulse considerably weakened, breathing hurried and labored
and the dog walks around in a staggering stupor and may even go into
convulsions. There is also a twitching of the muscles in many cases,
as in Chorea, and this disease generally follows Distemper. In other
cases, the dog will lie flat on the side, breathe with great difficulty,
in a half-unconscious manner. This is a very unfavorable symptom, as
lung complications have developed. Constipation or diarrhoea and even
dysentery that is foul in odor may accompany this disease. The dog grows
very poor, weak, the legs, nose and ears grow cold and clammy, and death
follows. When the above described symptoms are present, the dog generally
dies in from two to four days. If he lives through this stage, chances
are that he will develop Chorea and be of practically no value.

TREATMENT.—As this disease runs its course in about eighteen days, good
sanitary surroundings are very beneficial. Pure, fresh air, light, clean
and comfortable place to lie upon are also necessary. Feed albuminous
food, as raw eggs, milk, etc. Beef broth is very beneficial in many
cases; also permit the dog to have free access to pure water at all times.

If vomiting accompanies the disease, the following prescription should be
administered: Diluted Prussic Acid, nine drops; Morphine Hydrochlorate,
ten grains; Bismuth Nitrate, one dram; water, quantity sufficient to
make three ounces. Give one tablespoonful not oftener than six hours.
This should be given a dog weighing forty pounds. Smaller or larger
dogs should receive the same medicine in doses proportionate to their
weight. When constipation is present, give two to four ounces of Castor
Oil. The general medical treatment for Dog Distemper consists of the
following: Quinine Sulphate, two drams; Potassi Nitrate, three drams;
Zinc Sulphocarbolates, two drams. Mix well and make into twenty-four
capsules and give one capsule every two or three hours. This dose
should be proportionately increased in dogs weighing over forty pounds,
or decreased for dogs weighing less than forty pounds. Of course a
difference of five pounds should not be considered. Bathe the nose and
eyes several times daily in a five per cent solution of Boracic Acid.
When complications, as Chorea or Pneumonia develop, use the treatments as
described under their respective headings.



CAUSE.—Derangements of the digestive canal, dogs recovering from
distemper, or a bitch after whelping, is predisposed to Eczema. Dogs
exposed to a sudden chilling of the surface of the body, when heated,
frequently develop Surfeit. Sometimes dogs confined to poorly ventilated,
damp kennels develop Eczema, or Surfeit. In fact, any condition that
tends to cause a sluggishness of the circulation produces impure blood,
and eruptions of the skin naturally follow as a result.

SYMPTOMS.—This disease generally affects the neck, back, inside the
thighs, arms and the abdomen. The skin becomes red, painful to the touch,
small pimples form and serum oozes from them. This gradually spreads and
the skin becomes raw and ulcerated. The dog will continue to scratch and
bite himself violently, producing further irritation, if not properly

TREATMENT.—Internal treatment is just as essential as applications to
the skin. Digestive and blood disorders must be eradicated before the
outer surface of the body will yield to a treatment. Internally, give
Fowler’s Solution of Arsenic, two to eight drops, three times daily in
the food. The drug should be given at first in small doses and gradually
increased as tolerance is established. If the bowels are sluggish, give
one to three grains of Calomel. This will relieve any irritant in the
alimentary canal. Feed food that is easily digested, as vegetables, Cod
Liver Oil, etc. Beef Broth is beneficial, but a heavy meat diet should
be discontinued. To the irritated surface of the skin, the following is
soothing as well as healing: Zinc Oxide, one ounce; Pisis Liquid, one
ounce; Mercurial Ointment, one ounce. Mix and apply sparingly once a day.
Poisons are readily absorbed through the skin, therefore, be very careful
when using powerful antiseptics over a large surface of the body.



CAUSE.—Direct or indirect injuries, as a blow from a whip, dust, sand or
chaff in the eye, or may be due to extreme cold, or heat, or foul air.

SYMPTOMS.—An inflammation of the superficial structures of the eye,
with a partial or complete closure, and a watery discharge due to the
overstimulation of the lachrymal glands, the fluid being secreted so
abundantly that it is impossible for the tear duct to carry it away,
hence there will be a continuous flow of tears running down the side of
the dog’s face. The formation of a film or a scum over the eyes need not
cause alarm if the eyeball shows no sign of being lacerated or punctured.

TREATMENT.—Examine the eye carefully and remove any foreign body with
a clean cloth or feather, and use a solution made from distilled water
containing three per cent Boric Acid, and apply ten or twelve drops to
the eye by the use of an ordinary eye-dropper. Keep the animal in a
clean, dark room, as it hastens recovery and avoids other serious eye



CAUSE.—Usually arises from excessive nervous irritation, induced by
disturbances of the stomach and bowels from the presence of worms,
indigestible food, etc., or it may arise occasionally from a hereditary
predisposition, sexual excess, urine irritation, or from other causes
inducing extreme nervousness, irritability, etc. Dogs affected with this
disease are usually troubled with dyspepsia and constipation.

SYMPTOMS.—The leading symptoms of the disease are sudden loss of
consciousness, with spasms of muscles, followed by exhaustion and
drowsiness. After a certain length of time has passed, the attack
returns. About five or ten per cent of the cases give some warning for
a short time before the fits come on, but in most cases the fit comes
on suddenly, the dog whines, and at once falls to the ground senseless
with convulsions. The eyes are partly open, the eyeballs rolling, and
a gnawing of the teeth, foaming at the mouth; the tongue is usually
extended out, and many times badly bitten. The nose is usually cold and
clammy and breathing laborious. The fit usually lasts from a few minutes
to one-half hour, but in some cases continues for longer time.

TREATMENT.—The dog should be placed on a blanket to prevent inhalations
of dust, etc., remove the collar from around the neck, and apply cold
applications of ice to the head. The remedy most to be relied upon is
Bromide of Potassium, and should be given to a dog weighing forty pounds
in doses of twenty grains three times a day. The dose to larger or
smaller dogs should be given in proportion to their weight. If necessary,
the dose may be increased one-third for a short time. Also give Castor
Oil, one to two ounces. To puppies give in proportion to their weight.
Pay strict attention to the organs of digestion, and see that the
nourishment taken is sufficient to nourish the body well, but be careful
not to have an over-amount at one time. Also regulate the feed so as to
always have five or six hours elapse between feeds. It is advisable to
give a vermifuge in all cases of fits, as worms are frequently producers
of the malady.


