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Title: America: - Being the Latest, and Most Accurate Description of the - Nevv Vvorld; Containing the Original of the Inhabitants, - and the Remarkable Voyages Thither. the Conquest of the - Vast Empires of Mexico and Peru, And Other Large Provinces - and Territories, With the Several European Plantations in - Those Parts. Also Their Cities, Fortresses, Towns, Temples, - Mountains, and Rivers. Their Habits, Customs, Manners, and - Religions. Their Plants, Beasts, Birds, and Serpents. With - an Appendix, Containing, Besides Several Other Considerable - Additions, a Brief Survey of What Hath Been Discover'd of - the Unknown South-land and the Arctick Region.
Author: Ogilby, John, Others
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "America: - Being the Latest, and Most Accurate Description of the - Nevv Vvorld; Containing the Original of the Inhabitants, - and the Remarkable Voyages Thither. the Conquest of the - Vast Empires of Mexico and Peru, And Other Large Provinces - and Territories, With the Several European Plantations in - Those Parts. Also Their Cities, Fortresses, Towns, Temples, - Mountains, and Rivers. Their Habits, Customs, Manners, and - Religions. Their Plants, Beasts, Birds, and Serpents. With - an Appendix, Containing, Besides Several Other Considerable - Additions, a Brief Survey of What Hath Been Discover'd of - the Unknown South-land and the Arctick Region." ***

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produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive)



[Illustration: AMERICA]



                                AMERICA:
                       BEING THE LATEST, AND MOST
                          ACCURATE DESCRIPTION
                                 OF THE
                              NEVV VVORLD;
                               CONTAINING
  The Original of the Inhabitants, and the Remarkable Voyages thither.
                        THE CONQUEST OF THE VAST
                                EMPIRES
                                   OF
                            Mexico and Peru,
                            AND OTHER LARGE
                       PROVINCES and TERRITORIES,
                      WITH THE SEVERAL _EUROPEAN_
                              PLANTATIONS
                            IN THOSE PARTS.
                                  ALSO
               Their Cities, Fortresses, Towns, Temples,
                         Mountains, and Rivers.
             Their Habits, Customs, Manners, and Religions.
               Their Plants, Beasts, Birds, and Serpents.
                                  WITH
An _APPENDIX_, containing, besides several other considerable Additions,
a brief Survey of what hath been discover’d of the _Unknown South-Land_
                       and the _Arctick Region_.


       Collected from most Authentick Authors, Augmented with later
   Observations, and Adorn’d with Maps and Sculptures, by _JOHN OGILBY_
 Esq; His Majesty’s _Cosmographer_, _Geographick Printer_, and Master of
                the _Revels_ in the Kingdom of _IRELAND_.

                                _LONDON_,
         Printed by the Author, and are to be had at his House in
                       _White Fryers, M. DC. LXXI_.

[Illustration]



 A Catalogue of the Authors, which are either mention’d, or made use of
                      in this Volume of _America_.


 _Abraham Mellinus_
 _Abraham Mylius_
 _Adriaen vander Donk_
 _Ælian_
 _Albertus Magnus_
 _Aldrete_
 _Ælius Lampridius_
 _Alexander Aphrodiensis_
 _Alexander ab Alexandro_
 _Alexander Guaginus_
 _Alonso Garcia_
 _Alonso de Ouagli_
 _Andræas Cæsariensis_
 _Angrin Jonas_
 _Antonio de Herrera_
 _Apuleius_
 _Aristonicus Grammaticus_
 _Aristotle_
 _Athanasius Kircher_
 _Augustinus_
 _Augustin de Tarcate_
 _Augustus Thuanus_
 _Ayton of Armenia_

 _Balthazar de Amizquita_
 _Barnaba Cabo_
 _Bartholomæo de las Casas_
 _Benjamin Tudalensis_

 _Caspar Barlæus_
 _Castaldus_
 _Charles Rochfort_
 _Christopher Arcisseuski_
 _Cicero_
 _Claude de Abbeville_
 _Clemens Alexandrinus_
 _Conradus Gesner_
 _Cornelius Nepos_
 _Cornelius Witfleet_
 _Ctesias_
 _Curtius_
 _Cyrianus_

 _David Ingran_
 _David Powel_
 _Diodorus Siculus_
 _Dionysius Halicarnassæus_
 _Dirk Ruiters_
 _Dithmar Blefken_
 _Duarte Mendez Seraon_

 _Egydius Fletcher_
 _Emanuel de Moraez_
 _Erasmus Stella_
 _Erick Roothaer_
 _Everhard Reid_
 _Eusebius_
 _Euthymius Zibagenus_

 _Festus Avienus_
 _Francisc. Burmannus_
 _Francisc. Delapuente_
 _Francisc. de Gomara_
 _Francisc. Lopes de Gomesa_
 _Francisc. Raphelingius_
 _Francisc. Soarez_
 _Francisc. Tirolmonte_
 _Francisc. Xaverius_
 _Fullerus_

 _Galenus_
 _Garcilasso de la Vega_
 _Genebrardus_
 _Gerardus Joannes Vossius_
 _Guido de Brez_
 _Guilielm. Piso_
 _Guilielm. Postellus_

 _Harmannus Moded_
 _Henrick Haelbos_
 _Henrick Hawks_
 _Hernando de Leon_
 _Herodotus_
 _Hesychius_
 _Hieronim. Benzo_
 _Hieronim. Cardanus_
 _Homer_
 _Hugo Grotius_
 _Hugo Linschot_

 _Jacob Bontius_
 _Jacob Panensis_
 _Jacob Rabbi_
 _Inca Garcilasso_
 _Joannes Ardenois_
 _Joannes Bertius_
 _Joannes Chilton_
 _Joannes Gysius_
 _Joannes Johnstonus_
 _Jean de Laet_
 _Joannes de Ledesma_
 _Joannes Leonclavius_
 _Joannes Lery_
 _Joannes Mariana_
 _Joannes Nieuwhof_
 _Joan. van de Sande_
 _Joseph. Acosta_
 _Joseph. Anchieta_
 _Joseph. Scaliger_
 _Isaacus Pontanus_
 _Isaac. du Verne_
 _Isidorus Mendes Sequera_
 _Julius Cæsar_
 _Julius Cæsar Scaliger_

 _Lactantius_
 _Lauren. Ananias_
 _Lauren. Bikker_
 _Lauren. Guascus Gerascius_
 _Lauren. Keymis_
 _Levinus Lemmius_
 _Lieven Aizma_
 _Lopez Vaz_
 _Lucan_
 _Lucretius_
 _Lodowick Leo_
 _Lysander_

 _Manethon Persa_
 _Marcus Zeno_
 _Martin del Barco_
 _Martin Perez_
 _Matthæus van den Broeke_
 _Matthiolus_
 _Melchior Soiterus_
 _Mich. Lithower_
 _Michovius_
 _Miles Philips_
 _Moses_

 _Nicolaus Zeno_

 _Olympiodorus_

 _Paulus Venetus_
 _Pedro de Ancieta_
 _Pedro Pizarro_
 _Pedro Fernandez de Quir_
 _Pedro Maria_
 _Peter Martyr_
 _Pedro Ordonnes de Cevallos_
 _Peter van Gendt_
 _Philo Judæus_
 _Philippus Cluverius_
 _Philippus Mornæus_
 _Phylarchus_
 _Piere Moreau_
 _Pinedas_
 _Plato_
 _Pliny_
 _Plutarch_
 _Pomponius Mela_
 _Proclus_
 _Procopius_

 _Quarterius_

 _Rabbi Simeon_
 _Robertus Comtæus_

 _Sam. Purchas_
 _Sebastiaen Schroten_
 _Simplicius_
 _Salust_
 _Sigismond Baro_
 _Strabo_

 _Theodosio_
 _Theopompus_
 _Thevet_
 _Tertullian_
 _Trigaut_

 _Vegetius_
 _Virgil_

[Illustration]



                                  THE
                                CONTENTS
                             of the several
                         CHAPTERS and SECTIONS.


                             The first Book.

 America _unknown to the Ancients_                                  Fol.
                                                                       1

 _Of the Original of the Americans, whence they came, when, how,
   and from what People Planted_                                      11

 _First Discoverers of_ America, _with_ Christopher Colonus _his
   Expedition_                                                        43

 Pedro Alphonso Nigno _his Voyage_                                    56

 _The Voyage of_ Vincent Agnes Pinzon                                 58

 _The Expedition of_ Americus Vesputius                               60

 _The Expedition of_ Alphonso Fogeda, Diego Nicuesa, Ancisus,
   _and_ Roderick Colmenares                                          65

 Peter Arias _his Expedition, and the remarkable Passages of_
   Vascus Nunnez                                                      69

 _The Expedition of_ Francisco Fernandez, Lupo Caizedo,
   Christophero Morantes, Bernardo Igniguez, _and_ Juan Grisalva      76

 _The Expedition of_ Ferdinand Magaglian, _commonly call’d_
   Magellan                                                           79

 Ferdinando Cortez _his Voyage_                                       81

 Diego Gottierez _his Expedition_                                     92

 _The Expedition of_ Pedro Alvarado, Francisco _and_ Gonzalvo
   Pizarro, _and_ Diego de Almagro                                    95

 _The Expeditions of_ John Stade _and_ Nicholas Durando
   Villegagnon                                                       103

 _The Expedition of_ John Ribald, Renatus Laudonier, _and_ Gurgie    105

 _Four_ English _Expeditions, under the Command of our famous
   Sea-Captains_, Martin Forbisher, _Sir_ Francis Drake, Thomas
   Candish, _and_ John Smith                                         108

 _A_ Netherland _Expedition, by_ Jaques Mahu _and_ Simon de Cordes   110

 _The Expedition of_ Oliver van Noord                                113

 _The Expedition of_ George van Spilbergen                           115

 _The Expedition of_ Corneliszoon Schouten _and_ Jacob Le Maire      117

 _The Voyage of the_ Nassavian _Fleet, under the Command of_
   Jaques le Heremite _and_ Hugo Schapenham                          120

 Henry Brewer _his Voyage_                                           122


                            The Second Book.

 _Of the Bounds of_ America, _and of the Division of the_ Mexican,  Fol.
   _or Northern part thereof_                                        125

 Estotiland                                                          126

 Terra Laboratoris                                                   128

 Canada, _or_ New France                                             129

 Accadia, _or_ Nova Scotia                                           133

 Norumbegua                                                          138

 New England                                                         139

 New Netherland, _now call’d_ New York                               168

 _A new Description of_ Mary-Land                                    183

 Virginia                                                            192

 _The Relation of Captain_ Smith’_s being taken Prisoner by_
   Powhatan, _and his deliverance by his Daughter_ Pocahonta         202

 Carolina                                                            205

 Florida                                                             213

 Jucatan                                                             222

 Guatimala                                                           224

 Vera Paz                                                            227

 Honduras                                                            229

 Nicaragua                                                           232

 Costarica                                                           235

 Veragua                                                           ibid.

 Guatimala, _properly so call’d_                                   ibid.

 _The Kingdom of_ Mexico, _or_ New Spain                             238

 Mechoacan                                                           261

 Tlascalla                                                           264

 Guaxata                                                             268

 Panuco                                                              270

 Tabasco                                                             273

 New Gallicia                                                        281

 Guadalajara                                                         284

 Xalisco                                                             285

 Chiametla                                                         ibid.

 Couliacan                                                           286

 Cinoloa                                                             288

 Zacatecas                                                           289

 New Biscay                                                          290

 New Mexico                                                          291

 Cibola, Tontonteac, _and_ Nova Granada                              298

 Quivira                                                             301

 Terra Nova, _or_ New-found Land, _with the Island of_ Assumption    304

 _The_ Bermudas, _or_ Summer-Islands                                 311

 Hispaniola                                                          314

 Porto Rico, _and_ Monico                                            327

 Cuba                                                                331

 Jamaica                                                             337

 _The Islands call’d_ The Lucaies                                    344

 _The_ Caribbee-Islands                                              345

 Anegada _and_ Sombrero                                              362

 Las Virgines                                                        363

 Anguilla                                                          ibid.

 Saba                                                                364

 St. Crux                                                          ibid.

 St. Martin                                                          365

 St. Bartholomew                                                     367

 Barboude                                                            368

 Rotonda                                                           ibid.

 Nevis                                                             ibid.

 Eustathius                                                          369

 Antego                                                              370

 Montserrat                                                        ibid.

 Guadalupe                                                           371

 Deseado                                                             372

 Marigalante                                                       ibid.

 Todos Sanctos                                                       373

 De Aves                                                           ibid.

 Dominico                                                            375

 Martinico                                                           376

 St. Lucia                                                           377

 Barbados                                                          ibid.

 St. Vincent                                                         380

 Bekia                                                               381

 Granada                                                           ibid.

 Tabago                                                              382

 St. Christophers                                                    383

 The Islands Sotavento, and the Isle Trinidado                       387

 Cubagua                                                             388

 California                                                          389


                             The Third Book.

 A Description of Peruana or, Southern America                      Fol.
                                                                     393

 Castella Aurea, _otherwise call’d_ Terra Firma                      394

 Panama                                                              395

 Darien                                                              399

 New Andaluzia                                                       400

 St. Martha                                                          403

 Rio de la Hacha                                                     405

 New Granada                                                         406

 Granada                                                             408

 Popayana                                                            409

 Peru                                                                412

 Quito                                                               441

 Los Quixos                                                          446

 Lima                                                                450

 Cusco                                                               456

 Los Charcas                                                         462

 Collao                                                              466

 Chile                                                               471

 Chile, _properly so call’d_                                         472

 Magellanica                                                         473

 Paraguay, _or_ Rio de la Plata                                      475

 Rio de la Plata, _properly so call’d_                               476

 Tucuman                                                           ibid.

 La Crux de Sierra                                                   477

 Brasile                                                           ibid.

 St. Vincent                                                         495

 Rio de Janeiro                                                      496

 De Spirito Santo                                                    497

 Porto Seguro                                                        498

 Los Isleos                                                          501

 Bahia de Todos los Sanctos                                          502

 Pernambuco                                                          505

 Parayba                                                             508

 Maragnan                                                            511

 _The Lordships_ Tamarica, Rio  Grande, Siara, _and_ Para            517

 _A Relation of the Proceedings of the_ Netherland West-India
   _Company in_ Brasile, _to the Year_ 1658                          518

 _The Journey of_ Rodulphus Baron, _with the Description of the
   Customs and Manners of the_ Tapuyans                              595

 Grave Maurice _his Account of_ Brasile, _so far as it concern’d
   the_ West-India _Company_                                         600

 _The Councellor_ Dussen’s _Relation of so much of_ Brasile _as
   concern’d the_ West-India _Company_                               601

 _A Description of the Palace_ Freyburgh, _two Bridges, and a
   Banquetting-house, all built by_ Grave Maurice                    605

 Guiana                                                              607

 _A Relation of the Journey of_ Francisco Orellana                 ibid.

 Paria, _or_ New Andalusia                                           620

 Cumana                                                              621

 Venezuela                                                           624

 _The Islands_ Margareta, Cubagua, _and_ Coche                       627

 _Of the Islands of_ Southern America                                628


                            In the Appendix.

 Rio de la Plata                                                    Fol.
                                                                     631

 Chili                                                               634

 _A View of the_ Chilesian _Language_                                635

 Magellanica                                                         649

 _The_ Unknown South-Land                                            653

 Terra Borealis, _or_ The Arctick Region                             661

 _Several Attempts for the discovery of the_ North-West Passage      672

 _A brief View of what Places are possess’d at this day in the_
   West-Indies, _by the_ English, Spaniards, French, Portuguese,
   _and_ Dutch                                                       674

[Illustration]

[Illustration: Novissima et Accuratissima TOTIUS AMERICÆ DESCRIPTIO per
JOHAHEM OGILUIUM Cosmographum Regium]

[Illustration]



                                   AN
                          ACCURATE DESCRIPTION
                                   OF
                                AMERICA.



                                CHAP. I.
                  America, _unknown to the Antients_.


[Sidenote: Description of the Ocean.]

The Sea, that takes several Denominations from the Countreys which it
washeth, and surrounding the dry Land, cuts out, and shapes so many
winding Bays, Creeks, and Meandring Inlets, seems no where so much
confin’d and penn’d into so narrow a Channel, as the _Straights_ of
_Magellan_: From whence again, soon expatiating, it spreads it self into
two immense, and almost boundless Oceans, that which opens to the North,
gives terminaries to the four Regions of the Earth; that to the South,
onely to _Asia_ and _America_; both which, indeed, are but one continu’d
Sea, extending it self round the Universal Globe.

This watry part of the World, that almost through all Ages lay Fallow,
hath in these later times been Furrow’d by several Expert and Stout
Captains, who now by their Art and Industry, have given a good Account
of, and made clear Discoveries from East to West, where-ever the Sun
rises or sets.

The Northern Bounds under the _Artick-Zone_, have been hitherto so
obstructed with Ice, that the undertakings of such as adventur’d either
to find by the North-East or North-West a Passage to _India_, have been
utterly frustrate. Of the Southern, no such pains hath as yet been taken
in the Discovery, so that for the most part it is yet unknown how far
the Water, either deep or shallow, overspreads the Earth, onely thus
much Experience hath made out, that the _Antartick_ needs lesser Line to
Fathom, than the _Artick-Ocean_.

[Sidenote: The Ancients had little knowledge in Navigation.]

The antient _Greeks_, _Phenicians_, and _Romans_, or whosoever that were
Renown’d by Antiquity, and Listed in the number of their famous
Navigators, were no less Timerous than Ignorant concerning Maritim
Affairs, and are not fit to stand in the least degree of competition
with our later Voyagers.

[Sidenote: Navigation is very ancient.]

Of old, by an inviolable Law, made by Custom, according to _Pliny_,
_Vigetius_ and others, the Sea was lock’d up, from the eleventh of
_October_, to the tenth of _March_, no Ships daring to venture forth,
dreading short Nights, and foul Weather; neither in Summer, did they so
much as once offer, unless driven by Storms, to attempt the _Offin_, or
loose sight of Land; yet there is no question, but that several Nations
in former Ages, made it their business, spending their whole time, and
wearying themselves in the Practical Art of Navigation.

[Sidenote: _Geograph._ lib. 1.]

[Sidenote: _Hist. Nat._ lib. 2. cap. 67.]

[Sidenote: _Ultima Thule_, suppos’d by some to be _Ireland_. _Vide
           Georgic._]

[Sidenote: The Voyage of _Hanno_.]

[Sidenote: Of _Eudoxus_, _Strab._ l. 2.]

The Sacred Scripture testifies, That the Kings of _Judea_, _Solomon_,
_Jehosaphat_, _Ozias_, and others, prepar’d several Fleets that Sail’d
through remote Seas, freighting themselves with Gold from _Ophir_, and
other Rarities, which were Imported to supply and enrich the
_Holy-Land_. And _Strabo_ also tells us, That King _Solomon_ being
contemporary with _Homer_, then discover’d _India_. And _Pliny_ relates,
That the _Romans_, in the Reign of _Augustus_, passing the _Straights_
of _Gibraltar_, and sleighting the _Ne plus ultra_, Coasted _Spain_,
_France_, and _Belgium_, leaving not at the Promontory of the
_Cimbrians_ (now call’d _Shager-Riff_) but also ventur’d into the
Northern Ocean, which washes _Norwey_ and _Lapland_: But long before
this, as _Athenæus_ relates, _Phileas Taurominites_, a _Grecian_
Captain, and several others pass’d the _Herculean-Pillars_, penetrating
the Northern Seas as far as _Britain_, and adventuring, made the first
Discovery of _Thule_: And to the Southward the _African_ Coasts without
_Gibraltar_, and beyond _Atlas_, were now and then explor’d by several
expert Captains. But more remarkable is the Voyage of _Hanno_ a
_Carthaginian_, who out-sail’d these, and inspected the Coasts of
_Africa_, as far as the _Gorgades_: And _Eudoxus Cyzicenus_, flying from
King _Lathyrus_, set Sail from the _Arabian_ Gulph, and passing the
_Great-Cape_, came to an Anchor at last in the Mouth of _Gibraltar_,
having discover’d all the Eastern, Southern, and Western parts of
_Africa_.

[Sidenote: Strange Voyage of some _Indians_.]

[Sidenote: Of _Menelaus_.]

Moreover, it deserves special observation, That an antient _Swedish_
King, as _Cornelius Nepos_ relates, sent as a Rarity and great Present
to the _Roman_ Consul _Metellus Celer_, some _Indians_, who loosing
their course, hatter’d up and down with perpetual Storms and stress of
Weather, were at last driven into the Northern Ocean, where they
suffer’d Shipwrack; yet saving themselves, Landed on his Coast:
_Aristonicus Gramaticus_ relates, That _Menelaus_ Sailing from the
_Sack_ of _Troy_, became so great a Voyager, that leaving the
_Straights_, he surrounded _Africa_, and discovering _India_, after
eight years re-measuring the same way he went, return’d with great
Riches in safety to his own Kingdom: Which is consentaneous to _Homer_,
who saith, _Odyss._ l. 4.

           ——_None must compare
         Mansions with_ Jove, _his Seats Celestial are:
         But with me any may, who eight years tost
         Through Worlds of Miseries from Coast to Coast,
         ’Mongst unknown Seas, of my Return small hope_,
         Cyprus, Phœnicia, Ægypt,[1] Æthiope,
         Sidon, Erembos _found, and_ Lybia, _where
         Their Lambs are horn’d, their Ews teem thrice a year._

           ——Ἤτοι ζηνὶ βροτῶν οὐκ ἄντις ἐρίζοι.
         Ἀθάνατοι γὰρ τοῦ γε δόμοι καὶ κτήματ ἔασιν.
         Ἀνδρῶν δ’ ἤκεν τίς μοί ἐρίζεται ἠὲ, καὶ οὐκὶ
         Κτήμασιν; ἦ γὰρ πολλὰ παθὼν, καὶ πόλλ’ ἐπαληθεὶς
         Ἠγαγόμην ἐν νηυσὶ, καὶ ὀγδοάτω ἔτει ἦλθον
         Κύπρον, φοίνικην τε καὶ ἀιγυπτίους ἐπαληθεὶς,
         Ἀιθιοπάς θ’ ἱκόμην, καὶ σιδονίους καὶ ἐρεμβοὺς
         Καὶ Λιβύην, ἵνα τ’ ἄρνευ ἄφαρ κεραοὶ τελέθουσι,
         Τρὶς γὰρ τίκτει μῆλα τελευφόρον εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν.

Footnote 1:

  The Commentators on _Homer_ have been very inquisitive to find out
  _Menelaus_ Voyage into _Æthiopia_. _Crates_ suppos’d that he pass’d
  out at the _Straights_, doubled the Southern _Cape_, and so arriv’d
  thither. _Eratosthenes_ conjectures, that in the time of _Homer_ the
  _Straights_ Mouth was an Isthmus, and the _Ægyptian_ Isthmus
  overflow’d by the Sea, which afforded him a shorter passage. But that
  is most probable which _Strabo_ delivers, that he then went to the
  borders of _Æthiopia_, when he pass’d up _Ægypt_ to the City of
  _Thebes_; the Borders of _Æthiopia_ being not far distant from thence
  in _Strabo_’s time, probably very near it in _Homer_’s.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Voyage of an _Indian_ into _Egypt_,]

[Sidenote: Of _Ptolemy_]

[Sidenote: And also of _Cleopatra_.]

That which the _Grecian_ Geographers relate concerning _Ptolomy
Euergetes_, King of _Egypt_, is not to be forgotten, That sending
Pilots, Commission’d to take the Soundings, and settle the Land-marks in
the _Arabian_ Gulph, they found by chance a forsaken Vessel, onely in it
one Man half dead, lying among several other breathless Bodies, of whom,
being refresh’d with convenient Cordials, they enquir’d his Fortune, but
he being unable to give them any present satisfaction, neither
understanding what the other said, they sent him to the Court, where
soon having got a smattering of Greek, he inform’d _Euergetes_, that he
was a Native _Indian_, driven from their course into the place where
they found him by stress of Weather, and that his company were famish’d,
all their Provision spent in their Wandrings from their intended Voyage;
Thus being kindly entertain’d, he also promis’d the King to open his
Passage (if so he pleas’d) into _India_. The King slept not upon this
Intelligence, but immediately prepar’d a Fleet Freighted with such
Commodities as were advis’d; with which setting forth by the Conduct of
this their _Indian_ Pilot, they Anchor’d in their desir’d Port, and
brought the King in return from thence a rich _Cargo_ of Silk, Spices,
costly Drugs, and precious Gems. _Cleopatra_, about sixty years after,
intending not to lose the advantages reap’d by the former discoveries,
equipp’d another and greater Navy; which passing through the Red-Sea,
found the Stern of a Ship, on which was Presented a Horse, whereby some
of the more knowing Sea-men judg’d, that it had been a _Gibraltar_
Vessel, and Sailing about _Africa_, there by sad accident suffer’d a
Wrack. This Stern was afterwards set up, and fix’d as a Memorial in the
Market-place of _Memphis_.

[Sidenote: The _Venetians_ were the first that drove a trade from
           _Europe_ to the _East-Indies_.]

[Sidenote: How they went their journeys.]

In these later times, the first that endeavor’d to drive an _European_
Trade in _Africk_, and held Commerce with _India_, was the State of
_Venice_, who Sail’d from thence through the _Adriatick_, into the
_Mediterranean-Sea_: So Steering for _Alexandria_, where unlading their
Goods, from thence they carry’d them over Land, and Shipping again in
the _Arabian_ Gulph, Sail’d directly for _India_. Thus by Land and
Water, were exchang’d several Commodities, and the _Indian_ Growth and
rich Products of the Oriental World plentifully Transported to _Venice_,
and from thence, all _Europe_ had ample Accommodation, until an
_Egyptian Sultan_ suffer’d the Way to be infested by Thieves and
Murdering Robbers, that so they were enforc’d to remove thence, and
Discharge their several Cargoes at _Aleppo_; from whence, on Mules and
Camels, they carry’d their Goods to _Babylon_, so to _Balsarum_, and
then to _Ormus_, where they Re-ship’d thence, directly standing for
_India_.

Thus they enjoy’d the benefit of so great a Trade and Commerce, until
the _Portuguese_ found a Passage by Sea, saving the Expence and trouble
of carrying Goods so far by Land to _India_; Of which here we will a
little inlarge.

[Sidenote: By what means the _Portuguese_ came first to discover the
           Coasts of _Africa_ and _India_.]

[Sidenote: Why _Africa_ was no further discover’d.]

_John_, the first King of _Portugal_, who took from the _Moors_, by
force of Arms, _Septa_, an _African_ City, having five Sons; _Henry_ his
fourth behav’d himself so gallantly in the Leaguer of _Septa_, that
after he became Master of the place, this Prince made many bold
Excursions in several Parties against the Enemy, bringing in daily great
store of Booty; so growing rich, he Rigg’d out two new Vessels to make
farther Discoveries along the Coast of _Africa_. Yet this his Expedition
went on but slowly, being much taken off in Building there a new City,
then call’d _Tarzanabala_, and since _Villa Infantis_; but being
Admonish’d by a Dream, and Check’d for his laying thus aside his first
Design of Navigation; he soon after, _Anno 1410._ set forth the Ships
that he intended, which he the more accelerated, being inform’d by some
of his Prisoners Natives, that _Africa_ spread from the Basis of
_Mount-Atlas_, very far towards the South: This Mountain then was the
Terminary of Navigation that way, because thereabouts a long Ridge or
Shelf of Sands thrust its Point under Shallow Waters so far out into the
Ocean, that none durst venture to Sail into the _Offin_, being out of
sight of Land to double this conceal’d _Cape_.

[Sidenote: Who first ventur’d into the _Offin_.]

[Sidenote: _Madera_’s, by whom peopled.]

The first that attempted to find Deep Water, and get round about,
discovering several unknown Coasts, and Uninhabited Isles belonging to
that Region, were _Joannes Gonsalves_, _Tristan Varseus_, and _Ægidius
Annius_; amongst which were the _Madera_’s, and _St. George de Picho_,
which Prince _Henry_ first Planted with _Portuguese_, and others since
with _Netherlanders_. He also obtain’d a Grant from Pope _Martin_ the
Fifth, of all the discover’d Territories East-ward from the _Canaries_,
for ever to be the undoubted Right, and belonging to the Crown of
_Portugal_.

[Sidenote: By whom _Genny_ was discover’d.]

After _Henry_’s Decease, _Anno 1460._ the business of Navigation and
Discoveries of new Countreys, lay neglected, because King _Alphonso_
turmoyl’d in a Civil War, his Crown being at stake, had not leisure to
think or look after uncertain improvements by Sea; yet at last having
quell’d his Enemies, he ventur’d forth some Ships, who Sail’d as far as
the River _Zenaga_, and came to Anchor before the City of _Genny_,
famous since for Trade, which gave its denomination to the Countrey and
Coasts of _Guiny_, where they dealing, Barter’d for Ivory, Gold, Slaves,
and also got so much footing into the Countrey, that they suddenly
rais’d up a Fort, and Man’d it with a strong Garrison, Shipping their
Slaves for _Lisbon_.

_John_ the Second succeeding his Father _Alphonso_, had a great design
upon _Arabia_ and _India_, and if possible, was ambitious to open a
Passage from the _Atlantick_, to the _Oriental-Seas_. But the difficulty
lay in Steering so often from sight of Land, venturing into the Main
Ocean, obstructed by so many dangerous Shoals that lay so far out into
the _Offin_.

[Sidenote: For the Northern Constellations the _Astrolabe_ was in use
           long before.]

At that time flourish’d three famous Mathematicians, _Rhoderick_,
_Joseph_, and _Martin Bohemus_, Pupils bred up by _Joannes Monteregius_;
with which the King consulting, perswaded, that they would by their Art
invent some Instrument, that by Southern Constellations, the Pole being
depress’d, the Navigator might know where he was, and in what height; so
guessing what distance they were from this or that Countrey; they
accordingly Club’d Learning, and by their great Study, found out what
since hath prov’d so useful and beneficial to Seamen, the _Astrolabe_;
which help having obtain’d, the Sailers encourag’d, more frequently
ventur’d into remote and unknown Seas.

[Sidenote: Remarkable passage of _Jaques Cano_.]

[Sidenote: Discovery of _Congo_.]

[Sidenote: _John_ the Second, seeks to discover _India_ by water.]

After these, King _John_ of _Portugal_ sent _Jaques Cano_ with a Fleet,
who Sailing, found the River _Zaires_, where he erected a Pillar with an
Inscription, _Latin_ and _Portuguese_, signifying by whom, and in what
Kings Reign these _African_ Coasts were discover’d: Here he also met
some of the Natives, who more civiliz’d than the rest, told him, That
they had a mighty King, who Raigning over them, kept his Court some few
days Journey up in the Countrey, to whom _Cano_ sending his Agents,
detain’d four _Africans_ as Pledges, which he carry’d with their free
consent to _Portugal_, promising to bring them back in fifteen Months,
who before that time having got some smatterings of their Tongue,
inform’d them, that their Native Soyl was call’d _Congo_, whither
returning by the appointed time, they were according to their agreement,
exchang’d for the _Portuguese_, and _Cano_ address’d himself with rich
Presents to their King, whom he found sitting in their manner on an
Ivory Throne, being from the middle upward Naked, his nether parts
cover’d with long Silken Skirts, a Golden Armlet on his left Arm,
athwart his Shoulders hung a Horses Tail, their Badge of Royal Dignity:
_Cano_ humbly laid the Presents down at the Kings feet, amongst which
was a Gilded Flag, or Pennon with a Cross, which Pope _Innocent_ the
Eighth had Consecrated with great Ceremony. After this, many of that
Nation became Christians, and the King himself receiv’d Baptism. But in
short time, by the Instigations of their Diabolical Priests, and others,
Christianity loosing ground, grew out of countenance: Mean while, King
_John_ the Second vigorously Prosecuted the business of Discovery,
sending _Jews_ and _Christians_ by Land from _Alexandria_ and other
parts of _Egypt_ to _India_, and from thence to explore the Coasts on
the Eastern side of _Africa_, to the _Great-Cape_; if so a way might be
found fit for Navigators, having doubled that Point, to Traffick with
the Oriental parts of the World.

[Sidenote: _Vasques de Gama_, his expedition.]

After this Princes Death the Work lay sill a while, but in short time,
King _Emanuel_ his Successor freshly undertook the business once more,
sending _Vasques de Gama_ with four Ships, who passing through many
Dangers with great Difficulties, Anchor’d at last before _Calecut_, and
was the first of the _Europeans_ that found a way to the _East-Indies_.

[Sidenote: _Christopher Columbus_’s.]

[Sidenote: Dividing of the earth.]

But _Christopher Columbus_, five Years before _Gama_’s Expedition to the
East, had been employ’d in Western Discoveries, which prov’d so very
successful, that he found no less than another World; which soon after,
from _Americus Vesputius_, was call’d _America_: So that the Division of
the World by the Antients, (concerning which they had so long err’d, and
were utterly mistaken) was now made manifest by Experience, and
undisputable Demonstration; for formerly the whole World was known by no
other names than _Asia_, _Africa_, and _Europe_, but now, those three
are found to make but one Part of what incircles the Universal Globe;
because in the South lies a second, known no further than by its
Coastings and Superficial Margents; the third part being the New-World,
our _America_.

[Sidenote: A query, if _America_ was known to the Ancients.]

[Sidenote: _Atlantica. Plato in Crisis & Timæo._]

Here it will not seem amiss, having prov’d that _Africa_ was more than
Coasted by the Ancients, to ingage and search with some scrutiny
concerning this _America_; First, Whether at any time ’twas known by the
Ancients? And next, by what People, and when first Inhabited? About the
former, the Learned of these later times Jangle amongst themselves, for
some of them will needs ascribe so much Honor to Antiquity, declining
the Worthy Praise of those that made so wonderful a Discovery, as if
they of old, and many Ages before, had done the same, or at least, that
this New-World to them was not unknown, maintaining this their bold
Assertion from the Authority of what they find, both in Ancient _Greek_,
and _Latin_ Authors: First, especially in the Learned _Plato_, who, as
you know at large, describes a New _Atlantis_, lying beyond the
_Straights_ of _Gibraltar_; whose Coast is surrounded with two vast Seas
that are Sow’d thick with scatter’d Islands. By these Seas they
understand the Atlantick and Southern-Sea, by the many Isles, _Cuba_,
_Hispaniola_, _Jamaica_, _California_, and others, which lie sprinkled
along the Coasts of _America_. But it cannot be made out, that _Plato_
describes ought but a Fancy, his own _Idea_, not a Countrey that ever
was, is, or shall be, though he sets it forth so Accurately, and with
such Judgment, as if he had taken a Survey of the place, and found such
a Land indeed.

[Sidenote: _Diod. Sic._ lib. 6.]

[Sidenote: _Arist. de Mirandis in Natura auditis._]

In like manner, _Diodorus Siculus_ undertakes to prove, That _America_
was known to the Antients; telling a Story, how the _Phenicians_ were
driven by a Storm from the Coasts of _Africa_ West-ward, falling at last
upon a great and altogether unknown Island, which our late Expositors
take for _America_; Must it therefore be so? Surely not, for it is onely
a bare Story, without any Proof or the least Testimony. They endeavor to
make _Aristotle_ bolster up their opinion that he had a knowledge of
this New-World, which with no small pains they pump from these Words:
“Beyond the _Herculean_ Pillars, certain _Carthaginian_ Merchants
penetrated the Atlantick Ocean so far, that at last they found a vast,
yet un-inhabited Island, producing nothing but Herbage, Plants, and
Wild-Beasts, yet interlac’d with many Meandring Rivers, abounding with
several sorts of Fish, lying some days Sail from the Continent; they
Landing, found a Soyl so fertile, and Air so temperate, that there they
setled, and were the first Planters of that Isle. But the
_Carthaginians_ having intelligence thereof, Prohibited all Persons
whatsoever, upon Pain of Death, to go thither, fearing the place being
so much commended, all the People would be ready to flock thither, and
desert their own, and so utterly unfurnish and debilitate their then
growing Common-wealth.”

[Sidenote: _Æneid._ lib. 6.]

But how could the _Carthaginians_ find _America_, without the use of the
Compass? How happen’d it, that they were so taken with the fertility of
this their New-found-Land, when the Adjacent Countreys and Fields about
_Carthage_ are every where Flourishing, and most Luxurious? So that it
may better be suppos’d, that what _Aristotle_ found so long since, may
rather be the _Canary-Isles_, or _Great-Brittain_, than _America_. The
_Greeks_ having then also made some Inspection into the
_Brittish-Isles_. They would also make you believe, that _Virgil_ the
Prince of Latin Poets, had known the New-World in these Verses; _Æneid._
lib. 6.

          _There, there’s the Prince, oft promis’d us before,
          Divine_ Augustus Cæsar, _who once more
          Shall Golden Days bring to th’_ Ausonian _Land,
          Kingdoms that once old_ Saturn _did command,
          And shall His power to_ India _extend,
          Beyond the Annual Circle, and beyond
          The Sun’s long Progress, where great_ Atlas _bears,
          Laden with Golden Stars, the glittering Sphears;_

          Hic vir, hic est, tibi quem promitti sæpius audis,
          _Augustus Cæsar_, divûm genus, aurea condet
          Sæcula, qui rursus Latio, regnata per arva
          Saturno quondam, super & Garamantas & Indos
          Proferet imperium. Jacet extra sidera tellus,
          Extra anni Solisque vias, ubi cœlifer _Atlas_
          Axem humero torquet stellis ardentibus aptum.

[Sidenote: _America_ was not known to the Ancients.]

But what of all this? Who finds in any of these Writings, any Marks of
_America_, or the least Description thereof? Though we cannot deny that
the Antient Sages and Wise Philosophers of former times might easily
make out, and no question did, that the Earth and Sea made the perfect
Figure of a Globe; first from the round Shadow of the Earth that
Ecclipses the Moon; the different Risings and Settings of the Celestial
Luminaries; and the still Variation of the Pole; so that the Earth and
Sea making one Ball, they might easily conjecture, that the South-side
of the Equinoctial might be Inhabited as well as the North: But all this
was more grounded upon Natural Reason and Right Judgement, than any
Experience of theirs, or the least certain knowledge thereof, which
since these later times had the first happiness to obtain; so laying
these Conjectures aside, there have been none more grosly erroneous, and
so utterly mistaken in this Point, than some of the Ancients, and
especially the Fathers of the Church.

[Sidenote: _Lactant._ l. 3. c. 24.]

_Lactantius Firmianus_, and St. _Austin_, who strangely jear’d at as
ridiculous, and not thinking fit for a Serious Answer the Foolish
Opinion of _Antipodes_, or another Habitable World beyond the _Equator_:
At which, _Lactantius_ Drolling, says, _What, Forsooth, here is a fine
Opinion broach’d indeed; an_ Antipodes! _heigh-day! People whose Feet
tread with ours, and walk Foot to Foot with us; their Heads downwards,
and yet drop not into the Sky! There, yes, very likely, the Trees loaden
with Fruit grow downwards, and it Rains, Hails, and Snows upwards; the
Roofs and Spires of Cities, tops of Mountains, point at the Sky beneath
them, and the Rivers revers’d topsi-turvy, ready to flow into the Air
out of their Channels!_

[Sidenote: _Lactant._ error concerning our _Antipodes_.]

[Sidenote: As also St. _Austin. de Civit. Dei_ l. 16. c. 9.]

But these seeming witty Observations of _Lactantius_, though they may
serve for a Jest, yet are not grounded on any serious Reasons; for the
Earth and Sea being Globular, making one Universal Ball; all Materials
whatsoever that belong to this great Body, sink by a natural Propensity
towards its Center; so that where-ever we Travel, our Feet are
downwards, and our Heads upwards, the Sky above, and the Earth beneath;
neither need they fear, that any where the Earth should Moulder and drop
into the Clouds: But St. _Austin_ Reasons better, admitting that the
Earth and Sea make a Universal Globe; yet it no way follows, that
inhabited Countreys should lye opposite to our Northern, nay, altogether
impossible, seeing that side which is our _Antipodes_ is all nothing but
Sea; and should we allow, that there were Land and Water mixt as ours
is, who could prove, that they were Peopled? or how could any get
thither, over such Vast and Immense Seas? or possibly pass the extream
heat of the Torrid Zone, not to be endur’d by any living Creature? And
what then becomes of Sacred Scripture, which says positively, _That all
Men were deriv’d from_ Adam, _and after the Floud, from_ Noah _and his
three Sons_? Therefore the Nations of the _Antipodes_ must be of another
Abstract, there being no possibility (as they suppos’d) of passing from
this World to that: But since the Discovery of the _East_ and
_West-Indies_, Experience, the best Mistress, hath taught, that in the
South are mighty Lands and vast Territories, and that as far as they
have been Penetrated, are found to be full of People, extending their
Dominions from East to West. And though St. _Austin_ deny’d this now
well-known Truth, yet long before his time, _Cicero_, _Pliny_, and
others amongst the _Greeks_ and _Romans_, divided the Earth under five
_Zones_; which _Virgil_ describes thus:

          _Five Zones the heav’ns infold, hot Sun-beams beat
          Always on one, and burns with raging heat.
          The two Extreams to this on each hand lies
          Muffled with Storms, fetter’d with cruel Ice.
          ’Twixt Cold and Heat, two more there are, th’ aboads
          Assign’d poor Mortals by th’ Immortal Gods._

          Quinque tenent cælum zonæ: quarum una corusco
          Semper Sole rubens, & torrida semper ab igni:
          Quam circum extremæ dextra, lævaque trahuntur
          Cærulea glacie concretæ, atque imbribus atris.
          Has inter, mediamque, duæ mortalibus ægris
          Munere concessæ divum: via secta per ambas,
          Obliquus qua se signorum verteret ordo.

[Sidenote: _Macrob. in Somnio Scipionis._ l. 2. c. 5.]

[Sidenote: _Vide Carpent. Geograph._]

With _Virgil_, _Pliny_, and the Prince of Latin Orators agree, who
saith, “You see, that those that inhabit the Earth dwell in Countreys so
separated one from another, that it is impossible they should have any
Commerce; some of them are our _Antipodes_, walking with their Heads
downwards, some their Feet against our sides, others, as we, with their
Heads upright. You see how the same Earth seems to be Swath’d about with
Rolls, of which, two separated by the other three, are at utmost
distance one from the other, lying equi-distant under the Vertick Points
of Heaven, always cover’d with Snow and Ice; but the middlemost and
greatest is scorch’d by the violent heats of the Sun: Two Tracts are
Habitable, one to the South, our _Antipodes_, the other North, which we
Inhabit.”

[Sidenote: _Pliny_ lib. 2.]

And _Pliny_ also affirms, though against the Vulgar Opinion, this truth,
“That the Earth is round about inhabited, and that people walk Foot to
Foot in most parts thereof; though every one be ready to ask why our
_Antipodes_ drop not into the Sky; which question, our _Antipodes_ may
also ask concerning us.”

But although the Ancients upon these and the like Demonstrations well
understood, that there was a Habitable World towards the South under our
_Horizon_, yet they could not make out or believe, that there was any
possibility to pass thither; And, according as St. _Austin_ conceiv’d,
That the Earth produc’d nothing under either Pole, by reason of
excessive cold, and that the _Equinoxs_ or _Middle-Zone_, was not to be
penetrated, because of the insufferable heat.

[Sidenote: _Macrob. in Somno Scip._ lib. 2.]

And _Macrobius_ saith, “That the _Equinoctial_ Circle, the _Artick_ and
_Antartick Lines_, bind the two Habitable _Zones_, and make Temperate by
the excessive Neighboring Heats and Colds; and these Countreys onely
give Animation, and comfortable Enjoyment to all Living Creatures.”

Moreover, St. _Austin_ in some places seems to clear his own Doubts,
saying, “That People, if they could find a means to Sail those Vast and
Undiscover’d Seas, might make Land, raising new Stars under another
Sky.”

[Sidenote: How beasts came on remote Islands.]

A Learned Father, searching after the Original of all sorts of Beasts
which multiply by Generation, concludes, That they must derive
themselves from those that were sav’d with _Noah_ in the Ark. But how
came they to the Isles? To those adjacent and near the Main Land, they
might easily Swim; to the remoter, they were Transported.

[Sidenote: And chiefly the wild.]

[Sidenote: _Austin_ is contradicted.]

[Sidenote: How men came to new Countreys.]

But this Doubt is not altogether clear’d, for the Domestick and other
Creatures fit for Humane use and Sustenance were thus brought thither:
Yet how comes it to pass, that Voracious and Wild Creatures are also
found there, such as Wolves, Tigers, Lions, and other Beasts of Prey?
This puzzle putting St. _Austin_ to a stand, he had no other means to
get off, but by saying, that by God’s Commands or Permission, the Angels
convey’d them thither; If so, why might not God please to Plant Men
there in like manner, and the rather, the Earth being created for Humane
use? But what needed this, when Men can in Ships Transport themselves,
either of their own accord for curious Inquest, to find new Countreys,
or else enforc’d by stress of Weather, to far remoter, and altogether
unknown Lands: Besides, though the Earth is here and there divided by
large Bays and vast Seas, yet nevertheless, in other places it is all
continu’d Land, or at least parted by some narrow In-let or Sea; so that
there was no difficulty for a crouded Plantation to go over, and so ease
themselves in another Countrey, till then not Inhabited; therefore none
need to question, but that from _Adam_, or nearer, from _Noah_’s three
Sons, _Sem_, _Ham_, and _Japhet_, those, as well as we, were extracted,
that Inhabit this our other World.

