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Title: Practical Cooking and Dinner Giving - A Treatise Containing Practical Instructions in Cooking; - in the Combination and Serving of Dishes; and in the - Fashionable Modes of Entertaining at Breakfast, Lunch, and - Dinner
Author: Henderson, Mary F.
Language: English
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          [Illustration: Table set for Serving on the Table.]



                           PRACTICAL COOKING

                                  AND

                            DINNER GIVING.

                         A TREATISE CONTAINING

         PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS IN COOKING; IN THE COMBINATION
                      AND SERVING OF DISHES; AND
               IN THE FASHIONABLE MODES OF ENTERTAINING
                             AT BREAKFAST,
                          LUNCH, AND DINNER.

                      BY MRS. MARY F. HENDERSON.

                            _ILLUSTRATED._

                            [Illustration]

                               NEW YORK:
                    HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,
                           FRANKLIN SQUARE.
                                 1877.


      Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by
                          HARPER & BROTHERS,
      In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.



                             TO MY FRIEND

                       MRS. ELLEN EWING SHERMAN,

           A LADY WHO STUDIES THE COMFORTS OF HER HOUSEHOLD,

                   THESE RECEIPTS ARE AFFECTIONATELY

                              Dedicated.



PREFACE.


The aim of this book is to indicate how to serve dishes, and to
entertain company at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, as well as to give
cooking receipts. Too many receipts are avoided, although quite enough
are furnished for any practical cook-book. There are generally only two
or three really good modes of cooking a material, and one becomes
bewildered and discouraged in trying to select and practice from books
which contain often from a thousand to three thousand receipts.

No claim is laid to originality. “Receipts which have not stood the test
of time and experience are of but little worth.” The author has
willingly availed herself of the labors of others, and, having carefully
compared existing works--adding here and subtracting there, as
experience dictated--and having also pursued courses of study with
cooking teachers in America and in Europe, she hopes that she has
produced a simple and practical book, which will enable a family to live
well and in good style, and, at the same time, with reasonable economy.

The absence from previous publications of reliable information as to
the manner of serving meals has been noticed. Fortunately, the
fashionable mode is one calculated to give the least anxiety and trouble
to a hostess.

Care has been taken to show how it is possible with moderate means to
keep a hospitable table, leaving each reader for herself to consider the
manifold advantages of making home, so far as good living is concerned,
comfortable and happy.

M. F. H.

     ST. LOUIS, 1876.



CONTENTS.


      PAGE

SETTING THE TABLE AND SERVING THE DINNER                              13

THE DINNER PARTY                                                      27

COOKING AS AN ACCOMPLISHMENT                                          30

BREAKFAST                                                             33

LUNCH                                                                 36

GENTLEMEN’S SUPPERS                                                   39

EVENING PARTIES                                                       40

SOMETHING ABOUT ECONOMY                                               40

DIRECTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS                                           43

COOKING UTENSILS                                                      51

BREAD, AND BREAKFAST CAKES                                            63

TEA                                                                   76

COFFEE                                                                76

CHOCOLATE                                                             78

COCOA                                                                 78

SOUP                                                                  78

FISH                                                                  99

SHELL-FISH                                                           113

SAUCES                                                               119

BEEF                                                                 129

VEAL                                                                 146

SWEET-BREADS                                                         152

MUTTON                                                               155

LAMB                                                                 159

PORK                                                                 160

POULTRY                                                              166

GEESE, DUCKS, AND GAME                                               180

VEGETABLES                                                           190

SHELLS, OR COQUILLES                                                 206

POTTING                                                              208

MACARONI                                                             209

EGGS                                                                 212

SALADS                                                               219

FRITTERS                                                             229

PASTRY                                                               232

CANNING                                                              244

PRESERVES                                                            248

PICKLES AND CATCHUPS                                                 257

CHEESE                                                               262

SWEET SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS                                            266

PUDDINGS AND CUSTARDS                                                269

BAVARIAN CREAMS                                                      282

DESSERTS OF RICE                                                     286

WINE JELLIES                                                         290

CAKE                                                                 294

CANDIES                                                              305

ICES                                                                 306

COOKERY FOR THE SICK                                                 315

SOME DISHES FOR “BABY”                                               334

HOW TO SERVE FRUITS                                                  336

BEVERAGES                                                            339

SUITABLE COMBINATION OF DISHES                                       342

SERVING OF WINES                                                     345

TO PREPARE COMPANY DINNERS                                           349


ENGLISH AND FRENCH GLOSSARY                                          359


GENERAL INDEX                                                        365



PRACTICAL COOKING,

AND

DINNER GIVING.



SETTING THE TABLE AND SERVING THE DINNER.


An animated controversy for a long time existed as to the best mode of
serving a dinner. Two distinct and clearly defined styles, known as the
English and Russian, each having its advantages and disadvantages, were
the subject of contention. It is perhaps fortunate that a compromise
between them has been so generally adopted by the fashionable classes in
England, France, and America as to constitute a new style, which
supersedes, in a measure, the other two.

In serving a dinner _à la Russe_, the table is decorated by placing the
dessert in a tasteful manner around a centre-piece of flowers. This
furnishes a happy mode of gratifying other senses than that of taste;
for while the appetite is being satisfied, the flowers exhale their
fragrance, and give to the eye what never fails to please the refined
and cultivated guest.

In this style the dishes are brought to the table already carved, and
ready for serving, thus depriving the cook of the power to display his
decorative art, and the host of his skill in carving. Each dish is
served as a separate course, only one vegetable being allowed for a
course, unless used merely for the purpose of garnishing.

The English mode is to set the whole of each course, often containing
many dishes, at once upon the table. Such dishes as require carving,
after having been once placed on the dinner-table, are removed to a
side-table, and there carved by an expert servant. Serving several
dishes at one time, of course, impairs the quality of many, on account
of the impossibility of keeping them hot. This might, in fact, render
some dishes quite worthless.

And now, before giving the details of serving a dinner on the newer
compromise plan, I will describe the “setting” or arranging of the
table, which may be advantageously adopted, whatever the mode of
serving.

In the first place, a round table five feet in diameter is the best
calculated to show off a dinner. If of this size, it may be decorated to
great advantage, and conveniently used for six or eight persons, without
enlargement.

Put a thick baize under the table-cloth. This is quite indispensable. It
prevents noise, and the finest and handsomest table-linen looks
comparatively thin and sleazy on a bare table.

Do not put starch in the napkins, as it renders them stiff and
disagreeable, and only a very little in the table-cloth. They should be
thick enough, and, at the same time, of fine enough texture, to have
firmness without starch. Too much can not be said as to the pleasant
effect of a dinner, when the table-linen is of spotless purity, and the
dishes and silver are perfectly bright.

Although many ornaments may be used in decorating the table, yet nothing
is so pretty and so indicative of a refined taste as flowers. If you
have no _épergne_ for them, use a _compotier_ or raised dish, with a
plate upon the top, to hold cut flowers; or place flower-pots with
blossoming plants on the table. A net-work of wire, painted green, or of
wood or crochet work, may be used to conceal the roughness of the
flower-pot. A still prettier arrangement is to set the pot in a
_jardinière_ vase.

At a dinner party, place a little bouquet by the side of the plate of
each lady, in a small glass or silver bouquet-holder. At the gentlemen’s
plates put a little bunch of three or four flowers, called a
_boutonnière_, in the folds of the napkin. As soon as the gentlemen are
seated at table, they may attach them to the left lapel of the coat.

Place the dessert in two or four fancy dessert-dishes around the
centre-piece, which, by-the-way, should not be high enough to obstruct
the view of persons sitting at opposite sides of the table. The dessert
will consist of fruits, fresh or candied, preserved ginger, or preserves
of any kind, fancy cakes, candies, nuts, raisins, etc.

Put as many knives, forks, and spoons by the side of the plate of each
person as will be necessary to use in all the different courses. Place
the knives and spoons on the right side, and the forks on the left side,
of the plates. This saves the trouble of replacing a knife and fork or
spoon as each course is brought on. Many prefer the latter arrangement,
as they object to the appearance of so many knives, etc., by the sides
of a plate. This is, of course, a matter of taste. I concede the
preferable appearance of the latter plan, but confess a great liking for
any arrangement which saves extra work and confusion.

Place the napkin, neatly folded, on the plate, with a piece of bread an
inch thick, and three inches long, or a small cold bread roll, in the
folds or on the top of the napkin.

Put a glass for water, and as many wine-glasses as are necessary at each
plate. Fill the water-glass just before the dinner is announced, unless
caraffes are used. These are kept on the table all the time, well filled
with water, one caraffe being sufficient for two or three persons. All
the wine intended to be served decanted should be placed on the table,
conveniently arranged at different points.

At opposite sides of the table place salt and pepper stands, together
with the different fancy spoons, crossed by their side, which may be
necessary at private dinners, for serving dishes.

Select as many plates as will be necessary for all the different
courses. Those intended for cold dishes, such as salad, dessert, etc.,
place on the sideboard, or at any convenient place. Have those plates
intended for dessert already prepared, with a finger-bowl on each plate.
The finger-glasses should be half filled with water, with a slice of
lemon in each, or a geranium leaf and one flower, or a little
_boutonnière_: a sprig of lemon-verbena is pretty, and leaves a pleasant
odor on the fingers after pressing it in the bowl. In Paris, the water
is generally warm, and scented with peppermint.

Some place folded fruit-napkins under each finger-bowl; others have
little fancy net-work mats, made of thread or crochet cotton, which are
intended to protect handsome painted dessert-plates from scratches which
the finger-bowls might possibly make.

The warm dishes--not _hot_ dishes--keep in a tin closet or on the top
shelf of the range until the moment of serving. A plate of bread should
also be on the sideboard.

Place the soup-tureen (with soup that has been brought to the
boiling-point just before serving) and the soup-plates before the seat
of the hostess.

Dinner being now ready, it should be announced by the butler or
dining-room maid. Never ring a bell for a meal. Bells do very well for
country inns and steamboats, but in private houses the _ménage_ should
be conducted with as little noise as possible.

With these preliminaries, one can see that it requires very little
trouble to serve the dinner. There should be no confusion or anxiety
about it. It is a simple routine. Each dish is served as a separate
course. The butler first places the pile of plates necessary for the
course before the host or hostess. He next sets the dish to be served
before the host or hostess, just beyond the pile of plates. The soup,
salad, and dessert should be placed invariably before the hostess, and
every other dish before the host. As each plate is ready, the host puts
it upon the small salver held by the butler, who then with his own hand
places this and the other plates in a similar manner on the table before
each of the guests. If a second dish is served in the course, the
butler, putting in it a spoon, presents it on the left side of each
person, allowing him to help himself. As soon as any one has finished
with his plate, the butler should remove it immediately, without waiting
for others to finish. This would take too much time. When all the plates
are removed, the butler should bring on the next course. It is not
necessary to use the crumb-scraper to clean the cloth until just before
the dessert is served. He should proceed in the same manner to
distribute and take off the plates until the dessert is served, when he
can leave the room.

This is little enough every-day ceremony for families of the most
moderate pretensions, and it is also enough for the finest dinner party,
with the simple addition of more waiters, and distribution of the work
among them. It is well that this simple ceremony should be daily
observed, for many reasons. The dishes themselves taste better;
moreover, the cook takes more pride, and is more particular to have his
articles well cooked, and to present a better appearance, when each dish
is in this way subjected to a special regard: and is it not always
preferable to have a few well-cooked dishes to many indifferently and
carelessly prepared? At the same time, each dish is in its perfection,
hot from the fire, and ready to be eaten at once; then, again, one has
the benefit of the full flavor of the dish, without mingling it with
that of a multiplicity of others. There is really very little extra work
in being absolutely methodical in every-day living. With this habit,
there ceases to be any anxiety in entertaining. There is nothing more
distressing at a dinner company than to see a hostess ill at ease, or to
detect an interchange of nervous glances between her and the servants. A
host and hostess seem insensibly to control the feelings of all the
guests, it matters not how many there may be. In well-appointed houses,
a word is not spoken at the dinner between the hostess and attendants.
What necessity, when the servants are in the daily practice of their
duties?

If one has nothing for dinner but soup, hash, and lettuce, put them on
the table in style: serve them in three courses, and one will imagine it
a much better dinner than if carelessly served.

Let it be remembered that the above is the rule prescribed for every-day
living. With large dinner parties, the plan might be changed, in one
respect, _i. e._, in having the dishes, in courses, put on the table for
exhibition, and then taken off, to be carved quickly and delicately at a
side-table by an experienced butler. This gives the host time to
entertain his guests at his ease, instead of being absorbed in the
fatiguing occupation of carving for twelve or fourteen people.

These rules in France constitute an invariable and daily custom for
private dinners, as well as for those of greater pretensions. Every
thing is served there also as a separate course, even each vegetable,
unless used as a garnish. In America and England this plan is not
generally liked, although in both these countries it is adopted by many.
Americans like, at least, one vegetable with each substantial, a taste,
it is to be hoped, that will not be changed by the dictates of fashion.
Then, if dishes are to be carved at a side-table, the one-vegetable plan
causes the placing of the principal dish on the table before carving to
appear more sensible.

When the butler places a dish on the table, and tarries a moment or so
for every one to look at it, if it does not happen to be so very
attractive in appearance the performance seems very absurd; but when,
after putting on the substantial dish, he places a vegetable dish at the
other end of the table, his taking the substantial to carve seems a more
rational proceeding.

I would suggest, when there is only one dish for a course, which is to
be taken off the table to be carved, that the dish should be put on
first; then, that the butler should return for the plates, instead of
placing the plates on first, as should be done in all other cases.

At small dinners, I would not have the butler to be carver. It is a
graceful and useful accomplishment for a gentleman to know how to carve
well. At small dinners, where the dishes can not be large, the attendant
labor must be light; and, in this case, does it not seem more hospitable
and home-like for the gentleman to carve himself? Does it not disarm
restraint, and mark the only difference there is between home and hotel
dinners?

In “Gastronomie,” M. M. believes in a compromise on the carving
question. He says, “There were professional carvers, and this important
art was anciently performed at the sound of music, and with appropriate
gesticulations. We wish our modern gourmands would follow the very good
example of Trimalchio in this respect, and, if they must have their
viands carved on the sideboard by servants, take care that, like his
carvers, they are trained to his art. We shall take the opportunity of
entering our protest against an innovation which is going too far. That
some of the more bulky pieces, the _pièces de résistance_, should be
placed on the sideboard, well and good, though even to this Addison
objected, and not without reason; but that the fish and the game should
be both bestowed and distributed, like rations to paupers, by
attendants, who, for the most part, can not distinguish between the head
and the tail of a mullet, the flesh and fin of a turbot, etc., is enough
to disturb the digestion of the most tolerant gastronome. We must say
that we like to see our dinner, especially the fish, and to see every
part of it, in good hands.”

Then, again, without paying a high price, one can not secure a waiter
who is a good carver. I am almost inclined to say one must possess the
luxury of a French waiter for carving at the side-table. English waiters
are good. The Irish are generally too awkward. Negroes are too slow. The
French are both graceful and expeditious.

Well, what can be done, then, when one has a dinner party, with no
expert carver, and the dishes are too large for the host to attempt? I
would advise in this case that the dinner should be served from the
side. A very great majority of large and even small dinners are served
in this manner.

The table, as usual, is decorated with flowers, fruits, etc., but the
dishes (_plats_) are not placed upon it; consequently the host has no
more duty to perform in the serving of the dinner than the guest. A
plate is placed on the table before each person, then the dish, prettily
decorated or neatly carved, if necessary, is presented to the left side,
so that each person may help himself from the dish. When these plates
are taken off, they are replaced by clean ones, and the dish of the next
course is presented in like manner. Many prefer to serve every course
from the side, as I have just indicated; others make an exception of the
dessert, which the hostess may consider a pretty acquisition to the
table, while the dish should not be an awkward one to serve.

Some proper person should be stationed in the kitchen or butler’s pantry
to carve and to see that the dishes are properly decorated. If the
hostess should apprehend unskillfulness in carving, the dinner might be
composed of chops, ribs, birds, etc., which require no cutting.

There are several hints about serving the table, which I will now
specify separately, in order to give them the prominence they deserve.

1st. The waiters should be expeditious without seeming to be in a hurry.
A dragging dinner is most tiresome. In France, the dishes and plates
seem to be changed almost by magic. An American senator told me that at
a dinner at the Tuileries, at which he was present, twenty-five courses
were served in an hour and a half. The whole entertainment, with the
after-dinner coffee, etc., lasted three hours. Upon this occasion, a
broken dish was never presented to the view of a guest. One waiter would
present a dish, beautifully garnished or decorated; and if the guest
signified assent, a plate with some of the same kind of food was served
him immediately from the broken dish at the side-table.

Much complaint has been made by persons accustomed to dinners abroad of
the tediousness of those given in Washington and New York, lasting, as
they often do, from three to five hours. It is an absolute affliction to
be obliged to sit for so long a time at table.

2d. Never overload a plate nor oversupply a table. It is a vulgar
hospitality. At a small dinner, no one should hesitate to ask for more,
if he desires it; it would only be considered a flattering tribute to
the dish.

At large companies, where there is necessarily a greater variety of
dishes, the most voracious appetite must be satisfied with a little of
each. Then, do not supply more than is absolutely needed; it is a
foolish and unfashionable waste. “Hospitality is not to be measured by
the square inch and calculated by cubic feet of beef or mutton.”

At a fashionable dinner party, if there are twelve or fourteen guests,
there should be twelve or fourteen birds, etc., served on the table--one
for each person. If uninvited persons should call, the servant could
mention at the door that madam has company at dinner. A sensible person
would immediately understand that the general machinery would be upset
by making an appearance. At small or private dinners, it would be, of
course, quite a different thing.

The French understand better than the people of any other nation how to
supply a table. “Their small family dinners are simply gems of
perfection. There is plenty for every person, yet every morsel is eaten.
The flowers or plants are fresh and odoriferous; the linen is a marvel
of whiteness; the dishes are few, but perfect of their kind.”

When you invite a person to a family dinner, do not attempt too much. It
is really more elegant to have the dinner appear as if it were an
every-day affair than to impress the guest, by an ostentatious variety,
that it is quite an especial event to ask a friend to dinner. Many
Americans are deterred from entertaining, because they think they can
not have company without a vulgar abundance, which is, of course, as
expensive and troublesome as it is coarse and unrefined.

For reasonable and sensible people, there is no dinner more satisfactory
than one consisting first of a soup, then a fish, garnished with boiled
potatoes, followed by a roast, also garnished with one vegetable;
perhaps an _entrée_, always a salad, some cheese, and a dessert. This,
well cooked and neatly and quietly served, is a stylish and good enough
dinner for any one, and is within the power of a gentleman or lady of
moderate means to give. “It is the exquisite quality of a dinner or a
wine that pleases us, not the multiplicity of dishes or vintages.”

3d. Never attempt a new dish with company--one that you are not entirely
sure of having cooked in the very best manner.

4th. Care must be taken about selecting a company for a dinner party,
for upon this depends the success of the entertainment. Always put the
question to yourself, when making up a dinner party, Why do I ask him or
her? And unless the answer be satisfactory, leave him or her out. Invite
them on some other occasion. If they are not sensible, social,
unaffected, and clever people, they will not only not contribute to the
agreeability of the dinner, but will positively be a serious impediment
to conversational inspiration and the general feeling of ease.
Consequently, one may consider it a compliment to be invited to a dinner
party.

5th. Have the distribution of seats at table so managed, using some tact
in the arrangement, that there need be no confusion, when the guests
enter the dining-room, about their being seated. If the guest of honor
be a lady, place her at the right of the host; if a gentleman, at the
right of the hostess.

If the dinner company be so large that the hostess can not easily place
her guests without confusion, have a little card on each plate bearing
the name of the person who is to occupy the place. Plain cards are well
enough; but the French design (they are designed in this country also)
beautiful cards for the purpose, illustrated with varieties of devices:
some are rollicking cherubs with capricious antics, who present
different tempting viands; autumn leaves and delicate flowers in chromo
form pretty surroundings for the names on others; yet the designs are so
various on these and the bill-of-fare cards that each hostess may seek
to find new ones, while frequent dinner-goers may have interesting
collections of these mementoes, which may serve to recall the occasions
in after-years.

6th. If the dinner is intended to be particularly fine, have bills of
fare, one for each person, written on little sheets of paper smoothly
cut in half, or on French bill-of-fare cards, which come for the
purpose. If expense is no object, and you entertain enough to justify
it, have cards for your own use especially engraved. Have your crest, or
perhaps a monogram, at the top of the card, and forms for different
courses following, so headed that you have only to fill out the space
with the special dishes for the occasion. I will give the example of a
form. The forms are often seen on the dinner-cards; yet, perhaps, they
are as often omitted, when the bills of fare are written, like those
given at the end of the book.

Bills of fare are generally written in French. It is a pity that our own
rich language is inadequate to the duties of a fashionable bill of fare,
especially when, perhaps, all the guests do not understand the Gallic
tongue, and the bill of fare (_menu_) for their accommodation might as
well be written in Choctaw. I will arrange a table with French names of
dishes for the aid of those preferring the French bills of fare. I would
say that some tact might be displayed in choosing which language to
employ.

+--------------------------+
| MENU.                    |
| -----                    |
| Dîner du 15 Février.     |
| -----                    |
| Potages.                 |
| Poissons.                |
| Hors-d’œuvres.           |
| Relevés.                 |
| Entrées.                 |
| Rôtis.                   |
| Entremêts.               |
| Glaces.                  |
| Dessert.                 |
+--------------------------+

If you are entertaining a ceremonious company, with tastes for the
frivolities of the world, or, perhaps, foreign embassadors, use
unhesitatingly the French bills of fare; but practical uncles and
substantial persons of learning and wit, who, perhaps, do not appreciate
the merits of languages which they do not understand, might consider you
demented to place one of these effusions before them. I would advise the
English bills of fare on these occasions.

7th. The attendants at table should make no noise. They should wear
slippers or light boots. “Nothing so distinguishes the style of
perfectly appointed houses from vulgar imitations as the quiet,
self-possessed movements of the attendants.” No word should be spoken
among them during dinner, nor should they even seem to notice the
conversation of the company at table.

8th. The waiter should wear a dress-coat, white vest, black trousers,
and white necktie; the waiting-maid, a neat black alpaca or a clean
calico dress, with a white apron.

9th. Although I would advise these rules to be generally followed, yet
it is as pleasant a change to see an individuality or a characteristic
taste displayed in the setting of the table and the choice of dishes as
in the appointments of our houses or in matters of toilet. At different
seasons the table might be changed to wear a more appropriate garb. It
may be solid, rich, and showy, or simple, light, and fresh.

10th. Aim to have a variety or change in dishes. It is as necessary to
the stomach and to the enjoyment of the table as is change of scene for
the mind. Even large and expensive state dinners become very monotonous
when one finds everywhere the same choice of dishes. Mr. Walker, in his
“Original,” says: “To order dinner is a matter of invention and
combination. It involves novelty, simplicity, and taste; whereas, in the
generality of dinners, there is no character but that of routine,
according to the season.”

11th. Although many fashionable dinners are of from three to four hours’
duration, I think every minute over two hours is a “stately durance
vile.” After that time, one can have no appetite; conversation must be
forced. It is preferable to have the dinner a short one than a minute
too long. If one rises from a fine dinner wearied and satiated, the
memory of the whole occasion must be tinged with this last impression.

12th. There is a variety of opinions as to who should be first served at
table. Many of the _haut monde_ insist that the hostess should be first
attended to. Once, when visiting a family with an elegant establishment,
who, with cultivated tastes and years of traveling experience, prided
themselves on their _savoir faire_, one of the members said, “Yes, if
Queen Victoria were our guest, our sister, who presides at table, should
always be served first.” The custom originated in ancient times, when
the hospitable fashion of poisoning was in vogue. Then the guests
preferred to see the hostess partake of each dish before venturing
themselves. Poisoning is not now the order of the day, beyond what is
accomplished by rich pastry and plum-puddings. If there be but one
attendant, the lady guest sitting at the right of the host or the oldest
lady should be first served. There are certain natural instincts of
propriety which fashion or custom can not regulate. As soon as the
second person is helped, there should be no further waiting before
eating.

13th. Have chairs of equal height at table. Perhaps every one may know
by experience the trial to his good humor in finding himself perched
above or sunk below the general level.

14th. The selection of china for the table offers an elegant field in
which to display one’s taste. The most economical choice for durability
is this: put your extra money in a handsome dessert set, all (except the
plates) of which are displayed on the table all the time during dinner;
then select the remainder of the service in plain white, or white and
gilt, china. When any dish is broken, it can be easily matched and
replaced.

A set of china decorated in color to match the color of the dining-room
is exceedingly tasteful. This choice is not an economical one, as it is
necessary to replace broken pieces by having new ones manufactured--an
expense quite equal to the extra trouble required to imitate a dish made
in another country.

By far the most elegant arrangement consists in having different sets of
plates, each set of a different pattern, for every course. Here is an
unlimited field for exquisite taste. Let the meat and vegetable dishes
be of plated silver. Let the _épergne_ or centre-piece (holding flowers
or fruit) be of silver, or perhaps it might be preferred of majolica, of
bisque, or of glass. The majolica ware is very fashionable now, and
dessert, oyster, and salad sets of it are exceedingly pretty. A set of
majolica plates, imitating pink shells, with a large pink-shell platter,
is very pretty, and appropriate for almost any course. Oyster-plates in
French ware imitate five oyster-shells, with a miniature cup in the
centre for holding the lemon. There are other patterns of oyster-plates
in majolica of the most gorgeous colors, where each rim is concaved in
six shells to hold as many oysters. The harlequin dessert sets are
interesting, where every plate is not only different in design and
color, but is a specimen of different kinds of ware as well. In these
sets the Dresden, French, and painted plates of any ware that suits the
fancy are combined.

A set of plates for a course at dinner is unique in the Chinese or
Japanese patterns. Dessert sets of Bohemian glass or of cut-glass are a
novelty; however, the painted sets seem more appropriate for the dessert
(fruits, etc.), while glass sets are tasteful for jellies, cold
puddings, etc., or what are called the cold _entremêts_ served just
before the dessert proper.

But it seems difficult, in entering the Colamores’ and other large
places of the kind in New York, to know what to select, there are such
myriads of exquisite plates, table ornaments, and fairy-lands of glass.

I consider the table ornaments in silver much less attractive than those
in fancy ware. There are lovely maidens in bisque, reclining, while they
hold painted oval dishes for a jelly, a Bavarian cream, or for flowers
or fruit; cherub boys in majolica, tugging away with wheelbarrows, which
should be loaded with flowers; antique water-jugs; cheese-plates in
Venetian glass; clusters of lilies from mirror bases to hold flowers or
_bonbons_; tripods of dolphins, with great pink mouths, to hold salt and
pepper.

If a lady, with tastes to cultivate in her family, can afford elegancies
in dress, let her retrench in that, and bid farewell to all her ugly and
insipid white china; let wedding presents consist more of these
ornaments (which may serve to decorate any room), and less of silver
salt-cellars, pepper-stands, and pickle-forks.

Senator Sumner was a lover of the ceramic art. His table presented a
delightful study to the connoisseur, with its different courses of
plates, all different and _recherché_ in design. Nothing aroused this
inimitable host at a dinner party from his literary labors more
effectually than a special announcement to him by Marley of the arrival
from Europe of a new set of quaint and elegant specimens of China ware.
He would repair to New York on the next train.

15th. I will close these suggestions by copying from an English book a
practical drill exercise for serving at table. The dishes are served
from the side-table.

“Let us suppose a table laid for eight persons, dressed in its best; as
attendants, only two persons--a butler and a footman, or one of these,
with a page or neat waiting-maid; and let us suppose some one stationed
outside the door in the butler’s pantry to do nothing but fetch up, or
hand, or carry off dishes, one by one:

While guests are being seated, person from outside brings up soup;
Footman receives soup at door;
Butler serves it out;
Footman hands it;
Both change plates.
Footman takes out soup, and receives fish at door; while butler hands wine;
Butler serves out fish;
Footman hands it (plate in one hand, and sauce in the other);
Both change plates.
Footman brings in _entrée_, while butler hands wine;
Butler hands _entrée_;
Footman hands vegetables;
Both change plates,
Etc., etc.

“The carving of the joint seems the only difficulty. However, it will
not take long for an expert carver to cut eight pieces.”



THE DINNER PARTY.


It is very essential, in giving a dinner party, to know precisely how
many guests one is to entertain. It is a serious inconvenience to have
any doubt on this subject. Consequently, it is well to send an
invitation, which may be in the following form:

+--------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                        |
| _Mrs. Smith requests the pleasure of Mr. Jones’s       |
| company at dinner, on Thursday, January 5th, at        |
| seven o’clock._                                        |
|                                                        |
|                                         R. S. V. P.    |
|                                                        |
|   _12 New York Avenue, January 2d, 1875._              |
|                                                        |
+--------------------------------------------------------+

The capital letters constitute the initials of four French words,
meaning, “Answer, if you please” (_Répondez s’il vous plait_). The
person thus invited must not fail to reply at once, sending a messenger
to the door with the note. It is considered impolite to send it by post.

If the person invited has any doubt about being able to attend the
dinner at the time stated, he should decline the invitation at once. He
should be positive one way or the other, not delaying the question for
consideration more than a day at the utmost. If Mr. Jones should then
decline, he might reply as follows:

+------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                            |
|   _Mr. Jones regrets that he is unable to accept           |
| Mrs. Smith’s polite invitation for Thursday evening._      |
|                                                            |
|   _8 Thirty-seventh Street, January 3d._                   |
|                                                            |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

Or,

+------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                            |
|   _Mr. Jones regrets that a previous engagement            |
| prevents his acceptance of Mrs. Smith’s polite invitation  |
| for Thursday evening._                                     |
|                                                            |
|   _Thirty-seventh Street, January 3d._                     |
|                                                            |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

A prompt and decided answer of this character enables Mrs. Smith to
supply the place with some other person, thereby preventing that most
disagreeable thing, a vacant chair at table.

If the invitation be accepted, Mr. Jones might say in his note:

+------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                            |
|   _Mr. Jones accepts, with pleasure, Mrs. Smith’s          |
| invitation for Thursday evening._                          |
|                                                            |
|   _Thirty-seventh Street, January 2d._                     |
|                                                            |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

The more simple the invitation or reply, the better. Do not attempt any
high-flown or original modes. Originality is most charming on most
occasions; this is not one of them.

In New York, many, I notice, seem to think it elegant to use the French
construction of sentences in formal notes: for instance, they are
particular to say, “the invitation of Mrs. Smith,” instead of “Mrs.
Smith’s invitation;” and “2d January,” instead of “January 2d.” In
writing in the French language, the French construction of sentences
would seem eminently proper. One might be pardoned for laughing at an
English construction, if ignorance were not the cause. So, when one
writes in English, let the sentences be concise, and according to the
rules of the language.

On the appointed day, the guest should endeavor to arrive at the house
not exceeding ten minutes before the time fixed for dinner; and while he
avoids a too early arrival, he should be equally careful about being
tardy.

It is enough to disturb the serenity and good temper of the most amiable
hostess during the whole evening for a guest to delay her dinner,
impairing it, of course, to a great extent. She should not be expected
to wait over fifteen minutes for any one. Perhaps it would be as well
for her to order dinner ten minutes after the appointed hour in her
invitation, to meet the possible contingency of delay on the part of
some guest.

When the guests are assembled in the drawing-room, if the company be
large, the host or hostess can quietly intimate to the gentlemen what
ladies they will respectively accompany to the dining-room. After a few
moments of conversation and introductions, the dinner is to be
announced, when the host should offer his arm to the lady guest of
honor, the hostess taking the arm of the gentleman guest of honor; and
now, the host leading the way, all should follow; the hostess, with her
escort, being the last to leave the drawing-room. They should find their
places at table with as little confusion as possible, not sitting down
until the hostess is seated. After dinner is over, the hostess giving
the signal by moving back her chair, all should leave the dining-room.
The host may then invite the gentlemen to the smoking-room or library.
The ladies should repair to the drawing-room. A short time thereafter
(perhaps in half an hour), the butler should bring to the drawing-room
the tea-service on a salver, with a cake-basket filled with fancy
biscuits, or rather crackers or little cakes.

Placing them on the table, he may then announce to the host that tea is
served. The gentlemen join the ladies; and, after a chat of a few
minutes over the tea, all of the guests may take their departure. If
the attendant is a waiting-maid, and the tea-service rather heavy, she
might bring two or three cups filled with tea, and a small sugar-bowl
and cream-pitcher, also the cake-basket, on a small salver; and when the
cups are passed, return for more.

I do not like the English fashion, which requires the ladies to retire
from the table, leaving the gentlemen to drink more wine, and smoke.
Enough wine is drunk during dinner. English customs are admirable,
generally, and one naturally inclines to adopt them; but in this
instance I do not hesitate to condemn and reject a custom in which I see
no good, but, on the contrary, a temptation to positive evil. The French
reject it; let Americans do the same.



COOKING AS AN ACCOMPLISHMENT.


The reason why cooking in America is, as a rule, so inferior is not
because American women are less able and apt than the women of France,
and not because the American men do not discuss and appreciate the
merits of good cooking and the pleasure of entertaining friends at their
own table; it is merely because American women seem possessed with the
idea that it is not the fashion to know how to cook; that, as an
accomplishment, the art of cooking is not as ornamental as that of
needle-work or piano-playing. I do not undervalue these last
accomplishments. A young lady of _esprit_ should understand them; but
she should understand, also, the accomplishment of cooking. A young lady
can scarcely have too many accomplishments, for they serve to adorn her
home, and are attractive and charming, generally. But of them
all--painting, music, fancy work, or foreign language--is there one more
fascinating and useful, or one which argues more intelligence in its
acquisition, than the accomplishment of cooking?

What would more delight Adolphus than to discover that his pretty
_fiancée_, Julia, was an accomplished cook; that with her dainty fingers
she could gracefully dash off a creamy omelet, and by miraculous
manœuvres could produce to his astonished view a dozen different
kaleidoscopic omelets, _aux fines herbes_, _aux huîtres_, _aux petits
pois_, _aux tomates_, etc.; and not only that, but scientific
croquettes, mysterious soups, delicious salads, marvelous sauces, and
the hundred and one savory results of a little artistic skill? Delighted
Adolphus--if a sensible man, and such a woman should have no other than
a sensible man--would consider this as the _chef-d’œuvre_ of all her
accomplishments, as he regarded her the charming assurance of so many
future comforts.

From innate coquetry alone the French women appreciate the powers of
their dainty table. Cooking is an art they cultivate. Any of the _haut
monde_ are proud to originate a new dish, many famous ones doing them
credit in bearing their names.

One thing is quite evident in America--that the want of this ornamental
and useful information is most deplorable. The inefficiency, in this
respect, of Western and Southern women, brought up under the system of
slavery, is somewhat greater than that of the women of the Northern and
Eastern States; however, as a nation, there is little to praise in this
regard in any locality. Professor Blot endeavored to come to the rescue.
Every _man_ applauded his enterprise; yet I can myself testify to the
indifference of the women--his classes for the study of cookery
numbering by units where they should have numbered by hundreds. He soon
discontinued his instructive endeavors, and at last died a poor man.

There is little difficulty abroad in obtaining good cooks at reasonable
prices, who have pursued regular courses of instruction in their trade:
not so in America. Hospitality demands the entertaining of friends at
the social board; yet it is almost impossible to do so in this country
in an acceptable manner, unless the hostess herself not only has a
proper idea of the serving of a table, but of the art of cooking the
dishes themselves as well. In some of the larger cities, satisfactory
dinners and trained waiters may be provided at an enormous cost at the
famous restaurants, where the meal may appear home-like and elegant. But
unfortunate is the woman, generally, who wants to do “the correct
thing,” and, wishing to entertain at dinner, relies upon the sense,
good taste, and management of the proprietor of a restaurant. She may
confidently rely upon one thing--an extortionate bill; and, generally,
as well, upon a vulgar display, which poorly imitates the manner of
refined private establishments.

However, “living for the world” seems very contemptible in comparison
with the importance of that wholesome, satisfactory, every-day living
which so vitally concerns the health and pleasure of the family circle.

But why waste time in asserting these self-evident facts? They are
acknowledged and proclaimed every day by suffering humanity; yet the
difficulty is not remedied. Is there a remedy, then? Yes. This is a free
country, yet Dame Fashion is the Queen. Make it the fashion, then, that
the art and science of cookery shall be classed among the necessary
accomplishments of every well-educated lady. This is a manifest duty on
the part of ladies of influence and position, even if the object be only
for the benefit of the country at large. Let these ladies be
accomplished artists in cookery. The rest will soon follow. There will
be plenty of imitators.

Many ladies of rank in England have written valuable books on cookery,
and on the effects resulting from the want of the knowledge. None wrote
better than Lady Morgan. Speaking of clubs, she says:

“The social want of the times, however, brought its remedy along with
it, and the reaction was astounding.... Then it was that clubs
arose--homes of refuge to destitute celibacy, chapels of ease to
discontented husbands. There, men could dine, like gentlemen and
Christians, upon all the _friandises_ of the French kitchen, much
cheaper and far more wholesomely than at their own tables upon the
tough, half-sodden fibres of the national roast and boiled, or on the
hazardous resources of hash, gravy soup, and marrow puddings.

“Moral England gave in. The English ‘home’--that temple of the heart,
that centre of all the virtues--was left to the solitary enjoyment of
the English wives.

“To your _casseroles_, then, women of Britain! Would you, with a
falconer’s voice, lure your faithless tassels back again? Apply to the
practical remedy of your wrongs; proceed to the reform of your domestic
government, and turn your thoughts to that art which, coming into action
every day in the year during the longest life, includes within its
circles the whole philosophy of economy and order, the preservation of
good health, and the tone of good society--and all peculiarly within
your province.”



BREAKFAST.


After a fast of twelve or thirteen hours, the system requires something
substantial as preparation for the labors of the day; consequently, I
consider the American breakfasts more desirable for an active people
than those of France or England.

In France, the first breakfast consists merely of a cup of coffee and a
roll. A second breakfast, at eleven o’clock, is more substantial, dishes
being served which may be eaten with a fork (_déjeuner à la
fourchette_), as a chop with a potato _soufflé_. No wonder there are
_cafés_ in Paris where American breakfasts are advertised, for it takes
one of our nationality a very short time to become dissatisfied with
this meagre first meal.

In England, breakfast is a very informal meal. After some fatiguing
occasion, if one should desire the luxury of an extra nap, he is not
mercilessly expected at the table simply because it is the
breakfast-hour; for there the breakfast-hour is any time one chances to
be ready for it. Gentlemen and ladies read their papers and letters in
the breakfast-room--a practice which, of course, is more agreeable for
guests than convenient for servants. However, if one can afford it, why
not? This habit requires a little different setting of the table. It is
decorated with flowers or plants, and upon it are placed several kinds
of breads, fruits, melons, potted meats, and freshest of boiled eggs.
But the substantial dishes must be served from the sideboard, where they
are kept in silver chafing-dishes over spirit-lamps. As members of the
family or guests enter, the servant helps them each once, then leaves
the room. If they have further wants, they help themselves or ring a
bell.

The American breakfast is all placed upon the table, unless oatmeal
porridge should be served as a first course. Changes of plates are also
necessary when cakes requiring sirup or when melons or fruits are
served.

Let us now set the American breakfast-table.

The coffee-urn and silver service necessary are placed in a straight
line before the hostess. The one or two kinds of substantials are set
before the host; vegetables or _entrées_ are placed on the sides. Do not
have them askew. It is quite as easy for an attendant to place a dish in
a straight line as in an oblique angle with every other dish on the
table.

I advocate the general use of oatmeal porridge for breakfast. Nothing is
more wholesome, and nothing more relished after a little use. If not
natural, the taste should be acquired. It is invaluable for children,
and of no less benefit for persons of mature years. Nearly all the
little Scotch and Irish children are brought up on it. When Queen
Victoria first visited Scotland, she noticed the particularly ruddy and
healthy appearance of the children, and, after inquiry about their diet
and habits, became at once a great advocate for the use of porridge. She
used it for her own children, and it was at once introduced very
generally into England. Another of its advantages is that serving it as
a first course enables the cook to prepare many dishes, such as steaks,
omelets, etc., just as the family sit down to breakfast; and when the
porridge is eaten, she is ready with the other dishes “smoking hot.”

It would be well if more attention were given to breakfasts than is
usually bestowed. The table might have a fresher look with flowers or a
flowering plant in the centre. The breakfast napery is very pretty now,
with colored borders to suit the color of the room, the table-cloth and
napkins matching.

The beefsteaks should be varied, for instance, one morning with a tomato
sauce, another _à la maître d’hôtel_, or with a brown sauce, or
garnished with water-cresses, green pease, fried potatoes, potato-balls,
etc., instead of being always the same beefsteak, too frequently
overcooked or undercooked, and often floating in butter.

Melons, oranges, compotes, any and all kinds of fruits, should be
served at breakfast. In the season, sliced tomatoes, with a French or
_Mayonnaise_ dressing, is a most refreshing breakfast dish. A great
resource is in the variety of omelets, and with a little practice,
nothing is so easily made. One morning it may be a plain omelet;
another, with macaroni and cheese; another, with fine herbs; another,
with little strips of ham or with oysters. The English receipt on page
148 makes a pleasant change for a veal cutlet. When chickens are no
longer very young, the receipt on page 175 (deviled chicken), with a
Cunard sauce or a white sauce, is another change. The different
arrangements of meat-balls and croquettes, with tomato, cream, apple, or
brown sauces, are delicious when they are freshly and carefully made.

As there are hundreds of delicious breakfast dishes, which only require
a little attention and interest to understand, how unfortunate it must
be for a man to have a wife who has nothing for breakfast but an
alternation of juiceless beefsteak, greasy and ragged mutton-chops, and
swimming hash, with unwholesome hot breads to make up deficiencies!

Breakfast parties are very fashionable, being less expensive than
dinners, and just as satisfactory to guests. They are served generally
about ten o’clock, although any time from ten to twelve o’clock may be
chosen for the purpose. It seems to me that ten o’clock, or even nine
o’clock (it depends upon the persons invited), is the preferable hour.
Guests might prefer to retain their strength by a repast at home if the
breakfast-hour were at twelve o’clock, and then the fine breakfast would
be less appreciated. At breakfast parties, with the exception of the
silver service being on the table all the time for tea and coffee, the
dishes are served in courses precisely as for dinner.

In England, breakfast parties are perhaps more in favor than lunch
parties, especially among the _literati_. Macaulay said, when extolling
the merits of breakfast parties as compared with all other
entertainments, “Dinner parties are mere formalities; but you invite a
man to breakfast because you want to see _him_.”

Three bills of fare are given for breakfast parties, which will show the
order of different courses:


_Winter Breakfast._

     1st Course.--Broiled sardines on toast, garnished with slices of
     lemon. Tea, coffee, or chocolate.

     2d Course.--Larded sweet-breads, garnished with French pease. Cold
     French rolls or petits pains. Sauterne.

     3d Course.--Small fillets or the tender cuts from
     porter-house-steaks, served on little square slices of toast, with
     mushrooms.

     4th Course.--Fried oysters; breakfast puffs.

     5th Course.--Fillets of grouse (each fillet cut in two), on little
     thin slices of fried mush, garnished with potatoes à la Parisienne.

     6th Course.--Sliced oranges, with sugar.

     7th Course.--Waffles, with maple sirup.


_Early Spring Breakfast._

     1st Course.--An Havana orange for each person, dressed on a fork
     (page 338).

     2d Course.--Boiled shad, maître d’hôtel sauce; Saratoga potatoes.
     Tea or coffee.

     3d Course.--Lamb-chops, tomato sauce. Château Yquem.

     4th Course.--Omelet, with green pease, or garnished with parsley
     and thin diamonds of ham, or with shrimps, etc., etc.

     5th Course.--Fillets of beef, garnished with water-cresses and
     little round radishes; muffins.

     6th Course.--Rice pancakes, with maple sirup.


_Summer Breakfast._

     1st Course.--Melons.

     2d Course.--Little fried perch, smelts, or trout, with a sauce
     Tartare, the dish garnished with shrimps and olives. Coffee, tea,
     or chocolate.

     3d Course.--Young chickens, sautéd, with cream-gravy, surrounded
     with potatoes à la neige. Claret.

     4th Course.--Poached eggs on anchovy-toast.

     5th Course.--Little fillets of porter-house-steaks, with tomatoes à
     la Mayonnaise.

     6th Course.--Peaches, quartered, sweetened, and half-frozen.



LUNCH.


This is more especially a ladies’ meal. If one gives a lunch party,
ladies alone are generally invited. It is an informal meal on ordinary
occasions, when every thing is placed upon the table at once. A servant
remains in the room only long enough to serve the first round of dishes,
then leaves, supposing that confidential conversation may be desired.
Familiar friends often “happen in” to lunch, and are always to be
expected.

Some fashionable ladies have the reputation of having very fine
lunches--chops, chickens, oysters, salads, chocolate, and many other
good things being provided; and others, just as fashionable, have
nothing but a cup of tea or chocolate, some thin slices of bread and
butter, and cold meat; or, if of Teutonic taste, nothing but cheese,
crackers, and ale, thus reserving the appetite for dinner.

In entertaining at lunch, the dishes are served in the same manner as
for dinner. Each dish is served as a separate course. It may be placed
on the table before the hostess, if the lunch party is not very large;
but it is generally served from the side. The table is also decorated in
the same manner as for dinner, with a centre-piece of flowers or of
fruit, and with various _compotiers_ around the centre, containing
fruits, _bonbons_, little fancy cakes, Indian or other preserves, etc.
Other ornaments, in Dresden china, majolica ware, Venetian or French
glass, etc., filled with flowers, are often seen. Little dishes of
common glass in different shapes, as crosses, quarter-moons, etc., about
an inch high (see cuts, page 58), are also filled with flowers, and
placed at symmetrical distances. As the last-mentioned decorations are
very cheap, every one may indulge in them, and consider that there are
no more beautiful ornaments, after all.

The lunch-table is generally covered with a colored table-cloth.

The principal dishes served are _patés_, croquettes, shell-fish, game,
salads--in fact, all kinds of _entrées_ and cold desserts, or I may say
dishes are preferred which do not require carving. _Bouillon_ is
generally served as a first course in _bouillon_ cups, which are quite
like large coffee-cups, or coffee or tea cups may be used, although any
dinner soup served in soup-plates is _en regle_. A cup of chocolate,
with whipped cream on the top, is often served as another course.

I will give five bills of fare, reserved from five very nice little
lunch parties:


_Mrs. Collier’s Lunch_ (February 2d).

Bouillon; sherry.
Roast oysters on half-shell; Sauterne.
Little vols-au-vent of oysters.
Thin scollops, or cuts of fillet of beef, braised; French pease; Champagne.
Chicken croquettes, garnished with fried parsley; potato croquettes.
Cups of chocolate, with whipped cream.
Salad--lettuce dressed with tarragon.
Biscuits glacés; fruit-ices.
Fruit.
Bonbons.


_Mrs. Sprague’s Lunch_ (March 10th).

Raw oysters on half-shell.
Bouillon; sherry.
Little vols-au-vent of sweet-breads.
Lamb-chops; tomato sauce; Champagne.
Chicken croquettes; French pease.
Snipe; potatoes à la Parisienne.
Salad of lettuce.
Neuchâtel cheese; milk wafers, toasted.
Chocolate Bavarian cream, molded in little
  cups, with a spoonful of peach marmalade on each plate.
Vanilla ice-cream; fancy cakes.
Fruit.


_Mrs. Miller’s Lunch_ (January 6th).

Bouillon.
Deviled crabs; olives; claret punch.
Sweet-breads à la Milanaise.
Fillets of grouse, currant jelly; Saratoga potatoes.
Roman punch.
Fried oysters, garnished with chow-chow.
Chicken salad, or, rather, Mayonnaise of chicken.
Ramikins.
Wine jelly, and whipped cream.
Napolitaine ice-cream.
Fruit.
Bonbons.


_Mrs. Wells’s Lunch._

Bouillon; sherry.
Fried frogs’ legs; French pease.
Smelts, sauce Tartare; potatoes à la Parisienne.
Chicken in scallop-shells; Champagne.
Sweet-bread croquettes; tomato sauce.
Fried cream.
Salad; Romaine.
Welsh rare-bit.
Peaches and cream, frozen; fancy cakes.
Fruits.


_Mrs. Filley’s Lunch._

Mock-turtle soup; English milk-punch.
Lobster-chops; claret.
Mushrooms in crust.
Lamb-chops, en papillote.
Chetney of slices of baked fillet of beef.
Chocolate, with whipped cream.
Spinach on tongue slices (page 145), sauce Tartare.
Roast quail, bread sauce (page 185).
Cheese; lettuce, garnished with slices of
  radishes and nasturtium blossoms, French dressing.
Mince-meat patties; Champagne.
Ices and fancy cakes.
Fruit.



GENTLEMEN’S SUPPERS.


As ladies have exclusive lunches, gentlemen have exclusive suppers.
Nearly the same dishes are served for suppers as for lunches, although
gentlemen generally prefer more game and wine. Sometimes they like fish
suppers, with two or three or more varieties of fish, when nightmare
might be written at the end of the bill of fare.

If one has not a reliable cook, it is very convenient to give these
entertainments, as the hostess has a chance to station herself in the
_cuisine_, and personally superintend the supper.

One bill of fare is given for a fish supper:

     1st Course.--Raw oysters served in a block of ice (page 113). [The
     ice has a pretty effect in the gas-light.]

     2d Course.--Shad, maître d’hôtel sauce, garnished with smelts.

     3d Course.--Sweet-breads and tomato sauce.

     4th Course.--Boiled sardines, on toast.

     5th Course.--Deviled chicken, Cunard sauce.

     6th Course.--Fillets of duck, with salad of lettuce.

     7th Course.--Mayonnaise of salmon, garnished with shrimps.

     8th Course.--Welsh rare-bit.

     9th Course.--Charlotte Russe.

     10th Course.--Ice-cream and cake.



EVENING PARTIES.


If people can afford to give large evening parties, it is less trouble
and more satisfactory to place the supper in the hands of the
confectioner.

For card parties or small companies of thirty or forty persons, to meet
some particular stranger, or for literary reunions, the trouble need not
be great. People would entertain more if the trouble were less.

If one has a regular reception-evening, ices, cake, and chocolate are
quite enough; or for chocolate might be substituted sherry or a bowl of
punch.

For especial occasions for a company of thirty or forty, a table
prettily set with some flowers, fruit, chicken salad, croquettes or
sweet-breads and pease, one or two or more kinds of ice-cream and cakes,
is quite sufficient. Either coffee and tea, Champagne, a bowl of punch
or of eggnog, would be sufficient in the way of beverage.



SOMETHING ABOUT ECONOMY.


I am indebted to a French girl living in our family for the substance of
this chapter. Her parents being obliged to live in a most economical way
in St. Louis, still had an uncommonly good table. One resource was a
little garden, in which small compass were raised enough onions,
tomatoes, carrots, and a few other vegetables, to nearly supply the
family. A small bed of four feet square, surrounded by a pretty border
of lettuce, was large enough for raising all necessary herbs, such as
sage, summer savory, thyme, etc. Little boxes in the kitchen windows
contained growing parsley, ever ready for use.

I give receipts for three of their soups--the onion, vegetable _purée_,
and potato soups being most excellent, and costing not over from five to
ten cents each. One of their dinner dishes was a heart (10 cents)
stuffed, baked two or three hours, and served with a brown gravy and an
onion garnish (see receipt). Still another was a two-pound round-steak
(20 cents), spread with a bread and sage stuffing, then rolled, tied,
floured, seasoned on top, then baked, basting it often. It was a pretty
dish, with tomato sauce around it. Sometimes a cheap fish was cut in
slices, egged and bread-crumbed, fried, and garnished with fried
potatoes. They had always a salad for dinner, prepared from their border
of lettuce, some cold potatoes, cold beans, or other vegetable. A fine
breakfast dish was of kidneys (5 cents). Few Americans know how to cook
kidneys, and butchers often throw them away; yet in France they are
considered a great delicacy.

Their _répertoire_ of cheap dishes was large; so there was always a
change for, at least, each day of the week. A crumb of bread was never
wasted. All odd morsels were dried in the oven, pounded, and put away in
a tin-box, ready for breading cutlets cut from any pieces of mutton or
veal, and for many other purposes.

Any pieces of suet or drippings were clarified and put one side, to be
used for frying. Remains of cooked vegetables of any kind were saved for
soups and sauces. Not a slice of a tomato nor leaf of a cabbage was
thrown away.

If they had butter that was not entirely sweet, they added more salt, a
little soda, brought it to a boil on the stove, and then put it away in
a little crock. By allowing the settlings to remain at the bottom, the
butter became entirely sweet, and not too salt for cooking purposes.

Chickens, cutlets, etc., were larded at this table. Now, just to mention
the word “larding” is to overwhelm a common cook; and to require it, is
to rivet in the minds of most housewives the entire impracticability of
a whole receipt in which it is an item. Pieces of salt pork or breakfast
bacon should always be kept in the house. A pound of it, which is not
expensive, may last a long time, as it requires very little for
flavoring many things; then, if one has any idea of sewing, or what it
is to push a needle through any thing, one can lard. It only requires a
larding-needle, which costs fifteen cents, and which should last a
century. By placing little cut strips of pork in the end of the needle,
as is explained among “directions,” then drawing the needle through
parts of the meat, leaving the pork midway, this wonderfully difficult
operation is accomplished. It is only a few minutes’ pastime to lard
turkeys, chickens, birds, cutlets, sweet-breads, etc., which gives to
them flavor and style.

Limited in fortune as were this family, they were never without stock at
hand. Their meat for croquettes, patties, etc., had served a duty to the
soup-kettle. If a chicken was to be boiled for the table, it was thrown
into the stock-pot while the soup was simmering, and thus it and the
chicken were both benefited.

Their meat dishes were often garnished with little potato-balls, cooked
_à la Parisienne_, or simply boiled. This seemed extravagant; but as a
French vegetable-cutter only costs twenty-five cents, and the balls can
be cut very rapidly--all the parings boiled and mashed serving another
time as potato-cakes--there was nothing wasted, and little time lost.

In short, this household (and it is a sample of nearly all French
families of limited means) lived well on little more than many an
American family would throw away.

Let me give five bills of fare of their dinners, the second of which is
partly prepared from the remains of the first day:

Beef soup (soup bone), 10 cents.
Veal blanquette and boiled potatoes (knuckle of veal), 15 cents.
Salad of sliced tomatoes, 2 or 3 cents.
Boiled rice, with a border of stewed small pears
  (green, or of common variety), 10 cents.
Onion or bean soup, 5 cents.
Fish (en matelote), 15 cents.
Croquettes (made of the remains of the cold
  beef-soup meat, and rice), with a tomato sauce.
Salad of cold boiled potatoes.
Fried bread-pudding.

       *       *       *       *       *

Potato soup.
Round steak, rolled (page 140), with baked, parboiled onions, 25 cents.
Salad of lettuce.
Apple-fritters, with sirup.

       *       *       *       *       *

Tomato soup.
Beef à la mode, with spinach, 40 cents (enough for two dinners).
Salad of potatoes and parsley.
Rice-pudding.

       *       *       *       *       *

Noodle soup.
Mutton ragout, with potatoes, 25 cents.
Noodles and stuffed tomatoes.
Cheese omelet.



DIRECTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS.


BOILING.

Fowls or joints should be tied or well skewered into shape before
boiling.

Every thing should be _gently_ simmered, rather than fast boiled, in
order to be tender. The water should never be allowed to stop simmering
before the article is quite done. A pudding is thus entirely ruined.

The kettle should be kept covered, merely raising the cover at times to
remove the scum. Boiled fowl, with a white sauce, is a favorite English
dish, and very nice it is if properly prepared.


FRYING.

Frying means cooking by _immersion_ in hot fat, butter, or oil. There is
no English word for what is called frying in a spoonful of fat, first
on one side, and then on the other. _Sauté_ is the French word, and
should be Anglicized. Ordinary cooks, instead of frying, invariably
_sauté_ every thing. Almost every article that is usually _sautéd_ is
much better and more economical _fried_; as, for instance, oysters,
fish, birds, cutlets, crabs, etc.

The fat should always be tested before the article is immersed. A little
piece of bread may be thrown in, and if it colors quickly, the fat is
ready, and not before. The temperature of hot grease, it will be
remembered, is much greater than that of boiling water, which can not
exceed a certain degree of heat, whether it boil slow or fast. Hot
grease reaches a very high degree of heat, and consequently the surface
of any thing is almost instantaneously hardened or crisped when thrown
into it. The inside is thus kept free from grease, and is quickly
cooked. An article first dipped in egg and bread-crumbs should be
_entirely_ free from grease when thus cooked, as the egg is hardened the
instant it touches the hot grease, and the oyster, croquette, cutlet, or
sweet-bread is perfectly protected. The same fat can be used repeatedly
for frying the same thing. The fat in which fish is fried should not be
again used for any thing except fish. Professional cooks have several
frying-kettles, in which fat is kept for frying different things. A
little kettle for frying potatoes exclusively should always be at hand.

One will see that this style of cooking is economical, as there is very
little waste of fat; and then fried articles need no other dressing.

After frying fish, meat, or vegetables, let the fat stand about five
minutes; strain, and then return it to the kettle, which should always
be kept covered, after it is once cold.

Beef suet, salted, is quite as good for frying as lard, and is much
cheaper. It is well to purchase it by the pound, and have it rendered in
the kitchen.


TO PREPARE GREASE FOR FRYING (_Professor Blot_).

Take beef suet, the part around the kidneys, or any kind of fat, raw or
cooked, and free of fibres, nerves, thin skin, or bones; chop it fine;
add to it whatever you may have of fat skimmed off the top of meat
soup; put it in a cast-iron or crockery kettle; set it on a moderate
fire; boil gently for fifteen minutes; skim it well during the process;
take from the fire, leave it five minutes, and then strain it; after
which, put it in pots, and keep them in a dry and cool place; cover the
pots well every time you have occasion to use, but never cover them
while the grease is warm. This grease is as good, if not better than any
other to fry fish, fritters, and other similar things, which require to
be entirely covered with grease.[A]


BROILING.

I did not appreciate the nicety of broiling until, upon an occasion, a
gentleman invited a dinner company to a private dining-room of one of
our large restaurants, to eat a certain kind of fish, which he
considered especially fine. The host was quite out of humor to see the
fish come to the table baked, when he had ordered it broiled. The
proprietor afterward explained that, for some reason, his French cook
was absent for that day, and he had no other who could broil so large a
fish. I at once realized that, after all, it must be a delicate and
difficult thing to broil a large fish, so that the centre would be well
done, and the surface not burned. The smaller and thinner the article,
the hotter should be the fire; the larger the article, the more
temperate the fire, or, rather, the greater distance it should at first
be placed from it. The fish, in this case, should have been wrapped in
oiled or buttered paper. It should have been placed rather near the fire
for the first few moments; then removed farther away, or placed on
another more moderate fire. A large baking-pan should have covered the
top of the fish, to hold the heat. When nearly done, the paper should
have been removed, to allow the surface to brown.

Always grease the gridiron well, and have it _hot_, before the meat is
placed on it. Any thing egged and bread-crumbed should be buttered
before it is broiled. Fish should be buttered and sprinkled with flour,
which will prevent the skin from adhering to the gridiron. Cutlets, and
in fact every thing, are more delicate buttered before broiling. A
little lemon-juice is also often a nice addition. Birds, and other
things which need to be halved, should be broiled, _inside_ first.

Remember that a hot, clear fire is necessary for cooking all small
articles. They should be turned often, to be cooked evenly, without
being burned.

Never put a fork in the lean part of meat on the gridiron, as it allows
the juice to escape.

Always cover the gridiron with a tin pan or a baking-pan. The sooner the
meat is cooked without burning, the better. The pan holds the heat, and
often prevents a stray line of smoke from touching the meat.

If the fire should be too hot, sprinkle salt over it.


ROASTING.

There is little use to talk about roasting, as but few will attempt it,
always considering it easier to bake instead. Indeed, there is so little
demand in many sections for stoves and ranges suited to the purpose that
they are difficult to obtain. Of course, there is no comparison between
these modes of cooking. Beef, mutton, turkeys, ducks, or birds--in fact,
any kind of meat is tenfold better roasted than baked. In Europe, all
these articles are roasted; and people there would have great contempt
for a piece of beef or a turkey baked. In New York and Philadelphia,
also, at the finer establishments, the meats are generally roasted. The
trouble is little greater than to bake. It is only necessary to have the
range or stove constructed for roasting, and a tin screen, with a spit
and jack, to place before the coals. Some of the roasters are arranged
with a spring-jack. The meat is placed on the spit, and the spring wound
up, which sets the meat to revolving slowly before the fire.

In roasting, the meat should at first be placed near the coals, so as to
quickly harden the surface; then it should be removed back a little
distance, to be cooked through, without burning. The oftener it is
basted, the better it is. If the roast of meat is very large, it should
be surrounded with a buttered paper.

Just before the meat is done, it should be basted with a little butter
or drippings, then sprinkled with flour, and placed nearer the fire, to
brown nicely, when it will take a frothy appearance.

Much depends upon the management of the fire. It should be made some
time before the meat is placed for roasting, so that the coals may be
bright and hot. It should also be strong enough to last, with only the
addition of an occasional coal at the top. In fine establishments
abroad, a grate for burning coal, charcoal, or wood is made in the
kitchen, for the purpose of roasting only. This is convenient, but more
expensive than roasting in ranges or stoves, where the same fire may
serve for cooking every thing.


SAUTÉING.

As I have already said, frying implies immersing in fat or oil; but
_sautéing_ means to cook in a spider or _sauté_ pan, with just enough
hot fat to keep the article, while being cooked, from sticking. The fat
should always be quite hot before placing on it any thing to cook.


BRAISING.

A braising-kettle has a deep cover, which holds coals; consequently, the
cooking is done from above as well as below. It is almost air-tight,
thus preventing evaporation, and the article to be cooked imbibes
whatever flavor one may wish to give it.

The article is generally cooked in stock or broth (water may be used
also), with slices of bacon, onion, carrot, etc., placed around the
meat. It is a favorite mode of cooking pigeons. An ordinary cut of beef
may be made very savory cooked in this manner, and the juice left makes
a good gravy when freed from fat.

If a braising-pan is not at hand, a common, tight-covered saucepan
answers very well without the upper coals. Except for coloring larding
on the top of the article to be braised, I do not appreciate the value
of the upper coals, anyway; and the coloring may be accomplished with
the salamander or hot shovel as well.


LARDING.

Cut the firmest bacon fat, with a heated or very sharp knife, into
square lengths of equal size. Placing one end in a larding-needle, draw
it through the skin and a small bit of the meat, leaving the strip of
pork, or lardoon, as it is called, in the meat. The two ends left
exposed should be of equal length. The punctures for the lardoons should
be in rows, of equal distance apart, arranged in any fanciful way that
may suit the cook. The usual form for larding, however, is as shown in
cut (page 57).


BONING.

Boning is not a difficult operation. It only requires time, a thin,
sharp knife, and a little care. Cut off the neck, and also the legs at
the first joint. Cut the skin in a line down the middle of the back.
Now, taking first one side and then the other of the cut in the fingers,
carefully separate the flesh from the bones, sliding the knife close to
the bone. When you come to the wings and legs, it is easier to break or
unjoint the bones at the body-joint; cutting close by the bone, draw it,
turning the flesh of the legs and wings inside out. When all the bones
are out, the skin and flesh can be re-adjusted and stuffed into shape.
As the leg and wing bones require considerable time to remove, they may
be left in, and the body stuffed with lamb or veal force-meat. See
receipt for boned chicken (page 174). It is a very pretty and delicious
dish.


EGG AND BREAD CRUMBING.

Always sift the bread or cracker crumbs. Whenever there are spare pieces
or trimmings of bread or broken crackers, dry them at once in the oven,
and after pounding and sifting, put them away in a tin can, for future
use. In preparing for use, beat the eggs a little. If they are to be
used for sweet dishes, such as rice croquettes, sweeten them slightly.
If they are to be used for meats, sweet-breads, oysters, etc., always
salt and pepper them, and for a change, finely chopped parsley may be
added. Add a small proportion of milk to the eggs, say a half-cupful for
two of them, or for one of them, if intended for fish or cutlets. Have
the eggs in one plate, and the bread-crumbs in another; roll the article
first in the crumbs, then in the egg, then in the crumbs again. In the
case of articles very soft, like croquettes, it will be more convenient
for one person to shape and roll them in the eggs, and another, with dry
hands, to roll them in the bread-crumbs.

Pounded and sifted cracker-crumbs can be purchased by the pound, at
bakeries and large groceries, for the same price as whole crackers.
However, it will never be necessary to purchase cracker-crumbs, if all
scraps of bread are saved and dried. It is deplorable for a cook to
throw them away. It shows that she is either too indolent to ever learn
to cook, or too ignorant of the uses of scraps of bread to be tolerated.
If she saves them for purposes of charity, let her give fresh bread,
which will be more acceptable, and save the scraps, which are equally
useful to her. Yet if the bread-crumbs when pounded and sifted are not
very fine, they are not as good as the cracker-dust.


TO COOK PUDDINGS IN BOILING WATER.

Wet and flour the cloth before adding the pudding. In tying in the
pudding, leave room enough for it to swell. If cooked in a mold, do not
fill the mold quite full. Never let the water stop boiling. As it wastes
away in boiling, replenish the kettle from another containing boiling
water.

It is better to cook these puddings (plum-puddings as well) in a steamer
than in boiling water. The principle is really the same, and there is no
water soaked.


DRIED CELERY, PARSLEY, ETC., FOR WINTER USE.

Celery, parsley, thyme, summer savory, sage, etc., should all be
prepared for winter use. After drying and pulverizing, put them in tin
cans or glass jars. Celery and parsley are especially valuable for soups
and gravies.


SEEDS FOR SOUPS.

If the fresh or dried vegetables are not at hand, seeds, such as celery,
carrot-seed, etc., can be substituted for a flavoring.


TO FLAVOR WITH LEMON ZEST.

Never use the white part of the peel of a lemon for flavoring. It is
bitter. The little globules of oil in the surface of the rind contain
all the pleasant flavor of the peel. It may be thinly pared off,
avoiding the white pulp. Professional cooks, however, rub loaf-sugar
over the surface. The friction breaks the oil-ducts, and the sugar
absorbs the oil. It is called zest. The sugar is afterward pounded fine
for certain dishes, such as creams, _meringues_, etc.; or it can be
simply melted in custards and beverages.


THE COOK’S TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

1 quart of sifted flour = 1 pound.
1 quart of powdered sugar = 1 pound and 7 ounces.
1 quart of granulated sugar = 1 pound and 9 ounces.
1 pint of closely packed butter = 1 pound.
Butter, size of an egg = about 2 ounces.
10 eggs = 1 pound.
3 cupfuls of sugar = 1 pound.
5 cupfuls of sifted flour = 1 pound.
1 heaping table-spoonful = ⅙th of a gill.
4 gills = 1 pint; 2 pints = 1 quart; 4 quarts = 1 gallon.

In my receipts, I prefer, generally, the use of terms of measure to
those of weight, because the former are more convenient for the majority
of housekeepers.


TO CHOP SUET.

Sprinkle flour over it while chopping, which will prevent the pieces
from adhering.


RISING-POWDER PROPORTIONS.

To 1 quart of flour, use 2½ tea-spoonfuls of baking-powder; or,

To 1 quart of flour, use 1 tea-spoonful of soda, and 2 tea-spoonfuls of
cream of tartar; or,

To 1 quart of flour, use 1 cupful of sour milk, and 1 tea-spoonful of
soda.


TO MAKE ROUX.

A _roux_ is a mixture of butter and flour _cooked_. It is generally
added, uncooked, to thicken a sauce or a soup; but the flavor is much
better if it is first cooked, and the sauce or soup is added to _it_.
Professional French cooks always manage it in this way. When the butter
is first brought to the boiling-point, in a small stew-pan or cup, the
sifted flour is sprinkled in, and both are mixed well together over the
fire with an egg-whisk, until the flour is well cooked; a part of the
sauce or soup is then stirred in until it becomes smooth and thin enough
to add to the main sauce or soup. If the _roux_ is intended for a white
sauce, it is not allowed to color; if for a brown sauce, it may color a
little, or browned flour may be used.



COOKING UTENSILS.


[Illustration]

_The Bain Marie._--This is an open vessel, to be kept at the back of the
range or in some warm place, to be filled with hot (not _boiling_)
water. Several stew-pans, or large tin cups with covers and handles, are
fitted in, which are intended to hold all those cooked dishes desired to
be kept hot. If there are delays in serving the dinner, there is no
better means of preserving the flavor of dishes. The _bain marie_ is
especially convenient at any time for keeping sauces, or vegetables for
garnish, which can not always be prepared at the last minute.

[Illustration]

_The Braising-pan._--The use of this pan will be found by referring to
the article on “braising.”

_The Fish-kettle._--The fish is placed on the perforated tin sheet,
which is then put into the kettle of water. The fish is thus taken out
of the water at will, without breaking. When done, it is placed for a
minute over an empty iron kettle on the fire, to drain well and steam.
It is then carefully slipped on a napkin in the hot platter in which it
is to be served.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

_The Custard-kettle._--This is an iron utensil, the inside kettle being
lined with block-tin. Although there are cheaper custard-kettles made of
tin, it is better economy to purchase those of iron, which are more
durable. The inside kettle containing the custard is placed in the
larger one, which is partly filled with boiling water.

[Illustration]

_The Sauté-pan._--This pan may either be used for _sautéing_, or for an
omelet pan.

_Sieve for Purées._--This is a substantial arrangement, the sides being
made of tin. It is invaluable for bean, pea, or any of the _purée_
soups, which should be forced through the sieve. It is also used for
bread or cracker crumbs--in fact, for any thing which requires sifting.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

_The Steaming-kettle._--The article to be cooked is placed in the pan
perforated with holes. It is put in the long kettle, which is partly
filled with boiling water, then covered with the close-fitting cover.
This is an invaluable kettle for cooking vegetables, puddings, and, in
fact, almost any thing that is usually immersed in boiling water. A
cabbage, with salt sprinkled among the leaves, is cooked much quicker in
this way than when immersed, and is much more delicate. It is especially
nice for plum-puddings, which then can not become water-soaked. Cooks
generally manage to let the water stop boiling for some minutes when
boiling puddings, which is just long enough to ruin them. This kettle is
no less valuable for cooking chickens or rice.

[Illustration]

_The Saratoga Potato-cutter._--The screws at the sides adjust a sharp
knife, so that, by rubbing the potato over the plane, it may be cut as
fine or as coarse as may be desired. The plane is also used for cutting
cabbage, or for onions to serve with cucumbers. Cabbage, however, should
not be cut too thin, as it is thereby less crisp. Cost, 50 cents.

[Illustration]

_The Can-opener._--This is the best and cheapest pattern. The handle,
knife, and square piece are all made together of pressed iron. Cost, 25
cents.

[Illustration: A B]

_The Cream-whipper._--The handle _A_ is placed inside the tube _B_. The
tube is dipped into a bowl of sweetened and flavored cream. By churning
and pressing it through the perforated holes, the cream becomes a light
froth, which is skimmed off the top, and put on a sieve, as soon as a
few table-spoonfuls of it are formed. Cost, 25 cents.

[Illustration]

_The Wire-basket, for Frying._--Articles to be fried are placed in the
basket, which is immersed in boiling fat. It facilitates frying, as the
articles are all cooked, lifted out, and well drained at the same time.
It is especially nice for frying smelts or for boiling eggs.

_The Egg-poacher._--The eggs are carefully broken into the little cups,
and placed in the stand. The stand is then dipped into well-salted
water, which is merely simmering. When done, each cup (formed like a
shell) is taken out from the stand, and carefully tipped over a piece of
buttered toast, leaving the egg with the pretty form of the cup on top.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

_The Fish-stand._--Fried smelts are hung by catching them to the sharp
points of the stand. The intervening places are filled with parsley or
leaves, and the whole served in form of a pyramid.

[Illustration]

_The Butter-roller._--The wooden squares are dipped into cold water. A
small piece of butter (enough for one person at table) is placed on one
square, then rolled around with the other one held in the other hand. A
little ball is formed with a net-work surface. A number of balls are
thus formed of the same size, and piled on the butter-dish, as in cut.

[Illustration]

_Butter or Mashed-potato Syringe._--The butter is placed in the tube,
and pressed through the round holes in the end on to the butter-dishes.
It forms a pretty effect of fillets of butter, resembling vermicelli.
Potatoes boiled, seasoned, and mashed may also be pressed through the
tube around beef, venison, or almost any meat or fish dish, making a
pretty decoration.

_French Vegetable-cutters._--The little cups of figures _A_ and _B_ are
pressed into potatoes, or any bulbous vegetable, then turned around. The
cutter _A_ will make little potato-balls, say an inch in diameter,
which are fried, and called “potatoes _à la Parisienne_.” The figure _B_
will cut oblong forms. Smaller-sized cutters are preferable for cutting
potatoes, carrots, turnips, etc., for garnishing _à la jardinière_.

[Illustration: A B]

[Illustration]

_Tin Cutters, for cutting Slices of Bread to fry for decorating Dishes
(croûtons), or to serve in Soups._--They may also be used for cutting
slices of vegetables for decorations or for soups.

[Illustration]

_Potato, Carrot, or Turnip Cutter._--This simple little instrument cuts
the vegetables mentioned into curls. When the curl is cut, the vegetable
is afterward cut from the outside to meet it, when it easily slips out.
The handle is separate from the iron wire, and has to be taken off in
order to remove the curl. The curls can be boiled in salted water, if of
carrots; if of turnips, they are better cooked after the French receipt
given; if of potatoes, they are generally fried in boiling lard, and
sprinkled with a little salt as soon as done. They make a pretty
garnish, or may be served alone.

[Illustration]

_Fluted Knife, for cutting Vegetables into various fancy Forms for
Decorations, or for Salads._--Some cut mushrooms with this knife, to
give them a scolloped surface.

[Illustration]

_French Cook’s Knife._--Made of best steel. It can easily be kept very
sharp, and made of almost constant use in preparing dishes. It is
especially useful for boning. It costs seventy-five cents, yet, with
proper care, should last a life-time. These knives are so light, sharp,
and easily handled, that, when once used, a person would consider it
very awkward to cook without one.

[Illustration]

_A Knife for Peeling._--The wire prevents the cutting of more than the
skins of fruits or vegetables. The wire may be attached or detached at
will, for cleaning it.

[Illustration: A]

[Illustration: B]

[Illustration: C]

_Wire Skewers_ (Fig. A).--They are about three inches long, and may be
of silver or plain wire. Fig. B is a skewer run through three smelts,
with thin slices of bacon between. They are fried in boiling lard, and
one skewerful is served to each person at table. The fish dish is
garnished with lemon slices, one of which is placed on the top of each
skewerful of fish when on the plate (see page 112). Fig. C, a skewer of
alternate slices of egged and bread-crumbed sweet-breads and bacon,
managed in the same manner as the smelts (see page 155).

[Illustration]

_Knife for carving Poultry and Game._--Besides cutting the flesh, this
knife disjoints or cuts the bones, which are often embarrassing,
especially in ducks and geese.

[Illustration]

_Meat-squeezer, for pressing out the Juice of Beef for Invalids._--A
piece of round-steak (which yields more juice than other cuts) is barely
heated through, when it is cut, and the juice pressed out at the angle
_A_ into a warm cup, placed in a basin of hot water. The juice should
be served immediately, and taken while still warm.

[Illustration]

_Pancake-lifter._--This form, having more breadth than the ordinary
square lifter, has the advantage of turning the pancakes with greater
facility.

[Illustration]

_Brush_, for rubbing whites of eggs over rusks, crullers, etc., or for
glazing meats with clear stock, reduced by boiling to a stiff jelly.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

_Larding-needles, Lardoons, and Manner of Larding._--See article on
Larding, page 48.

[Illustration]

_Apple-corer._--The larger tube is for coring apples; the smaller one
for coring Siberian crab-apples, for preserving.

[Illustration]

_Jelly-stand._--This is simply and cheaply made. Rings can be fastened
to the ends of the cords, and slipped over the four top rounds, to hold
the jelly-bag on the stand; or it may be tied. The jelly-bag should be
made of flannel, or of Canton flannel. This arrangement is not only
convenient for jellies, but for clear soups as well.

[Illustration: A]

[Illustration: B]

[Illustration: C]

_Meat-pie Mold._--Fig. A represents the mold closed, the wires at each
end fastening the two sides together. It is here ready to be buttered,
the crust to be laid in, and pressed into the decorations at the sides,
filled, the top crust to be fitted over, and baked. Fig. B, the wire is
drawn out one side, the mold opened, and removed from the pie. Fig. C,
the pie ready to be served at table.

[Illustration: A]

[Illustration: B]

[Illustration: C]

[Illustration: D]

[Illustration: E]

_Paste-jagger._--Fig. A represents a paste-jagger, for cutting and
ornamenting the edges of pie-crust. Fig. B is a plain circle of
pie-crust cut with the jagger, to fit the pie-dish. Fig. C is part of a
strip of pie-paste, which is cut with the jagger to lay around the edge
of the pie. Fig. D, the strip laid around the edge. Fig. E, the pie
placed upon a plate, ready to serve at table.

[Illustration]

_Glass or Tin Flower Forms._--These are flat forms for decorating the
table with flowers. They are filled with water or wet sand. The flowers
are placed in, and may, or may not, conceal the tin form.

[Illustration: A]

[Illustration: B]

[Illustration: C]

[Illustration: D]

[Illustration: E]

[Illustration: F]

_Molds._--Fig. A, a circular tin mold for _blanc-manges_, jellies, etc.
Fig. B, supposed to be a _blanc-mange_ filled with strawberries. These
centres may be filled with any kind of berries, _compotes_, fresh
fruits, creams, etc., and make exceedingly pretty dishes. With a small
mold of this kind one can prepare a very dainty-looking dish for an
invalid. It may be filled with _blanc-mange_, tapioca jelly, Irish moss,
wine, or chicken jellies, etc., and filled with a _compote_, a whipped
cream, beaten eggs, or any allowable relish. Fig. C, a circular mold, of
more elaborate pattern, yet quite as easy to manage as the simple one.
Fig. D, wine jelly, filled with whipped cream. Fig. E, a casserole mold.
Fig. F, a casserole of rice or mashed potatoes, filled with fried
(_sautéd_) spring chickens, with cream sauce, and surrounded with
cauliflower blossoms. A pretty course for dinner, tea, or supper.