(_Bone Fractures_)

CAUSE.—There are several different varieties of fractures, but for
convenience sake I will divide them into four varieties:

1. Simple fracture is one in which a bone is broken and the muscles and
skin are not severely injured.

2. Compound fracture is one in which the sharp ends of the broken bone
penetrate and perhaps pass through the skin. This is considered a rather
severe fracture.

3. Comminuted fracture is one in which a broken bone is badly shattered.

4. Complicated fracture is one in which important articular joints and
large arteries are injured.

Some people imagine that the bones of the dog will not unite as quickly
as the bones of man, but I am of the opinion that they will unite quicker
if the bones are properly placed and the animal kept quiet. I will admit
that fractures are somewhat troublesome to treat in some cases, although
I have seen dogs with severe fractures make good recoveries without any
assistance other than that of nature. In treating a fracture where the
bones penetrate the skin, cut the hair from around the surface and wash
with a five per cent solution of Carbolic Acid. Place the broken bones
in position, wrap the surface with a thin layer of cotton and retain the
bones in position with splints and bandages. Keep the animal as quiet as
possible and feed on soft laxative good. If bowels become constipated,
give two to four ounces of Castor Oil. If severe swelling follows in a
few days, and the dog shows signs of great pain, remove the bandage and
wash clean with an antiseptic. Then place fresh cotton around the part
and bandage the same as before.



CAUSE.—Generally associated with a debilitated condition of a heavy
pregnant bitch that is poorly fed, and exposed to various temperatures.
The offspring of such a bitch are very often victims of Goiter. When
the puppies are born the mother’s milk lacks sufficient nitrogenous
properties; they are consequently deprived of mineral matter and develop
Goiter. Some writers hold that this is hereditary, because one or more
puppies become affected at the same time. I believe that it is due to
debility, starvation, and what produces it in one dog will produce it in
another. Although full-grown dogs are often victims of Goiters, it is
due to some debilitated condition drawing on their systems. Even though
the dog looks well, and appears to be in good condition, his food may be
deficient in mineral properties.

SYMPTOMS.—Enlargement of the Thyroid bodies of the ductless gland
situated on the under surface of the neck. It may vary from the size
of a pigeon’s egg to the size of a man’s two fists. It is very easily
detected, and does not often interfere with the animal’s breathing unless
it becomes abnormally large and causes pressure on the windpipe, jugular
vein and esophagus. A dog affected with Goiter does not thrive, his hair
looks faded, dusty and rough.

TREATMENT.—Administer Adrenolin twice daily in five to ten grain doses
half an hour before feeding, and two to five grains of Potassium Iodide
two times daily shortly after feeding. The Potassium Iodide should be
discontinued when the skin scales, or when an abnormal watery discharge
from the eyes is present. To the enlargement apply Tincture of Iodine
once a day with a camelhair brush. If the dog has long hair, clip it off
from over the enlargement. Feed the dog on nitrogenous foods, as raw
eggs, Cod Liver Oil, Beef Broth, and also supply him with soft bones to
chew. Where the bowels are constipated, give one to two ounces of Castor
Oil. The above medicines prescribed are prescribed for dogs weighing
forty pounds, and should be increased when given to larger, or decreased
when given to smaller dogs proportionately to their weight. See that the
dog has clean, light and well ventilated quarters to sleep in.



CAUSE.—Intestinal worms, indigestible and unnutritious food, foreign
bodies in the stomach, eating too large a quantity or, in many cases,
eating too fast, torpidity of the liver, derangements of the teeth, as
the accumulations of tartar cause the gums to become soft and sore,
resulting in the dog not taking sufficient time to chew food properly;
excessive or inexcessive exercise, or improper attention to the hygienic
surroundings often derange the digestive system.

SYMPTOMS.—The appetite is depraved, the dog eats grass freely, and vomits
often; colicky pains, persistent constipation and bloating, causing the
dog serious inconvenience. He is irritable, dull and evidently out of
sorts; his coat looks faded and feels rough; the temperature and pulse
are not much affected; as a rule the breath is foul, the tongue covered
with a whitish fur, loss of flesh occurs, and paleness of the skin.

TREATMENT.—Good hygiene, careful feeding of nitrogenous foods and regular
exercise plays a very important part in the treatment of indigestion.
First, endeavor to clean out the Alimentary Canal by the careful use of
physics, as Calomel in one to three grain doses. Feed raw eggs, sweet
milk, boiled vegetables, fresh raw beef finely chopped. Also give one
tablespoonful of Cod Liver Oil two or three times a day. I have derived
good results in the treatment of Indigestion by using the following
gastric tonic: Pepsin, two ounces; Syrup of Orange, two ounces; Tincture
of Columbia, five drams; Tincture Nux Vomica, one dram; Tincture Gentian,
one dram; water, quantity sufficient to make six ounces. Mix and give
one or two teaspoonfuls three times daily before feeding. In cases where
there is great difficulty in the dog passing the feces, give rectal
injections of soap and warm water.


(_Liver Congestion_)

CAUSE.—A sluggishness of the liver, or by the bile duct becoming
obstructed by a Calculi (Gall Stone). Either condition suppresses the
flow of bile into the bowels, hence the bile is taken up by the blood
and causes the visible mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth to become
yellowish in color. The predisposing causes are improper and overfeeding,
combined with lack of exercise in house dogs, or excessive exercise
in hunting dogs, exposure to damp, ill-ventilated sleeping quarters,
producing debility, and liver complications are likely to follow.