[Sidenote: Reasons why _America_ was so long unknown.]

[Sidenote: Who first sail’d on the Ocean.]

[Sidenote: Several opinions of the Antients concerning it.]

[Sidenote: _Brittains_ amongst the first Inventors of Navigation.]

But one question is to be observ’d, How first after the expiration of so
many Ages in these our later times, a New-World was discover’d,
altogether unknown to the Antients, when they in the greatness of their
Parts and Undertaking, Prowess and Prudence, were no ways inferior to
the Modern, and every way as fit for great Designs and grand Exploits?
We need not scruple or make the least doubt, but the Sea hath been
Navigated of old; but the first attempters set forth unexperienc’d, in
as pittiful and ill-contriv’d Vessels. The _Heathens_ ascribe the Art of
Navigation, first to the _Cretans_, who under the Conduct of _Neptune_,
set forth a Navy to explore Foraign Countries. But _Pliny_ long before
gives the Invention of this Art to _Erythra_, King of _Egypt_, who upon
Pieces of Timber, conjoyn’d and brac’d together, crept along the Shores,
and ventur’d to Discover the Isles in the _Red-Sea_. But others give
that honor to the _Trojans_, and _Micians_, when with a Fleet by Sea,
they Invaded _Thrace_: Others, to the _Brittains_, who made little
Vessels of Leather, and were the first that by this Invention found how
to Float upon the Waters: Some plead, that the _Samothracians_ were
first; Others, that _Danæus_ before all, found a way by Sea from _Egypt_
to _Greece_. But without all Contradiction, _Noah_’s Ark was the Pattern
or Sample, that succeeding Ages imitating, built their Ships by; and the
more probable, because his Offspring multiplying so fast, that they were
enforc’d to inlarge their Colonies, by passing Seas, and other broad
Rivers, to settle their Super-numeraries there.

[Sidenote: The first Inventers of several things belonging to Shipping.]

So _Jason_ Invented a Ship, which he call’d _Argos_, which _Sesostris_
King of _Egypt_ took as his Pattern. Next, the _Biremis_, a Galley with
double Banks of Oars, was made by the _Erythreans_; with treble Banks,
by the _Corinthian Amocles_; the addition of the _Quadruple_, the
_Carthaginians_ boast; of the _Quinqueremis Nesichthon_, _Alexander the
Great_, brought them to twelve Banks; _Ptolomy Soter_, to fifteen;
_Demetrius_, _Antigonus_ Son, doubled them to thirty; _Ptolomy
Philadelphus_, to forty; and last of all, _Philopater_ rais’d them to
fifty Banks of Oars. _Hippus_ a _Tirian_, was the first that set Ships
upon the Stocks; the _Rhodians_ a Ketch, and the _Batavians_ a Boat; the
_Copes_ made the first Oar; _Dedalus_ the Mast and Boltsprit; _Piscus_
the Beak; the _Tyrrheans_ the Anchor; _Tiphys_ the Rudder; taking
example from the motion of a Kites Stern; _Icarus_ found Sails, fancy’d
by the Poets for Wings, though some ascribe that honor to his Father
_Dedalus_.

[Sidenote: Why in former Ages no remote Countreys were discover’d.]

_Minos_ was the first that Ingag’d in a Sea-Fight, whereby we may easily
conjecture, that of old none adventur’d far into the _Offin_, or to
remote Countreys, not daring to trust their so sleight contriv’d
Vessels. But these later times have strangely and suddenly improv’d this
growing Art of Navigation, yet pitch’d not to that height at first, as
boldly to adventure, and loose sight of Land.

[Sidenote: The manner of the Antients Sailing.]

[Sidenote: Of the _Romans_.]

[Sidenote: Why _America_ was so lately known.]

The _Tyrians_ first understood how to Steer their Course by the
North-Star, and when dark and foul Weather had Clouded the Sky, that
they could neither see Heaven or Earth, but onely Sea, they directed
their Course by the Wind; and if they doubted the change thereof, they
let some Birds flie, whom they follow’d, supposing that they stood
directly to the nearest Land. But these are but poor helps, and blind
Guides to shew you Land from the middle of the boundless Ocean. It is
certain, that the _Romans_ in the time of _Julius Cæsar_ and _Augustus_,
stretch’d the Bounds of that Empire Eastward to _Euphrates_, the
_Rhyne_, and the _Danube_, and Westward to the _Ocean_ and _Mount
Atlas_, Sailing up and down the _Mediterranean_, with great Fleets,
which stoutly endur’d the violence both of Waves and Weather; but all
this made them not so hardy, as once to think or look after new Worlds.
But after the _Roman_ power decreas’d, by several Eruptions of the
_Goths_, _Vandals_, _Huns_, _Normans_, _Lumbards_, and other Northern
Countreys, which swarm’d with People, that overflow’d all places like a
Deluge, so that _Europe_ was every where puzzel’d and Imbroyl’d, their
whole business consisting in conjoyning Forces to withstand such bold
Invaders, and so vexatious an Enemy.

And farther East, _Asia_ was at the same time little better, still
trembling at the daily Alarms and Incursions of the _Scythians_,
_Persians_, and _Saracens_; and afterwards the _Turks_ growing upon them
more than any of the former, expected no other than a sad Catastrophe,
so that the known World had too much work cut out for them by these
Distractions and Alterations of Government, then to go in Quest of
uncertainties, to find they know not where, another.

[Sidenote: _Hieron. in_ c. 2. _Ephes._]

Here also is added by St. _Jerom_, what an antient Writer saith, _Great
care hath been taken in Computing the Age of this World, and if there be
another which Commenc’d not with ours_, (as _Clemens_ mentions in his
Epistles) _where are scituate those Seas and Lands that make that second
World? Or is a part of that, in which_ Adam _was Created? Or may it not
rather Metaphorically be taken for Worldly Affairs, govern’d by the
Prince of the Air, ruling in the Hearts of the Children of
Disobedience?_

[Sidenote: The Antients opinion of an unknown world.]

But _Pliny_, _Cicero_, and _Virgil_, the best in their kind of Latin
Writers, concur, That there may be a habitable World under our
_Horizon_, in the temperate Southern _Zone_, beyond the extream heat,
and on this side of the _Antartick_ colds.

[Sidenote: _In Comment. super_ Obad. v. 19, 20, 21.]

[Sidenote: _And they of the south shall possess the mount of_ Elau, _and
           they of the plain, the_ Philistines: _and they shall possess
           the fields of_ Ephraim, _and the fields of_ Samaria, _and_
           Benjamin _shall possess_ Gilead. _And the captivity of this
           host of the children of_ Israel _shall possess that of the_
           Canaanites, _even unto_ Zarephath, _and the captivity of_
           Jerusalem, _which is in_ Sepharad, _shall possess the Cities
           of the south. And saviors shall come upon mount_ Zion, _to
           judge the mount of_ Esau, _and the kingdom shall be the
           LORDS_.]

But what signifies all this to the Discovery of _America_, which lies
not onely under the scorching Heats of the _Equinox_, but under the
Frosts and Snows of the _Artick_ and _Antartick-Poles_? Yet less
probable is that which _Lodowick Leo_, an _Augustine_ Frier takes out of
_Obadiah_; as if that Prophet in the three last Verses of his _Prophecy_
should speak of the _Spaniards_, which should not onely discover and
Conquer _America_, but also Convert the Inhabitants to the _Christian
Faith_, because those that are in _Sepharad_, should Inherit and Possess
the Cities of the South, _And Saviours shall arise from the Mountains
of_ Zion, _to judge the Mount and Wealth of_ Esau.

[Sidenote: If _America_ is known in the Scripture.]

But certainly, _Obadiah_ meant no other than the Restauration of the
_Jews_ from the Captivity of _Babylon_, who after their return, should
grow more powerful than ever, and they, led by their _Messias_, obtain
the height of all felicity, who would send his _Evangelists_ and
_Apostles_ to declare Salvation to the utmost Borders of the Earth. It
is true, that the _Rabins_ Expound _Sepharad_ to be _Spain_, and
therefore he concludes, that _Obadiah_ Prophesi’d of the _Spaniard_, and
their Conquests in _America_; so they would prove, that _America_ was
long known before Christ.

[Sidenote: _Solomon_’s Fleet sail’d not to _Peru_.]

And lastly, It signifies as little what _Pineda_ and _Levinus Lemnius_
drive at, That _Solomon_ first finding the use of the Compass, Rigg’d a
Navy at _Ezion-Geber_, which from the _Red-Sea_ had no indirect Course
to the _Straights_ of _Magellan_; from whence he might Lade his Vessels
with the Gold of _Peru_. In whose Description it shall be manifested,
that _Peru_ is not _Ophir_, as some without any shew of Reason or Truth
would make us believe.

[Sidenote: _Solomon_ did not find the Compass.]

But as concerning King _Solomon_’s finding out the use of the _Magnet_,
it is soon said, but not easily proved; for though that Prince exceeded
all Man-kind in Wisdom and Learning, and was perfect in the Operations,
and knew the Occultest Secrets of Nature, understanding what e’re
belong’d to Plants, from the Cedar of _Libanus_, to Hysop, and the
meanest Shrub that grows upon the Wall; yet it nothing makes out, that
he knew the Mystery of the Navigable use of the _Load-Stone_: But
suppose he did know, there is no where any mention of it; and if this
excellent thing, the _Compass_, had been found in _Solomon_’s time, how
came it afterwards so utterly to be lost?

[Sidenote: Load-stone, by whom found.]

[Sidenote: Strange operations of the Loadstone.]

[Sidenote: _De subtilitate_ l. 7.]

[Sidenote: Variance of the Compass.]

[Sidenote: _Genebrad. Chron._]

[Sidenote: When, and by whom the Compass was found.]

_Albertus Magnus_ mistakes, when he ascribes the knowledge of the
_Compass_ to _Aristotle_, of which he himself makes not the least
mention; neither _Galen_, _Alexander Aphrodisiensis_, _Pliny_,
_Lucretius_, nor any of the _Roman_, _Greek_, _Arabian_, or other
Countrey Writers whatsoever. Some give the honor thereof to an _Indian_,
others to a Shepherd in _Mount Ida_, whose Clouted Shooes being full of
Hob-Nails, the Iron sticking fast to the Stones on which he stood, stopt
his motion. And although the Antients found out many Secrets of Nature,
amongst which this of the _Load-Stone_, Attracting Iron, as being its
proper Food; and the three sorts of the _Magnet_, of which some will not
draw Steel, found by _Theamedes_ a _Greek_ Author, and other since, well
known Properties: Yet they never attain’d that knowledge, that the
_Load-Stone_ would ease Pain, and stop the effusion of Blood, though the
edge piercing the Skin, open’d the Vein: as _Hieronimus Cardanus_
experienc’d on himself and others, which he had from _Laurentius
Guascus_, a great Chyrurgeon. Much less, that the Needle of the
_Compass_ being touch’d by the _Load-Stone_ on the Northside of the
_Equinox_, respects the North; but depressing the _Artick_, and raising
the _Antartick_ Pole, it looks as stedfastly towards the South: But far
less dreamt they of its several variations, according to the Coasts that
are nearest; as when you come from the Island _del Cuervo_, the Point
varies more West; but Sailing towards the _Equinox_, it varies Eastward;
by which we may absolutely conclude, that without this use of the
_Load-Stone_, first found by _Flavius Melvius_ a _Neapolitan_, in the
Year 1303. it was altogether impossible to reach _America_. So that
_Joseph de Acosta_ mistakes, who gives the honor of the finding so great
a benefit to Navigation, to some _Mahumetan_ Sea-men which _Vasques de
Gama_ met with near _Mosambique_, who had Sail’d those Seas by the use
thereof; whereas _Gama_’s Expedition was above a hundred years after
_Melfius_, who liv’d in such a juncture of time for Mathematical
Learning, that few Ages boasted the like: For then flourish’d in
_England_, and were Contemporaries, besides others abroad, _Richard
Wallingford_, _Nicolas de Lynna_, _John Halifax_, _Walter Britte_, _John
Duns_, and _John de Lignarys_, all eminent in Astronomical Arts,
belonging to Navigation, and doubtless, no small helps to _Melfius_ in
this his happy Invention.

Lastly, We will relate what hath been held as a seeming Testimony, (that
_America_ was known to the _Europeans_ before the Birth of our Saviour)
by an antique Meddal of the Emperor _Augustus_, digg’d out of the Ground
in _Peru_, and sent to his Holiness at _Rome_, which may well be
reckon’d with the like Cheat contriv’d by _Hermicus Cajadus_, _Anno
1505._ near _Syntra_, a Town in _Portugal_, where three Marbles Ingraven
with antient Characters, concerning a Prophecy of discovering the
_East-Indies_ by the _Portuguese_, in the Reign of King _Emanuel_, were
privately bury’d under Ground, and not long after, by a pretended
accident digg’d out, which made such a bustle amongst the Learned, that
several tired themselves about the explanation of the suppos’d Sibylline
Prediction.

[Illustration]



                               CHAP. II.
 _Of the Original of the_ Americans, _whence they came, when, how, and
                       from what People Planted_.

[Sidenote: The original of the _Americans_ much disputed on.]

About the Original of the _Americans_, the Learned Dispute so much, that
they find nothing more difficult in Story, than to clear that Point; for
whether inquiry be made after the time, when the _Americans_ first
settled themselves where they now inhabit, or after what manner they
came thither, either by Shipping or by Land; on purpose, or
accidentally; driven by Storm, or else forc’d by a more powerful People,
to remove from their old Plantations, and seek for new? or if any one
should be yet more curious, asking the way that directed them out of
another Countrey to this New World? or else enquire for those People,
from whom the _Americans_ deriv’d themselves? He will find several
Opinions, and the Learned still Jangling.

[Sidenote: Voyage l. 1. c. 8.]

[Sidenote: The time when _America_ was first Peopled.]

The first Doubt is concerning the time: Mr. _Purchas_, where-ever he had
the Hint, endeavors to prove, that _America_ hath been but lately
Planted; for which he thus argues, “That if _Asia_, or _Europe_
furnish’d _America_ with People in _Abraham_’s time, or at least before
the Birth of our Saviour; then it must upon necessity, by the Expiration
of so many Ages, have been much more Populous, then the _Spaniards_
found when first they discover’d it. Besides, the vast Territories yet
unhabited (says he) are sufficient testimonies, that this New World hath
been Planted but scatteringly, and not many Ages since, else the
Countrey would have more abounded with Inhabitants, because the
fertility of the Soyl was able plentifully to maintain Millions more,
then were there when first discover’d: And what Marks are better to know
a new People by, in any Countrey, than a rude Life and unsettled
Government? just like a Family removing to another House, which takes no
short time to settle their Goods and Houshold-stuff in a handsome and
convenient Order.

[Sidenote: The condition of the first World after the Floud.]

“When _Noah_ went out of the Ark on Mount _Ararat_, and not long after,
saw his Seed spread over _Armenia_ and _Assyria_, the new Generation of
People consisted in Shepherds and Husbandmen, that setled themselves
near Lakes and Rivers. Villages, Cities (and much less) whole Kingdoms,
were scarce found on the Face of the Earth, and as little of Trade or
Commerce; Riches, Division of Lands, costly Garments and Furniture for
Houses, were not then in use, but the works of long settlements in happy
Peace. To curb growing-Wickedness, and the Pride of _Libertines_, who
incroach’d upon their weaker Neighbors, Laws were invented, by which
Bridle, the unbroke or wild World grew tamer: And first, the _Assyrians_
were brought to endure the Bit, and answer the Reins of Government; then
_Egypt_, next _Greece_, and after that the _Romans_, who spreading their
Power by Arms and Martial Discipline, first civiliz’d the _Gauls_,
_Spain_, _Brittain_, and lastly _Germany_.

“But because a Countrey or Pastoral Life, knowing no Commerce, but mean
Hovels, and to dwell in Huts, priding in poor and no Habits, despising
all greatness, unlimited by Laws, and all things else, (which the People
observ’d presently after the Flood) is now found among the _Americans_,
who will take them for ought else, but new Comers to that Land, as
themselves acknowledge? For the _Mexicans_ boast, that they are the
eldest there, and that from them, _Peru_, _Chili_, _Chika_, and other
Countreys towards the South, had their Colonies, and yet the oldest
Chronicles of _Mexico_ reckon not above a thousand Years.” Thus far Mr.
_Purchas_.

[Sidenote: _America_ was Peopled many Ages ago.]

[Sidenote: _Purchas_ contradicted.]

But certainly, all this Muster of appearing Reasons, is not able to
vanquish single Truth; For, grant that _America_ was not very Populous
when the _Spaniards_ first arrived there; must this needs prove, that it
was never well inhabited before? Perhaps the Civil Wars, which have been
always destructive to this Nation, have much hindred the increase of
People; and the more, because their Salvage Nature is such, that in
several places they account Man’s Flesh Broil’d a very great Dainty. And
suppose such Prodigal Excess of their Humane Bankets were not us’d in
_America_, as indeed they are, Is it wonder, that such a great part of
the World, not onely exceeding _Europe_ in bigness, but _Asia_ also
should here and there have a Tract of Land uninhabited? These might, by
reason of their Barrenness, be useless, as many such places are found in
the midst of the most Populous and fertile Countreys. But above all
this, it is certain, that _America_ to this day (notwithstanding almost
innumerable thousands of _Indians_ formerly Slain and Massacred by the
_Spaniards_) is so well inhabited, that it may stand in Competition with
either _Asia_ or _Europe_. And how could such vast multitudes Plant the
far-spreading Countrey of _America_, without the help of many Ages?
Moreover, This truth is not without sufficient Testimonies; when any one
looks on the Islands with which _America_ lies incompass’d, he may
suppose they did not willingly go from the Main Continent to the Isles,
but were driven thither by Wars among themselves, or as most times it
happens, because of the vast increase of the Natives, the Countrey must
discharge its burden.

Hereto is added, the several Languages us’d in _America_, as in _Europe_
or any other part of the known World; whereby we may easily guess, that
_America_ was Peopled presently after the Confusion of Tongues at
_Babel_. Furthermore, If the _Americans_ live a Rude Life, go meanly
Habited, be without stately Houses; such Customs are even among us
observ’d by several People; as the _Tartars_, _Numidians_, and others,
which made their Antiquity be call’d in question. He also must needs
have no knowledge of the Arts and Mechanick Sciences us’d by the
_Americans_, who concludes, that they setled but lately in _America_.
One Argument at present will be sufficient to contradict them all; and
in the further Description, the contrary will be more manifest.

[Sidenote: _American_ Gold-Smiths.]

_Hieronimus Benso_ relates, That he stood amaz’d at the Gold and Silver
Smiths in the Territory of _Chito_, who without any Iron Tools, made
Images, and all manner of Vessels: Which work they perform’d thus,
First, they made an Oval Crucible of a good Lock, round about Pasted
with Earth, embody’d with the Powder of Wood Coals; which Crucible being
Bak’d very hard in the Sun, they fill with Pieces of Gold or Silver, and
put in the Fire; about which standing with five, six, or more Pipes made
of Canes, they blow the Fire so long, till the Mettal melts, which
others sitting on the ground, run it into Moulds of black Stone, and so
with little trouble, Cast into what shape they please. Lastly, Though
_Mexico_ can reckon but a thousand years, must it therefore follow, that
the Inhabitants are no older? How many famous places (even among our
selves) have no longer Registers, and if they have, they are commonly
Fabulous, few Nations boasting truly their own Original; which Argument,
not onely contradicts (as we suppose) Mr. _Purchas_, but all others
ascribing the Plantation of _America_ to our later times.


                                SECT. I.

[Sidenote: After what manner the Inhabitants of _America_ came thither.]

¶ In the next place, let us enquire, how the _Americans_ were
transmitted thither, whether by Sea, or Land? Both which are feasible
two several ways; if they made an Expedition thither, as Discoverers, or
were driven on those Coasts by stress of Weather.

The first is most unlikely, and not seeming possible, for how could they
Steer thorow so vast an Ocean, to Countreys they never heard of, without
the Compass, and other Necessaries for such a Voyage? for when first
discover’d, their want of experience in Shipping for so long a Voyage,
knowing no further than the use of small Boats or _Canoos_, plainly
explode, that they willingly Steer’d from a known World, to an unknown,
with no better accommodation; but some probable reasons may be made out,
to induce us to believe, that they were rather driven thither by Storm.

[Illustration]

But some will say, How liv’d the little Boats, and how indur’d they in
such a continual Tempest, and were not either swallow’d up amidst the
Waves, or starv’d for want of Provision, which their hollow Troughs
could not contain?

The first doubt is the least, for there are Examples enough by which
appear, that oftentimes great Ships Bulging, are over-set or sunk in the
Sea by foul Weather when the Mariners escape in their Cock-Boat; and if
they were but thinly Victual’d for so long a Voyage, questionless, that
little which they had, they spun out, and made it last, while the
impetuous Storm shortned the passage, which fair Weather would have made
much longer.

[Sidenote: _Plin_. l. 5. c. 22.]

[Sidenote: Strange voyage of a _Roman_ Slave.]

_Pliny_ tells us of _Annius Plocquius_, General of the _Red-Sea_, That
one of his Slaves being Enfranchiz’d, Sailing down towards the _Arabian_
Gulf, was carry’d by a violent Tempest from the North, beyond
_Caramania_, and on the fifteenth day came to an Anchor in _Hippuros_, a
Haven of _Taprobane_, which _Ortelius_ judges to be _Sumatra_; but
_Mercator_ and _Cluverius_, on better grounds, _Zeylon_, which is no
less than three thousand _English_ Miles.

In like manner, _Joseph de Acosta_ tells us, That in fifteen days time,
he got with a Northerly Wind from the _Canaries_ to _America_, and his
Voyage had been shorter, durst he have born more Sails, which may partly
clear the former doubts.

[Sidenote: The _Peruvians_ opinion concerning antient Sea-Voyages.]

[Sidenote: _Acosta. Histor_. _Nat._ l. 2 c. 12.]

[Sidenote: Ridiculous opinion of the _Americans_.]

Moreover, the _Peruvians_ themselves give some small Testimony (in their
antient Records) of a few that Landed of old upon their Coasts, which
were (as they say) mighty and cruel Giants, committing much Bloodshed,
Slaughtering the Natives every where; and having subdu’d the whole
Countrey, built stately Edifices, of which remain yet the Ruines of some
Foundations, very Artificial and Costly. They also shew near _Manta_,
and _Puerto Viejo_, many huge Bones, as they believe of Giants, three
times longer and thicker than an ordinary Mans. They also tell us, that
many Ages since, one _Ica_ and _Arica_ Sail’d Westward thither upon Sea
Wolves Skins, blown up like Bladders: But however, without
contradiction, the _Americans_ never knew, much less built any such
Vessels, with which they durst venture to the _Offin_, out of sight of
Land: their _Balsas_, _Periagos_, and _Canoos_, will not all amount to
the Bulk of one of our small Barques; wherefore the Inhabitants of
_Tumbez_, when they descry’d the _Spanish_ Fleet, sent to discover
_Peru_, were amaz’d at the high Masts, spreading Sails, and bigness of
the Ships, judging them first to be Rocks, cast up out of the Sea; but
observing them to approach their Coast, and that they were full of
Bearded-Men, thought the Gods were walking in them; by our Modern Poet,
Mr. _Dryden_ in his _Indian Emperor_, thus Elegantly describ’d.


                      Guyomar _to_ Montezuma.

          _I went in order, Sir, to your Command,
          To view the utmost Limits of the Land:
          To see that Shore, where no more World is found,
          But Foamy Billows, breaking on the ground;
          Where, for a while, my Eyes no Object met,
          But distant Skies, that in the Ocean set:
          And low-hung Clouds that dipt themselves in Rain
          To shake their Fleeces on the Earth again.
          At last, as far as I could cast my Eyes
          Upon the Sea, somewhat, methought did rise
          Like Bluish Mists, which still appearing more,
          Took dreadful Shapes, and mov’d towards the Shore._

          Mont. _What Forms did these new Wonders represent?_

          Guy. _More strange than what your Wonder can invent.
          The Object I could first distinctly view,
          Was tall straight Trees, which on the Waters flew;
          Wings on their sides, in stead of Leaves did grow,
          Which gather’d all the Breath the Winds could blow:_

          _And at their Roots grew floating Palaces,
          Whose out-blow’n Bellies cut the yielding Seas._

          Mont. _What Divine Monsters, O ye Gods, were these,
          That float in Air, and fly upon the Seas!_

          _Came they alive or dead upon the Shore?_

          Guy. _Alas, they liv’d too sure, I heard them roar._

          _All turn’d their sides, and to each other spoke,
          I saw their Words break out in Fire and Smoke._

          _Sure, ’tis their Voice that Thunders from on high,
          Or these, the younger Brothers of the Skie._

          _Deaf with the noise, I took my hasty Flight,
          No Mortal Courage can support the Fright._

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ carry Oxen, and Sheep to the _American_ Isles.]

But the resolving these Doubts, starts a harder Question, _viz._ Grant
that the _Americans_ were by Tempest driven thither, How then came the
Beasts thither? It is certain, that those which are beneficial for
humane use, as Dogs for to Hunt, great Cattel, Sheep, for Food, and
other Necessaries, might easily be carry’d thither, for so the
_Spaniards_ brought Cows, Horses, Swine, and other Cattel; and also
Poultery from _Spain_, to the new-discover’d Isles, _Cuba_,
_Hispaniola_, _Jamaica_, _Margaretta_, and _La Dominica_, when at their
arrival, formerly no four-footed Beasts were found there, whose fertile
Soyl hath so multiply’d their increase, that the Doggs running Wilde,
and breeding as fast, do great hurt to the Grazing Herds, which they
onely shoot for their Skins, leaving their Flesh, the best of Meats,
onely to Manure the Ground on which they lie.

The Transporting of tame and profitable Cattel might easily be allow’d
of, but who would load their Ships with Lions, Tygers, Bears, Wolves,
Foxes, and other Serpents and Voracious Beasts? it is certain that some
may be tam’d before they were Ship’d.

[Sidenote: How wild Beasts came in _America_, and the Isles.]

[Sidenote: In _vita Heliogabali_.]

[Sidenote: Lib. 2. cap. 17.]

[Sidenote: Strange Hunting.]

[Sidenote: Strange accident of two Leopards.]

[Sidenote: _Adv. Jovin._ l. 2.]

_Lampridius_ relates, That _Heliogabalus_ the _Roman_ Emperor, took
great pleasure in Domestick Lions, and Leopards, to frighten his Guests
withal; for with the third Course, they were all brought in, and sate
betwixt the Invited, a Man and a Beast. The great _Cham_, as _Paulus
Venetus_ an Eye-witness attests, Rides on Hunting, attended in couples
with tame Leopards. The King of _Camboja_ in like manner is serv’d with
Panthers: _Scaliger_ adds also, That they went not unprovided of a Lamb
or Goat, to give the Panther, lest falling into his natural ferocity,
provok’d by hunger, he should make the Huntsmen his Quarry, if he had no
other Prey. But notwithstanding some wilde Beasts seem to forget their
Voracious Nature, yet there ought great care to be taken in the
Transporting of them, because they oftentimes grow wild again, which
_France_ can witness, where two Leopards, a Male and a Female being
tam’d, presently after the death of King _Francis_, whether negligently
or on purpose, let loose, ran into the Woods, and near _Orleans_
devour’d a great number of People, and Cattel: _Gesner_ saith, That some
Womens bodies were found, who were untouch’d, onely their Breasts eaten
by the Leopards, as if they took them for the daintiest part; which is
not unlike the antient _Jeres_, who according to Saint _Hierom_,
entertain’d their Guests as a most delicious Dish, with Womens Breasts,
and Mens Buttocks Roasted. Besides, the devouring nature of these Wilde
Beasts, what profit could Tygers, Lions, Wolves, Bears, and the like
advantage the Transporter? And how came Serpents, Adders, and other
Reptiles, thither over the Ocean, that with no Art whatsoever can be
made tame? Were the small Vessels just laden with such terrible
Creatures, when against their wills, they were by Storm driven on a new
Coast? By these impossibilities we may easily judge, that the
_Americans_ came thither by Land, and no other way, but how, and upon
what occasion must be our next enquiry.


                               SECT. II.

[Sidenote: Two reasons wherefore the people remove from their
           Countreys.]

¶ Histories generally gives us onely two accounts, Why People remov’d
from one Countrey to another, either not, or thinly inhabited; whether
driven by force, or of their own accord, so to unburthen and give ease
to their too Plethorick Countreys.

[Sidenote: The Flood acknowledg’d by the _Americans_ and other
           _Heathens_ but mysteriously.]

Thus the banish’d _Japanners_ forsook their Native Countrey, and setled
themselves in a desolate Soyl, since a flourishing Empire, shining with
Riches, and Crown’d with stately Cities: So the _Batavians_ took
possession of the uninhabited Isle, lying between the _Rhyne_, and the
_Wael_, being driven out of _Hessen_ by Civil-Wars, and preserv’d the
memory of the place, from whence they had their Original on the utmost
Point of the Island, in the Villages of _Cattenwyck_; for the _Hessens_
formerly went by the name of _Catti_; others that remov’d did not onely
fall upon their Neighbors, but made a way by force of Arms, chosing
their Habitations under a temperate Climate, and in a fruitful Soyl.
After which manner the _Franks_ enter’d _Gaul_, and afterwards the
_Normans_ set upon _France_; so that the Conquer’d Countreys, have ever
since from the Conquerors been call’d _France_ and _Normandy_: But
although it cannot punctually be said, how the Inhabitants of _America_
remov’d, yet it is without contradiction, that they first found an empty
Countrey. The Opinions which they have themselves concerning it, are
full of idle Fancies; First, they question their Original from the
Floud, which is so well rooted in the memory of all Nations, that the
blindest and most ignorant know something of it, though deformedly
alter’d and vary’d, tack’d up with additional fabulous Stories, the
truth it self known onely to us, but to all others lost in Oblivion.

Who hath not heard of _Deucalion_’s Flood, how his Wife _Pyrrha_ and he
only escap’d in a little Boat, and (as ’tis Fabl’d) landing on a
Mountain, from thence Peopled the World again, by throwing Stones
backwards over their Heads? Something of this seems to hint the true
Story of _Noah_, his Wife, and Children, from whom the desolated World
was replenish’d.

[Sidenote: _Prometheus_ and _Noah_ are the same.]

The same they relate of _Prometheus_, concerning whom, thus _Diodorus
Siculus_: “They say that the _Nyle_ breaking through his Dams, and
over-flowing his Banks, drown’d all _Egypt_, especially that part where
_Prometheus_ Rul’d, where all the Inhabitants were swallow’d by the
Deluge.” None can imagine but that _Diodorus_ by this makes mention of a
particular Flood, and not the general one in _Noah_’s time; for as the
_Greeks_ ascrib’d all things to their _Heroes_, so the _Egyptians_ in
like manner did the same to _theirs_: Therefore they have of the general
Flood, made a particular one in _Egypt_, though perhaps it never was: So
that what is Fabled of _Prometheus_, is nothing but a Part of the
Universal Deluge; which the Name _Prometheus_ proves, because it
signifies, _Sprung from Heaven_, and is the same with _Noah_, whom they
hold to be the first Father of all Mankind since the Flood, born of, or
regenerated from his Wife _Asia_; and _Asia_ signifies _Earth_, or _The
Mother of all things_; and so espousing _Noah_, being sprung from God,
to _Ararat_, from whence descended the Generations of Mankind, and by
degrees spread over the whole surface of the Earth.

[Sidenote: _Acosta_, l. 1. c. 25.]

[Sidenote: Strange Opinion of the _Americans_ concerning the Flood.]

[Sidenote: Original of the _American_ Kings, and their Custom.]

The _Chineses_, _East-Indians_, _Japanners_, and other People of _Asia_
and _Africa_, have also some knowledge of a very ancient Flood; but
hood-wink’t under many idle Fancies, not unlike that which the
_Americans_ relate, from whom several Learned Persons find no obscure
Confessions of the Deluge, which thus mystically they have wrapp’d up,
That one _Viracocha_ came out of the great Lake _Titicaca_, and setled
his Residence upon _Tiaguanaco_, where yet remain the Ruines of ancient
Walls, built after a wonderful manner: At length removing from
_Tiaguanaco_ to _Cusco_, he began to multiply the Generation of Mankind.
They shew in the foremention’d Lake a small Island, under which, the
_Americans_ say, the Sun sav’d himself from the Flood; wherefore in
ancient Times they superstitiously observ’d that place, heightning their
Bloody Sacrifices with Humane Slaughter. Others relate, That six Persons
leap’d through a Hole out of a Window, from whence all Men were since
Extracted; and from that new Increase, the place (after the Inhabitants
of the Old World were all drown’d) got the Denomination of _Pacari
Tampo_; and therefore they hold the _Tampo_’s to be the most ancient
Families: From hence _Mangocapam_ deriv’d, being the Primogenitor of the
_Ynca_’s or Kings; from whom sprung two Generations, _Hanon Cuzco_, and
_Urim Cuzco_. They tell us also, That their _Ynca_’s, when they make War
upon any People, say that the occasion, as they pretend, was, because
all Territories are Tributary to them justly, from whom they were
deriv’d and restor’d, being the first Planters of the New World; and
withal, That the true Religion was declar’d to them from Heaven.

[Sidenote: _Americans_ Flood is taken out of the Scripture.]

This Relation, though mix’d with Fables, shews (but very darkly) that
they have some knowledge of the Flood: For who are those six else that
leap’d out of a Window to replenish the Generations of Mankind, but
_Shem_, _Ham_, and _Japhet_, with their Wives?

[Sidenote: _Peruvians_ Opinion.]

[Sidenote: And also the _Mexicans_, of their Original.]

[Sidenote: Lib. 1. cap. 7.]

The _Americans_ can give but a little better Account of their first
Original; and indeed it is no wonder, because for want of Books they can
relate nothing certain, but only what they have Registred in their usual
_Quipocamagos_, which is not above four hundred years old. _Acosta_
asking what Original they judg’d they were of, and from what Countrey
and People deriv’d? receiv’d no other Answer, but that _America_ only
was their native Countrey, and that they were deriv’d from no other
elsewhere. But though the _Peruvians_ are of this Opinion, yet the
_Mexicans_ are of another mind, giving the _Spaniards_ a far better
Account when first they came thither, wherein we must a little deviate,
_viz._ How they were remov’d from some other place, as _Robert Comtæus_
relates, who with many Learned and seemingly true Arguments affirms,
That the Original of the _Americans_ must be sought for either among the
_Phenicians_, _Sydonians_, _Tyrians_, or _Carthaginians_, being indeed
all one People. _Herodotus_ saith thus of the _Phenicians_, “They liv’d
formerly, according to their own Relation, along the Shore of the
_Red-Sea_; from whence removing, they planted the Sea-Coast of the
_Syrians_.” _Festus Avienus_ the _Latin_ Poet agrees with this Opinion,
where he saith,

        _On the_ Phenicians _Coasts the Ocean beats_,
        _Who through the_ Red-Sea _Sailing, chang’d their Seats.
        They were the first that ventur’d through the Seas,
        And freighted Ships with richer Merchandize:
        Fair or foul Weather, They without controule!
        Sought Foreign Trade, directed by the Pole_.

[Sidenote: Original and Habitations of the _Phenicians_, of whom,
           according to several Learned, the _Americans_ are extracted.]

_Aristotle_ from a _Greek_ Word calls them _Phenicians_, from their
being red or bloody with the Slaughter of all Strangers that Landed on
their Coast; but rather, and so indeed they are call’d _Phenicians_, or
_Erythreans_, from _Esau_, or _Edom_, from whom they are deriv’d; for
these two Words, or Denominations, signifie in _Greek, Red_; the two
last, the like in _Hebrew_. _Phenix_ himself first planted all the
Countrey lying between the River _Eleutherus_, and the _Egyptian_ City
_Pelusium_; and afterwards _Damiata_, wash’d by the _Mediterrane_: But
since, these Boundaries are alter’d, on the North, by _Judea_; Westward,
by the _Mediterrane_; Southerly, by _Egypt_; and towards the East, by
the Desart _Arabia_.

The chiefest Cities are _Ptolemais_, otherwise call’d _Acon_, _Sidon_,
_Arad_, _Great Cana_, _Sarepta_, _Biblis_, _Bothris_, _Berithus_, and
their Princess _Tyre_, formerly scituate in an Isle, but since joyn’d to
the Main-Land by _Alexander the Great_.

[Sidenote: _Herodot._ lib. 1 .]

[Sidenote: _Salust_ in _Igurtha_.]

[Sidenote: Wonderful Power of the _Phenicians_.]

None can disown, but that the _Phenicians_ have every where been
Admirals of the Sea; so that they were formidable to the greatest
Princes. When the _Persian_ King _Cambyses_ came with a vast Army
against the _Carthaginians_, he was forc’d to give over his Design,
because the _Phenicians_ refus’d to help him with their Fleet, being
allied to, and the City founded by them: But they not only built
_Carthage_, which strove with _Rome_ to be the Empress of the World, but
also the famous Cities _Leptis_, _Utica_, _Hippo_, and _Adrumetum_ in
_Africa_, with _Cadiz_ and _Tartessus_ in _Spain_; nay, they sent
Plantations of People into the Heart of _Iberia_ and _Lybia_. It will
not be amiss to add _Q. Curtius_ his Relation, who tells us, “Where-ever
the _Phenicians_ came with their Fleets, Landing their Men, they subdu’d
whole Countreys, and by that means spread their Colonies over the known
World; _Carthage_ in _Africa_, _Thebes_ in _Boetia_, and _Cadiz_ near
the _Western Ocean_.” _Aristotle_ relates, “That they made such rich
Returns of their Merchandize, and chiefly of their Oyl, in _Spain_, that
their Anchors, Pins, and all Iron Materials belonging to a Ship, in
stead of that Metal, were Silver.”

[Sidenote: Testimonies that the _Americans_ are deriv’d from the
           _Phenicians_.]

[Sidenote: First Testimony.]

[Sidenote: Is contradicted.]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. Geogr._]

[Sidenote: _Flemmish Islands._]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 17._]

But to return to our Discourse, and disprove the former Testimony, That
the _Phenicians_ found _America_. The formention’d _Comtæus_ saith thus;
“None can justly doubt, but that since the _Phenicians_ took the Command
of the Sea from the _Rhodians_, they more and more increas’d their
Fleets, and growing experter in Navigation, passing the _Gibraltar_
Northward, became Masters of _Cadiz_, and still prepar’d new Fleets,
which searching beyond _Atlas_ Southward, discover’d the Coasts of
_Africa_, and the adjacent Isles, driving a great Trade to the
_Canaries_, and to those which lay scatter’d along _Cape de Verd_,
formerly call’d the _Gorgades_. This way of Trade also was not unknown
to the _Greeks_, _Iberians_, and other People; but after the
_Phenicians_ assum’d it wholly to themselves, without any respect or
difference of Countreys, they sunk all whomsoever they could catch.”
_Curtius_ further adds, saying, “I believe that the _Phenicians_,
sailing into the Main Ocean, have discover’d unknown Countreys.” And
which are those? Not the _Gorgades_, or _Canary Isles_; for those were
sufficiently known before; but a Main Land, far beyond. But though the
_Phenicians_ were most expert, yet not skilful enough to make out such
Discoveries. They indeed were the first that before any other sail’d out
of the Mid-land Sea; nay, they ventur’d a good way into the main Ocean,
beyond the _Straights of Gibraltar_, or the _Herculean Pillars_: But how
far? Not to the _Gorgades_, above half way betwixt _Spain_ and
_America_; but to the _Cassiterides_, or _Flemish Islands_, which to the
number of nine lie in sight of _Spain_. _Strabo_ affirms this Truth,
saying, “The _Cassiterides_ are ten, lying in order close by one
another: One remains uninhabited; on the rest live a swarthy People.”
This way the _Phenicians_ sail’d first, when they were in quest for
Trade, from _Cadiz_. And though he reckons ten, there are indeed but
nine, _viz._ _St. Michael_, _St. Mary_, _St. George_, _Tercera_, _de
Pico_, or _Tenariff_, so call’d from the Mountain which vomits Fire,
_Fayal_, _Las Flores_, _Del Cuervo_, and _Gratiosa_. Moreover, the same
_Strabo_ relates, “That the _Carthaginians_ did not throw over-board the
Traders on the remote _Gorgades_, but those especially that came from
_Sardinia_ or _Cadiz_.”

[Sidenote: _Salt-Islands_ how long known.]

[Sidenote: _Joan. Mariana de Reb. Hispan._ lib. 1. cap. 20.]

[Sidenote: Very remarkable Voyage of _Hanno_ the _Carthaginian_, along
           the Coast of _Africa_ to the _Salt-Islands_.]

[Sidenote: Strange Vision.]

[Sidenote: The Ancients believ’d Baboons to be Men.]

Mean while, we cannot deny, but that the _Gorgades_ that lye before
_Cape de Verd_ were frequented by the _Carthaginians_, long before the
Birth of our Savior; but with so much admiration, that _Hanno_ their
Captain in that Expedition was listed amongst the number of their
Heroes, hapning thus: The _Carthaginians_ sailing for _Cadiz_, to assist
the _Phenicians_ against the _Spaniards_, made that the Seat of War,
which soon drew on a greater Design; for _Hamilco_ and _Hanno_ being
impowr’d by the Senate at _Carthage_, manag’d the War in _Spain_. Both
of them were ambitious to discover new Countreys. _Hamilco_ sail’d along
the Coast of _Spain_ and _Gaule_, reaching to _Batavia_. _Hanno_ steer’d
Southerly, carrying thirty thousand Men of all Trades in his Fleet,
purposing to build a new City in some place or other, and got beyond the
Promontory _Ampelusium_, now call’d _Cabo Spatil_; the River _Ziloa_,
which washeth the City _Arzilla_; and the Stream _Lix_, now _Lusso_,
where the Poets place the Gardens of the _Hesperides_, in the custody of
a waking Dragon: From thence proceeding on his Voyage, he came to an
Anchor in the Mouth of the River _Subur_, at this day call’d _Subu_; and
afterwards before the City _Sala_, now call’d _Salle_, at that time made
very dangerous by the voracious Beasts in the neighboring Woods: At last
the Fleet reach’d the Foot of the lesser _Atlas_, which ends at the
Point _Chaunaria_, by the Modern Navigators call’d _Cabo Non_, because
it was judg’d, that none could scape with Life, that durst adventure to
steer beyond _Chaunaria_; yet _Hanno_ sail’d between _Palma_, one of the
_Canary-Islands_, and the Promontory _Bojadoris_, towards the pointed
Coast call’d then _Cornu Hesperium_, but now _Cape Verd_, in the River
_Asama_, by _Castaldus_ call’d _Omirabi_: Here he found horrible
Croccodiles, and _Hippopotami_ or Sea-Horses. _Atsama_ is held to flow
from the same Fountain whence the _Nyle_ hath its Original. In this
Latitude _Hanno_ descried those Islands which he call’d _Gorgones_ (from
the three deform’d Sisters _Medusa_, _Sthenio_, and _Euryale_, whose
Heads were Periwig’d with curl’d Serpents) because they found as
illfavor’d Women on these Islands, which at this day the _Hollanders_
call the _Salt-Islands_; amongst which, the chiefest is _St. Jago_, a
Colony of _The Portuguese_; but the Mountains opposite to the
_Gorgones_, on the main Coast of _Africa_, rising aloft with spiring
tops near the River _Masitholus_, _Hanno_ call’d the _Chariots of the
Gods_, now nam’d _Sierra Liona_, lying in eight Degrees Northern
Latitude. When _Hanno_ and his Armado, either provok’d by an undaunted
Courage, or covetous of fame, if they proceeded in their so wonderful
Adventure, went forward, where they reported, that they saw Rivers of
Fire falling into the Ocean, the Countrey all about burning, and the
tops of the Mountains dazleing their Eyes with continual Flashes of
Lightning, intermix’d with terrible Thunder; adding further, That the
Natives all the Summer shelter’d themselves from the excessive Heat, in
Caves under Ground; and coming forth in the night, run abroad with
lighted Torches over their Ground, so gathering in their Harvest, and
Officiating all other Affairs of Husbandry: Yet _Hanno_ no ways daunted
at such strange Sights, sail’d from _Sierra Liona_ Southerly to the
_Æquinox_, where he discover’d an Island not far from the _African_
Coast, inhabited by a rough and hairy People, to take some of whom, he
us’d all possible means, yet could not; onely two Women, being
incompass’d by Soldiers, were taken, and carried aboard; but being very
salvage, and barbarously wild, could not be tamed, or brought to any
Complacency; so they kill’d them, and carried their stuff’d-up Skins to
_Carthage_, where they were a long time gaz’d upon with great
admiration.

[Sidenote: The Island _St. Thomas_.]

This Island which _Hanno_ then found, can be no other but that which we
call _St. Thomas_, and hath a very unhealthy Air for Strangers, but else
very fruitful, and abounding with Sugar-Canes; and the hairy People
which he makes mention of, were _Babeons_, or _Baboons_, which _Africa_
in this place breeds large, to the amazement of the Beholders, in great
abundance; because those deform’d Monsters, more than any other Beast
whatsoever, represent Humane shape.

[Sidenote: _Hanno_’s Return.]

[Sidenote: Is for his Voyage plac’d amongst the Gods.]