[Illustration]

_Little Silver-plated Chafing-dish._--It is about four and a half inches
square, for serving Welsh rare-bits, or for small pieces of
venison-steak, with currant jelly. One is served to each person at
table. The lower part is a reservoir for boiling-hot water. I have seen
them also made with little alcohol-lamps underneath, when the thin
slices of venison-steak can be partly or entirely cooked at table, in
the currant jelly. At least, the preparation served is kept nicely hot.

[Illustration: A B C D]

_An Instrument for drawing Champagne, Soda, and other Effervescing
Liquids at pleasure, leaving the last Glass as sparkling as the
first._--The instrument D is driven through the cork in the bottle, the
wire A is withdrawn, the button C turned, when the Champagne is drawn
through the tube B. When enough is drawn, the button is again turned,
and the wire replaced before the bottle is raised. The bottle should
then be kept bottom side up. The instrument is a perfect success, and
can be obtained of H. B. Platt & Co., 1211 Broadway, New York. It costs
$1 85.

[Illustration: A]

_Paper Cases for Soufflés, Chickens à la Bechamel, or for any thing that
can be served scolloped, or en coquille._--These cases are easily and
quickly made. They furnish a pretty variety at table, filled with any of
the materials described among the receipts for articles to be served in
paper cases or in shells. To make the paper cases, choose
writing-paper: fold and crease it at the dotted lines in Fig. A, then
cut the paper at the dark lines in Fig. B. By turning the corner
squares, so that they may lap over the sides, the box is formed. Sew the
sides together, all around the box, hiding the stitches under the small
piece of paper at the top, lapped over the outside. They should be
buttered just before filling. Fig. D is a case filled with a rice
_soufflé_. Figs. E and F are small cases made of round pieces of paper
(four inches in diameter), creased with a penknife. The top may be left
unturned, as Fig. F, or turned twice, as Fig. E. These cases may be
purchased already made; however, it is a pleasant diversion to make
them.

[Illustration: B]

[Illustration: C]

[Illustration: D]

[Illustration: E]

[Illustration: F]

[Illustration: A]

[Illustration: B]

[Illustration: C]

_Paper Handles for Lamb-chops, Cutlets, etc._--A long strip of thin
writing-paper is doubled, and cut half-way down with scissors, in as
thin cuts as can be easily made (Fig. A, a fragment of the paper). One
edge of the paper is then slipped a little distance farther than the
corresponding edge, which gives the fine cuts a round shape, as in Fig.
B. The edges can be held in this position, with the aid of a very little
mucilage. Now roll the paper spirally over a little stick, about the
size of a cutlet bone. Fasten the end with a little mucilage, and the
paper handle is quite ready to slip over cutlet bones, just as they are
about to be sent to the table. Larger-sized paper handles can be made in
the same manner for boiled hams.

[Illustration]

_Silver-plated Scallop Shell, for any thing served en
coquille._--Articles served _en coquille_ make a pretty course for lunch
or dinner. The shells in plated silver are quite expensive, costing
sixty dollars a dozen at Tiffany’s. I imagine they could be made as well
of block-tin, with a single coating of silver, and with the little feet
riveted, so as to stand the heat of the oven.

[Illustration]

_A Méringue Decorator._--The little tin tube A (one-third of an inch in
diameter), or B, is put in the bottom of the bag. _Méringue_ (whipped
whites of eggs, sweetened and flavored), or frosting for cakes, is put
in the bag, and squeezed through the tube on puddings, lemon or
_méringue_ pies, or on cakes, forming any design that may suit the
fancy. If it is squeezed through the tube A, the line of frosting will
be round; if through tube B, it will be scalloped, when leaves and
flowers can easily be formed. The lady-fingers are shaped by pressing
the cake batter through a tube half an inch in diameter. The bag is
easily made with tightly woven twilled cloth. The little tin tubes can
be made at the tinsmith’s, or at home, with a piece of tin, a large pair
of scissors, and a little solder. With this little convenience, the
trouble of decorating dishes is very slight, and their appearance is
very much improved.

[Illustration]

_Gravy and Sauce Strainer._--A sauce-strainer made of wire gauze of the
form of cut presents so much surface for straining that the operation
is much quicker accomplished than when using tin cups with a small
circle of gauze or perforated holes at the bottom.

[Illustration]

_An Egg-whisk._--Decidedly the best form for an egg-whisk is the one
given in the cut. It is equally useful for making _roux_ and sauces. By
holding the whisk perpendicularly, and vigorously passing it in the
bottom of a saucepan, a small quantity of butter and flour or sauce can
be thoroughly mixed.



BREAD, AND BREAKFAST CAKES.


It requires experience to make good bread. One must know, first, how
long to let the bread rise, as it takes a longer time in cold than in
warm weather; second, when the oven is just of proper temperature to
bake it. Bread should be put in a rather hot oven. It is nearly light
enough to bake when put in; so the rule for baking bread differs from
that of baking cake, which should be put into a moderate oven at first,
to become equally heated through before rising. As bread requires a
brisk heat, it is well to have the loaves small, the French-bread loaves
being well adapted to a hot oven. After the bread is baked, the loaves
should be placed on end (covered) at the back of the table until they
become cool.


TO MAKE YEAST.

Ingredients: A cupful of baker’s yeast; four cupfuls of flour; two large
potatoes, boiled; one cupful of sugar, and six cupfuls of boiling water.

Mix the warm mashed potatoes and sugar together; then add the flour;
next, add the six cupfuls of boiling water, poured on slowly: this cooks
the flour a little. It will be of the consistency of batter. Let the
mixture get almost cold, stirring it well, that the bottom may become
cool also. It will spoil the yeast if the batter be too hot. When
lukewarm, add the tea-cupful of yeast. Leave this mixture in the
kitchen, or in some warm place, perhaps on the kitchen-table (do not
put it too near the stove), for five or six hours, until it gets
perfectly light. Do not touch it until it gets somewhat light; then stir
it down two or three times during the six hours. This process makes it
stronger. Keep it in a cool place until needed.

This yeast will last perpetually, if a tea-cupful of it be always kept,
when making bread, to make new yeast at the next baking. Keep it in a
stone jar, scalding the jar every time fresh yeast is made.

In summer, it is well to mix corn-meal with the yeast, and dry it in
cakes, in some shady, dry place, turning the cakes often, that they may
become thoroughly dry. It requires about one and a half cakes
(biscuit-cutter) to make four medium-sized loaves of bread. Crumb them,
and let them soak in lukewarm water about a quarter or half an hour
before using.


TO MAKE THE BREAD.

Ingredients: Flour, one and a half cupfuls of yeast, lukewarm water, a
table-spoonful of lard, a little salt.

Put two quarts of flour into the bread-bowl; sprinkle a little salt over
it; add one and a half cupfuls of yeast, and enough lukewarm water to
make it a rather soft dough. Set it one side to rise. In winter, it will
take overnight; in summer, about three hours. After it has risen, mix
well into it one table-spoonful of lard; then add flour (not too much),
and knead it half an hour. The more it is kneaded, the whiter and finer
it becomes. Leave this in the bread-bowl for a short time to rise; then
make it into loaves. Let it rise again for the third time. Bake.


MRS. BONNER’S BREAD.

This is a delicious bread, which saves the trouble of making yeast.
Twenty-five cents’ worth of Twin Brothers’ yeast will last a small
family six weeks. I would recommend Mrs. Bonner’s bread in preference to
that of the last receipt. It is cheaper and better, at last, to always
have good bread, which is insured by using fresh yeast each time.

For four loaves: At noon, boil three potatoes; mash them well; add a
little salt, and two and a half cupfuls of flour; also enough boiling
water (that in which the potatoes were boiled) to make rather a thin
batter. Let it cool, and when it is at about blood-heat, add a Twin
Brothers’ yeast-cake, soaked in half a tea-cupful of lukewarm water. One
yeast-cake will be sufficient for four loaves of bread in summer; but
use one and a half yeast-cakes in winter. Stir well, and put it in a
warm place. At night it will be light, when stir in enough flour to make
the sponge. Do not make it too stiff. If you should happen to want a
little more bread than usual, add a little warm water to the batter. Let
it remain in a warm place until morning, when it should be well kneaded
for at least twenty minutes. Half an hour or more would be better.
Return the dough to the pan, and let it rise again. When light, take it
out; add half a tea-spoonful of soda, dissolved in a table-spoonful of
water; separate it into four loaves; put them in the pans, and let it
rise again. When light, bake it an hour.


FRENCH BREAD (_Grace Melaine Lourant_).

Put a heaping table-spoonful of hops and a quart of hot water over the
fire to boil. Have ready five or six large boiled potatoes, which mash
fine. Strain the hops. Now put a pint of boiling water (that in which
the potatoes were boiled) over three cupfuls of flour; mix in the mashed
potatoes, then the quart of strained hot hop-water, a heaping
tea-spoonful of sugar, and the same of salt. When this is lukewarm, mix
in one and a half Twin Brothers’ yeast-cakes (softened). Let this stand
overnight in a warm place.

In the morning, a new process is in order: First, pour over the yeast a
table-spoonful of warm water, in which is dissolved half a spoonful of
soda; mix in lightly about ten and a half heaping tea-cupfuls of sifted
flour. No more flour is added to the bread during its kneading. Instead,
the hands are wet in lukewarm water. Now knead the dough, giving it
about eight or ten strokes; then taking it from the side next to you,
pull it up into a long length, then double it, throwing it down
_snappishly_ and heavily. Wetting the hands again, give it the same
number of strokes, or _kneads_, pulling the end toward you again, and
throwing it over the part left in the pan. Continue this process until
large bubbles are formed in the dough. It will take half an hour or
longer. The hands should be wet enough at first to make the dough rather
supple. If dexterously managed, it will not stick to the hands after a
few minutes; and when it is kneaded enough, it will be very elastic,
full of bubbles, and will not stick to the pan. When this time arrives,
put the dough away again in a warm place to rise. This will take one or
two hours.

[Illustration]

Now comes another new process. Sprinkle plenty of flour on the board,
and take out lightly enough dough to make one loaf of bread, remembering
that the French loaves are not large, nor of the same shape as the usual
home-made ones. With the thumb and forefinger gather up the sides
carefully (to prevent doubling the meshes or grain of the dough) to make
it round in shape. Flour the rolling-pin, press it in the centre,
rolling a little to give the dough the form of cut.

Now give each puffed end a roll toward the centre, lapping well the
ends. Turn the bread entirely over, pulling out the ends a little, to
give the loaf a long form, as in cut.

[Illustration]

Sprinkle plenty of flour on large baking-pans turned bottom side up,
upon which lay this and the other loaves, a little distance apart, if
there is room for two of them on one pan. Sprinkle plenty of flour on
the tops, and set the pans by the side of the fire to again rise a
little. It will take twenty-five or thirty minutes longer. Then bake.

Kneading bread in the manner just described causes the _grain_ of the
bread to run in one direction, so that it may be pealed off in layers.
Kneading with water instead of flour makes the bread moist and elastic,
rather than solid and in crumbs.


PETITS PAINS

are made as in last receipt, by lightly gathering a little handful of
dough, picking up the sides, and turning it over in the form of a ball
or a biscuit. They are baked as described for French bread, placing them
a little distance apart, so that they may be separate little breads,
each one enough for one person at breakfast.


TOAST.

I have remarked before that not one person in a thousand knows how to
make good toast. The simplest dishes seem to be the ones oftenest
spoiled. If the cook sends to the table a properly made piece of toast,
one may judge that she is a _scientific_ cook, and may entertain, at the
same time, exalted hopes of her.

The bread should not be too fresh. It should be cut _thin_, evenly, and
in good shape. The crust edges should be cut off. The pieces shaved off
can be dried and put in the bread-crumb can. The object of toasting
bread is to extract all its moisture--to convert the dough into pure
farina of wheat, which is very digestible. Present each side of the
bread to the fire for a few moments to _warm_, without attempting to
toast it; then turn about the first side at some distance from the fire,
so that it may slowly and evenly receive a _golden_ color all over the
surface. Now turn it to the other side, moving it in the same way, until
it is perfectly toasted. The coals should be clear and hot. Serve it the
moment it is done, on a warm plate, or, what is better, a toast-rack;
consequently, do not have a piece of bread toasted until the one for
whom it is intended is ready to eat it.

“If, as is generally done, a thick slice of bread is hurriedly exposed
to a hot fire, and the exterior of the bread is toasted nearly black,
the intention of extracting the moisture is defeated, as the heat will
then produce no effect on the interior of the slice, which remains as
moist as ever. Charcoal is a bad conductor of heat. The overtoasted
surface is nothing more or less than a thin layer of charcoal, which
prevents the heat from penetrating through the bread. Neither will
butter pass through the hard surface: it will remain on it, and if
exposed to heat, to melt it in, it will dissolve, and run over it in the
form of rancid oil. _This_ is why buttered toast is so often
unwholesome.”


DIXIE BISCUIT (_Mrs. Blair_).

Mix one tea-spoonful of salt into three pints of flour; put one
tea-cupful of milk, with two table-spoonfuls of lard, on the fire to
warm. Pour this on two eggs, well beaten; add the flour, with one
tea-cupful of home-made yeast. When well mixed, set it in a warm place
for about five hours to rise; then form into biscuit; let them rise
again. Bake.


GRAHAM BREAD.

Make the sponge as for white bread; then knead in Graham flour, only
sifting part of it. Add, also, two or three table-spoonfuls of molasses.


RUSKS.

Add to about a quart of bread dough the beaten yolks of three eggs, half
a cupful of butter, and one cupful of sugar: mix all well together. When
formed into little cakes (rather high and slender, and placed very near
each other), rub the tops with sugar and water mixed; then sprinkle over
dry sugar. This should fill two pans.


PARKER HOUSE ROLLS (_Mrs. Samuel Treat_).

Ingredients: Two quarts of flour, one pint of milk (measured after
boiling), butter the size of an egg, one table-spoonful of sugar, one
tea-cupful of home-made yeast, and a little salt.

Make a hole in the flour. Put in the other ingredients, in the following
order: sugar, butter, milk, and yeast. Do not stir the ingredients after
putting them together. Arrange this at ten o’clock at night; set it in a
cool place until ten o’clock the next morning, when mix all together,
and knead it fifteen minutes by the clock. Put it in a cool place again
until four o’clock P.M., when cut out the rolls, and set each one apart
from its neighbor in the pan. Set it for half an hour in a warm place.
Bake fifteen minutes.


BEATEN BISCUIT.

Rub one quarter of a pound of lard into one and a half pounds of flour,
adding a pinch of salt. Mix enough milk or water with it to make a
_stiff_ dough. Beat the dough well with a rolling-pin for half an hour
or more, or until the dough will _break_ when pulled. Little machines
come for the purpose of making beaten biscuit, which facilitate the
operation. Form into little biscuit, prick them on top several times
with a fork, and bake.


SODA AND CREAM OF TARTAR BISCUIT.

Ingredients: One quart of flour, one tea-spoonful of soda, two
tea-spoonfuls cream of tartar, one even tea-spoonful of salt, lard or
butter the size of a small egg, and milk.

Put the soda, cream of tartar, and salt on the table; mash them smoothly
with a knife, and mix well together; mix them as evenly in the flour as
possible; then pass it all through the sieve two or three times. The
success of the biscuits depends upon the equal distribution of these
ingredients. Mix in the lard or butter (melted) as evenly as possible,
taking time to rub it between the open hands, to break any little lumps.
Now pour in enough milk to make the dough consistent enough to roll out,
mixing it lightly with the ends of the fingers. The quicker it is rolled
out, cut, and baked, the better will be the biscuits.

The biscuits are cheaper made with cream of tartar and soda than with
baking-powder, yet many make the


BISCUITS WITH BAKING-POWDER.

They are made as in the last receipt, merely substituting two heaping
tea-spoonfuls of baking-powder for the cream of tartar and soda, and
taking the same care to mix evenly.

These biscuits are nice rolled quite thin (half an inch), and cut with a
small cutter two inches in diameter. They may be served hot or cold, and
are often used at evening companies, cold, split in two, buttered, and
with chopped ham (as for sandwiches) placed between them. They are
preferable to bread sandwiches, as they do not dry as quickly, and are,
perhaps, neater to handle. These biscuits are especially nice when made
with Professor Horsford’s self-raising flour--of course, the raising
powders are omitted. The appreciation of hot biscuits is quite a
Southern and Western American fancy. They are rarely seen abroad, and
are generally considered unwholesome in the Eastern States.


MUFFINS.

Ingredients: Two eggs, one pint of flour, one tea-cupful of milk or
cream, butter half the size of an egg, a little salt, and one
tea-spoonful of baking-powder.

Mix the baking-powder and salt in the flour. Beat the eggs; add to the
yolks, first, milk, then butter (melted), then flour, then the whites.
Beat well after it is all mixed, and bake them immediately in a hot
oven, in gem-pans or rings. Take them out of the pans or rings the
moment they are done, and send them to the table. The self-raising flour
is very nice for making muffins. In using this, of course, the
baking-powder should be omitted.


WAFFLES.

Ingredients: Two eggs, one pint of flour, one and a quarter cupfuls of
milk or cream, one even tea-spoonful of yeast-powder, butter or lard the
size of a walnut, and salt.

Mix the baking-powder and salt well in the flour, then rub in evenly the
butter; next add the beaten yolks and milk mixed, then the beaten whites
of the eggs. Bake immediately.


RICE WAFFLES (_Mrs. Gratz Brown_).

Ingredients: One and a half pints of boiled rice, one and a half pints
of flour, half a tea-cupful of sour milk, half a tea-cupful of sweet
milk, one tea-spoonful of soda, salt, three eggs, and butter size of a
walnut.


RICE PANCAKES

are made as in the last receipt, by adding an extra half-cupful of milk.


HOMINY CAKE (_Mrs. Watts Sherman_).

Add a spoonful of butter to two cupfuls of whole hominy (boiled an hour
with milk) while it is still hot. Beat three eggs very light, which add
to the hominy. Stir in gradually a pint of milk, and, lastly, a pint of
corn-meal. Bake in a pan.

This is a very nice breakfast cake. Serve it, with a large napkin under
it, on a plate. The sides of the napkin may cover the top of the cake
until the moment of serving, which will keep it moist.


BAKED HOMINY GRITS (_Mrs. Pope_).

Ingredients: One quart of milk, one cupful of hominy grits, two eggs,
and salt.

When the milk is salted and boiling, stir in the hominy grits, and boil
for twenty minutes. Set it aside to cool thoroughly. Beat the eggs to a
stiff froth, and then beat them well and hard into the hominy. Bake half
an hour.


BREAKFAST PUFFS, OR POP-OVERS (_Mrs. Hopkins_).

Ingredients: Two cupfuls of milk, two cupfuls of flour, two eggs, and an
even tea-spoonful of salt.

Beat the eggs separately and well, add the whites last, and then beat
all well together. They may be baked in roll-pans, or deep gem-pans,
which should be heated on the range, and greased before the batter is
put in: they should be filled half full with the batter. Or they may be
baked in tea-cups, of which eight would be required for this quantity of
batter. When baked, serve immediately. For Graham gems use half Graham
flour.


HENRIETTES FOR TEA (_French Cook_), No. 1.

Ingredients: Three eggs beaten separately, three-fourths of a cupful of
cream or milk, a scant tea-spoonful of baking-powder, salt, one
table-spoonful of brandy, a pinch of cinnamon, enough flour to make them
just stiff enough to roll out easily.

Roll them thin as a wafer, cut them into about two-inch squares, or into
diamonds, with the paste-jagger, fry them in boiling lard, and sprinkle
over pulverized sugar.


HENRIETTES FOR BREAKFAST OR TEA (_French Cook_), No. 2.

Ingredients: Three eggs beaten separately, one cupful of milk, a scant
tea-spoonful of baking-powder, salt, one table-spoonful of brandy, and
flour enough to make a little thicker than for pancakes.

Pass the batter through a funnel (one-third or one-half inch diameter at
end) into hot boiling lard, making rings, or any figures preferred. Do
not fry too much at one time. When done and drained, sprinkle over
pulverized sugar, and lay them on a plate on a folded napkin. Serve.


WAFER BISCUITS.

Rub a piece of butter the size of a large hickory-nut into a pint of
sifted flour; sprinkle over a little salt. Mix it into a stiff, smooth
paste, with the white of an egg beaten to a froth, and warm milk. Beat
the paste with a rolling-pin for half an hour, or longer; the more the
dough is beaten, the better are the biscuits. Form the dough into little
round balls about the size of a pigeon’s egg; then roll each of them to
the size of a saucer. They should be mere wafers in thickness; they can
not be too thin. Sprinkle a little flour over the tins. Bake.

These wafers are exceedingly nice to serve with a cheese course, or for
invalids to eat with their tea.


CORN BREAD.

Ingredients: One cupful of sour milk, one cupful of sweet milk, one
table-spoonful of sugar or molasses, one tea-cupful of flour, two
heaping tea-cupfuls of corn-meal, one tea-spoonful of salt, one
tea-spoonful (not heaping) of soda, one and a half table-spoonfuls of
melted lard or butter, and three eggs.

Beat the eggs separately; add the melted butter to the milk; then the
sugar, salt, yolks, soda (dissolved in a table-spoonful of warm water);
and, lastly, the whites, flour, and corn-meal. Beat it all quickly and
well together. Put it immediately in the oven, to bake half an hour.


HOE CAKE.

Pour enough scalding water, or milk, on corn-meal (salted), to make it
rather moist. Let it stand an hour, or longer. Put two or three heaping
table-spoonfuls on a hot griddle, greased with pork or lard. Smooth
over the surface, making the cake about half an inch thick, and of round
shape. When browned on one side, turn and brown it on the other. Serve
very hot.

These are very nice breakfast cakes, with a savory crust.


CORN CAKE (_Mrs. Lackland_).

Ingredients: One pint of milk, half a pint of Indian meal, four eggs, a
scant table-spoonful of butter, salt, and one tea-spoonful of sugar.
Pour the milk boiling on the _sifted_ meal. When cold, add the butter
(melted), the salt, the sugar, the yolks of the eggs, and, lastly, the
whites, well beaten separately. Bake half an hour in a hot oven. It is
very nice baked in iron or tin gem-pans, the cups an inch and a half
deep.


FRIED CORN MUSH FOR BREAKFAST.

Many slice the mush when cold, and simply _sauté_ it in a little hot
lard. But as some cooks seem to have as great success in simple dishes
as in elaborate ones, I shall consider this as at least one of the
little successes taught me by a French cook. Of course, the mush is made
by sprinkling the corn-meal into _boiling salted_ water, or after the
manner of Harriet Plater, given in the next receipt. It is thoroughly
cooked, and made the day before wanted. When cold, it is sliced, each
slice dipped in beaten eggs (salted) and bread or cracker crumbs, and
fried in boiling-hot lard. One should try this, to know the superiority
in the manner of cooking.


CORN MUSH

is usually made by sprinkling corn-meal into well-salted boiling water
(a pint of corn-meal to three pints of water), and cooking it well. But
Harriet Plater (Mrs. Filley’s most skillful cook) says that corn-meal
mush is much lighter, and when fried for breakfast, browns better by
cooking it as follows:

“Put a quart of water on the fire to boil. Stir a pint of cold milk,
with one pint of corn-meal and one tea-spoonful of salt. When the water
boils, pour in the mixture gradually, stirring all well together. Let it
boil for half an hour, stirring often, to prevent it from burning.”


OATMEAL PORRIDGE.

It seems very simple to make oatmeal porridge, yet it is a very
different dish made by different cooks. The ingredients are: One heaping
cupful of oatmeal to one quart of boiling water and one tea-spoonful of
salt. Boil twenty minutes.

The water should be salted and boiling when the meal is sprinkled in
with one hand, while it is lightly stirred in with the other. When all
mixed, it should boil without afterward being stirred more than is
necessary to keep it from burning at the bottom, and to mingle the
grains two or three times, so that they may all be evenly cooked. If
much stirred, the porridge will be starchy or waxy, and poor in flavor.
But the puffing of the steam through the grains without much stirring
swells each one separately, and, when done, the porridge is light, and
quite consistent. This same manner of cooking is applicable as well to
all other grains.


MOTHER JOHNSON’S PANCAKES (_Adirondacks_).

These are famous pancakes, and, like every other good thing, there is a
little secret in the preparation.

Enough flour is added to a quart of sour milk to make a rather thick
batter. The secret is that it is left to stand overnight, instead of
being finished at once. It may even stand to advantage for twenty-four
hours. However, if it is mixed at night, the next morning two
well-beaten eggs and salt are to be added at the same time with half a
tea-spoonful of soda, dissolved in a table-spoonful of warm water. Cook
immediately.


SIRUP.

Mix two table-spoonfuls of water to two cupfuls of brown sugar and one
even table-spoonful of butter. Let it boil about five minutes.


BUCKWHEAT CAKES.

Scald two gills of Indian meal in one quart of boiling water. Add a
little salt. When cool, add one gill of yeast, and stir in enough
buckwheat flour to make a thin batter. Let it rise overnight. If by
chance it is a little sour, just before cooking add one-fourth of a
tea-spoonful of soda, dissolved in half a cupful of boiling water. Or,

They may be made in the same manner without the Indian meal, merely
adding the yeast to a quart of lukewarm water, and making the batter
with buckwheat flour alone.


PANCAKES, WITH FLOUR OR CORN-MEAL.

Stir one or two cupfuls of cream or milk into two beaten eggs; add flour
or corn-meal enough to make a thin batter. If the milk is sweet, add one
tea-spoonful of yeast-powder; if it is sour, add, instead of the
yeast-powder, half a tea-spoonful of soda, dissolved in a little warm
water.


PANCAKES, WITH BREAD-CRUMBS.

Soak the bread-crumbs, then drain them. To two cupfuls of bread-crumbs
add one cupful of flour or corn-meal, one egg, and milk enough to make a
thin batter. If the milk is sweet, add a tea-spoonful of yeast-powder;
if sour, half a tea-spoonful of soda, dissolved in a table-spoonful of
warm water.


STRAWBERRY SHORT-CAKE (_Mrs. Pope_).

Ingredients: One quart of flour, two heaping tea-spoonfuls of
yeast-powder, half a tea-spoonful of salt, butter size of an egg, milk,
two quarts of strawberries. Mix the baking-powder into the flour, then
rub in the butter (in the same manner as described for biscuits, page
72). Add enough milk to make a soft dough--rather softer than for
biscuits. Spread this on two pie-tins. Bake in a quick oven.

When the cakes are done, let them partly cool. Cut around the edges, and
split them. Spread them with butter, then with one quart of mashed
strawberries, with plenty of sugar; then put between them the other
quart of whole strawberries, sprinkled with sugar. Serve a pitcher of
cream with a strawberry short-cake. The cake in this form can be cut
like a pie. It is a good summer breakfast as well as tea dish. Or,

It can be made with sour milk, viz.: to two tea-cupfuls of sour milk add
a tea-spoonful of soda, then three-fourths of a tea-cupful of butter or
lard, partly melted, and enough flour to make a soft dough. Roll it
into thin cakes large enough to fill the pan in which they are to be
baked. When baked, split, and butter them while hot. Lay on a plate half
of the cake, put on a layer of well-sugared strawberries, then the other
half, then more strawberries, and so on, until there are several layers.
Or,

These cakes can be made in the same way with currants, blackberries, cut
peaches, chopped pine-apples, raspberries, etc.



TEA.


Two things are necessary to insure good tea: first, that the water
should be at the boiling-point when poured on the leaves, water simply
hot not answering the purpose at all; and, second, that it should be
served freshly made. Tea should never be boiled. So particular are the
English to preserve its first aroma, that it is sometimes made on the
table two or three times during a meal. In France, little silver
canisters of tea are placed on the table, where it is invariably made.
One tea-spoonful of the leaves is a fair portion for each person. Tea is
better made in an earthen tea-pot, which tea connoisseurs are particular
to have. They also drink the beverage without milk, and with loaf-sugar
merely.

Water at the first boiling-point is generally considered better for tea
or coffee, and, in fact, any kind of cooking which requires boiling
water.



COFFEE.


The best coffee is made by mixing two-thirds Java and one-third Mocha.
The Java gives strength, the Mocha flavor and aroma.

Coffee should be evenly and carefully roasted. Much depends upon this.
If even a few of the berries are burned, the coffee will taste burned
and bitter, instead of being fine-flavored and aromatic. To have the
perfection of coffee, it should be fresh-roasted each day. Few, however,
will take that trouble. As soon as it is roasted, and while still hot,
stir into it one or two eggs, together with their shells (about one egg
to a pint of roasted coffee-beans). This will help to preserve the
coffee, as well as to make it clear. Put it away in a close-covered
tin-case, and grind it only just before using.

Allow two heaping table-spoonfuls of ground coffee to a pint of water.
Let the water be _boiling_ when it is poured on the coffee. Cover it as
tightly as possible, and boil it one minute; then let it remain a few
moments at the side of the range to settle.

Delmonico allows one and a half pounds of coffee to one gallon of water.
The coffee-pot, with a double base, is placed on the range in a vessel
of hot water (_bain-marie_). The boiling water is poured over the
coffee, which is contained in a felt strainer in the coffee-pot. It is
not boiled.

Of course, much depends upon the care in preparing the coffee to insure
a delicious beverage; but equally as much depends upon serving with it
good thick cream. Milk, or even boiled milk, is not to be compared with
cream. In cities, a gill, at least, might be purchased each morning for
coffee, or a few table-spoonfuls might be saved from the evening’s milk
for at least _one_ cup. Fill the cup two-thirds full, then, with hot,
clear coffee, pour in one or two table-spoonfuls of cream, and use
loaf-sugar.

Professor Blot, in his lectures, was very emphatic as to the impropriety
of _boiling_ coffee. He said by this means the aroma and flavor were
carried into the attic, and a bitter decoction was left to be drunk. He
preferred decidedly the coffee made in the French filter coffee-pot.

I have experimented upon coffee, and prefer it boiled for one minute in
the ordinary coffee-pot. That made in the French filter is also most
excellent. It is not boiled, and requires a greater proportion of
coffee. But to be explicit, put the coffee in the filter. At the first
boil of the water, pour one or two coffee-cupfuls of it on the coffee.
Put back the water on the fire. When boiling again, pour on as much
more, and repeat the process until the desired quantity is made.



CHOCOLATE (_Miss Sallie Schenck_).


Allow two sticks of chocolate to one pint of new milk. After the
chocolate is scraped, either let it soak an hour or so, with a
table-spoonful of milk to soften it, or boil it a few moments in two or
three table-spoonfuls of water. Then, in either case, mash it to a
smooth paste. When the milk, sweetened to taste with loaf-sugar, is
boiling, stir in the chocolate-paste, adding a little of the boiling
milk to it first, to dilute it evenly. Let it boil half a minute. Stir
it well, or mill it, and serve immediately.

Maillard’s chocolate is flavored with a little vanilla. The commoner
brands, such as Baker’s, will be nearly as good by adding a little
vanilla when making. Miss Schenck (noted for her chocolate) adds a very
little flavoring of brandy.

A very good addition, and one universally seen, when chocolate is served
at lunch parties, is a heaping table-spoonful of whipped-cream,
sweetened and flavored with a little vanilla before it is whipped,
placed on the top of the chocolate in each cup, the cup being only
three-quarters filled with the chocolate.



COCOA.


Many use cocoa rather than chocolate. It has the same flavor, but it has
more body, and is richer and more oily. It is made in the same way as
chocolate, but a few drops of the essence of vanilla should be
invariably added.



SOUP.


The meat should be fresh, lean (all fat possible being removed), and
juicy to make the best soup. It is put into cold, clear water, which
should be heated only moderately for the first half-hour. The object is
to extract the juices of the meat, and if it be boiled too soon, the
surface will become coagulated, thereby imprisoning the juice within.
After the first half-hour the pot should be placed at the back of the
stove, allowing the soup to simmer for four or five hours.

Nothing is more disagreeable at table than greasy soup. As all particles
of fat are taken off hot liquor with some difficulty, soup should be
made the day before it is to be used, when the fat will rise to the top
and harden. It can then be easily removed.

When vegetables are used, they should be added only in time to become
thoroughly done: afterward they absorb a portion of the richness of the
soup.

When onions are used, they impart better flavor by being fried or
_sautéd_ in a little hot butter or other grease, before they are added
to the soup. In fact, many professional cooks fry other vegetables also,
such as carrots and turnips. Sometimes they even fry slightly the
chickens, beef, etc., and then cut them into smaller pieces for boiling.
Potatoes and cabbage should be boiled in separate water before they are
added to a soup.

Amateur cooks seem to have a great aversion to making stock. They think
it must be something troublesome, and too scientific to undertake;
whereas, in truth, it saves the trouble of going through the process of
soup-boiling every day, and it is as easy to make as any simple soup.
One has only to increase the quantity of meat and bones to any desired
proportion, adding pepper and salt, and also vegetables, if preferred.

The stock should be kept in a stone jar. It will form a jelly, and in
cool weather will last at least a week.

Just before dinner each day, in order to prepare soup, it is only
necessary to cut off some of the jelly and heat it. It is very good with
nothing additional; but one can have a change of soup each day by adding
different flavorings, such as onion, macaroni, vermicelli, tomato,
tapioca, spring vegetables (which will make a _julienne_), poached eggs,
fried bread, asparagus, celery, green pease, etc. I will be explicit
about these additions in the receipts. Stock is also valuable for
gravies, sauces, and stews, and for boiling many things, such as
pigeons, chickens, etc.


STOCK, OR POT AU FEU.

In ordinary circumstances, beef alone, with some vegetables, will make
a good broth or stock, in the proportion of two and a half pints of cold
clear water to each pound of bones and meat; the bones and meat should
be of about equal weight. It makes the soup more delicate to add chicken
or veal. Chicken and veal together make a good soup, called _blond de
veau_. Good soup can be made, also, by using the trimmings of fresh
meat, bits of cold cooked beef, or the bones of any meat or fowl. In the
choice of vegetables, onions (first fried or _sautéd_, and a clove stuck
in), parsley, and carrots are oftenest used: turnips, parsnips, and
celery should be employed more sparingly. The soup bunch at market is
generally a very good distribution of vegetables. Nothing is more simple
than the process of making stock or broth. Remember not to let it boil
for the first half-hour; then it should simmer slowly and steadily,
partly covered, for four or five hours. In royal kitchens the stock is
cooked by gas. Skim frequently; as scum, if allowed to remain, gives an
unpleasant flavor to the soup. Use salt sparingly, putting in a little
at first, and seasoning at the last moment. Many a good soup is spoiled
by an injudicious use of seasoning. Some add a few drops of lemon-juice
to a broth. If wine or catsup is added, it should only be done at the
last moment. Always strain the soup through a sieve or soup-strainer.
Small scraps of meat or sediment look slovenly in a soup. Or,


A SIMPLE STOCK.

If you have no vegetables (you should always have them, especially
onions and carrots, as they will keep), a very good stock can be made by
employing the meat and bones alone, seasoned with pepper and salt. If
rich enough, it might be served in this manner. However, it is a simple
thing, about fifteen minutes before dinner, each day, to add a little
boiled macaroni, fried onions, etc., to vary the soup.


GOUFFÉ’S RECEIPT FOR STOCK, OR BOUILLON.

Three pounds of beef; one pound of bone (about the quantity in that
weight of meat); five and a half quarts of clear cold water; two ounces
of salt; two carrots, say ten ounces; two large onions, say ten ounces,
with two cloves stuck in them; six leeks, say fourteen ounces; one head
of celery, say one ounce; two turnips, say ten ounces; one parsnip, say
two ounces.


BOUILLON SERVED AT LUNCHEONS, GERMANS, ETC.

Purchase about six pounds of beef and bone (soup bones) for ten persons.
Cut up the meat and break the bones; add two quarts of cold water, and
simmer slowly until all the strength is extracted from the meat. It will
take about five hours. Strain it through a fine sieve, removing every
particle of fat; and if there is more than ten cupfuls, reduce it by
boiling to that quantity. Season only with pepper and salt.

It is served in bouillon cups at luncheons, at evening companies,
Germans, etc.

Sometimes it is served clear and transparent, after the receipt for
Amber Soup.


AMBER SOUP, OR CLEAR BROTH.

This soup is served at almost all company dinners. There can be no
better choice, as a heavy soup is not then desirable.

Ingredients: A large soup bone (say two pounds), a chicken, a small
slice of ham, a soup bunch (or an onion, two sprigs of parsley, half a
small carrot, half a small parsnip, half a stick of celery), three
cloves, pepper, salt, a gallon of cold water, whites and shells of two
eggs, and caramel for coloring.

Let the beef, chicken, and ham boil slowly for five hours; add the
vegetables and cloves, to cook the last hour, having first fried the
onion in a little hot fat, and then in it stuck the cloves. Strain the
soup into an earthen bowl, and let it remain overnight. Next day remove
the cake of fat on the top; take out the jelly, avoiding the settlings,
and mix into it the beaten whites of the eggs with the shells. Boil
quickly for half a minute; then, placing the kettle on the hearth, skim
off carefully all the scum and whites of the eggs from the top, not
stirring the soup itself. Pass this through the jelly bag, when it
should be quite clear. The soup may then be put aside, and reheated just
before serving. Add then a large table-spoonful of caramel, as it gives
it a richer color, and also a slight flavor.

Of course, the brightest and cleanest of kettles should be used. I once
saw this transparent soup served in Paris, without color, but made quite
thick with tapioca. It looked very clear, and was exceedingly nice.

This soup may be made in one day. After it is strained, add the eggs and
proceed as in receipt. However, if it is to be served at a company
dinner, it is more convenient to make it the day before.


TO MAKE CARAMEL, OR BURNED SUGAR, FOR COLORING BROTH.

The appearance of broth is improved by being of a rich amber color. The
most innocent coloring substance, which does not impair the flavor of
the broth, is caramel, prepared as follows:

Put into a porcelain saucepan, say half a pound of sugar, and a
table-spoonful of water. Stir it constantly over the fire until it has a
bright, dark-brown color, being very careful not to let it burn or
blacken. Then add a tea-cupful of water and a little salt; let it boil a
few moments longer; cool and strain it. Put it away in a close-corked
bottle, and it is always ready for coloring soups.


THICKENINGS FOR SOUP.

I have before recommended the making of soup the day before it is
served, as this is the best means of having it entirely free from fat
and settlings. Just before it is served, it may be thickened with corn
starch, sago, tapioca, pearl barley, rice, etc. If a thickening of flour
is used, let it be a _roux_, mixed according to directions, page 51.
However, a rich stock jelly needs no thickening.


ADDITIONS TO BEEF STOCK, TO FORM OTHER KINDS OF SOUP.

It is well, just before the beef soup is sent to table, to drop into the
tureen poached eggs, which have been cooked in salted water, and neatly
trimmed. There may be an egg for each person at table. This is a
favorite soup in Havana. Or, Put into the tureen, just before the soup
is sent to table, slices of lemon--one slice for each plate. Or,

Yolks of hard-boiled eggs, one for each person. Or,

Put into the tureen _croûtons_ or dice of bread, say three-quarters of
an inch square, fried in a little butter. When frying, or rather
_sautéing_, turn them, that all sides may be browned. They may be
prepared several hours, if more convenient, before dinner; then left
near the fire, to become crisp and dry. This makes a very good soup, and
is also an excellent means of using dry bread. It is a favorite French
soup, called _potage aux croûtons_. Or,

Drop into the tureen force-meat balls.


RECEIPT FOR FORCE-MEAT BALLS.

Take any kind of meat or chicken, or both (that used for making the soup
will answer); chop it very fine; season it with pepper, salt, a little
chopped parsley and thyme, or a little parsley and fried onion, or with
thyme, or parsley alone, a little lemon-juice, and grated peel. Break in
a raw egg, and sprinkle over some flour; roll them in balls the size of
a pigeon’s egg. Fry or _sauté_ them in a little butter, or they may be
cooked in boiling water; or they may be egged and bread-crumbed, and
fried in boiling lard. This is the most simple receipt. The French take
much trouble in making _quenelles_, etc., for soup. Or,

A simple and delicious addition is that of four or five table-spoonfuls
of stewed tomatoes.


MACARONI SOUP

is only an addition of macaroni to the stock-jelly. However, boil the
macaroni first in salted water. When done, drain it, and cut it into
about two or three inch lengths. Put these pieces into the soup when it
is simmering on the fire, then serve it a few minutes after. Many send,
at the same time, a plate of grated cheese. This is passed, a spoon with
it, after the plates of soup are served, each person adding a spoonful
of it to their soup, if they choose. They probably will not choose it a
second time.


VERMICELLI SOUP

is made exactly as macaroni soup, only the vermicelli is not cut, and,
if _very little_ of it is used, it may be boiled in the soup. Often the
stock for vermicelli is preferred made of veal and chicken, instead of
beef; however, either is very good. Grated cheese may also be served
with it.


NOODLES (_Eleanore Bouillotat_).

Three delicious dishes may be made from this simple and economical
receipt for noodles:

To three eggs (slightly beaten), two table-spoonfuls of water, and a
little salt, add enough flour to make a rather stiff dough; work it well
for fifteen or twenty minutes, as you would dough for crackers, adding
flour when necessary. When pliable, cut off a portion at a time, roll it
thin as a wafer, sprinkle over flour, and, beginning at one side, roll
it into a rather tight roll. With a sharp knife, cut it, from the end,
into very thin slices (one-eighth inch), forming little wheels or curls.
Let them dry an hour or so. Part may be used to serve as a vegetable,
part for a noodle soup, and the rest should be dried, to put one side to
use at any time for a beef soup.


TO SERVE AS A VEGETABLE.

Three cupfuls of fresh noodles, three quarts of salted boiling water,
bread-crumbs, butter size of an egg.

Throw a few of the noodles at a time into the boiling salted water, and
boil them until they are done, separating and shaking them with a large
fork to prevent them from matting together. Skin them out when done, and
keep them on a warm dish in a warm place until enough are cooked in a
similar manner. Now mix the butter (in which the bread-crumbs were
fried) evenly in them; put them on the platter on which they are to be
served, and sprinkle over the top bread-crumbs fried or _sautéd_ in some
hot butter until they are of a light-brown color. This is a very good
dish to serve with a fish, or with almost any meat, or it can be served
as a course by itself; or the noodles can be cooked as macaroni, with
cheese.


NOODLE SOUP.

Add to the water in which the noodles were boiled, as in last receipt,
part of the butter in which the bread-crumbs were _sautéd_, a
table-spoonful of chopped parsley, and two or three table-spoonfuls of
the cooked noodles. Season with more salt, if necessary. Serve.


BEEF NOODLE SOUP.

Add to a beef stock a small handful of fresh or dried noodles about
twenty minutes before serving, which will be long enough time to cook
them.

       *       *       *       *       *

Many varieties of soups may be made by adding different kinds of
vegetables to beef soup or stock. Cauliflower, cabbage, potatoes, and
asparagus are better boiled in separate water, and added to the
soup-tureen at the last moment. Onions, leeks, turnips, and carrots are
better fried to a light color in a _sauté_ pan with a little butter or
clarified grease, and added to the soup. In frying, it is better to
accompany the vegetable or vegetables with a little onion.

If you add more onion, more turnip, or more carrot than any other
vegetable, you have onion, turnip, or carrot soup. I will specify a few
combinations of vegetables.


SPRING SOUP.

A stock with any spring vegetables added which have first been parboiled
in other water. Those generally used are pease, asparagus-tops, or a few
young onions or leeks. This soup is often colored with caramel. Or,

Here is Francatelli’s receipt for spring soup, a little simplified: Cut
with a vegetable-cutter two carrots and two turnips into little round
shapes; add the white part of a head of celery; twelve small young
onions, sliced, without the green stalks; and one head of cauliflower,
cut into flowerets. Parboil these vegetables for three minutes in
boiling water. Drain, and add them to two quarts of stock, made of
chicken or beef (chicken is better). Let the whole simmer gently for
half an hour, then add the white leaves of a head-lettuce (cut the size
of a half-dollar, with a cutter). As soon as tender, and when about to
send the soup to the table, add half a gill of small green pease, and an
equal quantity of asparagus-heads, which have been previously boiled in
other water.


JULIENNE SOUP, WITH POACHED EGGS (_Dubois_).

Take two medium-sized carrots, a medium-sized turnip, a piece of celery,
the core of a lettuce, and an onion. Cut them into thin fillets about an
inch long. Fry the onion in butter over a moderate fire, without
allowing it to take color; add the carrots, turnips, and celery--raw, if
tender; if not, boil them separately for a few minutes. After frying all
slowly for a few moments, season with a pinch of salt and a tea-spoonful
of powdered-sugar. Then moisten them with a gill of broth, and boil
until reduced to a glaze. Now add nearly two quarts of good stock, which
has been skimmed and passed through a sieve, and remove the stew-pan to
the back of the stove, so that the soup may boil only partially. A
quarter of an hour after add the lettuce (which has been boiled in other
water), and a few raw sorrel leaves, if they can be procured. This soup
is quite good enough without eggs, yet they are a pleasant addition.
Poach them in salted water, trim them, and drop into the soup-tureen
just as it is ready to send to the table. Many color this soup with
caramel. In that case, the sugar should be omitted.


ASPARAGUS SOUP.

Ingredients: Three pints of beef soup or stock, thirty heads of
asparagus, a little cream, butter, flour, and a little spinach.

Cut the tops off the asparagus, about half an inch long, and boil the
rest. Cut off all the tender portions, and rub them through a sieve,
adding a little salt. Warm three pints of stock, add a _roux_ made of a
small piece of butter and a heaping tea-spoonful of flour; then add the
asparagus pulp. Boil it slowly a quarter of an hour, stirring in two or
three table-spoonfuls of cream. Color the soup with a tea-spoonful of
spinach green, and, just before serving it, add the asparagus-tops,
which have been separately boiled.

Many like this soup, but I prefer simply boiled asparagus-points added
to stock or beef soup, just before serving.


SPINACH GREEN.

Pound some spinach well, adding a few drops of water; squeeze the juice
through a cloth, and put it on a strong fire. As soon as it looks curdy,
take it off, and strain the liquor through a sieve. What remains on the
sieve will be the coloring matter.


OX-TAIL SOUP.

Ox-tails make an especially good soup, on account of the gelatinous
matter they contain.

Ingredients: Two ox-tails, a soup bunch, or a good-sized onion, two
carrots, one stalk of celery, a little parsley, and a small cut of pork.

Cut the ox-tails at the joints, slice the vegetables, and mince the
pork. Put the pork into a stew-pan. When hot, add first the onions; when
they begin to color, add the ox-tails. Let them fry or _sauté_ a very
short time. Now cut them to the bone, that the juice may run out in
boiling. Put both the ox-tails and fried onions into a soup kettle, with
four quarts of cold water. Let them simmer for about four hours; then
add the other vegetables, with three cloves stuck in a little piece of
onion, and pepper and salt. As soon as the vegetables are well cooked,
the soup is done. Strain it. Select some of the joints (one for each
plate), trim them, and serve them with the soup. Or, if preferred, the
joints may be left out.


CHICKEN SOUP (_Potage à la Reine_).--_Francatelli._

Roast a large chicken. Clear all the meat from the bones, chop, and
pound it thoroughly with a quarter of a pound of boiled rice. Put the
bones (broken) and the skin into two quarts of cold water. Let it simmer
for some time, when it will make a weak broth. Strain it, and add it to
the chicken and rice. Now press this all through a sieve, and put it
away until dinner-time. Take off the grease on top; heat it without
boiling, and, just before sending to table, mix into it a gill of
boiling cream. Season carefully with pepper and salt.


PURÉE OF CHICKEN (_Giuseppe Romanii_).

Chef de Cuisine of the Cooking-school in New York.

Ingredients: One and a half pounds of chicken, one and a half quarts of
white stock (made with veal), half a sprig of thyme, two sprigs of
parsley, half a blade of mace, one shallot, a quarter of a pound of
rice, and half a pint of cream.

Roast the chicken, and when cold cut off all the flesh; put the bones
into the white stock, together with the thyme, mace, parsley, shallot,
and washed rice; boil it until the rice is very thoroughly cooked. In
the mean time, chop the chicken; pound it in a mortar; then pass it
through a sieve or colander, helping the operation by moistening it with
a little of the stock. Strain the balance of the stock, allowing the
rice to pass through the sieve.

Half an hour before dinner, add the chicken to the stock and heat it
_without boiling_. Just before serving, add to it half a pint of boiling
cream. Season with pepper and salt.


PLAIN CHICKEN SOUP.

Cut up the chicken, and break all the bones; put it in a gallon of cold
water; let it simmer for five hours, skimming it well. The last hour
add, to cook with the soup, a cupful of rice and a sprig of parsley.
When done, let the kettle remain quiet a few moments on the kitchen
table, when skim off every particle of fat with a spoon. Then pour all
on a sieve placed over some deep dish. Take out all the bones, pieces of
meat, and parsley. Press the rice through the sieve. Now mix the rice,
by stirring it with the soup, until it resembles a smooth _purée_.
Season with pepper and salt.


GIBLET SOUP.

This soup is a great success. It is very inexpensive, a plate of giblets
only costing at market five cents. It is a very good imitation of
mock-turtle soup, and, after the first experience in making, it will be
found very easy to manage.

Ingredients: The giblets of four chickens or two turkeys, one
medium-sized onion, one small carrot, half a turnip, two sprigs of
parsley, a leaf of sage, eggs, a little lemon-juice, Port or Madeira
wine, and one or two cupfuls of chicken or beef stock, quite strong.

Cut up the vegetables. Put a piece of butter the size of a small egg
into a stew-pan. When quite hot, throw in the sliced onion. When they
begin to brown, add the carrot and turnip, a table-spoonful of flour,
and the giblets. Fry them all quickly for a minute, watching them
constantly, that the flour may brown, and not burn. Now cut the giblets
(that the juice may escape), and put all into the soup-kettle, with a
little pepper and salt, and three quarts of water--of course, stock
would be much better, and for extra occasions I would recommend it; or
without stock, one could add any fresh bones or scraps of lean meat one
might happen to have. Pieces of chicken are especially well adapted to
this soup; yet, for ordinary occasions, giblets alone answer very well.

Let the soup simmer for five hours; then strain it. Thicken it a little
with _roux_ (page 51), letting the flour brown, and add to it also one
of the livers mashed. Season with the additional pepper and salt it
needs, a little lemon-juice, and two table-spoonfuls of Port or Madeira
wine. Put into the soup tureen yolks of hard-boiled eggs, one for each
person at table. Pour over the soup, and serve.


MOCK-TURTLE SOUP (_New York Cooking-school_).

Let some one beside yourself remove the flesh from a calf’s head, viz.,
cut from between the ears to the nose, touching the bone; then, cutting
close to it, take off all the flesh. Turn over the head, cut open the
jaw-bone from underneath, and take out the tongue whole. Turn the head
back again, crack the top of the skull between the ears, and take out
the brains whole; they may be saved for a separate dish. Soak all
separately for a few moments in salt and water. Cut the skull all to
pieces, wash it quickly, and put it on the fire in four quarts of cold
water, together with the flesh, tongue, half a bunch of parsley, half a
stalk of celery, one large bay-leaf, three cloves, half an inch of a
stick of cinnamon, six whole allspice, six pepper-corns, half of a large
carrot, and one turnip. When the tongue is tender, take it out, to be
served as a separate dish (with spinach or with _sauce Tartare_). Leave
in the flesh for about two hours, when it will be perfectly tender. Let
the bones, etc., simmer for six hours, then strain, and put it away
until the next day.

At the same time that the calf’s head is cooking in one vessel, make a
stock in another, with a beef or veal soup-bone (two or three pounds),
and any scraps of poultry (it would be improved with a chicken added;
and one might take this opportunity to have a boiled chicken for dinner,
cooking it in the stock), put into two or three quarts of water, and
simmered until reduced to a pint.

The next day, remove the fat and settlings from the two stocks.

Put into a two-quart stew-pan two ounces of butter (size of an egg),
and, when it bubbles, stir in an ounce of ham cut in strips, and one
heaping table-spoonful of flour (one and a half ounces). Stir it
constantly until it gets quite brown, pour the reduced stock over it,
mix it well, and strain it.

Now to half a pound of the calf’s head cut in dice add one quart of the
calf’s-head stock boiling hot, and the pint of reduced and thickened
stock, the juice of half a lemon, and one glassful of sherry. When it is
about to boil, set it one side, and skim it very carefully. Add the
flesh cut from the head, cut in dice, and two hard-boiled eggs cut in
dice, and salt. Or,

_Receipt for Egg-balls._--If, instead of the egg-dice, egg-balls should
be preferred, add to the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs the raw yolk of
one egg, one table-spoonful of melted butter, a little salt and pepper,
and enough sifted flour to make it consistent enough to handle. Sprinkle
flour on the board, roll it out about half an inch thick, cut it into
dice, and roll each one into little balls in the palm of the hand. Put
these into the soup five minutes before it is served, to cook. Or,

_Receipt for Meat-balls._--If, instead of meat-dice, meat-balls should
be preferred, to three-fourths of a cupful of the head-meat, chopped
very fine, add a pinch of thyme, the grated peel of half a lemon, one
raw egg, and flour enough to bind all together. Form into little balls
the size of a hickory-nut; _sauté_ them in a little hot butter. Or, It
is very nice to add, instead of egg-balls, whole yolks of hard-boiled
eggs, one for each plate.

The brains may be used for making croquettes (page 176), or as in
receipt (page 151).


A SIMPLE MOCK-TURTLE SOUP.

Put four pig’s feet, or calf’s feet, and one pound of veal into four
quarts of cold water, and let it simmer for five hours, reducing it to
two quarts. Strain it, and let it remain overnight. The next day skim
off the fat from the top, and remove the settlings from the bottom.

About half an hour before dinner put the soup on the fire, and season it
with half a tea-spoonful of powdered thyme, a salt-spoonful of mace, a
salt-spoonful of ground cloves. Simmer it for ten minutes. Now make a
_roux_ in a saucepan, viz.: put in one ounce of butter (size of a
walnut), and, when it bubbles, sprinkle in one and a half ounces of
flour (one table-spoonful). Stir it until the flour assumes a
light-brown color; add the soup, and stir all together with the
egg-whisk.

Make force-meat balls as follows: Chop some of the veal (used to make
the soup), and about a quarter as much suet, very fine; season it with
salt and pepper, and a few drops of lemon-juice; bind all together with
some raw yolks of eggs and some cracker or bread crumbs; mold them into
little balls about the size of a pigeon’s egg, or smaller, if preferred.
Fry them in boiling lard, or boil them two or three minutes in water.
Cut up also some of the meat, or rather skin and cartilaginous
substance, from the cold feet, which resembles turtle meat. Now put into
the soup-tureen these meat-balls, pieces of calf’s feet, and some yolks
entire, or slices of hard-boiled eggs. Season the soup the last minute
with a little lemon-juice and one or two table-spoonfuls of sherry.

For a small family, this will make soup enough for two dinners.


GUMBO SOUP.

Ingredients: One large chicken; one and a half pints of green gumbo, or
one pint of dried gumbo; three pints of water; pepper and salt.

Cut the chickens into joints, roll them in flour, and fry or _sauté_
them in a little lard. Take out the pieces of chicken, and put in the
sliced gumbo (either the green or the dried), and _sauté_ that also
until it is brown. Drain well the chickens and gumbo. There should be
about a table-spoonful of brown fat left in the _sauté_ pan; to this add
a large table-spoonful of browned flour; then add the three pints of
water, the chicken, cut into small pieces, and the gumbo. Simmer all
together two hours. Strain through a colander. Serve boiled rice in
another dish by the side of the soup-tureen. Having put a ladleful of
the soup in the soup-plate, place a table-spoonful of rice in the
centre.


GUMBO AND TOMATO SOUP.

If canned gumbo and tomatoes mixed are used, merely add to them a pint
or more of stock or strong beef broth. Bring them to the boiling-point,
and season with pepper and salt.

If the fresh vegetables are used, boil the tomatoes and gumbo together
for about half an hour, first frying the gumbo in a little hot lard.
Many, however, boil the gumbo without frying.


MULLAGATAWNY SOUP (_an Indian soup_).

Cut up a chicken; put it into a soup-kettle, with a little sliced onion,
carrot, celery, parsley, and three or four cloves. Cover it with four
quarts of water. Add any pieces of veal, with the bones, you may have;
of course, a knuckle of veal would be the proper thing. When the pieces
of chicken are nearly done, take them out, and trim them neatly, to
serve with the soup. Let the veal continue to simmer for three hours.

Now fry an onion, a small carrot, and a stick of celery sliced, in a
little butter. When they are a light brown, throw in a table-spoonful of
flour; stir it on the fire one or two minutes; then add a good
tea-spoonful of curry powder, and the chicken and veal broth. Place this
on the fire to simmer the usual way for an hour. Half an hour before
dinner, strain the soup, skim off all the fat, return it to the fire
with the pieces of chicken, and two or three table-spoonfuls of boiled
rice. This will give time enough to cook the chickens thoroughly.


OYSTER SOUP.

To one quart, or twenty-five oysters, add a half pint of water. Put the
oysters on the fire in the liquor. The moment it begins to simmer (not
_boil_, for that would shrivel the oysters), pour it through a colander
into a hot dish, leaving the oysters in the colander. Now put into the
saucepan two ounces of butter (size of an egg); when it bubbles,
sprinkle in a table-spoonful (one ounce) of sifted flour; let the _roux_
cook a few moments, stirring it well with the egg-whisk; then add to it
gradually the oyster-juice, and half a pint of good cream (which has
been brought to a boil in another vessel); season carefully with Cayenne
pepper and salt; skim well, then add the oysters. Do not let it boil,
but serve immediately. An oyster soup is made with thickening; an oyster
stew is made without it (see receipt).

Oyster crackers and pickles are often served with an oyster soup.


CLAM SOUP.

To extract the clams from the shells, wash them in cold water, and put
them all into a large pot over the fire, containing half a cupful of
boiling water; cover closely, and the steam will cause the clams to
open; pour all into a colander over a pan, and extract the meat from the
shells.

Put a quart of the clams with their liquor on the fire, with a pint of
water; boil them about three minutes, during which time skim them well,
then strain them. Beard them, and return the liquor to the fire, with
the hard portions of the clams (keeping the soft portions aside in a
warm place), half an onion (one ounce), a sprig of thyme, three or four
sprigs of parsley, and one large blade of mace; cover it, and let it
simmer for half an hour.

In the mean time make a _roux_, _i. e._, put three ounces of butter
(size of an egg) into a stew-pan, and when it bubbles sprinkle in two
ounces of flour (one heaping table-spoonful); stir it on the fire until
cooked, and then stir in gradually a pint of hot cream; add this to the
clam liquor (strained), with a seasoning of salt and a little Cayenne
pepper; also the soft clams, without chopping them. When well mixed,
and thoroughly hot (without boiling), serve immediately.


BEAN SOUP.

Soak a quart of navy beans overnight. Then put them on the fire, with
three quarts of water; three onions, fried or _sautéd_ in a little
butter; one little carrot; two potatoes, partly boiled in other water; a
small cut of pork; a little red pepper, and salt. Let it all boil slowly
for five or six hours. Pass it then through a colander or sieve. Return
the pulp to the fire; season properly with salt and Cayenne pepper. Put
into the tureen _croûtons_, or bread, cut in half-inch squares, and
fried brown on all sides in a little butter or in boiling fat. Professor
Blot adds broth, bacon, onions, celery, one or two cloves, and carrot to
his bean soup. A French cook I once had added a little mustard to her
bean soup, which made a pleasant change. Another cook adds cream at the
last moment. Or,

A very good bean soup can be made from the remains of baked beans; the
brown baked beans giving it a good color. Merely add water and a bit of
onion; boil it to a pulp, and pass it through the colander.

If a little stock, or some bones or pieces of fresh meat are at hand,
they add also to the flavor of bean soup.


BEAN AND TOMATO SOUP.

A pint of canned tomatoes, boiled, and passed through the sieve, with a
quart of bean soup, makes a very pleasant change.


ONION SOUP (_Soupe à l’Ognon_).

A soup without meat, and delicious.

I was taught how to make this soup by a Frenchwoman; and it will be
found a valuable addition to one’s culinary knowledge. It is a good
Friday soup.

Put into a saucepan butter size of a pigeon’s egg. Clarified grease, or
the cakes of fat saved from the top of stock, or soup (I always use the
latter), answer about as well. When very hot, add two or three large
onions, sliced thin; stir, and cook them well until they are red; then
add a full half-tea-cupful of flour. Stir this also until it is red,
watching it constantly, that it does not burn. Now pour in about a pint
of boiling water, and add pepper and salt. Mix it well, and let it boil
a minute; then pour it into the soup-kettle, and place it at the back of
the range until almost ready to serve. Add then one and a half pints or
a quart of boiling milk, and two or three well-mashed boiled potatoes.
Add to the potatoes a little of the soup at first, then more, until they
are smooth, and thin enough to put into the soup-kettle. Stir all well
and smoothly together; taste, to see if the soup is properly seasoned
with pepper and salt, as it requires plenty, especially of the latter.
Let it simmer a few moments. Put pieces of toasted bread (a good way of
using dry bread), cut in diamond shape, in the bottom of the tureen.
Pour over the soup, and serve very hot. Or,

This soup might be made without potatoes, if more convenient, using more
flour, and all milk instead of a little water. However, it is better
with the potato addition; or it is much improved by adding stock instead
of water; or, if one should chance to have a boiled chicken, the water
in which it was boiled might be saved to make this soup.


VEGETABLE SOUP WITHOUT MEAT (_Purée aux Légumes_).

Cut up a large plateful of any and all kinds of vegetables one happens
to have; for example, onions, carrots, potatoes (boiled in other water),
beans (of any kind), parsnips, celery, pease, parsley, leeks, turnips,
cauliflower, spinach, cabbage, etc., always having either potatoes or
beans for a thickening. First put into a saucepan half a tea-cupful of
butter (clarified suet or stock-pot fat is just as good). When it is
very hot, put in first the cut-up onions. Stir them well, to prevent
from burning. When they assume a fine red color, stir in a large
table-spoonful of flour until it has the same color. Now stir in a pint
of hot water, and some pepper and salt. Mind not to add pepper and salt
at first, as the onions and flour would then more readily burn. Add,
also, all the other vegetables. Let them simmer (adding more hot water
when necessary) for two hours; then press them through a colander.
Return them to the range in a soup-kettle, and let them simmer until
the moment of serving.


CORN SOUP.

This is a very good soup, made with either fresh or canned corn. When it
is fresh, cut the corn from the cob, and scrape off well all that
sweetest part of the corn which remains on the cob. To a pint of corn
add a quart of hot water. Boil it for an hour or longer; then press it
through the colander. Put into the saucepan butter the size of a small
egg, and when it bubbles sprinkle in a heaping table-spoonful of sifted
flour, which cook a minute, stirring it well. Now add half of the corn
pulp, and, when smoothly mixed, stir in the remainder of the corn: add
Cayenne pepper, salt, a scant pint of boiling milk, and a cupful of
cream.

This soup is very nice with no more addition, as it will have the pure
taste of the corn; yet many add the yolks of two eggs just before
serving, mixed with a little milk or cream, and not allowed to boil.
Others add a table-spoonful of tomato catsup.


TOMATO SOUP, WITH RICE.

Cut half a small onion into rather coarse slices, and fry them in a
little hot butter in a _sauté_ pan. Add to them then a quart can, or ten
or eleven large tomatoes cut in pieces, after having skinned them, and
also two sprigs of parsley. Let it cook about ten minutes, when remove
the pieces of onion and parsley. Pass the tomato through a sieve. Put
into the stew-pan butter the size of a pigeon’s egg, and when it bubbles
sprinkle in a tea-spoonful of flour; when it has cooked a minute, stir
in the tomato pulp: season with pepper and salt. It is an improvement to
add a cupful or more of stock; however, if it is not at hand, it may be
omitted.

Return the soup to the fire, and, when quite hot, add a cupful of
fresh-boiled rice and half a tea-spoonful of soda.


TOMATO SOUP (_Purée aux Tomates_).--_Mrs. Corbett._

Boil a dozen or a can of tomatoes until they are very thoroughly cooked,
and press them through a sieve. To a quart of tomato pulp add a
tea-spoonful of soda. Put into a saucepan butter the size of a pigeon’s
egg, and when it bubbles sprinkle and stir in a heaping tea-spoonful of
flour. When it is cooked, stir into this a pint of hot milk, a little
Cayenne pepper, salt, and a handful of cracker crumbs. When it boils,
add the tomato pulp. Heat it well without boiling, and serve
immediately.

The soda mixed with the tomatoes prevents the milk from curdling.


SORREL SOUP (_Soupe à la Bonne Femme_).

This is a most wholesome soup, which would be popular in America if it
were better known. It is much used in France. Sorrel can be obtained, in
season, at all the French markets in America.

For four quarts of soup, put into a saucepan a piece of butter the size
of an egg, two or three sprigs of parsley, two or three leaves of
lettuce, one onion, and a pint of sorrel (all finely chopped), a little
nutmeg, pepper, and salt. Cover, and let them cook or sweat ten minutes;
then add about two table-spoonfuls of flour. Mix well, and gradually add
three quarts of boiling water (stock would be better). Make a _liaison_,
_i. e._, beat the yolks of four eggs (one egg to a quart of soup), and
mix with them a cupful of cream or rich milk.

Add a little chevril (if you have it) to the soup; let it boil ten
minutes; then stir in the eggs, or _liaison_, when the soup is quite
ready.


POTATO SOUP (No. 1).

Fry seven or eight potatoes and a small sliced onion in a _sauté_ pan in
some butter or drippings--stock-pot fat is most excellent for this
purpose. When they are a little colored, put them into two or three
pints of hot water (stock would, of course, be better; yet hot water is
oftenest used); add also a large heaping table-spoonful of chopped
parsley. Let it boil until the potatoes are quite soft. Put all through
the colander. Return the _purée_ to the fire, and let it simmer two or
three minutes. When just ready to serve, take the kettle off the fire;
add plenty of salt and pepper, and the beaten yolks of two or three
eggs. Do not let the soup boil when the eggs are in, as they would
curdle.


POTATO SOUP (No. 2).

A very good soup for one which seems to have nothing in it.

Peel and cut up four rather large potatoes. When they are nearly done,
pour off the water, and add one quart of hot water. Boil two hours, or
until the potatoes are thoroughly dissolved in the water. Add fresh
boiling water as it boils away. When done, run it through the colander,
adding three-fourths of a cupful of hot cream, a large table-spoonful of
finely cut parsley, salt, and pepper. Bring it to the boiling-point, and
serve.


PURÉE OF STRING-BEANS.

Make a strong stock as follows: Add to a knuckle of veal three quarts of
water, a generous slice of salt pork, and two or three slices of onion.
Let it simmer for five hours, then pour it through a sieve or colander
into a jar. It is better to make this stock the day before it is served,
as then every particle of fat may be easily scraped off the jelly.

Ten minutes before dinner, put into a saucepan two ounces of butter, and
when it bubbles sprinkle in four ounces of flour (two heaping
table-spoonfuls); let it cook without taking color; then add a cupful of
hot cream, a pint of the heated stock, and about a pint of green
string-bean pulp, _i. e._, either fresh or canned string-beans boiled
tender with a little pork, then pressed through a colander, and freed
from juice. After mixing all together, do not let the soup boil, or it
will curdle and spoil. Stir it constantly while it is on the fire.

Just before it is sent to table, sprinkle over the top a handful of
little fried fritter-beans. They are made by dropping _drops_ of fritter
batter into boiling lard. They will resemble navy-beans, and give a very
pleasant flavor and appearance to the soup.

If this pretty addition be considered too much trouble, little dice of
fried bread (_croûtons_) may be added instead. The soup should be rather
thick, and served quite hot.


BISQUE OF LOBSTERS.

This soup is made exactly like the _purée_ of string-beans, with the
veal stock and thickened cream, except that, in place of the
string-bean pulp, the soup is now flavored and colored with the coral of
lobster, dried in the oven, and pounded fine. This gives it a beautiful
pink color. Little dice of the boiled lobster are then to be added. The
lobster-dice may or may not be marinated before they are added to the
soup, _i. e._, sprinkled with a mixture of one table-spoonful of oil,
three table-spoonfuls of vinegar, pepper, and salt, and left for two or
three hours in the marinade. Season the soup with pepper and salt.



FISH.


If a fish is not perfectly fresh, perfectly cleaned, and thoroughly
cooked, it is not eatable. It should be cleaned or drawn as soon as it
comes from market, then put on the ice until the time of cooking. It
should not be soaked, for it impairs the flavor, unless it is frozen,
when it should be put into ice-cold water to thaw; or unless it is a
salted fish, when it may be soaked overnight.

The greatest merit of a fish is freshness. The secret of the excellence
of the fish at the Saratoga Lake House, where they have famous trout
dinners, is that, as they are raised on the premises, they go almost
immediately from the pond to the fish-kettle. One is to be pitied who
has not tasted fish at the sea-shore, where fishermen come in just
before dinner, with baskets filled with blue-fish, flounders, etc.,
fresh from the water.

A long, oval fish-kettle (page 52) is very convenient for frying or
boiling fish. It has a strainer to fit, in which the fish is placed,
enabling it to be taken from the kettle without breaking. A fish is
sufficiently cooked when the meat separates easily from the bones. When
the fish is quite done, it should be left no longer in the kettle; it
will lose its flavor.

It makes a pleasant change to cook fish “_au gratin_.” It is a simple
operation, but little attempted in America. I would recommend this mode
of cooking for eels, or the Western white-fish.

A fish is most delicious fried in olive-oil. A friend told me he
purchased olive-oil by the keg, for cooking purposes. It is, of course,
expensive, and lard or beef drippings answer very well. I would
recommend, also, frying fish by _immersion_.

If a fish is to be served whole, do not cut off the head and tail. It
also presents a better appearance to stand the fish on its belly rather
than lay it on its side.


TO BOIL FISH.

All fish but salmon (which is put into warm water to preserve its color)
should be placed in salted _cold_ water, with a little vinegar or
lemon-juice in it, to boil. It should then boil _very, very_ gently, or
the outside will break before the inside is done. It requires a little
experience to know exactly how long to boil a fish. It must never be
underdone; yet it must be taken from the water as soon as it is
thoroughly done, or it will become insipid, watery, and colorless. It
will require about eight minutes to the pound for large, thick fish, and
about five minutes to the pound for thin fish, after the water begins to
simmer, using only enough water to cover it. When done, drain it well
before the fire. The fresh-water, or any kind of fish which have no
decided flavor, are much better boiled _au court bouillon_, or with
onions and carrots (sliced), parsley, two or three cloves, pepper, salt,
vinegar, or wine--any or all of these added to the water. The sea-fish,
or such as have a flavor _prononcé_, can be boiled in simple salted and
acidulated water.

If you have no fish-kettle, and wish to boil a fish, arrange it in a
circle on a plate, with an old napkin around it: when it is done, it can
be carefully lifted from the kettle by the cloth, so that it will not be
broken. When cuts of fish are boiled, you allow the water to just come
to a boil; then remove the kettle to the back of the range, so that it
will only simmer.

Always serve a sauce with a boiled fish, such as drawn butter, egg,
caper, pickle, shrimp, oyster, _Hollandaise_, or piquante sauce.


TO BOIL AU COURT BOUILLON.

Among professional cooks, a favorite way of boiling a fish is in water
saturated with vegetables, called _court bouillon_; consequently, a fish
cooked in this manner would be called, for instance, “Pike, _au court
bouillon_.” It is rather a pity this way of cooking has a French name;
however, if one is not unduly scared at that, one can see how simple it
is.

_Dubois’s Receipt._--Mince a carrot, an onion, and a small piece of
celery; fry them in a little butter, in a stew-pan; add some parsley,
some pepper-corns, and three or four cloves. Now pour on two quarts of
hot water and a pint of vinegar. Let it boil a quarter of an hour; skim
it, salt it, and use it for boiling the fish.

It is improved by using white or red wine instead of vinegar; only use
then three parts of wine to one of water. These stocks are easily
preserved, and may be used several times.

To boil the fish: Rub the fish with lemon-juice and salt, put it in a
kettle, and cover it with _court bouillon_. Let it only simmer, not boil
hard, until thoroughly done. Serve the fish on a napkin, surrounded with
parsley. Serve a caper, pickle, or any kind of fish sauce, in a
sauce-boat.


TO FRY FISH.

By frying fish I mean that it is to be _immersed_ in hot lard, beef
drippings, or olive-oil. Let there be a little more fat than will cover
the fish; otherwise it is liable to stick to the bottom and burn. Do not
put in the fish until the fat is tested, and found to be quite hot. If
the fat were not hot enough, the fish would absorb some of it, making it
greasy and unwholesome. If it is hot enough, the fish will absorb
nothing at all.

To prepare fish for frying, dredge them first with flour; then brush
them with beaten egg, and roll them in fine or sifted bread, or cracker
crumbs. When they are browned on one side, turn them over in the hot
fat. When done, let them drain quite dry.

Cutlets of any large fish are particularly nice egged and bread-crumbed,
fried, and served with tomato sauce or slices of lemon.


FISH FRIED IN BATTER.

Cut almost any kind of fish in fillets or pieces one-fourth of an inch
thick, and one or two inches square; only be careful to have them all of
the same shape and size. Sprinkle them with pepper and salt, and roll
each one in batter (No. 2, page 98). Fry them in boiling lard. Arrange
them tastefully in a circle, one overlapping the other. Garnish with
fresh or fried parsley. Potatoes _à la Parisienne_ may be piled in the
centre, and _sauce Tartare_ (see page 128) served separately in a
sauce-boat.

[Illustration]


TO BROIL FISH.

The same rule applies to broiling fish as to every thing else. If the
fish is small, it requires a clear, hot fire. If the fish is large, the
fire must be moderate; otherwise the outside of the fish would be burned
before the inside is cooked. Many rub the fish over with olive-oil;
others split a large fish; still others broil it whole, and cut notches
at equal distances across its sides. When you wish to turn the fish,
separate carefully with a knife any part of it which sticks to the
gridiron; then, holding a platter over the fish with one hand, turn the
gridiron over with the other, leaving the fish on the platter: it will
now be a more easy matter to turn it without breaking. As soon as the
fish is done, sprinkle over pepper and salt, and spread butter all over
it with a knife. Set it in the oven a moment, so that the butter may
soak in the fish. This is the most common way of seasoning it. It is
almost as easy to first sprinkle pepper and salt, then a few drops of
lemon-juice, over the fish; then a table-spoonful of parsley, chopped
fine; then some melted butter over all. Put it a moment in the oven to
soak. They call this a _maître-d’hôtel_ sauce. Quite simple, is it not?
It is especially nice for a broiled shad.


TO BAKE FISH.

When cleaning the fish, do not cut off the head and tail. Stuff it. Two
or three receipts are given for the stuffing. Sew it, or confine the
stuffing by winding the cord several times around the fish. Lay several
pieces of pork, cut in strings, across the top; sprinkle over water,
pepper, salt, and bread-crumbs; put some hot water into the pan; bake
in a hot oven, _basting very often_. When done (the top should be nicely
browned), serve a sauce with it. The best fishes to bake are white-fish,
blue-fish, shad, etc. If not basted very often, a baked fish will be
very dry. For this reason, an ordinary cook should never bake a fish. I
believe, however, they never cook them in any other way.


STUFFINGS FOR FISH.


BREAD STUFFING.

Soak half a pound of bread-crumbs in water; when the bread is soft,
press out all the water. Fry two table-spoonfuls of minced onion in some
butter; add the bread, some chopped parsley, a table-spoonful of chopped
suet, and pepper and salt. Let it cook a moment; take it off the fire,
and add an egg.


MEAT STUFFING.

This stuffing is best made with veal, and almost an equal quantity of
bacon chopped fine. Put in a quarter of its volume of white softened
bread-crumbs, pressed out well; add a little chopped onion, parsley, or
mushrooms; season highly.

If the fish should be baked with wine, this dressing can be used, viz.:

Soak about three slices of bread. When the water is well pressed out,
season it with salt, a little cayenne, a little mace, and moisten it
with port-wine or sherry; add the juice and the grated rind of half a
lemon.


TO BAKE A FISH WITH WINE (_Mrs. Samuel Treat_).

Stuff a fish with the following dressing. Soak some bread in water,
squeeze it dry, and add an egg well beaten. Season it with pepper, salt,
and a little parsley or thyme; grease the baking-pan (one just the right
size for holding the fish) with butter; season the fish on top, and put
it into the pan with about two cups of boiling water; baste it well,
adding more boiling water when necessary. About twenty minutes before
serving, pour over it a cup of sour wine, and a small piece of butter
(Mrs. Treat adds also two or three table-spoonfuls of Worcestershire
sauce mixed with the wine--of course, this may be left out if more
convenient); put half a lemon, sliced, into the gravy; baste the fish
again well. When it is thoroughly baked, remove it from the pan; garnish
the top with the slices of lemon; finish the sauce in the baking-dish by
adding a little butter rubbed to a paste in some flour; strain, skim,
and serve it in a sauce-boat.


TO STEW FISH, OR FISH EN MATELOTE.

Cut the fish transversely into pieces about an inch or an inch and a
half long; sprinkle salt on them, and let them remain while you boil two
or three onions (sliced) in a very little water; pour off this water
when the onions are cooked, and add to them pepper, about a tea-cupful
of hot water, and a tea-cupful of wine if it is claret or white wine,
and two or three table-spoonfuls if it is sherry or port: now add the
fish. When it begins to simmer, throw in some little balls of butter
which have been rolled in flour. When the fish is thoroughly cooked,
serve it very hot. This is a very good manner of cooking any fresh-water
fish.

Fish is much better stewed with some wine. Of course, it is quite
possible to stew fish without it, in which case add a little parsley.


TO COOK FISH AU GRATIN.

[Illustration]

This is a favorite manner with the French of cooking fish. The fish is
served in the same dish in which it is cooked. It is called a _gratin_
dish--generally an oval silver-plated platter, or it may be of
block-tin. A fish _au gratin_ is rather expensive, on account of the
mushrooms; however, the French canned mushrooms (_champignons_) are
almost as good as fresh ones, and are much cheaper.

