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Title: History of the U. S. S. Leviathan, cruiser and transport forces, United States Atlantic fleet - Compiled from the ship's log and data gathered by the - history committee on board the ship
Author: Committee, U. S. S. Leviathan History
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of the U. S. S. Leviathan, cruiser and transport forces, United States Atlantic fleet - Compiled from the ship's log and data gathered by the - history committee on board the ship" ***

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                             HISTORY OF THE
                            U.S.S. LEVIATHAN

                      CRUISER AND TRANSPORT FORCES
                      UNITED STATES ATLANTIC FLEET


                    COMPILED FROM THE SHIP’S LOG AND
                      DATA GATHERED BY THE HISTORY
                       COMMITTEE ON BOARD THE SHIP

                            PUBLISHED BY THE
                  305 WASHINGTON ST., BROOKLYN-NEW YORK



    _Leviathan_, thou noble ship,
    Thou mighty monarch of the seas,
    May thy stalwart form and mighty force
    War’s desolating horrors ease.
    We view the grandeur of thy bulk,
    And gaze with wonder and with awe
    At thy great magnitude and might
    Which surpass visions we foresaw.

    As now in peaceful anchor held,
    The waves caress thy sturdy bow:
    The ocean flirts and beckons thee
    To sail away, away—and now
    She lures thee with her shining crest,
    But couldst thou see beneath the wave
    The yawning jaws of cavern greed
    From which a God alone can save.

    She’ll lure thee out into her midst,
    Then tantalize with storm and gale,
    But these mere trifles bring no fear
    As ever on you sail.
    But deep within her somber soul
    There lie devices born of hate,
    In traitorous hearts and crafty minds
    Hell’s strategies they propagate.

    And will these mechanisms harm?
    Will bomb or shot e’er rend thy bark?
    Will cries of horrors fill the air
    As dangers peer from ocean dark?
    There is but One who knows thy fate;
    Within the hollow of His hand
    Thy safety lies. You can but wait
    And place thy trust in Beulah Land.

    We trust thee, ship, we give our sons
    By thousands. Will they fill thy halls?
    Oh bring them safe across the wave
    Despite the whirlpool, storms and squalls.
    The prayers and sobs from broken hearts
    Will follow as thy course is run.
    This prayer eternal, to heaven will rise—
    “Thy will, not mine, Oh, God, be done.”

    _Leviathan_, thou ship of state,
    Sail on, sail on victorious.
    Crush thou the tools of hate,
    Come back with honors glorious
    And bring with thee eternal peace.
    Peace with honor, without stain,
    And wear the crown “_LEVIATHAN_,”
    Queen of the ocean’s vast domain.


This is the story of the _Leviathan’s_ part in the Great World’s War.
The story of her career since the Stars and Stripes displaced the three
barred flag of Germany at her taffrail constitutes one of the most
remarkable and brilliant chapters in the maritime history of the world.

She was seized by the U. S. Customs officials in the early morning
of April 6, 1917, turned over to the Shipping Board to be manned and
operated, but after nearly three months’ effort on their part without
the ship leaving the dock, she was finally, on July 25, 1917, turned
over to the Navy Department and regularly commissioned as a Naval vessel
and assigned to transport duty under the command of Vice-Admiral Albert
Gleaves, U. S. Navy, Commander of the Cruiser and Transport Force, United
States Atlantic Fleet.

The _Leviathan’s_ record for carrying human beings across the ocean has
never been approached by any other vessel in the history of the world.
Back and forth she went across the Atlantic, almost with the regularity
of clockwork, passing unscathed a score of times through the war zone,
though the German submarines made several attempts in force to get her.
Her performance constitutes one of the greatest marine achievements
of the world and it would seem that fate had designed her to fulfil a
mission of retributive justice.

The Germans said it could not be done, but true to their nature, they
had not figured on the ingenuity, initiative and pluck of the American
sailor. When the Armistice was signed this three-funnelled colossus of
the waves had made ten trips across the Atlantic as a naval transport
and had landed a grand total of 110,591 American soldiers in France and
England. In other words, this single ship had transported to Europe one
twentieth of the total number of the American Expeditionary Force.

This tremendous achievement did not depend alone upon the great size and
speed of the ship; it was accomplished also by the splendid spirit of
the officers and men of the _Leviathan_ and their unfailing devotion to
duty. It was due to their pride in their ship and their personal loyalty
to Vice-Admiral Gleaves, their Force Commander, that kept the _Leviathan_
constantly straining to do her best, and this spirit remained with the
ship after the Armistice and nowhere is it better illustrated than in the
records of the 15th and 16th trips, on which she returned to the United
States a total of 28,412 troops, which amounted to 2,217 more than were
carried on her two best previous voyages. These two trips were made in
the fastest time she had ever made, less than 37 days elapsing for the
two voyages.

Thus during the war, in rushing troops to France, and after the Armistice
in the great task of bringing them home again, the _Leviathan_ proved
herself of greatest value to the government and her great achievement
will forever remain an undying credit to the United States Navy, and the
men of the Navy who manned her.


    _To our leader—honored in the nation;
     To our friend—steadfast and true;
     To our shipmate—of happy memory;_

    _The Bluejackets offer this dedication in gratitude
    and appreciation._



The record of the _U.S.S. Leviathan_, queen of the troop transport fleet
which made possible the successful participation of the United States in
the war with Germany, is a record of consistent service and remarkable
efficiency which upholds the best and noblest traditions of the United
States naval service. The nation owes and gladly gives a great meed of
praise to every officer and man, regular and reserve alike, who shared in
the hardships, the dangers and the successes of the _Leviathan’s_ great
wartime service.

The potential strength of the 98,000 fighting men the _Leviathan_ carried
to the shores of France can never be estimated. We know that when the
night was blackest, when the fortunes of the world hung in the balance
and the eyes of all nations were turned toward the western continent,
that the great _Leviathan_ with her tremendous troop-carrying capacity
was ready and that, trip after trip, without failures or accidents, the
great transport plowed her way across the Atlantic, scornful alike of the
submarine’s stilettos of the sea and the wrath of the elements, carrying
to the shores of our nearly exhausted allies those inestimably precious
cargoes of men who turned the tide and saved the day.

Although the _Leviathan_ did not participate in any great naval
engagement, although the battle flags never flew proudly at her
mast-heads as she swept into the tempest of a modern naval engagement,
her achievement in carrying across the sea more than three divisions of
American soldiers entitles the gallant ship’s name to a place forever in
the hall of American naval fame.

I cannot but feel a thrill of admiration for the efficiency, loyalty and
devotion to duty of the officers and men of the _Leviathan_ who repaired
the damage wrought by the Germans, quickly and skillfully organized the
ship for service at sea and who, week after week and month after month,
“carried on” regardless of the lurking menace beneath the waves, in the
face of an enemy who would have made any sacrifice to add the giant
_Leviathan_ to his list of victims.

On March 15, 1919, Mrs. Daniels and myself had the pleasure of going
aboard the _Leviathan_ with a party of naval officers who were
accompanying me to Europe on important public business. The remembrance
of this voyage will ever be among the most cherished memories of all
the members of our party. The never-failing courtesy and kindness of
both officers and men, the thoughtful consideration with which we were
treated, will always cause us to remember the U.S.S. Leviathan with the
warmest personal regard.

With all good wishes for the future for the crew of the _Leviathan_ and
the hope that the ship’s great work, so wonderfully carried out thus far,
may be as successfully completed.

[Illustration: Josephus Daniels]


Roster of Officers

Cruiser and Transport Force United States Atlantic Fleet

Vice-Admiral ALBERT GLEAVES, United States Navy Commander Cruiser and
Transport Force, U. S. Atlantic Fleet

U. S. S. Leviathan


    Oman, Joseph W., Capt., U.S.N.
    Bryan, Henry F., Capt., U.S.N.
    Phelps, William W., Capt., U.S.N.
    Durell, Edward H., Capt., U.S.N.

NOTE: Captain J. W. Oman, U.S.N., assumed command on July 23, 1917, being
relieved by Captain Henry F. Bryan, U.S.N., on March 3, 1918, who in turn
was relieved by Captain W. W. Phelps, U.S.N., on Sept. 21, 1918, who in
turn was relieved by Captain Edward H. Durell, U.S.N., on April 4, 1919,
and who now is in command.


    Jeffers, William N., Comdr., U.S.N.
    Blackburn, John H., Comdr., U.S.N.
    Staton, Adolphus, Comdr., U.S.N.


    Mannock, Frank D., Lieut.-Comdr., U.S.N.
    Cunningham, Harold A., Lieut.-Comdr., U.S.N.R.F.


    Osborne, Charles F., Lieut.-Comdr, U.S.N.
    Boucher, Creed H., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Bateman, Arnold H., Lieut., U.S.N.


    Ford, James W., Lieut.-Comdr., U.S.N.
    Haltnorth, Oliver J., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Malloy, William E., Lieut., U.S.N.


    Woodward, Vaughn V., Comdr., U.S.N.


    Gahagen, Allen J., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Bense, Frederick, Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Katzmarek, John E., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.


    Snyder, John J., Comdr., (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Asserson, Frederick A., Comdr., (M. C.), U.S.N.
    May, Henry A., Lieut.-Comdr., (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Vaughn, George T., Lieut.-Comdr., (M. C.), U.S.N.


    Schafer, George C., Lieut.-Comdr., (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Simonpietri, William L. F., Lieut.-Comdr., (P. C), U.S.N.
    Farwell, Neal B., Lieut.-Comdr., (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Edwards, Eaton C., Lieut.-Comdr., (P. C.), U.S.N.

[Illustration: _CAPT. H. F. BRYAN_





    Jones, John, Lieut.-Comdr., U.S.N.R.F.
    Foster, John, Lieut.-Comdr., U.S.N.R.F.
    Beebe, John L., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Hankison, Otto L., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Willey, James H., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Davidson, Harold, Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Burtis, William H., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Dorsey, Arthur B., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Swift, John T., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Hemby, Cleveland, Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Jones, Edward E., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Leonard, Arthur T., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Skead, Robert G., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Lovell, Douglas G., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Wright, F. G., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Millard-Turner, R., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Wainwright, Stuyvesant, Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Hilliard, Charles C., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Harper, Fred K., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Wyatt, Thomas H., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Alexander, Albert E., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Harding, Arthur E., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Foss, Albion F., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Towes, George V., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Cummins, David E., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Whitney, Rintoul T., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Nordstrom, Isador, Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Estey, Edward, Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Morrill, Stanley, Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Grant, Deloss A., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Nichols, Spencer V., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Fagan, George, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Fales, De Coursey, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Evans, John Clement, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Ditmars, John R., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Knight, Rufus H., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    LeClerq, Frederick D. K., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Palin, Milburn R., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Mann, Harry A., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Allen, William S., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Barcus, James S., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Thompson, Edward H., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Rapkin, Alfred C, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Seaman, Elbert C, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Howe, Paul F., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Ferguson, John, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Meagher, John F., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Singleton, Louis P., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Leiper, John A., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Gaynor, Thomas A., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Gay, Nelson, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Froehlich, Sylvan L., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Vars, Addison F., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Armiger, William J., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Milan, Daniel F., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Lequin, Maurice L., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Deacon, Joseph G., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Haines, Rowland B., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Hammond, Carlton M., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Johnston, George 0., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Arnold, Leslie J., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Schildhauer, Clarence H., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Schoeffel, M. F., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Sherlock, Archibald J., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Rowedder, Herbert B., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Hackett, Paul B., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Fitzsimmons, George R., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Ewbank, Henry L., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Denison, Ross E., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Croasdale, Ernest S., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Cox, Christopher C., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Carlon, Charles B., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Beardsley, Ralph A., Ensign, U.S.N.

[Illustration: _COMMANDER J. H. BLACKBURN_





    Woodward, Vaughn V., Comdr., U.S.N.
    Watson, James P., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Krez, Conrad A., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Jones, Richard H., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Keating, Thomas E., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Schluter, Wilhelm H. F., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Edwards, Henry I., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Lau, Walter, Lieut., U.S.N.
    Parker, John C., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Miller, L. Dee, Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Watt, Frank S., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Keeser, George, Lieut., U.S.N.
    Kirk, Colin, Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Althiser, Edwin, Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Looney, William C., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Andrews, Ellwood W., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Bright, Roscoe C., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Cadmus, Charles E., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Leventhal, Lewis F., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Graeff, Warren L., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Ferry, Jr., John M., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Hannon, Frank, Machinist, U.S.N.
    Dundon, William A., Machinist, U.S.N.R.F.
    Wilson, Tom C., Machinist, U.S.N.
    Brockie, William J., Machinist, U.S.N.
    Fagan, John J., Machinist, U.S.N.
    Glaser, Alfred W., Machinist, U.S.N.R.F.
    Hagerman, Oliver S., Machinist, U.S.N.R.F.
    Jensen, Joseph, Machinist, U.S.N.R.F.
    Wilson, Arthur L., Machinist, U.S.N.R.F.

[Illustration: _LT. A. W. MINUSE CONST. CORPS, U.S.N._



_LT. F. S. WATT._]


    Halsey, William H., Lieut.-Comdr, U.S.N.
    Porter, John E., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Hudson, Erastus M., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Braff, Max M., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Carroll, Frank J., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Rathbun, Walter L., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Crofutt, Edward F., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Hulbert, Harold S., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Dunlap, Albert K., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Howell, Harry M., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Kennedy, Patrick F., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Lorentz, Jr., Robert, Lieut., U.S.N.
    Weston, Albert T., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Strauss, Spencer G., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Ziesel, Carl S., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Sheppard, Thomas T., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Campbell, Carl I., Chief Phar., U.S.N.
    Martin, Robert, Phar., U.S.N.
    Benton, William M., Phar., U.S.N.
    Redman, Foster B., Phar., U.S.N.


    Hoffman, Leonard G., Lieut., (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Erickson, Edward B., Lieut., (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Nuber, Horace D., Lieut., (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Barker, Edwin F., Lieut., (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Soars, Charles A., Lieut., (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Gunnell, Vaughn J., Lieut., (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Alexander, Edward J., Lieut., (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Judkins, Holland B., Lieut., (j. g.), (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Carter, William J., Lieut., (j. g.), (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Coulbourn, Theodore S., Lieut., (j. g.), (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Baker, Jr., James M., Lieut., (j. g.), (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Bishop, Stuart A., Lieut., (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Foster, Leroy B., Lieut., (j. g.), (P. C), U.S.N.
    Thomas, Wilmer J., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Shuler, John W., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    O’Shaughnessy, Louis B., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Barber, Jr., William A., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Ast, Raymond J., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Amberg, Edward J., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Harris, Lester L., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Billingsley, Joe K., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Miller, Charles H., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Stephans, Frederick J., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Wrigley, Edmund J., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Waters, Clifford W., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Roberts, Jr., Jack B., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Schad, Theodore S., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Fisk, Harvey E., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Fenstemaker, Marvin C, Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Ingram, Herbert R., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Stafford, Archibald A., Ensign, (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Smith, Walter E., Pay Clerk, U.S.N.R.F.
    Poggi, Godfrey F., Pay Clerk, U.S.N.R.F.
    Luskin, Abraham, Pay Clerk, U.S.N.R.F.


    McDonald, Eugene E., Capt., U.S.N.


    Minuse, A. W., Lieut. Const. Corps.
    Jack, John H., Ass’t Naval Const. Lieut.


    Smith, Charles W., Boatswain, U.S.N.R.F.
    Coghlan, Daniel, Boatswain, U.S.N.R.F.
    O’Donnell, Joseph A., Elec. Gunner, U.S.N.R.F.
    Heinz, Earnest D., Elec. Gunner, U.S.N.
    Rector, Frank L., Boatswain, U.S.N.
    Cole, Raymond, Gunner, U.S.N.
    Hudgins, Earle P., Carpenter, U.S.N.
    Britt, Benjamin B., Carpenter, U.S.N.
    Waterston, Fred C., Boatswain, U.S.N.
    Johnston, William, Boatswain, U.S.N.
    Williams, James F., Gunner, U.S.N.
    Bruns, Harry, Gunner, U.S.N.
    Bergman, Milton, Elec. Gunner, U.S.N.
    Braunwarth, Albert, Boatswain, U.S.N.R.F.
    Banks, Earl F., Carpenter, U.S.N.R.F.
    Maune, James J. Carpenter, U.S.N.
    McLeod, Daniel, Carpenter, U.S.N.
    Shannon, Charles R., Elec. Gunner, U.S.N.R.F.
    Reimann, Carl, Gunner, U.S.N.
    Ohmer, August, Carpenter, U.S.N.

K. OF C., Y. M. C. A., J. W. B., A. U. A.]

[Illustration: _PAY CLERK G. F. POGGI_









    _Medical Department_

    Juhnke, Walter A.                C.P.M.
    Maloney, Leo G.                P.M., 1c

    _Engineering Department_

    Gish, G. B.                        C.Y.
    Lusk, J. R.                     MM., 1c

    _Navigation Department_

    Mallay, Jules                    Bugler
    Herrman, Sidney                Q.M., 2c

    _Gunnery Department_

    Collup, Floyd I.                 C.G.M.
    Martin, Wesley                  G.M. 3c
    Armstrong, G. A.                 C.E.R.

    _Deck Department_

    Devers, D. F.                  B.M., 1c

    _Supply Department_

    Flowers, Frank L.                C.C.S.
    Nelson, James                    Y., 1c

    _Construction Department_

    Hankison, L. A.                  C.C.M.
    Sherrill, H. C.                C.M., 1c

    _Yeoman to Committee_

    Fitzgerald, J. J.                Y., 1c
    Prescott, John W.                  Sea.

    Chaplain E. E. McDonald          U.S.N.

    _Photos by_

    Ensign Herbert A. Rowedder,      U.S.N.







Executive Order

_Whereas_, the following Joint Resolution adopted by Congress was
approved by the President May 12, 1917:

“Joint Resolution Authorizing the President to take over for the United
States the possession and title of any vessel within its jurisdiction,
which at the time of coming therein was owned in whole or in part by any
corporation, citizen, or subject of any nation with which the United
States may be at war, or was under register of any nation and for other

RESOLVED, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled: That the President be, and he
is hereby, authorized to take over to the United States the immediate
possession and title of any vessel within the jurisdiction thereof,
including the Canal Zone, and all territories and insular possessions
of the United States, except the American Virgin Islands, which at the
time of coming into such jurisdiction was owned in whole or in part
by any corporation, citizen, or subject of any nation with which the
United States may be at war when such vessel shall be taken, or was
flying the flag of or was under register of any such nation or any
political subdivision or municipality thereof; and, through the United
States Shipping Board, or any department or agency of the Government,
to operate, lease, charter, and equip such vessel in any service of the
United States, or in any commerce, foreign or coastwise.

Sec. 2. That the Secretary of the Navy be, and he is hereby, authorized
and directed to appoint, subject to the approval of the President, a
board of survey, whose duty it shall be to ascertain the actual value
of the vessel, its equipment, appurtenances and all property contained
therein, at the time of its taking, and to make a written report of their
findings to the Secretary of the Navy, who shall preserve such report
with the records of his department. These findings shall be considered as
competent evidence in all proceedings on any claim for compensation.

_And whereas_, the following vessels were, at the time of coming into
the jurisdiction of the United States, owned in whole or in part by
a corporation, citizen or subject of the Empire of Germany, a nation
with which the United States is now at war, or were flying the flag
of or under the register of the Empire of Germany, or of a political
subdivision or municipality thereof:

    _Kaiser Wilhelm II_
    _President Grant_
    _O. J. D. Ahlers_
    _Prinz Waldemar_
    _Governeur Jaeschke_
    _Princess Alice_
    _Carl Diedrichsen_
    _Arnoldus Vinnen_
    _Staatssekretar Solf_
    _Aroa_ (Lighter)
    _George Washington_
    _Kronprizessin Cecile_
    _President Lincoln_
    _Prinzess Irene_
    _Grosser Kurfurst_
    _Friedrich der Grosse_
    _Konig Wilhelm II_
    _Prinz Oskar_
    _Prinz Joachim_
    _Clara Mennig_
    _Staatssekretar Kraetke_
    _Camilla Rickmers_
    _Clara Jebsen_
    _Prinz Sigismund_
    _Arni_ (Lighter)
    _Argus_ (Lighter)

IT IS, THEREFORE, ordered that through the United States Shipping Board
there be taken over to the United States the possession and title of
the aforementioned vessels. The United States Shipping Board is further
hereby authorized to repair, equip and man the said vessels; to operate,
lease or charter the same in any service of the United States, or in any
commerce, foreign or coastwise; and to do and perform any and all things
that may be necessary to accomplish the purposes of the Joint Resolution
above set forth.

                                                          WOODROW WILSON.

The White House, June 30, 1917. (No. 2651)

Copy of Order

                      UNITED STATES SHIPPING BOARD

                                    Washington, D. C, July 11, 1917.

    Mr. Anthony V. Lynch, New York, N. Y.

    _Sir_: The President has issued an Executive Order authorizing
    the United States Shipping Board, on behalf of the United
    States, to take possession and title to the _Vaterland_, now
    lying or shortly to arrive at Hoboken, New Jersey, and you are
    hereby authorized and appointed by the United States Shipping
    Board as its agent to take possession of said vessel as
    contemplated in said Executive Order. Proceed aboard of said
    vessel at once and take possession of her in the name of the
    United States Shipping Board for and on behalf of the United
    States of America, affixing this Order on some conspicuous
    part of the ship, and leaving a true copy in its place when
    the original is removed. You are instructed thereupon to make
    Return, under oath, upon this Original Order of your action in
    the premises.

                            Very truly yours,

                                      UNITED STATES SHIPPING BOARD,

                                           (Signed) JOHN A. DONALD,

    _To the United States Shipping Board_:

    I hereby certify that I have complied with the instruction
    contained in the foregoing Order.

                                         (Signed) ANTHONY V. LYNCH.

    July 14th, 1917.

Part I

The United States Takes Over the German Merchant Ship, “Vaterland”



O. J. H.

When the _Vaterland_ of the Hamburg-American Line was taken over by
the United States Navy it was found to be in urgent need of repairs
throughout and the work of fitting the ship out for service as a Navy
Transport was accomplished by civilian labor and the ship’s force. The
force at that time consisted of men of the Regular Navy and the United
States Naval Reserve Force. These men worked long and faithfully to
accomplish a task which the Germans claimed could not be done.

One of the hardest propositions that was accomplished aboard the ship was
the repairing and the tracing up of the plumbing of the ship, _i. e._,
the fresh water and salt water lines. The plans of this plumbing could
not be found and had evidently been destroyed by the German crew. In a
great many instances it was found that lead fresh water lines had been
cut and the ends squeezed together. In other instances entire sections
of lines were cut out altogether and from investigation it looked as if
this was done maliciously when it was rumored that these vessels were
to be seized by the United States Government. These pipe lines are all
installed behind the panelling of the ship and when the water was first
turned on numerous floods were caused throughout the ship. An amusing
incident occurred on the trial trip to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, when the
entire forward section of the ship’s officers’ rooms on the starboard
side was flooded with about fourteen inches of water.

The work of refitting deck gear and getting in shape lifeboat equipment
was accomplished entirely by the ship’s force and when the ship was
finally ready for oversea service she carried more lifeboats than any
other ship afloat. The outboard lifeboats, except in a few cases, are
fitted with the Welin gear. This gear is electrically operated and when a
boat is sent out over the ship’s sides it can be dropped from the highest
deck, _i. e._, “A” deck, to the water with safety within sixty seconds.
There is life equipment aboard, consisting of lifeboats and the latest
type of life rafts for over 17,000 persons, so that a landsman sailing on
board the _Leviathan_ is well provided for and need not worry.

The _Leviathan_ is without doubt the most wonderfully constructed vessel
below the water-line in the world. The ship is subdivided into fourteen
water-tight compartments and every precaution was taken from the time the
ship sailed from the Port of Embarkation until her return, to safeguard
the vessel. The officers and men were untiring in their efforts. During
a period of ten months and twenty-six days, this vessel carried over
100,000 persons, a total of approximately one-twentieth of the entire
American Expeditionary Forces which were landed overseas. Four or five
thousand additional troops could have been carried on board, but for the
health and comfort and safety of all concerned, this additional number
were not transported.

The _Leviathan_ is the only vessel in the American Transport Service
which can sustain a speed of twenty knots across the Atlantic regardless
of weather conditions. A vessel, one of the Navy Transports, claims that
she beat the _Leviathan_ by three hours in a homeward bound voyage, but
the _Leviathan_ steamed 100 more miles in return than this other ship
and also had to slow down when within fourteen hours of New York on
account of the height of the tide, as she can only go through the Ambrose
Channel, the entrance to New York, at high tide.

The _Leviathan_ made a round trip in sixteen days and eighteen hours;
this included a stop of forty-eight hours overseas to coal ship. At that
time she took on board over 1,500 tons of fresh water and 4,500 tons of
coal. This coal was placed alongside in lighters and was discharged by
a working force of Army stevedores on the starboard side and the ship’s
company on the port side. In addition to this the cargo was handled and
discharged by the ship’s force, this being a creditable record. The
commanding officer, officers and crew received a telegram of commendation
from Vice-Admiral H. B. Wilson and Admiral Sims.

According to a New York newspaper the credit was given to an Army
Quartermaster officer. This officer had nothing to do with the handling
of the cargo, the coaling of the vessel, or debarkation of troops, except
to supply a working party of stevedores to assist the ship’s force in
coaling. The coaling of this vessel by the ship’s force, when from 4,500
to 5,000 tons of coal are taken on, is a large task, the largest coaling
proposition ever accomplished by a Navy crew, as our largest battleships
only carry about 2,800 tons of coal and they coal from colliers which are
fitted with modern machinery for handling coal cargoes.

Too much credit cannot be given to the crew of the _Leviathan_. They
worked faithfully, earnestly and cheerfully. The men were all young, the
probable average age being not more than twenty years. They were clean
cut Americans, well behaved and willing and anxious to carry out orders
and to whip the Germans.


When the World War broke out the _Vaterland_, Germany’s largest passenger
ship, was at her pier in Hoboken, New Jersey, ready to sail August 1,
1914. A mass meeting was held on this date at Atlantic Garden, Hoboken,
by firemen, seamen, oilers and machinists of German ships in Hoboken,
to discuss the war. All German ships that were in Hoboken had been
ordered not to sail. Being a part of the German Naval Reserve they were
subject to the orders of the German Admiralty. The _Vaterland_ had booked
720 first class, 420 second class and 2,500 third class and steerage
passengers. The Hamburg-American Line lost more than $500,000 as a result
of keeping the _Vaterland_ from sailing on August 1st.

The piers were stormed by angry crowds that had expected to sail and
had purchased their tickets. The Hoboken police had much difficulty in
handling the disappointed crowds. An extra guard was placed around the
ship and at night searchlights and inspectors guarded the giant ship.

Ten thousand German reservists on August 6th, demanded of the German
consul that they be sent back to Germany on the _Vaterland_ so that they
could join their regiments. There were nine German ships in Hoboken at
this time—the _Prinzess Irene_, _Friedrich der Grosse_, _Vaterland_,
_President Lincoln_, _Pennsylvania_, _Barbarossa_, _Prince Joachim_,
_George Washington_ and _Martha Washington_.

Count Von Bernstorff, the German Ambassador, arrived in Hoboken from
Germany on the _S. S, Noordam_, on August 24th, for a brief visit.

The clearing ship for all German officers in this country was the
_Aeolus_. These officers came from all parts of the world. They had
secret orders to go aboard that particular ship and stay until all
arrangements were made for them to travel aboard outbound steamers.
These officers played an important part in the interest and welfare
of the Fatherland. This continued until the United States entered the
war, when all German ships on this side were seized. The captain of the
_Aeolus_, the chief engineer and the purser were ordered to Philadelphia
to take ship to Germany. They ran the English blockade and succeeded in
getting home. This captain was given command of a Zeppelin. He made a few
successful raids, but was afterwards brought down and killed near London.
When news of his death came all the flags on German ships were hoisted at
half mast.

On board the _Friedrich der Grosse_ (renamed _Huron_), the entire
personnel were kept busy making bombs. These bombs were carried off the
ship in separate parts and assembled at the main factory in Hoboken,
which was disguised as a fertilizer plant. This was soon broken up, the
men tried and sent to jail.

The officers and men interned had many schemes for making money. A bazaar
held at Madison Square Garden, New York, cleared at least $85,000 in a
week. Moonlight excursion trips up the Hudson netted more money. This
money was supposed to be for the wives, mothers and children of the men,
but through the craftiness of a high functionary it was used for his own
personal benefit and the upkeep of the German spy system. It was found
that he used some of this money also for private speculation.

When news of the sinking of the _Lusitania_ came the German sailors
celebrated and German officials made ready to destroy German ships in
port at a moment’s notice, for they knew that war with the United States
was imminent. But on the morning of April 1st, the Germans were surprised
to see one of our destroyers, No. 533, anchored off Pier 2. They thought
this a great joke, but on April 5th, the United States officials rounded
up German officers and men and sent them to Ellis Island for distribution
to Federal prisons.

On this date, United States armed forces seized ninety-one German
ships in different ports. The _Vaterland_ was taken over at 4 A. M.,
on the morning of April 5th. The seizure was made without any trouble
or disturbance by the crew and they were marched off and sent to Ellis
Island for transfer to Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. The night before the seizure
took place, a conference was held on the _Vaterland_ between three
representatives of the American Government and the German commanders of
the interned vessels. The German commanders were given to understand that
there must not be any violence when the ships were taken over. They made
no resistance.

The English Navy maintained a steady and vigilant patrol outside the
three-mile limit of America.


The _Vaterland_ was built at Cuxhaven, Germany, by Blohm and Voss,
shipbuilders, of Hamburg, assisted by German naval architects and German
army engineers. It was launched in the early part of 1914.

The ship is equipped with 46 Yarrow boilers, German built, and are
arranged in four firerooms separated by four watertight bulkheads. 8,731
tons of coal are carried and an average of 700 tons at 17½ knots up to
900 tons at 21½ knots, is burned during twenty-four hours. 5,670 tons
of fresh water are carried. This allowed every man aboard, including
troops carried later and crew, six gallons per day. Cooking, drinking and
water for washing is included in these figures. The ship is divided into
fourteen watertight compartments and all doors in the engine room spaces
are controlled by compressed air and may be closed from the bridge by a
master lever in case of accident or emergency.

The following list of dimensions may also be of interest: The bridge is
87 feet above the water-line. The boat deck is 101 feet above the keel.
From the top of the smokestacks to the water-line is 146 feet. Fore and
aft diameter of funnels is 29 feet. Athwartships diameter of funnels is
18 feet.

A crew of 1,200 was carried by the Germans and a crew of 2,240 was
carried when operated by the United States Navy. This included gun’s
crews, additional men for coaling at Brest, and a training complement.
The ship is driven by four propellers. The shafts to which these
propellers are attached are twenty-one inches in diameter. The propellers
have four blades and are without a doubt the largest in existence, being
fourteen feet from tip to tip. The shafts are driven by eight Parsons
turbines, four in a cruising combination and four in a manœuvering

The ship is equipped with five passenger and six freight elevators, each
capable of lifting more than a ton.

The rudder and steering gear are the largest known and the rudder and
steering engine are the largest and most powerful installed on any vessel

Concerning the ground tackle, the data is:

    Stem anchor                24,000 lbs.; chain      150 fathoms
    Starboard, lower           22,000  ”      ”        150 fathoms
    Port, lower                22,000  ”      ”        165 fathoms
    Spare                      22,000  ”
    Stock or stream anchor      7,000  ”

The ship is equipped with a 36,000 candle power searchlight and when
lighted at night may be seen for a distance of forty miles.


The following is a translation of a clipping from a German newspaper,
the _Tageblatt_ of Wurtemberg, taken from a dead German soldier, by a
first-class private of Headquarters Troop, 27th Division, A. E. F.:

It was translated and loaned by him to the ship’s history committee while
en route from France to the United States on board the _Leviathan_.

The soldier while serving as an interpreter and doing intelligence work
with the headquarters came upon this clipping in a queer manner on or
about August 31, 1918, immediately after Kemmel Hill had been evacuated
by the Germans. The lines had formerly been held by the British and
had been stationary for about four months until the Twenty-seventh and
Thirtieth American divisions were given that sector. After being in the
line a short while the Germans evacuated, fearing that the Americans
might attack and his Imperial Majesty’s Army had no wish to meet up with
some of Uncle Sam’s fire-eaters. While going over the field after the
Germans had left, this man came upon a German soldier who had been shot
in the head. He evidently had been dead for some weeks. Being a part of
his work and duty, he took from the pocket of the dead man a newspaper,
expecting to find some information that might prove valuable. He found
the following translation which he immediately cut out and saved to show
a friend on the _Leviathan_,

    [Illustration: Wie man aus »Vaterland« den »Leviathan« machte.

    Als die Amerikaner am 6. April 1917, am Tage der
    Kriegserklärung, den Dampfer »Vaterland« mit Beschlag belegten
    und die Besatzung von Bord brachten, fanden sie die Maschinen
    unbrauchbar gemacht. Es dauerte Monate, bis es ihnen gelang,
    das Schiff so weit auszubessern, daß es wieder seetüchtig
    wurde. Das Schiff war auch zu ganz anderen Zwecken bestimmt
    als der Massenverschiffung von Soldaten und Munition. Um es
    einigermaßen seiner neuen Bestimmung anzupassen fielen die
    Amerikaner, lt. Köln. Z., wie die Vandalen mit Äxten und Sägen
    und Hämmern über den stolzen Bau her und rissen die kostbare
    Inneneinrichtung mit solcher schmachvollen Rücksichtslosigkeit
    heraus, daß die prachtvollen Edelhölzer nur noch als Brennholz
    zu verwerten waren: 20 Eisenbahnwagen wurden mit den Trümmern
    gefüllt und in Hoboken verkauft. Nur das große Gemälde im
    Treppenhause wurde herausgenommen und im Hotel Baltimore
    aufgehängt. Von den erhofften 12000 oder gar 15000 Soldaten war
    kaum die Hälfte unterzubringen, wie überhaupt die gestohlenen
    Personendampfer der beiden deutschen Linien nicht die
    Fassungskraft aufwiesen, die man ihnen zugeschrieben hatte. Mit
    den 16 deutschen Schiffen waren im ganzen nur rund 28000 Mann
    und 5500 Offiziere auf einmal zu befördern, und die Hoffnungen
    der Amerikaner erfuhren infolgedessen eine empfindliche
    Enttäuschung. Die geraubte deutsche Flotte ist schon recht
    erheblich gelichtet worden, denn unter den 40 versenkten
    Truppenschiffen der Amerikaner befanden sich sicherlich
    verschiedene deutsche. Mindestens wissen wir aus amerikanischen
    Quellen, daß der »Präsident Lincoln« am 31. Mai einem deutschen
    Torpedo zum Opfer fiel, und nun ist die »Vaterland« gefolgt.
    »Präsident Lincoln« war eines der vier Schiffe, denen die
    Räuber den ursprünglichen Namen belassen hatten: die andern
    drei sind der »George Washington«, der »Präsident Grant«
    und die »Pennsylvania«. Die »Vaterland« dagegen wurde in
    »Leviathan« umgetauft, die »Kronprinzessin Cecilie« in »Mont
    Vernon«, der »Kaiser Wilhelm II.« in »Agamemnon« und der
    »Amerika« in »America«.]


    On the Declaration of War, April 6, 1917, the American robbers
    seized the steamer _Vaterland_ along with others of the German
    merchant fleet that was interned in the United States. The crew
    and most all the ship’s equipment have been taken off. However,
    they found the machinery unfit for use and it took them months
    to repair it and get the ship in a seaworthy condition. The
    big ship was never built to carry troops and ammunition, and
    to make it fit for such uses the thieves tore out all of our
    beautiful art and all of the fine woodwork, regardless of all
    feeling. Twenty freight cars full of wood and furnishings were
    taken from the ship and loaded in Hoboken to be burned. Only
    one great painting was accounted for. This was located above
    C deck at No. 1 stairway, and it now hangs in the Hotel —— in
    New York. They hope to accommodate 12,000 or 15,000 troops.
    This they will never be able to do, not even half that amount.
    On the sixteen stolen ships there was only room for 28,000 men
    and 5,500 officers, so the Americans will have to change their

    The stolen German fleet has been greatly reduced, for surely
    of the forty troopships that have been sunk there must have
    been some of ours amongst them. Nevertheless, we know through
    American sources that the _President Lincoln_ fell to the mercy
    of a German torpedo on May 31st. The _President Lincoln_ was
    one of the four sister ships seized by the robbers. The other
    three were the _George Washington_, _President Grant_, and the
    _Pennsylvania_. Some names have been changed to the following:
    The _Vaterland_ to the _Leviathan_, the _Kronprinzessin
    Cecilie_ to the _Mount Vernon_, the _Kaiser Wilhelm II_ to the
    _Agamemnon_ and the _Amerika_ to the _America_.

The _Vaterland_ lay at Hoboken with her German complement of officers
and men intact and protected by the splendid neutrality of the American
Government. To the date of the declaration of war, April 6, 1917 (Good
Friday, 1.13 P. M.), the huge ship aided the German Red Cross by a series
of social entertainments on board given under the auspices of ship’s
officers. A great number of prominent people attended these fetes.







Early in April, 1917, the ship was taken over by the United States
Customs Officials. The customs officials inspected her and put aboard
guards which were later replaced by several civilian employees of the U.
S. Customs. The guard was increased later to about sixty men from the
Police Reserve from the 37th Precinct, New York City.


The lower decks were found to be in a filthy and unsanitary condition,
only the upper decks, open to inspection, were found clean and inviting.
The ship’s furnishings in the staterooms and public assembly rooms were
magnificent and showed a high degree of taste and art. The paintings
of different notables, Bismarck, Lincoln, Washington, Roosevelt, etc.,
were later removed. In the engine room, fire room and dynamo space, much
deterioration had taken place.

The vast accumulation of ship’s stores and provisions, the high class
wines, the magnificent table linens and china and glass ware and about
$150,000 worth of silver ware were taken off the ship and placed on the
pier for further disposition. Much of the medical supplies and provisions
as well as different furnishings from the staterooms were found to be
missing. It is said that these were taken by the German personnel before
the ship was taken over by the American authorities. The latter destroyed
some of the medical stores found on board fearing that drugs and
medicines might have been tampered with and poisonous drugs compounded
with non-poisonous and placed in chests bearing false labels.

A marine construction company sent down divers to do necessary work
scraping the bottom and to locate the propellers. Owing to the
destruction or disappearance of all blue prints as to the location of
the various propellers, it was a matter of some delay. These blue prints
were later found in the Hamburg-American Line’s office and some of them
proved inaccurate. United States Secret Service Agents raided the
Hamburg-American’s office on Broadway, New York City and discovered them
with other secret diplomatic correspondence showing the machinations
of Germany in Mexico and South America. In the hull of the ship many
articles of German handiwork and craftsmanlike skill were found, such as
small toys, probably carved by the crew for sale among the visitors to
the ship in order to obtain some spending money.

The crew of the _Vaterland_ numbered 1,200 during her transatlantic
voyages. But at the time of her seizure they numbered only about 300
as a large number of the crew, in order to make a livelihood, left the
ship and established themselves in different positions in hotels and
restaurants of nearby cities and upon other ships.

When the United States Customs Officials took charge, at 4 A. M., April
6th, they searched everybody who came aboard thereafter and detected a
number of men having articles of destruction. Several attempts to smuggle
small bombs and explosives into the coal chutes from the coal barges
alongside were frustrated by the guards. When the Navy took over coaling
the ship, a more vigilant guard was maintained. The guards had orders to
keep off all unauthorized boats at a distance of 100 yards. There was
much reason for this strict order. The United States Customs Officials
turned over the _Vaterland_ to the United States Shipping Board. Among
the shipping board employees was a number of hardy Filipino and Hawaiian
firemen, very sturdy and enthusiastic about their work. They were
presumably from merchant ships in or about the harbor and they gladly
offered their services in behalf of their adopted country. “Africans” was
a favorite sport with them.

During the hot spell of July, 1917, several of the Filipino firemen
were affected by the intense heat and were removed to the hospital for
observation. All employees on the ship had their identification cards
with their photograph attached. Hoboken was a hotbed of pro-Germanism and
our officials could not be too careful.




At 10 A. M., July 25, 1917, the American flag was hoisted under the
orders of the Navy Department. This interesting ceremony, which meant
so much to the oppressed peoples of the world, was witnessed by only a
few men. The first draft of seventy-one firemen came aboard later in the
day. The main dining room was converted into a mess hall for the troops,
and the beautiful swimming pool of Pompeiian decoration was turned into
a baggage room. The after baggage room was turned into a brig (or ship’s
prison), and a powder magazine.

The first entry in the official log of the former German ship _Vaterland_

                           8 A. M. TO MERIDIAN

    At 10 A. M., July 25, 1917, the _U. S. S. Vaterland_ was placed
    in commission by Captain J. W. Oman, U. S. N., in accordance
    with letter C-467-4 from the Commandant of the Navy Yard, New

    The watch was set. The following officers were attached to this

    Captain J. W. Oman, U. S. N.; Ensign A. H. Bateman, U. S. N.;
    Assistant Paymaster L. B. Foster, U. S. N. R. F.; Assistant
    Paymaster H. B. Judkins, U. S. N. R. F. Fifty-five (55) workmen
    were on board, work going on in the engineering department and
    on deck under the direction of the shipping board and customs
    officials. Divers cleaning bottom.

                  (Signed) FRED K. HARPER, _Lt. (j. g.) U.S.N.R.F._

During this period work was progressing steadily under the direction of
the different heads of the departments and there is nothing of special
interest to relate.

A carrier pigeon, w-7463, fluttered through the air and dropped dead on C

One fireman was court-martialed for using profanity, thus showing the
quick application of Navy discipline.


On September 6th the name of the German ship _Vaterland_ was changed by
order of the Secretary of the Navy, without ceremony, to the _U. S. S.
Leviathan_, meaning monster of the deep and mentioned in the Book of Job
in the Old Testament.

Small fire on board, September 23, 3.50 A. M., “F” Deck, aft.




[Illustration: TROOP SPACES]

On September 26th there was a large amount of “Imperial” sausage received

In the latter part of October, 1917, the big caliber guns were placed
upon their respective mounts. A depth charge chute was erected on the
stern and fire control and range finding apparatus were installed to
insure the accuracy of the guns.

All the staterooms on the lower decks of the ship were ripped out to make
room for standees, which are an open iron frame work with canvas bunk
bottoms to be occupied by the troops in transit to France.

Work was begun in the main theatre and ball room to convert it into a
hospital for troops and crew during transatlantic voyages.

An isolation ward was established in the gymnasium on “A” Deck for
contagious cases. The ship’s doctor’s office was used as a sick call
station and dispensary for troops and crew.

Dock trials took place in the morning watch of November 12th. These
trials lasted until 2 P. M. The ship reported ready for sea and on
November 17, 1917, a trial trip to Cuba was made.


Before describing the trial trip it is well to say something here of
the crew and the ship’s organization, which was a vital factor in the
successful operation of the _Leviathan_ and its participation in the
World War.

The crew of the _Leviathan_ is divided into two main parts, one part
consisting of the deck divisions and the other of the engineer’s
division. The deck force is composed of nine divisions all told, four of
which do the deck work proper and five of which are special branches. The
deck divisions are divided into four sections each and the engineer’s
division into three sections. Each man of the crew is assigned a number
which gives his division, section and personal number. For instance, the
man holding the number 841 would be the first man in the fourth section
of the eighth division. The first figure of the number is the division,
the second figure the section and the third figure or third and fourth
figures together is the man’s number. The men of the deck force wear a
white band around the left arm at the shoulder on blue uniforms, and a
blue band on white uniforms. The men of the engineer’s force wear a red
band on both blue and white uniforms. The petty officers of the deck
force proper wear their rating badges on the right arm and all other
petty officers wear them on the left arm.

The first, second, third and fourth divisions are the men detailed for
the deck work, manning guns, lookouts, fire control, etc. The first
division has the fore part of the ship or forecastle; the second division
the top deck; the third division the inside decks and the fourth division
the after part of the ship. The fifth division is known as the repair
division, and consists of the carpenters, painters, plumbers, buglers,
yeomen and other men of special ratings.

The sixth division is known as the navigators’ division and consists of
the quartermasters and signalmen. The seventh division is the hospital
corpsmen. The eighth division is the Supply division and consists of the
personnel of the Pay and Commissary branches and the mess attendants or

The ninth division is known as the Bluejacket guard and has the policing
of the ship, also furnishes orderlies for the Commanding and Executive
officer and all ship’s guards.

The tenth division is the engineer’s force consisting of half the ship’s
crew, and includes all men working in the engine rooms, firerooms, and
dynamo rooms. The radio force of the ship is also included in this

The ship’s complement is 68 officers and 2,240 men.


G. B. G.

“I have to report that the Engineering Department of this vessel is in
all respects ready for sea.”

Thus read Lieut. V. V. Woodward’s official report to Captain J. W. Oman,
November 16, 1917, an expression of confidence not unanimously shared by
the crew or public. The Captain, Engineer Officer, the Navy Department,
were confident she would leave despite boasts to the contrary by German
agents and sympathizers.

Promptly at 9:30 A. M., November 17, 1917, upon signals from the bridge,
steam was admitted to the _Leviathan’s_ great turbines, the hull was felt
to quiver slightly, and the greatest passenger carrying ship on the ocean
backed smoothly from her moorings of three years into the North River.
Here was another triumph of Yankee ingenuity.

No blare of brass bands was heard, no cheering crowds thronged the river
front, as, amid a fleet of eighteen tugs, the former pride of the German
maritime world, manned by an all-American crew, straightened her course
and under her own power, headed slowly for the open sea.