Here _Hanno_ stopp’d his Voyage, being hindred from going further for
want of Provision. Five years he spent in this Expedition, before he
Anchor’d again at _Cadiz_, from whence not long after he steer’d to his
Native Countrey _Carthage_, where he was receiv’d with no less Wonder
than State, insomuch that none before or after him ever gain’d greater
Honor, seeming to oblige his Countrey with the hopes of future Profits
from these new discover’d Regions: Nay, he receiv’d a Name, and was
plac’d amongst their Gods in the Temples, which he being ambitious of,
promoted after a strange manner, teaching several Birds to cry, _The
great God Hanno_; which when they could speak perfect, they were let fly
in the Air, where to the admiration of all People, they every where
repeated their well-taught Lesson.

This the most remarkable Voyage which hapned in the time of the
Ancients, considering they wanted several Mathematical Instruments
belonging to Navigation, and especially the use of the Compass; and also
considering the length of the Voyage to _Sierra Liona_, whither never
any durst venture before: Nay, in so many Ages after _Hanno_, the
famousest Navigators which were set out by the King of _Portugal_,
fear’d a long time to cut their Passage through the _Æquinoctial-Line_;
however in long Process of time, divers Experiments were made, which
have now so much improv’d the Art of Navigation.

[Sidenote: Testimony that _America_ was not known to the Ancients.]

_Hanno_’s Voyage was four hundred years before the Birth of our Savior;
therefore if none have been further than _Hanno_, until the time the
_Portuguese_ sail’d beyond _Cape de Bona Esperanza_, how could _America_
be discover’d by Sea? How did they steer from the _Salt-Islands_, or
_St. Thomas_, out of sight of Land, through the Main Ocean, to an
unknown World? _Hanno_ himself, who was the stoutest of all Ancient
Navigators, not only crept along the _African_ Coast, which made him
spend so much time; but not daring to cross over those wide spreading
Bays he found, left not his hold of the Shore, and measur’d and search’d
every winding Inlet and Creek: And if he found a New World, why was it
not known? The more, because his Ambition carry’d him on to get a Name
and Reputation by such Naval Discoveries. And how true the Relation of
this Expedition is, _Pliny_ tells us, saying, The Journal-Books were
then to be seen which _Hanno_ writ in that his _African_ Expedition:
Though many of the _Greeks_, and also of our Moderns, following _Hanno_,
have found several things contrary to his Observations, wherein he makes
mention of several Cities built by him, which none ever since heard of,
or any have seen, neither is there the least Marks of their Ruines to be
found.

This large Relation serves for nothing else, but to shew that they seek
in vain herein to give the Honor of the Discovery of _America_ to the
Ancients; And as little do those Testimonies signifie that are taken out
of _Diodorus Siculus_, _Pliny_, _Pomponius Mela_, and _Ælian_. It will
be worth our time to hear every one of them particularly.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 6. cap. 7._]

[Sidenote: Second Testimony, that the _Americans_ are deriv’d from the
           _Phenicians_.]

First, _Diodorus_ saith, “Beyond _Lybia_, in the Ocean, lies a very
great Island, several days sailing in Circumference, having a very
fruitful Soil, and pleasant Meadows, distinguish’d by Hills, and
moistned by Navigable Rivers, unknown in Ancient Times, because it seems
to be separated from the other World, and was thus found: The
_Phenicians_ sailing along the _Lybian_ Coast, were several days and
nights toss’d with perpetual Tempests, and at last driven to the
foremention’d Island, where Anchoring, and observing the pleasant
Scituation thereof, made it known to their Magistrates.”

[Sidenote: _Is contradicted._]

But how comes this nameless Island to be _America_? What Man would take
that for an Island, which far exceeds the main Continent of _Asia_? And
have the _Phenicians_ ascrib’d the finding of this New World to any?
Whence then proceeds such great silence amongst all the Ancient Writers
of a whole World, who otherwise us’d to give Denominations to the least
remote Village, or Mountain, or River?

[Sidenote: _Lib. 5. cap. 1._ Description of _Atlas_.]

_Pliny_ speaks after the same manner, saying, “The Writers make mention,
that _Atlas_ rises out of the middle of the Sands, with a Shrubby and
Bushy top towards the Sky, on the Shore of the Ocean to which he gives
his Denomination; That it is full of Woods, and water’d by several
Fountains on that side towards _Africa_, by which means it bears all
manner of Fruit. In the Day-time none of the Inhabitants appear, all
things being in silence, as in the middle of a Desart; the Approacher is
struck with sudden amazement. And besides its excessive high Crown,
reaching above the Clouds, and neighboring, as they say, the Circle of
the Moon, appears in the Night as if it were all in a Flame, resounding
far and near with Pipes, Trumpets, and Cymbals; and the Journey up
thither, very long and dangerous.”

I cannot understand that _Pliny_ can mean _America_ by this, because
himself, in the first Division of his Fifth Book, makes his beginning
with the Description of _Africa_: And as to what further concerns the
strange Relation and danger thereof, is a little before related in
_Hanno_’s Voyage; and it is but a slight Argument to prove it _America_,
because it seems to resound with those sorts of Instruments which the
_Americans_ were observ’d to use when discover’d.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 1. cap. 4._]

[Sidenote: Strange Men.]

_Pomponius Mela_ being the third, hath no greater Arguments than the
former. “We hear (says he) that utmost People towards the West, being
the _Atlanticans_, are rather half Beasts than Men, cloven-footed,
without Heads, their Faces upon their Breasts, and naked, with one great
Foot, like Satyrs or Goblins, which range up and down, without any
Artificial Shelters or Houses.”

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. cap. 18._]

[Sidenote: Discourse between _Midas_ and _Silenus_ concerning the
           Unknown World.]

Lastly, _Ælian_ seems to say something, when he sets down the Discourse
between _Midas_ and _Silenus_, out of _Theopompus_, where _Silenus_
relates, “That _Europe_, _Asia_, and _Lybia_ are Islands; and that a
vast Countrey lyes beyond this his tripple-divided World, mighty
Populous, and abounding with all other Living Creatures, as big again as
ours, and living twice as long: That they are wondrous rich; their
Religions, Laws, and Customs, founded upon another Morality and Reason,
quite different from ours. They boast especially of two great Cities,
_Machimus_ and _Eusebes_; the Inhabitants of the first maintaining
themselves by driving altogether a Trade of War, mustering up, and
filling their numerous Regiments with several valiant Nations. The
Listed Citizens amount in their Muster-Rolls, all bred to Soldiery, to
two Millions, of whom few but scorn either dying bravely by Wounds
receiv’d With Flint-edg’d Laths, and Staves, in stead of Spears, pointed
with Stones, not knowing the use of Iron or Steel, but so over-stock’d
with Gold and Silver, that they account it a Drug of less Value than our
basest Metal. Some Years since they march’d into our World, a hundred
thousand strong, as far as the _Hyperborean_ Mountains, where being
inform’d, that all the Nations of our World, compar’d with them, liv’d
in a poor and despicable condition; as not thinking them worth their
Conquest, they return’d. But the second City _Eusebes_, deals altogether
in Peace, and its Citizens are not rapacious, but exercise Justice, so
much affecting Morality and Divine Worship, that they conquer Heaven by
their Piety and Meekness, and the Gods themselves are pleas’d to
descend, and advise with them concerning their Celestial Affairs.”

Who observes not this to be a Poetical Relation, shewing how much better
the Acquirements of Peace are, than those of War; the one conquering
only Men, the other, the Gods? Nor can more be taken out of _Ælian_’s
Discourse, but that the Ancients believ’d there was another Habitable
World to be our _Antipodes_.

[Sidenote: Inquiries whether the Constitutions of the _Phenicians_ agree
           with the _Americans_.]

Thus far hath been disputed concerning the Original of the _Americans_,
whose Plantations from _Tyre_ or _Carthage_ by Sea, are found altogether
invalid: Yet we will search a little further, to see whether the People
Analogize, either in their Religion, Policy, Oeconomy, or Customs.

It is certain, that the ancient _Phenicians_ liv’d in Tents, and
sometimes exchang’d eaten-up Pastures for fresh, which the _Americans_
to this day observe; by which it might appear, that they are of a
_Phenician_ Extract. But why not as well deriv’d from _Numidia_,
_Tartary_, or the ancient Patriarchs, who all liv’d such an unsettl’d
wandering Life? Besides, the _Phenicians_ had a long time given over
Pastoral Business, for Maritime Affairs of greater consequence, not only
Merchandizing through all the World, but sending great Colonies in Ships
to new Plantations: And moreover, the _Americans_ could not so strangely
degenerate from their Ancestors, but would have built great Cities like
them; of which many were found in _Phenicia_, but none of Antiquity in
_America_.

[Sidenote: As also both their Religions.]

As to their Religion, if it agreed with the _Phenicians_, it was the
same that all the World profess’d at that time, and therefore may as
well be extracted from any other, as them: ’Tis true, we find them
inclin’d to Sorcery, and dealing with Evil Spirits, as the _Phenicians_,
in which they were not only guilty, but all other Nations at that time.

[Sidenote: The Known World formerly full of Witches.]

[Sidenote: _De Nat. Dæmon._ l. 3.]

[Sidenote: _Lucan._ lib. 6.]

Nay, why not as well transported out of _Asia_ or _Europe_, where were
formerly many the like Tamperers, and those that dealt in such
Diabolical Sciences? And why not from _Salmantica_, where, as
_Laurentius Ananias_ relates, Magick-Arts were publickly taught, and
they commenc’d Doctors, and took their Degrees according to their
Learning? The Devil also hath publick Worship amongst the _Americans_,
and so he had with the _Phenicians_: yet not only they, but the whole
World had dedicated Temples to him. Here began Humane and Infernal
Sacrifices, supposing that Evil Spirits were delighted, and so feasted
with the Steam of Humane Offerings, whose sweetness made them milder,
and so intoxicating, lull’d them into less mischief.

[Sidenote: Devil-worship formerly us’d in all the World, and now by the
           _Americans_.]

[Sidenote: _Lev. 17. 6._]

[Sidenote: Idols in Ships.]

How famous is _Zoroaster_, and the whole School of the Eastern
Magicians? In _Moses_’s time this Wickedness had already took place: Nor
can it be deny’d but that the _Phenicians_ carry’d their Idols in their
Ships, as _Herodotus_ testifies, saying, “The Image of _Vulcan_ much
resembles the _Phenicians Patacoioi_, which they plac’d on the
Fore-castle of their Ships.”

In like manner, the _Americans_ when they go to Sea, carry their Idols
with them; and the Ships took Name from the Image, which was either
painted or carv’d on the Stern, or plac’d elsewhere upon the Deck.

The same Custom the _Chineses_ observe to this present: _Francis
Xaverius_ relates, “That he sail’d in a _Chinese_ Vessel from _Goa_ to
_Japan_, which bore an Idol in its Stern, before which the Master
lighted Candles, perfum’d it with Aloe-wood, and offer’d Birds and other
Food, inquiring of it the Event of his Voyage. Sometimes he judg’d from
the Statues immovable Looks, that it would fall out successfully; and
other times, not.”

[Sidenote: _De abstinent. Animal._ l. 2.]

[Sidenote: _Prepar. Evang._ lib. 1.]

Lastly, _Porphyrius_ relates, “That the _Phenicians_ upon any great
Exigency, as War, excessive Heat, or Mortal Distempers, by order
selected one of the most comely and beautiful of their Children, to be
offer’d up to _Saturn_.” And _Eusebius_ saith also out of _Porphyrius_,
“That _Saturn_, whom the _Phenicians_ call _Israel_, the Learned
_Vossius_ and _Hugo Grotius_ read _Il_, or _El_ (one of the ten Names of
God in _Hebrew_) which they also give to the Planet _Saturn_, who when
he Reign’d in _Phenicia_, having one only Son born by the Nymph
_Anobret_, and was in danger to lose his Kingdom, being worsted in an
unlucky War, he dress’d him in Royal Robes, and placing him on an Altar
built for that purpose, sacrific’d him with his own Hands.”

[Sidenote: Men and Children used for Sacrifices by the _Phenicians_ and
           other People.]

[Sidenote: Who forbade the sacrificing of Men.]

And although such like cruel Oblations are us’d in _America_, must it
therefore follow, that they are deriv’d from the _Phenicians_, when
several other People are guilty of the same? Nay, there is scarce one
Countrey, which hath not at some time or other perform’d such inhumane
Acts, seeming to them Zeal in their Religion; for the most eminent of
the Heathens scrupled not at it, which certainly are held to be the
_Persians_, _Greeks_, and _Romans_; and yet they were not abhorr’d,
though committing Humane Slaughters.

This holy Butchery and Religious Slaughter of Mankind began in _Rome_ in
the Emperor _Adrian_’s Reign, so continuing till the time of
_Tertullian_, _Lactantius_, and _Eusebius_. The _Greeks_ which inhabited
the utmost part of _Italy_, employ’d themselves daily in Sacrificing
Strangers to _Saturn_, and sometimes one another. But at last this
formal Cruelty became a ridiculous Custom; for the _Romans_ by severe
Edicts strictly forbad all such Humane Offerings: Yet that they might
retain some memory of their former Sacrifices, they order’d thirty
Images to be made of Rushes, which every year on the fifteenth of
_April_, were by the _Roman_ Priests and Vestal Nuns, to be thrown from
the _Milvian_ Bridge into the _Tyber_.

[Sidenote: _Lib. de Superstit._]

Moreover, _Manethon_ relates, “That the _Egyptians_ in _Heliopolis_ us’d
to offer three Men at once to _Juno_; which Custom was observ’d till
King _Amasis_ order’d, That in stead of Men, they should serve her with
Wax Candles.”

_Amestris_, Queen to the famous _Xerxes_, caus’d twelve Men to be burn’d
alive, as an Oblation, to pacifie and oblige _Pluto_ to maintain them in
their present Grandeur.

[Sidenote: _Rer. Persic._ l. 1.]

_Procopius_ relates of the People about the _Arabian Gulph_, “That they
oftentimes Sacrific’d Men to the Sun.”

[Sidenote: _Lib. 3. sect. 8 Geogr._]

“The _Indians_, saith _Pomponius Mela_, kill their nearest Relations and
Parents, before they decay by Sickness or Age, and judg’d it fit and
most Religious to Feast and Banquet themselves with the Entrails of the
slain.”

[Sidenote: _Lib. 11. Geog._]

The _Albanians_, as _Strabo_ relates, offer yearly one of their Priests
to the Moon.

The same _Mela_ relates of the _Tauri_, That they us’d to cut the
Throats of Strangers, whenever they came near to the Place of their
Sacrifice.

[Sidenote: _Lib. 2. cap. 1_.]

The _Egyptian_ Idol _Typhon_, as you may read in _Manethon_, was daily
made red-hot, and living People put in, and broyl’d to death.

[Sidenote: _Bell. Gall. Comm._]

But to pass by several other People guilty of such bloody Idolatry, How
did the Altars erected in the Woods in _Gaul_ and _Germany_, for
_Taran_, _Hesus_, _Teutates_, and _Woden_, continually smoke with the
Blood of Humane Expiations? Of which _Cæsar_ saith thus in his
_Commentaries_; “The _Gauls_ are a very Devout and Superstitious Nation;
and therefore when any were dangerously sick, or likely to be worsted in
Battel, they vow’d to feast their Gods that sav’d them with Humane
Flesh, and if need were, would make themselves a thankful Sacrifice to
those that help’d them off in such an Exigence. Concerning these bloody
Rites, they consulted and imploy’d the _Druydes_, by whose advice they
all believ’d that no Victim was so acceptable to the _Numens_, as
pour’d-out Humane Blood, but especially that of Malefactors; which
Dainty if they could not procure, their Gods must be treated with the
Lives of the Innocent.”

[Sidenote: _2 Reg. 3. v. 26, 27._]

Lastly, the Holy Scripture saith thus, _When the King of_ Moab _saw that
the Battel was too sore for him, he took with him seven hundred Men that
drew Swords, to break through even to the King of_ Edom; _but they could
not. Then he took his eldest Son, that should have reigned in his stead,
and offered him for a Burnt-offering on the Wall._

These Testimonies are sufficient Witnesses, That the Ancient _Heathens_
express’d the height of their Devotion, and fury of mad Zeal, in such
execrable Rites, as to this day the like is practised by the _Indians_,
_Chineses_, _Japanners_, and others: Wherefore it can no ways be a
sufficient ground to prove, that the _Americans_ are deriv’d from the
_Phenicians_, because of their Humane Sacrifices, for that they were
usual Customs in all Places.

[Sidenote: Third testimony, That the _Americans_ are deriv’d from the
           _Phenicians_, because their Language agrees]

[Sidenote: Is contradicted.]

The third Proof they offer us, is borrow’d from the similitude and
likeness of the _Phenician_ and _American_ Languages: _Comtœus_ sets
down some Words, _viz._ the _Phenicians_ call’d a Mountain, _Abila_;
Blood, _Edom_; a Mother, _Anech_; a Maid, _Hellotia_; Water, _Heni_, and
_Jam_: With the first agrees the _American_ _Anthla_; with the second,
_Holedonch_; with the third, _Anam_; with the fourth, _Hellotie_; with
the fifth, _Ame_, and _Jame_. But those that will thus corrupt the
Words, may as well make the unseemliest Comparisons. It is certain, that
the _Phenicians_ and some of the _Americans_ call a Cup _Asur_, and Red
Wine, _Belàsa_; But does it therefore follow by this, that the one is
extracted from the other? How many Names do signifie all one, amongst
People that never had any Conversation together? This proceeds only from
meer accident; Or else if some Words of one, sound like the same Words
us’d in a remote Countrey, and be of one signification, must they
therefore be deriv’d from one another? Then upon necessity the _Greeks_,
_Latins_, and _Germans_ had their Original from the _Hebrews_, or the
_Latins_ from the _Greeks_, or the _Germans_ from the _Latins_, or the
_Persians_ from the _Germans_; or, on the contrary, the last owe their
Extract to the first. I will as a Testimony, and to give you a Pattern,
pick out a few from a greater number.

[Sidenote: _Greek_ and _Hebrew_ agree]

[Sidenote: Also the _Hebrew_ and _Latin_.]

How little difference is there in many Words between the _Greek_ and
_Hebrew_? The _Hebrews_ call a Church-Congregation _Sanhedrim_, the
Greeks Συνέδριον; the Greeks for _I advise_, use πείθω, the other פתה;
the _Hebrews_ call Wise-men _Zophei_, the other Σόφοι: And less
difference there is between _Symphoniah_ and Συμφονία, _A well-set
Lesson_; or _Psanterin_ and Ψαλτέριον, _A Spiritual Hymn_: And who also
will not find a near resemblance in the consonating of divers _Latin_
and _Hebrew_ Words? For there is little difference betwixt _Mesurah_ and
_Mensura_, _a Measure_; _Shekar_ and _Saccarus_, _a sweet Moisture_;
_Levya_ and _Leæna_, _a Lioness_, _Sabbeca_ and _Sambuca_, _a
Chopping-board_; _Pesa_ and _Passus_, _a Pace_.

[Sidenote: Likewise the _Teutonick_, the great Language of _Germany_,
           _Britain_, the _Low-Countreys_, and other Northern Nations.]

Then starting over the _Greek_ and _Latin_, the _Teutonicks_ would
likewise produce many Words which have the same sound and signification
with the _Hebrew_; as _Chobel_, _a Cable_; _Ethmol_ and _Etmael_,
_Watching_; _Sothim_ and _Sotten_, _Fools_; the _Hebrew_ _Arets_, is in
_Dutch_, _Aerde_, or as we in _English_, _Ear’d Lands_; _Phert_ and
_Peert_, _a Horse_; _Levyah_ and _Leeuw_, _a Lion_; _Shad_ and
_Schadea_, _Damages_; _Kisse_ and _Kussen_, in our Dialect the very
same, _Kisse_; _Shaken_ and _Schenken_, _a giving_, whence we derive our
_English_ _Skinker_, from serving of Drink; _Bel_ and _Beeld_, _an
Image_; for _Bel_ properly signifies _Lord_, perhaps because the Images
of Heroes or Lords were worshipp’d by them, or else because _Ninus_
first erected an Image for his Father _Belus_, or _Bel_, to be
worshipp’d.

[Sidenote: _Greek_ and _Latin_ Tongues agree.]

[Sidenote: _Abrah. Milii, Ling. Belg._ c. 5, 6, 7, 11.]

It would make a large Volume it self, to reckon up the Consonancies of
the _Hebrew_, _Greek_, and _Latin_, and their scatterings among all
Languages where ever their Empire spread, the one being indeed borrow’d
from the other, as all Languages that deal or have any converse
together: For not only the Words, with some small Alterations of
Letters, signifie the same in both Languages; but also without the least
alteration. Both _Greeks_ and _Latins_ express _I do_, by _Ago_; the
Number _Eight_, by _Octo_; _an Arm_, by _Brachium_ or _Brachion_, in
_English_, _Branches_, and _Braces_; _I eat_, by _Edo_; _a Cup_, by
_Phiale_; _a Curtain_, by _Cortina_, or _Cortine_; _Merry_, by
_Hilaris_, or _Hilaros_; _a ratling Noise or Sound_, by _Clango_; _a
Camel_, by _Camelus_, or _Camelos_; _a Knee_, by _Genu_, or _Gonu_; _a
Bowl_ or _Chalice_, by _Calix_; _a Mouse_, by _Mus_; _Deceit_, by
_Dolus_, or _Dolos_; _a House_, by _Domus_, or _Domos_; _I carry_, by
_Fero_, or _Phero_; the Pronoun _I_, _Ego_; _a Lion_, by _Leo_, or Λέων;
_Flax_, by _Linum_, or _Linon_; _a Mother_, by _Mater_, or _Meter_;
_now_, by _nunc_, or _nun_; _the Night_, by _Nox_, or _Nux_; _a
Rock-stone_, by _Petra_; _a Nick-name_, by _Scomma_, or _Skomma_; _a
Boat_, by _Scapha_, or _Skaphe_; _a Treasure_, by _Thesaurus_, or
_Thesauros_; _Father_, by _Pater_; _I tremble_, by _Tremo_; _an Hour_,
by _Hora_; _the Evening_, by _Vespera_, or _Hespera_; and an innumerable
many Words more, that are of one signification in both.

[Sidenote: _Phenician_ and _American_ Tongues have no similitude.]

[Sidenote: _Americans_ much divided in Speech and People.]

Now if there is not the hundredth part of the resemblance found between
the _American_ and _Phenician_ Tongues, as there is between the
_Hebrew_, _Greek_, _Latin_, and _Dutch_, according to the foremention’d
Examples, which notwithstanding cannot be observ’d to be deriv’d from
one another, what testimony can there be in five or six Words, which
only have a few Letters that do not differ? But suppose that the
agreeing of the _Phenician_ and _American_ Tongues could serve for a
testimony; that these last People had their Original from the first,
then there remains another doubt, _viz._ To know what _Americans_
acknowledge the _Phenicians_ for their Fathers; because their Countrey
is so big, that it may almost stand in competition with all the other
three parts of the Known World, being divided by so many Nations, which
differ not only in their various Customs, but also in their several
Languages, most of them not having the least likeness one with another:
Nay, often times the Inhabitants of one Province differ so much in
Dialect, that, according to _Petrus de Cieca_, the one cannot understand
the other.

[Sidenote: In _America_ one Tongue is not at all like the other.]

[Sidenote: _Decad. 3._]

[Sidenote: _De Laet. Orig. Amer. obs. 5._]

_John de Laet_ observes out of _Peter Martyr_, and other Writers
concerning the _West-Indies_, That there are several Languages and
strange Words spoken among the divers Inhabitants of _America_; for the
_Hurones_ call a Head _Sionta_; the _Mexicans_, _Tzontecontli_; the
Inhabitants of _New-Netherland_, _Anonsi_; the _Brasilians_, _Acanga_;
the _Jaos_, _Boppe_: the Figures One, Two, Three, and Four, the
_Hurones_ tell thus, _Escate_, _Teni_, _Hachin_, _Dac_; the _Mexicans_,
_Ce_, _Ome_, _Yei_, _Nabuy_; the _Sankikanders_, _Cotte_, _Nysse_,
_Nacha_, _Wyve_; the _Brasilians_, _Oyepe_, _Mocoy_, _Mocapir_,
_Oirundi_; the _Jaos_, _Tewyn_, _Tage_, _Terrewaw_, _Tagyne_; the
Natives of _New-Netherland_, _Onsat_, _Tiggani_, _Asse_, _Cayere_.
Moreover the _Hurones_ call a Father _Aystan_; the _Mexicans_, _Tathli_;
the _Canadensers_, _Notaovi_; in _New-Netherland_, _Ragina_; in
_Brasile_, _Tuba_: And so it is generally with all other Words, which
agree not in the least one with the other; so that every Territory hath
not only a several Dialect, but in many Places they use besides two,
three, or more distinct Speeches, not relating in the least one to
another, in one Province, by which the People inhabiting Towns and
Villages are distinguish’d. The Islanders discover’d by the _Spaniards_,
and destroy’d, have left few Words behind them; yet _Peter Martyr_ sets
down some of them, which were formerly us’d in _Hispaniola_: They call’d
Heaven _Tures_; a House, _Boa_; Gold, _Cauni_; a good Man, _Tayno_. It
is worthy of observation, that they pronounce no _H_ in their Language,
but what is spoken with a Vowel, and then give it a strong Aspiration,
like the warbling guttural ע _Ghain_ of the _Hebrews_.

[Sidenote: _Gen. 9. v. 25, 26, 27._]

[Sidenote: _Gen. 10. v. 15._]

[Sidenote: Last Testimonies of the _Americans_ Extract from the
           _Phenicians_.]

[Sidenote: Is contradicted.]

[Sidenote: _Franc. Burman._ _in_ Gen. 25. 30.]

[Sidenote: _Phenicians_ deriv’d from _Esau_.]

Our last and chiefest Testimony is _Moses_, who says thus in _Genesis_,
_Cursed be_ Canaan, _a Servant of Servants shall he be unto his
Brethren. Moreover he said, Blessed be the Lord God of_ Shem, _and_
Canaan _shall be his Servant: God shall inlarge_ Japhet, _and he shall
dwell in the Tents of_ Shem; _and_ Canaan _shall be his Servant._ And in
the next Chapter, _Canaan_ begat _Sidon_. These Scriptures are explain’d
as a Testimony of the _Americans_ Extract from the _Phenicians_, which
they ground on these following Reasons: The _Phenicians_ are _Canaan_’s
Successors from _Sidon_, who gave name to their chief City. _Tubal_ the
Issue of _Japhet_, whose Tents God promis’d to enlarge, and that
_Canaan_ should be his Servant, planted _Spain_. The _Phenicians_,
descendants from _Sydon_, (say they) Peopled _America_; the _Spaniards_
sprung from _Tubal_, of _Japhet_, have subjected the _Americans_,
descended from _Sydon_, of _Canaan_; wherein is fulfill’d that Prophecy
of _Moses_, _That_ Canaan _should be Servant to_ Japhet; but it seems a
great mistake, so to derive the _Phenicians_ from _Canaan_, for they are
Extracted from _Shem_, _Heber_, _Abraham_, and _Esau_, sirnam’d _Edom_,
from his saying, _Adom, Adom_, when he ask’d of _Jacob_, _That Red, That
Red_, because he knew not how to call the prepared Pottage by its proper
Name; And _Edom_ setling himself on Mount _Seir_, a part of the Stony
_Arabia_, and on the Coast of the _Red-Sea_, gave denomination to it,
because that Sea was much frequented and Navigated by his Successors.
The _Greeks_ call it _Erythreum_, from _Erythros_, who is the same with
_Esau_, and likewise signifies _Red_. Hereto is added, That _Phænix_ and
_Erythros_ have the same signification in the _Greek_; So then, these
_Idumeans_ taking the name of _Phenicians_, from the great _Phœnix_,
spread themselves far and near under mighty Kings, by Navigation in the
_Red-Sea_, and from thence Planted several Coasts and Islands, removing
at last to _Syria_.

[Sidenote: Gen. 36. 39.]

[Sidenote: _Com. in_ Jer. l. 4. c. 25.]

[Sidenote: _In_ Ps. 136. _Voss. Orig. Idol._ l. 1. c. 31.]

[Sidenote: _Punick_ Tongue.]

[Sidenote: _Hebrew._]

The seventh King of _Edom_, _Moses_ reckoneth to be _Baal-hanan_, which
name, by transposing the Syllables, the famous _Carthaginian_ General
_Hannibal_ bare. Moreover, it may easily be demonstrated, that the
_Phenicians_ Extracted from _Heber_, have formerly spoke _Hebrew_, and
since _Arabick_; for they dwelt before their removing, in the
Stony-_Arabia_. St. _Jerom_ saith, the _Punick_ Tongue agrees for the
most part with the _Hebrew_: And St. _Austin_ tells us, that many, nay,
most of the _Carthaginian_ words are _Hebrew_. _Elisa_, _Dido_, the
first Foundress of _Carthage_ proves this, for _Elisa_ or _Elissah_,
with the _Hebrews_, denotes _A Lamb of my God_; and _Dido_, _A Lover_.
But who can find the least likeness, between the _Hebrew_ or _Arabick_
Tongue with the _Americans_? Lastly, Since the _Phenicians_ acknowledge
_Esau_ for a Father, what then concerns the _Americans_, the curse of
_Canaan_, since they are no more Extracted from _Canaan_, than the
_Phenicians_? Thus much concerning the _Phenicians_.

[Sidenote: If the _Americans_ were deriv’d from the _Jews_, or the ten
           Tribes of _Israel_.]

[Sidenote: Is contradicted.]

Some would derive the _Americans_ from the _Jews_; others, from the ten
Tribes of _Israel_, carry’d into captivity. The ground of which Opinions
is, That the _Jews_ and _Israelites_ were scatter’d amongst all Nations;
therefore they conclude, that _America_ was also Peopled by them, the
rather, because the antient _Jews_ and _Americans_ were of one
Complexion, and went a like Habited, both going without Shooes, onely
wearing Sandals, and an upper Coat over a shorter Linnen Vest. Both are
humble, quick of apprehension, and obliging, yet Valiant: But it is
certain, they cannot be like the _Jews_, because the _Americans_ change
their Habit, according as they live in cold or hot Countreys, and go not
in the least like one another.

Father _Immanuel_ relates, That he saw a _Brasilian_, not onely stoutly
make his party good against three _Portugal_ Soldiers, but had it not
been by meer chance, worsted them.

Lastly, What Ceremonies of Religious Rites are observ’d by the
_Americans_, which are used in _Judaism_? The _Jews_ indeed have
transplanted their Circumcision amongst divers Eastern People, and have
they onely forgot the first Ceremony and signal Badge of their Religion
in _America_, which yet not onely they, but those _Mahumetans_ and other
Sectaries punctually observe?

[Sidenote: _Jews_ distribution.]

[Sidenote: 1 Pet. 1. 1. _Scaliger in Notes ad N. T._]

[Sidenote: Joh. 7. 35.]

[Sidenote: _L. de Idolo. vanitate._]

This makes evident their scatterings about the Face of the Earth, but
will not bring them to reach _America_. The Sacred Text sets forth a
two-fold description of the _Jews_; The one before the Birth of our
Saviour, when they liv’d as strangers in _Pontus_, _Galatia_,
_Cappadocia_, _Asia_, and _Bythinia_. _Jerusalem_ was their Metropolis,
although others had their chief residence in _Babylon_, and
_Alexandria_; for there was an _Asiatick_ and a _European_ dispersion;
those of _Asia_ had _Babylon_ for their chief City, and us’d in their
Synagogues the _Chaldean_ Translation of the Bible. The _Europeans_ kept
their Seat at _Alexandria_, where they had a Temple like that of
_Jerusalem_; and whilst they employ’d themselves in the _Greek_ Version
of the Holy Scripture, by the seventy two Interpreters, under _Ptolomeus
Philadelphus_, they were call’d _Wandering Greeks_: Therefore, certainly
the _Americans_ are not deriv’d from these _Jews_, and with as little
reason from those, which by _Titus Vespasian_, after the destruction of
_Jerusalem_ were driven into several Countreys, for they were never
permitted (that I may borrow the words of St. _Cyprian_) to set forward
one step, though but as Pilgrims, towards their Native Countrey, but
strictly forbidden not to assemble or meet together in any considerable
number, which would have been necessary, if they intended to Plant a new
World.

[Sidenote: 2 Reg. 17. 5.]

[Sidenote: 4 Esd. 13. 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46.]

A small seeming Testimony is added, being taken out of the fourth Book
of _Esdras_, that the ten Tribes of _Israel_ that were carry’d away by
_Salmanassar_ with their King _Hosea_ to _Nahalah_, _Habor_, the River
_Gozan_, and the Cities of the _Medes_, might be acknowledged for the
first Planters of _America_: Concerning which, _Esdras_ saith thus, _The
ten Tribes brought over into another Countrey, consulted that they
should forsake the multitude of the_ Heathens, _and travel to a remoter
Countrey, where no Generation of Mankind had ever liv’d before, there
they would maintain their Laws, which they had not observ’d in their
Countrey: Whereupon they went thither thorow the narrow entrances of the
River_ Euphrates, _for the Almighty stopt the Vains of the River, till
they were past over; for thorow the Countrey was a way of a year and
halfs Journey: wherefore that Tract of Land is call’d_ Assareth, _then
they liv’d there till the last time._

But since these Books of _Esdras_ were not Written by a Prophet, either
in the _Hebrew_ Tongue, or allow’d by the _Jews_ to be the Word of God,
or any where taken notice of in the _New Testament_; wherefore then is
_Assareth_ more _America_ than any other remoter Countrey?

[Sidenote: _L. 5. in Ezek. & l. 6. in Jerom._]

[Sidenote: 4 Esd. 6. 49, 50. & 14. 21. & 4. 41.]

St. _Hierom_ (who certainly had a peculiar knowledge of the condition of
the ten Tribes of _Israel_, because he liv’d in _Asia_, and held
Correspondence with the _Jews_, that he might perfectly learn the
_Hebrew_ Tongue,) relates, “That the ten Tribes (St. _Hierome_ liv’d
about the Year four hundred, under the Emperor _Theodosius_) underwent
great slavery in the Cities of _Medes_ and _Persians_; so that this
strange Voyage to _Assareth_, which must have happen’d long before St.
_Hierom_’s time, may be Recorded amongst the other Legends of the
Rabbies, concerning their _Behemoth_ and _Leviathan_, who lock’d up the
Souls of those that sleighted their Laws, in Caves under ground, as
_Esdras_.”

[Sidenote: Antient condition of the _Persians_.]

[Sidenote: _Melchior Soiterus de Reb. Turc._]

And how little opportunity the _Israelites_ had to remove since his
time, may appear by the horrible Destruction that was made for several
Ages together in _Persia_ and _Media_; for although the _Persians_
became Masters again of the Realm, Conquer’d by _Alexander_ the Great,
whilst _Alexander_’s Successors invaded one another, yet they were
continually in War, either against the _Romans_, or else the _Indians_,
and other Eastern People; nay, the _Saracens_ wrested the Scepter out of
their hand, though but for a small time; for soon after, breaking out
into Factions amongst themselves, _Muchumet Subictigenes_, _Imbrael_’s
Son, establish’d his Throne on their Ruines, and incourag’d by such
success, Arm’d himself against the _Indians_, and made use of the
_Turks_ assistance, with which he subdu’d the _Babylonian Arabians_:
After which, the _Turks_, not without great slaughter see the _Persian_
Crown on their Head, which, immediately totter’d by bloudy Commotions;
for _Tangrolipix_ being King of _Persia_, clashing with his Brother
_Cutlumuses_, made _Persia_ swim in the Blood of a Civil-War, till at
last _Zengis Chan_ brought from _Tartary_ so great an Army, _Anno 1200._
that none durst stay to make opposition; for the _Turks_ forsook
_Persia_ after a Conquest of six Ages, and made their own way for new
Quarters into _Carmania_, _Phrygia_, and _Bithynia_, whence they made
such incursions on the _Greek_ Empire, that at last they became sole
Masters thereof. Who cannot but easily judge by this, how little
opportunity the ten Tribes had, to be assembled together from remote
Countreys, and to go long Journeys through untrack’d ways, and full of
Enemies, to travel to _America_?

[Sidenote: _Mora_’s opinion concerning the _Americans_ Extract.]

_Immanuel de Moraes_, who had gotten peculiar knowledge of the
_Americans_ by his long Conversation with them, judgeth that they are
not deriv’d from one People, but from the _Carthaginians_ and _Jews_,
and that at several times, and places, they Landed in this New World;
for the _Carthaginians_ Sailing thither, found the Soyl so fertile, that
many forsook their Native Countrey to dwell there: Whereupon, it was
forbidden upon pain of Death, to send no more thither, lest if
_Carthage_ should be invaded by a foraign Enemy, it should want People
for a Home-defence: From this occasion it happen’d, that those that were
already Transported, became rude, and of a Salvage Disposition, and
spreading their Families, planted the desolate Countreys in a ranging
manner, without acknowledging any Supreme Head or Governor.

Thus being scatter’d up and down, every one invented to himself a new
Language, which should neither agree with the _Carthaginians_, or any
other: But this Opinion is before at large contradicted.

[Sidenote: Customs and Constitutions of the _Brasilians_ are several.]

Moreover, _Moraes_ endeavors to shew, that the _Brasilians_ are of a
_Hebrew_ Extract, because that according to the example of the _Jews_,
they might not Marry, but in their own Tribes; they also call their
Unkles, Fathers, and their Aunts, Mothers; both mourn for the Dead a
Moneth together, and wear long Garments down to their Ankles. But these
Arguments seem to us of small consequence, for indeed the _Brasilians_
differ in their Marriages from the _Jews_, for they not onely Marry in
their own Tribes, but frequently commix with their Sisters, and
Daughters, or other their nearest Relations. Moreover, the _Jews_ call’d
them Fathers, from whose Loyns they sprang many Ages before, as well as
their Unkles, which the _Americans_ do not.

The Mourning for the Dead hath been an old Custom, and is not observ’d
by many People, but the time of a Moneth was not setled amongst them,
but was observ’d after a more unusual manner, seventy days, as in the
Fields of _Moab_ for _Moses_, and elsewhere for the Patriarch _Jacob_.
Lastly, all people know, that the _Romans_ and _Persians_ girt
themselves about with long Clothes. Besides, the _Jews_ were strictly
bound to observe Circumcision, without which they were not accounted
_Jews_, which the _Brasilians_ use not, as neither their Language or
Letters. How is it possible, that in _America_ they should at once have
forgotten their Extract, Laws, Circumcision, Language, and other
Ceremonies, when the rest of them observ’d nothing more strictly in all
parts of the Earth?

[Sidenote: _Grotius_ is of opinion that the _Americans_ belong’d to
           _Norway_.]

The Learned _Hugo Grotius_, in his Enquiry after the original of the
_Americans_, brings them with many Circumstances to belong to _Panama_,
situate opposite to the Northern Parts of _Norway_, because something of
their Languages agrees, and the Way thither easie and nearest to be
found: for first they travell’d from _Norway_ to _Ysland_, over which
the _Norwegians_ Rul’d above a thousand years since; so from _Ysland_
through _Friezland_ to _Groenland_, and from thence to _Estotiland_,
being a part of the Main Continent of _America_.

[Sidenote: This Opinion is largely contradicted.]

From _Friezland_ some Fishers went thither (as he says) two Centuries
before the _Spaniards_ touch’d that Shore; which _John de Laet_
contradicts. And indeed what Reasons can be given, Why the _Americans_
of the _Straights_, between _Panama_ and _Nombre de Dios_, lying
Northerly, should have another original than those that live to the
South, seeing the same _Straights_ are neither divided by Mountains nor
Rivers; and the _Spaniards_ found no alteration in the Customs and
Languages betwixt them that liv’d above or below these _Straights_. And
who will believe that _Norway_, which was but indifferently peopled,
could afford such numerous Colonies as could plant the Northern
_America_, which far exceeds the South, and chiefly, when the great
Islands that lie near the East and West, are added to it? Moreover it is
certain, (if the Yslander _Angrim Jonas_ is to be credited) that some
Families fled out of _Norway_ from their enraged King to _Ysland_ in the
Year 874. which at that time was but meanly inhabited.

[Sidenote: _Isaac Pontanus de Reb. Danicis._]

Forty years before, _Lewis_ the Just put the _Yslanders_ under the
protection of Pope _Gregory_ the fourth, who gave the Government of the
_Ysland_ Church to _Ansgar_ Archbishop of _Hamburgh_. But how comes it
that there is not the least spark of _Christianity_ found amongst the
Northern _Americans_, if they are deriv’d from the _Ysland Christians_?
and why did the _Yslanders_ remove to colder Countreys than _Groenland_
and _Friezland_, or their own native Soil, and for the most part not
inhabited?

Concerning _Groenland_ and _Friezland_, it is known by our _English_
Navigators, that they are joyn’d together, and both to the Northern
_America_; but not without vast Bays and Inlets, which betwixt
_Groenland_ and _America_ are obstructed with floating Castles of Ice;
so that the Passage is very dangerous. And full as troublesom, if not
altogether impossible, would the Journey be by Land, because the Earth
lies so thick cover’d with Ice and Snow, especially the Valleys, that no
Traveller is able to get through.

[Sidenote: The Voyage of two _Zeno_’s.]

[Sidenote: _Relatio Marc. Zenonis._]

Moreover, that which _Grotius_ says farther of the Fishers which first
discover’d _Estotiland_, is grounded on the Relation of the _Venetian_
Knights, _Nicholas_ and _Marcus Zeno_, two Brothers. _Anno 1380._
_Nicholas Zeno_ suffer’d Shipwrack on the _Friezland_ Coast; _Marcus_
inform’d thereof, steer’d his Course thither; fourteen years they spent
before they came to _Estotiland_: at last they return’d again to
_Friezland_, where _Nicholas_ died: But _Marcus_ returning home
publish’d his Journal, wherein he relates, That _Estotiland_ is above a
thousand Leagues distant from _Friezland_, and was discover’d by
_Friezland_ Fisher-men that were driven thither by Storm. But he hath
set down many things that have little resemblance of truth, according to
what is since found by credible Navigators; and therefore we cannot
depend on _Zeno_’s Discovery.

[Sidenote: The _American_ Tongue is nothing like the _Norwegian_.]

_John de Laet_ accounts it a great mistake in _Grotius_, that as a
testimony of the _Americans_ original out of _Norway_, he compares their
Languages. He reckons up some Places to be Northward of _Panama_, which
end their words with the syllable _Lan_ instead of _Land_, because the
_Spaniards_ have left out the Letter D at the end thereof. It is
certain, that in the Northern _America_ lie _Cimatlan_, _Coatlan_,
_Guescolan_, _Artlan_, _Quaxutatlan_, _Icatlan_, _Tapatlan_,
_Cinacatlan_, _Tenuchitlan_, _Comitlan_, _Metzitlan_, _Guatitlan_,
_Necotitlan_, _Curcatatlan_. Besides, that most of these Names are not
of Countreys, but of Towns and Villages, and therefore no ways fitting
to have the termination of _Land_: and it is well known that many
_American_ words end with _Lan_, which signifie nothing less than Land:
for the _Mexicans_ say _Puertatitlan_, which signifies _At the Gate
below_; _Ochachitlantzitlan_, _Yet lower_; _Tenoxtitlan_, (this City is
also call’d from her Founder _Mexis_, _Mexico_) that is, _Rests on a
Rock_. Moreover, it may not without reason seem strange to any, that the
Northern _Americans_ have remembred but three Cities out of all the
_Teutonick_ Tongue, _viz._ _Lan_ in stead _Land_.

[Sidenote: _Groenland_ when discovered.]

[Sidenote: _Serm. 3. Antiq. Danic._]

Concerning _Groenland_, through which the _Norwegians_ are thought to
have travell’d to _America_, _Lysander_ witnesseth, That it was
accidentally discover’d by one _Eric Rauder_, _Anno 987_, and planted
thirteen years after.

_Olaus_, King of _Norway_, plac’d two Bishops over the new Inhabitants,
as Substitutes to the Archbishop of _Dronthen_. For four Ages they
Sail’d frequently to _Groenland_; but since their King was impoverish’d
by War, they left off that Trade.

We find not in any Author, that the _Norwegians_ which liv’d along the
Sea-shore, ever went to seek a Way over the inaccessible Snowy Mountains
of _Groenland_, to this our _New World_.

Besides, _Grotius_ stands for the _Norwegians_ as Planters, upon
testimony of the _Mexicans_ themselves, who told the _Spaniards_, That
their Ancestors which planted there came from the _North_, first setling
themselves on _Estotiland_, where to this day there are not improbable
proofs by several remarks, that they were a _Norwegian_ Colony.

[Sidenote: The opinion concerning the City _Norumbega_ in _America_.]

In the _American_ City _Norumbega_, live a People that speak the same
Language, and observe the same Customs with the _Mexicans_.