SYMPTOMS.—Appetite varied, thirst great, vomiting occasionally, the dog
shows signs of dullness and sleepiness. Then there may be alternate
diarrhoea and constipation, the tongue coated and foul in smell, the
eyes, mouth, inside of the ears, and the skin inside the thighs and fore
legs become very yellow and dry, temperature and pulse not much affected,
the dog passes small quantities of dark amber colored urine frequently,
due to the bile it contains. In severe cases, the dog loses strength
and flesh readily and soon becomes a mere skeleton. Jaundice is often
a complication of other diseases, as distemper, indigestion, colic,
constipation, etc.

TREATMENT.—Endeavor to make the dog as comfortable as possible by placing
him in quiet, clean, light and well ventilated quarters. If he is in
great pain, apply hot applications over the seat of pain and administer
Calomel, one-half grain; Podophyllin, two grains; Powdered Jalap, one
dram; Powdered Rhubarb, one dram. Make into six capsules and give
one capsule once daily to a dog weighing forty pounds; to smaller or
larger dogs regulate the dose in proportion to their weight. The above
prescription stimulates the flow of bile from the liver into the bowels,
which is very important in the treatment of Jaundice. Tonics are also
necessary, and I have found the following very beneficial in treating
convalescing diseases, especially where the appetite is poor: Pulv.
Ferri Sulphate, one dram; Quinine Sulphate, one dram; Pulv. Nux Vomica,
one dram; Pulv. Gentian Root, two drams. Mix and make into twenty-four
capsules and give one capsule three times daily just before feeding. This
dose should be given to a dog weighing about forty pounds. Smaller or
larger dogs should receive the same medicine in doses proportionate to
their weight. Feed raw eggs, pure sweet milk, fresh beef finely chopped,
cooked vegetables, beef broth, etc. Do not feed too large a quantity at
any one time.


(_Congestion of the Lungs—Pneumonia_)

CAUSE.—Frequently occurs when dogs are accustomed to warm, comfortable
quarters, then exposed to cold, drafty kennels during cold weather.
In fact, any sudden chilling of the body is a common cause of lung
disorders. Giving fat dogs too much exercise when they are not accustomed
to it is frequently the cause of engorgement and inflammation of the soft
spongy tissue of the lungs. Excessive exercise or running during the hot
summer months is apt to cause congestion of the lung tissue as well as
heat stroke. Washing or dipping dogs during cold weather may chill the
outer surface of the body and result in Congestion of the Lungs.

SYMPTOMS.—Lung Fever follows as a result of a bad cold, and is preceded
by the symptoms of the primary disease. If due to severe exercise,
the animal appears greatly exhausted, and the congestion of the lung
substance is marked and may occur at this stage of the disease. Lung
Fever usually begins with a chill, and is followed by a high fever. The
dog lies down most of the time, and eats nothing, or very little. The
breathing is hurried and fast, but when the lung becomes badly involved
it is labored. The character of the pulse beat varies, depending on the
extent of the inflammation and the stage of the disease. In most cases
the pulse beats are full and quick during the first stage, but later,
as the condition of the dog improves, more nearly normal. A very weak
pulse is present in severe and fatal lung inflammation. The visible
mucous membranes of the eyes and mouth have a congested appearance, and
there may be a slight discharge from the nostrils, reddish in color. The
expression of the face is distressed and anxious, and in severe cases,
rigors and chilling of the body occur. The respiratory sounds become
more or less changed from normal. The cough is at first deep and dry,
later loose and moist. It may be accompanied by a hemorrhage of the lungs
during the first stages of the disease. Other respiratory sounds are
revealed by placing the ear to the side of the chest wall and listening.
In the very early stages of lung fever, a crepitating, or crackling
sound can be heard in the diseased parts; and louder sounds than normal
in the healthy areas. Later, when the engorgement of the lung substance
occurs, and the air cells become filled by the inflammatory exudation,
the respiratory sounds are deadened. On returning to the normal, rattling
sounds occur. These signs aid greatly in determining the dog’s condition.
The chance for recovery depends on the extent and acuteness of the
disease. Careless handling, exercise, etc., lessens the chance for a
favorable termination in this disease, and good nursing helps more in
bringing about a recovery than the medical treatment. The chances are
more unfavorable in fat dogs than in lean ones, as the inflammation is
usually more severe in the former. The course of the disease is from one
to three weeks, and it may become chronic if the irritation is kept up.
In such cases, unthriftiness is a prominent sign.

TREATMENT.—Preventive treatment in Lung Fever must not be overlooked.
Briefly, it consists in avoiding such conditions as may predispose the
dog to the disease, or act in any way as an exciting cause. Careful
nursing is a very important part of the treatment. The dog should be
given a clean, comfortable, well ventilated kennel, and kept as quiet as
possible. To keep the bowels from becoming constipated, give one-half
to one ounce of Castor Oil daily. Feed raw eggs, pure fresh milk, beef
broth, etc. In severe cold weather, the dog must not be permitted to
chill or take more cold. Cover him with a blanket, or use artificial
heat. As one attack predisposes a dog to the second, he should be
protected from severe cold, or the other extreme, heat, for a few weeks
after making a complete recovery. It is advisable to apply strong
stimulating liniments over the lungs, as Aqua Ammonia Fort., one ounce;
Oil of Turpentine, one ounce; Sweet Oil, two ounces. Shake well and apply
once daily.

I have found the following prescription very beneficial in the treatment
of Lung Fever, as it regulates the heart action, lowers the temperature
and stimulates the body in general: Tincture Digitalis, one dram;
Tincture Nux Vomica, one dram; Nitrous Ether, two drams; Liq. Ammonia
Acet., four drams; water, quantity sufficient to make four ounces. Give
one teaspoonful every two or three hours.

All drugs prescribed in the above treatment are based on a dog weighing
forty pounds. Larger or smaller dogs should receive the same medicine but
in doses proportionate to their weight.


(_Garget, or Inflammation of the Udder_)

CAUSE.—Inflammation of the Udder commonly occurs in heavy milkers, and
is caused by all the milk not being removed. Sometimes it occurs as the
result of the milk accumulating in the udder when the bitch has lost
part of her litter. Other causes are obstructed teats, injuries to the
glandular tissues, and infection from germs. Congestion and inflammation
of the udder frequently follow difficult birth.