_Receipt._--First put into a saucepan butter size of an egg, then a
handful of shallots, or one large onion minced fine; let it cook ten
minutes, when mix in half a cupful of flour; then mince three-fourths
of a cupful of mushrooms. Add a tea-cupful of hot water (or better,
stock) to the saucepan, then a glass of white or red wine, salt, and
pepper. After mixing them well, add the minced mushrooms and a little
minced parsley. Skin the fish, cut off the head and tail, split it in
two, laying bare the middle bone; slip the knife under the bone,
removing it smoothly. Now cut the fish in pieces about an inch long.
Moisten the _gratin_ dish with butter, arrange the cuts of fish
tastefully on it, pour over the sauce, then sprinkle the whole with
bread-crumbs which have been dried and grated. Put little pieces of
butter over all, and bake. The dish may be garnished with little
diamonds of fried or toasted and buttered bread around the edge. Or,

This is a pretty dish _au gratin_: Put mashed potatoes (which must be
still hot when arranged) in a circle on the outside of the _gratin_
dish, then a row of the pieces of fish (which have been cooked as just
described) around the middle of the dish, or just inside the potatoes.
Put some mashed potatoes also in the middle of the dish. Garnish here
and there with mushrooms. Pour the sauce just described and bread-crumbs
over the fish, and bake five or ten minutes.


FISH À LA CRÈME (_Mrs. Audenreid_).

Boil a fish weighing four pounds in salted water. When done, remove the
skin, and flake it, leaving out the bones. Boil one quart of rich milk.
Mix butter size of a small egg with three table-spoonfuls of flour, and
stir it smoothly in the milk, adding also two or three sprigs of parsley
and half an onion chopped fine, a little Cayenne pepper, and salt. Stir
it over the fire until it has thickened.

Butter a _gratin_ dish. Put in first a layer of fish, then of dressing,
and continue in alternation until all the fish is used, with dressing on
top. Sprinkle sifted bread-crumbs over the top. Bake half an hour.
Garnish with parsley and slices of hard-boiled egg.

       *       *       *       *       *

As the rules for boiling, broiling, frying, cooking _au gratin_, and
stewing are the same for nearly all kinds of fish, I will not repeat
the receipts for each particular one. I will only suggest the best
manner for cooking certain kinds, and will add certain receipts not
under the general rule:


SALMON

[Illustration]

is undoubtedly best boiled. The only exception to the rule of boiling
fish is in the case of salmon, which must be put in hot instead of cold
water, to preserve its color. A favorite way of boiling a whole salmon
is in the form of a letter S, as in plate. It is done as follows: Thread
a trussing-needle with some twine; tie the end of the string around the
head, fastening it tight; then pass the needle through the centre part
of the body, draw the string tight, and fasten it around the tail. The
fish will assume the desired form.

For parties or evening companies, salmon boiled in this form (middle
cuts are also used), served cold, with a _Mayonnaise_ sauce poured over,
is a favorite dish. It is then generally mounted in style, on an oval or
square block pedestal, three or four inches high, made of bread (two or
three days old), called a _croustade_, carved in any form with a sharp
knife. It is then fried a light-brown in boiling lard. Oftener these
_croustades_ are made of wood, which are covered with white paper, and
brushed over with a little half-set aspic jelly. The salmon is then
decorated with squares of aspic jelly. A decoration of quartered
hard-boiled eggs or of cold cauliflower-blossoms is very pretty, and is
palatable also with the _Mayonnaise_ sauce. The best sauces for a boiled
salmon served hot are the _sauce Hollandaise_, lobster, shrimp, or
oyster sauces--the _sauce Hollandaise_ being the favorite.

If lobster sauce is used, the coral of the lobster is dried, and
sprinkled over the fish, reserving some with which to color the sauce,
as in receipt for lobster sauce (see page 122).

If shrimp sauce is used, some whole shrimps should be saved for
decorating the dish.

[Illustration]

In decorating salmon, as well as any other kind of fish, potatoes cut in
little balls, and placed like little piles of cannon-balls around the
dish, are pretty. The potatoes should be simply boiled in salted water.
An alternate pile of button mushrooms are pretty, and good also. Parsley
or any pretty leaves around a dish always give a fresh and tasteful
appearance. Or,

An exceedingly pretty garnish for a large fish is one of smelts (in
rings, see receipt, page 111) fried in boiling lard. In this case, add
slices of lemon. Still another pretty garnish is of fried oysters or
fried parsley, or both.

[Illustration]

It is quite appropriate to serve a middle cut of salmon at a dinner:
1st, because it is the best cut; 2d, because it is easier and cheaper to
serve; and, 3d, because one never cares to supply more than is
necessary. This cut is better slowly boiled, also, in the acidulated
salted water.


TO BROIL SALMON.

Take two slices of salmon cut from the middle of the fish, sprinkle over
a little lemon-juice, Cayenne pepper, salt, and salad-oil. Let it then
remain for half an hour. Rub the gridiron well with beef-suet or pork.
As it is a nice matter to broil salmon without burning, it would be well
to wrap it in buttered or oiled paper just before broiling. Serve a
_maître-d’hôtel_, pickle, caper, anchovy, or a horse-radish sauce.


SALMON CUTLETS.

Remove the skin and bone from some slices of salmon one-third of an inch
thick; trim them into cutlet shape; sprinkle on pepper, salt, and flour,
and dip them into beaten eggs mixed with a little chopped parsley or
onion; then bread-crumb them. Fry them in boiling lard. This is the
better way, or they may be fried or _sautéd_ in butter in a _sauté_ pan.
Arrange the pieces one over the other in a circle. Pour a pickle, or
_Tartare_ sauce, in the centre.


SLICES OF SALMON BOILED.

If a family is small, and it should not be advisable to buy a large
middle cut of salmon, it would be preferable to buy, for instance, two
slices. Boil them very slowly in acidulated salted water, or in the
_court bouillon_ with wine. Serve them with parsley between, and a
napkin underneath. Serve a _sauce Hollandaise_ in the sauce-boat.


CANNED SALMON.

The California canned salmon is undoubtedly one of the greatest
successes in canning. By keeping a few cans in the house, one is always
ready in any emergency to produce a fine dish of salmon in a few
minutes. It is particularly nice for a breakfast-dish, heated, seasoned
with pepper and salt, placed on thin slices of buttered toast, with a
cream dressing poured over all, _i. e._, milk thickened on the fire, by
stirring it into a _roux_ (see page 51) of butter and flour, and
seasoned with pepper, salt, and a few pieces of fresh butter just before
serving. For dinner it is excellent served with any of the fish sauces.
Salmon is also nice served in shells, as for trout (see page 109).


SHAD.

This delicious fish is undoubtedly best broiled, with a _maître-d’hôtel_
sauce; but it is good also cut in slices, and _sautéd_.


TROUT.

If large, they may be broiled, boiled, or baked. If boiled or broiled,
serve the _sauce Hollandaise_ with them. Professional cooks generally
boil it in the _court bouillon_. Smaller trout are better egged, rolled
in salted corn-meal, and thrown into boiling lard.

The trout is a very nice fish for an _au gratin_, or stewed, called then
_en matelote_.


TROUT IN CASES OR IN SHELLS (_en Coquilles_).

Parboil little trout; cut the fish into pieces about an inch long, or
into dice; place them in paper cases (which have been buttered or oiled,
and placed in the oven a few moments to harden the paper so as to enable
it to hold the sauce). After partly filling the cases with the pieces of
fish, pour over them some fine herb sauce (see page 128), and sprinkle
over bread-crumbs; put them into the oven twenty minutes before dinner
to bake.

If shells are used, little plated-silver ones (scallop shells) are
preferable. In that case, it would be better to fry the fish (seasoned
with pepper, salt, and a little lemon-juice) in a _sauté_ pan; cut them
in dice afterward, and put them in the shells; pour over a fine herb or
a Bechamel sauce; strew the top with grated bread-crumbs; place them a
few moments in the oven to brown the tops, and serve.


COD-FISH.

Fresh cod-fish is better boiled. The fish is so large that it is
generally boiled in slices. After it is well salted, horse-radish and
vinegar in the boiling water will improve the fish. Oyster-sauce is the
favorite sauce for a boiled cod-fish. Capers might be mixed with the
oyster-sauce. Some serve the fish with the sauce poured over it. Any of
the fish sauces may be served with fresh cod-fish. These slices may also
be broiled and served with a _maître-d’hôtel_ sauce, or they may be
egged and bread-crumbed, and fried in boiling lard.


CRIMPED COD-FISH (_Rudmanii_).

Soak two slices of cod-fish one inch thick for two hours in ice-water;
put them into the stew-pan, and, pouring over enough salted boiling
water to cover them, let them _simmer_ for about ten minutes; place
them neatly on a platter on a folded napkin, garnish with parsley, and
pour into the two cavities a _Tartare_ or a pickle sauce.


SALT COD-FISH.

Soak this in water overnight; parboil it, changing the water once or
twice; separate the flakes. Serve them on thin slices of toast, with an
egg sauce poured over. Or,

Mince it when boiled in very little water, which should be changed once;
thicken it with butter and flour mixed; cook about two minutes, then
break in several eggs. When the eggs are cooked and mixed with the fish,
pour all on thin slices of buttered toast.


COD-FISH BALLS.

[Illustration]

Cut the cod-fish in pieces; soak them about an hour in lukewarm water,
when the bones and skin may be easily removed; pull the fish then into
fine shreds, and put it on the stove in some cold water. As soon as it
begins to boil, change the water, and repeat this process a second time.
It is not proper to boil it, as it renders it tough. As soon as the fish
is ready, some potatoes must be cooked at the same time, _i. e._, boiled
tender, and well-mashed while still hot, with a little butter added. Mix
half as much cod-fish as potatoes while both are _still hot_. Form them
into little balls or thick flat cakes. Fry them in a little hot butter
in a _sauté_ pan, or immerse them in boiling-hot lard. It makes all the
difference in the flavor of the balls if the fish and potatoes are mixed
while both are _hot_. Of course, they are better fried at once, but may
be made the night before serving (at breakfast), if they are only
properly _mixed_.


FISH CHOWDER.

Cut three pounds of any kind of fresh fish (cod-fish is especially
good), one and a half pounds of potatoes, and one large onion (three
ounces) into slices; also, half a pound of salt pork into half-inch
squares or dice.

Put the pork and onions into a saucepan, and fry them a light brown;
then add a cupful of claret; and when it boils take it from the fire.

Butter a large stew-pan, and put in first a layer of potatoes, then a
layer of fish, then a sprinkle of onions and pork (strained from the
claret), pepper and salt, and continue these alternations until it is
all in, having the potatoes on top. Now pour the claret over the top,
and barely cover the whole with boiling water. Cover closely, and let it
simmer for fifteen minutes without disturbing it.

In the mean time, bring a pint of milk (or, better, cream) to a boil,
take it from the fire, and cut into it three ounces of butter, and break
in three ship-crackers. Arrange the slices of fish and potatoes in the
shape of a dome in the centre of a hot platter. Place the softened
crackers (skimmed from the milk) over the top, and pour over the milk.
Serve very hot.


SMALL PAN-FISH (_Perch, Sun-fish, etc._).

They are generally preferred peppered, salted, then rolled in salted
corn-meal, and fried either in a _sauté_ pan with a little lard and some
slices of pork, or in boiling lard. They make also a good stew _en
matelote_, or a good _au gratin_. Their chief excellence consists in
their being perfectly fresh, and served hot.


MACKEREL

should be broiled, and served _à la maître-d’hôtel_.


SMELTS

are good salted, peppered, and rolled in salted corn-meal or flour, and
fried in boiling-hot lard, but better egged and bread-crumbed before
frying. They should be served _immediately_, or they will lose their
crispness and flavor. When served as a garnish for a large fish, they
should be fried in the shape of rings. This is easily done by putting
the tail of the fish into its mouth, and holding it with a pin. After it
is fried, the pin is withdrawn, as the fried fish will hold its shape.
Place these rings around the fish, with an additional garnish of parsley
and lemon slices; or the rings may be served alone in a circle around
the side of a platter, with a tomato or a _Tartare_ sauce in the
centre.

There can be no prettier manner of serving them alone than one often
seen in Paris. They are fried in the usual manner; then a little silver
or silver-plated skewer four inches long is drawn through two or three
of the smelts, running it carefully through the eyes. One skewerful,
with a slice of lemon on top, is served for each person at table. If the
silver-plated skewers are too extravagant, little ones of polished wire
will answer.


FRIED SLICES OF FISH, WITH TOMATO SAUCE (_Fish à l’Orlay_).

Bone and skin the fish, and cut it into even slices; or if a flounder or
any flat fish is used, begin at the tail, and, keeping the knife close
to the bone, separate each side of the fish neatly from it; then cut
each side in two, lengthwise, leaving the fish in four long pieces.
Remove the skin carefully. After having sprinkled pepper and salt over
them, roll each piece first in sifted cracker or bread crumbs, then in
half a cupful of milk mixed with an egg, and then in the crumbs again.
They are better fried in a _sauté_ pan in a little hot butter; yet they
may be _sautéd_ in a little hot lard, with some neat slices of pork, or
fried in boiling lard.

Pour tomato sauce No. 2 (see page 125) on a hot platter, arrange the
pieces of fish symmetrically on it, and serve immediately.


TO FRY EELS.

Skin them, cut them into four-inch lengths, season them with salt and
pepper, roll them in flour or salted corn-meal, and fry them in boiling
lard. Some parboil eels and bull-heads, saying it removes a muddy taste.
I do not think it is necessary. Fried eels are generally served with a
tomato, a pickle, or a _Tartare_ sauce.


EELS STEWED (_London Cooking-school_).

Put three-quarters of a cupful of butter into a stew-pan; when hot, add
four small onions minced fine, which cook to a light-brown color; add
then a table-spoonful of flour; when well mixed and cooked, add two
cupfuls of stock, a wine-glassful of port-wine, and two bay leaves (the
bay leaves may be omitted). Now put in the eels (two small ones or one
large one), cut into pieces one inch long. Cover tightly.

They will be ready to send to the table in about fifteen minutes, served
on a hot platter, with a circle around them of toasted or fried slices
of bread (_croûtons_), cut diamond-shaped.



SHELL-FISH.


OYSTERS.


RAW OYSTERS.

Drain them well in a colander, marinate them, _i. e._, sprinkle over
plenty of pepper and salt, and let them remain in a cold place for at
least half an hour before serving. This makes a great difference in
their flavor. They may be served in the half-shell with quarters or
halves of lemons in the same dish. I think a prettier arrangement is to
serve them in a block of ice. Select a ten-pound block; melt with a hot
flat-iron a symmetrical-shaped cavity in the top to hold the oysters;
chip also from the sides at the base, so that the ice-block may stand in
a large platter on the napkin. When the oysters are well salted and
peppered, place them in the ice, and let them remain in some place where
the ice will not melt until the time of serving. The salt will help to
make the oysters very cold. The ice may be decorated with leaves or
smilax vines, and a row of lemon quarters or halves may be placed around
the platter at the base of the ice. It has an especially pretty effect
served on a table by gas-light. The English often serve little thin
squares of buttered brown bread (like Boston brown bread) with oysters.


FRIED OYSTERS.

Drain the oysters in the colander; sprinkle over pepper and salt, which
mix well with them, and put them in a cold place for fifteen or twenty
minutes before cooking. This is marinating them. When ready to cook,
roll each one first in sifted cracker-crumbs, then in beaten egg mixed
with a little milk and seasoned with pepper and salt, then in the
cracker-crumbs again. You will please remember the routine: _first_, the
crumbs before the egg, as the egg will not adhere well to the oyster
without the crumbs; now throw them into boiling-hot lard (as you would
fry doughnuts), first testing to see if it is hot enough. As soon as
they assume a light-brown color they should be drained, and served
immediately on a hot platter.

Oysters should not be fried until the persons at table are ready to eat
them, as it takes only a few moments to fry them, and they are not good
unless very hot.

The platter of oysters may be garnished with a table-spoonful of chopped
pickles or chowchow placed at the four opposite sides; or the oysters
may be served as a border around cold slaw (see receipt, page 224), when
they are an especially nice course for dinner; or they may be served
with celery, either plain or in salad. As the platter for the fried
oysters is hot, the celery salad or cold slaw might be piled on a folded
napkin in the centre.


SCALLOPED OYSTERS IN SHELLS.

They may be served cooked in their shells, or in silver scallop shells,
when they present a better appearance than when cooked and served all in
one dish.

If cooked in an oyster or clam shell, one large, or two or three little
oysters are placed in it, with a few drops of the oyster liquor. It is
sprinkled with pepper and salt, and cracker or bread crumbs. Little
pieces of butter are placed over the top. When all are ready, they are
put into the oven. When they are plump and hot, they are done. Brown the
tops with a salamander, or with a red-hot kitchen shovel.

If they are cooked in the silver scallop shells, which are larger,
several oysters are served in the one shell; one or two are put in,
peppered, salted, strewed with cracker-crumbs and small pieces of
butter; then more layers, until the shell is full, or until enough are
used for one person. Moisten them with the oyster-juice, and strew
little pieces of butter over the top. They are merely kept in the oven
until they are thoroughly hot, then browned with a salamander. Serve one
shell for each person at table, placed on a small plate. The oysters may
be bearded or not.


SCALLOPED OYSTERS.

Ingredients: Three dozen oysters, a large tea-cupful of bread or cracker
crumbs, two ounces of fresh butter, pepper and salt, half a tea-cupful
of oyster-juice.

Make layers of these ingredients, as described in the last article, in
the top of a chafing-dish, or in any kind of pudding or _gratin_ dish;
bake in a quick oven about fifteen minutes; brown with a salamander.


OYSTER STEW.

Put a quart of oysters on the fire in their own liquor. The moment they
_begin_ to boil, skim them out, and add to the liquor a half-pint of hot
cream, salt, and Cayenne pepper to taste. Skim it well, take it off the
fire, add to the oysters an ounce and a half of butter broken into small
pieces. Serve immediately.


OYSTER SOUP (see page 93).


OYSTER OR CLAM FRITTERS.

Oysters served on buttered toast for breakfast, or in _vols-au-vent_,
silver scallop-shells, or in paper boxes, are very nice made after the
receipts on page 241. They or the fricasseed oysters may be served in
either of the above ways.


FRICASSEE OF OYSTERS (_Oysters à la Boulette_).

Put one quart, or twenty-five, oysters on the fire in their own liquor.
The moment it begins to boil, turn it into a hot dish through a
colander, leaving the oysters in the colander. Put into the saucepan two
ounces of butter (size of an egg), and when it bubbles sprinkle in one
ounce (a table-spoonful) of sifted flour; let it cook a minute without
taking color, stirring it well with a wire egg-whisk; then add, mixing
well, a cupful of the oyster liquor. Take it from the fire and mix in
the yolks of two eggs, a little salt, a very little Cayenne pepper, one
tea-spoonful of lemon-juice, and one grating of nutmeg. Beat it well;
then return it to the fire to set the eggs, without allowing it to boil.
Put in the oysters.

These oysters may be served on thin slices of toast for breakfast or
tea, or in papers (_en papillote_), or as a filling for patties for
dinner.


TO ROAST CANNED OYSTERS.

Drain them. Put them in a spider which is very hot; turn them in a
moment, so that they may cook on both sides. It only takes a few seconds
to cook them. Put them on a hot plate in which there are pepper, salt,
and a little hot melted butter. They should be served immediately. They
have the flavor of the oyster roasted in the shell.

Some cook them in this manner at table on a chafing-dish by means of the
spirit-lamp.


SPICED OYSTERS (_Miss Lestlie_).

Ingredients: Two hundred oysters, one pint of vinegar, a nutmeg grated,
eight blades of whole mace, three dozen whole cloves, one tea-spoonful
of salt, two tea-spoonfuls of whole allspice, and as much Cayenne pepper
as will lie on the point of a knife.

Put the oysters with their liquor into a large earthen vessel; add to
them the vinegar and all the other ingredients. Stir all well together
and set them over a slow fire, keeping them covered. Stir them to the
bottom several times. As soon as they are well scalded, they are done.
To be eaten cold.


CLAMS.


CLAMS COOKED WITH CREAM (_Mrs. Audenreid_).

Chop fifty small clams not too fine, and season them with pepper and
salt. Put into a stew-pan butter the size of an egg, and when it bubbles
sprinkle in a tea-spoonful of flour, which cook a few moments; stir
gradually into it the clam liquor, then the clams, which stew about two
or three minutes; then add a cupful of boiling cream, and serve
immediately. The clams may or may not be bearded.


CLAM CHOWDER.

Put fifty clams on the fire in their own liquor, with a little salt.
When they have boiled about three minutes, strain them, and return the
liquor to the fire. Chop a medium-sized onion (two ounces) into small
pieces, and cut six ounces of pork into dice. Fry both a light color in
two ounces (size of an egg) of butter; then stir in three ounces of
flour (two table-spoonfuls). When thoroughly cooked, add the clam
liquor, half a pint of good stock or milk, the same quantity of cream, a
salt-spoonful of mace, a salt-spoonful of thyme, salt to taste, and
eight ounces of potatoes cut into dice. When these are cooked, and the
chowder is about to be sent to table, add the clams cut in dice, and
four ounces of ship-bread or crackers broken in pieces.


TUNISON CLAM CHOWDER.

Ingredients: Two hundred soft clams, one large onion, twenty large
crackers, can of tomatoes, parsley (chopped fine), half a pound of
butter, one large tea-spoonful of sweet marjoram, thyme, sage, savory,
half a tea-spoonful of ground cloves, and half a tea-spoonful of curry.

Boil well; then add half a pint of milk and half a pint of sherry wine.


CLAM FRITTERS (see page 230).


CLAM SOUP (see page 93).


CRABS AND LOBSTERS.


SOFT-SHELL CRABS.

Dry them; sprinkle them with pepper and salt; roll them, first in flour,
then in egg (half a cupful of milk mixed in one egg), then in
cracker-dust, and fry them in boiling lard.


DEVILED CRAB.

When the crabs are boiled, take out the meat and cut it into small
pieces (dice); clean well the shells.

To six ounces of crab meat, mix two ounces of bread-crumbs, two
hard-boiled eggs chopped, the juice of half a lemon, Cayenne pepper and
salt. Mix all with cream or cream sauce, or, what is still better, a
Bechamel sauce (see page 127). Fill the shells with the mixture, smooth
the tops, sprinkle over sifted bread-crumbs, and color it in a quick
oven.


DEVILED LOBSTER

is made in the same way as deviled crab, merely substituting the lobster
for the crab, and adding a grating of nutmeg to the seasoning. In
boiling lobsters and crabs, they are sufficiently cooked when they
assume a bright-red color. Too much boiling renders them tough.


LOBSTER CHOPS.

Cut half a pound of the flesh of a boiled lobster into small dice. Put
two ounces of butter into a stew-pan, and when it bubbles sprinkle in
two ounces of flour (one table-spoonful). Cook it; then pour in a cupful
of boiling cream and the lobster dice. Stir it until it is scalding hot;
then take it from the fire, and, when slightly cooled, stir in the
beaten yolks of three eggs, a grating of nutmeg, a little Cayenne
pepper, and salt to taste. Return the mixture to the fire, and stir it
long enough to well set the eggs.

Butter a platter, on which spread the lobster mixture half an inch deep.
When cold, form it into the shape of chops, pointed at one end;
bread-crumb, egg, and crumb them again, and fry them in boiling lard.
Stick a claw into the end of each lobster chop after it is cooked.

Place the chops in a circle, overlapping each other, on a napkin.
Decorate the dish by putting the tail of the lobster in the centre, and
its head, with the long horns, on the tail. Around the outside of the
circle of chops arrange the legs, cut an inch each side of the middle
joints, so that they will form two equal sides of a triangle.


A GOOD WAY TO PREPARE A LOBSTER.

Put into a saucepan butter the size of a small egg, and a tea-spoonful
of minced onion. When it has cooked, sprinkle in a tea-spoonful of
flour, which cook also; then stir in one cupful of the water in which
the lobster was boiled, one cupful of milk, one cupful of strong veal or
beef stock, pepper, and salt: add the meat of the boiled lobster, and
when quite hot pour all in the centre of a hot platter. Decorate the
dish with the lobster’s head in the centre, fried-bread diamonds
(_croûtons_) around the outside; or in any prettier way you choose, with
the abundant resources of lobster legs and trimmings.


FROGS.

Frogs are such a delicacy that it is a pity not to prepare them with
care.

The hind legs only are used. They may be made into a broth the same as
chicken broth, and are considered a very advantageous diet for those
suffering with pulmonary affections.


FROGS FRIED.

Put them in salted boiling water, with a little lemon-juice, and boil
them three minutes; wipe them; dip them first in cracker-dust, then in
eggs (half a cupful of milk mixed in two eggs and seasoned with pepper
and salt), then again in cracker-crumbs. When they are all breaded,
clean off the bone at the end with a dry cloth. Put them in a wire
basket and dip them in boiling lard, to fry. Put a little paper (see
page 61) on the end of each bone; place them on a hot platter, in the
form of a circle, one overlapping the other, with French pease in the
centre. Serve immediately, while they are still crisp and hot.



SAUCES.


The French say the English only know how to make one kind of sauce, and
a poor one at that. Notwithstanding the French understand the sauce
question, it is very convenient to make the drawn butter, and, by adding
different flavorings, make just so many kinds of sauce. For instance, by
adding capers, shrimps, chopped pickles, anchovy paste, chopped boiled
eggs, lobster, oysters, parsley, cauliflower, etc., one has caper,
shrimp, pickle, anchovy, egg, and the other sauces. The drawn-butter
sauce is simple, yet few make it properly, managing generally to have
it insipid, and with flour uncooked. If a housekeeper has any pride
about having a good table, she will be amply repaid for learning some of
the French sauces, which are, at last, simple enough. We are often
frightened to see many items in a receipt; we shake our heads dubiously
at the trouble and extravagance of one receipt mentioning thyme, nutmeg,
bay-leaf, mace, shallot, capers, pepper-corns, parsley, and, last of all
the horrors, stock. As far as the herbs are concerned, an investment of
twenty-five cents will purchase enough mace, thyme, bay-leaves, and
pepper-corns for a year’s supply of abundant sauces, to say nothing of
their uses for braising, _blanquettes_, etc. Five cents’ worth of
shallots should last a long time; they are sold in all city markets,
being only young forced onions. Capers would be extravagant if a
bottleful, costing sixty cents, would not last a year in a small-sized
family. I have already said enough about stock to show that one must be
very incompetent if a little of it can not be at hand, made of trimmings
and cheap pieces of meat and bones.

The use of mushrooms and truffles, which are comparatively cheap in
France, can not be extensively introduced here. A little tin can,
holding about a gill of tasteless truffles, costs three or four dollars:
however, mushrooms are much less expensive, and infinitely better. A can
of mushrooms costs forty cents, and is sufficient for several sauces and
_entrées_.

Some persons raise mushrooms in their cellars. A small, rich bed in a
dark place where the soil will not freeze, planted with mushroom spawn,
will yield enough mushrooms for the family, and the neighbors besides,
with very little trouble and expense.

The French white sauces differ from the English white sauce, as they are
made with strong white stock, prepared with veal, or chickens, or both,
and some vegetables for a basis. If one would learn to make the _sauce
Bechamel_, it will be found an easy affair to prepare many delicious
_entrées_, such as chicken in shells (_en coquille_), or in papers (_en
papillote_), and mushrooms in crust (_croûte aux champignons_).

For boiled fish the _sauce Hollandaise_ is a decided success. In Paris
every one speaks of this delicious sauce, and bribes the _chef de
cuisine_ for the receipt. It is made without stock, and is very simple.

For fried fish the perfection of accompaniments is the _sauce
Tartare_--a mere addition of some capers, shallots, parsley, and pickles
to the _sauce Mayonnaise_.

When tomatoes are so abundant, it is unpardonable that one should never
serve a tomato sauce with a beefsteak, and a score of other meat dishes.

For a chicken or a lobster salad, learn unquestionably the _sauce
Mayonnaise_.

In the thickening of sauces, let it be remembered that butter and flour
should be well cooked together before the sauce is added, to prevent the
flour from tasting uncooked. In butter sauces, however, only enough
butter should be used to cook the flour, the remainder added, cut in
pieces, after the sauce is taken from the fire. This preserves its
flavor.


DRAWN-BUTTER SAUCE.

Ingredients: Three ounces of butter, one ounce of flour, half a pint of
water (or, better, white stock), and a pinch of salt and pepper.

Put two ounces of the butter into a stew-pan, and when it bubbles,
sprinkle in the flour; stir it well with a wire egg-whisk until the
flour is thoroughly cooked without taking color, and then mix in well
the half-pint of water or stock. Take it off the fire, pass it through a
sieve or gravy-strainer, and stir in the other ounce of butter cut in
pieces. When properly mixed and melted, it is ready for use. This makes
a pint of sauce.

Some persons like drawn-butter sauce slightly acid, in which case add a
few drops of vinegar or lemon-juice just before serving.


PICKLE SAUCE.

Make a drawn-butter sauce; just before serving add two or three
table-spoonfuls of pickled cucumbers chopped or minced very fine.


BOILED-EGG SAUCE.

Add to half a pint of drawn-butter sauce three hard-boiled eggs, chopped
not too fine.


CAPER SAUCE.

Make a drawn-butter sauce--or, say, melt two ounces of butter in a
saucepan; add a table-spoonful of flour; when the two are well mixed,
add pepper and salt, and a little less than a pint of boiling water.
Stir the sauce on the fire until it thickens, then add three
table-spoonfuls of French capers. Removing the saucepan from the fire,
stir into the sauce the yolk of an egg beaten with the juice of half a
lemon.


ANCHOVY SAUCE.

Add to half a pint of drawn-butter sauce two tea-spoonfuls of anchovy
extract, or anchovy paste.


SHRIMP SAUCE.

To half a pint of drawn-butter sauce add one-third of a pint of picked
boiled shrimps, whole, or chopped a little. Add at last moment a few
drops of lemon-juice, and a very little Cayenne pepper. Let the sauce
_simmer_, not boil. Some add a tea-spoonful of anchovy paste; more,
perhaps, prefer it without the anchovy flavor.

Shrimps are generally sold at market already boiled. If they are not
boiled, throw them into salted boiling water, and boil them until they
are quite red. When cold, pick off the heads, and peel off the shells.
Always save a few of the shrimps whole for garnishing the dish.


LOBSTER SAUCE.

Before proceeding to make this sauce, break up the coral of the lobster,
and put it on a paper in a slow oven for half an hour; then pound it in
a mortar, and sprinkle it over the boiled fish when it is served. To
prepare the sauce itself, chop the meat of the tail and claws of a
good-sized lobster into pieces, not too small. Half an hour before
dinner, make half a pint of drawn-butter sauce. Add to it the chopped
lobster, a pinch of coral, a small pinch of Cayenne, and a little salt.
An English lady says: “This process seems simple, yet nothing is rarer
in cookery than good lobster sauce. The means of spoiling it are
chiefly by chopping the lobster too small, or, worse, pounding it,
inserting contents of the head, or using milk, or anchovy, or any
sauces. It should not be a half-solid mass, or thin liquid, but the
lobster should be distinct in a creamy bed.”


OYSTER SAUCE.

Make a drawn-butter or white sauce; add a few drops of lemon or a
table-spoonful of capers, or, if neither be at hand, a few drops of
vinegar; add oysters strained from their liquor, and let them just come
to a boil in the sauce.

This sauce is much better made with part cream, _i. e._, used when
making the drawn-butter sauce, instead of all water. In this case, do
not add the lemon-juice or vinegar. Some make the white sauce of the
oyster liquor, instead of water.

This sauce may be served in a sauce-boat, but it is nicer to pour it
over the fish, boiled turkey, or chicken.


PARSLEY SAUCE (_for Boiled Fish or Fowls_).

To half a pint of hot drawn-butter sauce add two table-spoonfuls of
chopped parsley. The appearance of the sauce is improved by coloring it
with a little spinach-green (see page 87).


CAULIFLOWER SAUCE (_for Boiled Poultry_).

Add boiled cauliflowers, cut into little flowerets, to a drawn-butter
sauce made with part cream.


LEMON SAUCE (_for Boiled Fowls_).

To half a pint of drawn-butter sauce add the inside of a lemon, chopped
(seeds taken out), and the chicken liver boiled and mashed fine.


CHICKEN SAUCE (_to serve with Boiled or Stewed Fowls_).

Put butter the size of an egg into a bright saucepan, and when it
bubbles add a table-spoonful of flour; cook it, and add a pint, or
rather less, of boiling water; when smooth, take it from the fire, and
add the beaten yolks of two or three eggs, and a few drops of
lemon-juice, pepper, and salt. Or, Stock can be used instead of boiling
water, when two or three small slices of onion are placed in the butter
after it begins to bubble, and then allowed to cook yellow; after the
flour is cooked, stock is added instead of water, and when smooth, it is
taken from the fire, a few drops of lemon-juice, pepper, and salt are
added, and the sauce is strained through the gravy-strainer or sieve, to
remove the pieces of onion.


MAÎTRE-D’HÔTEL BUTTER (_for Beefsteak, Broiled Meat, or Fish_).

Mix butter the size of an egg, the juice of half a lemon, and two or
three sprigs of parsley, chopped very fine; pepper and salt all
together. Spread this over any broiled meat or fish when hot; then put
the dish into the oven a few moments, to allow the butter to penetrate
the meat.


MINT SAUCE (_for Roast Lamb_).

Put four table-spoonfuls of chopped mint, two table-spoonfuls of sugar,
and a quarter of a pint of vinegar into the sauce-boat. Let it remain an
hour or two before dinner, that the vinegar may become impregnated with
the mint.


CURRANT-JELLY SAUCE (_for Venison_).

A simple sauce made of currant jelly melted with a little water is very
nice; yet Francatelli’s receipt is much better, viz.:

“Bruise half a stick of cinnamon and six cloves; put them into a
stew-pan with one ounce of sugar and the peel of half a lemon, pared off
very thin, and perfectly free from any portion of white pulp; moisten
this with one and a half sherry-glassfuls of port-wine, and set the
whole to gently simmer or heat on the stove for half an hour; then
strain it into a small stew-pan containing half a glassful of currant
jelly. Just before sending the sauce to the table, set it on the fire to
boil, in order to melt the currant jelly, and so that it may mix with
the essence of spice, etc.”


TOMATO SAUCE (No. 1).

Stew six tomatoes half an hour with two cloves, a sprig of parsley,
pepper, and salt; press this through a sieve; put a little butter into a
saucepan over the fire, and when it bubbles add a heaping tea-spoonful
of flour; mix and cook it well, and add the tomato-pulp, stirring until
it is smooth and consistent.

Some add one or two slices of onion at first. It is a decided
improvement to add three or four table-spoonfuls of stock; however, the
sauce is very good without it, and people are generally too careless to
have stock at hand.


TOMATO SAUCE (No. 2).

Ingredients: One-quart can of tomatoes, two cloves, one small sprig of
thyme, two sprigs of parsley, half a small bay-leaf, three pepper-corns,
three allspice, two slices of carrot (one and a half ounces), one-ounce
onion (one small onion), one and a half ounces of butter (size of a
pigeon’s egg), one and a half ounces of flour (one table-spoonful).

Put the tomatoes over the fire with all the above ingredients but the
butter and flour, and when they have boiled about twenty minutes strain
them through a sieve. Make a _roux_ by putting the butter into a
stew-pan, and when it bubbles sprinkle in the flour, which let cook,
stirring it well; then pour in the tomato-pulp; when it is well mixed,
it is ready for use.


SAUCE HOLLANDAISE, OR DUTCH SAUCE.

As this is one of the best sauces ever made for boiled fish, asparagus,
or cauliflower, I will give two receipts. The first is Dubois’; the
second is from the Cooking-school in New York. None should call
themselves cooks unless they know how to make the _sauce Hollandaise_,
and simple enough it is.

1st. “Pour four table-spoonfuls of good vinegar into a small stew-pan,
and add some pepper-corns and salt; let the liquid boil until it is
reduced to half; let it cool; then add to it the well-beaten yolks of
four or five eggs, also four ounces (size of an egg) of good butter,
more salt, if necessary, and a very little nutmeg. Set the stew-pan on a
very slow fire, and stir the liquid until it is about as thick as cream;
immediately remove it. Now put this stew-pan or cup into another pan
containing a little warm water kept at the side of the fire. Work the
sauce briskly with a spoon, or with a little whisk, so as to get it
frothy, but adding little bits of butter, in all about three ounces”
(_I_ would say the size of half an egg). “When the sauce has become
light and smooth, it is ready for use.”

2d. “Put a piece of butter the size of a pigeon’s egg into a saucepan,
and when it bubbles stir in with an egg-whisk an even table-spoonful of
flour; let it continue to bubble until the flour is thoroughly cooked,
when stir in half a pint of boiling water, or, better, of veal stock;
when it boils, take it from the fire, and stir into it gradually the
beaten yolks of four eggs; return the sauce to the fire for a minute, to
set the eggs, without allowing it to boil; again remove the sauce, stir
in the juice of half a small lemon, and fresh butter the size of a
walnut, cut into small pieces, to facilitate its melting, and stir all
well with the whisk.”


MUSHROOMS, FOR GARNISH (_Gouffé_).

Separate the button part from the stalk; then peel them with a sharp
knife, cutting off merely the skin. Put them into a stew-pan with a
table-spoonful of lemon-juice and two table-spoonfuls of water. Toss
them well, to impregnate them with the liquid. The object of the
lemon-juice is to keep them white. Then put them on a sharp fire in
boiling water, with some butter added. When they are boiled tender they
are ready for use, _i. e._, for garnishing and for sauces.


MUSHROOM SAUCE (_to serve with Beefsteaks, Fillets of Beef, etc._).

Having prepared the mushrooms by cutting off the stalks, and if they are
large, by cutting them in halves or quarters, throw them into a little
boiling water, or, what is much better, stock. Do not use more than is
necessary to cover them. This must be seasoned with salt, pepper, and a
little butter. Boil the mushrooms until they are tender, then thicken
the gravy slightly with a _roux_ of butter and flour. Add a few drops of
lemon-juice. It is now ready to pour over the meat.


MUSHROOM WHITE SAUCE (_to serve with Boiled Fowls or with Cutlets_).

Prepare the mushrooms as for garnishing; boil them tender in rich white
stock, made of veal or chicken; thicken with a _roux_ of butter and
flour, and add one or two table-spoonfuls of cream.


MUSHROOM SAUCE (_made with Canned Mushrooms_).

Put a piece of butter the size of a walnut into a small stew-pan or tin
basin, and when it bubbles add a tea-spoonful (not heaping) of flour;
when well cooked, stir in a cupful of stock (reduced and strong), and
half a tea-cupful of the mushroom-juice from the can; let it simmer for
a minute or two; then, after straining it, add half or three quarters of
a can of mushrooms, pepper, salt, and a few drops of lemon-juice. When
thoroughly hot it is ready to pour over the meat.


A SIMPLE BECHAMEL SAUCE.

Put butter the size of a walnut into a stew-pan, and when it bubbles
stir in an even table-spoonful of flour, which cook thoroughly without
letting it take color. Mix into the _roux_ a cupful of strong hot veal
stock (_i. e._, veal put into cold water and boiled four or five hours),
a cupful of boiling cream, and one grating of nutmeg; let it simmer,
stirring it well for a few minutes, then strain, and it is ready for
use. The sauce would be improved if the usual soup-bunch vegetables were
added to the stock while it is being made.


BECHAMEL SAUCE.

Ingredients: One pint of veal stock (a knuckle of veal put into one
gallon of cold water, boiled five hours, skimmed and strained), half an
ounce of onion (quarter of a rather small one), quarter of an ounce of
turnip (quarter of a turnip), one ounce of carrot (quarter of a
good-sized carrot), half an ounce of parsley (two sprigs), quarter of a
bay-leaf, half a sprig of thyme, three pepper-corns, half a lump of
sugar, a small blade of mace.

Put one ounce (size of a walnut) of butter into a stew-pan, and when hot
add to it all the above ingredients but the stock and the mace; fry this
slowly until it assumes a yellow color; do not let it brown, as the
sauce should be white when done; stir in now a table-spoonful (one
ounce) of flour, which let cook a minute, and add the blade of mace and
the stock (boiling) from another stew-pan. After it has all simmered
about five minutes, strain it through a sieve without allowing the
vegetables to pass through; return the strained sauce to the fire,
reduce it by boiling about one-third, when add three or four
table-spoonfuls of good thick cream, and the sauce is ready.


SAUCE AUX FINES HERBES.

Ingredients: Half a pint of good stock, three table-spoonfuls of
mushrooms, one table-spoonful of onions, two table-spoonfuls of parsley,
and one shallot, all chopped fine. Fry the shallot and onion in a little
butter until they assume a light-yellow color, then add a tea-spoonful
of flour and cook it a minute; stir in the stock, mushrooms, and
parsley, simmer for five minutes, then add a little Worcestershire
sauce, and salt to taste. If no Worcestershire sauce is at hand, add
pepper to taste in its place.


SAUCE TARTARE (_a Cold Sauce_).

To a scant half pint of _Mayonnaise_ sauce (made with the mustard added)
mix in two table-spoonfuls of capers, one small shallot (quarter of a
rather small onion, a poor substitute), two gerkins (or two ounces of
cucumber pickle), and one table-spoonful of parsley, all chopped _very_
fine. This sauce will keep a long time, and is delicious for fried fish,
fried oysters, boiled cod-fish, boiled tongue, or as dressing for a
salad.

       *       *       *       *       *

By making the following simple sauce, one can produce several by a
little variation.


A SIMPLE BROWN SAUCE.

Put into a saucepan a table-spoonful of minced onion and a little
butter. When it has taken color, sprinkle in a heaping tea-spoonful of
flour; stir well, and when brown add half a pint of stock. Cook it a few
minutes, and strain. Now, by adding a cupful of claret, two cloves, a
sprig of parsley, and one of thyme, a bay-leaf, pepper, and salt, and by
boiling two or three minutes and straining it, one has the _sauce
poivrade_.

If, instead of the claret, one should add to the _poivrade_ sauce a
table-spoonful each of minced cucumber pickles, vinegar, and capers, one
has the _sauce piquante_.

By adding one tea-spoonful of made mustard, the juice of half a lemon,
and a little vinegar to the _poivrade_, instead of the claret, one has
the _sauce Robert_.



BEEF.


For a roast of beef, the sirloin and tenderloin cuts are considered the
best. They are more expensive, and are no better than the best cuts of a
rib roast: the sixth, seventh, and eighth ribs are the choicest cuts.
The latter roasts are served to better advantage by requesting the
butcher to remove the bones and roll the meat. Always have him send the
bones also, as they are a valuable acquisition to the soup-pot. As the
rolled rib roasts are shaved evenly off and across the top when carved
(the roasts are to be cooked rare, of course), they present an equally
good appearance for a second cooking. I have really served a roast a
third time to good advantage, serving it the last time _à la
jardinière_. Of course, in summer large cuts should not be purchased.

If the animal is young and large, and the meat is of clear, bright-red
color, and the fat white, the meat is sure to be tender and juicy.

There is no better sauce for a good, juicy roast of beef than the simple
juice of the meat. Horse-radish sauce may be served if the beef is not
particularly good.

If a sauce is made by adding hot water, flour, pepper, and salt to the
contents of the baking-pan after the beef is cooked, do not serve it
with a half-inch depth of pure grease on top in the sauce-boat. This is
as absurd, when it can be allowed to stand a moment and simply _poured
off_, or taken off with a spoon, as to serve wet salt at table, which
can easily be placed in the oven a few moments to dry, before sifting.
Also, this kind of baking-pan sauce would not be so very objectionable,
if cooks generally knew that it does not require a scientific education,
nor a herculean effort, to strain it through a gravy-strainer.


TO ROAST OR BAKE BEEF.

A few rules for roasting and baking beef: Allow nine minutes to the
pound for _baking_ a rolled rib-roast; for _roasting_ it, allow ten
minutes to the pound. Sirloin roasts require eight minutes to the pound
for baking, nine minutes for roasting.

[Illustration]

To bake, have the oven very hot. Before putting in the meat, sprinkle
over pepper and salt, and dredge with flour. Pour a little boiling water
into the pan before baking. Baste frequently.

To roast, have a bright fire. Hang the joint about eighteen inches from
it at first, put a little clarified dripping into the dripping-pan,
baste the meat with it when first prepared to cook, and every fifteen
minutes afterward. Twenty minutes before the beef is done, sprinkle with
pepper and salt, dredge with flour, baste with a little butter or
dripping. Keep the fire bright, and turn the meat before it. It should
be well browned and frothed. The cut, a rolled rib roast, with mashed
potatoes.


YORKSHIRE PUDDING.

Ingredients: Six large table-spoonfuls of flour, three eggs (well
beaten), one salt-spoonful of salt, enough milk to make it of the
consistency of soft custard (about one and a half pints).

Add enough milk to the flour and salt to make a smooth, stiff batter;
add the eggs, and enough more milk to make it of the proper consistency.
Beat all well together, pour it into a shallow pan (buttered); bake
three-quarters of an hour.

Some empty the dripping-pan three-quarters of an hour before baked beef
is done, and put the pudding into the empty pan, the beef on a
three-cornered stand over it, that its juice may drop on the pudding. If
beef is roasted, the pudding may be first baked in the oven, then placed
under the beef for fifteen or twenty minutes, to catch any stray drops.
It is as often served, though, baked in the oven in the ordinary way.

It is cut into squares and served on a hot plate, to be eaten with roast
beef. It is a favorite English dish.


BEEF À LA MODE.

Six or seven pounds from a round of beef are generally selected;
however, there is a cut from the shoulder which answers very well for an
_à-la-mode beef_. If the round is used, extract the bone. Make several
deep incisions into the meat with a thin sharp knife; press into most of
them lardoons of pork about half an inch square, and two or three inches
long; in the other cuts, and especially the one from whence the bone was
extracted, stuff almost any kind of force-meat, the simplest being as
follows: Mix some soaked bread with a little chopped beef-suet, onion,
any herbs, such as parsley, thyme, or summer savory; a little egg,
Cayenne pepper, salt, and cloves. Press the beef into shape, round or
oval, and tie it securely.

Put trimmings of pork into the bottom of a large saucepan or iron pot,
and when hot put over the meat; brown it all over by turning all sides
to the bottom of the pot, which should now be uncovered. This will take
about half an hour. Next sprinkle over a heaping table-spoonful of
flour, and brown that also. Put a small plate under the beef, to prevent
burning, and fill the pot with enough boiling water to half cover the
meat; throw over a saucerful of sliced onions, carrots, some turnips, if
you like, and some parsley. There are iron pots, with tight iron covers,
which are made expressly for this kind of cooking; but if you have none
of this description, you will now have to cover the one used with enough
covers, towels, etc., to make it tight as possible, so that the meat may
be cooked in the steam. Let it cook for four or five hours, never
allowing the water to stop boiling. Watch it, that it may not get too
low, and replenish it with boiling water. When the meat is done, put it
on a hot platter; strain the gravy, skim off every particle of fat, add
two or three table-spoonfuls of port or sherry wine, also pepper and
salt, if necessary, and pour this gravy and selected pieces of the
vegetables over the meat.

Baked onions (see page 201), placed around the beef as a garnish,
complete the dish for a course at dinner.


BRAISED BEEF (No. 1).--_New York Cooking-school._

Ingredients: Six-pound loin of beef, half a pound of pork, three-fourths
of a cupful of flour, two-ounce onion (one small onion), three-ounce
carrot (half a large carrot), one-ounce turnip, one-third of a bunch of
parsley, one sprig of thyme, two cloves, three allspice, six
pepper-corns, half of a bay-leaf.

Trim the beef into a shapely piece; stick a knife quite through
different portions of it, in which apertures press slices or lardoons of
pork, half an inch square, and three or four inches long. Tie the beef
into shape with twine. Lay scraps of pork on the bottom of a saucepan,
place it on a brisk fire, and when hot put in the beef; brown it all
over by turning the different sides to the bottom of the uncovered
saucepan. It will take about half an hour to brown it. Now sprinkle over
the beef three-fourths of a cupful of flour (three ounces), also the
vegetables and spices; and brown all this by again turning the meat over
the fire. When they are of fine color, pour over a tumblerful of claret,
which reduce to half; then fill the saucepan with boiling stock or
water; cover it tightly, and place it in a hot oven for two and a half
hours. When done, put the beef on a hot platter.

Strain the sauce in which the beef was cooked, take off every particle
of fat, season with more salt, if necessary; pour about half a cupful of
it over the beef in the platter, and serve the remainder in a
sauce-boat.

The beef may be surrounded with green pease, prepared as follows: Wash a
can of American pease in cold water, then put them over the fire with
half a cupful of boiling water, salt, pepper, one ounce of butter, and
one salt-spoonful of sugar. When the pease have simmered a minute,
strain them from their liquor, and place them in the platter around the
beef.


BRAISED BEEF (No. 2).

The same cut which is used for an _à-la-mode_ beef may be braised in the
same manner as is described for a fillet of beef braised. This may be
served with the gravy, as is there described, or with the addition of
the _jardinière_ of vegetables.


BRAISED BEEF, WITH HORSE-RADISH SAUCE.

Braise five pounds of fresh beef (not too lean), with an onion and a
carrot sliced, two or three sprigs of parsley, four or five cloves, a
little celery, if you have it, pepper, salt, and about a quart of
boiling water. Cover it tightly, and let it cook about three hours,
replenishing with a little boiling water, if the steam escapes too much.

_Sauce._--Simmer together for quarter of an hour half a cupful of grated
cracker, half a cupful of grated horse-radish, one cupful of cream, a
table-spoonful of the fat from the top of the water in which the beef is
cooked, salt, and pepper.

Place the beef on the platter in which it is to be served, and pour the
sauce around it. Garnish with parsley.


FILLET OF BEEF.

I will be very specific about the fillet of beef, as it is easily
managed at home, and is very expensive ordered from the _restaurateur_.
His price is generally ten dollars for a dressed and cooked fillet of
beef for a dinner for ten or twelve persons. To buy it from the butcher
costs a dollar a pound when dressed; three pounds are quite sufficient
for ten or twelve persons. To lard it (an affair of ten minutes) would
cost ten cents more; a box of French canned mushrooms, an additional
forty cents; a little stock, five cents.

One sees a fillet of beef at almost every dinner party. “That same
fillet, with mushrooms,” a frequent diner-out will say. I hope to see it
continued, for among the substantials there is nothing more
satisfactory.

A good butcher will always deliver a fillet of beef already dressed; if,
however, it is necessary to have it dressed at home, the _modus
operandi_ is as follows:


TO TRIM A FILLET OF BEEF.

The fillet is the under side of the loin of beef. The steaks cut from
this part are called porter-house-steaks. This under side, or fillet, is
covered with skin and fat. “All the skin and fat must be removed from
the top of the fillet, from one end to the other; then the rib-bones
are disengaged. The fat adhering to the side opposite the ribs is only
partially removed. Now the sinewy skin covering the upper meat of the
fillet must be removed in strips, proceeding by slipping the blade of
the knife between the skin and the meat. This operation is very simple;
yet it requires great precision. The upper part of a trimmed fillet must
be smooth, _i. e._, must not be furrowed by hollows occasioned by wrong
movements of the knife. The skin being removed, both extremities of the
fillet are rounded. The fat inside the rib is the only portion of fat
allowed to adhere to the meat. The larding of the meat is applied to its
upper surface.”


TO COOK A FILLET OF BEEF.

After it is trimmed and larded, put it into a small baking-pan, in the
bottom of which are some chopped pieces of pork and beef-suet; sprinkle
some salt and pepper over it, and put a large ladleful of hot stock into
the bottom of the pan, or it may be simply basted with boiling water.
Half an hour (if the oven is very hot, as it should be) before dinner,
put it into the oven. Baste it often, supplying a little hot stock, if
necessary.

French cooks often braise a fillet of beef. I do not like it as well as
baking or roasting, as the vegetables and wine destroy the beef’s own
flavor.


TO MAKE THE MUSHROOM SAUCE.

Take a ladleful of stock, free from grease, from the stock-pot; add to
it part of the juice from the can of mushrooms; thicken it with a little
flour and butter mixed (_roux_); add pepper, salt, and a few drops of
lemon-juice; now add the mushrooms--let them simmer a few minutes. Pour
the sauce over the fillet of beef, and serve.

[Illustration]

At small dinner companies, where the host carves, or has a good carver,
the fillet can be served entire, decorated as elaborately as one wishes.
If, however, the dinner is served from the side, it is convenient to
have it carved as shown in cut on preceding page. The centre of the
fillet is disengaged, then carved, and returned to its place. It has
then the appearance of being whole.


TO GARNISH A FILLET OF BEEF.

[Illustration]

As I have mentioned before, a fillet of beef is generally served with
mushrooms; sometimes with different vegetables _à la jardinière_;
sometimes with French pease; sometimes with potatoes cut into little
round balls, and fried in boiling lard, called potatoes _à la
Parisienne_ on a French bill of fare; sometimes with stuffed tomatoes;
sometimes skewers are put in stuck through a turnip carved into a cup,
and this cup holds horse-radish. But some people say skewers remind them
of steamboat cooking; then some people are not easily pleased, anyway;
and who remembers of having seen so many skewers on steamboats, after
all? Not that I am particularly advocating skewers, but I think dishes
_taste_ better, as a general thing, when they are decorated in almost
any manner. I once saw at a dinner in Paris hot slices of roast or baked
fillet of beef, tastefully arranged on a platter, with _sauce
Hollandaise_ (rather thick) poured over each slice in the form of a
ring. It was a success.

The manner of garnishing a fillet of beef _à la Godard_ and _à la
Provençale_, etc., with truffles, _quenelles_, livers, olives, etc., all
stewed with wines, stocks, etc., I will not explain. It is enough to
make one groan to think of learning to make them, and more than ever to
eat them.


TO ROAST A FILLET OF BEEF.

Lard it, and bind it carefully to the skewer with a small wire; cover
the fillet with sweet salad-oil and a little lemon-juice. Do not place
it too near the fire at first, as it would scorch the larding. Baste it
frequently.

A professional cook would glaze the fillet two or three times with a
glazing-brush, beginning the first time about five minutes before taking
it away from the fire, then glazing it again when it is on the dish to
be served.

Glaze is merely strong stock boiled down until it is almost a thick
jelly. When the fillet is carved at table, the little juice which falls
into the dish should be poured over each of the slices.


TO BRAISE A FILLET OF BEEF.

Put the larded fillet into a braising-pan or stew-pan; put in trimmings
of pork, onions (with some cloves stuck in), carrots, a little celery
(all cut in thick slices), and a bunch of parsley. Salt the meat
slightly. Pour in stock and white wine, so that it may reach to half the
height of the beef. If a braising-pan is used, cover the meat with a
well-buttered paper, as in that case live coals are put on top of the
pan. If you use a stew-pan, simply cover it as tight as possible. Let it
simmer, replenishing it, when necessary, with more boiling stock. It
will require an hour or an hour and a half to cook. When done, drain it:
a professional cook would glaze it. Put it into the oven a moment to dry
the larding. Pass the cooking-stock through a sieve; skim off the fat;
add some tomato sauce; let it boil until it is reduced to the degree
requisite. Serve the fillet whole, or carved in slices ready to serve.
Generally only the middle part of the fillet is used, as the whole
fillet is quite large--weighing from eight to ten pounds.


TO TRIM WITH VEGETABLES (_à la Jardinière_).

Every kind of vegetable is used, such as potatoes, carrots, turnips,
beets, small onions, cauliflower-blossoms, asparagus-heads, French
beans, pease, etc. The larger vegetables are cut into little fancy
shapes with a vegetable-cutter or a fluted knife, or with a little plain
knife, into little balls, olives, squares, diamonds, or into any form to
suit the taste. Each kind of vegetable should be boiled separately in
salted water or stock. The vegetables are piled into little groups,
each pile being of one kind of vegetable.

[Illustration]


FILLET OF BEEF CUT INTO SLICES OR SCOLLOPS.

This is a good way of managing the beef that is left from the roast or
baked fillet of beef to be served the second day. Cut the fillet, after
reheating it in the oven, into slices about three-fourths of an inch
thick, and two inches wide. Form a circle in a dish by lapping each of
these scollops partly over the other. Fill the centre with a tomato
sauce, or potatoes _à la Parisienne_, or mushrooms, or with any of the
small vegetables, such as pease, beans, little balls of carrots,
potatoes, etc., in different little piles; or with truffles (they can be
procured canned) sliced, with Madeira sauce; or with mushrooms and
truffles mixed, with Madeira sauce.


BEEFSTEAK.

The porter-house and tenderloin steaks are best. Of course, there is
great difference in the different cuts of these steaks. For a cheap
steak, a good cut of what is called chuck-steak is best. It has more
flavor and juice, and is more tender than the round-steak, costing the
same price.

Have the choice steaks cut half an inch thick at least; they are even
better three-quarters of an inch thick. Grease the gridiron well with
pork or beef-suet. Have it quite hot. Put on the steak over a hot, clear
fire; cover it with a baking-pan. In a moment, when the steak is
colored, turn it over. Watch it constantly, turning it whenever it gets
a little brown. Do not stick the fork into the middle of the steak, only
into the sides, where it will do least harm by letting out the juice.
It should be quite rare or pink in the centre, though not _raw_. When
cooked enough, put it on a hot platter; sprinkle over plenty of salt and
pepper--mind not to put on the salt and pepper before the steak is
cooked; then spread over the top some sweet, fresh butter. Set the
platter in the oven a few moments, to let the butter soak a little in
the steak; then serve it immediately. Do not use too much butter; there
should be none at all, or at least only a few stray drops, in the bottom
of the platter. There should be no gravy. The juice of a properly cooked
steak is supposed to be in the inside of the steak, and not swimming in
the dish.

A steak is much improved by a simple addition, called by professional
cooks _à la maître d’hôtel_.

When the steak is cooked, it is placed on the hot platter. First, then,
salt and pepper are sprinkled over; then comes a sprinkling of very
finely chopped parsley; then some drops of lemon-juice; lastly, small
pieces of butter are carefully spread over. Place the steak into the
oven for a few moments until the butter is well melted and soaked into
the steak.

For extra-company breakfasts, only the fillets, _i. e._, the tender
parts of the porter-house or tenderloin steaks, are used. They are cut
into little even shapes, round or oval, one for each plate. They are
cooked, then served in a hot dish, surrounded with Saratoga potatoes, or
fried potatoes in any form, or with water-cresses, or with mushrooms, or
stuffed tomatoes, or green pease, etc.


CORNED BEEF.

A good piece of beef well corned, then well boiled, is a most excellent
dish.

Put it into the pot with enough cold water to just cover it. When it
comes to a boil, set it on the back of the range, so that it will boil
moderately. Too fast boiling renders meat tough, yet the water should
never be allowed to cease boiling until the meat is done; skim often.
Let it boil at least four or five hours, according to its size. It must
be thoroughly done. In England, where this dish is an especial favorite,
carrots are always boiled and served with the beef. The carrot flavor
improves the meat, and the meat improves the carrot. Do not put the
carrots into the pot, however, until there is only time for them to
become thoroughly cooked before serving (about three-quarters of an
hour). Serve the carrots around the beef.

[Illustration]

In America, cabbage is oftener boiled with corned beef. This is very
nice also. If cabbage is used, add at the same time one or two little
red peppers. When about to serve, press out all the water from the
cabbage, adding little pieces of butter. Serve the meat placed in the
centre of the cabbage.

Little pickles are a pretty garnish for corned beef, with or without the
vegetables.


CORNED BEEF TO SERVE COLD (_Mrs. Gratz Brown_).

If it is too salt, soak it for an hour in cold water, then put it over
the fire, covered with fresh cold water, four or five cloves (for about
six pounds of beef), and three table-spoonfuls of molasses. Boil it
slowly. In an hour change the water, adding five more cloves and three
more table-spoonfuls of molasses. In two hours more, press the beef,
after removing the bones, into a basin rather small for it; then,
turning it over, place a flat-iron on top. When entirely cold, the beef
is to be sliced for lunch or tea.


BEEFSTEAK STEWED.

Never use a choice steak for a stew. Stewing is only a good way of
cooking an inferior steak. The meat from a soup-bone would make a very
good stew.

Put ripe tomatoes (peeled and cut) into a stew-pan; sprinkle over pepper
and salt. Let them cook a little to make some juice; put in the pieces
of beef, some little pieces of butter mixed with flour, two or three
cloves, and no water. Let it stew until the meat is quite done. Then
press the tomatoes through a sieve. Serve all on the same dish.


BEEFSTEAK ROLLED.

Procure a round steak, spread over it a layer of almost any kind of
force-meat. An ordinary bread, onion, thyme, or parsley dressing, used
to stuff turkeys, is very good. Begin, then, at one end of the steak,
and roll it carefully; tie the roll to keep it in shape. Bake it in the
oven as you would a turkey, basting very often. Make a gravy of the
drippings, adding water, flour, and a little butter mixed; season with
pepper and salt, strain, skim off the fat, and pour it around the meat
when served. Slice it neatly off the end when carving.


BEEF ROLL (_Cannelon de Bœuf_).

[Illustration]

Chop two pounds of lean beef very fine; chop and pound in a mortar half
a pound of fat bacon, and mix it with the beef. Season it with pepper
and salt (it will not require much salt), a small nutmeg, the grated
rind of a lemon, the juice of a quarter of it, a heaping table-spoonful
of parsley minced fine; or it can be seasoned with an additional
table-spoonful of onion; or, if no onion or parsley is at hand, with
summer savory and thyme. Bind all these together with two eggs. Form
them into a roll; surround the roll with buttered paper, which tie
securely around it. Then cover it with a paste made of flour and water.
Bake two hours. Remove the paper and crust. Serve it hot, with
tomato-sauce or brown gravy. This may be made with raw or under-dressed
meat. If the meat is not raw, but under-dressed, surround the roll with
pie-crust. Bake, and serve with tomato-sauce, or any of the brown
sauces, poured in the bottom of the dish. Potato _croquettes_ may be
served around it.


WHAT TO DO WITH COLD COOKED BEEF.

There is a good-sized book written on this subject. When there are about
two hundred ways of utilizing cold cooked beef, one should not regard
it contemptuously. I studied this treatise, and practiced from it, but
soon considered the few old ways the best, after all. _Croquettes_ are
very good, and there are beef-sausages, or cakes, seasoned in different
ways; beef rolls, meat pies, and mince-pies, made from a few scraps of
cold cooked beef, are all exceedingly nice when properly made.


BEEF HASH.

Notwithstanding this distinguished dish is so much abused, I
particularly like it; not swimming hash, nor onion hash, nor Southern or
Western hash, nor yet hash half cooked, but New York hash. I know a New
York family who set a most expensive and elaborate table, which table is
especially noted for its good hash. Large joints are purchased with
special reference to this dish. Cold corned beef is generally considered
best. The hash to which I have referred, however, is generally made of
cold roast beef.

Chop the cold cooked meat rather fine; use half as much meat as of
boiled potatoes (chopped when cold). Put a little boiling water and
butter into an iron saucepan; when it boils again, put in the meat and
potatoes well salted and peppered. Let it cook well, stirring it
occasionally--not enough to make a _purée_ or mush of it. It is not done
before there is a coating at the bottom of the saucepan, from which the
hash will free itself without sticking. The hash must not be at all
watery, nor yet too dry, but so that it will stand quite firm on
well-trimmed and buttered slices of toast, and to be thus served on a
platter. _Voilà!_

Chicken or turkey hash should be made in the same way.


MEAT PIE (_French Cook_).

Cut cold cooked meat into quite small dice; add pepper, salt, a little
nutmeg, and two or three sprigs of chopped parsley; also a little thyme
and a piece of bay-leaf, if you have them, but the two latter herbs may
be omitted. Put a little butter into a saucepan, and when hot throw in a
table-spoonful of flour, which brown carefully; pour in then several
table-spoonfuls of hot water, or, better, stock; mix well; then
introduce the meat dice; stir all well over the fire, cooking it
thoroughly. Just before taking it up, mix in one or two eggs. It should
be quite moist, yet consistent. Put a thin pie-crust into a
pudding-dish. Fill in a few table-spoonfuls of the mixture; then lay on
it a thin strip of bacon; continue these layers until the dish is
filled. Now fit a piece of crust over the top; turn the edges in a fancy
manner, and make a cut in the centre. Take a strip of pie-paste, form it
into a tie or knot, wet the bottom, and place it over the cut in the
centre of the pie, so as not to obstruct the opening.

The proper way to make a meat pie is with a pie-mold (see page 58).
Butter the mold, press the crust neatly around in the inside and bottom,
and continue, as explained for the pudding-dish. When baked, the wire
holding the sides of the mold is drawn out, and the mold removed from
the pie. This pie can be made with veal or lamb, in the same manner.


MEAT RISSOLES.

For _rissoles_, cold beef, chicken, veal, tongue, or lamb may be used,
separately or mixed. The meat should not be chopped, but cut into quite
small dice. It is well to add to it a slight flavoring of chopped pork,
and a little finely chopped parsley. As the meat can be prepared in
different ways, the addition of a superfluous mushroom or two, cut into
dice, would not be amiss.

Put a small piece of butter, size of a pigeon’s egg, into a saucepan,
and when it begins to boil add a heaping tea-spoonful of flour; stir for
a minute to cook the flour, then add three or four table-spoonfuls of
boiling water, or, what is much better, stock, gravy, or brown or white
sauce if you happen to have it; when well mixed, add about two cupfuls
of the meat dice, heat well, and just before taking from the fire stir
in an egg.

The scraps of puff-paste are generally preferred, yet any kind of
pie-paste may be used for _rissoles_. Roll the paste quite thin
(one-sixth of an inch); wet it about three inches from the edge, and
place upon it little balls (a generous tea-spoonful in each one) of the
prepared meat, at distances of four inches apart; now lap over the edge
of the paste, quite covering the balls of meat; press the side of the
hand between each one, and, with the edge of a tumbler or muffin-ring,
press the paste close to the meat; with a biscuit-cutter (scolloped one
prettier) cut out each enveloped ball of meat into half circles. Now cut
off the rough edges of the remaining paste, and proceed to make other
rows of the _rissoles_ in the same manner. With a brush wet all the tops
with the yolk of an egg. Bake the _rissoles_ in a hot oven, and serve
them hot on a folded napkin. If they get cold, they may be reheated just
before serving.


BEEF OR ANY COLD-MEAT SAUSAGES.

Chop cold cooked beef very fine; add a fifth as much pork, also chopped
fine; pepper, salt, a little sage, or any herbs preferred, lemon-juice,
and a few sprinkles of flour; mix all together with an egg, or eggs;
form into little balls, fry in butter or lard in a _sauté_ pan. These
sausages are good for breakfast served around a centre of apple-sauce.
Or,


FOR RICE AND MEAT CAKES,

make as in last receipt, adding a very little butter. Stir in a quarter
or half of its quantity of boiled rice; or, on another occasion,
bread-crumbs may be substituted for rice.


BEEF CROQUETTES.

[Illustration]

There is no more satisfactory manner of using cold cooked beef than for
_croquettes_, which may be served with tomato or any of the brown
sauces, or may be served without sauce at all, as is generally the case.
They are made in the same manner as is described for chicken
_croquettes_ (see page 175), merely substituting the same amount of beef
for the chicken, and of rice for the brains.


A CHEAP ARRANGEMENT.

Purchase two soup bones (twenty cents). Boil them four or five hours
with a few vegetables (as described for stock, see page 79). The stock
will make two or three soups. Cut up the meat for _croquettes_. Of
course the _croquettes_ are better made with the best of meat, yet may
be excellent when made of the soup meat.


MINCE-PIES (_made from Remnants of Cold Beef_).

A good disposition in winter of cold roast beef is to make with it two
or three mince-pies, as by the following receipt: One cupful of chopped
meat (quarter of it fat), two cupfuls of apple, one tea-spoonful of
salt, one table-spoonful of ground allspice, half a table-spoonful of
ground cinnamon, half a table-spoonful of ground cloves, one cupful of
sugar, half a cupful of raisins, half a cupful of currants, one cupful
of cider; or, if one has no cider, use the same amount of cider-vinegar
and water mixed--say half of each.


A COMMON POT-PIE OF VEAL, BEEF, OR CHICKEN.

Cut the meat into pieces, and put them into enough boiling water to
cover them well; add also two or three strips of pork. Cover the pot
closely. Boil an hour, then season with pepper and salt to taste, and a
little piece of butter.

Just before taking out the ingredients of the pot to send to table, put
into it, when the water is boiling, separate spoonfuls of batter made
with two eggs well beaten, two and a half or three cupfuls of
buttermilk, one tea-spoonful of soda, and sufficient flour. The batter
should be made just before it is cooked. It takes about three or four
minutes to cook it, the water not to be allowed to stop boiling. The
dish should then be served immediately, or the dumplings will become
heavy.


CALF’S HEART.

If people generally knew how nice a calf’s heart is, if properly cooked,
the butchers would never charge so little as ten cents for it. In
France, the calf’s heart and kidneys are considered great delicacies.
In America they are often thrown away.

[Illustration]

Merely wash off the blood. One could, by soaking, extract all the flavor
from the heart. Stuff it with a veal force-meat stuffing, or a common
stuffing, often used for turkeys, of bread-crumbs, onion, a little thyme
or sage, egg, pepper, and salt. Tie a buttered paper over the mouth of
the heart to keep the stuffing in place. Put it into a small baking-pan
with a little hot water, pepper, and salt. Bake nearly two hours,
basting it very frequently. When done, thicken the gravy with flour;
strain, skim, and season it, and pour it on the dish around the heart.
Garnish the plate with onions, first boiled until nearly done, then
seasoned with pepper, salt, and a little butter, and browned in the
oven.


TONGUE, WITH MUSTARD PICKLE SAUCE.

Cut boiled tongue into slices; fry them in a little hot butter, with a
sprinkle of minced onion thrown in. Then, for the sauce, take out the
slices of tongue; put in a tea-spoonful of flour, and when brown, a
tea-cupful of hot water. When done, strain, and season with salt and
pepper; add a table-spoonful of chopped pickles (piccalilli is best);
however, common cucumber pickles may be used, with a little mustard
added; or the sauce may be flavored with capers, or with both capers and
pickles. Let the slices of tongue soak in the sauce until ready to
serve, then arrange the slices of tongue on a platter, one lapped over
the other, and pour over the sauce. A beef tongue may be braised, and
served with spinach or _sauce Tartare_, as described for sheep’s
tongues.


TONGUE SLICES, WITH SPINACH AND SAUCE TARTARE.

Braise the tongue as described for sheep’s tongues (see page 158):
arrange a circle of the slices around a platter, and on each slice
smooth a little hill (enough for one person) of spinach prepared as
described in the same receipt for “sheep’s tongues with spinach.” Put
either a spoonful of _sauce Tartare_ or a slice of lemon into or on the
top of each spinach-mold. This makes a nice lunch or dinner dish.



VEAL.


The best pieces of veal are the loin and the fillet. A variety of dishes
can be made with veal cutlets and their different accompaniments. Veal
is always better cooked with pork or ham. Professional cooks generally
trim and lard their veal cutlets, serving them with tomato-sauce, pease,
beans, breakfast bacon, lemon-slices, cucumbers, etc. For a cheap dish,
one of the most satisfactory is a knuckle of veal made into a ragout, or
pot-pie. Any of the inferior cuts may be made into a _blanquette_.

A _fricandeau_ of veal is perhaps considered the most distinguished veal
dish. I would always advise the trimming of veal cutlets. It gives
little trouble, but the appearance is much improved, and the trimmings
should be thrown into the stock-pot. Veal should always be thoroughly
cooked.


ROAST OF VEAL--THE FILLET.

Take out the bone of the joint; make a deep incision between the fillet
and the flap; then fill it with stuffing made as follows: Two cupfuls of
bread-crumbs, half a cupful of chopped pork, half a lemon-peel grated, a
little juice, thyme, summer savory, or any herbs to taste; or it may be
filled with a veal stuffing (see page 167). Bind the veal into a round
form, fasten it with skewers and twine, sprinkle over pepper and salt,
and cover it with buttered paper. Be careful not to put the meat too
near the fire at first. Baste well and often. Just before it is done,
remove the paper, sprinkle over a little flour, and rub over it a little
butter. This will give a frothy appearance to the surface of the meat.
When done, put the pan of gravy on the fire; add a little flour, some
boiling water, and, when cooked, some lemon-juice. Strain it, remove the
grease, and pour it around the roast. Fry some pieces of ham cut in
diamond shape; place these in a circle around the roast, each piece
alternated with a slice of lemon.


A FRICANDEAU OF VEAL.

What is called a _fricandeau_ of veal is simply a cushion of veal
trimmed into shape, larded, and braised. Cut a thick slice (three or
four pounds) from a fillet of veal, trim it around as in cut for “blind
hare” (see page 150), and lard it on top. Put some pieces of pork into a
braising-kettle, or saucepan, if you have no braising-kettle; also
slices of carrot, an onion with cloves stuck in, a stick of celery, and
some parsley. Put in the meat, sprinkle over pepper and salt, and cover
it with well-buttered paper. Now fill the pan with boiling stock, or
water enough to just cover the meat. Put on a tight lid. If it is a
braising-pan, set it upon the fire, with live coals on top. If a common
saucepan, cover it, and put it into a hot oven.

It will take about two hours, or two hours and a half, to cook it. A
professional cook would boil down the stock in which the _fricandeau_
was cooked until reduced to a glaze, then with a brush would glaze all
the top of the meat, placing it in the oven a moment to dry. However, it
tastes as well without this extra trouble.

The best sauce for a _fricandeau_ is a tomato-sauce. It is as often
garnished with green pease, spinach, or sorrel; or a little wine
(Madeira, port, or sherry) and _roux_ (see page 51) may be added to the
braising-stock for a gravy. The gravy should be strained, of course.


VEAL CUTLETS, BROILED.

The rib cutlets should always be neatly trimmed, the bone scraped at the
end, so that it will look smooth and white. Broil them on a moderate
fire, basting them occasionally with butter, and turning them often.
Dish them in a circle with tomato-sauce.


VEAL CUTLETS, SAUTÉD AND FRIED.

These are cutlets cut from the round, although any veal cutlets may be
cooked in the same way. Cut them into equal-sized pieces, beat them a
little with a knife to get them into shape; season, egg, and bread-crumb
them. Now, fry in a _sauté_ pan, or rather _sauté_ some thin slices of
ham in a little hot lard, and when done take them out on a hot dish; fry
slowly the cutlets in the same fat, and when done pour out some of the
fat, if there is more than a tea-spoonful; add a little flour, then a
little hot water, and, when cooked a few moments, season it well with
lemon-juice, adding pepper and salt to taste; then strain it. Serve the
cutlets in the centre of a dish, with the gravy poured over; and place
alternate slices of the ham and lemon in a circle around them.

They are also very good _sautéd_ in a little lard, and served with a
cream gravy poured over; or they are nice egged (with a little chopped
parsley and onion mixed with the egg), and bread-crumbed, and fried in
hot lard.


VEAL CUTLETS, BRAISED.

Professional cooks usually braise veal cutlets. They lard them (an easy
matter) all on the same side, the flavor of pork particularly well
suiting veal. To proceed then: Mince some onions and carrots; put them
in the bottom of a stew-pan; put the cutlets on this layer; cover well
with stock (add wine if you choose), and let them cook until thoroughly
done.

If you wish to be particular, boil down the stock and glaze them; or
make a gravy of the stock with flour, _roux_, pepper and salt, and
strain it; or serve them with tomato-sauce; or make a little round hill
of mashed potatoes, and put the cutlets around; or serve with them,
instead, beans, pease, or flowerets of cauliflowers.


MUTTON OR VEAL CHOPS (_en papillote_).

Trim the chops; broil them in the usual way over the coals, and when
done place each one in a paper (well buttered) cut in the form of Fig.
1; pour over each chop a sauce made as

[Illustration]

follows: For three cutlets thicken a cupful of strong broth with equal
quantities of either cold cooked chicken, lamb, or veal, and mushrooms
(the mushrooms are a great improvement to the dish, yet they may be
omitted if more convenient) with a quarter proportion of cold boiled ham
added, and also one or two sprigs of parsley, all chopped very fine.
Pour this hot over the hot cutlets; place a _very thin_ slice of fat
salt pork over each cutlet;[B] fasten the paper as in Fig. 2, and place
them in a hot oven for about ten minutes. Serve _immediately_ while the
chops are steaming hot.


BLANQUETTE OF VEAL (_French Cook_).

Cut any kind of veal (say two pounds) into pieces; put it into boiling
water, with a little bulb of garlic or slice of onion, and when done
throw the meat from the boiling water into cold water, to whiten it.
This is the rule, but I usually dispense with it. Make a drawn butter
sauce, _i. e._, put butter the size of an egg into a saucepan, and when
it bubbles mix in a table-spoonful of flour, which cook a minute,
without letting it color; add then two cupfuls of boiling water and a
little nutmeg. When the veal is done, drain it from the water, and let
it simmer several minutes in the sauce, adding at the same time a sprig
of parsley chopped fine. When just ready to serve, place the pieces of
meat on a hot platter; stir the yolks of three eggs into the sauce
without allowing them to boil; also several drops, or a seasoning, of
lemon-juice. Pour the sauce over the veal, and serve.


BLIND HARE (_Mrs. Charles Parsons_).

[Illustration]

Ingredients: Three pounds of minced veal, three pounds of minced beef,
eight eggs well beaten, three stale rolls, or the same amount of
bread-crumbs, pepper, salt, two grated nutmegs, a heaping table-spoonful
of ground cinnamon. Mix all well together. Form it into an oval-shaped
loaf, smooth it, and sprinkle bread or cracker crumbs over the top. Bake
it in a moderate oven about three hours. It is to be sliced when cold.


BEWITCHED VEAL (_Mrs. Judge Embry_).

Ingredients: Three pounds of lean veal, half a pound of fat salt pork,
one nutmeg grated, one small onion, butter the size of an egg, a little
red pepper, and salt.

Chop all very fine, and mix them together, with three eggs well beaten,
and a tea-cupful of milk; form it into a small loaf, pressing it very
firmly; cover it with fine bread-crumbs; bake two hours and a half. It
is intended to be eaten cold, yet is very good hot. The slices may be
served in a circle around salad.


PLAIN VEAL STEW OR POT-PIE.