In this by-Corner are found also some _Alavards_, or _Longobards_, or
_Lombards_, as they say. Now the _Spaniards_ call that _New Mexico_
because last discover’d, though indeed the old, cramm’d with People
eight hundred years since: for the _Mexicans_ of _New Mexico_ do not lie
so far Northerly, as to the North-west: for this _Mexico_ lies in sight
of _California_, which is believ’d to border on _Tartary_, or at least
separated from it by a narrow Channel. But _Norumbega_ (if ever such a
Place was) must, according to the _West-Indian_ Records, have been
situate where a part of _New France_ lies, now planted by the _English_:
between which and _New Mexico_ lies an almost unmeasurable vast Tract of
Land. Mean while here is not the least sign of this City _Norumbega_ to
be found: neither do the Inhabitants dwell in Cities, but live in Tents,
or moveable Villages, which change their Names as oft as their
Governors. Moreover, the _Norwegians_ could not get to this _Norumbega_
by Land through _Ysland_ and _Groenland_ to _Estotiland_, because of the
vast Bays, and great _Midland-Sea_, discover’d by the _English_ in their
North-western Discoveries; so that leaving _Estotiland_, it was
altogether impossible for them to come to _Norumbega_.

[Sidenote: _Chichimecen._]

Hereto may be added what the _Mexicans_ say of themselves, who
acknowledge, That travelling from the _North_, they did not find an
un-inhabited Countrey before them, but were forc’d to make their Way by
a long and bloody War with the _Chichimecen_, a salvage People, that
knew neither Laws or Religion.

The People also dwelling opposite to _California_, differ from the
Customs of the _Mexicans_, being divided into several People of contrary
Constitutions, and as different Languages.

[Sidenote: Customs and Constitutions of the _Mexicans_.]

_Grotius_ scrues up his Arguments from the likeness of the _American_
Speech and Customs with the _Norwegian_: for (says he) there is little
difference between _Pagod_ and _by-God_, or _like God_; _Guaira_ and
_Waeijer_, that is, _A Fan_; _Ilama_ and _Lam_, in _English_, _Lamb_;
_Peko_ and _Beke_, a _Brook_ or _Rivulet_. Both Customs and
Constitutions have also great resemblance. The _Mexicans_ relate, that
their Predecessors onely follow’d Hunting; that they divided and
reckon’d the Time, not by Days, but by Nights, and wash’d their Children
as soon as they were born in cold Water.

[Illustration]

They are so much inclin’d to Gaming, that they venture their Liberty at
it. Every one is satisfi’d with one Wife, except some of the Nobility,
which oftentimes have more. They throw up high Banks in several places
to damm out the Sea; believe the Immortality of the Soul; every one eats
at a peculiar Table; most of them go naked, onely cover their _Pudenda_
with a Cloth; some Sacrifice and eat Mans-flesh: all which, according to
_Tacitus_, _Pliny_, _Lucan_, and other _Roman_ Writers, was observ’d by
the antient _Germans_; from whom those that inhabit between the
_Norwegian_ Mountains were extracted.

These Allegations, to make the _Norwegians_ to be the Parents of the
Northern _Americans_, _John de Laet_ thus contradicts: “It no ways
follows that one People take original from the other, because here and
there are several words found, that have the same signification and
found in divers Countreys; much less when they must either add, change,
or diminish several Letters. Moreover, there is no small mistake in the
compar’d words: for _Pagod_ is not us’d all over _America_; the
_East-Indians_ about the River _Indus_, call their Idol-Temples _Pagod_,
or _Pagode_, the word _Guaira_ is no where us’d in _America_, but by the
_Peruvians_, and with them not signifying a _Fan_, but a little _Oven_;
neither is _Ilama_ a _Lamb_, (for before the coming of the _Spaniards_
thither, neither Sheep nor Lambs were ever seen in _Peru_) but a
Wool-bearing Beast, thus describ’d by _Joseph de Acosta_:

[Sidenote: A description of the strange Beast _Ilama_ in _Peru_.]

“_Ilama_ (says he) a four-footed Creature, furnishes its Master with
Meat and Clothing, and supplies the office of a Beast for Burthens, and
at no charge for Hay nor Provender, well satisfi’d with what he finds in
the Ways or Mountains. But the _Ilama_’s are of two sorts, either
woolly, or shorthair’d: the first go by the Name _Pacos_, the other
_Moromoro_, being not much less than a Calf, with a long Neck like a
Camel, but of several colours; for some are white, some black, and
others speckled, having an odd Look, especially when they are ty’d, and
stand still without any motion, staring with goggle-eyes on their
Owners: Sometimes in a moody humor, upon a sudden taking a freak, they
run up to the top of almost inaccessible Mountains, where both the
frantick Beast and his Burthen are lost. The _Pacos_ sometimes likewise
takes sudden Pets, and fustian Fits, often doing the forward
_Supersalt_, tumbling over and over with their Goods, and will not be
rais’d, their moodiness continuing, with beating, nay though they cut
them to pieces: but the best way is to sit down by them, and wait some
hours till their humor being spent they rise again of their own accords.
These Beasts are much inclin’d to a Disease call’d _Carashe_ or the
_Mange_, of which they generally die: and because the Disease is very
catching, they straight bury the infected alive, so the better to
preserve the rest.”

_Grotius_ also mistakes, when he compares the _Mexican Peke_ with the
_Dutch Beke_; for though many _Mexican_ Places, Mountains, and Rivers,
terminate in _Peke_, yet it signifies not a _Brook_ or _Rivulet_, for
that they call _Atlauhtli_.

[Sidenote: _De Orig. Gentium Americ._]

_John de Laet_ tells also, That with great diligence he found a
_Mexican_ Dictionary, Printed by the _Spaniards_ in _Mexico_, to find if
there were any words in it which agreed with any of those _European_
Languages that he understood, but found not one.

It is the same case with the Customs and Constitutions between the
_Norwegians_ and Northern _Americans_: for what concerns Hunting, how
many People have formerly liv’d by it? The antient _Germans_, and to
this day the _Tartars_ make it their whole business, excelling in that
Art all other Nations. Besides, that the more serious sort of the
_Mexicans_ many Ages since scorn’d to derive themselves from a Hunting
Ancestry, but affirm that they found the _Chichimecen_ in those
Countreys, who were great _Venators_.

[Sidenote: Customs of the _Americans._]

[Sidenote: Their Clothing.]

The accounting of Time by the Nights, extracted from the _Hebrews_, is
observ’d by divers Eastern People: and although the _Germans_ dipt and
wash’d their children in cold Rivers, or Brooks, so soon as they were
born, yet the _Mexicans_ never did it, but the Mother lays the Child on
the fourth day after its Birth, in an open place of the House, in the
middle whereof stands a Pot full of Water cover’d with Broom, in which
they wash the Infant. Neither are the _Americans_ so much addicted to
the Vice of Gaming as other Nations, so that _Grotius_ taxeth them too
severely as to that point: as on the contrary, he too much clears them
of Polygamy, whereas the _Mexicans_ Marry as many Wives as they please,
or are able to maintain. Father _Martyn Perez_ relates the same of the
_Cinaloans_, and other _Americans_; as also _Quarterius_ of the Natives
in _Nova Francia_, which lie nearest to _Norway_. And what need the
_Americans_ have the _Germans_ their Teachers, to make Dams and Banks
against Floods, since Nature and Necessity it self instructs it? and
where are any People so ignorant, as to ascribe the same event to Men
and Beasts after death? ’Tis true, their manner of eating in _America_
is several, because the People do not much converse together: but they
did not go naked; for the _Spaniards_ found them not onely neatly
Habited, but had a proper Name for every thing they wore. The
_Virginians_ us’d long Shirts; the _Floridans_ Skins of wild Beasts; and
towards the North they cover’d themselves from Head to Foot in hairy and
undress’d Hydes. The sacrificing of Men was in former Ages spreading far
and near over the World, and how far it was practis’d here, hath been
already declar’d at large. Lastly, all the _Americans_ are not guilty of
eating of Man’s-flesh, but that salvageness is confin’d to the Southern
_America_.

Thus much we have said, to prove that the _Norwegians_ had no hand in
planting the Northern _America_, we shall now proceed to enquire who
planted the Southern Parts, from the _Straights_ between _Panama_ and
_Nombre de Dios_, to the _Straights_ of _Magellan_.

The _Peruvians_, possessing a large Tract of Land along the Coast of the
_South-Sea_, _Grotius_ would thus derive from _China_:

[Sidenote: Relation of _Mancocapacus_.]

“The _Peruvians_, being of a subtile Wit, and quick of Apprehension,
argue sufficiently that they are not extracted from the more Northern
_Americans_, but rather from the _Chineses_, which the several Wrecks of
_Chinese_ Ships found on these Coasts sufficiently evidence: and no
wonder, if curiosity or accident brought the _Chineses_ expert
Navigators to this Countrey, separated onely by one Sea from them. To
this we may add their Rites of Religion; for both worship the Sun, and
call their King the Son of the Sun; they write no Letters but make
Characters downwards. _Mancocapacus_ was a _Chinese_ of strange Policy;
who being inform’d that his Countrey-men inhabited fruitful Countreys on
the other side of the _South-Sea_, but without Laws or Government,
Sail’d over thither, and gather’d the scatter’d Multitudes in a Body,
and establish’d an hereditary Kingdom after the _Chinese_ manner, to him
and his Successors.”

[Sidenote: The _Americans_ are not extracted from _China_.]

To which _John de Laet_ answers thus: “Though the _Peruvians_ exceed the
other _Americans_ in Policy, and at the arrival of the _Spaniards_ liv’d
in a handsom Order of Government, yet they can no ways be compar’d to
the sharp-witted, and noble-spirited _Chineses_; nay, there are in no
Place of _Peru_ found such Artificers as those of _China_, that bear the
praise of all the World; no where such manner of Buildings or Cities,
nor the least likeness of the _Chinese_ Curiosities. As concerning the
Wrecks found in _Peru_, I find no credible Author that gives an account
thereof: for certainly the _Chineses_ could much easier, and a nearer
way have come through the _Atlantick Sea_ to the Coasts of _America_,
lying to the East of _Peru_, than steer along the vast, and much greater
_South Sea_, and endure the horrible Storms and vast Waves, which the
_European_ Ships are scarce able to endure, much less the _Chinese_
Vessels, which are not so good. The _Spaniards_ which Sail yearly from
_Acupulco_ to the _Philippines_ are sensible of the great danger which
they endure, chiefly by the great gusts of Wind near _California_.
Besides, the _Peruvians_ before the arrival of the _Spaniards_, were
utterly ignorant of great Ships, and the use of Sails. How could they at
once have forgotten that Art, which they brought with them thither,
Moreover, it is easier to Sail from _Peru_ to _China_, than from _China_
to _Peru_, because the Winds under the Equinoctial Line commonly blow
Easterly. And it is the greater wonder, that the _Chinese_ Jonks
accidentally by Storm should be driven to _Peru_, because they were
never stor’d with Provisions but for a short Voyage, whereas this ask’d
nine Moneths. But if any one will suppose, that they purposely directed
their Course thither, how came the _Chineses_ to Sail just to _Peru_,
and not to _New Spain_, which is much closer to _China_? why were there
no Merchandises of the _Chineses_ found in _Peru_, since they went
thither for Trade? how came they to neglect that Navigation they had
once found? Nor is their Sun-worship (which was formerly practis’d in
most Parts of the World) of any validity to derive them from _China_?
But the contrary is most apparent, for the _Peruvians_ worship for their
chief God, _Viracocha_, that is, _God Almighty_, or _The Creator of all
things_.

“The _Chineses_, if Confutius an eye-witness may be credited, are
divided into three Sects of Religion: The first follow the Learn’d
_Trigantius_, and acknowledge a King of the Heavens, which must onely be
serv’d as the _Chineses_ sole Governor; to which purpose, two Temples
are built in the Royal Cities _Nankin_ and _Pekin_, one Consecrate to
Heaven, and the other to the Earth. The second Sect hath the name of
_Sciequia_, and serve the Idol _Omyto_. The third nam’d _Lanzu_, imploy
themselves in Magick and Exorcisms, Conjuring up, and laying
Evil-Spirits, whose horrid representations, when they have stuck upon
the Walls, they make an artificial and dreadful noise, as if Hell were
broke loose, and the House full of Devils; sometimes also force the
Evil-Spirits to enter into Images, from whence they receive no
impertinent answers to their questions: Therefore, who will compare this
Superstition of the _Peruvians_ worshipping of the Sun, to the _Chinese_
Religion, which do no such things?

[Sidenote: Embassy to the _Cham_, l. 2. c. 2.]

“The _Peruvians_ call’d their King, _A Lord of the Realm_, and not _The
Son of the Sun_, as in _China_: Though the _Mexicans_ otherwise worship
the Sun, and in their manner of adulation, styl’d _Hernando Cortez_,
their Conqueror, _Son of the Sun_: As to what concerns the manner of
writing, it is very well known, that the _Chineses_ words are all
Monosyllables, so that they have as many Letters as Words, which they
joyn so together, that they reckon eighty thousand, but with ten
thousand they are able to express themselves in most matters. These
Characters are contain’d in their _Halpien_ or Dictionary. The antient
_Chineses_ us’d seventeen several sorts of Characters in their writing,
some consisting of Serpents, that by several Wreathes and contortious
Windings, signify’d several things; others, of all sorts of agrestick
Tools belonging to Husbandry; some Characters of the Feathers of the
Bird _Fum-hoar_; others of Oysters and Worms, or of Roots, of Herbs, or
Birds Claws, or of Turtles, or of Herbs and Birds Feathers mingled, or
of Planets, and such like; but what manner of Writing or Hieroglyphick
of theirs resembles those, who by their own testimony know neither Pen,
Paper, Ink, nor any manner of Writing, but reckon the antiquity of time
by strung Beads, which was observ’d many ages since among several
Nations.”

[Sidenote: Original of the _Americans_ very obscure.]

[Sidenote: What we may believe concerning them.]

[Sidenote: The _Americans_ are derived from several people.]

Hitherto we have discover’d the several Opinions concerning the Original
of the _Americans_, or first Plantation of _America_, from all which,
having receiv’d no clear or demonstrative satisfaction, we must open our
way to a further scrutiny: But first, we must needs confess, that
contradiction is not difficult; but it is something of Work, when we
have beaten down a well-fortifi’d Opinion, to set up somewhat in stead
thereof, to stand a permanent and undeniable truth, which will be the
harder, in regard the Inhabitants of this new World have no old
Chronologies concerning their Antiquities, and first settling there; yet
if we cannot go so far absolutely to assert, yet some probabilities,
grounded (as we suppose) upon better reasons, may give more
satisfaction; for none will deny, but that the Generations of Mankind
being strangely multiply’d after the Flood, they then living five times
our Ages, and Wars not beginning till the known part of the Earth was
over-stock’d, justling for Territories, and some thrust quite out, at
last found _America_; which spreading it self to a vast extent, and now
found almost every where well inhabited, may be guess’d, that it was not
onely Planted from the first, but several times replenish’d since by
various Nations; Why may not several Planters, and at several times make
room for their Colonies, incroaching one upon another, either by force
or compact; as the _French_ themselves upon the _Gauls_, the _Normans_
upon them, the _Goths_ among the _Spaniards_, and the _Saxons_ among the
_Brittains_, and the _Normans_ again upon them?

Several people may easily Sail over thither, the _Azores_ or the
_Canary_ Isles lye so, that they are ready (as if design’d) for
Transportation to _America_; from whence _Acosta_ made a Voyage in
fifteen days. Also _Pliny_ gives us an account, that these Islands lay
uninhabited in his time; yet is it well known, that after _Pliny_’s
time, Ruins of Buildings were found there, signifying, they had been
formerly Planted; and why might not those ancient Inhabitants Sail
thence to the neighboring _America_?

[Sidenote: _Marian. de Reb. Hisp._ l. 1. c. 18.]

_Tercera_ lying half way between _Spain_ and _America_, was frequented
by Navigators before the Birth of our Savior; and it seems as easie to
Sail from thence to _America_, as from the Main Land of _Spain_ thither:
Add this, that necessity forc’d the _Spaniards_ to look about them from
other Countreys, for since they lost their Victorious Champion _Baucius
Gapetus_, they were every where beaten, being tired out by the
_Phenician_ Forces, and that oppression over, suffer’d as much under the
_Roman_ Yoke: Wherefore it seems not strange, if a considerable number
remov’d from thence, that they might live some where else in quiet; for
which purpose they wanted no conveniencies to Rig and set forth stout
and sufficient Vessels, able to live in those Seas, having had long
experience from the _Phenician_ Voyagers, whose Fleets Sail’d daily to
and again in several Expeditions, from _Cadiz_ and _Gibraltar_ towards
these Western Countreys: Nay, _Hanno_ himself their first Navigator that
way, who gives an account of the _Gorgons_, or the Isles of _Cape Verd_,
a good part of the way to _America_.

[Sidenote: _English_ famous Sea-men.]

[Sidenote: _Barat-anac_, or, _Tinland_, the _Phenician_ name, and
           _Brittania_ the _Greek_ name of _Brittain_.]

And though _Brittain_, _Ireland_, and the _Brittish Orcades_ lay further
from _America_, yet something may be said particularly to prove, That
many Ages since, Expeditions had been made from thence to the New World;
and that the Inhabitants of these our Isles, in former Ages, were
peculiarly famous for their skill in Navigation; insomuch, that the
_Cretans_ and _Phenicians_ emulous of their skill, and jealous of their
danger, made several Attacques and Invasions upon these Isles, which is
the more probable, many remarks of the _Phenician_ and _Greek_ Language,
remaining in the denominations of the Countrey: Of which, take first
this account:

[Sidenote: Old Voyage of _Madok_ to _America_; for which see _Vet. Hist.
           Brit._]

_Anno 1170._ When _Owen Guyneth_, Prince of _Wales_, having Raign’d long
and happily in his setled Dominions, dying, left several Sons, who
quarrelling, their elder Brother, as not contented with their shares of
the Principality, nor to be under him, having gotten no mean Interests
and Claims to the whole by their struglings, so weakned one another,
that they open’d a way to the loosing of all.

[Sidenote: _David Powel in Historia Cambriæ._]

Amongst these Brothers, _Madok_, a Prince of a milder disposition, weary
of such unnatural Dissentions, threw up his share, better contented to
seek new Fortunes abroad; whereupon there were many soon perswaded to
venture their lives with him, where ever he would please to Transport:
So Rigging a small Fleet, he Sail’d Westward, far beyond _Ireland_,
where at last he discover’d an unknown and un-inhabited Countrey, but
wondrous pleasant, the Air being temperate, and the Soyl most fertile:
Glad of this good success (as the Story says) he returning, spreading
the Fame of this his New-Found-Land, which they might exchange for a
barren Soyl, hatter’d and harass’d with an endless Civil-War.

No small number flock’d to these Summons, as a most acceptable
Undertaking; so that soon after he was able to send forth ten good
Ships, Freighted only with Men, Women, and Children, and all other
Materials fit for a new Plantation; which not long after Landed in
_Acuzamil_, a Countrey in the North of _America_, as _Francis Lopez de
Gomara_ believes, because there he onely found some remaining Tracks of
Christianity, a People that worshipp’d the Cross, but knew no reason why
or wherefore they ador’d that sign of our Redemption. Now, some will
say, that this Worship of the Cross is no argument to prove, that the
_Brittish_ Christians first Planted in the North of _America_; but what
will not time and change of place do, where Transplanted People keep no
Records, so they forget not onely Religion, Laws, and Customs, but who
they were, and from whence they came, Oblivion first mutilating, and at
last swallowing up all; of which, take this one late president.

[Sidenote: Strange occasion of _De la Roche_.]

_Anno 1598._ The Duke _De La Roche_ obtain’d leave of the _French_ King,
to transport a Colony of Volunteers to _New France_; in his way he
Landed fifty Men on the Island _De Sable_, to rest his Passengers, and
that he might the better, and with more ease explore the Countrey, and
when resolv’d where to settle, then to fetch them off; who accordingly,
as design’d, soon after, returning thither, was met with so violent a
Storm, that not being able to Weather the Isle of _Sable_, where he left
his People, he lost his whole Expedition, and was driven back to a
_French_ Harbor, where no sooner arriv’d, he was so highly charg’d, that
he was cast into Prison, when those he had left neglected upon the Isle,
were not once so much as thought of; in this interim, they never
expecting to hear more of their Captain, liv’d in a wild and miserable
condition, feeding upon Fish, and sometimes wild Swine, without Bread,
Drink, or Salt.

When the Baron of _Leri_ went with Letters Patents, to be Governor of
_Nova Francia_, and by stress of Weather in his Voyage, was forc’d to
put in at _Sable_, where he found the remainder of _La Roches_ People,
who being from fifty reduced to twelve, having clad themselves in
Sea-Wolves Skins, they had not onely lost their former _French_
Civilities, but forgot in a manner their Religion, much of their
Language, and what they were, being as if Metamorphos’d into bestial
Salvages.

[Sidenote: If some did not come accidentally to _America_.]

And although we have already controverted the improbability of Peopling
_America_, either by accident of Storm, or set purpose; yet it may be
possible that so it might happen, for as the several vertues of Plants,
Herbs, Precious-Stones, and Minerals, though strangely occult, and so
altogether unknown, that what could never be found by Art, meer chance
hath brought to light, and their wondrous qualities, some casual
accident hath made apparent; so strange and remote Countreys never to be
found in our Charts, or Maps, nor Registred in any Story, Seamen bound
to their intended Harbors, have stumbled on by chance, either
Hood-wink’d by blind Mists, or forc’d upon by pertinatious Weather; of
which _America_ may be her own witness, for how was _Columbus_ stirr’d
up, but by incitations of the Journals of a Sea-Captain, dying in his
House, driven on the _American_ Islands by foul Weather.

[Sidenote: _America_ was Peopled presently after the Flood.]

[Sidenote: Giants in _America_.]

[Sidenote: _Conjurati fratres_, _Virg. Georg._]

[Sidenote: The Flood acknowledg’d there.]

Although from the foremention’d places, and after the same manner,
_America_ might be furnish’d with Inhabitants; so it also gives us a
more certain assurance, that the Planting of _America_ was not onely
soon after the Flood, but that they came also thither by Land: And how
strangely would it be against the Majesty and Wisdom of Divine
Providence, to leave half the Universal Globe, a World fully supply’d
with all sorts of Creatures, fit for Food and Service, Plants, Herbs,
and the richest Minerals, like a House new built, and well furnish’d,
without a Master or any Inhabitant, _viz._ Man, who being of Celestial
Extract, should be able to acknowledge and glorifie the Creator, by
admiring the Creature in his great Works: Besides, the confus’d Notions
and Fables of Giants, Perpetrators of all manner of Crimes, and
wallowing in all kind of sensual Debaucheries, are always remembred
among the Antiquities of the _Americans_, and that they had some slender
hints of antient Truth, not onely of the Giants before the Flood, but of
those that soon after the rank fatness of the Earth, produc’d and fed to
that pitch of Arrogance, that the covenanting Brethren defi’d God,
fortifying themselves to fight him by the advantage of that their long
congested Pile, _Babel_, which in a short time was transverted by the
_Heathen_ Poets into their _Gigantomachia_, heaping Hills on Hills, like
the _American_ Traditions: From which we may conjecture, that they came
thither in the time of _Noah_; for why may not any believe, when _Noah_
liv’d three hundred years after he Landed on Mount _Ararat_, that he
took care to People the World? And who will make him ignorant of this
New World, who living five hundred years before, might not improbably by
his own industry and the help of the former long-liv’d _Patriarchs_,
been well able to make a general Survey of the Old; and he could better
furnish _America_, it being nearer Mount _Ararat_, than supply _Italy_,
_Spain_, _Germany_, or any Northern Territories in _Europe_, so that
_America_ might be known to the first people after the Flood, nay,
inhabited by them, though since that, the knowledge was lost.

_Pliny_ complaining of the Supine negligence, and stupendious sloth
which reign’d then and long before as he had observ’d, among all people,
and in every place, who were so far from making inquiry after
discoveries of Lands for new Plantations, that they lost the old, when
they had begun to settle, though under the greatest serenity of Peace;
The Sea by that means lying open beyond what any juncture of former
times could be proud of.

[Sidenote: _Canary Islands_, by whom discover’d.]

[Sidenote: _Hesperian_ Gardens, what they signifie.]

Yet the _Fortunate_, or _Canary_ Islands were in the first ages after
_Noah_, frequented with Vessels, which in later times were altogether
neglected, till _Guillaum Betancourt_, a Gentleman of _Picardye_,
brought them again to be taken notice of by a fresh Trade. The Fable of
the _Hesperian_ Gardens, and the Dragon that kept the Golden Fruit, with
constant Vigils, is nothing but an allusion to the Sea, which with
Serpentine Embraces, not onely secur’d these scatter’d Isles, but
swallow’d up several Adventurers that too hardy made their unhappy
approaches for discovery.

Another Allegation for the Planting of _America_ by Land, both whose
sides are wash’d on the East and West, by the South and Atlantick Ocean,
may be thus probably made out: The Atlantick rowls over with almost
Fathomless Waters, three thousand Leagues of Ground; the South-Sea not
much less, which well may be, being indeed but one continu’d Sea,
encompassing, till meeting there, the Universal Ball; whence springs a
more likelyhood, that _America_ might be Planted from the Southern
parts, from the _Straights_ of _Magellan_, and _Le-Mayr_.

[Sidenote: _Relatio de Terra Australe._]

[Sidenote: The Description of the unknown South.]

_Peter Fernandes de Quir_ relates, That he and a Commander, _Lodowick
Paes le Torres_ saw a part of the South Countrey, and in it innumerable
Inhabitants, _Whites_, _Blacks_, _Sallows_, with long, black, curl’d,
Woolly, and yellow Hair. They know no Walls or Fortresses for Defence,
Laws or Kings, but are divided into Tribes: They use indeed Bows,
Arrows, Clubs, and a kind of Spears: Their Houses are cover’d with
Palm-Tree-Leaves; their Housholdstuff consists onely of a few Earthen
Pots, and such Trinkets; yet they have some little skill in Weaving, and
though they go naked, pride themselves in Neck-Laces and Bracelets, made
of Mother of Pearl: But these for their Complexions and Constitution of
Body, Customs, and manners, are rather deriv’d from the _Americans_,
than they from them, and therefore we must seek for their Original from
the North; from which are but two ways, one from _Ysland_ and
_Groenland_, which _Grotius_ endeavors to prove, but contradicted; the
other out of _Tartary_, which certainly was the first Nursery, from
whence the _Americans_ were Transplanted.

[Sidenote: Description of _Tartary_.]

_Tartary_ or _Tattary_, so call’d from the River _Tatter_, which runs
thorow the Countrey _Mongul_ into the Northern Ocean, covers a great
part of the Terrestrial Globe; the lesser _Tartary_ makes out a
considerable part of _Europe_; the greater is _Asia_.

This great _Tartary_, which is a thousand Leagues long, and six hundred
broad, reckons five chief Provinces, _viz._ the wild _Tartary_,
inhabited by Herdsmen; _Sagatai_, of which the Metropolis is
_Samarcand_, famous for the mighty _Tamerlane_; next _Turkestan_; then
_Kitai_, which the great _Cham_ Commands; and lastly, _Old Tartary_,
according to _Andreas Cæsariensis_, the habitation of _Gog_ and _Magog_.

Now we must enquire from what _Tartars_ the _Americans_ are Extracted:

[Sidenote: _Thrian_ l. 67.]

[Sidenote: If the _Israelites_ were _Tartars_.]

_Mornæus_, _Postellus_, _Genebrardus_, _Poterus_, and others are of
opinion, That the _Tartars_, which about the year 1228. under the
Command of _Zingis Cham_ overspread the Earth like a deluge, were the
Successors of the ten Tribes of _Israel_, which were carry’d into
captivity to _Assyria_ by _Salmanazar_. The name _Tartary_, or rather
_Tattaria_, seems to be some testimony thereof, because it signifies in
the _Syrian_ or _Hebrew_ Tongue, _Remnants_ or _Remainders_, as
seemingly, because these _Tartarians_ were remainders of the
foremention’d Tribes; nay, the Northern _Tartary_ Herdsmen preserve to
this day the Names _Dan_, _Zabulon_, and _Naphthali_: Wherefore we need
not to admire, why so many _Jews_ are found in _Russia_, _Sarmatia_, and
_Liefland_; nay, the nearer to _Tartary_, the more _Jews_ there are.

Circumcision hath a long time been observ’d among them, before _Mahomet_
brought in his new Law; it seems, that _Mahomet_ order’d the
Circumcision and other Laws, according to _Moses_, to be observ’d by the
Northern people, because that in his time, they began to Rebel, that so
they might the better be kept in awe by their new Religion.

[Sidenote: _Pand. Hist. Turcica._]

_Joannes Leonclavius_ relates, That in _Liefland_ near _Riga_, he heard
the wilde Natives call’d _Letti_, not without great admiration, go
crying along the High-Ways and Fields, with a doleful voice, _Jeru,
Jeru, Masco lou_: It is believ’d that they mourn for _Jerusalem_ and
_Damascus_; but by their long continuance in the vast Wildernesses, they
have forgot their Religion and Laws, and what else might enable to tell
us who they were. Several learned Authors question this removal of the
_Israelites_ out of _Assyria_ to _Tartary_, though to our Judgement
their Arguments are too weak, to take from them of the footing they have
gotten there; yet nevertheless, the _Israelites_ are not to be taken for
the Planters of _America_, for why else is not _Judaisme_ as well found
in _America_ as in _Tartary_. But it is already shewn, that _America_
was inhabited long before the dispersion of the _Israelites_.

[Sidenote: _Americans_ are not deriv’d from _Africa_ nor _Europe_.]

[Sidenote: But _Asia_, and chiefly out of _Tartary_.]

Now to shut up all, it is evident, that the first Planters of _America_
were not _Europeans_ from the dissimilitude of the People, both in their
Complexions, Language and Persons; nor _Africans_, because that in all
the far-spreading Countrey of _America_, not one _Negro_ is to be found,
except a few near the River _Martha_, in the little Territory
_Quarequa_, which must by Storm be drove thither from the _Guinny_
Coast: So that _Asia_, the Mother of all People, onely remains to be
Implanter of our _America_, whose Western Coast, opposite to _Asia_, is
more inhabited than to the East, where it respects _Europe_.

[Sidenote: _Tartary_ is not parted from _America_ by the _Straights_ of
           _Anian_.]

Moreover, _Armenia_, out of which, by _Noah_’s Progeny, the whole Earth
was re-peopled, borders on _Scythia_, now call’d _Tartary_, and
_Tartary_ faces _America_, separated onely by the _Straights_ of
_Anian_; though some are of opinion, that out of the South into the
Frozen Sea, there is no passage thorow these _Straights_, else (as we
have already prov’d the contrary) how came all those Voracious and
Poysonous Beasts into _America_, if it be clearly separated from _Asia_
by Sea?

It deserves here to be related, what happen’d to _Henry Cornelison
Schaep_, and _William Byleveld_, Sailing from _Batavia_ to discover the
_Tartarick_ River _Polysange_, but were taken and carry’d Prisoners to
the _Japan_ Court at _Jedo_; being Commanded there by Order of the
Councel to give an account of a _Japan_ Map or Card, which was laid
before them, and contain’d the Provinces of _Japan_, _Amboina_, the
_Molucca_ Islands, _Manilha_, the _South-Sea_, _Borneo_, _Celebes_,
_Malacca_, _Tartary_, _Formosa_, _Corea_, and the vast and Mountainous
Countrey or Desart of _Jesso_, separated from _Japan_ by the _Straights_
of _Sungar_; though toward the North, it joyns to _Japan_ in the
Province of _Ochio_; and beginning in forty seven degrees, run
North-East towards _America_, but they could not possible find the
_Straights_ of _Anian_; but on the contrary, the Promontory of
_Tartary_, _viz._ the Province _Kataya_ or _Katui_ lay in the same
parallel with the Northern _America_.

[Sidenote: _Ennead_ 9. l. 6. Testimonies that the _Americans_ are
           _Tartars_.]

Hereto may be added, that _Asia_ hath no Territory any where, which may
more easily with numerous Colonies supply _America_ than this part of
_Tartary_, as well for the vastness of the Countrey, to which no other
can compare, as for the increasing of the Inhabitants: Who doth not
admire, that according to _Michalon Lithouwer_, there is scarce a City
in _Tartary_ that boasted less than a thousand Temples? and to see
_Canguista_ first King of _Tartary_, about the Year 1200. in Arms; and
his Successor _Hoccata_ following his Fathers bloody Footsteps, whilst
he prepar’d his Sons with three vast Armies? The eldest Son, _Jachis_,
March’d Westward with thirty thousand Horse; _Batho_ drew with as great
an Army towards the North; _Tagladais_ being the youngest fell into the
_Moores_ Countrey above _Egypt_. _Hoccata_ himself March’d victoriously
into the North _America_, subdu’d great part of the _Persian_ Kingdom,
and beat the _Turks_, led by the General _Goniata_ with a great Army,
_Anno 1241._ as _Jacob Planensis_ and _Benedictus Sarmata_, two _Monks_,
sent by Pope _Innocent_ to _Hoccata_, witness: The great number of the
_Tartars_ or _Scythians_, may appear by the several people, spread far
and near over _Tartary_; _Pliny_ reckons some of them, _viz._
_Auchetes_, _Neuri_, _Geloni_, _Thussagetes_, _Budini_, _Basilides_,
_Agathyrsi_, _Nomades_, _Anthropophagi_, _Hyperborei_, _Arimphei_,
_Cimmerij_, _Cicianthi_, _Georgi_, _Sacores_, and others: What number
would the Inhabitants make up that live in _America_, in _Teneneuf_,
_Virginia_, _Florida_, _New Spain_, _Guadalaiara_, _Guatemala_, _Terra
firma_, _New Granada_, _Peru_, _Chili_, _Rio de la Plata_, _Brasil_,
_Guaiana_, _New Andaluzai_?

It will be worth our time, to compare the likeness between the
_Scythians_ and Northern _Americans_; both of them are differenc’d with
special Marks of a more than ordinary and natural distance between the
Eyes, which much alters the whole Air of the Face, and the plumpness and
swelling of their Cheeks summits above the Cheek-bone; most of these are
of a middle stature, having downy Hair upon their Chin, like the Callow
Feathers of an unfledg’d Bird. Lastly, as the _Tartars_, they differ
amongst themselves in their Customs, yet in several things they agree
one with another, according as they are govern’d by others, and yet
other Princes, some powerful, and some weaker, according as every ones
power be more or less. The Inhabitants of _Lucaja_ bear so great a
respect, and stand so much in awe of their Governor, that if commanded
to leap from a Rock, and break their Necks, they instantly obey.

The same is observ’d by the _Tartars_; the first King _Canguista_
Commanded the seven Princes of his Realm to Murder their Sons with their
own Hands, which they all readily perform’d.

[Sidenote: Constitutions of the _Tartars_ and _Americans_ agree.]

In _Popaina_ they live to this day like some _Tartars_, without Laws or
Law-givers, who change their places by turns, from the great increase of
the _Tartars_, the _Americans_ no ways differ.

_Bartholomeus de las Casas_ writ to _Charles the Fifth_, That the
_Spaniards_ in few years, onely on the Islands _Cuba_, _Hispaniola_,
_Naco_, _Hondures_, in _Venezuela_ and _New Spain_, destroy’d above
2600000. Men, besides the slaughter that was made in _Peru_, _Brasil_,
_Rio de la Plata_ and other places, which far exceed the foremention’d
numbers.

Polygamy is still in use, both among the _Tartars_ and _Americans_; both
acknowledge the Immortality of the Soul, both like _Cannibals_, Eating
and Sacrificing Mans flesh. How famous amongst the Antients was the
Altar of _Diana_ in _Taurica Chersonesus_, where several Men were daily
Sacrificed? How delicate, according to _Sabellicus_, did the _Tartars_
account their Dishes, Sauc’d and serv’d with humane Gore?

[Sidenote: _Geogr._ l. 11 q. 7.]

_Strabo_ relates, That the antient People account it an honourable Death
to be chop’d in pieces, and their flesh serv’d up in Commons. Those that
die by Age, a natural death, are despis’d like Malefactors, and as a
punishment according to their Demerits, left in the open Fields, a prey
to Birds and Beasts; some delight in that loathsome gorging themselves
with Mens flesh, others on the contrary, not onely detest humane, but
all manner of flesh: And just so the _Americans_ are distinguish’d, for
although the _Caribes_, _Brasilians_, the Inhabitants of _New Spain_,
_New Granada_, _St. Martha_, and others, Sacrifice and eat Men, yet as
many abhor and detest that odious Diet and abominable Custom.

_Giles Flesher_ Queen _Elisabeths_ Agent in _Muscow_ relates, That _Anno
1588._ _Kinach Morsey_, Grandson to the Governor of the _Chrim Tartars_,
made his entrance there with a Retinue of three hundred Noblemen, and
two Ladies, of which one was the Widow of his deceased Brother. The
great Prince inform’d of their coming, sent him two slaughter’d Horses,
whose sides and Hanches they feasted on, as we on Fallow Deer.

[Sidenote: Devil-worship in _Americ_.]

Most of the _Tartars_ use no manner of Letters or Characters; in the
Voyage made into _Persia_, they first learn’d to make Letters; just so
it is in _America_; their bemoaning of the dead ends in one Moneth, both
by the _Tartars_ and _Americans_; with a Person of Quality, the
_Tartars_ bury a live Servant; the same Custom is observ’d by some of
the _Americans_; and so much do they agree in a salvage and rude life,
that Merchandizing and Mechanicks are little regarded. _Ayson_ the
_American_ acknowledges the _Tartars_ for a rude People in their
Religion, Habits, and Dwellings, and yet in all these the _Americans_
differ but very little. Lastly, How common is it amongst them to worship
the Devil? Along the River _Sagadahoc_, the Inhabitants are every new
Moon miserably tormented by an Evil Spirit call’d _Tanto_. In the
Temples in _Virginia_ remain yet the horrible Images of the Devils _Oka_
and _Menetto_. Not a House in _Mexico_, but hath a peculiar Chappel, set
apart for this their suppos’d holy, but damnable Adoration of the Devil.
Others in _Virginia_ believe, That there is a great and supreme Deity,
which is Everlasting, and for ever. The _Tartars_ also are of the like
perswasion.

[Sidenote: _Tartarian_ Horses.]

But this Opinion _Grotius_ hath laid a strong and dangerous Battery
against, that _America_ could not be Peopled by the _Tartars_, because
the _Americans_ before the _Spaniards_ coming thither, had never seen
any Horses; whereas the _Tartars_ use no Beast more, either in Peace or
War, nor can less want: For the _Tartarian_ Forces do not only consist
in Horse; but the Wealth of this Countrey is reckon’d up in the numerous
Breeds of Horses, and several Studs of Mares. Some of the Nobless keep a
thousand Horse; none, though never so poor, but keep two or three; and
Beggars there mounted crave Alms and Charity of the People. When they
remove their Habitations, their Horses carry their Provisions and Tents:
If Provisions grow short, they eat Mares Milk, high gusted with Garlick,
which satisfies Hunger and Thirst; and the red Liquor which they tap
warm from their Veins, serves them to help Digestion, and heighten their
Humor, instead of the Blood of the Grape, our sweet Wine. The swiftest
Rivers, though raging and precipitated with Land-floods, they dare
adventure swimming their Horses over, hanging naked by their Manes, and
guiding them by a slipp’d Rein whither they please: To their Tails they
tie their Saddles, and other Necessaries, bound up in Rushes. When a
Person of Quality prepares to cross any River, they tie two Horses Tail
to Tail, and athwart both their Backs fasten a Mat pleited of Rushes, to
sit on. When they are stopp’d at any broad River, or standing Lake, they
kill and flea their worst Horses; then turning the Skins inside out, and
well Liquoring, they stretch them open with the Ribs, which stand like
the Bayles of a Tilted Wherry, and thus furnish’d, serves them for a
Boat to carry eight Persons. When they take the Field, going to War, not
any but musters three Horses; which makes their Armies, when drawn out
in Campain, shew much bigger than indeed they are: And though many of
them are kill’d in the Wars, or slain for Food, yet the _European
Tartars_ pay yearly forty thousand Horses to the _Russians_; from whence
_Grotius_ thus argues, “If _America_ joyns to _Tartary_, then the Horses
which run wild at Grass might easily have found _America_ themselves,
seeking to improve their Pasture, and have gone from one Countrey into
the other, as it appears, that since the _Spaniards_ transported Horses
to _America_, they are dispers’d over the highest Mountains, out of one
Province into the other: Or if the _Straights of Anian_ run between
both, the _Tartars_ never were Navigators; and suppose they had been,
they would not have cross’d without Horses, without which they knew not
how to subsist.” To which we only say thus, That although _Tartary_ now,
and in former times, abounded in Horse, yet must we grant, that it hath
been always so? or that the ancient _Scythians_, who we avouch first
planted _America_, had such frequent use of them as the _Tartars_ now.
This may be controverted, for that these _Scythians_ planting there in
the Non-age of Time, presently after the Flood, the use of Horses was
unknown, which the Ancient Poets testifie by their Fiction of
_Centaurs_, who when first seen, the Horse and Rider were taken for one
Creature. The like mistake the _Mexicans_ had, when they saw the mounted
_Spaniards_, a thousand running away from one Cavalier.

As to their coming thither of themselves, it may easily be confuted: Who
knows not, that there is no Countrey a continu’d Pasture, but luxurious
Vales separated with inaccessible Mountains, Lakes, and vast
Wildernesses. But _David Ingram_ relates, “That he saw some Horses in
the Northern _America_, which the _Mexicans_, and other Conquests of the
_Spaniards_ never heard of:” Whereupon we may conclude, and we suppose
without all peradventure, That the _Americans_ have absolutely their
Original from _Tartary_, which bordering _Armenia_, where _Noah_’s Ark
first rested, hath a convenient way, though beyond the _Artick Circle_,
through a temperate Climate betwixt Heat and Cold, to _Cathay_, in the
same Parallel with the neighboring _America_.

[Illustration]



                               CHAP. III.
 _First Discoverers of_ America. Christopher Colonus _his Expedition_.


[Sidenote: _Pet Bizari Res Genoan._ lib. 16.]

[Sidenote: _Lib. 11. Hist. Georg._]

[Sidenote: _Christoph. Colonus_’s Birth.]

_Christopher Colonus_, generally (though by mistake) call’d _Columbus_,
was born in _Arbizolo_, a Village in the Dominion of _Genoa_, near
_Savona_; his Father liv’d by Fishing in the Midland-Sea: So that
_Sebastian Schroter_, and others besides him, are mistaken, saying,
_Colonus_ was born in the City _Cucureum_, and descended of the Noble
Family _Pilistrelli_: For _Peter Bezarus_, _Colonus_ his Countrey-man,
gives unquestionable Proofs of his mean Extract; and amongst other
things, That the Common-wealth of _Genoa_ refus’d to receive the great
Legacy which _Colonus_ left them in his Will, because they fondly
thought it a derogation to their Honor, being so great a Republick, to
take any thing of Bequest from a Fishers Son: Yet his Majesty of
_Castile_ thought otherwise, not onely enriching him with Wealth, and a
fair Revenue for his Discovery of the _West-Indies_; but also, though of
a low derivation, rais’d him to great Honor, Ennobling him the first of
his Family with Dignities, Titles, and Escutcheon, which rank’d him in
place among his Prime Nobility.

[Sidenote: His Life.]

[Sidenote: Strange Accident. _Hist. Peru._]

[Sidenote: Makes his Address at _Genoa_.]

[Sidenote: _To the Portuguese_,]

[Sidenote: _English_,]

[Sidenote: And _Castilian_ King, concerning a New World.]

[Sidenote: Sails from _Cadiz_ to discover New Countreys.]

[Sidenote: His People rebel.]

[Sidenote: Discovers _Hispaniola_.]

[Sidenote: Trades with the Natives.]