TREATMENT.—Milk the bitch three or four times a day. This will usually
relieve the congestion. A physic of Castor Oil, one or two ounces,
should be given and the animal fed on easily digested food, as boiled
vegetables, fresh raw beef finely chopped, pure sweet milk, etc. The
udder should be massaged gently with the fingers, and the following
ointment applied: Gum Camphor, one dram; Fluid Extracts of Belladonna,
one dram; Lanolin, three ounces. Mix and apply two or three times daily.
Fomentations of hot water are beneficial in the majority of cases. If
the appetite is deprived, administer Nitrate of Potash, two drams;
Pulv. Nux Vomica, one dram; Pulv. Gentian Root, one dram. Mix and make
into twenty-four capsules and give one capsule three times daily before
feeding. This dose is based on a dog weighing forty pounds. Smaller or
larger dogs should receive the same medicine, but in doses proportionate
to their weight.


CAUSE.—This skin eruption is produced by the Sarcoptes Scabi. There are
two other forms of parasites that produce Mange, but they are so rarely
found that we need not mention them. Insanitary conditions favor their
production. A dog in a poor condition, with a dirty skin, etc., is
more liable to be attacked than dogs in good condition and with clean
skins. It may be communicated in various ways, through kennels, brushes,
collars, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Are generally very plain. It usually attacks the back, about
the root of the tail, and extends to the head and neck, spreading
quickly. The scabs do not pile up as they do on other large animals,
because the dogs, on account of the intense itching, continually rub
and scratch themselves so that only thin scabs can form. The affected
skin becomes denude of hair, the dog becomes thin, emaciated, etc. The
parasites can be seen with an ordinary magnifying glass, or if the small
scabs be scraped off and placed on a dark paper in the warm sun, you can
readily see small, white objects moving about. Eczema usually attacks the
belly, etc., while true Sarcoptic Mange attacks the back and then spreads.

TREATMENT.—Feed soft, laxative food and give one to two ounces of
Castor Oil; also provide clean, dry sleeping quarters. I have found the
following remedy very successful in the treatment of Mange: Oil of Tar,
one-half ounce; Vinice Turpentine, two ounces; Sublime Sulphur, one
pound; Crude Petrolatum, one quart. Apply once a day. A few applications
are generally sufficient to effect a cure. Great care should be
exercised, as this disease is very contagious, and communicated to other


CAUSE.—The common cause, perhaps, is a sudden chilling of the body; cold,
damp, chilly weather and damp, drafty kennels are favorable conditions
to cause chilling of the body and the rheumatic form of Pleurisy. Germs
may also produce it. It is commonly met with in specific diseases, as
Distemper, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—Chilling and high temperature, two to four degrees above
normal, the dog generally refuses to eat, and acts dull. Pain is a
noticeable sign, and when the sides of the chest are pressed with the
hand the dog will flinch; this is very noticeable during the early stage
of the inflammation, and may cause a dog to act restless. When breathing
the ribs are always held rigid. The breathing movements are mostly in
the muscles of the flanks, the dog getting his breath in short jerks.
Later, when fluids collect in the chest cavity, the breathing is more
labored, and all of the abdominal muscles are used. On absorption of this
fluid, the movements of the lungs may again become jerky in case the
inflammation becomes chronic. The character of the pulse beats varies,
and in some cases is very weak. In the early stage of the disease,
friction sounds, caused by the dry inflamed membranes rubbing against
each other, are detected on placing the ear against the chest walls.
Later, the collection of fluids around the lungs may deaden all lung
sounds, especially towards the lower part of the chest. In a mild case
of Pleurisy, the inflammation is localized to just part of the lungs, or
pleura. A lameness in both front limbs and stiffness in moving about are
the most noticeable signs in this form of disease. In Chronic Pleurisy
a dog is usually very weak and depressed. He is seen frequently lying
on his side, and shows great difficulty in walking. The course of Acute
Pleurisy is from six to eighteen days; the chronic form may run a course
of two or three months, or longer. This form is unsatisfactorily treated,
and the dog eventually dies.

TREATMENT.—Place the dog in clean, warm, comfortable surroundings; fresh
air is very beneficial, but omit any drafts. Internally, administer the
following: Quinine Sulphate, two drams; Potassium Iodide, two drams;
Carbonate of Ammonia, one dram; Potassium Nitrate, four drams. Mix and
make into thirty-two capsules. Give one capsule every three or four
hours. This dose is based on a dog weighing forty pounds; to smaller
or larger dogs give the same medicine, but in doses proportionate to
their weight. Feed the dog raw eggs, pure fresh milk, cooked vegetables,
finely chopped beef or beef broth, and in some cases I believe it is very
beneficial to give the dog small doses of brandy. Over the lungs apply
the following liniment: Aqua Ammonia Fort., one ounce; Oil of Turpentine,
one ounce; Sweet Oil, two ounces. Shake well and apply like a shampoo
once daily.


(_Prolapse of the Rectum_)

CAUSE.—Overfeeding with too stimulating food, deficiency in exercise,
constipation, causing straining; consequently, Piles frequently follows.
This condition sometimes occurs in weak, debilitated dogs, due to a
relaxed condition of the intestines.

SYMPTOMS.—In some cases only a portion of the rectal mucous membrane
protrudes outside of the anus. In the more severe cases red, bleeding
tumors will be present. After being exposed for a time, it becomes
enormously swollen and dark in color, and finally dries and cracks on
its surface. The protruded part itches intensely, and the dog rubs and
injures the intestine trying to relieve the irritation. Usually the
appetite falls off, and the dog is restless if not relieved.