Cut the meat from a knuckle of veal into pieces not too small; put them
into a pot with some small pieces of salt pork, and plenty of pepper and
salt; pour over enough hot water to cover it well, and let it boil until
the meat is _thoroughly_ done; then, while the water is still boiling,
drop in (by the spoonful) a batter made with the following ingredients:
Two eggs well beaten, two and a half or three cupfuls of buttermilk, one
even tea-spoonful of soda, and flour enough to make a thick batter.
Cover the pot, and as soon as the batter is well cooked, serve it. By
standing, it becomes heavy.


TO COOK LIVER (_Melanie Lourant_), No. 1.

Put a little lard into a saucepan, and when hot throw in half an onion
minced fine, one or two sprigs of parsley, chopped, and the slices of
calf’s liver. Turn the liver several times, allowing it to cook well and
imbibe the taste of the onion and parsley. When cooked, place it at the
side of the fire. In another saucepan make a sauce as follows: Put in a
piece of butter size of a large hickory-nut, and when it bubbles
sprinkle in a heaping tea-spoonful of flour; stir it until it assumes a
fine brown color, then pour in a cupful of boiling water, stirring it
well with the egg-whisk; add pepper, salt, a table-spoonful of vinegar,
and a heaping table-spoonful of capers. The sauce is very nice without
the capers, but very much improved with them. Drain out the slices of
liver, which put into the sauce, and let them remain at the side of the
fire until ready to serve. Chopped pickle may be substituted for the
capers, and stock may be used instead of the boiling water.


TO COOK LIVER (No. 2).

Fry in a _sauté_ pan some thin slices of breakfast bacon, and when done
put them on a hot dish; fry then thin slices of liver in the same fat,
which have previously been thrown into boiling water for only a
_moment_, and then been sprinkled with flour. When well done on both
sides, serve them and the bacon on the same dish, and garnish them with
slices of lemon.


CALF’S BRAINS.

Before cooking, remove the fibrous membranes around them. Throw them
into a pint of cold water, in which are mixed half a tea-spoonful of
salt and one tea-spoonful of vinegar; boil them three minutes, then
plunge them into cold water. When cold and about to be served, cut them
into scollops; and when seasoned with pepper and salt, egged, and
bread-crumbed, _sauté_ them in a little hot butter. Serve with
tomato-sauce. Or they may be served with _spighetti_ (a small macaroni)
cooked with tomato-sauce (see page 210), and placed around them, when
they are called brains _à la Milanaise_.



SWEET-BREADS.


Veal sweet-breads are best. They spoil very soon. The moment they come
from market, they should be put into cold water, to soak for about an
hour; lard them, or rather draw a lardoon of pork through the centre of
each sweet-bread, and put them into salted boiling water, or, better,
stock, and let them boil about twenty minutes, or until they are
thoroughly done; throw them then into cold water for only a few moments.
They will now be firm and white. Remove carefully the skin and little
pipes, and put them in the coolest place until ready to cook again. The
simplest way to cook them is the best one, as follows:


FRIED SWEET-BREADS.

[Illustration]

Parboil them as just explained. Just before serving, cut them in
even-sized pieces, sprinkle over pepper and salt, egg and bread-crumb
them, and fry them in hot lard. They are often immersed in boiling lard,
yet oftener fried in the _sauté_ pan. If _sautéd_, when done put them on
a hot dish, turn out part of the lard from the _sauté_ pan, leaving
about half a tea-spoonful; pour in a cupful of milk thickened with a
little flour; let it cook, stirring it constantly, and season it with
pepper and salt; strain, and pour over the sweet-breads. With green
pease, serve without sauce. This is the usual combination at dinner or
breakfast companies, the pease in the centre of the dish, and the
sweet-breads around (see cut above). Or they are often served whole with
cauliflower or asparagus heads, when the cream-sauce is poured over
both; or they are also nice piled in the centre of a dish, with macaroni
(cooked with cheese) placed around them like a nest, and browned a
little with a salamander (see cut on next page), or with a tomato-sauce
in the centre of the dish, and the sweet-breads around, or with stuffed
tomatoes alternating with the sweet-breads on the dish, or with
mushrooms in the centre, or served on a dish made of boiled rice, called
a rice _casserole_ (see page 205), or in little rice molds called
_cassolettes_. To make the latter, boil the rice well, then work it to a
smooth paste with a spoon; fill some little buttered patty-pans with the
rice, and when it is quite cold take it out, brush the _cassolettes_
with butter on the outside, and color them a little in a hot oven; scoop
out the inside, leaving the rice crust a quarter of an inch thick. Fill
the _cassolettes_ with the sweet-breads cut into pieces, and pour over
each a spoonful of cream dressing; or they may be _sautéd_ as described,
and served with a _maître-d’hôtel_ sauce poured over.

[Illustration]


SWEET-BREADS À LA MILANAISE.

Sweet-breads fried as in preceding receipt are placed in the centre of a
hot platter. Small piped macaroni broken into two or three inch lengths
is cooked with tomatoes as in receipt (see page 210), and neatly
arranged in a circle around them.


SWEET-BREADS LARDED AND BRAISED (_English Lady_).

Trim all the skin and cartilage very carefully from two fine
sweet-breads; lay them in cold water for an hour, and lard them; lay
some slices of bacon in the bottom of a braising-pan, or any pan with a
good cover (Francatelli would add also minced onions, carrots, celery,
and parsley; however, they are quite good enough without); then put in
sweet-breads, with slices of bacon between the pan and the sweet-breads;
pour over all some stock, just high enough not to touch the larding,
which must stand up free; let it simmer very gently for half or
three-quarters of an hour. Look at it occasionally to see that the stock
does not waste; add a little if it does. When done, hold a salamander or
a hot kitchen shovel over the sweet-breads until they are a pale-yellow
color on top. Serve these with tomato-sauce poured in the centre of the
dish. The whole dish should look moist, the sweet-breads nearly white,
and the larding transparent, standing up distinct and firm, like glass,
white at the bottom, and pale-yellow on top.


BAKED SWEET-BREADS (_New York Cooking-school_).

Put a pair of sweet-breads on the fire in one quart of cold water, in
which are mixed one tea-spoonful of salt and one table-spoonful of
vinegar. When the water boils, take them off, and throw them into cold
water, leaving them until they get cold; now lard them with lardoons
about one-eighth of an inch square and two inches long. Chop rather fine
one-third of a medium-sized onion (one ounce), four or five slices of
carrot (one and a half ounces), half a stalk of celery, and one sprig of
parsley. Put in the bottom of a baking-dish trimmings of pork; on this
place the sweet-breads, and sprinkle the chopped vegetables over the
top; bake them twenty minutes in a hot oven. Cut a slice of bread into
an oval or any fancy shape, and fry it in a _sauté_ pan in a little hot
butter, coloring it well; put this _croûton_ in the centre of a hot
platter, on which place the sweet-breads. Serve pease or tomato-sauce
around.


SWEET-BREAD FRITTERS.

Parboil the sweet-breads as before explained, and cut them into slices
about half an inch thick; then sprinkle over them pepper and salt, a
little grated nutmeg, some finely chopped parsley, and a few drops of
lemon-juice; dip them each into French fritter batter (see page 229);
fry them a moment in boiling-hot lard. Always test the lard before
frying by putting in a piece of bread or a bit of the batter; if it
turns yellow readily, it is hot enough. Drain them well; pile them on a
napkin neatly arranged on a platter; garnish them with fried parsley,
_i. e._, parsley thrown into the lard, and skimmed out almost
immediately.


SWEET-BREAD CROQUETTES (_New York Cooking-school_).

After two pairs of sweet-breads are blanched (boiled in salted water as
described), cut them into dice; cut also half a box (four ounces) of
mushrooms into dice. Make a _roux_ by putting one and a half ounces of
butter into a saucepan, and when it bubbles sprinkle in two ounces of
flour; mix and cook it well; then pour in a gill of strong stock or
cream; when this is also mixed, add the dice, which stir over the fire
until they are thoroughly heated; take them from the fire, add the
beaten yolks of two eggs, which return to the fire a moment to set,
without allowing to boil. When cool, form into _croquettes_; roll them
first in cracker-crumbs, then in egg, then in cracker-crumbs again, and
fry them in boiling lard.

[Illustration]

The _croquettes_ may be cone-shaped, with a stick of parsley or celery
pressed in the top for a stem just before serving; or the sweet-bread
_croquettes_ may be made in the same manner as chicken _croquettes_
(French cook receipt), substituting sweet-breads for the chickens. They
may be served alone, or with pease, or with tomato or Bechamel sauce,
etc.


SKEWER OF SWEET-BREADS.

[Illustration]

Parboil the sweet-breads as before described; cut them into slices or
scollops about half an inch or more thick; sprinkle them with pepper and
salt, and egg and bread-crumb them; now run a little skewer (see page
56) through two of these slices, alternating with two thin, square
slices of bacon; fry in boiling lard; serve a tomato or cream sauce in
the centre, and garnish with parsley. Serve one skewerful to each person
at table.



MUTTON.


The best roasts are the leg, the saddle, and the shoulder of mutton.
They are all roasted according to the regular rules for roasting. In
England, mutton is hung some time before cooking. There must be
something in the air of England quite different from that of America in
reference to the hanging of meats and game; there, it is to be
confessed, the mutton, after having hung a certain length of time,
certainly is most delicious; here it would be unwholesome, simply not
fit to eat. These joints of which I speak are also good braised. Serve
currant-jelly-sauce with the roast, or garnish it with stuffed baked
tomatoes.


BOILED LEG OF MUTTON.

This should be quite fresh. Put it into well-salted boiling water, which
do not let stop boiling until the meat is thoroughly done. The rule is
to boil it a quarter of an hour for each pound of meat. Caper-sauce
should be served with this dish, either in a sauce-boat or poured over
the mutton; garnish with parsley.


MUTTON CUTLETS.

[Illustration]

Trim them well, scraping the bones; roll them in a little melted butter
or oil, season, and broil them; or they are nice egged, bread-crumbed,
and fried. They are especially nice when broiled, served around a bed of
mashed boiled potatoes: the cutlets help to season the potatoes, which
in turn well suit the meat. Tomato-sauce is also a favorite companion to
the cutlets. They may, however, be served with almost any kind of
vegetables, such as pease or string-beans, in the centre of the dish,
and the cutlets arranged in a circle around.


RAGOUTS (_made of Pieces of Mutton, Veal, Beef, or Rabbits_).

Cut the upper parts, or the neck, from a fore-quarter of mutton (or take
inferior cuts from any part) into pieces for a ragout; heat a heaping
table-spoonful of drippings, or lard, in a saucepan, and when hot
_sauté_ in it the pieces of mutton (say two pounds) until they are
almost done; take them out, put in a table-spoonful of flour, brown it,
add at first a little cold or lukewarm water, mix it well, then add a
quart of boiling water; now add also salt, Cayenne pepper, two cloves,
the pieces of _sautéd_ meat, three or four onions (not large), and six
or seven peeled potatoes. Some prefer to boil the potatoes a few minutes
in other water first, as the water in which potatoes are boiled is
considered unwholesome; cover the stew-pan well. When the vegetables are
cooked, take them and the meat out, skim off every particle of fat from
the gravy, taste to see if it is properly seasoned, pour it over the
ragout, and serve.

These ragouts can be made with the neck, or any pieces of veal, in the
same manner, or with pieces of beef, in which case carrots might be
substituted for the potatoes. A ragout of rabbits is most excellent made
in the same way, adding a glassful of red wine when it is almost done.

In buying a fore quarter of mutton, there are enough trimmings for a
good ragout, with a shapely roast besides.


ANOTHER RAGOUT (_of Pieces of Mutton, Veal, Beef, etc._).

Make rich pie-paste about the size of an egg (for four persons); roll it
a quarter of an inch thick; cut it into diamonds, say an inch long and
half an inch broad. Bake them, and put them aside until five minutes
before serving the ragout. Take mutton, veal, beef, or almost any kind
of meat. Any cheap cut of meat will make a good ragout, and choice cuts
had better be cooked in other ways. In this instance, I will say, cut
two pounds from the side of mutton. Put a table-spoonful of lard or
drippings into a saucepan, and when hot _sauté_ in it the pieces of
mutton; when half done, place them in a kettle. Add a heaping
table-spoonful of flour to the drippings in the saucepan; stir it
constantly several minutes to brown, then add gradually a pint of hot
water; now pour this over the meat in the kettle, adding three small
onions, two sprigs of parsley, three cloves, and a clove or bulb of
garlic, if you have it; pepper and salt. Cover it closely, and let it
simmer slowly for an hour, occasionally turning the kettle to one side
to skim off all the fat. Five minutes before serving, add the diamonds
of crust.

At the moment of serving, take out the meat, crust, and three onions,
and arrange them on a hot platter. Pass the gravy through a sieve, and
skim off every remaining particle of fat; taste to see if it is properly
seasoned with pepper and salt, and pour it over the meat.


SHEEP’S TONGUES, WITH SPINACH.

[Illustration]

Braise a number of sheep’s-tongues with salt pork, parsley, onion, some
whole peppers, a tea-spoonful of sugar, and enough stock to cover them.
Let them simmer one and a half hours. Serve with spinach in the centre
of the dish, and seasoned with lemon-juice, a little of the tongue
stock, some Cayenne pepper, salt, and butter. Serve the tongues around
it, and diamonds or fancy cuts of fried bread (_croûtons_) around the
outside circle.


SHEEP’S TONGUES À LA MAYONNAISE.

Boil half a dozen sheep’s tongues with one or two slices of bacon, one
carrot, one onion, two cloves, two or three sprigs of parsley, salt and
pepper (some add two table-spoonfuls of sherry or port wine, but this
may be omitted), and enough boiling water (or, better, stock) to cover
them. Let them simmer about one and a half hours, replenishing the
boiling water or the stock when necessary. When thoroughly done, skin
and trim them neatly; lay them between two plates, to flatten them. A
professional cook would glaze them with the stock boiled down in which
they were cooked; however, this is only for the sake of appearance.
Arrange them in a circle around a dish, with a _Mayonnaise_ sauce poured
in the centre.


SHEEP’S TONGUES, WITH SAUCE TARTARE.

Boil the tongues in salted water into which has been squeezed the juice
of half a lemon (for six tongues). Serve with _sauce Tartare_ (see page
128).



LAMB.


The best roasts are the fore and hind quarters.


ROAST LEG OF LAMB.

Professional cooks serve a roast or baked hind quarter of lamb rather
rare, or well done on the outside and pink within. It is really better,
although it must be served steaming hot. Serve a caper, pickle, or mint
sauce with it. If it is neatly carved through the centre, it will
present a good appearance served again the next day, by stuffing the
cut-out space with boiled mashed potatoes, smoothing it evenly around,
and placing it long enough in the oven to become thoroughly hot.


ROAST FORE QUARTER OF LAMB.

This may or may not be partly stuffed, a common veal stuffing answering
the purpose very well. It should be well seasoned with pepper and salt,
thoroughly cooked, and often basted.


LAMB CHOPS.

[Illustration]

This is a favorite dinner-company dish, generally arranged in a circle
around green pease. They should be neatly trimmed, the bones scraped,
then rolled in a little melted butter, and carefully broiled. When done,
rub more butter over them, and season them with pepper and salt. Slip
little paper ruffles (see page 61) over the ends of the bones. They may
be served with a centre of almost any kind of vegetable, such as a
smooth hemisphere of mashed potatoes or spinach, or with beans,
cauliflowers or stuffed baked tomatoes, or with a tomato-sauce.


SADDLE OF LAMB OR MUTTON.

This is considered a delicate roast. Roast it in the usual manner. Serve
caper, mint, or any of the sauces or vegetables that are used with other
dishes of lamb or mutton.


LAMB CROQUETTES

are made the same as chicken _croquettes_, only substituting cold cooked
lamb for the chicken. Many prefer the lamb to the chicken _croquettes_,
even for dinner or lunch parties.


SHEEP’S KIDNEYS.

The best manner of cooking is to _sauté_ them. They must be perfectly
fresh (they spoil soon), _sautéd_ on a quick fire, never allowed to boil
in the sauce (this would spoil the gravy), and served with a little wine
in the sauce.

First cut them into slices; season, and _sauté_ them in a little hot
suet, clarified drippings, or butter. When done, put them on a hot
plate. Now take a second stew-pan, put in a piece of butter the size of
a large hickory-nut; when it is hot, throw in a tea-spoonful of minced
onion, two sprigs of parsley, minced also, and a tea-spoonful of flour;
when they become red, pour in one and a half cupfuls of hot water or
stock. Let it simmer a few moments, then season with pepper and salt,
and strain it; now add a table-spoonful of sherry or port wine, and the
pieces of kidney. A few drops of lemon-juice may or may not be added.
Let the kidney remain a few moments in the sauce without boiling, and
serve. Professional cooks generally add minced mushrooms; but the dish
is quite good enough without them.



PORK.


A little salted pork or bacon should always be kept in the house. I
confess to having a decided prejudice against this meat, considering it
unwholesome and dangerous, especially in cities, unless used in the
smallest quantities. Yet pork makes a delicious flavoring for cooking
other meats, and thin, small slices of breakfast bacon are a relishing
garnish for beefsteak, veal cutlets, liver, etc. In the country,
perhaps, there is less cause for doubt about its use, where the animal
is raised with corn, and where much outdoor life will permit the taking
of stronger food.


TO CURE BACON.

For every three hundred pounds of pork use fourteen pounds of common
salt, and one pound each of brown sugar and saltpetre. Rub them into the
meat, and let it lie for three weeks, rubbing and turning it
occasionally. Then wipe dry, rub again with dry fine salt, wrap it in a
thick cloth (canvas) or paper, and hang it in a cool, dry place.


ROAST LITTLE PIG.

I _trust_ entirely to the following receipt. Any one who fancies can
cook a little pig, not I.

The pig should be three weeks old, well cleaned, and stuffed with a
dressing of this proportion: Two large onions, four times the quantity
of bread-crumbs, three tea-spoonfuls of chopped sage, two ounces of
butter, half a salt-spoonful of pepper, one salt-spoonful of salt, and
one egg. Or it may be filled with a veal force-meat stuffing, if
preferred; or, it may be stuffed with hot mashed potatoes. Sew it
together with a strong thread, trussing its fore legs forward and its
hind legs backward. Rub the pig with butter, flour, pepper, and salt.
Roast it at first before a very slow fire, as it should be thoroughly
done; or, if it is baked, the oven should not be too hot at first. Baste
it very often. When done (in about three hours), place a cob or a potato
in the mouth, having put something in at first to keep it open. Serve it
with apple-sauce or tomato-sauce.


ROAST PORK.

The roasting pieces are the spare rib, the leg, the loin, the saddle,
the fillet, and the shoulder. They may be stuffed with a common
well-seasoned sage stuffing. The skin, if left on, should be cut in
lines forming little squares; if the skin is taken off, sprinkle a
little pounded sage over all, and put over it a buttered paper. Be
careful, in roasting pork, to put the meat far enough from the fire at
first, as it must be thoroughly done. The rule for the time of roasting
pork is twenty minutes for each pound. Baste it at first with butter,
and afterward with its own drippings. A roast loin of pork is very nice
(allowing it to remain well sprinkled with salt an hour or two before
roasting) served with cabbage cooked with a little vinegar, or served
with sauer-krout.


BROILED PORK CUTLETS (_Dubois_).

Take a fresh neck of pork (free from fat); shorten the bones of the
ribs, and remove those of the chine; cut six cutlets off each neck,
taking them a little obliquely; trim them, season, and roll them in
melted butter and bread-crumbs. Broil them. Pour into a stew-pan four or
five table-spoonfuls of vinegar, and double its volume of stock or
gravy; let it boil, and thicken it with a little flour. Pass it through
a sieve, and add to it pepper and some spoonfuls of chopped pickles.
Dish the cutlets in a circle, and pour over them the sauce; or pork
cutlets may be fried or _sautéd_ in a stew-pan, in a little hot lard,
and served with the same sauce.


PORK AND BEANS.

Soak a quart of beans overnight. The next day boil them with a sliced
onion, one large onion to a quart of beans (they will not taste of the
onion), and when they are almost done, put them into a baking-dish,
taking out the onions. Almost bury in the centre of the beans a quarter
of a pound of salt pork; pour in some of the water in which the beans
were boiled, and bake about an hour.

Another way is to omit the onions, and after parboiling the beans put
them into the bake-pan with one large spoonful of molasses and a quarter
of a pound of pork, and bake them two hours.


BOSTON BAKED BEANS.

Put one and one-half pints of medium-sized navy beans into a quart
bean-pot; fill it with water, and let it stand overnight. In the
morning, pour off the water, and cover the beans with fresh water in
which is mixed one table-spoonful of molasses. Put a quarter of a pound
of pickled pork in the centre, leaving a quarter of an inch of pork
above the beans. Bake them eight hours with a steady fire, and, without
stirring the beans, add a cupful of hot water every hour but the last
two. Earthen pots with narrow mouths are made expressly for baking
beans. Cooking them in this manner, without first boiling them, renders
each bean perfectly whole and at the same time thoroughly cooked. When
done, place the pork in the centre of a platter, with the beans around
it.


ENTRÉE OF APPLES AND PORK.

Cut sour apples (pippins) into slices without skinning them; fry or
_sauté_ them with small strips of pork. Serve both, tastefully arranged,
on the same dish.


SAUSAGES (_Warne_).

“Two pounds and a half of pork, fat and lean mixed (three times as much
lean as fat), one ounce of fine salt, a quarter of a pound of pepper,
two tea-spoonfuls of powdered sage, a quarter of a tea-spoonful of
allspice, and a quarter of a tea-spoonful of cloves. Chop the meat as
fine as possible: there are machines for the purpose. Mix the seasoning
well through the whole; pack the sausage-meat down hard in stone jars,
which should be kept in a cool place, well covered. When wanted for use,
form them into little cakes, dip them in beaten egg, then in wheat
flour, and fry them in hot lard.”

Always serve apple-sauce with pork sausages. Two dishes never suited
better. For breakfast, it would be well to have a centre of apple-sauce
on a platter, with sausages around, or vice versâ. They are a fine
garnish for a roast turkey.

It is said that sausages will keep forever, by frying them and putting
them in little jars, with a cover of hot lard.


TO CURE HAMS (_Mrs. Lestlie_).

For one hundred pounds of fine pork take seven pounds of coarse salt,
five pounds of brown sugar, two ounces of saltpetre, half an ounce of
soda, and four gallons of water. Boil all together, and skim the pickle
when cold. Pour it on the meat, which should first be rubbed all over
with red pepper. Let hams and tongues remain in the pickle eight weeks.
Before they are smoked, hang them up, and dry them two or three days.
Then sew the hams in cases.


TO BOIL HAM.

If it is quite salt, let it soak twenty-four hours. Cut off the end of
the knuckle-bone; put it into a pot with cold water at the back of the
range to simmer slowly for eight hours; then take it off the fire, and
let it remain in the water until nearly cold; then peel off the skin
carefully, make spots at uniform distances with pepper, and wind fringed
paper around the bone. Mrs. Lestlie boils her hams with a bed of hay in
the bottom of the pot. Some sprinkle grated bread or crackers over the
ham when trimmed, and brown it in the oven; others brush it thickly over
with glaze. However well cooked, it would be utterly ruined if it were
not cut into thin, neat slices for eating.


HAM AND EGGS.

The ham, cut into thin slices, can be broiled or _sautéd_. If broiled,
spread over a little butter when cooked. The eggs can be fried; but they
are more wholesome poached in salted water. In both cases they should be
carefully cooked, neatly trimmed, and an egg served on each slice of
ham.


TO FRY OR SAUTÉ HAM.

The ham should be cut into thin, neat slices, and _sautéd_ only for a
minute in a hot _sauté_ pan. If it is much more than thoroughly heated,
it will become tough and dry.


PORK FRIED IN BATTER, OR EGGED AND BREAD-CRUMBED.

Roll very thin slices of breakfast bacon or fat pork in fritter batter,
or egg and bread-crumb them, and fry them in boiling lard. Serve on
toast or fried mush as a dish by itself, or as a garnish for beefsteak,
fried chickens, breaded chops, etc.


MRS. TROWBRIDGE’S BREAKFAST-BACON DISH.

Soak slices of bacon or pork in milk for fifteen minutes; then dip them
into flour, and fry them in the _sauté_ pan. When done, _sauté_ some
slices of potato in the same hot fat, and serve them in the centre of a
hot dish, with a circle of the slices of pork around them.


RASHERS OF PORK (_to serve with Beefsteak, Roast Beef, etc._).

Breakfast bacon should be cut very thin (one-eighth of an inch thick),
and in strips three or four inches long. It should be fried in the
_sauté_ pan only long enough to become transparent, or thoroughly hot;
if cooked crisp, it is ruined. The French usually serve these strips of
bacon laid over beefsteak, roast beef, game, etc.


SANDWICHES (_Mrs. Geo. H. Williams_), No. 1.

Cut some fresh bread very thin, and of square equal shapes. Chop some
cold boiled ham very fine, and mix with it the yolks of one or two
uncooked eggs, a little pepper and mustard. Spread some of this mixture
over the buttered slices of bread; roll them, pinching each roll at the
end to keep it in shape.

If there is difficulty in cutting fresh bread, use that which is a day
old, then cut it in very thin slices, buttering it on the loaf before it
is cut; cut the slices into little even squares or diamonds (the crust
being all removed), spread with the chopped ham mixture before
mentioned, and fit two squares together.


SANDWICHES (_New York Cooking-school_), No. 2.

Chop fine half a pound of boiled ham, and season it with one
table-spoonful of olive-oil, one table-spoonful of lemon-juice, a little
cayenne or mustard, and rub it through a sieve. Butter the bread on the
loaf before cutting it, and spread the ham between the slices.


SMALL ROLLS, WITH SALAD FILLING.

Cut off a little piece of the top of a French roll, and remove carefully
the crumb from the inside. Prepare a stuffing of cold chicken, tongue,
and celery (cut in dice), mixed in _Mayonnaise_ dressing, and fill the
roll, covering the top with the small piece cut off.

This makes a very nice lunch dish, or a lunch for traveling. The rolls
may be filled with cold cooked lobster, cut into little dice, and
covered with a _Mayonnaise_ dressing.



POULTRY.


If care is taken in picking and dressing fowls or birds, there is no
need of washing them. In France it is never done, unless there is
absolutely something to wash off; then it is done as delicately as
possible. In expostulating once with an old negro auntie for soaking all
the blood and flavor out of a fowl, she quickly replied, “Bless my soul,
child! haven’t I cooked chickens for fifty years?”

When you buy a goose or a duck, be sure that it is young. Never buy an
old duck. The first I ever bought were from a penful at market. I
thought myself very clever in choosing the largest, all being one price;
not so clever at dinner, when my husband tried to carve those tough and
aged drakes.


ROAST TURKEY.

The secret in having a good roast turkey is to baste it often, and to
cook it long enough. A small turkey of seven or eight pounds (the best
selection if fat) should be roasted or baked three hours at least. A
very large turkey should not be cooked a minute less than four hours; an
extra hour is preferable to a minute less. If properly basted, they will
not become dry.

With much experience in hotel life, where turkeys are ruined by the
wholesale, I have never seen a piece of turkey that was fit to eat.
Besides being tasteless, they are almost invariably undercooked. First,
then, after the turkey is dressed, season it well, sprinkling pepper and
salt on the inside; stuff it, and tie it well in shape; either lard the
top or lay slices of bacon over it; wet the skin, and sprinkle it well
with pepper, salt, and flour. It is well to allow a turkey to remain
some time stuffed before cooking. Pour a little boiling water into the
bottom of the dripping-pan. If it is to be roasted, do not put it too
near the coals at first, until it gets well heated through; then
gradually draw it nearer. The excellence of the turkey depends much upon
the frequency of basting it; occasionally baste it with a little butter,
oftener with its own drippings. Just before taking it from the fire or
out of the oven, put on more melted butter, and sprinkle over more
flour; this will make the skin more crisp and brown. While the turkey
is cooking, boil the giblets well; chop them fine, and mash the liver.
When the turkey is done, put it on a hot platter. Put the baking-pan on
the fire, dredge in a little flour, and when cooked stir in a little
boiling water or stock; strain it, skim off every particle of fat; add
the giblets; season with salt and pepper. If chestnut stuffing is used,
add some boiled chestnuts to the gravy; this is decidedly the best sauce
for a turkey. Besides the gravy, always serve cranberry (see receipt,
page 204), currant, or plum jelly with turkey. These are more attractive
molded the day before they are served. The currant or plum jelly is
melted and remolded in a pretty form. Roast turkeys are often garnished
with little sausage-balls.

[Illustration]


STUFFING FOR BAKED TURKEY, CHICKEN, VEAL, AND LAMB (_New York
Cooking-school_).

Soak half a pound of bread (with the crust cut off) in tepid water, then
squeeze it dry. Put three ounces of butter into a stew-pan, and when hot
stir in a small onion minced (one and a half ounces), which color
slightly; then add the bread, with three table-spoonfuls of parsley
(half an ounce) chopped fine, half a tea-spoonful of powdered thyme, a
little grated nutmeg, pepper, salt, and a gill of stock. Stir it over
the fire until it leaves the bottom and sides; then mix in two eggs.


STUFFING FOR ROAST TURKEYS, CHICKENS, DUCKS, AND GEESE.

The commonest stuffing is this: Two onions, five ounces of soaked and
squeezed bread, eight sage leaves, an ounce of butter, pepper, salt, one
egg, a little piece of pork minced. Mince the onions, and fry them in
the _sauté_ pan before adding them to the other ingredients. Some
chopped celery is always a good addition.


CHESTNUT, POTATO, VEAL, AND OYSTER STUFFINGS.

The chestnut stuffing is made by adding chestnuts to the ordinary
stuffing. They are put on the fire in a saucepan or spider to burst the
skins; they are then boiled in very salted water or stock; some are also
put into the sauce. Or turkeys, etc., may be stuffed with boiled,
mashed, and seasoned sweet-potatoes or Irish potatoes.

The great cooks make extra trouble and expense in preparing a force-meat
stuffing of cold veal, cold ham, bacon, and a few bread-crumbs, mixed
and seasoned with cayenne, salt, lemon-juice, summer savory, parsley, or
any sweet herbs. Then they often add truffles cut into little balls; or,
an oyster stuffing is made by merely adding plenty of whole oysters (not
chopped) to the ordinary turkey bread stuffing. It should be well
seasoned, or the oysters will taste insipid.


BOILED TURKEY.

If a boiled turkey is not well managed, it will be quite tasteless.
Choose a hen turkey. If not well trussed and tied, the legs and wings of
a boiled fowl will be found pointing to all the directions of the
compass. Cut the legs at the first joint and draw them into the body.
Fasten the small ends of the wings under the back, and tie them securely
with strong twine. Sprinkle over plenty of salt, pepper, and
lemon-juice, and put it into _boiling_ water. Boil it slowly two hours,
or until quite tender. It is generally served in a bed of rice, with
oyster, caper, cauliflower, parsley, or _Hollandaise_ sauce. Pour part
of the sauce over the turkey. Reserve the giblets for giblet soup. It
can be stuffed or not, the same as for roasting.


TURKEY OR CHICKEN HASH

is made like beef hash, only substituting turkey or chicken for beef.


TURKEY BRAISED.

If you have an old turkey unfit for roasting or boiling, braise it for
four or five hours, adding a little wine (toward the last) to the stock,
if you choose.


TURKEY GALANTINE, OR BONED TURKEY.

[Illustration]

Choose a fat hen turkey. When dressing it, leave the crop skin (the skin
over the breast) whole; cut off the legs, wings, and neck. Now slit the
skin at the back, and carefully remove it all around. Cut out the
breasts carefully; cut them into little elongated pieces, about a
quarter of an inch square and an inch long (parallelograms); or cut them
any way you like. Season them with pepper, salt, a little nutmeg, mace,
pounded cloves, sweet basil, and a little chopped parsley, all mixed.
Now make a force-meat, with a pound and a quarter of lean veal or fresh
pork, well freed from skin and gristle. Mix this with the meat of the
turkey (all but the breasts); chop it well. Then chop an equal volume of
fresh bacon, which mix with the other chopped meat: season this with the
condiments last mentioned. Now pound it in a mortar to a paste. Cut one
pound of truffles, half a pound of cooked pickled tongue, and half a
pound of cooked fat bacon, into three-quarter-inch dice. Season these
also.

Spread the turkey skin on a board. Make alternate layers on it, first of
half of the force-meat, then half of the turkey breasts, then half of
the dice of tongue, truffles, and bacon, then, turkey fillets and dice
again: save some of the force-meat to put on the last layer. Now begin
at one side and roll it over, giving it a round and long shape; sew up
the skin; wrap it, pressing it closely in a napkin; tie it at the
extremities, and also tie it across in two places, to keep it in an oval
shape with round ends.

Boil the galantine gently for four hours in boiling water (or, better,
in stock), with the bones of the turkey thrown in. At the end of that
time, take the stew-pan off the fire. Let the galantine cool in the
liquor one hour; then drain it, and put it on a dish with a seven-pound
weight on it.

When cold, take the galantine out of the napkin; put it at the end of an
open oven for some minutes to melt the fat, which wipe off with a cloth;
glaze it, or sprinkle it with a little egg and fine bread-crumbs, and
bake it a few minutes. It is, of course, to be sliced when eaten. It is
generally served placed on a wooden standard, as described for a
_Mayonnaise_ of salmon.

A boned turkey, or galantine, is seen at almost all large parties. It is
convenient to have one in the house, as it will keep for a long time,
and is very nice for lunch or tea. It costs ten dollars to buy one, and
about half of the amount to make it. Of course, it is some trouble to
make; yet if one’s time is worth less than one’s money, there is plenty
of time for the purpose, as it can be made three or four days before an
entertainment. Chicken and game galantines are made in the same way. The
figure on page 169 is a boned turkey or chicken prepared for boiling.


MIXED SPICES FOR SEASONING.

In cities, mixed spices can be purchased, which are prepared by
professional cooks, and which save much trouble to inexperienced
compounders. This is one of their receipts: “Take of nutmegs and mace,
one ounce each; of cloves and white pepper-corns, two ounces each; of
sweet basil, marjoram, and thyme, one ounce each, and half an ounce of
bay leaves: these herbs should be previously dried for the purpose.
Roughly pound the spices, then place the whole of the above ingredients
between two sheets of white paper, and after the sides have been folded
over tightly, to prevent the evaporation of the volatile properties of
the herbs and spices, place them in a warm place to become perfectly
dry. They must then be pounded quickly, put through a sieve, corked up
tightly in bottles, and kept for use.”


A SIMPLE WAY OF PREPARING BONED TURKEY OR CHICKEN.

Boil a turkey or chicken in as little water as possible, until the bones
can easily be separated from the meat. Remove all of the skin; slice and
mix together the light and dark parts; season with pepper and salt.
Boil down the liquid in which the turkey or chicken was boiled; then
pour it on the meat. Shape it like a loaf of bread; wrap it tightly in a
cloth; press it with a heavy weight for a few hours. When served, it is
cut into thin slices.


CHICKENS.

One is absolutely bewildered at the hundred dishes which are made of
chickens. Most of the _entrées_ are prepared with the breasts alone,
called fillets. There are _boudins_ and _quenelles_ of fowls, and
fillets of fowls _à la Toulouse_, _à la maréchale_, etc., etc., and
supreme of fillets of fowls _à l’écarlate_, etc., and aspics of fowls;
then, chickens _à la Marengo_, _à la Lyonnaise_, _à la reine_; then,
_marinades_ and _capitolades_ of chickens, and fricassees of chickens of
scores of names. I would explain some of these long-sounding terms if
this book were not already too long, and if at last they were any better
than when cooked in the more simple ways.


SPRING CHICKENS.

The excellence of spring chickens depends as much on feeding as on
cooking them. If there are conveniences for building a coop, say five
feet square, on the ground, where some spring chickens can be kept for a
few weeks, feeding them with the scraps from the kitchen, and grain,
they will be found plump, the meat white, and the flavor quite different
from the thin, poorly fed chickens just from market.

The Southern negro cooks have certainly the best way of cooking spring
chickens, and the manner is very simple. Cut them into pieces, dip each
piece hastily in water, then sprinkle it with pepper and salt, and roll
it in plenty of flour. Have some lard in a _sauté_ pan very hot, in
which fry, or rather _sauté_, the chickens, covering them well, and
watching that they may not burn. When done, arrange them on a hot dish;
pour out the lard from the spider, if there is more than a tea-spoonful;
throw in a cupful or more of milk, or, better, cream thickened with a
little flour; stir it constantly, seasoning it with pepper and salt;
pour it over the chickens. It makes a pleasant change to add chopped
parsley to the gravy.

A nice dish is made by serving cauliflowers in the same platter with the
dressing poured over both; or with potatoes cut out in little balls, and
boiled in very salt water, served in the same way; or they may be
surrounded with water-cresses.


SPRING CHICKENS, BAKED.

Cut them open at the back, spread them out in a baking-pan, sprinkle on
plenty of pepper, salt, and a little flour. Baste them well with hot
water, which should be in the bottom of the pan, also at different times
with a little butter. When done, rub butter over them, as you would
beefsteak, and set them in the oven for a moment before serving.


ROAST AND BOILED CHICKENS.

[Illustration]

Chickens are roasted and boiled as are turkeys. In winter there is no
better way of cooking chickens than to boil them whole, and pour over
them a good caper or pickle sauce just before serving. A large tough
chicken is very good managed in this manner. Of course, the chicken
should be put into _boiling_ water, which should not stop boiling until
the chicken is entirely done. With this management it will retain its
flavor, yet the water in which it is boiled should always be saved for
soup. It is a valuable addition to any kind of soup. The cut represents
a chicken in a bed of rice.


BAKED CHICKENS OR FISH (_for Camping Parties_).

Dress the chickens or fish, making as small incisions as possible, and
without removing the skin, feathers, or scales. Fill them with the usual
bread stuffing, well seasoned with chopped pork, onion, pepper, and
salt. Sew the cut quite firmly. Cover the chicken or fish entirely with
wet clay, spreading it half an inch to an inch thick. Bury it in a bed
of hot ashes, with coals on top, and let it bake about an hour and a
quarter if it weighs two pounds. The skin, feathers, or scales will peel
off when removing the cake of clay, leaving the object quite clean, and
especially delicious with that “best of sauces, a good appetite;”
however, there is no reason why a camping party should not indulge in
other sauces at the same time.

A chicken may be surrounded in the same way with a paste of flour and
water, and baked in the oven.


A FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN.

[Illustration]

Cut two chickens into pieces. Reserve all the white meat and the best
pieces for the fricassee. The trimmings and the inferior pieces use to
make the gravy. Put these pieces into a porcelain kettle, with a quart
of cold water, one clove, pepper, salt, a small onion, a little bunch of
parsley, and a small piece of pork; let it simmer for half an hour, and
then put in the pieces for the fricassee; let them boil slowly until
they are quite done; take them out then, and keep them in a hot place.
Now strain the gravy, take off all the fat, and add it to a _roux_ of
half a cupful of flour and a small piece of butter. Let this boil; take
it off the stove and stir in three yolks of eggs mixed with two or three
table-spoonfuls of cream; also the juice of half a lemon. Do not let it
boil after the eggs are in, or they will curdle. Stir it well, keeping
it hot a moment; then pour it over the chicken, and serve. Some of the
fricassees with long and formidable names are not much more than wine or
mushrooms, or both, added to this receipt.


FRICASSEE OF CHICKEN (_Mrs. Gratz Brown_).

_Sauté_ a chicken (cut into pieces) with a little minced onion, in hot
lard. When the pieces are brown, add a table-spoonful of flour, and let
it cook a minute, stirring it constantly. Add then one and a half pints
of boiling water or stock, a table-spoonful of vinegar, a table-spoonful
of sherry, a tea-spoonful of Worcestershire sauce, salt, and pepper.
When it is taken off the fire, strain the sauce, taking off any
particles of fat; mix in the yolk of an egg. Pour it over the chicken,
and serve.


RANAQUE CHICKENS.

[Illustration]

After the first experience in making this chicken dish, it is not
difficult to prepare, and it makes an exceedingly nice course for
dinner. With a sharp penknife, slit the chicken down the back; then,
keeping the knife close to the bones, scrape down the sides, and the
bones will come out. Break them at the joints when coming to the
drumsticks and wing-bones. These bones are left in. Now chop fine, cold
cooked lamb enough to stuff the chicken; season it with pepper, salt,
one even tea-spoonful of summer savory, two heaping table-spoonfuls of
chopped pork, and _plenty_ of lemon-juice, or juice of one lemon. Stuff
the chicken, and sew it, giving it a good shape; turn the ends of the
wings under the back, and tie them there firmly, also the legs of the
chicken down close to the back, so that the top may present a plump
surface, to carve in slices across, without having bones in the way. Now
lard the chicken two or three rows on top. If you have no
larding-needle, cut open the skin with the penknife, and insert the
little pieces of pork, all of equal length and size. Bake this until it
is thoroughly done, basting it very often (once or twice with a little
butter). Pour a tomato-sauce (see page 125) around it in the bottom of
the dish in which it is served.


CHICKEN BREASTS.

Trim the breasts of some chickens to resemble trimmed lamb chops. Stick
a leg bone (the joints cut off at each end) into the end of each cutlet;
pepper and salt them, roll them in flour, and fry them in a _sauté_ pan
with butter. Serve them in a circle in a dish with pease, mashed
potatoes, cauliflowers, beans, or tomatoes, or almost any kind of
vegetable, in the centre. They are still nicer larded on one side,
choosing the same side for all of them. When larded, they should not be
rolled in flour. This is a very nice course for a dinner company. These
fillets are also nice served in a circle, with the same sauce poured in
the centre as is served with deviled chicken.


DEVILED CHICKEN, WITH SAUCE (_Cunard Steamer_).

The chicken is boiled tender in a little salted water. When cold, it is
cut into pieces; these pieces are basted with butter, and broiled.

_Sauce._--One tea-spoonful of made mustard, two table-spoonfuls of
Worcestershire sauce, three table-spoonfuls of vinegar; boil all
together, and pour over the chicken. This dish is generally served on
the Cunard steamers for supper. Or, boil the chickens, cut them into
pieces, pepper and salt them, roll them in flour, _sauté_ them in a
little hot lard, and serve cream-sauce, the same as for fried spring
chickens. This makes a good winter breakfast.


CHICKEN CROQUETTES (_French Cook_).

Boil one chicken, with an onion and a clove of garlic (if you have it)
thrown into the water, add some bones and pieces of beef also; this will
make a stock, if you have not some already saved. Cut the chicken, when
cooked, into small dice; mince half of a large onion, or one small one,
and two sprigs of parsley together. Put into a saucepan a piece of
butter the size of a small egg; when hot, put in the minced onion and
parsley and half a cupful of flour; stir well until it is well cooked
and of a light-brown color; then add a cupful and a half of stock, or of
the stock in the kettle, boiled down or reduced until it is quite
strong, then freed of fat; the stronger the stock, the better of course.
Stir it into a smooth paste, add pepper, salt, not quite half of a
grated nutmeg, the juice of about a quarter of a lemon, and two
table-spoonfuls of sherry, Madeira, or port wine. When all is well
stirred, mix in the pieces of chicken. Mold into the ordinary
_croquette_ shape, or into the form of pears. When they are egged and
cracker-crumbed, fry them in boiling-hot lard. If they are molded into
pear shape, a little stem of parsley may be stuck into each pear after
it is cooked, to represent the pear stem.

[Illustration]


CHICKEN CROQUETTES (_Mrs. Chauncey I. Filley_).

Ingredients: Two chickens and two sets of brains, both boiled; one
tea-cupful of suet, chopped fine; two sprigs of parsley, chopped; one
nutmeg, grated; an even table-spoonful of onion, after it is chopped as
fine as possible; the juice and grated rind of one lemon; salt and black
and red pepper, to taste. Chop the meat very fine; mix all well
together; add cream until it is quite moist, or just right for molding.
This quantity will make two dozen _croquettes_. Now mold them as in cut
(see above); dip them into beaten egg, and roll them in pounded cracker
or bread-crumbs; fry in boiling-hot lard. Cold meat of any kind can be
made into _croquettes_ following this receipt, only substituting an
equal amount of meat for the chicken, and of boiled rice for the brains.
Cold lamb or veal is especially good in _croquettes_. Cold beef is very
good also. Many prefer two cupfuls of boiled rice (fresh boiled and
still hot when mixed with the chicken) for the chicken _croquettes_,
instead of brains.


CHICKEN CUTLETS.

These cutlets are only chicken _croquettes_ in a different form.
Prepare them like trimmed lamb chops, in the following manner: Make a
shape pointed at one end and round at the other; then press it with the
blade of a knife, giving it the shape of a cutlet. Egg and bread-crumb
these cutlets, and fry them in boiling lard; then stick in a paper
ruffle at the pointed end. Serve them, one cutlet overlapping the other,
in a circle, with a tomato-sauce in the centre of it, or around a pile
of mushrooms or of pease. This is considered a very palatable dish for a
dinner company.


CHICKEN, WITH MACARONI OR WITH RICE (_French Cook_).

Cut the chicken into pieces; fry or _sauté_ them in a little hot
drippings, or in butter the size of an egg; when nearly done, put the
pieces into another saucepan; add a heaping tea-spoonful of flour to the
hot drippings, and brown it. Mix a little cold or lukewarm water to the
_roux_; when smooth, add a pint or more of boiling water; pour this over
the chicken in the saucepan, add a chopped sprig of parsley, a clove of
garlic, pepper, and salt. Let the chicken boil half or three-quarters of
an hour, or until it is thoroughly done; then take out the pieces of
chicken. Pass the sauce through a sieve, and remove all the fat. Have
ready some macaroni which has been boiled in salted water, and let it
boil in this sauce. Arrange the pieces of chicken tastefully on a dish;
pour the macaroni and sauce over them, and serve; or, instead of
macaroni, use boiled rice, which may be managed in the same way as the
macaroni.


CHETNEY OF CHICKEN (_Mrs. E. L. Youmans_).

Ingredients: One large or two small chickens, one-quart can of tomatoes,
butter the size of a pigeon’s egg, one table-spoonful of flour, one
heaping tea-spoonful of minced onion, one tea-spoonful of minced pork,
one small bottle of chetney (one gill).

Press the tomatoes through a sieve. Put the butter (one and a half
ounces) into a stew-pan, and when hot throw in the minced onions; cook
them a few minutes, then add the flour, which cook thoroughly; now pour
in the tomato pulp, seasoned with pepper, salt, and the minced pork, and
stir it thoroughly with an egg-whisk until quite smooth, and then mix
well into it the chetney, and next the cooked chicken cut into pieces.
The chicken may be _sautéd_ (if young) in a little hot fat, or it may be
roasted or boiled as for a fricassee. The chicken is neatly arranged on
a hot platter, with the sauce poured over. Slices of beef (the fillet
preferable) may be served in the same way with the chetney sauce.

This chetney is an Indian sauce, and can be procured at the first-class
groceries.


CURRY OF CHICKEN (_Mrs. Youmans_).

Cut the chicken into pieces, leaving out the body bones; season them
with pepper and salt; fry them in a _sauté_ pan in butter; cut an onion
into small slices, which fry in the butter until quite red; now add a
tea-cupful of stock freed from fat, an even tea-spoonful of sugar, and a
table-spoonful of curry-powder, mixed with a little flour; rub the
curry-powder and flour smooth with a little stock before adding it to
the saucepan; put in the chicken pieces, and let them boil two or three
minutes; add then the juice of half a lemon. Serve this in the centre of
a bed of boiled rice.

Veal, lamb, rabbits, or turkey may be cooked in the same way. The
addition of half a cocoa-nut, grated, is an improvement.


CHICKENS FOR SUPPER (_Mrs. Roberts, of Utica_).

[Illustration]

After having boiled a chicken or chickens in as little water as possible
until the meat falls from the bones, pick off the meat, chop it rather
fine, and season it well with pepper and salt. Now put into the bottom
of a mold some slices of hard-boiled eggs, next a layer of chopped
chicken, then more slices of eggs and layers of chicken until the mold
is nearly full; boil down the water in which the chicken was boiled
until there is about a cupful left, season it well, and pour it over
the chicken; it will sink through, forming a jelly around it. Let it
stand overnight or all day on the ice. It is to be sliced at table. If
there is any fear about the jelly not being stiff enough, a little
gelatine may be soaked and added to the cupful of stock. Garnish the
dish with light-colored celery leaves, or with fringed celery.


TO FRINGE CELERY FOR GARNISHING.

Cut the stalks into two-inch lengths; stick plenty of coarse needles
into the top of a cork; draw half of the stalk of each piece of celery
through the needles. When all the fibrous parts are separated, lay the
celery in some cold place to curl and crisp.


CHICKEN LIVERS.

Chop a little onion, and fry it in butter without allowing it to color;
put in the livers and some parsley, and fry or _sauté_ them until they
are done; take out the livers, add a little hot water or stock to the
onions and parsley, thicken it with some flour (_roux_, page 51);
strain, season, and pour it over the livers.

If stale bread is cut into the shape of a small vase or cup, then fried
to a good color in boiling lard, it is called a _croustade_. One of
these is often used with chicken livers. Part of the livers are put in
the top of the _croustade_ in the centre of the dish, and the remainder
are placed around it at the base. The dish is called “_croustade_ of
livers.”


TURKISH PILAU.

Truss one chicken (two and a half pounds) for boiling, and cut five
pounds of shoulder of mutton (boned) into two pieces, which roll into
shape; put some trimmings of pork (enough to keep the meat from
sticking) into a large saucepan, and when hot place in the chicken and
the rolls of mutton, and brown them completely by turning them over the
fire. Now make what is called a bouquet, viz.: Put a bay leaf on the
table; on this place three or four sprigs of parsley, one sprig of
thyme, half of a shallot, four cloves, and one table-spoonful of saffron
(five cents’ worth), and tie all together, leaving one end of the
string long, to hang over the top of the saucepan for convenience in
taking out the bouquet. Put the chicken, the mutton, the bouquet, and a
pinch of salt and pepper into three quarts of boiling water; twenty
minutes before they are done (it will require a short hour to cook
them), put in five ounces of rice (soaked an hour in cold water); when
done, take out the bouquet; put the chicken in the centre of a warm
platter; cut the mutton into slices or scollops about half an inch
thick, and form them in a circle by lapping one over the other around
the chicken. Pour the hot soup (freed from grease) over the chicken; or
the chicken may be cut into joints (seven pieces), and the circle around
the platter may be formed of the chicken pieces and mutton scollops
alternating, with the soup poured in the centre.



GEESE, DUCKS, AND GAME.


ROAST GOOSE.

The goose should be absolutely young. Green geese are best, _i. e._,
when they are about four months old. In trussing, cut the neck close to
the back, leaving the skin long enough to turn over the back; beat the
breast-bone flat with the rolling-pin; tie or skewer the legs and wings
securely. Stuff the goose with the following mixture: Four large onions
(chopped), ten sage leaves, quarter of a pound of bread-crumbs, one and
a half ounces of butter, salt and pepper, one egg, a slice of pork
(chopped). Now sprinkle the top of the goose well with salt, pepper, and
flour. Reserve the giblets to boil and chop for the gravy, as you would
for a turkey. Baste the goose repeatedly. If it is a green one, roast it
at least an hour and a half; if an older one, it would be preferable to
bake it in an oven, with plenty of hot water in the baking-pan. It
should be basted very often with this water, and when it is nearly done
baste it with butter and a little flour. Bake it three or four hours.
Decorate the goose with water-cresses, and serve it with the brown
giblet gravy in the sauce-boat. Always serve an apple-sauce with this
dish.


GOOSE STUFFING (_Soyer’s Receipt_).

Take four apples peeled and cored, four onions, four leaves of sage, and
four of thyme. Boil them with sufficient water to cover them; when done,
pulp them through a sieve, removing the sage and thyme; then add enough
pulp of mealy potatoes to cause the stuffing to be sufficiently dry,
without sticking to the hand. Add pepper and salt, and stuff the bird.


DUCKS.

Truss and stuff them with sage and onions as you would a goose. If they
are ducklings, roast them from twenty-five to thirty minutes. Epicures
say they like them quite under-done, yet, at the same time, very hot.
Full-grown ducks should be roasted an hour, and frequently basted. Serve
with them the brown giblet gravy or apple-sauce, or both. Green pease
should accompany the dish. Many parboil ducks before roasting or baking
them. If there is a suspicion of advanced age, parboil them.


WILD DUCKS.

Wild ducks should be cooked rare, with or without stuffing. Baste them a
few minutes at first with hot water to which have been added an onion
and salt. Then take away the pan, and baste with butter, and a little
flour to froth and brown them. The fire should be quite hot, and twenty
to twenty-five minutes are considered the outside limit for cooking
them. A brown gravy made with the giblets should be served in the bottom
of the dish. Serve also a currant-jelly. Garnish the dish with slices of
lemons.


DUCK AND PEASE STEWED (_Warne_).

Remains of cold roast duck, with peel of half a lemon, one quart of
green pease, a piece of butter rolled in flour, three-quarters of a pint
of gravy, pepper, salt, and cayenne to taste. Cut the duck into joints;
season it with a very little Cayenne pepper and salt, and the yellow
peel of half a lemon minced fine. Put it into a stew-pan, pour the gravy
over, and place the pan over a clear fire to become very hot; but do not
let the stew boil.[C] Boil a quart of green young pease; when they are
done, drain off the water, add some butter, pepper, and salt. Warm this
again over the fire. Pile the pease in the centre of a hot dish; arrange
the pieces of duck around them, and serve.


STEWED DUCK.

Cut the duck into joints. Put the giblets into a stew-pan, adding water
enough to cover them for the purpose of making a gravy. Add two onions,
chopped fine, two sprigs of parsley, three cloves, a sage leaf, pepper,
and salt. Let the gravy simmer until it is strong enough, then add the
pieces of duck. Cover, and let them stew slowly for two hours, adding a
little boiling water when necessary. Just before they are done, add a
small glassful of port-wine and a few drops of lemon-juice. Put the duck
on a warm platter, pour the gravy around, and serve it with little
diamonds of fried bread (_croûtons_) placed around the dish.


FILLETS OF DUCK.

Roast the ducks, remove the breasts or fillets, and dish them in a
circle. Pour over a _poivrade_ sauce, and fill the circle with olives.


POIVRADE SAUCE.

Mince an onion; fry it a yellow color, with butter, in a stew-pan; pour
on a gill of vinegar; let it remain on the fire until a third of it is
boiled away; then add a pint of gravy or stock, a bunch of parsley, two
or three cloves, pepper, and salt; let it boil a minute; thicken it with
a little butter and flour (_roux_); strain it, and remove any particles
of fat.


PIGEONS STEWED IN BROTH.

Unless pigeons are quite young, they are better braised or stewed in
broth than cooked in any other manner. In fact, I consider it always the
best way of cooking them. Tie them in shape; place slices of bacon at
the bottom of a stew-pan; lay in the pigeons, side by side, all their
breasts uppermost; add a sliced carrot, an onion, with a clove stuck
in, a tea-spoonful of sugar, and some parsley, and pour over enough
stock to cover them. If you have no stock, use boiling water. Now put
some thin slices of bacon over the tops of the pigeons; cover them as
closely as possible, adding boiling water or stock when necessary. Let
them simmer until they are very tender. Serve each pigeon on a thin
piece of buttered toast, with a border of spinach, or make little nests
of spinach on pieces of toast, putting a pigeon into each nest.

[Illustration]


ROAST PIGEONS.

Never roast pigeons unless they are young and tender. After they are
well tied in shape, drawing the skin over the back, tie thin slices of
bacon over the breasts, and put a little piece of butter inside each
pigeon. File them on a skewer, and roast them before a brisk fire until
thoroughly done, basting them with butter.


PIGEONS BROILED.

Split the pigeons at the back, and flatten them with the cutlet bat;
season, roll them in melted butter and bread-crumbs, and broil them,
basting them with butter. Or, cut out the breasts (fillets), and broil
them alone. Serve them on thin pieces of toast. Make a gravy of the
remaining portions of the pigeons, and pour it over them.


PRAIRIE-CHICKEN OR GROUSE.

[Illustration]

They are generally split open at the back and broiled, rubbing them with
butter; yet as all but the breast is generally tough, it is better to
fillet the chicken, or cut out the breast. The remainder of the chicken
is cut into joints and parboiled. These pieces are then _broiled_ with
the breasts (which, please remember, are not parboiled) after rubbing
butter over them all. As soon as they are all broiled, sprinkle pepper
and salt, and put a little lump of butter, on top of each piece, which
then place for a few moments in the oven to soak the butter. Serve with
currant-jelly. For fine entertainments the breasts alone are served.
Each breast is cut into two pieces, so that one chicken is sufficient
for four persons. If the dish is intended for breakfast, serve each
piece of breast on a small square piece of fried mush (see receipt, page
73). If for dinner, serve each piece on a square of hot buttered toast,
with a little currant-jelly on top of each piece of chicken. Garnish the
plate with any kind of leaves, or with water-cresses. At a breakfast
party I once saw this dish surrounded with Saratoga potatoes. The white
potatoes, dark meat, and red jelly formed a pretty contrast.


TO CHOOSE A YOUNG PRAIRIE-CHICKEN.

Bend the under bill. If it is tender, the chicken is young.


PRAIRIE-CHICKEN OR GROUSE ROASTED.

Epicures think that grouse (in fact, all game) should not be too fresh.
Do not wash them. Do not wash any kind of game or meat. If proper care
be taken in dressing them they will be quite clean, and one could easily
wash out all their blood and flavor. Put plenty of butter inside each
chicken: this is necessary to keep it moist. Roast the grouse half an
hour and longer, if liked thoroughly done; baste them constantly with
butter. When nearly done, sprinkle over a little flour and plenty of
butter to froth them. After having boiled the liver of the grouse, mince
and pound it, with a little butter, pepper, and salt, until it is like a
paste; then spread it over hot buttered toast. Serve the grouse on the
toast, surrounded with water-cresses.


QUAILS PARBOILED AND BAKED.

Tie a thin slice of bacon over the breast of each bird; put the quails
into a baking-dish, with a little boiling water; cover it closely and
set it on top of the range, letting the birds steam ten or fifteen
minutes. This plumps them. Then take off the cover and the pork, and put
the birds into the oven, basting them often with butter. Brown them, and
serve with currant-jelly.


QUAILS ROASTED.

Cover the breasts with very thin slices of bacon, or rub them well with
butter; roast them before a good fire, basting them often with butter.
Fifteen minutes will cook them sufficiently, if they are served very
hot, although twenty minutes would be my rule, not being an epicure.
Salt and pepper them. Serve on a hot dish the moment they are cooked.
They are very good with a bread-sauce made as follows:


BREAD-SAUCE, FOR GAME (_Mrs. Crane_).

First roll a pint of dry bread-crumbs, and pass half of them through a
sieve. Put a small onion into a pint of milk, and when it boils remove
the onion, and thicken the milk with the half-pint of sifted crumbs;
take it from the fire, and stir in a heaping tea-spoonful of butter, a
grating of nutmeg, pepper and salt. Put a little butter into a _sauté_
pan, and when hot throw in the half-pint of coarser crumbs which
remained in the sieve; stir them over the fire until they assume a
light-brown color, taking care that they do not burn, and stir into them
a small pinch of Cayenne pepper. They should be rather dry. For serving,
put a plump roast quail on a plate, pour over a table-spoonful of the
white sauce, and on this place a table-spoonful of the crumbs. The
sauce-boat and plate of crumbs may be passed separately, or the host may
arrange them at table before the birds are passed. This makes a dish
often seen in England.


CUTLETS OF QUAILS OR OF PIGEONS.

With a sharp-pointed knife carefully cut the breasts from quails or
pigeons; or, as professional cooks say, fillet them. At the small end of
each breast stick in a bone taken from the leg, and trimmed. The breasts
should now resemble cutlets. Sprinkle a little pepper and salt over each
one, dip it in melted butter, and roll it in flour or sifted
cracker-crumbs. Put the cutlets one side until ready to cook, as they
should be cooked only just before sending them to the table. They should
then be fried in a _sauté_ pan in hot butter. They may be served without
further trouble in a circle with a centre of green pease, which makes a
most delicate dish for a company dinner course. However, there is a more
elaborate way of finishing them, as follows: Put the carcasses into some
cold water with very small pieces of pork and onion, sufficient only to
produce the slightest flavoring. Simmer this about an hour; strain,
thicken with a little browned _roux_, and season it with a little pepper
and salt. As soon as the livers are done, take them out, mash, and
moisten them with a little of the sauce. Prepare little thin pieces of
toast, one for each breast; butter, and spread them with the mashed
livers. Turn the cutlets over in this sauce, and use the little of it
that remains for dipping in the pieces of toast. Serve the cutlets on
the toast in a circle, with a centre of pease, French string-beans
(_haricots verts_), potatoes _à la Parisienne_, or mushrooms; or cut the
pieces of toast into the form of a long triangle, so that the points may
meet in the centre, and place the bones of the cutlets to meet in the
centre also. Put then a row of vegetables on the outside.

[Illustration]


SCOLLOPS OF QUAILS, WITH TRUFFLES (_Gouffé_).

Remove the fillets or breasts of six quails. Cut each fillet in two, and
trim the parts to a round shape. Cook half a pound of truffles in
Madeira, and cut them into slices. Put the scollops of quails into a
_sauté_ pan with some butter; fry them until they are done, then mix
them with the truffles. Put a nice border on a dish; pile the centre
with the scollops and truffles; pour in some Espagnole or brown sauce,
flavored with a little Madeira, and serve. Truffles can be procured
canned.


ESPAGNOLE SAUCE.

Melt butter the size of an egg; when hot, add to it two or three
table-spoonfuls of flour. Stir this carefully over a slow fire until it
has taken a clear, light-brown color. Mix in this one half-pint of
stock, broth, or gravy; then put it to the side of the fire to simmer
until wanted, skimming it carefully, and not allowing it to stick to the
bottom of the pan. Strain it. Just before serving it with the quails,
add one or two tea-spoonfuls of Madeira.


QUAILS BROILED.

Split them at the back. Broil, basting them often with butter, over a
hot fire. As soon as the quails are done, add a little more butter, with
pepper and salt, and place them for a moment into the oven to soak the
butter. Serve them on thin slices of buttered toast, with a little
currant-jelly on top of each quail.


QUAILS BRAISED.

Quails are sometimes braised in the same manner as pigeons. (See
receipt.)


SNIPE AND WOODCOCK FRIED.

[Illustration]

Dress and wipe them clean. Tie the legs close to the body; skin the
heads and necks, and tie the beaks under the wing; tie, also, a very
thin piece of bacon around the breast of each bird, and fry in boiling
lard. It only requires a few moments--say two minutes--to cook them.
Season and serve them on toast. Some pierce the legs with the beak of
the bird, as in the cut.


SNIPE AND WOODCOCK ROASTED.

The following is the epicure’s manner of cooking them, not mine.
Carefully pluck them, and take the skin off the heads and necks. Truss
them with the head under the wing. Twist the legs at the first joint,
pressing the feet against the thigh. Do not draw them. Now tie a thin
slice of bacon around each; run a small iron skewer through the birds,
and tie it to a spit at both ends. Roast them at a good fire, placing a
dripping-pan, with buttered slices of toast under them, to catch the
trail as it falls. Baste the snipe often with a paste-brush dipped in
melted butter. Let them roast twenty minutes; then salt the birds, and
serve them immediately on the pieces of toast.

[Illustration]


REED-BIRDS (_Henry Ward Beecher’s Receipt_).

Cut sweet-potatoes lengthwise; scoop out in the centre of each a place
that will fit half the bird. Now put in the birds, after seasoning them
with butter, pepper, and salt, tying the two pieces of potato around
each of them. Bake them. Serve them in the potatoes. Or, they can be
roasted or fried in boiling lard like other birds.


PLOVERS

are cooked in the same way as quails or partridges.


PHEASANTS

are cooked in the same way as prairie-chickens or grouse.


VENISON.


THE SADDLE OF VENISON.

This is, perhaps, the most distinguished venison dish. Make rather deep
incisions, following the grain of the meat from the top, and insert
pieces of pork about one-third of an inch square, and one inch and a
half or two inches long; sprinkle over pepper, salt, and a little flour.
Roast or bake the venison before a _hot_ fire or in a _hot_ oven, about
two hours for an eight-pound roast. Baste often. Serve a currant-jelly
sauce in the sauce-boat.

A good accompaniment at table for a roast of venison is a dish of
potatoes _à la neige_ (see page 192), the dark meat and white potatoes
forming a pretty contrast.


ROAST OR BAKED HAUNCH OF VENISON.

Cut off part of the knuckle-bone, round it at the other extremity,
sprinkle over pepper and salt, and cover the whole with a paste of flour
and water or coarse corn-meal; tie firmly a thick paper around. Place it
near the fire at first to harden the paste, basting well the paper to
keep it from burning; then remove it a little farther from the fire.
Have a strong, clear fire. It will take about three hours to roast this
joint, at the end of which time remove the paste. Carême would glaze it.
This is, after all, a simple operation. It is a stock boiled down to a
firm jelly, the jelly melted, and spread upon the meat with a brush. Put
some frills of paper around the bone, and serve currant-jelly with it.
If it be baked, the paste should cover it in the same way. It would also
take the same length of time to cook.

The neck of venison makes a good roast also.


TO BROIL VENISON STEAKS.

Have the gridiron hot; broil, and put them on a hot dish; rub over them
butter, pepper, salt, and a little melted currant-jelly. Some cooks add
a table-spoonful of Madeira, sherry, or port to the melted
currant-jelly.

If one does not wish to serve the jelly, simply garnish the dish with
lemon-slices.


STEWED VENISON.

Cut it into steaks; spread over them a thin layer of stuffing made with
bread-crumbs, minced onion, parsley, pepper, salt, and a little pork
chopped fine; now roll them separately, and tie them each with a cord;
stew them in boiling water or stock. Thicken the gravy with flour and
butter mixed (see roux, page 51), and add one or two spoonfuls of sherry
or port wine.


RABBITS ROASTED.

Skin and dress the rabbits as soon as possible, and hang them
overnight. Roast them before a moderate fire, basting them with butter
and a little flour when nearly done.


RABBITS BAKED.

After they are skinned, dressed, and hung overnight, put them into a
baking-pan; sprinkle over pepper and salt, and put also a thin slice of
bacon on the top of each rabbit. Now pour some boiling water into the
bottom of the pan, and cover it with another pan of equal size, letting
the rabbits steam about fifteen or twenty minutes; then take off the
cover, baste them with a little butter, and let them brown.

Rabbits are much improved by larding.



VEGETABLES.


TO PRESERVE THE COLOR OF VEGETABLES.

The French cooks very generally use carbonate of ammonia to preserve the
color of vegetables. What would lay on the point of a penknife is mixed
in the water in which the vegetables (such as pease, spinach,
string-beans, and asparagus) are boiled. The ammonia all evaporates in
boiling, leaving no ill effects. They say also that it prevents the odor
of boiling cabbage. It may be obtained at the drug-stores.


POTATOES BOILED.

Choose those of equal size. They look better when thinly peeled before
they are boiled; but it is more economical to boil them before skinning,
as careless cooks generally pare away half of the potato in the
operation, and the best part of the potato is that which lies nearest
the skin. Put them into an iron pot or saucepan in just enough
_well-salted cold_ water to cover them. Let them boil until they are
_nearly_ done; then pour off all but about half a cupful of the water in
the bottom of the pot; return the potatoes to the fire, put on a close
cover, and let them steam until quite done; then remove the lid,
sprinkle salt over them, and let them remain a few moments on the fire
to evaporate the water. Remove them carefully, and serve immediately.
They should be dry and flaky.

If one has a cook too heedless to steam the potatoes properly, it should
be remembered that potatoes should never be allowed to _soak_ in the
water a moment after they are done; the water should be immediately
poured off, and the steam evaporated. It is important that potatoes
should be done just at the moment of serving. It requires about
thirty-five minutes to boil the medium-sized.


TO BOIL POTATOES (_Captain Kater to Mrs. Acton_).

Pare the potatoes; cover them with cold water; boil them gently until
they are done. Pour off the water, and sprinkle salt over them; then
with a spoon take each potato and lay it into a clean, warm cloth; twist
this so as to press all the moisture from the vegetable, and render it
quite round; turn it carefully into a dish placed before the fire; throw
a cloth over; and when all are done, send them to the table immediately.
Potatoes dressed in this way are mashed without the slightest trouble.


MASHED POTATOES.

Every one thinks she can make so simple a dish as that of mashed
potatoes; but it is the excellence of art to produce good mashed as well
as good boiled potatoes. In fact, I believe there is nothing so
difficult in cookery as to properly boil a potato.

To mash them, then, first boil them properly. Put into a hot crock
basin, which can be placed at the side of the fire, half a cupful or
more of cream, a piece of butter the size of an egg, plenty of salt and
pepper, and let them get hot. One of the secrets of good mashed potatoes
is the mixing of the ingredients all hot. Now add six or seven potatoes
the moment they are done, and mash them without stopping until they are
as smooth as possible; then work them a very few moments with a fork,
and serve them immediately. Do not rub egg over, and bake them; that
ruins them. Much depends upon mashed potatoes being served at table
_hot_, and freshly made. They are very nice prepared _à la neige_.


POTATOES À LA NEIGE.

These are mashed potatoes made as in the preceding receipt, pressed
through a colander into a dish in which they are to be served. The
potatoes then resemble rice or vermicelli, and are very light and nice.
They make a pretty dish, and must be served very hot. They make a
favorite accompaniment to venison, and are often served around a rolled
rib roast of beef.


TO BAKE POTATOES.

The potatoes must be of equal size. Put them into a hot oven and bake
until tender. The excellence of baked potatoes depends upon their being
served immediately when they are just baked enough. A moment underdone,
and they are indigestible and worthless; a moment overdone, and they
have begun to dry. It requires about an hour to bake a large potato.
This is a favorite way of cooking potatoes for lunch or tea.


POTATOES IN CASES.

[Illustration]

The following is an exceedingly nice way of serving baked potatoes. Bake
potatoes of equal size, and when done, and still hot, cut off a small
piece from each potato; scoop out carefully the inside, leaving the skin
unbroken; mash the potato well, seasoning it with plenty of butter,
pepper, and salt; return it with a spoon to the potato skin, allowing it
to protrude about an inch above the skin. When enough skins are filled,
use a fork or knife to make rough the potato which projects above the
skin; put all into the oven a minute to color the tops. It is better,
perhaps, to color them with a salamander. They will have the appearance
of baked potatoes burst open.


POTATOES BAKED WITH BEEF.

Pare potatoes of equal size, and put them into the oven in the same pan
in which the beef is baked. Every time the beef is basted, the potatoes
should be basted also. Serve them around the beef.


POTATOES À LA PARISIENNE.

Peel the potatoes, and with a vegetable-cutter (three-fourths of an inch
in diameter) cut as many little balls as you can from each potato; throw
these balls into boiling-hot lard, and fry (about five minutes) until
done, when they must be skimmed out immediately. It is more convenient
to fry them in a wire-basket (see page 53). Sprinkle salt over them as
soon as done. It is a very good way of cooking potatoes as a garnish for
beefsteak or game. The cuttings of the potatoes left after taking out
the balls can be boiled and mashed. These potatoes must be served when
done, or the crusts will lose their crispness.


SARATOGA POTATOES.

It requires a little plane, or potato or cabbage cutter, to cut these
potatoes. Two or three fine, large potatoes (ripe new ones are
preferable) are selected and pared. They are cut, by rubbing them over
the plane, into slices as thin or thinner than a wafer. These are placed
for a few moments in ice, or very cold water, to become chilled. Boiling
lard is now tested, to see if it is of the proper temperature. The
slices must color quickly; but the fat must not be so hot as to give
them a dark color.

Place a salt-box on the hearth; also a dish to receive the cooked
potatoes at the side; a tin plate and perforated ladle should be at hand
also. Now throw, separately, five or six slices of the cold potato into
the hot lard; keep them separated by means of the ladle until they are
of a delicate yellow color; skim them out into the tin plate; sprinkle
over some salt, and push them on the dish. Now pour back any grease that
is on the tin plate into the kettle, and fry five or six slices at a
time until enough are cooked. Two potatoes fried will make a large
dishful.

It is a convenient dish for a company dinner, as it may be made early in
the day; and by being kept in a dry, warm place (for instance, a
kitchen-closet), the potato-slices will be crisp and nice five or six
hours afterward. They are eaten cold, and are a pretty garnish around
game, or, in fact, any other kind of meat.


FRIED POTATOES.

Fried potatoes must absolutely be served the moment they come from the
fire. Nothing deteriorates more by getting cold or keeping than fried
potatoes (with the exception of Saratoga fried potatoes, which are
served cold). They may be sliced rather thin, and _sautéd_ in a little
hot butter, pepper, and salt. The French usually cut potatoes into
little rhomboidal lengths, and throw them into boiling lard, or
clarified grease (see page 44).

The fat should be quite hot, and the pieces of potato skimmed out the
moment they receive a delicate color, and placed on a sieve by the side
of the fire. Sprinkle over salt, and serve them in a hot dish.


LYONNAISE POTATOES.

Ingredients: Half a pound of cold boiled potatoes, two ounces of onion,
a heaping tea-spoonful of minced parsley, butter the size of an egg.

Slice the cold boiled potatoes. Put the butter into a saucepan, and when
hot throw in the onion (minced), which fry to a light color; add the
sliced potatoes, which turn until they are thoroughly hot, and of light
color also; then mix in the minced parsley, and serve immediately while
they are quite hot. The potato-slices should be merely moistened with
the butter dressing.


POTATO CROQUETTES.

Add to four or five mashed potatoes (made according to receipt, see page
191) a little nutmeg, Cayenne pepper, and the beaten yolk of one egg.
Beat the potatoes with a fork; roll them into little balls, which roll
in egg and cracker-crumbs, and fry them in a wire-basket in boiling
lard. For a change, a little minced parsley might be added.

At the New York Cooking-school the teacher passed the seasoned potatoes
through a sieve, and then returned them to the fire, stirring them with
a wooden spoon until they left the sides and bottom of the pan. He said
this prevented them from _cracking_ when frying.


POTATO ROSES.

Pare carefully with a thin penknife some peeled potatoes, round and
round, until all of each potato is pared to the centre. Do not attempt
to cut the slices too thin, or they will break. Place them in a
wire-basket, and dip into boiling lard. These potatoes are a pretty
garnish around a roast, and are supposed to resemble roses.


POTATOES FOR BREAKFAST.

Slice a generous pint of cold boiled potatoes. Put into the brightest of
saucepans butter the size of a pigeon’s egg, and when it bubbles add an
even tea-spoonful of flour (the sauce not to be thick), which cook a
moment, and then pour in a cupful of milk (or, better, cream), salt, and
pepper; stir with an egg-whisk until it boils, then mix in the
potato-slices. When they are thoroughly hot they are ready to be served.


POTATO PUFF.

Stir two cupfuls of mashed potatoes, two table-spoonfuls of melted
butter, and some salt to a fine, light, and creamy condition; then add
two eggs well beaten separately, and six table-spoonfuls of cream; beat
it all well and lightly together; pile it in rocky form on a dish; bake
it in a quick oven until nicely colored. It will become quite light.


SHOO-FLY POTATOES.

There is a machine which comes for the purpose of cutting shoo-fly
potatoes; it costs two dollars and a half. The potatoes are cut into
long strips like macaroni, excepting that the sides are square instead
of round. They are thrown into boiling lard, sprinkled with salt as soon
as done, and served as a vegetable alone, or as a garnish around meat.


TURNIPS.

The ruta-baga turnips are sweetest and best. Pare and cut them in
pieces of equal size; put them into well-salted boiling water, and, when
perfectly tender, drain them dry; let them remain a moment on the fire
to evaporate the water, then mash them in a stew-pan, in which is hot
butter, pepper and salt to taste. Stir them over the fire until they are
thoroughly mixed, and keep them in the stew-pan until just before
serving, as turnips should be served very hot.


TURNIPS IN SAUCE (_French Cook_).

Cut three good-sized turnips into slices, or parallelograms, as long as
the turnip, and about half an inch thick. If they are not young and
tender, they should be boiled until half done; but they should not be
boiled at first if young. Put a piece of butter the size of an egg into
a saucepan; when hot, put in the pieces of turnips, and fry them to a
light-brown color. When done, add a heaping tea-spoonful of sugar; mix,
and then pour in a tea-cupful of stock (boiling water would answer, but
not so well); put this at the side of the fire to simmer until they are
done, adding a little pepper and salt. Now put a little more butter, the
size of a walnut, into a saucepan, adding a heaping tea-spoonful of
flour; mix, and add a little lukewarm water. When smoothly mixed, add
the sauce of the turnips; when both are well mixed, add the turnip
slices; they are then ready to serve.


PARSNIPS SAUTÉD.

Parboil them; then, after cutting lengthwise, _sauté_ them to a
light-brown in a little hot butter or drippings.


PARSNIP FRITTERS.

This is undoubtedly the best manner of cooking parsnips: Scrape, and, if
large, cut them; put them into well-salted boiling water, and boil until
tender; then mash them, adding to four or five parsnips a heaping
tea-spoonful of flour, one or two eggs well beaten, pepper and salt to
taste. Form the mixture into small cakes three-quarters of an inch thick
and two and a half inches in diameter, and fry them on both sides to a
delicate brown in a _sauté_ pan, with a little hot butter. Serve hot.


OYSTER-PLANT FRITTERS

are best made into little cakes, as described for parsnip fritters. They
may, however, be made smaller, in order to imitate fried oysters.


OYSTER-PLANTS STEWED.

As you scrape them, throw them into a bowl of cold water, in which is
mixed a table-spoonful of vinegar. When all are scraped, cut them either
into half-inch lengths, or lengthwise into four pieces, which again cut
into three-inch lengths; throw them into boiling water, in which are
half a tea-spoonful of salt and one-third of a tea-spoonful of sugar to
one quart of water. When done, drain, and mix them with white sauce,
either drawn butter or a simple Bechamel.


CARROTS.

The best mode of cooking carrots is to boil them with corned beef, and
then serve them as a garnish around the meat. Carrots require a longer
time to boil than almost any other vegetable. If large, boil them an
hour and a half. It improves their appearance to cut them into shapes of
balls or pears before boiling; or they may be cut into half-inch slices,
and then shaped with the tin cutters (see page 55). These come in
different sizes.


BEETS.