_Colonus_, whom we shall henceforth call _Columbus_, spent his Youth
near the Sea, where he was busie exploring the Winds, considering their
Natures, and the Quarters whence they rose, especially with the setting
of the Current from the _Atlantick_ to the _Mediterrane_. The Western
Winds, which often, as well as the _Levant_, blow several days together
from the great Ocean, much amusing him, hinted at last some Notions,
that there might be another World, and new Places to be discover’d,
beyond the setting of the Sun; and that the _Ne plus ultra_ should not
be, if he could help it, the commanding Terminary of the Earth that way.
He also spent much time, being of a solid Judgment, in the Emendations
of Charts and Maps, then very much improvable: And the _Portuguese_, who
at that time had got the start in Navigation from all other People,
being then busie to find a way by the South of _Africa_ to the
_East-Indies_, not contented to go by hearsay, he went himself in Person
a Voyage with them. Soon after _Columbus_ settled himself in the Island
_Madera_, where an Accident hapned, which _Francis Lopez de Gomesa_
relates thus: “The Master of a Ship, whose Name and Countrey lies buried
in Oblivion (though some would have him to be of _Spain_, some an
_Andalusian_ or _Biscayner_, and others a _Portuguese_) Trading the
_Canaries_ and _Flemmish-Isles_, was surpris’d by a hideous Tempest from
the East, which hurried him _nolens volens_ through dreadful Waves,
where at last he found himself ingag’d upon a Western Coast, altogether
unknown. The Storm ceasing, without making further Discoveries, he
pick’d his way homeward, at last Landing in the Haven of _Madera_: All
his Crew but three and himself, with hardship, want, and the long Voyage
having perish’d, himself dangerously sick, was carried into _Columbus_
his House; where lying on his Death-Bed, he bequeath’d to _Columbus_ his
Maps, Journals, and other Observations of this his unfortunate Voyage.”
_Columbus_ being by these Papers more confirm’d than ever in his Opinion
of a New World in the West, declar’d what he verily believ’d, to the
States of _Genoa_; but they look’d upon him as a vain and idle Fellow;
yet _Columbus_ full of his great Project, thus slighted and scornfully
rejected, sate not so down, but address’d himself to the King of
_Portugal_, where they wearied him, spending long time with dilatory
Answers, to no effect; the Opinion of a whole Court of expert Navigators
having cast his Declaration out, as a _Chimera_ or meer Fancy. Soon
after _Columbus_ sending his Brother into _England_, to move the
Business to King _Henry_ the Seventh, he being taken Prisoner by the
way, and lying long er’e his Release, came too late to the _English_
Court, prevented by the News of _Christopher_’s return with Success from
his intended Voyage: For mean while _Ferdinando_ and _Isabella_ King of
_Castile_, having finish’d his Wars with the _Moors_, had furnish’d him
out for the Expedition; which he effected by the favor of _Alfonso
Mendotio_ and _Alfonso Quintavilia_, both great Ministers of State under
_Ferdinand_ and _Isabel_, and obtain’d so much at last, that he was sent
with a hundred and twenty Souldiers, besides Sea-men, in two Ships, and
one Pinnace. Thus supplied, he set Sail from _Cadiz_ upon the Kings
account the fourth of _August, Anno 1492._ and first reach’d the
_Canary-Islands_, and from thence steering South-West, the Wind in
thirty three days scarce varying one Point: But though the Weather blew
so constant, yet the Sea-men chang’d their Minds, and Storm’d quite
contrary, crying, That _Columbus_ was guilty of all their Deaths: _For_
(said they, after they had lost sight of the _Canaries_ so many days,
nothing appearing but Sea and Sky) _Who can hope for any Success or
happy conclusion of so desperate a Voyage, so rashly undertaken, and
found now so full of eminent danger?_ Yet _Columbus_ bore bravely up,
and weather’d all their Exclamations, although they threatned no less
than his Murder: At last Articling, they came to this Agreement, _That
if after sailing forwards three days more, no Land were discover’d, they
should return_: But about two a Clock the next Night, _Columbus_ saw a
glimmering like Fire in the Sky, and in the Morning found himself close
aboard a most pleasant Coast, where Landing with twelve Men, he erected
a Cross cut out of a Tree. Thence he sail’d over to _Cuba_, where the
Sea was so rough, that he was forc’d to stand off, fearing Rocks and
Shallow Water. Soon after he got to the Northward of the Island
_Haytin_, which he call’d _Hispaniola_: Here his best Ship was bulged
upon a Rock, on which they had all perish’d, had it not been flat on the
top, so that the Soldiers and the whole Crew of Sea-men were sav’d by
the two Vessels. The Inhabitants stark naked, seeing these Strangers,
fled to the Woods; but the _Spaniards_ overtaking a Woman, they
entertain’d her with Sweet-meats and _Spanish_ Wine, and putting her on
a white Shirt, sent her again to the rest of the Natives, where
return’d, she told what good Entertainment she had had to her
Companions; whereupon divers of the Islanders came aboard of the
_Spaniards_, in Boats made of one piece of Wood, where they barter’d
Gold for Beads, pieces of Glass, Knives, Shells, and other Trifles. The
King of _Guaccanarillo_ gave testimony of peculiar inclination to the
_Spaniards_, helping them to Fish up the remaining Goods of the Wreck,
and inform’d them, That some Rivers flowing from the tops of high
Mountains, wash’d down the Gold amongst the Sand: notwithstanding a
strange Prophecy had been told to these Islanders, namely, _That Bearded
Men out of remote Countries should destroy their Goods, take their Land,
and massacre their Children_. He also told them what made them fly, and
betake them to their Heels at the arrival of the _Spaniards_, because
they were oftentimes surpris’d by the _Cannibals_, who snatch’d up all
they could lay hold on: Their Boys and Striplings they gelded, cooping
and cramming them up, as we our Capons, for Feasts: The young and
well-grown Men they chopp’d to pieces, salted, and Barrel’d up: Young
Women they preserv’d for breed, and old ones they made Slaves. These
_Cannibals_ were so terrible to the Inhabitants of _Haytin_, that a
thousand of them durst not venture to engage against ten, but would run
every way, dispers’d like Flocks of Sheep before the Wolf.

Lastly, Their King permitted the _Spaniards_ to build a Lodge or Hovel,
wherein thirty or forty of them might shelter; but indeed so taking
possession in right of the King of _Spain_.

[Sidenote: Returns to _Spain_.]

[Sidenote: Is highly honor’d.]

[Sidenote: Goes with seventeen Sail a second time to _Hispaniola_.]

Mean while _Columbus_ return’d in safety to _Spain_, and was receiv’d
with great joy, King _Ferdinand_ making him Admiral of the Sea, and
sending his Brother _Bartholomew_ Governor to _Haytin_, now call’d
_Hispaniola_. The Gold, Parrots, Mastick, Aloes, the strange Bread
_Jucca_, whose extracted Juyce is rank Poyson, but the Body makes good
Meal, which kneaded and bak’d, yields a fine Manchet and wholesom Food,
they look’d upon with great delight and admiration; but two of the
Natives being naked, with Gold Rings through their Noses and Ears,
Ornaments with them of high esteem, and signifying their no mean
Quality, the People old and young came in Throngs to wonder at, never
weary of gazing upon them. But the King, encourag’d by this Success,
took no dilatory Course, but suddenly, and before any could expect,
built fourteen stout Carvels, and three Frigats, and as soon mann’d them
with twelve hundred Soldiers, besides a great number of Artificers of
all sorts, with their Wives and Children, freighting them with Horses,
Swine, Goats, Cattel for Breed, all sorts of _European_ Corn to sow,
Fruit-Trees and Vines to plant, and some Priests to instruct and convert
the Natives to their Religion.

[Sidenote: _The Barbadoes_, _St. Christophers_, _&c._]

[Sidenote: The Huts of the _Cannibals_.]

The second of _September_, _Anno 1493._ they set sail from _Cadiz_, and
Anchor’d before _Ferreo_, the last and furthest of the _Canary-Islands_,
where they could get no Water, but what dropp’d from the Dew hanging on
Trees into Troughs. After that, _Columbus_ came on the one and twentieth
day amongst the _Caribby-Islands_, where he dropp’d Anchor before one,
which he call’d _Dominico_; but finding it desolate, set sail further,
and discover’d several other Coasts, where he likewise found nothing but
very great Porcupines or Hedg-hogs, and sweet-smelling Trees. Steering
forward, he found the Coasts of the _Cannibals_, which inhabited along
the Shore in little Huts or Hovels, built round of Wood, and stak’d
about on the out-side with long Poles, like _Palisado_’s: They have also
Posts within, which are shorter, pleited and fastned together with
Cotton, or long Roots of Trees, plyant like our Osiars, over which they
hang Cloths painted with horrible Figures and strange Representations:
The Roofs rise like our Canopy’d Tents, highest in the middle, cover’d
with Palm-Tree Leaves to keep off the Rain: At the Entrances hang two
Hairy Images on Poles, not for Religion sake, but Ornament: Their
Bed-steads being high from the Ground, are fill’d with a kind of Straw;
and in long Hovels fitted for that purpose they store their Sugar.

[Sidenote: Island _Guadalupe_.]

_Columbus_ landing here, found all the _Cannibals_ fled; but their
Houses full of Stone Vessels, Cruises, Pans, and Pots, boyling with Mens
Flesh, Parrots, and Wild-foul; the Hanches and Sides of young Men, on
Spits roasting at the Fire, with the Splinters of whose broken Bones
they headed their Arrows. This Island by the Inhabitants call’d
_Carucueria_, _Columbus_ chang’d to _Guadalupe_, because the Mountains
rise up with their tops not unlike _Estremadura_ in _Spain_, famous
there for the wonderful Representation of our Lady, as that of the Lady
of _Loretto_ in _Italy_. Thirty Women which he had taken from the
neighboring Isles, he sent with Presents to the fled _Canibals_, which
the next day returning, made a great appearance near the Shore; but when
they had gaz’d a while upon the _Spaniards_, looking stedfastly on one
another, they suddenly ran back again, sheltring themselves in the
Covert of the Woods. _Columbus_ thinking it not worth his while to
expect their return, seeing their barbarous Life, burnt and destroy’d
all their Boats, and spoiling whatever he could, sail’d to _Matanino_.

[Sidenote: Strange Women in _Matanino_.]

The releas’d Women in _Guadalupe_, that came back again, inform’d the
_Spaniards_, That _Matanino_ was an Isle onely inhabited by Women, which
at accustom’d times row’d over to these _Cannibals_, where a while they
drove a Trade and Commerce of Love, the Product of which, if Girls, they
kept; but the Boys they sent over to their Fathers. They live in Caves,
the Mouths and Entrances of which they maintain and stoutly make good
with their Bowe, shooting Arrows as thick as Hail at the approach of
Men, after their impregnating by the _Cannibals_.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Passage of _Columbus_.]

[Sidenote: Salvageness of the _Indians_.]

From hence the Fleet pass’d by several other fruitful Islands,
_Columbus_ giving them the Names of _Montseratto_, _Rodondo_, _St.
Martin_, _Santa Cruz_, formerly by the Inhabitants call’d _Ayaya_. On
this last Island he landed thirty Men, who took four Women, which held
out their Hands before them, as if Petitioners that begg’d Quarter, or
praying, and then conceal’d themselves in Ambuscade, the better to
surprize more; when by chance they spied an _Indian_ _Canoo_ at Sea,
with eight Men, and as many Women; whereupon those in Ambuscade made a
Signal to the next Ship, which immediately sent off some Boats well
Mann’d; but before they drew near them, or expected an On-set, one of
the _Spaniards_ was kill’d, and another wounded with their Arrows;
amongst whom a Woman, to whom all the rest shew’d greatest Respect and
Reverence, aim’d very exactly. Their barbed Shafts were poyson’d;
whereupon the _Spaniards_ enrag’d, stemm’d the _Canoo_, and oversetting,
row’d quite over; which little or nothing avail’d; for they all swam,
and though separated, shot their Arrows at them, as if the Boat had been
a But. At last the _Indians_ got upon a blind Rock, cover’d with Shole
Water, which gave them fresh Courage; but the _Spaniards_ having more
aid sent them from the Fleet, took them all Prisoners; but the Queens
Son being wounded in the Scuffle, and dying soon after, was thrown
overboard. The Prisoners being brought before _Columbus_, foam’d at the
Mouth for raging madness; and being afterwards carried to _Castile_, so
retain’d their fierce and salvage Nature, that they scar’d away and
frighted the safe Beholders.

[Sidenote: _Columbus_ comes to _Hispaniola_.]

[Sidenote: Finds the _Spaniards_ slain.]

[Sidenote: His Discourse with the King _Guaccanarillo_.]

[Sidenote: Strange gathering of Gold.]

[Sidenote: _Decas 1. De Orba Novo._]

Mean while the _Spanish_ Fleet proceeded on their Voyage, between
several Islands, to _Hispaniola_, of which some appear desolate and
barren, others green and Woody; the small Vessels sailing close under
the Shore, and the great ones standing further off at Sea, which was
very turbulent, and beat exceedingly against the Shole Rocks. The Island
_Burichema_, _Columbus_ call’d _St. Johns_, to which belong’d some of
the Women sent forth in _Guadalupe_, who inform’d them, That _Burichema_
was well inhabited by a kind and hospitable People, who when the
_Cannibals_ landed there fought them, and if Conquerors, were so much
exasperated with their inhumane Barbarisms, that they seiz’d on them
like Mastiffs open-mouth’d, and tore them piece-meal with their Teeth;
yet themselves abhorring the Custom of eating Mens Flesh. Here the
_Spaniards_ found onely a large House, surrounded with twelve lesser
ones, all deserted; for the Inhabitants with their King _Chiasichio_
were then retir’d into the cool and more sheltring Woods, from the
mid-day Heat. All this the _Indians_ told him, which he brought back
with him from _Spain_. Coming to an Anchor at _Hispaniola_, he sent one
of the _Indians_ ashore, that he might tell what brave things he had
seen in the _Spanish_ Court; but the remaining three took the advantage
of the following Night, and leaping over-board, swam to Shore. But this
Accident he not much regarded, trusting to have a sufficient Account
from his eight and thirty _Spaniards_ which he had left in the Fort upon
the Island; and the more, because King _Guaccanarillo_’s brother, in
sign of Friendship, had presented him with two Golden Images: But all
these Conjectures fail’d him, so that hearing nothing, he landed, where
he found the _Spanish_ Garrison utterly destroy’d, and the Royal Fort
burnt down to the Ground, and lying in a heap of Ashes. Then they fired
several Guns, to give notice, that if any of them had conceal’d
themselves, and lay sculking in the Woods, or otherwise, they should
discover themselves, and come to the succour of their Friends: But all
in vain, for none came; for as they were afterwards inform’d, the
Inhabitants had slain them, because of their insupportable behavior,
insolently committing Robberies, Rapes, and Murders: Hereupon he sent
Messengers to the King _Guaccanarillo_, to inquire why they had fired
his Fort, and what they had done with his Men, who brought him this
Return, That over that mighty Island were many Princes, of which two
being provok’d by the reports of the Strangers that were entertain’d in
the Island, came marching upon them, each with their Armies; but that he
endeavor’d what he could, and came with a Power to assist the Strangers;
yet all he got for his Kindness, was a Wound in his Leg, which had been
so sore and troublesom, that forc’d him to keep his Bed, and no less
than seven Concubines to attend him, and dress the Wound: But he told
his Tale so ill, and feign’d his Lameness worse, that _Sibilius_, one of
the Messengers sent by _Columbus_, lifting up the Coverlet, saw that he
ail’d nothing, which soon confirm’d his doubt, that he was confederated
with the rest, and alike guilty of the Slaughter. At last
_Guaccanarillo_ being desir’d, came in Person to _Columbus_, in whose
presence he held a long Discourse with an _Indian_ Woman, which they had
brought from the Island of _Santa Cruz_, there Christned by the Name of
_Catharine_: At length _Guaccanarillo_ was dismiss’d, and the Night
following this _Catharine_, with seven more of the _Indian_ Women,
leap’d over-board, and swom almost a League to Shore, so going thence
directly to their King _Guaccanarillo_. This Accident gave more
suspicion to _Columbus_, who thereupon sent three hundred Men, commanded
by _Melchior_, _Hoieda_, and _Gorvalano_, to march through the Island
three several ways, and with special Commission to secure as their
Prisoner _Guaccanarillo_. _Melchior_ discover’d a wide River, full of
Reaches and winding Bays, gliding between high Hills cover’d with Woods,
resounding with the ecchoing noises of harmonious Birds, and
disemboguing his Waters, enlarg’d by two other Rivers, into the Sea, so
making a convenient Harbor for Ships. Here a hundred of the Islanders,
well Arm’d after their manner, met them, crying aloud, _We are no_
Cannibals, _but_ Taynos, that is, _a People more civil than they are
cruel_. The _Spaniards_ making Signs of Peace, the _Taynos_ approach’d,
and joyn’d their Forces in a friendly manner. Near the place of this
Meeting appear’d a House built in an Oval fashion, being thirty two
Paces in the Circumference, the Roof curiously pleited of divers
colour’d Rushes, round about which stood thirty lesser Dwellings. Mean
while, in his March _Hoieda_ discover’d a River that descended from a
high Mountain, where the Inhabitants gather’d much Gold after this
manner: They dig a Hole about two Foot deep; then taking up their left
Hand full of Sand, with their right Hand they cull out the precious
Ingots, which little accounting of, as they gather’d, they dealt away to
the _Spaniards_. Most of the Pieces were as big as Pease, yet some so
large, that they weigh’d nine Ounces. _Peter Martyr_, Councellor to the
Emperor _Charles_, tells us, That he hath seen of them in the _Spanish_
Court, that were brought over thither by _Columbus_. Moreover, _Hoieda_
was inform’d here, That this Gold-River took its Original in the
Province belonging to _Cacicus Caunaboa_, signifying, _The King of the
Golden Palace_.

[Sidenote: _Columbus_ builds a City.]

[Sidenote: Strange fruitfulness there.]

Mean time _Columbus_ selected a piece of Ground on a rising Hill, on the
North part of the Isle, where he intended to build a City, because close
by the Hill on one side rises a Mountain, pregnant with Stone and Chalk;
on the other, a Plain, so exceeding fruitful and pleasant, that the Sun
scarce shines upon a more delightful and fertile Soil, which they found
afterwards by experience. Here Melons are set and ripe in thirty six
days; Corn, in two Months; twice a Year the Trees and Plants bring forth
their several Products; the Vines come to maturity, and are loaden with
Clusters of Grapes, in two Years, and Sugar-Canes grow as thick as a
Mans Arm in fifteen days. On this pleasant Soil, accommodated with a
convenient Haven, _Columbus_ afterwards built the City _Isabella_,
fortified with Walls and Trenches against all Invasions, over which he
made his Brother _Bartholomew Columbus_ first Governor.

Mean while the Admiral _Columbus_ himself march’d up into the Countrey
with three hundred Men, in quest of the Gold Mines. Seventy two Leagues
the Valley _Cibava_ lies distant from _Isabella_, to which _Columbus_
pass’d over swift Currents and high Mountains, where he built a Fort,
which he call’d _St. Thomas_; and exchang’d with the Inhabitants Toys
and Trifles, for Pieces and Ingots of Gold, which the Inhabitants, as
before-mention’d, found in the Sand of their Rivers: And besides, they
inform’d him, That about half a days Journey further, greater Quantities
of Gold were to be found, in a browner colour’d Soil: Whereupon
_Luxanus_, one of his Officers, was sent with a sufficient Party
thither, who march’d through a delightful way, cool with shady Boughs,
and pleasant with the prospect of spacious Meadows, where they mow’d
Grass for their Horses, which in four days time grew up again higher
than our tallest Wheat.

[Sidenote: Goes to Sea to discover new Countreys.]

Mean time _Columbus_ being return’d with great Riches to his new City
_Isabella_, went soon after by Sea, with three Vessels, to discover new
Countreys more remote; which his Design fell out also successfully; for
he fell first upon _Jamaica_, where he found more stout Opposition than
elsewhere, by the Natives, at his Landing; but finding themselves
over-power’d, they came to Agreement, and accepting an amicable
Composure, presently struck up a Peace. From thence putting to Sea, he
next discover’d _Cuba_, which sailing round about, he found also to be
an Island; where Landing in a convenient Harbor, on each fenc’d with a
high and jutting Rock, he espied two little Hovels, wherein was
abundance of Fish, besides two great Snakes or Serpents, each having
eight Feet, spitted, and ready to be laid to the Fire to be roasted; but
neither Man, Woman, nor Child to be seen, they being gone with part of
the Fish they had dress’d, into the adjacent Woods; whither the
_Spaniards_ following, saw hanging by small Strings, on the Branches of
Trees, abundance of Snakes, some of which had their Mouths tied
together, others their Tongue and Teeth pull’d out. Hence marching on, a
little beyond they saw a Company of the Natives, which they judg’d to be
about seventy Men, covering the top or summit of a Hill, to whom the
_Spaniards_ made Signs, and to entice them near, shew’d several of their
gawdy Trifles; but in vain, till at last one adventur’d, descending from
the Hill, to whom one of the Natives (who in the first Voyage that the
Admiral made, was taken from the Island _Guanabaini_ near _Cuba_,
carried to _Spain_, and there Christned) call’d aloud, telling him they
need not fear, they should have no harm done them; which said, they came
down all together, and inform’d them, That they were sent by their King
to catch Fish for another King, which was with him at Dinner; and if
they had not eaten the Serpents, they gave them many thanks; for they
were provided for the second Course, and very scarce to be got, being a
greater Dainty than any Fish.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Discovers not without great Accidents, several New
           Countreys.]

_Columbus_ from hence proceeding on further Westward, discover’d a
fruitful Coast, verging the Mouth of a River, whose Water runs boyling
hot into the Sea. Somewhat further he saw very strange Fishes,
especially the _Guaican_, not unlike an Eel, but with an extraordinary
great Head, over which hangs a Skin like a Bag. This Fish is the Natives
Fisher; for having a Line or handsom Cord fastned about him, so soon as
a Turtel, or any other of his Prey, comes above Water, they give him
Line; whereupon the _Guaican_, like an Arrow out of a Bowe, shoots
towards the other Fish, and then gathering the Mouth of the Bag on his
Head like a Purse-net holds them so fast, that he lets not loose till
hal’d up out of the Water.

Here the _Spaniards_ having Din’d on delicate Fish, went on still
Westward, and came to an uninhabited Isle, but well stor’d with Geese,
Pelicans, and ugly Dogs that could not bark. Here they came amongst so
many Shoals, that the Keels of their Ships raked upon the Ground almost
forty Leagues together, the Water thick and white like Milk. Lastly,
they came again into deep Water, and Landed at the Foot of a high
Mountain, on the Island _Cuba_; where they found two Springs of very
sweet Water. A Musqueteer going into the Woods whilst the rest fill’d
their Vessels with Water and cut Wood, he spied a tall Man in a Coat
like a white Fryer’s Frock; behind whom came two more, and soon after
thirty more follow’d, all alike Habited: the Musqueteer running away,
they beckned him to stay, but he march’d off; and informing _Columbus_
of his Adventure, he sent a Party well Arm’d to see farther into the
Countrey; but they neither saw nor heard any Men, onely found on the
other side of the Wood a great Plain, but so overgrown with deep Grass,
that it was impossible to get through: The next day he sent out twenty
five more, which found nothing else than the Prints of the Steps of
great Beasts and Lyons, and also abundance of large Grapes, which hung
on the Branches of Vines, clasping about the Bodies of the great Trees.

Hence _Columbus_ again putting to Sea, and Sailing Westerly, found a
Shore overflow’d with Water, and abounding with Pearl-Mussles, and after
that the whole Countrey full of Mountains, whose tops smoaked. By this
time the Fleet was much damnified by the Shole-water; where, as we
mention’d before, they often struck, and their Keels rak’d upon the
Ground; so that having sprung several Leaks, and their Provisions
growing mouldy with the Damp, they were forc’d to return; and Tacking
about they ran against Turtles, which lay as thick in the Sea as if they
had been sow’n.

_Columbus_ now on his return home, and Landing once more on _Cuba_,
found an antient Man stark naked, who speaking to him (_Didacus_
interpreted, the Language in some part agreeing with that of
_Hispaniola_) to this effect:

_You have to all admiration come to see this Countrey from another
World, my advice to you is, That you hurt none; for the Souls of
evil-doers go to dark places: But on the contrary, they shall enjoy the
heighth of all Pleasures that are Friends to Peace._

_Columbus_ reply’d, _That he came a Scourge for the cruel Cannibals, but
a Shield to protect the quiet and well-meaning Indians_.

[Sidenote: Great disturbance in _Hispaniola_.]

After this, returning to _Hispaniola_, much contrary to his expectation,
he found all things which he had setled there turn’d topsie-turvy: for
first the Governors at _Isabella_ jangled, and were at private
contentions amongst themselves, and the _Benedictine_ Monk _Boilus_ and
_Peter Margarites_ were return’d to _Spain_; there to make their
complaints at Court: and besides, the _Spaniards_ had dealt very
inhumanely with the Natives, by their frequent Rapes, Thefts, and
Murders; wherefore the _Indians_, not unjustly incens’d, destroy’d all
the _Spaniards_ they found stragling in any part without the Lines of
their Fortification. _Caunaboa_ also lay about the Fort _St. Thomas_,
and closely besieged _Hoieda_; but receiving intelligence of
_Columbus_’s arrival, he broke up his Siege, and march’d from thence,
but soon after was taken Prisoner by the _Spaniards_. Mean while upon
Design (a Plot none of the wisest) the Natives of _Hispaniola_ had
neither Till’d or Sow’d the Ground, or us’d Agriculture the year before,
contriving by want of Provisions (not considering themselves) to starve
out the _Spaniards_; but the mischief fell upon the Contrivers: for so
great a Famine hapned, that spreading over the whole Countrey, in a few
Moneths fifty thousand were starv’d to death; but the _Spaniards_ made a
saving, though hard shift with their own store, then, though too late,
the Islanders repented of their folly, for they saw the _Spaniards_
making an advantage of their misery, not onely built more Houses in
their City _Isabella_, but prepar’d their Weather-beaten Vessels, with
which Sailing to the Gold Mountains of _Cipangi_ on the Hill, whence
sprung several Fountains, they rais’d the Castle of the _Conception_.
Great benefit they reap’d by this Fort, to which they carry’d daily
abundance of Amber, Brimstone, mix’d Ore of Silver and Gold, and
_Brazile_-wood, besides great store of Gold: and they might have gotten
ten times more, had they not been so much inclin’d to slothfulness, and
minding other vain pleasures: yet notwithstanding all, the Fleet carry’d
that year above one thousand two hundred pound weight of Gold to
_Spain_.

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ tyrannise there.]

In the mean while the Natives complain’d to _Columbus_ of the _Spanish_
Soldiers, which under pretence to seek for Gold, committed many
insufferable Outrages; therefore they desir’d that they might be
retain’d in their Forts, and not straggle so much abroad, and they would
willingly bring them every three Moneths a certain weight of Cotton,
Amber, _Brazile_-wood, and Gold, more than equivalent to what they
snatch’d; but _Columbus_ (whose Soldiers, notwithstanding his severity,
and using Martial Law upon some of them for their Crimes, and proud with
their success) yet prevail’d at last, that they consented thereto; but
the Inhabitants never perform’d their promise, who being almost
famish’d, had much to do to preserve themselves alive, spending their
time in picking Sallads.

[Sidenote: Their Conquest.]

Whilst the Business remain’d in this ill posture, or rather confusion,
_Cibanus_, Brother to the imprison’d _Caunaboa_, rais’d an Army of five
thousand Men: the _Spaniards_, divided into five Companies, march’d to
meet him; and their Enemies being naked, and having no other Arms than
Bowes, Arrows, and Clubs, after some little resistance, were soon
dissipated and put to flight, but overtaken by the _Spanish_ Horse, many
of them were taken Prisoners, and others forc’d to skulk and hide
themselves on the tops of Mountains.

[Sidenote: Horible Tempest.]

[Sidenote: A remarkable passage concerning _Bartholomew Columbus_.]

[Sidenote: Brave reception of a King in _Hispaniola_.]

Shortly after this Battel hapned a Huricane, mix’d with Thunder-claps,
renting great pieces from the Rocks, and the Wind blowing out of the
East, threw down Houses and Trees, some of which were carry’d a vast
heighth into the Air; three Ships that rode in the Harbor, broke their
new Cables, and split against the Rocks. The _Spaniards_ expected nought
else, but that with this excessive Tempest the Day of Judgment was at
hand. And on the other side, the Islanders ascribed this raging of
Heavens to the _Spaniards_ wickedness. This Storm past, and the Air
setled, _Columbus_ gave order for the building of two new Ships there,
with which in _March_, _Anno 1495._ he return’d to _Spain_; where in
_Medina del Campo_ he gave an account at the Court about the discover’d
Countreys; where also Sentence was pass’d on several _Spaniards_, and
chiefly concerning the _Benedictine_ Monk _Boilus_, who out of meer
malice pass’d by him at Mass with the Host, while he gave it to others,
without any distinction. Then he gave a further account, that his
Brother _Bartholomew_ had found, sixty Leagues beyond _Isabella_,
several deep Pits, the uppermost Ground of which Sifted, produced
abundance of Gold. Moreover, that he had built the Castle _Aurea_ there
in three Moneths time with little trouble: but because Provisions grew
scarce there, he found himself necessitated to remove, but left ten Men
in the Garrison, and had sent three hundred of the Islanders with their
Governors to _Spain_. He also built the Castle _Dominico_, on the
South-side of _Hispaniola_; from whence he had travell’d into the
Countrey to the River _Naiba_: where, upon this Shore the King _Beuchio
Anacauchoa_ Encamp’d himself against the _Naibans_, to bring them,
besides several other People, under his subjection. That _Bartholomew_
demanded Tribute of _Anacauchoa_, which he immediately promis’d to pay,
and disbanded his Forces, conducting _Bartholomew_ above thirty Leagues
on his Way, along a Path on both sides sown with Hemp, and planted with
Cotton-Trees, to his Palace _Xaraqua_, in the West of _Hispaniola_,
where he was received in great state: Thirty of the Kings Wives walk’d
before, carrying in their Hands Boughs of Palm-trees, and both Sung and
Danc’d very strangely; behind these came a considerable number of naked
Virgins, very handsom; at last _Bartholomew_ entring the Palace with the
King, found a Table furnish’d with all manner of Dainties, and a very
courteous Entertainment. The next day walking forth to a large Plain,
and looking about he saw two Parties that deeply engag’d in Fight behind
a Hill, with great slaughter on both sides, and had not he desir’d that
they might be parted, there had been much more Blood shed. After he had
been several days friendly entertain’d, he return’d to the Forts
_Isabella_, _Sperancia_, _Catharina_, _St. Jago_, _Turrita_,
_Conception_, and _Dominico_; where he found above three hundred
_Spaniards_ starv’d of hunger, besides many that were sick.

[Illustration]

[Illustration: ANGRA op TERCERA.]

At that time _Guarionexius_ having been oppress’d by the _Spaniards_,
and a long time watching for an opportunity, now thinking he had found
it, rais’d an Army of fifteen thousand Men, with which he was resolv’d
to try his fortune against _Columbus_; who privately receiving
intelligence thereof, fell upon him so on a sudden and unexpectedly,
that he spoil’d his Design, and took all his Commanders Prisoners: But
to oblige the Inhabitants, who begg’d for their King, _Columbus_ set him
at liberty, advising him to be careful of raising a War against him any
more. But he not being able to endure the oppressions of _Roldanus
Ximenez_, a _Spanish_ Commander, fled to the wild _Ciquano_’s, descended
from the Canibals, and living on steep Mountains: Of these he desir’d
aid against the _Spaniards_, and obtain’d not onely their Promise, but
some Men; with which he robb’d and pillag’d the Countrey round about,
and what _Spaniards_ he met with he kill’d, and with his Men did eat, as
if a Venison Feast. Mean while _Ximenez_ made himself Leader of seventy
Rebels, which like raging blood-hounds fell upon the Natives after a
terrible manner.

[Sidenote: _Columbus_ Sails the third time to _Hispaniola_.]

[Sidenote: Description of the City _Angra_.]

Whilst all things were thus in disorder at _Hispaniola_, the Admiral
_Christopher Columbus_ set Sail a third time with eight Ships from the
Haven _Barrameda_, in the Year 1498. To shun the _French_ Pyrates, which
watched for the _Indian_ Treasures, he directed his Course to _Madera_,
a fruitful Island of Corn, Wine, Sugar, Wax, and Cattel, desolate till
_Anno 1420._ Here coming to an Anchor, he sent six Ships away to
_Hispaniola_, which himself afterwards followed with the remaining two,
steering by the _Flemish_ Islands, or _Acores_, first so call’d from the
_Flemings_, the first Planters: Here he dropt Anchor before the City
_Angra_ on the Isle _Tercera_, which is sixteen Leagues in
circumference, and very Mountainous; the tops whereof are like Spires,
and abound with Grapes: the Plain Countrey produces great store of Corn,
but it will not keep above twelve Moneths. The Ground is oftentimes
terribly shaken by Earthquakes, and between several sulphurous Places,
both Flames and Smoak ascend up to the Sky. Near the City _Angra_ is a
Fountain which turns Wood into Stone. The Winds in this Place blow so
fierce and strong, that they not onely beat down Houses, but wear out
Iron, and all manner of Stone-work. In _Angra_ the chief Commander of
all the _Flemish_ Isles hath his Residence. The City, surrounded by
steep Rocks, lies towards the Sea like a Crescent, or Half-Moon; for at
both ends thereof the Mountains extend with deep Points into the Ocean.
The uppermost part towards the West stands likewise fortifi’d by a high
Rock, as also by another on the East: on both are continual Watches
kept; whereof those on the first can discover Ships fifteen Leagues off
at Sea, coming either from the _East_ or _West-Indies_; and on the
other, all those that come from _Europe_: When they see above fifteen
Sail, they put out the Kings great Flag upon the top of all the Rock.

This City of _Angra_ is divided into several Streets: the Governor and
Archbishop live each in a stately Palace; five handsom Churches are no
small ornament to it; the Sea before it abounds with Fish, but are not
to be taken in _December_, by reason of the turbulent Waves.

_Christopher Columbus_ having refresh’d at _Angra_, Sail’d along the
_African_ Coast between the _Hesperides_: under the Equinoctial he was
so miserably tormented by the Heat, that his Vessels seem’d to burn, the
Hoops sprung from the Casks, so that the Water run about the Hold; and
they could expect nothing but death from the insufferable Heat, and want
of Water: eight days they had endur’d this hardship, when they met with
a fresh Gale out of the South-East, so that they made great Way towards
the West. On the last of _July_ he discover’d three high Mountains; and
approaching near the Shore, he smelt as in a Posie, all the sweet
breathings of fragrant Flowers commix’d, and at last saw a convenient
Haven; where going ashore he found cultivated Grounds, and steps of
Beasts, but not a Man appear’d: the next day they spy’d a Boat with
twenty young Men come rowing from the Shore into the Ocean. The Admiral
hal’d them in vain to come aboard, for they made the greater hast
ashore, still looking about continually with great admiration on the
Ships: whereupon he commanded them to beat their Drums, and sound their
Trumpets, that they might by that means entice them aboard; but they
rather taking it as a sign of War, made themselves ready for resistance:
mean while the _Spaniards_ overtook the _Indian_ Boat, into which they
threw a Hat, and other trifles; the Islanders amaz’d thereat, made signs
to them to row ashore; but soon after they fled.

[Sidenote: Abundance of Pearl.]

_Columbus_ proceeding on his Journey came to _Paria_, where he found a
Fishers Pink loaden with Oysters; which opening and taking out the Meat,
were found full of Pearls, which because of their abundance were not
regarded there; for a broken Dish and a rusty Knife, the _Spaniards_ had
four long Strings of Pearl.

[Sidenote: _Columbus_ is in great danger.]

From thence anchoring in the River of _Cumana_, several naked Men came
aboard, adorn’d with Golden Armlets, and Strings of Pearl, These
inform’d him, that they gather’d their Gold from the Mountains and
Rivers, and caught their Pearl-oysters in the adjacent Seas. Some of the
_Spaniards_ were nobly entertain’d by the King and his Son, who leading
them into their Palace, placed them on Benches of Ebony-wood, curiously
wrought, and on a sudden several Servants came in with variety of
Dainties, and well-tasted Wine. But because Provisions grew scarce
amongst the Sea-men, and their Meat tainted, _Columbus_ thought it
convenient to leave the Pearl-trade till some better opportunity. Then
setting forward, the farther he went, the shallower he found the Sea,
insomuch that his Ship scarce had Water enough to swim. This
inconvenience was followed by a second; for the Sea being full of Weeds
and Grass, scarce suffer’d any Passage. A River thirty Yards deep, and
twenty Leagues broad, came rushing out betwixt two Shores into this Sea
with such force, that the Waves went high like Mountains, which made
_Columbus_ judge himself in the greatest danger imaginable, and withall
Tack about; so that he came on the eight and twentieth of _August Anno
1498._ to an Anchor before _Hispaniola_, where all things were still in
a sad confusion, as we before related.

[Sidenote: _Roldanus Ximenes_ opposes _Columbus_.]

[Sidenote: Strange _Indians_.]

_Roldanus Ximenes_ refus’d to follow _Christopher Columbus_’s, order and
writ Letters to the King of _Spain_, in which he exceedingly aspersed
both the Admiral _Columbus_ and his Brother; who were not backward in
giving an account quite contrary by their Letters, of the horrid
Villanies perpetrated by this _Ximenes_, and desir’d aid, that so great
an Offender might receive condign punishment. Mean while the _Ciquano_’s
came marching down with six thousand Men, which _Bartholomew_ went to
meet with eighty Foot and some few Horse: The _Indians_ which he was to
encounter with, rather seeming like Furies than Men, for all of them
were daub’d over with black smuts on their bare Skins from Head to Foot,
and their hard Hair pleited in terrible, not in Lovelocks, hung playing,
or dangling over their Shoulders. When the _Spaniards_ in their March
drawing up to a River where it was best fordable, had no sooner left the
Bank, and taken the Water, endeavoring to wade over, but the Salvages
rush’d forth out of the Woods, and let flye a showre of Arrows, that had
they not been provided with Shields and Targets, to keep off such a
deadly Storm, so thick they flew, and so well aim’d, most of them had
perish’d there: but having recover’d the opposite Bank, the Enemy play’d
all hid, and in a thought shelter’d themselves under the protection of
the Woods; where the Conqueror pursuing, found the Service very
difficult and dangerous, for their Armes, especially their Shields,
stopping and intangling them as in a Net, among the shrubby and twining
Branches; which they passing, rigled themselves, and made their way,
like questing Spaniels following their Game, and still gawling them with
their Arrows: whereupon they left their vain pursuit, marching another
way to intercept _Mayobanexius_, who with eight thousand _Ciquano_’s
were then coming down against them; which prov’d a harder task than was
expected: for e’re he could reduce him and his stubborn Party, he spent
three Moneths in the Service.


                               SECT. III.

[Sidenote: Hath very bad success in his fourth Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Fights with _Poresius_.]

[Sidenote: Dies.]

But the great and worthy Service of these two excellent Brothers
deserving rather Statues and Trophies of everlasting Honor, Monuments
never to be demolish’d, in their due praise, who had found out after so
many baffled Ages, a new World, richer, and not much less than the old,
by the aspersing calumniations of one malicious Person, lost his whole
Interest and Credit in the _Spanish_ Court, quite out of favour with his
Prince, who by his insinuations had hinted so much the matter of Gain
among the Courtiers, that every one studied no less than to get a
Commission, and so going a Commander to the _Indies_, make up his Mouth,
and become suddenly rich. First _Francisco Bombadilla_ prevailing, was
sent with full Commission to succeed _Columbus_ in _Hispaniola_; where
no sooner Landing, but he exercis’d the extremity of his Authority, and
seizing the Admiral and his Brother, fetter’d their Hands and Feet, and
put them aboard on two several Ships for _Spain_: where no sooner
arriv’d, but the King, not altogether forgetting former Services,
commanded them to be unmanacled, and waited on, not as Prisoners, with a
civil Retinue to his Court; where they were well entertain’d three
years. But they being active Persons, weary of so long repose, got a
second Grant to make farther discoveries, and set forth the ninth of
_May, Anno 1504._ with four Sail well appointed from _Cadiz_, and had a
fair Passage from thence to _Hispaniola_, where begun the Storm, for
_Bombadilla_, who had by the Kings Commission so evil treated _Columbus_
and his Brother, as aforemention’d, would not suffer him, though
reconciled to the King, so much as to Land, and there refresh themselves
and their Men; so he was forc’d to steer on to the Islands _Guamixa_ and
_Veragua_, where a Huricane, or sudden stress of Weather sunk two of his
Vessels; the other two standing off to Sea escap’d bilging, but so
shatter’d and leaky, having also shipp’d abundance of Water, they were
resolv’d to put in at _Jamaica_; where weary with the long Voyage, and
hatter’d with the Tempest, many of his Sea-men, spent with sickness,
after their Landing, died. To these his sufferings from Wind and
Weather, and his Enemies abroad, a greater and intestine mischief
hapned: _Francisco Poresio_, one of his chief Commanders, absolutely
rebell’d, and deserting him, with another Party of his Sea-men went into
_Hispaniola_: which the Islanders observing, resolv’d to famish him,
keeping from him both Water and all other Provisions; which had not
_Columbus_ stav’d off by a handsom Invention, they had compleated their
Design, which was this: He told them that he was the offspring of the
Moon, and if they refus’d to supply his want, the Moon, in vindication
of her Son, would famish them, by spoiling what e’re they had planted or
sow’d; and that this would prove true they should know by a sign, that
on such a Night, she rising in her full glory, should first look red,
and afterwards by degrees lose a great part of her light; which indeed
so hapned, being Ecclips’d, as he could well prognosticate; and after
that, they being ignorant of the cause, suppli’d him with all
Necessaries. But _Poresio_, not able to endure the Sea with his small
Boats, resolv’d to surprize one of the Ships that lay before _Jamaica_;
but _Columbus_ so much prevented him, that meeting him in his return,
after a hot dispute made him his Prisoner. But thus ended not his
misfortunes; for the Vessels which he fought in soon after sunk, and no
ship to be found in _Jamaica_ to transport him thence. Lastly, he agreed
with some _Indian_ Fishermen, to carry _Didaco Mendoza_ to _St.
Dominica_, that there he might hire two Vessels to carry him back to
_Spain_: which Design taking effect, he arrived there in safety: where
after he had refresh’d himself at the _Spanish_ Court, after his so long
and unfortunate a Voyage he fell sick, and died on the eighth of _May_
1506.

Mean while, the Affairs of _Hispaniola_ grew more out of order: for
_Bombadilla_ joyning with _Ximenes_, resolv’d to hoard up a huge
Treasure of Gold, though with the infinite oppression of the Natives: of
which King _Ferdinand_ having intelligence, sent _Nicholas Olanda_
thither with thirty Sail; who being nominated Vice-Roy, anchor’d in
forty days before _Hispaniola_. No sooner arriv’d, but _Bombadilla_ and
_Ximenes_ fled, leaving their vast Treasure, amounting to ten hundred
thousand Ducats; which guarded with four hundred _Spaniards_ in twenty
four Ships was sent to _Spain_: but so it hapned, that they were all
swallowed up in the main Ocean, none knowing to this day in what
Latitude they were lost.


                               SECT. IV.
                   Pietro Alponso Nigno _his Voyage_.

[Sidenote: Description of _Curiana_.]

_Pietro Nigno_, encourag’d by some of those that had been with
_Columbus_ at the Isles of Pearl, Rigg’d out a Ship at his own charge,
with special order in his Commission, that he should not touch on any
Coast within fifty Leagues of any Place _Columbus_ had formerly
discover’d. But he little observ’d his Orders, and what he was
commanded; for Sailing into the Haven _Curiana_, he barter’d Shells,
Needles, Glass, and such like Trifles, for abundance of Pearls, which
the Islanders brought aboard, for he himself having but thirty Men,
durst not venture ashore. Twenty days this bartering Trade continued,
Orient Pearls for Toys; but finding at last, that they were a civil and
hospitable People, he Landed, where they entertain’d him in Hovels built
of Wood, and cover’d with Palm-Leaves; before their Doors lay great
Hills of Oyster-shells, the Fish being eaten, and the Pearls us’d for an
ornament; Conies, Hares, Pheasants, Pigeons, Geese, Ducks, Deer, and
wild Swine, are their usual Food; and their Bread is made of the Roots
of Trees. Moreover, _Curiana_ abounds with thick and shady Woods, which
resound in the night with the cries and roarings of wild Beasts: but
though they are terrible fierce and voracious, yet the Natives stoutly
venture in amongst the thickest of them, arm’d onely with Bowes and
Arrows. The Inhabitants are of Complexion tawny, their Hair long and
curl’d; their Teeth they keep white with an Herb, which they continually
hold betwixt their Lips. The Women perform their business of Husbandry,
Ploughing and Sowing. The Men are Soldiers, following the business of
War: but in Peace their Exercises are Hunting and Dancing. They keep
annual Fairs, where from all Parts of the Countrey they bring their
Commodities to buy and barter. They have their Gold from _Cauchieta_,
six days Sail Westward from _Curiana_.

Thither _Nigno_ next directed his course, and came to an Anchor there on
the first of _October, Anno 1500._ The Inhabitants entred aboard without
the least shiness, or fear of danger, and brought with them to barter,
Gold, Civet-Cats, Parrots, and Cotton.

These People, though so civil, are extreamly jealous of their Wives: for
when a _Spaniard_ made address to one of them, and coming something
close, her Husband stept in suddenly between, and seem’d to forbid the
Banns. But coasting onward along the Shore from thence to another Isle,
he found Natives far more wild and salvage: for two thousand in a Body
well Arm’d, stood ready to intercept their Landing; wherefore he thought
it his safest course to Tack about, and return to _Curiana_ whence he
came.

[Sidenote: _Nigno_ Fights with the Cannibals.]

In his Way not far from thence, he fell amongst eighteen of the
Cannibals Boats, which according to their custom had been a
Man-stealing, and now were so hardy, that setting upon the _Spanish_
Ship, they suddenly clapt him aboard with their _Canoos_ on all sides;
but being beaten back by the terror of their Guns, they soon retir’d:
yet the _Spaniards_ took one of the Boats with two Men, all the rest
saving themselves by swimming. One of the two Men lay bound Hand and
Foot, who told them, that he was to have been kill’d the next day and
eaten, as he saw his Companions, with whose Flesh they banquetting kept
a jovial Feast. _Nigno_ unbinding the Prisoner, gave him leave to do
what he pleas’d with the taken Cannibal, who falling upon him, cudgel’d
and whipp’d him to death.

[Sidenote: Strange Salt.]

Then _Nigno_ in his Way to _Curiana_ touch’d upon the Coast of _Paria_,
where he found a strange kind of Salt, which the Sea in tempestuous
Weather casts on the Shore, which afterwards hardens by the Sun. This
Salt must be taken up before any Rain fall, else it melts and soaks away
into the Ground; yet sometimes grows so hard as a Stone, insomuch that
they make Pots and other Vessels of it; which the _Parians_ barter for
foreign Commodities.

[Sidenote: Strange Corps.]