TREATMENT.—When the dog is constipated, as is usually the case it should
be given a laxative, such as one to three ounces of Castor Oil, and fed
on food that is loosening to the bowels. The protruded rectal mucous
membrane should be washed with warm water containing five per cent
Carbolic Acid until clean; then replace. If badly swollen and inflamed,
astringent wash should be used, made from Water and Powdered Alum five
per cent. The protrusion can be returned by gentle pressure of the
fingers. In case the protruded rectum shows signs of sloughing, it should
be cut off and the cut edges of the rectum stitched to the edges of the


(_Mad Dog_)

CAUSE.—Rabies is produced by a specific micro-organism that is known
to exist in the brain, spinal cord and the saliva of affected animals.
This disease is communicated from one animal to another by inoculation,
usually by the bite of a rabied dog, or the saliva entering a wound or
abrasion. Wild animals, as well as domesticated, no doubt spread the
disease by biting, but it is a fact that dogs are inclined to bite, and
have a good opportunity to attack people, and hence are considered the
principal factor in the spread of the disease.

SYMPTOMS.—Are characterized by two forms of Rabies: Furious and Dumb. In
Furious Rabies, the general habits of the dogs are changed. They become
very restless, excited, and frequently are more affectionate than usual,
licking the hands or face, soliciting sympathy and help. This form of
Rabies is extremely dangerous, for the dog’s tongue is covered with
saliva containing micro-organisms which, coming in contact with thin
skin, wounds or abrasions, may inoculate the person to whom the dog is
attempting to prove its fondness, etc. This form of inoculation is not
uncommon. Usually, the dog becomes dull, melancholy, etc., seeking some
cool, dark and quiet place. The eyes at times are fixed, or are rolled
about, and there is an abundant secretion of saliva, which dribbles from
the mouth. It frequently gnaws wood, especially if tied or locked up,
and makes a desperate effort to get away. It also swallows indigestible
objects, and attempts to bite its master, mistress and animals. Paralysis
soon develops, and the dog has difficulty in swallowing, and is unable to
move about.

DUMB RABIES.—This form of Rabies is accompanied by depression and a
tendency to lick objects. Paralysis of the muscles that close the mouth
causes the jaw to drop or hang down. The dog is unable to bite and, owing
to the relaxed conditions of the mouth, he cannot close it. The tongue
hangs out, and stringy saliva escapes. The dog may attempt to bite even
though the muscles that close the mouth are paralyzed. The duration of
the disease is short; paralysis develops early in the attack, and death
usually occurs in from two to four days.

TREATMENT.—Prevention. All vagrant dogs should be exterminated, and all
dogs that appear in public highways, streets or public places should
be muzzled. This precaution has practically eradicated the disease in
Europe. Medical treatment is useless after the first appearance of the
symptoms. However, a wound infected by Rabies should be immediately
cauterized, or even completely cut away, care being taken to cut entirely
around the wound in the healthy flesh. For cauterizing the wound, use
Nitric Acid or a hot iron. Sometimes a ten per cent solution of Zinc
Chloride is used, and perhaps it is the most successful. To afford
absolute protection, this should be done within a few minutes after being
bitten. However, treatment even as late as a few hours has been known
to suppress the development of the disease. Pasteur has originated a
virus which is used with great success, and any person bitten by a dog
suspected of Rabies should be submitted to Pasteur’s treatment.


(_Articular and Muscular_)

CAUSE.—This disease is generally attributed to cold, damp, filthy,
ill-ventilated kennels, and exposure, but it may occur in dogs that
are well cared for. Overfeeding is also liable to produce it. The most
frequent forms of Rheumatism in dogs are Lumbago, Chest Founder, or
Kennel Lameness.

SYMPTOMS.—The symptoms are quite marked. These are severe loss of
appetite, lameness and general lack of condition. Sometimes large
swellings appear in the region of the hock, knee, and joints of the feet.
The muscles of the back are held stiff and arched, the muscles are tender
and sensitive when pressed, and the dog may be unable to move his hind
parts. Other cases may show a serious train of symptoms. A bitch that has
raised a litter of pups, when in poor flesh, is often affected with this
disease. A lameness of one or more of the limbs that shows a tendency to
shift about is the only sign noticed in the mild form of the disease.
Stiffness of the joints is noticed, especially if the quarters are
affected, and the dog lies around a good share of the time and refuses
to go far for its food. In Acute Rheumatism, the pain in the affected
muscles and joints is intense, and when these parts are handled, or the
joints moved, the dog will whine from the pain produced. When lying down,
asleep, sudden contractions of the muscles may be noticed. This is due
to the pain resulting from the relaxing of the muscles. This disease
may pursue a long course; the joints become greatly enlarged, and the
dog grows very thin and weak. In such cases, a complete recovery seldom

TREATMENT.—Prevention is very important, such as providing dry,
comfortable quarters, and the avoidance of exposure. Unless this is
practiced, but little can be obtained from medical treatment. A soft
laxative diet is also indicated: Salicylate Soda, three drams; Quinine
Sulphate, one dram. Make into twenty capsules and give one capsule every
three or four hours. When the bowels are constipated, give two or three
ounces of Castor Oil. The above doses are based on a dog weighing forty
pounds. Smaller or larger dogs should receive the same medicine but
proportionately to their weight. It is advisable, in cases where the
limbs are badly swollen, to apply liniments, and I would recommend the
following: Aqua Ammonia Fort., two ounces; Oil of Turpentine, two ounces;
Sweet Oil, four ounces. Shake and rub on the affected parts once or
twice daily.


CAUSE.—Perhaps the most common cause of this disease is a faulty diet, as
food that is deficient in inorganic matter. Unless supplemented by milk
or other foods containing lime salt, the bones are not supplied with the
necessary elements; lack of exercise, ill-ventilated, filthy kennels,
etc., help in causing the disease. A tendency towards Rickets in pups is
no doubt hereditary.

SYMPTOMS.—The dog is usually in good condition at the beginning of
the disease. Large, well grown pups may suddenly develop symptoms of
paralysis of the hind parts. The weakened condition of the thigh bone,
not being able to support the dog’s weight, fractures. At other times
there is a weakness and bending of bones in the limbs, breaking down of
the feet, bending or arching of the back, straddling gait, deformed or
disfigured condition of the face or nose.