On board were 241 marines, in addition to the crew, bound for Cuba to
relieve a detachment of seasoned “Devil Dogs.” Prior to sailing, Captain
Oman had issued an order, stationing these men in conspicuous positions
about the upper decks, giving the appearance from the river front that
thousands of troops were bound overseas to swell the numbers of the
American Expeditionary Force.

Anchorage was made off Fort Wadsworth that afternoon to permit a thorough
inspection of machinery spaces. The result was that “The Engineering
Department was in all respects ready for sea,” for, aside from a few
minor repairs, the renewal of a gasket here, a nut tightened there, no
defects were revealed.

At high tide the morning of the 18th, she steamed slowly through Ambrose
Channel, shifted to high pressure cruising combination and began speeding
eastwards at eighteen knots.

Numerous craft sighted the _Leviathan_, her course was noted by westbound
steamers and thus was the rumor “confirmed” that she was on her initial
trip to France, laden with thousands of troops.

Throughout the day, under the supervision of Lieut. C. H. Boucher, gun
crews were given instructions. Small arms, abandon ship, and fire and
collision drills interfered seriously with the sighting of flying fish,
leaping porpoises, and the discussion of “Why is the Gulf Stream?”

Trouble was first encountered on the 19th, when a valve stem on the
differential valve of the port steering engine broke. The ship is
equipped with two steering engines and the starboard engine was quickly
cut in and the voyage resumed. Similar trouble occurred the succeeding
day, leaving the ship without power to hold her course. The engines were
stopped and the _Leviathan_ lay helpless, a plaything of the winds and


These were anxious hours for the officers and crew alike. Sleep was
forgotten, personal comforts were of secondary importance. Lieut.
Woodward haunted the steering engine room, pored over blue prints,
conferred with assistants, advised and worked with the men. New stems
fitted to replace the broken ones, permitted runs of short duration, then
they, too, broke under the strain. A quantity of these stems, broken
and twisted, were found in a store room, an indication that its former
operators had experienced trouble of this nature.

For twenty-four hours the crippled ship made spasmodic runs to the
northward; first one, then the other, then both steering engines became
inoperative. The Engineer Officer grew haggard. The ship’s doctor
insisted that he get some sleep, but a few hours’ restless tossing upon
a couch, and he would be seen again, making his way aft to the steering
engine room.

The solution of the problem came to Lieut. Woodward during one of these
brief respites. Clad in greasy dungarees, reclining upon a couch,
following thirty-six hours of constant toil, Lieut. Woodward suddenly
jumped to his feet and assembled the tired mechanics, and explained his
plan. The machine shop was invaded and a new stem of heavier design and
altered pattern was fitted.

Then, under the anxious eyes of the Captain, Engineer Officer and
First Lieutenant, a test was made. The throttle was thrown clear over,
permitting the engine to race, and the new stem held. It is still
holding, like its mate of similar design, after more than 100,000 miles
through the wind-swept North Atlantic.





During the voyage south to Cuba, the crew shifted into white uniforms.
The port holes were closed tight and painted deep black. All precautions
were taken against unexpected attack. We passed close aboard Matling
Island, or San Salvador whereon Columbus first set foot in the New World.

We rounded Cape Maysi Light and headed up for the harbor of Guantanamo
Bay. While changing troops at the mouth of the harbor, our great draft
precluding our entrance, the men-of-warsmen initiated the rookies into
the delights of shark-catching.


L. G. M.

While lying at anchor off the beautiful harbor of Guantanamo Bay, those
of the crew who were off watch were lounging around the open decks and
enjoying the heat of the tropical sun. Among the crew were some old navy
men who had visited this port before and knew from experience that these
waters were infested with sharks. They suggested that a line, hook and
bait of some kind be procured and an attempt be made to catch sharks.

The necessary articles were obtained, the hook being double-pronged. To
this was tied a whole cow’s liver—a juicy and inviting piece of bait.

The waters of the bay were calm and from “B” deck, when the fishing line,
which was of 1 inch hemp, was thrown over, one could see the hook and
bait fully thirty feet below the surface of the water.

In a short time a large black body with a white belly swam with lightning
swiftness past the line several times, darting back and forth, but on a
sudden it turned, seized the bait and tried to make off with it. The end
of the line on deck was tied to a stanchion which gave the shark a strong
opponent, and a terrific struggle followed both on deck and in the water,
for as soon as Mr. Shark struck, about 40 men grabbed the line and began
to run across the deck, pulling the fighting monster out of the water
onto the deck.

As soon as the shark landed on deck every one scattered, for the big fish
began frantically to lash his powerful tail and snap his jaws. No one
dared approach him.

Finally when the shark was exhausted, one of the _Leviathan’s_ butchers
drove a cleaver into the strong skull and ended the death struggle. The
same piece of bait obtained three other sharks before it was lost, owing
to a slack in the line, when a ten-footer tried to join the company. The
line broke and the prize, and hook and bait, with about thirty feet of
brand new line, was lost.

Part II

Running The War Zone


S. H.

At 7.34 A. M., December 15, 1917, the _Leviathan_ left her pier in
Hoboken for her first trip across the Atlantic. Twelve tugs were employed
to assist in swinging the bow of the giant ship toward the sea. The
following organizations and numbers of troops were on board, in addition
to some notable passengers:

No. 7,254. Organizations—Base Hospital, No. 31, Female; Base Hospital,
No. 34, 82nd Brigade Hdqts., 163rd Inf., 164th Inf.; Commanding Officer,
Brig. General Edward Vellruth, 82nd Brigade.

The morning was rather raw, with the snow falling heavily, but nothing
could dampen the ardor of the 7,254 troops and 2,000 sailors on board.
We were about to cross the ocean, most of us for the first time, and the
hazard of the perils of the submarine, whose operations were more active
at this period of the war than at any other time, and the excitement of
the adventure, if nothing else, was sufficient reason for everyone to
keep his spirit up.

Passing through Ambrose Channel, the ship headed for the open sea with
the compass pointing due east and the propellers revolving at the rate
of 158 revolutions per minute, which is equivalent to 21 knots. Until
sundown this same night, a zig-zag course was maintained, not because of
the danger of submarines, for none were reported off the Atlantic coast
at this time, but in order to give the officers and men on the bridge an
opportunity to become thoroughly acquainted with this method so as to be
familiar with it when in the danger zone.

[Illustration: AT SEA]

Abandon ship drills were held this day, all members on board falling
in at their respective boats and rafts in a quite orderly fashion and
lowering the boats in a remarkably short time.

At 2.00 A. M. the next day, December 16th, lights of western-bound ships
were sighted off the port bow. The sky was completely overcast, with a
rough northwest sea, accompanied with fresh strong breezes. Our speed
averaged 20 knots this day, all 46 boilers in the fireroom being in
commission. The clocks were advanced 47 minutes.

The next day a moderate gale was blowing and we passed through heavy rain
squalls. Due to the heavy sea our speed was reduced. The sky remained
overcast with the barometer dropping steadily giving little hope of
the weather moderating. The customary drills of abandon ship and fire
alarm were gone through. The water-tight doors, so essential in case of
submarine attacks, were tested and found O. K.

The sea moderated sufficiently the next day to allow us to increase speed
once more, this time to 21½ knots, although the ship rolled and pitched
considerably as the heavy swells struck her, many of the troops on board
showing the effects of the inevitable _mal-de-mer_. We passed through a
thick fog when off the Grand Banks.

On the 19th, while holding abandon ship drill, twelve rounds of
ammunition were fired from the various guns, in order to keep them in
tip-top shape and to give their crews the necessary training in loading
and firing. At night the sky cleared considerably, the first sign of good
weather we had since leaving Hoboken. The barometer rose steadily, a
smooth sea running with a moderate breeze. From day to day we continued
setting our clocks ahead. Up to this time the entire crew was in
ignorance of the ship’s destination, but when the course was changed to
northeast, it was quite apparent to us that we were headed for “Blighty.”

We were passing through the Gulf Stream and the weather remained clear
and fairly warm. A private in Co. H, 163rd Regt., was placed in the brig
for safekeeping, at the request of the brigade commander, demonstrating
that the soldiers on board were subject to the same discipline as were
the crew. Not long after this a member of the crew was disciplined for
failing to wear his life-jacket.

The good weather did not remain with us very long, for on the 22nd the
wind picked up to 65 miles an hour. We were rapidly approaching the
war-zone and the men were continually cautioned not to neglect wearing
their life-preservers at all times, day and night, not to undress upon
turning in, and never to strike a match on the open deck at night. In
fact, it was contrary to ship regulations for an enlisted man to carry
any matches at all about his person. It is a fact that the glare of a
lighted match or cigarette is visible for half a mile on the open sea at
night and guards vigilantly patrolled the outer decks in order to prevent
any neglect along this line.

About midnight, while running close to the danger zone, the wire
controlling the siren contracted, due to the extreme cold weather, and
like a bolt out of a clear sky, the siren went off automatically. The
siren is used only in case of emergency, to notify all hands on board of
some impending danger, and going off accidentally as it did caused quite
some excitement on board, especially in the case of the Red Cross nurses.
Many of the latter had been quite seasick the greater part of the trip,
but the excitement tended to relieve them somewhat. After some difficulty
the trouble was remedied.

At 4 A. M., the morning of the 23rd, in a treacherous sea, our convoy of
American destroyers, the famous submarine annoyers, were picked up. It
is hard for one to describe the feeling and excitement of picking up a
convoy of destroyers at night and we believe that it is quite impossible
for the reader to understand how much it means to 10,000 souls on a ship
in the danger zone when the word is passed that destroyers are with us.
On the morning of December 23rd, at 4 A. M., out of the black sky just
before dawn and in a heavy sea with a strong wind blowing, a small white
wake was seen by the lookout on the bridge. At first it was taken for
the wake of a periscope and the gun crews were called to quarters, then
as the guns were trained on it, a small white flash was seen blinking
the American recognition signal, and we then knew that it was one of our
destroyers. We picked them up out of the black sky and a heavy sea until
there were seven little wasps that spelled danger to the Hun submarine.
They sped along with us while we zigzagged in and out on our course. They
crossed our bow and ran in and far out on each side of us, always looking
for the sub that might be lying in wait for us. Their motto was “go get
’em.” They never waited for a sub to attack first, they always started
the fight provided that “Fritz” was willing to show himself and we want
to say right here that he was very reluctant to do so when an American
destroyer showed itself.

It was difficult to carry on signal communication with the destroyers
in a heavy sea; they were submerged in the trough so that their slender
masts looked like periscopes.


A tribute to the Destroyers by JOHN OXENHAM

    Bold watchers of the deep,
    Guards of the Greater Ways,
    How shall our swelling hearts express
    Our heights and depths of thankfulness
    For these safeguarded days?

    Grim is your vigil there,
    Black day and blacker night;
    Watching for life, while knavish death
    Lurks all around, above, beneath,
    Waiting his chance to smite.

    Your hearts are stouter than
    The worst that Death can do.
    Our thoughts for you!—our prayers for you!
    There’s One aloft that cares for you,
    And He will see you through.

    Don’t think we e’er forget
    The debt we owe to you!
    Never a night but we pray for you!
    Never a day but we say for you—
    “God bless the gallant lads in blue!
    With mighty strength their hearts renew.
    Bless every ship and every crew!
    Give every man his rightful due!
    And bring them all, Oh, God! safe through.”

A submarine was reported on the surface of the water in the early
afternoon, about seven miles off the starboard beam, but upon her
flashing out the recognition call we immediately knew her to belong to
one of the Allies, very probably British. Soon after this a British
dirigible was sighted dead ahead. She was painted aluminum color,
rendering her almost invisible in the distance and apparently she was
doing scouting duty in these waters.

At 5 P. M., the 23rd, South Stack Lighthouse was passed on our beam, and
we headed our course up St. George’s Channel. After sundown the destroyer
that had our pilot on board took up a position directly ahead of us and
acted as guide for the entire convoy.

Later in the evening, 8.36 P. M., our engines were slowed down to allow
the pilot to board from the destroyer and at 9.42 that night both engines
stopped completely and our anchor was dropped just outside of Liverpool,
England, while the destroyers circled around us during the night,
protecting us from any possible attack. We passed the night in this
anchorage. At 6 A. M. the next day, December 24th, we up-anchored and
headed for the River Mersey, passing close to Bar Light Vessel. One of
the men stationed aboard this vessel gave us a “Merry Christmas” through
a large megaphone. Many of us had almost forgotten that this was the day
before Christmas; in fact, as later events proved, Christmas had very
little cheer for us.

Formby light was passed at 8.45, and Crosby Light 27 minutes later.
We were now in the Mersey, our speed was reduced and because of the
shallowness of the water in the river, men were placed in the chains
to sound continually the depths of the water. We steamed up the river
without mishap and ran alongside the Princess Landing Stage, which
because of the heavy draft of the tide in this river, is a floating
stage. Our lines were thrown to the dock and made fast. No sooner had
this been accomplished than the gangway was thrown over and the soldiers
commenced disembarking. This continued throughout the day.

Shortly after arriving news came to us of the sinking of a British pilot
boat, with the loss of all hands. This same pilot boat had been mined in
almost the same position that we were lying in the night before, in fact
many of us remembered the boat as it was cruising around us, warning all
outgoing ships of the latest submarine activities. It was purely a matter
of luck that we had escaped a similar fate.

The celebrated docking of the biggest ship in the world at Liverpool,
without plans, by Naval Constructor Alfred W. Minuse, N. R., is the
subject of a special article.

[Illustration: UPPER—A STORM.




J. M.

The first liberty party from the _Leviathan_ while in Liverpool, left
the ship at 4.30 P. M. on December 24th, and was due back at noon
on the 25th, which was Christmas, and it turned out to be a gloomy,
cheerless Christmas, for most of the boys had never been away from home
on that sacred day before. Their first impression of the city was a poor
one—dimly-lighted streets, cold rain, dark alleys, and foggy river.
Dismal, indeed, after leaving a land of sunshine and bright lights and
coming to a land mostly of darkness and rain. The sun did not rise
during this time of the year until nearly 9 o’clock, at least that was
the time that it was supposed to rise, but it was seldom that we had the
pleasure of seeing it even for a full hour. Sunset was at 3.30 P. M., or
in the vicinity, so it will be seen that the days were real short during
this season. To think that we were to spend two months or more in this
country! We certainly were sorry for the men who were stationed there
and we would not change places with them for a Navy clothing contract.
The city appeared remarkably true to type and character described by
Conan Doyle in his books. Without a doubt our impression would have been
much better if we had been there in time of peace. We did not realize
the trials that England had been through in the years before we entered
the war. Her best men had gone to fight and her streets had to be kept
dark because of air raids. Then there was a food problem. The German
U-boats sunk everything possible that came within the range of a torpedo
or a gun, so it may be seen that England depended mostly on her ships to
bring food to her brave people and armies. When our crew went ashore it
was with great dismay that they viewed the food problem—a meat card, a
bread card, a tea card, a butter card, were all necessary for a fellow
to get a meal, and what was worst of all, there was no sugar for our
coffee and not being tea drinkers we were very much grieved to find out
that we must use a chemical called saccharine to sweeten our coffee.
However, we soon got used to it, but whenever possible we stayed on the
ship for meals to make sure of things. It may be mentioned that at the
time there was no American Y. M. C. A. in Liverpool. The English “Y” was
as bad as the restaurants as far as eating was concerned. The English
mode of travel was another puzzle to the American Bluejacket, there being
three different class distinctions. It seemed queer to an Englishman
that an American sailor should ride in a first class compartment on a
train supposed to be only for the “higher class” people. It took our
bluejackets quite some time and cost a few black eyes and bumped noses
to convince some Englishmen that an American would not stand for any
inferior rating.

The English money was not such a puzzle as we had expected to find it.
In a few days and with the loss of a few dollars in short change we soon
learned to count it. We even have reason to believe that during our first
few liberties ashore we actually received full value for our money in
some instances. One of the many questions asked us on our return was: How
and what are the English girls like? Gee! what a question to deal with.
Well, here goes for a hard try to be fair in all cases. We found that
most English girls are not stuck up and are always willing to speak to
a “gob” if he so desired. They are more masculine than our girls. Girls
run after a car and hop on it while it is going at a good speed, and as
far as good looks are concerned there are pretty girls and then there are
others—of course this may be found the world over and in any country.
The streets of the city were, for the most part, narrow and nearly
always muddy and if a fellow came back to the ship without wet feet it
was something unusual. There were shows of different kinds: vaudeville,
drama, and musical comedy, not forgetting the movies and Charlie Chaplin.
The shows helped to fill up a great lot of our time.

We were not at all sorry when we were told that we were to leave in a
few days, as all the necessary work had been finished. The ship had been
camouflaged in a most queer design by English experts, which made it
appear more grotesque than ever.

The camouflage design was so perfect that when the destroyer convoy met
us at sea it was necessary for them to approach us in the shape of a
fan to make sure as to the direction we were going. Many persons have
been misled as to the real use of camouflage on ships. Contrary to most
beliefs it is not to make a ship absolutely invisible to a submarine, but
to deceive the eye of the periscope in the submarine. A ship is disguised
so that from a distance it appears to be going in an opposite direction,
or on an angle to the real course traveled.

On Lincoln’s Birthday the _Leviathan_ left Liverpool. We had gone through
a rough vigil. If one were to ask us what it was we liked best in
Liverpool we would have answered, “The first ship back to the states,”
for Liverpool, with its bleak, dimly-lighted streets and the piercing,
foggy atmosphere was no attraction.

We were in a heavy sea practically from the time we left the Mersey until
within a day or two of New York.

One interesting event occurred soon after our departure. The _Porter_,
one of the crackerjack destroyers, sighted a suspicious spar in the
water. With an abrupt change of course, and almost turning in her own
length, she made direct for the object, dropping a 300-pound depth
charge of T. N. T., which blew the spar to atoms. At this time the crew
was down “chowing,” enjoying the famous _Leviathan_ “turnovers.” The
explosion of this charge shook the ship and all hands rushed on deck.


The violent seas broke over our fo’castle, throwing the spray as high as
the flying bridge, 100 feet above the water. It tore gun rails apart,
lifted lifeboats from their fastenings, opened shell cases and did
considerable all-around damage. Some good came of it—the first division
men found no reason to wash down decks for some time to come.

The destroyers were unable to keep up with us, and it is remarkable that
they stayed with us as long as they did. The sea proved too much for
them. When caught in the trough formed by two high waves, hardly more
than the top of their stacks and masts was discernible. They trailed
behind us the entire next day, within radio call, and turned back upon
receiving word from us that we were out of the danger zone. The danger
from submarines was rather slight when it is considered how difficult a
matter it would be for them to launch a torpedo accurately in a heavy sea.

We continued upon our course without event until off the Grand Banks of
Newfoundland. Here we ran into a fog so thick that it was impossible to
see our bow from the bridge, and every minute for eight hours of this
day our steam fog whistle blew steadily, warning all nearby ships of our

Nantucket Lightship, the first indication of land, was reported by
one of the signal boys on the night of February 18th. Montauk Point
and Shinnecock Lights soon followed and the next morning found us at
the entrance to New York Harbor, our first overseas trip successfully

The ship was brought up the river to the dock in the thickest fog seen
for years. Capt. W. S. McLaughlin gauged the turn nicely and Capt. W. J.
Bernard had a tug stationed at the end of Pier 4 to guide the _Leviathan_
in by whistle signal. It was a highly creditable performance.

_Second Trip to Liverpool_

After a stay of thirteen days in New York, during which time our supplies
were replenished and minor repairs and alterations were made, we steamed
out of New York Harbor on March 4th, for our second trip overseas. On
board we had 8,242 troops, with the following organizations:

120th Field Artillery, 121st Field Artillery, 2nd Motor Mechanics, 9th
and 10th Brigades, 20th F. A., 5th Div. School; Maj. Gen. J. T. Dickman.
Accompanying us was H. B. Davison, Chairman of the War Council, American
Red Cross. After passing out of the channel we dropped our Pilot at
Sandy Hook and once more set our course at 90 degrees headed due east.
Fire Island Light was passed abeam at 2.43 the same afternoon. We were
making a standard speed of 20 knots which was maintained throughout the
day while the weather remained clear and the sea smooth. After sundown
the ship was darkened with the exception of a few blue lights, commonly
known as battle lights, located at the various watertight doors and at
the stairways. For two days following, the weather remained moderate
with occasional rain squalls and light northeast winds. From this time
on all of our watertight doors were kept closed while an army guard kept
constant watch on all doors to see that they were not tampered with or
opened. Abandon ships drills were held each day and it may be mentioned
that there was ample lifeboat equipment for every soldier aboard. Each
soldier was provided with a lifebelt. On the afternoon of March 7th smoke
was sighted dead ahead, we discovered it was a British cruiser and a half
hour later we passed her, on our starboard beam 15,000 yards distant. On
this same day a soldier on board was placed in solitary confinement for
making seditious remarks.

At 6.15 A. M., March 9th, the following radio message, which was sent
broadcast to all ships, was received:

    “Vessels may meet three Allied submarines now proceeding from
    New London to Bermuda. Not escorted at present.”

We entered the War Zone on the eight to twelve watch on the morning of
March 11th, picking up our escort of destroyers, seven in number.

The rendezvous is previously arranged by cable and the destroyers are
picked up by wireless from 24 to 36 hours before meeting. The times of
arrival at the rendezvous are exchanged, and the meeting place arranged.

After picking up our escort, of which the Destroyer _Manly_ was the
senior ship, we proceeded on a zigzag course heading again for Liverpool.
While passing through St. George’s Channel the _Manly_ was seen to
suddenly swerve out of the formation and while only 800 yards from
our port bow she commenced firing with her forward battery and fired
a five-inch shell apparently at some suspicious object sighted. She
immediately dropped a depth charge. It was so close that the _Leviathan_
shook from stem to stern and many thought that we had struck a mine.
What the object was we do not know, but if it was a sub, we extend our
most heartfelt sympathies to the families of the crew. We proceeded on
our trip without further event and the following afternoon found us in
Liverpool once more. Immediately upon arriving the disembarking of troops
and baggage was begun. The next morning, before all troops had left the
ship, it was necessary for us to proceed to dry dock while the tide was
high. One of the river ferry-boats unfortunately passed too close to us
and suffered considerable damage, although she had been properly warned
to give us right of way.

Safely moored in Gladstone Dock this same afternoon, the disembarking
of troops was continued and completed the next morning. It was fine to
see regiments of American troops, with flags unfurled and bands playing
popular Yankee airs, marching to war. The boys aroused the admiration of
the English.

Our stay in Liverpool, from March 12th to April 10th, was similar to the
previous one. Minor repairs were made and our troop-carrying capacity was

English contractors had been coaling the ship for at least three weeks
and a few days before sailing it was found necessary for the crew to take
this work in hand. The men worked faithfully, night and day, for each
additional ton placed in the bunkers brought them so much closer to
America—“God’s Country.”


On April 9th, thirty-seven German prisoners, captured by the destroyers
_Fanning_ and _Nicholson_ when they bombed and sank the U-58, were
brought on board under guard for transportation to the United States.
These prisoners consisted of thirty-three enlisted men, one warrant
officer, and three commissioned officers. They were young men, their
senior officer had been awarded the Iron Cross.

Previous to their arrival arrangements had been made by the ship to guard
them on the trip over. Twelve shot-guns of English make were purchased
ashore and sawed off by the ship’s armorer to make them more effective
for this sort of work. The aft brig was put in readiness for the enlisted
prisoners, while staterooms on “C” deck were set aside for the officers.
Chief petty officers were detailed to guard the officers on the trip
over, while the guarding of the enlisted men was taken care of by the
regular ship’s guard. Each prisoner wore a patch of red cloth on his
right leg to signify that he was a prisoner of war.

The C. P. O.’s guarding the prisoners had been torpedoed by a submarine a
short time previous and bore no great love for their charges.

It was quite a jolt to their high pride to be captured by the “Yanks” and
sent home by the “Yanks” on a German ship taken over by the “Yanks,” but
the enlisted men seemed pleased that they had been captured and their
lives were at least safe. Incidentally they showed no good feelings
toward their former officers. One of the men, a machinist, had formerly
been a bartender in Boston and one of the officers had been engaged in
business in Cincinnati some years prior to the war.

The officers were a dignified set and they seemed surprised that they
were not given unusual consideration. For instance, one of them asked his
guard why he did not have hot water in his room. He was not highly elated
when the guard retorted, “You people built the ship, why didn’t you pipe
it to suit yourselves?”

The German officers dined in the Ritz-Carlton Mess Hall, where our own
officers dined, but at a table set aside for them and under guard.

On April 13th, while en route to New York, we fired flat nose shells from
each gun for tests. The German prisoners below thought we were firing
at another of their “subs” and were much excited. The prisoners showed
much interest as to what arrangements had been made for their abandoning
ship, if occasion required, and did not seem any too pleased when they
were informed that the same arrangements had been made for them as they
had made for the lost souls on the _Lusitania_. Of course this was not
literally true.

It might be mentioned that their first meal aboard this ship consisted of
a favorite dish, frankfurters and sauerkraut. This was not pre-arranged,
but incidentally happened to be on the menu that night.

The trip home was without further event, except for a small iceberg
sighted the second day out. We arrived in Hoboken on the afternoon of the
17th, and were welcomed by the usual crowds that lined the docks. The
German submarine prisoners were taken off and placed under marine guard,
and thence sent down to Fort McPherson, Ga.

The German officers moved off with disdain but their enlisted men waved
a cordial good-bye to the ship and her crew. This incident illustrated
their phase of mind, finally culminating in the mutinies of the German
sailors at Kiel and Wilhelmshafen and effectually prevented a clashing of
the German fleet and the Allied Navy.

_Third Trip Overseas_

Late in the afternoon of April 24th, the _Leviathan_ cast off her lines
once more, after a short stay of only seven days in Hoboken. The patent
log, which registers the speed of the ship, was streamed from the
taff-rail upon our departure and a standard speed of eighteen knots was
maintained until past Ambrose Channel Light Vessel.

Troops and organizations on board were as follows:

Troops, 8,909. Men in 11th Infantry; 15th Machine Gun Battalion; Base
Hospital No. 20, Female; Base Hospital No. 30, Female; 304th Field
Artillery; 306th Field Artillery; 302d Supply Train of the 77th Div. N.
A.; Brig. General Walter H. Gordon, 10th Infantry Brigade.

Exceptionally mild weather was encountered on the entire trip across,
especially in the Gulf Stream, the temperature of the water at times
running as high as 73 degrees. Numerous flying-fish and schools of
Porpoise were observed from day to day. The spouting fish would cause us
to keep our gaze fixed upon him. Gliding through the water he greatly
resembles the wake of a periscope.

The opinion was expressed on board that this time France would be our
destination. Our cargo holds were loaded to the top with all sorts of
army equipment, camouflaged artillery wagons, automobile trucks, shell
cases, etc. After the fourth day out the men on the bridge knew for an
absolute fact, by the course steered, that we were heading for France and
many of us already saw ourselves walking up the main street of Paris with
a girl on each arm. Little did we know how keen our disappointment would
be, for as later events proved, our views of France were to be observed
from a coal barge, three long miles away from the mainland.

Occasionally a convoy of perhaps ten or twelve vessels would be sighted,
hull below the horizon and just the masts visible, presenting a peculiar
sight, keeping pace with us for a few hours and gradually disappearing.
It was unusual for a lone ship to be sighted, for the safest method of
travel was in convoy, escorted by cruisers or destroyers. Extremely
precautionary methods were always taken with ships sighted without
escort, a change of course usually effected to give such vessels a wide
berth. They were always looked upon with suspicion by us, especially
sailing vessels, for instances have been reported of German U-boats
rigging up two or three sails and floating on the surface of the water to
resemble harmless, slow-moving schooners.


In addition to these we gave wide berth to any floating objects observed,
such as barrels, spars, wooden cases, etc., for fear that these were
dangerous mines. On one occasion, while in the danger zone, our starboard
guns were fired on a suspicious object which later proved to be a
spouting black-fish. Absolutely no chances were taken. Our motto, because
of the 12,000 souls aboard, was “Safety First.” A transport, especially
one nearly 1,000 feet long, presents a huge target for a U-boat, and must
necessarily act on the defensive, not offensive.

Everything went well on this journey until very close to land. We were
escorted by the usual destroyers and were prepared to make land fall,
when the good weather we had been having was interrupted by an extremely
heavy fog. Although still in the danger zone our speed was necessarily
decreased. It is almost impossible to navigate in a thick fog and
consequently our engines were brought almost to a standstill. Looking
out on our starboard beam, through the thick fog, an object was seen to
approach us. This proved to be one of our destroyers, which hove close
to. Through a megaphone an officer on our bridge shouted, “We don’t know
where we are. Do you?” To which came the most disappointing answer, “No.”
Here was a ticklish situation. Floundering around in a section of water
that was a hot-bed for submarines, we were all considerably on the alert.
Suddenly through the thick fog, from the destroyer, came the report,
“Black and white buoy on starboard beam.” All breathed a sigh of relief,
for that buoy signified mid-channel and that we were following a course
that would lead us direct to our destination. This was a bit of clever
navigation, even if we say so ourselves.

We entered the harbor of Brest, France, on the afternoon of May 2d, just
as the fog lifted. Our eyes beheld a beautiful harbor, surrounded on the
mainland by the prettiest green fields and old-fashioned farm-houses,
with a clear sky overhead and a hot sun beating down on the deep, blue
water of the Goulet. Our mooring was made to a large buoy, for in
Brest there are very few docks and none large enough for a ship of our

Hastily the disembarkation of troops and cargo was begun and
simultaneously the crew turned to on the coal barges with a will,
shovelling 4,600 tons of coal in the ship’s bunkers within 48 hours.

The colored men from the stevedore regiments stationed at Brest, assisted
materially in this work, coaling from barges on the starboard side of the
ship, while two regimental bands retained on board to entertain the men
filled the air with the latest “jazz” band music.

We were soon under way again leaving Brest on the evening of May 5th,
bound for New York.




Brest is a seaport in the northwest of France, department of Finisterre.
It has one of the best harbors in France and is the chief station of the
French marine having safe roads capable of containing 500 men-of-war
in from eight to fifteen fathoms at low water. The entrance is narrow
and rocky and the coast on both sides is well fortified. The design to
make it a naval arsenal originated with Richelieu and was carried out by
Duquesne and Vauban in the reign of Louis XIV, with the result that the
town was made almost impregnable. Brest stands on the summit and sides of
a projecting ridge, many of the streets being exceedingly steep. Several
of the docks have been cut in the solid rock, and a breakwater extends
far into the roadstead. The manufactures of Brest are inconsiderable, but
it has an extensive trade in cereals, wine, brandy, sardines, mackerel,
and colonial goods. It is connected with America by a cable terminating
near Duxbury, Mass.

The English and Dutch were repulsed at Brest in 1694. In 1794 it was
blockaded by Howe, who won a great victory off the coast over the French

Our escort of destroyers remained with us until the following morning,
May 6th, seeing us safely through the war zone. The remainder of our
voyage was accomplished at a speed of twenty knots without event of
importance until arriving off Ambrose Light, the entrance to New York
Harbor. Here a thick fog again delayed us, causing us to drop anchor
until late in the afternoon of the same day, May 12th. The sky cleared
about this time and we proceeded up the channel and to our regularly
assigned berth, making fast to the dock in Hoboken at 9:28 P. M.

When the members of the crew went ashore they were subjected to excited
cross-examination by many people, for rumor had decreed that we had been
torpedoed and sunk with a tremendous loss of life. Of course we were not
permitted to divulge any information along this line, but it was amusing
to hear what interesting stories were narrated by the home-folk and it
was with much satisfaction that we assured them, after the manner of Mark
Twain, that the report of our deaths had been very much exaggerated.

_Fourth Overseas Trip_

The ship remained at her berth in Hoboken from the 12th to the 22d of
May, giving the crew a reasonable amount of shore leave, the men living
in nearby states thus had an opportunity to visit their homes.

At 4:03 on the afternoon of May 22d, we left on our fourth eastward bound
voyage with the following troops:

Troops, 10,577. 43rd Engineers; 108th Supply Train; 131st Infantry; 318th
Infantry; Base Hospital No. 13, Female; Major General A. Gronkhite, 80th

We followed the regular channel in leaving New York Harbor, and once more
at sea, started on our fourth venture to slip through the blockade of
German U-boats and to land 10,000 more troops to assist in breaking down
the high pride of the German autocracy.

On the afternoon of May 23d, at 4 P. M., while the water-tight door
system was being tested, one of the Army officers accidentally had his
leg caught in a closing water-tight door. These doors are hydraulically
opened and shut and centrally controlled by a lever on the bridge.
Prior to the closing of these doors a warning alarm is sounded, but the
officer, in some unexplainable manner, became confused and suffered a
severe injury.

The ship’s log for the next few days showed the single entry “B,” which
signifies clear weather and absolutely blue sky. The sea was unusually
smooth at this time, hardly a ripple appearing on the surface of the


At 6:37 A. M., May 29th, our escort of destroyers was picked up,
immediately taking up their respective positions abeam and ahead of
the ship. Everything went well until 4:25 this same afternoon, when
we received an S.O.S. from the _U. S. S. Carlton_ that she had been
torpedoed in 47° North Latitude, 11° 20´´ West Longitude, and upon
referring to our charts we found that we would be in that same position
at 9:30 that same evening. It was advisable for us to change our
course in order to steer clear of the possible cruising radius of this
submarine, which we did at 5:05, heading our course to the north. At
10:45 P. M., after passing the approximate position of the sinking of
the _Carlton_, we resumed our direct course for Brest. During this time
signals were exchanged between us and our escort upon the advisability
of sending one of our escorting destroyers to the assistance of the
_Carlton_, but owing to the great value of our own ship and its precious
cargo aboard this was deemed inadvisable. This illustrates what stern
measures necessarily had to be taken in time of war. We were compelled
to leave the crew of a torpedoed ship presumably to their fate for the
greater duty involved upon us. However, later reports showed that the
crew of the _Carlton_ had been rescued by one of the alert destroyers
patrolling the seas in this vicinity.

We did not consider all danger past and as an extra precaution, orders
were issued on board to have all men assigned to duty on life-boats and
similar duties, remain at their stations until further orders. This vigil
continued throughout the night. It was a clear moonlight night, but
moonlight held no charm for us then. The rays reflecting upon the water
lighted up the huge ship and made her a fine target for a lurking U-boat.


Communication made with Brest the next morning, May 30th, informed us
that the pilot and pilot destroyer would meet us. However, for a very
good reason we did not pick up a pilot, for on this date, which has
proven memorable in the history of the _Leviathan_, “Fritz” did his best
to make it a Memorial Day for the _Leviathan_ and a Decoration Day for
himself. On the spot that we expected to take our pilot on board we had
our first real engagement with the pirates of the sea. With the hills
of Brest plainly visible on our port bow, the smooth surface of the
water was broken by the wake of a periscope on our port quarter. The
sharp eyes of Lieutenant Beebe, the assistant navigator, saw the danger,
and from his post of observation he reported sharply to the captain.
Captain Bryan was at his side in an instant and—saw—nothing. The “sub”
had “porpoised” under. The young navigator stayed glued to the spot. The
“sub” porpoised up on the surface and this time the captain was looking
over the shoulder of the former blue-jacket, and in an instant things
began to hum. The following entry was made in the ship’s log:

    12:29 P. M.—Sighted submarine pursuing us on our port quarter,
    about 1,500 yards distant. Ordered full speed, 165 revolutions.
    Opened fire with Number Six and Number Eight guns, three shots.
    Stopped zig-zagging. Changed course 12:40 P. M.

    12:59 P. M.—Submarine appeared again. Opened fire with Number
    Six and Number Eight guns. Nine shots.

    1:19 P. M.—Submarine appeared again. Opened fire with Number
    Six and Number Eight guns. Seven shots.

    1:34 P. M.—Threw in manœuvering combination. Standard speed 112

    1:45 P. M.—Entering harbor at various courses and speeds.

It was the general opinion among the officers on board that a cordon of
U-boats had been lying in wait, located in such a manner that if the
first submarine failed in her attempt to torpedo us, the others in turn
would be in a position to follow up the attack.

During one attack a French fishing boat appeared between us and our
object of fire, and had a very narrow escape from being struck by one of
our 105 pound explosive shells. The skipper of this boat was taken on
board later. He said he clearly saw the “sub” we were firing at.

The coolness of our commanding officer, Capt. H. F. Bryan, and the
splendid co-ordination of the entire crew, were so perfect, that only
three distinct orders were issued in this moment of peril, as follows:
1. Hold your course. 2. Open fire on submarine, port quarter. 3. Sound
General Alarm.

Every shot fired was greeted by cheers and shouts of encouragement
from the enthusiastic soldiers on the decks, who crowded to favorable
positions to witness the accurate firing of our gun-crews. The Army
Nurses left their luncheon to take a peek at the “fun,” and their
calmness and enthusiasm in the face of a deadly menace were an
inspiration to the sailors manning the big guns. An apt comparison to
this battle would be the excitement incidental to a World Series baseball
game, eleven innings, score: 0-0, and a home-run hit made. Wow!

After the attack no evidence was noted of any of the “subs” having been
sunk, such as oil or scum or floating bits of wreckage. Of course, we did
not turn around or stop to look for this evidence, but inasmuch as none
of the enemy was allowed within torpedo range or cared to show himself
again, he certainly must have taken the accuracy of our gun-fire into
serious consideration.

A disadvantage of our freedom of the press was typically demonstrated in
the U. S. at this time, for the leading newspapers contained all sorts
of misleading accounts, full of far-fetched descriptions of the attack.
One paper stated that twenty U-boats had attacked the _Leviathan_ and
that we had evaded a school of torpedoes. The exact number of submarines
encountered on this day is not known, but it is believed that there were
at least three, and very probably more.

We had a narrow escape though, for just after the first submarine was
sighted, at 12:29 mid-day, our zigzag clock on the bridge rang, 12:30,
notifying us to make an abrupt change of course to port. If this change
had been made the “sub” would have had us broadside on and our entire
length would have been exposed to torpedo attack. Captain Bryan saw this
immediately and issued the above-mentioned order to hold the course.

Arriving in Brest after all this excitement the ship was made fast to our
usual mooring buoy. The crew as before, turned to on the coal barges and
inspired by the enthusiasm and excitement and experience of that morning,
heaved the necessary amount of coal, 4,500 tons, into the bunkers in
record time. The big ship had discharged its living cargo of thousands
of troops, hundreds of officers and many passengers, had sent loads of
stores to the grim destroyers, including thousands of bags of welcome
mail from the folks at home and then proceeded to sea inspired with
the hopes and desires of clashing with the submarine that had sunk the
_President Lincoln_ the day before. “Up and at ’em” was our slogan.


We sailed out of Brest late in the afternoon of June 1st, having on board
many notable passengers. The destroyers _Nicholson_ and _Wadsworth_,
two of our most famous sea-fighters, accompanied us. All hands were set
for another attack. It was not long in coming. At 7:16 P. M. this same
evening, the wake of a periscope was observed on the starboard quarter
by Lieutenant Haltnorth, who quickly passed the word to the bridge where
it was received by Lieutenant J. J. Jones, the Officer of the deck. A
hurried message was sent in to the commanding Officer and at the same
time the general alarm was sounded. The fire-control officer on the
upper-structure took a prompt and accurate range on the hissing white
menace of foam approaching so balefully in the wake of the setting sun.
A few short seconds passed, the arrow on the engine room dial plate spun
around to “full speed ahead,” and the whirr of the electric warnings
quickened the ears of the officers and men on watch in the fire-rooms.
The furnace doors flew open and in the streaming light with bent backs
and broad shoulders, sturdy young Americans poured coal into the great

A volume of thick black smoke issued from the funnels and at the
same time number seven gun with a venomous roar, let go a shell of
TNT, enveloped in lurid flame and smoke. Number five gun got busy.
The breech-plug closed noiselessly, sharp click, the primer inserted
accurately by the gun-captain, a smooth “Ready” from his lips, and number
five gun hurled a shell of high explosive to blot out from the sea-scape
one of the under-sea Hun boats.

Number seven gun shot again with a reverberating roar, followed again by
number five, the only two guns that could bear upon the Prussian menace.

From the signal-bridge, a green and white submarine warning flag was
fluttering and the destroyers _Nicholson_ and _Wadsworth_, with their
inboard sides awash, turned in a quick endeavor to charge the on-coming
“sub.” The _Nicholson_ was nearer and in few minutes number five and
seven guns ceased firing, for the _Nicholson_ was in direct range
between our ship and the submarine, with huge volumes of black smoke
pouring out of her funnels. The _Nicholson_ made a circuit around the
“sub” which had submerged and promptly and accurately laid a beautiful
barrage of sixteen depth bombs all around the place of disappearance.
The explosions from these depth charges shook the big _Leviathan_,
nearly two miles away by this time. The _Nicholson_, her blinker lights
flashing fitfully through the smoke clouds reported, “We saw periscope
of submarine and laid barrage of depth charges around the spot. We will
report to our Force Commander.”

The _Wadsworth_ had by this time plowed her way up through the seas,
but the Prussian terror of the deep had not taken too kindly to the
overtures of friendship made by the _Nicholson_; and the _Wadsworth_
signaled back to the _Leviathan_, “We see no submarine now.” Both gallant
destroyers quickly turned and resumed their arduous duty of escorting
the fast-moving _Leviathan_. Smoke was pouring from their funnels and
a choppy sea made them bob up and down. A cloud of “V” shaped spray
sparkled in the twilight as they circled in and out off the port and
starboard bow of the queen of the transports.

Twilight in the western sky deepened into long shadows upon the water.
The chaplain of the ship walked out to the windward side of the
navigation bridge and offered the customary sunset prayer for the huge
ship with its women and children passengers, its captain, officers and
crew. This custom of evening prayer was practiced on board every evening
at sunset and prefaced the silent evening prayers of the seamen on the
decks, the gun-crew at the guns, the signal boys on the bridge, the
quartermaster at the wheel and the brawny-chested firemen who stoked the
big furnaces below. In the war-zone none of these brave lads were certain
of seeing another sunrise, so before the ship was plunged into darkness
each night they offered up, while at their different duties and stations,
heartfelt prayers for themselves and their people and loved ones at

                        The Sunset Prayer at Sea

          (Offered Every Evening at Sea by the Ship’s Chaplain)

    Thou, O Lord, art in the midst of us, and Thine holy name is
    called upon by us; leave us not, O Lord our God.

    O Lord, hear our prayer; and let our cry come unto Thee.

    Remember, most gracious Virgin Mother, Star of the Sea, that
    never was it known that anyone who fled to thy protection,
    implored thy aid and sought thy intercession, was left unaided.
    Inspired with this confidence, we fly to thee, Virgin of
    Virgins, our Mother, to thee we come; before thee we stand,
    sinful and sorrowful. Mother of the Word Incarnate, despise not
    our petition; but in thy clemency hear and answer us. Amen.

    Lord, save us waking, watch us sleeping that we may wake with
    Christ and rest in peace.

    Visit, we beseech Thee, O Lord, our distant homes and families;
    Thine angels guard them with Thy peace and benediction. Bless
    this ship we beseech Thee and drive far from it all the
    snares of the enemy; guide it upon a tranquil course unto the
    wished-for-haven—guard our Captain, his officers and crew, and
    the soldier-troops and passengers committed to their care; let
    Thy holy angels dwell hereon to keep us in peace and let Thy
    blessings be always upon us. Through Jesus Christ, Thy Son, Our

    Into Thy hands, O Lord, we commend ourselves.

    Vouchsafe, O Lord, this night to keep us without harm.

    May the Lord Almighty grant us a quiet night and a perfect end.
    May the Almighty and merciful Lord, the Father, the Son and the
    Holy Ghost bless and preserve us all. Amen.

The ship pursued her course steadily during the night watches and the
men relieved one another at midnight and at 4 A. M. The morning sun
broke clear and clean over the eastern horizon and discovered to us that
our gallant destroyers had left us during the darkness, proceeding by
pre-arranged plan to a similar duty of escorting an east-bound transport
loaded with troops. Our voyage continued without further excitement at a
speed of twenty and a half knots. We arrived in New York the morning of
June 8th and made fast to the dock with little difficulty. No sooner had
our gangplank touched the dock than our mail clerk was seen heavily laden
with eagerly-sought-for mail.

_Fifth Trip Overseas_

Eight days was ample time to give half the crew a five-day leave, and
five days’ leave gave many of the boys who lived within traveling
distance of New York, an opportunity to see home again for a few days.
It was at this time that the one-third fare rate was put into effect for
soldiers and sailors on furlough and it is needless to say this greatly
assisted many boys who did not have the full fare to reach home.

By evening, June 14th, all necessary supplies were loaded in our holds.
Our quota of troops, this trip were as per the following list:

Troops, 10,423; 32d Engineers; 145th Infantry; 146th Infantry; 134th
Machine Gun Battalion; 135th Machine Gun Battalion; Major General C. S.

For thirty-six hours after leaving Ambrose Channel Light Ship, just
outside of New York, we were escorted by one destroyer, submarines were
busily engaged off our coast-line these days. After the destroyer left us
we continued on our voyage in the customary manner, holding abandon ship
drills each day and operating the water-tight door system to insure its
being in perfect working order. The weather was extremely warm and as a
consequence it was found necessary to allow the soldiers from the lower
compartments to sleep on the outer decks.

On the 17th, at ten minutes to eleven in the morning, the _Leviathan_
acted queerly, circling around in the smooth sea, which aroused the
curiosity of all on board. This circling was caused by the steering
apparatus going out of commission, but it was soon repaired.

We certainly expected to see more of “Fritz” than ever on this voyage,
but not a solitary event occurred outside the daily routine. Brest,
France, was reached on the morning of the 21st, troops and cargo were
disembarked and we headed for sea once more on the 24th accompanied by
four destroyers.

The return trip was interrupted once. The destroyers had left us after a
day’s journey and no sooner had they done so when our gun-crews opened
fire on a suspicious object astern of us. The destroyers by this time
were on the horizon and hearing the firing of our guns proceeded to
join us once more. Both number five and seven guns fired nine shots at
the object sighted which disappeared immediately and we signaled to our
destroyers that everything was O. K. and that we could proceed once more

The weather for the remainder of the voyage was excellent. Fire Island
Light Ship, which is thirty-two miles from Ambrose Channel, was sighted
July 1st and in a few hours we were tied up at our pier in Hoboken with
another trip to our credit.