_Nigno_ not making here any stay, return’d a second time to _Curiana_,
where he spent twenty days in pleasant Pastimes, being Lodg’d in a
Noble-mans House, at whose Door was fix’d a Cannibals Head, as a Trophy
of his Victory. He saw there also the dead Bodies of divers eminent
Persons set drying at a Fire, so hardned to be set amongst their Idols.

[Sidenote: _Nigno_ put in Prison.]

[Sidenote: Cruel dealings in _Curiana_.]

At length _Nigno_ set Sail homewards, and carried with him an invaluable
Treasure in Pearls to _Spain_: but by the way fell out with his Sea-men,
because he kept most of the Purchase to himself, and would not give them
their shares, nay more than that, kept back the fifth part from the
King; whereupon being complain’d of by _Ferdinando de Vega_, Governor of
_Gallicia_, he was put in Prison, and at last sent to the Court, where
the Pearls were declared free Prize, because _Nigno_ had barter’d for
them at _Curiana_, contrary to the Kings Orders, not to touch at any
Coast, within fifty Leagues of what _Columbus_ had discover’d. But since
he had no way regarded those Commands to preserve that Pearl-Trade, King
_Ferdinand_ sent Governors to _Curiana_, who in his Name should look
after, and employ Men for the catching the Pearl-Oysters. These,
accompanied with a considerable number of Soldiers, besides six Monks,
forc’d the Inhabitants to furnish them with abundance of Pearl: which
oppression grew to such a heighth, that one Morning a great Party of
them conspiring together, fell suddenly upon them, most of them being
massacred: after they had a while insultingly triumphed over the dead
Bodies, and finish’d, as they thought, their good work (feasting on
their Flesh at a joyful Banquet) those few that escap’d Sail’d to the
Island _Dominic_, the Governor of which _Didacus Columbus_, Son to the
famous _Christopher_, being incens’d, immediately sent Captain _Ocampo_
with three hundred Men to _Curiana_; where in his first fury, without
distinction of Sex or Age, he slew all he met with. But because they
themselves could not follow the rich Oyster-catching, he spar’d some for
that purpose, whom he commanded to build twenty five little Houses, or
Hovels, on the Shore, which he call’d _New Toledo_. After this they went
on afresh in their Pearl-fishing.

[Illustration]


                                SECT. V.
                 _The Voyage of_ Vincent Agnes Pinzon.

The first of _December, Anno 1499._ _Vincent Pinzon_ set Sail with four
Vessels out of the Haven _Palos_: he had been Commander of a Ship under
_Columbus_ in his first Expedition, by which means he got great
experience in Navigation. When he came a little beyond the _Hesperides_,
he was surpris’d by a great Storm, which in three days drove him before
a plain Coast; where Landing, he found nothing but the Footsteps of Men;
and in the night he saw great Fires, such as are generally made in
Camps; about day-break twenty _Spaniards_ march’d thither, whom thirty
two Men, arm’d with Bowes and Arrows, made ready to encounter; but as
they approached, the _Spaniards_ proffer’d them Peace, but they refused
all Composition; yet having faced one another a while, they retreated
without fighting.

[Sidenote: _Pinzon_’s strange Fight.]

[Sidenote: A remarkable Beast.]

After this _Pinzon_ discover’d a wide, but shallow River; where Landing,
on a Hill he met a great company of _Americans_: He, to invite them to
Trade, threw them a Shell; in return for which they cast him a lump of
Gold; which when the _Spaniard_ went to take up they all fell upon him;
and indeed he could not have defended himself long, had not some of his
Company quickly come in to his speedy rescue, which occasion’d a bloody
Conflict, wherein several _Spaniards_ were wounded, eight kill’d, and
one of their small Boats sunk; for the _Americans_ fought so valiantly,
that they pursu’d the _Spanish_ Ships into the Sea. _Pinzon_ being at
last freed of these Assailants, got into a fresh-water Sea, caus’d by
the confluence of many Rivers falling in there: from hence he got sight
of the _Parian_ Coast, and with admiration beheld a Tree which sixteen
Men could not compass: Between these Trees he saw as strange a Monster,
the foremost part resembling a Fox, the hinder a Monkey, the Feet were
like a Mans, with Ears like an Owl; under whose Belly hung a great Bag,
in which it carry’d the Young, which they drop not, nor forsake till
they can feed themselves. _Pinzon_ caught one of them with three Young,
which died in the Voyage, but the Dam he presented alive in _Granada_ to
the King.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Great Storm.]

This Captain having Sail’d six hundred Leagues along the _Parian_ Coast,
in a great Tempest two of his Carvils in his view were overset, their
Keels turn’d upward; the third driven from her Anchor, and the fourth so
shaken, and full of Leaks, that ready to sink they ran her ashore to
save their lives; and though he escaped himself the danger of drowning,
then being ashore, yet he was no ways freed from far greater
inconveniences; for he saw nothing but death either for want of
Provisions, or barbarousness of the Inhabitants: whereupon they resolv’d
to free themselves of their miseries by self-slaughter, killing one
another; but some better advised to spend their Lives like _Christians_
upon the unbelieving Salvages: Whilst they were in this desperate
condition, the Storm ceased, and Providence presented their safety, the
Ship driving in before the Wind; at which every one taking fresh
courage, they mended the two shatter’d Ships as well as they could;
wherein venturing to Sea, and setting Sail, they came on the last of
_September, Anno 1500._ into the _Spanish_ Haven _Palos_.


                               SECT. VI.
                _The Expedition of_ Americus Vesputius.

_Americus Vesputius_ a _Florentine_, Commanded four Ships, fitted out at
King _Ferdinand_’s Charge, set Sail the twentieth of _May, Anno 1497._
and refreshing at the _Canaries_, from thence he steer’d to _Paria_;
where he so much gain’d upon the Inhabitants, that for Pins, Bells,
Looking-glasses, and other Trifles, they daily brought aboard in Barter
great store of Gold, the best of Merchandise.

[Sidenote: The manner of the Inhabitants in _Paria_.]

[Sidenote: Their strange Customs.]

These People, both Men and Women go stark naked, not so much as covering
their _Pudenda_; their Complexion swarthy; they shave off all their
Hair, onely some Women leave a Tuft on their Heads. From their Faces,
being broad and flat, one may judge them to be deriv’d from _Tartary_;
they much exceed the _Europeans_ in Running and Swimming, insomuch that
the Women oftentimes without any Boats, or floating pieces of Timber,
venture two or three Leagues into the Sea; they have so great skill in
Shooting, that they exceed almost all other Nations, having Arrows
headed with sharp Fish-bones; they also use Lances and Clubs. The Women
follow the Men in the Wars, and serve in stead of Horses to carry
Ammunition and other Necessaries; to which Labor they are so us’d, that
they will bear on their Shoulders forty, nay fifty Leagues together,
such Luggage, as three _Spaniards_ are scarce able to lift from the
Ground. They acknowledge no Commander or Superior either in Wars or
Government; they keep up old Feuds, fighting with an inveterate hatred
against their Neighbors, upon antient scores and revenges, still kept in
memory of their Relations slain in former Battels, and also still
creating fresh animosities upon their Losses in later Engagements. Their
Language is smooth and pleasing, being spoken with a kind of lisping,
and absolutely different from the neighboring Nations. When they eat
they sit upon the Ground, and sleeping lie in Hammocks, each end whereof
being fastned to a Post; underneath they kindle a Fire; over them they
hang Fish-nets and Hooks, Fish-baskets and _Calabashes_. When they have
occasion to ease Nature by evacuation, they retire into some private
Place; but the Women think it no immodesty to make Water, even in the
presence of strange Men. They observe not single Matrimony; for every
Man takes as many Women as he pleases, under bonds of Wedlock such and
so sleight, that he turns them off at his pleasure: and Women take the
same liberty in casheering their Husbands when not pleasing them. They
bring forth Children with little or no pain, and wash them in a River so
soon as born; which done they return to their usual work and business.
When they are incens’d against their Husbands, they revenge themselves
by poysoning their Children. Their Houses are built in the fashion of a
House-clock, with a Roof rais’d from the Wall upon four Pillars like the
Bell, and cover’d with Palm-Leaves; some of which are so big, that they
afford room for six hundred Men: every seventh or eighth year they
remove, because (as they say) the Air is oftentimes infected by Mens
Breaths, by their long continuance in one place. Their Riches consist in
Feathers of divers colours, Strings of Fish-bones intermingled with
green and white Beads, with which they adorn their Heads, Arms, Legs,
Ears, and Cheeks: Gold and Pearls they make little account of; and as to
Trade and Commerce with other People, they know not what belongs to it.
Their greatest Friendship consists in prostituting their Daughters or
Wives to one another. Their Dead they bury in moist Grounds, and put
with them both Meat and Drink into the Graves: When any Person grows
very weak by lingring Sickness, they carry the Diseased into a
neighboring Wood, where they lay him in a Silk Hammock, tied between two
Trees; then dancing the whole day about him, at night they set Bread and
Water enough by him to last four days, and then departing look no more
after him, who thus neglected seldom escape: but if so it happen that
one recover, all his Relations for the future honour him as a god. When
any one falls into a Fever, his Friends immediately bathe him in cold
Water, and afterwards set him before a great Fire, then drive him before
them till he falls down almost breathless, and at last put him to Bed.
They neither Let blood in the Arms nor Feet, but in their Sides and
Calves of their Legs. Sometime they fast four days together, which they
suppose a great means to preserve their Health. Their Bread consists of
a sort of Fruit call’d _Jucha_, _Chambi_, or _Igname_. Lastly, no Lyon
devours his Prey with more voracious eagerness, than they their taken
Enemies.

[Sidenote: A very strange Village built on Poles.]

[Sidenote: Strange Fight.]

_Vesputius_ being fully inform’d concerning the Situation of _Paria_,
weighed Anchor, and on the sixth day after entred a convenient Harbor,
where going ashore, he found twenty Houses built in the middle of a Lake
on great Posts: every House had a Draw-bridge, over which they pass’d
from one to the other. So soon as the Inhabitants set eye on the
_Spaniards_, they immediately drew up their Bridges: yet some of them in
twelve little _Canoos_ came towards the _Spanish_ Ships, but amaz’d to
see their Looms so big, durst not, though hal’d with signs, to come
aboard, but hasted away to a high Mountain; yet seem’d to signifie that
they would return, as indeed they did, bringing sixteen Maids along with
them, of which they put four into a _Spanish_ Boat, themselves in the
interim rowing between the Ships from one to another, shewing all tokens
of friendship, when on a sudden a Company of old Women came running to
the Shore, and tearing the Hair from their Heads, made a terrible noise
and exclamation, expressing the greatest sorrow they could possible:
whereupon the four _Indian_ Maids suddenly leap’d over-board, and the
Men shot abundance of Arrows out of their Boats at the Ships; nay, some
of them swimming under Water, endeavor’d to sink the Cock-boats which
were made fast behind their Ships. Upon this sudden Onset the
_Spaniards_ making use of their Guns, quickly lessen’d the number of the
Assailants, insomuch that they fled to the Shore; yet five of them being
overtaken, were carry’d Prisoners aboard.

_Vesputius_ observing these their misdemeaning Carriages, judg’d it no
way convenient to stay any longer among such barbarous and deceitful
Salvages: but having weighed Anchor, and Sail’d eighty Leagues along the
Coast, he ran into another convenient Haven, whose Shore swarm’d with
People, which on a sudden running away, hid themselves in a neighboring
Wood.

[Sidenote: Serpents strangely prepar’d for Food.]

Here the _Spaniards_ Landing were amazed, when in their Huts they saw
Snakes and Serpents roasting before a Fire, whereof one had Wings, and
another whose Mouth was tied together with a Rope, stared with open eyes
in a frightful manner.

Here they left several Trifles to entice the fled Natives to correspond
with them. And this their Design prov’d successful; for the next day the
_Americans_ came aboard without the least fear, and offer’d to shew
their hospitable kindness to the _Spaniards_, if they pleas’d to travel
three days Journey with them up into the Countrey, telling them, they
had onely rais’d those few Huts by the Sea-side for a small time whilst
they Fish’d in those Parts.

[Sidenote: The remarkable reception of twenty three _Spaniards_.]

About twenty of the _Spaniards_ well Arm’d resolv’d to undertake the
Journey; and travelling over Hills, Dales, and Rivers, they came at last
into a Village consisting of nine of the foremention’d Houses, but
mightily peopled, where they were in a wonderful manner received by
their glad welcomes, by Dancing, Singing, Hunting, and other joyful
Acclamations, presenting their Wives and Daughters, as the chiefest part
of their hospitality, to caress the Strangers at their pleasure. The
news was no sooner spread, but the adjacent Villages came in throngs to
gaze upon, and salute the Strangers, inviting them also to their Towns.
The _Spaniards_ taking it in good part, spent nine days among them,
highly treated with all manner of jollities, but especially at their
choice with the varieties of _Venus_: from thence then returning to
their Fleet, accompanied with thousands of the Natives, every one
carrying Presents to the Admiral _Vesputius_; of whom as many as they
could at once receive, they entertaining aboard, then dismiss’d them,
and admitted others; but the Guns going off, they suddenly leap’d from
the Decks, and div’d like Ducks under Water: But afterwards being
inform’d, that such thunder-claps were sent them from Heaven to destroy
their Enemies, they were somewhat better satisfi’d, and call’d the
_Spaniards_, _Charabi_, that is, _Wise Men_.

[Sidenote: A cruel Fight with the Cannibals.]

This Island lying in the _Mexican_ Bay, in twenty Degrees of Northern
Latitude, _Vesputius_ left on his Starboard, and Sail’d along a
Meandring Coast (which he always kept in sight) eight hundred and sixty
Leagues, and at last entred a Haven, the like whereof he had not seen
before. Here he spent a Moneth in repairing his Ships, to which the
Inhabitants freely gave their assistance; and among other things
complain’d, that a salvage People came yearly thither from an Island
about a hundred Leagues distant, who fell upon them with horrible rage,
and whomsoever they took they eat, but first inflicted all manner of
tortures upon them, sparing none, but together murthering aged People
and sucking Infants; wherefore they crav’d assistance to be reveng’d,
which if the _Spaniards_ would grant, they would follow the Fleet with
their Boats. _Vesputius_ promis’d his aid to destroy such a
blood-thirsty People; and to assure them that he would perform his Word,
he order’d seven of them to go in _Canoos_ before and shew them the Way.
On the seventh day they came to an Anchor before the Island _Hy_, where
the Shore was guarded with naked Men, whose Bodies being strong and
brawny, were painted, and their Arms, Legs, and Head, adorn’d with
divers colour’d Plumes, having not onely offensive Weapons, as Bowes,
Arrows, and Launces, but also defensive, huge Targets, and square
Shields. So soon as they judg’d the approaching _Spaniards_ to be within
reach, they shot a great flight of Arrows at them; but _Vesputius_ lying
close along the Shore with his Ships, fir’d upon them with Chain-shot,
which did great execution: yet notwithstanding about forty _Spaniards_
leaping ashore out of their Boats, found themselves in no small danger;
for the Cannibals upon the sound of Horns flocking together, so press’d
upon them that they were forc’d to lay aside their Guns, and fall to
Blows, and had not timely assistance come to them, they had undoubtedly
been all slain: two hours the Victory was doubtful on whose side it
would fall; yet at last the Cannibals quitting the Field, left the
_Spaniards_ Victors; who the next day pursu’d their gotten Victory with
such success, that they drove their Enemies before them, burnt their
Villages and Boats, and carry’d two hundred and two and twenty of them
Prisoners to _Spain_, where they safely arriv’d the 15. of _November,
Anno 1498._

[Sidenote: _Vesputius_ Second Expedition.]

This good success so encourag’d _Vesputius_, that having stay’d scarce
seven Moneths ashore, he obtaining the Command over six Ships, with
which he set Sail from _Cadiz_, and touching upon the _Canaries_,
Steer’d from thence Southerly; and having Sail’d five hundred Leagues,
he discover’d a Countrey overflow’d and made Marishy by great Rivers,
and abounding with Trees, but saw no sign of any Inhabitants; yet not
long after, coming before an Island, he took a Boat with two Prisoners,
newly guelt, and sent as a Present to feast the _Cannibals_, which
refus’d to Treat on any other account whatsoever; wherefore he Sail’d
eighty Leagues forward along the Shore of an unknown Island, where he
Barter’d for some Gold, and got five hundred Pearls for one single
Shell; these Pearls the Inhabitants said were not found there, but taken
from their Neighboring Enemies, which liv’d Westward, and had abundance
of them.

[Sidenote: Strange constitution of a salvage people.]

Nothing worthy of remark happen’d in this Voyage, onely the strange
constitutions of a wild People, living on a barren Isle, deserve to be
mention’d.

About their Necks hung two hollow Vessels, the one full of white stamp’d
Worts, and Herbs; and the other, full of Grass, which they greedily
cram’d into their Mouths, feeding like Cattel; then a Stick wetted with
Spittle, they put into the bruis’d Herbs, taking upon the end of it, as
upon the point of a Knife, some of the bruis’d to their Mouths, which
(as if chawing the Cud) turning therein, then taking out again, and
strowing more of the same Herbs out of the Vessel upon it, swallow’d it
down. No fresh Water was to be had amongst them, but what they gather’d
from the Dew in great Leaves: Neither had they any Houses, but dwelt
under great Trees, and fed on dry’d Fish.

[Sidenote: Strange adventure of nine _Spaniards_, meeting with great
           Giants.]

The next remark in this Voyage, was the discovery of an Island not far
from the former, where he found the Footsteps of a Gigantick People,
upon which nine _Spaniards_ went a League to search the Countrey, where
they saw five great Huts, standing in a spacious Valley, and in them two
old, and three young Women, each of them being twice as tall as an
ordinary Man: The old ones invited the _Spaniards_ to eat, who when they
were sat down, consulting how they might take and carry one of these
Giantesses to _Spain_, there to shew her for Money, thirty six Giants
came in to them, (never did the Sun shine on a more terrible People)
which so amaz’d the _Spaniards_, that their Hair seem’d to stand an end
at the fear thereof: Every Giant was arm’d with a Bow and Arrows, and a
Club: They wondering at the nine strangers, stood talking very earnestly
one to another, which gave the _Spaniards_ time to think of making their
escape; some judg’d it convenient to discharge their Guns upon them, and
in the Smoke to run away; others thought, that it would be better to
take a milder course, which they all agreed on; and taking their leave,
went out of the Hut, but were follow’d by the Giants, who kept a Stones
cast behind them, and went faster or slower, as the _Spaniards_
slacken’d or mended their pace; who at last getting to the Shore, and
from thence into their Boats, they suddenly put off; but the Giants then
pursu’d them with eager speed, all of them leaping into the Water, and
Swimming, shot abundance of Arrows after them; but frighted by the
Thunder of two great Guns that were discharged from the Ships, return’d
ashore, and fled into the neighboring Hills.

[Sidenote: Description of the Pearl-Oysters.]

[Sidenote: _Vesputius_ third Expedition.]

_Vesputius_ at last began to consider of returning home, his Provisions
beginning to grow scarce, and his Sea-men faint, having continu’d in the
Equinoctial heats a whole year; wherefore he directed his course towards
_Spain_, in his Voyage, driving along the Coast an advantagious Trade,
by bartering Shells and Glass for Pearls. The Inhabitants presented him
with Oysters, of which some inclos’d one hundred and thirty Pearls; when
they attain to their full growth, they fall out of the Shells
themselves, but those that stick, decay. So upon the tenth of
_November_, the Fleet came safe to an Anchor before _Cadiz_. After
which, _Vesputius_ retired to _Sevil_, with intent to settle himself
there, but he had not long repos’d, when _Emanuel_ King of _Portugal_
sent for him to _Lisbon_, and gave him the Command of three Ships, to
discover new Countreys; between the _Canaries_ and _Africa_, they pass’d
thorow so many Fishes (not unlike a Bream) that in an hours time they
loaded their Boats with them; this Fish hath a round thin Scale, sharp
Teeth, Stones in their Brains or Foreheads, a sharp pointed Heart, a
Bladder full of Wind, red Tail and Fins, feeds on Sea Weeds, Gurnets and
Oysters, and is of a delicious Taste.

[Sidenote: Cruel deed of some _Indian_ Women.]

From thence, five degrees Southward of the Equinox, he found a naked
People on the top of a high Rock, that beckon’d the _Spaniards_ to come
towards them; upon which, two of them resolv’d to venture thither,
having order not to stay at the most above five days: The first
incounter they had was of some Women, who offer’d their bodies to
prostitution; but a Youth, as if affrighted with some sudden danger,
came running amongst them, whom, whilst they stood gazing upon, and
wondering at, an old Woman with a great Club, running down the Hill
overtook, and knock’d him down dead upon the ground; which done, the
Women that were making Court to the _Spaniards_, took him by the Heels,
and dragg’d up the Hill, where soon after they saw him chop’d in pieces,
Broyl’d, and eaten: They also made signs to the _Spaniards_, that they
would devour them also in the same manner. The Shore was crouded with
Men, which showr’d upon them several flights of Arrows; wherefore they
thought it best to Weigh Anchor, so taking Aboard their two Men, and
having Sail’d 150. Leagues, they got sight of the Coast of _Brasile_,
along which he Sail’d Southerly to fifty two Degrees, where three
_Brasilians_ came Aboard of their own accord, and were easily perswaded
to go with him to _Portugal_; but the Weather growing very bad, and the
Cold intollerable, the Storms swelling the Waves into the bigness of
Mountains, _Vesputius_ left the Coast _des Patagones_, and the
_Streights_, afterwards call’d _Magellan_, behind him, burnt one of his
Ships before _Cape Sierra Leona_, and brought two safe to _Lisbon_.

[Sidenote: _Vesputius_ fourth Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Sea-Spiders, and Dragons.]

His fourth Expedition happen’d, _May 10. Anno 1503._ at which time he
Steer’d directly with six Sail to _Sierra Leona_, and approaching the
Coast, could not come to an Anchor, because of the strong eddying
Currents: Three Degrees beyond the Equinox appear’d a rising Island, two
Leagues long, and one broad, destitute of Inhabitants; his best Ship
being six hundred Tun, split here against a Rock, and nothing of her was
saved, but the Sea-men: But _Vesputius_ Rowing ashore with a Boat, found
a convenient Haven, with abundance of sweet Water, high Trees,
Sea-Spiders, and horrible Dragons, which have a sharp Head, round fiery
Eyes, and wide Mouths, Wings not unlike a Bats, a speckled Breast,
curl’d Tail, blew Back, and two Bags like a drawn Satchel Triangular,
were under their Bellies: No less strange are the Sea-Spiders, by their
hard Feet, long upper Teeth, two long Sheers or Pinchers, and double
Belly; between the Head and the Belly lies a black Skin, with which they
darken the Water; when any one goes to take them in the night, they make
a great shadow; they feed on Fish, the Female lays little white Eggs,
not unlike ordinary Hail-stones.

[Illustration]

_Vesputius_ having left this desolate Isle, three hundred Leagues a
Stern, enter’d a Haven, to which he gave the name of St. _Abdy_, where
he stay’d two Months, expecting the return of those which he had sent
into the Countrey; but seeing it in vain to wait any longer, he
proceeded on his Journey, and Sailing in between the _Abrelhos_, in the
River _Curubabo_, he built a strong Fort, Garrison’d it with twenty four
Men, twelve pieces of Ordnance, and Provisions for six Moneths: Five
Moneths _Vesputius_ had spent in the building this Castle; when he
return’d home with one Ship, laden with _Brasill_ Wood, where
approaching _Lisbon_, beyond all expectation, the Inhabitants of the
City ran to Congratulate his happy return. And from this _Americus
Vesputius_, the _New World_ is to this day call’d _America_.


                               SECT. VII.
  _The Expedition of_ Alphonso, Fogeda, Diego Nicuesa, Ancisus, _and_
                          Roderick Colmenares.

[Sidenote: Wonderful Tree on _Codego_.]

_Americus Vesputius_ was scarce fitted out in _Lisbon_, when _Fogeda_
set Sail with three hundred Men from _Beata_, the chiefest Haven of
_Hispaniola_, to the Island _Codego_, inhabited by Naked People, but of
comely Personage, and withal expert and most excellent Archers: Here he
found a very strange Tree, which bears a Fruit not unpleasing to the
Palate, yet deadly Poyson, and besides, whoever chances to sleep under
their shadow, loose both their understanding and Eye-sight, and never
attain to their former Sences, except they take some _Opiates_, as
dangerous, and so by long sleep, recover.

[Sidenote: _Fogedo_’s cruelty and destruction.]

[Sidenote: Famine.]

[Sidenote: Strange accident.]

[Sidenote: _Ancisus_ escapes great danger.]

[Sidenote: _Colmenares_ Expedition.]

[Sidenote: His strange reception.]

Here _Fogeda_ set upon a poor Village near the Sea-side, where without
mercy he put them all to the Sword, except a few Youths which were onely
saved, that they might inform _Fogeda_, what was become of the slain and
taken _Spaniards_; Who told him, that according to their Custom, they
had Roasted the dead, and also their living Prisoners, and feasted on
their Flesh. Here having burnt the Houses, and sifting the Ashes,
_Nicuesa_ found some Gold. But now they began to be distress’d for
Provisions; for prevention of which, _Nicuesa_ had given order to
_Ancisus_, Marshal in _Hispaniola_, that he should follow with a Ship of
Victual, for the Army to _Codega_. But he being kept back by
inconveniencies, most of the _Spaniards_ were famish’d, so that the
three hundred Men which _Codega_ brought from _Hispaniola_, were reduced
to sixty. And he was already under-Sail to _Hispaniola_, when _Ancisus_
Anchor’d in the Haven of _Codegoos_, and sent some Men ashore to mend
his Boat, and fetch fresh Water, which whilst they were doing, the
Natives came flocking about them: Three days they fac’d one another,
using no Hostility, when at last a _Spaniard_ that understood the
_Codegan_ Tongue, adventuring to fetch Water, he was immediately
encompassed; when speaking to them, and informing them in their own
Language, That he was none of _Fogedas_ or _Nicuesas_ People, which not
long since had committed so great slaughter, they left him, and the
rather, because he told them, that _Ancisus_ would take revenge on them,
if they did any wrong to him. Thus quieted, they brought all sorts of
Provisions Aboard. Mean while, _Ancisus_ Sail’d to the Main Continent
_Uraba_, where in the Mouth of a Haven he ran his Vessel aground, which
was bilg’d; the Sea-men taking some Arms along with them, sav’d their
lives by swimming ashore; where, their first sustenance they found was
store of Peaches and Cherries, which was a great refreshment in those
hot Countreys, but yet had undoubtedly been starv’d, but that in
searching the Wood for Fruits, they found Wild-Swine, which preserv’d
their lives; yet they were not free from apparent danger, having to deal
with a Salvage People, into whose hands they were so unfortunately cast
by Shipwrack; however _Ancisus_ set a good face on the business,
marching with a hundred Men up into the Countrey, where some of the
_Urabanners_ from an ambuscade unawares, with their Arrows wounded
several of his Men, hereupon they retreated to the Shore of the River
_Daria_, whither also they had brought the small Boats, sav’d from the
Wreck; where whilst they were in consultation how to return to
_Hispaniola_, the Inhabitants having muster’d themselves, and making a
Body of five hundred Men, set upon them, who after a sharp Conflict,
made them retreat, and at last to flie, whom _Ancisus_ pursuing, found
in a Thicket of Canes or Reeds a great Treasure of Gold. Mean while,
_Nicuesa_ Sail’d to the plentiful Golden Countrey _Veragua_ with three
Ships, of which he lost two, the one Commanded by _Lupus de Olana_, and
the other by _Peter Umbria Olana_, which was stranded in the River
_Veragua_, which gives name to the whole Island, but he built a new
_Carvil_, whereas that of _Lupus Olana_ was bilg’d among the Rocks.
Little better success had _Nicuesa_, whose Ship over-turning with a
Tempest, he with a few of his Men made land upon _Veragua_, where he
rang’d up and down in a miserable condition, on a barren, and in a
manner desolate Shore seventy days: All that time, finding no other Food
than Wild Roots, who wandring up and down, at last met with _Olana_, a
little before cast away on the same Isle, whom he secur’d, because he
presum’d to usurp the Title, and be prime Commander of that Countrey.
Upon which, the _Spaniards_ being divided, some for _Ancisus_, some for
_Olana_, the difference more and more encreasing, would not be
reconcil’d, till the Famine over-powering, master’d both, so that not
being able to handle their Arms, the Salvages flew them at their
pleasure, by this means in a short time, of seven hundred eighty five,
remain’d scarce ninety; yet did not all this misery work any thing upon
the ambitious humor of _Vasques Nunnez_, who rebelling against
_Ancisus_, split that small remainder of Men, and with the help of those
he had drawn over to his Party, made himself Governor of _Uraba_, not
possible to be long enjoy’d without speedy supply, which soon after they
receiv’d; for _Colmenares_ Sailing from _Hispaniola_ with Provisions,
arriv’d there the 15. of _October, Anno 1510_. having been toss’d twenty
three days at Sea; then making into the River _Gaira_, to furnish
himself with fresh Water, he lost forty seven Men; for whilst they were
filling their Casks, seven hundred of the Salvages came down upon them,
and with their Poyson’d Arrows wounded and kill’d most of them.
_Colmenares_ came in a good time to the remainder under _Ancisus_
Command, being in danger of death for want of Provisions, and finding
the factions that were among them about Superiority, he thought it fit,
consulting with some of the chiefest of them, to find out _Nicuesa_, who
was indeed the Governor that had the Grant from the King: This agreed,
_Colmenares_ went to search, and at last lighted upon him, building a
Fortress against the assaults of the Enemies on the Promontory.
_Mormor_, he was glad to find him, but griev’d to see the misery and
hardship they endur’d, most of his Men being kill’d, partly by the
excessive Heats, partly by Famine, and partly by the cruelty of the
Natives, so that he had onely sixty remaining, and those many of them
also sick and weak.

_Colmenares_ having deliver’d his Message, _Nicuesa_ broke up his
Quarters, and sleighting the Fort, went with him, but both himself and
his Men were oppos’d from Landing by _Nunnez_; wherefore _Nicuesa_ was
necessitated to Steer for _Hispaniola_; whom, or what became of him was
never known.

_Nunnez_ having thus quitted himself of _Nicuesa_, and now, more than
ever, wanting Provision, he resolv’d to take out his own Commission at
large, and setting up for himself, make no discrimination of Persons,
_Spaniards_, or Natives, but to make out his Fortune.

And first, he fell upon _Careta_ King of _Coita_, whom he took Prisoner,
Plundering him of all his Treasure and Provisions; yet this sufficed not
long, for soon after, King _Poncha_ invading _Careta_, _Nunnez_ took
hold of that opportunity, and pretending to assist _Careta_, being well
recruited with his Forces, set upon _Poncha_, who immediately fled, and
left all to the spoil of his Enemies.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Pallace of King _Comogrus_.]

This News so amaz’d _Comogrus_, another King, that he proffer’d Peace;
whereupon _Nunnez_ going thither, was nobly entertain’d in his Palace,
being one hundred and fifty Paces long, and eighty broad, the Floors
Pav’d with Stone, and the Roofs Vaulted, his Cellars were stor’d with
Wine, made of the Root _Jucca_, _Ages_, and _Mais_; the Privy-Chamber
was hung round with dead bodies, Mummy’d artificially with Lent Fires,
and were the Corpses of _Comogrus_ Ancestors, and others of the Royal
Blood, and nearest Relations, of whom some dy’d at least four hundred
years before; each of these fasten’d by Cordage made of Reeds, were
Habited in Cotton, richly adorn’d with Pearls and Gold. Mean while, a
Hurricane happening, terrible with Thunder and Lightning, and hideous
Gusts, swell’d and so enrag’d the Sea, that breaking its bounds,
over-running, drown’d the whole Champain; thus the hopes of a fruitful
Harvest being utterly lost, they suffer’d under a great Famine.

[Sidenote: _Nunnez_ Exploits.]

The _Spaniards_ which Encamp’d near the River _Daria_, on _Uraba_,
perceiving this, and knowing they had no manner of supply from
_Hispaniola_, and having already Pillag’d the Neighboring Kings, that
they had nothing left. _Nunnez_ marching thirty Leagues up the River,
Plunder’d the Village, of which _Daibaiba_ was King, where he found an
unvaluable quantity of Gold, but little or no Provision. Here were many
Flitter Mice, or Bats, bigger than Turtle Doves, whose biting was
mortal, unless immediately wash’d with Salt Water, according to the
information of the Prisoners.

Now as _Nunnez Uraba_ Pillag’d towards the South, so did _Colmenares_,
setting up also for himself, make prize of all, to the East with sixty
Men, Rowing against the Stream up the River _Daria_, above twelve
Leagues, where he found in several Villages and Hamlets, and at King
_Turvi_’s Palace, abundance, both of Provision and Gold; from thence he
March’d to the mighty Province _Abenamchei_, which though making some
resistance, at last they subdu’d.

[Sidenote: A strange Pallace built on Trees.]

[Sidenote: Turning the low Land into a Sea.]

[Sidenote: A Plot on the _Spaniards_, strangely discover’d.]

And the neighboring King _Abibeiba_ narrowly escap’d the like fortune,
whose Pallace was built on the tops of Trees, Plash’d, and Pleited
together, Timber Beams lying athwart; necessity forcing them to choose
such high Habitations, partly to avoid the Inundations of Rivers, swoln
above their bounds by sudden and almost assiduous Showres from the
Mountains; and partly, to be free from the excursions of sculking
Robbers; also being better able to defend themselves in these Castles in
the Air, and also secur’d by their heighth from their Shot, being above
the reach of their _Indian_ Arrows: The bodies of the Trees downwards,
upon which the Houses are built, are generally twenty four Fathom thick,
so that they cannot easily be cut down, nor fired; but _Colmenares_
against these, as they suppos’d, impregnable Forts, having made a
Gallery with several great Hurdles, set his Men to work under that
safeguard, with Axes on the Tree whereon _Abibeiba_’s House stood, who
seeing his imminent danger, wondring at this new manner of Storming,
came down, promising to furnish him with Gold out of the neighboring
Mountains, notwithstanding it would be with the danger of his Life;
because the _Cannibals_ generally kill those that adventur’d to dig in
the Mines: To this promise, _Colmenares_ hearken’d, and having set him
at liberty, for the performance, he in stead thereof, on the contrary,
stirr’d up, and joyn’d with all the Conquer’d Kings, to destroy him and
his Men: Nor were they slack to have executed their design, five
thousand of them being already drawn together at the Village _Tirichi_,
the appointed place of Rendezvous, and so privately carry’d, that
undoubtedly it had been effected, if not happily discover’d by this
accident.

_Nunnez_, amongst his other Slavesses, had one exceeding beautiful, on
which he was much Enamour’d, and she likewise seem’d to bear as great an
affection towards him, which she manifested, by declaring the secret to
_Nunnez_ which her Brother had imparted to her, being an intended
general Massacre the night following, that so she might the better make
her escape the day before; yet so much she prefer’d the safety of her
Lover, before the liberty of her Native Countrey, that she discover’d
the Plot. _Nunnez_ not sleeping on this advice, on a sudden set so
fiercely upon the Conspirators, that he utterly broke their design; yet
the Feuds and Contests for Superiority still continu’d amongst them,
which look’d with so bad a Face to the ruine of all, that news thereof
arriving in _Spain_, it was judg’d fit to send for _Colmenares_, and
_John Quicedo_ to the Court, there to render an account of all their
Transactions, Both going Aboard a small Vessel, were by Storm driven on
the Coast of _Cuba_, where they were inform’d from a Prisoner, that
_Valdivia_ and _Zamudio_, driven ashore by Shipwrack, and not able to
defend themselves, were surpriz’d by the Natives, kill’d and eaten; that
_Fogeda_ driven up and down along the Coast, had lost most of his People
by hunger, and other hardship, and himself with much ado getting to
_Hispaniola_, dy’d as soon as Landed of the Wound which he receiv’d by a
Poysonous Arrow, near the River _Daria_.

[Sidenote: _Ancisus_ Voyage.]

[Sidenote: A Temple dedicated to the Virgin _Mary_ on the Island
           _Cuba_.]

But much happier was _Ancisus_, who soon after _Fogeda_ coming to
_Cuba_, found a King, who suffer’d himself to be Christen’d, and call’d
_Commendator_; and building a Church, Consecrated it to the Virgin
_Mary_; in it he erected an Image of Clay, resembling a Woman, which he
clothed in a Cotton Garment; round about were plac’d Pots with Meat and
Water, according to their old Idolatrous fashion, otherwise, they
believ’d their Idols would devour the Souls of the Dead, and this,
though Christians, they did not forget.

Nay further, when he went to War, he carry’d the Image of the Virgin
_Mary_ with him in the Front of his Army, often saying, _Ave Maria_; and
this was the end of that Voyage: But afterwards _Ancisus_ complain’d
against _Vascus Nunnez_ in the _Spanish_ Court, where he receiv’d a
Sentence very prejudicial to him. _Colmenares_ and _Quicedo_ had also
Audience there, whereupon matters being settled, a firm Government was
establish’d in _Uraba_.


                              SECT. VIII.
Peter Arias _his Expedition, and remarkable Passages of_ Vascus Nunnez.

[Sidenote: _Nicuesa_ suffers hunger.]

_Peter Arias_ Knight, accompany’d with his Wife, _Elizabeth Boadilla_,
set Sail _Anno 1514._ but surpriz’d by a violent Storm, lost two Ships,
and return’d to _Spain_, yet not long after began his Voyage afresh,
notwithstanding he had lately had such bad success, and heard of the
great hardship which _Nicuesa_ suffer’d, having not onely kept himself
alive a considerable time by feeding on flesh of Dogs, and other such
like Creatures; a great Frog being sold in _Veragua_ for a lump of Gold.

[Sidenote: Dogs us’d in the Wars.]

[Sidenote: Sodomy horribly punish’d.]

[Sidenote: _Nunnez_ first discovers the South Sea.]

[Sidenote: Is in great danger on the South-Sea.]

But _Vaschus Nunnez_ inform’d of _Arias_ arrival, the chief Governor of
_Uraba_, afterwards call’d _New Andaluzia_, minding to inrich himself
before he should depose him, and hearing that several Gold Mines lay
Southward from _Uraba_, march’d thither with a hundred and ninety Men,
thorow great Rivers, Thickets, and Woods full of Wild Beasts, deep
Vallies, and broad Rivers, not without many hazards and difficulties. In
the Mountainous Territory _Quarequan_, the Inhabitants ingag’d him
valiantly, with Bows, Arrows, Clubs, Woodden Swords, Pikes and Launces,
but frighted with the meer report of their Musquets, like flocks of wild
Fowl, dissipated and fled, but not so fast, but that six hundred of them
fell by the hands of the _Spaniards_, or were worry’d by their Dogs,
train’d up on purpose for the _American_ Wars. Soon after, coming into
the Palace, there sate his Brother dress’d up in Womens Apparel, whom
the King kept to abuse, as if a Concubine, whereof _Nunnez_ being
inform’d, in detestation of Sodomy, set the Dogs upon him, who suddenly
tore him in pieces. Amongst the slain were found several _Negroes_,
which suffering Shipwrack had been cast on the _American_ Shore, and
maintain’d a continual War with the _Quaraquanen_, so that it seem’d the
_Blacks_ which were found dead amongst them were their Slaves: Yet
_Nunnez_ was forc’d to leave a considerable number of his Men here, who
being half starv’d, and quite tired out, were not able to follow him;
but with the remaining party he march’d on, and at last came to the high
Mountains, from whence he saw the great South-Sea, and going thither,
was met by King _Chiapes_, leading an Army of thirty thousand Men, which
great Body stood not long to make resistance, being terrifi’d with the
Vollyes of Shot, whose Report the ecchoing Valleys presented to their
Ears, double and trebble: And that which most amaz’d and disanimated
them in the rout, were the Dogs, who fiercely pursu’d and seiz’d the
flyers, tearing away great morsels of Flesh. After the Battel, the
Conqueror proffer’d Peace, which was agreed on, upon the delivery of
several great Presents of Gold. After that, _Chiapes_ the King,
accompany’d with _Nunnez_ the _Spanish_ Commander, and March’d with him
over a broad River to _Coquera_, where at first some Forces made
resistance, but were routed; whereupon, they also suddenly struck up a
Peace, upon conditions, that the Prince, nam’d also _Coquera_, should
return him a great quantity of Gold. Here he found a handsome Bay
running up in crooked Reaches, above sixty Leagues, which _Nunnez_
call’d St. _Michael_, being sprinkled with Islands, and treacherous with
hidden Rocks. There _Nunnez_, (though disswaded by _Chiapes_, because he
knew the South-Sea at that time being the three last Moneths of the
Year, was exceeding turbulent, that no Vessel could hardly live in it,
yet) ventur’d with nine _Indian_ Boats, and eighty Men from the Shore
into the _Offin_; where, notwithstanding the high rolling of the Waves,
he got to an uninhabited Island, on which, being necessitated to stay a
night, the Tide flow’d so much, according to the property of the
South-Sea, that the highest Ground thereon, lay almost cover’d with
Water, every one of the _Spaniards_ having enough to do to save
themselves from being wash’d away. Day approaching, discover’d a second
inconveniency, for the _Indian_ _Canoos_ either were extremely Leaky, or
else so shatter’d, that they were unfit for service; yet notwithstanding
all this, they ventur’d to return, rather choosing to be devour’d in the
Waves, than die of that hunger, whose misery they had sufficiently
tasted, during the small time they had been out. Not long after,
_Nunnez_ Conquer’d the King _Tamaccus_ in a Field Battel, who thereupon
purchas’d his Peace with great Presents of Gold and Pearl. He also
shew’d the _Spaniards_ an Island, whose spiring tops were seen from the
Main Land, which so abounded in Pearls, that in no place were either
more or fairer to be found: But the King who liv’d on it was exceeding
powerful.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Manner of Fishing for Pearls.]

_Nunnez_ immediately resolv’d to Sail thither, notwithstanding it was
the middle of _October_, when the South-East Winds make such a turbulent
and hollow Sea, as many times wash’d away Trees and pieces of Rocks:
Besides, the Weather was more terrible, by continual Lightning and great
Thunder-Claps; the Nights very cold, the Days exceeding hot; yet all
these difficulties could not prevail, for _Nunnez_ would not stay to
expect fairer Weather, but went on, and coming thither, he saw how the
_Indians_ Fish for Pearls, which was Diving for Oysters; but the Weather
being rough and foul, they durst not venture for the best which lay far
from the Shore.

[Sidenote: _Nunnez_ returns.]

But _Nunnez_ leaving his sick and weary’d Men with _Chiapes_, March’d
quite another way back than he came; and crossing a great River, was
receiv’d by Prince _Teaocha_, who furnish’d him with Gold, Pearls,
Provisions, and Guides, which carry’d his Luggage and Goods.

[Sidenote: _Pacra_ a tyrannous King, his horrible death.]

_Pacra_, a great Oppressor of all his Neighbors, hearing of the approach
of _Nunnez_, fled, but terrifi’d with threats, return’d with three other
Princes, which were all so Deform’d, that more horrible Monsters were
never seen, scarce any part about them resembling those of a Man: The
Guides which _Teaocha_ had provided for the _Spaniard_ desir’d that he
might be put to Death, for the Cruelties which he had long committed;
whose Request being granted, he with the other three Princes, were given
as a Breakfast to the _Spanish_ Doggs. Mean while, the _Spaniards_ were
in danger to have perish’d for want of Water; yet at last, in a Thicket
of Brambles, they found a small Brook, but none of the _Indians_ durst
venture to go to it, for fear of Tygers, and other Wild Beasts;
relating, That the Tygers took many people in the nights out of their
Huts, if they were not careful in making fast their Doors.

[Sidenote: Strange relations of a Tyger.]

_John Ledesma_ had himself eaten part of a Tyger, which for six Moneths
together, had every night feasted on Mans flesh, or Beasts, which they
caught in this manner: In the Path along which he pass’d, coming out of
his Den to seek for Prey, a deep Pit was digg’d, and cover’d very
sleightly on the top, into which the Tyger fell; yet though taken, so
fiercely withstood the Pikes, Darts, and Stones thrown at him, that
every one was amaz’d to see the fury of the Beast. After that they
sought for the Female, but found onely two young ones without a Dam,
which taking along with them, they put Iron Collars about their Necks,
intending to carry them to _Spain_; but seeing no likelyhood of breeding
them up, they brought them back again, purposing to fetch them away when
grown somewhat older, and accordingly coming afterwards to look for
them, they found the Den empty, so that it was supposed they had been
devour’d by their Dam.

[Sidenote: _Nunnez_ further Journey into the Countrey, very remarkable.]

In the Province of _Bononiama_, the _Spaniards_ inrich’d themselves with
Chains, and Breast-Plates of Gold, which in great plenty hung on the
Walls in every House: At the River _Comogrus_, they discharg’d
_Teaocha_’s Guides, and made use of _Cotog_ and _Ciuriza_, two Governors
of a barren Tract of Land, full of Hills and Mountains, which they left
on their right Hand, and wandred three days over a _Morasse_, in which
they often sunk to their Knees.