If they are winter beets, soak them overnight; in any case, be very
careful not to prick or cut the skin before boiling, as they will then
lose their color; put them into boiling water, and boil until tender. If
they are served hot, pour a little melted butter, pepper, and salt over
them. They are often served cold, cut into slices, with some vinegar
over them, or cut into little dice and mixed with other cold vegetables,
for a winter salad.


CAULIFLOWER, WITH WHITE SAUCE.

Trim off the outside leaves, and put the cauliflower into well-salted
boiling water. Be careful to take it out as soon as tender, to prevent
it dropping into pieces. Make, in a saucepan, a white sauce as follows:
Put butter the size of an egg into the saucepan, and when it bubbles
stir in a scant half tea-cupful of flour; stir well with an egg-whisk
until cooked; then add two tea-cupfuls of thin cream, some pepper and
salt. Stir it over the fire until perfectly smooth. Pour the sauce over
the cauliflower, and serve. Many let the cauliflower simmer in the sauce
a few moments before serving. The _sauce Hollandaise_ is very fine for
cauliflower.

[Illustration]

Cauliflower is delicious served as a garnish around fried spring
chickens, or with fried sweet-breads, when the white sauce should be
poured over both. In this case, it should be made by adding the cream,
flour, and seasoning to the little grease (half a tea-spoonful) that is
left after _sautéing_ the chickens or sweet-breads. Time to cook,
fifteen minutes, if small; twenty minutes, if large.


CAULIFLOWERS, WITH CHEESE.

Add plenty of grated cheese (say a cupful to a pint of sauce) to the
usual white sauce made for cauliflowers. Heat the sauce well, to melt
the cheese thoroughly, and pour it over the cauliflowers.

Cauliflower is valuable as a salad, with the _Mayonnaise_ dressing, or,
mixed with other cold vegetables, with the French dressing. See Salads.


ASPARAGUS.

[Illustration]

Tie the stalks in bundles, keeping the heads one way, and cut off the
stalks, so that they may be of equal length. Put them into well-salted
boiling water, and cook until they are tender (no longer). While
boiling, prepare some thin slices of toast; arrange the asparagus, when
well drained, neatly upon it, and pour over a white sauce, as for
cauliflower. The _sauce Hollandaise_ is especially nice for asparagus.
Time to cook asparagus, about eighteen minutes.


PEASE.

_American mode_: First boil the pods, which are sweet and full of
flavor, in a little water; skim them out, and add the pease, which boil
until tender; add then a little butter, cream, pepper, and salt. If they
are served as a garnish, do not add the juice; but, if served alone, the
juice is a savory addition. Time to cook, about half an hour.

The American canned pease should be rinsed before cooking, as the juice
is generally thick. The pease are then thrown into a little boiling
water seasoned with salt, and a little sugar; butter is added when done.

_English mode_: Throw the pease into boiling water, with some lettuce
leaves and a sprig of mint in the bottom of the stew-pan. To each quart
of pease allow two table-spoonfuls of butter and a lump of loaf-sugar;
cover the stew-pan closely, and boil until they are tender--thoroughly
done; then separate the pease from the other ingredients, sending them
only to the table. This cooking of pease with mint (universally done in
England) is a good way of utterly destroying the delicious natural
flavor of the pea.


SPINACH.

[Illustration]

Having washed it thoroughly, put it into just enough salted boiling
water to cover it. When it is tender, squeeze out all the water, and
press it through a colander; then _sauté_ it a few minutes, with a
little butter, pepper, and salt. Serve with sliced, hard-boiled eggs on
top; or, if it is used as a garnish for lamb, add a little lemon-juice
and a spoonful of stock. Or, it is nice served as a course by itself,
arranged on a platter as follows:

Put a circle of thin slices of buttered toast (one slice for each person
at table) around the dish, and on each slice put a cupful of spinach,
neatly smoothed in shape. Press the half of a hard-boiled egg into the
top of each pile of spinach, leaving the cut part of the egg uppermost.


TOMATOES STEWED.

Pour boiling water over six or eight large tomatoes to remove the skin,
and then cut them into a saucepan. When they begin to boil, pour away a
little of the juice; add a small piece of butter, pepper, salt, and a
very little sugar. Let them cook for about fifteen minutes, stirring in
well the seasoning. Some add a few bread or cracker crumbs.


TOMATOES, WITH MAYONNAISE DRESSING (see _Salads_, p. 226).


STUFFED TOMATOES BAKED.

Choose large tomatoes. Do not skin them, but scoop out a small place at
the top, which fill with a stuffing. The simplest is made of
bread-crumbs, minced onion, cayenne, and salt. First fry the onions in a
little butter, add the bread-crumbs, moistened with a little water (or,
better, stock) and seasoned with a very little Cayenne pepper and enough
salt. Fry them a moment; then fill the cavities, allowing the stuffing
to project half an inch above the tomato, and smooth it over the top.
Bake.

A better stuffing is this: Chop very fine some cold cooked chicken,
lamb, beef, or pork. Each of these may be used, or they may be mixed.
However, a very little pork mixed with any kind of meat makes a pleasant
seasoning. Now fry a little chopped onion in butter, and, when just
colored, throw in the chopped meat, a few bread-crumbs, very little
stock, and season the whole with salt, pepper, and some parsley. When
hot, and well mixed, take it off the fire; add the yolk of a raw egg to
bind it together. Fill the tomatoes with this preparation, sprinkle
bread-crumbs over the tops, and bake. The tomatoes are a pretty garnish
around any kind of meat. If served as a course alone, pour into the
bottom of the dish a tomato-sauce flavored with a little sherry.


ONIONS.

There is no better manner of cooking onions than as follows: Put them
into salted boiling water, with a little milk added, and boil them until
tender (no longer). Then place them in a baking-pan with a little
pepper, salt, and butter over the top of each, and a very little of the
water in which they were boiled in the bottom of the pan. Brown them
quickly in the oven, and serve very hot. They may be served alone in a
vegetable-dish, or as a garnish around beef, calf’s heart, etc.


ONIONS, WITH CREAM.

Boil the onions, putting them into boiling salted water, with a little
milk added, until tender; drain, and put them into a stew-pan, with a
white sauce made as directed for cauliflowers. Let them simmer a few
moments. Serve with the sauce poured over.


STRING-BEANS.

String, and cut each bean crosswise into two or three pieces. Put them,
with a little pork, into _boiling_ water, and when boiled tender drain
them. Put into a stew-pan a cupful of cream, a small piece of butter
rubbed in an even tea-spoonful of flour, pepper, and salt. When hot, add
the beans (say one pint), and stew them a few moments before serving.


STRING-BEANS IN SALAD (see _Salads_, page 226).


LIMA BEANS (_London Cooking-teacher_).

Put a pint of the shelled beans into boiling water slightly salted,
adding two or three slices of onion. When tender, drain them. Put butter
the size of an egg into a heated saucepan, and when it is hot add an
even table-spoonful of minced onions, which cook well; then put in the
beans; add enough water (or, better, stock) to keep them moist. Keep
them at the side of the fire about a quarter of an hour, as it takes
them some time to soak; just before taking them out, add a small handful
of minced parsley. Do not cook them much after adding the parsley, as
that spoils its color.


LIMA BEANS, WITH CREAM.

Put a pint of the shelled beans into just enough boiling salted water to
cover them, and boil them tender; then drain off the water; add a cupful
of boiling milk (or, better, cream), a little piece of butter, pepper,
and salt. Let the beans simmer a minute in the milk before serving.


CELERY FRIED.

Cut the celery into pieces three or four inches long; boil them tender
in salted water; drain them. Make a batter in the proportion of two eggs
to a cupful of rich milk; mix flour, or fine bread or cracker crumbs,
enough to give it consistence; roll the pieces of celery in it, and fry
them to a light-brown in hot lard. Serve very hot. Celery can also be
cooked as asparagus, boiled tender, and served with a white sauce.


EGG-PLANT.

Cut the plant into slices less than half an inch thick, without paring
off the skin; then sprinkle pepper and salt between the parts, and cover
with a plate; let them remain an hour, then dip each slice separately
first into beaten egg, then into fine bread or cracker crumbs. _Sauté_
them to a light-brown in hot lard or butter.


CABBAGE TO BOIL.

Cabbage is best boiled and served with corned beef; otherwise boil a
small piece of pork with it. Always boil with it a piece of a red
pepper. A little bunch of small red peppers, costing five cents, will
last a long time for cooking cabbage, making pickles, etc.

Remove the outside damaged leaves, and cut the cabbage into halves (or,
if very large, into quarters), so as to better cook the inside stalk;
put it into the boiling water, with the corned beef or pork and the
small red pepper. It will take the cabbage from half to three quarters
of an hour to be well cooked. Drain the cabbage well, serving it with
the meat in the centre of the dish.


CABBAGE STEWED.

Shred two small cabbages coarser than for cold slaw; parboil them with a
small piece of red pepper added to the boiling water; then pour off the
water, and add three or four table-spoonfuls of vinegar, a small piece
of butter, and a large-sized ladleful of stock from the stock-pot; cover
the saucepan closely, and let the cabbage simmer gently for half an
hour; season with a little red pepper, if it needs more, and salt.


TO BOIL CORN ON THE COB.

[Illustration]

At the Saratoga Lake House there is a third specialty of good things.
The first is the fried potato, the second is the fresh trout, the third
is boiled corn, which is served as a course by itself. The corn is
boiled in the husk. The latter imparts sweetness and flavor to the corn,
besides keeping it moist and tender. The unhusked corn is put into
salted boiling water, and when done, and well drained, some of the
outside husks are removed, and the corn is served, with the remaining
husks about it; or, the cobs may be broken from the husks just before
sending them to table, which would save this trouble afterward.


CORN MOCK OYSTERS.

Mix into a pint of grated green corn three table-spoonfuls of milk, one
tea-cupful of flour, a piece of butter the size of a hickory-nut, one
tea-spoonful of salt, half a tea-spoonful of pepper, and one egg. Drop
it by dessert-spoonfuls into a little hot butter, and _sauté_ it on both
sides. It resembles, and has much the flavor of fried oysters. It is a
good tea or lunch dish. Serve it hot, on a warm platter.


CORN CUSTARD, TO BE SERVED AS A VEGETABLE.

Cut corn from the cob, mix it not too thin with milk, two or three
beaten eggs, pepper and salt; bake half an hour. It is very nice.


CORN PUDDING FOR TEA.

Ingredients: One dozen ears of sweet-corn, three eggs, one pint of milk,
three table-spoonfuls of sugar, a small tea-spoonful of salt, a little
butter, a little flour if the corn is quite young, with a little less
milk; if the corn is older, omit it; grate half of the corn, and cut the
other half. Bake.


GRATED CORN SAUTÉD.

Mix grated corn with salt and pepper; _sauté_ it in a little hot butter.


TO COOK CRANBERRIES.

Add one tea-cupful of water to a quart of cranberries, and put them over
the fire. After cooking ten minutes, add two heaping cupfuls of sugar,
and cook about ten minutes longer, stirring them often. Pour them into a
bowl or mold, and when cold they can be removed as a jelly. The berries
will seem very dry before the sugar is added, but if more water is used
they will not form a jelly.


ARTICHOKES.

Cut off the outside tough leaves, and trim the bottom; throw them into
boiling salted water, with a few drops of vinegar. When quite done,
drain, and serve with drawn butter, or, what is still better, a _sauce
Hollandaise_.


FRIED APPLES FOR BREAKFAST.

Sour apples should be selected: Pippins, Northern Spies, etc. First fry
some thin slices of pork, then the slices (without peeling them) of
apples in the same hot fat.


A RICE DISH (_Risotto à la Milanaise_).

Put one ounce of butter (size of a pigeon’s egg) into a stew-pan, and
when hot mix in a quarter of an onion (half an ounce), minced, and cook
until it assumes a pale-yellow color; put in the washed rice (uncooked),
and stir it over the fire until it has a yellow color also; then add a
pint of stock. White stock is preferable, as it preserves the light
color of the rice, yet any stock may be used. Boil slowly until the rice
is tender (about half an hour), when the stock will be mostly absorbed.
When about to serve, add one ounce of grated cheese, stirring for a few
moments over the fire, without letting it boil; sprinkle a little grated
cheese over the top.

This dish can be served alone as an _entremêt_ or as a vegetable, with
any kind of meat. A brown sauce may or may not be served around it.


ANOTHER RICE DISH.

Mix carefully (not to break the grains) in a pint of boiled rice (see
page 288) a table-spoonful of either minced parsley or shives. Put a
piece of butter size of a pigeon’s egg into a saucepan, and let it color
a light-brown; mix the rice in the butter, and serve as a vegetable.


MUSHROOMS IN CRUST (_Croûte aux Champignons_).

For the crust, a little extra butter is added to the dough for rolls; it
is made round, three inches in diameter, and two inches high, instead of
an oval roll shape. When freshly baked, a slice is cut from the top of
each one, the crumb is removed, and the shells are buttered and filled
with mushrooms, cooked as for garnishing, and mixed with a _Bechamel_
sauce. Finely minced parsley is sprinkled over the tops. They should be
served quite hot. Fresh mushrooms are required for this dish.


FLAXSEED FOR A CENTRE-PIECE.

Sew coarse flannel around a goblet with the stem broken off; put this
shapely dome upon a saucer of water; wet the flannel, and sprinkle over
as much flaxseed as will adhere to it. The flannel will absorb the water
from the saucer, which should be often replenished. In about two weeks
the flannel will be concealed in a beautiful verdure, which will vie
with any table ornament.


CASSEROLES.

_Casseroles_ are generally made of boiled rice, or of mashed boiled
potatoes. When of rice, first cook thoroughly with milk, salt, and a
little butter; or they may be cooked in broth, with a little ham added,
which is afterward to be taken out. Mash fine.

When of potatoes, boil, season, and mash them well. Butter the
_casserole_ mold. First press the rice, or the potatoes, whichever used,
into the figures of the mold; then fill it. In the centre bread may be
substituted. Put the _casserole_ aside to harden. When quite cold and
firm, carefully unclasp and take off the mold; then, with a small, sharp
knife and a spoon, scoop out the inside, leaving the _casserole_ from a
half to an inch thick. Just before serving, with a little paste-brush,
dipped in the yolk of an egg, brush the whole surface. This may be
omitted if preferred. Put in a very hot oven a few moments, to heat the
rice or potato, and to color slightly the egg. Fill it with vegetables,
such as cauliflower, Lima beans, string-beans, artichokes, pease, etc.;
or with chicken fricasseed or fried, and served with a cream dressing,
or with _Bechamel_ sauce, or en _blanquette_; or with any kind of
scollops, whether of game, poultry, sweet-breads, fish, or shell-fish.



SHELLS, OR COQUILLES.


A tasteful variety at table is a course of something served in shells
(_en coquille_). The natural shells (except oyster-shells) are not as
pretty as silver shells. Plated silver scallop-shells are not expensive,
and are always ready. You can always serve oysters in their shells, by
once purchasing fine large ones; then, by cleaning them carefully every
time they are used, they will be ready to be filled for the next
occasion with suitable oysters from the can. Oysters, lobsters, shrimps,
or cold fish of any kind, can be served _en coquille_ in place of fish.
Chicken, or meat of any kind, should be served as an _entrée_. Salmon,
or almost any kind of fish or shell-fish, can be served _en coquille_
cold, with a _Mayonnaise_ dressing, as a salad.


CHICKENS IN SHELLS.

Boil the chickens in water or in broth; cut the meat into little dice;
mix them, while hot, with a hot _Bechamel_ sauce, or with a white sauce
made with cream; sprinkle sifted bread or cracker crumbs over them;
brown slightly in a hot oven. Serve immediately. Sometimes mushrooms are
mixed with the chicken dice.


OYSTERS EN COQUILLE.

Prepare oysters as described for _vols-au-vent_; serve them in the
scallop-shells, with sifted bread-crumbs (browned) sprinkled over them.
Put into the oven until they are thoroughly hot.


FISH EN COQUILLE.

Cut any good fish into little scollops (having boned and skinned them)
half an inch wide; fry them in a _sauté_ pan, with a little butter,
salt, and a few drops of lemon-juice; then mix them with any of the fish
sauces, and put them into the shells; sprinkle over bread-crumbs
(_sautéd_ brown in a little butter), and warm them in the oven.


LOBSTERS OR SHRIMPS EN COQUILLE.

Cut the lobsters into scollops or pieces; mix them with the _Bechamel_,
or cream, sauce; sprinkle over bread-crumbs, and brown slightly in the
oven. Proceed in the same manner with shrimps, picking those that are
mixed with the sauce, and reserving some whole, to decorate the tops.


MUSHROOMS EN COQUILLE.

Cut the mushrooms, if they are too large; throw them for a few minutes
into boiling water, then into cold water to whiten them; wipe well, and
_sauté_ them in a saucepan, with a little butter. When colored, and
almost done, sprinkle in a little flour and a little chopped parsley;
when the flour is cooked (which will require but a few moments), pour
in, say, a tea-cupful of stock; let it all simmer for about fifteen
minutes. Just before serving, stir in the beaten yolk of an egg, and a
few drops of lemon-juice. The sauce should be rather thick. Fill each
shell with this mixture; sprinkle a few sifted cracker-crumbs on the
tops; brown them slightly with a red-hot shovel, or put them into a very
hot oven a few moments just before serving.



POTTING.


In England, potting is an every-day affair for the cook. If there be
ham, game, tongue, beef, or fish on the table one day, you are quite
sure to see it potted on the next day at lunch or breakfast. It is a
very good way of managing left-over food, instead of invariably making
it into hashes, stews, etc. These potted meats will keep a long time.
They are not good unless thoroughly pounded, reduced to the smoothest
possible paste, and free from any unbroken fibre.


POTTED HAM.

Mince some cold cooked ham, mixing lean and fat together; pound in a
mortar, seasoning at the same time with a little Cayenne pepper, pounded
mace, and mustard. Put into a dish, and place in the oven half an hour;
afterward pack it in potting-pots or little stone jars, which cover with
a layer of clarified butter (lukewarm), and tie bladders or paste paper
over them. This is convenient for sandwiches. The butter may be used
again for basting meat or for making meat-pies.


POTTED TONGUE (_Warne_).

Ingredients: One pound and a half of boiled tongue, six ounces of
butter, a little cayenne, a small spoonful of pounded mace, nutmeg and
cloves each half a tea-spoonful.

The tongue must be unsmoked, boiled, and the skin taken off. Pound it in
the mortar as fine as possible, with the spices. When perfectly pounded,
and the spices are well blended with the meat, press it into small
potting-pans; pour over the butter. A little roast veal, or the breasts
of turkeys, chickens, etc., added to the tongue, are an improvement.


POTTED BEEF.

This is well-cooked beef chopped and pounded with a little butter,
pepper, salt, and mace. Manage as for potted ham.


POTTED BIRDS.

Clean pigeons, or any other birds, and thoroughly season them with
mace, allspice, pepper, and salt; then lay the breasts in a pan as close
as possible, and put some butter over them; cover the pan with a coarse
flour paste. Bake the birds well in the oven, and when cold cut them
into small pieces; pound these to a paste in a mortar; pack them closely
in a potting-pot, and cover with butter.


POTTED FISH.

Cut out the pieces of fish; season with pepper, salt, and cloves, if you
like; then put them into a dish; cover closely as for potted birds. Bake
one hour. When cold, press them into the pot, and cover well with
butter, etc.


POTTED CHICKEN AND TONGUE OR HAM.

Roast the chicken; take off all the meat, separating it from the sinews
and skin; chop and pound thoroughly, with a pound of tongue or of ham.
Let the bones of the chicken be boiled down to a glaze; moisten the
pounded meat with this glaze; season with salt, Cayenne pepper, nutmeg,
and a little butter. When well pounded and run through a sieve, put it
into pots, and press it in hard. Now put the pots into a covered
stew-pan, with some boiling water in the bottom; let them be steamed
half an hour, then let them cool. Press the meat down again, wipe dry,
and cover with some hot butter. It will keep for months.



MACARONI.


MACARONI, WITH CHEESE (_London Cooking-school_).

Do not wash the macaroni. Throw it, broken into convenient pieces, into
boiling water which is well salted; stir or shake it frequently, to
prevent its adhering to the bottom of the stew-pan. The moment it is
quite tender (no longer), pour it into a colander, and shake off all the
water. In the mean time, melt a lump of butter the size of a large egg
(two ounces) to half a pound of macaroni, in a cup on the fire, and
grate a handful (four ounces) of cheese. Now, when the macaroni is well
drained, place a little of it in the bottom of the dish in which it is
to be served; pour over it some of the melted butter, and sprinkle over
that a little grated cheese. Continue alternate layers of the three
ingredients until all the macaroni is used, leaving butter and cheese on
the top. Put the dish into the oven, and let it remain three or four
minutes, or long enough for the macaroni to soak the butter and cheese;
then take it out; brown the top with a salamander or hot kitchen-shovel,
when it will be ready to be served. Aim to have it done just the moment
of serving, otherwise the cheese will cool and harden.[D] It requires
about twenty minutes to boil macaroni.


MACARONI AND WELSH RARE-BIT.

When the macaroni is cooked as in the preceding receipt, arrange it in
the centre of a large hot platter; brown the top with the salamander;
place around it, as a garnish, little diamonds of Welsh rare-bits (see
page 264). This is a nice dish to serve in place of cheese.


MACARONI, WITH SWEET-BREADS.

Parboil, egg, bread-crumb, and _sauté_ the sweet-breads. Place them in
the centre of a large hot platter; arrange macaroni (cooked with cheese)
around it, and brown the top with the salamander.


MACARONI, WITH TOMATO-SAUCE.

_Sauce._--Put butter size of an egg into a saucepan; when it is at the
boiling-point, throw in an onion (minced), two sprigs of parsley
(chopped fine), and a little pepper. Let it cook five or eight minutes;
then throw in a heaping table-spoonful of flour and a little broth from
the stock-pot (if there be no broth, use a little boiling water). Stir
this well, and let it cook five or eight minutes longer. Now pour in
about a coffee-cupful of tomatoes which have been stewed and strained
through a colander or sieve, and stir all together.

Boil half a pound of macaroni tender in well-salted boiling water or in
stock, and drain it in the colander. Place alternate layers of the
macaroni and the sauce on a hot dish, pouring the sauce over the top;
put the dish into the oven two or three minutes to soak the sauce. Serve
immediately.

This sauce is simple and very nice. I change it from the receipt of the
“London Cooking-teacher,” which requires a few additions. His sauce is
as follows: Cut a carrot and an onion into little dice, and prepare a
bouquet, i. e., tie a little parsley, thyme, and a bay leaf together.
Put into a stew-pan some butter (size of a large egg); when it is hot,
throw into it the vegetables, bouquet, and three or four whole peppers;
let them cook for eight or ten minutes. Then mix in a heaping
table-spoonful of flour, and a little of the _pot-au-feu_ broth; boil
this eight or ten minutes longer; then add a cupful of cooked and
strained tomatoes. Stir all together.


MACARONI AU GRATIN (_New York Cooking-school_).

Ingredients: Half a pound of macaroni, four ounces of cheese, two ounces
of butter, three-quarters of a cupful of _Bechamel_ sauce.

Boil the macaroni as described in “macaroni with cheese.” When well
drained, pour over it nearly all of the sauce and the grated cheese;
toss it in the saucepan, mixing it well together without breaking the
macaroni; put it into a _gratin_ dish; pour first the remainder of the
sauce over the top, then the remainder of the cheese, and over this
sprinkle a table-spoonful of cracker-dust and dots of butter. Put it
into a very hot oven ten minutes, coloring the top.


CRACKERS, WITH CHEESE.

Soak in boiling water round crackers split in two, three inches in
diameter and three-quarters of an inch high (I do not know the name).
Take them out carefully, so as not to break them; make layers of these
slices in a little _gratin_ dish or a deep baking-dish, each slice
buttered, spread with a little made mustard, and sprinkled with pepper,
salt, and plenty of grated cheese. When all is prepared, bake them in a
hot oven for ten minutes.



EGGS.


BOILED EGGS

should all be placed in a wire-basket, and put into boiling water. Boil
them two minutes and three-quarters precisely.

Lord Chesterfield said it was only necessary for him to see a person at
table to tell if he were a gentleman. He must have had a fine
opportunity for observation when boiled eggs were served. It seems
nonsense (and it is nonsense) when I say that the fashionable world
abroad and their imitators here consider it insufferably _gauche_ to
serve a boiled egg but in one stereotyped way, _i. e._, in the smallest
of egg-cups. The top of the egg is cut off with a knife, and with a
little egg-spoon, dipped into salt when necessary, the egg is eaten from
the shell. I really can not see that it matters much whether an egg is
eaten from an egg-glass, or in the little egg-cups from the shell,
unless one prefers to be in the fashion, when it requires no more
trouble.


POACHED EGGS.

Salt the water well; when it is _simmering_, drop lightly each broken
egg from a saucer into it. Cook one egg at a time, throwing carefully
with a spoon the water from the side over the egg, to whiten the top.
When cooked just enough (do not let it get too hard), take out the egg
with a perforated ladle, trim off the ragged pieces, and slip it on a
small, thin piece of hot buttered toast, cut neatly into squares. When
all are cooked, and placed on their separate pieces of toast, sprinkle a
little pepper and salt over each one.

Some put into the boiling water muffin-rings, in which the eggs are
cooked, to give them an even shape; they present a better appearance,
however, cooked in the egg-poacher, illustrated among the cooking
utensils. Poached eggs are nice introduced into a beef soup--one egg for
each person at table; they are also nice served on thin, diamond-shaped
slices of broiled ham instead of toast.

Delmonico serves poached eggs on toast, with sorrel sprinkled over the
tops.


POACHED EGGS ON ANCHOVY TOAST.

This is a favorite dish abroad. It is generally a supper-dish, yet can
be served at breakfast, lunch, and even as a course for dinner. The dish
consists simply of thin pieces of toast, cut of equal size, buttered,
and spread with a little anchovy paste, and a poached egg placed on each
piece. Anchovy paste can be purchased in little jars at all the larger
groceries.


STUFFED EGGS (_for Lunch_).

Boil the eggs hard; cut them in two lengthwise, and remove the yolks,
which chop, adding to them some cooked chicken, lamb, veal, or pickled
tongue chopped fine; season the mixture, and add enough gravy, or the
raw yolk of egg, to bind them; stuff the cavities, smooth them, and
press the two halves together; roll them in beaten egg and bread-crumbs
twice. When just ready to serve, dip them in a wire-basket into boiling
lard; and when they have taken a delicate color, drain. Serve on a
napkin, and garnish with parsley or any kind of leaves, or serve with a
tomato-sauce.


STUFFED EGGS (_French Cook_).

Boil the eggs hard, and cut them in two; take out carefully the yolks,
which mash well, adding a little finely minced onion, chopped parsley,
pepper, and salt. Mash also double the quantity of bread, which has been
soaked in milk; mix bread, yolks, etc., together; then bind them with a
little raw yolk of egg; taste to see if they are properly seasoned.
Stuff the eggs with the mixture, so that each half has the appearance of
containing a whole round yolk; smooth the remainder of the mixture on
the bottom of a pie-pan; arrange the halves symmetrically in this bed;
brown a little in the oven.


STUFFED EGGS, WITH CHEESE.

Ingredients: Six eggs, one ounce of cheese, two ounces of butter, one
heaping tea-spoonful of flour, a little cayenne, one table-spoonful of
vinegar, one and a half cupfuls of milk.

Put the eggs on the fire in cold water, and when they come to a boil
set them at the side of the fire to simmer seven minutes; then put them
into cold water. When cold, remove the shells; cut them in half
lengthwise with a sharp knife, taking care not to tear the whites; mash
the yolks, to which add the grated cheese, vinegar, cayenne. At the
cooking-school was added also a tea-spoonful of olive oil. Make a _roux_
by putting the butter into a little saucepan on the fire, and when it
bubbles mix in the flour. In another small saucepan have a wine-glassful
of milk boiling, to which add enough of the _roux_ to thicken it, and
then add the yolks, and mix all together until quite hot. Now to the
remaining _roux_ add a cupful of milk, and stir until quite smooth for a
sauce; fill the cavities of the whites of the eggs with the yolk
preparation, rounding the tops to represent whole yolks; arrange them in
a circle on a warm platter, and pour the white sauce in the centre.


OMELETS.

Nothing is more simple than to make an omelet, yet very few can make
one. The eggs stick to the pan, or they are overdone, and tough.

Senator Riddle, of Delaware, a decided epicure, took much pleasure in
his superior knowledge on this important subject. Once when breakfasting
with Mrs. Crittenden, of Kentucky, a piece of omelet of doubtful
appearance was presented to him. “Before we proceed with our breakfast,”
said he, “let me teach you a valuable accomplishment.” They repaired at
once to the kitchen range, where the senator demonstrated at once his
qualifications as a first-class cook. My own first lesson was from Mr.
Riddle, so of course I have the correct _modus operandi_; afterward in
London, however, I heard a lecture upon omelets from a cooking
professor, and was astonished at the multiplicity of dishes which could
be made from this simple preparation; not only breakfast dishes, but
also the variety of sweet omelets for dessert.


PLAIN OMELET.

The fire should be quite hot. All cookery-books especially expatiate on
the necessity of a pan to be used for omelets alone. Any clean, smooth
iron spider, or _sauté_ pan, is a good enough omelet-pan. Put the pan on
the fire to become heated; break the eggs into a kitchen basin; sprinkle
over them pepper and salt, and give them twelve vigorous beats with a
spoon. This is enough to break all the yolks, and twelve beats was Mr.
Riddle’s rule. Now put butter the size of an egg (for five eggs) in the
heated pan; turn it around so that it will moisten all the bottom of the
pan. When it is well melted, and _begins to boil_, pour in the eggs.
Holding the handle of the omelet-pan in the left hand, carefully and
lightly with a spoon draw up the whitened egg from the bottom, so that
all the eggs may be equally cooked, or whitened to a soft, creamy
substance. Now, still with the left hand, shake the pan forward and
backward, which will disengage the eggs from the bottom; then shaking
again the omelet a little one side, turn with a spoon half of one side
over the other; and allowing it to remain a moment to harden a little at
the bottom, gently shaking it all the time, toss it over on to a warm
platter held in the right hand. A little practice makes one quite
dexterous in placing the omelet in the centre of the platter, and
turning it over as it is tossed from the omelet-pan.

However, if one is unsuccessful in the tossing operation, which is the
correct thing, according to the cooking professor, the omelet can be
lifted to the platter with a pancake-turner. It should be creamy and
light in the centre, and more firm on the outside.

I will specify several different omelets. A variety of others may be
made in the same way, by adding boiled tongue cut into dice, sliced
truffles, cooked and sliced kidneys with the gravy poured around, etc.,
etc.


OMELET, WITH TOMATOES.

Make the plain omelet; and just before turning one half over the other,
place in the centre three or four whole tomatoes which have been boiled
a few minutes previously and seasoned. When the omelet is turned, of
course the tomatoes will be quite enveloped. Serve with tomato-sauce
(see page 125) poured around it.


OMELET WITH GREEN PEASE

is managed as omelet with tomatoes, putting several spoonfuls of cooked
green pease in the centre before the omelet is lapped, then serving with
a neat row of pease (without juice) around it.


OMELET, WITH HAM.

Throw into the omelet-pan fine-cut shreds of tender ham, with the
butter. When the ham has cooked a moment, throw in the eggs, and proceed
as for plain omelet. A little chopped parsley beaten with the eggs will
improve it. The dish may be garnished with thin diamonds of ham around
the omelet.


OMELET, WITH FINE HERBS.

Before beating the eggs, add with the pepper and salt some chopped
parsley and shives; cook a moment in the butter some thin shreds of
onion, then pour in the eggs, and proceed as for a plain omelet. The
shives may be omitted.


OMELET, WITH MUSHROOMS.

Boil the mushrooms in a little water, or stock, to which are added
pepper, salt, a few drops of lemon-juice, and, when done, a little
flour, to thicken it slightly. Inclose some mushrooms in the omelet in
the manner explained for tomatoes; pour the remainder of the mushrooms
around the omelet, with a little juice.


OMELET, WITH SHRIMPS.

Inclose some picked shrimps in the centre of the omelet. Garnish the
omelet with shrimps unpicked.


OMELET, WITH OYSTERS.

Scald the oysters in their own liquor; when just about to boil, plump
them by throwing them into cold water; then beard them; beat them into
the eggs before they are cooked, leaving a few oysters for garnishing
the plate.


OMELET, WITH CHEESE, OR FONDUE.

Brillat Savarin says: “Take the same number of eggs as guests at table.
Take then a piece of good _fromage de Gruyère_, weighing about
one-third, and a piece of butter one-sixth this weight. Break up and
beat your eggs well in a saucepan; then add your cheese and butter
grated. Put your saucepan on the fire, and stir with a wooden spoon
until the substance is thick and soft; put in a little salt, according
to the age of the cheese, and a good sprinkling of pepper, which is one
of the positive characteristics of this ancient dish. Serve up on a warm
dish. Get some of your best wine from the cellar, which pass around
briskly, and you will see wonders.”

Gruyère cheese is considered superior to other cheeses in this omelet;
yet any kind of American cheese, if highly flavored, is most delicious
also, and, I think, quite as good as the Gruyère. I would use fresh
cheese, and chop it fine, rather than grate it, and also would not add
so much butter. We will say, then, to six eggs add three-quarters of a
cupful, or two ounces, of cheese chopped fine, a piece of butter the
size of a small egg, salt, and pepper. Proceed as for plain omelet.


OMELET, WITH CHEESE AND MACARONI.

Add to the above receipt about two or three cupfuls of macaroni which
has been boiled in salted water and drained, and is still hot.


FRIED OMELET SOUFFLÉ (_for Breakfast_).

Beat the whites and yolks of four eggs separately, and then, adding
pepper and salt, put the whites over the yolks, and mix them together
carefully. Put butter the size of a small egg into an omelet-pan, and
when it has covered the bottom of the pan and is bubbling turn in the
eggs; with a spoon lift them from the bottom until all is slightly
cooked, or at least well heated; then gather up the sides to make it
into omelet form; shake the pan to disengage the omelet, and at the same
time to color it slightly at the bottom; turn this over into the centre
of a warm platter, so that the colored part be on top.


SWEET OMELET (_for Dessert_).

Add a little sugar to the eggs, instead of pepper and salt; make it
then as a plain omelet, inclosing in the centre any kind of preserves,
marmalade, or jam; when it is turned on to the dish, sprinkle sugar over
the top.


OMELET, WITH RUM.

[Illustration]

This is a most delicious omelet. Add a little sugar to the eggs, say a
sherry-glassful to six eggs, and make the omelet as a plain omelet. When
turned on to the dish, sprinkle a little handful of sugar over the top,
and pour over five or six table-spoonfuls of rum. Set it on fire, and
serve it at the table burning.


OMELET SOUFFLÉ.

Although it is a simple thing to make an omelet _soufflé_, and although
in France there is not one cook in a score who can not make a delicious
one for any and every occasion, I would not advise a careless cook to
ever attempt it. The ingredients are: Six whites and three yolks of
eggs, three ounces of pulverized sugar (three table-spoonfuls), and a
flavoring of vanilla or lemon. First, beat the yolks and sugar to a
light cream, and add a few drops of flavoring; then beat the whites to
the stiffest possible froth. Have the yolks in a rather deep kitchen
bowl; turn the whites over them, and with a spoon, giving it a rotary
motion, cut the two, mixing them carefully together. Turn this on to a
baking-dish, either of earthenware or tin, with sides two or three
inches high and slightly buttered. Smooth over the top, sprinkle over
sugar, and put it into a moderate oven. If it has to be turned or moved
in the oven, do it as gently as possible. When it has risen well, and is
of a fine yellow color, it is ready to be served. It should be served at
once, or it will fall.

Omelet _soufflé_ was especially nice at the Café Vienna in Paris. This
is their cook’s receipt: “For one portion,” said he, “use the whites of
three eggs; beat them well; add one table-spoonful of marmalade cut
into fine pieces, or little pieces of fresh peaches; mix with powdered
sugar. Bake it on a dish rubbed with butter in a rather quick oven.” It
seemed as if this was too simple a receipt to be so nice. In another
place was a layer of marmalade on the bottom of the dish, with a
_soufflé_ according to the first receipt, flavored with vanilla, banked
over it.


OMELET, WITH ASPARAGUS POINTS, CAULIFLOWERS, OR OTHER VEGETABLES.

Cook the vegetables first until they are done, as they will not have
time to cook with the eggs. Make them in the same manner described for
tomatoes; or the vegetables may be beaten with the eggs. Make a border
around the omelet of the vegetables used.



SALADS.


In an English book is told a story of a famous French salad-dresser who
began very poor, and made a fortune by dressing salad for dinners in
London. He would go from one place to another in his carriage, with a
liveried servant, and his mahogony case. This case contained all the
necessaries for his business, such as differently perfumed vinegars,
oils with or without the taste of fruit, soy, caviar, truffles,
anchovies, catchup, gravy, some yolks of eggs, etc. I confess to a
lively curiosity as to how these perfumed and scientific mixtures would
taste; however, we will be satisfied with the hundred and one ways of
arranging our simple and delicious salads, within the comprehension of
all.

A Frenchman thinks he can not eat his dinner without his salad. It would
be well if every one had the same appreciation of this most wholesome,
refreshing, and at the same time most economical dish. It is an
accomplishment to know how to dress a salad well, which is especially
prized by the fashionable world. The materials used for salads are
generally those shown in the list on the following page:

Lettuce,
Celery,
Endive,
Garden-cress,
Sorrel,
Onions,
Garlic,
Radishes,
Beet-root,
Pepper-grass,
Cold boiled potatoes,
Cabbage,
Cives,
Tarragon,
Nasturtium blossoms;

or salads of mixed vegetables (_salades en macédoine_), selected from
this list of vegetables:

Cold boiled potatoes,
String-beans,
Navy-beans,
Lima beans,
Beet-root,
Olives,
Tomatoes,
Pease,
Cauliflower,
Asparagus-tops,
Cucumbers,
Carrots,
Truffles,
Turnips.

Salads are also made of cold boiled fowls or fish, as follows:

Chickens,
Lobster,
Salmon,
Prawns,
Shrimps,
Sardines.

There are two kinds of dressing which are the best and oftenest used:
the _Mayonnaise_ and the French dressing. Epicures prefer the simple
French dressing for salads served without fish or fowl. For chicken and
fish salads, and some vegetables, as tomatoes and cauliflowers, they use
the _Mayonnaise_ sauce. This arrangement of dressings is almost
universal in London and Paris. In America we use the _Mayonnaise_ for
all salads. I prefer the foreign custom. The simple salad with the
French dressing is, after all, the most refreshing and satisfactory, if
one has a heavy dinner served before it. The receipts are as follows:


MAYONNAISE SAUCE.

Put the uncooked yolk of an egg into a cold bowl; beat it well with a
silver fork; then add two salt-spoonfuls of salt, and one salt-spoonful
of mustard powder; work them well a minute before adding the oil; then
mix in a little good oil, which must be poured in very slowly (a few
drops at a time) at first, alternated occasionally with a few drops of
vinegar. In proportion as the oil is used, the sauce should gain
consistency. When it begins to have the appearance of jelly, alternate a
few drops of lemon-juice with the oil. When the egg has absorbed a gill
of oil, finish the sauce by adding a very little pinch of Cayenne
pepper and one and a half tea-spoonfuls of good vinegar; taste it to see
that there are salt, mustard, cayenne, and vinegar enough. If not, add
more very carefully. These proportions will suit most tastes; yet some
like more mustard and more oil. Be cautious not to use too much cayenne.

By beating the egg a minute before adding the oil, there is little
danger of the sauce curdling; yet if, by adding too much oil at first,
it should possibly curdle, immediately interrupt the operation. Put the
yolks of one or two eggs on another plate; beat them well, and add the
curdled _Mayonnaise_ by degrees, and finish by adding more oil,
lemon-juice, vinegar, salt, and cayenne according to taste. If lemons
are not at hand, many use vinegar instead.

Delmonico uses four yolks of eggs for two quart-bottles of oil. It is
only necessary, then, to use one yolk for a pint of oil, the egg only
being a foundation for the sauce. It is easier, however, to begin with
more yolks: many use three of them for a gill of oil. The sauce will not
curdle so easily if the few drops of vinegar are used at first, after a
very little oil is used. It keeps perfectly well by putting it into a
glass preserve or pickle bottle, with a ground-glass stopper. It is well
to have enough made to last a week at least. The opportunity of making
it may be taken, and adding it to the _Mayonnaise_ bottle, when there
are extra yolks left, after the whites of the eggs are used for other
purposes, such as white cake, corn-starch pudding, etc.

It requires about a quarter of an hour to make this sauce. In summer,
the process of making it is greatly facilitated by placing the eggs and
oil in the ice-chest half an hour before using them. Sometimes, for the
sake of a change, the _Mayonnaise_ sauce is made green. It is then
called


SAUCE À LA RAVINGOTE.

Here is Carême’s receipt for it: “Take a good handful of chervil,
together with some tarragon, and a few cives. When these herbs have been
washed, put them into boiling water for five or six minutes, with a
little salt; after which, cool, drain, and squeeze them dry. Pound them
well, adding a spoonful of _Mayonnaise_ sauce; then pass the whole
through a sieve, and mix with the _Mayonnaise_ sauce. If you find it too
pale a green, add a little spinach prepared in the same way.”

It is more convenient and simple to add boiled and mashed green pease to
the sauce for coloring. The green _Mayonnaise_ is sometimes used to
spread over a cold boiled fish (marinated). The dish is garnished with
lettuce heads. Sometimes, for lobster or fish salads, the _Mayonnaise_
sauce is prepared red.


RED MAYONNAISE SAUCE.

Pound some lobster coral, pass it through a sieve, and mix it with the
_Mayonnaise_ sauce.


FRENCH DRESSING.

Ingredients: One table-spoonful of vinegar, three table-spoonfuls of
olive-oil, one salt-spoonful of pepper, one salt-spoonful of salt, one
even tea-spoonful of onion scraped fine. Many use tarragon vinegar, _i.
e._, vinegar in which tarragon has been soaked.

Pour the oil, mixed with the pepper and salt, over the salad; mix them
together; then add the vinegar and mix again. Chaptal says: “It results,
from this process, that there can never be too much vinegar: from the
specific gravity of the vinegar compared with the oil, what is more than
needful will fall to the bottom of the salad-bowl. The salt should not
be dissolved in the vinegar, but in the oil, by which means it is more
equally distributed through the salad.”

This is the usual mode of mixing the salad; but I prefer to mix the
pepper and salt, then add the oil and onion, and then the vinegar; and,
when well mingled, to pour the mixture over the salad, or place the
salad over it, and mix all together. It seems to me to be more evenly
distributed in this manner.

Many different combinations can be made to suit the fancy, from the list
of salad materials. I will give certain combinations oftenest seen. It
must be remembered that salad is never good unless perfectly fresh. It
should not be mixed, or brought into the dining-room, until the moment
when it is to be eaten.

When preparing lettuce salad, choose the crisp, tender, centre leaves of
head lettuce. The kind seen in England and France, called _romaine_, is
now much used in New York; it is very crisp and tender. The seeds of
this lettuce can be obtained in New York. In the East, tarragon, and
endive also, are largely produced, and used to imitate these foreign
salads. The tarragon leaves are chopped fine, and mixed in the French
dressing (without onion) to use with lettuce. The taste for tarragon is
generally an acquired one: I prefer the tarragon vinegar to the fresh
leaves, as it has only a slight flavor of the plant.


COMBINATIONS.


1. LETTUCE (_French Cook_).

Rub garlic in the dish in which lettuce, with French dressing (without
onion), is to be served. Leave no pieces of the garlic--merely rubbing
the dish will give flavor enough. The French often use garlic in salads.
I would advise, however, the use of the simple French dressing with
onion to be mixed with the lettuce leaves, and dispense with the garlic.
Use the plain or the tarragon vinegar. Nasturtium blossoms have a most
pleasant piquant flavor, and make a beautiful garnish for a salad.


2.

Lettuce, with water-cresses or pepper-grass mixed, and small radishes
placed around for a garnish. French or _Mayonnaise_ dressing.


3.

Lettuce, with cives mixed, and olives placed around for garnish. French
dressing.


4.

Lettuce, with celery mixed (most excellent). Cut the celery into pieces,
an inch and a half long; then slice these lengthwise into four or five
pieces. Mix with lettuce. French dressing.


5.

Lettuce and sorrel mixed. French dressing.


6.

Lettuce, with anchovies (cut into thin strips as celery) and chopped
cives. To vary this dish, prawns and shrimps are used for a garnish; or
the anchovies may be left out. French dressing.


7.

Endive alone. French dressing.


8.

Endive, mixed with water-cress. French dressing.


9.

Endive, with celery, beets, and hard-boiled eggs in slices. French
dressing. Endive in centre, row of eggs around, then row of beets, then
an edge of fringed celery.


10.

Water-cress is good mixed with cold boiled beets. Cut the beets into
little dice; garnish with olives. French dressing.


11.

Lettuce and dice of cold boiled potatoes, and cold boiled beets.
Potatoes piled in the centre, beets next, and lettuce around the edge of
the dish. French dressing.


12. POTATO SALAD.

New small onions sliced, mixed with cold boiled potatoes cut into dice.
French dressing. This potato salad is very nice.

Another way is to rub the dish with garlic in which the salad is made.
Mix chopped parsley with the potatoes cut into dice. French dressing.


13.

Sliced cucumbers, and sliced new onions. French dressing.


14.

Cabbage alone, with French or _Mayonnaise_ dressing.


15. COLD SLAW.

Cut the cabbage not too fine; sprinkle pepper and salt over it, and set
it on ice, or in a cool place, to keep it crisp.

_Dressing._--Beat the yolks of three eggs, or the whole of two eggs,
with five table-spoonfuls of good strong vinegar, two heaping
tea-spoonfuls of sugar (three, if the vinegar is very strong), half a
tea-spoonful of made mustard, and butter size of an almond. Put these
ingredients into a tin cup, and stir them over the fire until they are
about to boil, or until they become a smooth paste. Put the mixture one
side to become cold, and to remain until just before it is wanted at
table; then mix it well with the cold cabbage, and garnish the top with
slices of hard-boiled egg.

Cold slaw is especially nice served with fried oysters. Place it in the
centre of the warm platter on a folded napkin (a too warm platter would
injure it), then make a circle of fried oysters around it. This makes a
nice course for dinner.

       *       *       *       *       *

The salads of vegetables are generally better with the French dressing.
They present a better appearance by cutting them with a small
vegetable-cutter,


16. SALAD OF VEGETABLES (_Salade de Légumes_).

Mix cold boiled pease, string-beans, pieces of cauliflower,
asparagus-tops, or almost any one of the small vegetables; do not cut
the larger ones too fine. French dressing.


17.

Cold boiled potatoes, Lima beans, beets, carrots. French dressing.


18.

Cold baked navy beans, with _Mayonnaise_ sauce.


19. MAYONNAISE OF CAULIFLOWER.

Place some cauliflowers into just enough boiling water to cover them;
add a little salt and butter to the water. When cooked, let them become
cold; then season them with a marinade of a little salt and pepper,
three spoonfuls of vinegar, and one spoonful of oil. Let them then
remain for an hour. When ready to serve, pile them on the dish to a
point; then mask them with a _Mayonnaise_ sauce.

Carême finishes this dish by placing around it a border of _croûtons_ of
aspic jelly. I can not think that aspic jelly is good enough to pay for
the trouble of making it, and I am a particular advocate for dishes that
_taste_ well. Gouffé arranges around the dish a border of carrots,
beets, turnips, or any green vegetables which have been marinated.


20. TOMATOES À LA MAYONNAISE.

This is a truly delicious dish; it would, in fact, be good every day
during the tomato season.

[Illustration]

Select large fine tomatoes and place them in the ice-chest; the colder
they are, the better, if not frozen; skin them without the use of hot
water, and slice them, still retaining the form of the whole tomato.
Arrange them in uniform order on a dish, with a spoonful of _Mayonnaise_
sauce thick as a jelly on the top of each tomato. Garnish the dish with
leaves of any kind. Parsley is very pretty.

Some marinate the tomato slices, _i. e._, dip them into a mixture of
three spoonfuls of vinegar to one spoonful of oil, pepper, and salt; and
then, after draining well, mix them in the _Mayonnaise_ sauce.


STRING-BEANS IN SALAD (_French Cook_).

[Illustration]

String the beans and boil them whole; when boiled tender, and they have
become cold, slice them lengthwise, cutting each bean into four long
slices; place them neatly, the slices all lying in one direction,
crosswise on a platter. Season them an hour or two before serving, with
a marinade of a little pepper, salt, and three spoonfuls of vinegar to
one spoonful of oil. Just before serving, drain from them any drops that
may have collected, and carefully mix them with a French dressing. This
makes a delicious salad.


CHICKEN SALAD.

[Illustration]

Boil a young tender chicken, and when cold separate the meat from the
bones; cut it into little square blocks or dice; do not mince it. Cut
white tender stalks of celery into about three quarter-inch lengths,
saving the outside green stalks for soups; mix the chicken and celery
together; and then stir well into them a mixture in the proportion of
three table-spoonfuls of vinegar to one table-spoonful of oil, with
pepper, salt, and a little mustard to taste. Put this aside for an hour
or two, or until just before serving; this is called marinating the
chicken; it will absorb the vinegar, etc. When about to serve, mix the
celery and chicken with a _Mayonnaise_ sauce, leaving a portion of the
sauce to mask the top. Reserve several fresh ends or leaves of celery
with which to garnish the dish. Stick a little bouquet of these tops in
the centre of the salad, then a row of them around it. From the centre
to each of the four sides sprinkle rows of capers. Sometimes slices or
little cut diamonds of hard-boiled eggs are used for garnishing.

Chicken salad is often made with lettuce instead of celery. Marinate the
chicken alone; add it to the small tender leaves (uncut) of the lettuce
the last moment before serving; then pour _Mayonnaise_ dressing over the
top. Garnish with little centre-heads of lettuce, capers, cold chopped
red beets if you choose, or sliced hard-boiled eggs. Sometimes little
strips of anchovy are added for a garnish. When on the table it should
all be mixed together. Many may profit by this receipt for chicken
salad; for it is astonishing how few understand making so common a dish.
It is generally minced, and mixed with hard-boiled eggs, etc., for a
dressing.


CHICKEN SALAD (_Carême’s Receipt_).

Take some tender pullets; fry them in the sauté pan, or roast them; when
cold, cut them up, skinning and trimming them neatly. Put the pieces
into a tureen, with some salt, pepper, oil, vinegar, some sprigs of
parsley, and an onion cut into slices; mix all well together; cover, and
let stand for some hours; then, just before serving, drain the salad,
taking care to remove all bits of onion, etc., and place it tastefully
on lettuce-leaves, with the hearts of the lettuce on top, and cover with
a _Mayonnaise_ dressing.


MAYONNAISE OF SALMON.

Remove the skin and bones from a piece of salmon, boiled and cooled, and
cut it into pieces two inches long. Marinate them, _i. e._, place them
in a dish, and season them with salt, pepper, a little oil, and, in this
case, plenty of vinegar, some parsley, and a little onion cut up; then
cover, and let them stand two or three hours. In the mean time, cut up
some hard-boiled eggs into four or eight pieces for a border. Cover the
bottom of the salad-dish with lettuce-leaves, seasoned with a French
dressing; place your salmon slices in a ring on the lettuce, pouring in
the centre a _Mayonnaise_ sauce. Sprinkle capers over the whole.

Other kinds of fish, such as pike, blue-fish, and flounders, make very
good salads, arranged in the same way. Carême, Gouffé, and Francatelli
fry their fish and fowl in a _sauté_ pan, instead of boiling them. If
you do not make use of remnants of salmon left from the table, you can
form better-shaped slices by cutting the fish into little shapes before
it is boiled. If you wish to boil them, immerse them in warm water (with
vinegar and salt added) in a wire basket, or drainer.


SALAD À LA FILLEY.

Ingredients: Cottage cheese, hard-boiled egg, cives.

Arrange cives on a salad-dish in such a manner as to form a nest; put
into the nest whole hard-boiled eggs (shelled), one for each person at
table, alternated with little round cakes of cottage cheese. In
serving, place upon each plate an egg, a cake of cottage cheese, and
some of the cives. Each person cuts all together, and puts on the French
dressing of oil, vinegar, pepper and salt.

[Illustration]



FRITTERS.


FRENCH FRITTER BATTER (_French Cook_), No. 1.

Put a heaping cupful of flour into a bowl; add two yolks of eggs, a
table-spoonful of olive oil, which is better than melted butter, and one
or two table-spoonfuls of brandy, wine, or lemon-juice.[E] Stir it well,
adding, little by little, water enough to give it the thickness of
ordinary batter. This may be used at once; but it is better to put it
away for a day, or even for a week. At the moment of cooking, stir in
well the whites of two eggs beaten to a very stiff froth.


FRITTER BATTER (No. 2).

Ingredients: One pint of milk, three eggs, a little salt, one pint of
flour. It can be made with or without a tea-spoonful of baking-powder.

Beat the eggs well; add part of the milk and salt, then the flour and
milk alternately, beating it all quickly, and cooking it immediately,
dropping it by the spoonful into boiling-hot lard. The fritters are
improved by using prepared flour, Horsford’s or Hecker’s being
especially good.


PINE-APPLE, APPLE PRESERVE, OR PEACH FRITTERS.

Add a pint or less of any of these fruits, cut into small pieces, to
either of the above receipts. When done, sprinkle sugar over the tops.


OYSTER OR CLAM FRITTERS (No. 1).

Chop, not too fine, twenty-five of either clams or oysters (bearded or
not), and mix them in the fritter batter of either of the above
receipts.


CLAM FRITTERS (No. 2).

Strain one pint of clams, saving the juice; add to this juice sufficient
water to make one pint; mix into it one egg, well beaten, and sufficient
_prepared_ flour to make a light batter, also the clams chopped, and
some salt. Drop by the spoonful into boiling-hot lard.


KENTISH FRITTERS (_Mrs. Acton_).

Beat up the whites of three eggs and the yolks of six, with half a pound
of flour, a cupful of milk, and a large tea-spoonful of yeast. Put the
mixture into a jar, and set it near the stove until the next day; then
add to the batter two large apples chopped. Drop this by the spoonful
into boiling lard. Sprinkle over sugar.


FRIED CREAM (_Crême Frite_).

Every one should try this receipt: It will surprise many to know how
soft cream could be enveloped in the crust, while it is an exceedingly
good dish for a dinner course, or for lunch or tea. When the pudding is
hard, it can be rolled in the egg and bread-crumbs. The moment the egg
touches the hot lard it hardens and secures the pudding, which softens
to a creamy substance very delicious.

Ingredients: One pint of milk, five ounces of sugar (little more than
half a cupful), butter the size of a hickory-nut, yolks of three eggs,
two table-spoonfuls of corn starch, and one table-spoonful of flour (a
generous half cupful altogether), stick of cinnamon one inch long, one
half tea-spoonful of vanilla.

Put the cinnamon into the milk, and when it is just about to boil stir
in the sugar, and the corn starch and flour, the two latter rubbed
smooth with two or three table-spoonfuls of extra cold milk; stir it
over the fire for fully two minutes, to cook well the starch and flour;
take it from the fire, stir in the beaten yolks of the eggs, and return
it a few moments to set them; now, again taking it from the fire, remove
the cinnamon, stir in the butter and vanilla, and pour it on a buttered
platter until one-third of an inch high. When cold and stiff, cut the
pudding into parallelograms, about three inches long and two inches
wide; roll these carefully, first in sifted cracker-crumbs, then in eggs
(slightly beaten and sweetened), then again in the cracker-crumbs. Dip
these into boiling-hot lard (a wire basket should be used if
convenient), and when of fine color take them out, and place them in the
oven for four or five minutes to better soften the pudding. Sprinkle
over pulverized sugar, and serve immediately.


PEACH, APRICOT, OR APPLE FRITTÉRS (_French Cook_).

The fresh or the canned fruit may be used. If fresh, pare, core, and cut
them in halves. In either case, let them remain two or three hours in
brandy, rum, or wine, with plenty of sugar sprinkled over, with some
grated lemon peel or zest. When they have absorbed the flavor of these
surroundings, drain, and dip them into the fritter batter (No. 1). If
rum is used for marinating the fruit, it should be also used in the
batter. When the fritters are done and well drained, sprinkle powdered
sugar over them.


BREAD FRITTERS.

Having cut off the crust, cut the bread into any shape preferred, such
as squares, circles, diamonds, etc. Let it soak in custard (milk, one or
two eggs, sugar, and a flavoring of either lemon-zest, or vanilla,
cinnamon, nutmeg, rose-water, brandy, or wine). When well soaked (not
enough, however, to break into pieces), roll it first in bread crumbs,
then in beaten egg (sweetened and flavored), and again in bread or
cracker crumbs, and fry in boiling lard. Serve the fritters sprinkled
with powdered sugar, with or without a sweet sauce.


PORK FRITTERS (see page 164).


CORN FRITTERS.

Ingredients: The corn cut from seven ears, one pint of milk, one egg
beaten, salt, _prepared_ flour enough to make a light batter. Drop by
the table-spoonful into boiling-hot lard.


APPLE FRITTERS.

Pare some fine apples, and with an apple-corer cut out the core from the
centre of each; now cut them across in slices, about one-third of an
inch thick, having the round opening in the centre; dip these in either
fritter batter No. 1 or No. 2; fry in boiling lard; sprinkle over sugar,
and serve in a circle, one overlapping the other, with or without a
sweet sauce in the centre.



PASTRY.


Professional cooks use butter for pastry. Puff paste should never be
attempted with lard or a half mixture of it. If lard or clarified beef
suet is used, the pastry of an indifferent cook will be improved by
adding a little baking-powder to the flour and rolling the paste very
thin.

It is not difficult to make puff paste. In winter, when it is freezing
outdoors, or in summer, when a refrigerator with ice in it is at hand,
it is very little more trouble to make puff paste than any other kind.
The simple rolling of the dough to form layers requires very little
practice. The only secret left, after using cold water and butter cold
enough not to penetrate the dough, is to have it almost at a
freezing-point, or at least thoroughly chilled, as it is put into a hot
oven.

The _vols-au-vent_ of strawberries, or berries of any kind, or of
jellies, or of lemon paste (see page 244), and also _rissoles_, are
especially fine, and are quickly made.

As hundreds of different dishes can be made with pastry, and as Carême
has devoted a good-sized volume to the subject, I will copy his receipt
for puff paste. It is not modest, perhaps, to put my own first; but it
is for the benefit of more ordinary cooks, who will never take extra
trouble to make a thing perfect.


PUFF PASTE.

Ingredients: One pound of flour, three-quarters of a pound of butter,
yolks of two eggs, a little salt, a sprinkle of sugar, a little very
cold (or, better, ice-cold) water. (All the professional cooks use a
pound of butter to a pound of flour. I think it makes the pastry too
rich, and prefer three-quarters of a pound of butter to a pound of
flour.)

Sift and weigh the flour, and put it on the board or marble slab;
sprinkle a little salt and a very little sugar over it. Beat the yolks
of the eggs, and then stir into them a few spoonfuls of ice-cold water;
pour this slowly into the centre of the flour with the left hand,
working it at the same time well into the mass with the tips of the
fingers of the right hand. Continue to work it, turning the fingers
round and round on the board, until you have a well-worked, smooth, and
firm paste. Now roll it out into a rectangular form, being particular to
have the edges quite straight. Much of success depends upon the even
folding of the paste. Work the butter (which should be kept some minutes
in very cold water if it is at all soft) until the moisture and salt are
wiped out, and it is quite supple; care must be taken, however, to keep
the butter from getting too soft, as in this condition it would ruin the
paste. Divide it into three equal parts; spread one part as flatly and
evenly as possible over half of the crust, turn the other half over it,
folding it a second time from right to left. Roll this out to the same
rectangular form as before; spread the second portion of the butter on
half of the crust; fold and roll it out again as before, repeating the
same process with the third portion of butter. The paste has now been
given what they call three turns; it should be given six turns, turning
and rolling the paste after the butter is in. However, after the first
three turns, or after the butter is all in, the paste should be placed
on the ice, or in a cold place, to remain about ten or fifteen minutes
between each of the last three turns: this will prevent the butter
getting soft enough to penetrate the dough. Each time before the dough
is folded, it should be turned half round, so as to roll it in a
different direction each time; this makes the layers more even. In
order to turn the paste, the end may be held to the rolling-pin; then,
rolling the pin, the dough will fold loosely around it; the board may be
sprinkled with flour; then the dough can be unrolled in the side
direction. This is better than to turn it with the hands, as it should
be handled as little as possible. When folded the last time, put the
paste on a platter, cover, and place it on the ice for half an hour, or
where it may become thoroughly chilled; then roll it out for immediate
use; or, so long as it is kept in a half-frozen state, it may be kept
for one or two days. Firm, solid butter should be selected for puff
paste; a light, crumbling butter would be very unsuitable. After the
pies, patties, or other articles are made (as in receipts), the scraps
may be used for making rissoles. Always select the coolest place
possible for making puff paste. In winter it is well to make it by an
open window.


CARÊME’S RECEIPT FOR PUFF PASTE.

Ingredients: Twelve ounces of fine sifted flour, twelve ounces of
butter, two drams of fine salt, and the yolks of two eggs beaten.

Manner of working: Having placed twelve ounces of flour on the board,
make a small hole in the middle, into which put two drams of fine salt,
the yolks of two eggs, and nearly a glass of water. With the ends of the
fingers gradually mix the flour with the ingredients, adding a little
water when necessary, till the paste is of a proper consistence--rather
firm than otherwise. Then lean your hand on the board, and work it for
some minutes, when the paste will become soft to the touch and glossy in
appearance.

Care must be taken, in mixing the flour with the liquid ingredients,
that they do not escape, and that the paste be very lightly gathered
together, to prevent it from forming into lumps, which render it stiff,
and very difficult to be worked, thereby in some degree causing a
failure, which is easily ascertained by the paste, when drawn out,
immediately receding, which arises from its having been clumsily and
irregularly mixed. To remedy this, let it be carefully rolled out,
placing here and there five or six pieces of butter, each the size of a
nutmeg, when, after working it as before, it will acquire the degree of
softness necessary. It is of importance to observe that this paste
should be neither too soft nor too hard, but of a proper medium; yet it
is better to be a little too soft than too stiff. One should not choose
a hot place in which to make paste: for this reason, summer renders the
operation quite difficult. If one can not find a cool place, the paste
might be slightly stiffer in summer than in winter.

When the paste has been made as above, take three-quarters of a pound of
butter in pieces, which has been twenty minutes in ice-water, well
washed and pounded. Squeeze and work it well in a napkin, in order to
separate the water from it, and at the same time to render it soft, and,
above all, of an equal consistence; then, as quickly as possible, roll
the paste into a square on a marble slab (the ends must be perfectly
even, as much success depends upon folding); place the butter in the
middle; spread it over half the paste, immediately turning over the
other half of the paste to cover it. Then roll the paste out about three
feet in length; fold it into three parts by doubling one part over the
other; after which roll it out again, and fold it once more into three
equal parts; now roll it to a greater length, fold it, and put it
quickly on a plate sprinkled with flour. Place this upon ten pounds of
pounded ice, then, covering it with a second plate, put upon that one
pound of broken ice. This plate serves to keep the surface of the paste
cool, and also to prevent its becoming soft by the action of the air.
After two or three minutes, remove the plate, and turn the paste upside
down, instantly covering it as before. After about fifteen minutes, roll
it out, and use it as expeditiously as possible.

Thus, in less than half an hour, it is possible to make very fine puff
paste, having previously every thing ready--the ice pounded, the butter
frozen, and the oven quite hot; for otherwise it can not be done. This
is all-important, as it is sometimes an hour before the oven can be made
hot. When the oven is half heated, begin to make the paste.

The great variety of elegant and delicate forms[F] this paste is made
to assume justifies one for giving such explicit instructions, and
repays one for all necessary pains to make it.


FOR PIES.

I mean Yankee pies. Our English cousins, when speaking of pies, mean
only meat-pies, calling our pies tarts. When the paste is fitted over
the pie-plate, cut round the edge of it with a sharp knife dipped in
flour. Now cut a long curved strip, about three-quarters of an inch
wide, wet slightly the top of the paste on the pie-plate near the edge
(_not the edge_), and fit the strip around the pie, the edges coming
together. Fill the pie, and place in the oven as soon as possible.


PIE PASTE OF LARD AND BUTTER (_Mrs. Treat_).

Rub a half pound of fresh lard into a pound of flour; use just enough of
very cold water to bind it together; roll it out rather thin, and spread
butter over the surface; now fold the paste, turning it twice; roll it
out again, dredging the board (a marble slab is preferable) with flour;
spread on more butter as before, and fold it again. The same process is
continued a third time, using in all a quarter of a pound of butter,
which should at first be divided into three equal parts.[G]


A COMMON PASTE (_for Meat-pies and Puddings_).

Ingredients: One pound of flour, half a pound of lard, two tea-spoonfuls
of yeast-powder, and a little cold water.

First mix well the yeast-powder into the sifted flour; then rub in very
carelessly and lightly the lard, distributing it in rather coarse
pieces. Now pour in enough cold water to bind it together loosely, using
the separated fingers of the right hand to turn the flour lightly, while
the water is being poured in with the left hand; roll it out in its
rough state; prepare the dish, and bake or boil immediately.


AN APPLE-PIE (_Carême_).

Select fine apples; pare them, and take out the cores without breaking
them. Boil several whole in a stew-pan with a little lemon-juice, a very
little of the _yellow_ part of the peel, some sugar, and enough water to
cover them, until nearly done. Quarter other apples; put them also on
the fire with a little water, lemon-peel, lemon-juice, and sugar; boil
these to a kind of marmalade; add some butter and peach marmalade, and
rub it through a colander. Have some pie-plates covered with puff paste;
fill the bottom with the marmalade, and put in four small apples (whole)
to each pie, filling the cavities between with peach marmalade. Put two
strips of crust (half an inch wide) across the pie, which will divide
the apples. Bake in a quick oven. This is especially good served with
cream.


A PLAIN APPLE-PIE (_Miss Amanda Newton_).

Slice pippin apples, and put them between two layers of pie-paste, with
enough water to keep them moist. When they are baked, lift the crust
carefully off with a knife, and put it aside; now mash the apples with a
spoon, season them with plenty of sugar, butter, and grated nutmeg;
replace the top crust and sprinkle sugar over it. These pies are
especially nice when freshly made, then allowed to cool, and served with
cream poured over each piece as it is cut, ready to be eaten.

I think the flavor of the apple is better preserved in this manner than
if the seasoning were cooked in it. However, many stew the apples first,
before baking them in the pie.


FRUIT AND BERRY PIES, OR TARTS.

In England, only an upper crust is made. In this country there is
generally only an under crust, with bars of paste crossed over the top.
I prefer this mode; but these tarts should always be served fresh, or
the under crust will become soaked and unwholesome. The berries or
fruits are first stewed with sugar to taste, then baked, or not baked in
the crust, as preferred.


LEMON-PIE (_Mrs. Hunt_), No. 1.

Ingredients: One heaping table-spoonful of corn starch, one cupful of
boiling water, one cupful of sugar, one egg, one table-spoonful of
butter, and one small lemon.

Moisten a heaping table-spoonful of corn starch with a little cold
water, then add a cupful of boiling water; stir this over the fire for
two or three minutes, allowing it to boil, and cook the starch; add a
tea-spoonful of butter and a cupful of sugar; remove the mixture from
the fire, and when slightly cooled, add an egg, well-beaten, and the
juice and grated rind of a fresh lemon. This makes one pie, and should
be baked with the crust.


LEMON-PIE (_Long Branch_), No. 2.

Ingredients: Four eggs, four table-spoonfuls of sugar, two-thirds of a
cupful of flour, nearly a quart of milk, two small lemons, a little
salt.[H]

Bake two under-crusts. Mix the egg-yolks and sugar well together. Bring
the milk to the boiling-point, then add the flour mixed with some of the
milk, to prevent lumping. Stir it until it has thickened and cooked,
when remove it from the fire to stir in the yolks and sugar; return it
for a minute to set the eggs; again remove it, and flavor with
lemon-juice and grated rind; when the crusts are done, spread over
cream, and over this spread the beaten whites of the eggs sweetened and
flavored. Put it into the oven a few minutes to color.


ORANGE-PIE (_Mrs. Miller_).

Ingredients: Half a pound of sugar, quarter of a pound of butter, two
oranges, six eggs.

Grate the rinds of the oranges, and squeeze the juice. Cream the butter,
and by degrees add the sugar. Beat in the yolks of the eggs (already
well beaten), then the rind and juice of the oranges. Beat the whites of
the eggs to a stiff froth, and mix them lightly in the other
ingredients. Bake in paste-lined tin pie-plates.


PUMPKIN-PIE (_Mrs. Otis, of Boston_), No. 1.

Pare a small pumpkin, and take out the seeds; stew it rather dry, and
strain it through a colander; add two quarts of milk, three eggs, and
three table-spoonfuls of molasses; let the remainder of the sweetening
(to taste) be of sugar; season it with two table-spoonfuls of ground
cinnamon, one of ginger, and two tea-spoonfuls of salt.


PUMPKIN-PIE (No. 2).

Cut the pumpkin into large pieces, and bake with the skins on; scoop out
the soft pumpkin pulp, and proceed as with stewed pumpkin.


MINCE-PIES (_Mrs. Bonner_), No. 1.

Ingredients: Four pounds of lean, cold boiled meat chopped fine, nine
pounds of apples chopped fine, one and a half pounds of suet chopped
fine, three pounds of raisins, two pounds of currants, half a pound of
citron sliced fine, five pounds of sugar, three tea-spoonfuls of ground
cloves, ten tea-spoonfuls of ground cinnamon, five tea-spoonfuls of
ground mace, one tea-spoonful of ground black pepper, six
table-spoonfuls of salt, one quart of cider and vinegar mixed with one
quart of molasses.

Mix all, and add the juice and grated rinds of two lemons; or, instead
of cider, vinegar, and molasses, one quart of sherry and one pint of
brandy may be substituted. Keep this mince-meat in stone jars; add a
little more liquor, if it should become too dry, when about to make
pies.


MINCE-PIES (_Mrs. Hazard_), No. 2.

Boil, until tender, a beef’s tongue which has been kept in salt four or
five days; when cold, chop it fine, and add to it two pounds of suet
(also chopped fine), two pounds of raisins, two pounds of Zante currants
(previously washed and drained), twelve large apples (chopped), four
pounds of sugar, the grated rind of one, and the juice and pulp of two
large oranges, a cupful of strawberry or of raspberry jam, a cupful of
quince preserve, three-quarters of a pound of citron shaved fine, two
table-spoonfuls of ground cinnamon, and one table-spoonful of nutmeg.
Moisten it with the spiced vinegar from the sweet peach-pickle jar, and
add the juice and grated rinds of four lemons.


POTATO-PIE (_Mrs. Osborne_).

Ingredients: Two pounds of boiled potatoes sifted, six eggs,
three-quarters of a pound of butter, one pound of sugar, one lemon
grated and squeezed into the potatoes while hot, half a nutmeg grated,
half a pint of wine, one and a half of rich milk.

Rub the sugar and butter to a cream; add the yolks well beaten, then the
potatoes, etc., lastly the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth.
Bake with an under crust only.


PINE-APPLE-PIE (“_Choice Receipts_”).

Ingredients: A grated pine-apple and its weight in sugar, half its
weight in butter, five eggs (the whites beaten to a stiff froth), one
cupful of cream.

Cream the butter, and beat it with the sugar and yolks until very light;
add the cream, the pine-apple, and the whites of the eggs. Bake with an
under crust. To be eaten cold.


CHESS-PIE.

A gentleman friend spoke to me so often about a wonderfully delicious
pie that a lady friend in the country made, that it is not surprising
that a person of my culinary tastes should have been very curious. “I
will send for the receipt,” said I. “But that will not benefit you,” he
replied, “for I have given the receipt to several of my friends, and
they never succeed. Instead of the light production three or four inches
high of my country friend, the others are heavy, waxy affairs, very
different.” I actually took a little journey to see the lady, to get any
side explanations from her own lips. I was repaid, as you will see by
trying the pie.

Ingredients: For two pies, five eggs, three quarters of a cupful of
butter, one cupful of sugar, and necessary flavoring.

Beat the yolks and sugar together until they are a perfect froth. Beat
the butter until it is a creamy froth also. Now quickly add them
together, flavoring with a little extract of vanilla. Bake it in a
crust: it will rise very light. As soon as done, have ready the whites
of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth, sweetened with a little sugar, and
flavored with a few drops of the extract. Spread this over the tops of
the pies, which return to the oven, to receive a delicate coloring.

The lady says the secret of the pies not becoming heavy is in cutting
them, and distributing them on the plates, as soon as they are cooked,
and still hot; that if they are allowed to cool without cutting them,
they will fall. This is rather strange; nevertheless, it seems to be
true.


SMALL VOLS-AU-VENT, OR PATTY-CASES.

Make puff paste as before described; give it six or seven turns, wetting
the top of the paste, before turning it the last time, with water or a
little lemon-juice; roll it out evenly about a third of an inch thick.
Cut out as many cakes as are required with a circular tin cutter (a
scolloped one is prettier) about two inches in diameter. Now take a
second cutter about half an inch smaller in diameter than the first, and
press it into the tops of the patties, allowing it to sink half-way
through the crust; or cut the patties with a sharp penknife, tracing it
around a little paste-board model.

[Illustration]

When all are cut, brush over the tops with beaten egg, being careful not
to moisten the edges; if they are to be filled with sweetmeats, sprinkle
sugar over the tops. When baked, take off the marked-out covers, and cut
out the centres without defacing the outsides. Keep them in a warm place
until just before serving, when they should be filled, and covered with
the little crust tops.

In entertaining, it will be found very convenient to purchase
patty-cases at the confectioner’s. They can be reheated the last five
minutes, and filled with any thing preferred made at home. They are also
quite cheap.


OYSTERS FOR VOLS-AU-VENT, SCALLOP-SHELLS, OR SERVED ON BUTTERED TOAST
FOR BREAKFAST (No. 1).

Bring a canful or a quart of oysters to the boiling-point in their
liquor; then drain them. Put butter the size of half an egg into a
saucepan, and when hot add half a small onion (cut very fine) and a
tea-spoonful of flour, stirring them well; add then half a tea-cupful of
the juice in a can of mushrooms, pepper, salt, a sprig of parsley (cut
very fine), half a box of mushrooms (chopped not too fine); then add the
oysters. Stir all together over the fire for a minute; add a few drops
of lemon-juice. This is a very nice filling for _vols-au-vent_ made as
in receipt.


OYSTERS FOR VOLS-AU-VENT, SCALLOP-SHELLS, OR SERVED ON BUTTERED TOAST
FOR BREAKFAST (No. 2).

Put the oysters on the fire in their own liquor, and when they are just
beginning to simmer skim them out quickly with a perforated ladle; if
there is too much juice in the saucepan, pour out all except what is
necessary for making a sauce of creamy thickness for the oysters; skim
this well, and make it as thick as rich cream with flour and butter
smoothed together (_roux_). Season it well with salt and Cayenne pepper;
some add also a little nutmeg. When cooked enough, take the sauce off
the fire, add the yolks of two or three eggs well beaten, and the
oysters. Let them merely become hot again on the range without allowing
them to boil. Serve immediately. If these preparations are used for
scallop-shells, sprinkle some cracker-crumbs over the tops, and brown
them quickly with a salamander.


VOLS-AU-VENT OF OYSTERS (No. 3).

Fill the _vols-au-vent_ (made as in preceding article) with oysters
prepared as follows: Beard and put them into a stew-pan with a little
stock; as soon as they are cooked, cut them in two; add three or four
table-spoonfuls of the oyster-liquor to the stock, and add to it a
_roux_ of a little butter and flour; add then a very little cayenne, a
little nutmeg, and two or three table-spoonfuls of cream. It should be
rather thicker than cream. Fill the pastry the last thing before
serving, and cover with the tops.


VOLS-AU-VENT OF SWEET-BREADS.

Prepare the sweet-breads as described in receipt for frying them in the
_sauté_ pan (see page 152), preparing also the same cream-sauce. After
the sweet-breads are cooked, cut them into dice, or into rather small
pieces; fill the _vols-au-vent_ with them, pouring over them a little of
the cream-sauce; cover with the _vols-au-vent_ tops.


VOLS-AU-VENT OF CHICKENS, SHRIMPS, SALMON, MUSHROOMS, VEAL, GAME, ETC.

Fill the _vols-au-vent_ with almost any kind of meat or fish cut into
dice, pouring over them a very little sauce. Do not add too much sauce,
as it would run through the sides. For chicken, a _Bechamel_ or a cream
sauce is good; for shrimps, a shrimp-sauce; for salmon or any other kind
of fish, Hollandaise, shrimp, pickle, or any fish sauce; for veal or
lamb, a little thickened gravy. This is a very good way of using up
remnants of any kind of fish or meat.


VOLS-AU-VENT, WITH STRAWBERRIES, RASPBERRIES, OR CURRANTS (_English
Lady_).

Instead of sprinkling sugar over the tops of the _vols-au-vent_, glaze
them on top with four ounces of sugar boiled to a candy, on which
sprinkle some fine pieces of pounded loaf-sugar. Take about one-fourth
of the ripest of the strawberries to be used, mash them fine, add a
little more sugar to what remains of the sugar used for glazing, and
after boiling it so that it is not quite ready to candy, add the mashed
strawberries and their juice; skim the mixture, and as soon as it sticks
to the fingers take it off the fire.

Just before serving, fill the _vols-au-vent_ with the fresh
strawberries, and cover them with the sirup, when it is cold. Proceed in
the same manner with raspberries and red and white currants.


VOLS-AU-VENT, WITH STRAWBERRIES, ETC.

When the _vols-au-vent_ are nearly or quite done, take them out of the
oven, brush the tops over with the white of an egg, then sprinkle over
this coarse sugar; return them to the oven to set the glaze. At the
moment of serving, fill the _vols-au-vent_ with fresh strawberries,
raspberries, or any kind of preserved fruit. Place a few spoonfuls of
whipped cream over the tops of the fruit.


LEMON PASTE (_for Tarts or Patties_).