_Sixth Trip Eastbound_

Another eight days in New York and another five-day leave for the men of
the crew. The five-day leaves were most welcome after a trip of seventeen
or eighteen days at sea especially when the days consist of vigilant
activity and high tension. The five days soon passed and as soon as we
were provided with sufficient supplies of coal and water our troops came

Troops, 10,534; 313th Infantry; 314th Infantry; 311th Machine Gun
Battalion; 310th Machine Gun Battalion; Base Hospital No. 67; Base
Hospital No. 68; Base Hospital No. 7; Base Hospital No. 47; 304th Field
Signal Battalion; Brig. General Wm. J. Nicholson, 79th Div.

We left for our sixth voyage across on July 8th at 6:30 P. M., and by
nightfall we were well out to sea escorted by the destroyer _Walke_ which
left us the next morning. On the eight to twelve watch that morning
we passed a considerable amount of wreckage, probably the result of
submarine activities off our coast. Abandon ship drills were held as
usual. The weather was fair and warm and a few soldiers were overcome by
the heat making it necessary for the troops in some compartments to sleep
on deck at night.

The _U. S. S. Covington_ had been sunk by an unseen submarine just prior
to our sailing, and with this fresh in our memory it was not necessary to
remind the lookouts and gun crews to be especially vigilant and keep a
sharp lookout at all times. We sighted our escort of destroyers at 8 A.
M., on July 14th and passing through the danger zone safely, we anchored
in Brest at 1:50 P. M., July 15th, one of the hottest days we had ever

With all troops sent ashore and all cargo taken off we embarked our usual
quota of passengers and left Brest at three o’clock on the afternoon of
July 18th. We had 115 wounded soldiers on board, also the captain and
officers of the _U. S. S. Covington_ and the officers and crew of the _S.
S. Buffalo_ that had been sunk by submarines. We left with a convoy of
four destroyers that stayed with us until noon the next day. The weather
was good for the most part and the trip was made without trouble or
excitement of any kind. The wounded soldiers were a cheerful lot and were
well cared for. Some had been gassed, others lost limbs, but the prospect
of home made them all happy.


Among our wounded soldiers was a man named McGonigle who had made the
first overseas trip with the first batch of troops the _Leviathan_
carried across. We landed them in Liverpool.

McGonigle belonged to a bombing squad and was wounded. His squad was
in a shell hole hurling bombs into the enemy trenches for thirty-six
hours. The men were tired and hungry. The Sergeant in charge was giving
instructions to the men when a bomb held in the hands of McGonigle
exploded blowing off both of his hands and inflicting other minor wounds
including the amputation of the great toe of his left foot. Four of his
comrades, including the sergeant, were killed by this explosion.

During our westbound trip an entertainment was given for the benefit of
the wounded. During a lull between acts McGonigle stood up, and holding
up both remaining parts of his arms said he would give a short stump
speech. He then told of his accident and was glad to be going back on the
ship that took him over, and on which ship he, with sixty other members
of his company had volunteered to help the firemen in the fire room. He
said he was one of us, a “gob,” for he had helped “deliver the goods.”

July 25th, at nine o’clock we passed Ambrose Light Ship and by 11:30 we
were tied to our pier.

_Seventh Voyage Overseas_

With the following troops and passengers on board we left New York at
3:25 P. M., August 3rd:

Troops, 10,893; 55th Infantry; 56th Infantry; 20th Machine Gun Battalion;
36th Div. Displacement Det.; 111th Trench Motor Battery; 88th Div. School
Det.; July Auto Replacement Draft; Colonel W. O. Johnson, 56th Inf.

For the first time in the history of the ship we now traveled with other
transports—the _Great Northern_ and _Northern Pacific_, sister ships from
the Pacific coast. These could speed along with us only in smooth water.
In turbulent seas they dropped rapidly astern. The _Great Northern_
reached New York one hour ahead of the _Leviathan_ on one trip, but
traveled 100 miles less to do so.

One of our latest destroyers accompanied the convoy for the next
twenty-four hours and then the three ships traveled unescorted, in
beam-to-beam formation. The weather remained fair for the first four days
during which time usual abandon ship drills were held.

On the fifth day, however, we had some rough experiences. A storm broke,
the waves rolled high and beat the ships fiercely. It was mid-summer
and we were in the Gulf Stream yet the storm was a “whopper.” To add to
the excitement the _Northern Pacific_ reported “man overboard,” by a
signal from her bridge. Immediately all three ships went into manœuvering
formation and circled around the spot. The man overboard was a soldier.
It was suicide with him though, for he left a letter of explanation.
While circling around in an attempt to pick him up another man from the
_Northern Pacific_ went overboard. This was an unfortunate accident.
Life buoys were dropped into the high-rolling seas for the lost men, and
for an hour and a half we manœuvered around in an attempt to pick these
men up, but it was useless. No one could stay afloat in that sea. The
_Northern Pacific_ and _Great Northern_ both reported that they could
make little headway and finally when the search for the missing men was
given up we found it necessary to reduce speed so that the other ships in
our convoy could remain in line with us.

The destroyers were picked up on the morning of August 10th and we passed
through the war zone without trouble or excitement and anchored in Brest
at 10 A. M., August 11th.

Forty-eight hours later we were steaming on our westbound voyage again,
the _Great Northern_ and _Northern Pacific_ being with us. The weather
was fine and we made good speed. On the 14th, at 9 A. M., a submarine
was sighted on our starboard quarter between our ship and the Northern
Pacific, but it was not fired at, nor did it attempt to do any damage. It
might have been a submarine of the Allies. The destroyers left us this
same evening and with fair weather and smooth seas, which were fully
appreciated, we made Ambrose Channel on August 20th and docked soon

_Eighth Overseas Voyage_

The following is an extract copy of the readings in the ship’s log upon
our leaving New York for the eighth trip overseas. This was on the 31st
of August and for the second time the transports _Great Northern_ and
_Northern Pacific_ accompanied us.


          The ship’s log August 31st, 1918, Meridian to 4 P. M.

    Draft—Ford. 42´ 0´´, Aft. 40´ 10´´—Mean 41´ 5´´.
    1:19 P. M. Hauled out F. deck gangway.
    1:26 P. M. Let go all lines.
    1:40 P. M. Started astern.
    1:47 P. M. All clear of dock.
    2:06 P. M. Passed Statue of Liberty.
    2:48 P. M. Passed Governor’s Island.
    3:08 P. M. Passed Robbins Reef.
    3:15 P. M. Passed Staten Island.
    3:38 P. M. Entered Ambrose Channel.
    3:59 P. M. Passed Romer Shoal.

                           4 P. M. TO 8 P. M.

    4:25 P. M. Passed fairway buoy.
    4:38 P. M. Stopped to discharge pilot and put paravanes over.
    4:44 P. M. Proceeded.
    4:57 P. M. Ambrose Channel Light Vessel abeam.
    5:12 P. M. Standard speed 130 revolutions.
    5:29 P. M. C/c (change course).
    5:51 P. M. Increased speed to 150 revolutions.
    4-5 P. M. Ave. rev. all shafts 78.1, steam 220 lbs., injection 70.
    5-6 P. M. Ave. rev. all shafts 121.2, steam 220 lbs., injection 74.
    6-7 P. M. Ave. rev. all shafts 140.3, steam 215 lbs., injection 72.
    6:45 P. M. Commenced zig-zag.

                           8 P. M. TO MIDNIGHT

    8:30 P. M. Stopped zigzagging.
    10:15 P. M. Cut out boiler No. 3 in No. 2 fireroom and No. 7 in
         No. 4 fireroom.
    8-9 P. M. Ave. 2 rev. all shafts 150.1, steam 215 lbs.
    9-10 P. M. Ave. 2 rev. all shafts 150.0, steam 215 lbs.
    10-11 P. M. Ave. 2 rev. all shafts 150.1, steam 215 lbs.
    11-12 P. M. Ave. 2 rev. all shafts 149.9, steam 215 lbs.

Troops, 10,541; 142d Field Artillery; Evacuation Hospital No. 16; Base
Hospital No. 54, Female; Base Hospital No. 63; Base Hospital No. 81; Base
Hospital No. 82; Infantry Auto Replacement Draft; 59th Pioneer Infantry;
808th Pioneer Infantry; Colonel Wm. G. Ownbey.

Upon our reaching Sandy Hook the pilot boat approached and launched a
small row boat which made for our gangway. This boat came to get the
pilot who had seen us safely through the channel, and to take him to
another ship coming into New York. Pilot McLoughlin waved good-bye to the
troops on board and was cheered as he left.

Immediately before proceeding to sea the paravanes were lowered over the
ship’s side. The paravanes are ingenious torpedo-shaped contrivances
so constructed as to fend off from the ship’s side dangerous floating
objects such as mines. The upper section of a paravane is equipped with
a jaw-shaped arrangement, so made as to clip the cable extending between
a mine and its anchor. The “P. V.’s,” as they are sometimes called, are
launched over the side from the forward part of the vessel and while in
the water are supported by a wire cable from the deck of the ship and by
a heavy chain extending upward from the keel.

We were now fully set and ready for our voyage, the _Great Northern_
taking up a position on our starboard beam and the _Northern Pacific_ on
our port beam. The three ships in line presented a formidable appearance
as they plowed the smooth seas at a rate of twenty knots per hour. Zigzag
plans were communicated to the _Great Northern_ and _Northern Pacific_
by the _Leviathan_, the senior ship, and from dawn to dark on this day
and every day thereafter until reaching port all three ships, upon the
ringing of the zigzag clock, sheered off simultaneously, first to port,
then to starboard, then to port again, the zigzag pennant on our yard-arm
dipping as each change of course was made.

On September 2d, the Captain of the _Great Northern_ signaled to us that
his aft gun crew had sighted the feather of a periscope about two miles
astern of us, which had disappeared almost immediately and so no shots
were fired at her.

A few days later, through signals exchanged between ourselves and the
_Great Northern_, we learned that we were to lose Captain Bryan upon
reaching New York, and that Captain Phelps of the _Great Northern_ was
to be his successor. Captain Bryan, we learned, was to take up a station
somewhere in Brazil.

Stormy weather hindered our progress on the fourth day out. The seas were
so heavy that both the _Great Northern_ and _Northern Pacific_ found
great difficulty in keeping up with us. Finally, the _Northern Pacific_
signaled to us that because of the seas she could make little progress
and asked that the standard speed for the convoy be reduced to thirteen
knots. This was granted and for fourteen hours the three ships labored
in the heavy seas, spray breaking over the fo’castle and reaching to our
forward smoke-stack. Toward evening the sea moderated sufficiently to
allow the _Great Northern_ and _Northern Pacific_ to increase speed to
sixteen and a half knots and then to twenty knots, until we picked up our
escort of four destroyers at the ocean rendezvous.

All seven ships proceeded to Brest by the shortest route and in a fairly
smooth sea. The _Leviathan_ was shaken by an extremely heavy explosion
and its suddenness surprised the men. The Chief Engineer reported
everything O.K. down below and as far as we could see on deck there was
nothing wrong with the ship; then the blinker light on the destroyer
_McDougal_ directly abeam of us, was observed flashing a message to us,
which explained everything. The _McDougal_ had accidentally dropped a
depth charge from her stern. It wasn’t the first false alarm we had had
and it was not to be the last.

Land was sighted on the afternoon of September 7th, and swiftly and
smoothly the three transports ran into column formation, with the
destroyers abeam and ahead of us, steaming majestically into the harbor
of Brest. Looking around after mooring we saw the huge transport _Mt.
Vernon_, formerly the German liner _Kronprinzessin Cecilie_, lying in dry
dock after running a 250-mile race against threatened disaster. She had
been torpedoed at eight o’clock the morning before and only the gallantry
of her captain and crew, and the efficient system of water-tight doors,
enabled her to make port at a speed of fifteen knots. It was indeed
remarkable that we had escaped seeing “subs” the day before, for our
course was almost identical with that of the _Mt. Vernon’s_. The _Mt.
Vernon_ was repaired and thereafter made two round trips to America and
did its “bit” in bringing our soldier boys home.

To give the reader a fair idea of the ship’s routine on entering Brest
and while coaling in the harbor, we again quote from the log of the ship:

                           6 P. M. TO 8 P. M.

    6:05 P. M. Pt Du Minou abeam.
    6:10 P. M. Mengam lighthouse abeam.
    6:20 P. M. Pte Du Portzic lighthouse abeam.
    6:27 P. M. Harbor pilot came aboard, proceeded to buoy.
    6:30 P. M. Advanced clocks one hour. Engines working as required.

                           8 P. M. TO MIDNIGHT

    8:02 P. M. Arrived at buoy; proceeded to moor ship.
    8:33 P. M. Ship moored and engines secured.
    8:36 P. M. Secured steering engines.
    Draft on arrival 36.7´´ forward, 39.5´´ aft.
    Mooring bearings—Pte du Petite Minou, 258½°; Pte de l’Ile
         Longue, 191.5°; Pt du Portzic, 278.50.
    9:00 P. M. Commenced to unload cargo; continued throughout
         watch. Lighter _Knickerbocker_ placed coaling
         stages on port and starboard sides.
    12:00 Midnight. Three lighters with coal arrived alongside.
    Coaling until 4 A. M.
    1:15 A. M. Commenced coaling on starboard side.
    1:30 A. M. Commenced coaling on port side.
    Discharging cargo throughout watch.

                              4 TO 8 A. M.

    Continued coaling and discharging cargo.

The disembarkation of troops and cargo was completed in short order
and the _Leviathan_ put to sea once more on the 12th of September. The
bodies of thirty-six victims of the _Mt. Vernon_ were on board, each
body being draped with the flag which they had heroically died for. These
thirty-six victims were trapped in the fire-room of the _Mt. Vernon_
when the torpedo struck her and they had no chance to escape before the
water filled the lower compartments. The loss of life would not have been
so great had not the ship been torpedoed at a time when the fire-room
watches were being relieved, for at such time there are almost double the
number of men in the fire-rooms.

Our voyage back was interrupted but once. The _Great Northern_ on our
starboard, on the 13th of September, reported a periscope two miles
astern of us and traveling to the southward. It disappeared almost
as quickly as the periscope encountered on the eastern trip, and
consequently no shots were fired at it. A vigilant watch maintained by
the lookouts was without result, the submarine did not show itself again.
On the 19th of September we were safe in New York Harbor and docked six
minutes after the first line was ashore, a record achievement in the log
of the capable and efficient docking superintendent, Capt. Walter J.

_Ninth Overseas Trip_

We left our pier at Hoboken, September 29th and our ninth voyage overseas
was underway. The following troops were on board:

Troops, 9,366; 57th Pioneer Infantry; September Auto Replacements Drafts
from Camps McArthur, Humphreys, Hancock and Jackson; Medical Replacement,
No. 73; 401st Pontoon Train; 467th Pontoon Train; 468th Pontoon Train;
Water Tank Train No. 302; 323rd Field Signal Battalion; Base Hospitals
No. 60 and 62, Female; Debarking and Billet Party 31st Div.; Major
General Leroy S. Lyon, C. G. 31st Div.

Under clear skies we steamed slowly through the big harbor filled with
shipping and proceeded straight to sea, stopping only to drop our pilot,
Capt. McLaughlin, of the Sandy Hook Pilot Association and who always
piloted the _Leviathan_ in and out of New York Harbor. This trip overseas
was to be made memorable by reason of the Army epidemic of influenza
on board. Many men and several nurses were obliged to leave the ship
just before we cast off our lines and everyone felt that we would have
a distressing time going over. While the embarkation troops were lined
up on the big pier some of the men dropped helpless on the dock. We
were informed that a number of men had fallen by the wayside, limp and
listless, on their march from the camp to the scene of transportation.
Our first death was recorded the next day out. He was a sailor who did
duty in the Hospital Corps. He told the chaplain that he did not want
to die because of the great need of his help at home. Out of over two
thousand cases of influenza and pneumonia on board, this first case and
two naval passengers en route to duty in France, were the only ones to
die from the Navy. All the other deaths belonged to the Army, 96 in all.

This was not a bad percentage considering the total number of cases
stricken, the hardships and restrictions, the weather conditions, the
intense nervous strain in the war zone and the tremendous rolling of the
big ship while in the storm. Very few people in the sick spaces got much
sleep. Everybody helped during the terrible plague. There was work for
all. It was pitiful to see men toppling over dead at your feet. It was
like some invisible hand reaching out and suddenly taking them away. It
was truly sad and depressing.

The standing lights in the big spaces of the ship were kept dim behind
colored glass. Not a light was ever visible from the ship at night and
this perfect control of the huge and vast electric circuit of the ship
affords a well merited tribute to the officer in charge. Officers on
the _Great Northern_ and _Northern Pacific_ as well as of the escort of
destroyers who were always with us in the dreaded war zone, complimented
us upon the _Leviathan’s_ complete obscuration or darkening of ship.
Only once did a light ever show from the big ship and that happened to
shine from the room of the officer of the deck who was on duty on the
bridge. He had sent a messenger to his room for his raincoat and the boy
turned on the light to find his way about the dark room and returning to
the bridge in a hurry forgot to extinguish the light. A sharp eyed and
vigilant destroyer promptly flashed over a warning signal and the light
was extinguished.

Rules and prohibitions were minute and precise and were always strictly
enforced. A lighted cigarette upon a dark deck high in the air may be
seen a half a mile at sea and thus would enable an enemy submarine to
radio a lookout warning to another “sub” lying in wait ahead. These
pests of the deep generally worked in pairs. To show how strict the
rules were one man was court martialed and sent to prison, an officer
was court martialed and reduced, and an army chaplain, who was assisting
the chaplain of the ship in administering to the dying, was threatened
with court-martial because he had opened a port slightly in response
to a dying soldier’s request for air. These penalties may appear to be
unduly harsh, but where the safety of thousands depends upon the minute
obedience of the individual why “the punishment fits the crime.”

The army nurses were like ministering angels during that dreadful
scourge. They were brave American girls who had left home and comfort in
order to undergo peril and sacrifice abroad. Surely they have earned a
place in Heaven. The bluejackets on board were second to the nurses in
their unwearying patience and generous self-denial. When the army nurses
left the ship in Brest, they wept and bade the sailors an affectionate


Upon our arrival in Brest we had on board 96 dead soldiers and three
sailors. 58 of the former were buried in France, 33 were brought back
to the States and seven were buried at sea in the war zone on the
morning after we left Brest. We remained in Brest three days and left
on the third evening at 5:30 P. M. The next morning at sunrise, after
an imposing prayer by the chaplain, the flag was half-masted, taps were
sounded, three volleys fired and the coffins containing the bodies of
the dead soldiers were lowered gently into the sea. The ship was speeding
at 21½ knots.

After seven days of mostly fair weather and without trouble from
submarines, we docked in New York on the morning of October 16th. It was
a nerve-racking voyage and we were all greatly relieved that the trip was

_Tenth Overseas Trip_

At 11:10 of the morning of October 27th we left New York bound overseas
for the tenth and last trip. We had no idea that this was to be our last
run of the German blockade with our precious cargo of Yankee doughboys.
On this trip we carried the Tank Corps, who had for their motto: “Treat
’em rough!”

Troops, 8,123; Adv. School 8th Division; Casual Companies A, B, C, 487,
488, 489, 490; Tank Corps; 335th Btn. Tank Corps.; Adv. Debarking and
Billet Group 8th Division; 336th Btn. Tank Corps; 337th Btn. Tank Corps;
Attached Medical Personnel; Base Hospital No. 103; 540th Service Btn.;
October Auto Repl. Draft Camp Gordon; Casual Co. No. 452; Base Hospital
No. 106; Surgical Group No. 4; Colonel M. A. Elliott, 8th Division.

There had been rumors of peace while we were in New York and we had a
sort of hunch that the war could not last much longer. The boys that we
were taking over on this trip expressed disappointment, for they, too,
had the same hunch, and regretted that they would never reach the front
before the Armistice was signed.

On this trip we did not go to France, but to Liverpool instead, and as
the ship needed certain repairs that would require drydocking we landed
our soldiers in England. The trip was without any particular excitement
and when we met our escort of destroyers they signaled that all German
“subs” in that area had been recalled on October 21st. However, we took
no chances and our gun crews remained at their posts as usual and were
as vigilant as ever. November 3rd we were in Liverpool. On going into the
channel a dense fog enveloped the river and we were obliged to go ahead
at a low speed with the result that the tide receded before we could tie
up to the landing stage and we were stuck in the mud for about seven

While thus stranded we landed most of our troops and at midnight we were
tied up at the landing stage. Next morning, we went into drydock. While
we were in drydock the Armistice was signed and then—oh boy—we celebrated.

We were allowed liberty from 1 P. M. on that day and immediately the
“gobs” and doughboys started for the main part of the city and mingled
with the great crowds who paraded, held impromptu meetings and generally
“went wild.” The celebration continued for nearly a week and the American
soldiers and sailors participated with great spirit.

Thanksgiving day found us still in drydock and this was another big day
for our crew, for a football game had been previously arranged between
the army engineers and our crew and everyone was keyed up to the highest

Practice was held for two weeks on a cinder field adjoining the
drydock yards. It was found necessary to have our football togs made
in Liverpool by a woman dressmaker, as no sporting goods store carried
them. Thanksgiving day came. There was a grand and glorious dinner and
then we all proceeded to Everton Football Field in Liverpool which is
credited with being the best field in England. It had been raining all
day—usual Liverpool weather—a steady downpour and the field was muddy
and slow. On one side of the field were the sailor rooters and on the
other side the soldiers. Two bands enlivened proceedings. The first
quarter ended 0-0 and through a hard and cleanly fought game the teams
battled to a tie, 0-0. The navy team had made a remarkable showing and
considering circumstances did well in preventing the army from scoring.
The _Leviathan_ boys had not practiced as long as the army, who had been
playing all season, and furthermore the army had at least 8,000 men to
pick from while the navy had but 2,000. Credit must be given to Lt. R.
H. Jones, who coached the team and its success was greatly due to his
hard work.

Several English newspaper men were present to witness and report the
game. Following is an account of the game from their viewpoint:

    A demonstration of the nearest approach to actual warfare
    was given this afternoon at Everton Field by the American
    bluejackets of the _Leviathan_ and the American Army Engineers
    of Knotty Ash. The game greatly differs from the English rugby
    and is the nearest thing to warfare that we have ever seen. We
    were greatly surprised that there were not more casualties than
    there were, for the opposing teams went at each other as though
    they were deadly enemies about to destroy each other by brute

On Thanksgiving evening various dances and receptions were held for the
Americans in Liverpool by the people of that city, and though we were
3,000 miles from the States we had a most enjoyable time. We certainly
had lots to be thankful for.

On December 2nd we began to take on wounded soldiers that had been in
hospitals in England and were waiting transportation to the States.
We left Liverpool on December 4th, at 11 A. M., for Brest, France. We
arrived in Brest the next morning at 11 A. M. and immediately started to
coal ship and take on troops. This required three days and on December
8th at 2 P. M. we left France with our first load of home-going troops;
they certainly were a happy lot of men. On the way over we encountered
occasional rough weather, but this did not prevent us from speeding up
and we arrived at Sandy Hook on December 15th where we anchored for the
night owing to a dense fog.

As we made our way up the channel the next morning a great reception was
given the troops on board. Our coming had been flashed by wireless and
was heralded by all the newspapers. Numerous boats came out to meet us
and bells and sirens rent the air. It was a typical New York welcome—big
and hearty.

There were tears of gladness in the eyes of many of the soldiers on that
frosty morning. It was the first time that they had seen their own
land in many months and this coupled with the deep feeling and spirit
manifested by the people for the returned heroes, touched all hearts.
Just one year from the date that we started our first trip overseas, we
had brought back some of the first returning troops of the war. We tied
up to our pier at 8 A. M. and the next day a leave party of half the
ship’s company left for a ten-day leave over Christmas.

_Christmas Aboard the Leviathan—1918_

J. M.

Four days after our arrival in New York the crew was paid and it was
suggested that we have a Christmas party on board ship for as many
orphans as could be taken care of. The idea met with unanimous approval
and as each man was paid he donated as much as he could afford. The
amount collected was sufficient to take care of 1,200 homeless children.
Notices were sent to different orphan asylums and on Christmas morning
the happy children came aboard for a good day’s fun.

The children were shown over the ship and a number who went on exploring
tours of their own came to grief, tumbling out of stacks and ventilators
and as black as the ace of spades. But that did not matter, it was all
in their day’s fun and when dinner time came and the bugler sounded mess
call they did not have to be informed what the call meant. They knew
it was for dinner, why bless me, hadn’t they smelt the odor of roast
turkey all over the ship. The dinner consisted of turkey, candied sweet
potatoes, asparagus, celery, peas, cake, apples, oranges and bananas,
milk, cocoa, and ice cream of three different kinds. All of this was
prepared in the ships galley by the ship’s cooks and bakers and was a
great compliment to their efficiency. But they enjoyed preparing it,
you bet they did. After the children had eaten everything in sight and
pocketed what was left, the mess hall was cleared of tables and benches
and all the children gathered around the giant Christmas tree to receive
a present. There was a Santa Claus, some say it was one of our chief
petty officers, but most of us, the children most of all, believe he was
the original St. Nick himself, for he certainly was generous with his
presents. There was more than enough to go around—many of the children
received two presents.


The children were rounded up at 4 o’clock. As the time neared for one
group of boys to depart it was found that two were missing and after an
hour’s search they were found in the main engine room being entertained
by the men on watch.

When the children had gone the sailors came in for their presents. Each
man aboard received a bag from the Red Cross. The bags contained candy,
cigarettes, pipes and tobacco and were donated by individual women from
all over the country. The gifts were greatly appreciated by the “gobs,”
one of whom voiced the sentiments of all on board by exclaiming that the
Red Cross, take it from him, was “some Santa Claus.”

Part III


Notes on Handling the U. S. S. “Leviathan”


The power to drive the Leviathan is distributed into turbines driving
the four propellers. In the open sea the steam is distributed in what
we call the high pressure cruising combination, whereby the turbines
operate at their highest economy. But in this combination the engines
cannot be thrown back instantly, so that in the open ocean in considering
her safety and manœuvering, the rudder effect only can be relied upon.
She must be considered as having no backing effect. For leaving port,
entering port and manœuvering about the dock or about the anchorage,
there is thrown in what is called the manœuvering combination. In this
combination the highest speed the ship is capable of is sixteen knots
ahead, and the combination permits steam to be thrown into the backing
turbines. When there is little or no wind the ship steers very well. When
it blows strong on the beam or on the quarter, the enormous area of the
ship’s freeboard makes her act like a catboat, she wants to fly up into
the wind. She requires a weather helm or to put it in modern language, a
lee rudder. She will turn very quickly into the wind, but she will turn
away from the wind only slowly and reluctantly. Consequently we always
dislike going into New York or out of New York in a gale of wind, where
the restricted channel requires prompt and accurate turning of the ship.
Under normal conditions the manœuvering of the ship with her propellers,
in spite of her great length of 954 feet, is all that can be desired.


Ambrose Channel is dredged to forty feet at low water. On the spring
tides the low water may fall another foot, leaving but thirty-nine
feet in the Ambrose Channel at low water. As the ship draws between
thirty-nine and forty feet on arrival at New York, it is not safe to try
to enter at any other stage of the tide than at high water. Owing to her
great bulk it is improbable that any amount of tugs could dock the ship
at Hoboken when the current is running in the North River, so for docking
at Hoboken, the ship’s arrival must be timed so that she is off Hoboken
at the slack water. As the slack water at Hoboken is after the slack
water in Ambrose Channel, we enter Ambrose Channel then at high water and
carry slackwater all the way up the channel and dock at Hoboken on the
high water slack tide. On sailing from Hoboken she is undocking on the
low water slack tide, so as to arrive in Ambrose Channel at the next high
water. The deep draft of the ship on leaving New York, namely, forty-one
feet ten inches, requires that in leaving New York Harbor and as far as
the Narrows, the ship must seek what might be called the prehistoric
gorge of the Hudson River. There are many places between Hoboken and
the Narrows even in what ordinarily would be called the navigable
fairway, that are so shallow that the _Leviathan_ would go aground. This
prehistoric gorge is accurately known to Captain William S. McLaughlin,
Master Pilot of the New York-Sandy Hook Pilots, who always pilots the
_Leviathan_ out and in.



In docking the _Leviathan_ there is no particular trick that must be
known, but on undocking her it must be so timed that while on the New
Jersey side at Hoboken the water is dead slack, the flood on the New York
side has just begun to make. This helps the operation in two ways. First,
by getting her away from the dock before the flood current begins to
press her against the dock, and second when she backs out, the beginning
of the flood current on the New York side assists to turn her stern
upstream and operates to point her correctly. In leaving New York for
sea, the ship must be manœuvered over to the New York side, the deepest
water being on the New York side. In midstream and on the New Jersey
side, between Hoboken and the Statue of Liberty, there is not enough
water to float the _Leviathan_. In docking and undocking we need from
fourteen to sixteen tugs. Abnormal conditions can be expected in the
winter months. Upstate freshets and northerly gales sometimes operate to
kill the flood current off Hoboken and to cause a continuing ebb current.
Such a condition has happened, making it impossible to point the ship
correctly downstream, and it has been necessary to yield to the elements
and to permit her to turn the ship. There is always an apprehension in
entering and leaving New York Harbor lest merchant vessels carelessly
anchor themselves in the _Leviathan’s_ fairway. Such a condition adds
difficulties to the piloting of the ship.

[Illustration: BREST HARBOR]

Like most passenger vessels she is designed to have a slow and easy roll,
which means that she has not a great margin of stability. In entering
New York, bringing troops homeward, it is necessary to keep the troops
in control and evenly distributed, because in their excitement and
happiness, they tend to rush from one side to another on the passing of
every cheering ferryboat, heeling over even this great ship. When this
ship heels over, owing to her great beam, and to her box-like dead-flat
section, it materially increases her already great draft. Large ballast
tanks with suitable pumps are provided for the purpose of counteracting
the tendency of the ship to heel over, but in spite of this, at sea she
lies over to the breeze, and in entering New York she is very sensitive
to the movement of troops about the deck.

In mooring to the buoy in Brest Harbor, it is an advantage to arrive at
slack water; she must be brought to the buoy with her momentum entirely
gone, for her great weight of sixty-nine thousand tons, if moving when
the buoy is correctly placed, would make it impossible for the mooring
party to handle the great heavy links of four-inch chain, and to connect
the mooring shackle.

_Drydocking the U. S. S. “Leviathan” in Gladstone Dock, Liverpool,

By LIEUT. A. W. MINUSE, U. S. N. R. F.


Drydocking a ship in a graving dock means placing the ship in a dock or
basin at the entrance of which is a gate or caisson, accurately centering
the ship over a system of blocks or beds, previously prepared according
to plans and then pumping the water out of the dock.

When a ship is designed the Naval Architect always prepares a docking
plan showing in detail just how to prepare these beds so that the ship
will rest evenly without straining her in any way. Ordinarily, docking a
ship up to 32,000 or 33,000 tons is not much of a problem, nor does it
involve much of a risk, but on larger ships with all the necessary data
known, those connected with the docking always feel easier when they see
the ship setting safely on the blocks.

To give some idea of the size of the _Leviathan_ consider our latest,
biggest and most powerful battleship, the _New Mexico_. She weighs 32,000
tons. The _Leviathan_ weighed or displaced at the time of docking more
than twice this, or approximately 66,000 tons.

We had no docking plans nor plans of any description showing her form
or construction. The Germans had either destroyed or removed all her
plans. This was the problem we were confronted with in January, 1918,
when it was decided to dock the ship in Liverpool for the necessary
cleaning and painting of her body under water, and doing other necessary
work, including a clump on her forefoot for towing the paravanes, or
mine-sweeping device.

[Illustration: IN DRY DOCK]


The Gladstone Dock in Liverpool was the only drydock in the world at the
time that would take the Leviathan. The entire development of this dock,
which included a tidal basin, was not completed when the war broke out,
so the tidal basin was abandoned and one of a pair of docks was finished
up and a long channel dredged to the River Mersey.

The ship drew so much that we could not enter the dock except at the
spring tides, or in other words, only about two days out of a month would
permit us to enter the dock, provided the wind did not cut the tide too

The next thing was to decide on how to prepare the beds of the drydock to
receive the ship. An examination of her bottom was necessary. Divers were
sent down and they reported that she had neither docking nor bilge keels,
and that her keel plate consisted of a plate of about 2 inches thick by 3
feet wide.

In converting the ship from a passenger to a troop ship, we naturally
became familiar with every detail of her construction. With this
knowledge of her construction and due consideration being given to the
location of the heavy weights, etc., it was decided to place the main bed
under the third intercostal, this bed running from frames 220 to 101, or
a distance of 358 feet amidships. The spacing of these blocks was 6 feet,
or every other frame space. The center of these blocks was 25½ feet from
the center line of the ship.

In addition to the center line bed, which is placed underneath the keel,
and the two main beds, one port and one starboard, which is placed under
the third intercostal, an outer bed, consisting of four sets of five
blocks each, space 6 feet centers, was placed under the fore and aft coal
bunker bulkhead, at the intersection of the thwartship bulkheads.

The fore and aft center of these blocks came at frame 199, 174, 151 and
126. Blocks of the outer bed were staggered with those of the inner bed.
This outer bed was 35 feet from the center of the ship. At the fore and
aft ends of the ship where the dead-rise is considerable, an inner bed
a few inches from the center of the ship for a distance of 60 feet was
prepared, 12 feet 6 inches forward, and 13 feet 9 inches aft.

After deciding the location of these beds, the next step was to get some
idea of how to prepare them, so that they would conform to the shape of
the ship. Preparing the center line bed was of course easier, as it was
known that the keel of the ship was a straight line.

The forward end of the center line bed consisted of a solid line of
blocks for a distance of 104 feet, and the after end of a solid line of
blocks for 144 feet, where exceptionally heavy weights would be carried.
The balance of the blocks was spaced every 15 inch centers, except in
the way of water-tight bulkheads. Under these bulkheads the blocks were
filled in solid for 7 blocks. On each side of these, two spaces were
omitted and then filled in solid for 5 blocks. Reference to the docking
plans will show the spacing of these blocks.


An idea of the blocks used in building the beds can be had by referring
to the photograph. They consisted of 3 cast steel wedges, which, when
placed upon each other, were about 3 feet high, 15 inches wide at the
bottom, and 3 feet 6 inches long. On top of these steel wedges was placed
a hardwood block 12 inches square and 4 feet long, and on top of the
hardwood blocks was placed a soft wood cap 12 inches wide by 4 inches
thick by 4 feet long.

To prepare the main, inner and outer beds, it was necessary to have
some idea of the form of the ship. By opening up the water-tight doors
in the fireroom we were able to get a base line 300 feet long. Every
other double bottom tank was pumped out and offsets taken at the fore
and aft ends of these tanks, in way of the main, inner and outer beds.
The taking of these offsets was greatly facilitated by the fact that the
double bottom was found to be flat in both the fore and aft thwartships
direction. Buttocks were run through these offsets. While these buttocks
faired up very well, it was realized that the measurements would not be
accurate enough for the actual preparation of the beds; therefore they
were prepared to within 4 inches of these measurements.

Several hundred wedges of varying thicknesses were made ready in advance,
and after the ship was placed on the center line blocks, the space
between the main and outer beds and the ship’s bottom was packed with the
wedges by divers.

The Gladstone Dock was prepared according to the above description,
carefully checked and measured, and then flooded to about 10 feet, so
that no one could tamper with it. After the dock was prepared, we had to
wait several days for a spring tide, and also to dredge out a shifting
shoal at the entrance of the channel leading to the dock.

The first tide that the ship could enter the dock was at 11:50 A.
M., January 14, 1918. She was brought to as even a keel as possible,
which was 35 feet 9 inches forward and 37 feet 6 inches aft. This was
accomplished by filling the forward tanks and emptying the after tanks
and placing about 1,400 tons of coal in her reserve and forward bunkers.
This was the nearest to an even keel that we had ever had the ship up
to this time in the light condition. I might mention here that in this
condition the ship is extremely tender, and that Lieut. Watts of the
Engineering Department, displayed great diligence and good judgment in
keeping her perfectly upright, while setting her on the blocks.


On January 14, 1918, the ship proceeded down the Mersey River to the
entrance of the dock, but the wind was too high to attempt making
the entrance, and we had to return to Princess Landing. On the 15th
conditions were much better but none too favorable. However, as it was
the last day of the spring tide we had to make the attempt. The spring
tides are about 21 feet, and the current is very swift, so we had less
than an hour in which to enter the dock and close the caisson.

The entrance was very narrow, so that tugs were of little assistance and
she had to go in under her own power. It was a fine piece of seamanship
and was successfully accomplished without damage to either the ship or
the dock. The handling of the ship in the long entrance channel to the
dock was done by the Senior Captain of the Cunard Line on shore. We were
all greatly shocked about two weeks later to learn of his death, due to a
channel steamer being torpedoed on its return from France, where he had
been called on an important conference. It was the loss of such fine men
through the treacherous German submarines that brought home to us more
than ever our solemn duty to beat the Germans at all costs.

On the 16th everything was ready for setting her on the center line
blocks. The weather conditions were ideal; the wind was on the stern
and the ship was on an even keel. The stern touched the blocks and she
settled at 3:55 P. M.

Previous to setting the ship on the blocks 12 sighting battons were
erected along the level of “B” deck from stem to stem, so that if the
ship was strained in any way it could be readily noted. A piano wire
was also stretched from side to side at the top of the thwartships coal
bunkers amidships and connected to a spring balance, so that any opening
up effect, due to the divers not properly packing the main beds, would
immediately show.

As soon as the stern touched the blocks the top row of side shores were
set up commencing from aft. These shores were spaced every 5 frames, or
about 15 feet centers. Altogether there were three rows of these side
shores. The water was then lowered to a depth of 32 feet and the water
maintained at this depth while the divers packed the main, inner and
outer beds. As soon as possible after the water reached 32 feet, the
water in all the tanks was pumped out with the exception of the feed
tanks and No. 23 and 24 fresh water service tanks. The stem and side
anchors were lowered and the pig iron in No. 17 tank, amounting to about
473 tons, was removed.

The water was maintained in the dock at 32 feet, because at this depth
the ship was just resting nicely on the center line blocks and would not
compress the soft wood caps. We did not want any unnecessary weight on
the center line blocks until the divers had finished their work on the
main and outer beds, so that when the dock was finally pumped out, the
ship would imbed itself in the soft wood capping at a uniform depth. This
worked out exceptionally well, and was remarkably uniform on all beds,
amounting to about 2 inches at the end of the third day. On the third
day the spring balance on the piano wire registered less than an ounce
difference. The sighting battons showed that she had settled amidships
about 1⅜ inches. After floating she returned to ⅛ inch of the original
condition. This I believe to be the natural hog of the ship.

The undocking of the ship was somewhat unusual in that 7,800 tons of
coal were placed aboard while she was in dry dock, 1,400 tons while the
dock was absolutely dry and the balance of the coal, with from 35 to 37
feet of water in the dock. This was not sufficient to float the ship,
and she still rested upon the docking beds. Immediately before letting
in the water, all the bilge and hanging shores, and shores under, the
stem and stern that would in any way injure the ship should she take a
sudden list, or any undue change of trim, were removed. These shores
were removed at about 15 minute intervals, so that the ship could adjust
itself and any undue settling could be noticed. During this operation
men were stationed at the sighting battons and the piano wire. Water was
then admitted as quickly as possible to 35 feet and maintained at this
level while additional coal was put aboard from barges admitted to the
dock at low tide. This was a rather trying ordeal, but was successfully
accomplished in 5 days.

Arrangements had been made to leave the dock on February 11th. It was
therefore decided to float her on the 10th, and an estimate was made of
the coal on board and such tanks as were necessary to bring her to an
even trim and even keel, were filled. She floated at 1:20 on the 10th
with 38 feet 11 inches draft aft, 39 feet 6 inches draft forward, and
less than ½° list to starboard.

I cannot speak too highly of the hearty co-operation received from
the ship’s officers and crew, especially Naval Constructor J. H.
Jack, U. S. N. This applies not only to the docking of the ship, but
to her conversion from a passenger ship to a transport. No duty was
too strenuous or hours too long, and during the conversion the living
quarters on the ship were not of the best. They were continually shifted
from one part of the ship to the other, even the meals were of a
makeshift character and at times irregular. Every man seemed to realize
what we were up against and that we must make good. Everyone pulling
together, accomplishment was made possible.

The conversion of the ship to a transport speaks volumes for the Navy
Department organization and more particularly for the New York Navy Yard,
under whose direct supervision the work was undertaken.

The ship was so big that she could not be taken to a shipyard, nor
transferred to the Navy Yard. The task had to be undertaken where she
lay at her piers in Hoboken and the New York Navy Yard organization was
elastic enough and active enough to carry on the work outside the Navy

_The Bridge_

W. J.

General conditions on the bridge were good. Instruments had deteriorated
somewhat, owing to the long stay in port and not being used.

All signal flags and navigation instruments, including the three
chronometers which comprised part of her equipment were removed. The
ship was equipped with two master gyroscopic compasses installed on “G”
deck and seven repeaters for use on the bridge in steering and taking
bearings; these were all found to be more or less in need of repairs
and after days of hard and tedious work on the part of Lieut. W. H. F.
Schluter and his well organized staff they were put in fine condition
and have been kept in this manner constantly even though he has had to
add pieces of lead to each master gyro to maintain a level. Being of
German manufacture, no spare parts could be obtained during the war,
but whenever they were needed Lieutenant Schluter proved to be the “man
of the hour.” The gyros were only one of his many troubles for, being
electrical officer, there were numerous other duties about the ship.
There were a great many German charts left on board but the ship was
equipped by the Bureau of Navigation with American charts before leaving
port. The steering gears and all the telegraphs were changed to English
speaking. The deep-sea sounding machines are still in commission after
a great amount of usage, and the motors attached to them for heaving in
the lead are still in good working order. The patent log for measuring
distance is the “Forbes,” an English patent. Loudspeaking telephones
reached to all the principal parts of the ship, and are very much
used. A fire-alarm indicator is placed in the wheelhouse and is set at
fifteen-minute intervals. This indicator has pipes leading to all holds
through which the smoke from any fire in a hold would be drawn and can
be seen in the wheelhouse when the alarm goes off. A steam hose can be
connected to the pipe and the fire smothered. There is a control for
operating water-tight doors and a diagram showing location of each door;
upon this diagram an electric light burns when each door is closed,
showing the officer of the deck whether the control works properly.

The big 44-inch searchlight on the foremast is controlled very readily
from the bridge by a small lever; the fog bell is rung and all whistles
are blown by an electrical attachment. The master electric clock is on
the bridge and gives the time to 550 repeaters situated throughout the
ship. These clocks required a great amount of painstaking labor to be put
into good condition and demand constant care and supervision. During the
alterations in which first class staterooms were ripped out to make troop
quarters, the wiring system to the clocks was torn out by the workmen as
well as everything else which happened to be in their path.

As mentioned previously the ship’s chronometers, three in number, were
missing. These were afterwards found by the Secret Service in a nautical
school in New York City. The commanding officer had to send them to
the Naval Observatory at Washington, D. C. This was done with great
reluctance as they were of the finest type and a good chronometer is a
very valuable and much used article aboard a ship. Others were sent to
replace them. The bridge and signal bridge were altered for transport
purposes. The fire control and range finder stations being built on the
signal bridge, and the fine bright finish of the wood was changed to the
more popular color at that time—the war gray. Otherwise the _Leviathan_
remains the _Vaterland_, as when she was in the merchant service—a German
transport in disguise.

_The Deck Force_

F. C. W.

When the _Leviathan_ was taken over by the Navy, the chief difficulty
that presented itself was the scarcity of men available for the deck
force. Only a few of the crew that had been assigned to the ship had ever
been to sea. A few—gun crews, for the most part—had had some experience,
but not enough to qualify them as seamen. This was partly due to their
short terms of service.

As a result, the brunt of the work fell upon the shoulders of a few
experienced petty officers, who fortunately had been assigned to the
ship. These men worked day and night in a supreme effort to organize
their crews and create a working machine. For the first few days they
did everything from scrubbing the decks to exploring the double bottoms.
There was no distinction between the rated men and the seamen in this
line of work.

The size of the ship added to the confusion. It was impossible to keep
a detail together for more than a minute and a half. It was easy for an
entire working party to get lost between decks. It was easier for some to
get lost than others. Finally, it was decided that the only way to keep
a working party together was to hang a bell around the neck of the petty
officer in charge. This scheme worked well until two working parties met,
when it was necessary to call in a traffic cop to get them separated.

Because of their unfamiliarity with the ship, details were apt to deliver
sacks of “spuds” to the Commander’s cabin, and stationery to the
blacksmith shop. This situation was relieved by the appointment of guides
to conduct the working parties around.

The parts of the ship allotted to the deck division (at that time we
could only boast of one), were in rather good shape, considering the
time the ship had been laid up. The weather decks were littered up like
an old woman’s backyard after a hard day’s washing, but most of the
truck was movable. Boats were piled across the hatches and all over the
decks, making it impossible to get around. Boxes, stores and cordage were

The process of making the ship habitable was accomplished by a mere
handful of men, most of the division being assigned to various details
for work in other compartments.

After the work of cleaning up had been completed, attention was turned
to the rigging. The running rigging was in bad shape and it was found
necessary to refit all of the davits that were rigged with manila rope.
The booms were also refitted with new whips and guys. Requisitions for
wire and manila lines were made right and left and all of the rigging was

Of the 72 boats on board, 26 were equipped with friction winches and
needed no power for rigging out and loading. The power for hoisting was
furnished by electric motors, each one operating two or more winches.
These winches were given a thorough overhauling and found to be in
excellent condition. The boat falls, which were of special laid wire,
were then unrove and tested. Only two of the entire number needed
attention. At that time we had no serviceable wire, and it was a case of
a few well-made long splices.