In all these Travels, Victual was so scarce that they were much weaken’d
by their wants; and though they took fresh courage when they got footing
on King _Buchebua_’s Jurisdiction, yet they found nothing but empty
Huts; and the like in the Countrey of _Chiorisus_, both having a little
before been pillag’d by their more powerful neighboring Enemies. But
although they could not furnish _Nunnez_ with Provisions, they presented
him with weighty Ingots of Gold: but this rich Metal not able to
purchase the least morsel of Bread, drove them into a great strait; and
indeed they had without doubt been all famished, had not _Pocchorosa_,
another King, fed them forty days together with stamp’d Roots. Thus
refresh’d, and instigated by _Pocchorosa_, they broke by night in
_Tubunama_’s Palace, and took him Prisoner with eighty Concubines, who
fearing to be put to death, gave an incredible Treasure of Gold to
purchase his Ransom.

_Nunnez_ thus enriched came at last to his People which he had left on
the River _Daria_, where two Ships sent from _Hispaniola_ rode at an
Anchor.

[Sidenote: _Peter Arias_ his Voyage, and Fight in the Haven _St.
           Martha_.]

Whilst things were thus carry’d in _America_, _Peter Arias_ Sail’d with
fifteen Ships, Mann’d with fifteen hundred Men, to _New Andalusia_, by
the Islands _Martinina_, _Guadalupe_, and _Galanta_, all in _America_: a
considerable time he Sail’d through the Sea overgrown with Weeds.
Afterwards anchoring in the Haven _St. Martha_, he receiv’d a great
repulse from the Natives, who no ways daunted at the bigness of the
Ships, waded up to their Breasts in the Sea, and shot many great flights
of poisonous Arrows at the _Spaniards_, or whom two being wounded
immediately died. _Arias_ sending some of his Men ashore, they found
many Boats lying full of Nets, made of tough Weeds, and Ropes pleited of
Rushes.

In the Haven _St. Martha_, being three Leagues wide, are abundance of
Fish, which may be seen under Water twenty Fathom deep.

But now the _Spaniards_ that were ashore breaking into the Houses, and
taking Women and Children Prisoners, the _Americans_ prepar’d for
another Fight, which at the beginning was very fierce; but at last they
were forc’d to quit the Field.

[Sidenote: Strange Houses and Houshold-stuff.]

Their Houses and Furniture in them are worthy of observation: their
Cielings being cover’d with Shells strung on small Thred, which make a
pleasing noise, when mov’d by the least breath of Wind. The Walls are
hung with fine Stuffs, woven full of Imagery, as Cranes, Lyons, Tygers,
and some Figures of Men; the Floors are cover’d with parti-colour’d
Mats, made of Sea-Reeds, and several tough Roots; and their Carpets
beset with Pearl add also a great beauty to their Rooms.

In the Valleys the _Spaniards_ found several precious Jems, as Saphires,
Jasper, Emeralds, and great pieces of Amber, and in some Huts, Baskets,
and Chests full of dry’d Locusts, and Crabs.

Here also grows the Root _Yuca_, as also on several other _West-Indian_
Coasts, of which they make their best Bread, and is call’d in
_Hispaniola_ and _Angola_, _Yuca_; by the _Brasilians_, _Mandiba_ and
_Mandihoka_; by the _Mexicans_, _Quauhcamotli_: it grows with a thick or
midling Body, according to the fruitfulness or barrenness of the Soil;
the Leaves are like those of a Tulip, and have small Flowers and Seed,
but no ways useful; the Root, not unlike Horse-Raddish, hath a milky
Juice, which swells it exceedingly; the Sprigs, which in the eighth and
tenth Moneth shoot out of the Root, serve for new Plants; and if at any
time it happen, that either by a moist Season, or by Worms, or Pismires,
the Plant is spoil’d, then it occasions such an inconvenience amongst
the Inhabitants, that half of them in that year die of Famine.

[Sidenote: What use the _Americans_ make of the Root _Mandihoka_.]

The Leaves of the _Mandihoka_ serve them for Sallads. Out of the Root,
which they lay soaking five days in Water, they make Meal, which the
_Portuguese_ call _Farina fresca_, but the _Americans_, _Vipeba_.
Moreover, _Mandihoka_ serves them to make Bread, which they bake over
the Fire; and mix’d with Water, Pepper, and the Flour _Nhambi_, makes an
excellent Pudding, by them call’d _Mingaude Carima_, no less pleasing to
the taste than wholsom Food: and with Orange-Flour, Water, and Sugar, it
makes that excellent Julep _Tipioca_. The Powder of _Mandihoka_ put into
a Wound, cures very speedily. It is very pleasant to see the _Americans_
eat this Bread; for they toss it by handfuls at a pretty distance from
their Mouthes without letting fall the least Crum. Lastly, it requires
great art and trouble to make the _Mandihoka_ fit for Bread: first they
must peel off the Shell, then put into a Mill turn’d by two _Indians_ it
falls, being Ground, into a square Trough. The Juice proceeding from it
is mortal, if eaten when raw, but wholsom if boil’d: the Meal they put
in a Press, and when all the moisture is drawn from it, they strow it in
an Oven to dry. But the wild _Mandihoka_, by those that live on the
Sea-shore call’d _Cuacu Mandiiba_, and up in the Countrey,
_Cuquacucuremia_, differs both in shape and goodness from the first.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Arias_’s Exploits in _New Andalusia_.]

But to return to our matter: _Arias_ coming to an Anchor in the River
_Daria_, was cheerfully receiv’d by _Nunnez_; his first Business which
he undertook was the building of three Forts, to secure the Passages to
the _South Sea_; to which purpose _Joannes Aiora_ received the Command
over four hundred Workmen. Moreover, _Arias_ took great dislike in the
Place call’d _Maria Antiqua_, which the _Spaniards_ were forc’d by
necessity first to Plant in: it lay in a deep Valley between high
Mountains, so that it not onely wanted the benefit of the rising and
setting of the Sun, but when in or near the Meridian, it shin’d down
upon them, and scorch’d all their Plants, and the tepifi’d Morassy
Grounds about the same infected the Air, and the Water which they took
up to wash their Houses, immediately bred Frogs, the River _Daria_
overflow’d the Grounds with his muddy Water three Leagues distance from
the Sea; the Passage thither also was very troublesom, because of the
uneven Ways; and besides, the Tygers and Lyons devour’d many People and
Cattel.

[Sidenote: A strange Accident.]

The first Night that _Arias_ lay in _Maria Antiqua_, the House wherein
his Chirurgion Lodg’d was fir’d with Lightning, who running out with his
Wife, being both scorched by the Flames, saw a very great Crocodile,
which snatching up his Dog ran away with him towards the River.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Trees.]

The neighboring Territory _Coiba_ produced Trees, whose Timber us’d for
Shipping never breeds Worms, because of its acerbity; whereas on the
contrary, all other Vessels in that Countrey are very subject to that
inconvenience. Here also grow those famous Plague-Trees, whose very
Leaves, if but falling upon one, are like Gods Arrows, mortal, and
immediately kill, unless the Place whereon they light be straightway
anointed with fasting Spittle: and the _Coibensers_ say, that they know
another poysonous Wood, which they use to destroy their Enemies withall.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Journey of _Moralis_ to the _South Sea_.]

Whilst _Arias_ was consulting about the beforemention’d Affairs, he sent
several Comanders to divers Places, to take a survey, and give him an
account of their Return of all their Discoveries. Amongst others _Gasper
Moralis_ was order’d to march towards the _South Sea_, to confirm the
Peace which _Nunnez_ had begun with the Kings _Chiapes_ and _Tumaccus_;
and chiefly to go to the Pearl-Island with sixty Men, which _Nunnez_ was
forc’d to leave, being stress’d by tempestuous Weather. _Chiapes_ and
_Tumaccus_ were according to their promise, to prepare an Army ready for
his assistance against his coming; which indeed they perform’d, so that
they wanted nothing but Vessels, for the biggest of theirs could not
carry above three or four Men; yet they undertaking their Enterprise,
Landed seventy Men on the Island; upon which the Inhabitants under their
Kings Conduct ran to meet the new Landed Forces, and crying out aloud
_Guazzavara_, _Guazzavara_, they ran in amongst the Musqueteers with
their woodden Swords; but the report of the Guns, mix’d with Fire,
Smoak, and Bullets, soon amaz’d them: the King flying, thought by alarm
to raise all the Islanders; but they being inform’d, that no People
whatsoever could withstand the fire-spitting People, made Articles of
agreement with _Moralis_, and Condition’d to deliver a hundred pound
weight of the choicest Pearls to the use of the King of _Castile_; and
as a testimony of his Friendship he was Christen’d _Peter Arias_, from
the Governors Name of _New Andalusia_.

[Sidenote: Strange Pearl.]

How great the Treasure was which _Moralis_ brought from the Pearl Island
may appear by one of the Pearls, for which Pope _Leo_ the tenth gave
forty four thousand _Ducats_ to a _Venetian_ Merchant.

[Sidenote: _Solisius_ his miserable end.]

Amongst the Commanders which were sent out by _Arias_, was also
_Johannes Solisius_, who Sailing six hundred Leagues Southerly, along
the Coast of the _Caribbies_, beyond _Cape St. Augustine_, he found the
Inhabitants of _Pernambuck_ to be no less cruel than subtile; for being
invited ashore, he with some of his Men Row’d thither, where no sooner
Landing, but were all kill’d and eaten in the sight of the other Sea-men
aboard; at which being amaz’d they weighed Anchor, and Sail’d away,
Freighted onely with _Brasile_ Wood, to _Cadiz_.

Also in an unhappy hour did _Johannes Pontæus_ put some of his
Laundresses ashore on the Island _Guadalupa_, to wash some Linnen for
him; for the Islanders coming on a sudden out of the Woods surpriz’d
them, and forthwith killing without mercy, cut them in pieces, and
carbonadoing, eat their broil’d Flesh hot from the Coals, while
_Gonsalus Badajocius_ Sail’d with eighty Men Westerly, and having gone
sixty Leagues he went ashore, and spent some days in vain, to Court the
_Americans_ to a friendly correspondency; which whilst he was doing, he
was recruited with fifty Men from _Daria_, Commanded by _Lodowick
Mercado_: so both agreed together to travel over the Mountains to the
_South Sea_.

[Sidenote: Strange Slaves.]

[Sidenote: Great Booty.]

The Governor _Juana_, whose Jurisdictions abound in Gold, flying with
most part of his Treasure, was never heard of, onely they took some of
his Slaves, whose Faces were strangely Carv’d with sharp Fish-bones, the
Wounds fill’d with red and black Powder, which so discolour’d the Flesh
that it could never be got out. After that they travell’d through the
Wilderness five days together, being onely met by some _Indians_
carrying _Maiz_, who signifi’d to them, that King _Periguete_ liv’d
along the Sea-shore, and up into the Countrey the blind _Totonoga_; of
both which they got an unvaluable Treasure of Gold. Amongst other Pieces
of that rich Metal was one which weighed two pound.

_Taracura_ rais’d in this Expedition eighteen thousand weight of Gold:
and little less did they take out of the Territories belonging to the
Princes _Pananome_, _Tabor_, _Cheru_, and _Scoria_: The Prisoners serv’d
them in stead of Horses, they not being able to carry all the Gold
themselves, the meanest Soldier having above three thousand Pounds
_Sterling_ for his share.

[Sidenote: Destruction of the _Spaniards_.]

They were now got to _Panza_’s Kingdom, not without leaving sad remarks,
of their avarice and cruelties. When _Pariza_ surrounding this Party
thus loaden with Gold, Charged so fiercely, that at the first Assault
seventy of them were slain; those few that escap’d brought the tidings
of their sad misfortune to _Peter Arias_. Amongst those that escaping
return’d, was _Franciscus Delapuente_, whose observations concerning
catching Parrots and wild Fowl, we will briefly relate, the digression
being but short.

[Sidenote: A strange way to catch Parrots.]

The _Indian_ where the Parrots are most frequent climbs into a Tree, and
chattering like them, with his Voice imitating their Notes, allures his
fellow-prater to draw near, and suffer him to take them in his Hands.
But more belongs to the taking of wild Fowl, as Geese, Ducks, Swans, and
the like: From the bottom of their standing Pools and Lakes in that
Countrey grow Weeds, which spreading upon the Water ripen, and rotting
breed Water-Flies, Spiders, and Frogs, upon which the Fowls feed. Near
these Pools in the Gardens grow Cabbages as high as Trees, which often
dropping into the Water serve the Birds both for Nests and Food: but the
skilful Fowler finds it his best way to take one of these Cabbages, and
making it hollow in the middle, claps it on his Head like a Helmet, then
going into the Water up to his Chin, and passing softly along in such
manner, that nothing is seen but the floating Cabbage, and coming near
the Birds, he takes them one after another by the Legs, and puts them
into a Bag ty’d about his middle for that purpose.

[Sidenote: Strange Bird _Toucan_.]

But what is more worthy observation is the _American_ Bird _Toucan
Xochitenachate_, having a fleshy Bill, like a Mouth full of Teeth, which
continually opens and shuts to draw Breath, having no Nostrils; the
Back, Neck, and Wings, are black, the Breast yellow like Gold, the Belly
and end of the Tail of a Vermillion colour.

[Sidenote: Evacuated Pepper.]

This Bird _Toucan_ feeds for the most part on Pepper, which tarries not
long with them, but muted almost as soon as swallowed: which Pepper thus
evacuated the Natives value above their common, because the unpleasing
sharp acidity, or biting quality is thereby much mitigated.

But to return: Whilst the Expeditions under the Command of _Peter Arias_
had such bad success, _Arias_ himself and _Vaschus Nunnez_ hapned to
clash: _Nun__nez_, who since his discovery of the _South Sea_ was held
in some repute at the _Spanish_ Court, had built four Ships on the Shore
of the same Ocean, to make farther inspections along the Coasts thereof:
but being commanded to come to _Arias_ the Governor, he was committed to
Prison, and accused of high Treason, as if he had intentions to settle
himself in _Peru_, and absolutely to have left _Daria_: all which though
he disown’d, and utterly deni’d with great protestations when brought to
a Trial, and no witness to affirm the contrary, yet was by _Arias_’s
special Order Beheaded.

Not long after which _Lupus Sosa_, Governor of the _Canary_ Islands, was
sent to succeed _Arias_ in _New Andalusia_.


                               SECT. IX.
 _The Expeditions of_ Francisco Fernandez, Lupus Caizedus, Christophero
           Morantes, Bernardo Igniguez, _and_ Juan Grisalva.

[Sidenote: Original of the Name _Jucatan_.]

_Fernandez_, _Caizedus_, and _Morantes_, antient Planters in _Cuba_,
obtain’d a Licence from the Governor _Diego Velasques_, to Rig out three
Ships with a hundred and ten Men to discover new Lands. _Velasques_
thought fit to add one more to their number upon the Kings account;
which Trust he committed to _Igniguez_: all of them consulted with the
experienc’d Navigator _Antonio Alamines_. Six days the Fleet had been at
Sea, when they discover’d Land, which by a mistake was call’d _Jucatan_,
because the Inhabitants being ask’d what was the Name of the Coast,
answer’d _Jucatan_; which, as the _Spaniards_ were afterwards inform’d,
signifi’d, _We understand you not_.

[Sidenote: Stately City.]

Upon the Shore they found a City, whose Stone Buildings, with stately
Fronts and high Turrets, shew’d most magnificently. _Fernandez_ call’d
this City for its wonderful bigness, _Cairo_, from the _Egyptian_
Metropolis, famous through the World.

[Sidenote: _Campechium_ a City.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable Images, and strange Stage.]

The _Spaniards_ coming to Land were courteously receiv’d, and conducted
into the City; the neatness of whose Market-places, and exactness of
their Streets, they beheld with admiration; as also the costly Stuff
Garments both of Men and Women: but their wonder increas’d when they
beheld very artificial Crosses, concerning which upon inquiry they
related, That a Man more glorious than the Sun, being busie in erecting
the Crosses, died. But these People, though so courteous and civil at
first, seem’d in few days to be weary of their company; which the
_Spaniards_ observing sounded a Retreat, and Sailing Westerly, proceeded
on their intended Design, and soon after anchor’d before _Campechium_;
the King of which conducted _Fernandez_ and _Morantes_, with some
others, into the City, consisting of three thousand Houses. In his
Palace they were entertain’d with all manner of Fowl roasted: After
which refreshment they survey’d the City; in which, amongst other
curious Buildings, was a high, but square Theatre of Marble, on which
stood the Image of a Man, on all corners assaulted by four wild Beasts,
which were of a no less strange than horrible shape. Not far from this
Image they saw a Serpent fashion’d up of Chalk and little Stones, whose
coyl’d up Tail was forty seven Foot long, and of a proportionable
thickness. This Serpent, sprinkled with Mens Blood yet warm, seem’d to
prey upon a Marble Lyon: both these were inclos’d with a Stone Rail,
within which Malefactors were daily executed. Bloody Bows and Arrows
broke in small pieces lay between the Bones and dead Bodies. _Igniguez_
call’d the King _Lazarus_, because he discover’d his Countrey on _St.
Lazarus_’s Day.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Moscobo_ a City.]

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ slain.]

[Sidenote: Mighty Island _Cosumella_.]

Making no long stay here, they return’d to their Ship, and weighing
Anchor Sail’d fifty Leagues more Westerly, the Fleet got sight of
_Moscobo_, in the Territory _Aguanil_, whose King assaulted the
_Spaniards_ with so much fury, that two and twenty of them were slain,
and scarce one escap’d which was not wounded: wherefore they return’d
with bad success to _Cuba_. Yet _Velasques_ no ways discourag’d thereat,
not long after fitted out four Vessels, Manning them with three hundred
Men under the Command of _Juan Grisalva_ and _Alamines_; who having
Sail’d seventy Leagues, discover’d the fruitful Island _Cosumella_;
along whose Shore stood fair Stone Edifices, intermix’d with Temples,
whose Steeples appear’d above the Houses. _Grisalva_ being led up into
one of these Steeples by a Priest, saw at a distance off at Sea the
Territory _Jucatan_: and in the Place where they were, there were
spacious Halls, full of Marble and Stone Images of deformed Men and
Beasts, which with a murmuring noise, and burning of incense they
religiously worship. The _Spaniards_ call’d this Island _Sancta Cruz_.

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ fight with the _Campechiums_.]

Sailing from hence they directed their Course to _Campechium_, where the
year before they had been so civilly treated; where arriving, and
without any fear coming ashore, they found the _Campechiums_ quite of
another humor than they were the former year, telling them, They would
not suffer any Strangers to be amongst them; and placing a burning Torch
between theirs and the _Spanish_ Forces, threatned, That if they did not
depart in quiet, they would force them: which accordingly they
endeavor’d, making a fierce Onset upon the _Spaniards_; who being now
come under their Battlements, when they saw their advantage, pour’d what
they had kept as a reserve, whole Volleys of small Shot amongst them;
which struck so much terror, that they all ran away, shifting for
themselves, and crowding into the City.

The _Spaniards_ found afterwards _Jucatan_ to be but a _Peninsula_, and
came before a River which fell with so strong a Current into the
_Mexican Sea_, that it retain’d its sweetness for the space of two
Leagues.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Strange passages on _Tabasco_.]

This River, flowing out of the Province _Tabasco_, was call’d
_Grisalva_: upon whose Banks stood above six thousand _Americans_; and
in the Water appear’d a hundred Boats with Armed Men, which Row’d aboard
the _Spanish_ Ships. The Interpreters of _Cuba_, whose Language agrees
for the most part with the _Tabascers_, prevail’d so much, that the King
himself came to the chief Commander _Grisalva_, and bartering with him,
gave him as much Gold as his Iron Helmet, Breastplate, and other Armor
weighed.

[Sidenote: _Sacrifice Island._]

Soon after they Landed on the _Island of Sacrifice_, so call’d from the
horrid Sacrifices which the Inhabitants made daily.

[Sidenote: Exceeding horrible Sacrifices.]

Amongst other strange Images, there flood a great Lyon of Marble,
seeming almost decollated with a great gash; into which Wound they
pour’d humane Blood warm, which was receiv’d into a Stone Trough set for
that purpose underneath; then the Figure of a Man Carv’d in Alabaster,
bowing forward, as if looking into the Trough upon the Blood. Those
which were sacrificed were Prisoners taken on the neighboring Coasts,
whom bringing before their Idols, they ripping open make no farther
inspection, but onely to whip out the Heart; with which having smear’d
the Lips of their Idols, they throw it into the Fire: the Heads and
Corps they let lie unburi’d; whose fleshy parts, especially their
Cheeks, they feast upon.

[Sidenote: _Maiden-Island._]

The next Island is inhabited by Women; to which Annually their Neighbors
go, pretending merry kindness, but upon amorous inclinations: and Plough
and Till their Ground, and Weed their Gardens.

[Sidenote: _Pontenchianum_ a City.]

The chief City of _Tabasco_ is _Pontenchianum_, and contains above
fifteen hundred Houses, all built of Stone hardned with baking after
their manner; which in some Places, besides their Turrets and Temples,
yield a pleasant Prospect at a great distance. Fourteen eminent Towns
more did the _Spaniards_ also see in _Tabasco_.

[Sidenote: Strange making of Obligations.]

When in conversing with them they observ’d their strange manner of
Sealing their Bargains and Contracts one with another, they were amaz’d,
for not using Wax, they usually Seal’d their Compacts with their own
Blood, commonly drawn with a Stone Knife, either from their Tongue,
Hand, or Arms.

Their Priests live single, and if found to be Unchast, are punisht with
Death. An Adulteress is sold for a Slave: Unmarry’d People may not
frequently converse with Marry’d: Thirty five days in the year makes
their _Lent_, in which they abstain not onely from Flesh, but Fish also,
feeding onely upon Roots and Herbs. In this place the _Spaniards_ were
receiv’d in great state, Canopy’d with green Palm-Tree-Branches, and in
like manner conducted aboard again, not without many Presents, _viz._
the Effigies of a Man curiously wrought in Gold, wherewith they return’d
to _Cuba_.


                               SECT. IXA.
 _The Expedition of_ Ferdinand Magaglian, _commonly call’d_ Magellane.

[Sidenote: Bishop _Casis_ sad effect concerning the Pearl catching.]

The Bishop _Bartholomew de Casis_, living a considerable time in
_Hispaniola_, in the City _Dominico_, being inform’d of the abundance of
Pearls which were caught before _Cubagua_, and the unsupportable cruelty
of the _Spaniards_ there under _Ocampus_, us’d against the Inhabitants,
went to _Spain_, with a design to obtain of the Emperor _Charles the
Fifth_, the Government over _Cumana_ and _Cubagua_, under pretence, to
draw the ignorant Natives from their Idolatry, to _Christianity_; which
his request was especially promoted by _William_ of _Nassaw_, the
Emperors prime Favorite; so that having his Letters Patents granted to
that purpose, he took Ship, and arriv’d with three hundred _Spanish_
Gentlemen of Quality in _Cumana_: And that they might have the greater
respect shown to them there, they had each a Red Cross given them, such
as the Knights of _Calatrava_ generally wear. Yet little did _Ocampus_,
the old Governor of _Cumana_, regard either them or their Authority; for
in stead of receiving and submitting, he kept the Bishop _de Casis_ out
by force of Arms; who then made complaint to the _Vice-Roy_ of the
_West-Indies_ in _Hispaniola_, and in the mean time, put his _Cargo_
into a new Store-house.

But whilst he made his Addresses, _Ocampus_ having sufficiently inrich’d
himself departed, which incourag’d the _Cumaners_, who already were
incens’d, and weary of their former sufferings, to venture on a design,
whereby they might revenge themselves of the _Spaniards_, which their
undertaking prov’d so successful, that very few escap’d the Massacre: Of
which, _de Casis_ being inform’d, and much discontented thereat, betook
himself to a _Dominican_ Cloyster in _Hispaniola_.

[Sidenote: Cruelty of _Castellio_ in _Cumana_.]

Yet not long after, the _Cumaners_ paid dear for that slaughter, for one
_Castellio_, though not without several Engagements, with various
success, lasting forty days together, having at last utterly vanquish’d
them, put to an ignominious Death, Hanging up seventy of their Princes,
and to them of meaner quality, shewing as little mercy.

[Sidenote: _Lampagnano_ discontented.]

As little success had _Lodowick Lampagnano_, sent out by some _Spanish_
Merchants, with Letters Patents from the Emperor to Fish for Pearl,
before the same _Cubagua_; to which purpose he carry’d peculiar Nets and
other necessaries with him. But the _Cubaguan Spaniards_ unanimously
withstood him; so that not being able to effect his design, overpower’d
with a Melancholly Distemper that broke his Heart, he dy’d.

[Sidenote: _Magellanus_ Expedition, how it happen’d.]

In the interim, while these scarce considerable Voyages turn’d to so
small account, _Ferdinand Magaglianus_ (for so _Peter Martyr_ calls him,
and not _Magellanus_, which herein deserves to be credited, because they
were intimately acquainted, and great friendship between them,)
undertook to Sail round about the World; the occasion of which we will
here relate at large:

This _Magaglianus_, or _Magellanus_, a Gentleman of _Portugal_, having
perform’d things of great importance for his King, in _Africa_, although
with no less trouble than Charge, desir’d an addition of half a Ducket a
Moneth added to his Annual Pension; an inconsiderable Sum to make a
Request for, yet though so little, was as niggardly deny’d: Whereupon,
highly incensed, he study’d no little revenge; to which effect, soon
after an opportunity was presented, by means of _Franciscus Serranus_,
who writ from _Ternata_ to him, that he should speedily come thither,
which he soon after did upon this account:

[Sidenote: Strange Giant.]

Pope _Alexander_ the Sixth, having fixt Terminaries between the Kings of
_Castile_ and _Portugal_, both busie at that time in discovering new
Countreys, Order’d, That _Castile_ should possess all the Coasts lying
to the West of the chief _Meridian_, and _Portugal_ to the East: By
vertue of this partition, the rich Spicy _Molucca_ Islands fell
absolutely to the _Portuguese_: Now _Magellanus_ perswaded _Charles the
Fifth_, that they might be Sail’d to with a Westerly Course, and
therefore belong’d to _Castile_; Which advice, _Charles the Fifth_
considering, and approving, Rigg’d out five Ships, with which
_Magellanus_ set Sail from _Sevil_, the tenth of _August, Anno 1519._
five Moneths he ply’d up and down the Coast inhabited by the
_Patagones_, where he found none but one single Person, or rather a
Monster, a Giant ten Foot high, who coming Aboard his Ship, devour’d a
great Hamper full of Biskets, and at one Draught drunk up nine Pottels
of Water. He also saw several Trees which had been Hew’n with Axes, and
Crosses made on the tops of them. Whilst he lay in that Harbor, which
was call’d _St. Julian_, he Cashier’d his Vice-Admiral, _John
Carthagena_, with his Father Confessor, and sparing their lives, set
them ashore, and there left them to seek their Fortunes, though they had
Conspir’d to Murther him.

[Sidenote: _Straights_ of _Magellan_, how found.]

_Magellanus_ from thence Sailing afterwards Southerly along _America_,
to forty two Degrees Southern Latitude, was engag’d with the eddyings of
a very strong Current, which driving one of the Ships into a Bay, split
against a blind Rock, but the Men being sav’d in their Boat, were driven
farther and farther into a Channel, between high and Snowy Mountains;
whereupon he immediately judg’d (as the famous Negromancer _Roderick
Talerus_ had often told him) that there was the Passage, through which
the Northern Ocean flow’d into the Southern; wherefore he resolutely
adventur’d to Sail into those _Sraights_, which in some places narrow,
and in others broad, is an hundred and twenty Leagues long, and full of
small Isles and dangerous Rocks. Whilst he still Sail’d on, the Ship
call’d _Antonio_, Tacking about, return’d to _Cadiz_.

But _Magellanus_ enter’d the great South-Sea with three Sail, on the 25.
of _October_, where the Sea-men suffer’d extremely by excessive Heat,
Drought, and Famine, three Moneths and twenty Days, without sight of
Land: And now, their Shooes, and the Leather which cover’d their
Shields, began also to grow scarce (which before had been counted a
Dainty) when they discover’d two Islands lying two hundred Leagues
distance one from another, yet both Desolate and Barren, wherefore they
were call’d the _Unfortunate Isles_: After that, they came amongst a
great number of Islands, whose Inhabitants were much inclin’d to
Thievery; for which cause they Denominated them _Ladrones_, the chiefest
Island call’d _Borneo_, hath two hundred fifty four Leagues in
Circumference, whereon a Tree grows, whose Leaves when faln off, seem to
be alive and creep like Worms. The King of this Island entertain’d the
_Spaniards_ very courteously, two Elephants bringing his Presents to
them on the Shore, out of a City consisting of twenty thousand Houses.

[Sidenote: _Magellanus_ slain.]

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ murdered.]

[Sidenote: An end of the Voyage about the world.]

Near _Borneo_ are two lesser Islands, call’d, _Zubo_ and _Matan_; The
King of _Zubo_ freely submitted himself to the _Spaniards_, and
_Magellanus_ leaving his Fleet at Anchor in the Haven, went with his own
and other _Indian_ Boats, and attended with some of the _Zubensers_ to
_Matan_, where setting a Village on Fire, he carry’d great Riches from
thence: This not satisfying, he resolv’d within eight days to set upon
the Royal Head-City; but the King in his own Defence, Encountering with
_Magellanus_, slew him, and seven _Spaniards_ more, besides twenty two
dangerously wounded; those which escap’d by flight, got to _Zubo_, where
being invited to Dinner by the King, they were all of them (in stead of
a second Course) Murther’d at Table. The occasion of this was out of
Revenge, because the _Spaniards_ had fall’n too foul upon their Women
and Maids, Devirginating, and forcing them to their Pleasure, than which
rudeness nothing was among them more Detestable. The Sea-men weakned by
these Misfortunes, were necessitated to burn their third Ship, call’d,
_St. Jago_; but Sailing to the _Molucco_ Islands with the other two,
they Freighted them both with Cloves; with which the Ship _Trinitas_
Sail’d to _New-Spain_ through the South-Sea, and the _Victoria_,
Commanded by _John Sebastian de Lano_ went the same way which the
_Portuguese_ us’d, and so to St. _Lucar de Barrameda_, near _Sivile_,
where he came to Anchor with his Ship and eighteen Men.


                                SECT. X.
                    Ferdinando Cortez _his Voyage_.

[Sidenote: _Sottus_ cruelty.]

Although several Expeditions of the _Spaniards_ to _America_ prov’d very
unsuccessful at the first, yet they still undertook them afresh, and
with renewing Courage: _Ferdinando Sottus_, though he Landed five
hundred Men in _Florida_, yet brought no Treasure from thence, onely he
cut off the Hands of fifteen Princes, because they would not discover
their Mines of Gold.

[Sidenote: Miserable end of _Narvaez_.]

Yet far worse success had _Pamphilus Narvaez_, who lost both his Fleet
and Men, saving onely ten out of six hundred, in the River _Palma_, and
they also afterwards dy’d there, or eat one another to satisfie their
raging Hunger.

[Sidenote: _Cortez_ his Voyage.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable delivery.]

But much better was the fortune of _Ferdinando Cortez_, Sailing from
_Spain_ to _America_, in the Year 1519. who having the Command given him
over ten stout Ships, and three Frigats with five hundred Foot, and an
additional Force of sixteen Horse, rais’d by the new _Spanish_
Inhabitants on Cuba; with which Forces Landing on the Island
_Cozumella_, he prohibited Humane Sacrifice to their Idols, and Erected
a Cross with the Image of the Virgin _Mary_, in one of their Temples,
and releas’d _Hieronimus Aquilaris_, after a seven years Slavery, having
suffer’d Shipwrack with _Valdivia_; at which time some that sav’d
themselves in the Boat, were by the Current in thirty days driven to
_Jucatan_, in which time seven dy’d of Hunger; the rest going ashore,
were no sooner Landed, but Sacrific’d by the Natives to their Gods or
_Zemes_. Among the six that remain’d, yet left alive, and to be offer’d
after the same manner the next day, was this _Aquilaris_, who with his
Companions, breaking Prison, in the following night fled to a
Neighboring Prince their Enemy, and one that maintain’d a continual War
against these _Cannibals_.

[Sidenote: Strange Battel.]

[Sidenote: _Potanchanum_, a City.]

[Sidenote: _Colvacan_ Books, of what fashion, as also their Temples.]

Here _Cortez_ sent Articles of Peace to _Taxmarus_ the King of the
Countrey, but he sleighting his proffer, came down upon him into the
Field with forty thousand Men, drawn from the City _Potanchanum_, which
contain’d above twenty thousand Houses, all built of Stone: And indeed
the _Spaniards_ had here seen their last day, had not _Cortez_ drawn by
a seeming advantage the Enemies under his Canon, and sent his small
Party of Horse to attend the motion of the Rear; when so soon as they
had fir’d their Canon, making great Execution, the Front routed, and the
Rear terrifi’d with the noise and smoke of the Guns, they also broke,
being at the same instant Charg’d with the Horse, which were so terrible
to them that never saw Horses, nor such Service on Horseback before,
that in a short time the whole Body of so great an Army was utterly
dissipated, and the triumphing Conquerors took possession of the empty
City _Potanchanum_, where Solacing, they staid a whole Moneth. Then from
hence they Sail’d to _Colvaca_, where, upon the request of the Natives,
they settled a Colony. Amongst the Presents which were there given to
the _Spaniards_, were some of their own Volumes, Books, whose Leaves
were made of the innermost Rind of a Tree, and a kind of Paste, made of
their Meal, glew’d together; the Characters stood at some distance one
after another, rang’d like our _Christ-Cross Row_, or _A_, _B_, _C_.

Here _Cortez_ was amaz’d to behold their stately Temples, the Floors
whereof were cover’d with Embroyder’d Tapestry, beset with Precious
Stones, to which great multitudes flock’d, being very zealous to perform
their Devotions.

When their Seed is put into the Ground, or come to its full growth, they
offer young Children to their _Zemez_, richly Cloth’d, having been
fatten’d some Weeks before: When they want Children they kill their
Slaves, and in default of them, they pacifie them with Dogs.

[Sidenote: Strange Sacrifices.]

The _Victims_ that go to be Sacrific’d, they Worship with all Adoration,
Bowing and Congying before them.

[Sidenote: Strange Idol-Worship.]

Their Zeal in this their Idol-Worship may appear from a strange Custom,
observ’d by them when they enter their Temple, _viz._ they either draw
Blood out of their Tongues, Lips, Ears, Breast, Knees, or Palm of their
Hands, which they throw into the Air, supposing thereby to be pardon’d
by their indulgent Gods.

[Sidenote: _Zempoal_, a City.]

In the City _Zempoal_, _Cortez_ found five Slaves, who being kept close
Prisoners, were to be Sacrific’d the next day; but he releasing them,
did upon the importunate request of the _Quines_, or Priests, and
promises of great ransoms, and their telling of him that the _Zemez_
would spoil all their Seed and Plants that year, if they did not go on
with these Offerings, restor’d the Prisoners again; who, though the
enjoyments of all happinesses in the other World were promis’d them by
their Priest, and great assurance given thereof; yet they were not
forward, but return’d, unwilling to suffer, though by so gainful a
Sacrifice.

[Sidenote: _Zemez_ wonderful Idols.]

At the _Zemez_ Feet hung abundance of Mens Bones bundled up together,
and under them were Written the Names of their Enemies, whose Flesh had
been either Sacrific’d or eaten.

[Sidenote: _Cortez_ his Exploits.]

Twelve Leagues beyond _Zempoal_, _Cortez_ built a new City near the
River _Grisalva_, and call’d it _Vera Crux_, which _Diego Velasques_
resented so ill, it being done without his knowledge, that he petition’d
the Council of _Cuba_ to give Sentence of Death against the Founder: But
whilst _Cortez_ expected an answer from the Embassadors (which were sent
to the _Spanish_ Court to give account of the necessity of building a
City there) he travell’d eighty Leagues Westerly. The _Zempoalensers_
accompanied him in great Troops, hoping by that means to shake off the
yoke of the mighty King _Montezuma_, against whom they were then
design’d. _Cortez_ coming into the Territory of _Sincuchimalar_, was in
the Name of _Montezuma_, by one of his Princes, courteously entertain’d
in a great Village, scituate on a steep Mountain, without any Path or
Way leading to it, but by two high Ladders. _Sincuchimalar_ lies
surrounded with Hills, whose tops seem to touch the Clouds. Coming down
from the Village, they travell’d through a barren and cold Valley, where
they suffer’d such great Inconveniences by want of Provisions and Water,
and exceeding coldness of the Weather, that many of them perish’d. After
that, they ascended a pleasant Hill, on whose summit stood a Chappel,
with a handsom Steeple, and hedg’d about with great heaps of Wood,
brought thither by the Inhabitants for the use of their Sacrifices. At
the foot of this Mountain was a fruitful Valley water’d by a pleasant
River, on whose Banks a certain Prince nam’d _Cacataminus_ had a Palace,
built of Stone, and containing many Rooms, and convenient Lodgings.
Somewhat higher to the Land, appear’d more of the like Structures, which
were all under _Montezuma_’s Jurisdiction; but the neighboring Countrey
_Tlaxcalla_, whose Inhabitants were famous for their Valor, would never
receive any Laws from _Montezuma_.

[Sidenote: Remarkable War in _Tlaxcalla_.]

_Cortez_ no sooner set footing in this Countrey, but he was set upon by
a thousand of the Inhabitants, who at the first Assault kill’d two of
the _Spanish_ Horse, yet after this bold Charge, the Assailants fled,
and on the next day desir’d Peace; whereupon the _Spaniards_ march’d
quietly into the Countrey, when a confus’d Company, or Forlorn-Hope,
making a horrible Noise, set upon them; but after a slight Skirmish,
they fled to their Main Body, which immediately drawing up, being at
least a hundred thousand, hemm’d in the handful of _Spaniards_, and so
were ready to swallow them, leaving them no Angle to escape at. Thus
invironed, they were assailed on every side, fighting till Sun-set, and
had undoubtedly been utterly destroy’d, had not _Cortez_ ply’d his six
Pieces of Cannon, discharging continually Volley after Volley upon them;
and though the Execution was very much, yet the Sound and report of
their Ordinance was more terrible to them that were out of the reach of
the Bullet, and made more to the gaining so great a Victory, Fear
conquering more than Slaughter; so that by the Evening, despairing
either of their Safety or better Fortune, the whole Army disbanding
fled: But the pursuing Conquerors firing five of their Villages,
remain’d Masters of the Field; yet they, though thus totally routed,
taking fresh Courage (a wonderful thing!) reinforc’d them, and set upon
the _Spanish_ Camp, with no less than 150000 Fighting Men: Yet
notwithstanding so vast an Army, _Cortez_ so well order’d his small
parcel of Men, and so valiantly led on upon all Advantages, that he in
like manner defeated this, as they thought, Invincible Preparation. Thus
flesh’d with so much Blood of the Natives, he raged every where, giving
no Quarter where-ever he went.

Mean while _Quesitangal_, a neighboring Prince, having also raised an
Army with which he design’d, being assisted by darkness, craftily to
fall into the _Spanish_ Quarters by Night, subtilly dissembling, sent
Embassadors the day before, with several Presents, and Overtures of
Peace, which indeed were onely Spies, to take notice where they might
best break in upon them; which _Cortez_ mistrusting, and soon being
inform’d of the whole Design, he cut off the Spies Hands, so sending
them back to _Quesitangal_ with Defiance: Hereupon the _Indians_
immediately setting forward, took advantage of the ensuing Night, and
with great fury fell upon the _Spaniards_, who preacquainted with the
Design, were in so good a posture to receive them, that not able to
endure such hot Service, they quickly retreated, and utterly gave over
the Enterprize: But _Cortez_ as much encourag’d by these Victories,
pursu’d them, and the same Night Storm’d _Tlaxcalla_, a City containing
above twenty thousand Houses, which in few Hours he carried. This City
was curiously built, of bak’d Stones, and a place of great Trade;
insomuch that the Market-places swarm’d with Buyers and Sellers,
bartering one with another all manner of Provisions, as Fish, Flesh, and
Bread, also Plumes of Feathers, Pearls, imbroyder’d Tapestry, Chalk,
Stones, Timber, and Herbs.

Twenty days _Cortez_ staid here to refresh his Army, and then march’d to
the neighboring City _Chiurutical_, with the Auxiliary Forces of the
_Tlaxcallans_, to the number of above a hundred thousand; they told him,
That the People of _Chiurutical_ had barricado’d up their Streets, laid
upon the tops of their Houses great heaps of Stones, that their upper
Rooms were cramm’d with Archers, and all things made ready both for
Offence and Defence; which Advertisement he not much hearkned to,
because he was conducted into the City with all their State-Formalities
of Singing and Tabering upon their _Tamboes_, and every where
courteously entertain’d.

[Sidenote: A Plot strangely discover’d.]

[Sidenote: Strange Martial Affairs.]

Mean while _Montezuma_ had rais’d a great Army, which were in their
advance, not onely to the defence of his Border, but to surprize them
while they staid in that City, the Townsmen having invited him thither
to their rescue and his own defence, had not the Plot been accidentally
discover’d by a _Chirutecan_ Woman, who giving advice to one of her
Friends that follow’d _Cortez_, that he should immediately make his
escape, because that all the Strangers would be destroy’d within few
Hours, who came and inform’d _Cortez_ thereof; whereupon he desir’d all
the Magistrates of the City to come and speak with him, who no sooner
entred the Hall where he was, but his Men by Command immediately shot
them to death, which terrible Rumor spreading, and alarm’d with the
report of the Executing Musquets, the City was suddenly in an Uproar,
gathering thither Arm’d from all Places, and began a sharp Conflict,
which lasted five Hours; but then wearied out, and despairing of
Success, loosing their Courage, they desir’d a Cessation, and at last
concluded Peace with the _Spaniards_.

[Sidenote: Now _Mexico_.]

This News of his discover’d Intention, so startled _Montezuma_, that he
suppos’d it better to desist, and procure the Favor of _Cortez_ by
Presents; wherefore he sent him 15000 Cotton Habits, trim’d up very
richly, ten great Chargers of Gold, and some Vessels of Wine, desiring
him for a while to forbear his Intentions of marching to _Tenustitan_
his Chief City, and that he would in the mean while treat with him for
an Accommodation. But _Cortez_, though he accepted of the Presents, yet
nevertheless held his Resolution of marching on.

[Sidenote: Wonderful Mountain _Popocatepeque_.]

[Sidenote: Resolution of two _Spaniards_.]

Eight Leagues from _Tenustitan_ he saw the double-spired Mountain
_Popocatepeque_, so call’d from the Smoke which continually ascends from
its top; for _Popoca_ signifies _A Smoke_, and _Tepeque, A Mountain_.
The Smoke rises upright, and with so much strength, that by the greatest
Wind it deviates not one jot from mounting upwards in a direct Line, to
whose forked Head ten _Spaniards_ resolv’d to climb; but having got
scarce half way up, they were forc’d to return, the Ashes lying
knee-deep; yet at last two more resolute conquer’d all those
Difficulties, and got to the top, where the mouth of the Cave, as they
guessed, measur’d four Miles in Circumference: The shaking of the
Mountain, and roaring of the Flames, frequently bursting forth, so much
terrified them, that they staid not long there; for, as we said, the
Ground not onely trembled under them, but the Fiery Gulph ejected great
Stones, which falling down on all sides of the Mountain, rolled to the
bottom; and without doubt they had there perish’d, had they not speedily
run to a hollow neighboring Hill, from whence they came at length to the
rest of their Company, where they were admir’d by the _Indians_ for
their undaunted Resolution, and presented with several rich Gifts. These
_Indians_ had a Tradition, That for wicked Princes, and such as had not
govern’d the People well, this was the _Tophet_ appointed for their
Torments.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Strange Cities in _America_.]

[Sidenote: A very strange Cawse-way.]

_Cortez_ being got through the poor Territory of the _Guazazingers_, and
having suffer’d great Cold upon the Mountains, discover’d _Amaquameca_,
the chief City of the Province _Chialco_, seated in a great Lake, to
which he row’d in a kind of Boats, by the Inhabitants call’d _Acales_.
Passing from thence, he was courteously receiv’d in _Iztapalapa_,
another City, which boasts above eight thousand Stone Buildings, besides
admirable Palaces, with spacious Rooms, delightful Gardens, and Ponds
full of Fish, and almost cover’d with Fowl; from whence a Wall or
Cawse-way of a great breadth, that cross’d over both Land and Water, led
from _Iztapalapa_ to _Tenustitan_. This Cawse-way hath many Bridges,
which are drawn up in time of War, under which the Water runs out of a
Salt Lake into a Fresh, that ebbs and flows, although lying between high
Mountains, and seventy Leagues from the Sea.

On both sides this Wall, being ten Leagues in length, appears three
great Towns, _viz._ _Mesiqualisingo_, _Colvacana_, and _Vuichilabusco_,
all Populous, and well-built.

[Sidenote: How they make Salt.]

_Colvacana_ is supplied by the Salt Lake, to its no small benefit and
inriching; for the Water being by Pipes convey’d into the City, in all
the Places and Cisterns for its reception makes a Scum, which being
coagulated by the Sun, and after boyl’d, becomes Salt, with which they
drive a great Trade; for no Salt being to be had in any place but here,
all Foreign Merchants come thither for Supply.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Passage of King _Montezuma_.]

_Cortez_ being in his March within a League and a half of _Tenustitan_,
_Montezuma_, preceded with a thousand of his Nobless, came to meet and
salute him, all of them rather like Pilgrims, bare-footed, and congying,
kissing their right Hands, with which they first kiss’d the Ground:
After them appear’d _Montezuma_ himself, who put a Chain of Gold,
imboss’d with Pearls, about _Cortez_ his Neck, and immediately conducted
him to the City, where having entred, and being come into the Palace,
_Montezuma_ plac’d _Cortez_ on a Golden Throne, and surrendred up his
Right to his Catholick Majesty of _Spain_, in the presence of all his
Peers, to their no small amazement.