To one pound of lump-sugar add six eggs, leaving out the whites of two,
the juice of four large lemons, with the grated rinds of three of them,
and one quarter of a pound of very good butter. Put all into a stew-pan,
and stir gently over a slow fire (or set the basin into a pan of boiling
water) until it becomes thick and looks like honey; do not let it boil.
Pour it into bottles or jars, and keep it in a cool place. It will keep
three or four years.

Bake the crust for the tarts. Put in a little of the lemon paste while
the crusts are hot. Then return them to the oven, to remain until the
paste is nicely melted, when the tarts will be quite ready.


MINCE-MEAT PATTIES.

Either make or purchase the patty-shells, and just before serving fill
them with mince-meat (see page 239), and heat them for a few minutes in
the oven.


CREAM RISSOLES (_Rissoles à la Crême_).

The cream _rissoles_ are made as meat _rissoles_ (see page 142),
substituting the corn-starch pudding described for fried cream (see page
230) for the prepared meat; or the _rissoles_ may be filled with
apple-sauce, marmalade, or any of the stewed fruits or berries.



CANNING.


This is a most valuable manner of preserving vegetables and fruits. In
cities where vegetables, fruits, or berries are bought at high prices,
and perhaps not entirely fresh at that, my experience has taught me that
it is cheaper to buy the canned fruits than to have them put up in the
house. In the country the expense is very little, as the cans may be
purchased in quantities very cheap; and, with proper care in cleaning
and drying them, they can be used several times.

The manner of canning one kind of fruit or vegetable applies to almost
all kinds, except corn. I would not advise any one to attempt canning
corn without the correct process direct from Mr. Winslow himself. By
mixing corn and tomatoes together no difficulty will be found. Gumbo and
tomato mixed are valuable for soup. Canned tomatoes are invaluable in a
household. They are very easily managed, and are as desirable for soups
and sauces as for a separate vegetable dish. If fruits or vegetables of
any kind are quite fresh, and there is not too large a quantity scalded
at one time to prevent careful management of each can, not one can in a
hundred will be lost. I also advise the _canning_ of sweetmeats of every
kind. In that case the same amount of sugar is not required, and the
fruit does not have to be boiled until the natural flavor is entirely
lost. If glass jars are used instead of cans, they must be put on the
fire in cold water with a plate or piece of wood in the bottom of the
kettle. They should not be filled until the water is boiling, and then
they will not be broken. They should be sealed as soon as possible after
they are filled, and when they are cold the covers should again be
tightened, as the glass will contract a little after cooling.


TO CAN TOMATOES.

Let them be entirely fresh. Put scalding water over them to aid in
removing the skins. When the cans with their covers are in readiness
upon the table, the red sealing-wax (which is generally too brittle, and
requires a little lard melted with it) is in a cup at the back of the
fire, the tea-kettle is full of boiling water, and the tomatoes are all
skinned, we are ready to begin the canning. First put four cans (if
there are two persons, three if only one person) on the hearth in front
of the fire; fill them with boiling water. Put enough tomatoes in a
porcelain preserving kettle to fill these cans; add no water to them.
With a good fire let them come to the boiling-point, or let them all be
well scalded through. Then, emptying the hot water from the cans, fill
them with the hot tomatoes; wipe off the moisture from the tops with a
soft cloth, and press the covers on tightly. While pressing each cover
down closely with a knife, pour carefully around it the hot sealing-wax
from the tin cup, so bent at the edge that the wax may run out in a
small stream. Hold the knife still a moment longer, that the wax may
set. When these cans are sealed, continue the operation until all the
tomatoes are canned. Now put the blade of an old knife in the coals, and
when it is red-hot run it over the tops of the sealing-wax to melt any
bubbles that may have formed; then, examining each can, notice if there
is any hissing noise, which will indicate a want of tightness in the
can, which allows the steam to escape. If any holes are found, wipe
them, and cover them while the cans are hot with a bit of the
sealing-wax. There will be juice left after the tomatoes are canned.
Season this and boil it down for catchup.


TO CAN PEACHES.

Cling-stones are best. Pare, halve, and stone them. Boil the stones or
pits until all the flavor is extracted; then, having every thing in
readiness, as described in the preceding article, pour off the water
from the pits, and when it is at boiling-point, throw into it enough
peaches to fill three or four cans; sprinkle over sugar to taste, or
about as much as would be sprinkled over fresh peaches for the table.
When just scalded, can them, placing round pieces of writing-paper
dipped in brandy over the tops of the peaches before putting on the
covers.

Pears, plums, and all kinds of fruit and berries are thrown into a
little boiling water sweetened to taste, scalded, and canned in the same
manner as tomatoes.


STRING-BEANS.

Next to tomatoes, the vegetable easiest to can is, perhaps, the
string-bean. Remove the tough strings at the sides, and break the bean
into two or three pieces. When all ready, throw them into a little
boiling water, scald, and then can them.


OKRA AND TOMATOES

are merely mixed and scalded together. Some add pepper and salt, yet
these are not necessary in canning. This makes a most delicious soup
added to a little stock.


RASPBERRIES

are especially easy to can. They are merely thrown into a little boiling
water (which is slightly sweetened), scalded, and then canned. They are
very wholesome and nice as a sauce for tea.


GREENGAGES

should be canned without skinning. They should be well scalded in a
little sweetened boiling water before canning.


CORN.

Since writing the preceding discouraging remark about corn, I have
found, in a Supreme Court decision, Mr. Winslow’s receipt for canning
corn, as follows:

Fill the cans with the uncooked corn (freshly gathered) cut from the
cob, and seal them hermetically; surround them with straw to prevent
them striking against each other, and put them into a boiler over the
fire, with enough cold water to cover them. Heat the water gradually,
and when they have boiled an hour and a half, puncture the tops of the
cans to allow the escape of gases, then seal them immediately while they
are still hot. Continue to boil them for two hours and a half.

In packing the cut corn in the can, the liberated milk and juices
surround the kernels, forming a liquid in which they are cooked.

This process, patented by Mr. Winslow, is by far the best one for
preserving the natural flavor of green sweet corn.


SUCCOTASH.

Lima beans and corn mixed. They should be boiled until they are
thoroughly done.


CORN AND TOMATOES

make a good combination for canning. The corn, however, should be
thoroughly cooked, and mixed with the tomatoes, after the latter have
been scalded merely.



PRESERVES.


To make clear, good preserves requires: 1st. No economy of trouble; 2d.
That the fruit be perfectly fresh, _alive_ from the tree or bush, or, as
a friend says, “tasting of the sun.”

The French make the clearest, best preserves, because they spare no
pains. They first prepare their sirup or clarified sugar; then, after
neatly and carefully paring or dressing their fruit, cook a few pieces
at a time, or only as many as they can oversee, carefully lifting each
piece out of the sirup the moment it is done. How they preserve
strawberries in bottle (each little bottle of which sells for
seventy-five cents), retaining the full flavor and almost the firmness
of the fresh strawberries, is something for me to investigate.

I consider the peach marmalade the most valuable preserve, as it is
useful in preparing desserts. It is a good sauce for almost any kind of
pudding, especially corn-starch and rice puddings. Preserves are
generally made too sweet. Before hermetically sealed cans or jars were
in general use, it required a large quantity of sugar to keep the
preserves from fermenting. Now, in using cans, one can suit the taste as
to the sweetness of the preserve. I prefer tin cans to glass bottles, as
sometimes the bottled jelly or preserves will ferment, requiring a
second cooking. Tin cans have never failed me. Others prefer bottles,
having no trouble, they say, in tightening them perfectly. The citron
preserve, flavored with root ginger and lemon, is a success. It has the
flavor of the ginger preserve from the West Indies, which is so
fashionable, expensive, and serviceable as an accompaniment for
ice-cream, etc.; it is also inexpensive.

Apples preserved with a flavor of lemon and ginger are particularly nice
also; of course, they are not as firm as citron, and do not imitate so
well the ginger preserve. The outside of the water-melon (skinned) makes
a clear, pretty preserve, flavored in the same manner. The next in favor
is the greengage preserve, which is as clear and beautiful as it is
delicate in flavor. Peaches, unless made into marmalade, are better when
canned with very little sugar than when preserved. Canned peaches,
half-frozen when served, make a delicious dessert with cake.

First, then, for preserves the sirup must be made. I give the old rule;
yet, as before remarked, if canned, they may be made less sweet. I
generally use half a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit.


SIRUP FOR PRESERVES.

Put two pounds of the best white sugar, with one pint of fresh, clear
water, into a white porcelain saucepan; put it on the fire, and before
the sirup becomes hot mix well into it the partly beaten white of an
egg. When it begins to boil, remove the scum as it rises; watch it
constantly that it does not boil over; and continue to boil it until no
more scum rises.

Now peach, pear, greengage, Siberian crab-apple, and cherry preserves
are all made in the same manner. The peaches are neatly peeled, stoned,
and halved. The pears are peeled, cored, and cut into two. The greengage
makes a prettier preserve without being skinned--pricking them, and
halving the stem. The French preserve greengages in this manner. Some
think the skins of plums are tough in preserves, and throw them into
boiling water to skin them. The Siberian crab-apple, which makes a very
good preserve, is cored with a small tin tube or corer (see page 57).
Half of the stem is cut from cherries. When the sirup is gently boiling,
a few pieces are put into it at one time. They are boiled until they
become just soft. Do not allow them to break. When the pieces are done,
take them carefully out, and put more into the sirup until all are
cooked; pour the sirup over, and put them into jars.

Many add a little juice of lemon to pear, crab-apple, and plum
preserves. I would recommend a very little. In the case of peaches, more
flavor is gained by boiling the pits, if they are cling-stone (which
they should be--the White Heath being the best preserving peach), and
after straining the water using it to make the sirup. They will be
firmer by laying the uncooked peaches into the sirup, and letting them
remain in it overnight, cooking them the next morning. Others harden
fruit by letting it remain ten or fifteen minutes in alum-water. This
impairs the flavor. However, for good, clear preserves, I prefer the
first method of preserving them, using the pits for the water with which
to make peach marmalade. Peach marmalade and peach preserves should be
made at the same time, when the peaches of less pretentious appearance
can be used for the marmalade. Boil preserves without a cover to the
kettle.


CITRON PRESERVES (_Miss Leslie_).

The citrons can be pared, cored, and sliced, or cut into fancy shapes
with cutters which are made for the purpose. To six pounds of the
citron, use six pounds of sugar, four lemons, and a quarter of a pound
of ginger-root.

Put the slices of lemon into a preserving-kettle, and boil them for half
an hour, or until they look clear, in a little clear water; then drain
them. Save the water, and put the slices into another dish with a little
cold water; cover them, and let them stand overnight. In the morning
wrap the root-ginger (bruised) in a thin muslin cloth; boil it in three
pints of clear water until the water is highly flavored, when take out
the bag of ginger. Having broken up the loaf-sugar, put it into the
preserving-kettle with the ginger-water. When the sugar is all melted,
set it over the fire; boil, and skim until no more scum rises. Then put
in the pieces of citron and the juice of the lemons. Boil them in the
sirup till all the slices are quite transparent. Do not allow them to
break. When done, put them into the cans or jars, pouring the sirup
carefully over them. If one desires to imitate the West Indies ginger
preserve, the slices of lemon may not be added; yet they are a pretty
addition.


QUINCE PRESERVES (_Mrs. Hazard_).

Pare, core, and quarter the quinces. Select the best-looking quarters
for the preserves; the inferior-looking ones reserve, with the cores and
skins, for the marmalade.

For the preserves, allow three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound
of fruit. Make a sirup as before described (sirup for preserves),
allowing one pint of water to two pounds of sugar. When it is clear, and
still boiling-hot, add the hot quinces, which have been boiled in just
enough clear water to cover them well-boiled until they are tender, or
are easily pierced with a broom-straw--no longer. The preserves are now
ready to be put away. With this proportion of fruit, water, and sugar,
the preserves will not have much juice. What there is will form a thin,
clear jelly around the quinces after they are kept a short time: the hot
sirup will draw juice from the hot quinces to flavor and color it just
enough. There is much difference in the choice of quinces. There is a
kind which makes a white or light-colored preserve, very inferior in
flavor to the large quince, which makes the red.


TOMATO PRESERVES (_Mrs. Wilson_).

Choose little red, plum-shaped tomatoes, if red preserves are desired,
and the small yellow ones for yellow preserves. Peel, and prick them
with a large needle; boil them slowly for half an hour in
preserving-sirup, with the juice of one lemon to every two pounds of
tomatoes; add also a little bag of ginger-root; then skim out the
tomatoes; let them remain two or three hours in the sun to harden. Put
the white of an egg into the sirup; boil and skim well, and pour it over
the tomatoes. The old rule is a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. I
prefer three-quarters of a pound of the former to a pound of the latter.
The yellow tomatoes are preferable.


GRAPE PRESERVES.

Squeeze with your fingers the pulp from each grape. Put the pulps on the
fire, and boil them until they are tender; then press them through a
colander, so that the seeds may be taken out; now add the skins to the
pulps and juice. Put a cupful of sugar to each cupful of fruit, and boil
all together until of a thick consistency. Green-grape preserves are
also nice. In managing the green grapes, halve them, and extract the
seeds with a small knife. Put also a cupful of sugar to a cupful of
fruit. Many prefer the green to the ripe grape preserves.


APPLE GINGER.

Boil ginger-root, tied in a thin muslin bag, in clear water until the
water is well flavored; make a sirup of this water and sugar, adding to
it a little lemon-juice, and allowing three-quarters of a pound of sugar
to a pound of apples. When the sirup is skimmed clear, boil in it a few
quarters of the apples at a time, until they become clear--no longer.
Replace the apples in the sirup when it becomes cold. The golden pippins
should be used. This preserve can be made without ginger.


CANDIED FRUITS.

Boil peaches, plums, pears, apricots, cherries, or almost any fruit
dressed, in a thick sirup made with a tea-cupful of water to each pound
of sugar, until tender--no longer. Let them remain two days in the
sirup; then take them out, drain them, and sprinkle sugar over each
piece separately. Dry them slowly in the sun or in an oven not too warm.


MARMALADES.

To produce the best marmalades, choose ripe and luscious fruits. Cut
them into pieces, and put them into the preserving-kettle with layers of
sugar, placing fruit at the bottom.

For marmalades of peach, pear, green grape, pine-apple, quince, or plum,
allow three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. If the
fruit is not very juicy, add a little water. Be careful that the
marmalade does not burn. When the whole begins to look clear, and
becomes thick by cooling a portion of it on a plate, it is done, and may
be put into jars at once.


QUINCE MARMALADE.

Save the water in which the quinces for preserving were boiled; add to
it the skins and cores, rejecting those which are worm-eaten or
discolored. After boiling about half an hour, strain through a colander,
allowing the pulp only to pass. To this juice add the reserved quince
quarters and the sugar (three-fourths of a pound of sugar to one pound
of fruit). Let all boil together slowly for about an hour and a half,
stirring occasionally, and breaking the quinces into small pieces. When
done, pour it into glasses or bowls. The marmalade will harden, and each
mold will form a convenient little dish for lunch.


PEACH MARMALADE

is made as above. Yet more flavor may be obtained by boiling the pits
until their flavor is extracted; then remove them, and continue boiling
the water until you have sufficient to add to the peaches.


ORANGE MARMALADE.

Allow three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Cut the
peels so that they may be removed in four pieces. Boil these peels in a
large quantity of water for two hours; then cut them into fine shreds.
While these are boiling, press the inside of the oranges through a sieve
fine enough to prevent the seeds and skin from passing through. For
every five oranges, add the grated rind and juice of one lemon. Put all
into a preserving-kettle with the sugar. When done, the marmalade should
be quite thick and solid. Cover closely in little preserving-jars.


RASPBERRY JAM.

Use three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. First boil
the fruit a few minutes with very little water; then add the sugar. Boil
three-quarters of an hour, stirring well. Fill little jars or glasses,
covering them first with papers soaked in brandy, and then with second
papers moistened with the whites of eggs, and pressed against the sides
of the glasses to exclude the air.


GREENGAGE JAM.

Use three-quarters of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit. Skin and
stem ripe greengages, and boil them quickly for three-quarters of an
hour with the sugar, and only enough water to keep them from burning at
first. Skim, and stir very frequently.


BRANDY PEACHES.

Use cling-stone peaches. Rub off the down from each one, and prick it to
the stone with a silver fork. Make a sirup with half a pound of sugar
for each pound of peaches, and half a tea-cupful of water for each pound
of sugar; also add a little white of egg slightly beaten. Skim, when it
boils, as long as the scum rises. Then put in the peaches, boiling them
slowly until they are just tender, and no longer; then take them
carefully out. Remove the sirup from the fire, and add to it half a pint
of the best brandy to a pound of peaches. Now pour this over the
peaches. Can them, or put them into jars, well secured.

Apricots and greengages brandied are made in the same way.


TO JELLY FRUITS.

To make jelly clear, the fruit must be quite fresh, and all blemishes
removed. Have the flannels used for straining perfectly clean and white.
Nearly all jellies are made in the same way, whether currant, plum,
Siberian crab-apple, gooseberry, quince, apple, peach, or grape. Some
add less sugar to the sweeter fruits. The first five fruits mentioned
are exceedingly easy to jelly; the grape is often quite vexatious, with
its perverse inclinations. Cherries will not jelly without gelatine.

After having freed the fruit from all blemishes, put them into a
porcelain preserving-kettle, with only enough clear water to keep them
from burning at first. Let them boil slowly until quite soft; then,
putting them into a flannel cloth, press from them all the juice
possible. Strain the juice two or three times through a clean cloth;
then return it to the clean preserving-kettle, adding a cup of sugar for
every cup of juice, and the beaten white of an egg for the whole. The
rule is to boil the sirup (without stirring) very rapidly for twenty
minutes, not counting the minutes until it begins to boil. The safest
rule is to boil it until it runs a little thick upon the spoon; then let
it run through the jelly-bag without pressing it. If there is any fear
of the jelly becoming too hard before it all runs through, place it near
the fire. The most convenient jelly-strainer is made by fastening the
four corners of a flannel cloth to a filter-stool (see page 57). If the
first dripping of the jelly is not entirely clear, return it to the
strainer until it runs perfectly limpid. Put the jelly into glasses;
and, after it has become quite firm, cut out little papers to fit the
tops, which should be dipped in brandy. Place over these second papers
larger ones, which have been dipped in the whites of eggs. Press the
edges against the sides of the glasses, to exclude the air.


CURRANT JELLY.

Follow the preceding directions. A jelly of prettier color is obtained
by mixing the white and red currants. Some take the trouble to make
jelly from the white and red currants separately, then harden it in
successive layers in the glasses. In this way, the jelly has to be made
on different days, allowing time for each layer to harden. Another
pretty arrangement is to melt the jelly the day before it is served at
the table, and put it into a little jelly-mold. The next day it will be
quite hard enough to turn out.


CURRANT JELLY (_from Scribner’s Monthly_).

“This receipt has three advantages: First, it never fails, as the old
plan is sure to do five times out of eight; secondly, it requires but
half the usual quantity of sugar, and so retains the grateful acidity
and peculiar flavor of the fruit; thirdly, it is by far less troublesome
than the usual method. Weigh the currants without taking the trouble to
remove the stems; do not wash them, but carefully remove leaves and
whatever may adhere to them. To each pound of fruit allow half the
weight of granulated or pure loaf sugar. Put a few currants into a
porcelain-lined kettle, and press them with a potato-masher, or any
thing convenient, in order to secure sufficient liquid to prevent
burning; then add the remainder of the fruit, and boil freely for twenty
minutes, stirring occasionally to prevent burning. Take out and strain
carefully through a three-cornered bag of strong, close texture, putting
the liquid into either earthen or wooden vessels--never in tin, as the
action of the acid on tin materially affects both color and flavor. When
strained, return the liquid to the kettle, without the trouble of
measuring, and let it boil thoroughly for a moment or so, and then add
the sugar. The moment the sugar is entirely dissolved, the jelly is
done, and must be immediately dished, or placed in glasses. It will
jelly upon the side of the cup as it is taken up, leaving no doubt as to
the result. Gather the fruit early, as soon as fully ripe, since the
pulp softens and the juice is less rich if allowed to remain long after
ripening. In our climate, the first week in July is usually considered
the time to make currant jelly. Never gather currants or other soft or
small seed fruit immediately after a rain for preserving purposes, as
they are greatly impoverished by the moisture absorbed. In preserving
all fruits of this class, if they are boiled until tender or
transparent in a small quantity of water, and the sugar is added
afterward, the hardness of the seeds, so objectionable in small fruits,
will be thus avoided. A delicious jam may be made of blackberries,
currants, and raspberries, or with currants with a few raspberries to
flavor, by observing the above suggestion, and adding sugar, pound for
pound, and boiling about twenty minutes.”


MRS. WALWORTH’S CURRANT JELLY.

This jelly took the premium at the fair, for it was not only of fine
flavor, but of crystal clearness.

An equal proportion of red and white currants was placed in the whitest
of porcelain kettles, with a very little clear water, just enough to
keep the fruit from burning at first, and was boiled twenty minutes,
then poured into a jelly-bag; this was not squeezed or touched until a
quantity of clear liquid had run through. (The bag afterward can be well
pressed, and the second juice can be made into an inferior jelly.) To
each pint of the first clear liquid was added a pound of loaf-sugar; it
was then returned to the porcelain kettle (well cleaned), and, after it
came to the boiling-point, was boiled twenty-five minutes. The jelly was
again passed through the bag, after being well cleaned.


COMPOTES

are fresh fruits boiled when needed, with very little sugar. I consider
it a pity to cook or stew peaches, when they are so much better fresh,
with sugar sprinkled over them and half-frozen. And what a destruction
of fine pears! However, _compotes_ are much appreciated and used in
France. I value _compotes_ of apples, however, and also of inferior hard
pears. The first two of the receipts are from Professor Blot.


SIRUP FOR COMPOTES.

A pound of sugar in a porcelain stew-pan, with a pint of water, a
wine-glass of brandy, and a small piece of grated cinnamon. Set it on a
slow fire, skimming off the foam; boil it for ten minutes; then, after
cooling, bottle it, and by cooking well it will keep for months in a
cool, dry place.


COMPOTE OF PEACHES AND APRICOTS.

Cut the fruit in two; take out the stones; throw them into boiling water
(a very little lemon added) for two minutes; then throw them into cold
or ice water, taking them out immediately. This makes them white. Then
peel them. Put a pint of water into a porcelain pan, and set it on a
good fire; when boiling-hot, put in the apricots or peaches, and skim
off the foam; as soon as soft, take them out, place them on a dish, and
pour over sirup.


COMPOTE OF APPLES.

Quarter, peel, core, and cook apples in a stew-pan, with a little water
and sugar. Take out the apples when cooked. Boil down the sirup (adding
sliced lemon and some raisins) to a jelly; then pour it over the apples.
Brandy added improves it.


A BEAUTIFUL STUFFED COMPOTE.

Choose large fine pippins of equal size; pare them, and take out the
cores, leaving the apples entire; cook them about three parts done in
sirup; drain and bake them a few moments in a quick oven. When they are
done and still hot, fill the interior with peach marmalade. Now roll
each apple in jelly produced by boiling down the sirup used to boil the
apples; this will give the apples a beautiful gloss. Dish them in
pyramidal form; put cream, or whipped cream, or a little maraschino,
around the base. Or, form them into a dome, and pour over them a
_méringue_ of beaten whites of eggs and sugar, sticking regularly over
the top sweet almonds cut into four lengths (same size); put it into the
oven to brown. This looks like the apple hedgehog. Or, pour among the
apples, before pouring over the _méringue_, a marmalade of apples or
boiled rice.



PICKLES AND CATCHUPS.


PICKLES, FOR COUNTRY USE (_Mrs. Shaw_).

Make a brine strong enough to bear the weight of an egg. Into this put
cucumbers fresh from the garden. They will keep in this brine
indefinitely. Whenever fresh pickles are wanted, take out as many as are
desired from the brine, and let them soak in fresh water two days,
changing the water once. Now put two quarts of the best cider vinegar
(to fifty cucumbers) on the fire in a porcelain kettle, with one ounce
of whole pepper, half an ounce of mustard-seed, one ounce of ginger
sliced, half an ounce of mace, a small stalk of horse-radish, a piece of
alum the size of a large pea, and half a cup of sugar. Tie up the spices
in three muslin bags. Boil all together ten minutes; then pour all over
the pickles. It is not necessary to scald the cucumbers, yet many do so,
putting them into the kettle, with the vinegar and spices when cold, and
covering the bottom, sides, and top closely with cabbage leaves, which
improve the color. If they are not green enough at the first scalding,
scald them a second time, with fresh leaves around.

This receipt is especially desirable for people living in the country,
because, having many vines, the cucumbers of any size preferred can be
picked each day, washed, and put into the brine.


INDIAN PICKLE.

Ingredients: To every gallon of vinegar put four ounces of curry powder,
four ounces of mustard powder, three ounces of bruised ginger, two drams
of Cayenne pepper, two ounces of turmeric, two ounces of garlic, half a
pound of onions (skinned), and a quarter of a pound of salt.

Put all into a stone jar. Cover it with a bladder wet with the pickle,
and keep it warm by the fire for three days, shaking it well three times
a day. Any thing may be put into this preparation, excepting red cabbage
and walnuts. Gather every thing fresh, such as small cucumbers, green
grapes, green tomatoes, cauliflowers, small onions, nasturtiums,
string-beans, etc., etc. Wipe them, cut them when too large, and throw
them fresh into the vinegar.


CHOWCHOW PICKLE (_Miss Beltzhoover_).

Ingredients: One peck of green tomatoes, half a peck of ripe tomatoes,
half a dozen onions, three heads of cabbage, one dozen green peppers,
and three red peppers.

Chop them any size you choose, then sprinkle half a pint of salt over
them. Put them into a coarse cotton bag. Let them drain twenty-four
hours. Put them into a kettle, with three pounds of brown sugar, half a
tea-cupful of grated horse-radish, one table-spoonful each of ground
black pepper, ground mustard, white mustard, mace, and celery seed.
Cover all with vinegar, and boil till clear.


TO PICKLE CAULIFLOWERS.

Cut the cauliflowers into little flowerets of equal size. Throw them
into boiling salted water. Place them at the back of the range, and when
they are just about to boil take them off and drain them. Put them into
jars. Boil (about fifteen minutes) enough vinegar to well cover them,
seasoning it with one ounce of nutmeg, one ounce of mustard-seed, and
half an ounce of mace to three quarts of vinegar. Pour this hot over the
cauliflowers, adding a little sweet-oil the last thing, to cover the
top. Cover them, while warm, with a bladder or fine leather over their
corks.


PICKLED WALNUTS.

Ingredients: One hundred walnuts, salt and water, one gallon of vinegar,
two ounces of whole black pepper, half an ounce of cloves, one ounce of
allspice, one ounce of root ginger sliced, one ounce of mace.

Gather the walnuts in July, when they are full grown. They should be
soft enough to be pierced all through with a needle. Prick them all well
through. Let them remain nine days in brine (four pounds of salt to each
gallon of water), changing the brine every third day. Drain them, and
let them remain in the sun two or three days until they become black.
Put them into jars, not quite filling them. Boil the vinegar and spices
together ten minutes, and pour the liquid over the walnuts. They will be
fit for use in a month, and will keep for years.


PICKLED GREEN TOMATOES AND ONIONS (_Mrs. Monks_).

Chop one peck of green tomatoes, and half a peck of onions. Let them
stand two days in layers of salt. Bring vinegar (enough just to cover
them) to the boiling-point. Put in the vegetables, mixed with cloves
(one ounce), allspice (one ounce), white mustard-seed (two ounces), and
red peppers (five large ones shredded). When well scalded, they are
ready to be put in jars.


PICKLED ONIONS.

Select small silver-skinned onions. After taking off the outside skins,
remove with a knife one more skin, when each onion should look quite
clear. Put them into strong brine for three days. Bring vinegar to a
boil with one or two blades of mace and some whole red peppers. Pour it
hot over the onions well drained from the brine.


PICKLED BELL PEPPERS.

Cut a slit in the side of each pepper, and take out all the seeds. Let
them soak in brine (strong enough to float an egg) two days. Then,
washing them in cold water, put them into a stone jar. Pour over them
vinegar boiled with cinnamon, mace, and nutmeg. Whenever they are wanted
to be served, stuff each one with a boiled tongue cut into dice, and
mixed with a _Mayonnaise_ dressing. Or little mangoes may be made,
stuffing each one with pickled nasturtiums, grapes, minced onions, red
cabbage or cucumbers, seasoned with mustard-seed, root ginger, and mace.


RIPE CUCUMBER PICKLES.

Pare and seed ripe cucumbers. Slice each cucumber lengthwise into four
pieces, or cut it into fancy shapes, as preferred. Let them stand
twenty-four hours covered with cold vinegar. Drain them: then put them
into fresh vinegar, with two pounds of sugar, and one ounce of
cassia-buds to one quart of vinegar. Boil all together twenty minutes.
Cover them closely in a jar.


SWEET PICKLED PEACHES.

To seven pounds of peaches allow three and three-quarter pounds of
sugar, one quart of vinegar, two ounces of cloves, and two ounces of
stick-cinnamon. Pare the peaches, and stick one or two cloves into each
one. Boil the sugar and vinegar, with several sticks of cinnamon, for
five minutes, then put in the peaches. When cooked till thoroughly
done, take them out. Boil the sirup, reducing it to nearly half, and
pour it over the peaches.


STRAWBERRY PICKLE.

Ingredients: Seven pounds of strawberries, three and a half pounds of
brown sugar, one and a half pints of cider vinegar, one ounce of cloves,
one ounce of stick-cinnamon. Place the strawberries and spices in
alternate layers in a deep dish. Boil the sugar and vinegar three
minutes, and pour it over them, letting them remain until the next day.
The second day pour the liquor off and boil it again three minutes,
returning it, as before, to the strawberries. Let them remain until the
third day, when boil all together over a slow fire for half an hour. Put
it away in jars.


TOMATO CATCHUP.

Boil one bushel of tomatoes in a porcelain kettle until soft; press them
through a sieve; then add half a gallon of vinegar, two ounces of
cloves, one and a half pints of salt, one ounce of Cayenne pepper, five
heads of garlic (skinned and chopped), two ounces of whole pepper, one
pound of allspice, five ounces of mace, and five ounces of celery seed.
Mix all together; and boil until it is reduced to half. Strain, and
bottle it.


TOMATO CATCHUP (_Mrs. Cramer, of Troy_).

Ingredients: One peck of tomatoes, two quarts of vinegar, five
table-spoonfuls of mustard, five table-spoonfuls of salt, four
table-spoonfuls of black pepper, two table-spoonfuls of cloves, three
table-spoonfuls of allspice, and two tea-spoonfuls of red pepper.

Let it boil an hour. Strain it through a sieve.


GOOSEBERRY CATCHUP (_Mrs. Shaw_).

Ingredients: Three pounds of fruit, four pounds of sugar, one pint of
vinegar, two ounces of cloves, and two ounces of cinnamon.

Boil all four hours. Bottle it.


CUCUMBER CATCHUP.

Grate the cucumbers, and strain off the water through a colander. Add
six large onions (chopped very fine) to a gallon of the grated and
strained cucumbers. Add vinegar, salt, Cayenne pepper, and horse-radish
to taste. Bottle it without cooking.



CHEESE.


In England, and at almost every well-appointed table in America, cheese
is a positive necessity to a good table. Brillat Savarin, in his
“Physiologie du Gout,” says, “Un beau dîner sans vieux fromage est une
jolie femme à qui il manque un œil.”

Among the best cheeses of England are the Stilton and Cheshire; of
France, are those of Neufchatel, Brie (_fromage de Brie_), and the
_fromage de Roquefort_. The _fromage de Roquefort_ is, perhaps, one of
the most popular of all cheeses. The Gruyère cheese of Switzerland is
also a well-known cheese. It is made from new milk, and flavored with a
powdered herb. In serving this cheese, French mustard, pepper, and salt
are usually passed at the same time. The Roquefort cheese is made of a
mixture of sheep’s and goat’s milk: the first communicates consistence
and quality; the latter, whiteness and a peculiar flavor. The Parmesan
(an Italian cheese) is made of skimmed milk. It is a high-flavored and
hard cheese, and is not sent to market until it is six months old, and
is often kept for three or four years. It is extensively used, grated,
for cooking. The Stilton cheese is made by adding the cream of the
preceding evening’s milk to the morning’s milking, producing a very rich
and creamy quality. This cheese is preferred by epicures when it is old,
after having been buried for some time in tin cans to become moldy. The
Cheshire is made with rich new milk. This cheese can be appreciated
without cultivating a taste for it.

Our American cheeses, since the introduction of the factory system, are
exported in immense quantities to England, where they are much sought
for, and considered by epicures as great luxuries. This is generally
astonishing to Americans abroad, who, at home, often consider it only in
rule to offer guests cheese of foreign manufacture. I think, however, in
comparison with our own, the celebrated foreign cheeses have one
advantage. The latter take the name of the exact locality where they are
manufactured; consequently, when people speak of a Stilton or of a
_fromage de Brie_ they know exactly of what they are talking; not so of
American cheese. American cheese means that which may be superior, good,
bad, or indifferent: it is too general a name. America has hundreds of
cheese manufactories, and not a famous one; although many of them make
that which would do credit to America as the greatest cheese-making
country in the world, if only these best specimens were more generally
known.

I have taken great pains in trying to decide which of many samples is
the best American cheese, and have decided upon one made in Otsego
County, New York, which is called the “English dairy” cheese. Before
proceeding any further, I shall enter my protest against that name. Why
do they not call it Otsego cheese? If it were eaten in London, an
Englishman would certainly flatter himself that it was made in England.
If they will only change the name, then, I will take more pleasure in
saying that the Otsego cheese is undoubtedly one of the best specimens
of American cheeses. It has a dark-yellow color, is very rich, and
highly flavored.

The pastures of Otsego County are exceptionally fine, and its general
advantages of climate, etc., render its locality one of the best adapted
for the manufacture of cheese.

One of the best specimens of cheese of a milder character, white and
well-flavored, is made at Milan, Cayuga County, New York, the name of
which might be Cayuga cheese.

Perhaps the cheapest of the foreign famous cheeses is the Neufchatel. It
comes in little rolls about an inch thick and three inches long, is
enveloped in tin-foil, and costs about twenty cents a roll. Two rolls
are quite sufficient for a large dinner. It is a delicious cheese. Care
must be taken, however, when purchasing, to ascertain that it is not
musty.

The tariff may be saved by purchasing the Neufchatel manufactured in New
Jersey and Westchester County, New York. As for that, the Stilton made
in Cayuga County can hardly be detected from the Leicestershire
manufacture itself; and, in fact, nearly all the famous cheeses are very
perfectly imitated in America, so that those who choose may indulge in
foreign names and encourage home manufacture at the same time.

In serving Stilton cheese, the top should be cut off to form a cover,
and then the cheese should be neatly surrounded with a napkin. Whenever
the cheese is taken from the table, the cover should be replaced.

Cheeses are generally cut into little squares and passed in a glass
cheese-dish. No morsel of dried cheese should ever be thrown away, as it
can be used grated for macaroni, cheese omelets, etc.

Cheese should form a course at dinner. For further particulars
concerning cheese as a course, see page 345.


WELSH RARE-BIT.

Toast carefully thin square or diamond-shaped slices of bread, with the
crust removed. While hot, butter them slightly; then dip them for a
moment in a pan containing enough hot water to half cover them; they
should be only slightly moistened. Now place each slice on a separate
hot plate, allowing one slice for each person at table; sprinkle over a
little salt, and pour over them enough melted cheese to cover them.
Select rich, new cheese, as it is more easily melted. It can be melted
in a little cup. It should not be made until almost ready to serve, as
the moment it is finished it should be eaten; otherwise the cheese will
harden, the toast will become cold, and the dish altogether will be
quite ruined.

This is a favorite dish for gentlemen’s suppers or for lunch; yet it is
sometimes served at dinner for a cheese course by itself, or for
decorating a platter of macaroni with cheese.

This simple receipt is decidedly the best one, I think; yet some spread
also a little mustard over the toast, and others add a little ale to the
melted cheese. Sometimes the toast may be dipped into ale instead of hot
water, and some serve a poached egg on each slice of Welsh rare-bit;
still others mix the yolks of eggs into the cheese when melted.

The Welsh rare-bit makes a decidedly pretty course, served in little
chafing-dishes in silver, or plated silver, about four inches square,
one of which, standing in a plate, is to be served to each person at
table. The reservoir contains boiling-hot water; the little platter
holds the slice of Welsh rare-bit, which is thus kept hot.


COTTAGE CHEESE.

Place a pan of clabbered sour milk over the fire, and let it become well
scalded; then, pouring it into a clean cloth, squeeze out all the water,
leaving the clabber quite dry. Put this into a kitchen basin, and work
it with the hands, making it a little moist by adding cream. Add also a
little butter and plenty of salt; mold it into little balls.


RAMEKINS (_Ramequins à la Ude, Cook to Louis XVI._).

Ingredients: Four ounces of grated high-flavored cheese, two ounces of
butter, two ounces of bread (without crust), a scant gill of milk,
one-third of a tea-spoonful of mustard, one-third of a tea-spoonful of
salt, small pinch of Cayenne pepper, yolks of two eggs, whites of three.

Crumb the bread, and boil it soft in the milk; add the butter, mustard,
salt, pepper, cheese, and the yolks of the eggs; beat thoroughly; then
stir in the whites of the eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Pour this into
little round paper cases (see page 61), which require only a few minutes
to make; fill each one about three-quarters full; bake the paste about
five or six minutes, when it should be puffed high above the edge of the
paper. Serve the ramekins immediately, or they will fall. A good cheese
course for dinner, and nice for lunch or supper.


RAMEKINS, WITH ALE (_Warne_).

Ingredients: Four ounces of cheese, two ounces of fresh butter, half a
French roll, two eggs, half a cupful of cream, half a wine-glassful of
good ale.

Boil the roll and cream together until quite smooth; rub the grated
cheese and the butter smoothly together; then mix all, adding the ale
and the yolks of the eggs well beaten. When the paste is smooth, stir in
the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth; put the mixture into
paper cases; bake about fifteen minutes, and serve very hot.[I]


PASTRY RAMEKINS (_Warne_).

Ingredients: Some good cheese, puff paste, the yolk of one egg.

Take some puff paste, and roll it out rather thin; strew over it some
good grated cheese, and fold it over; repeat this three times, rolling
it out each time; then cut the ramekins with a paste-cutter in any form
you please, brush them over with the yolk of a well-beaten egg, and bake
them in a quick oven for about fifteen minutes. When done, serve them
quickly on a hot napkin.



SWEET SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS.


BUTTER SAUCE (_Mrs. Youmans_).

Ingredients: Three-quarters of a cupful of butter, one and a half
cupfuls of powdered sugar, four table-spoonfuls of boiling-hot starch,
made of flour or corn starch, with either brandy, maraschino, wine,
lemon-juice and zest, vanilla, or other flavoring preferred. Stir the
butter with a fork to a light cream; add the sugar, and continue to beat
it for one or two minutes. Just before serving, stir in with an
egg-whisk the boiling starch and the flavoring.


SIRUP SAUCES.

Boil two cupfuls of sugar with two or three table-spoonfuls of water,
until it thickens slightly; take it from the fire; stir in a piece of
butter the size of a hickory-nut, and either lemon-juice, fruit-juice,
or, in winter, fruit sirups, wine, brandy, or any of the flavoring
extracts.


A PLAIN AND CHEAP SAUCE.

Ingredients: Three and a half cupfuls of water, one cupful of sugar, a
small piece of butter, a table-spoonful of either corn starch or flour,
flavoring of either brandy, vanilla, lemon, or wine (with or without a
little nutmeg), or zest and cinnamon.

When the water boils, stir in the corn starch or flour (rubbed smooth
with a little cold water), sugar, and, if used, the yellow rind of a
lemon and the cinnamon, and cook well for two or three minutes; take the
pan from the fire, and stir in the butter and flavoring (if the lemon
and cinnamon are not used).


SAME SAUCE, RICHER (_Mrs. Osborne_).

Ingredients: One pint of water, three table-spoonfuls of flour or corn
starch, half a cupful of butter, two cupfuls of sugar, two eggs, half of
a nutmeg, half a pint of Madeira or sherry.

Beat the butter and sugar to a cream; add the eggs well beaten, then the
nutmeg; heat the wine as hot as possible without boiling; bring the
water to a boil in another vessel, and stir in the corn starch or flour
(rubbed smooth with a little cold water), and cook it well for about two
minutes. Mix well the ingredients off the fire.


WHIPPED-CREAM SAUCE (_Mrs. Embry, Kentucky_).

Mix a plateful of whipped cream (flavored with wine or vanilla), the
beaten whites of two or three eggs, and pulverized sugar to taste, all
together. Pile a bank of this mixture in the centre of a platter, and
form a circle of little fruit puddings or Swedish puddings (steamed in
cups or little molds), _blanc-manges_, corn-starch puddings, etc.,
around it; or place a large pudding in the centre, with a circle of the
sauce around.


FRUIT SAUCES.

The French bottled apricots, greengage plums, or strawberries make
delicious sauces for a Bavarian cream, _blanc-mange_, _charlotte-russe_,
or corn-starch pudding. They may simply be poured around the pudding on
a platter, or the juice may, be thickened by boiling it with a very
little corn-starch, then adding the fruit to it when cold.

The American canned May-duke cherries (Shrivers) make a good pudding
sauce. Boil the juice, and add the slight corn-starch thickening and a
little sugar; when cold, add the cherries. It makes a good sauce poured
around these puddings.

Fresh red cherries, stewed, sweetened, passed through a sieve, and
slightly thickened with corn starch, make another pudding sauce. The
Colorado wild raspberries make a fine berry pudding, with the same kind
of berry sauce around it. Marmalades and preserves, if not too stiff,
make pretty garnishes as well as good sauces.


STRAWBERRY SAUCE (_for Baked Puddings_).

Ingredients: Half a cupful of butter, one cupful of sugar, the beaten
white of an egg, and one cupful of strawberries (mashed).

Rub butter and sugar to a cream; add the beaten white of the egg, and
the strawberries thoroughly mashed.


BOILED CUSTARD

makes a good sauce. If served with plum-pudding, flavor it with brandy;
if served with rice-pudding (in mold) or corn starch or other puddings,
flavor it with lemon, vanilla, chocolate, or coffee, etc., etc.


A GOOD SAUCE FOR PUDDINGS (_Miss Amelia Foote_).

Ingredients: Half a cupful of butter, one cupful of sugar, white of one
egg, two table-spoonfuls of wine, a little vanilla, and half a
wine-glassful of boiling water.

Beat the butter and sugar for about fifteen minutes; then add the
flavoring. Just before sending to the table, add the egg, beaten to a
froth, and stir in the boiling water, beating it to a foam; or it may be
flavored with brandy or wine, without the vanilla.


SABYLLON.

This is a French pudding sauce, and an exceedingly good one. It is so
rich that one or two table-spoonfuls poured over a fruit, batter, bread,
or almost any kind of pudding, are sufficient. The amount of sauce in
the receipt is, therefore, enough for six or seven persons.

Put two yolks and one whole egg, also a scant half tea-cupful of sugar,
into a little stew-pan; beat them well for a few minutes. Then put the
saucepan into another, containing boiling water, over the fire; beat the
eggs briskly with the egg-whisk while you gradually pour in a scant half
tea-cupful of sherry; when the sherry is all in, the egg will begin to
thicken; then take it from the fire, and add the juice of a quarter of a
small lemon.


CARAMEL SAUCE (_New York Cooking-school_).

Dissolve six ounces of cut loaf-sugar in half a pint of boiling water;
add a stick of cinnamon, a little lemon-zest, and two cloves, and boil
it ten minutes. Next put two ounces of loaf-sugar, dissolved in a
table-spoonful of boiling water, on a moderate fire, and stir it until
it assumes a light-brown color; pour the other boiled sugar over this;
give it one boil, remove it from the fire, and add two or three
table-spoonfuls of sherry.



PUDDINGS AND CUSTARDS.


PLUM-PUDDING, WITH RUM OR BRANDY (_Gouffé_).

[Illustration]

Take three-quarters of a pound of chopped suet, three-quarters of a
pound of stoned raisins, three-quarters of a pound of currants, quarter
of a pound of citron, three-quarters of a pound of sugar, three-quarters
of a pound of bread-crumbs, two apples cut into small dice, and the
grated peel of a lemon; mix the whole in a basin, with three pounded
cloves, a pinch of salt, six eggs, and half a gill of rum or brandy.
Butter a pudding-mold, fill it with the mixture, and tie a cloth over
the top. Place a plate at the bottom of a kettle which is three-parts
full of boiling water. Put the pudding in, and boil for four hours,
keeping the pot replenished with boiling water. Turn out the pudding on
a hot dish; sprinkle over it sugar. Pour over half a pint of warm rum or
brandy, and light it when putting the pudding on the table.

_German Sauce._--Made with eight yolks of eggs, quarter of a pound of
sugar, three gills of Madeira, and the grated peel of half a lemon. Stir
it over the fire until the spoon is coated. Serve in a boat. Or serve a
common brandy sauce, or the same kind of sauce flavored with rum, if rum
should be used in the pudding.


PLUM-PUDDING (_Mrs. General Sherman_).

Ingredients: One cupful of butter, one cupful of sugar, half a cupful of
cream, half a cupful of rum, one cupful of ale, one cupful of suet
(chopped), one cupful of fruit (currants and raisins), half a cupful of
candied orange cut fine, six eggs well beaten, two grated nutmegs, one
tea-spoonful of ground cinnamon, half a tea-spoonful of ground cloves,
bread-crumbs.

Beat the butter and sugar together to a cream. The bread-crumbs should
be dried thoroughly, and passed through a sieve. Beat all well together
before adding the bread-crumbs, then add enough of them to give proper
consistency. Put the pudding into a tin mold (not quite filling it), and
boil it four hours.

_The Sauce._--Use equal quantities of butter and sugar. Cream the
butter, then add the sugar, beating them both until very light. Add then
the beaten yolk of an egg, and a little grated nutmeg. Heat on the fire
a large wine-glassful of sherry wine diluted with the same quantity of
water, and when just beginning to boil, stir it into the butter and
sugar.


PUDDING WITH REMAINS OF PLUM-PUDDING.

Line a _charlotte_ mold or basin with slices of cold plum-pudding, cut
so that they will fit closely together. Fill the inside with a
sufficient quantity of gelatine pudding (see page 272). Set it in a cool
place to stiffen. Turn out the _charlotte_ on a dish, with a brandy
sauce on the bottom.


PLAINER FRUIT PUDDING.

Ingredients: One cupful of sugar, one-quarter of a pound of raisins, one
cupful of butter, one half-pound of English currants, three and a half
cupfuls of flour, a little citron sliced, four eggs, the whites and
yolks beaten separately. Put one tea-spoonful of saleratus with, one
half-cupful of cream. Flour the raisins, currants, and citron before
adding to the mixture.

Boil it three hours in a floured cloth, or in buttered forms, large or
small. Pour some brandy on top, and set it on fire just before taking to
the dining-room. Serve with brandy-sauce.


SUET-PUDDING (_Mrs. Gratz Brown_).

Ingredients: One cupful of suet chopped fine, one cupful of molasses,
one cupful of sweet milk, one cupful of raisins, one tea-spoonful of
salt, one small tea-spoonful of soda mixed in the molasses, three and a
half cupfuls of flour.

Boil in a bag or form three hours; or, better, steam it. It may be
steamed in tea-cups, filling them a little more than half full. Serve
with brandy-sauce.


PRUNE-PUDDING (_Grace Greenwood_).

This is the same as the suet-pudding, excepting that one half-pound of
prunes and one half-pound of English currants are substituted for the
raisins.


EVE’S PUDDING (_Mrs. Frank Blair_).

Ingredients: Six ounces of bread-crumbs, six ounces of sugar, six ounces
of raisins or currants, six ounces of butter cut in small pieces, or
beef suet chopped fine, six large apples chopped, one table-spoonful of
flour, six eggs, one table-spoonful of cinnamon, one tea-spoonful of
ground cloves.

Flour the fruit. Mix eggs and sugar together, and the suet and apples;
then mix all, adding the beaten whites of the eggs the last thing. Boil
it in a form or bag three hours, or bake it two hours. Serve with
brandy-sauce.


A SPICED APPLE-PUDDING.

Ingredients: Three tea-cupfuls of bread-crumbs, three tea-cupfuls of
apples chopped, one tea-cupful of sugar, one-quarter of a pound of
raisins, perhaps a little citron, two table-spoonfuls of brandy, one
table-spoonful of ground cinnamon, half a tea-spoonful of ground cloves,
one tea-spoonful of mace, two or three eggs beaten separately.

Cook the bread-crumbs a few minutes with a pint of milk before adding
the other ingredients; add the whites of the eggs the last thing before
baking. Bake half an hour, if the oven is quite hot. Serve with any
sweet sauce.


COTTAGE-PUDDING.

Ingredients: One cupful of sugar, one and one-half cupfuls of flour, one
table-spoonful of butter, one half-cupful of milk, two eggs beaten
separately, one tea-spoonful of baking-powder, or one half-tea-spoonful
of soda, and one tea-spoonful of cream of tartar. Brandy or wine sauce.


MINUTE-PUDDING.

Ingredients: One quart of milk, salt, two eggs, about a pint of flour.

Beat the eggs well; add the flour and enough milk to make it smooth.
Butter the saucepan, and put in the remainder of the milk well salted;
when it boils, stir in the flour, eggs, etc., lightly; let it cook well.
It should be of the consistency of thick corn mush. Serve immediately
with the following simple sauce, viz., milk sweetened to taste, and
flavored with grated nutmeg.


NANTUCKET BERRY-PUDDING.

Ingredients: One pint of grated cold boiled potatoes, one pint of flour,
one quarter of a pound of butter, one tea-spoonful of salt, and almost
any kind of berries.

Wet these with milk or water to the consistency of soft biscuit-dough;
roll it; spread with blackberries, raspberries, cherries, or stewed dry
berries. Roll, fasten in a cloth, and steam it an hour and a quarter.
Serve with any sweet pudding-sauce.


GELATINE-PUDDING (_Miss Colby, of Rochester_).

Separate the whites and yolks of four eggs. With the yolks make a boiled
custard (with a pint of milk, and sugar to taste). Set a third of a box
of gelatine to soak a few minutes in a little cold water, then dissolve
it with three-fourths of a cupful of boiling water. When the custard has
cooled, add the gelatine water and the whites of the eggs beaten to a
stiff froth; flavor with vanilla, stir all together, and put it into a
mold or molds. It will settle into three layers, and is a very pretty
pudding, tasting much like a _charlotte-russe_. A pretty effect can be
obtained by using Coxe’s _pink_ gelatine.


TAPIOCA-PUDDING.

Pare and core (with a tube) six or seven apples; lay them in a buttered
dish. Pour over a cupful of tapioca or sago one quart of boiling water;
let it stand an hour; add two tea-cupfuls of sugar, a little lemon,
vanilla, or wine; pour this over the apples, and bake an hour. Peaches
(fresh or canned) may be substituted, and are an improvement.


TAPIOCA CREAM.

Soak a tea-cupful of tapioca overnight in milk. The next day, stir into
it the yolks of three eggs well beaten and a cupful of sugar. Place a
quart of milk on the fire, let it come to the boiling-point, and then
stir in the tapioca, and let the whole cook until it has thickened; then
take it off the fire, and stir in the whites of the eggs beaten to a
froth. Flavor to taste. A small portion of the beaten whites of the eggs
can be saved to decorate the top. Stir into the latter a little sugar,
put it into a paper funnel, press it out over the top of the pudding
according to fancy, and place it in the oven a few moments to color.


CABINET-PUDDING (_Mrs. Pope_).

[Illustration]

Butter a mold well; line the bottom with raisins and with citron cut
into fancy shapes; cover this with pieces of cake, then more raisins and
citron, alternating with the cake, until the mold is full to within an
inch and a half of the top. Mix in a bowl three table-spoonfuls of sugar
and the yolks of three eggs until they are a cream; then mix in slowly a
pint of milk just brought to the boiling-point. Pour this over the cake,
etc., in the mold. Put this into a pan of cold water, so that the water
may cover one-third of the mold. Set it over the fire until the water
boils; then put the whole into the oven to bake an hour. Serve with
wine-sauce.


BATTER-PUDDINGS BAKED.

Ingredients: One quart of sifted flour, butter the size of an egg, one
pint of milk, half a tea-spoonful of salt, four eggs.

Scald the milk, and melt the butter in it. When partly cooled, stir in
the yolks of the eggs well beaten, then the salt and flour. When quite
cold, stir in lightly the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth.
Bake in rather large patty-pans. Serve immediately with a sauce. The
puddings should be light puffs. Strawberry-sauce is especially nice with
these puddings.


ROLY-POLY PUDDING BOILED.

Make a biscuit-dough and roll it out into a square about a fourth of an
inch thick. Spread over it (leaving an inch uncovered at the edges)
almost any kind of fruit, or berries, such as strawberries, raspberries,
etc., sweetened, or preserves. Roll it tight. Sew it in a cloth, giving
room for it to swell. Boil or steam it an hour. Serve with almost any
kind of pudding sauce. A nice roly-poly pudding may be made with
sponge-cake baked in sheets, spread with preserves or jelly, rolled,
sprinkled on top with sugar, and served with wine-sauce.


BAKED BERRY ROLLS.

Roll biscuit-dough thin, in the form of a large square, or into small
squares. Spread over with berries. Roll the crust, and put the rolls
into a dripping-pan close together until full; then put into the pan
water, sugar, and pieces of butter. Bake them. Serve any of the pudding
sauces.


SWEDISH PUDDING.

Ingredients: One half-pound of flour, one half-pound of butter,
half-pound of sugar, eight eggs, a little salt.

Rub the sugar and butter to a cream; add the yolks well beaten, the
salt, flour, and, lastly, the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff
froth. Put the batter three-fourths of an inch deep into tea-cups. Cook
by steaming them in a steamer about half an hour. The batter will fill
the cups. Turn them out on a hot platter. Serve immediately with a clear
brandy-sauce in the bottom of the dish. Half the above amount will be
sufficient for a small family.


CHERRY-PUDDING (_Mrs. Bonner_).

Ingredients: Two eggs, one cupful of sweet milk, three tea-spoonfuls of
yeast powder, flour to make a stiff batter, as many cherries or fruit of
any kind as can be stirred in.

Boil or steam it two hours. Serve with fruit sauce, made as in receipt
for “fruit sauces” of the same kind of fruit of which the pudding is
made.


A CORN-STARCH PUDDING.

Many kinds of puddings can be made with this receipt by adding different
flavorings. I consider it a great success; besides, it is very easily
and quickly made. It may or may not be served with a boiled custard made
with the yolks of the eggs.

Ingredients: One pint of rich milk, two table-spoonfuls of corn starch,
a scant half-cupful of sugar, whites of three or four eggs, a little
salt, flavoring.

Beat the eggs to a stiff froth. Dissolve the corn starch in a little of
the milk. Stir the sugar into the remainder of the milk, which place on
the fire. When it begins to boil, add the dissolved corn starch. Stir
constantly for a few moments, when it will become a smooth paste; now
stir in the beaten whites of the eggs, and let it remain a little longer
to cook the eggs. It can be flavored with vanilla, and put into a form;
yet it is still better as a


COCOA-NUT PUDDING.

When the preceding pudding is just finished, add half a cocoa-nut
grated; put it into a mold. Serve with whipped-cream around it, or a
sauce of boiled custard made with the yolks of the eggs. As only half of
a cocoa-nut is used for this pudding, sprinkle sugar on the other half,
and spread it on something, when it will keep a month. In that time
perhaps another pudding of the same kind may be wanted. Fresh cocoa-nut
is better and cheaper than the desiccated cocoa-nut. It requires the
whole of a twenty-five cent package of the desiccated cocoa-nut, and
only half of a fresh one, which costs but ten cents.


CHOCOLATE-PUDDING.

[Illustration]

With still the same receipt for a corn-starch pudding, first flavor the
whole with vanilla; now take out a third of the pudding; flavor the
remainder in the kettle with a bar of chocolate, softened, mashed, and
dissolved with a little milk. Put half of the chocolate-pudding in the
bottom of a mold (which has been wet in cold water); smooth the top;
next make a layer with the white pudding (the third taken out); smooth
it also; next the remainder of the chocolate-pudding. Serve with whipped
cream, or a boiled custard made with the yolks of the eggs and flavored
with vanilla, around it; or, the one-third portion of pudding may be
flavored with half a bar of chocolate, and placed in the centre of the
two layers of white, as in the picture; or one can use the same receipt
for a corn-starch pudding, and flavor it with chopped pine-apple,
strawberries, or, in winter, with dried cherries swollen in water; or it
may be flavored with chocolate, with the white centre part of cocoa-nut.


COCOA-NUT PUDDINGS, IN PAPER CASES.

Melt over the fire butter the size of an egg, with a cupful of sugar,
and a table-spoonful of water. Pour them into a dish when they have
boiled a couple of minutes, and let them cool; mix with them half of a
cocoa-nut grated, a table-spoonful of small cuts of citron, the grated
rind and juice of half a lemon, and the yolks of four eggs beaten
separately; add the whites (beaten to a stiff froth) the last thing.
Fill little paper cases (see page 6), and bake immediately. They may be
served hot or cold. Of course it may all be baked in one dish; but it
makes a very dainty course to serve one of these cases placed on a plate
for each person.


EGG SOUFFLÉ, IN PAPER CASES.

Make a boiled custard of cream with half a pint of milk, yolks of two
eggs, three table-spoonfuls of sugar, a heaping tea-spoonful of flour, a
very little butter, salt, and a flavoring of vanilla, or any thing else,
as preferred. When it has just thickened a little, take it off the fire,
and let it partly cool. Add then two raw yolks of eggs and four whites
beaten to a stiff froth. Butter the paper cases, fill them with this
preparation, and bake them ten or fifteen minutes in a moderate oven.


SNOW-PUDDING (_Miss Amelia Foote_).

Cover one-third of a package of gelatine with a little cold water, and,
when softened, stir into it a pint of boiling water; add one cupful of
sugar, or sugar to taste, and either the juice of two lemons, or half a
tea-cupful of wine: when cold, and beginning to thicken, add the
well-beaten whites of three eggs. Beat all lightly and smoothly
together, pour the mixture into a mold, and set it away until hard.
Serve in the centre of a platter, with a boiled custard poured around,
made with the yolks of three eggs, one pint of milk, and half a cupful
of sugar.


BOILED CUSTARD (No. 1).

I will venture a receipt for boiled custard (perhaps it should be
granted that every one knows how to make it), as it is so often used in
making many kinds of dessert, and as an excellent sauce for several
puddings.

It is considered better made of the yolks only of the eggs (some whites
may be used, however). A dessert-spoonful of sugar is enough for each
egg, and five yolks are quite sufficient for a quart of milk. Beat the
yolks and the sugar together to a froth, and stir in the milk; put it
into a custard-boiler, or, if one has none, into a small tin pail. Place
this in a kettle of boiling water; stir the mixture constantly until it
is a little thickened. If it is well stirred, the custard will be a
smooth cream; if allowed to remain a few moments too long in the boiling
water after it begins to thicken, it will curdle and be spoiled. Do not
flavor it with any of the essences, wines, or brandy, until after it is
cooked; if either a vanilla-bean or peach-leaves are used, cook them
with the custard.

If the whole eggs are preferred, for economy’s sake, to be used (and
they make very good custard), allow four eggs to a quart of milk, and
four dessert-spoonfuls of sugar. If the milk is first boiled before it
is added to the other ingredients, there will be less danger of the
custard curdling.


BOILED CUSTARD (_Miss Eliza Brown_), No. 2.

Beat the yolks of three eggs very lightly; stir into them two small
table-spoonfuls of corn starch, dissolved in a little milk, and one
tea-cupful of sugar. Bring two quarts of milk to a boil, then take it
off the fire; pour it into the eggs, etc., a little at first; return it
to the fire, and stir it until it thickens, not allowing it to boil; let
it remain long enough to well cook the starch. Now stir in lightly the
whites of four eggs beaten to a stiff froth, allowing the custard to
remain a half-minute on the fire to set the eggs. Flavor with vanilla or
chocolate, or with both.


APPLE MÉRINGUE (_Mrs. Shaw_).

Boil tart apples after they are pared and cored; rub the pulp through a
colander, and sweeten it to taste. To a pint of the soft pulp stir in
lightly the whites of three eggs, beaten to a stiff froth. Flavor with
grated rind and juice of lemon, or with lemon or vanilla extract. Serve
it with cream. It is a decided improvement to put this into a
pudding-dish and cover it with the beaten whites of two or three eggs,
sweetened and flavored. Color it in the oven. Serve with cream or
custard.


BAKED APPLES.

Pare and core large, juicy pippins, without cutting them to pieces; fill
the cavities with sugar, and a little lemon-juice or extract, and some
thin slices of the yellow part of the lemon-rind; put them into a pan
with a little water in the bottom; sprinkle sugar over the tops, baste
them often, and, when done, set them away to cool. Serve them with
cream, or they may be served with whipped cream, flavored with sugar
and essence of lemon, poured over so as to nearly conceal them; or serve
them with a boiled custard poured over them.


FRIAR’S OMELET (_Mrs. Treat_).

Stew six or seven good-sized apples as for apple-sauce; stir in, when
cooked and still warm, butter the size of a pigeon’s egg, and one cupful
of sugar; when cold, stir in three well-beaten eggs and a little
lemon-juice. Now put a small piece of butter into a sauté pan, and when
hot throw in a cupful of bread-crumbs; stir them over the fire until
they assume a light-brown color. Butter a mold, and sprinkle on the
bottom and sides as many of these bread-crumbs as will adhere; fill in
the apple preparation, sprinkle bread-crumbs on top, bake it for fifteen
or twenty minutes, and turn it out on a good-sized platter. It can be
eaten with or without a sweet sauce.


FLOATING ISLANDS.

Separate the whites and yolks of four eggs; with the yolks make a boiled
custard with, say, a large pint of milk, four table-spoonfuls of sugar,
and a flavoring of vanilla, essence of lemon, sherry-wine, peach-leaves,
or any of the usual flavorings. Beat the whites to a stiff froth,
sweetening and flavoring them a little also. Wet a long spoon, turn it
around in the beaten egg, taking out a piece of oblong shape; poach it,
turning it around in boiling water, or milk, which is better. When the
custard is cold, pour it into a glass dish, and place these poached
whites on top; or make a circle of the whites in a platter, and pour the
custard between.


TIPSY-PUDDING.

Soak a sponge-cake baked in a form (or, in fact, dry pieces of cake of
any kind can be used) in sherry-wine. When saturated enough, so that it
will not fall to pieces, pour over it a boiled custard (No. 1), flavored
with any thing preferred. If placed in a glass dish, decorate with the
beaten whites of the eggs poached, and with dots of jelly. If served in
a common platter, squeeze the beaten whites (sweetened and flavored)
through a funnel in any fancy shapes over the pudding, and put it into
the oven to receive a delicate color.


LEMON-PUDDING.

Beat the yolks of two eggs in a pudding-dish; add two cupfuls of sugar.
Dissolve four table-spoonfuls of corn starch in a little cold water.
Stir into it two tea-cupfuls of boiling water. Put in the juice of two
lemons, with some of the grated peel. Mix all together with a
tea-spoonful of butter. Bake it about fifteen minutes. When done, spread
over the top the beaten whites of the eggs sweetened, and let it color a
moment in the oven. To be eaten hot or cold.


BLANC-MANGE.

Put half a paper of gelatine, two ounces of sugar, half of the very thin
rind of a lemon, and eight bitter almonds, blanched and bruised, into a
pint of milk, and let it stand an hour. Place it over the fire, and let
it come merely to the scalding-point, stirring it well to dissolve the
gelatine.

[Illustration]

Strain it into a bowl, add a pint of cream, and a little wine or brandy,
to taste. Stir it occasionally, to prevent the cream from settling on
the surface. Turn it, avoiding the settlings, into molds, to harden; or,
in place of almonds, a stick of cinnamon may be substituted; or infuse a
few more almonds, and omit the wine or brandy; or, the blanc-mange may
be flavored with maraschino, or any other liqueur. I prefer blanc-mange
made with corn starch, as the same ingredients necessary for a
blanc-mange proper are better made into Bavarian creams.


CORN-STARCH PUDDING.

Ingredients: One and one-half pints of rich milk, one large heaping
table-spoonful of corn starch, one scant cupful of sugar, four eggs,
omitting two whites, a little salt, and flavoring.

Bring the milk and the sugar almost to a boil, then add the corn starch
(stirred smooth with a little milk), and a pinch of salt. Stir it at the
back of the range for five minutes, not allowing it to boil. Then take
it off the fire; when a little cooled, stir in the eggs, and when well
and smoothly mixed, place the kettle again on the fire for only a few
moments, to be sure that the eggs are slightly cooked. Now stir in the
flavoring, if it is an extract. Zest (sugar rubbed on fresh lemon-peel)
is an exceedingly delicate flavoring. The vanilla powder boiled in the
milk is better than the extract.

It makes a pretty dish to pour this into cups or little molds, and, when
cold and solid, to arrange them in a circle or, according to taste, on a
platter, with strawberry, grape, or any kind of fruit sauce, or whipped
cream poured into the bottom of the dish; or, mold it in a circular
form, and pile up any kind of berries in the centre, with or without
whipped cream. For an invalid I prefer the other receipt for “a
corn-starch pudding.”

The common rule for corn-starch pudding is one quart of milk, three
eggs, three table-spoonfuls of corn starch, one even cupful of sugar;
add flavoring and a little salt.


BREAD-PUDDING.

Soak some crumbled bread in milk. Put a layer of this (rather moist) in
the bottom of a pudding-dish; sprinkle over some raisins and a little
cinnamon powder, then another layer of soaked bread-crumbs, raisins, and
cinnamon powder. Now beat up three eggs (to about a quart of soaked
bread-crumbs) with two heaping table-spoonfuls of sugar; mix into it a
quarter of a cupful of rum, brandy, or wine, and pour it all over the
pudding in the dish. Bake about twenty minutes.


BREAD-AND-BUTTER PUDDING.

Strew layers of English currants between slices of buttered bread (crust
cut off). Pour over them a boiled custard flavored with nutmeg or any
other flavoring desired. Set them into the oven to soak, and bake about
fifteen minutes.


FRIED BREAD-PUDDING.

Cut the crust from slices of bread. Cut them into pieces of the same
shape and size. Soak them a few moments in custard--_i.e._, some milk,
one or two eggs, and sugar to taste, and a flavoring of cinnamon.
_Sauté_ them in hot lard to a delicate brown. Serve with brandy-sauce,
or almost any kind of sweet sauce.


INDIAN-CORN PUDDING.

Scald a quart of milk, and stir in seven table-spoonfuls of sifted
corn-meal, a tea-spoonful of salt, one tea-cupful of molasses, a
table-spoonful of ginger. Bake three hours.



BAVARIAN CREAMS.


There is not a more delicious dessert than that of Bavarian cream. These
creams are exceedingly easy to make, and, as they are prepared some time
before dinner, they have the advantage of being out of the way when
cooking this meal. They are a cheap country dessert, where one has
plenty of cream, yet are not so very expensive in the city, as it only
requires a pint of common cream to make a quart and a half of Bavarian
cream.

When cream is thoroughly chilled, it is much more readily whipped. A
pint can be whipped in a few minutes with a little tin tube
cream-whipper. If no whipper is at hand, beat the cream with a fork, and
skim off the whipped cream as it rises. It is always better not to cook
gelatine; it should be soaked in a little water near the fire for an
hour or two, when it will be entirely dissolved, and then it should be
stirred into the custard while it is still hot. In making the Bavarian
creams, do not add the whipped cream to the ingredients with the
gelatine until they are quite cold and are beginning to set, or they
would otherwise dissolve the cream. The ingredients will set very soon
if placed on ice. The pine-apple Bavarian is especially nice, and can be
made with the canned pine-apple if the fresh pine-apple can not be
obtained; however, there is not much choice, as they are all delicious.

The Bavarian creams all make good _charlottes-russe_, the peach Bavarian
making an especially delicious one. Sometimes these mixtures are frozen,
and put into _charlotte_ molds; the cake is formed in molds a trifle
larger. When the cream is frozen, it is inserted into the cake just
before serving. When freezing the mixture, the whipped cream is not
added until the custard or ingredients with the gelatine are partly
frozen.


BAVARIAN CREAM, WITH VANILLA (_Mrs. Blair_).

Whip one pint of cream to a stiff froth, laying it on a sieve. Boil
another pint of cream or rich milk, with a vanilla bean, and two
table-spoonfuls of sugar, until it is well flavored; then take it off
the fire and add half a box of Nelson’s or Coxe’s gelatine soaked for an
hour in half a cupful of water, in a warm place near the range; when
slightly cooled, stir in the yolks of four eggs well beaten. When it has
become quite cold, and begins to thicken, stir it without ceasing a few
minutes until it is very smooth, then stir in the whipped cream lightly
until it is well mixed. Put it into a mold or molds, and set it on ice,
or in some cool place.


BAVARIAN CREAM, WITH CHOCOLATE,

is made as the preceding cream, adding two sticks of chocolate, soaked
and smoothed, to the yolks of the eggs.


BAVARIAN CREAM, WITH STRAWBERRIES.

After picking two pounds and a half of strawberries, squeeze them
through a colander, and add six ounces of sugar to the juice; when the
sugar is dissolved, add half a box of gelatine soaked as before
described. Place it on the ice, stir it smooth when it begins to set,
then stir in a pint of cream whipped; put it into a mold or molds, and
serve with fresh strawberries around it.


BAVARIAN CREAM, WITH ALMONDS.

Take three ounces of sweet and one ounce of bitter almonds, blanch and
skin them, and put them into a pan on a moderate fire, stirring them
continually. As soon as they have acquired a fine yellow color, take
them off the fire, and when cold pound them into fine pieces. Then add
a pint of cream or rich milk (nearly boiling), and two or three
table-spoonfuls of sugar, and half a package of gelatine, which has been
soaked as before described. Put it upon the ice, and when about to
thicken stir it until it is very smooth, then stir in lightly a pint of
cream whipped, and put it into a mold.


BAVARIAN CREAM, WITH PEACHES.

[Illustration]

Cut eighteen fine peaches into small pieces, and boil them with half a
pound of sugar. When they are reduced to a marmalade, squeeze them
through a sieve or colander. Then add half a package of dissolved
gelatine, and a glassful of good cream. Stir it well, to make it smooth
when it is about to set, then add the pint of cream whipped, and mold
it. It makes a still prettier dish to serve halves or quarters of fresh
peaches half frozen, around the cream.


BAVARIAN CREAM, WITH PINE-APPLE.

Cut a pine-apple into fine pieces; boil it with one half-pound, or a
coffee-cupful of sugar; pass the marmalade through a sieve or colander;
turn off part of the juice; add half a package of dissolved gelatine.
Stir, and add the pint of cream whipped, as before described. Mold it.


BAVARIAN CREAM, WITH COFFEE.

Throw three heaping table-spoonfuls of fresh roasted and ground Mocha
coffee into a pint of boiling rich milk. Make a strong infusion, strain
it, and add to it the whipped yolks of four eggs well beaten, with an
even cupful of sugar. Stir the custard over the fire until it begins to
thicken; take it off the fire, and add to it, while still hot, half a
box of gelatine which has been standing an hour on the hearth to
dissolve in a little cold water. When just beginning to set, stir it
well to make it smooth, then add the pint of cream whipped. Mold it.


CHARLOTTE-RUSSE.

The sponge-cake may be made with four eggs, one cupful of sugar, one and
one-half cupfuls of flour, and two even tea-spoonfuls of yeast powder,
or as described for sponge jelly-cake (see page 300).

To make an even sheet, professional cooks pass the cake batter through
the _méringue_ bag on a large sheet of foolscap paper in rows which
touch each other, and which run together smoothly when baking; or,
without the _méringue_ bag, it may be spread over the sheet as evenly as
possible. When baked, an oval piece is cut to fit the bottom of the
_charlotte_ pan, then even-sized parallelograms are cut to fit around
the sides. Fill with cream made as follows: Whip one pint of cream
flavored with vanilla to a stiff froth, and add to it the well-beaten
whites of two eggs, and one half-pound of pulverized sugar; mix it all
lightly and carefully together. Fill the _charlotte_ pan, or pans, and
put them into the ice-chest to set.

This is the best and simplest manner of making a _charlotte-russe_. Many
take the trouble to add gelatine, which is unnecessary. Professor Blot
made the filling of his _charlotte-russe_ of sweetened and flavored
whipped cream only. It will harden without difficulty if placed upon the
ice, and it is very delicate; yet the whites of eggs are an improvement.
If there is only enough cake at hand to fit the sides of the pan, put a
paper in the bottom of the mold cut to fit it, and the _charlotte_ can
be served without a top.

These _charlottes_ are very prettily decorated on top with icing
squeezed through a small-sized funnel; or, you may pour a transparent
icing over the whole, and make the decoration over this with the common
icing. Sometimes they are made in little molds, one _charlotte_ for each
plate, and, again, a large _charlotte_ is decorated with a circle of
strawberries around it.

Cream is much more easily frothed when placed on ice and thoroughly
chilled before whipping; when whipping it, place the froth on a sieve,
and all that drops through can be returned to the bowl to be rewhipped.
Sometimes professional cooks work the froth with an egg-whisk to make it
finer grained.


AMBROSIA.

Slice peeled oranges. Make alternate layers of orange slices, sugar, and
grated cocoa-nut, until a glass dish is filled, having grated cocoa-nut
on top; now pour a little sherry wine over the top, to run through the
mixtures. It is as often served without the wine.



DESSERTS OF RICE.


TO BOIL RICE.

Always cook rice with plenty of salt; it is insipid without it. It is
sometimes cooked in a steamer, with milk, without stirring it; although
it is more quickly cooked by soaking it an hour or two, and then
throwing it into salted boiling water in the brightest of saucepans. To
half a pound of the rice use about five pints of water. Let it simmer
about twenty minutes. Handle it carefully, not to break the kernels.


RICE-PUDDING.

This receipt makes one of the plainest and best puddings ever eaten. It
is a success where every grain of rice seems lying in a creamy bed.

Ingredients: One cupful of boiled rice (better if just cooked, and still
hot), three cupfuls of milk, three-quarters of a cupful of sugar, a
table-spoonful of corn starch, two eggs; add flavoring.

Dissolve the corn starch first with a little milk, and then stir in the
remainder of the milk; add the yolks of the eggs and the sugar beaten
together. Now put this over the fire (there is less risk of burning in a
custard-kettle), and when hot add the hot rice. It will seem as if there
were too much milk for the rice; but there is not. Stir it carefully
until it begins to thicken like boiled custard, then take it off the
fire, and add the flavoring, say, extract of lemon. Put it into a
pudding-dish, and place it in the oven. Now beat the whites of the eggs
to a stiff froth, and add a little sugar and flavoring. Take the pudding
from the oven when colored a little, spread the froth over the top, and
return it to the oven for a few minutes to give the froth a delicate
coloring.


RICE-CONES.

Mold boiled rice, when hot, in cups which have been previously dipped in
cold water; when cold, turn them out on a flat dish, arranging them
uniformly; then with a tea-spoon scoop out a little of the rice from the
top of each cone, and put in its place any kind of jelly. Just before
serving, pour in the bottom of the dish hot brandy-sauce. For a change,
it is well to boil a stick of cinnamon in the rice to flavor it.


RICE-CAKE, WITH PEACHES.

When some rice is cooked in a steamer with milk, and is still hot, add a
little butter, sugar, and one or two eggs. Butter a plain pudding-mold,
strew the butter with bread-crumbs, and put in a layer of rice half an
inch thick; then a layer of peaches, and continue alternate layers of
each until the mold is full. Bake this for about fifteen or twenty
minutes in an oven; when done, turn the cake out of the mold, and pour
in the bottom of the dish a boiled custard-sauce flavored with wine, or
any thing preferred.


RICE-CAKE, WITH PINE-APPLE.

Prepare rice as above. Cut the pine-apple into dice, and boil them in
sirup (water and sugar boiled ten or fifteen minutes); drain and mix
them in the rice. Butter a plain pudding-mold or basin, and strew it
with bread-crumbs; put in the rice and pine-apple, and bake it; when
done, turn it out of the mold, and pour around it a sauce made as
follows: Peel three large apples, and cook them in one pint of sirup
sweetened to taste. When the apples are quite soft, strain them through
a sieve, and mix this sirup with that in which the pine-apple was
cooked; boil, or reduce it until it coats the spoon.


GROUND RICE-PUDDING, WITH CHOCOLATE SAUCE.

Steam one quarter of a pound of ground rice and one pint of cream a
quarter of an hour, then flavor it with vanilla; add one ounce of
butter, the yolks of four eggs, let it cool, and beat it for half an
hour; beat up the whites of the eggs to a froth, which mix in gently.
Steam it a quarter of an hour. Serve it with half a pint of boiled
custard, having one ounce of soaked and mashed chocolate stirred well
into it, poured into the bottom of the dish.


ORANGE SNOW-BALLS (_Mrs. Acton_).

Boil some rice for ten minutes, drain, and let it cool. Pare some
oranges, taking off all the thick white skin; spread the rice in as many
portions as there are oranges, on some pudding or dumpling cloths. Tie
the fruit (surrounded by the rice) separately in these, and boil the
balls for an hour; turn them carefully on a dish, sprinkle over plenty
of sifted sugar. Serve with any kind of sauce or sweetened cream.


APPLE SNOW-BALLS.

Pare and core some large apples without dividing them. Prepare the rice
as in the foregoing receipt; inclose the apples separately in it, and
boil them three-quarters of an hour.

_Sauce._--A little butter and sugar mixed to a cream; a spoonful of corn
starch cooked in two cupfuls of boiling water; flavoring of cinnamon. To
mix, see Sweet Sauces.


RICE SOUFFLÉ.

Ingredients: Half a cupful of rice, one even cupful of sugar, one pint
of milk, butter the size of a butter-nut, half a lemon, five eggs.