The ground tackle on the ship was all that could be desired. Of the three
Hall type anchors, the largest, or stem anchor, weighed a little more
than twelve tons. The other two, port and starboard, tipped the scales
at eleven tons. These little trinkets were the only articles on board
considered safe from souvenir hunters. For the information of landsmen,
the “anchor watch” has no connection with the anchor itself, but is
merely the men on watch as Officer of the Deck’s night messengers while
the ship is at anchor.

The stem anchor was fitted with a 4-inch stud link chain, 150 fathoms in
length. The port and starboard anchors had chains of 164 and 150 fathoms,
respectively. The chains for the latter were three and three-eighths
inches in diameter, the size of a chain being measured by the diameter of
the material of which the links are formed.

The anchor engines were of corresponding size, and could be connected
with the capstans on deck. In addition to them, there were seven more
engines for capstans in all parts of the ship. In consequence, mooring
the ship to a dock was not the hard task that it usually is.

The stern anchor and chain had apparently been left in Hamburg. The hawse
pipe aft, and the stern chain locker were utilized for the handling and
stowage of the heavy manila hawsers.

Most of the manila hawsers on board had to be replaced. Natural decay
or possibly a small application of acid had so weakened the lines that
they had a tendency to break at the most inopportune moments. The wire
hawsers, however, were in A-1 condition, and up until the present time,
have never been replaced.

But the work of fitting out was not all that had to be done. Men must be
fed; and it seemed, from the accumulation of provisions on the dock, that
we were being depended upon for the entire job of feeding the A. E. F.
Truckload after truckload of stores was piled on the dock, and hoisted
aboard, day after day. We soon learned that one trip with 10,000 red
blooded men aboard involved the consumption of almost everything we had
been piling into the ship’s storerooms and refrigerators. Besides food,
there were general stores to be handled, including everything from safety
pins to dishwashing machines. Every department was working overtime to
get things ship-shape, and the deck force most of all.

At last it was rumored that we were about to make our maiden trip under
the American flag. This was followed by a speeding up in all departments.
It received final substantiation when military equipment and stores began
to arrive. The time had come for a real test.

We had a chance to test our booms when a five-ton truck showed up as a
part of the equipment to be loaded. The booms were of three-ton capacity
and it was necessary to strengthen the lifts and rig a purchase in lieu
of the single whip. It was taken aboard without mishap.

Just before leaving all boat-falls were given a final test. Every boat
was rigged out and lowered to within a few feet of the water. A party of
sixty-five men then clambered in and the boat was hoisted and lowered ten
feet or more. This party was used for all of the boats, which were found
to be in satisfactory condition. A few boats not on davits were hoisted
overboard and tested for watertightness.

One morning in the fall of 1917 we slipped away. There were many
conjectures as to our destination, one opinion being that we were bound
for Panama for a last overhauling in dry dock. It developed that we were
taking 1,500 marines to Guantanamo.

Upon our arrival in Cuba, we discharged all equipment and turned our
attention to the boats once more. The boat officers were given their
first lesson in the handling of the boat winches, and some of the men
were given their first experience in a boat under oars.

Back again to Hoboken—more handling of stores and provisions. The
Marines, although few in number, had managed to put quite a hole in our
store of provisions. But the worst was yet to come. Orders sending the
ship to France came, and with them 7,500 soldiers.

We had one piece of luck in getting off. While the crews of other
transports had been compelled to sit and watch civilian stevedores put
their stores aboard, the crew of the _Leviathan_ were allowed to handle
everything going aboard the ship themselves. There were no restrictions
whatever, permission even being given to work night and day at the job.
All of the equipment handled by the civilian stevedores belonging to
the army. The crew handled all of the naval equipment aboard, including
Liberty motors, aeroplanes and S. P. boats.

Liverpool had the honor of receiving us on our first and second voyages.
Here we went into dry dock for final repairs, and here we had our first
experience coaling ship in drydock. Coaling was carried on from cars
running along the dock and also from small lighters or flats in the dock
itself. The lighters were emptied and taken away only at certain stages
of the tide. There was always a chance of the ship floating during one of
these manœuvers, and the work of bringing loaded lighters into the dock
and sending the emptied ones out required quick action and plenty of it.
The notorious punctuality of time and tide is especially noticeable in
the Liverpool drydock, and we worked at all hours of the day and night to
keep in step.

The bottom of the ship was given a new coat of paint, and we left for
Hoboken and more troops. On our second voyage to Liverpool our paravanes
were installed, adding a little to the work, but contributing a good deal
to our sense of security. Once more, for the benefit of the landsman: The
paravanes, or PVs, are contrivances fitted to the bow of the ship, as a
protection against mines, so constructed that they will automatically
pick up the moorings of a mine and cut it adrift.

Beginning with our third trip, we worked on an express train schedule.
Everything depended upon speed. Our cargoes increased at the same time.
In addition to all kinds of army equipment, we frequently carried
aeroplanes, boats for overseas duty, and on one trip a large mooring
buoy. In order to load them on board, additional changes had to be made
in the rigging, purchases and guys of the booms. Even the weather decks
were utilized for the transportation of cargo for the naval forces

At the present writing the good old ship is still on the job—bringing
them back. The machine is running as smoothly as the ship’s engines, and
instead of having a few inexperienced men in the deck force, we have an
organization, built from almost nothing, that can compete with anything
in the navy.

_Embarkation and Debarkation of Troops_

W. S. A.

This is a brief description of how the _Leviathan’s_ human cargo was
loaded and unloaded. The plan had been followed from the beginning with
slight changes made by experience in carrying troops over before the
armistice and carrying them back afterwards.

The ship’s troop capacity began at 6,800 and on the 13th voyage it was
approximately 12,000. Throughout the war it averaged about 10,000. In
addition, officers’ space has varied between 400 and 600.

Throughout the war, carrying troops east, five gangways were employed
on G-deck forward, to fill forward compartments; C-deck and F-decks
amidships, to fill amidship compartments; E-deck and G-deck gangways aft
to fill after compartments.

On each gangway, the compartment farthest away and lowest was filled and
so on to the gangway compartment. In no case did troops crowd through a
filled compartment.

It was early realized that loading the ship with troops was a Navy
function and was treated as such. The organization at each of the five
gangways was: one naval officer in charge and assisted by one chief petty
officer and fifteen men. Wherever Army officers were available one was
detailed to assist the Naval officer.

Prior to embarkation on each voyage, the ship’s embarkation officer made
an assignment of all troops the ship was to carry, so organizations would
not be split up but located in the same part of the ship to facilitate
work. Often this was a problem on account of the arrival of trains or
ferries and the size of organizations carried. Also, troop compartments
had an arbitrary number of bunks in them, based on the amount which
could be put in and not upon the number in military organizations. By
planning we were able to get a complete regiment amidships, one aft, and
a battalion forward, then filling in smaller units up to capacity.

Generally a battalion, or approximately 1,000 men, came to the ship a day
in advance of embarkation for the guard and mess details. The next day
the balance of the troops arrived. When the guard was not posted before
embarkation, the troops were all over decks, superstructure, and masts,
resulting in much unnecessary confusion.

Embarkation usually began about 8 o’clock or 9 o’clock in the morning,
although on one occasion it began as early as 5:30 A. M. Organizations
marched on the dock, both upper and lower levels, the Army checkers
checked the individual soldier’s names upon the passenger lists and the
soldier would receive a billet ticket which showed his compartment,
bunk number, deck space, abandon ship station, safety rules, etc. Then
the column would move over the gangway and the prescribed routes to the
compartment. Each of the five columns were led by a Naval guide, and
other Naval guides were posted along the route and seven or eight Navy
men in the compartment, to direct the columns to the proper bunks and
put the soldiers in the bunks called for by the billet tickets. The
numbering in compartments generally began in the forward starboard corner
and ended in the after port corner. Later on, the bunks in the amidship
compartments were renumbered so that a column of troops could be directed
up a passageway and men could get into the bunks on both sides of it.


A company officer would go into the compartment being filled and assist
the Navy detail; troops got into their bunks as soon as found, and stayed
there until embarkation over that gangway was completed. No smoking
was allowed in compartments. Without strict adherence to these rules,
embarkation was hindered. Generally it was possible to take troops aboard
nearly as fast as they arrived on the dock and many times the dock would
be emptied before the next organizations would arrive. The troop mess
hall on F-deck was used as a reservoir to hold over 1,000 troops marching
in a serpentine line which proceeded into the compartments being filled.
The Naval officer in charge of the gangway circulated from the gangway
over the route into the compartment and saw that all went smoothly. The
embarkation officer moved around all gangways into compartments being
filled and upon the deck, generally overseeing and directing embarkation.

The Navy men for the forward gangway were from the first division,
midship gangways from the third division and the other gangways from
the fourth division. With the inborn aptitude of the American youth,
they soon became experts in embarking and made short work of filling
compartments. There was little change in the details during the entire
war period. The men took real pride in their work. Embarkation of 10,000
troops, each soldier into his own numbered bunk, could not have been
effected in a period of six to eight hours, if it had not been for the
zeal and ardor and intelligence which the men put into their work.

Whenever a bunk was found which could not be used and compartments were
checked over before embarkation, the ticket was taken up from the soldier
and another secured at the gangway so the man could occupy a bunk in the
vicinity of his company.

Relations between the ship’s officers concerned with embarking and the
army officers of the port of embarkation staff were harmonious and
co-operation grew as trips increased. On some occasions the ship’s
officers went to the army camps, gave talks and distributed ship’s
pamphlets in advance of embarkation which were of assistance in embarking
and getting the army settled on board.

On these war time embarkations, one noted the eagerness with which the
troops came aboard to get to the scene of war. On one occasion a number
of colored troops went up E-deck gangway, which had an angle of nearly
forty-five degrees, upon their hands and knees for safety’s sake. This
caused great laughter.

Only on one or two embarkations were there any substantial delays, as
trains and ferries generally arrived on schedule. Once an entire regiment
was fitted up with two pairs of trench shoes upon the upper level of
the dock. During the influenza epidemic in the fall of 1918 taking the
temperatures of all troops slowed up embarkation.


During the war, debarkation on the first two trips to Liverpool was
simply to march the troops over the G-deck forward, F-deck amidships,
and G-deck after gangways on the landing stage in reverse order of
embarkation, where they mustered by organizations and entrained. On the
third trip to Liverpool, in November, 1918, the _Leviathan_ ran her nose
into the Mersey mud off the Gladstone dock in a heavy fog. The tide ebbed
and the ship began to list. All the Mersey ferry boats were commandeered
and the 8,000 troops were debarked on them from F-deck gangway amidships
and G-deck gangway aft, in three hours. Gangways to the ferries in
several cases were at an angle of sixty degrees. Debarkation was rushed
to lighten the ship, and she was backed off on the rising tide that
evening under her own power.

At Brest, during the war, a different plan was followed. Coaling began
soon after the ship was moored. G-deck gangways aft, port and starboard
sides, were the only gangways available to debark troops onto lighters.
B-deck and the troop mess hall were used as debarking mustering stations.
Organizations moved to them from their compartments, according to
prearranged plan, as it was essential to send the troops ashore by
organizations. B-deck held about 1,800 men with their packs and the mess
hall about 1,200. When assembled, they moved to lighters lying at the
after gangway. These held at first according to size, from 600 to 2,200
men and they were packed tight. Their capacity was reduced on later

The troops cheered the old _Leviathan_ as their lighters drew away, and
our men responded. The _Leviathan_ carried many organizations which later
paid heavy toll of casualties in battles.

When the armistice was signed and the westbound tide set in, it required
considerable work to reverse the procedure of embarking at Brest and
debarking at Hoboken. The entire embarkation was over G-deck gangway for
all compartments up to the thirteenth voyage, as it proceeded during

The procedure of filling compartments was the same, but it was necessary
to unload lighters quickly and get them away so the line of troops to
compartments was extended to fill A-deck, B-deck, D-deck forward and aft,
from whence the line of troops fed down into the compartments.

From 1,100 to 2,200 sick and wounded were embarked at the same time as
the other troops, this was done under supervision of the medical officer,
assisted by the hospital corps. The casuals were taken to sick bay or
E-deck compartments especially set aside for them.

Debarkation at Hoboken was the quick and happy event following the
reception the ship received coming up the harbor. G-deck forward, C
and F-decks amidships, and G-deck after gangways are used. The troops
march out on them in reverse order of embarking. Units muster on the
dock according to their organizations. Briefly, the procedure resembles
pouring liquid out of three different pitchers, just the reverse of
filling the compartments upon embarkation. The debarkation of troops was
completed in about three hours.

The dock was always a lively place with throngs of reporters and welfare
workers present with refreshments and smokes for the boys. The canine
mascots generally got aboard unobserved, but in debarkation they proceed
with their proud masters down the gangways and are admired as returning
heroes by those upon the dock. Many of the dogs were “prisoners of war,”
having come over to the American trenches from the enemy.

Such, briefly, is the story of the loading and unloading of the
_Leviathan’s_ human cargo. The doughboys have bravely done their part in
winning the war. We of the _Leviathan_ have had the happy and important
duty of getting them over safely and bringing them back home.

_Abandon Ship Drill_

E. E.

Abandon ship drill is the most important drill on board ship as the
saving of the lives of all would depend upon the degree of perfection,
organization, and speed of execution. It is easily seen that a ship
the size of the _Leviathan_ by reason of her water-tight doors would
not sink for several hours after a torpedo attack or after striking a
mine; thus the great danger to be avoided is the panic attendant upon
such a contingency. The end to be attained is the conducting of all the
troops in an orderly and expeditious manner to the weather decks where,
equipped with life jackets and canteens, they can climb over the side on
sea ladders rigged for the purpose and reach the rafts and boats already
lowered into the water.

The abandon ship organization requires the second in army command to be
in charge of the troop movement. He has as his assistants thirty-five
captains as troop compartment officers—they are the senior officers in
each troop compartment—and seventy lieutenants, the junior compartment
officers. As a special abandon ship detail there are twelve majors acting
as abandon ship mustering station officers and twenty-four captains and
lieutenants acting as assistants to these officers.

The abandon ship mustering stations are distributed over the ship and
include all available space on the weather decks except such space as
is necessary to the lowering of boats or to the actual navigation of
the ship. The routing of the troops to these stations is worked out
on the principle that all watertight doors will be closed as soon as
abandon ship signal sounds. The capacity of these stations is limited
to a minimum of three cubic feet of deck space per man, giving also due
consideration to the disposition of the ship’s boats.

During the war the first abandon ship drill was held prior to the sailing
of the ship. All men aboard were obliged to keep their life jackets
within reach at all times. For the first three drills the troops were
sent below to their compartments at the call “assembly” on the bugles
so they would become familiar with their abandon ship route. After the
first three drills, troops already up on deck proceeded directly to their
mustering stations.


Troops were not required to wear their life jackets when hostilities
ceased, but when abandon ship drill was held they were sent below to
assemble in their compartments, put on their life jackets, and then
at the abandon ship call proceed over the abandon ship route to their
mustering stations to stand by for further orders or until “secure” is

The plan followed throughout the ship called for the emptying of the
lowest compartment first. Other compartments using the same abandon ship
route stand fast until the troops in the lowest compartment have filed

It was found that by this drill all compartments could be emptied and all
troops assembled at their abandon ship mustering stations within fifteen
minutes of the sounding of the abandon ship signal, or within one half
hour of the blowing of the “assembly” which sends the troops to their

_The Gunnery Department_


    Creed H. Boucher, Lieut., U.S.N.; assigned, August 3, 1917; detached,
      April 20, 1918.
    Arnold H. Bateman, Lieut., U.S.N.; assigned, April 20, 1918; detached,
      October 27, 1918.
    Charles K. Osborne, Lieut. Comdr., U.S.N.; assigned, October 27, 1918;
      detached, April 3, 1919.


    William E. Malloy, Lieut., U.S.N.; assigned, October 8, 1917.

(Lieut. Malloy was detached as assistant Gunnery Officer in order to take
over the duties of First Lieutenant of the ship.)


    Arthur B. Dorsey, Lieut., U.S.N.; assigned, July 30, 1917; detached,
      January 22, 1919.
    John T. Swift, Lieut., U.S.N.; assigned, January 22, 1919; detached,
      March 6, 1919.
    James F. Williams, Gunner, U.S.N.; assigned, January 20, 1919.

(Gunner Williams served on board as a Chief Gunner’s Mate from August,
1917, until he was made Gunner in January, 1919.)

Lieut. Boucher, Lieut. Malloy and Lieut. Dorsey, were the officers in
charge of the installation of the battery, fire control system, etc., the
training of gun crews and lookouts, and in fact all the numerous details
required to have the ship in readiness for sea and action when she
cleared the net in New York Harbor. Great credit is due these officers
and the men of their department for the excellent manner in which this
work was carried out. Much credit is also due the officers and men who
succeeded them for the excellent manner in which they maintained the high
standard of efficiency that had been set for them.

There were also six Chief Gunner’s Mates and seven gunner’s mates of
lower ratings attached to the ship during her voyages across the Atlantic.

No technical discussion of ordnance and gunnery will be attempted in
these pages, just a general description of guns, fire control systems,
etc., and their method of operation.


The armament and equipment of the _Leviathan_ consisted of the following:

    8—6-inch 50-Cal. guns Mk. VIII.
    2—1-Pdr. guns, Mk. VIII.
    2—“Y”-Guns for throwing depth charges.
    2—Colt Machine Guns.
    1—Lewis Machine Gun.
    150—.30-Cal. Springfield Rifles.
    75—.45-Cal. Colt Automatic Pistols.
    1—Large Bausch and Lomb 12-Ft. Range Finder.
    2—Small Barr and Stroud 1-meter Range Finders.
    1—Ford Range Keeper.

The six-inch guns were installed on October 5, 1917—four aft and four
forward. The distance between the forward and after guns was about seven
hundred feet, which is a greater distance than the entire length of any
battleship we have in commission.

The work of installation was carried on by ordnance men from the New York
Navy Yard, assisted by the ship’s gunnery department.

Splendid co-ordination existed at all times between the Navy Yard people
and the ship’s force which helped materially to expedite the work.
Considerable effort and labor were required to get the ship in readiness
to receive the guns, mounts, etc. Gun foundations and gun platforms had
to be built; blast bulkheads erected in proper places so as to protect
one gun from the fire of the other; certain portions of the deck were
extended in order to give the after guns a greater arc of train. Lines
of communication, voice tubes and telephones, had to be run from all
guns to fire control and spotting stations; and salvo bells and buzzers
installed. All of this work was completed in record time and gave
excellent results throughout the war.

Foundation and mount tests were held on November 20, 1917, on our trial
trip to Guantanamo, when three shots were fired from each six-inch gun.
These tests proved satisfactory in every respect.

The 1-pdr. guns were not installed until September 28, 1918. These guns
were mounted on the port and starboard sides of C-deck amidships. They
also proved satisfactory when fired for tests on September 30, 1918.
Lieutenant Boucher originally made a request for four 1-pdr. guns and
also two anti-aircraft guns, but only the two 1-pdr. guns were allowed
this ship.


The original depth charge outfit of this vessel consisted of the earlier
type of depth charges, containing only fifty-two pounds of TNT as an
explosive. We were allowed ten of the charges and a chute was rigged over
the stern for launching them.

On July 27, 1918, two “Y” guns were installed which throw a charge of TNT
weighing 300 pounds. These were tested out by filling four large paint
drums with wet sand, to bring them up to the required weight, and firing
them from the “Y” guns. The cans landed approximately 200 feet from the
ship, our extra high freeboard causing them to travel farther than if
fired from the deck of a torpedo boat.

We never had the opportunity of trying our depth charges on a real
submarine. A ship of this size would have to be extremely lucky to
manœuvre so as to be in a position to drop a depth charge on a submarine.

The “Y”-guns were removed December 30, 1918, after the armistice had been


The two Colt machine guns were mounted forward on C-deck gallery, abaft
No. 3 and No. 4 guns, and the Lewis machine gun aft by the depth charge
station. The primary object of the machine guns was for sinking floating
mines. The crews were kept in practice by firing at driftwood, floating
boxes, fish, etc. The 1-pdr. crews also engaged in this kind of practice.


The range finders were mounted on the forward superstructure just abaft
and above the signal bridge. The large range finder being mounted on a
specially constructed stand amidships between the port and starboard fire
control stations, and at a height of 124 feet above the water-line. Both
control stations were always within easy means of communication with this
range finder by means of voice tubes. The two small range-finders were
mounted on platforms—one on the outside of each fire control station.

It is difficult to use the range finder against a periscope for the
simple reason that the periscope is visible for only a short length of
time, and is hard to get a quick reading on. The range will have been
obtained by spotting the shots before the range finder can be brought
into play. However, the range finder would have been invaluable had we
been attacked by a raider, or a submarine on the surface.


The ammunition allowance for the ship was:

    1,200—6-inch shells, long point.
    1,200—6-inch 50-cal. powder charges.
    80—6-inch flat nose shells. (Non-ricocheting, for
         submarines when submerged.)
    480—1-pdr. cartridges.
    89,000—Cartridges, for .30-cal. rifle.
    10,000—Cartridges, for .45-cal. automatic pistol.

In addition to the above, blank ammunition for rifles was carried for
training with ex-caliber.

Forty shells were carried in shell racks at the guns at all times,
and twenty rounds of powder at each gun while at sea. The rest of the
ammunition was carried in the magazines forward and aft (seven decks
below) and supplied to the guns by means of elevators and ammunition


Gun and fire control drills were held daily to keep all hands in
practice. These drills were discontinued while in the war zone. Actual
conditions were simulated as much as possible at all drills.


When not in the war zone two guns forward (one on each side) and two guns
aft, were manned by a crew of six men at all times, with a man at the
telephones of each of the guns off watch. The men off watch had to remain
in the vicinity of their quarters ready for instant call.

While in the zone all guns were manned by a crew of six men with six men
standing by in reserve. The guns were kept loaded, both in and out of
the zone, with powder and shell—ready for instant firing by inserting a


Good lookouts are absolutely essential to a ship’s safety. They have one
of the most important positions on the ship. On their alertness depends
the discovery of any submarine or suspicious object in his arc of lookout
and the immediate and accurate reporting of it to the fire control
officer, so that the guns may be brought into action in the quickest
possible time against the enemy.

There were twelve lookout stations on this vessel—six on each side—so
arranged that each lookout had an arc of thirty degrees to keep under
close observation. Of course there were additional lookouts on watch
at all times, such as the gun crews, control officers, signalmen and
officers-of-the-deck. Each tried to be the first to spot a hostile


The personnel of the gun crews, lookouts, etc., showed excellent
qualities and sense of duty during the period of the war. In all attacks
by submarines, and false alarms, every man performed his duties as he had
been taught at drill, showing no undue excitement, always on the job and
ready for more.

The letter from 6-inch gun crew No. 2 quoted below is an example that
well shows the spirit of the men.

                                               _U. S. S. Leviathan,_
                                                    April 26, 1918.

    From Number Two Gun Crew
    To Commanding Officer,
    Via Executive Officer.

    Subject: Request to be transferred with 6″ Naval Gun to Western

    1. It is respectfully requested that the Number Two Gun Crew
    be transferred with a 6″ Naval Gun to the Western Front to aid
    American Artillery.

    2. The entire crew of Number Two gun are very desirous of a
    six months’ tryout to prove their ability, and if the service
    rendered is satisfactory, it is recommended that more gun crews
    from U. S. Naval ships be transferred to the Western Front; the
    transfer to be voluntary.

    3. This is being done in the French and British Navies, and is
    proving very successful.

                                            (Signed) P. R. BRADLEY,
                                            _Gun Captain No. 2 Gun._

First Endorsement

                                               _U. S. S. Leviathan,_
                                                    April 29, 1919.

    From Gunnery Officer
    To Commanding Officer,
    Via Executive Officer.

    1. Forwarded. Recommended that if the ship is required to
    furnish a gun crew for the proposed Naval Artillery Brigade,
    this request be favorably considered. The spirit of the gun
    crew is especially to be commended.

                                           (Signed) A. H. BATEMAN,
                                             _Lieutenant, U. S. N._

The American Artillery referred to was the U. S. Naval Brigade. They
served on the Western Front under the command of Admiral Plunkett, United
States Navy, and did great credit to themselves and the naval service.


Our first target practice was held November 27, 1917, while returning
from our trial trip to Guantanamo, Cuba.

During the time the ship was being prepared for sea at Hoboken, little
time was had for drills and preparing the gun crews. However, they were
all drilled in their various duties and every effort was put forth to get
them in shape.

The practice was held in a choppy sea with a stiff wind blowing and an
overcast sky, making it difficult to pick up the targets—two spars, so
weighted as to make them float upright. Despite this handicap and the
newness of the crews, an excellent score was made.


Shots fired, 78; hits made, 63; percentage of hits, 75.42 per cent.

This good shooting called forth the following note of commendation from
the Gunnery Officer to all gun crews.

                                               _U. S. S. Leviathan,_
                                                December 7th, 1917.

    Memo from Gunnery Officer
    To All Gun Crews:

    The Gunnery Officer is highly pleased with the results of the
    late target practice. Such accurate firing in action would
    almost surely put a submarine out of action in short order, and
    if we are ever called upon to fight for our lives, the Gunnery
    Officer is confident that the Gun Crews will bear themselves as
    calmly as they did a few days ago and shoot as accurately.

                                            (Signed) G. H. BOUCHER,
                                              _Lieutenant, U. S. N._

Our second target practice was held June 5, 1918, while on our way from
Brest, France, to New York. Spotters who had had no previous experience
at actual spotting were picked to control the gun fire and made an
excellent showing.


Shots fired, 38; hits made, 28; percentage of hits, 70.62. Gunnery
Officer, Lieut. A. H. Bateman, U. S. N.; Chief Umpire, Lieut. R. H.
Jones, U. S. N.

The third and last practice was held on our way from New York to Brest,
France, on October 4, 1918. We had unfavorable conditions as to weather
and visibility. A high wind and a large swell on the starboard quarter
rendered the ship a most unsuitable gun platform. The speed was twenty
knots. However, it proved valuable because of the difficulties to contend
with. In this practice, as in the second practice, new spotters were put
in control of guns in order to gain experience.


Shots fired, 32; hits made, 18; percentage of hits, 51.66. Gunnery
Officer, Lieut. A. H. Bateman, U. S. N.; Chief Umpire, Lieut. R. H.
Jones, U. S. N.


The submarine attacks and alarms are described in detail in Part II of
this book. See the following dates: May 6, 1918; May 30, 1918; June 1,
1918; June 25, 1918; September 2, 1918; October 31, 1918.

                              F. I. Collup, Chief Gunner’s Mate, U. S. N.

_The Electric Plant_

W. S.

Lieutenant W. H. F. Schluter reported for duty July 29, 1917. The
electrical plant at that date was in charge of Mr. Joe. O’Donnell, head
electrician, Navy Yard, New York. The civilian force were scattered over
the ship, tracing out and locating circuits. This was a most difficult
procedure because there were absolutely no plans of circuits nor any
descriptive matter of electrical apparatus.

On August 13, 1917, the first Navy electrician reported for duty and a
few days later more reported. As soon as enough electricians reported,
the civilian electricians were relieved from dynamo watch. Next the
entire communication, lighting and power details were taken over by the
Navy electricians, both regular and reserve.

When these details were arranged the Navy Yard electricians were relieved
from the maintenance of the plant and attended to new installation and
repair work only. It was at this point where actual headway was made in
preparing the plant for sea, for under the former arrangement the Navy
Yard electricians could not devote their entire time to repair work and
new installation without being called off their job every little while.

The co-operation between the civilian and enlisted electricians was
splendid and too much credit cannot be given to these two classes of men.
It was fine to see the spirit that prevailed, for both were anxious to
get the ship ready for sea. To say that this called for good hard work,
hour after hour and day after day, is putting it mildly.

To describe in detail just how all this was accomplished would fill a
book in itself, but it may be grouped under the following heading and
then each group described in general terms.


The first problem was light. To solve this so as to be able to have
battleship control, it was necessary to locate every light on its proper
circuit. There are about fifteen thousand lights, controlled from
eighty-one lighting or power stations and each station containing from
eighty, the highest, to ten the lowest, local branch circuits, which
in turn are supplied from seventy-six main circuit switches and these
again from eight main switchboard feeder switches. When this lighting is
distributed over fourteen decks, of which the main deck, at sea level,
has an area of seventy-six thousand square feet, one may grasp the
magnitude of the problem attempted by these men. This had to be completed
without any wiring plans and without interfering with the ship’s repair
work of other departments.

To crown it all, along came the wreckers. That is, the construction gang
who stripped four decks of all room paneling. If it had not been for the
alertness and co-operation of the electrical force, both civilian and
enlisted, serious fires would have surely resulted. As it was, not a
fire alarm was turned in during the entire reconstruction period, due to
nothing else except the alertness of these loyal men.


During the day the electricians would search out lighting stations, turn
off lighting switches, test out circuits and do all minor repair work.
At night after the main working force had knocked off, the electricians
would muster in primary station number two, main lighting distribution
station. Then a main distribution switch of either general lighting,
police gangway, or police cabin lighting would be cut off. Emergency
lighting was never cut out. The men would then leave in squads and make
note of what lighting was cut out and what remained in; and in that
manner the lighting control was traced down to such a degree of safety
that at dusk all lights that might be visible to the enemy and at the
same time provide sufficient lighting for reasonable comfort for the crew
and troops could be controlled from one central lighting station and cut
out in less than a minute’s time.

The proof of how successfully this was accomplished, is in the fact that
during the entire period of the war, only one light was reported visible
by the escort and that was due to the carelessness of a young officer who
left a port open against orders.

Emergency lighting circuits were picked up by cutting out all general
lighting circuits and then marking all remaining lights with a blue
stripe. These circuits were then cut down to bring them to a safe
carrying capacity of a 110 volt, 140 ampere storage battery, which
was installed for additional safety in case of accident. These latter
circuits were so arranged that if for any reason the main supply should
fail a solenoid would automatically cut them in on the storage battery.


The next problem was the ventilation of the ship. There are 113
ventilating blowers (51 exhaust and 62 supply) and after all blowers
were located the problem that remained was to locate the compartment
they ventilated. No plans were available. This system was traced out
by starting a blower and then tracing up the ducts and recording the
particular section that it ventilated.


All interior communication was traced out in the same manner, _i. e._,
start from the transmitting apparatus and from there on trace the piping
and wiring until finally we arrived at the receiving end. Then there
were two Anshutz Gyro compasses, which no one knew anything about, but
here, again, through the close co-operation of the Navy Yard force and
the ship’s electrical force, the secret of operating these compasses was
successfully solved.

To sum up the whole, one may say, it was the dogged determination of the
electrical forces, both civilian and enlisted, who never gave in to any
proposition that came before them, that carried everything through to a
successful issue.

_Steering Engine Data_

E. P. H.

The control and manœuvering of a large ship such as the _Leviathan_ is a
responsible job. This vessel’s steering arrangement, or steering gear, is
of steam engine type, connected to a hydraulic telemotor. The gear is so
easily manipulated that a small boy standing on the bridge of this great
ship can control any course or given route that is desired to be taken.

The engines, of which there are two, one port and one starboard, are
connected to the rudder head, which is approximately thirty inches in
diameter, by meshing into a huge quadrant gear twenty-four feet in
diameter. This gear secured to the rudder head or stern is moved right or
left, _i. e._, starboard or port, by a simple turn of a small steering
wheel on the bridge. This wheel is connected to the telemotor, which
is simply a hydraulic ram of two system pipe lines with plungers set
amidships when the rudder, engines, steering wheel and rudder quadrant
are in a neutral or center line position. The telemotor is in the wheel
house on the bridge approximately 800 feet from the steering engine,
which is aft or at the stern of the ship. Two small three-quarter inch
copper pipe lines, one port and one starboard, extend from bridge to
steering engine room and these little pipe lines are filled with a fluid
mixture of fifty per cent glycerine and fifty per cent water. When the
hand wheel on the bridge is moved, this forces the hydraulic ram down
or up, causing the fluid in pipes to open a control valve on the steam
steering engine operating this engine and moving quadrant to right or
left as desired.

This rudder and stem and steering engine quadrant are the largest and
most powerful installed on any vessel afloat.

_The Black Gang_


The fire room boys of the _Leviathan_ came from almost every State in
the Union. They worked hand in hand from about August 1, 1917, until
the end of the war. The success of the big ship is due to their hearty
co-operation. The part taken in the war by the _Leviathan_ is known the
world over, and the spirit of the “black gang” merits commendation and a
chapter in this book.

While in the dreaded war zone, trip after trip, these boys plugged
the fires, day and night, determined to beat Kaiser Bill and fool the
submarines. The submarine scare from time to time aroused the firemen
and the ship made far greater speed than even the original contractors
thought possible. The pressure on the gauges at all times was on the
blood mark.

The pass word throughout the fire rooms was: “Give her hell, boys.”

At no time was there a boy or man who showed signs of fear during any
run, they had no time to think of “subs.” Speed, chow and liberty in
Hoboken was all we thought of. Our work was hard and laborious, but no
one grumbled.

Believe me, we had at first some ash-hopper installation. The Germans who
installed the outfit in these fire rooms should have been made prisoners
before the war started. Water in fire rooms was ankle deep. We were also
obliged to use coal from the barrows in charging the furnaces owing to
the _Leviathan’s_ goat getter “flarebacks.”

“Split Hoof” Barnes, “Handsome” Hook, “Horse” Ross and Gus Rush, the
grouchy old chief water jerkers, made four round trips, before either of
them showed signs of a smile. But they were far better off on this ship,
wading in water up to their knees, than they would be on many German
ships where the crew had to carry the ashes through the main dining
saloon to dump over the side. After a few trips with this installation
the whole system was thrown on to the Gladstone Dock Piers in Liverpool,
and a new style, such as human beings would put in any sea-going ship,
was installed. The Germans sure are a funny people!

The fire rooms were touted later and all that was necessary to make
the fire rooms complete was a little plush furniture. The boilers
shaped up spick and span and the bilges were free from water. With this
accomplished real efficiency began. The team work of firing the furnaces
on bell signal caused many witnesses to wonder in amazement. Boys who
were away from home for the first time stood manfully before the raging
fires and defied the intense heat in performance of their duty.

The average weight of these boys when reporting for duty averaged about
130 pounds. Being bright and young, with lots of pep, they grew strong
and became efficient firemen. The work seemed to agree with them, even
if it was particularly strenuous. In conclusion let us tell about “Wop”

Cariddo was passing coal for seven and ten boilers in number four fire
room, as the ship was speeding through the war zone on the 4 to 8 watch,
when resting just inside the bunker, one of the destroyers in our convoy,
dropped a depth charge just off our port beam. The report and jar of the
explosion caused the coal in this bunker to shift. “Wop” was somewhat
upset and surprised, but not frightened. He came dashing out of the
bunker. Old “Biff,” the “War Horse,” who chanced to be passing through
this fire room at the time grabbed him.

“What do you mean by jumping around in this way? Don’t you know that is a
water-tight door on G-deck?

“It’s water-tight hell,” shouted the “Wop.” “I think that’s what they
call a ‘can,’ but I ain’t bluffed, I’m game. I just want to stay with the
boys a minute. Just give me a sandwich and I will heave more coal out of
that bunker than any five boilers on this ship can burn”—and he did.

_Radio Data_

G. A.

No original records or blueprints were found on the ship for the radio
equipment when she was taken over by the Navy. This necessitated tracing
out each and every individual circuit and making blueprints of the same
for future use. All apparatus installed was of German make—Telefunken
Wireless Telegraph Company of Berlin. There were three complete telegraph
transmitters on board and three receivers. The large transmitter
was rated at ten kilowatts and was what is known as an “undamped
transmitter.” Under favorable atmospheric conditions it was capable of
working across the Atlantic and has been known to do so.

During the three-year period of internment it had been allowed to
deteriorate to such an extent that it would have been necessary to
practically rebuild it in order to use it again. The main trouble
was caused by the salt water cooling system eating its way through a
galvanized iron case and getting into the frequency transformer coils
making them unfit for use. It has not been used since. The second
transmitter, known as a five kilowatt quench gap set, did excellent work
ever since the ship was taken over. It is good for 1,200 miles under
fair conditions and has worked 2,200 miles. The third transmitter is a
one-half kilowatt spark coil set and can be used from the ship’s power
mains for short distances, or in case of emergency (if the dynamos were
not working for any reason), it can be used from power supplied by
storage batteries. Its radius is about two hundred miles.

Two of the original German receivers were kept, but one was replaced by
a later type U. S. Navy receiver. The ship was never out of transmitting
communication as the European coast is picked up before the American
coast is lost and vice versa. The large transmitting stations of the
United States and Europe are copied from any part of the ocean. Honolulu,
a high powered station, has been copied while the ship lay in Liverpool,
England, a distance of approximately 8,000 miles.

When at sea we had special stations to copy on specified schedules, so
that messages to the ship from the United States are copied when the
ship is only a few hours from the European ports. These messages are
acknowledged after transmitting communication has been established with
the United States.

There are three antennæ, or aerials, two used for telegraphic
transmission and one for telephonic transmission. All three are used for
receiving. The radio telephone set has been installed since the ship
was taken over and is an American invention. It is very effective up to
twenty miles and has been used to transmit a distance of thirty-six miles
from this vessel. It was used during the war for inter-communication
among the ships of a convoy or to and from the convoy and their escort,
and after the war was used for inter-communication between ships lying in
a harbor and the harbor station itself. This eliminates interference with
the main harbor station working ships at sea. At the same time it allows
the ships in the harbor to work among themselves or communicate with the
shore. Prior to the telephone invention this work was done by visual
signal when the ships were within visual signal distance with each other
or the shore. When not so situated it had to be done by boat, as so many
ships using their telegraph would have made it practically impossible for
the shore station to work ships at sea on account of the interference.
The voice over a radio phone has been proven to be clearer and more
distinct than over land line telephones.

On the _Leviathan_ there are three operators and a messenger on duty
at all hours of the day and night when at sea. One operator supervises
the watch, two are constantly “listening in” with telephones, and
one man does the messenger work. Both “listening in” operators copy
signals practically all the time when on watch. Each has an antenna and
a receiving set of his own and listens on different wave lengths. Two
messages may be sent simultaneously, or two received simultaneously,
but it is not possible to send and receive at the same time. The two
receiving operators sit within a foot of each other, yet it has happened
more than once, that while one operator was copying a message from
Rome, Italy, at the same instant the other man was copying a message
from Balboa, Canal Zone. It is a common occurrence for one operator to
be copying a European station while the other copies a United States
station. The radio force at present consists of one radio gunner, one
radio officer, one chief radio electrician and nine operators.

[Illustration: _Upper Row_, Left to Right—


_Bottom Row_, Left to Right—


_The Engineering Department_


On July 26, 1917, the Commandant ordered me to report to the _Vaterland_
for duty, which I did, and on the above date the vessel was commissioned.
When I arrived on board, the engineering department was in charge of the
Shipping Board Engineers and personnel. There had also recently arrived
about 200 Navy firemen and a few petty officers; this was the total of
Navy engineering personnel on board. In company with one of the junior
engineers I went below for an inspection of the department. During the
next three days all my time was taken up getting my bearings below and
the layout fixed in my mind in order to make out a station bill so that I
could determine as quickly as possible the personnel required.




At the end of the third day I conveyed this information to the Captain
with the request that he bring pressure to bear on the Bureau of
Navigation to send our personnel, both officers and enlisted men, as
quickly as possible. The men and officers began to arrive and by August
15th the last officer of the complement had arrived. As each arrived he
was put in charge of a station and told to trace out his station, make
a thorough examination of the interior of all piping and machinery and
submit a report on repairs necessary and estimated time. Most of my time
during the day was spent below and the nights were occupied drawing up
station bills and handling the office paper work, my only assistant being
a reserve yeoman in the service of the Shipping Board. I realized that,
even at the expense of time that should be spent inspecting repair work,
I must get my organization planned and laid out as quickly as possible,
and in operation. By August 5th all station bills and organization had
been completed and blueprinted and all officers on board instructed. At
this time, on account of report of damage to machinery under repair on
German ships by aliens, I organized a secret service force below in an
effort to detect any attempts made to inflict damage. I purposely let the
report spread around among the civilian workmen that there was a large
force of government agents employed among them and also in the crew.
This seemed to have the desired moral effect, because during the entire
period there was but one case of attempted malicious damage, which was
discovered immediately. An attempt had been made to thrust welding wire
into both of the L. P. astern turbines through the gauge line holes in
the flanges and thus damage the blading.

I will not go into details as to the condition of the machinery, but
will indicate some of the work done and the changes made in order to get
her ready for sea in the quickest possible time. Most of the changes in
design and arrangement were made before her dock trial.

Each piece of machinery and boiler was opened up in all its parts and
thoroughly examined for foreign material or damage. While open necessary
repairs were made.

The joint on every auxiliary steam and exhaust line at the piece of
machinery was broken and steam blown through before attempting to operate
the machine: this to free the line of foreign material.

All main, spring and thrust bearings were opened up, examined, cleaned
and realigned.

The float of the main thrusts were changed from .006 to .015 inches to
conform to U. S. Naval practice.

The rotors and casings of the four astern turbines were all partially
rebladed in place in the ship.

The dummy ring and piston were found broken in the port H. P. astern; but
these were renewed and machined in place, the jacking engine turning the
rotor while a cutting tool was attached to the flange of the casting,
thus making a lathe out of the turbine and solving the practically
impossible problem of removing the rotor from the ship to be placed in a
lathe ashore.

It was found that the impulse stages in this turbine had been the cause
of the damage to this dummy, so it was decided to remove the impulse
stages entirely, which was done. This decreases the economy of the
turbine, but the safety guarantee to the successful operation of this
unit so far overbalanced this factor that economy was sacrificed.

The starboard H. P. astern casing had several bad cracks in both top and
bottom, and from records on board had not been in use on the last voyage
of the vessel. This was in process of being electrically welded when I
reported on board. The method in use, however, proved later on test, to
give a faulty weld, so that it was decided to cut a deep “V” groove in
the cracks and lace with steel studs, the lacing being filled in with
the weld, thus giving the weld holding power due to the welding material
fusing with the studs. This machine operated successfully during the
entire commission of the vessel with no signs of ruptures or faulty welds.

On examination of the main throttles the starboard H. P. astern throttle
spool was found to be broken and off the stem. This throttle was renewed
and operated satisfactorily.

The system of automatic control of feed pumps in the engine room by float
and pressure control was decided on as being highly dangerous, this
system was at once removed and hand control of pumps substituted.

After operating for some time it was found impossible to obtain a
vacuum that would afford economical operation for a turbine plant. The
capacities of the pumps and condensers were computed and checked up
and found adequate for the horsepower to be handled. The low pressure
system was then tested out by water pressure and every noticeable leak
stopped. This however gave us no better results, the best vacuum we could
obtain averaging around 27 inches under normal operating conditions. The
question of the wet and dry suctions of the pumps was next taken into
consideration and it was decided to blank the dry suction off from the
condenser and lead it into the wet suction of its own pump. This was
done and with the results desired. The vacuum desired can be obtained at
all times. With circulating water at forty degrees a vacuum of as high
as twenty-nine inches has been obtained. The average vacuum under all
conditions obtained since this change is about twenty-eight inches.


In order to further increase economy a radical change was made in the
method of supplying the turbines with gland steam. As installed, all
turbine glands required the use of live steam, which with turbines of
such large dimensions, was quite an item. By a simple change in pipe
leads and valves, the leak off from the H. P. ahead glands, which
formerly led to the condenser, was piped to supply the glands of all
astern turbines and the I. P. and L. P. ahead turbines, thus utilizing
a three-inch line of steam which was formerly wasted in the condenser.
It is believed that this vessel is the only vessel afloat that uses this
system of gland steam.

The above concludes briefly a history of the major items of alterations
and repairs in the engine rooms.

In the fire rooms, all boilers were opened up and thoroughly cleaned
and all zincs removed. My attention was first attracted by several
burned boilers and next by the elaborate system of automatic feeding of
each individual boiler by means of floats, levers, valves, etc. This
system was at once dismantled, removed from all boilers and scrapped. I
then heard reports that the Germans had experienced great trouble with
leaky tubes at the back ends of the boilers. Trams were at once made
and accurate measurements taken on the expansion of the boiler between
upper and lower drums on raising steam. This was found to be quite
excessive and greatest between the back ends of the drums. After several
experiments and deductions from results obtained, it was decided to
remove the short circular internal feed in the front end of the steam
drum and fit a standard Navy internal feed pipe running the entire length
of the drum. This was done in all boilers and the expansion was reduced
about eighty per cent. Since her commission we have never had to reroll
a leaky boiler tube. From commissioning to Nov. 11, 1918, there has been
a total of 7,198 boiler steaming days, or an average per boiler of 156.5
days of 3,756 hours. Great care was exercised in the cleanliness of the
boilers and boiler water. No pits or corrosion have been found in any
part of the boilers.

On the first trip overseas great difficulty was experienced in steaming,
all boilers were in use and 144 revolutions per minute was about the
maximum speed we could maintain for any length of time. There was an
excessive amount of clinker formation covering the grate bars. On
diagnosing this trouble and consulting standard works on combustion, air
required per pound of fuel, etc., it was decided that the grate bars did
not have sufficient air space. From computations made, a new grate bar
was designed with an increase in air space over the old of thirty-five
per cent. Our troubles in this line at once ceased, and our trip home was
made at 151 revolutions per minute with forty-six boilers in use. Later
we used thirty-eight to forty boilers for as high as 154 revolutions per

We experienced a great deal of trouble with the side brick walls of the
furnaces the first two trips, which required the renewal of about 4,000
bricks each voyage. On being notified that we would be required to start
making quick turn-arounds on the next voyage, I realized that this could
not be done with such an amount of brick work to be repaired. After many
conferences while at sea, we finally decided to tear all the brick work
out of one boiler and substitute cast iron liners, shaped to fit the
drums and punched with holes for ventilation. This idea proved highly
successful. All boilers were immediately fitted likewise and all operated
successfully. Besides the elimination of the expense for the purchase of
bricks and cement, the labor and time of cleaning furnaces was reduced
ninety per cent. All that is necessary for cleaning and repairing furnace
walls at the present time is one man and a corn broom.