TREATMENT.—Rickets can be prevented by careful feeding on suitable foods
and keeping the dog clean in well ventilated kennels, where he can get
plenty of exercise. Whenever a litter of several pups show symptoms of
the disease, the character of the food should be looked into, and if
faulty corrected by adding to it medicines or food containing required
elements. It is hardly practical to use medical treatment other than
bitter tonics. Unless the disease is in an advanced stage, it can
usually be controlled by careful feeding of a ration rich in inorganic
substances, as bone dust, lime water, and crushed egg shells, with a view
of supplying calcareous matter to the system. This can be fed to the
bitch nursing the pups or, if the pups are weaned, feed them carefully.


CAUSE.—Dogs may become infected with Ringworm by coming in contact with
infected dogs, or by being shipped in crates or boxes in which infected
dogs have recently been transported, or by using blankets, brushes,
collars, etc., which have been recently used by infected dogs.

SYMPTOMS.—Small red spots first appear on the skin, gradually enlarging,
and are covered with a thin, grayish scale, under which is found a serum.
The hair falls out as a result of the infection of the skin by the
parasite. The outside of the affected patches is red, while the inner
portion takes on a grayish-white color, giving it a ring appearance.
This condition is followed by severe itching; the dog rubs and scratches

TREATMENT.—The most effective drug is Tincture of Iodine, applied once
daily with a brush. Great care must be exercised, as this disease may be
transmitted to man, and to all domestic animals. Sanitary surroundings
and good, clean food, that is easily digested, assists materially in
eradicating the parasites.


(_Maw Worms_)

This worm is commonly seen infesting the intestines of puppies. The body
is generally white in color and slightly curved at the head. This worm
has a stiff, wiry appearance, and measures from one to three and one-half
inches in length.

SYMPTOMS.—Puppies are more susceptible to these worms, although we find
them in aged dogs. About fifty per cent of the dogs are infested with
these worms. They cause irritation of the intestines, irregularity of
digestion, diarrhoea, colic, nervousness, constipation, irregular
appetite and a rough, dry, unthrifty appearance of the hair and skin, and
the dog becomes emaciated. After this worm migrates into the stomach, it
causes nausea and vomiting, occasionally the bowels are filled with large
masses of these worms, and their passage aids in determining the cause of
the dog’s debility.

TREATMENT.—Withhold all food from eighteen to twenty-four hours
and administer Thymol, one grain; Santonin, three grains; Calomel,
two grains. Mix and place in capsule and give in one dose to a dog
weighing fifty pounds. Smaller or larger dogs should receive the same
prescription, but in doses proportionate to their weight.



CAUSE.—Sore Throat is frequently complicated by a cold. Sometimes it
is produced by inhaling irritating gases, or administering irritating
medicine. Injuries from sharp pointed sticks, eating sharp bones, etc.

SYMPTOMS.—It is more or less severe. The eyes are red and watery, and
the dog is dull and lies around most of the time. The appetite is poor
and, because of the pain and difficulty in swallowing, the dog may refuse
food. The pain in the throat is sometimes severe, and causes the dog to
move about in a restless manner. The character of the cough depends on
the part inflamed. When the larynx (opening of the windpipe) is involved,
the cough is usually hoarse and the breathing noisy and labored, as the
opening is more or less closed by the inflammation. At other times it is
dry and, when the dog moves about, or the parts are irritated by dust,
cold air, etc., coughing spells usually follow. The throat may be swollen
so as to be noticeable from the outside. Simple Sore Throat is not a
serious affection, and lasts but a short time. The symptoms may be so
mild as to escape observation; however, if the conditions are favorable,
it may re-occur and assume a severe form or become chronic.

TREATMENT.—Place the dog in clean, warm, well ventilated quarters and
feed soft food that is easily digested, as hot milk, boiled rice, etc.,
and administer the following: Potassium Chlorate, one dram; Liq. Ammonia
Acet., three ounces; Vini Ipecac, two drams; Tincture Camph. Co.,
one-half ounce; Aqua Chloroform, quantity sufficient to make six ounces.
Give one teaspoonful every four hours. This dose is based on a dog
weighing forty pounds. To smaller or larger dogs give doses in proportion
to their weight. When the throat becomes badly swollen, apply a liniment
made from equal parts of Aqua Ammonia Fort., Turpentine and Sweet Oil.
Apply over the throat and rub in briskly.


(_Tenia Marginata_)

CAUSE.—A dog eating raw flesh of sheep or cattle infested with the larva
of the Tapeworm or Gid, Sturdy, or Water Balls. (See Gid in Sheep.)

SYMPTOMS.—Tapeworms in dogs are numerous. It must be borne in mind that
an animal is not free from them until the Tapeworm’s head, apparently
the most insignificant part, has passed from the intestines. So long as
the head remains attached to the wall of the bowels by its hooklets it
will develop fresh eggs, producing segments which are passed and prove
the means of scattering the parasites. A dog infected with Tapeworm, as
a rule, is liable to reflex paralysis, coughing and convulsions from
the irritation caused by its presence in the bowels, depraved appetite,
unthriftiness, a rough, unhealthy condition of the skin, loss of hair,
anemia, irregularity of the bowels, and the feces offensive and slimy.
There is generally a certain amount of irritation of the anus, which
renders the dog fond of licking those parts or dragging them along on
the ground. Tapeworms frequently cause vomiting, and I have seen portions
of Tapeworms expelled in this way. In other cases there may be diarrhoea
and obstinate indigestion may be traced to the presence of Tapeworms.

TREATMENT.—Withhold all food for twenty-four hours and administer
Extract of Mail Fern, two drams; Pulv. Areca Nut, one dram. Mix in two
tablespoonfuls of syrup and give at one dose. Follow this treatment in
about two hours with one to two ounces of Castor Oil. This treatment
should be repeated in a week or ten days. These doses are based on a dog
weighing forty pounds. Smaller or larger dogs should receive the same
medicine, but in doses proportionate to their weight.


CAUSE.—This is a symptom which shows itself in almost any disease to
which the dog is subject, so extensive are the reflex influences which
follow disease in a dog. This process of Vomiting can be brought about
in the dog by means of many medicines, and the good effect of emetics is
appreciable even to the most casual observer. This class of medicines has
been much abused by those caring for sick dogs, emetics being given for
any and every disease. They sometimes free the stomach of irritants and
poisons which cause disease and poisoning, but their use requires care
and judgment.