Throw the rice into boiling salted water, and let it boil for ten
minutes. Then put it into a stew-pan with the milk, butter and sugar,
and set this to simmer very slowly for about half an hour, when the rice
should be very soft (or the pan can be placed in a vessel of boiling
water, or in a steamer). If it is placed directly on the range, much
care should be taken not to let it burn. Now work the rice, etc., with a
wooden spoon until it is a smooth paste; add the yolks of the eggs
beaten to a perfect froth, and a lump of loaf sugar (mashed) which has
absorbed all the oil out of the rind of the whole lemon (called zest);
add also the juice of half of the lemon. If the rice is now too firm,
add a little cream also. When cold, stir into this the whites of the
eggs beaten to the stiffest possible froth, and put the mixture into a
flat pudding-dish, or into little paper cases (see page 61). Sprinkle
granulated sugar over the top or tops. Bake in the oven about ten
minutes. Serve immediately, or the _soufflé_ will fall. Ground rice may
be used instead of whole rice. It should be rubbed smooth with a little
cold milk, and then added to the remainder of the milk and the butter on
the fire, and stirred until it thickens. It is then taken off the fire,
sweetened, and flavored; the beaten yolks and then the beaten whites are
stirred in quickly, and the sugar is sprinkled over the top, when all is
put into the oven.


RICE CROQUETTES.

Ingredients: To half a pound of rice, one quart of milk, one tea-cupful
of sugar, a very little butter, yolks of one or two eggs beaten,
flavoring, and a little salt.

Soak the rice three or four hours in water; drain, and put into a basin
with the milk and salt. Set the basin in the steamer, and cook until
thoroughly done. Then stir in carefully the sugar, the yolks of one or
two eggs, very little butter, and flavor with extract of lemon or
vanilla. If fresh lemon is used, add a little zest. When cool enough to
handle, form into small balls; press the thumb into the centre of each;
insert a little marmalade, or jelly of any kind, and close the rice well
over them. Roll in beaten eggs (sweetened a little), and bread-crumbs.
Fry in boiling-hot lard.


RICE PANCAKES, WITH PRESERVES.

[Illustration]

Make the pancakes (see page 70), and while hot spread them with butter,
and with almost any kind of preserve or jelly; roll them, cut off the
ends, arrange them tastefully on a hot platter, sprinkle sugar over the
tops, and serve immediately.



WINE JELLIES.


WINE JELLY.

Ingredients: One box of gelatine soaked in one pint of clear cold water,
one pint of wine, the juice and the thin cuts of rinds of three lemons,
one and three-quarter pounds of loaf-sugar, one quart of clear boiling
water, the whites of two eggs (well beaten) and the shells, with a small
stick of cinnamon.

[Illustration]

Soak the gelatine in the pint of cold water an hour, then pour over it
the quart of boiling water, stirring it well; now add the wine, sugar,
eggs, lemon-juice (strained in a fine strainer), and the thinnest
possible cuts from the peels of the lemons. These cuts take only the
little globules of oil in the peel, which are exceedingly delicate in
flavor, the white part being bitter. Add also the small stick of
cinnamon, as it adds much to the flavor of the jelly. Put this into a
porcelain kettle, let it boil rapidly about a quarter of a minute
without stirring it; now, setting the kettle on the hearth, let it
remain another half-minute to settle, then skim off carefully the scum
which is at the top; pour it through the jelly-bag. It should be
entirely clear: if, however, the first should not be so, return it to
the bag.

Cold water should be poured into the molds, then emptied just before
using. Jelly hardens much quicker on ice, or in the coolest place to be
found.

Dip the molds into warm water a moment, before taking out the jelly. If
allowed to remain a moment too long, the jelly might dissolve a little,
injuring the form.

Many kinds of wines and liquors may be used. The above receipt is well
proportioned for sherry, Madeira, or port; a smaller proportion of
brandy, maraschino, noyau, or of punch would make sufficient flavoring;
a larger portion of Champagne might be used, as it is not so strong.


ORANGE JELLY (_molded with Quarters of Oranges_).

Ingredients: Eight oranges, two lemons, three-quarters of a box of
gelatine soaked in half a pint of cold water, three-quarters of a pound
of loaf-sugar, one pint of boiling water, beaten whites and shells of
two eggs.

Rub the loaf-sugar on the peels of two oranges and one lemon; squeeze
the juice from six or seven oranges and two lemons, and strain it. Take
off the peel carefully from two oranges, leaving only the transparent
skin surrounding the quarters, and separate all the sections without
breaking them. Soak the gelatine half an hour in half a pint of water;
boil the other pint of water and the sugar together, skimming all the
time until no more scum rises; then put in the sections of oranges, and
when they have boiled about a minute take them out, and put them one
side. Pour this sirup over the soaked gelatine, adding the orange and
lemon juice, the beaten whites and the shells of two eggs. Put it on the
fire, and let it boil about a quarter of a minute without stirring;
then, placing it at the side of the fire, skim off carefully all the
scum at the top, and pass it through the jelly-bag. When half of the
jelly is in the mold, put it on the ice, and let it set hard enough to
hold the orange sections, which place in a circular row around the edge
of the mold; then add enough more jelly to cover the sections; when this
has hardened, pour over the remainder of the jelly, which should have
been kept in a warm place to prevent it from hardening. All the sections
of orange may be put in with the first half of the jelly, as they will
rise to the top, although they will not hold their places evenly. Or, if
time is valuable, mold the jelly without the sections, and save them to
garnish the jelly on the dish.


LEMON JELLY.

Ingredients: Half a box of gelatine soaked in half a pint of water,
juice of five large lemons, two cupfuls of loaf-sugar, or sugar to
taste, beaten white and shell of an egg, one and a half pints of boiling
water.

Soak the gelatine in the half-pint of water half an hour. Rub several of
the pieces of the sugar on the peel of the lemon, to soak the oil on
the surface. Pour a pint and a half of boiling water on the soaked
gelatine, and add lemon-juice, sugar, and egg; let it come to a boil,
then set it at the side of the range a few moments; skim carefully, and
pass through the jelly-bag into molds.


MACEDOINE OF FRUITS.

This is made with any kind of jelly; however, jelly made with Champagne
or sherry is preferable. Any of the delicate fruits of the season, such
as grapes, cherries, peaches, strawberries, raspberries, mulberries,
currants (on their stems), plums, and orange sections, or preserved
fruits, such as brandied cherries, peaches, etc., are tastefully
imbedded in the jelly, so as to show their forms and colors to best
advantage. A fine bunch of Hamburg or of Malaga grapes is exceedingly
pretty, incorporated whole into a clear Champagne jelly; it should be
suspended with a small thread in the centre of the jelly-mold, and the
jelly poured in when quite cold, although not set. The bunches of grapes
are in this way much more easily imbedded than other fruits. In the
latter case, the mold is placed on ice; a little jelly is poured in,
and, when set, some fruits are arranged in a circle, or according to
taste; more jelly poured in, and left to harden again; more fruit added,
and thus continued until the mold is full.

Do not heat the jelly a second time; merely keep it in a warm place,
awaiting that on the ice to harden.


FANCY JELLIES.

Jelly is sometimes formed in a mold with a cylindrical tube in the
centre; the open space in the centre is then filled with whipped cream.
Then, to be still more fanciful, the whipped cream may be dotted with
strawberries, or any kind of preserved fruits, such as cherries, grapes,
cuts of peaches, etc., etc.

Then there is ribbon jelly, or jelly made in two colors, in this way:
Half of a Champagne or sherry jelly is colored quite red with a few
drops of prepared cochineal; a little pale jelly is poured into the
mold, and, when set, a layer of the red jelly is poured carefully over
it, and so continued until the mold is filled with alternate layers of
the two colors.

Italian jelly is pretty also. The mold is half filled with jelly, and,
when set, a chain of cakes of _blanc-mange_ (made rather firm, hardened
in a thin layer, and cut of equal sizes with a pepper-box cover or a
small tin cutter) is arranged; then the remainder of the jelly is added
to the mold.

Whipped jelly makes a pretty change. When it is set a little, put it
into a bowl; whip it with an egg-whisk until it is full of air-bubbles.
Fill the mold, and put on ice.


WHAT TO DO WITH PARTS OF JELLY LEFT OVER IN WINTER.

Add lemon-juice; beat the jelly until it becomes entirely white, which
will take some time, and put it into a mold again.


CALF’S-FOOT JELLY.

I have made calf’s-foot jelly twice, and never intend to make it again.
I would not have made it the second time, except for the purpose of
succeeding, and getting a reliable receipt for this book. At the first
attempt, I happened to have company who had heard that I pretended to be
a cook. The jelly was opaque, tasteless, and split in two. Here is a
successful receipt. It requires almost every thing known in the cooking
calender; but do not attempt it with less, and after a trial use
gelatine only for jellies.

Ingredients: Four calf’s feet boiled in a gallon of water, seven eggs,
one and a half pounds of sugar, one pint of sherry wine, a stick of
cinnamon, three cloves, and half a box of gelatine.

Split the calf’s feet, break the bones, and place them on the fire at
the back of the range, with a gallon of cold water, to boil gently for
five hours. Skim the water often, which should be reduced to rather less
than two quarts; then strain the jelly into a pan, and, when perfectly
firm, remove the fat and sediment.

Add to the jelly the beaten whites and crushed shells of seven eggs, one
and a half pounds of sugar, a pint of sherry wine, a stick of cinnamon,
three cloves, and half a box of gelatine soaked in a little water, and
whip this well together; set it over the fire, and when it has just
begun to boil throw in the juice of six lemons, and one or two
table-spoonfuls of clear, cold water; take the kettle off the fire, let
it remain at the side in rather a hot place about ten minutes, then
skim off carefully all the scum from the top. Put into the jelly-bag the
thin cuts from the peels of four lemons, not cutting the white or under
skin, as that is bitter; then pour in the jelly, having the apparatus
near the fire to prevent the jelly hardening before it has all passed
through.


WHIPPED JELLY, WITH FRUITS.

Prepare about two cupfuls of preserved fruits--for instance,
pine-apples, peaches, greengages, and cherries; keep the cherries whole,
but cut the others into dice; moisten them all with sherry.

Prepare about a quart of Champagne, sherry, or brandy jelly, and when
strained pour it into a basin, which place on the ice, or on ice and
salt; whip it now gently with the egg-whisk, adding the juice of two
lemons; when it begins to set, and is quite frothy (not too much so,
however), stir in the fruits; place all into a mold, and surround it
with ice.



CAKE.


_Rules for Cake._--Have every thing ready before mixing the
material--_i. e._, the ingredients all measured and prepared, and the
tins buttered. The sooner the cake is mixed (after the ingredients are
ready) and put into the oven, the better. Sift the flour, and have it
dry. Mix baking-powder or cream of tartar, if used, well into the flour,
passing it through the sieve several times, if particular. Roll the
sugar; mix sugar and butter together to a cream. The eggs must then be
_very, very well_ beaten separately. If one person makes the cake, beat
the yolks first. If soda is used, dissolve it in the milk, or, if no
milk is used, in a little lukewarm water; add it the last thing, unless
fruit is used, when it should always be rolled in flour, and added the
last thing. Cake, to be light, should be baked slowly at first, until
the batter is evenly heated all through. Many leave the oven door
slightly open for the first ten or fifteen minutes. The prepared flour
is especially good for cake.


SPONGE-CAKE.

This is the most perfect of sponge-cakes, when properly made.

Ingredients: Ten eggs, one pound of _pulverized_ sugar, half a pound of
flour, juice of half a large lemon, with the rind grated.

After all the ingredients are quite ready--_i. e._, the flour and sugar
sifted, the lemon-peel grated, the half lemon squeezed, and the tins
buttered--the success of this cake is in the beating of the eggs. Two
persons should beat them at least half an hour, one beating the whites,
and the other the yolks and half of the sugar together. Next cut the
yolks into the whites, then stir in lightly the remainder of the sugar,
then the flour and lemon by degrees.[J]

The oven heat should be rather _moderate_ at first. Much of the success
depends upon this, as the batter should be evenly heated throughout
before it begins to rise. When baked, spread over the cakes a wafer
thickness of icing (see page 304) slightly flavored with vanilla.


WHITE CAKE (_Miss Eliza Brown_).

I venture to say there is not to be found a better receipt for white
cake than the following. The cake is mixed contrary to the usual rules
for making cake, but it is the best mode for making it fine-grained and
delicate.

Ingredients: Whites of six eggs, scant three-quarters of a cupful of
butter, one and one-quarter cupfuls of pulverized sugar, two cupfuls of
flour, juice of half a lemon, one-quarter of a tea-spoonful of soda.

If soda is used, mix it well with the flour, and pass it through the
sieve several times to distribute it equally. Beat the butter to a light
cream, and add the flour to it, stirring it in gradually with the ends
of the fingers until it is a smooth paste. Beat the whites of the six
eggs to a stiff froth, and mix in them the pulverized sugar; now stir
the egg and sugar gradually into the flour and butter, adding also the
lemon-juice, and mix it smoothly together with the egg-whisk. As soon as
it is perfectly smooth, put it into the oven, the heat of which should
be rather moderate at first. When done and still hot, spread over it a
frosting made with the white of one egg, pulverized sugar (see page
304), and a flavoring of lemon. The frosting is a decided improvement,
and, according to the receipt, only requires a few minutes to prepare.

This cake may be made with one tea-spoonful of baking-powder, or with
prepared flour, or with the one-quarter tea-spoonful of soda and
one-half tea-spoonful of cream of tartar, when the essence of lemon
should be used instead of the lemon-juice.


JUMBLES (_Mrs. Wadsworth_).

Ingredients: Two cupfuls of sugar, three eggs (beaten separately); one
cupful of butter, just enough flour to roll it out.

Mix quickly, and roll it thin. Cut out the cakes with a round
cake-cutter, cutting them out again in the centre with the top of the
pepper-glass of the caster. When they are in the pans, wet the tops,
using a paste-brush or feather, with the white of an egg slightly
beaten. Then sprinkle over very coarse-pounded lump-sugar; the sugar, in
fact, in little lumps.


ALMOND JUMBLES.

Ingredients: One pound of sugar, one-half pound of butter, one pound of
almonds blanched and chopped fine, two eggs, flour enough to mix stiff.

Roll thin. Moisten the top of each one with the white of eggs, and
sprinkle with sugar. Bake quickly.

Some persons wet the jumbles with a brush or a little cloth saturated
with sherry-wine after they are cooked, and then return them to the oven
a few moments to dry.


COCOA-NUT CAKE (_Miss Emma Witt, of Cleveland_).

Ingredients: One-half coffee-cupful of butter, two small tea-spoonfuls
of cream of tartar, two and one-half coffee-cupfuls of sugar, one small
tea-spoonful of soda, four and one-half coffee-cupfuls of flour, two
grated cocoa-nuts, one coffee-cupful of sweet milk, the whites of seven
eggs.

Reserve a large handful of the grated cocoa-nut to sprinkle on the
frosting. This cake looks most beautiful mixed with fruit-cake in a
cake-basket.


FRUIT-CAKE (_Miss Abbie Carpenter, of Saratoga_).

Ingredients: One pound of flour, one pound of sugar, one and one-eighth
pound of butter, one-half pound of candied citron, four pounds of
currants, four pounds of raisins (stoned and chopped), nine eggs, one
table-spoonful each of ground cloves, of cinnamon, of mace, and of
nutmeg, and three gills of brandy.

This cake is perhaps not too large, as it will keep for years.


ENGLISH POUND-CAKE.

Ingredients: One pound of butter beaten to a cream, one pound of pounded
sugar, ten eggs (whites and yolks beaten separately), one pound of dried
flour, eight ounces of almonds, eight ounces of candied peel, two
wine-glasses of brandy.

When all are well beaten together, add three pounds of English currants
and one pound of raisins (both dredged in flour). Set it immediately in
a moderate oven, and bake three hours at least.


BOSTON CREAM-CAKES.

_Paste._--One pint of water, half a pound of butter, three-quarters of a
pound of flour, ten eggs.

Boil the water and butter together; stir in the flour while boiling, and
let it cook a moment; when cool, add the eggs, well beaten, with a
tea-spoonful of saleratus and a little salt. Drop with a spoon on
buttered tins, forming little cakes some distance apart. Bake in a quick
oven; they will puff in baking. When done and cold, cut one side large
enough to insert the cream with a spoon. This will make about sixty
cakes.

_Cream._--One cupful of flour, two cupfuls of sugar, four eggs, one
quart of milk.

Beat the eggs and sugar together, then add flour and enough of the milk
to make a smooth and thin paste; pour this into the remainder of the
milk when it is boiling, and stir constantly until it is sufficiently
thickened; flavor with vanilla. Do not use it until it is cold. It is
better to make this, as indeed all custards, in a custard-kettle.


CRULLERS (_Miss Amanda Newton_).

[Illustration: 1]

[Illustration: 2]

[Illustration: 3]

Beat three eggs well with four table-spoonfuls of sugar; add four or
five table-spoonfuls of melted lard, then flour enough to make it not
too stiff. Roll rather thin (one-third of an inch). Cut the cakes into
shapes, and throw them into boiling lard, like doughnuts. They may be
simply shaped, as in Fig. 1. To give them the shape of Fig. 3, first cut
the paste, as in Fig. 2; hold the first line with the thumb and finger
of the left hand, then with the right hand slip the second line under
the first, then the third under the second, and so on until they are all
slipped under; pinch the two ends together, and the cruller will be in
form of Fig. 3.


DOUGHNUTS (_Mrs. Bartlett_).

Ingredients: Two eggs, one cupful of sugar, one cupful of sour milk,
half a tea-spoonful of soda, four table-spoonfuls of melted lard; add
flour, making the dough rather soft.

Fry them in hot lard, and sprinkle pulverized sugar over them while
still hot.


BREAD-CAKE.

Ingredients: Three cupfuls of bread-dough, one cupful of butter, three
scant cupfuls of sugar, one cupful of raisins or English currants, three
eggs, a nutmeg grated, one tea-spoonful of soda, two of cream of tartar,
a wine-glassful of brandy.


GINGERBREAD (_Mrs. Lansing_), No. 1.

Ingredients: Two cupfuls of molasses, one cupful of butter, one cupful
of sugar, one cupful of milk (sour or sweet), five eggs, five cupfuls of
sifted flour, two table-spoonfuls of ginger, half a tea-spoonful of
cloves, one tea-spoonful of soda.


GINGERBREAD (No. 2).

Ingredients: One cupful (half a pint) of molasses, one cupful (half a
pint) of boiling water, butter the size of an egg, one tea-spoonful each
of ground cloves, ground cinnamon, ginger, and soda, half a pound of
flour (light weight).

First, put butter (partly melted) into the molasses, then spices.
Dissolve the soda in the boiling water; stir it into the molasses, etc.;
then the flour. Cream of tartar should not be used with molasses.


CHOCOLATE-CAKE.

Make a cup-cake with the following ingredients: One cupful of butter,
two cupfuls of sugar, three cupfuls of flour, one cupful of milk, four
eggs beaten separately, one tea-spoonful of soda, two tea-spoonfuls of
cream of tartar, or two tea-spoonfuls of yeast powder.

Cut the cup-cake, when baked, through the middle, or bake it in two or
three parts. Put a layer of the chocolate mixture between and on the top
and sides of the cake.

_Chocolate Mixture._--Five table-spoonfuls of grated chocolate, with
enough cream or milk to wet it, one cupful of sugar, and one egg well
beaten. Stir the ingredients over the fire until thoroughly mixed; then
flavor with vanilla.


MOUNTAIN-CAKE.

Ingredients: Whites of six eggs, one and a quarter cupfuls of sugar, one
and a quarter cupfuls of flour, half a cupful of butter, half a cupful
of sweet milk, half a cupful of corn starch, a little vanilla, two
tea-spoonfuls of baking-powder.

Bake it in two or three parts, like jelly-cake; put a frosting between
the layers and on top of the cake, made of the whites of four eggs, nine
table-spoonfuls of pulverized sugar, and a little vanilla; or use grated
cocoa-nut, mixed thickly in the frosting, without vanilla; or use the
chocolate mixture in the preceding receipt; or make it a jelly-cake.


CREAM CAKE OR PIE (_Mrs. Arnold_).

This is an excellent dessert cut as a pie, or it may be served as a cake
for tea.

_Crust._--Three eggs, one cupful of sugar, one cupful of flour,
one-third of a tea-spoonful of soda, and one tea-spoonful of cream of
tartar. Beat the whites and yolks well separately; stir all together as
quickly as possible, and bake in two pans (if rather small; if large,
use only one), the batter three-quarters of an inch thick.

_Cream._--Two and a half cupfuls of sweet milk, four even
table-spoonfuls of sugar, two table-spoonfuls of flour, and one egg.
Boil this a few moments until it has thickened, and flavor with vanilla
or lemon.

When the crust is cold, split it, and put the custard between.

This cake is much improved with a boiled icing.


SPONGE JELLY-CAKE (_Mrs. Pope_).

Ingredients: Five eggs, one cupful of sugar, one cupful of flour, two
even tea-spoonfuls of yeast-powder, and grated rind of a lemon.

Beat the yolks, sugar, and lemon together to a cream; add whites of eggs
beaten to a stiff froth; then the flour and yeast-powder perfectly
mixed. Bake in a dripping-pan, and when done spread jelly (not sweet)
over the bottom of the cake, roll it from the side, and sprinkle sugar
over the top; or bake it in two or three jelly-cake pans, and spread
jelly between. The cake may be iced on the bottom. The rolled jelly-cake
may be cut into slices, and served with a sweet sauce for dessert.


COCOA-NUT CONES.

Ingredients: One pound of cocoa-nut grated, half a pound of sugar, the
whites of two eggs, and the yolk of one egg.

Beat the yolk well; add the sugar to it; then the cocoa-nut and whites
of the eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Drop by the tea-spoonful on sheets
of buttered paper placed on tins. Form each little cake into the shape
of a cone, and bake in a moderate oven about half an hour.


CROQUANTE CAKE (_Mrs. Lackland_).

Ingredients: Three-quarters of a pound of shelled almonds, half a pound
of citron, three-quarters of a pound of sugar, three-quarters of a pound
of flour, and six eggs.

Blanch and halve the almonds, and slice the citron; mix them well
together, and roll them in flour; add to them the sugar, then the eggs
(well beaten), lastly the flour. Butter shallow pans, and lay in the
mixture two inches thick. After it is baked in a quick oven, slice the
cake into strips one inch wide, and turn every strip. Return the pan to
the oven, and bake the sides a little. When cold, put it away in tin
boxes. This cake will keep a year or more, and for reserve use is quite
invaluable.


TO BLANCH ALMONDS.

Put them over the fire in cold water, and let them remain until the
water is almost at the boiling-point, not allowing them to boil; then
throw them into cold water. Remove the skins, and dry the almonds in a
cloth before using.

When they are to be pounded for macaroons, _méringues_, etc., they
should be first dried for two or three days in a gentle heat.


REBECCA CAKE (_Mrs. North_).

Ingredients: Half a cupful of butter, one cupful of sugar, one cupful of
sweet milk, one egg, one pint of flour, one tea-spoonful of soda, and
two tea-spoonfuls of cream of tartar.

For a change, a cupful of raisins or of English currants, or a mixture
of both, or an addition of sliced citron, may be added.


GINGER-SNAPS (_Mrs. Leach_).

Ingredients: One pint of molasses, one coffee-cupful of brown sugar, one
coffee-cupful of butter, one table-spoonful of ginger, and one heaping
tea-spoonful of soda dissolved in one table-spoonful of hot water.

Mix very thick with flour, and roll them very thin.


PLAIN COOKIES.

Ingredients: One cupful of butter (or half butter and half lard), two
cupfuls of sugar, one cupful of milk, two eggs, about a quart of flour
(cookies are better to have no more flour than is necessary for rolling
them thin without sticking), three tea-spoonfuls (not heaping) of
yeast-powder, or one tea-spoonful of cream of tartar and half a
tea-spoonful of soda.

Sour milk can be used, when add the half tea-spoonful of soda, and omit
the cream of tartar. Bake in a quick oven.


ALMOND MACAROONS.

Blanch and skin eight ounces of Jordan almonds and one ounce of bitter
ones; dry them on a sieve, and pound them to a smooth paste in a mortar,
adding occasionally a very little water, to prevent them from getting
oily; add to them five ounces of pulverized sugar, one tea-spoonful of
rice flour, and the whites of three eggs beaten to a stiff froth; with a
spoon, put this on paper in drops the size of a walnut; bake in a slow
oven until they are of a light-brown color, and firmly set; take them
from the paper by wetting the under side of it.


LADY’S-FINGERS.

Mix six yolks of eggs with half a pound of powdered sugar; work the
preparation with a spoon until it is frothy; then mix into it the whites
of six eggs well beaten, and at the same time a quarter of a pound of
flour, dried and sifted. Put this batter into a _méringue_ bag, and
squeeze it through in strips, two or three inches long, and sprinkle
over some fine sugar; bake in a slack oven twelve or fourteen minutes.


MÉRINGUES À LA CRÈME.

Ingredients: Six whites of eggs, nine ounces of pulverized sugar, half a
pint of cream (whipped), three ounces of sugar with the cream, a slight
flavoring of vanilla.

Whip the eggs to a very stiff froth, add three or four drops of vanilla,
and mix in the pulverized sifted sugar, by turning the sugar all over
the eggs at once, and cutting it together very carefully. Sprinkle sugar
over a tin platter, and on it place table-spoonfuls of this mixture at
convenient distances apart; smooth the tops, and sprinkle a little sugar
over them also.

The secret of making _méringues_ is in the baking. Put them into a
moderate oven, and leave the oven-door open for thirty-five minutes at
least. They should not be allowed to color for that time, which would
prevent them from drying properly, and a thin paper crust is very
undesirable for a _méringue_; in fact, the longer they dry before
coloring, the thicker will be the crust. They should be in the oven at
least three-quarters of an hour, only allowing them to color slightly
the last two or three minutes. While they are still hot, scoop out
carefully the soft contents, and when they are cold fill them with
whipped cream, press two of them together, forming a ball, and put them
into the refrigerator to set the cream.

_Whipped Cream._--Add the three ounces of sugar and a flavoring of
vanilla, sherry, or any thing preferred, to the cream, and when whipped
put the froth into a kitchen bowl, and whip it again with the egg-whip
or a machine egg-beater; this makes it finer-grained and stiffer.

[Illustration]

A much prettier arrangement for dessert is the _méringue_ as it is
fashioned at Delmonico’s. Instead of little _méringues_, each one is
made a half ball, about six inches in diameter. They are dried very
slowly, so that the crust is about one-third of an inch thick. When
emptied of the soft interiors, and when cold, two shells are placed on a
platter, like an open clam-shell. The whipped cream, when about to serve
(already set, by being on the ice), is banked between them, reaching as
high above as suits the fancy. The cream may be decorated with
strawberries, raspberries, etc., or it may be served without
ornamentation.


GERMAN CAKE (_Mrs. Schulenburg_).

Ingredients: One pound of flour, three-quarters of a pound of butter,
six ounces of sugar, one egg, half a cupful of rum.

Bake in a pie-pan, pressing the cake until it is about one-quarter of
an inch high. Before baking, sprinkle sugar and ground cinnamon on top;
after it is baked, cut it into squares while it is yet warm.


RANAQUE BUNS.

Ingredients: One pound of butter, one and a quarter pounds of sugar, two
pounds of flour, six eggs, four table-spoonfuls of ground cinnamon.

Mix the cinnamon into the flour; rub the butter to a cream, then mix the
flour with it. Beat the sugar with the eggs, then all together, as
little as possible. Distribute this by the spoonful into rough-looking
cakes on buttered tins placed at a little distance apart. This is a very
nice lunch-cake.


FROSTING.

The old way of making frosting was a half-day’s work. I now laugh at the
extra exertion once made to be sure that the eggs were sufficiently and
properly beaten. The following is the true way to make frosting, which
is done and dried on the cake in ten minutes, allowing three minutes for
the making:

Use a heaping tea-cupful of fine pulverized sugar to the white of each
egg, or, say, a pound of sugar to the whites of three eggs. Beat the
whites until they are slightly _foaming_ only; do not beat them to a
froth. The sugar may all be poured on the egg at once, or, if considered
easier to mix, it may be gradually added. Either way, as soon as the
sugar and eggs are thoroughly stirred together, and flavored with a
little lemon or vanilla, the icing is ready to spread over the cake. It
would be advisable to ice the cakes as soon as they are taken from the
oven. The icing made with the white of one egg is quite sufficient to
frost an ordinary-sized cake.

It is very little extra trouble to decorate a frosted cake. One can
purchase funnels for the purpose with different shaped ends. In place of
no better funnel, make a cornucopia of stiff writing-paper; fill it with
the frosting, and press it out at the small end, forming different
shapes, according to taste, over the cake. Little centre-pieces or
leaves can always be purchased at the confectioner’s to aid in the
decoration.

For a cocoa-nut-cake, mix plenty of the grated cocoa-nut into the
frosting, which spread over the cake; decorate it then with plain
frosting.

For a chocolate-cake, after spreading over the chocolate frosting
mentioned in the receipt for chocolate-cake, decorate it with delicate
lines of the white frosting.

The appearance of boiled icing (which is generally flavored with lemon)
is much improved also by a decoration with the plain white frosting.


BOILED ICING.

Ingredients: One pound of sugar, whites of three eggs.

First, boil the sugar with a little water; when it is ready to candy, or
will spin in threads when dropping from the end of a spoon, take it off
the fire, and while it is still boiling hot add the whites of the eggs
_well_ beaten, stirring them in as fast as possible. Flavor with lemon
(if preferred), vanilla, Jamaica rum, or any of the flavorings, and it
is ready for use.



CANDIES.


CARAMELS (_Mrs. Wadsworth_).

Ingredients: One cupful of best sirup, one cupful of brown sugar, one
cupful of white sugar, two cupfuls of grated chocolate, two cupfuls of
cream, vanilla, one tea-spoonful of flour mixed with the cream.

Rub the chocolate to a smooth paste with a little of the cream; boil all
together half an hour, and pour it into flat dishes to cool; mark it
with a knife into little squares when it is cool enough.


WHITE-SUGAR CANDY (_Miss Eliza Brown_).

Ingredients: Four pounds of sugar, one pint of water, four
table-spoonfuls of cream, four table-spoonfuls of vinegar, butter the
size of an egg.

Boil all together slowly for about three-quarters of an hour.


VINEGAR CANDY (_Mrs. Clifford_).

Ingredients: Three cupfuls of sugar, half a cupful of vinegar, half a
cupful of water, one tea-spoonful of soda.

When it boils, stir in the soda. If the candy is preferred clear, stir
it as little as possible; if grained, stir it.



ICES.


With a patent five-minute freezer (it really takes, however, from
fifteen minutes to half an hour to freeze any thing), it is as cheap and
easy to make ices in summer as almost any other kind of dessert. If one
has cream, the expense is very little, as a cream-whipper costs but
twenty-five cents. A simple cream, sweetened, flavored, whipped, and
then frozen, is one of the most delicious of ice-creams. By having the
cream quite cold, a pint can be whipped, with this cream-whipper, in
five or ten minutes. It will require ten cents’ worth of ice--half of it
to freeze the preparation, and the other half to keep it frozen until
the time of serving. Salt is not proverbially expensive; a half-barrel
or bushel of coarse salt will last a long time, especially as a portion
of it can be used a second time. In summer, fruits, such as peaches or
pears, quartered, or any kind of berries, are most delicious half frozen
and served with sugar. The chocolate ice-cream with fruit is excellent.
The devices of form for creams served at handsome dinners in large
cities are very beautiful; for instance, one sees a hen surrounded by
her chickens; or a hen sitting on the side of a spun-glass nest, looking
sideways at her eggs; or a fine collection of fruits in colors. One may
see also a perfect imitation of asparagus with a cream-dressing, the
asparagus being made of the _pistache_ cream, and the dressing simply a
whipped cream. These fancy displays are, of course, generally arranged
by the confectioner. It is a convenience, of course, when giving dinner
companies, to have the dessert or any other course made outside of the
house; but for ordinary occasions, ices are no more troublesome to
prepare than any thing else, especially when they can be made early in
the day, or even the day before serving.


FROZEN WHIPPED CREAM.

Flavor and sweeten the cream, making it rather sweet. Whip it, and
freeze the froth.


VANILLA ICE-CREAM.

Beat the yolks of eight eggs with three-quarters of a pound of sugar
until very light. Put one and a half pints of rich milk on the fire to
scald, highly flavored with the powdered vanilla-bean (say, one heaping
table-spoonful). When the milk is well scalded, stir it into the eggs as
soon as it is cool enough not to curdle. Now stir the mixture constantly
(the custard pan or pail being set in a vessel of boiling water) until
it has slightly thickened. Do not let it remain too long and curdle, or
it will be spoiled. When taken off the fire again, mix in a quarter of a
box of gelatine, which has been soaked half an hour in two
table-spoonfuls of lukewarm water near the fire. The heat of the custard
will be sufficient to dissolve it, if it is not already sufficiently
dissolved. Cool the custard well before putting it into the freezer, as
this saves time and ice. When it is in the freezer, however, stir it
almost constantly until it begins to set; then stir in lightly a pint of
cream, whipped. Stir it for two or three minutes longer, put it into a
mold, and return it to a second relay of ice and salt. The powdered
vanilla can be purchased at drug-stores or at confectioners’. It is much
better than the extract for any purpose, and is used by all the best
_restaurateurs_.


DELMONICO VANILLA CREAM.

Ingredients: One and a half pints of cream, one ounce of isinglass, one
pound of sugar, yolks of eight eggs, half a pint of milk, vanilla
powder.

_Scald_ the cream only; then add the isinglass dissolved in the milk,
and pour it on the sugar and eggs beaten together to a froth; add the
flavoring. Strain, cool, and freeze it; then pack it for three hours and
a half at least.


CHOCOLATE ICE-CREAM

is made in the same way as the vanilla ice-cream, adding a flavoring of
chocolate and a little vanilla powder. For instance, to make a quart and
a half of cream: Make the boiled custard with the yolks of six eggs,
half a pound of sugar, one pint of boiled milk, and a tea-spoonful (not
heaping) of vanilla powder. Pound smooth four ounces of chocolate; add a
little sugar and one or two table-spoonfuls of hot water. Stir it over
the fire until it is perfectly smooth. Add this and a table-spoonful of
thin, dissolved gelatine to the hot custard. When about to set in the
freezer, add one pint of cream, whipped.


TO MAKE A MOLD OF CHOCOLATE AND VANILLA CREAMS.

[Illustration]

Freeze the different creams in two freezers. Cut a piece of pasteboard
to fit the centre of a mold; fill each side with the two creams, remove
the pasteboard, and imbed the mold in ice and salt for two hours.


STRAWBERRY ICE-CREAM.

Sprinkle sugar over strawberries, mash them well, and rub them through a
sieve. To a pint of the juice add half a pint of good cream. Make it
very sweet. Freeze it in the usual way, and, when beginning to set, stir
in lightly one pint of cream (whipped), and, lastly, a handful of whole
strawberries, sweetened. Put it into a mold, which imbed in ice. Or,
when fresh strawberries can not be obtained, there is no more delicious
cream than that made with the French bottled strawberries. Mix the juice
in the bottle with the cream, and add the whipped cream and the whole
strawberries, when the juice, etc., have partly set in the freezer.

Many prefer this cream of a darker red color, which is obtained by using
prepared cochineal.


NAPOLITAINE CREAM.

[Illustration]

To make a form of three colors: Vanilla, chocolate, and strawberry
ice-creams are frozen in three different freezers, and filled in a mold
the form of a brick in three smooth layers of equal size.


CHOCOLATE FRUIT ICE-CREAM.

[Illustration]

Make a chocolate cream. When set in the freezer, add about half a pound
of assorted French candied or preserved fruits cut into small pieces.
Put it into a melon-shaped mold, to imitate a plum-pudding. When ready
to serve, turn the cream on a platter, and make a circle around it of
whipped cream, sweetened and flavored with vanilla. This cream is a
decided success, and a beautiful dessert for a dinner-party. It may be
improved by sprinkling over it chopped almonds dried of a light-brown
color, mixed with chopped pistachios. This is intended to imitate the
rugged appearance of the rind of a melon.


FROZEN FRUIT CUSTARD.

Ingredients: One pint of rich milk, one pint of cream (whipped), yolks
of three eggs, one and a half cupfuls of sugar, one pint of fresh
peaches cut into pieces not too small, or fresh ripe berries.

Beat the eggs and sugar well together. Heat the pint of milk almost to
the boiling-point, and add it gradually to the beaten eggs and sugar.
Return it to the custard-kettle, and stir it constantly until it has
slightly thickened, taking care that it does not curdle. When the
custard is partly frozen, having stirred it in the usual way, add the
whipped cream; stir a few minutes longer, and then stir in the fruit.
Put all into a mold, which place in a fresh relay of ice and salt.


GERMAN STEAMER BAKED ICE-CREAM.

This dish was at least a curiosity, served at the table of one of the
German steamers. A flat, round sponge-cake served as a base. A circular
mold of very hard frozen ice-cream was placed on this, and then covered
with a _méringue_, or whipped white of egg, sweetened and flavored. The
surface was quickly colored with a red-hot salamander, which gave the
dish the appearance of being baked.

The gentleman who told me about this dish insisted that it was put into
the oven and quickly colored, as the egg surrounding the cream was a
sufficiently good non-conductor of heat to protect the ice for one or
two minutes. However, there is less risk with a salamander.


PINE-APPLE ICE-CREAM PUDDING.

[Illustration]

Add one pound of pine-apple grated fine to the yolks of eight eggs well
beaten with one pound of sugar, one and a half pints of boiled cream,
and a very little salt. Stir all together over the fire until it begins
to thicken. When beginning to set in the freezer (having stirred it in
the usual way), add a pint of cream (whipped). This addition of the
whipped cream is a great improvement, although it is generally omitted.
Put it into a form. When ready to serve, press the tuft of leaves, cut
from the pine-apple and trimmed, in the top of the cream. Surround it
with whipped and sweetened cream.


ICED RICE-PUDDING (_Francatelli_).

Wash and parboil half a pound of rice; then put it into a stew-pan, with
a quart of milk and a pint of cream, two sticks of vanilla,
three-quarters of a pound of sugar, and a little salt. Allow the rice to
simmer very gently over or by a slow fire, until the grains are almost
dissolved, stirring it occasionally with a light hand. When the rice is
done, and while it is yet hot, add the yolks of six eggs; then stir all
well together for several minutes, in order to mix in the eggs, and also
for the purpose of breaking up and smoothing the rice. Let this rice
custard be frozen like an ordinary ice-cream, stirring it from the sides
until it is set, when put it into a mold, and immerse it in the ice and
salt.

[Illustration]

While the above part of the process is going on, a _compôte_ of twelve
oranges should be prepared in the following manner: First, separate them
into sections, and remove every particle of the white pith with a small
knife, laying the transparent pulp of the fruit quite bare. When all the
oranges are ready, throw them into a stew-pan containing about a pint of
sirup (made with one pound of sugar and nearly a pint of clear water);
allow the pieces of oranges to boil up gently in this for two minutes,
and then drain them in a sieve. Boil the sirup down to about one-half of
its original quantity; then add two wine-glassfuls of curaçoa and three
table-spoonfuls of peach marmalade or apricot jam; mix all together, and
pour this preparation over the oranges in a basin. When about to send
the pudding to table, turn it out of the mold on a platter, dress the
_compôte_ of oranges on the top and around the base, pour the sirup over
it, and serve.


BISCUIT GLACÉS, IN SMALL CASES.

Beat well eight yolks of eggs, with ten ounces of sugar, and a very
little salt; add one pint of cream. Stir over the fire until slightly
thickened. Flavor with vanilla powder, the extract of almonds, lemon, or
with coffee or chocolate. It may also be made by adding a _purée_ of
peaches, strawberries, raspberries, or pine-apple to the custard. When
just beginning to set in the freezer, stir in lightly one-half pint of
cream (whipped); then partly fill paper cases with the mixture. Smooth
over the tops. Set the cases in the freezer well dried, and allow them
to harden until ready to serve.


BISCUIT GLACÉS (_Francatelli_).

Ingredients: One pint of clarified sirup, twelve yolks of eggs, two
whole eggs, a large wine-glassful of maraschino.

Mix the whole of the ingredients in an earthen basin; then pour the
preparation into an egg-bowl that has been previously warmed with hot
water and wiped dry. Whisk the _soufflé_ briskly (the egg bowl being
placed on a stove containing hot ashes) until it resembles a
well-prepared, firm, sponge-cake batter. Fill the paper cases with the
preparation, and smooth over the tops. Place them in a tin pail or in
the freezer, surrounded with ice and salt, and half a pound of saltpetre
mixed, and let them remain well covered for three or four hours at
least, before serving, without stirring them. Or, they may be frozen all
together in one mold, and some sifted macaroon powder or grated
chocolate sprinkled over the surface, to imitate a baked _soufflé_.


NESSELRODE PUDDING (_Carême’s Receipt_).

Ingredients: Forty chestnuts, one pound of sugar, flavoring of vanilla,
one pint of cream, the yolks of twelve eggs, one glass of maraschino,
one ounce of candied citron, two ounces of currants, two ounces of
stoned raisins.

Blanch the chestnuts in boiling water, remove the husks, and pound them
in a mortar until perfectly smooth, adding a few spoonfuls of the sirup;
then rub them through a fine sieve, and mix them in a basin with a pint
of sirup, made from one pound of sugar, clarified, and flavored with
vanilla; one pint of cream, and the yolks of twelve eggs. Set this
mixture over a slow fire, stirring it _without ceasing_, until the eggs
begin to thicken (without allowing them to curdle), then take it off.
When it is cold, put it into the freezer, adding the maraschino, and
make the mixture set; then add the sliced citron, the currants, and
stoned raisins (these two latter should be soaked the day previous in
maraschino, and sugar pounded with vanilla) to the whole. Thus mingled,
add a plateful of whipped cream, mixed with the whites of three eggs
beaten to a froth. When the pudding is perfectly frozen, put it into a
mold, close the lid, place it again in the freezer, well surrounded with
pounded ice and saltpetre, and let it remain until the time of serving,
when turn it out of the mold.


ICED PUDDING.

Ingredients: One and one-half pints of custard, composed of the yolks of
four eggs, a pint of boiled milk, four table-spoonfuls of sugar, a
flavoring of vanilla, eight ounces of fruits, consisting of equal parts
of dried cherries, pine-apple, dried pears, or apricots, all cut into
very small squares. These fruits may be selected, or perhaps it would be
more convenient to purchase half a pound of the French preserved dried
fruits; or add one ounce of candied citron sliced, two ounces of
currants, two ounces of stoned and chopped raisins, and half a pint of
cream whipped.

Freeze the custard in the usual manner, then mix in the fruits and
whipped cream. A gill of maraschino is an improvement to this pudding,
but may be omitted. If added, it should be at the same time with the
fruit. Put into a mold, and place it on ice and salt. Serve whipped
cream around it.


TUTTI FRUTTI.

When a rich vanilla cream is partly frozen, candied cherries, English
currants, chopped raisins, chopped citron, or any other candied fruits
chopped rather fine, are added; add about the same quantity of fruit as
there is of ice cream. Mold and imbed in ice and salt. It may be served
surrounded with a whipped cream.


FRESH PEACHES HALF FROZEN.

An exceedingly nice dish for breakfast, lunch, or tea may be made of
quarters of large fresh peaches, _half_ frozen, and then sprinkled with
granulated sugar.


PEACHES AND CREAM FROZEN.

Peel and quarter the fresh peaches; mix them with sugar and cream to
taste. Arrange some of the quarters of the peaches tastefully in the
bottom of a basin, or _charlotte_ mold, then fill, and freeze the mass
solid, without stirring. Turn it out to serve.


LEMON ICE.

Boil three pints of water and one quart of loaf-sugar until reduced to
nearly one quart of liquid, skimming it when necessary. When cold, add
the juice of seven lemons, and the thin-sliced yellow part of the rind
of four of them. Let it infuse an hour. Strain it into the freezer
without pressing. When beginning to set in the freezer, stir in lightly
and well the beaten whites of four eggs. Put into a mold, and return it
to a fresh relay of salt and ice. Or it may be frozen and served in the
lemon-skins. A neat slice is taken off the top of the lemon. The juice,
etc., is carefully removed. When the preparation is set in the freezer,
the skins are filled, the tops fitted over, and all imbedded in the ice.
I once saw at one of Delmonico’s dinners a course of these lemons (one
for each person) filled with Roman punch.


CURRANT ICE.

Boil one quart of water and a pound of sugar until reduced about a
pint--_i. e._, until a pint of water has boiled away; skim it, take it
off the fire, and add a pint of currant-juice; when partly frozen, stir
in the beaten whites of four eggs. Mold, and freeze again. A good ice
for fever patients.



COOKERY FOR THE SICK.


I believe it is the general practice now to give a patient, in almost
every kind of illness, food that is very nourishing, yet very
digestible, that the system may become strengthened to throw off its
disease.

I devote a chapter to “cookery for the sick,” as it is such a useful and
delightful accomplishment to know just how to prepare the few available
dishes for invalids, so that while they may be most suitable food for
the recovery of the patient, they may at the same time be most agreeable
to the taste and pleasing to the eye.

The three events of the day to the sufferer are the three meals. How
gratefully is it remembered if they have been delicately and carefully
administered! Let the mother or the wife prepare them with her own
hands; let her never ask an invalid what he will have to eat, but with
thought and ingenuity strive to vary the bill of fare each day, always
providing proper nourishment. This is an art in itself which can be
delegated to no one. It is worth as much to the suffering and beloved
patient as is the medical prescription of the physician.

Never leave an article of diet in the sick-room: it is a good means of
destroying the appetite, which should be encouraged and not weakened.

Whatever is served, let great attention be paid to giving the dish,
after it is properly cooked, a dainty appearance. Place it on the
choicest of ware in the house, with the cleanest of napkins, and the
brightest of silver, even if that consists only of a tea-spoon.

If tea and toast be served, put the tea, freshly drawn, into the
daintiest of tea-cups. Every family might well afford to buy one little,
thin china cup and saucer, to use in case of illness; put a square of
loaf-sugar into it. A few drops of cream are easily saved for the
patient’s tea from a small quantity of milk; and cream in small
quantities is considered more digestible than milk.

All cooks think they can make toast. There is about one person in ten
thousand who really does know how to make it; who actually appreciates
the difference between a thin, symmetrical, well-yellowed, crisp piece
of toast with the crust cut off, and just from the fire, and a thick,
unshapely slice, unevenly crisped on the outside, and of doughy softness
in the centre. One is digestible; the other is exceedingly indigestible.
The _scientific_ mode of making toast is explained on page 67.

Of the laxative articles of diet, undoubtedly one of the most important
is the oatmeal porridge. The chemists say, “Oatmeal stands before all
other grains in point of nutritive power.” I do not mean to serve gruel,
but a thicker preparation, of considerable consistence, which is more
palatable. The mode of making it is explained on page 74. Put a heaping
table-spoonful of this on a thin saucer; pour some cream over it; then
sprinkle over this a little granulated sugar. Now place the saucer on a
little salver, on which is spread the whitest of napkins.

Always remember that in cooking any of the grains, as, for instance,
corn-meal, oatmeal, hominy, cracked-wheat, etc., let them be thrown into
_salted boiling_ water. This makes very great difference in the flavor
of the dish. Make every thing in small quantities, so that the patient
may always have his dishes _freshly_ made.

A very nourishing, digestible, and excellent dish for invalids is a raw,
fresh egg, the receipt for administering which is given among the
invalid receipts (see page 322).

In regard to rice, Dr. Lee remarks: “We regard rice as the most valuable
of all the articles of food in cases of the derangement of the digestive
organs. It nourishes, while it soothes the irritable mucous membrane;
and while it supports strength, never seems to aggravate the existing
disease. For acute or chronic affections of the alimentary canal,
rice-water for drink and rice-jelly for food seem peculiarly well
adapted, and appear to exert a specific influence in bringing about a
recovery. These preparations are invaluable also in convalescence from
acute fevers and other maladies, and in the summer complaints of young
children.”

Jellies made with gelatine or calf’s feet are very appetizing, but must
not be relied on as furnishing much nourishment. They afford a pleasant
vehicle for administering wine, of which the stimulating properties are
often very advantageous. I copy a short article from Booth’s “Chemistry”
on the subject:

“Gelatine in domestic economy is used in the forms of soup and jelly as
an aliment; but though experiments seem to show that when mixed with
fibrous, albuminous, and caseous substances it becomes nutritive, this
conclusion is yet doubtful; for the theory of respiration proves that
histrose, which produces the gelatine, has accomplished its part in the
animal organization, and can no longer afford sustenance thereto. One
fact, however, seems positive, and that is its inability alone to yield
nourishment to carnivorous animals. The feeble nutritive power of a
gelatinous matter seems to be owing to the destruction of its
organization.”

On the same subject of the dietetical value of gelatine, Professor
Youmans says: “It is regarded as a product of the partial decomposition
of albuminous bodies in the system, but as incapable of replacing them
when taken as aliment. The French attempted to feed the inmates of their
hospitals on gelatinous extract of bones. Murmurs arose, and a
commission, with Magendie at their head, was appointed to investigate
the matter. They reported gelatine as, dietetically, almost worthless.”

Graham bread, corn bread, or the Boston brown-bread, made with part rye
flour, are much more nourishing than breads made from bolted wheat. The
whiter the wheat flour, the more starch it contains, and the less
gluten, which is separated in bolting, and which is the nutritious or
flesh-producing portion. The rich Boston brown-bread is especially good
cut into thin, even pieces, with a little cream poured over it.

The value of corn-meal for invalids who are thin and incapable of
maintaining their natural warmth is scarcely appreciated. Indian-corn
contains a large percentage of oil, which is nourishing and fattening.
Fat is the heat-producing power.

As to the meats, it seems to me a mistake that that from the ox, with
his wholesome food, cleanly habits, sweet breath, and clear eye, is not
the most wholesome and digestible of aliments. No meat is so tender and
juicy as the cut from the tenderloin or the porter-house steak.

Pork should be avoided in every form by invalids.

I can not but believe that rare-cooked, tender beef is the most valuable
dish in the culinary _répertoire_ for invalids; yet Dr. Beaumont, after
experimenting with St. Martin, ranks venison, when tender and in season,
as the most digestible and assimilable of meats. He classes mutton
second; then beef. Lamb is less digestible than mutton. Veal should be
avoided as well as pork. Fatty substances are also difficult of
assimilation. Poultry is less digestible than beef. Then, again, the
manner of cooking beef has a great influence on its digestibility. The
best modes are broiling and roasting. Potatoes roasted or baked are
digested an hour sooner than potatoes boiled.

Before beginning the receipts for especial dishes, I will copy a little
story, which furnishes an illustration that the simplest modes of
cooking are, after all, the most satisfactory.

“The Vicomte de Vaudreuil, when appointed _chargé d’affaires_ of France
to the Court of St. James’s, brought over with him a young cook, an
_élève_ of the highest schools of the _cuisines_ of Paris. This young
culinary aspirant to fame, shortly after his arrival in London, obtained
permission of his master to go and witness the artistic operations of
that established _cordon-bleu_, Monsieur Mingay, the cook to Prince
Esterhazy, who had been brought up under the Prince Talleyrand’s famous
_chef_, Louis, and previously under that most _bleu_ of all _cordons_,
the great Carême. On the _élève’s_ return, the Vicomte, hearing that his
cook was in a state of astonishment from something he had witnessed in
Prince Esterhazy’s kitchen, summoned him to his presence, and said,
‘What is this culinary miracle, which I have heard astonishes you, and
casts into the shade all other triumphs of the art?’ Vatel’s follower
replied, ‘Oh, Monsieur le Vicomte, when I entered the _cuisine_ at
Chandos House it was near the time of the prince’s luncheon, for which
his excellency had ordered something which should be very simple and
easily digestible, as he was suffering from languor. The _chef_, Mingay,
accordingly cut from under a well-hung rump of beef three slices of
fillet, and rapidly broiling them, he placed the choicest-looking in the
middle of a hot dish, and afterward pressing the juice completely out
of the remaining two, he poured it on the first! Oh, monsieur, how great
the prince! how great the cook!’”


RECEIPTS FOR THE SICK-ROOM.


TEA.

Tea is best, made fresh in the sick-room. A little _tête-à-tête_ china
service is a pretty ornament for a bedroom, and it is a convenient and
tasteful arrangement for serving tea to invalids. If one has no little
tea-pot like that belonging to the service here referred to, a small one
of any other kind is desirable.

Put two tea-spoonfuls of tea-leaves into the small tea-pot; pour two
tea-cupfuls of _boiling_ water over it; cover it closely, and let it
steam for a few moments.

With a small table at the side of the invalid’s bed, it is a decidedly
pleasant little diversion to make tea in this manner, being sure at the
same time that it is perfectly fresh. However it is made though, do not
present a cupful of tea to a sufferer with a part of the tea spilled
into the saucer.

       *       *       *       *       *

To avoid having fat left in the soups, it is safer to allow them to get
entirely cold, when the fat can be easily skimmed off. Just enough can
be heated each time the soup is served.


BEEF TEA, OR ESSENCE OF BEEF.

Cut, say, a pound of perfectly lean beef into small pieces, put them
into a wide-mouthed bottle (a pickle-bottle answers the purpose), cork
it tightly, and place it in a pot of _cold_ water in which there is a
saucer at the bottom. Heat it gradually, then let it boil slowly for two
or three hours, when all the juice will be drawn out of the meat.

Now pour off the juice, season it with salt carefully, as it requires
very little. When it is cold, skim off all the globules of fat.

This is an invaluable aliment for invalids who are very ill, or for weak
infants, when they need much nourishment in small compass. This beef tea
can then be given by the tea-spoonful at regular intervals,
administering it as medicine.


ANOTHER BEEF TEA (_for Convalescents_).

Soak three-quarters of a pound of small-cut pieces of lean steak (say a
cut from a round steak) in a pint of cold rain-water for half an hour,
squeezing the beef occasionally; then put it on the fire, cover it, and
boil it slowly for ten minutes, removing the scum. Season with salt, and
serve hot. Serve Albert biscuit, or thin wafers (see page 72), with it.
The addition of a little boiled rice makes a pleasant change.


BEEF JUICE.

Choose a thick cut of fine, fresh, juicy steak without fat. Broil it
over the coals for only a minute, or long enough to merely heat it
throughout. Put it over a warm bowl set in a basin of hot water; cut it
in many places, and squeeze out all the juice with the aid of the
meat-squeezer (see page 56). Salt it very slightly. It should be served
immediately, freed from every atom of fat, and accompanied with a wafer
cracker.


CHICKEN BROTH.

Cut up a fowl, and crack the bones. Put it into three pints of cold
water. Boil it slowly, closely covered, for three or four hours, or
until the meat falls in pieces. Strain it, then add two table-spoonfuls
of rice which has been soaked for half an hour in a very little warm
water, also a chopped sprig of parsley, if you have it. Simmer it for
twenty minutes longer, or until the rice is thoroughly cooked. Season
with salt and pepper, but not too highly. Serve with crackers, which
should be broken into the broth the last minute.


CHICKEN CUSTARD.

Ingredients: One half-pint of chicken broth, beaten yolks of three eggs,
a little salt. Mix well, and cook it in the custard-kettle (as for
boiled custard) until it has thickened. Serve in custard-cups.


CHICKEN PANADA.

Roast a small chicken, and take out the breasts, or use more of the meat
if preferred, and add a little salt; chop it as fine as possible, pound
it, and pass it through a colander. Soak half the amount of the crumb of
French rolls, or good bread (not too fresh), in tepid milk; squeeze it
nearly dry, and mix it with the chicken. Thin it with a little strong
chicken broth (which may be made with the remainder of the chicken) or
with boiling water. Serve it in a custard-cup, to be eaten with a spoon.
For convalescents, a very little finely minced parsley may be added.


MOLD OF CHICKEN JELLY.

Cut half a raw chicken into small pieces, and break the bones; put it on
the fire with a quart of cold water. Boil it slowly until it is reduced
to less than half; season with salt and a little pepper, if the invalid
is not too ill for pepper. Strain it first through a colander, then a
jelly-bag, into a mold or a bowl. If the chicken is quite tender, broil
carefully the breast of the other half of it; cut it into dice, or put
it whole into the mold or bowl, and cover it with the liquid. When the
jelly has hardened, scrape off the layer of fat at the top of the mold
before turning the jelly on a little oval platter.


CHICKEN AND CEYLON MOSS.

Cut a small fowl (two pounds) into small pieces, and put it over the
fire with three pints of cold water, four ounces of Ceylon moss (which
can be obtained at the drug-stores), and half a tea-spoonful of salt.
Boil all together an hour; then strain it through a jelly-strainer or
napkin into little cups or molds.


MUTTON BROTH

may be made in the same manner as chicken broth, allowing a quart of
cold water to each pound of meat.


VEAL AND SAGO BROTH (_Marian Harland_).

Ingredients: Two pounds of knuckle of veal cracked to pieces, two quarts
of cold water, three table-spoonfuls of best pearl sago soaked in a
cupful of cold water, one cupful of cream heated to boiling, and the
yolks of two eggs beaten light.

Boil the veal and water in a covered saucepan very slowly until reduced
to one quart of liquid; strain, season with salt, and stir in the soaked
sago (having previously warmed it by setting for half an hour in a
saucepan of boiling water, and stirring from time to time). Simmer half
an hour, taking care it does not burn; beat in the cream and eggs. Give
one good boil up, and turn out.


BEEF AND TAPIOCA BROTH.

Soak one pound of beef, cut into pieces, in a quart of cold water for
half an hour; then boil it slowly, keeping it closely covered for two
hours. Strain it. The last half hour, add half a cupful of tapioca
(which has been soaked an hour in a little water), a small sprig of
parsley, and a thin cut from an onion. When done, remove the parsley and
onion; season with a very little pepper and salt, and two or three drops
only of lemon-juice. When just ready to serve, put into the soup an egg,
carefully poached in salted water, the white being merely set.

If patients are not too ill, any kind of beef soup made from stock, as
explained on page 80, ought to be advantageous.


HOW TO PREPARE AN UNCOOKED EGG.

This is a delicate, strengthening, and valuable preparation for an
invalid.

Beat well the yolk and a tea-spoonful of sugar in a goblet; then stir in
one or two tea-spoonfuls of brandy, sherry, or port wine. Add to this
mixture the white of the egg beaten to a stiff froth. Stir all well
together. It should quite fill the goblet. If wine is not desired,
flavor the egg with nutmeg. It is very palatable without any flavoring
at all.


TAPIOCA JELLY.

Ingredients: One cupful of tapioca, four cupfuls of water, juice and a
little of the grated rind of one lemon, and sugar to taste.

Soak the tapioca for four or five hours in the water. Sweeten it, and
set it in a pan of boiling water to cook an hour, or until it is
thoroughly done and quite clear, stirring it frequently. When nearly
cooked, stir in the lemon; and when done, pour it into little molds.
Serve with cream sweetened and flavored.


SEA-MOSS BLANC-MANGE.

Wash the moss well, and soak it for half an hour or more in a little
cold water. To half an ounce or a handful of moss allow one quart of
water, or rather of rich milk, if the patient can take milk. When the
water or milk is boiling, add the soaked sea-moss, and sugar to taste.
Let them simmer until the moss is entirely dissolved. Strain the juice
into cups or little molds. Many boil a stick of cinnamon with the water
or milk, and flavor also with wine; but the simple flavor of the
sea-moss is very pleasant. It may be served with a little cream and
sugar poured over it.


ARROWROOT JELLY OR BLANC-MANGE.

Add two heaping tea-spoonfuls of best arrowroot, rubbed smooth with a
little cold water, to a coffee-cupful of _boiling_ water or rich milk
which has been sweetened with two tea-spoonfuls of sugar. Stir and boil
it until it has thickened. It may be flavored with lemon-juice if made
with water, or with brandy or wine if made with milk. It is very nice
without flavoring. Pour into a cup or little mold. Serve with cream and
sugar poured over, or with a _compote_ of fruit around it.


CORN-STARCH AND RICE PUDDINGS

are explained among the regular receipts for puddings. Little circular
molds come in form of Fig. A, on page 59. It is a pretty form for any of
these puddings or blanc-manges, with a _compote_ of apples, peaches,
plums, or any other kind of fruit, in the centre.


RICE JELLY.

Mix enough water to two heaping tea-spoonfuls of rice flour to make a
thin paste; then add to it a coffee-cupful of boiling-water. Sweeten to
taste with loaf-sugar. Boil it until it is transparent. Flavor by
boiling with it a stick of cinnamon if the jelly is intended for a
patient with summer complaint; or add, instead, several drops of
lemon-juice if intended for a patient with fever. Mold it.

Vanilla should never be used for flavoring any dish for an invalid.
Homeopathic books can never say enough about its poisonous effects on
even healthy and _robust_ persons.


RICE-WATER FOR DRINK

is made in the same way, in the proportion of a table-spoonful of rice
flour to a quart of boiling water.


JELLY AND ICE (_for Fever Patients_).

Break ice into small pieces about as large as a pea; mix with it about
the same quantity of lemon jelly, also cut into little pieces. This is
very refreshing.


PARCHED RICE.

Parch rice to a nice brown, as you would coffee. Throw it into a little
_boiling_ salted water, and boil it until it is thoroughly done. Do not
stir it more than necessary, on account of breaking the grains. Serve
with cream and sugar.


MILK PORRIDGE.

Put a dozen raisins into two cupfuls of milk. Bring it to a boil; then
add a _heaping_ tea-spoonful of flour rubbed to a paste with a little
cold water or milk; boil it three or four minutes. The raisins may not
be eaten, yet they give a pleasant flavor to the milk; in fact, they may
be taken out if the dish is intended for a child.

For a change, the well-beaten white of an egg may be stirred into this
preparation _just after_ it is taken from the fire, and, again, the
raisins may be left out, and the porridge simply flavored with salt or
sugar, or sugar and nutmeg.


BEEF SANDWICH.

Scrape very fine two or three table-spoonfuls of fresh, juicy, _tender_,
uncooked beef; season it slightly with pepper and salt; spread it
between two thin slices of slightly buttered bread; cut it neatly into
little diamonds about two and a half inches long and an inch wide.


PREPARED FLOUR FOR SUMMER COMPLAINTS (_Mrs. Horace Mann_).

Tie up a pint of flour very tightly in a cloth, and put it into boiling
water, and let it boil three hours. When untied, the gluten of the flour
will be found in a mass on the outside of the ball. Remove this, and the
inside will prove a dry powder which is very astringent. Grate this, and
wet a portion of it in cold milk. Boil a pint of milk, and when it is at
the boiling-point stir in as much of the wet mixture as will thicken it
to the quality of palatable porridge. Stir in a little salt, and let
this be the article of diet until the disease is removed. Relieve it at
first by toasted bread, or a mutton broth, which latter is also
astringent. If the disease has not progressed to the degree of
inflammation, this diet will generally preclude all need of medicine.

The author would also add, for a change of diet, well-boiled rice with a
little cream, parched rice, beef juice, toasted water or milk crackers,
a little tea (avoiding generally too much liquid), and a little
wild-cherry brandy; or to Mrs. Mann’s flour porridge, when cooked, and
just taken hot from the fire, the well-beaten white of an egg might be
added; and, after stirring them well together, the preparation should be
served immediately.


MILK TOAST.

Toast one or two thin slices of bread with the crust cut off; if there
are two slices, have them of equal size. When still hot, spread evenly
over them a very little fresh butter, and sprinkle over some salt. Now
pour over a small tea-cupful of boiling milk, thickened with half a
tea-spoonful of flour, and salted to taste. If the invalid can not take
milk, the toast may be moistened with boiling water. Serve immediately.
It is a very appetizing dish, when fresh made and hot.


PANADA.

Sprinkle a little salt or sugar between two large Boston, soda, or
Graham crackers, or hard pilot-biscuit; put them into a bowl; pour over
just enough boiling water to soak them well; put the bowl into a vessel
of boiling water, and let it remain fifteen or twenty minutes, until the
crackers are quite clear and like a jelly, but not broken. Then lift
them carefully, without breaking, into a hot saucer. Sprinkle on more
sugar or salt if desired: a few spoonfuls of sweet, thick cream poured
over are a good addition for a change. Never make more than enough for
the patient at one time, as they are very palatable when freshly made,
and quite insipid if served cold.

Toasted bread cut into thin even slices may be served in the same way.
This is also a good baby diet.

A panada may be made by adding an ounce of grated bread or rolled
crackers to half a pint of boiling water, slightly salted, and allowing
it to boil three or four minutes. It may be sweetened, and flavored with
wine or nutmeg, or both; or the sugar and nutmeg may be simply sprinkled
over.


ASH-CAKE.

Wet corn-meal, salted to taste, with enough cold water to make a soft
dough, and let it stand half an hour or longer; mold it into an oblong
cake, about an inch and a half or two inches thick. A clean spot should
then be swept on the hot hearth, the bread placed on it, and covered
with hot wood-ashes. The bread is thus steamed before it is baked. It
should be done in a half to three-quarters of an hour, and brushed and
wiped before eaten. There is no better food than this for dyspeptics
inclined to acidity of the stomach, on account of the alkaline
properties of the ashes left in the crust. In other extreme cases of
dyspepsia where acids are required, I have heard of cures being effected
by the use of buttermilk.


MILK PUNCH.

Sweeten a glass of milk to taste, and add one or two table-spoonfuls of
best brandy. Grate a little nutmeg over the top.


EGG-AND-MILK PUNCH.

Stir well a heaping tea-spoonful of sugar, and the yolk of an egg
together in a goblet, then add a table-spoonful of best brandy. Fill the
glass with milk until it is three-quarters full, then stir well into
the mixture the white of the egg beaten to a stiff froth. The receipt
for “Eggnog” among the “Beverages” is similar to this, and better, of
course, as whipped cream is substituted for milk.


HERB TEAS

are made by pouring boiling water over one or two tea-spoonfuls of the
herbs, then, after covering well the cup or bowl, allowing it to steep
for several minutes by the side of the fire. The tea is sweetened to
taste. Camomile tea is quite invaluable for nervousness and
sleeplessness; calamus tea, for infants’ colic; cinnamon tea, for
hemorrhages; watermelon-seed tea, for strangury.


BONESET FOR A COUGH OR COLD (_Mrs. General Simpson_).

Pour one and one-half pints of boiling water on a ten-cent package of
boneset. Let it steep at the side of the fire for ten or fifteen
minutes, when strain it. Sweeten it with two and a half coffee-cupfuls
of loaf-sugar, then add one half-pint of Jamaica rum; bottle it. A child
should take a tea-spoonful before each meal; a grown person, a
sherry-glassful.


BOTANIC COUGH SIRUP.

This book is not a medical treatise, yet I can not resist the temptation
to add the following receipt, given me by Mrs. H----, of Buffalo. Many
cases of long and aggravated cough have been entirely cured by its use.
If the patient has a tendency to vertigo, the bloodroot may be omitted
from the receipt; but for pale persons of weak vitality it will be found
a valuable addition.

Ingredients: Elecampane, one ounce; spikenard, one ounce; cumfrey root,
one ounce; bloodroot, one ounce; hoarhound tops, one ounce.

Add two quarts of water to these herbs, and steep them five hours in a
porcelain or new tin vessel; add more boiling water, as it boils away,
to keep the vessel as full as at first. At the end of this time, strain
the liquid, add one pound of loaf-sugar, and boil it until it is reduced
to one quart.

_Dose._--A dessert-spoonful before each meal and before retiring. It
should be kept in a cool place; or a little spirits may be added to
prevent its spoiling.


ARRANGEMENT OF DISHES FOR INVALIDS.


BEEFSTEAK.

Cut out the tender part of the beef from a porter-house or a tenderloin
steak. The slice from these steaks, if large, can be cut in two, as it
is sufficient for two meals for an invalid. Let it be three-quarters of
an inch thick; trim or press it into shape (it should be oval in form).
Broil it carefully over a hot fire, cooking it rare: the inside should
be pink, not raw. To cook it evenly without burning, turn it two or
three times, but do not pierce it with a fork nor squeeze it. It does
not require over two minutes to finish it. Do not put pepper and salt
over it until it is cooked, as salt rubbed on fresh meat contracts the
fibres and toughens it. However, as soon as it is cooked and placed on a
little hot oval platter, sprinkle salt and pepper over it; then, placing
a small piece of fresh butter on the top, set it into the oven a minute
to allow the butter to soak into the meat: it only requires a small
piece of butter. Beefsteak swimming in butter is unwholesome, and as
slovenly as it is wasteful.

If an invalid can eat beefsteak, he can generally eat some one vegetable
with it; and to make the little plump, tender morsel of beef look more
tempting, garnish it with the vegetable. If with potatoes, bake one or
two equal-sized potatoes to a turn. When quite hot, remove the inside;
mash it perfectly smooth, season it with butter, or, what is better,
cream and salt, and press it through a colander. It will look like
vermicelli. Place it in a circle around the steak.

If with pease, when they are out of season, the French canned pease or
the American brand of “Triumph” pease will be found almost as good. One
can, if kept well covered, should furnish three or four meals for an
invalid. Merely heat them, adding a little salt and butter. Do not use
much, if any, of the juice in making a circle of them around the beef.

If you garnish with tomatoes, make them into a sauce, as follows: After
cooking and seasoning them with salt and pepper, turn off the watery
part, add a little stock, if you have it (however, it is nice without
it, if the word stock frightens any body), and press it through the
sieve. Pour it around the steak.

If with Lima beans, cook them as in receipt (see page 201) with parsley.
Lima beans, as well as string-beans, green corn, and onions, should not
be trusted, in severe cases of illness. A few water-cresses around a
steak would not be injurious to a convalescent.


MUTTON-CHOP.

Scrape the bone, and trim the chop into good shape; this adds much to
the appearance, and requires but little time for one chop. Rub a little
butter on both sides, and broil it carefully, having it well done;
season it as explained for beefsteak. It can be garnished in the same
way.


BREAST OF CHICKEN.

Choose a tender chicken, and cut out the breast; season it, rub a little
butter around it, and throw it on a fire of live coals which is not too
hot. Watch it constantly, turning it around to cook evenly on all sides.
If skillfully done, the surface will be very little charred, and the
inside meat will be more tender and juicy than if cooked in any other
way. Cut off such parts as may be much crisped. Season with butter,
pepper, and salt. Form the breast into a cutlet, with the leg, as
described on page 175. Rub it with butter, and broil it carefully on the
gridiron. Garnish it with rice steamed with rich milk. It is especially
nice with tomato-sauce.


CHICKEN BOILED.

The second joint of a leg of chicken thrown into a little salted boiling
water, or into stock, makes a delicious dish, with a chicken-sauce (see
page 123) poured over it. I think this second joint is more tender, and
has more flavor, than the breast.


VENISON STEAK.

A tender cut from a venison steak should be broiled the same as a
beefsteak. It is nice with mashed potatoes (_à la neige_), or a
currant-jelly, or a tomato-sauce around it.


TO PREPARE A BIRD.

I remember the effects of a quail so well, eaten when very ill, that I
have a decided disinclination to mention the word “bird” in association
with “invalid dishes” at all. But there is a difference in the
tenderness of birds, of course; and, then, a bird need not be swallowed
whole, if one should be ever so hungry. If a bird is to be served, be
sure that it is a tender one. Broil it carefully, or cook it whole in
this manner: Put it into a close-covered vessel holding a little boiling
water, and place it over a very hot fire; steam it for a few minutes;
then brown it in the oven, basting it very frequently. Serve a tomato,
currant-jelly, or wine sauce around it.


INVALID’S BILLS OF FARE.

(_When a laxative diet is not objectionable._)


     BREAKFAST.

     Oatmeal porridge. A poached egg on toast.


     DINNER (_at half-past twelve o’clock_).

     Beefsteak and mashed baked potatoes; toasted Graham crackers.

     _Dessert_: Sea-moss blanc-mange.


     TEA.

     Boston brown-bread cut into slices, with cream poured over.

     A baked apple.


     BREAKFAST.

     Hominy grits; a mutton-chop, with tomato-sauce.


     DINNER.

     A chicken broth, quite thick with rice, and some pieces of chicken
     in it.

     Wafers.

     _Dessert_: A raw egg, arranged as in receipt on page 322, with
     sherry wine.


     TEA.

     Milk-toast.


     BREAKFAST.

     Oatmeal porridge. The second joint of a leg of chicken cooked on
     the coals and served with pease around it.


     DINNER.

     Beef broth, thick with tapioca. Graham wafers.

     _Dessert_: Boiled parched rice, with cream.


     TEA.

     Corn-meal mush, with cream and sugar.


PREPARED FOODS FOR INVALIDS, ETC.

I am indebted to Dr. Franklin, of St. Louis, for this little chapter.
Appreciating his experience in the uses of prepared foods for invalids,
I asked his advice about certain ones, when he kindly sent me a written
opinion, which I insert _verbatim_. Dr. Franklin says:

     “In the dietetic treatment of the sick, notwithstanding that
     well-meaning and unwise friends often injure their patients by
     solicitations to take more food, it is often one of the great
     difficulties to induce the invalid to partake sufficiently of what
     is suitable, remembering that the body is nourished by the
     assimilation of the food, and that the assimilating power is weak,
     and can not be overtaxed. But the desire of food, and, indeed, the
     assimilation, depend in a considerable degree on the manner in
     which it is presented. It should not only please the eye and
     gratify the palate, but should be varied in kind and method of
     preparation.

     “_Liebig’s Extract of Meat_ is an economical and valuable
     preparation. It is valuable in nearly all cases of _physical_
     debility and extreme emaciation, especially after profuse losses of
     blood in collapse from wounds; for patients suffering from severe
     and prolonged fevers in the last stage of consumption; in bad cases
     of indigestion, when the stomach rejects all solid food; and as an
     article of diet for nursing-mothers, etc.

     “In cases of extreme exhaustion, the extract may be mixed with
     wine. As it is stimulating, it may take the place of tea and
     coffee, and will be less liable than they to produce derangement of
     the digestive organs. An advantage with this extract is that it can
     be readily prepared.

     “_Valentine’s Extract of Meat._--This is one of the best articles
     of the kind for the sick-chamber, and is not only simple of
     preparation, but is the most nutritive of all the beef essences. As
     a medicinal agent, it will be found of great value to the sick,
     and for persons (children as well) with weak constitutions.[K]

     “These beverages, in common with any nutritive soups, offer to the
     patient whose general bodily functions are more or less suspended a
     fluid and assimilable form of food. It is to this adaptation of
     nourishment to the condition of the body that we must, in part at
     least, ascribe their beneficial results. They have a remarkable
     power of restoring the vigorous action of the heart, and
     dissipating the sense of exhaustion following severe, prolonged
     exertion, and may be recommended in preference to the glass of wine
     which some take after watching, preaching, prolonged mental effort,
     etc.

     “Rice (whole or ground), barley, etc., may often be advantageously
     added to thicken beef tea.

     “_Gillon’s Essence of Chicken._--A similar preparation may be more
     readily made by using this essence of chicken, which may be
     procured from any homeopathic chemist. This simply requires
     diluting with hot water in the proportion stated upon each tin
     case.

     “_Oatmeal Porridge._--When properly made, this is both wholesome
     and nutritious, and especially suitable when a patient does not
     suffer from water-brash, acidity, or from any form of bowel
     irritation. It has long been the staple food of the Scotch, and
     produces good muscular fibre and strong bone. It is a very
     nourishing diet for growing children. The common oatmeal is not
     equal to the Scotch oatmeal; however, it is not always easy to
     obtain the latter.

     “_Pearl Barley_ forms an excellent meal. It should be boiled for
     four hours, so tied in a cloth that room is left for the grain to
     swell. Only so much water should be added from time to time as to
     feed the barley and supply the waste of evaporation, lest the
     strength of the barley should be boiled out. It may be served with
     milk, or (if the patient can digest them) with preserves, jelly, or
     butter.

     “_Macaroni-pudding._--Three ounces of macaroni should be soaked for
     forty minutes in cold water, then added to a pint of boiling milk.
     This should be stirred occasionally, while it simmers for half an
     hour; two eggs are then added, beaten with a dessert-spoonful of
     sugar; also, if desired, a flavoring of lemon. This may then be
     baked in a pie-dish for twenty minutes.

     “Vermicelli may be used instead of macaroni, but requires only
     twenty minutes’ soaking.

     “Part of a loaf of stale bread, boiled, and served with butter and
     salt, or with preserves, affords a change of wholesome food.
     Bread-pudding made with eggs and milk, either boiled or baked, may
     be used, made according to the receipt used at Westminster
     Hospital, viz.: Bread, one-quarter of a pound; milk, one-quarter of
     a pint; sugar, one-quarter of an ounce; flour, one-quarter of an
     ounce; one egg for every two pounds. A pudding may be made in the
     same way of stale sponge-cake or rusks, to diversify the diet.

     “_Neave’s Food._--Many years’ experience in the use of Neave’s
     Farinaceous Food justifies the recommendation of it as an excellent
     article of diet for infants, invalids, and persons of feeble
     digestion. Competent chemical analysts have found the preparation
     to contain every constituent necessary for the nourishment of the
     body, and this has been abundantly confirmed by what we have
     frequently observed as the result of its use. For infants it should
     be prepared according to the direction supplied with the food,
     taking care not to make it too thick; it also makes a very
     agreeable and highly nutritious gruel.

     “One precaution is necessary: Neave’s food should be obtained fresh
     and in good condition; if exposed too long, it deteriorates. Under
     favorable circumstances it keeps good for from six to twelve
     months. It may generally be procured in good condition from the
     leading homeopathic druggists.

     “Ridge’s, Hard’s, and other farinaceous foods have their
     advantages, and are preferred by some patients.

     “Those foods that are pure starch, as ‘corn flour,’ so called, and
     all those which thicken in like manner, contain but a small
     proportion of nutriment, being less sustaining and also more
     difficult of digestion than ordinary stale bread. They are very
     unsuitable for young infants and children suffering from diarrhea,
     indigestion, constipation, flatulence, atrophy, or aphthæ.

     “In all cases, food which contains traces of bran, and also gluten,
     gum, sugar, cellulose, and saline matter, especially the
     phosphates, in proportion to the starch, are to be preferred. I
     prefer the Ridge’s food for nursing infants, but either may be used
     according to adaptability.

     “_Sugar of Milk._--A preparation of cow’s milk and sugar of milk
     forms a still lighter food, and one which, in the case of very
     young infants, should be used to the exclusion of farinaceous food.
     Cow’s milk may be assimilated to human milk by dilution with water
     and the addition of sugar of milk. Cow’s milk contains more oil
     (cream) and caseine, or cheese matter, but less sugar, than
     woman’s. When necessary to bring up a child by hand from birth,
     sugar of milk is more suitable to begin with.