The steaming efficiency has been greatly hampered at all times by the
flow of water over the fire room floor plates, due to the faulty design
of the German ash ejector. After many attempts to remedy this by altering
the design, we were finally compelled to replace the hoppers with new
hoppers of the See type.

There was at all times a great deal of trouble experienced in carrying
over water from the boilers to the turbines. The water in the boilers
was carried at the lowest level consistent with safety, but in spite of
this the trouble still continued. On inspection of the main steam lines
and boiler steam drums it was found that they were practically bare of
lagging. All these lines and drums were immediately covered with two-inch
of magnesia eighty-five per cent pure, and all water trouble was then
eliminated. The water level in the boilers was also raised from two to
four inches, thus giving a greater factor of safety here.

After several trips we noticed that the uptakes were excessively hot and
also that at times torching occurred at the stack tops. This being a
menace to the safety of the ship in the war zone, it had to be remedied.
After examining the uptake, furnaces and path of gases we decided to
alter the baffling. This was done by installing flame baffles at the base
of the uptake in each boiler. It not only eliminated the torching, but
also decreased the amount of soot formation about fifty per cent.

This includes all the major items of the fire rooms. A few general items

An interesting phase of our overhaul was the method of conducting our
dock trial, after all repairs and tests to individual main and auxiliary
machinery had been completed. It was realized that it was out of the
question to attempt to turn the engines over at a speed which could
be called a fair trial, for the reason that there was no mooring that
could possibly hold the ship at the dock. After lengthy conference with
officers, it was decided to break the tail shaft couplings and jack
the tail shaft aft about two inches to clear the line shafting. This
was done on each shaft and we ran each engine individually for 4 hours
up its designed speed 180 revolutions per minute, then in manœuvering
combination to full speed, 119 revolutions per minute, then all four
shafts in cruising combination up to 180 revolutions per minute. The dock
trial proved a success from start to finish, no casualty of any kind
occurring. In this connection, in order to get a test on the boilers,
No. 1 fire room was used the first day of the trial, No. 2 the second
day, No. 3 the third day, and No. 4 the fourth day.

During the period between August 15th and October 16th, I can safely say
that the officers and men of the department averaged every day, Saturdays
and Sundays, included, eighteen working hours below without complaint
or murmur. It seemed to be a matter of great pride and determination
with them. We had heard many reports that the _Vaterland_ would never
leave the dock, and many letters came threatening some officer or man in
the department. Of the men and petty officers we were compelled to work
with, I should say that twenty per cent of them had never been on board
a ship previous to their reporting here. They were all recruits direct
from recruiting rendezvous, with the exception of a few C. P. O.’s who
came from the fleet. During all our overhaul and repair we had no plans
to guide us, all lines and arrangements had to be traced out by the
officer concerned, who submitted sketches to me. These sketches have been
forwarded to the Bureau of Steam Engineering.

We found three logs made by the Germans on the _Vaterland._ These logs,
I believe were forwarded to Washington, but to the best of my memory the
speeds on these three trips averaged for the entire voyage 22.4, 21 and
something over 20 knots, with an average coal consumption per day of
about 1,100 tons, running up to about 1,157 for one voyage. The present
consumption of this vessel at 20 knots is 816 tons per day east bound,
and 720 west bound. West bound we use Welsh coal. We have never steamed
at 22 knots for any period long enough to obtain a point.

Going to Liverpool on a trip during an emergency she maintained a speed
of 181 revolutions per minute for a short period of time until a slow
bell was received.

Since the war service of the vessel started until November 11, 1918, the
_Leviathan_ has never had an engineering casualty of any description, nor
has the ship been delayed due to any cause in the engineering department.

The Medical Department


The Medical Department is represented by the Senior Medical Officer,
Commander F. A. Asserson, M. C. U. S. N., four Junior Medical Officers
with the rank of Lieutenant each, one Chief Pharmacist, one Pharmacist,
two Chief Pharmacist’s Mates, and about one hundred and thirty Hospital
Corpsmen. There are also eight nurses, in charge of Miss Mary M.
Robinson, Chief Nurse, U. S. N. The units composing the Department are
as follows: Office of the Senior Medical Officer; office of the Medical
Officer of the Day; Major and Minor Operating Rooms; Laboratory; Sick
Officers’ Quarters of ten beds; Medical and Surgical Wards with one
hundred and thirty-two beds; Isolation Ward with forty beds; total,
one hundred and eighty-two beds; Diet Kitchen; two Sick Call Stations;
Dispensary; Mental Ward; Guinea pig houses.

The history of this department dates from July, 1917, when the first
medical officers, Drs. F. J. Carroll, and E. M. Hudson came aboard. These
officers, both Lieutenants in the U. S. Naval Medical Corps, were on
duty at the U. S. Naval Hospital in Brooklyn when our government assumed
control of the _Leviathan_, and they were ordered to report aboard for
duty. The vessel at that time being just as the Germans had left her.
Drs. Carroll and Hudson at once began tentative plans for a medical
department capable of handling the sick among the thousands of troops
the _Leviathan_ was being rapidly fitted to carry. Plans were drawn by
them converting the social hall on A-deck into wards and operating rooms.
The orchestra stage at the forward end of the hall was to be cut away,
lowered to the level of the deck and that space utilized as two operating
rooms with a sterilizing room. Wash rooms, toilets, linen lockers, and an
Isolation Ward were also provided for. Places fore and aft were chosen as
sick call stations and Dispensary.





On August 9, 1917, Commander John J. Snyder, M. C. U. S. N., reported
aboard as the first Senior Medical Officer. The plans for the medical
department were submitted to Dr. Snyder and to the Naval Constructor,
and were later adopted by the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. Before the
first trip three more medical officers reported, viz: Lieut. Commander
G. T. Vaughan, U. S. N. R. F., Lieut. Max M. Braff, M. C. U. S. N., and
Lieut. S. Strauss, M. C. N. N. V., so that on the first trip there were
five medical officers, besides the Senior Medical Officer. After the
trial trip to Cuba the _Leviathan_ went to Liverpool. The amount of work
was found to be too much for the number of doctors, and upon returning to
the States another Medical Officer was requested. Lieut. A. K. Dunlap,
M. C. U. S. N., was sent aboard in February, 1918, so that on the second
trip seven doctors were aboard. On subsequent trips into New York,
Lieut. Robt. Lorentz, M. C. U. S. N., Chief Pharmacist C. I. Campbell, U.
S. N. R. F., and Lieut. Edward Crofutt, M. C. U. S. N., were sent aboard
for duty. During the month of May, 1918, Commander Snyder left to assume
his new duties as Fleet Surgeon, and his position on board as Senior
Medical Officer was assumed by Commander H. A. May, M. C. U. S. N. Lieut.
Harold Hulbert, M. C. U. S. N., and Pharmacist F. B. Redman also joined
the ship about the same time. Later in the summer the medical corps was
further strengthened by the addition of Lieuts. Harry L. Howell and John
E. Porter, U. S. Navy Medical Corps. In December, 1918, Dr. May was
detailed to duty ashore and the duties of Senior Medical Officer assigned
to Commander F. A. Asserson, M. C. U. S. N. Lieuts. Walter L. Rathbun,
Thos. Sheppard, and A. T. Weston, M. C. U. S. R. F., reported at the
same time. As new officers reported on board from time to time, others
were relieved and detailed elsewhere. For the greater part of the time
since the ship has been in commission the medical department has had nine
doctors on board.

As the _Leviathan_ transported nearly one hundred and twenty thousand
men to Europe during the war, and has brought back nearly as many
since, it requires no active imagination to realize that the medical
department has had its hands full. The percentage of sickness bound
to occur among thirteen thousand men was enough to keep nine doctors
busy, and this was only a small part of their work. Sanitation on such
a huge ship was in itself a problem. Samples of food and water had to
be examined and accepted or rejected; troop compartments and every
nook and corner of the ship were inspected daily and a high sanitary
standard maintained; quotative examinations of the air in the troop
spaces were made at different hours both day and night to determine the
temperature, humidity, and amount of carbon dioxide in these places;
these observations were made the subjects of various reports and resulted
in the installation of new ventilating systems and correction of those
already in operation; during threatened epidemics of infectious diseases
it was often necessary to take cultures and do other laboratory work
among hundreds of men. In July, 1918, the _Leviathan_ began transporting
wounded men and has carried a large number of them to date. The wounded
required much attention and the manner in which they have been cared for
on board this vessel reflects great credit upon the medical department.

A new departure for ships of war was the Nurse Corps. The corps
consists of Mary M. Robinson, Head Nurse, U. S. N., Irene Reed, U. S.
N., Charlotte F. Hyde, U. S. N., Ruby F. Nutling, U. S. N. R. F., Ruby
Russell, U. S. N. R. F., Madelon Stowell, U. S. N. R. F., Alice B.
Newcomb, U. S. N. R. F., Vera O. Harmon, U. S. N., Mary A. O’Neill, U. S.
N. R. F. These were the first nurses who ever had duty on a man-o’-war.
Their duties have been supervisory over the hospital corps, and their
training and experience as nurses have made them of invaluable assistance.


The following are extracts from reports of the influenza epidemic
submitted to commanding officer by Lieut. Com. H. A. May, M. C., October
11th, 1918:

There were 260 officers and 8,873 enlisted men of all grades reported
as present when the ship left the dock in Hoboken. These made up the
personnel of several organizations—the 323d Field Signal Corps, the
401st, 467th and 468th Engineers, the 302d Water Tank Train, a September
Automatic Replacement Draft, the 57th Pioneer Infantry, and the 73d
Medical Replacement Section. In addition, there were 191 members of the
60th and 62d units, Army Nurse Corps.

The ship sailed on September 29th. Because troop space H-8 was deemed
unfit for occupancy by reason of inadequate ventilation, troops quartered
there were moved on the 30th to other compartments, causing congestion
in many spaces. All available bunks in the sick bay were filled by army
sick before the morning of September 30th. Arrangements were then made to
empty F room section 3, port side, containing 200 standees. These bunks
were filled within a few minutes with sick men picked up from the decks.
When this space was found to be insufficient E room section 2, starboard
side, 415 bunks, was vacated (October 1st), and the occupants sent down
to H-8 regardless of improper ventilation. On October 3d, the port side
of E room section 2, 463 bunks, was vacated by the Army guard, those sick
in F. H. S. 3 were moved up to E. R. S. 2, and the guard sent below to be
scattered wherever they could find space. Thus, on the night of October
3d, there was, beside the sick bay, a ward on E-deck capable of bunking
878 men. As the bunks are arranged four in a tier, one above the other,
the top bunk could not be used for the sick, except in emergencies,
because nurses could not climb up to them nor could sick men climb down
to go to toilets.

The Navy medical officers confined their efforts mostly to those in the
sick bay spaces, while all the sick quarters below were turned over to
the army medical officers. The army chief surgeon, Colonel Decker, and
two of his juniors became ill on October 1st, leaving but eleven army
doctors to hold sick call, treat patients below, and care for about
thirty nurses and twenty officers who were ill in rooms. The navy medical
officers stood watches in E. R. S. 3 at such times as they could be
spared from the sick bay work, and relays of army nurses were assigned
to duty below, with the pneumonia cases in the isolation ward, with sick
officers in the officer’s ward, and with sick nurses and officers in
staterooms. In fact every available medical officer, nurse and hospital
corpsman was utilized to the extreme of endurance. Below, in the E-deck
ward, every possible appliance for the care of the sick was furnished to
the army surgeons on duty. The commissary officer placed at our disposal
stewards, cooks and mess men, and furnished just the kind of food
required, in the best possible fashion. The Medical Department of the
ship owes, and I wish here to acknowledge, a great debt of gratitude to
the Commissary Department, and to Paymaster Farwell and Chief Commissary
Steward Flowers, especially, for their co-operation in this matter, the
success with which they gave comfort and aid to the sick, and removed
from our shoulders the always worrisome burden of feeding men unable to
eat regular diet.


This was influenced materially by these main factors:

First, the widespread infection of several organizations before they
embarked, and their assignment to many different parts of the ship.

Second, the type of men comprising the most heavily infected group. These
men were particularly liable to infection.

Third, the absolute lassitude of those becoming ill caused them to
lie in their bunks without complaint until their infection had become
profound and pneumonia had begun. The severe epistaxis which ushered in
the disease in a very large proportion of the cases, caused a lowering
of resisting powers which was added to by fright, by the confined space,
and the motion of the ship. Where pneumonia set in, not one man was in
condition to make a fight for life.

As noted above, the sick bay was filled a few hours after leaving
Hoboken. All pneumonia cases were placed in one isolation ward at the
beginning, and another isolation unit was set aside for measles and
mumps, both of which diseases were present among the troops. The other
isolation units were first filled with influenza cases and later with
pneumonias. Until the fifth day of the voyage, few patients could be sent
to duty because of great weakness following the drop in temperature as
they grew better. Only the worst cases in E-deck ward were sent to sick
bay at any time, and all were potentially pneumonias. The E-deck ward was
more than full all the time and there were many ill men in various troop
spaces in other parts of the ship.

There are no means of knowing the actual number of sick at any one time,
but it is estimated that fully 700 cases had developed by the night of
September 30th. They were brought to the sick bay from all parts of the
ship, in a continuous stream, only to be turned away because all beds
were occupied. Most of them then lay down on the decks, inside and out,
and made no effort to reach the compartment where they belonged. In fact
practically no one had the slightest idea where he did belong, and he
left his blankets, clothing, kit, and all his possessions to be salvaged
at the end of the voyage.

During October 1st, every effort was made to increase hospital space
below, as noted above. The heretofore satisfactory arrangements for army
sick call were not adhered to by the army medical officers, and hundreds
of men applied for treatment at the E-deck ward instead of going to the
twelve outlying sick call stations. On this day, Colonel Decker, the
Chief Army Surgeon, became ill. As he was the only army medical officer
who had had army experience in administrative matters there was now no
competent head to the army organization. Two other medical officers also
became ill and remained in their rooms to the end of the voyage.

Late in the evening of this day the E-deck ward was opened on the
starboard side and was filled before morning. Twenty army nurses were
detailed for duty during the night. When patients were brought up, their
mates carefully left their blankets and clothing below and scouting
parties had to be sent through the compartments to gather up all loose
blankets for use of the sick. Fortunately we had about 100 army blankets
in the medical storeroom which had been salvaged on other voyages. These
were used while they lasted.


The conditions during this night cannot be visualized by any one who has
not actually seen them.

The morning of October 2nd brought no relief. Things seemed to grow worse
instead of better. Cleaning details were demanded of the army, but few
men responded. Those who came would stay awhile and wander away, never
to be seen again. No N. C. O.’s were sent, and there was no organization
for control. The nurses made a valiant effort to clean up and the navy
hospital corpsmen did marvels of work, but always against tremendous
odds. Only by constant patrolling between the bunks could any impression
be made upon the litter and finally our own sailors were put on the job.
They took hold like veterans and the place was kept respectably clean

The first death from pneumonia occurred on this day, and the body was
promptly embalmed and encased in a navy standard casket.

When evening came no impression had been made upon the great number of
sick men about the decks and in their own bunks. So arrangements were
made to enlarge the hospital space by including the port side of E. R. S.
2. On October 3rd this was accomplished and from that time to the end of
the voyage we had enough bunks to accommodate practically all the worst
cases. Three deaths occurred this day and all were embalmed and encased.
After going through the hospital and troop spaces that night it was
estimated that there were about 900 cases of influenza in the ship. In
the wards we sent back to bunks below all men whose temperature reached
99 and kept all bunks filled with cases of higher fever.

October 4th, seven deaths during the day. The sea was rough and the
ship rolled heavily. Hundreds of men were thoroughly miserable from
seasickness and other hundreds who had been off the farm but a few weeks,
were miserable from terror of the strange surroundings and the ravages of
the epidemic. Dozens of these men applied at the wards for treatment and
the inexperience of army doctors in the recognition of seasickness caused
a great many needless admissions to the hospital.

Many officers and nurses were ill in their rooms, and required the
constant attention of a corps of well nurses, and an army medical officer
to attend them.

Each succeeding day of the voyage was like those preceding, a nightmare
of weariness and anxiety on the part of nurses, doctors, and hospital
corpsmen. No one thought of bed for himself and all hands worked day and
night. On the 5th there were 10 deaths, on the 6th there were 24, and on
the 7th, the day of arrival at our destination, the toll was 31. The army
ambulance boat was promptly alongside, and debarkation of the sick began
about noon. The sick bay was cleared first and we at once began to clean
up in preparation for the wounded to be carried westbound. E-deck was
then evacuated, but all the sick could not be handled before night, about
200 remaining on board.

On the 8th these were taken off by the army, but not before fourteen more
deaths had occurred. Although on this day almost the entire personnel
(army) had gone, the nurses remained until the last sick man was taken


It is the opinion of myself and the other medical officers attached to
the ship that there were fully 2,000 cases of influenza on board. How
many developed pneumonia there are no means of knowing. Over 75 cases of
the latter disease were admitted to the sick bay, most of them moribund.
Of these, 3 improved so much that they went back to their compartments,
29 were transferred to hospital ashore, and about 40 died. As the records
required to transfer patients from the army to the navy medical officers
were furnished in but few cases, and as my records embrace all the dead,
I had no means of knowing how many died in the sick bay and how many in
the E-deck ward. Cases of pneumonia were found dying in various parts of
the ship and many died in the E-deck ward a few minutes after admission.
Owing to the public character of that ward, men passing would see a
vacant bunk and lie down in it without applying to a medical officer at
all. Records were impossible, and even identification of patients was
extremely difficult because hundreds of men had blank tags tied about
their necks. Many were either delirious or too ill to know their own
names. Nine hundred and sixty-six patients were removed by the army
hospital authorities in France.


Ninety-one deaths occurred among the army personnel, of whom one was an
officer, as follows:

    October  2     1 death
      ”      3     3 deaths
      ”      4     7 deaths
      ”      5    10 deaths
      ”      6    24 deaths
      ”      7    31 deaths
      ”      8    14 deaths
      ”     10     1 death

The sick officer was treated in the open air on B deck, had a special
army nurse during the day, and a navy hospital corpsman at night.


I cannot speak in terms of sufficient commendation of the work of
the hospital corps of this ship. Every man was called upon to exert
himself to the limit of endurance during the entire round trip. No one
complained, every man was on the job. Many of them worked twenty-four
hours at a stretch amid conditions that can never be understood by one
ashore or on a man-of-war. Some of the embalming detail, worked at their
gruesome task forty-eight hours at a stretch without complaint, and at
the end I had to drive them away to a bath and bed.

I have learned that the following named men of the Commissary Department
voluntarily remained on duty with the sick on E-deck during the entire

    George Willis   CCS
    H. L. Ringrose  SC-2
    A. Barbel       SC-4
    R. Steinman     SC-4

Had we been in the midst of smallpox or plague they would doubtless have
done the same. The actual danger to all hands was extremely great and all
these men deserve the highest commendation for their actions.

Commissary Department


F. L. F.

As soon as the decision was made that the Navy would have charge of
the commissary departments on the transports, plans were promptly made
to effect the most complete and satisfactory arrangements for the
subsistence of the troops en route. A board of three expert commissary
officers was appointed with instructions to prepare a well-balanced
standard bill-of-fare for use on board all of the transports. The
bill-of-fare for a fourteen-day period submitted by the board, was
approved and copies forwarded to the commanding officers of all
transports for their guidance with the request that it be followed
as nearly as possible. Experienced officers of the Supply Corps were
then recommended for assignment to the transports and nothing was left
undone which would contribute in any way to perfect arrangements for the
satisfactory feeding of the troops. This work was new to the navy, as
transports were heretofore operated exclusively by the army.

On this account and because, as stated by the Secretary of the Navy, “The
success of the transfer of the army troops will depend to a large extent
on the conduct of the commissary service on each vessel.

“It is especially gratifying to be able to report that the subsistence of
the troops en route overseas has been satisfactory in every respect. This
fact is confirmed by reports received from time to time.”

This extract from the Paymaster General’s report marks the success of the
enormous task given the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts of feeding the A.
E. F. while being carried overseas on American transports.

The menus mentioned in the report actually originated from the
_Leviathan_, and the general instructions at that time were to “live
up to the standard required by the sample menu, and to do better, if
possible.” This was the slogan of all the general messes in the transport
service, and it is a well-known fact that the army as a whole has had
nothing but praise for the Navy Commissariat.

The _Leviathan_, being the largest carrier of all the transport fleet,
naturally placed the supply officer, Paymaster Geo. C. Schafer and his
assistants, headed by H. B. Judkins, Ensign, U. S. N. R. F., Pay Corps,
on their mettle to make a success of this enormous undertaking, although
at that time and even up to the time the first meal was served to the
troops, the huge task was hardly realized.

During the period of fitting out and on the first trip, there were only
five men in the Commissary Department who were known to be familiar with
the navy general mess requirements and navy discipline, the rest of
the Commissary Department was made up from men taken from all walks of
life—lawyers, college men, horseshoers, business men, actors, etc.; only
about thirty men having any experience as cooks and bakers, and among
these only a comparative few who had any seagoing experience. Even these
men were of an unknown quantity until tried out, in the actual experience
of cooking and serving food to 10,000 troops and crew, the proportionate
number carried the first trip through the war-zone. This was the biggest
feeding task ever undertaken in the history of the maritime world.

These men came from various sources of recruiting, mostly from the
headquarters and commissary schools connected with the Third Naval
District, arriving in batches of one to ten almost every day until ready
to sail. None of them came fully equipped or uniformed and the first
real muster of the Commissary Department was unique in the history of
the ship, about three hundred men falling in on B-deck. An attempt was
made to drill them into something near the navy standard. At that time
it seemed a hopeless task—none seemed to know what was required of
them, even to the simple movement of opening ranks for inspection. The
inspection was a joke, no one in uniform, and the expression “Coxey’s
Army” would describe the general appearance of the men.

However, the spirit was there, and in an incredibly short time the men
were properly uniformed and at the first crew inspection made a very
creditable showing, even in the opinion of the old-timers.

Most of these men had the American knack of adaptiveness and soon fitted
into the duties required of them; showed such a splendid desire to make
good that after the first trip we were able to compare the Commissary
Department, and by no means discreditably, with that on the huge British
transports, _Olympic_ and _Mauretania_.

The system steadily improved, and it is safe to assume that we are
unexcelled by any other similar sea-going organization.

Because of the “training afloat” system laid out by the Navy Department
it is estimated that about 100 trained men have left the _Leviathan_,
trained by actual experience in cooking and baking, thus giving the
growing navy a trained personnel, not only cooks and bakers, but American
man-o’-war’s men, developed as such by the stern requirements of war


Each man reporting aboard was required to fill out a questionaire blank
stating experience, etc. This was done so that men could be placed to
the best advantage in the galley, bakery, storerooms and offices. Some
of the answers were laughable. For instance, one stated that his sole
experience was cooking for his sisters when mother was obliged to go out.
Another had been a horseshoer for about eighteen years, another had no
experience, but he knew that cooking was very easy to learn and that he
was there for that purpose. One man made a strong bid for the billet of
head waiter and informed the Commissary Steward that if he gave him the
job he would send at once to Chicago for his Tuxedo.


During this time it was well known that the German Secret Service was
much interested in the _Leviathan_ and for that reason all new arrivals
were carefully watched. One suspicious commissary recruit was picked out
and turned over to the authorities. He was so clearly German, both in
speech and appearance, that it would have been impossible for him to get
by, and although nothing was heard of his fate, it is safe to assume that
he was interned in a safe place until the end of the war.

The actual fitting out was a tremendous problem, most of the German
kitchen machinery and utensils were found either in bad condition or
useless for the coming needs and almost a new installation was built,
using, however, the German kettles and ranges when possible, discarding
anything not absolutely essential. It was often a matter of considerable
thought and discussion to decide what should be kept and what discarded.

There were found on the ship seven complete kitchens, counting the two
Jewish kitchens which were designed for Kosher cooking. These were
intended to provide for the large number of Jewish immigrants carried
over in the third class or steerage compartments and all these galleys
had been splendidly fitted out to care for about 5,000 passengers and
1,000 crew. As the problem was to prepare for about 15,000 it can be
readily seen that some drastic changes were required.

In connection with this it might be well to state that the first letter
written about commissary affairs asked that 27 steam kettles of 100
gallons capacity, 3 dough mixers of two barrel capacity, and 7 navy
standard bake ovens be obtained. These were installed in addition to the
German equipment left, after the rip-out period was finished.

All except the first and second class galley were dismantled. All the
kettles and one large electric bake oven were installed in the first
class galley compartment, thus consolidating the cooking machinery in the
present spaces which were renamed the Troop Galley.

On E-deck aft, the third class galley was ripped out and a blacksmith
and coppersmith shop installed. The third class dining room, later the
engineer’s force mess room, became temporarily the crew mess room until
the number became too large and the first class saloon was used until
the deck force quarters were fitted up. It was during this time that
a large number of the crew were ptomaine poisoned by eating hash that
was prepared from infected corned beef, probably made so by defective
tinning. The entire Medical Department was busy all that day, but luckily
no lives were lost. The rumor leaked out that in some way “Fritz” had got
in some fine work, but this was denied upon investigation.


Another phase of the preparation presented itself, the storage of
provisions. The combined experience of the leading men in the department
was brought into play to solve the many problems involved, to provide
for storing and keeping of over two millions of pounds of provisions in
the space allotted. The principal items and their quantities required
for this loading were as follows: 200,000 lbs. of flour, 60,000 lbs.
tinned meats, 25,000 lbs. salt meats, 120,000 lbs. smoked meats, 260,000
lbs. fresh meats, 25,000 lbs. turkey and fowl, 30,000 doz. eggs, 140,000
lbs. beans, 75,000 tinned vegetables, 420,000 fresh vegetables, 22,000
cereals, 145,000 dried, tinned and preserved fruits, 175,000 fresh
fruits, 40,000 lbs. coffee, 3,000 lbs. cocoa, 2,500 lbs. tea, 60,000
evaporated milk, 5,000 qts. fresh milk, 5,000 qts. of cream, 40,000 lbs.
fresh butter, 15,000 lbs. of lard, 15,000 lbs. salt, 175,000 lbs. of

These quantities were estimated to subsist 10,000 troops twenty-five days
and 1,400 crew one hundred and twenty days.

Careful consideration had to be given to the location, size, drainage
and estimated temperatures of the various storerooms and cold storage.
Also the items of provisions and quantities of each item required and the
storeroom best adapted by size and accessibility. This was worked out so
successfully that when the actual provisioning was finished only about
five hundred packages were left out of the allotted spaces due to the
fact that at the last moment, passages had to be left in several rooms to
give access to manhole plates leading into the double bottoms.

The cold storage spaces were an unknown quantity, only uncertain data
(not from German sources) being available concerning the temperatures of
the various compartments. However, this part of the provisioning was also
successfully finished and it might be well to state that since the first
loading, to the end of hostilities, only about 3,000 pounds of meats, and
6,000 pounds of fruits and vegetables were lost through deterioration.

Enough provisions were carried in the ship to approximate the supply of
ten battleships and one supply ship. This comparison was often used when
explaining to distinguished guests the enormous size of the _Leviathan’s_

During this phase of the work great consideration was given to the method
of issuing the food to the individual soldier. No data was obtainable
except the general requirements of the army regulation. How to make these
requirements fit into the planned system of feeding was a problem, which
however was so successfully solved that the _Leviathan_ system of issue
was, either in whole or in part, practically adopted for all transports.

The general scheme is an elaboration on a rough, but efficient system of
feeding landing forces of sailors at Guantanamo, where it was the custom
to land the various ship battalions and go into camp at Deer Point for
small arms practice.

The equipment then was a limited one, namely, a mess table at the foot of
each company street and four syrup barrels filled with soap and water for
washing the mess gear. From this crude idea was built up a system that
operates as follows:

In the after end of the troop mess hall are placed twelve tanks fitted
with direct steam jets. These tanks have specially fitted tops and are
capable of holding eight insets or food containers, each container
holding about seventy pounds of food or coffee. The steam jet is turned
on when the tank is filled with the food containers, thus enabling the
food to be placed ready for serving, some time before the messing,
keeping the food warm and palatable.

This tank, or serving station, contains such items of the meal as meats,
gravy, vegetables and beverages. In addition to each serving station
is an auxiliary serving table from which is served, bread, butter and
desserts. Each serving station and table has a detail of four men and a
messing sergeant who draws the food from the galley and serves to the men
as they file past their particular station.

The men march from their compartments under control of their compartment
officer in four lines, two from forward and two from aft, meeting on
E-deck at the grand staircase leading into the troop mess hall coming
down the staircase four abreast. When in the mess hall the column is
split into twelve lines and pass the serving stations at a slow walk
through to the mess tables. When finished, they go on to the forward end
of the mess hall, where there are the washing tanks somewhat similar to
the tanks at the serving stations. These tanks have hot soapy and clear
water in which the men wash and rinse their mess gear, returning to their
compartments by other established routes. All the mess lines, both to and
from the mess, are kept under control so that in case of an emergency
during the messing the men may be brought to their proper stations
quickly and without confusion. This arrangement of the messing lines and
mess hall has kept intact and separate the feeding space of the troops
from their sleeping quarters, an arrangement of much sanitary value and
in evidence only upon United States Navy transports.


The system holds the world’s record for feeding the largest number of men
in the shortest period of time, ashore or afloat. Nine thousand men in an
average time of ninety minutes were fed. The best time, however, for the
same number of men was sixty-seven minutes; this means that during the
messing one soldier was served a ration every thirty-six seconds.

It must be remembered that these huge commissary problems has been solved
with deep thought and precision, overcoming the enormous difficulties
presented on shipboard by the confined space and the mass of floating
population equal that of a large town or small city.

On the afternoon of December 14th, the day previous to the starting
on that historical first trip, the first meal was served. Previous to
serving this meal, the carefully planned organization had to be put into
operation. This required numerous army details for messing, kitchen work
and working parties. These reported to the commissary office and after
being properly stationed were given instructions to carry on the messing.

This was done about two hours after the troops were embarked and the mess
movement was started in the troop mess hall. There were many hitches in
the mess movement to the serving stations, but all the troops were fed
in about two and one half hours and after the second day the messing
organization “shook down” so well, that the Commissary Department was
able to report that the messing system was a success. In fact, the
first meal had not been going ten minutes when it was realized, much to
the relief and joy of those who had worked so hard on the fitting out
the messing organization, that the system planned was very effective.
One strict rule had to be made in connection with the embarkation,
which was that no meals would be served until all messing details were
stationed, and although it seemed harsh, an amusing incident proved its
value. Soldiers are akin to sailors, inasmuch as they are blessed with
healthy appetites, so that invariably when troops arrive aboard they are
hungry, and if not restrained naturally gravitate to the kitchen. The
first troops aboard followed their natural instincts and wormed their
way into the galley. Their tales of hunger told to the sailor-cooks
in the galley so worked on their sympathies that a relief party began
issuing sandwiches. In a few minutes by some mysterious way the good
news was passed that the good-natured sailors were handing out “chow”
and in about ten minutes a thousand hungry troopers were crowded into
the galley clamoring for “eats.” The resulting confusion almost upset
the embarkation and a hurried S. O. S. to the army headquarters was made
to get the soldiers to clear the galley. It is needless to say that the
galley cooks never allowed their good nature to get the best of them
again during other embarkations.

Although the start was splendid it must not be thought that it was plain
sailing on following days for the Commissary Department. In fact, it
was much to the contrary and the men who had the responsibility of the
undertaking speak of that trip as a nightmare.

The winter days were short and war conditions required that nearly all
lights, inside the ship and out, must be extinguished one hour before
sunset. This condition meant that most of the work had to be done in
almost total darkness. No refuse could be disposed of until one hour
after sunset and all wood had to be burned. The men detailed for this
purpose were compelled to grope their way about a strange ship in the

The galley and bake shop were conducted under much the same conditions,
but the troops were fed. The _Leviathan’s_ standard bill-of-fare was
carried out in every detail.


Because the _Leviathan_ was expected to arrive in port on Christmas eve,
a regular navy holiday dinner with all the fixings was given to all hands
on the day before. This dinner was given complete and went off smoothly
with but one hitch. As said before, soldiers have healthy appetites and a
strong affection for pie, and, in order to get more pie than their share,
a great many doubled back in the mess lines and perhaps more than once,
for there were over 15,000 rations of pie served out on that strenuous
day. For a while it looked as if we were going to be overwhelmed and
that the last thousand troops to go through the mess lines would not get
any holiday dinner, but a good substitute dinner was provided and it is
recorded that everybody was made happy.

All this work was accomplished under such adverse conditions and with
the added strain incidental to our first trip through the war zone, that
it was with relief we arrived in port and fed the soldiers their last
navy meal alongside the landing stage in Liverpool. Each man leaving the
ship was given a lunch to stay him on the next stage of his journey and
with it went the good wishes of the _Leviathan’s_ crew. The practice
of providing a lunch to debarking troops has been carried out in all
succeeding disembarkations.


The big feat was accomplished and the rest given by the necessarily
long stay in Liverpool was well earned and enjoyed. As a result of the
experience of the trip, many improvements were made in the messing
organization and galley installation, the most noteworthy of which
was the abandoning of the galley forward, moving the kettles, etc.,
to the troop galley and giving up the two other mess hall spaces for
berthing—messing all the troops in the present large mess hall. This
brought about a consolidation of the general mess and made the task

Subsequent trips saw consistent improvement until a new record was
established during the thirteenth trip when about eleven thousand
home-coming troops were fed in seventy-six minutes best time and an
average time of about ninety minutes. Over 150,000 overseas troops have
been fed on the _Leviathan’s_ trips and the good ship’s commissariat has
become famous wherever the A. E. F. have gone. The _Leviathan’s_ apple
pie has been, to quote a returning wounded soldier, placed second in
popularity with the justly famous Salvation Army doughnut.

The success of the first trip was undoubtedly due to the earnest work
of all hands under the able direction of Paymaster Simon Pietri, Supply
Officer and Assistant Paymaster H. B. Judkins. The work in the galley was
ably directed by ship’s cook 1st class, later Chief Commissary Steward,
Martin J. Flynn, and it can be said without fear of contradiction, that
the entire success of the enormous undertaking depended largely on his
splendid judgment and ability. This must in justice also be said of Chief
Commissary Steward W. J. Linn, who took entire charge of the stores and
whose long and varied commissary experience helped us over difficulties
which at times seemed unsurmountable.

Subsequent trips under the direction of Paymaster Farwell and Paymaster
Edwards, his successor and present Supply Officer, have brought in their
wake many improvements so that now the _Leviathan’s_ Commissariat is
considered the standard of its kind.

The following is a sample of a day’s menu on board the _Leviathan_:


    SUNDAY, APRIL 20, 1919


    Oat Meal
    Boiled Eggs
    Fresh Fruit
    Bread and Butter


    Tinned Asparagus
    Mashed Potatoes
    Pie and Cake
    Bread and Butter


    Head Cheese
    Creamed Potatoes
    Bread and Butter

    _Quantities Used to Provide the Above_


    Oat Meal                     1150
    Milk                         1056
    Sugar                        1500
    Eggs (doz.)                  3180
    Butter                        660
    Apples                       6470
    Coffee                        400
    Milk                          480
    Salt                           10
    Turkey                      15581
    Chicken                      2021
    Asparagus                    2856
    Mashed Potatoes              5850
    Butter                        675
    Coffee                        400
    Milk                          480
    Sugar                         400
    Salt                           40
    Cake                         5740
    Head Cheese                   425
    Potatoes                      800
    Coffee                        200
    Sugar                         200
    Salt                           20
    Bake Shop:
    Flour                        7800
    Yeast                         135
    Lard                          130
    Salt                          100
    Sugar                         200
    Cinnamon                        4

    Rations issued to 13,699.

The Supply Department

G. F. P.

“When do we eat? When’s pay day? When can I draw a pair of shoes? Got any
‘Bull’-an’ soap-an’ peanut brittle? Can you get us a piano, an anchor, a
car of lumber and a dozen 13 inch gadjets before we shove off?”—questions
that are part of the sailors’ existence and the cause of the Supply
Officer’s dilemma.

How well they are answered speaks volumes for the organization, zeal and
efficiency of the Supply Department. To feed fourteen thousand men (and
a thousand or so women, generals, admirals, diplomats, lieutenants and
bo’sns); to operate canteens throughout the ship that rival in their
activities Woolworth’s chain of stores; to keep the storerooms stocked
with every conceivable kind of supplies which are or may in any emergency
be required in the many departments of the ship; to clothe properly the
crew of more than two thousand men; to keep the accounts of these men and
to pay them twice a month; to—but limited space does not permit. Enough
to state that the patience of Job, the wisdom of Solomon, the agility
of Mercury and the persistency of Bryan are among the requirements
necessary to manage successfully the diversified activities of the Supply
Department. Verily, the life of the Supply Officer is far from being a
bed of roses.

Five distinct divisions of the Supply Department were organized during
the early days of going into commission—Commissary, Disbursing, Sales,
Storekeeping, and Officers’ Mess—each in charge of an Assistant Supply
Officer. The original plans of organization and operation, evolved by
Captain G. C. Schafer, were developed and carried out by Lieut.-Comdr. F.
Simonpietri, upon whom rested the responsibility of filling the office
of Senior Supply Officer on the _Leviathan’s_ maiden trip with more
than ten thousand men on board. Under his able guidance the routine
of the various divisions were systematized, improved and proven. Each
subsequent trip brought forth new problems which were masterfully dealt
with and solved by Lieut.-Comdr. Simonpietri and his able successors,
Lieut.-Comdr. N. B. Farwell and Lieut.-Comdr. E. C. Edwards. A silent
tribute to the results achieved by these Supply Officers is the fact that
to the large transports commissioned later the _Leviathan_ was called
upon to furnish many trained men as a nucleus for the Supply Departments
of these new ships, where _Leviathan_ methods were introduced and are
being successfully carried out.

During the early voyages Assistant Supply Officers Colburn, Barker,
Poggi, Waters and Judkins wrestled with their respective divisional
duties by day, and by way of diversion alternated as Senior Lookout
Officers by night, making hourly rounds of the lookout stations, from the
forepeak to the after crow’s-nest, fair weather and foul. Inclined a bit
toward rotundness, it was a ne’er to be forgotten privilege to see the
form of “Jeff” Colburn silhouetted against the starry heavens, en route
to the crow’s-nest. “Behold!” quoted “Doc” Carroll one cold evening, when
he espied “Jeff’s” figure looming in the shrouds like a square-rigger,
“behold yon sylph-like Romeo seeking his fair Juliet!”

Other assistant supply officers who have been assigned to the _Leviathan_
for duty or instruction are Messrs. Carter, Wrigley, Bishop, Harris,
Schuler, Hoffman, O’Shaughnessy, Stevens, Ingram, Finstemacher and
Miller. Of the “old timers” but Waters and Poggi remained to continue
“carrying on” in charge of the Storekeeping and Sales Divisions


The Sales Division comprises live ship’s stores (canteens) and the
clothing and small stores issue room. With troops on board, the canteens,
which are located in accessible parts of the ship, make approximately
ten thousand separate sales each day, with a total daily cash receipt
of about $5,000. The largest day’s business amounted to $6,498, another
record to be added to the many laurels already won by the Rainbow
Division, units of which were being transported at the time. As one of
the canteen storekeepers put it, “If those Rainbows can fight like they
can spend, I’d like to see them in action!”

On the shelves of these canteens may be found the usual line of
necessities—and luxuries—carried in all Navy canteens, but in unusual
quantities; from the most commonplace pair of shoe laces to the most
dainty package of bon-bons. Naturally, a vast amount of small items must
be handled to make up $5,000 worth of daily sales. And these sales are
made, not in leisurely lady-like fashion, over counter and show-case, but
through the canteen window to a never-ending line of clamoring sailors
and doughboys by but five storekeepers—one to each canteen. These five
“salesmen,” especially selected and trained for this type of duty, wait
on more “customers” in a day, it is believed, than any other sales people
in existence, including the busiest dispenser of wet-goods on Broadway
during that torrid spell just prior to July 1st, 1919.

In view of the reported atrocious activities of the Hun in our country
during the war, every precaution was taken to procure uncontaminated
supplies for use of the crew and troops. As a safeguard, samples of
edible stores taken on board were submitted to Surgeon Dunlap for
examination in the ship’s laboratory.

While the duties of the sales force are necessarily active and exacting,
discretion and tact are exercised in handling such a large body of
waiting “customers,” which accounts for the fact that errors and “kicks”
are few and far between.

In studying the likes and dislikes of the troops being transported, in
order to ascertain the varieties and quantities of canteen stores to
carry for sale, it was readily discovered that tastes of the various
units differ as widely as do their geographic origins. Hence, when a
division that originated in Dixie embarks, peanut candy to the tune of
from six to eight tons will be consumed during the voyage, together with
prodigious packs of cigarettes; when a mid-western outfit takes passage,
peanut candy and cigarette sales fall off, but large inroads are made
in the stock of chocolates, chewing tobacco and Navy postcards; when
far westerners like the Sunset Division come aboard mountains of “Bull
Durham,” brown cigarette papers, caramels and playing cards are broken
out of the store rooms, for the boys of the West are not strong for
chocolate and peanut candy, though they do “roll their own” and wear out
the ship’s police force by endeavoring to keep pinochle games going in
every conceivable part of the ship. But regardless of geographic origin,
stormy weather creates desires much akin to all doughboys—a desire to
lay off such joys as chocolates, bon-bons and poker; a desire to be
left alone, not too far from the out board rail, with a package of that
wonderful panacea, lemon drops, of which as many as three tons will be
consumed during a particularly stormy crossing. During a bit of heavy
weather, one of the ship’s wits, feigning much excitement, rushed into
a group of forlorn sea-sick warriors, to inform them that “Here comes a
torpedo—straight for us!” “Thank God,” came the answering chorus.

Aside from the fifteen tons of various candies loaded in Hoboken, each
trip witnesses the consumption of approximately two hundred thousand
cigarettes, twenty thousand cigars, three thousand packages of Bull
Durham and eleven thousand pieces of soap.

The Clothing and Small Stores issue to the crew about nine thousand
dollars’ worth of wearing apparel monthly. This active branch of the
Sales Division carries a stock of supplies valued at fifty thousand
dollars—from three cent spools of thread to twenty dollar overcoats. For
the hard to fit and the Beau Brummel C. P. O.’s, the made-to-measure
business is no small item.

The total annual business done by the Sales Division—sales to the crew
and troops, including transfers of stores to other ships and stations
in Europe, amounts to nearly half a million dollars. All items handled
by the ship’s stores are sold at cost, with but a very small margin of
profit. In some instances the selling price is lower than the cost. It
is endeavored to make not over ten per cent profit, the money thus
accumulated going to the entertainment fund, which provides the means
of entertaining the crew and troops with movie shows each night, and
various other activities and equipments which are necessary to keep the
boys amused and happy. The Disbursing Division of the Supply organization
is just what the name implies, and expends more real cash than a flock
of youthful Pittsburgh millionaires. Besides paying the volumes of
never-ending bills for never-ending supplies used on board, the pay roll
of the ship’s officers and men are kept by the yeomen, who comprise the
personnel of this division. The Disbursing Officer peels off seventy
thousand cold iron men each pay day, which happens twice a month. Pay
day, the day the Eagle does his big stunt, to the sailors is “Der Tag.”
The annual wages paid to the ship’s company approximates one million
eight hundred thousand dollars.

The Storekeeping Section procure and carry in stock all the varied
supplies used on board for the operation and maintenance of the ship. The
store-rooms are veritable storehouses, stocked with every conceivable
kind of supplies from deck swabs to grate bars.

One of the chief difficulties encountered during the early days was
to find spare parts for the German electrical equipment. Our American
standard equipment does not fit the German installations, and unless
spares could be obtained the whole electrical system would have to be
replaced with standard American fittings. Fortunately, there was quite a
stock of German equipment remaining in England since the pre-war days.
This had been carried in stock for the use of German ships calling
at English ports. Practically all of this stock was purchased by the
_Leviathan_, and was sufficient to run the ship until our own factories
could be equipped to turn out this type of supplies and equipment. When
the Army, Navy Yards and Shipping Board were clamoring for supplies, the
task of procuring stock in quantities demanded by such a huge ship was
indeed a difficult one. Thanks to the loyal co-operation of New York and
New Jersey business men, and the Naval Commandeering Board, sufficient
quantities of supplies were secured to keep going. A typical example of
the difficulties encountered can be illustrated by the activity necessary
to equip the ship’s hospital. The market was bare of such supplies,
due to the incessant demands from our own and our Allies Army and Navy
Medical Departments. Manufacturers of surgical supplies from all over the
country were appealed to. Some had one kind of instrument, some another;
from all of them finally evolved a complete and excellently equipped
hospital, equalled by none afloat and surpassed by few ashore. This one
purchase required nearly six weeks of effort and search to complete.

Some idea of the volume of supplies necessary to keep the good ship
running may be gathered from the following:

For washing the interior decks, etc., about six tons of soap, six tons of
soap-powder, and two tons of lye are used each trip.

The canvas bunk-bottoms represent an $85,000 purchase, while $6,000 would
be necessary to replace the bed sheets. Blankets for the staterooms
and hospital represent an expenditure of $30,000, while one of the
many manila mooring lines, each 720 feet long, thirteen inches in
circumference, and weighing 7,631 pounds, cost $2,403.77. The four-inch
anchor chain cost $2,869.42 for each ninety foot length.