SYMPTOMS.—The dog shows very marked symptoms of pain, but usually the
first signs exhibited are those of a sense of discomfort. The dog moans
in his sleep, wakes suddenly, curls himself up and goes to sleep again.
This continues until at last the vomiting is too urgent to allow rest.
The dog utters sharp, shrill, continuous cries, tries all sorts of
positions to get itself at ease, and walks about with the back arched.
There may be distention of the abdomen, due to the gases generated in
the bowels from the fermentation of their contents. Colicky symptoms
frequently accompany vomiting, due to the spasmodic contractions of the
stomach relieving itself of some irritant.

TREATMENT.—Knowing that the causes operating in the production of
Vomiting are so numerous, it will be easily understood that the treatment
must be equally variable. If due to the torpidity of the liver, give
Calomel, one to two grains. When worms are suspected, give worm treatment
recommended under the heading of Worms. When due to poisoning, give
milk and raw eggs. In case it is due to faulty digestion, or where a
dog is recovering from some debilitating disease, give one-fourth to
one-half teaspoonful of Baking Soda in a gelatin capsule two or three
times a day. The following prescription is recommended when all suspected
irritants are removed from the stomach: Diluted Prussic Acid (B. P.),
twelve drops; Bismuth Nitrate, one dram; Lime Water, four ounces. Mix and
give one tablespoonful three times daily. This dose is based on a dog
weighing fifty pounds. Smaller or larger dogs should receive the same
prescription, but in doses proportionate to their weight. This medicine
should be administered with great precaution, as it is very poisonous
when used in larger doses, or given at shorter intervals than above


A wound is a disruption of the soft parts of the body due to external
violence. Wounds are of various kinds, as incised, lacerated, punctured,
gunshot and poisonous.

TREATMENT.—If a wound is extensive, and bleeding is present, first arrest
it, and the most satisfactory method is as follows: Tie the artery from
which the blood is escaping, or twist with forceps, cauterize with hot
iron, compress by bandaging tightly and apply Tincture of Chloride of
Iron. This coagulates the blood, and is very effective. One important
factor in treating wounds is to attend to the drainage, as decomposed
matter absorbed into the blood produces blood poisoning. Dogs lick wounds
and keep them clean, therefore it is hardly necessary to apply medicine.

SEWING WOUNDS.—I cannot recommend sewing except in cases of incised or
clean-cut wounds. After clipping the hair from around the incision,
and washing it thoroughly with a one in one-thousandth solution of
Bichloride, stitch with cat-gut or absorbent silk suture. In case of
deep, punctured or gunshot wounds, with a syringe wash out the wounds,
using a one in one-thousandth Bichloride solution. For open wounds, use
dusting powders, as Iodoform, Boracic Acid, etc.

To keep flies from annoying a wounded dog, apply the following
prescription: Oil of Origanum, one ounce; Oil of Turpentine, one ounce;
Sweet Oil, one ounce. Apply to and around the wound with a feather. This
is also a good healing liniment as well as a fly repellent.