     “Formula: One ounce of sugar of milk should be dissolved in
     three-quarters of a pint of boiling water, and mixed as required
     with an equal quantity of fresh cow’s milk. The infant should be
     fed with this from the feeding-bottle in the usual way. Care must
     be taken to keep the bottle, etc., perfectly clean.

     “_Alkershrepta_ (Chocolate).--One of the most delicate and
     nutritious beverages is made from this preparation of the cocoa. It
     is prepared from the best cocoa-bean, the highly nutritious natural
     oil of which is not extracted, as in the ordinary soluble
     chocolates, but so neutralized as not to derange the stomach of the
     most delicate. Its nutritious and mildly stimulating qualities, its
     purity, and the facility with which it is prepared for use--_not_
     requiring to be boiled--recommend it as an excellent substitute for
     tea and coffee. Directions for its preparation accompany each
     package.

     “_Delacre’s Extract of Meat Chocolate._--This agreeable article
     combines in one preparation, and under a most agreeable form, a
     large proportion of tonic and nutritive principles. It contains
     both the properties of chocolate and beef. It is a useful tonic and
     nutritive agent for invalids and convalescents, and for persons of
     delicate constitutions. It contains three per cent. of La Plata
     Extract of Meat, and every square represents the nutritive
     constituents of one and a quarter ounces of beef. It is employed as
     ordinary chocolate. Full directions accompany each box.

     “_Welluc’s Biscotine._--A most excellent, healthy, and invigorating
     food for infants and invalids. It is prepared from sweetened bread
     and other nutritious substances, reduced to a fine powder, so as to
     render them easily soluble in water or milk. As an article of
     common diet for infants, particularly those suffering from delicate
     constitutions or with looseness of the bowels, it will be found to
     give health and strength with more certainty than the _crude_
     substances now in use, and not, like them, liable to sour on the
     stomach.”



SOME DISHES FOR “BABY.”


No particular diet can be recommended for the infant that is so
unfortunate as to be deprived of its natural nourishment. What agrees
with one is quite unsuccessful with another. Different kinds of diet can
only be tested. Children’s little illnesses are often the result of food
which, in their case, is unassimilating and indigestible; and it is
often better to attempt a change of food than to resort to medicines.

City babies generally thrive poorly with cow’s milk. Some can stand it,
however, diluting it with a third water, adding a slight thickening of
rice, well boiled and mashed, and also a little sugar. Others thrive
well on goat’s milk, when no other kind will answer. The Borden
condensed milk serves like a charm with very young infants in cold
weather; but in warm weather its excessive sweetness seems to cause
acidification when taken. In New York, where it may be obtained fresh,
without sweetening, I have heard that it is more satisfactory.

Some babies are ruddy and strong with an oatmeal diet (oatmeal porridge
strained and mixed with the milk). I have already mentioned this as
especially successful in Ireland and Scotland. However, in the warm
climate of many of our cities in summer I have known the oatmeal diet to
cause eruptions or boils. It is almost a crime to undertake to bring up
children artificially in warm summer climates. Many a heart-ache is
caused when, failing to supply the natural food, nothing would seem to
agree with the baby.


PAP.

Put a little butter into a saucepan for the purpose of keeping the
mixture from sticking. When it is hot, pour in a thin batter of milk and
flour, a little salted; stir well, and boil gently about five minutes;
then add a little sugar. If the child is over three months old, an egg
may be mixed in the batter for a change.


WHEAT-FLOUR AND CORN-MEAL GRUEL.

Tie wheat flour and corn meal (three-quarters wheat flour and
one-quarter corn meal) into a thick cotton cloth, and boil it three or
four hours. Dry the lump, and grate it as you use it. Put on the fire
cream and water (one part cream to six parts water), and when it comes
to a boil, stir in some of the grated lump, rubbed to a smooth paste
with a little water. Salt it slightly. Judgment must be used as to the
amount of thickening. For a young infant, the preparation should be thin
enough to be taken in the bottle; if the child is older, it may be
thicker. If the child is troubled with constipation, the proportion of
corn meal should be larger; if with summer complaint, it may be left out
altogether.


ROASTED RICE

boiled and mashed is a good infant diet in case of summer complaint.


CORN-MEAL GRUEL

is undoubtedly the best relaxing diet for infants, and may be used
instead of medicine.


FOOD FOR INFANTS WITH WEAK DIGESTIVE ORGANS.


OATMEAL GRUEL (_Dr. Rice, of Colorado_), No. 1.

Add one tea-cupful of oatmeal to two quarts of boiling water, slightly
salted; let this cook for two hours and a half, then strain it through a
sieve. When cold, add to one gill of the gruel one gill of thin cream
and one tea-spoonful of sugar. To this quantity add one pint of boiling
water, and it is ready for use.


BEEF (_Dr. Rice_), No. 2.

Scrape one-half pound of beef, and remove all the shreds; add one-half
pint of water, and three drops of muriatic acid. Let it stand one hour;
then strain it through a sieve, and add a small portion of salt.



HOW TO SERVE FRUITS.


The French deserve much praise for their taste in arranging fruits for
the table. They almost invariably serve them with leaves, even resorting
to artificial ones in winter.

In the following arrangements, I have some of their dainty dishes in
mind.


STRAWBERRIES.

The French serve large fine strawberries without being hulled.
Pulverized sugar is passed, the strawberry is taken by the thumb and
finger by the hull, dipped into the sugar, and eaten. The Wilson
strawberry, however, which seems to be our principal market strawberry,
certainly requires stemming, and deluging with sugar before serving.


MIXED FRUITS.

[Illustration]

Always choose a raised dish for fruits. Arrange part of the clusters of
grapes to fall gracefully over the edge of the dish. Mix any kind of
pretty green leaves or vines, which may also fall, and wind around the
stem of the dish. Although the colors of the fruits should blend
harmoniously, and the general appearance should be fresh and _négligé_,
arrange them firmly, so that when the dish is moved there will be no
danger of an avalanche.


WATER-MELONS.

[Illustration]

A water-melon should be thoroughly chilled; it should be kept on the ice
until about to be served. It may be simply cut in two, with a slice cut
from the convex ends, to enable the halves to stand firmly on the
platter. When thus cut, the pulp is scooped out in egg-shaped pieces
with a table-spoon and served; or it may be cut as shown in figure, when
slices with the rind attached may be served.


CANTALOUPE MELONS.

[Illustration]

Put it into the refrigerator until just before serving, to become
thoroughly chilled; cut it as in figure here given, removing the seeds.
Arrange four or five grape leaves on a platter, upon which place the
melon.


CURRANTS.

[Illustration]

Serve currants in rows of red and white, with a border of leaves around
the outside, as shown in annexed cut.


CURRANTS OR OTHER FRUITS ICED.

Beat the white of an egg barely enough to break it. Dip in selected
bunches of fine currants, and while moist roll them in pulverized sugar.
Place them on a sieve to dry. This makes a refreshing breakfast dish.

Plums, cherries, grapes, or any other fruit may be iced in the same way.


HOW THEY EAT ORANGES IN HAVANA.

A fork is pierced partly through the centre of an orange, entering it
from the stem side; the fork serves for a handle, which is held in the
left hand, while with a sharp knife the peel and thin skin are cut off
in strips from the top of the orange to the fork handle; now, holding it
in the right hand, the orange can be eaten, leaving all the fibrous pulp
on the fork.


FRESH PEACHES.

Choose large, fresh, ripe, and juicy peaches; pare, and cut them into
two or three pieces. They should be large, luscious-looking pieces, not
little chipped affairs. Sprinkle over granulated sugar, put them into
the freezer, and half freeze them; this will require about an hour, as
they are more difficult to freeze than cream. Do not take them from the
freezer until the moment of serving, when sprinkle over a little more
sugar. Serve in a glass dish. Canned peaches may be treated in the same
manner.


PINE-APPLES.

When pine-apples are picked and eaten fresh in their own climate, they
seem to dissolve in the mouth, and the fibrous texture is hardly
perceived. Not so at our tables. Here I have sometimes partly resolved
that they are not much of a luxury after all, especially when the slices
are so tough as to require the knife and fork. They are better cut into
dice, saturated with sugar, and piled in the centre of a glass dish,
with a row _à la Charlotte_ of sponge-cake slices, or of ladies’-fingers
around the sides.

[Illustration]



BEVERAGES.


PUNCH (_Mrs. Williams_).

Rub loaf-sugar over the peels of six lemons to break the little vessels
and absorb the ambrosial oil of the lemons. Then squeeze out all the
juice possible from six oranges and six lemons, removing the seeds; add
to it five pounds of loaf-sugar (including the sugar rubbed over the
peels) and two quarts of water, with five cloves and two blades of mace
(in a bag); simmer this over the stove about ten minutes, making a
sirup.

This sirup will keep forever. It should be bottled and kept to _sweeten_
the liquors, whenever punch is to be made.

Mix then one pint of green tea, a scant pint of brandy, one quart of
Jamaica rum, one quart of Champagne, and one tea-cupful of Chartreuse.
When well mixed, sweeten it to taste with the sirup; pour it into the
punch-bowl, in which is placed an eight or ten pound piece of ice. Slice
three oranges and three lemons, removing the seeds, which put also into
the punch-bowl.


MILK PUNCH (_Mrs. Filley_).

Ingredients: Four quarts of Jamaica rum, three quarts of water, five
pints of boiling milk, three pounds of loaf-sugar, twenty-four lemons,
two nutmegs.

Cut thin slices, or only the yellow part of the rinds of the twenty-four
lemons. Let these thin parings and the two grated nutmegs infuse for
twenty-four hours in one quart of the rum. It should be put in a warm
place.

At the end of the twenty-four hours, add to the juice of the twenty-four
lemons (freed from seeds) the water, sugar, rum, and also the rum
containing the lemon-peel and nutmeg. Put all into a large vessel. When
the sugar is dissolved, add the five pints of boiling milk while the
mixture is being stirred all the time. It will curdle, of course. Then
cover it, and let it stand still one hour, when filter it through a bag,
until it is as clear and bright as a crystal. It may take three or four
hours. Pale rum should be used. This quantity will make enough to fill
about one dozen quart bottles. Cork them well, and keep them standing.
It may be used at once, but it will not be in perfection until it is a
year or two old. It will keep forever. The bag may be made
three-cornered with a yard square of rather coarse Canton flannel.

This punch is nice to serve with mock-turtle soup, or it may be used for
making Roman punch. Like sherry, it is a convenient beverage to offer,
with cake, to a lady friend at any time.


ROMAN PUNCH.

Make or purchase lemon ice. Just before serving, put enough for one
person at table into a saucer or punch-glass, and pour over two
table-spoonfuls of the milk punch, made as in the last receipt. A course
of Roman punch is often served at dinner parties just after the roast.
There is no better, cheaper, or easier way of preparing it than this.


CLARET PUNCH.

Cut up the yellow part of one lemon, and let it soak for three or four
hours in half of a quart bottle of claret; add then the other half of
the wine. Sweeten to taste, and add one bottle of soda. Put a clove into
each glass before pouring out the punch.


EGGNOG.

Ingredients: Six eggs, half a pound of sugar, half a pint of brandy or
whisky, three pints of cream whipped to a froth.

Beat the yolks of the eggs and the sugar together until it is a froth;
add the brandy or whisky, next the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff
froth, and then the whipped cream.


SHERRY, CLARET, OR CATAWBA COBBLERS.

Put four or five table-spoonfuls of the wine into a glass with half a
table-spoonful of sugar; one or two thin slices of orange or lemon may
be added. Fill the glass with finely chopped ice. Now pour this from one
glass to another once or twice, to mix well. Put then two or three
strawberries, or a little of any of the fruit of the season, for a
garnish. The beverage can not be completed without the addition of two
straws.


LEMONADE.

Rub loaf-sugar over the peels of the lemons to absorb the oil; add to
the lemon-juice the sugar to taste. Two lemons will make three glassfuls
of lemonade, the remainder of the ingredients being water and plenty of
ice chopped fine.


TOM AND JERRY.

Ingredients: Four eggs and six large spoonfuls of powdered sugar beaten
together very light (a perfect froth), six small wine-glassfuls of rum,
and one pint of boiling water.

Stir the water into the mixture, and then turn it back and forth into
two pitchers, the pitchers being hot, and the glasses also hot. Grate
nutmeg on the top of each glass, and drink immediately.


MINT-JULEP.

Bruise several tender sprigs of fresh mint in a tea-spoonful of sugar
dissolved in a few table-spoonfuls of water. Fill the glass to one-third
with brandy, claret, sherry, or any wine preferred, and the rest with
finely pounded ice. Insert some sprigs of mint with the stems downward,
so that the leaves above are in the shape of a bouquet. Drink through a
straw.


MILK PUNCH AND EGG-AND-MILK PUNCH (see page 326).


BLACKBERRY CORDIAL.

Ingredients: Two quarts of blackberry juice, two pounds of loaf-sugar,
half an ounce of powdered cinnamon, half an ounce of powdered allspice,
half an ounce of powdered nutmeg, quarter of an ounce of powdered
cloves.

Boil it all together two hours. Add, while hot, one pint of fourth-proof
pure French brandy. Bottle it.


CURRANT WINE.

To two quarts of the currant-juice (after the currants are pressed) add
one quart of water and three and a half pounds of sugar. Let it stand in
an open jar until it stops fermenting; then draw it off carefully,
bottle, and cork it securely.


RASPBERRY VINEGAR (_Miss Nellie Walworth_).

Pour one quart of vinegar over three quarts of ripe black raspberries in
a china vessel. Let it stand twenty-four hours, then strain it. Pour the
liquor over three quarts of fresh raspberries, and let it infuse again
for a day and night; strain again, and add one pound of white sugar to
each pint of juice. Boil twenty minutes, skimming it well. Bottle when
cold. When it is to be drunk, add one part of the raspberry vinegar to
four parts of ice water.



SUITABLE COMBINATION OF DISHES.


There are dishes which seem especially adapted to be served together.
This should be a matter of some study. Of course, very few would serve
cheese with fish, yet general combinations are often very carelessly
considered.


SOUP.

Soup is generally served alone; however, pickles and crackers are a
pleasant accompaniment for oyster-soup, and many serve grated cheese
with macaroni and vermicelli soups. A pea or bean soup (without bread
_croutons_) at one end of the table, with a neat square piece of boiled
pork on a platter at the other end, is sometimes seen. When a ladleful
of the soup is put in the soup-plate by the hostess, the butler passes
it to the host, who cuts off a thin wafer-slice of the pork, and places
it in the soup. The thin pork can be cut with the spoon. Hot boiled rice
is served with gumbo soup. Well-boiled rice, with each grain distinct,
is served in a dish by the side of the soup-tureen. The hostess first
puts a ladleful of soup into the soup-plate, then a spoonful of the rice
in the centre. This is much better than cooking the rice with the soup.

Sometimes little squares (two inches square) of thin slices of brown
bread (buttered) are served with soup at handsome dinners. It is a
French custom. Cold slaw may be served at the same time with soup, and
eaten with the soup or just after the soup-plates are removed.


FISH.

The only vegetable to be served with fish is the plain boiled potato. It
may be cut into little round balls an inch in diameter, and served in
little piles as a garnish around the fish, or it may be the flaky,
full-sized potato, served in another dish. Some stuff a fish with
seasoned mashed potatoes, then serve around it little cakes of mashed
potatoes, rolled in egg and bread-crumbs and fried. Cucumbers, and
sometimes noodles, are served with fish.


BEEF.

Almost any vegetable may be served with beef. If potato is not served
with fish, it generally accompanies the beef, either as a bed of smooth
mashed potatoes around the beef, or _à la neige_, or as fried
potato-balls (_à la Parisienne_), or, in fact, cooked in any of the
myriad different ways. At dinner companies, beef is generally served
with a mushroom-sauce. However, as any and all vegetables are suitable
for beef, it is only a matter of convenience which to choose.
Horse-radish is a favorite beef accompaniment.


CORNED BEEF

should be served with carrots, turnips, parsnips, cabbage, or pickles
around it.


TURKEYS.

Cranberry-sauce, or some acid jelly, such as currant or plum jelly,
should be served with turkey. Many garnish a turkey with sausages made
of pork or beef. Any vegetable may be served with a turkey; perhaps
onions, cold slaw, turnips, tomatoes, and potatoes are the ones oftenest
selected.


CHICKENS.

Fried chickens with cream dressing are good served with cauliflower on
the same dish, with the same sauce poured over both. A boiled chicken is
generally served in a bed of boiled rice. A row of baked tomatoes is a
pretty garnish around a roast chicken. It is fashionable to serve salads
with chickens.


LAMB

is especially nice served with green pease or with spinach; cauliflowers
and asparagus are also favorite accompaniments.


PORK.

The unquestionable combination for pork is fried apples, apple-sauce,
sweet-potatoes, tomatoes, or Irish potatoes. Pork sausages should
invariably be served with apple-sauce or fried apples. Thin slices of
breakfast bacon make a savory garnish for beefsteak. Thin slices of
pork, egged and bread-crumbed, fried, and placed on slices of fried
mush, make a nice breakfast dish; or it may garnish fried chickens,
beefsteak, or breaded chops.


MUTTON.

The same vegetables mentioned as suitable for lamb are appropriate for
mutton. The English often serve salad with mutton.


VEAL.

Any vegetable may be served as well with veal as with beef. I would
select, however, tomatoes, parsnips, or oyster-plant.


ROAST GOOSE,

apple-sauce, and turnips especially.


GAME.

Game should invariably be served with an acid jelly, such as a currant
or a plum jelly. Saratoga potatoes, potatoes _à la Parisienne_, spinach,
tomatoes, and salads, are especially suitable for game.


CHEESE

is served just before the dessert. It is English to serve celery or
cucumbers with it. Thin milk crackers or wafer biscuits (put into the
oven just a moment before serving, to make them crisp) should be served
with cheese; butter also for spreading the crackers, this being the only
time that it is usually allowed for dinner. Macaroni with cheese, Welsh
rare-bits, cheese omelets, or little cheese-cakes, are good substitutes
for a cheese course.


SWEET-BREADS.

Sweet-breads and pease--this is the combination seen at almost every
dinner company. They are as nice, however, with tomatoes, cauliflowers,
macaroni mixed with tomato-sauce or cheese, or with asparagus or
succotash.


ROMAN PUNCH

is generally served as a course just after the beef. It is a refreshing
arrangement, preparing one for the game which comes after. In England,
punch is served with soup, especially with turtle or mock-turtle. One
often sees Roman punch served as a first course just before the soup.


CANTALOUPE MELONS

are served just after the soup at dinner. This is especially French;
however, this melon is more of a breakfast than a dinner dish. The
water-melon is served the same time as fruit at dinner.



SERVING OF WINES.


At dinners of great pretension, from eight to twelve different kinds of
wines are sometimes served. This is rather ostentatious than elegant. In
my judgment, neither elegance nor good taste is displayed in such
excess. Four different kinds of wine are quite enough for the grandest
occasions imaginable, if they are only of the choicest selection.
Indeed, for most occasions, a single wine--a choice claret or
Champagne--is quite sufficient. In fact, let no one hesitate about
giving dinners without any wine at all. Proper respect for conscientious
scruples about serving wine would forbid a criticism as to the propriety
of serving any dinner without it. Such dinners are in quite as good
taste, and will be just as well appreciated by sensible people; and it
makes very little difference whether people _who are not sensible_ are
pleased or not.

If three wines are served, let them be a choice sherry with the soup,
claret with the first course after the fish, and Champagne with the
roast. If a fourth is desired, there is no better selection than a
Château Yquem, to be served with an _entrée_. If Champagne alone is
used, serve it just after the fish. Many serve claret during the entire
dinner, it matters not how many other varieties may be served; others do
the same with Champagne--for the benefit of the ladies, they say. I
believe, however, Champagne is considered with more disfavor every day.
In England, punch is served with turtle or mock-turtle soup. A receipt
may be found for one of their best punches (see page 339). I consider
it, however, a decided mistake to serve so strong a beverage, especially
at the beginning of a dinner. A fine ale is often served with the
cheese-and-cracker course at family dinners, when wine is not served.

As a rule, I would say that the white wines, Sauterne, Rhine, etc., are
served with raw oysters, or just before the soup; sherry or Madeira,
with the soup or fish; Champagne, with the meat; claret, or any other of
the red wines, with the game. Many prefer claret just after the fish, as
it is a light wine, and can be drunk instead of water. If still another
wine is added for the dessert, it is some superior sherry, port,
Burgundy, or any fine wine. Very small glasses of _liqueurs_, such as
maraschino and curaçoa, are sometimes served at the end of a dinner
after coffee.

In France, coffee (_café noir_) is served after the fruit at dinner, a
plan which should be generally followed at dinner parties at least. It
is always well to serve cream and sugar with coffee, as many prefer it.


PROPER TEMPERATURE IN WHICH WINES SHOULD BE SERVED.

Sherry should be served thoroughly chilled.

Madeira should be neither warm nor cold, but of about the same
temperature as the room.

Claret should be served at the same temperature as Madeira, never with
ice; it should remain about forty-eight hours standing, then decanted,
care being observed that no sediment enter the decanter.

Champagne should either be kept on ice for several hours previous to
serving, or it should be half frozen; it is then called _Champagne
frappé_. It is frozen with some difficulty. The ice should be pounded
quite fine, then an _equal_ amount of salt mixed with it. A quart bottle
of Champagne well surrounded by this mixture should be frozen in two
hours, or, rather, frozen to the degree when it may be poured from the
bottle.


TREATMENT OF WINES.

Connoisseurs on the subject of wine say much depends upon its treatment
before it is served; that it is invariably much impaired in flavor
through ignorance of proper treatment in the cellar; and that a wine of
ordinary grade will be more palatable than one of better quality less
carefully managed. They say wine should never be allowed to remain in
case, but unpacked, and laid on its side. Above all, wine should be
stored where it is least exposed to the changes of temperature.

All red wines should be kept dry and warm, especially clarets, which are
more easily injured by cold than by heat. Consequently, on account of
the rigor of our winters, clarets are better stored in a closet on the
second floor (not too near a register) than in a cellar. Champagnes and
Rhine wines stand cold better than heat, which frequently causes
fermentation. The warmer sherry, Madeira, and all spirits are kept, the
better.


CHOICE OF BRANDS.

_Champagne._--Perhaps the choicest brands of Champagne are Pomméry (dry,
supposed to mean less sweet), Giesler (sweet), Veuve Cliquot (sweet),
and Roederer (sweet). The best of the cheaper Champagnes are Charles
Roederer, Heidsick, Montebello, and Krug.

_Claret._--Choicest brands: Châteaux La Rose, Château La Tour, Château
Lafitte, or Château Margeaux. Best cheaper brand, St. Julien.

_Sauterne._--Best: Château Yquem, La Tour Blanche. Best cheaper,
Haut-Sauterne.

_Burgundy._--Best brands: Clos Vougeot, Chambertin, Chablis, and Red
Hermitage.

_Sherry._--Best brand, Amontillado.

_Hock._--Best brands: Steinberg Cabinet and Marcobrunner. Best sparkling
wine, Hochheimer.

The American dry wines are most excellent, and might be more patronized
by those who know no other wine than that of foreign manufacture. The
Missouri Catawba and Concord wines are especially good; so are some of
the California wines. The Ohio Catawba is quite noted.


BILL-OF-FARE TABLE.

Bills of fare can be easily made by selecting more or less dishes, and
serving them in the order indicated in the table. The dishes are to be
garnished as explained in receipts.

     1st Course.--Raw oysters, little clams, Roman punch.

     2d Course.--Soup (_potages_): any kind of soup or soups.

     3d Course.--Hors-d’œuvres (cold): sardines, pickled oysters,
     cucumbers, radishes, preserved herrings, anchovies, cold slaw.
     These dishes are considered as appetizers, and are served just
     after the soup. It is a French custom. Melons are served as a
     course after soup also.

     4th Course.--Fish (_poissons_): any kind of fish or shell-fish.

     5th Course.--Hors-d’œuvres (hot). The hot hors-d’œuvres are the
     light entrées, such as croquettes, all kinds of hot vols-au-vent,
     or patties (not sweet ones, however), sweet-breads, brains, etc.

     6th Course.--Relevés: the relevés or removes, are the substantial
     dishes. Roast joints, _i. e._, of beef, veal, lamb, mutton, or
     venison, roast or boiled turkeys or chickens, fillet of beef,
     braised meats, ham, sometimes game.

     7th Course.--Roman punch.

     8th Course.--Entrées: cutlets, all kinds of vols-au-vent, or
     patties (not sweet); sweet-breads, fricassees, scollops,
     casseroles, poultry or game en coquille, croquettes, salmis,
     blanquettes; any of the meats, or game made into side-dishes.

     9th Course.--Entremêts: dressed vegetables served alone, such as
     cauliflower, asparagus, artichokes, corn, spinach, boiled celery,
     string-beans (_haricots verts_), or French pease on toast, etc.,
     macaroni, dressed eggs, fritters.

     10th Course.--Rôtis: game of any kind.

     11th Course.--Salade: any kind of salad; a plain salad is often
     served with the game.

     12th Course.--Cheese, macaroni dressed with cheese, cheese omelet,
     cheese-cakes; cheese and salad are often served together.

     13th Course.--Entremêts, sweet: any kind of puddings, jellies,
     sweet fritters, sweet pastries, creams, charlottes, etc.

     14th Course.--Glaces: any thing iced; ice-creams, water ices,
     frozen puddings, biscuits glacés, etc.

     15th Course.--Dessert: fruit, nuts and raisins, candied fruits,
     bonbons, cakes, etc.

     16th Course.--Coffee, and little cakes, or biscuits (crackers).



TO PREPARE COMPANY DINNERS.


It is very simple to prepare a dinner served _à la Russe_, as it matters
little how many courses there may be. If it were necessary to prepare
many dishes, and to have them all hot, and in perfection at the same
minute, and then be obliged to serve them nearly all together, the task
might be considered rather formidable and confusing. But with one or two
assistants, and with time between each course to prepare the succeeding
one, after a very little practice it becomes a mere amusement.

The soup, or the stock for the soup, and the dessert, should be made the
day before the dinner.

A bill of fare should be written, and pinned up in the kitchen. Every
thing should be prepared that is possible in the early part of the day;
then, after the fish, chickens, birds, etc., are dressed and larded (if
necessary), they should be put aside, near the ice. If sweet-breads are
to be served, they should be larded, parboiled, and put away also. The
salad (if lettuce) should be sprinkled with water (not placed _in_
water), and put in a cool, dark place in a basket, not to be touched
until the last three minutes.

The plates and platters for each course should be counted, examined, and
placed on a table by themselves. However, the arrangement of the dishes
was explained in the chapter on setting the table.

After this, the kitchen should be put in order, and the tables cleared
of all unnecessary things. Then every thing needed for the courses to be
cooked should be placed in separate groups at the back of a large table,
so that there may be no confusion or loss of any thing at the last
minute. If there are sweet-breads, have them egged and bread-crumbed; if
pease are to be served with them, place them in a basin at their side,
properly seasoned. If there is macaroni with cheese, have the proper
quantity desired already broken on a dish, with a plate of grated cheese
and a tin cup, with the necessary amount of butter to be melted, side by
side. If there is a fillet of beef to be baked and served with a
mushroom-sauce, have the fillet in the baking-pan already larded, the
mushrooms in the basin in which they are to be cooked, at the side; also
the piece of lemon and the spoonful of flour ready. The stock will be in
the kettle at the back of the stove. By-the-way, in giving a fine
dinner, there should always be an extra stock-pot, separate from the
soup, at the back of the stove, as it is excellent for boiling the
sweet-breads or the macaroni, and making the sauces, etc.

If a simple salad of lettuce is to be served, have the oil, vinegar,
pepper and salt, and the spoonful of finely chopped onion, in a group
all ready. If a _Mayonnaise_ dressing is to be served, that should be
made in the morning.

Look at the clock in the kitchen, and calculate the time it will take
each dish to cook, and put it to the fire, so that it will be finished
“to a turn” just at the proper minute.

During dinner, one person should attend to placing out of the way all
the dishes brought from the dining-room, and, if necessary, should wash
any spoons, platters, etc., which may be needed a second time. She
should know beforehand, however, just what she is to wash, as every one
must know exactly her own business, so that no questions need be asked
at the last moment. The cook can attend to nothing but the cooking, at
the risk of neglecting this most important part.

As the course just before the salad is sent into the dining-room, begin
to make the salad, having every thing all ready. First, pick over the
lettuce-leaves, wash and leave them to drain, while you prepare the
dressing. It should _just_ be ready when its turn comes to be sent to
table.

If the dinner company is very large, and there are many dishes, the
cooking of them may be distributed between two persons, and perhaps the
second cook may use the laundry stove; but with a little practice and
the one or two assistants, one cook can easily prepare the most
elaborate dinner, if it is only properly managed before the time of
cooking. She should, of course, never attempt any dish she has not made
before. A _bain-marie_ is very convenient for preserving cooked dishes,
if there is some delay in serving the dinner.

Of all things, never on any occasion serve a large joint or large
article of any kind on a little platter, as nothing looks so awkward.
Let the platter always be at least a third larger than the size of its
contents.

I give several bills of fare. They are long enough and good enough for
any dinner party. Guests do not care for better or more, if these are
only properly cooked. They can be easily prepared in one’s own house,
and this is always more elegant than to have a list of a hundred dishes
from a restaurant.


A WINTER DINNER.

Oysters on the half-shell.
Amber soup.
Salmon; sauce Hollandaise.
Sweet-breads and pease.
Lamb-chops; tomato-sauce.
Fillet of beef, with mushrooms.
Roast quails; Saratoga potatoes.
Salad: lettuce.
Cheese; celery; wafers.
Charlotte-russe, with French bottled strawberries around it.
Chocolate Fruit Ice-cream.
Fruit.
Coffee.

The same bill of fare in French is as follows:


MENU.

Huîtres.
Consommé de bœuf clair.
Saumon; sauce Hollandaise.
Ris de veau aux petits pois.
Côtelettes d’agneau à la purée de tomate.
Filet de bœuf aux champignons.
Cailles grillées aux pommes de terre.
Salade.
Fromage; céleri.
Charlotte-russe aux fraises.
Plum-pudding glacé.
Fruits.
Café.

This is a bill of fare seen very often at dinner parties. It is not
difficult to prepare, as there are only five of the courses which are
necessarily prepared at dinner-time. The oyster course is very simple,
and may be placed on the table before the guests enter the dining-room.
This soup may be made the day before, and only reheated at the time of
serving. The Saratoga potatoes may be made in the morning; and if the
_charlotte-russe_ is not purchased at a restaurant, it may be made the
day before. So, after the quails are broiled or roasted, the cook has
nothing more to do but to make the salad, which is an affair of three
minutes, and the coffee, for which she has a long time, the coffee
having been ground and in readiness in the coffee-pot two or three hours
before dinner. The four last courses before the coffee are easily
purchased outside. The cheese might be a Neufchatel or a Roquefort. The
_charlotte_ and the ice-cream can come from the confectioner’s. The
fruit is on the table during the dinner as one of the decorations.


DINNER BILL OF FARE.

Roman punch.
Giblet soup.
Little vols-au-vent of oysters.
Smelts; tomato-sauce.
Scolloped chickens (_en coquille_); Bechamel sauce.
Saddle of venison; potatoes à la neige.
Breasts of quails in cutlets, with French pease.
Salad of lettuce.
Cheese omelet.
Pine-apple Bavarian cream.
Vanilla ice-cream, and ginger preserve; little cakes.
Fruits.
Coffee.


MENU.

Punch à la Romaine.
Bouchées d’huîtres.
Les éperlans frits; sauce tomate.
Coquilles de volaille à la Bechamel.
Selle de venaison à la purée de pommes de terre.
Filets de cailles aux petits pois.
Salade de laitue.
Omelette au fromage.
Le Bavaroix.
Glace à la crème de vanille.
Dessert.
Café.

       *       *       *       *       *


DINNER BILL OF FARE (_Spring_).

Macaroni, clear soup, with grated cheese.
Salmon; lobster-sauce; cucumbers.
Chicken croquettes; tomato-sauce.
Sweet-breads in cases, or in silver scallop-shells; sauce Bechamel.
Fillet of beef, with mushrooms.
Roman punch.
Snipe; potatoes à la Parisienne.
Mayonnaise of chicken.
Asparagus, with cream dressing.
Ramequins.
Champagne jelly en macédoine, with whipped cream.
Neapolitan ice-cream; little cakes.
Fruits.


MENU.

Potage au macaroni clair.
Saumon aux concombres; sauce homard.
Croquettes de volaille; sauce tomate.
Ris de veau en papillotes, à la Bechamel.
Filet de bœuf aux champignons.
Punch à la Romaine.
Bécasses; pommes de terre à la Parisienne.
Mayonnaise de volaille.
Asperges à la crème.
Ramequins.
Macédoine de fruits.
Glace de crème à la Napolitaine.
Dessert.

       *       *       *       *       *


DINNER BILL OF FARE (_Winter_).

Oysters served in block of ice.
Julienne soup (can purchase it canned).
Soft-shell crabs.
Sweet-breads; tomato-sauce.
Braised pigeons, with spinach.
Fillet of beef; sauce Hollandaise.
Roman punch, in lemon-skins.
Fillets of ducks, larded; poivrade-sauce; salad of vegetables.
French canned string-beans (_haricots verts_) sautéd with butter, served on
toast.
Macaroni, with cheese.
Maraschino Bavarian cream.
Chocolate-pudding, iced.
Fruits.
Coffee.


MENU.

Huîtres.
Potage à la julienne.
Écrevisses frites.
Ris de veau; sauce tomate.
Pigeons à l’écarlate.
Filet de bœuf; sauce Hollandaise.
Sorbet.
Filets de canards; sauce poivrade; salade de légumes.
Haricots verts sautés au beurre.
Macaroni au Parmesan.
Le Bavaroix au maraschino.
Pouding de chocolat glacé.
Fruits.
Café.


DINNER BILL OF FARE (_Winter_).

Mock-turtle soup (can be purchased canned).
Boiled white-fish, garnished with potatoes au naturel and olives; sauce
Hollandaise.
Fried oysters; cold slaw.
Casserole of sweet-breads; cream-sauce, decorated around the base with
green pease.
Roast wild turkey, chestnut stuffing; Saratoga potatoes.
Fried cream.
Spinach on toast, garnished with hard-boiled eggs.
Salad; lettuce, with small, thin diamonds of fried ham.
Cheese; wafers; celery.
Little cocoa-nut puddings in paper cases.
Ice-cream and cakes.
Fruit.
Coffee.


MENU.

Potage à la tête de veau en tortue, or potage fausse tortue.
White-fish; sauce Hollandaise.
Huîtres frites.
Casserole de ris de veau aux petits pois.
Dinde sauvage rôtie.
Beignets de bouillie, or crème frite.
Épinards aux œufs.
Salade.
Soufflé.
Glace de crème au chocolat.
Fruits.
Café.

       *       *       *       *       *


DINNER BILL OF FARE (_Winter_).

Oysters on half shell.
Amber soup.
Fish croquettes (pear-shape), garnished with parsley.
Rice casserole, filled with blanquette of chicken.
Roast beef (ribs rolled), with a circle of mashed potatoes à la neige and
water-cresses.
Canvas-back ducks; celery.
Roman punch.
Reed-birds cooked in sweet-potatoes.
Poached eggs on anchovy toast.
Salad.
Coffee; Bavarian cream.
Nesselrode pudding.
Fruits.
Café.


MENU.

Huîtres.
Consommé de bœuf clair.
Croquettes de poisson.
Blanquette de volaille.
Bœuf rôti à la purée de pommes de terre.
Canards; céleri.
Punch à la Romaine.
Œufs pochés aux croûtes d’anchois.
Salade.
Bavaroix au café.
Pouding à la Nesselrode.
Fruits.
Café.

       *       *       *       *       *


DINNER BILL OF FARE (_Summer_).

Clear amber soup.
Fried cuts of fish, with tomato-sauce.
Sweet-breads and cauliflowers (cream dressing over both).
Croquettes of chicken (in form of cutlets), with pease.
Roast lamb; caper-sauce; spinach.
Green corn served in husks.[L]
Sliced tomatoes, with Mayonnaise dressing.
Cheese; wafers; cucumbers.
Maraschino Bavarian cream, and fresh strawberries.
Ice-cream.
Fruits.


MENU.

Consommé de bœuf clair.
White-fish à l’Orlay.
Ris de veau aux choux-fleurs.
Croquettes de volaille aux petits pois.
Agneau rôti aux épinards.
Mayonnaise de tomate.
Fromage; concombres.
Bavaroix au maraschino.
Glace de crème au chocolat.
Dessert.


A SIMPLE DINNER FOR FOUR PERSONS (_Menu_).

Soup, with fried bread (_aux croûtons_).
Chicken, with rice (see page 177).
Macaroni, with tomato-sauce (see page 210).
Lettuce, with Mayonnaise dressing.
Corn-starch pudding (page 275), with a circle of peach marmalade around.

Necessary--a soup-bone, a soup-bunch, with plenty of parsley, a large
chicken, half a pound of macaroni, a half-pint can of tomatoes,
three-fourths of a tea-cupful of rice.

Make the _Mayonnaise_ dressing with three eggs in the morning. Use the
whites of the eggs for the corn-starch pudding, which make at the same
time, and put away in a mold to harden. Also put aside the rice to soak
in cold water.

Five hours before dinner, put on the soup-bone, with the neck of the
chicken also, as every little adds. An hour before dinner, cut up the
soup-bunch, saving part of it for the tomato-sauce, as one or two sprigs
of the parsley and a small onion. Put the remaining vegetables (frying
the onion) into the soup, leaving only a sprig of parsley for the
chicken. Cut up the pieces of chicken, which fry or _sauté_ brown in
some hot drippings; put them then into a stew-pan. Add to the drippings
(about a table-spoonful) a tea-spoonful of flour, and, when rubbed
smooth, a pint of hot water, a ladleful of the soup taken from the
soup-kettle, and a sprig of parsley chopped fine. Add this now to the
fried pieces of chicken in the stew-pan; let them simmer until about
five minutes before dinner.

For the soup, cut some bread into rather large dice, say three-quarters
of an inch square; fry, or rather _sauté_, them in a little butter,
turning all sides of the bread to allow it to become brown. Place the
dice in the open oven, or at the back of the range, to become perfectly
dry before the dinner-hour. Half an hour before dinner, put the
macaroni to boil in another ladleful of stock mixed with some salted
boiling water. Now make the tomato-sauce: make it as in receipt, and
place it at the side of the fire or in the _bain-marie_ until the
macaroni is done. Put on the rice to boil for about fifteen minutes in a
little salted boiling water.

Just before serving the dinner is the busiest time. Strain the macaroni,
and mix it with the sauce; put it into the oven for a few minutes to
soak. Strain the soup, remove all the grease, and season it with pepper
and salt. Put the bread dice, or _croûtons_, into the soup-tureen, pour
over the soup, and send it to table. Take out the pieces of chicken,
which arrange neatly on a warm platter; strain the stock in which it was
boiled, remove all the fat, add the rice to it, season with pepper and
salt, and let it simmer on the fire until it is time to be served, and
then pour it over the chickens, and send them into the dining-room. The
lettuce is next washed and dressed; afterward the pudding is turned from
the mold, and decorated with the circle of peach marmalade.



ENGLISH AND FRENCH GLOSSARY.


SOUPS.

Amber or clear soup      Consommé de bœuf clair.
Soup, with bread         Potage aux croûtons.
Soup, with vegetables    Consommé aux légumes.
Macaroni soup            Consommé au macaroni.
Noodle soup              Consommé aux nouilles.
Vermicelli soup          Consommé aux vermicelles.
Spring soup              Potage printanier.
Julienne soup            Potage à la julienne.
Asparagus soup           Potage d’asperge.
Ox-tail soup             Potage aux queues de bœuf.
Chicken purée            Potage à la purée de volaille.
Chicken soup             Consommé de volaille.
Mock-turtle soup         Potage à la fausse tortue.
Oyster soup              Potage aux huîtres.
Bean soup                Potage à la purée d’haricots.
Onion soup               Soupe à l’ognon.
Vegetable purée          Purée de légumes.
Tomato soup              Potage aux tomates.
Potato soup              Potage  à la purée de pommes de terre.
Sorrel soup              Soupe à l’oseille.


FISH.

Salmon, sauce Hollandaise                   Saumon, sauce Hollandaise.
Salmon, with lobster-sauce                  Saumon, sauce homard.
Salmon, with parsley-sauce                  Saumon, sauce au persil.
Salmon, with egg-sauce                      Saumon, sauce aux œufs.
Salmon, with potatoes                       Saumon aux pommes de terre.
Slices of salmon                            Tranches de saumon.
Middle cut of salmon                        Tronçon de saumon.
Salmon cutlets, with pickles                Côtelettes de saumon aux cornichons.
Salmon, with cucumbers                      Saumon aux concombres.
Sardines, broiled                           Sardines grillées.
Smelts, fried                               Éperlans frits.
Little trout, fried                         Petites truites frites.
Trout, in shells                            Truite en coquilles.
Salmon-trout                                Truite saumonée.
Trout cooked au court bouillon              Truite au court bouillon.
Codfish, with caper-sauce                   Morue à la sauce aux câpres.
Codfish, with Bechamel sauce                Morue à la Bechamel.
Codfish, with potatoes                      Morue aux pommes de terre.
Eels au gratin                              Gratin d’anguilles.
Eels en matelote                            Matelote d’anguilles.
Fresh mackerel, with maître-d’hôtel butter  Maquereau frais à la maître-d’hôtel.


OYSTERS.

Oysters in shells    Huîtres en coquille.
Oysters fried        Huîtres frites.
Oyster fritters      Beignets d’huîtres.
Oyster patties       Petits vol-au-vent d’huîtres, ou bouchées d’huîtres.


SAUCES.

White sauce (made with stock)    Sauce à la Bechamel.
Pickle-sauce                     Sauce aux cornichons.
Egg-sauce                        Sauce aux œufs.
Caper-sauce                      Sauce aux câpres.
Anchovy-sauce                    Sauce aux anchois.
Shrimp-sauce                     Sauce aux crevettes.
Lobster-sauce                    Sauce homard.
Oyster-sauce                     Sauce aux huîtres.
Parsley-sauce                    Sauce au persil.
Cauliflower-sauce                Sauce au chou-fleur.
Madeira-wine sauce               Sauce au vin de Madère.
Currant-jelly sauce              Sauce aux groseilles.
Tomato-sauce                     Sauce tomate.
Mushroom-sauce                   Sauce aux champignons.


MEATS.

Roast fillet of beef               Filet de bœuf rôti.
Fillet of beef, larded             Filet de bœuf piqué.
Fillet of beef, with mushrooms     Filet de bœuf aux champignons.
Braised beef                       Bœuf braisé.
Braised beef, with vegetables      Bœuf braisé à la jardinière.
Beef hash                          Hâchis de bœuf.
Beefsteak, with mushrooms          Bifteck aux champignons.
Beefsteak pie                      Pâté de biftecks.
À-la-mode beef                     Bœuf à la mode.
Pickled tongue                     Langue de bœuf à l’écarlate.
Mutton tongues                     Langues de mouton.
Saddle of mutton (roast)           Selle de mouton rôtie.
Shoulder of mutton, stuffed        Poitrine de mouton farcie.
Mutton stew                        Ragout de mouton.
Mutton cutlets, broiled            Côtelettes de mouton grillées.
Mutton cutlets, breaded            Côtelettes de mouton panées.
Mutton cutlets, with pease         Côtelettes de mouton aux petits pois.
Sheep’s kidneys                    Rognons de mouton.
Lamb cutlets                       Côtelettes d’agneau.
Lamb croquettes                    Croquettes d’agneau.
Veal cutlets, with mushrooms       Côtelettes de veau aux champignons.
Veal cutlets, with tomato-sauce    Côtelettes de veau, sauce tomate.
Fricandeau of veal                 Fricandeau de veau.
Liver, broiled                     Foie de veau grillé.
Pork cutlets, with pickles         Côtelettes de porc aux cornichons.
Cold ham                           Jambon froid.
Blanquette of veal                 Blanquette de veau.


SWEET-BREADS.

Sweet-breads, with macaroni        Ris de veau à la Milanaise.
Sweet-breads, with tomato-sauce    Ris de veau à la sauce tomate.
Sweet-breads, with pease           Ris de veau aux petits pois.
Sweet-breads, larded               Ris de veau piqué.
Sweet-bread fritters               Beignets de ris de veau.
Sweet-bread croquettes             Croquettes de ris de veau.


POULTRY AND GAME.

Stuffed turkey                           Dinde farcie.
Larded turkey                            Dinde piquée.
Turkey, celery-sauce                     Dinde, sauce céleri.
Roast wild turkey                        Dinde sauvage rôtie.
Boned turkey                             Galantine de dinde.
Fricassee of chicken                     Fricassée de poulet.
Chicken breasts, with pease              Filets de poulet aux petits pois.
Roast spring chicken                     Poulets nouveaux rôtis.
Chickens, with tomatoes                  Poulets aux tomates.
Chickens, with cauliflowers              Poulets aux choux-fleurs.
Chickens, with rice                      Poulets au ris.
Fried chickens                           Poulets sautés.
Chicken croquettes                       Croquettes de volaille.
Wild duck                                Canard sauvage.
Pigeon-pie                               Pâté chaud de pigeons.
Pigeon stew                              Compôte de pigeons.
Roast pigeons, with string-beans         Pigeons rôtis aux haricots verts.
Roast pigeons, with spinach              Pigeons rôtis aux épinards.
Braised pigeons, with spinach            Pigeons à l’écarlate.
Grouse                                   Grouse.
Roast woodcock                           Bécasses rôties.
Roast quails                             Cailles rôties.
Prairie-chicken, or partridge cutlets    Côtelettes de perdreux.
Saddle of venison                        Selle de venaison.
Squabs, with water-cresses               Pigeonnaux au cresson.
Pheasant, larded                         Faisan piqué.


VEGETABLES.

Potatoes, with white-sauce           Pommes de terre à la sauce blanche.
Lyonnaise potatoes                   Pommes de terre à la Lyonnaise.
Potatoes in cases                    Pommes de terre farcies.
Fried potatoes                       Pommes de terre frites.
Parsnip fritters                     Beignets de panais.
Asparagus                            Asperges.
Cauliflowers, with cream dressing    Choux-fleurs à la crème.
Spinach                                    Épinards.
String-beans                               Haricots verts.
Mashed potatoes                            Purée de pommes de terre.
Pease, with butter                         Petits pois au beurre.
Stuffed tomatoes                           Tomates farcies.


SHELLS.

Chickens in shells     Coquilles de volaille.
Lobster in shells      Coquilles de homard.
Fish in shells         Coquilles de poisson.
Mushrooms in shells    Coquilles de champignons.


MACARONI.

Macaroni, with cheese          Macaroni au fromage.
Macaroni, with tomato-sauce    Macaroni, sauce tomate.


EGGS.

Stuffed eggs                       Œufs farcis.
Poached eggs                       Œufs pochés.
Poached eggs, on anchovy toast     Œufs pochés aux croûtes d’anchois.
Omelet, with fine herbs            Omelette aux fines herbes.
Omelet, with mushrooms             Omelette aux champignons.
Omelet, with ham                   Omelette au jambon.
Omelet, with rum                   Omelette au rhum.
Omelet, with preserves             Omelette aux confitures.
Omelet soufflée, with preserves    Omelette soufflée aux confitures.


SALADS.

Chicken Mayonnaise        Mayonnaise de volaille.
Cauliflower Mayonnaise    Mayonnaise de choux-fleurs.
Tomato Mayonnaise         Mayonnaise de tomates.
Salad of vegetables       Salade de légumes.
Lettuce salad             Salade de laitue.


FRITTERS.

Peach fritters     Beignets de pêches.
Cream fritters     Beignets de bouillie, or Crème frite.
Oyster fritters    Beignets d’huîtres.


LITTLE VOLS-AU-VENT, OR BOUCHÉES.

Patties of chickens                           Bouchées au poulet.
Almost any kind of meat patties are called    Bouchées à la reine.
Strawberry patties                            Bouchées aux fraises.
Patties, with lemon paste                     Bouchées au citron.
Little tarts of preserves                     Tartelettes aux confitures.
Little tarts of apples                        Tartelettes aux pommes.


PUDDINGS.

Cabinet-pudding               Pouding de cabinet.
Rice-pudding                  Pouding au riz.
Roly-poly pudding             Pouding roulé.
Bread-pudding                 Pouding au pain.
Rice-pudding, with peaches    Pouding de riz aux pêches.
Apple soufflée                Soufflé de pommes.
Apple-pie                     Tarte aux pommes.
Chocolate Bavarian cream      Bavaroise au chocolat.
Coffee Bavarian cream         Bavaroise au café.
Pine-apple Bavarian cream     Bavaroise à l’ananas.


DESSERTS.

Blanc-mange                                      Blanc-manger.
Peach compote                                    Compote de pêches.
Apple compote                                    Compote de pommes.
Iced champagne                                   Champagne frappé.
Ice-cream, vanilla                               Crème glacée à la vanille.
Ices of any kind generally written in menus      Glaces.
Chocolate ice-cream                              Glace de crème au chocolat.
Madeira-wine jelly                               Gelée au Madère.
Whipped jelly, with fruits                       Gelée fouettée aux fruits.
Champagne jelly                                  Gelée au vin de Champagne.
Jelly, with fruits                               Gelée à la macédoine.
Macaroons                                        Macarons aux amandes.
Peach marmalade                                  Marmalade d’abricots.



GENERAL INDEX.


      PAGE
SETTING THE TABLE AND SERVING THE DINNER, 13
THE DINNER PARTY, 27
COOKING AS AN ACCOMPLISHMENT, 30
BREAKFAST, 33
LUNCH, 36
GENTLEMEN’S SUPPERS, 39
EVENING PARTIES, 40
SOMETHING ABOUT ECONOMY, 40
COOKING UTENSILS, 51


DIRECTIONS AND EXPLANATIONS.

Boiling, 43
Frying, 43
  “ to Prepare Grease for, 44
Broiling, 45
Roasting, 46
Sautéing, 47
Braising, 47
Larding, 48
Boning, 48
Egg and Bread Crumbing, 48
To Cook Puddings in Boiling Water, 49
Dried Celery, Parsley, etc., for Winter Use, 49
Seeds for Soups, 49
To Flavor with Lemon Zest, 50
The Cook’s Table of Weights and Measures, 50
To Chop Suet, 50
Rising-powder Proportions, 50
To make Roux, 51


BREAD, AND BREAKFAST CAKES.

To make Yeast, 63
To make Bread, 64
Mrs. Bonner’s Bread, 64
French Bread, 65
Petits Pains, 66
Toast, 67
Dixie Biscuit, 68
Graham Bread, 68
Rusks, 68
Parker House Rolls, 68
Beaten Biscuit, 68
Soda and Cream of Tartar Biscuit, 69
Biscuits with Baking-powder, 69
Muffins, 70
Waffles, 70
Rice Waffles, 70
Rice Pancakes, 70
Hominy Cake, 70
Baked Hominy Grits, 71
Breakfast Puffs, or Pop-overs, 71
Henriettes for Tea (No. 1), 71
Henriettes for Breakfast or Tea (No. 2), 71
Wafer Biscuits, 72
Corn Bread, 72
Hoe Cake, 72
Corn Cake, 73
Fried Corn Mush for Breakfast, 73
Corn Mush, 73
Oatmeal Porridge, 74
Mother Johnson’s Pancakes, 74
Sirup, 74
Buckwheat Cakes, 74
Pancakes, with Flour or Corn-meal, 75
Pancakes, with Bread-crumbs, 75
Strawberry Short-cake, 75

TEA, 76
COFFEE, 76
CHOCOLATE, 78
COCOA, 78


SOUPS.

Stock, or Pot au Feu, 79
A Simple Stock, 80
Gouffé’s Receipt for  Stock, or Bouillon, 80
Bouillon served at Luncheons, Germans, etc., 81
Amber Soup, or Clear Broth, 81
To make Caramel, or Burned Sugar, for coloring Broth, 82
Thickenings for Soup, 82
Additions to Beef Stock, to form Other Kinds of Soup, 82
Receipt for Force-meat Balls, 83
Soup, Macaroni, 83
  “ Vermicelli, 84
Noodles, 84
  “ to serve as a Vegetable, 84
Soup, Beef Noodle, 85
  “ Spring, 85
  “ Julienne, with Poached Eggs, 86
  “ Asparagus, 86
Spinach Green, 87
Soup, Ox-tail, 87
  “ Chicken (Potage à la Reine), 87
  “ Purée of Chicken, 88
Soup, Plain Chicken, 88
  “ Giblet, 88
  “ Mock-turtle: Receipts for Egg and Meat Balls, 89, 90
  “ Mock-turtle (simple), 91
  “ Gumbo, 91
  “ Gumbo and Tomato, 92
  “ Mullagatawny (an Indian Soup), 92
  “ Oyster, 93
  “ Clam, 93
  “ Bean, 94
  “ Bean and Tomato, 94
  “ Onion (Soupe à l’Ognon), 94
  “ Vegetable, without Meat (Purée aux Légumes), 95
  “ Corn, 96
  “ Tomato, with Rice, 96
  “ Tomato (Purée aux Tomates), 96
  “ Sorrel (Soupe à la Bonne Femme), 97
  “ Potato (No. 1), 97
  “ Potato (No. 2), 98
Purée of String-beans, 98
Bisque of Lobsters, 98


FISH.

Fish, to Boil, 100
  “ “ au Court Bouillon, 100
  “ to Fry, 101
  “ fried in Batter, 101
  “ to Broil, 102
  “ to Bake, 102
_Stuffings for Fish_, 103
  Bread Stuffing, 103
  Meat Stuffing, 103
  To Bake a Fish with Wine, 103
To Stew Fish, or Fish en Matelote, 104
To Cook Fish au Gratin, 104
Fish à la Crème, 105
_Salmon_, 106
  Salmon, to Broil, 107
  Salmon Cutlets, 108
    “ Slices of, Boiled, 108
    “ Canned, 108
_Shad_, 108
_Trout_, 108
  Trout in Cases or in Shells (en Coquilles), 109
_Cod-fish_, 109
  Cod-fish, Crimped, 109
    “ Salt, 110
    “ Balls, 110
Fish Chowder, 110
Perch, Sun-fish, etc. (Pan-fish), 111
_Mackerel and Smelts_, 111
Fried Slices of Fish, with Tomato-sauce (Fish à l’Orlay), 112
To Fry Eels, 112
Eels Stewed, 112


SHELL-FISH.

_Oysters_, 113
  Oysters, Raw and Fried, 113
    “ Scalloped, in Shells, 114
    “ Scalloped, 115
  Oyster Soup, 93
    “ Stew, 115
  Oysters, Fricassee of (Oysters à la Boulette), 115
  Oyster Fritters, 230
  Oysters for Patties, or Vols-au-vent, 241
  Oysters, Canned, to Roast, 116
    “ Spiced, 116
_Clams_, 116
  Clams Cooked with Cream, 116
  Clam Chowder, 116
    “     “ Tunison, 117
    “ Fritters, 230
    “ Soup, 117
_Crabs and Lobsters_, 117
  Crabs, Soft-shell, 117
    “ Deviled, 117
  Lobster, Deviled, 118
    “ Chops, 118
    “ a Good Way to Prepare, 118

FROGS, FRIED, 119


SAUCES.

Sauce, Drawn-butter, 121
  “ Pickle, 121
  “ Boiled-egg, 121
  “ Caper, 122
  “ Anchovy, 122
  “ Shrimp, 122
  “ Lobster, 122
  “ Oyster, 123
  “ Parsley, 123
  “ Cauliflower, 123
  “ Lemon, 123
  “ Chicken, 123
  “ Maître-d’hôtel, 124
  “ Mint, 124
  “ Currant-jelly, 124
  “ Tomato (No. 1), 124
  “ Tomato (No. 2), 125
  “ Hollandaise, or Dutch Sauce, 125
Mushrooms, for Garnish, 126
Sauce, Mushroom, 126
  “       “ White, 126
  “       “ (Canned), 127
  “ Bechamel (Simple), 127
  “    “ , 127
  “ aux Fines Herbes, 128
  “ Tartare, 128
  “ Brown (Simple), 128


BEEF.

Beef, to Roast or Bake, 130
Yorkshire Pudding, 130
Beef à la Mode, 131
  “ Braised (No. 1), 132
Beef, Braised (No. 2), 132
  “     “  with Horse-radish Sauce, 133
  “ Fillet of, 133
Beef, Fillet of, to Trim, 133
  “     “      to Cook, 134
  “     “      to Garnish, 135
  “     “      to Roast, 135
  “     “      to Braise, 136
  “     “      to Trim with Vegetables (à la Jardinière), 136
  “     “      Cut into Slices or Scollops, 137
Beefsteak, 137
Beef, Corned, 138
  “     “      to serve Cold, 139
Beefsteak Stewed, 139
   “      Rolled, 140
Beef Roll (Cannelon de Bœuf), 140
What to do with Cold Cooked Beef, 140
Beef Hash, 141
Meat Pie, 141
  “  Rissoles, 142
Beef or any Cold-meat Sausages, 143
Rice and Meat Cakes, 143
Beef Croquettes, 143
A Cheap Arrangement, 144
Mince-pies (made from Remnants of Cold Beef), 144
Pot-pie of Veal, Beef, or Chicken, 144
Calf’s Heart, 144
Tongue, with Sauce, 145
  “    Slices, with Spinach and Sauce Tartare, 145


VEAL.

Roast of Veal--the Fillet, 146
A Fricandeau of Veal, 147
Veal Cutlets, Broiled, 147
  “   “       Sautéd and Fried, 148
  “   “       Braised, 148
  “   or Mutton Chops (en Papillote), 148
Blanquette of Veal, 149
Blind Hare, 150
Bewitched Veal, 150
Plain Veal Stew or Pot-pie, 150
To Cook Liver (No. 1), 151
  “     (No. 2), 151
Calf’s Brains, 151


SWEET-BREADS.

Sweet-breads Fried, 152
  “          à la Milanaise, 153
  “          Larded and Braised, 153
Sweet-breads Baked, 154
Sweet-bread Fritters, 154
  “         Croquettes, 154
Skewer of Sweet-breads, 155


MUTTON.

Leg of Mutton Boiled, 156
Mutton Cutlets, 156
Ragouts, 156
Another Ragout, 157
Sheep’s Tongues, with Spinach, 158
  “          “   à la Mayonnaise, 158
  “          “   with Sauce Tartare, 158


LAMB.

Lamb, Leg of, Roasted, 159
  “   Fore Quarter of, Roasted, 159
  “   Chops, 159
Saddle of Lamb or Mutton, 159
Lamb Croquettes, 160
Sheep’s Kidneys, 160


PORK.

To Cure Bacon, 161
Roast Little Pig, 161
Pork, Roast, 161
  “   Cutlets, Broiled, 162
Pork and Beans, 162
Boston Baked Beans, 162
Entrée of Apples and Pork, 163
Sausages, 163
Hams, to Cure, 163
Ham, to Boil, 164
  “ and Eggs, 164
  “ to Fry or Sauté, 164
Pork Fried in Batter, or Egged and Bread-crumbed, 164
Breakfast-bacon Dish (Mrs. Trowbridge’s), 164
Rashers of Pork, 165
Sandwiches (No. 1), 165
  “        (No. 2), 165
Small Rolls, with Salad Filling, 165


POULTRY.

Turkey, Roast, 166
Stuffing for Baked Turkey, Chicken, Veal, and Lamb, 167
Stuffing for Roast Turkeys, Chickens, Ducks, and Geese, 167
Chestnut, Potato, Veal, and Oyster Stuffings, 168
Turkey, Boiled, 168
  “     or Chicken Hash, 168
  “     Braised, 168
  “     Galantine, or Boned Turkey, 169
Mixed Spices for Seasoning, 170
Boned Turkey or Chicken (Simple), 170
Chickens, 171
Chickens, Spring, 171
  “         “    Baked,  172
  “  Roast and Boiled, 172
Chickens or Fish, Baked, 172
  “ Fricassee of (No. 1), 173
  “     “        (No. 2), 174
  “ Ranaque, 174
Chicken Breasts, 175
  “ Deviled, with Sauce, 175
  “ Croquettes (No. 1), 175
  “     “      (No. 2), 176
  “ Cutlets, 176
  “ with Macaroni or with Rice, 177
  “ Chetney of, 177
  “ Curry of, 178
  “ for Supper, 178
To Fringe Celery for Garnishing, 179
Chicken Livers, 179
Turkish Pilau, 179


GEESE, DUCKS, AND GAME.

Goose, Roast, 180
  “ Stuffing, 181
Ducks, 181
  “ Wild, 181
  “ and Pease, Stewed, 181
  “ Stewed, 182
  “ Fillet of, 182
Poivrade Sauce, 182
Pigeons Stewed in Broth, 182
  “ Roast, 183
  “ Broiled, 183
Prairie-chicken or Grouse, 183
  “ to Choose a Young, 184
  “ or Grouse, Roasted, 184
Quails Parboiled and Baked, 184
  “ Roasted, 185
Bread-sauce, for Game, 185
Cutlets of Quails or of Pigeons, 185
Scollops of Quails, with Truffles, 186
Espagnole Sauce, 186
Quails Broiled, 187
  “ Braised, 187
Snipe and Woodcock Fried, 187
  “ “ Roasted, 187
Reed-birds, 188
Plovers, 188
Pheasants, 188
_Venison_, 188
  Venison, the Saddle of, 188
    “ Haunch of, Roast or Baked, 189
    “ Steaks, to Broil, 189
    “ Stewed, 189
Rabbits Roasted, 189
  “ Baked, 190


VEGETABLES.

Vegetables, to Preserve the Color, 190
Potatoes Boiled (No. 1), 190
    “    to Boil (No. 2), 191
    “    Mashed, 191
    “    à la Neige, 192
    “    to Bake, 192
    “    in Cases, 192
    “    Baked with Beef, 192
    “    à la Parisienne, 193
    “    Saratoga, 193
    “    Fried, 194
    “    Lyonnaise, 194
Potato Croquettes, 194
    “   Roses, 195
Potatoes for Breakfast, 195
Potato Puff, 195
Potatoes, Shoo-fly, 195
Turnips, 195
   “   in Sauce, 196
Parsnips Sautéd, 196
Parsnip Fritters, 196
Oyster-plant Fritters, 197
Oyster-plants Stewed, 197
Carrots, 197
Beets, 197
Cauliflower, with White Sauce, 197
Cauliflowers, with Cheese, 198
Asparagus, 198
Pease, 199
Spinach, 199
Tomatoes, Stewed, 200
  “    with Mayonnaise Sauce, 226
  “    Stuffed and Baked, 200
Onions, 201
  “    with Cream, 201
String-beans, 201
  “    in Salad, 226
Lima Beans, 201
  “    “  with Cream, 202
Celery, Fried, 202
Egg-plant, 202
Cabbage, to Boil, 202
  “    Stewed, 203
Corn Boiled on the Cob, 203
  “    Mock Oysters, 203
  “    Custard, to be served as a Vegetable, 203
  “    Pudding for Tea, 204
  “    Grated, Sautéd, 204
Cranberries, to Cook, 204
Artichokes, 204
Apples, Fried, for Breakfast, 204
A Rice Dish (Risotto à la Milanaise), 204
Another Rice Dish, 205
Mushrooms in Crust (Croûte aux Champignons), 205
Flaxseed for a Centre-piece, 205

CASSEROLES, 205


SHELLS, OR COQUILLES.

Chickens in Shells, 206
Oysters  “    “, 207
Fish     “    “, 207
Lobsters or Shrimps in Shells, 207
Mushrooms in Shells, 207


POTTING.

Ham, Potted, 208
Tongue, “ , 208
Beef,   “ , 208
Birds, Potted, 208
Fish,   “ , 209
Chicken, Tongue, or Ham, Potted, 209


MACARONI.

Macaroni, with Cheese, 209
  “      and Welsh Rare-bit, 210
  “      with Sweet-breads, 210
Macaroni, with Tomato-sauce, 210
  “      au Gratin, 211
Crackers, with Cheese, 211


EGGS.

Eggs, Boiled, 212
  “   Poached, 212
  “      “     on Anchovy Toast, 213
  “   Stuffed (No. 1), 213
  “      “    (No. 2), 213
  “      “     with Cheese, 213
_Omelets_, 214
  Omelet, Plain, 214
    “   with Tomatoes, 215
    “     “  Green Pease, 216
    “     “  Ham, 216
    “     “  Fine Herbs, 216
    “     “  Mushrooms, 216
Omelet, with Shrimps, 216
    “     “  Oysters, 216
    “     “  Cheese (Fondue), 216
    “     “     “     and Macaroni, 217
    “  Soufflé, Fried, 217
    “  Sweet, 217
    “  with Rum, 218
    “  Soufflé, 218
    “  with Cauliflowers, Asparagus Points, or other Vegetables, 219


SALADS.

Sauce Mayonnaise, 220
  “   à la Ravingote, 221
  “   Mayonnaise (red), 222
French Dressing, 222
_Combinations_, 223
  Lettuce, 223
  Potato Salad, 224
  Cold Slaw, 224
  Salad of Vegetables, 225
  Mayonnaise of Cauliflower, 225
    “        of Tomatoes, 226
String-beans in Salad, 226
Chicken Salad (No. 1), 227
  “       “   (No. 2), 228
Mayonnaise of Salmon, 228
Salad à la Filley, 228


FRITTERS.

Fritter Batter, French (No. 1), 229
  “         “   (No. 2), 229
Fritters--Pine-apple, Apple Preserve, or Peach, 229
Fritters, Oyster or Clam (No. 1), 230
  “       Clam (No. 2), 230
  “       Kentish, 230
Fried Cream (Crème Frite), 230
Fritters--Peach, Apricot, or Apple, 231
Fritters, Bread, 231
  “       Pork, 164
  “       Corn, 232
  “       Apple, 232


PASTRY.

Puff Paste, 233
  “    “    Carême’s Receipt for, 234
To make the Pies, 236
Pie Paste of Lard and Butter, 236
A Common Paste, 236
An Apple-pie, 236
  “    “    (Plain), 237
Fruit and Berry Pies, or Tarts, 237
Pie, Lemon (No. 1), 237
  “    “   (No. 2), 238
  “   Orange, 238
Pie, Pumpkin (No. 1), 238
  “   “  (No. 2), 239
  “  Mince (No. 1), 239
  “   “    (No. 2), 239
  “  Potato, 240
  “  Pine-apple, 240
  “  Chess, 240
Small Vols-au-vent, or Patty-cases, 241
Oysters for Vols-au-vent, Scallop-shells, or served on Buttered
Toast for Breakfast (No. 1), 241
Oysters for Vols-au-vent, Scallop-shells, or served
  on Buttered Toast for Breakfast (No. 2), 242
Vols-au-vent of Oysters (No. 3), 242
  “  of Sweet-breads, 242
  “  of Chickens, Veal, Game, Shrimps, Salmon, Mushrooms, etc., 243
Vols-au-vent, with Strawberries, Raspberries, etc., 243
  “  with Strawberries, etc., 243
Lemon Paste, 244
Mince-meat Patties, 244
Cream Rissoles (Rissoles à la Crème), 244


CANNING.

To Can Tomatoes, 245
  “    Peaches, 246
  “    String-beans, 246
  “    Okra and Tomatoes, 246
  “    Raspberries, 247
To Can Greengages, 247
  “    Corn, 247
  “    Succotash, 247
  “    Corn and Tomatoes, 247


PRESERVES, MARMALADES, AND  COMPOTES.

Preserves, Sirup for, 249
  “   Citron, 250
  “   Quince, 250
  “   Tomato, 251
  “   Grape, 251
  “   Apple Ginger, 251
Candied Fruits, 252
_Marmalades_, 252
  Marmalade, Quince, 252
    “   Peach, 252
    “   Orange, 253
Jam, Raspberry, 253
Jam, Greengage, 253
Brandy Peaches, 253
To Jelly Fruits, 254
Jelly, Currant (No. 1), 254
  “      “     (No. 2), 255
  “      “     (Mrs. Walworth’s), 256
_Compotes_, 256
  Compotes, Sirup for, 256
  Compote of Peaches and Apricots, 257
  Compote of Apples, 257
    “    a Beautiful Stuffed, 257


PICKLES AND CATCHUPS.

Pickles, for Country Use, 257
Pickle, Indian, 258
  “   Chowchow, 258
To Pickle Cauliflowers, 259
Pickled Walnuts, 259
  “    Green Tomatoes and Onions, 259
  “    Onions, 260
Pickled Bell-peppers, 260
Pickles, Ripe Cucumber, 260
Sweet Pickled Peaches, 260
Strawberry Pickle, 261
Catchup, Tomato (No. 1), 261
  “        “    (No. 2), 261
  “   Gooseberry, 261
  “   Cucumber, 262


CHEESE.

Welsh Rare-bit, 264
Cottage Cheese, 265
Ramekins, 265
Ramekins, with Ale (Warne), 265
  “   Pastry (Warne), 266


SWEET SAUCES FOR PUDDINGS.

Sauce, Butter, 266
Sauces, Sirup, 266
Sauce, a Plain and Cheap, 266
  “    Same, Richer, 267
  “    Whipped-cream, 267
Sauces, Fruit, 267
Sauce, Strawberry (for Baked Puddings), 268
Boiled Custard Sauce, 268
A Good Sauce for Puddings, 268
Sabyllon, 268
Caramel Sauce, 269


PUDDINGS AND CUSTARDS.

Plum-pudding, with Brandy or Rum (Gouffé), 269
  “   (No. 2), 270
Pudding with Remains of Plum-pudding, 270
  “   Plainer Fruit, 270
  “   Suet, 271
  “   Prune, 271
  “   Eve’s, 271
  “   a Spiced Apple, 271
  “   Cottage, 272
  “   Minute, 272
  “   Nantucket Berry, 272
  “   Gelatine, 272
  “   Tapioca, 273
Tapioca Cream, 273
Pudding, Cabinet, 273
Puddings, Batter, Baked, 274
Pudding, Roly-poly, Boiled, 274
Berry Rolls, Baked, 274
Pudding, Swedish, 274
  “   Cherry, 275
  “   a Corn-starch, 275
  “   Cocoa-nut, 275
  “   Chocolate, 276
Puddings, Cocoa-nut, in Paper Cases, 276
Egg Soufflé, in Paper Cases, 277
Pudding, Snow, 277
Custard, Boiled (No. 1), 277
  “       “     (No. 2), 278
Apple Méringue, 278
Baked Apples, 278
Friar’s Omelet, 279
Floating Islands, 279
Pudding, Tipsy, 279
  “   Lemon, 280
Blanc-mange, 280
Pudding, Corn-starch, 280
  “   Bread, 281
  “   Bread-and-butter, 281
  “   Bread, Fried, 282
  “   Indian-corn, 282


BAVARIAN CREAMS, ETC.

Bavarian Cream, Vanilla, 283
  “       “     Chocolate, 283
  “       “     Strawberry,  283
  “       “     Almond, 283
  “       “     Peaches, 284
  “       “     Pine-apple, 284
  “       “     Coffee, 284
Charlotte-russe, 285
Ambrosia, 286


DESSERTS OF RICE.

Rice, to Boil, 286
Rice-pudding, 286
Rice-cones, 287
Rice-cake, with Peaches, 287
Ground Rice-pudding, with Chocolate Sauce, 287
Rice-cake, with Pine-apple, 287
Orange Snow-balls, 288
Apple      “, 288
Rice Soufflé, 288
  “   Croquettes, 289
  “   Pancakes, with Preserves, 289


WINE JELLIES.

Jelly, Wine, 290
  “   Orange (molded with Quarters of Oranges), 291
  “   Lemon, 291
Macedoine of Fruits, 292
Jellies, Fancy, 292
What to do with Parts of Jelly left over in Winter, 293
Jelly, Calf’s-foot, 293
  “   Whipped, with Fruits, 294


CAKE.

Cake, Sponge, 295
  “   White, 295
Jumbles, 296
  “   Almond, 296
Cake, Cocoa-nut, 296
  “   Fruit, 297
  “   English Pound, 297
  “   Boston Cream, 297
Crullers, 298
Doughnuts, 298
Bread-cake, 298
Gingerbread (No. 1), 298
  “         (No. 2), 299
Cake, Chocolate, 299
  “   Mountain, 299
Cream Cake or Pie, 300
Sponge Jelly-cake, 300
Cocoa-nut Cones, 300
Croquante Cake, 301
To Blanch Almonds, 301
Rebecca Cake, 301
Ginger-snaps, 301
Plain Cookies, 301
Almond Macaroons, 302
Lady’s-fingers, 302
Méringues à la Crème, 302
German Cake, 303
Ranaque Buns, 304
Frosting, 304
Boiled Icing, 305


CANDIES.

Caramels, 305
Candy, White-sugar, 305
Candy, Vinegar, 306


ICES.

Cream, Frozen Whipped, 307
Ice-cream, Vanilla, 307
Cream, Delmonico Vanilla, 307
Ice-cream, Chocolate, 308
To Make a Mold of Chocolate and Vanilla Creams, 308
Ice-cream, Strawberry, 308
Cream, Napolitaine, 309
Ice-cream, Chocolate Fruit, 309
Frozen Fruit Custard, 309
Ice-cream, German Steamer, Baked, 310
Pine-apple Ice-cream Pudding, 310
Iced Rice-pudding, 311
Biscuit Glacés, in Small Cases, 312
  “        “   (Francatelli), 312
Nesselrode Pudding (Carême’s Receipt), 312
Iced Pudding, 313
Tutti Frutti, 313
Fresh Peaches Half Frozen, 314
Peaches and Cream Frozen, 314
Ice, Lemon, 314
  “   Currant, 314


COOKERY FOR THE SICK.

_Receipts for the Sick-room_, 319
  Tea, 319
  Beef Tea, or Essence of Beef, 319
  Another Beef Tea (for Convalescents), 320
  Beef Juice, 320
  Chicken Broth, 320
    “   Custard, 320
    “   Panada, 320
  Mold of Chicken Jelly, 321
  Chicken and Ceylon Moss, 321
  Mutton Broth, 321
  Veal and Sago Broth, 321
  Beef and Tapioca Broth, 322
  How to Prepare an Uncooked Egg, 322
  Tapioca Jelly, 322
  Sea-moss Blanc-mange, 323
  Arrowroot Jelly or Blanc-mange, 323
  Corn-starch and Rice Puddings, 323
  Rice Jelly, 323
  Rice-water for Drink, 324
  Jelly and Ice (for Fever Patients), 324
  Parched Rice, 324
  Milk Porridge, 324
  Beef Sandwich, 324
  Prepared Flour for Summer Complaints, 325
  Milk Toast, 325
  Panada, 325
  Ash-cake, 326
  Milk Punch, 326
  Egg-and-milk Punch, 326
  Herb Teas, 327
  Boneset for a Cough or Cold, 327
  Botanic Cough Sirup, 327
_Arrangement of Dishes for Invalids_, 328
  Beefsteak, 328
  Mutton-chop, 329
  Breast of Chicken, 329
  Chicken Boiled, 329
  Venison Steak, 329
  To Prepare a Bird, 330

INVALID’S BILLS OF FARE, 330
PREPARED FOOD FOR INVALIDS, ETC., 331


SOME DISHES FOR BABY.

Pap, 335
Wheat-flour and Corn-meal Gruel, 335
Roasted Rice, 335
Corn-meal Gruel, 336
_Food for Infants with Weak Digestive Organs_, 336
  Oatmeal Gruel (No. 1), 336
  Beef (No. 2), 336


HOW TO SERVE FRUITS.

Strawberries, 336
Mixed Fruits, 337
Water-melons, 337
Cantaloupe Melons, 337
Currants, 338
Currants or other Fruits Iced, 338
How they eat Oranges in Havana, 338
Fresh Peaches, 338
Pine-apples, 338


BEVERAGES.

Punch, 339
Milk Punch, 339
Roman Punch, 340
Claret Punch, 340
Eggnog, 340
Sherry, Claret, or Catawba Cobblers, 341
Lemonade, 341
Tom and Jerry, 341
Mint-julep, 341
Milk Punch and Egg-and-milk Punch, 341
Blackberry Cordial, 341
Currant Wine, 342
Raspberry Vinegar, 343


SUITABLE  COMBINATION  OF DISHES.

Soup, 342
Fish, 343
Beef, 343
Corned Beef, 343
Turkeys, 343
Chickens, 344
Lamb, 344
Pork, 344
Mutton, 344
Veal, 344
Roast Goose, 344
Game, 344
Cheese, 345
Sweet-breads, 345
Roman Punch, 345
Cantaloupe Melons, 345


SERVING OF WINES.

Proper Temperature in which Wines should be Served, 347
Treatment of Wines, 347
Choice of Brands, 347
Bill-of-fare Table, 348

TO PREPARE COMPANY DINNERS, 349

ENGLISH AND FRENCH GLOSSARY, 359



THE END.

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FOOTNOTES:

[A] The author would add a small proportion of water to the pieces of
fat. It facilitates the melting process, preserves the color, and will
all evaporate in cooking.

[B] The addition of the slice of pork is quite indispensable for veal
chops _en papillote_, but it is often omitted when the chops are of
mutton.

[C] If the fowls are not tender, add a little water, and stew them
slowly until they are.--ED.

[D] The macaroni may be boiled in stock.

[E] The brandy, wine, or lemon-juice may be omitted if preferred.

[F] Francatelli used three oblong tin pans, three inches deep, instead
of plates, the under and upper pans serving to hold the pounded
ice.--ED.

[G] Four cupfuls of sifted flour are a pound; one cupful of lard or
butter is half a pound.

[H] If fresh lemons can not be obtained, the extract of lemon may be
used. Do not let the pies remain in the tins.

[I] Five or six minutes will suffice for baking them.--ED.

[J] A pound of sugar is three cupfuls; half a pound of flour, two and
a half cupfuls--_i. e._, the ordinary sized kitchen cup. Do not try to
make half the quantity.

[K] Dr. Franklin admits that Valentine’s extract is more nutritive than
that of Liebig. I have heard other physicians say that they considered
the Valentine much preferable to the Liebig extract, abandoning the use
of the latter for the former.--ED.

[L] Foreigners consider it vulgar to eat corn from the cob, although
quite elegant to eat asparagus with their fingers.--ED.





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