Part IV

Some Passengers Carried

    Brig. Gen. Samuel T. Ansell.
    Prince Axel of Denmark.
    William A. Ashbrook, M.C.
    Chandler P. Anderson, War Industries Board.
    M. J. Abbott, Liquidation Commission.
    Daniel R. Anthony, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Major General George Barnett, U.S.M.C., Commanding Officer U.S.M.C.
    Mrs. George Barnett.
    Samuel Blythe, American Red Cross.
    Dr. Herman H. Biggs, American Red Cross.
    Dr. Edward R. Baldwin, American Red Cross.
    H. S. Brown, Liquidation Commission.
    Col. Robert Bacon, Ex-ambassador to France.
    Newton D. Baker, Secretary of War.
    Mr. John L. Bouchal, Vice Consul to Prague, Bohemia.
    Mrs. Marie Bouchal.
    Mr. W. Bolling, brother-in-law of President Wilson.
    John E. Baker, Congressman.
    Maj. Gen. A. Cronkheit.
    Irvin S. Cobb, Journalist.
    T. A. Chandler, M.C.
    Frank I. Cobb, Journalist.
    Walter M. Chandler, M.C.
    Tom Connally, M.C.
    Frank K. Cameron, Representative of the Department of the Interior.
    Sam J. Cook, Liquidation Committee.
    Chas. P. Caldwell, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Maj. Gen. Joseph P. Dickman.
    Henry P. Davison, Head of American Red Cross.
    C. H. Dillon, M.C.
    Livingston Davis, Asst. to Mr. Roosevelt.
    Col. The Hon. Lord Decies, British Army.
    Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy.
    Mrs. Josephus Daniels.
    Paul K. Dayton, Liquidation Commission.
    S. H. Dent, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    G. A. Ellston, M.C.
    Martin Egan, Journalist.
    Rear Admiral Earle, Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance.
    Major General Chas. S. Farnsworth.
    William Fleischman, United States Shipping Board.
    Commander Foote, Aide to Secretary Daniels.
    Mrs. Sample B. Forbus and child, wife American Consul, Brest, France.
    Wm. J. Fields, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Alvan T. Fuller, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Benj. L. Fairchild, M.C.
    Hon. Albert M. Franklin, Italian Minister to Mexico.
    Lady Mabel Emily Grant, wife of Vice-Admiral Grant, R.N.
    Brig. Gen. Walter H. Gordon.
    Admiral Griffin, U.S.N., Chief of the Bureau of Steam Engineering.
    William R. Green, M.C.
    Jas. P. Glynn, M.C.
    Hoyt S. Gale, Representative of the Department of the Interior.
    Martin Green, Journalist.
    Capt. Walter H. Gerhardi, U.S.N.
    Frank L. Green, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Thos. S. Grago, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Brig. Gen. John N. Hodges.
    Fred. C. Hicks, M.C.
    Brig. Gen. Frank B. Hines.
    Preston Herbert, Chief of Tobacco Section, Subsistence Division, also
      Vice-President American Tobacco Co.
    E. N. Hurley, Chairman United States Shipping Board.
    Mrs. E. N. Hurley.
    W. W. Hastings, M.C.
    Dr. Samuel M. Hamill.
    Dr. L. Emmet Holt.
    Senator Henry F. Hollis.
    Harry E. Hull, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Thos. W. Harrison, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    William Jenkins, American Ambassador to Odessa, Russia.
    Rabbi Samuel J. Jack, Jewish Welfare Board.
    Senator Homer H. Johnson.
    Fred. P. Kepple, Third Asst. Sec. of War.
    Charles C. Kearns, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Mr. Marshall Langhorne, First Secretary of the Legation at The Hague.
    Mrs. Marshall Langhorne.
    Major Harry Leonard, U.S.M.C., of Boxer Campaign fame.
    Senator James Hamilton Lewis.
    Jean L. Lafoert, U.S., Vice Consul at Algiers.
    Maj. Gen. LeRoy S. Lyon, U.S.A.
    C. T. Lewis, Secretary to American Ministry to Belgium.
    Miss Julia Lathrop, Children’s Bureau, Department of Labor.
    Ladislas Lazaro, M.C.
    Fiorello H. LaGuardia, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Brig. Gen. L. L. McCauley, U.S.M.C.
    Brig. Gen. Samuel McRoberts, U.S.A.
    Brig. Gen. G. H. McManus.
    Joseph F. Marius, United States Shipping Board.
    Guy H. Moon, United States Shipping Board.
    Brig. Gen. John F. Madden.
    Mr. S. S. McClure, of McClure’s Magazine.
    Mr. May, Personal Secretary to Mr. Daniels.
    John W. Morin, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    John F. Miller, M.C., Committee on Military Affairs.
    Earl C. Michener, M.C.
    Hon. Henry Morgenthau, ex-Ambassador to Turkey.
    Our French pilot, Jean Metayer, Major de la Flotte.
    Major Gen. O’Ryan.
    Mr. and Mrs. George Patullo, Journalists.
    Mr. Chas. P. Pressley, Vice Consul General at Paris.
    Mrs. Chas. P. Pressley.
    Miss Marguerite Pressley.
    William J. Pike, American Consul to St. Gall, Switzerland.
    Edward E. Phalen, United States Shipping Board.
    Brig. Gen. Thomas H. Rees.
    Franklin D. Roosevelt, Asst. Sec. of the Navy.
    John Randolph, Vice Consul to Odessa, Russia.
    Major General Harry W. Rogers, Quartermaster General.
    C. W. Ramseyer, M.C.
    David Runyon, Journalist.
    Brig. Gen. W. C. Rivers.
    Mrs. Joan F. L. Morgan Singer, wife of Rear Admiral Singer, R.N.
    Miss Joan F. L. Singer, daughter of Rear Admiral Singer, R.N.
    Master Michael Morgan Singer, son of Rear Admiral Singer, R.N.
    Thos. D. Schall, M.C.
    Mrs. Thos. D. Schall.
    William G. Sharpe, Ambassador to France.
    William G. Sharpe, Jr.
    Felix W. Smith, American Consul to Tiflis, Russia.
    Addison Southard, American Consul to Aden, Arabia.
    Mrs. Addison Southard.
    Inman Sealby, United States Shipping Board.
    Hatton W. Summers, M.C.
    Addison Smith, M.C.
    John N. Tillman, M.C.
    G. B. Thomason, M.C.
    Brig. Gen. Harry Taylor.
    Lieutenant General Emile Adolphe Taufflieb, French Army.
    Madame Taufflieb.
    Maj. Gen. Peter E. Traub.
    Rear Admiral Taylor, U.S.N., Chief of the Bureau of Construction and
    Dr. Fritz B. Talbot.
    Maj. Teiusanu, Roumanian Attaché at Washington, D. C.
    Mrs. Teiusanu.
    John Z. Tilson.
    Brig. Gen. Edward Vollrath.
    Carl Vrooman, Asst. Sec. of Agriculture.
    Lieutenant Commander N. Wilkinson, R.N.R., Camouflage expert.
    Mrs. N. Wilkinson.
    Brig. Gen. C. B. Wheeler.
    J. Harry Welling, United States Shipping Board.
    Jas. C. Wilson, M.C.
    Dr. William H. Welch.
    Hon. Hugh C. Wallace, American Ambassador to France.
    Mrs. Wallace.
    George Wadsworth, Vice Consul, Nantes, France.
    George M. Young, M.C.
    Brig. Gen. Chas. X. Zimmerman.
    F. D. Scott, Member of Congress.
    C. C. Michener, Member of Congress.
    C. P. Caldwell, Member of Congress.
    J. W. Morin, Member of Congress.
    B. L. Fairchild.
    S. King, Member of Congress.
    H. E. Hull, Member of Congress.
    F. L. Greene, Member of Congress.
    W. J. Snow, Maj. Gen., Chief of Field Artillery.
    J. L. Bouchal, Vice-Consul to Prague.
    J. L. Bouchal, Mrs., wife of Vice-Consul.
    N. D. Baker, Secretary of War.
    C. P. Pressley, Vice-Consul to Paris.
    C. P. Pressley, Mrs., wife of Vice-Consul.
    Warren Pershing, son of General Pershing.
    W. G. Sharp and family, returning Ambassador to France.
    Brig. Gen. MacArthur, Commanding 84th Div.
    Major General McAndrews, Chief of Staff, A.E.F.
    Major General Shanks, Port of Embarkation, Hoboken, U.S.A.
    Sir and Lady A. Newsholme, K. C. B.
    W. H. George, Vice-Consul.
    F. Hitchcock, ex-Postmaster General.
    George V. L. Meyer, Mrs., wife of ex-Secretary of the Navy.
    O. C. Crosby, Mrs., wife of ex-Secretary of the Treasury.
    B. L. French, Member of Congress.
    W. R. Greene, Member of Congress.
    C. D. Radford, Brig. Gen., U.S.M.C.
    R. Crane, U. S. Minister to Czecho-Slovak.
    A. Gleaves, Vice-Admiral, Commander Cruiser and Transport Force.
    J. Haygood, Brig. Gen.
    F. H. Schofield, U.S.N.
    H. P. Davidson, head of A. R. C.
    R. Olney, Member of Congress.
    J. M. Morin, Member of Congress.
    C. P. Caldwell, Member of Congress.

Roster of Officers (Alphabetically)

    Alexander, Edward J., Lieut. (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Alexander, Albert E., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Allen, William S., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Althiser, Edwin, Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Amberg, Edward J., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Andrews, Ellwood W., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Armiger, William J., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Arnold, Leslie J., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Asserson, Frederick A., Commander, U.S.N.
    Ast, Raymond J., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.

    Baker, James M., Jr., Lieut. (j. g.) (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Banks, Earl F., Carpenter, U.S.N.R.F.
    Barber, William A., Jr., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Barcus, James S., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Barker, Edwin F., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Bateman, Arnold H., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Beardsley, Ralph A., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Beebe, John L., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Bense, Frederick, Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Benton, William M., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Bergman, Milton, Gunner, U.S.N.
    Billingsley, Joe K., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Bishop, Stuart A., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Blackburn, John H., Commander, U.S.N.
    Boucher, Creed H., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Braff, Max M., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Braunwarth, Albert, Boatswain, U.S.N.R.F.
    Bright, Roscoe C., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Britt, Benjamin B., Carpenter, U.S.N.
    Brockie, William J., Machinist, U.S.N.
    Bruns, Harry, Gunner, U.S.N.
    Bryan, Henry F., Captain, U.S.N.
    Burtis, William H., Lieut., U.S.N.

    Cadmus, Charles E., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Campbell, Carl I., Chief Pharmacist, U.S.N.R.F.
    Carlon, Charles B., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Carroll, Frank J., Lieut. (M. C), U.S.N.
    Carter, William J., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Coghlan, Daniel, Boatswain, U.S.N.R.F.
    Cole, Raymond, Gunner, U.S.N.
    Coulbourn, Theodore S., Lieut. (j. g.) (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Cox, Christopher C., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Croasdale, Ernest S., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Crofutt, Edward F., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Cummins, David E., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Cunningham, Harold A., Lieut. Comdr., U.S.N.R.F.

    Davidson, Harold, Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Deacon, Joseph Gurney, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Denison, Ross E., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Ditmars, John R., Jr., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Dorsey, Arthur B., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Dundon, William A., Mach., U.S.N.R.F.
    Dunlap, Albert K., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Durell, Edward H., Captain, U.S.N.

    Edwards, Eaton C., Lieut. Comdr. (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Edwards, Henry I., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Erickson, Edward B., Lieut. (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Estey, Edward, Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Evans, John C., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Ewbank, Henry L., Ensign, U.S.N.

    Fagan, George, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Fagan, John J., Mach., U.S.N.
    Fales, De Coursey, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Farwell, Neal B., Lieut. Comdr. (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Fenstemaker, Marvin C., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Ferguson, John, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Ferry, John M., Jr., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Fisk, Harvey E., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Fitzsimmons, George R., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Ford, James W., Lieut. Comdr., U.S.N.R.F.
    Foss, Albion F., Lieut, (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Foster, John, Lieut. Comdr., U.S.N.R.F.
    Foster, Leroy B., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Froehlich, Sylvan L., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Fry, Alfred B., Captain, U.S.N.

    Gahagan, Allen J., Ensign, Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Gay, Nelson, Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Gaynor, Thomas A., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Glaser, Alfred W., Mach., U.S.N.R.F.
    Graeff, Warren L., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Grant, Deloss A., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Gunnell, Vaughn J., Lieut. (P. C.), U.S.N.

    Hackett, Paul B., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Hagerman, Oliver S., Mach., U.S.N.R.F.
    Haines, Rowland B., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Halsey, William H., Lieut. Comdr. (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Haltnorth, Oliver J., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Hammond, Carlton M., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Hankinson, Otto L., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Hannon, Frank, Mach., U.S.N.
    Harding, Arthur E., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Harper, Fred K., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Harris, Lester L., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Heinz, Earnest D., Elec. Gunner, U.S.N.
    Hamby, Cleveland, Lieut., U.S.N.
    Hilliard, Charles C., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Hoffman, Leonard G., Lieut. (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Howe, Paul B., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Howell, Harry M., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Hudgins, Earle P., Carpenter, U.S.N.
    Hudson, Erastus M., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Hulbert, Harold S., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.R.F.

    Ingram, Herbert R., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.

    Jack, John H., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Jeffers, William N., Comdr., U.S.N.
    Jensen, Joseph, Mach., U.S.N.R.F.
    Johnston, George O., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Johnston, William, Boatswain, U.S.N.
    Jones, Edward E., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Jones, John, Lieut. Comdr., U.S.N.R.F.
    Jones, Richard H., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Judkins, Holland B., Lieut. (j. g.) (P. C), U.S.N.R.F.

    Katzmarek, John E., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Keating, Thomas E., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Keeser, George, Lieut., U.S.N.
    Kennedy, Patrick F., Lieut. (D. C.), U.S.N.
    Kirk, Colin, Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Knight, Rufis H., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Krez, Conrad A., Lieut., U.S.N.

    Lau, Walter, Lieut., U.S.N.
    Le Clerq, Frederick D. K., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Leiper, John A., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Leonard, Arthur T., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Lequin, Maurice L., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Leventhal, Lewis F., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Looney, William C., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Lorentz, Robert, Jr., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Lovell, Douglas G., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Luskin, Abraham, Pay Clerk, U.S.N.R.F.

    Malloy, William E., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Mann, Harry A., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Manock, Frank D., Lieut. Comdr., U.S.N.
    Martin, Robert, Pharmacist, U.S.N.
    Maune, James J., Carpenter, U.S.N.
    May, Henry A., Comdr., U.S.N.
    Meagher, James F., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    McDonald, Eugene E., Captain (C. C.), U.S.N.
    McLeod, Daniel, Carpenter, U.S.N.
    Metayer, Jean, French Pilot.
    Milan, Daniel F., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Millard-Turner, R., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Miller, Charles H., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Miller, L. Dee, Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Minuse, Alfred W., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Morrill, Stanley, Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.

    Nichols, Spencer V., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Nordstrom, Isador, Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.
    Nuber, Horace D., Lieut. (P. C.), U.S.N.

    O’Donnell, Joseph A., Elec. Gunner, U.S.N.R.F.
    Ohmer, August, Carpenter, U.S.N.
    Oman, Joseph W., Captain, U.S.N.
    Osborn, Charles K., Lieut. Comdr., U.S.N.
    O’Shaughnessy, Louis B., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.

    Palen, Milburn R., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Parker, John C., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Phelps, William W., Captain, U.S.N.
    Poggi, Godfrey F., Pay Clerk, U.S.N.R.F.
    Porter, John E., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.

    Rapkin, Alfred C., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Rathbun, Walter L., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Rector, Frank L., Boatswain, U.S.N.
    Redman, Foster B., Pharmacist, U.S.N.
    Reimann, Carl, Gunner, U.S.N.
    Roberts, Jack B., Jr., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Rowedder, Herbert B., Ensign, U.S.N.

    Schad, Theodore S., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Schafer, George C., Lieut. Comdr., U.S.N.
    Schildhauer, Clarence H., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Schluter, Wilhelm H. F., Lieut., U.S.N.
    Schoeffel, M. F., Ensign, U.S.N.
    Seaman, Elbert C., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Shannon, Charles R., Elec. Gunner, U.S.N.R.F.
    Sheppard, Thomas T., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Sherlock, Archibald J., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Shuler, John W., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Simonpietri, William L. F., Lieut. Comdr. (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Singleton, Louis P., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Skead, Robert G., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Smith, Charles W., Boatswain, U.S.N.R.F.
    Smith, Walter E., Pay Clerk, U.S.N.R.F.
    Snyder, John J., Comdr. (M. C.), U.S.N.
    Soars, Charles A., Lieut. (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Stafford, Archibald S., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Staton, Adolphus, Comdr., U.S.N.
    Stephans, Frederick J., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Strauss, Spencer G., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Swift, John T., Lieut., U.S.N.

    Tawes, George V., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Thomas, Wilmer J., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Thompson, Edward H., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.

    Vars, Addison F., Ensign, U.S.N.R.F.
    Vaughn, George T., Lieut. Comdr. (M. C.), U.S.N.

    Wainwright, Stuyvesant, Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Waters, Clifford W., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.
    Waterston, Fred C., Boatswain, U.S.N.
    Watson, James P., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Watt, Frank S., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Weston, Albert T., Lieut. (M. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Whitney, Rintoul T., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Willey, James H., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Williams, James F., Gunner, U.S.N.
    Wilson, Arthur L., Mach., U.S.N.R.F.
    Wilson, Tom C., Mach., U.S.N.
    Woodward, Vaughn V., Comdr., U.S.N.
    Wrigley, Edmund J., Ensign (P. C.), U.S.N.R.F.
    Wright, F. G., Lieut., U.S.N.R.F.
    Wyatt, Thomas H., Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.R.F.

    Ziesel, Carl Stanley, Lieut. (j. g.), U.S.N.


    Ch. Nurse, Mary M. Robinson, U.S.N.
    Res. Nurse, Irene Reid, U.S.N.
    Nurse, Mary A. O’Neill, U.S.N.
    Nurse, Ruby E. Nutting, U.S.N.R.F.
    Nurse, Madelon Stowell, U.S.N.R.F.
    Nurse, Alice B. Newcomb, U.S.N.R.F.
    Nurse, Ruby Russell, U.S.N.R.F.
    Nurse, Vera Harmon, U.S.N.
    Nurse, Charlotte Hyde, U.S.N.
    Nurse, Frances Dobson, U.S.N.R.F.
    Nurse, Kathryn Leary, U.S.N.R.F.

    A. L. A., Edward H. Virgin
    Y. M. C. A., Maurice S. Safford
    K. of C., Francis C. O’Neill; Thomas Walsh; Howard Reilly
    A. R. C., Sherburn M. Becker
    J. W. B., Leo C. Baum; Walter Hymes

Roster of Crew

    Aas, E. W.
    Abraham, Leslit
    Abrahams, James J.
    Abrams, Leonard M.
    Abeln, Herman T.
    Abriel, George D.
    Adams, James A.
    Adams, Samuel N.
    Adamson, Joseph
    Adang, Frank J.
    Adcock, John R.
    Agustin, Alfredo
    Aitken, Robert
    Albert, Edward Gus
    Alcol, Animo
    Aldridge, William F.
    Alexander, Claude M.
    Alexander, Joseph H.
    Alexander, Henry S.
    Alexy, Louis Albert
    Allen, Alfred C.
    Allen, Charles C.
    Allen, Cragon Batson
    Allen, Oliver Geo.
    Allen, Warren Reynolds
    Almond, Lloyd J.
    Alt, Theodore
    Amato, Sam
    Ambos, Ferdinand William
    Ambraz, Joseph
    Ammerman, D. F.
    Andersen, Harold M.
    Anderson, Arthur Lyman
    Anderson, Charles G.
    Anderson, D. W.
    Anderson, Harry E.
    Anderson, Herman R.
    Anderson, Horace Woods
    Anderson, Joel A.
    Anderson, Marius H.
    Anderson, Sigurd Melvin
    Andres, Walter S.
    Andrews, Robert W.
    Applin, Raymond Nelson
    Archer, John J.
    Ardelt, Herman A.
    Armbruster, J. A.
    Armstrong, Geo. Custer
    Armstrong, John
    Armstrong, Thomas J.
    Arneson, Fred A., Jr.
    Arnold, Louis
    Artz, Earl I.
    Ashley, Robert H.
    Astromolsky, Abraham
    Atherton, William McN.
    Atkins, Thomas P.
    Atsma, Lambert W.
    Auger, Leroy B.
    Augustine, Lionel J.
    Auth, Fred
    Avery, Ira
    Axford, Joseph D.
    Axman, William
    Ayers, Aaron, D.

    Ballew, Roy A.
    Bass, Melville R.
    Bachmeier, Charles
    Bagley, Gawn A.
    Bagley, Geo. M.
    Bahnsen, Henry A.
    Bailess, Benson Lyle
    Bailey, John J. R.
    Baker, James
    Bakken, Elby Severnine
    Baldwin, Sidney
    Bales, William Emit
    Balkhaus, Reinhart F.
    Ballein, Orville E.
    Baltimore, Roland C.
    Bannerman, Frank M.
    Bannon, James Stephen
    Bannon, Robert
    Barber, Carl B.
    Barhite, Raymond R.
    Barker, Albert T.
    Barkowik, Harry
    Barlow, Raymond H.
    Barnard, Warren H.
    Barnes, John
    Barnes, Samuel Clark
    Barney, John L.
    Barr, Joseph F.
    Barrett, Thomas E.
    Barroza, Domingos G.
    Barry, Hugh Patrick
    Barry, Joseph O.
    Bartholomew, Nicholas
    Bartlett, Dudley C.
    Baskin, Ernest Gamble
    Bates, Harry W.
    Bauer, Joseph
    Baur, Otto Benjamin
    Bays, Earl R.
    Beaird, Paul D.
    Bean, Otis Eugene
    Beatty, Geo. Edw.
    Beavers, Geo. William
    Becker, Geo. J.
    Becker, Jacob
    Becker, Leslie L. C.
    Bednar, Stephen G.
    Beebe, Herbert R.
    Beetham, Harry R.
    Beighley, Earl Glen
    Bellerson, Geo. Frederick
    Benfer, Albert G.
    Benford, William F.
    Benjamin, C. V.
    Bennett, Arthur August
    Bennett, Peter
    Benson, H. J.
    Bentley, Albert
    Benton, Eugene D.
    Berard, Raymond J.
    Bercume, Andrew L.
    Bergner, Chas. A. William
    Berger, Geo. I.
    Berger, William J.
    Berner, John
    Bernstein, Harry M.
    Berrie, Geo. E.
    Berry, Fred E.
    Berry, Stewart S.
    Bert, Edward J.
    Bertenshaw, Earl
    Best, Harry E.
    Betlej, Michael A.
    Betterton, William T.
    Betzold, Victor L.
    Bianchi, Victor J.
    Bianculli, Pasquale
    Biehn, Byron B.
    Bigelow, James A.
    Bilby, Austin Charles
    Biles, Otis O.
    Bishop, Irwin Leslie
    Bishop, Luther E.
    Bissell, Warren S.
    Bittlingmaier, Henry
    Black, R.
    Blackburn, Roy James
    Blackstock, Samuel H.
    Blake, Claude N.
    Blanchard, Joseph L.
    Blerk, W. A.
    Blevins, Don Clifford
    Blumfield, Morris
    Boak, Deo
    Boehmer, William F.
    Boettcher, Paul W.
    Boguilon, Pedro T.
    Bohan, Thomas
    Boles, Charles E.
    Bonner, Charles A.
    Bonner, Milford C.
    Bonnin, Celestin
    Bolton, Robert John
    Bomstad, Mahlon Mayo
    Booker, Herbert M.
    Borden, Albert R.
    Borders, Lyndon C.
    Borrello, Louis R.
    Bort, Harold D.
    Boss, Geo. D.
    Boswell, Martin Hugh
    Boswell, Russell P.
    Botke, John James
    Bowens, Fred
    Bowers, Horace A.
    Bowles, Clarence H.
    Bowles, Thomas V.
    Bowling, Leo Leslie
    Boyce, Lafayette
    Boylan, Sidney E.
    Boyle, Harry J.
    Bradford, Frederick G.
    Bradley, James J.
    Bradley, Philip R.
    Brakstone, Israel
    Branch, Jackson A.
    Braswell, William C.
    Bray, Walter J.
    Breitman, Mitchell C.
    Brellis, Stanley J.
    Brennan, Frank J.
    Brennan, Martin.
    Bresnahan, Cornelius R.
    Brett, James V.
    Brewer, Elmer A.
    Bridgman, Geo. W.
    Brierley, Clifton
    Brierley, Vernon H.
    Brindle, James J.
    Brinton, Harold
    Briscoe, Chas. B.
    Broadbent, Floyd W.
    Brock, John J.
    Broderick, James W.
    Brooker, John H.
    Brooks, Jimmie Lee
    Brooks, Lawrence D.
    Brophy, Robert J.
    Broring, Benjamin Joseph
    Broughton, William I.
    Brouillette, Alaide T.
    Brouillette, Jules G.
    Brown, Charles
    Brown, Edely H.
    Brown, Egbert Lee
    Brown, Geo. Eben, Jr.
    Brown, Geo. Taylor
    Brown, Henry James
    Brown, Harold S.
    Brown, Hugh W.
    Brown, Ira Oscar
    Brown, Isidore
    Brown, Jefferson C.
    Brown, Jesse A.
    Brown, Lee E.
    Brown, Pat
    Brown, Reuben William
    Brown, Thomas Lanier
    Brown, Vernie Aldwin
    Brown, Wille
    Brownell, Herbert Leslie
    Broyderick, Francis H.
    Bruch, Edward P.
    Brunce, Peter J.
    Brusa, John W.
    Bucher, Luther Allan
    Buck, David Vincent
    Buckley, John P.
    Buckley, Thomas E.
    Buckner, Clifton
    Buckowski, Felix
    Budge, Russell E.
    Bulat, Marco, Jr.
    Bull, Curtis 0.
    Bull, Frank Wadsworth
    Bullington, Preston G.
    Burgermaster, William L.
    Burgum, Arthur C.
    Burke, Elmer
    Burke, Fredrick H.
    Burke, James E.
    Burkey, Elmer A.
    Burnes, James Edwin
    Burnett, John A.
    Burns, James Eddie
    Burns, Robert J.
    Burnside, Archibald J.
    Buron, Romeo H.
    Burris, Lester Leo
    Burriss, John H.
    Burroughs, Edgar S.
    Burton, Lavar Miller
    Burrell, Virgil E.
    Buse, Geo. S.
    Butler, Thomas Jr.
    Butterfield, John R.
    Buttles, Marion Arthur
    Butts, Geo. W.
    Byrne, John J.
    Byrne, Robert T.
    Byrne, F. H.
    Byrnes, Walter J.
    Byron, Cyril A.
    Baumgarden, Willis A.
    Behman, August Scott
    Brown, Walter

    Cabrera, Rafael H.
    Cagnon, Joseph A.
    Cain, John A.
    Caliao, Alfredo
    Callahan, Joseph H.
    Callahan, William H.
    Calloway, James C.
    Calloway, James C.
    Camacho, Lope
    Cameron, Walter G.
    Cameron, J. J.
    Campbell, Franklin G.
    Canfield, William J.
    Cannistraci, Salvestore
    Cantwell, Charles E.
    Caprile, Louis
    Caradonna, Gaspare
    Carey, Alexander J.
    Carey, Everett
    Cargile, Louis L.
    Carley, Mathew J.
    Carley, William E.
    Carls, Walter
    Carlson, Carl Stanley
    Carlson, Herbert S. E.
    Carmichael, Joe H.
    Carmichael, Wilbert D.
    Carolan, Peter X.
    Carolan, John F.
    Caron, Theodore Fred
    Carpenter, Herbert P.
    Carpenter, Leonard F.
    Carpenter, William G.
    Carnes, John Thomas
    Carr, Henry W. R.
    Carroll, Joseph Francis
    Carroll, Joseph Walter
    Carrow, Lyle
    Carter, Geo. W.
    Carter, James Carleton
    Carter, William
    Carter, J. N.
    Cartier, Arthur L.
    Carver, Warren W.
    Caryl, Charles F.
    Casey, Charles Victor
    Casey, Michael
    Casey, Peter Henry
    Cashman, Robert J.
    Casper, David Joseph
    Casserly, W. M.
    Catanzano, Guiseppe
    Cathcart, Joseph
    Cator, Robert W.
    Cecil, Lawrence Walter
    Chalstrom, Oliver Floyd
    Chapman, Abram
    Chapman, Geo. McKinley
    Chapman, Ernest Donald
    Charles, Joseph
    Chase, Charles C.
    Chew, Sidney W.
    Chichester, William P.
    Chilinski, E. M.
    Chisholm, John A.
    Chlebek, William J.
    Chrastil, J.
    Christ, Archie J.
    Christiansen, Elmer
    Christmas, Robert
    Christiansen, Wollert M.
    Church, Charles R.
    Chute, Gordon
    Ciocchetti, Guiseppe
    Citron, I. S.
    Clancy, Thomas J., Jr.
    Clark, John F.
    Clark, John H.
    Clark, Miner C.
    Clark, Thomas H. W.
    Clarke, Edward W.
    Clause, John N.
    Clelland, Paul S.
    Clements, Henry Geo.
    Clifford, Roy F.
    Clift, Corbett E.
    Cline, Joseph B.
    Clottstein, Louis
    Clough, Edwin O.
    Clough, Stevan W.
    Clougherty, John
    Clow, William Q.
    Coates, Charles McK.
    Cobb, E. C.
    Coblentz, Harry M.
    Cochrane, David A.
    Cochran, Ralph P.
    Cockrum, William Orlando
    Codyer, Fred J.
    Coen, Vincent Boardman
    Coffey, Jesse E.
    Cogan, Daniel J.
    Cogswell, George A.
    Cole, Albert C.
    Cole, William J.
    Cole, Austin Tilgham
    Cole, Charles Burril
    Cole, Francis E.
    Cole, H. H.
    Coles, Robert L.
    Collins, Allan B.
    Collins, John Henry
    Collins, John J.
    Collup, Floyd Ingham
    Colvin, Howard H.
    Colvin, Elmer Irvin
    Combs, Cullen I.
    Conerty, Raymond P.
    Conger, Elmo Raymond
    Conjurski, Paul
    Conlon, Michael J.
    Connolly, Patrick J.
    Connolly, Terence
    Connolly, S. G.
    Connor, Benjamin
    Connor, E. J.
    Conrad, Edward
    Conrad, Robert H.
    Conway, Eugene V.
    Cook, Robert W.
    Coonce, Claud Ray
    Cooper, Ottis C.
    Cooper, Richard F.
    Cope, Titus W.
    Copeland, Clarence F.
    Coroy, John Peter
    Corkbill, George B.
    Costello, Joseph
    Cowan, Lucio
    Corman, Kenneth J.
    Cornell, August E.
    Cory, Halsey D.
    Cosper, Raymond W.
    Costello, Herbert
    Cotman, John Daniel
    Covert, Randolph W.
    Cowdrey, Fred Leslie
    Cowper, Charles L.
    Craddock, Ralph
    Craig, Ambrose J.
    Craig, Thomas Joseph
    Craine, Hubert Walter
    Crane, Lyman Elwood
    Crapps, Cecil
    Crawford, Charles I.
    Crawford, Robert A. L.
    Craycraft, George H.
    Creelman, John Newton
    Crockett, John Edward
    Crose, Claude W.
    Cross, Raymond J.
    Crossland, Ellis
    Crotty, Thomas Edward
    Croushorn, George
    Crow, Walter V., Jr.
    Crowley, Timothy J.
    Crozer, Peter W.
    Crum, Solomon
    Crumley, Raymond A.
    Crumm, Verne Ernest
    Crummy, Andrew Bernard
    Cubile, Saturnino
    Culligan, Walter James
    Cummings, Forrest L.
    Cummings, Haydn
    Cuneo, Antonio Newton
    Cunningham, John Porter
    Curry, Paul Jones
    Curry, Thomas Joseph
    Curtis, Edwin
    Curtis, Harvard Geo.
    Cussuca, James
    Custard, Herman L.

    Dahlin, Ernest M.
    Dailey, Bernard J.
    Dalstra, Andrew
    Daltuvas, John J.
    Daly, Thomas L.
    Dalzell, Lloyd Hunter
    Damaskev, Walter
    Dancer, F. O.
    Dandrade, Conrad
    Danielsen, C. W.
    D’Arcangelo, Michael
    Darch, William J.
    Davenport, L. S.
    Davey, Raymond
    David, Bryan I.
    Davis, Clyde
    Davis, Dewey Lee
    Davis, Edward Lorenzo
    Davis, Francis Joseph
    Davis, John Joseph
    Davis, James D.
    Davison, Lee Roy
    Dawson, Benjamin A.
    Dawson, Ernest Leroy
    Dean, Chester B.
    Dearbanne, Willis
    Dearborn, Geo. E.
    Dearth, Thomas H.
    Debrine, James J.
    Deford, Seth A.
    Delgado, Frank A.
    Delgreco, John
    Dellaporta, Luderico
    DeLeon, Gregoria
    DeLong, Harry Peter
    DeLong, Ronald Morgan
    Demarah, Richard A.
    Demery, N. P.
    Demetrion, Peter
    Dempster, James
    Dennis, Dewey J.
    Derouet, Camille
    Derring, Henry Franklin
    Derstine, John B.
    Deschamps, Eugene
    Desesky, Joseph
    Desjardin, Geo. A. N.
    Desjardins, Philip
    Deslandes, Henri
    Desmond, James F.
    Desplechin, Charles M.
    Devanney, Albert R.
    Devers, Daniel F.
    DeVette, Anton C.
    Devine, William F.
    DeWall Malefyto, Anthony
    Dewdney, Harry
    Dibrill, Joe Glass
    Di Camillo, Baldwin D.
    Dietrich, William Harvey
    Digons, Walter James
    Di Lella, Antonio
    Dileo, Vito
    Dillard, Clyde Rugus
    Dillman, John Joseph
    Dillon, Thomas P.
    Dimling, Henry
    Di Pietro, Bartolo
    Disalvio, Thomas R.
    Divan, Mathew E.
    Dixon, Charles L.
    Dixon, George
    Dixon, Henry Arthur
    Dodge, Ellsworth R.
    Dodson, William E.
    Doherty, Earl
    Doherty, Patrick J.
    Dolan, Joseph L.
    Dolan, George Lester
    Dolan, T. J.
    Domach, Stephen Edward
    Dominiak, Chester Jos.
    Donaghue, Clement R.
    Donahue, Edward P.
    Donnelly, James P.
    Donnelly, James William
    Donnelly, Joseph
    Donnelly, Thomas F.
    Donnelly, Bernard C.
    Donner, Dee Arthur
    Donnie, Louis D.
    Donohue, Joseph
    Donovan, Florence A.
    Doody, George A.
    Dorio, Dominick A.
    Dosch, J. G.
    Doudna, Francis M.
    Dougherty, Francis D.
    Dow, William P., Jr.
    Dowd, Francis Herbert
    Dowler, Thomas
    Downing, James B.
    Doyle, Andrew James
    Doyle, Foster G.
    Doyle, William F.
    Drainville, Emile
    Drew, Arthur Weston
    Dube, Charles Henry
    Duckworth, John Y.
    Dudley, John A.
    Duffey, John J.
    Duffy, James J.
    Dufresne, Henry J,
    Dugale, Daniel
    Duggan, Alston Hardy
    Duggan, Norman H.
    Dummett, Francis F.
    Dumm, W. E.
    Dumpprope, William B.
    Dunaway, Arley Otto
    Dundon, John
    Dunham, George L
    Dunham, Lyle A.
    Dunn, Harrison
    Dunn, David O. S.
    Dunn, Edwin C.
    Dunn, William D.
    Dupre, John R.
    Durbin, Lawrence Patrick
    Durernay, E. F.
    Durkin, John Harold
    Durkin, Joseph H.
    Durkin, Robert J.
    Durnick, Arthur M.
    Dushuttle, Louis E.
    Dwyer, John Joseph
    Dyer, Barksell
    Dzilsky, Geo. William

    Eaione, Carmine Joseph
    Eason, Andrew L.
    Eason, Clarence J.
    Eberhardt, Louis Charles
    Eckler, Hayland R.
    Eddinger, Vernon C.
    Edmondson, John O.
    Edwards, Hubert Foster
    Eilers, Charles F.
    Eleria, Pedro
    Elkind, Paul David
    Elliott, Hubert J.
    Ellis, Carlton
    Elward, Leroy John
    Engel, Albert
    Engel, William Frederick
    Engles, Orie Lurvine
    Eppert, Louis
    Epstein, Jules
    Erb, Albert J.
    Erickson, Victor Emanuel
    Ericson, Ernest C.
    Ertel, Mike A.
    Erlenbach, Martin A.
    Euler, Frederick William
    Euler, Henry
    Everhart, Frank L.
    Exerjian, Gabriel M.
    Exner, Edward Frederic

    Fabrizio, Ralph
    Fagan, F. K.
    Faherly, J. L.
    Farber, Joseph Geo.
    Farquar, Alan Benton
    Farley, Louie L.
    Farrar, Geo. Washington
    Farrell, Peter
    Fastenberg, Irving
    Fastoff, Alexander
    Faughnan, Charles J.
    Faulkner, Harry
    Fawcett, Lyman W.
    Feeny, James F.
    Feinster, James Dugan
    Feinstein, Charles
    Felder, Clarence
    Felder, John, Jr.
    Fellona, Joseph A.
    Fenton, John
    Ferguson, Jack Gordon
    Ferm, Evan Malcolm
    Ferrier, Eugene S.
    Fettinger, George, Jr.
    Fick, Edward F.
    Fickett, George E.
    Fiel, Louis A.
    Field, Donald E.
    Field, Ralph
    Fields, Cecil
    Files, Charles J. F.
    Filipski, Stanley F.
    Finan, Russell John
    Finch, Jos. L.
    Fine, Joseph
    Finley, John A.
    Finley, Royden Manfold
    Finn, John Henry
    Finnegan, Arthur R.
    Finnerty, William G.
    Firman, Joseph J.
    Firth, Geo. W.
    Fischer, George Adam
    Fisher, Frank B.
    Fisher, William Wallace
    Fitting, Chas. G.
    Fitzgerald, Arthur R.
    Fitzgerald, John J.
    Fitzmartin, Raymond
    Flaherty, Thomas H.
    Flanagan, Robert
    Fleenor, William H.
    Fleming, Alphus J.
    Fleming, Roy Arthur
    Fleming, Thomas
    Fliegel, Christian F.
    Flowers, Frank
    Flynn, Daniel C.
    Flynn, Martin J.
    Fochs, Herbert N.
    Foden, Joseph James
    Fogle, Eddie
    Foisett, Charles W.
    Foley, Daniel E.
    Foley, Thomas J.
    Foley, T. J.
    Forbes, Daniel G.
    Forsythe, Ray M.
    Fortney, Myrle H.
    Foster, William
    Fox, David E.
    Fox, Albert Nathal
    Fox, William John
    Foy, Robert Oliver
    Francia, Primo
    Francisco, Elery D.
    Franklin, Robert E. L.
    Franz, Gus.
    Franzen, Antone F.
    Frarer, John H.
    Fream, Chester Baldwin
    Freeman, Geo. Arthur
    French, Henry Feather
    French, James F.
    Fresen, Joel B.
    Freund, Philip P.
    Freyburger, Roy L.
    Frick, Fred.
    Friday, Attly Travis
    Friedhand, Jacob
    Frison, Joseph
    Fritz, Geo. Wash.
    Froelich, Irving F.
    Frock, Charles R.
    Frost, Emery Larenzo
    Frost, Percy A.
    Froula, Otto Frank
    Fuller, Frank N.
    Fuller, William Bernard
    Furlong, Raymond C.
    Furst, Fred
    Fuskerud, Albert

    Gabrenas, Anthony Paul
    Gabrysewski, John (Gabel)
    Gagne, Irving M.
    Gagon, Chauncey A.
    Gago, Tudor
    Gallagher, Neil
    Gallant, Charles J.
    Gallaspie, Hubert E.
    Gallent, Clifton N.
    Gallo, Jack
    Gammill, Wendell Brooks
    Gapinski, Frank V.
    Garball, Arthur
    Garner, Hubert M.
    Garner, Arthur L.
    Garner, Clarence Eugene
    Garrison, Melvin
    Garver, Floyd
    Gash, Lawrence W.
    Gatcho, Dalmacio
    Gatling, Harry N.
    Gaucher, Eugene Alfred
    Gaunt, Henry E.
    Gavin, Thomas James
    Gay, William M.
    Gaylo, Benedict J.
    Gemmel, Adam
    Gentile, Philip
    Gentry, Jack Adams
    Gentzsh, Charles T.
    George, Albert
    George, Joseph Salvatore
    George, Leonard G.
    George, Leroy Delphin
    Gerard, Paul George
    Giangrandi, Giralamo
    Giardina, Giuseppe
    Gibbons, Myles
    Gibney, Patrick Christ.
    Gibney, Henry G.
    Gilbert, Davis L.
    Gilkye, J. W.
    Gill, John Phillip
    Gillenwater, Joel R.
    Gilliece, Leo J.
    Giminez, Fernando
    Girardi, Angelo
    Gish, George B.
    Glaser, Edward J.
    Gleason, Michael D.
    Glenny, Henry T.
    Glick, J. W.
    Godfrey, Horace Chilton
    Godin, Frank
    Goelzer, Samuel
    Goff, David Oliver
    Goggin, William J.
    Goldman, Adolph Arthur
    Goldman, Anton C.
    Goldman, Edward
    Goldberg, Max
    Goldsmith, Joseph
    Gonzalez, Feliciano
    Good, Fred. I.
    Goodnetter, Geo. J.
    Goodrich, Dalton E.
    Goodstein, Maurice
    Goodwin, Starlin F.
    Goolazian, Masrob
    Gordinier, William W.
    Gordon, David
    Gordon, Nelson
    Gosline, Fred S.
    Goss, Ora Martin
    Gottlies, Harry
    Goudreault, William L.
    Gozzetta, John
    Grabowski, John T.
    Grady, George J.
    Grady, William F.
    Graham, Thomas James
    Graham, William E.
    Granes, Elmer G.
    Grayless, C. E.
    Grant, James Albert
    Gray, Richard
    Greene, Victor F.
    Greenstein, Sally
    Gregory, Edward
    Grey, Willmot H.
    Gries, Carl
    Griffin, James
    Griffith, Freddie T.
    Griffith, Geo. Morgan
    Griffiths, Geo. E.
    Grimes, Lawrence D.
    Grondine, Raoul J.
    Grossett, David, Jr.
    Group, Frank J.
    Groves, William M.
    Gruber, Eugene Charles
    Gruen, Frank Henry
    Gruenwald, Alfred
    Guffin, W. E.
    Guidotti, Numa
    Gullickson, Reuben M.
    Gunn, John G.
    Gurholt, Carval G.
    Gusky, Jerome
    Guy, Thomas
    Gwyn, Oliver Berley
    Gwynn, Henry A.
    Gwynn, Richard H. D.

    Hackett, W. H.
    Hackley, Herbert M.
    Haire, Homer H.
    Hakeem, John M.
    Halbison, Greer B.
    Haley, Vincent Francis
    Hall, Burl
    Hall, Cecil
    Hall, Virgil Maxwell
    Hall, Walter Lloyd
    Halle, James G.
    Halter, Conrad Geo.
    Hamilton, Thomas D.
    Hamlin, Gilbert
    Hammen, Roy Merrill
    Hamor, James E.
    Hand, Wendell G.
    Hane, J. E.
    Hankinson, Louis A.
    Hanlon, Edward P.
    Hanlon, John Andrew
    Hanna, Louis A.
    Hanne, Charles W.
    Hans, Francis A.
    Hansen, Charles T.
    Hanson, Henry
    Hanson, J. A.
    Hanvey, Louis O.
    Hardiman, John J.
    Hargreave, Roy Wm.
    Harnisch, Le Roy L.
    Harper, William L.
    Harris, Archibald J.
    Harris, Elbert Clifton
    Harris, Floyd R.
    Harris, Glenn F.
    Harris, John J.
    Harris, Philip
    Harrison, Arthur J.
    Harrison, Charles H.
    Harrison, John C.
    Harrison, Lloyd Elkins
    Hart, Rexford E.
    Hartigan, William R.
    Hartsock, Ernest H.
    Harvey, Arthur
    Harwood, Alvin
    Hasbrouck, Melvin B.
    Haske, Frederick B.
    Haskins, Francis J.
    Hass, Joseph Jacob
    Hasse, Julius
    Hassmann, Joseph C.
    Hastings, Jerome L.
    Hatch, Walter Coit
    Hauenstein, Lawrence C.
    Haughey, William
    Havers, Geo. Mathew
    Hawkacki, John A.
    Hay, Lorin D.
    Haynes, Joseph
    Head, Hovie
    Hebensberger, Frank A.
    Hedenburg, Harry C.
    Heggen, Karl A.
    Heim, Peter
    Hein, Alfred W.
    Heindl, Lee J.
    Heironimus, Charles K.
    Helcamp, Will.
    Heligensten, Henry G.
    Hendernon, Raymond
    Henderson, Aquilla R.
    Henderson, Charles Porter
    Henderson, John D.
    Henderson, John M.
    Henderson, Frank Smith
    Henderson, Robert E.
    Henderson, William
    Hendren, Millard F.
    Hendrickson, Alfred Wm.
    Hendrickson, Gilbert C.
    Hendrix, Thomas W.
    Henkel, Joseph G.
    Hennessy, Gerald
    Hennessy, Joseph F.
    Hennessy, Lawrence E.
    Henry, Alfred D.
    Henry, Francis S.
    Henry, Frank S., Jr.
    Henry, James Richard
    Henze, Herbert Hugo
    Herbert, Jasper
    Herman, Leon
    Hermann, John
    Herne, Howard
    Herrman, Sidney
    Heroy, James H.
    Herring, Frank J.
    Hersham, Frank
    Heuskin, Emil F.
    Herzog, William E.
    Hess, Edward Walter
    Hesse, Frederick W.
    Hession, Edward M.
    Heuisler, Joseph S.
    Heyl, Howard V.
    Heys, Thomas A.
    Higginbotham, Geo.
    Higgins, Arthur J.
    Higgins, Edwin E.
    Higgins, Fred Monroe
    Higgins, Edwin F.
    Hill, Harvey W.
    Hill, Homer L.
    Hilton, Cecil
    Hilz, Frank L.
    Hinds, Henry Carl
    Hines, Joseph A.
    Hinsdale, S. O.
    Hinterleiter, Rae E.
    Hirsch, Joseph
    Hirshfield, Simon
    Hirsch, A.
    Hirst, Peter
    Hiscox, Everett H., Jr.
    Hobbs, Crosby Edwin
    Hobson, Brook Henry
    Hochstein, Samuel
    Hodges, James Clark
    Hodges, Otis Elbert
    Hodrus, Walter J.
    Hoffman, Archie
    Hoffman, James L.
    Hogan, Cornelius J.
    Hogan, Edward J.
    Hogard, Joseph
    Hogendobler, Geo. H.
    Holcombe, Howard A.
    Hollings, Grover C.
    Hollins, Roderick Esmond
    Holman, Albert Newton
    Holmes, Stephen, Jr.
    Holtzman, Max
    Homrich, Leslie A.
    Honer, Frank Joseph
    Honeycutt, William T.
    Hood, Aubrey Ray
    Hock, Rufus Hermon
    Hooper, Moreau
    Hoose, Fred W.
    Hopkins, Karl H.
    Hopkins, Wilbur F.
    Horan, Frank J.
    Horn, Charles A.
    Horner, Wright Blaine
    Horowitz, Sam Jacob
    Horrigan, William A.
    Horter, William F.
    Horton, Riley
    Horwitz, Abraham
    Hoseth, Einar A.
    Houlihan, Eugene F.
    House, Clinton
    Hovde, Theodore P.
    Howard, Leander Ray
    Howard, Jas.
    Howe, Geo. E.
    Howe, Joshua B.
    Howell, Perry S.
    Howery, Charlie Lee
    Hubert, Frank P.
    Hubert, Ralph S.
    Huckaly, Grady K.
    Huckey, D. J.
    Hudack, Joseph M.
    Hudgins, Jefferson A.
    Hudson, Charles J.
    Hudson, James A.
    Hudson, Willie A.
    Hudspeth, Robert E.
    Huecker, Lawrence A.
    Huffaker, R. M.
    Huffstetler, Joseph H.
    Hughes, Arthur G.
    Hughes, Maurice L.
    Huisheere, Oliver J.
    Hulmes, John E.
    Huneke, Herbert C.
    Hunt, Jacob O.
    Hunter, Isaac Roy
    Hunter, Leon Brann
    Huntley, W. H.
    Huntsinger, Archie S.
    Hurley, David W.
    Hurt, Albert C.
    Hussey, Gilbert F.
    Hutts, John Edward
    Hylas, Michael J.