    Abortion, 7

    Administration of Medicine to Hogs, 7

    Anus, Prolapse, 23

    Bag Inflammation, 8

    Black Tooth, 8

    Blood Poisoning, 9

    Bronchitis, 10

    Castration, 10

    Catarrh, Nasal, 12

    Choking, 11

    Cholera, 13

    Cold in the Head, 12

    Congestion of the Kidneys, 16

    Diarrhoea in Young Pigs, 12

    Heat Stroke, 31

    Hind Quarter Paralysis, 22

    Hog Cholera, 13

    Hog Lice, 18

    Hog Regulator and Tonic, 6

    Indigestion, 15

    Inflammation of the Bag, 8

    Inflammation of the Lungs, 18

    Inguinal Rupture, 28

    Jaundice, 16

    Kidney Congestion, 16

    Kidney Worm, 17

    Lice on Hogs, 18

    Location of Parts of Swine, 6

    Lung Fever, 18

    Lung Inflammation, 18

    Lung Worms, 19

    Mange, 20

    Nasal Catarrh, 12

    Naval Rupture, 20

    Nettle Rash, 21

    Paralysis of the Hind Quarters, 22

    Pig Eating, 30

    Piles, 23

    Pin Worm, 24

    Pleurisy, 25

    Prolapse of the Anus, 23

    Pyemia, 9

    Rheumatism, 26

    Rickets, 26

    Round Worms, 27

    Rupture, Inguinal, 28

    Rupture, Naval, 20

    Rupture, Scrotal, 28

    Scours in Young Pigs, 12

    Scrotal Rupture, 28

    Septicemia, 9

    Sore Feet, 29

    Sore Mouth, 30

    Sows Eating Their Young, 30

    Sun Stroke, 31

    Swine Fever, 13

    Thorn-Headed Worms, 32

    Thumps, 32

    Umbilical Rupture, 20

    Urticaira, 21

    Whip Worm, 33

    Worm in the Kidney, 17

    Worm, Lung, 19

    Worm, Pin, 24

    Worm, Round, 27

    Worm, Thorn-Headed, 32

    Worm, Whip, 33

    Yellows, 16


    Abortion, 37

    Acute Indigestion, 46

    Acute Tympanitis, 46

    Black Scours, 38

    Bloating, 46

    Bronchitis, Verminous, 54

    Catarrh, 39

    Cold in the Head, 39

    Congestion of the Liver, 50

    Congestion of the Lungs, 52

    Congestion of the Udder, 43

    Diarrhoea, 40

    Dyspepsia, 48

    Dysentery, 40

    Fluke in the Liver, 51

    Foot Rot, 41

    Forage Poisoning, 42

    Foul in the Foot, 41

    Garget, 43

    Gid, 44

    Grubs in the Head, 45

    Head Grubs, 45

    Head Maggot, 45

    Hoven, 46

    Indigestion, 48

    Indigestion, Acute, 46

    Inflammation of the Liver, 50

    Inflammation of the Udder, 43

    Jaundice, 50

    Lamb Disease, 54

    Liver Congestion, 50

    Liver Inflammation, 50

    Liver Fluke, 51

    Location of Parts of Sheep, 35

    Louse Fly, 57

    Lung Fever, 52

    Lung Worms, 54

    Mange, 55

    Pneumonia, 52

    Poisoning on Forage, 42

    Pulmonary Apoplexy, 52

    Scab, 55

    Scours, Black, 38

    Strongylosis, 38

    Sturdy, 44

    Tick, 57

    Tympanitis, Acute, 46

    Udder Congestion, 43

    Udder Inflammation, 43

    Verminous Bronchitis, 54

    Verminous Gastritis, 38

    Worm, Lung, 54


    Abortion, 76

    Abscesses, 65

    Air Sac Mite, 61

    Aphtha, 79

    Apoplexy, 62

    Ascites, 72

    Baldness, 62

    Beak Obstruction, 63

    Blackhead, 63

    Body Lice, 64

    Body Scabies, 76

    Brain Hemorrhage, 62

    Bronchitis, 64

    Bronchitis, Tracheo Verminous, 74

    Bruises, Deep, 65

    Bumble Foot, 65

    Catarrh, 66

    Catarrh, Gastro-Intestinal, 70

    Catarrh of the Crop, 69

    Chicken Pox, 66

    Cholera, Fowl, 80

    Congestion of the Liver, 67

    Congestion of the Lungs, 68

    Constipation, 68

    Corns, 65

    Crop Catarrh, 69

    Crop Inflammation, 69

    Crop Impaction, 69

    Crop Obstruction, 69

    Crop Paralysis, 69

    Diarrhoea, 70

    Diarrhoea, White, 80

    Diphtheretic Roup, 71

    Diphtheria, 71

    Double-Yolk Eggs, 72

    Dropsy, 72

    Eating Eggs, 73

    Eating Feathers, 74

    Egg Bound, 73

    Egg Eating, 73

    Egg, Incomplete, 76

    Eggs with Double Yolks, 72

    Eggs without Shells, 73

    Eggs with Soft Shells, 73

    Enteritis, 70

    Favus, 62

    Feather Eating, 74

    Feather Pulling, 74

    Feeding Young Poultry, 75

    Fowl Cholera, 80

    Gapes, 74

    Gastro-Intestinal Catarrh, 70

    Gleet, Vent, 80

    Gout, 78

    Head Lice, 75

    Hemorrhage of the Brain, 62

    How to Feed Young Poultry 75

    Impaction of the Crop, 69

    Incomplete Egg, 76

    Infectious Entero Hepatitis of Turkeys, 63

    Inflammation of the Crop, 69

    Inflammation of the Mouth, 77

    Intestinal Obstruction, 68

    Intestinal Catarrh, 70

    Jaundice, 76

    Leg Weakness, 78

    Lice, Body, 64

    Lice, Head, 75

    Liver Congestion, 67

    Location of Parts of the Fowl, 59

    Lung Congestion, 68

    Mange, 76

    Mite, Air Sac, 61

    Mite, Red, 77

    Mouth Inflammation, 77

    Mouth Sore, 79

    Obstruction of the Beak, 63

    Obstruction of the Crop, 69

    Obstruction of the Intestines, 86

    Obstruction of the Throat, 63

    Paralysis, 78

    Paralysis of the Crop, 69

    Pip, 77

    Pox, Chicken, 66

    Pulling Feathers, 74

    Pulmonary Congestion, 68

    Red Mite, 77

    Rheumatism, 78

    Roup, Diphtheretic, 71

    Scabies, 78

    Scabies of the Body, 76

    Scaly Leg, 78

    Soft Shelled Eggs, 73

    Sore Head, 66

    Sore Mouth, 79

    Throat Obstruction, 63

    Thrush, 79

    Tuberculosis, 79

    Turkey (Blackhead), 63

    Vent Gleet, 80

    Verminous Tracheo Bronchitis, 74

    Warts, 66

    Weakness of the Legs, 78

    White Diarrhoea, 80

    Worms, 82


    Abscesses of the Ear, 85

    Apoplexy, 86

    Articular Rheumatism, 112

    Asthma, 86

    Barrenness, 87

    Bone Fractures, 100

    Brain Congestion, 86

    Bronchitis, 88

    Bronchocele, 101

    Burns, 89

    Canker of the Ear, 90

    Catarrh, 90

    Cold in the Head, 90

    Colic, 92

    Congestion of the Brain, 86

    Congestion of the Liver, 103

    Congestion of the Lungs, 104

    Conjunctivitis, 98

    Constipation, 93

    Chorea, 91

    Diarrhoea, 94

    Distemper, 95

    Dysentery, 94

    Dyspepsia, 102

    Ear Abscesses, 85

    Ear Canker, 90

    Eczema, 97

    Epilepsy, 98

    Eye Injuries, 98

    Fits, 98

    Fractures, 100

    Garget, 107

    Goiter, 101

    Haematoma, 85

    Indigestion, 102

    Inflammation of the Udder, 107

    Injuries to the Eye, 98

    Jaundice, 103

    Laryngitis, 116

    Liver Congestion, 103

    Location of Parts of Dog, 83

    Lung Fever, 104

    Mad Dog, 111

    Mammitis, 107

    Mange, 107

    Maw Worm, 115

    Muscular Rheumatism, 112

    Pharyngitis, 116

    Piles, 110

    Pleurisy, 108

    Pneumonia, 104

    Prolapse of the Rectum, 110

    Rabies, 111

    Rheumatism, 112

    Rickets, 114

    Ring Worm, 115

    Round Worm, 115

    Scalds, 89

    Sore Throat, 116

    St. Vitus Dance, 91

    Surfeit, 97

    Tapeworm, 117

    Tenia Marginata, 117

    Udder Inflammation, 107

    Vomition, 118

    Worm, Maw, 115

    Worm, Tape, 117

    Wounds, 119

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Notes on Diseases of Swine, Sheep, Poultry and the Dog - Cause, Symptoms and Treatments" ***

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