By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming (1949)
Author: United States. National Park Service
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming (1949)" ***

This book is indexed by ISYS Web Indexing system to allow the reader find any word or number within the document.

                              DEVILS TOWER
                           NATIONAL MONUMENT

           NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, Newton B. Drury, _Director_

  _An 865-foot tower of rock, serving as evidence of volcanic activity
  that occurred many millions of years ago_

Devils Tower National Monument has the distinction of being the first
national monument to be created. It was established by proclamation of
President Theodore Roosevelt in the year 1906 under authority of the
so-called Antiquities Act.

The great natural feature, Devils Tower (known to the Sioux Indian as
MATEO TEPEE, meaning Grizzly Bears’ Lodge), is like a huge fluted
monumental shaft set upon a mound, alongside the Belle Fourche River and
amidst rolling grasslands and pine forests.

The Tower rises to a height of 1,280 feet from the river bed and some
865 feet from its apparent base on the hilltop. The diameter at its base
is approximately 1,000 feet, and at the top averages 275 feet. The top
surface embraces about an acre and a half, upon which mosses, ferns,
grasses, shrubs, and sagebrush grow. Mice, pack rats, and chipmunks have
been seen there, and the falcon and hawk make it their home. As viewed
from various angles, the Tower has many shapes.

The fresh rock is of a dark grey color which, after weathering, bleaches
to a light grey with tinges of buff. Lichens of various colors and
shades grow on its face, reflecting tones of light, so that in color its
appearance may change several times during the day, depending on
conditions of atmosphere and light. On occasion, a red sunset may give
it a reddish glow, fading to dull purple.

                          _A Geologic Mystery_

As to the mode of origin of the Devils Tower geologists are by no means
in agreement. That the rock of the Tower was at one time molten and was
forced upward from deep within the earth is no question, and that it
cooled beneath the surface is probable. But whether the great shaft as
it now stands is in reality hardened lava in the neck of an old volcano
the enclosing walls of which have been removed by erosion, or whether it
is part of a great sheet or sill of molten rock which was injected
between rock layers, cannot be positively stated.

On the basis of either explanation hundreds of feet of rock have
obviously been removed by erosion from around the Tower and carried by
rivers toward the sea.

The columns present an interesting problem. They appear to have been
produced in the rapidly cooling volcanic rock by regularly arranged
cracks which were due to contraction of the cooling mass. The fact that
they are not well developed in the base of the Tower may be due to the
slower cooling of the more deeply buried part. The flare of the columns
is a subject too involved for this brief account.

As to the age of the Tower it is believed to have been formed early in
the Age of Mammals, perhaps 50 million years ago, but to have been
uncovered by erosion only in the last one or two million years.

                        _Plant and Animal Life_

About a half mile from the entrance to Devils Tower National Monument
the visitor finds himself driving through a thriving prairie dog “town.”
These animals were as typical of the original West as the buffalo. Their
presence in towns covering several square miles was incompatible with
agriculture, and the elimination of the species has progressed to the
point where they are now rarely found. Since all forms of plant and
animal life are protected within national monuments, this colony of
prairie dogs gives one a glimpse of the Old West.

Mule deer may be seen occasionally, and also many small animals
including cottontails and chipmunks.

A wide diversity of weather conditions, soil, and elevation, and the
location of the monument between the mountains and plains, produce an
interesting and extensive fauna and flora. These factors, together with
interesting geological problems, afford the student of natural history a
wealth of observation and information if he will but take the time to
follow not only the trail which encircles the Devils Tower proper but
the 4½ miles of nature trail as well.

    [Illustration: _Devils Tower and the Belle Fourche River_]

    [Illustration: _Distant view of Devils Tower_]

    [Illustration: _Fragments of fallen columns at base of Devils

                         _The Monument Museum_

Many questions come to those who view Devils Tower, and an effort is
made to answer them through exhibits in the museum at the parking area.
There, by use of pictures, diagrams, artifacts, and specimens, is
presented an explanation of some of the features of the Tower, its
geology, setting, history, and legend. These exhibits, of interest to
the layman and student alike, are a logical prelude to a walk along the

                       _Location and Facilities_

Located a little west of the center of Crook County, which lies in the
northeast corner of Wyoming, the monument entrance is 7 miles northward
from U. S. Highway 14, 29 miles northwest of Sundance, Wyo., and 33
miles northeast of Moorcroft, Wyo.

In the days gone by, because of its inspiring setting, the area close to
the Tower was a favorite camping and picnicking site, first by the
Indian and then by the pioneer who braved the rugged and traillike
access to the very base of the great rock. Not the least inviting
feature was the large spring of unusually pure and cold water located
but a few feet from the base of the Tower, as if flowing from it.

In the development of the area, to afford easy access and more comfort
for the hurried vacationist and thoroughgoing student as well, these
salient primitive features are preserved by making the water available
at nearly all principal points and by the development of the natural
picnic and campground areas within the shadows of the Tower. Adjacent to
the area, as well as within a few miles of it, are tourist cabins for
those wishing overnight lodging, but who are not equipped to camp.


Devils Tower National Monument, containing 1,194 acres of federally
owned land, is one of the areas of the National Park System owned by the
people of the United States and administered for them by the National
Park Service. In these areas the scenery and the objects of historic,
prehistoric, and scientific interest are carefully preserved and
displayed for public enjoyment.

Inquiries regarding the monument should be addressed to the
Superintendent, Devils Tower National Monument, Devils Tower, Wyo.


    Devils Tower Post Office and Store
  Fossil Hill
  Museum and Office
    Picnic Grounds
  _REVISED APR. 1947 NM.-DT.-7001 J.J. Black, Mar. 1942._


    — - —     Monument Boundary
    ======    Main Roads
   = = = =    Secondary Road
   - ~ ~ -    Foot Trails

    [Illustration: VICINITY MAP]

    Belle Fourche River
    Devils Tower
  _U. S. Highway_ 85
    Belle Fourche
    Four Corners
  _U. S. Highway_ A 85
  _U. S. Highway_ 14
  _U. S. Highway_ 212
    Belle Fourche
  _U. S. Highway_ 16
    ==== Oiled Roads
    —— Secondary Roads

Three miles of oil-surfaced road leads from the entrance on the east to
the parking area, museum, Tower trail, and picnic areas and campgrounds.

A permit fee of 50 cents for each automobile, motorcycle, and house
trailer is collected at the monument entrance. This permit remains good
throughout the entire calendar year in which it is purchased.

All rock, plants, and animals on the monument are protected and must not
be disturbed or harmed.

Help keep the grounds clean by using the fireplaces and refuse

Camping, picnicking, and parking are limited to areas so designated.

                       U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1949 O-F—834746

                          Transcriber’s Notes

—This eBook is based on a U.S. government publication which is public
  domain in the United States.

—Corrected a few palpable typos.

—Within the map, transcribed labels, and added italicized text where
  needed to define the context.

—In the text versions only, text in italics is delimited by

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Devils Tower National Monument, Wyoming (1949)" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's ISYS search for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
ISYS search  means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About ISYS® Search Software
Established in 1988, ISYS Search Software is a global supplier of enterprise
search solutions for business and government.  The company's award-winning
software suite offers a broad range of search, navigation and discovery
solutions for desktop search, intranet search, SharePoint search and embedded
search applications.  ISYS has been deployed by thousands of organizations
operating in a variety of industries, including government, legal, law
enforcement, financial services, healthcare and recruitment.