    Iacono, Joseph A.
    Ignatz, William
    Igo, James T.
    Iles, Edward Albert
    Imbriano, Edward
    Irwin, Shuter
    Ison, Charlie F.
    Iverson, Marcus P.
    Iverson, Walter I.
    Ix, John Peter
    Ivy, John Wallace

    Jablowski, Felix
    Jackson, Asher Hardy
    Jackson, Broaddrus A.
    Jacob, Wilbert Ovila
    Jacolbe, Bernard Joseph
    Jacobs, Alphonse J.
    Jacobs, Horace
    Jacobs, Sam
    Jacobson, Merrill
    Jacoby, Frank
    Jacoby, Robert E. H.
    Jager, Julius, Jr.
    Jahnsen, James
    James, Edward E.
    James, John Watter
    Jameson, James Patrick
    Jannetta, Anton Victor
    Javier, Conrado
    Jeffs, Adelbert
    Jeger, J. E.
    Jenkins, Elwin W.
    Jennings, Daniel O.
    Jennings, Harry C.
    Jensen, Edward P.
    Jensen, Elmer
    Jensen, Leo Daniel
    Jeremias, Julius E.
    Jizejian, Joseph
    Johnson, Alex
    Johnson, Alfred M.
    Johnson, Aubrey Allison
    Johnson, Charlie
    Johnson, Clarence J.
    Johnson, Gus
    Johnson, Hallie McK.
    Johnson, Howard Hall
    Johnson, Hillary N.
    Johnson, John Richard
    Johnson, Norman E.
    Johnson, Oscar N.
    Johnson, William M.
    Johnson, Roy
    Johnson, Troy W.
    Johnson, Verne L.
    Johnson, William A.
    Johnson, William H.
    Johnston, Arthur H.
    Jolly, Raymond I.
    Jones, Bailey F.
    Jones, Charlie
    Jones, Fred Ernest, Jr.
    Jones, Henry William
    Jones, James
    Jones, James W.
    Jones, John
    Jones, Paul
    Jones, William D.
    Jordan, Matthias A.
    Jordon, George
    Jordon, Richard D.
    Joseph, William F. L.
    Josephs, David
    Juby, William S.
    Juhnke, Walter A.
    Junior, Marshall A.
    Jwanicki, Felix

    Kaiser, Irwin Charles
    Kalsch, Frank
    Kane, Charles J.
    Kane, Edward James
    Kane, Philip J.
    Kantufsky, Chester
    Kaplan, Charles I.
    Kaplan, Jacob A.
    Karp, Nathan
    Kastenhuber, William G.
    Katz, Benjamin
    Katz, Harry
    Kaufman, Isidor
    Kaufman, Joseph
    Kay, John
    Keane, Joseph D.
    Kearney, Edward C.
    Keenan, Grover Evert
    Kehoe, Bernard J.
    Keleher, Joseph J.
    Kelleher, Richard D.
    Keller, Frank Joseph
    Keller, William G.
    Kelly, Chester A.
    Kelly, David A.
    Kelly, Philip Joseph
    Kelly, William
    Kelly, William R.
    Kendrick, William H.
    Kenemer, Henry Clay
    Kenemer, Thomas W.
    Kenley, William M.
    Kennedy, Samuel Jos.
    Kennedy, Walter H.
    Kennedy, Walter Joseph
    Kenney, Samuel F.
    Kennick, Martin John
    Kenny, John Eugene
    Kenyon, Elmert Plant
    Kerns, Howell F.
    Kershaw, Rolston J.
    Kessler, Samuel
    Kessler, Julius
    Ketchum, Walter S.
    Ketron, Hubert William
    Kettlehut, Dellmer E.
    Kibble, Sidney E.
    Kientzle, Emmett Jos.
    Kiernan, Patrick
    Kight, Fred
    Kilburn, Leonard
    Kilroy, Bernard
    King, Chas. H.
    King, Ivan
    King, John A.
    King, Michael J.
    King, Samuel
    Kingsley, Paul Grant
    Kinnison, Floyd Webb
    Kirk, Thomas F.
    Kirnan, Frank A.
    Kitchin, Harvey Lee
    Kleinbub, Frank G.
    Kleinkurt, Albert
    Klerinsky, Maurice
    Klinger, Elmer
    Klinner, William H.
    Kluge, James Edward
    Knott, William Michael
    Knowlen, Oscar T.
    Knowles, Wilbur C.
    Knutson, A. P.
    Kohke, Henry Francis
    Kohl, Fred Jacob
    Koiner, Edward L.
    Kopielski, Ben
    Kosluski, Louis A.
    Kovach, Albert
    Kozenesky, Joseph
    Kral, Frank
    Kramer, Peter E.
    Krasnipol, Louis
    Kratky, Joseph
    Krawczewski, Nicholas
    Kreyer, Louis F.
    Kroshbein, C. H.
    Krumbach, Carl William
    Kruse, Arthur W.
    Krusinski, Roman
    Kucera, Wesley
    Kuebler, Harold
    Kurtz, George Stanley
    Kurzawa, Anthony M.
    Kutz, Samuel E.
    Kyle, Clarence B.
    Kytola, Waino K.

    Labati, John
    La Boissiere, Frank J.
    Ladd, Thomas N.
    Lafferty, Cecil Andrew
    Lagow, Robert E.
    Lagut, Francis J.
    Lampley, Walter Jentry
    Landers, Everett Jay
    Landry, Luzan J.
    Lanewe, Vincent
    Lang, Frank Otto
    Langdon, Robert McDermot
    Lagenbacker, George F.
    Langhouser, Joseph A.
    Larsen, Chris
    Larsen, John Daniel
    Larson, Alfred J.
    Larson, Edward B.
    Larson, Joseph Omar
    Lashkowski, Joseph J.
    Lashus, H. A.
    Laskauski, Joseph
    Laspe, Edward
    Lassen, Fletcher A.
    Latchis, Emanuel D.
    Latham, Willie Blair
    Lathrop, Roy B.
    Lathrop, Wilbur Peck
    Lattimore, Bennie
    Lauricella, Thomas
    Lavallee, Francis R.
    Lavoie, Joseph A.
    Lavorato, Sam
    Lawhon, Robert H.
    Lawrence, Eli B.
    Lawrence, Harry Stanton
    Lawrence, Homer A.
    Lawson, Harold G.
    Lawson, Lawrence
    Lawson, Oliver B.
    Lax, Abraham
    Leach, Warren W.
    Lee, Glenn G.
    Lee, Christopher Joseph
    Lee, Joseph F.
    Lee, Robert Franklin
    Leedy, Roscoe
    Leeper, Alva Norton
    Lehneis, Christian, Jr.
    Lemay, John
    Lemonde, Edgar
    Lenihan, George J.
    Leonard, Lavy L.
    Lepley, Roy W.
    Lerch, Robert A.
    Lessard, Wilfred A.
    Lesser, George
    Levene, Henry E.
    Levine, Abraham
    Levine, Leo Wolf
    Levitt, William M.
    Levy, Max
    Lewin, Edward
    Lewis, Henry G.
    Lewis, Francis H.
    Lewis, Walter F.
    Liebig, Emlyn Albright
    Lieder, Stephen M.
    Lightfoot, E. M.
    Lillibridge, Robert C.
    Limberg, John A.
    Limgren, Carl A.
    Limper, Robert C.
    Lincks, William Clarence
    Lind, Herbert A.
    Lindell, Juel C.
    Linder, Abraham
    Linder, Carl G.
    Lindquist, Thomas
    Lindsay, William Muir
    Linn, William J.
    Linsley, Edward H.
    Lippert, Leonard
    Lipscomb, Clifton C.
    Lisdero, Valentine
    Little, John J.
    Lohrer, Walter W.
    Logan, R. S.
    Long, George D.
    Long, Jesse William
    Long, H. V.
    Long, W. A.
    Loomis, Floyd
    Loop, Harold W.
    Lord, Claud
    Lord, Leslie M.
    Louis, Lesser H.
    Lovejoy, Herbert W.
    Lowe, Robert McK.
    Lowe, William E.
    Lowe, A. J.
    Lukaiowicz, John
    Luna, Sanford D.
    Lund, Leo Lloyd
    Lunsford, James V.
    Lusk, Geo. Eugene
    Lustig, Philip
    Lutthaus, Fred
    Luvisch, Abraham
    Lydon, James Keven
    Lynch, John Henry

    McAdams, William
    McAllister, Daniel J.
    McCabe, James Thomas
    McCandlish, James F.
    McCarthy, Alfred P.
    McCarthy, Charles L.
    McCarthy, Clinton C.
    McCarty, Leon B.
    McCauley, Herbert J.
    McChesney, Roy Clifford
    McClarnon, Augustine
    McClement, Philip H.
    McCollister, Isaac F.
    McCollough, John H.
    McConnell, Joseph J.
    McCorkle, Pope
    McCrory, J. E.
    McDermott, Charles
    McDermott, Thomas J.
    McDonald, Thomas F.
    McDonald, John J.
    McDonald, John Jos.
    McDonnell, James J.
    McDow, Cicero
    McElhiney, Leslie E.
    McFarland, Jerry Don
    McFarlane, Osmond
    McFee, G. A.
    McGarry, John C.
    McGiboney, Auby
    McGilvray, Duncan D.
    McGinn, Geo. Clyde
    McGovern, John E. J.
    McGray, Donald
    McGregor, John Murdo
    McIntire, Claud L.
    McIntosh, Clarence P.
    McKee, John Robert
    McKeen, Albert L.
    McKendrick, Ruben
    McKenzie, Albert W.
    McLane, Oscar W.
    McLaughlin, Edward J.
    McLellan, Floyd E.
    McLeod, Clarence P.
    McMahon, John
    McMahon, Joseph J.
    McManamon, Vern A.
    McManus, Charles J.
    McManus, Harry R.
    McMaster, Leo Joseph
    McMullen, Allen D.
    McNabney, Francis
    McNair, Malachi
    McNally, James B.
    McNickles, Tomie
    McPhail, Carl
    McQuade, Frank J.
    McRae, Saxton
    Macauley, Charles C.
    MacCauley, Thomas J.
    Macavella, Patrick J.
    MacDonnell, Julian
    Mackey, Anthony
    MacKenzie, Frederick W.
    Mackintosh, William H.
    Mackney, Loyd Raymond
    Mackritis, George
    Macris, Panagia
    Magann, Francis X.
    Magill, Walter E.
    Magner, Patrick E.
    Magnusen, Lewis W.
    Magratten, Leo J.
    Maguire, Harry R.
    Maher, E. W.
    Mahr, Henry John
    Malfetano, Sylvia
    Mallay, Jules L.
    Mallow, Walter F.
    Malo, Arthur
    Malo, Raymond A.
    Maloy, John M.
    Malone, Philip Vincent
    Maloney, Leo Griswold
    Maloney, Martin Joseph
    Manda, Charles E.
    Mangold, Julius C.
    Mann, Nelson L.
    Manning, Edward I.
    March, Philip Edward
    Marcinkowski, Peter
    Marcoux, Florien
    Marforio, Martin
    Marien, Leo
    Marion, Joseph Scott
    Marks, John Joseph
    Marshall, James, Jr.
    Marsland, Alfred L.
    Martin, Charlie B.
    Martin, Daniel Thomas
    Martin, Jacob H.
    Martin, John F., Jr.
    Martin, George E.
    Martin, Wesley
    Martin, J. J.
    Maske, F. B.
    Maslow, Samuel
    Mason, Morris James
    Massey, Emory L.
    Mathews, Samuel J.
    Mathews, William H.
    Mathews, W. L.
    Mathien, George J.
    Mathies, Arthur J.
    Matt, Frank
    Matthews, James E.
    Maxim, Earl H.
    Maxwell, Lovell
    May, Robert M.
    May, W. F.
    Mayer, Nathan
    Mayernick, John Corey
    Mayo, Edward
    Mays, Oscar
    Mazzadri, Michael Joe
    Mazzeta, Joseph
    Mead, Charles Julian
    Meade, Hansford
    Medick, Arthur Ellsworth
    Mehann, G. L.
    Melendres, Leo
    Meline, Wallace M.
    Mellett, Peter
    Melton, Eiley King
    Mendenhall, Chas. T.
    Meneely, James Knox
    Menges, William David
    Menk, Charles I., Jr.
    Mercier, Alton Lee
    Meridith, Jean Homer
    Merrill, Leslie Jordan
    Merrill, William Jesse
    Merry, Chauncey C.
    Metz, Geo. Burt
    Meyers, Clyde F.
    Meyers, William A.
    Mezzel, Johnnie Mitchel
    Michalski, Charles
    Mickiewcz, William
    Middleton, Samuel P.
    Miele, Dominick
    Miers, Charles Jack
    Milburn, Orville
    Miles, Charles Wm.
    Miles, Samuel Bascal
    Milkon, M. J.
    Miller, Clarence W.
    Miller, Fred Hugh
    Miller, Isadore
    Miller, John Adam
    Miller, John Henegar
    Miller, Martin C.
    Miller, Halsey W.
    Millet, Hylton Berchmen
    Milligan, Walter Scott
    Milling, Edward L.
    Million, James W.
    Millis, C. D.
    Mills, Charles O.
    Mills, Fred Jones
    Mills, Henry A.
    Minton, Forrest D.
    Misavage, Lewis
    Mitchell, Finley E.
    Mitchell, Joseph Henry
    Mitchell, Otto G.
    Mithalovich, John J.
    Mittlestadt, Arthur Emil
    Mix, Joseph S.
    Modran, Paul W. R.
    Moffatt, Laurence
    Mohr, Herman Peter
    Moisan, Charles A.
    Molter, Matthew Joseph
    Molloy, John J.
    Monaghan, Charles J.
    Moncriieft, V. G.
    Monk, William
    Monken, August L.
    Monroe, Geo. B,
    Monson, Arthur E.
    Moody, Willey M.
    Moore, Albert Gus
    Moore, Allen Woodruff
    Moore, Carl B.
    Moore, Edward
    Moore, Percy J.
    Moore, Richard Morris
    Moore, Warner R.
    Moorehouse, Henry F.
    Moran, Edmund
    Moran, John Francis
    Moran, Raymond T.
    Morgan, William A.
    Morin, Ephriam Die
    Morette, James E.
    Morris, Lloyd Robert
    Morris, Wilson J.
    Morris, Everett P.
    Morrissette, John
    Morrone, Edward
    Morrow, E.
    Mortimore, Oscar Frank
    Moses, Harvey Huston
    Mosley, Thomas M.
    Moss, Herman P,
    Motherall, William.
    Motley, Warren T.
    Mount, Joseph A.
    Mountain, Matthew D.
    Moyer, Robert O.
    Mueller, Herbert Geo. Wash.
    Mullen, Edward J.
    Mullen, Joseph Thomas
    Muller, Charles F.
    Mullins, Cecil Emerson
    Mulrein, William Cole
    Murphy, Daniel Paul
    Murphy, Callahan
    Murphy, John J.
    Murphy, Joseph F.
    Murphy, Leo Joseph
    Murray, John Joseph
    Murray, Thomas A.
    Murray, J. C.
    Musich, John Leo
    Myers, Dale Powell
    Myers, John Dolan
    Myers, Monroe S.
    Myers, Meyrl Edward

    Nagee, John Kram
    Nawrocki, Joseph A.
    Neal, Ivan Samuel
    Neal, Moncellia T.
    Nee, James A., Jr.
    Needham, Willie John
    Neeley, James F.
    Neely, Robert F.
    Neff, Alfred H.
    Nelson, Anton H.
    Nelson, Arthur Wilbur
    Nelson, Clarence Peter
    Nelson, Edward L.
    Nelson, Harrison
    Nelson, James
    Nelson, John Iderman
    Nelson, Sven
    Nesbitt, Isaac E.
    Nester, Edward M.
    Neuber, Paul Adolph C. G.
    Newhauser, Benjamin F.
    Neville, Victor Robert
    Newcomer, Roy S.
    Nicholas, Eugene Fulton
    Nickel, Joseph J.
    Nicolette, David Anthony
    Nicosia, Sam Joseph
    Nieland, Harry William
    Nies, Mark Bernard
    Nipper, Geo. Dewey
    Nixon, John Robert
    Noble, John Dewey
    Nolan, John Lee
    Noone, Charles E.
    Nonnenmacher, Carl
    Noonan, Clement Samuel
    Noonan, Edward James
    Nordlund, Earl Milton
    Nordstrum, Reuben Peter
    Norgiel, John J.
    Norian, Edward O. H.
    Northrup, Gerbert L., Jr.
    Northup, H. E.
    Novak, Emanuel A.
    Nowicky, John
    Nyboes, John F.
    Nyiri, John A.

    Oaks, Carlton V. V.
    Oberg, Bror W.
    Obert, Arthur W.
    O’Brien, Michael
    O’Brien, James A.
    O’Brien, James J.
    Ockenfels, Geo. W.
    O’Connell, Joseph
    O’Connell, Wilbert
    O’Connell, Wm. E.
    O’Connor, Cornelius A.
    O’Connor, John P.
    O’Connor, Thomas P.
    O’Connor, William
    O’Donnell, N. E.
    Oesterreicher, Ben
    Offerman, John Henry
    Offutt, Joseph Paul
    Ogden, Joseph F., Jr.
    Ogg, Robert M.
    O’Hanlon, James
    O’Keefe, John P. J.
    O’Leary, B. J.
    Oldfather, Walter Emmett
    Olling, Geo. Peter
    Olmstead, Harry F.
    Olsen, Floyd Bernard
    Olsen, Richard
    Olsen, Svend A. H.
    Olson, Alfred T.
    Olson, Almer O.
    Olson, H. I.
    O’Meara, Edward J.
    Ommert, William N.
    O’Neil, David Patrick
    O’Neill, John Emmett
    O’Neil, William M.
    Ong, George
    Orchen, Abraham
    Orlando, Alessandro
    O’Rourke, Arthur
    Ostrowski, Edward F.
    Ottinger, Emil
    Ottley, George Burgess
    Outhouse, William E.
    Owens, Michael B.
    Ozminski, Adam W.

    Packenham, James F.
    Page, Louis
    Painter, Earl E.
    Palmer, Edward L.
    Paimes, Ernest R.
    Paith, Arthur H.
    Pangburn, William H.
    Panneton, Andre Alphonse
    Panter, Clarence J.
    Park, Walter L.
    Parker, Floyd Logan
    Parks, George F.
    Parks, Leo V.
    Parsons, George Henry
    Partisis, Savus
    Parvin, William E.
    Pastori, Alfred
    Pate, Jessie D.
    Patrick, Andy, Jr.
    Patrick, Casimir
    Patrick, Thomas
    Patterson, Egbert G.
    Patton, James Chambers
    Paulsen, Antonio C.
    Payne, James Patrick
    Peabody, Roy Louis
    Peachey, Gerald A.
    Pearce, Thomas R.
    Peart, Alfred G.
    Pechonhuk, Frank J.
    Peck, Hazen P.
    Peden, Herman Alexander
    Pelleteir, E. H.
    Pemberton, Norman
    Pennery, Augustus
    Peniston, Jennings Bryan
    Penzick, Moses
    Peo, William O.
    Peppard, John
    Peppers, John C.
    Perkins, Charles Eugene
    Perkins, Percy B.
    Perrault, Paul J.
    Perry, Charles T.
    Perry, Ernest L.
    Perry, George I.
    Perry, John
    Persons, Geo. Kuse
    Peschko, Rudolph B.
    Petersen, Alfred Iver
    Petersen, Otto
    Peterson, Carl R.
    Peterson, Geo. Widgred
    Peterson, Harry W.
    Peterson, Sam Sanborn
    Petty, R. W.
    Pfeifer, Joseph H.
    Phelps, Peter
    Phillips, David
    Phillips, Floyd Clinton
    Phillips, Raymond
    Phoenix, Charles Edward
    Picard, Ernest
    Picha, Charles Louis
    Pike, Alva E.
    Pickett, Paul Hutchinson
    Pielage, Albert H.
    Pilkington, Peter H.
    Piper, Thomas J.
    Pippincott, Paul Thomas
    Piquette, Emile J.
    Pirce, R. W.
    Pitt, Jasper
    Poad, Joseph Edwin
    Poindexter, John W.
    Poitras, Raymond E.
    Polhemus, Russell Merritt
    Polito, Anthony
    Pollak, Solomon N.
    Pollard, Arthur
    Pollard, Charles Arthur
    Ponder, Ambrus
    Pontz, James H.
    Pope, Harvey Peter
    Porter, James E.
    Poslusny, Albert
    Potter, Elmer
    Powell, Ernest Lawrence
    Powers, Robert Emmet
    Powers, Walter Edward
    Prast, John Fred
    Prescott, John W.
    Prescott, Karl R.
    Pressnall, Ernest J.
    Price, Lloyd Lewis
    Price, Walter Peter
    Priddy, Henry Earl
    Primrose, Arthur E.
    Prisk, Clarence W.
    Prochaska, John
    Proctor, Douglas K.
    Przyeyszewski, Stephen F.
    Puglia, Frank
    Puppel, Adolf, Jr.
    Pulol, Leo Leonard
    Purtle, William L.

    Quinn, Eugene L.
    Quinn, Thomas J.
    Quint, L. Aldeyge

    Rabinowitz, Samuel
    Raimondi, Michael J.
    Raimey, Charles C.
    Rakerstraw, Chester G.
    Ramirez, Manuel
    Ramsey, Willis Carrol
    Rand, James Milton
    Rand, Wendell G.
    Randolph, Garvin Theodore
    Rankin, M. L.
    Rasmussen, Robert
    Rawson, Melvin O.
    Ray, James F.
    Ray, M. G.
    Raymond, Jack E.
    Reagan, Francis John
    Reagan, Thomas L.
    Rebman, Bert.
    Reckinger, Raymond M.
    Reddington, James A.
    Redmond, John L.
    Rees, Clarence E.
    Reeves, Thomas C.
    Reid, Elliott H.
    Reid, Thomas J.
    Reilly, John Jos.
    Reinhart, J. F.
    Reiss, Fred
    Renard, Claud R.
    Renda, James
    Renzulli, Pasquale
    Reynolds, Frank J., Jr.
    Reynolds, Gustauis Napolian
    Reinhart, Clarence Lee
    Reynders, Floyd
    Rhodes, John
    Ricardson, D. A.
    Rice, George Archibald
    Rice, Linville Steward
    Rich, William L.
    Richardson, Earl C.
    Richter, Daniel
    Ridoux, William N.
    Riker, Howard J.
    Riley, Frank J.
    Riley, Harold
    Ringrose, Harold LeRoy
    Risley, William K.
    Rivers, Troy
    Rizzo, Jack J.
    Rizzolo, Leonard A.
    Robbins, Afdent S.
    Robbins, Archie V.
    Roberson, Lige F.
    Roberts, Chester A.
    Roberts, Ernest M.
    Roberts, Everett H.
    Roberts, John Arthur
    Roberts, John A.
    Robertson, Lewelling
    Robertson, Thomas A.
    Robins, Fred Alfred
    Robinson, Arthur
    Robinson, Frank H.
    Robinson, George B.
    Robinson, George J.
    Robinson, Geo. Lee
    Robinson, John Joseph
    Robinson, Leslie R.
    Robinson, Morris A.
    Robinson, Richard
    Robinson, Vernon M.
    Robinson, William B.
    Robinson, Elmer A.
    Robinson, Pierce H.
    Roche, William L.
    Rockafellor, Chas. Wesley
    Rodgers, William D.
    Rodriguez, William
    Roebuck, Andrew
    Roeder, Clemins E.
    Roels, Roger A.
    Roemer, Alben Alois
    Rogers, Charles A.
    Rogers, George J.
    Rogers, Howard H.
    Rogers, John C.
    Rogers, Thomas Joseph
    Rogers, C. E.
    Rogers, Earl H.
    Rohr, Walter
    Romas, Gus A.
    Romer, A. C.
    Romero, Apolinar
    Rommerein, Gilbert
    Roschinsky, Martin H.
    Rose, Clayton J.
    Rose, Frank
    Rosen, Moe
    Rosenburg, David
    Ross, Charles
    Ross, Harold B.
    Ross, John McKinley
    Rostron, Geo. F.
    Rote, Lawrence
    Roth, Benjamin
    Roth, Charles E.
    Rothwell, Freeland
    Rowley, James
    Rozsa, Evans
    Rubin, Samuel
    Rubin, William
    Ruble, Bryan
    Ruck, William
    Rude, Charles
    Rudig, Alfred Jasper
    Rudiger, Joseph J.
    Ruehl, Fred, Jr.
    Ruggiero, Michael A.
    Rusby, Paul
    Rush, Augustus Lee
    Rushin, Oscar
    Russell, James C.
    Russo, Albert A.
    Russo, John
    Russo, G.
    Ryan, Frank
    Ryan, Jeremiah
    Ryan, John W.
    Ryan, William L.
    Ryle, Thomas J.

    Sacks, N.
    Safstrom, Carl W.
    St. Halaire, Carl R.
    St. John, Hugh Raymond
    St. John, William Peter
    Salk, Emil John
    Sampson, William B.
    Sanders, Charlie C.
    Sanders, William
    Sanders, William Frederick
    Sanderson, Floyd E.
    Sanford, Charles E.
    Sattelin, Walter Fred
    Saturnin, Eugene Joseph
    Sauers, Walter F.
    Saulman, Clifford B.
    Saunders, Albert Martin
    Saunie, Hugh
    Scairrino, Vito
    Scanlon, Thomas F.
    Scarborough, Jos. M.
    Scardopoke, Aramano
    Scharding, James A.
    Schatz, Albert H.
    Schea, Lawrence H.
    Scheckowitz, Charles
    Scheller, Francis H.
    Schiaffino, Prospero
    Schiffbauer, Daniel J.
    Schimmels, Thomas L.
    Schindler, Charles E.
    Schipske, George J.
    Schlotter, H.
    Schmidt, Edgar Frank
    Schmidt, William
    Schmitz, John Joseph
    Schmuker, John I.
    Schnabel, George M.
    Schneck, Harry
    Schneider, Howard O.
    Schoepke, Harvey
    Schollenberger, Wm. Henry
    Schork, Frederick, Jr.
    Schorling, Henry
    Schorr, Louis
    Schrage, Elmer N.
    Schroeder, Edward
    Schuck, George B.
    Schuermann, Ferdinand H.
    Schulthers, Joseph J.
    Schultz, Fred
    Schulz, Emil
    Schulz, William O.
    Schumacher, Claude D.
    Schwartz, Benjamin
    Schweikert, Russel C.
    Scott, Clarence Waldie
    Scott, Jake
    Scott, Prielson H.
    Scott, R. W.
    Seakaes, Carl Peary
    Sears, William F.
    Seebeck, Curtis H.
    Seilman, Herbert W.
    Seigmen, Clarence H.
    Sellers, Albert T.
    Sellers, Delbart U.
    Selig, Sidney
    Sengelaub, John F.
    Senkeisky, Walter F.
    Serth, Austin
    Senffer, John G.
    Shaffer, Edwin Beverly
    Shanahan, Robert
    Shand, James Valentine
    Shanley, George J.
    Shapiro, Sherman L.
    Shaull, John J.
    Shavers, J. A.
    Shaw, Harold J.
    Shawl, Clastus F.
    Shea, L. M.
    Shehan, Joseph J.
    Sheek, John Lafayette
    Sheek, Rodney E.
    Sheemar, William Francis
    Shedron, Frank H.
    Sheldon, Van Chas.
    Shell, Leonard
    Shelley, Walter L.
    Shelton, Arthur Miller
    Shelvey, James Joseph
    Sheridan, Joseph C.
    Sherman, Thomas D.
    Sherrill, Harry Collins
    Shetterley, Joseph H.
    Shimon, Harold A.
    Shleeker, Lenard L.
    Shockley, Emerson G.
    Shook, Roy L.
    Short, William J.
    Shortley, William F.
    Shuck, William R.
    Siglin, Howard P.
    Sigowney, Clyde William
    Silverman, Leo Harry
    Simmons, Vernon Irel
    Simon, Elias
    Simpson, Elvis Earl
    Sims, James Lindsay
    Sims, Robert Lloyd
    Sinclair, Thomas, Jr.
    Singer, Harold T.
    Sink, John
    Sinnett, Arthur
    Sinnott, William F.
    Sipchen, William C.
    Sirovatka, Joseph
    Sisk, Fred M.
    Sisk, Isaac Randolph
    Sittig, Paul Frederick
    Sixsmith, William
    Skipper, Will C.
    Skonicki, John
    Slaayton, Lester G.
    Slack, John Edwin
    Slade, Roscoe C.
    Slavin, John Francis
    Slayton, Lester J.
    Sly, Victor H.
    Smale, Oswald P.
    Small, William A.
    Smalley, Harold H.
    Smallwood, Melville Robert
    Smith, Alfred Henry
    Smith, Charlie C.
    Smith, Clarence
    Smith, Clifford D.
    Smith, Claud B.
    Smith, Eugene L.
    Smith, Harold E.
    Smith, John W.
    Smith, Elmer
    Smith, George V.
    Smith, James
    Smith, John B.
    Smith, Leon E.
    Smith, Merlin L. D.
    Smith, Robert Jackson
    Smith, Robert Hawthorne
    Smith, Solomon Merwin
    Smith, Steward W.
    Smith, Truman Eugene
    Smith, Walter E.
    Smith, Arthur J.
    Smithyman, Earl Goodwin
    Snyder, Robert W.
    Sobienski, John E.
    Sockloski, Charles
    Soffel, Charles
    Sohl, Edward G.
    Solan, Vincent A.
    Sollberger, Walter A. L.
    Solleridge, Samuel
    Solomon, Frank Wells
    Somers, Arthur Lunn
    Somma, Frank B.
    Sommerfeldt, Alfred Walter
    Sorenson, Carl C.
    Sosnosky, John L.
    Southard, Harold E.
    Sparks, P. W.
    Spear, Philip Bennet
    Spencer, George
    Spencer, Howard G.
    Spencer, Louis C.
    Spencer, Roy Franklin
    Spiese, Paul Llewellyn
    Spinney, Roy
    Sprowls, Harlon A.
    Spyker, David Foache
    Staff, Louis Joseph
    Staffel, Gerald
    Stafford, Floyd E.
    Stalberger, Edward J.
    Stalder, Edwin Franklin
    Stalder, Edgar Francis
    Stamper, Harvey Hugh
    Stamper, Kepper
    Stanhope, Howard Nelson
    Stanley, Jess
    Stanley, Jesse S.
    Stanton, Virgil X.
    Stanton, Charles J.
    Stanwood, Chester W.
    Stark, Raymond H.
    Steacy, Rosswell H.
    Stedman, Charles Milton
    Stedron, Frank Henry
    Steed, Netum H.
    Steele, Arthur W.
    Steele, Ellsworth C.
    Steel, Charles William
    Stein, Alex
    Steinman, Reuben
    Stephens, Arthur E.
    Stephens, Drew E.
    Stephens, Ivery Nathaniel
    Steratt, Charlie G.
    Stern, Samuel
    Stewart, Charles N.
    Stewart, Paul
    Stewart, Walter H.
    Stewart, William Curtis
    Stiles, Jesse
    Stingley, John August
    Stock, Harry E.
    Stocker, Christopher H.
    Stoerback, Carl C.
    Stokes, Homer Arden
    Stone, Thomas C., Jr.
    Stranigan, Edgar
    Strecker, Charles Joseph
    Street, Glenn I.
    Striver, Lloyd A.
    Stromosky, Frank
    Stroube, Harry A.
    Strumpf, Harry
    Stryker, Harry
    Stuart, Clarence O.
    Stubblefield, James F.
    Stuhre, John W.
    Stull, Errett D.
    Stults, Claude Marshall
    Sullivan, Daniel Aloysius
    Sutton, Joseph James
    Sullins, Elsa V.
    Sullivan, Daniel B.
    Sullivan, Frederick J.
    Sullivan, George Victor
    Sullivan, Richard N.
    Sullivan, Thomas Patrick
    Sullivan, Walter Thomas
    Sullivan, William D.
    Summers, James F.
    Sundstrom, John Edward
    Sutherland, Lloyd Elbert
    Sutton, William J.
    Swallow, Axel Eddie
    Swanson, Gideon N.
    Swaybill, Irving
    Sweeney, Joseph Aloysius
    Swenson, Floyd E.
    Swetman, Frederick
    Swim, William David
    Swisher, Clarence M.

    Tack, William
    Tambella, Italo
    Tansey, John Charles
    Tardelli, Rinaldi A.
    Tate, Harry
    Taylor, Bayard Phelps
    Taylor, Daniel Joseph
    Taylor, Everett
    Taylor, Garrett Lawson
    Taylor, J. H.
    Taylor, Kenneth W.
    Taylor, Thomas W.
    Taylor, William, Jr.
    Teague, William H.
    Teeter, Eidden John
    Tefft, George H.
    Tejral, Fred
    Teeotsky, Alexander B.
    Terwilliger, Raymond G.
    Tesariero, Guisappa
    Tessens, Joseph A.
    Tews, Walter Albert
    Thagard, Henry F.
    Theiss, Harry L.
    Thismann, Arthur Joseph
    Thisser, Henry
    Thistelthwaite, Charles J.
    Thomas, John William
    Thomas, Philip
    Thomas, De Witt Ousler
    Thomas, Gerald M.
    Thomas, John Mayford
    Thomas, Samuel R.
    Thompson, Thacker O.
    Thompson, Warren O.
    Thompson, Edward Francis
    Thompson, Ralph O.
    Thoms, Frederick
    Tighe, Morgan Jeremiah
    Tighe, Thomas, Jr.
    Titus, Geo. Francis
    Tlover, Samuel
    Toms, Raymond W.
    Tollett, Carl H.
    Tomaselly, Antonio
    Tompkins, Alvah
    Tonkin, Frank
    Toole, Chas.
    Tordeur, Raymond Leon
    Torkelson, Arthur G.
    Towell, James M.
    Towhill, John Patrick
    Trachtenberg, Benjamin
    Tracy, James B.
    Tracy, James Frank
    Trankle, William
    Trask, Leslie Maurice
    Trice, Clyde
    Triffitt, Stephen H.
    Tripp, Stanley Everett
    Tripple, Geo. Edmund
    Tromblay, Arthur A.
    Troope, Sterling
    Trope, Frank
    Trout, Chauncey Marion
    Tronkatos, Wm. B.
    Tucker, Alphonse
    Turner, Bernard E.
    Turner, Lauran R.
    Turnpauck, Charles L.
    Turriff, John Angus
    Turzay, Michael
    Twist, Edward Hiram
    Tyndall, Warren H.
    Tyrell, Floyd

    Ullman, Nathan
    Ulmer, Joseph C.
    Underwood, Harry Walsh
    Unger, Carl Henry
    Urban, Alfred

    Vaccaro, Thomas
    Vaccaro, John B.
    Vanacore, Aniello
    Van Auken, Ross Depue
    Vanderbush, William Henry
    Van Hoosier, William S.
    Van Romondt, Harold S.
    Van Valenburgh, Vernon
    Van Wagoner, Charlie
    Vardy, Francis Z.
    Varmedor, Carroll
    Varmuh, James Lucius
    Varner, Thomas L., Jr.
    Vaughan, Morgan Wm.
    Vegelann, Harry A.
    Veno, George W.
    Verioni, William
    Vestal, Harry Arthur
    Veissem, Elias
    Vidal, Magin Manuel
    Vienot, Walter
    Viets, Charles McL.
    Villaflor, Lorenzo
    Viliar, Russell J.
    Vinick, Maurics
    Vogler, Herman Elmer
    Volk, Charles Aloysius
    Volk, Kyle R.
    Von Hagan, Elmer H.

    Wagner, Arlington R.
    Wagner, Andrew
    Wagner, Leo Ernst
    Waldron, Lloyd D.
    Walker, Alvin J.
    Walker, Charlie
    Walker, Floyd
    Walker, Fred. Wm.
    Walker, Jesse Allen
    Walker, Morris J.
    Walker, Roy L.
    Wallace, David A.
    Walley, Lowman Leroy
    Wallin, Ranson H.
    Walesley, Albert H.
    Walpole, James J.
    Walsh, Harold
    Walsh, James F.
    Walsh, Joseph James
    Walsh, T. J.
    Walukas, Albert
    Walver, Alphonse J.
    Warburton, Lawrence H.
    Ward, Andrew Harrison
    Ward, Chester A.
    Warner, Leslie L.
    Warner, Harold S.
    Warren, Charles Edward
    Washington, George
    Washburn, Clinton I.
    Waters, William F.
    Watins, L. H.
    Watson, Claude
    Watson, Francis W,
    Watson, George James
    Watson, Leroy W.
    Watson, Myron John
    Watters, William Larkin
    Weaver, Richard Parks
    Webber, Charles F., Jr.
    Weber, John A.
    Webster, Robert K.
    Weddle, Alexander
    Wehman, Frederick, Jr.
    Weimaier, Geo. Edward
    Weisberg, William L.
    Wells, Charles Elbert
    Wells, Bruce E.
    Wells, Harry F.
    Weimer, Lawrence B.
    Weinstein, Reubon
    Weiss, Frank
    Welsh, Clarence Patrick
    Welsh, Earl Sylvester
    Wenman, Harry
    Wens, John J.
    Werbesky, John Joseph
    Werda, Joseph
    Werle, John William
    West, Clyde Otha
    West, Homer L.
    Westwood, Charles E.
    Wetzel, Charles T.
    Whaley, Vilas Henry
    Whatley, Daniel B.
    White, Evert Calvery
    White, Floyd H.
    White, Frank J.
    White, Jeffrey
    White, John C.
    White, Junius L.
    White, Theodore
    Whitney, Francis H.
    Whitney, John Francis
    Whittaker, Edwin Ralph
    Whittaker, William
    Whitten, Julius Perry N.
    Whittington, Luther E.
    Whittle, Henry E.
    Whittup, Herbert Leo
    Wieber, Joseph William
    Wilborn, William B.
    Wilburn, Guy
    Wilburn, James Clarence
    Wiles, Charles Cedric
    Wiles, John James
    Wilhelms, Archie Cortice
    Wilkins, Tom Walker
    Wilkinson, Elder Zenobia
    Wilkinson, Gladstone C.
    Willey, Harold Albert
    Williams, Bennie H.
    Williams, Duval George
    Williams, George M.
    Williams, Harold S.
    Williams, John Bryant
    Williams, J. D.
    Williams, James Francis
    Williams, Lewis Edward
    Williams, Walter Edward
    Williams, William L.
    Williamson, Edward
    Williamson, Randolph Earl
    Williamson, Reginald J.
    Williamson, F. E.
    Williquette, Clarence P.
    Wilson, David R.
    Wilson, David Samuel
    Wilson, Edward C.
    Wilson, Harold J.
    Wilson, Herbert
    Wilson, John Jacob
    Wilson, Marshall E.
    Wilson, Stanley Earl
    Wilson, Willie
    Wilton, Orville Richard
    Winans, Harold Paul
    Winans, Raymond Harvey
    Winnick, Paul
    Winter, Herman
    Wippert, George
    Wirth, Albert
    Wiseman, Frank Allen
    Wiseman, William J., Jr.
    Wittman, George J.
    Witzell, Chas. E.
    Woos, Herman G.
    Wood, Eugene E.
    Wood, Steven
    Wood, C. L.
    Wood, J. H.
    Woodward, Charles W.
    Woodward, Earl Kenneth
    Woodbury, Earl Walter
    Woodcock, William H.
    Woods, Raymond Stanley
    Woods, Robert Dale
    Woodson, James
    Woodward, Raymond W.
    Woody, James L.
    Woolward, William K.
    Wordley, Peter J.
    Worthington, Richard J.
    Wright, David N.
    Wright, Jesse Morgan
    Wright, Joe T.
    Wright, Richard A.
    Wright, Von Poe
    Wright, C. L.
    Wrightington, William
    Wynn, Leon Columbus

    Yeakel, Warren S.
    Yearwood, Percy A.
    Yeomans, T. M.
    Yessman, John
    Yokley, Willard Henderson
    Yost, S. M.
    Young, George E.
    Young, Hiter S.
    Young, Percy James
    Young, Robert Kenneth
    Young, David W.
    Youngblood, Harry
    Youssi, John.

    Zeller, Ernest E.
    Zemantick, Andrew A.
    Zero, Thomas F.
    Ziegler, Jennings Bryan
    Ziefeldt, Albert Victor Alfred
    Zimbroff, Jacob
    Zimmerman, Howard
    Zimmerman, John
    Zimmerman, Lewis M.
    Zitomersky, N. J.
    Zoebelein, William

[Illustration: UPPER—THE HELMSMAN.



Additional Roster of Crew

    Abell, Henry Frank, Jr.
    Abraham, Leslie
    Albert, Alexander
    Ackerman, Ralph
    Adams, James A.
    Adams, William A.
    Adley, Michael Joseph
    Allen, Warren R.
    Anderson, Frederick Edw.
    Anderson, Harry E.
    Andras, Joseph, Jr.
    Anthony, Robert W.
    Archer, John Joseph
    Arent, Stephen T.
    Armstrong, Frank
    Armstrong, William V.
    Arvidson, Milton E.

    Bahnsen, Henry A.
    Balaz, Joseph Patrick
    Barclay, Reginald
    Barr, Charles Morris
    Barr, Eugene Wendil
    Bartlett, Donald A.
    Basler, Loren H.
    Bean, Otis E.
    Beck, Alvin
    Beck, Barney
    Bedale, Joseph Hillman
    Beeler, James Madison
    Behman, August Scott
    Behrend, Harry G.
    Bell, Thomas
    Benson, Freeman Leroy
    Bent, James Edward
    Bertenshaw, Earl
    Berry, Peter Joseph
    Best, Charles F.
    Biagiotti, Victor
    Bielfield, Richard James
    Bigelow, Ralph Brown
    Bingley, Ellis S.
    Biondi, Nicholas
    Blackburn, Roy James
    Blaney, Harold J.
    Bledsoe, Roy T.
    Bligh, Alfred Aloysius
    Boarman, Francis Herbert
    Bogart, Humphrey DeForest
    Bohrer, Glenn H.
    Boone, Charlie Earl
    Bopp, Harold
    Bourgeois, Edgar
    Bowens, Fred
    Bowles, Thomas V.
    Block, Edgar Deane
    Blumfield, Morris
    Bowdoin, Clayton
    Boyce, Richard, Jr.
    Boyd, Thomas, Jr.
    Boyle, William G.
    Brachat, August
    Branden, Sigurd
    Bradshaw, Claude Henry
    Breen, Lawrence B.
    Breiman, John
    Breitschuh, Edward
    Brewer, Frank F.
    Brinkman, Frederick
    Brinton, Harold
    Brooks, Alfred E.
    Brooks, Valentine C.
    Brown, George R.
    Brown, Lawrence S.
    Brown, Walter
    Brown, William Leroy
    Browning, Joe D.
    Broome, Ronald
    Brown, Ebna
    Brucker, Reuben
    Bruns, Harry
    Buckley, Charles Henry
    Buford, William H.
    Bullington, Preston G.
    Bulmer, Albert T.
    Burke, Thomas F.
    Bushenville, Moses J.
    Byrns, Edward Thorn

    Cahn, Harvey Newman
    Calamia, Bertram Plaint
    Caldwell, Patrick F.
    Calhoun, John W.
    Campbell, Theodore J.
    Canady, Jesse James
    Canavan, John Mooney
    Canzler, Eugene
    Carreiro, Manuel P., Jr.
    Carroll, Martin H.
    Carson, Beauregard E.
    Cassavant, Henry B.
    Carter, Harry B.
    Carter, William F.
    Cass, Stewart E.
    Catsiff, Harry I.
    Cenedella, Charles M.
    Chamberlain, Fred A.
    Chambers, Lannie
    Chase, Randolph M.
    Chenkin, Saul
    Chick, Charles E.
    Christmas, Harold
    Christmas, Robert
    Chrysler, Howard M.
    Clancy, Kenneth Henry
    Clark, Glenn Arnold
    Clark, Raymond Vincent
    Clark, Sumner
    Clevenger, Thomas
    Clifton, Bennie A.
    Cline, Joseph B.
    Coffman, Carleton C.
    Cohan, Henry
    Cohen, Archie
    Cole, Francis E.
    Coleman, Grant
    Collier, Albert L.
    Combes, Tandy Y.
    Conley, Lyndon E.
    Conlon, Hugh M.
    Conover, Harry Lester
    Conway, Joseph Edward
    Cooney, Elwood Patrick
    Cooper, Richard F.
    Cooper, Wendell Earl
    Corey, Brayton Curtis
    Cowley, Joseph P.
    Cox, Raymond C.
    Coyle, James Joseph
    Craycraft, George H.
    Cross, Emil John
    Culler, Paul Arthur
    Cunha, Toney
    Curfman, Albert J.
    Currie, Merton Charles
    Curry, Thomas James
    Curtis, Charles Menzo
    Cushman, Clarence Chas.

    Dailey, Walter A.
    Dalbey, Henry C.
    Dale, George G.
    Dalton, Harry M.
    Dalzell, Lloyd Hunter
    Daniell, Wm. Lawrence
    Danielson, Christian M.
    Darling, James Jouett
    Dauch, Frederick Wm.
    Daugherty, Harold J.
    Davis, Arthur D.
    Davis, Carter H.
    Davis, Charles O.
    Davis, Edward C.
    Davis, John Philip
    Dean, James Edward
    Debusk, Harvey Clay
    DeCremy, Loretto
    Deering, Charles J.
    Delaney, Henry J.
    Demarah, Richard A.
    Denison, George
    Depelio, Joseph
    Derrick, Clarence L.
    DeSousa, Albert M. R.
    DeSenso, Arthur Joseph
    Dery, Cyrus Camille
    Dewdney, Harry
    Dilena, Ernest T.
    Divine, Dewey James
    Donaghue, Valentine M.
    Donnelly, William P.
    Dodge, Victor Raymond
    Doody, William
    Doran, Joseph F.
    Doughty, Royal Freemont
    Douglas, Otha Wilbur
    Dowling, John Francis
    Drennan, Everett
    Dribben, Charles K.
    Duckett, William Henry
    Duerr, Bernard A.
    Duffy, Charles Rall
    Duggan, Raymond Wm.
    Dumpprope, William B.
    Dunn, Harrison
    Dunphy, Augustine M.

    Easter, Roswell R.
    Eckert, John Burns
    Eckhardt, George C.
    Eddy, John Lawson
    Eddy, George Roberts
    Elefant, Harvey
    Ellis, Steve
    Ells, Marshall Redonte
    Evans, Clarence S.
    Eveland, Orville LeRoy

    Fagan, John James
    Farrar, Raymon S.
    Farrell, Albert Grover
    Faulkner, Henry O.
    Favicchio, Michelle
    Fawcett, Thomas, Jr.
    Felsch, John A.
    Fenicehia, Mariano
    Fenimore, Michael J.
    Fidel, Paul Bernard
    Fiddelke, Herbert John
    Field, Donald E.
    Field, Keith Joy
    Fields, Carl T.
    Finely, Louis Wilford
    Firchau, William H.
    Fitzgerald, Alphonsus
    Fitzpatrick, Edward A.
    Fitzimmons, John F.
    Fiytok, Frank
    Flanagan, Joseph Patrick
    Fleming, John Joseph
    Fleming, Everett F.
    Fletcher, David W.
    Flitton, Alton Lee
    Flynn, Daniel C.
    Flynn, James Francis
    Fontaine, Emile Roul
    Foster, Clarence L.
    Foster, Perry Lee
    Foutch, Jay B.
    Freda, Dominick
    Freeman, Willard Albert
    Frederick, Arthur
    French, Harry Arthur
    French, William T.
    Freund, Albert J.
    Freyburger, Roy L.
    Fricker, Albert B.
    Friesch, Steve J.
    Fromme, Arthur Carl
    Frook, Floyd
    Frost, Frank
    Frost, Percy A.
    Frost, Raymond J.
    Fuller, Frank N.

    Galbreath, Lawrence B.
    Gallaspie, Hubert E.
    Gajzik, Joseph Francis
    Gallagher, John Wallen
    Gallagher, Raymond
    Gallagher, William Geo.
    Gall, Frederick Henry
    Gamble, George F.
    Gardinier, Ted
    Garland, Joseph H.
    Gary, Frederick Samuel
    Geldersma, Dewey
    Giardina, Giuseppe
    Giglio, Vincent
    Gilbert, Davis L.
    Gillane, Thomas John, Jr.
    Gitlitz, Louis
    Gochnaur, Walter Alfred
    Goings, Howard
    Goldman, Adolph Arthur
    Good, Earle V.
    Good, Fred I.
    Gordon, Nelson
    Gould, Harold T.
    Gordon, Herbert James
    Gorman, Kenneth J.
    Grady, Patrick L.
    Gramling, George F.
    Gray, David
    Gregory, Edward
    Gregory, Lawrence Alex.
    Gregg, Charles P.
    Griffin, William L.
    Grimshaw, William H.
    Guadagno, Thomas
    Guernsey, Frederick S.
    Guerrero, Eusebio
    Guisness, Carl Earl

    Hagelstein, Kingston B.
    Haire, Homer H.
    Halek, Frank Joseph
    Hall, Ozin
    Halliday, Charles W.
    Hamlin, Paul A.
    Handlowitch, Michael
    Hanke, Edward H.
    Hannon, Daniel Edward
    Hansen, Charles Theodore
    Hanson, Henry August
    Hardt, Frank J.
    Harris, David Earl
    Hartigan, William Raymond
    Hayes, Julian
    Hebb, Allen
    Hecker, Stanley E.
    Hedge, Clayton D.
    Hedlander, Robert L.
    Heine, Harry
    Helcamp, Will
    Henopp, Adam
    Henry, John Leonard
    Hensley, George C.
    Henzel, William
    Hermann, William E.
    Herring, Frank J.
    Herron, Elmer Ernest
    Herzog, William
    Heyman, John So.
    Hicks, Ralph Waldo
    Hill, Frederick C.
    Hill, Joseph T.
    Hill, Harold Joseph
    Hillman, Calman
    Hills, Clifford A.
    Hochstein, Samuel
    Hock, Frank H.
    Hoenig, Louis H., Jr.
    Holland, Monroe M.
    Holley, Robert
    Holmes, Harry Jay
    Horwitz, Abraham
    Holt, Archibald G.
    Hopper, William Edwin
    Horn, Thomas A.
    Hough, Irving Clermont
    Houser, William Geo.
    Houting, Charles
    Howard, Charles Joseph
    Howard, James Francis
    Howe, Joshua Brewster
    Hubert, Ralph S.
    Hudson, Thomas F.
    Hughes, John Vincent
    Hunter, James H.
    Huston, Louis D.
    Huston, Sherman C.
    Hutchins, Earl Stanley
    Hutchinson, John Niel R.
    Hutson, Arthur
    Hyde, Louis H.

    Iacono, Joseph A.
    Immediato, Ralph Joseph
    Imperial, Joseph T.
    Israel, Samuel E.
    Isreall, Roy John

    Jacobsen, William J.
    James, Walter A.
    Johansen, John J.
    Johnson, Alfred M.
    Johnson, Henry B.
    Johnson, Oliver W.
    Johnson, Raymond Carl
    Jones, Frederick John
    Jordon, Richard D.
    Josephs, David
    Joyce, Martin Francis

    Kadish, Joseph
    Kaiser, Victor L.
    Kalinoski, Edward
    Kandel, Moses
    Karlewitz, Anthony
    Keahon, Patrick Henry
    Kearney, Kenneth John
    Kearns, Thomas J.
    Keck, Ralph Frederick
    Kee, Oliver A.
    Kelle, Arthur E.
    Kellar, Milton Russell
    Kelly, Michael W.
    Kelsey, Joseph K.
    Kennedy, Malcolm E.
    Kerwin, William D.
    Kest, Saul
    Keville, John
    Kientzle, Emmett Jos.
    King, Charles Elmer
    King, Gerald A.
    King, Hillyer Clark
    King, John Rinehart
    King, Melvin E.
    Kinney, Harry J.
    Kirby, Forest Whitfield
    Kirkland, Roy Henderson
    Kissinger, William Henry
    Klan, Charles Jacob
    Kligeld, Jacob
    Klipp, Carl
    Knight, Winfield Westcott
    Knoth, George, Jr.
    Kobusch, Walter Henry
    Koch, Charles
    Kono, Lewis C.
    Konwiczka, Louis S.
    Koster, Richard D.
    Krahenbuhl, William J.
    Kral, Charles F.
    Kratochvil, Fred H.
    Kress, Louis Charles
    Kretz, John Henry
    Kulis, Joseph
    Kwasny, Edward

    Laird, James
    Laird, William John
    Lambert, Joseph E.
    Landis, Oliver Dockery
    Langdon, William
    Langhouser, Joseph A.
    Langley, Frank, Jr.
    Larson, Albert Andrew
    Larson, Frederick Harry
    Lawrynowicz, John F.
    Lazarus, Thomas
    Ledamun, Arthur
    Lee, Christopher Joseph
    Lemasters, Everett M.
    Levey, Norman B.
    Lewin, Edward
    Lewis, Comer John
    Lightell, Frank
    Lind, Curtis P.
    Lindahl, Harry Anderson
    Linn, Otto M.
    Lippincott, Ralph
    Lisdero, Valentine
    Littleton, William
    Lockwood, Willis A.
    Loftin, Orden G.
    Loftus, John Joseph
    Loguidice, Thomas
    Longobardi, John
    Loper, Ira B.
    Lotzgeselle, Justis
    Loughrey, Thomas E.
    Lundberg, Gustaf F.
    Lynch, James J.
    Lynch, Jeremiah M.
    Lyons, John W.
    Lyons, William D.

    McBride, Peter
    McCabe, Francis Sheldon
    McClary, George R.
    McCormac, Joseph P.
    McCorkle, Pope
    McCreight, Roy
    McCurdy, Thomas
    McElligott, John Joseph
    McEvoy, John J.
    McGee, James V.
    McGinnes, Eugene W.
    McGuire, Thomas F.
    McKinely, Hugh E.
    McKinney, Charles H.
    McManus, Charles B.
    McManus, Francis
    McMillan, David S.
    McMurdy, Harmon
    McNenny, Francis S.
    McNesby, Albert J.
    McReynolds, Wm. J.
    McWhorter, William D.
    Mack, Percy F.
    Mackenstadt, Herbert A.
    MacLaren, Norman A.
    Madore, Arthur
    Mahery, Harold A.
    Mahon, Daniel Francis
    Mahoney, James J.
    Maley, William, Jr.
    Maloney, Thomas
    Manchester, Gail H.
    Maracek, Stephen J.
    Marc Aurele, Donald
    Marien, Leo
    Marinello, Accurso
    Martin, Frederick C.
    Martin, Maxwell M.
    Martin, Thomas
    Martin, Fred E.
    Martino, Marco
    Martinson, Melvin N.
    Mason, Max Arnold
    Melfi, Philip
    Menck, Ray R.
    Melville, Clarence B.
    Mertz, Charles C.
    Meyers, George A.
    Miller, Earl M.
    Miller, Forest E.
    Miller, Hugh Leonard
    Miller, Ralph Edgar
    Miller, William W.
    Millet, Hylton Berchman
    Millet, Patrick
    Mitchell, George Clayton
    Monahan, Thomas
    Montgomery, William E.
    Moore, Edward
    Moore, Richard Morris
    Moore, Walter Thomas
    Moran, Eugene, Jr.
    Morgan, Charles William
    Morris, Walter J.
    Moross, Arthur William
    Mullins, Cecil Emerson
    Mulloy, John W.
    Murphy, Albion P.
    Murphy, Daniel Paul
    Murphy, William U.
    Murrain, Alec. Turner
    Murray, James P.
    Murray, William J.

    Napierala, Ignatius J.
    Nebel, Peter V.
    Nee, James A., Jr.
    Neely, John T.
    Neff, John White
    Nelson, Edward L.
    Nelson, John
    Nelson, Daniel H.
    Nett, Alfred
    Newsom, Frank Martin
    Nix, Joseph Patrick
    Nolan, Edward L.
    North, Reginald W.
    Nutting, William A.

    Oakley, Edwin L.
    O’Brien, Alfred E.
    O’Brien, John J.
    O’Connor, John Vincent
    Oldfather, Walter Emmett
    Ojeska, Albert
    Olsen, Elmer O.
    O’Malley, Peter John
    O’Marah, George R.
    Osborne, Silas Peter
    O’Shea, Martin

    Palmer, John J.
    Parnin, Eugene E.
    Parsons, Edgar Jesse
    Partridge, Harry
    Paston, John Rae
    Patton, Thomas Thompson
    Persse, George G.
    Peckham, Albert F.
    Peden, Herman Alexander
    Penzick, Moses
    Perkins, Percy B.
    Perron, Adolphe
    Perry, Arthur
    Peterson, Sam Sanborn
    Peterson, Alexander B.
    Phillips, John Lilburn
    Philippson, Abraham P.
    Piacine, Joseph Francis
    Pickard, Gilbert A.
    Pickell, Ernest James
    Pilcher, Lloyd W.
    Pitscner, Gustave
    Plank, Lewis
    Polland, Walter
    Pollock, William
    Pope, Harvey Peter
    Porter, Frank L.
    Post, Leroy R.
    Pristash, John
    Provan, Francis H.
    Provencher, Frank
    Pucklitsch, Arnold
    Puderbaugh, Walter A.

    Quinn, Louis Estel

    Rabinowitz, Mike
    Randall, Arthur L.
    Rayford, James Miller
    Raynor, Clarence K.
    Rebman, Bert
    Reckinger, Raymond M.
    Reynolds, Rufis Arvin
    Rhynders, Floyd
    Richards, Frederick A.
    Richmond, Ralph W.
    Riker, Leonard W.
    Riley, Leo Orvid
    Riordan, Thomas Francis
    Ritchotte, Edgar A.
    Rizzolo, Leonard Aloysius
    Robinson, Robert H.
    Roosa, John Moses
    Rosenberg, David
    Rude, Charles
    Ruger, Benjamin Franklin
    Russell, Christopher A.
    Ryan, Frank
    Ryan, John J.
    Ryan, William Joseph

    Sacks, Nathan
    Salerno, Anthony
    Salk, Emil John
    Sandell, William H.
    Sanders, Jewell Gaskill
    Sandford, Joseph, Jr.
    Satcher, Thomas E.
    Satterfield, Lucian Earl
    Scarborough, Lennie M.
    Schoenbeck, William Carl
    Schrafel, Joseph A.
    Scott, Walter John
    Secore, Bartow
    Schimpf, Joseph G.
    Schlessinger, Edward L.
    Schorck, Frederick, Jr.
    Schmitt, Walter Dewald
    Schneider, Fred W.
    Schultz, Anthony
    Schulz, Herman Charles
    Seeber, Fred J.
    Segerstrom, Raugnar Seifert
    Shaw, Vivian Alonzo
    Shea, Bernard J.
    Sheehan, James
    Shepherd, Thomas F.
    Seidel, Charles
    Sheridan, Thomas Bradford
    Shymansky, Joseph Peter
    Silberstang, Isidore
    Sillcox, Wilden B.
    Siminski, Stanley
    Simmons, Henry G.
    Simon, Elias
    Sims, Robert Lloyd
    Sims, Roy Devine
    Sister, Tony
    Smith, Alfred Ferris
    Smith, Horace Frederick
    Smith, Doane White
    Smith, Ephraim H.
    Smith, James F.
    Snyder, Melville A.
    Snyder, Robert W.
    Solan, Bernard Joseph
    Solleridge, Samuel
    Sorge, Gustave, Jr.
    Sourbrine, Amos James
    Sousire, Peter
    Southgate, Harold
    Spencer, Roy Franklin
    Spinnelli, Morto
    Staker, Christopher Wm.
    Stallberger, Edward John
    Stanford, Walter W.
    Stanley, Omer Adria
    Steidl, Hugh Joseph
    Stiles, David McCormack
    Stockinger, Christian W.
    Stokes, Edward J. V., Jr.
    Stolfors, Martin
    Stone, Edward Hannon
    Stover, Robert A.
    Strecker, Charles Joseph
    Stromwall, Ernest Harold
    Stubblefield, Clyde
    Sturtz, Lloyd A.
    Sullins, Elza V.
    Sullivan, John Lauren
    Sullivan, Robert E.
    Suter, Arnold L.
    Swanson, Leonard Nels

    Tarches, Benjamin E.
    Tardieu, Ernest James
    Tassi, William J.
    Taylor, Charles H.
    Teeling, John Francis
    Terwilliger, Raymond G.
    Tessens, Joseph A.
    Thelen, Cecil Ray
    Thomas, Kenneth Champion
    Thomas, Gerald H.
    Thomas, Stanley T.
    Thomas, William T.
    Tighe, Thomas, Jr.
    Tobin, Harold
    Tollison, James Frank
    Toole, Alfred Wallace J.
    Turkus, Andrew George
    Turner, Rommie E.
    Twist, Edward Hiram

    Underwood, Goebel

    Valla, James
    Vanderbrandt, John
    Vandervelde, Marcel H.
    Van Vliet, Roy
    Varner, Fred
    Viggiano, Dominick

    Waggoner, Robert B.
    Wagner, Charles A.
    Walker, Ernest Sylvester
    Walker, Floyd
    Walker, Fred Wm.
    Walker, Henry C.
    Waldrop, Cloney Oren
    Walsh, Albert A.
    Walsh, Patrick
    Walsh, Stephen
    Walters, Abram B.
    Warner, John F.
    Weaver, Walter William
    Weber, Adam
    Weed, David S.
    Weigel, Harry Henry
    Weisberger, Maurice
    Weiss, Charles Leonard
    Werle, John William
    Wexler, William
    Whaley, Vilas Henry
    Wharton, Jack
    White, Albert G.
    Whitehurst, Bertram G.
    Wiggins, William H., Jr.
    Wilkins, Tom Walker
    Wilkinson, William S.
    Willers, George A.
    Williams, Axel L.
    Williams, David M.
    Williams, James F.
    Williams, Onel Oren
    Williamson, Francis E.
    Williamson, Robert A.
    Wilson, Lawrence Edward
    Winans, Harold Paul
    Winslow, Eugene W.
    Wise, George William
    Wishinsky, Louis
    Wisker, John G.
    Witherspoon, Albert Amber
    Witte, William Bernard
    Wolfe, Arthur G.
    Wood, Jesse Eugene
    Woods, Walter Harry, Jr.
    Wright, Lyle H.

    Zammataro, Frank
    Zanitsky, Solomon
    Zazzarino, Leo
    Zezulak, John
    Zuccaro, Joseph

Gun Crew of the U. S. S. Leviathan


    Gun Captain—Canzler, E., BM1c; Fanning, J. P., Cox.
    Pointer—Lynch, J. J., Sea.; Halek, F. J., Sea.
    Trainer—Moorehouse, H. F., Sea.; Motley, B. D., S2c.
    Sightsetter—Blackburn, R. J., Sea.; Gray, R., Sea.
    Rammerman—McLeod, C. P., Sea.
    1st Shellman—Avery, I., Sea.; Lynch, J. J., S2c.
    2nd Shellman—Atsma, L. W., Sea.
    3rd Shellman—Boss, G. D., Sea.
    1st Powderman—Brown, W. L., Sea.
    2nd Powderman—Anderson, H. R., Sea.
    Voice Tubeman—Grey, R., Sea.
    Trayman—Halle, J. G., Sea.


    Gun Captain—Bradley, P. R., Cox.
    Pointer—Wilburn, P. R., Sea.
    Trainer—Chisholm, J. A., Sea.
    Sightsetter—Loftus E. J., Sea.
    Trayman—Guernsey, F. S., Sea.
    Rammerman—Stanley, O. A., Sea.
    1st Shellman—DeBusk, H. C., Sea.
    2nd Shellman—Bazin, A., Sea.
    3rd Shellman—Croushorn, G. D., Sea.
    1st Powderman—Hutchins, C. E., Sea.
    2nd Powderman—Boyce, R., Sea.
    Voice Tubeman—Seaquist, C. F., Sea.


    Gun Captain—Biagotti, V. E., BM2c.
    Pointer—Brandon, L. A., Sea.; Rizzolo, L. A., Sea.
    Trainer—Meyers, W. A., Sea.
    Sightsetter—Strecker, C. J., Sea.
    Trayman—Cooper, W. C, Sea.
    Rammerman—Engle, W. F., Sea.
    1st Shellman—Carter, H. B., Sea.
    2nd Shellman—Dietrick, W. H., Sea.
    3rd Shellman—Higgenbotham, G., Sea.
    1st Powderman—Dilena, E. F., Sea.
    2nd Powderman—Littleton, W., Sea.
    3rd Powderman—Goings, H., Sea.
    Voice Tubeman—Bledsoe, R. T., Sea.; Carter, J. B., Sea.


    Gun Captain—Clark, J. F., Cox.
    Pointer—Meyers, G. A., Sea.; Dwyer, J. J., Sea.
    Trainer—King, C. E., Sea.
    Sightsetter—Boyd, T., Sea.
    Trayman—Davis, J. J., Sea.
    Rammerman—Kretz, J., Sea.
    1st Shellman—Fitzgerald, A. R., Sea.
    2nd Shellman—Benford, W. F., Sea.
    3rd Shellman—Flemming, A. J., Sea.
    1st Powderman—Barefield, T. K., Sea.
    2nd Powderman—Feeney, J. F., Sea.
    Voice Tubeman—Snyder, R. W., Sea.


    Gun Captain—Canfield, W. J., BM1c.
    Pointer—Gagnon, C. A., Sea.; Blackwood, L. E., Sea.
    Trainer—Hennesey, J. F., Sea.
    Sightsetter—Sturtevant, J. F., Sea.
    Trayman—Nutting, W. A., Sea.
    Rammerman—Marcoux, D., Sea.
    1st Shellman—Keahon, P. H., Sea.
    2nd Shellman—Cox, R. G., Sea.; Dobson, W. E., S2c.
    1st Powderman—Brown, H. S., Sea.
    2nd Powderman—Dailey, B. J., Sea.; Murray, G., Sea.
    3rd Powderman—Hendrix, T., Sea.
    Voice Tubeman—Witherspoon, A. A., Sea.


    Gun Captain—Abell, H. F., Cox.
    Pointer—Kirkland, R. H., Sea.
    Trainer—McClary, G. R., Sea.
    Sightsetter—Magann, F. X., Sea.
    Trayman—Garner, C. E., Sea.
    Rammerman—Wehman, F., Sea.
    1st Shellman—Gordon, H. J., Sea,
    2nd Shellman—Klipp, C, Sea.
    1st Powderman—Duckett, H. W., Sea.
    2nd Powderman—Cope, T. W., Sea.
    3rd Powderman—Bingley, E. S., Sea.
    Voice Tubeman—Traccey, P. L., Sea.


    Gun Captain—Esser, C. A., Cox.
    Pointer—Thomas, W. T., Sea.
    Trainer—Cameron, W. G., Sea.
    Sightsetter—McNenny, F. S., Sea.
    Trayman—Dyer, B., Sea.
    Rammerman—Stockinger, C. W., Sea.
    1st Shellman—Howe, J. B., Sea.
    2nd Shellman—Duschuttle, L. E., Sea.
    3rd Shellman—Polland, W. Sea.
    1st Powderman—Crapps, C., Sea.
    2nd Powderman—Landis, O. D., Sea.; Cavey, H., Sea.
    3rd Powderman—Howery, C. L., Sea.; Stevens, W. B., Sea.
    Voice Tubeman—Ashley, J., Sea.; Abells, W. R., Sea.


    Gun Captain—Chapman, A., BM1c.; Wherry, J. B., Cox.
    Pointer—Olsen, E. A., Cox.
    Trainer—Whitehurst, B. G., BM2c.
    Sightsetter—LaValle, F. R., Cox.
    Trayman—Urban, A., Cox.
    Rammerman—Durkin, R. J., Sea.
    1st Shellman—Stokes, E. J. J. V., S2c.; Stanford, W. W., Sea.
    2nd Shellman—Simmons, H. G., Sea.
    1st Powderman—Martin, W., Sea.
    2nd Powderman—Kelley, W., Sea.
    3rd Shellman—Borrello, L. R., Sea.
    Voice Tubeman—Winslow, E. W., Sea.


    Bahnsen, H. A.        Sea.
    Primrose, A. H.       Sea.
    Fellona, J. A.        S2c.
    Hamke, E. H.          Sea.


    Ganley, J. B.         Sea.
    Houting, C.           Sea.
    Bachmier, C. G.       Sea.
    Crowley, J. T.        Sea.

“Y” GUN NO. 1

    Sampson, W. D.        Sea.
    Gillane, T. J.        Sea.
    Bonner, C. A.         Sea.

“Y” GUN NO. 2

    Herr, J. H.           Sea.
    Fillipski, S. F.      Sea.
    Brownell, H. L.       Sea.


    Finley, R. M.         Sea.
    Prochaska, J.         Sea.
    Bull, F. W.           Sea.
    Gwynn, O.             Sea.


    Manning, E. J.        Sea.
    Boiden, C.            Sea.
    Alton, L. S.          Sea.
    Taylor, C. H.         Sea.


    Duff, G. L.           Cox.
    Roylance, W.          Sea.
    Southgate, H.         Sea.
    Curry, T. J.          Sea.

Comparison of the Fifteen Leading Transports

(From _The Transport Ace_, Newspaper printed on board the “Leviathan”)

The following comparison shows the number of round trips made, and the
number of troops carried to Europe, by the fifteen leading transports up
to the time the Armistice was signed, November 11, 1918.

                       _No. of      _Largest No.    _Total troops
      _Ship_         round trips_   in one trip_      carried_

    Leviathan             10           10,860         119,215[*]
    George Washington      9            5,529          46,159
    President Grant        8            5,811          44,182
    America                9            5,327          39,674
    Agamemnon             10            4,917          35,026
    Mount Vernon           9            4,763          33,549
    Great Northern        10            3,058          27,590
    Aeolus                 8            3,551          24,327
    President Lincoln      5            4,888          23,438
    Northern Pacific      10            2,755          21,903
    Martha Washington      8            3,055          21,900
    Covington              6            4,133          21,754
    Princess Matoika       6            3,865          21,163
    Huron                  8            2,917          20,771
    Pocahontas             9            2,920          20,474

    [*] The total of 119,215 for the Leviathan includes Naval
    Supernumeraries and crew carried on the first ten Eastbound
    trips. The present voyage makes the 14th round trip for this

The greatest number of persons carried by the _Leviathan_ was on our
sixteenth westbound trip when we had on board (including Naval Crew), a
total of 14,300 persons.


Daily Routine in Port


     4:00  Call ship’s cooks of the watch.

     4:30  Fires started in running steamer.

     4:45  Call masters-at-arms, boatswain’s mates, buglers and hammock

     5:00  Reveille. Call all hands, pipe “up hammocks,” serve out coffee;
               light the smoking lamp.

     5:15  Haul over hammock cloths and stop them down. Master-at-arms
               report decks clear of hammocks.

     5:20  Pipe sweepers. Sweep down thoroughly before decks are wet.

     5:30  Turn to. Out smoking lamp. Execute morning orders. Stow away
               ditty boxes; clear lower decks. Five minutes before
               sunrise, station men for turning off anchor, boom and
               gangway lights. Scrub clothes.

     6:00  Knock off scrubbing clothes; trice up lines; hoise ashes.

     6:45  Take off gun covers and hatch hoods, unless the weather is
               foul. Hammock stowers haul back hammock clothes.

     7:00  Up all hammocks.

     7:15  Mess gear. Light smoking lamp. Publish uniform of the day.

     8:00  Colors.

     8:15  Turn to; out smoking lamp.

     8:30  Sick call.

     8:45  Retreat from bright work. Sweep down. Stow away all wash deck
               gear and all ditty boxes. Clear up the deck for quarters.

     9:10  Officers’ Call. Divisions fall in for muster.

     9:15  Quarters for muster and inspection. Physical drill followed by
               the drill prescribed.

    11:30  Retreat from drill. Pipe down scrubbed clothes, if dry. Sweep
               down. Light smoking lamp. Mast for reports and requests.


    12:00  Dinner.


    12:30  Band call; band concert till 1:00.

     1:00  Turn to. Out smoking lamp. Pipe sweepers. Pipe down aired
               bedding, if up. Pipe down wash clothes, if dry.

     1:30  Drill call.

     2:30  Retreat from drill. Turn to.

     4:00  Knock off work. Pipe down clothes, if up. Sweep down. Light
               smoking lamp.

     5:30  Clear up decks. Stow away ditty boxes.

     5:45  Mess gear.

     6:00  Supper. Five minutes before sunset call guard of the day and
               band. Station detail for all lights. Turn on lights at

     6:30  Turn to. Pipe sweepers. Wet down after main-decks for
               scrubbing clothes.

     7:30  Hammocks. No smoking below the main decks.

     8:00  Muster the anchor watch. Searchlights and signal drills, if

     8:30  Trice up the clothes lines.

     8:55  First call; out smoking lamp.

     9:00  Tattoo. Pipe down. Silence. Muster and set first anchor watch.

     9:05  Taps.

Daily Routine at Sea


     2:00  Relieve wheel and lookouts.

     3:50  Call the watch section.

     4:00  Relieve the watch. Muster the watch section and life boat’s
               crew. Light smoking lamp. Call ship’s cooks of the watch.
               Five minutes before sunrise station details at running
               lights. Turn off at sunrise. Relieve lookouts and station
               masthead lookouts.

     5:00  Call idlers and section of the watch sleeping in. Coffee.

     5:20  Pipe sweepers.

     5:30  Turn to. Out smoking lamp. Execute morning orders.

     6:00  Relieve the wheel and lookouts. Trice up clothes lines.

     6:45  Hammock stowers haul back hammock cloths.

     7:00  Up all hammocks.

     7:15  Hammock stowers stop down hammock clothes. Mess Gear. Light
               smoking lamp.

     7:30  Breakfast. Shift into the uniform of the day during the meal

     8:00  Relieve the watch; both sections on deck. Muster watch and
               life boat’s crew.

     8:15  Turn to. Out smoking lamp. Deck and gun bright work.

     8:30  Sick call.

     8:45  Knock off bright work. Sweep down. Stow away ditty boxes and
               wash deck gear. Take down towel lines. Clear up decks for

     9:10  Officers’ Call. Divisions fall in for quarters.

     9:15  Quarters for muster and inspection. Physical drill and drills
               as prescribed.

    10:00  Relieve the wheel and masthead.

    11:30  Retreat from drill. Pipe down washed clothes, if dry. Sweep

    11:45  Mess gear.


    12:00  Dinner.


    12:30  Relieve the watch.

     1:00  Turn to. Pipe sweepers. Out smoking lamp.

     1:45  Abandon ship drill call.

     2:00  Relieve the wheel and masthead.

     2:15  Retreat from drill. Pipe sweepers. Turn to.

     3:30  Pipe down wash clothes, if up.

     4:00  Relieve the watch. Muster watch and life boat’s crew.

     4:30  Sweep down. Knock off ship’s work. Light smoking lamp. Five
               minutes before sunset station details at running lights.
               Turn on running lights with senior ship present. Station
               deck lookouts. Muster life boat’s crew. Inspect life boats.

     5:30  Clear up decks. Stow away ditty boxes.

     5:45  Mess gear.

     6:00  Supper. Relieve the wheel and lookouts.

     6:30  Turn to. Sweep down. Wet down after raindeck.

     7:00  Band concert for crew until 8:00.

     7:30  Hammocks. No smoking below decks.

     8:00  Call the watch. Relieve the wheel and lookouts. Relieve the
               watch. Muster watch and life boat’s crew. Turn out all
               but standing lights and lights in officers’ quarters and
               chief petty officers’ mess room.

     9:00  Out smoking lamp. Turn out lights in chief petty officers’
               mess room.

    10:00  Relieve the wheel and lookout. Turn out lights in officers’
               quarters unless an extension has been granted.

    11:50  Call the watch.

    Midnight.  Relieve the watch. Muster the watch and life boat crew.

The U. S. S. Leviathan

The _Leviathan_ is 954 feet long, 100 feet beam, and, when leaving New
York, draws 41 feet 10 inches of water. Place her on Fifth Avenue and
she would spread from 42d Street across 45th Street. Stand her on end
alongside the Woolworth Building, and she would overtop the Woolworth
Building more than 50 feet. She weighs 69,000 tons; more than twice the
displacement of the world’s largest dreadnought.

She stows 8,700 tons of coal and carries 5,000 tons of fresh water. If
we would be permitted to run her at the speed she is capable of, she
would burn between 900 and 1,000 tons of coal a day. When we dock at
Hoboken she must have eighteen tug boats to assist her. She can enter
New York only on the high water, for the Ambrose Channel is not dredged
deeper than 40 feet. She can move at Hoboken only on the slack water, for
no amount of tugs could dock her at Hoboken while the tide is running.
Before the armistice she carried ten loads of troops to Europe; about
4,500 officers and 100,000 men. Thus she has alone handled one-twentieth
of the A. E. F. Twenty Leviathans alone could handle all the A. E. F.
Alone, the _Leviathan_ has placed in Europe more U. S. Troops than Meade
commanded at the decisive battle—Gettysburg.

Her Engineering Department requires 12 officers and 950 men. Her
Commissary Department requires 7 officers and 350 men. When you have
roast beef they have to cut up 40 steers.

During the war, on the eastward voyage, the Commissary Department has fed
10,000 troops in 70 minutes, and at that permitting men to come back for
the second.

Even if the East River were deep enough her funnels are six feet too high
to go under the East River bridges.

Those on the bridge stand with their eyes 87 feet above water. Against
submarines we had eight six-inch guns and a supply of depth charges
always manned; but only twice have periscopes appeared, both times in her
rear. Both times the destroyers bombed at them well.


Up To and Including 14th Trip

       |                |              |    |    |
 VOYAGE|      LEFT      |    ARRIVED   |Days|Days|
       |                |              | at | in |
       |                |              |Sea |Port|
       |                |              |    |    |
       |New York        |Liverpool     |    |    |
       |Dec. 15, 1917   |Dec. 24, 1917 |  9 | 50 |
 EAST  |                |              |    |    |
  1    |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Liverpool       |New York      |    |    |
       |Feb. 12, 1918   |Feb. 20, 1918 |  8 | 12 |
       |                |              |    |    |
       |New York        |Liverpool     |    |    |
 EAST  |Mar. 4, 1918    |Mar. 12, 1918 |  8 | 29 |
  2    |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Liverpool       |New York      |    |    |
       |Apr. 10, 1918   |Apr. 17, 1918 |  7 |  7 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |Apr. 24, 1918   |May 2, 1918   |  8 |  3 |
  3    |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |May 5, 1918     |May 12, 1918  |  7 | 10 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |May 22, 1918    |May 30, 1918  |  8 |  2 |
  4    |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |June 1, 1918    |June 8, 1918  |  7 |  7 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |June 15, 1918   |June 22, 1918 |  7 |  2 |
  5    |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |June 24, 1918   |July 1, 1918  |  7 |  7 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |July 8, 1918    |July 15, 1918 |  7 |  3 |
  6    |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |July 18, 1918   |July 25, 1918 |  7 |  9 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |Aug. 3, 1918    |Aug. 11, 1918 |  8 |  2 |
  7    |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |Aug. 13, 1918   |Aug. 20, 1918 |  7 | 11 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |Aug. 31, 1918   |Sept. 7, 1918 |  7 |  5 |
  8    |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |Sept. 12, 1918  |Sept. 19, 1918|  7 | 10 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |Sept. 29, 1918  |Oct. 7, 1918  |  8 |  2 |
  9    |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |Oct. 9, 1918    |Oct. 17, 1918 |  8 | 10 |
       |New York        |Liverpool     |    |    |
 EAST  |Oct. 27, 1918   |Nov. 3, 1918  |  7 | 31 |
  10   |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Liverpool Dec. 4|Brest Dec. 5  |  1 |  3 |
       |                |--------------|----|----|
       |Brest Dec. 8,   |N.Y.          |    |    |
       |1918            |Dec. 15, 1918 |  7 | 40 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |Jan. 24, 1919   |Jan. 31, 1919 |  7 |  3 |
  11   |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |Feb. 3, 1919    |Feb. 11, 1919 |  8 |  5 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |Feb. 16, 1919   |Feb. 23, 1919 |  7 |  3 |
  12   |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |Feb. 26, 1919   |Mar. 6, 1919  |  8 |  9 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |Mar. 15, 1919   |Mar. 23, 1919 |  8 |  3 |
  13   |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |Mar. 26, 1919   |Apr. 2, 1919  |  7 |  5 |
       |New York        |Brest         |    |    |
 EAST  |Apr. 7, 1919    |Apr. 14, 1919 |  7 |  4 |
  14   |----------------|--------------|----|----|
 WEST  |Brest           |New York      |    |    |
       |Apr. 18, 1919   |Apr. 25, 1919 |  7 |... |

       |                          PASSENGERS                              |
       |      |          |  Army  |      |      |      |  Naval   | Total |
       |Troops|N. C. O.’s|Officers|Nurses|Civil-|Misc’l|Supernum- |Passen-|
       |      |          |        |      | ians |      | eraries  | gers  |
       |      | Included |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       | 6839 |   with   |   277  |  138 |  ... |  ... |     ...  |  7254 |
 EAST  |      |  Troops  |        |      |      |      |          |       |
  1    |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      | Included |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |    5 |   with   |   ...  |  ... |  ... |   19 |      77  |   101 |
       |      |  Troops  |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  | 7695 |      56  |   439  |  ... |    5 |   47 |     100  |  8342 |
  2    |------+----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |    5 |     ...  |   ...  |  ... |  ... |   37 |     204  |   246 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  | 8208 |      97  |   361  |  229 |   13 |    1 |     443  |  9352 |
  3    |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |   14 |     ...  |   ...  |  ... |    3 |    8 |      44  |    69 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  | 9944 |     111  |   399  |   99 |   17 |    7 |     736  |  1313 |
  4    |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |   25 |     ...  |   ...  |  ... |    1 |    7 |       1  |    34 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  | 9833 |     149  |   395  |  ... |    2 |   21 |     743  | 11143 |
  5    |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |  14  |     ...  |   ...  |  ... |   31 |    3 |     ...  |    48 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  | 9944 |     138  |   437  |  ... |    8 |   18 |     448  | 10993 |
  6    |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |  183 |     ...  |    79  |  ... |   72 |  ... |     383  |   717 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  |10305 |      94  |   482  |  ... |    3 |   12 |     518  | 11414 |
  7    |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |  204 |      16  |   321  |  ... |   25 |    8 |     141  |   715 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  | 9953 |      78  |   407  |   99 |  ... |    5 |     597  | 11139 |
  8    |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |  300 |      25  |   125  |    2 |   99 |   33 |      38  |   622 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  | 8839 |      34  |   260  |  191 |    2 |    1 |     254  |  9587 |
  9    |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |  260 |      19  |    96  |    2 |   11 |   66 |      49  |   503 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  | 7140 |      52  |   367  |  ... |    4 |    1 |     565  |  8129 |
  10   |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      | Included |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       | 3634 |   with   |    78  |   15 |  252 |   23 |    4846  |  8870 |
       |      |  Troops  |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  |   10 |     ...  |     6  |  ... |   19 | 1037 |       1  |  1073 |
  11   |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       | 9040 |     130  |   359  |   30 |   20 |   26 |      53  |  9658 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  |    7 |       2  |     6  |  ... |    8 |  358 |     158  |   539 |
  12   |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       | 9714 |     133  |   319  |   66 |   23 |   78 |      50  | 10383 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  |    2 |     ...  |     5  |  ... |   29 |   57 |4 Officers|    97 |
  13   |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |9 Officers|       |
       |11441 |     143  |    460 |   28 |   11 |   11 |3 Enlisted| 12106 |
       |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
 EAST  |    3 |     ...  |      8 |  ... |   39 |    4 |     ...  |    54 |
  14   |------|----------|--------|------|------|------|----------|-------|
 WEST  |      |          |        |      |      |      |          |       |
       |11442 |     172  |    409 |  ... |   43 |    6 |8 Officers| 12080 |

       |         SHIP’S COMPANY          |       |                  |
 VOYAGE|--------+--------+--------+------+ Total |    COMMANDING    |
       | Naval  |  Navy  |        |Total |  on   |     OFFICER      |
       |Officers|Enlisted| Misc’l |Navy  | Board |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     62 |   1625 |   ...  | 1687 |  8941 |                  |
 EAST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
  1    |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. J. W. OMAN  |
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     62 |   1625 |   ...  | 1687 |  1789 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     59 |   1798 |   ...  | 1857 | 10199 |                  |
  2    |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. H. F. BRYAN |
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     58 |   1789 |     2  | 1849 |  2095 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     65 |   1986 |     1  | 2052 | 11404 |                  |
  3    |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. H. F. BRYAN |
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     65 |   1984 |     2  | 2051 |  2120 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     65 |   1960 |     3  | 2028 | 13341 |                  |
  4    |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. H. F. BRYAN |
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     64 |   1972 |     1  | 2037 |  2071 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     62 |   1949 |     2  | 2013 | 13156 |                  |
  5    |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. H. F. BRYAN |
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     62 |   1949 |     1  | 2012 |  2060 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     63 |   1932 |     1  | 1996 | 12989 |                  |
  6    |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. H. F. BRYAN |
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     62 |   1932 |     1  | 1995 |  2712 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     63 |   2080 |     1  | 2144 | 13558 |                  |
  7    |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. H. F. BRYAN |
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     64 |   2079 |     1  | 2144 |  2859 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     68 |   2154 |     1  | 2223 | 13362 |                  |
  8    |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. H. F. BRYAN |
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     68 |   2150 |     1  | 2219 |  2841 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     64 |   2157 |     1  | 2222 | 11809 |                  |
  9    |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. W. W. PHELPS|
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     64 |   2158 |     1  | 2223 |  2726 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     68 |   2258 |     1  | 2327 | 10456 |                  |
  10   |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. W. W. PHELPS|
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     70 |   2278 |   ...  | 2348 | 11218 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     76 |   2157 |8 Nurses| 2241 |  3314 |                  |
  11   |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. W. W. PHELPS|
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     76 |   2157 |8 Nurses| 2241 | 11899 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     83 |   1918 |8 Nurses| 2009 |  2548 |                  |
  12   |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. W. W. PHELPS|
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     84 |   1960 |8 Nurses| 2052 | 12435 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     73 |   2083 |    15  | 2171 |  2268 |                  |
  13   |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. W. W. PHELPS|
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     73 |   2083 |    15  | 2171 | 14277 |                  |
       |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
 EAST  |     69 |   2063 |    16  | 2148 |  2202 |                  |
  14   |--------|--------|--------|------|-------|CAPT. E. H. DURELL|
 WEST  |        |        |        |      |       |                  |
       |     68 |   2091 |    18  | 2177 | 14257 |                  |

List of Sick and Wounded Carried by Leviathan

The following list shows the number of sick and wounded transported by
the _Leviathan_ on our return trips from Liverpool and Brest:

    Trip                     Trip
      1           0            9           271
      2           4           10         1,429
      3           0           11         2,132
      4           0           12         1,251
      5           0           13         1,152
      6         116           14         1,263
      7         105           15         1,091
      8         265           16         1,090
      Total number carried up to date   10,169


Not only did the _Leviathan_ carry a total of 14,300 persons on board her
16th trip, 23 more than she has ever carried before, but her trip from
Sandy Hook to Brest and return is the fastest she has ever made.

The _Leviathan_ cleared Ambrose Channel on May 27th at 6:56 P. M. and
arrived June 11, at 3.00 A. M., or in a total elapsed time of only 15
days 8 hours and 4 minutes. Her best previous trip was when she did the
same circuit in 15 days 15 hours and 3 minutes, sailing on May 6th and
next arriving at Ambrose Lightship on May 22nd.

Previous to this, her two best round trips were those of June and July,
1918, when the pressure of troop movement to France was at its height.
These two trips were negotiated in 16 days 0 hours and 23 minutes, and 16
days 12 hours and 12 minutes respectively.

Not only has the _Leviathan_ carried in the 15th and 16th trips a total
of 28,412 persons against 26,145 for her two best previous trips, but her
intervening stays in Hoboken between her last two trips was only 4 days,
while the Hoboken layover between her two best former trips was seven

Besides this record breaking showing, the boys of the _Leviathan_ found
enough cash to subscribe $193,000 to Uncle Sam’s Victory Loan while the
Navy’s next best ship could only put up $129,000.

The 17th round trip established a new record of 14 days and 21 hours,
when she carried 4,000 Army Officers and 3,000 troops, after a stay of 40
hours in Brest, coaling (4,500 tons) and watering (3,000 tons).

On her 19th trip westbound, she carried General John J. Pershing and his
famous composite regiment selected from the entire A. E. F.

While under the German flag, the _Vaterland_ (_Leviathan_) made only one
round trip and a half. She was ready for her return trip August 1, 1914,
but was held at Hoboken when the world war broke out, July 30 of that

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "History of the U. S. S. Leviathan, cruiser and transport forces, United States Atlantic fleet - Compiled from the ship's log and data gathered by the - history committee on board the ship" ***

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