But whilst all things had a good face, and went on thus fairly beyond
their expectations, _Cortez_ was inform’d, That King _Coalcopoca_ had a
Design on the new City _Vera Crux_, and had treacherously murder’d two
of the Garrison, and wounded two more: Whereupon _Cortez_ having such
fair beginnings, who had swallow’d already in his Hopes the whole Empire
and Wealth belonging to _Montezuma_, laid hold of this Occasion,
pretending Treason, and breach of Contract; wherefore he put _Montezuma_
under Custody, notwithstanding he had clear’d himself of the Conspiracy,
by bringing _Coalcopoca_, with his Sons, and fifteen of his Peers,
Prisoners to _Tenustitan_, who by the command of _Cortez_ suffer’d a
lingering death, being all burnt with Green Wood. But in vain did
_Montezuma_ think to reconcile himself with _Cortez_, since all he did
could render no manner of satisfaction; however he continu’d to oblige
him by fresh Favors, whose Relation we will be more particular in, as
meriting the same.

[Illustration: Vetus MEXICO]

[Sidenote: Description of the Royal City _Tenustitan_.]

[Sidenote: _Cacaos_, what manner of Fruit.]

[Sidenote: Stately Temple.]

[Sidenote: Horrible Images.]

_Montezuma_’s Grandees seem’d to be much discontented, because he had
without the least resistance or consideration setled a handful of
Strangers to domineer over his whole Dominions, by which his weakness
and pusillanimity, he was now a Prisoner, like a common Malefactor, who
had formerly govern’d so mighty Territories. Amongst several Princes
which seem’d thus to be concern’d, was _Catumazin_ Governor of the
Province _Hacolvacan_ who had he not been surpriz’d and attaqu’d the
Night before by the information and discovery of _Montezuma_ himself, he
would have hazarded the ruine of all _Cortez_ his Successes: But now
Fortune still daily more smil’d, giving wonderful Advantages to the
_Spaniards_; Silver and Gold continually flowing like Rivers from all
Quarters, that their onely trouble and puzzle was where and how to
dispose it: but yet for all this, they were not free from jealousie,
that _Montezuma_’s Forces might swallow theirs, though he was secur’d;
of which you may judge by the vastness of his Imperial City
_Tenustitan_, seated in the Province of _Mexico_, where a Salt Lake
mixes its Waters with a fresh River, both which in circumference
contain, as we said, seventy Leagues, and distant from the Main Land
five or six Miles; the Water about it continually cover’d with small
Boats rowing up and down. It hath four Stone, besides DrawBridges in
several Places, and strengthned with Gates no less artificial than
costly, which lead from the City to the Main Land. The Fresh Water is
convey’d through the Salt in a Wall’d Channel, out of which none may
take up Water, except they pay Excise to the Kings Farmers. This City
boasts above sixty thousand Houses, all divided into Islands, but joyn’d
with great Wooden Bridges: The Market-place surrounded with Galleries,
drives a quick and constant Trade, being always full of Buyers and
Sellers. In every Street they have a publick Inn, in each of which they
keep Ordinaries, wherein the Tables are stor’d with well-dress’d Flesh
and Fish, not wanting plenty of Wine. Their Trades are divided into
several Companies, and they have their peculiar Places to dwell in. They
deal very much in _Cacaos_, a Fruit not unlike an Almond, which beaten
to Powder, and prepar’d with several other Ingredients, gives name to
that excellent Drink now in use with us, call’d _Chocolate_: They grow
onely on moist and warm Grounds, and are us’d so currently in Trade,
that they go in stead of Money. Amongst many beautiful Edifices, their
Guild is very magnificent, wherein twelve Judges, attended by a
considerable number of Officers and Servants, sit daily, hearing and
determining all manner of Causes. The next is their Chief Temple or
Minster, built quadrangular, all of Free-Stone, having four Portals,
opening into the four principal Streets or Triumphs, that end at the
four Stone Bridges. On the Walls, being of an exceeding height, stand
several Turrets, so high, that they seem to hide their Spires in the
Clouds; and have Apartments, wherein the Priests Diet, Lodge, and Study,
which are ascended by Marble Steps. These Religious Persons are
generally of Noble Extract, which at seven years old are carried
thither, where leading a very strict Life, they never come forth to see
the World, till they enter the State of Matrimony. The famous
_Colossus_, that stood over the _Rhodian_ Haven, between whose Legs all
Ships did Sail, that came in or went out of the Harbor, cannot stand in
competition with the stupendious Idol _Vuichilabuchichi_, whose Head
touches the Arch’d Ceiling of the high Temple. Near his stand several
lesser Images, made of Meal and all sorts of Herbs bak’d together, and
kneaded with Mens Blood. Along the Walls are exceeding dark Vaults, in
which the Priests onely walk; over them are large Halls, full of
Presentations of their Gods, which serve for the Burying-places of their
Kings.

Whilst _Cortez_ and _Montezuma_ were viewing the Temple, two _Spaniards_
rush’d suddenly into one of the Cells, where they found abundance of
Lamps and Torches burning, and the Walls bedaub’d two Inches thick with
Humane Gore: Over-head hung vast numbers of their Sacrificing Knives;
and the stench of the place was intollerable.

[Sidenote: Grandeur of the Kings in _Tenustitan_.]

[Sidenote: Strange Garden-houses.]

But _Cortez_ going on, _Montezuma_ and his Attendants resented it very
hainously, that he pull’d down some of their Idols, and durst presume to
look in the Kings Face; for those People bear so great Reverence to
their Kings, that none dares so much as once look up in their presence:
His Council stand bare-footed, stooping with their Faces bow’d almost to
the Ground before him: Four times a day they change their Apparel; and a
Suit which they have once worn, is put to no other use, but presented to
such Soldiers as have done some eminent Service. Whatever manner of
Chargers, Dishes, Pots, Cups, and other Vessels the Emperor is serv’d in
at his Table, are every Meal new. The King hath in _Tenustitan_ three
great Structures, whose Magnificence, for Cost and rare Architecture,
can hardly be parallell’d. The first is the Residence for all deform’d
People: The second, an _Aviary_ for all manner of Birds and Fowl, being
a spacious open place, Roof’d with Nets, and surrounded with Marble
Galleries. The third, being a Den for Wild Beasts, was divided into
several Rooms, wherein were kept Lions, Tygers, Wolves, Foxes, and all
manner of Four-footed Animals.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ beaten afresh.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable Exploits of _Cortez_.]

[Sidenote: _Tenustitan_, or _Mexico_, taken.]

But whilst _Cortez_ having staid waiting eight Months in _Tenustitan_,
for the return of the Messengers sent to the _Spanish_ Court, receiv’d
Tidings, That _Pamphilo Narvaecy_, by order of _Velasques_, was come
with eighteen Sail, Mann’d with eight hundred Foot, and eighty Horse,
from _Cuba_, and now riding before the _Mexican_ Coast; from whence soon
after he receiv’d unexpected Command, to come presently aboard unarm’d,
and resign up his Authority: But he in stead of submission, compell’d
_Narvaecy_ in a short time to relinquish his Title, and own him for
Superior. Mean while the _Spaniards_ which remain’d in possession of
_Tenustitan_, ran the hazard of a general Massacre; for the Citizens
much stomacking the Oppressions of the _Spaniards_, who grew very
insolent, inslaving their King, bringing their inveterate Enemies the
_Tlaxcallans_ and _Guazuzingans_ into their City, exacting them to pay
Tributes, pulling down their Gods, and demolishing their ancient Idols,
they brake out from all Parts in a tumultuous manner, ran to Arms, and
besieg’d them Day and Night in their Fort, although _Montezuma_
endeavor’d to perswade the contrary. _Cortez_, hearing of it, came to
their relief with the New Forces Landed from _Cuba_; but he fighting his
way ere he could get in, was so roughly entertain’d by the _Mexicans_,
that they kill’d him forty Men, wounding as many more; and
notwithstanding fifteen Field-pieces with continual Shot made foul
Breaches, lessening the number of the Assailants, yet they suddenly
fill’d up their Vacancies again with fresh Men, which clamber’d over the
Heaps of those that lay slain. Three Days the Battel had continu’d very
fierce, when _Montezuma_ being with the _Spaniards_ in the Castle, went
to a low Window, to see if he could command his Subjects to retreat; but
a continual Cry so deafned their Ears, and showres of Arrows and Stones
so took away their sight, that he did nothing: Then _Montezuma_,
thinking to be more easily either heard or seen, went to a higher
Window, where looking out, he was unfortunately hit with a Stone, of
which he died three days after. Besides their Enemies, the _Spaniards_
suffer’d extremely by Famine; and though they had beaten down a Tower,
which had done the Castle great mischief, and set five hundred Houses on
fire, yet they could discern no likely issue thereof, but judg’d it best
to make their escape by Night over the nearest Bridge: _Cortez_
therefore dividing his gotten Treasures, which amounted to above seven
hundred thousand Duckets, amongst his Soldiers, carried _Montezuma_’s
Son, and two Daughters, Prisoners with him, though not without infinite
danger and loss; for the _Tenustitans_ assail’d him on both sides, and
falling in also upon his Rear, spar’d not to kill _Montezuma_’s own
Children. In this last Fight the Service was so hot, that _Cortez_ lost
forty two Horse, a hundred and fifty _Spaniards_, and two thousand
Auxiliaries; and although gotten over the Lake, they were still pursu’d
by the _Mexicans_, who would then undoubtedly have made a general
Slaughter, had not _Cortez_ amused the Enemies, by leaving in the Night
great Fires in several Places, his suppos’d Camps, whilst he silently
stole away: Yet the _Tenustitans_ would have pursu’d the _Spaniards_,
had they not wanted Provisions: But _Cortez_ sending his Treasure before
him, through the Countrey _Colva_, to _Vera Crux_, with a Convoy of five
Horse, and forty four Foot, were all cut off by the _Colvaans_, and
feasted upon in a Thanksgiving Sacrifice. The same misfortune befel
twelve _Spaniards_ in _Tepeacu_, which great City surrendred it self up
to _Cortez_, being assisted by a mighty Army of _Tlaxcallans_ and
others. But after all these Losses, he took _Guaccachiulla_, and
_Izzuca_, both fortified with strong Walls and Gates; in which last he
burnt above a hundred Temples, built for Humane Sacrifices. All the
Countrey through which he thus ransack’d, he call’d _New-Spain_. From
the City _Tazuco_, which he had newly taken, intending to besiege
_Tenustitan_, he digg’d through the Lakes a broad Trench, of above three
Leagues in length, to bring up thirteen new Ships to _Tenustitan_; and
the neighboring People envying, that that City should not be conquer’d,
as well as theirs, rais’d an Army of above a hundred and fifty thousand
Men, making _Cortez_ their General: Himself incamped on one corner of
the City, appointing the other two sides to be invested by _Gonsales
Sandovalo_, and _Pedro Avarado_; but the Besieg’d resolutely broke out,
and made a fierce Sally with five thousand Boats, setting upon the
thirteen Ships; but the great Guns made such execution and havock
amongst them, that they retreated with great damage. Whoever were taken
Prisoners in this Fight by the _Spaniards_, the _Tlaxcallans_, being
Commission’d by _Cortez_, feasted upon. On the seventh day the City was
taken, but not without great Slaughter, and the new King imprison’d.

[Sidenote: Sad accident occasion’d by a _Tyger_.]

After this mighty Conquest, _Cortez_ resolv’d to discover those
Territories that lay Southward; and whilst he was making all things
ready for the Voyage, he sent two Ships with an invaluable Treasure to
_Spain_, who fearing to be taken by the _French_ Pyrats, ran in at
_Tercera_, where a miserable Accident hapned to the Seamen of the
biggest Ship, wherein were carried two Tygers, which though taken young,
and bred up amongst men, yet had not so quite forgotten their natural
ferocity, but that one breaking loose in the Night, tore seven of them
in pieces, hurting a far greater number, of which some had the Brawns of
their Arms, the Calves of their Legs, and fleshy parts of their Thighs
bit out.

[Sidenote: Strange Battel with Baboons.]

Several Places in _America_ breed Tygers, that far exceed Lyons in
fierceness; so that where any considerable number of them frequents,
though the Soil be never so fruitful, yet it is left desolate and
forsaken. But the Baboons that frequent the Woods are more pleasant, and
less dangerous. _Peter Arias_ relates, That his whole Army incountred
with these Beasts, which climb’d from one Tree to the other, shrieking,
and making very strange Gesticulations to those that were gone before,
and gathering their Mouths and Hands full of Stones, which they threw as
exact and strongly as a Man. When one of these Baboons, shot by a
Musquet, fell to the Ground, the rest gave such a horrible shriek, that
the Woods resounding with the noise, strook a terror into the
_Spaniards_. Amongst several things that hapned in this Counter-scuffle,
take this one: A _Spaniard_ taking aim with his Musquet at an old
Baboon, which sate pearch’d up in a Tree, and being now just ready to
give Fire, the Baboon Soldier, at the very instant, to break the Shot,
taking a Stone out of his Mouth, threw it exactly into the Mans Mouth,
with such force as beat out some of his Teeth; with which sudden blow
surpris’d, he lost his Mark; and the proud Foe, shewing signs of
Triumph, went his way.

[Sidenote: Great destruction.]

[Sidenote: The unfortunate Expedition of _Garajus_.]

[Sidenote: _Spaniards_ rosted.]

[Sidenote: _Cortez_ his Ambition.]

But whilst _Cortez_ staid in the Countrey of _Tenustitan_ (now call’d
_Mexico_) _Franciscus Garajus_ sail’d out of the Haven of _Jamaica_,
with eleven Ships, to the River _Panucus_, there, according to the
Command of the Emperor _Charles_, to plant a Colony: Whereupon he went
ashore, ordering his Fleet to sail along in sight of Land: So wading
through the River _Montaltus_, which glides between high Mountains, he
came to a Morassy Ground, in which he and they often sunk almost up to
the Middle, and lost his way in a Thicket of young Trees; yet at last
being come to the River _Panucus_, he found several high Walls, being
the Ruines of Fortresses, Temples, and Towers, destroy’d by _Cortez_; so
that the City lay quite desolate. Twenty Leagues further, upon the Banks
of the same River, _Cortez_ had in like manner sack’d and destroy’d
_Chiglia_, a Town which before its burning reckon’d above twenty
thousand Houses, besides many fair Palaces, Walls, Towers, and Temples:
Which Cruelties and Spoil had bred so great an _Odium_ in the
Inhabitants against the _Spaniards_, that they immediately sent an Army
against _Garajus_, who had only a few half-starv’d Men with him; yet he
receiv’d the Enemy twice in his Retreat to the new Colony _St. Steven_,
rais’d out of _Chiglia_’s Ruines; but finding no Provisions where-ever
he came, he judg’d it fittest to send his Horse into the Countrey to
Forage; which _Cortez_ meeting, took Prisoners, under pretence that
_Garajus_ came to take Possession, where he had neither Authority nor
Right. _Cortez_ also made himself Master of _Garajus_ Ship and Fleet,
commanding him withal to appear in _Tenustitan_, which not knowing how
to avoid, he obey’d: His People mean time ranging up and down without a
Head or Commander, either died by Famine, or were murther’d and eaten by
the Natives; for at one time the _Americans_ made a general Feast with
two hundred and fifty rosted _Spaniards_: But their days of Triumph
lasted not long; for _Sandovalus_, one of _Cortez_ his Prime Officers,
set with so much fury upon those _Cannibals_, that he kill’d several
thousands of them, and burnt sixty Persons of Prime Quality, all
Commanders, in the sight of their Friends and Relations. But _Garajus_,
whose Son was married to _Cortez_ his Daughter, liv’d not long after the
Wedding, which occasion’d a murmur as if _Cortez_ had poyson’d him, to
rid himself of a Partner in his Government; for it had been generally
observ’d, that his Ambition suffer’d no Equal. The _Americans_ fell all
down before him; all were Servants alike: The Court which he kept
swarm’d with Attendance, on which he spent vast Sums of Money; yet his
Incomes were able to bear such excessive Disbursements. He kept in
constant Pay five thousand Soldiers, and several Ships ready rigg’d and
prepar’d on all occasions, to hold in awe the enslav’d People, or else
for the Discovery of New Countreys: Yet after all these extraordinary
Charges defray’d, to shew his Wealth and Greatness, he caus’d a Piece of
Cannon to be cast all of massie Gold: for the Kings which formerly
acknowledg’d _Montezuma_ for their Sovereign, gave him a yearly Revenue,
most of which were valu’d to be worth twenty three Tun of Gold; for so
much the King of _Tescuscus_, a stately City, paid, whose Houses
Plaister’d with White-Lime, seem’d afar off to be rather a Chalky Hill
or Mountain, cover’d with Snow: Full as much did the King pay which
reigned in _Otumba_, notwithstanding he had receiv’d with his
_Christianity_ the Name of _Ferdinand Cortez_; yet others gave less: The
King _Guacinalgo_, with his Mother, and some Slaves, bringing Gold, came
to present it to _Cortez_; and entring the Palace, through a Guard of
five hundred Horse and four Hundred Foot, which were always ready Arm’d
for fear of Insurrections, he fell down prostrate on the Ground. Thus
all things even out-went whatever he could desire, hope for, or imagine.
And _Alvaredo_, one of his Commanders, being sent Eastwardly, brought
great Treasures back with him, which the conquer’d Kings were forc’d to
raise.

[Sidenote: His Misfortunes.]

But Fortune, who seldom continues her Favors long, at last began to
frown; for _Cortez_ having sent an unvaluable Treasure of Gold and
Pearls to the Emperor _Charles_ the Fifth, _Floryn_ the _French_ Pyrate
met with and took it, which went so much to his Heart, that for a
considerable time he sent no Advice to the _Spanish_ Court, which made
them grow jealous of him, doubting that he intended to make himself King
over _New-Spain_; and this Suspicion was not a little augmented by his
Enemies.

[Sidenote: A Plot of two _Spanish_ Officers.]

In the Neck of these, follow’d another Misfortune; for _Christopher
Olitus_, sent out by _Cortez_ to discover new Countreys, rebelling, took
up Arms against him, being then in the Haven _Figueras_, five hundred
Leagues beyond. Notwithstanding the _Spaniards_, although amongst a
new-conquer’d People, which without doubt long’d for Revenge, were not
to take notice of their danger, but to go on with undaunted Resolution;
whereupon _Cortez_ drawing out a strong Party, march’d a long and
troublesom way to meet _Olitus_, making great Slaughters where-ever he
came. _Francisco de las Casas_ was commanded to go upon the same Account
by Sea, and arriving first, found him setling his new Colony, which he
nam’d _Triumph de Sancta Crux_; and notwithstanding the Water with a
Northerly Wind was very rough and boysterous in the Haven _Figueras_
(which the _Spaniards_ call’d so, because they found Trees there, which
growing at the Foot of the Mountains, bore a Fruit not unlike a Fig) yet
they came to a present Engagement, wherein _Casas_ worsting _Olitus_,
having sunk one of his Ships, stood out again to Sea; but surpriz’d by a
violent Storm, and driven on the Shore, fell into _Olitus_’s Hands, who
had a little before also taken _Egidíus_ or _Giles Gonsales_. These two
Prisoners consulted together how they might poyson or murder _Olitus_,
which fell out according to their desires, because the Servants of the
House where they lodg’d sided with them; so taking hold of the first
opportunity, as they were at Supper together, they stabb’d him with
their Knives in several places; yet the Wounds were not so great or
mortal, but that he retain’d strength to escape in the dark to a
neighboring Hut; but the Assassinates immediately sent out Messengers,
publishing, That he who did not, knowing where _Olitus_ was immediately
bring him to them, should receive condign punishment; which terrifying
_Olitus_, he discover’d himself, and was immediately beheaded.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Mexicans_ Apparel.]

During the time that the _Spanish_ Officers had these Civil Broyls one
against another, _Lodowick Pontæus_, a Man well experienc’d in the Law,
came from _Spain_ to _America_, there in the Emperors Name to settle all
things in good order; having also particular Instructions, to shew great
kindness to _Cortez_, and to make him a Knight of the Order of _St.
James_, that by that means the Emperor might be the more esteem’d for
his Noble Subjects and Servants, amongst the _Mexicans_, who are
themselves of a proud and ambitious spirit, and chiefly the Nobility,
which doth manifestly appear by their Apparel, more gorgeous than the
meaner sort of _Americans_; and though the Slaves go stark naked (having
onely a Cloth tied about their Privities) and with a Bowe and Arrows
walk before their Lords, yet the Better Sort go very costly Habited; for
about their Necks they wear Strings of Pearl; on their Heads, a Cap,
from whence hang down two Scarfs, one longer than the other; then a
party-colour’d Cotton Coat covers their whole Bodies to their Knees,
under which they wear a Vest girt about their Middle.

But at last, after all these Services, _Cortez_ disagreeing with the
Vice-Roy _Don Antonio Mendoza_, being about that time sent over, went
male-contented into _Spain_.


                               SECT. XI.
                   Diego Gottierez _his Expedition_.

[Sidenote: _Gottierez_ contests with _Contreras_.]

[Sidenote: Is forsaken of all.]

[Sidenote: Great Tempest.]

[Sidenote: Village _Francisco_.]

[Sidenote: Strange manner of eating.]

[Sidenote: Unsatisfied Covetousness of _Gottierez_.]

_Anno 1540._ _Gottierez_ being chosen Governor of _New Carthage_,
weigh’d Anchor from _Cadiz_, and sailing to _Nombre de Dios_, upon his
Landing clash’d with _Roderick Contreras_, in whose Place he was sent to
succeed. Two Years he spent without effecting any thing; but at last
coming to Agreement with _Contreras_, he took the Governorship upon him,
having first forewarn’d him not to depend too much upon his Authority;
for the Countrey being full of Woods and Mountains, might hide many of
his Enemies: But he not regarding the Advice, went a Journey from _New
Granada_, and having march’d fifty Leagues Easterly, he cross’d into the
River _Suere_, with sixty _Spaniards_, and was presented by the Princes
of the Countrey with as much Gold as amounted to seven thousand Duckets.
Here he spent some Weeks, effecting little; but now all things growing
scarce, though he was very earnest with the Natives for Provisions, yet
he could get little; which kind of Life the Soldiers disliking, and
growing weary of, went away in the Night to _Nicaragua_. _Gottierez_
thus left alone, got into a Boat, with intent to follow them; and being
just put off from the Shore, was met by Captain _Barjanto_, who brought
new Forces and fresh Provisions with him: This wrought upon him to stay
there. Not long after _Alphonso de Pisa_ went with twenty seven Men from
_Nombre de Dios_ to the same River _Suere_; but it being then very rough
at the Entrance, he was necessitated to pass on to a small uninhabited
Isle, where whilst he lay at an Anchor, the Weather began to grow worse
and worse; the Gusts of Wind, mix’d with Showres of Rain, Thunder, and
Lightning, seem’d to threaten a general Destruction; for in the Ship two
_Spaniards_ and one _Moor_ were kill’d by the Lightning: In seventy two
Days, the Sun did not shine four Hours: At last weighing Anchor, he
sail’d over to the Main Land, where he saw nothing but vast Mountains
and Wildernesses. Here for a time they liv’d upon Cockles found on the
Shore, and wild Fruits in the Woods: At length coming to _Gottierez_, he
sent him with his People in five Boats to fetch new Forces from _Nombre
de Dios_. In his way thither he saw a House built of Canes, cover’d with
Palm-leaves, forty five Paces long, and built after an Oval fashion:
Round about it stood several lesser Hovels, all which making up a
Village, the _Spaniards_ nam’d _Francisco_, because they came thither on
_St. Francis_ Day. About half way they met with the Lords of _Suere_ and
_Chiuppa_, going to attend _Gottierez_, to whom being admitted, and
sitting with him at Table, he gave them, as a Dainty, rosted Chickens
and fresh Pork; but they gave it to their Servants, not delighting in
the taste of such Victuals. _Gottierez_, by means of an Interpreter,
told them concerning the _Christian Religion_, at which they bow’d their
Heads, without making any Answer: But how little mind they had to
embrace it, quickly appear’d; for not long after, they set their
Villages on fire, and all the Provisions which they could not carry with
them, they spoil’d, and so retiring, hid themselves upon inaccessible
Mountains. Another Incentive leading them to this Fight, was, because
the Governor _Camachiren_, and his Deputy (notwithstanding he had given
_Gottierez_ as much Gold, when he came first into the Countrey, as
amounted to seven thousand Duckets, as we mention’d before) yet was put
in Prison by his Order, contrary to all Promises: Nay, _Gottierez_
threatned to burn him not regarding, that he had besides receiv’d of him
several Pieces of Gold, resembling all manner of Beasts, as Tygers, and
others; and also Fishes and Fowls curiously wrought, which were valu’d
at two Tun of Gold; yet this Present seemed too little for him,
whereupon bringing the Prisoner to a Chest, he swore that he would rost
him by degrees, if in four days time he did not furnish him with four
times as much more Gold as that Chest would hold: Whereupon
_Chamachiren_’s Servants went away to get the requir’d Gold; but he,
through carelesness of the Watch, made his escape in the Night, so that
_Gottierez_ lost his Booty. But the other Prisoners, though threatned to
be torn asunder with Dogs, remain’d firm, disowning that they had any
Gold; and among the rest, one speaking boldly to the _Spanish_ Officer
said, _That he stood amaz’d at his treacherous dealings, why did he keep
him Chain’d against Law and Promise, and often threaten’d him with
death, but yet would not kill him, for he, said he, had rather choose to
die, than live so miserable a life_.

_Gottierez_’s Conscience troubling him, he would willingly have releas’d
the _Indian_, and the rather, because he promis’d to procure a great
ransome of Gold; but the inferior Commanders would not consent to it.
After this they march’d six days through great Wildernesses, and over
high Mountains, finding no Footsteps of any People. Lastly, They came
down a very dangerous and steep Mountain, where had not the Shrubs and
jutting Stones serv’d them to hold by, they had all broken their Necks.

[Sidenote: Dangerous Mountains.]

[Sidenote: Strange Huts.]

Fifteen Leagues, the hanging of this Mountain spread it self along a
sweet River, on whose opposite Shore stood strange Huts full of dead
Tygers, Deers Heads, and Legs; here they staid two days to rest
themselves, where the Trees _Mamei_ and the _Cazabi_ Plants yielded them
good Food.

[Sidenote: Valiant fight.]

Travelling forward, _Gottierez_ ask’d an _Indian_ which was the nearest
way to a Village, but he pretending not to know any near hand, had his
Head immediately cut off. In like manner, and for the same reason the
_Indian_ Prince should also have been Executed, had not _Gottierez_
given order to the contrary; seeing his resolution, that with no less
Patience than undaunted Courage, stretch’d forth his Neck to the
Executioners. Mean while, their Provisions decreasing, they suffer’d
extreme hunger; insomuch, that some fainted quite away. The Souldiers
also rebelling against _Gottierez_ for Food, he commanded them to kill
their Dogs, and stamp the Barks of Trees; two days they travelled much
discontented in this manner, and at last came to the entrance of a Wood,
where they espy’d an _Indian_ standing behind a Tree, which on a sudden
ran away with incredible swiftness: early the next morning, above four
thousand _Indians_ came Marching against the faint _Spaniards_, making a
terrible noise with Horns and Drums; they were all except their Princes
Painted black and red; some wore Plumes of Feathers on their Heads, and
Collars of the same about their Necks; the fight began very fiercely, by
casting abundance of Stones, and shooting of Arrows, wherein, though
_Gottierez_ was at first Wounded, yet after half an hour the Assailants
fled, but recruited with fresh Forces renew’d the fight, breaking into
their Ranks, and making so great slaughter amongst them with Woodden
Swords, and Palm-Tree Clubs, knocking down, and dealing such deadly
Wounds, that of the _Spaniards_, three onely escap’d, saving themselves
by flight, who two hours after, much amaz’d and terrify’d, came to their
reserve, consisting onely of twenty four Men, which _Alphonso de Risa_
Commanded; the insulting Enemy at their Heels, waving over their Heads
the Swords, Shields, and Cross-Bows which they had gotten from the slain
_Spaniards_; and some withal crying in the _Spanish_ Tongue, _Come
Christians, come, and take Gold_. But _de Risa_, for all their pride,
set them going with some Volleys of Shot; after this, escaping
innumerable other dangers, he came to _Nombre de Dios_, without having
effected any thing of Note.


                               SECT. XIA.
 _The Expeditions of_ Peter Alvarado, Francisco _and_ Gonzalvo Pizarro,
                        _and_ Diego de Almagro.

[Sidenote: _Pizarro_’s and _Almagro_’s remarkable exploits.]

In the City of _Panama_, in _New Spain_, liv’d three eminent
_Spaniards_, call’d _Francisco Pizarro_, _Diego de Almagro_, and
_Ferdinand de Luque_ a Priest, which joyntly design’d to discover
farther Southerly along the rich Gold and Pearl Coast, and inspect the
Southern Ocean. _De Luque_ was to look to home-affairs, and _Pizarro_
set Sail first with a Ship Man’d with one hundred and fourteen Men,
which _Almagro_ follow’d with seventy more, yet both were valiantly
repuls’d by the _Peruvians_; but although they return’d the first time
with bad success, yet they undertook their business once more, but with
no better fortune; whereupon discouraged, the undertaking seem’d to be
totally laid aside, and the _American_ Vice-Roy, _Peter de Rios_ forbad
any to attempt a farther Discovery concerning _Peru_.

The former difficulties with this Edict easily wrought upon _Pizarro_’s
men, all but twelve, to leave him, for the rest went over with the Ship
fitted out by _Rios_ with succors to the Island _Gallo_, where _Pizarro_
resided, having also fail’d in his second Expedition. But although he
had made two bad Voyages, yet having an inclination to a third attempt,
he went to _Spain_, desiring of the Emperor to be Governor of _Peru_,
which he had discover’d; for besides his Plea of Merits he had taken
possession of the Country twice by Landing there, intended for the use
of his Imperial Majesty; one of his Sea-men to that purpose flourishing
his two-handed Sword over his Head, the glittering of which Sword so
frighted the Natives, that none of them durst come near him.

[Sidenote: _Pizarro_’s fight on _Puna_.]

His request being consulted upon, was at last granted, the Government of
_Peru_ being conferred upon him; but _Almagro_ took it very ill, that
_Pizarro_ went to the Emperor on such a design for himself; yet by the
mediation of his Friends the difference was reconciled, then _Pizarro_
setting Sail with one hundred and fifty Foot besides Horse, and Landing
at the Island _Puna_, at first was courteously entertain’d; but the
_Spaniards_ by extravagant hunting and searching every where their
Houses for Gold, and committing several other outrages, incensing,
chang’d the humor of the Inhabitants so much, that they fell upon them.
In stead of Ensigns, Standards, and Warlike Trophies, they used long
Canes, at the end whereof were ty’d the Bones of their antient Hero’s,
honor’d by them after their death: But these Reliques sav’d not the
_Indians_ from slaughter, so well as the coverts of a neighboring Wood.

[Sidenote: Comes to _Peru_.]

[Sidenote: _Peruvian_ Temple.]

From this Isle, lying three degrees Southward of the _Equinoctial_,
_Pizarro_ passed over to the _Main Continent_, where they were all in a
great confusion, upon the report of the _Spaniards_ cruelties committed
in _Puna_; yet all the preparations of the _Indians_ to withstand,
stop’d not _Pizarro_ from his intended course; for first, having the
success to master _Tampez_, thence he made nothing to march his Forces
over the River _Ambato_, there burning a Temple Dedicated to the Sun.
The _Portico_ stood towards the East, the rising of their God, before
which hung a Curtain of their fine Cotton Stuff, within stood the
presentations of two Golden Rams, shaded with Black, and as many
Dragons, before which the Fire never went out, continually supply’d with
Offerings of burnt Incense; on the Pillars hung several Men flead, their
Flesh kept firm, and free from all Putrifaction, with the infusion of a
sharp Juyce.

Here _Almagro_ coming to _Pizarro_ with fresh Forces, they made no
little penetration into _Peru_, satisfying every where their thirst of
Gold, and slaughtering the Toothless _Tombezes_, a people who having
offended their King, had by his order the upper Teeth of the whole
Nation beaten out.

[Sidenote: _Alvarado_’s Exploits.]

[Sidenote: Notable Stratagem of the _Peruvians_.]

[Sidenote: Wickedness of a Woman.]

[Sidenote: _Guatimala_ destroy’d by a flood.]

[Sidenote: _Velasques’_ Journey.]

_Peter Alvarado_ inform’d concerning the Riches of _Peru_, and well
knowing how to insinuate with the Emperor in his fawning Letters, at
last by his Friends so prevail’d, that he also got leave to go thither;
in pursuance of which, _Anno 1534._ he Weigh’d Anchor with seven Ships
from _Guatimala_, a City built by him between two Mountains. But Landing
at _Puerto Viejo_, and Marching Easterly over Snowy Mountains, he was
met by _Almagro_, between whom a bloody incounter was like to have
happen’d, but after some time, a Treaty being set a Foot, they came to a
Composition on these Articles: That _Alvarado_ upon the receipt of a
hundred thousand Duckets, should leave his Men with _Almagro_, and
depart from _Peru_; with which sum, being inrich’d, he soon after fitted
out fourteen Sail to discover new Countreys to the West; but being busie
in his preparations, was sent for to _Mexico_ by _Don Antonio Mendoza_
the Vice-Roy, to undertake a Voyage with him to the new-discover’d
Countrey of _Sibolla_, abounding in Gold and Saffron, according to the
report of four _Dominican_ Monks; and having already rais’d seven
hundred Men, news came to _Mexico_, that _Peter Zunica_ had receiv’d an
overthrow by the _Indians_ of _Salisco_; to whose assistance _Alvarado_
March’d with all speed, and found the _Indians_ incamp’d on a high
Mountain, fortifi’d with conjoyn’d Trees, and great Stones ty’d together
with Rushes, behind which they were secure from Shot. The _Spaniards_
climbing up the Mountain, approach’d their Works, when on a sudden the
Defendants giving a great Shout, cut the Cords which held their
Fortification together, whereupon the Stones and Trees tumbled down with
such force, that they kill’d both Men and Horse, few escaping alive: In
this conflict _Alvarado_ himself was lost. His Wife _Beatrix Cuova_ made
a stately Funeral for her Husband, and caus’d her House to be Painted
black, refusing either to Eat or Drink for a set time, yet
notwithstanding, all her pretence of sorrow, she so minded her business,
that she took the Government of _Guatimala_ into her own hands; but her
Dominion lasted not long, for on the eighteenth of _September, Anno
1541._ happen’d a hideous Tempest of Wind and Rain, mixt with continual
Lightning, and horrible claps of Thunder, and what was more terrible,
was answer’d with roars and horrid bellowings from the caverns of the
Mountain, at whose foot _Guatimala_ stood. About midnight the Mountain
was deliver’d, whose Birth was the irruption of an Inundating River, a
precipitate torrent tumbling down full of Rocks and Stones, which
carry’d all before it, so that in few minutes _Guatimala_ was utterly
swept away, not the least mark remaining, nor any left alive except
_Alvarado_’s Bastard Daughter by an _Indian_; and in the adjacent
Fields, some few, and they maim’d, with broken Arms or Legs; after this
utter destruction, they re-built another _Guatimala_, three Leagues more
Easterly. But though _Alvarado_ was lost in this Enterprize, yet the
Voyage to _Sibolla_ was not laid aside, for _Francisco Velasques_
March’d thither with eight hundred Men, of which most were Horse, but
found nought else but Snowy Mountains and barren Plains, insomuch, that
his Men and Horses were starv’d for want of Provision; wherefore he
return’d without success to _Mexico_, having onely burnt some Villages,
and had several Rencounters with the Natives.

[Sidenote: _Attabaliba_’s message to _Pizarro_.]

But _Attabaliba_ a _Peruan_ Prince, inform’d of _Pizarro_ and
_Almagro_’s coming, commanded them both to depart out of his Kingdom;
but they not regarding it, march’d directly to _Caxamalca_, where
_Attabaliba_ kept his Court, who again sent other Messengers to them
with command to leave his Dominions. _Pizarro_ made answer, that he
could not obey any Commands but those of his Master the Emperor, who had
order’d him to speak with the King himself at his own Palace.

_Attabaliba_ hearing that _Pizarro_ resolv’d to come forward, sent him a
pair of Painted Shooes and Armlets, that he might put them on when he
appear’d before his Throne: Captain _Ferdinand Sotto_ march’d before
with twenty Horse, passing close on the Flank of _Attabaliba_’s Army:
The _Indians_ amaz’d at the prauncing of their Horses, retreated into
their Fortifications, but were for their cowardize immediately slain by
the King’s Order.

[Sidenote: His discourse with a _Spanish_ Bishop, and his apparel.]

_Sotto_ sent a Message to _Attabaliba_, That the _Spaniards_ desir’d
peaceably to Treat with him, to which he receiv’d answer, That no Peace
could be made, unless they restor’d the Gold and Silver to the Owners,
which they had Plunder’d from them, and forsook his Territories; which
so doing, they should have Audience the next day: Hereupon the Bishop
_Vincent de Villa Viridi_ was conducted into the Royal Palace, in the
City of _Caxamalca_, and brought before _Attabaliba_, who came thither
in great State, with a Guard of twenty five thousand Men; he was carry’d
on the Shoulders of his prime Nobles in a Sedan, about which hung
Garlands of Gold, and divers colour’d Feathers; himself was cloth’d in a
white loose Vest, without Sleeves; his Temples were bound with a red
Ribbon, with a long Tassel on his left Cheek; on his Fore-head stuck
three curious Feathers; before him March’d three hundred of his
Life-Guard, all in one Livery, who clear’d the way through which the
King was to pass. The before-mention’d Bishop carry’d in one Hand a
Cross, in the other a Book, discoursing with the King to this effect;
_That God is the Trinity_, Adam _the first Man_; _Christ Born of a
Virgin, dy’d on the Cross_; _the_ Pope _God’s Vice-Gerent, who according
to the Power he had from Heaven, had given_ Peru _to the Emperor_
Charles, _as also all other Countreys in_ America; _and if he should
prove obstinate, and resist, he must expect nothing less than utter
ruine_. _Attabaliba_ reply’d, _That he serv’d_ Pachamaca, _being the
Creator of all things; and next to him the Sun and Moon: How glorious do
they appear_ (said he) _in comparison of a Crucifi’d God? To make Peace
and Alliance with mighty Princes, was the true Foundation of wise
Government: But the_ Pope _must needs be senseless, devoy’d of all
reason, and withal highly unjust, to give away what was none of his
own_, viz. _other mens Kingdoms, in which he never had the least or
smallest concern. Moreover, he would not desert that Religion which he
and his Ancestors had maintain’d so many Ages, and the rather, because
there are no apparent or sufficient Testimony of the truth of
Christianity._ The latter clause was thus answer’d, saying, _This Book,
O King, which I hold in my hand, proves and declares all that you
question_. _Attabaliba_ looking upon it, turn’d it over Leaf by Leaf,
then look’d more intentively upon the Print, which done he clap’d it to
either Ear, and at last as altogether unsatisfi’d, in disdainful manner
threw it away.

But _Pizarro_ gaining time while the King and Bishop thus discours’d,
had drawn his Men in Battel-Array, his sixty Horse he divided into three
Wings, Commanded by his three Brothers, _Ferdinand_, _John_, and
_Gonzalvo Pizarro_, left the Captains _Sotto_ and _Bavalcazar_ in an
Ambuscade; _Peter de Canada_ march’d in the Van, and he himself in the
main Body, leaving _Sotto_ in the Rear.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Pizarro_ fights with _Attabaliba_.]

[Sidenote: _Attabaliba_ taken prisoner.]

[Sidenote: Bids for his ransom an unvaluable treasure.]

So soon as the Bishop could acquaint them in what scornful manner
_Attabaliba_ had thrown his Holy Book, _The Word of God_, upon the
ground; both Armies were Engaged, whilst their Trumpets sounded, their
Drums beat, their Canons roar’d, the Horses neigh’d, and the Dogs
bark’d, they made a speedy march up against the Walls of _Taxamalca_,
which dreadful mixture of terrible noises struck such a Pannick fear
into the hearts of the _Indians_, that they all presently broke, in
their flight crowding one another to death at the Gates of the City,
which being too narrow to receive them, they themselves made breaches in
their own Walls to enter; which opportunity the _Spaniards_ no ways
neglected, but entering with them, shot and kill’d all they could reach;
their Dogs also having no little share in the slaughter; whole companies
of Indians were trode under the Horses feet, yet near _Attabaliba_’s
Chair was the greatest resistance, for no sooner fell one of the
Bearers, but immediately another supply’d the place; so that the King
was surrounded with heaps of his own slain Subjects, to whom _Pizarro_
himself Charg’d up so close, that having seiz’d him by his long Hair, he
pull’d him out of his Throne, and having gotten him under him, secur’d
immediately in Fetters; whereupon all his Life-Guard forsook him, and
fled: But the loss of the Battel, which was _Attabaliba_’s utter ruine,
was laid upon _Runninagui_, a Captain appointed to lie in Ambush, so to
fall in the Rear of the _Spaniards_ with five thousand men; but was so
far from performing his Orders, that terrifi’d at the uncouth noise of
the Guns, and the rest, that he fled one hundred and fifty Leagues
Southerly, before he stopt, or scarce ever look’d behind him in so long
a flight. Mean while, _Attabaliba_ compounded with _Pizarro_ for his
Ransom, _viz._ to pay him as much Gold as that Hall in his Court (where
they made the Agreement) could hold to the top; they first measur’d the
heighth, then the length, which was found to be fifty four Foot, and the
breadth nine: In pursuance of this composition, Gold was brought thither
from all places, according to _Attabaliba_’s order; yet he could not
raise so much as would perform his bargain, which made the _Spaniards_
to grumble: But _Attabaliba_ desiring some longer time to perform it,
telling _Pizarro_, that most of the Gold was brought on Slaves
Shoulders, a long and troublesome way, of two hundred Leagues long, from
the City _Cusco_, and if this would not satisfie, _Pizarro_ might send
some of his own people thither, to inform him, that he need not fear the
least danger, as long as he was Prisoner with his Wife and Children.

The two Captains, _Sotto_, and _Peter del Baro_ being sent away to that
purpose, met after some days Journey with one of _Attabaliba_’s Leaders,
who was bringing the King’s Brother _Guascar_ with a Party, Prisoner to
_Caxamalca_.

[Sidenote: Burns his Brother _Guascar_ alive.]

_Guascar_ had now a fair opportunity to crave assistance of the
_Spaniards_, telling them, that he and _Attabaliba_ were the Sons of
_Guaynacava_, so that the Kingdom was to be divided betwixt both. But
_Attabaliba_ had by force made himself Master of all, whereas he being
the youngest, ought to be satisfi’d with that share which _Guascar_,
being the eldest, would assign him; for the right of Inheritance
belong’d justly to him, and yet he was carry’d away bound to slaughter:
But if _Pizarro_ would do justice in delivering him out of his Brothers
bloody Hands, he would raise him thrice as much Gold as _Attabaliba_ had
promis’d: To which purpose he desir’d _Sotto_ and _Baro_ to put off
their Journey to _Cusco_; which they not daring to do, went on their
way, and _Guascar_ descending the Valley _Sucsuhuana_, was burnt alive
by _Attabaliba_’s Soldiers.

Mean while, _Almagro_ came with fresh Forces to _Taxamalca_, which
occasion’d no small trouble in _Pizarro_, who was onely thirsty after
Gold: On the other side, _Almagro_ as greedy, grew jealous that
_Pizarro_ should keep the promis’d Hall full of Gold for himself, and he
should have no share, because _Attabaliba_ was his Prisoner; therefore
he earnestly desir’d that _Attabaliba_ might privately be made away, and
that the Booty might be divided to one as well as the other.

[Sidenote: An incredible sum of Money given to the Soldiers.]

[Sidenote: _Attabaliba_ strangled.]

_Pizarro_ to prevent all inconveniencies that might happen from his
dissenting, gave in the presence of the King to every private Soldier a
thousand Duckets in Gold, and six thousand five hundred twenty five
Silver Crowns; the inferior Officers receiv’d four and thirty thousand
Crowns, and the others sixty thousand; the fifth part of the Booty he
reserv’d for the Emperor: And notwithstanding _Attabaliba_ perform’d his
promise in filling the Hall full of Gold, yet he had the sentence of
Death pronounc’d against him; neither would his excuse of Innocency
serve, or his Requests to be sent to _Spain_, there to clear himself
before the Emperor; but sighing, and lamenting his misfortunes, was ty’d
to a Post, and Strangled in the presence of _Pizarro_. For whose Death,
though a _Heathen_, Divine Vengeance pursu’d these cruel and unjust
Arbitrators that thus made their Will a Law, none of them dying a
natural Death.

Moreover it was observ’d, that a few days before this Execution a
blazing Star appear’d, which _Attabaliba_ seeing, presaging sadly of
himself said, _That a great Prince would die in a short time_; but
_Pizarro_’s chief pretences for the Kings just suffering was, that he
had cruelly murder’d his Brother _Guascar_: But this was a meer blind,
for that that incens’d them against _Attabaliba_, was, that he knowing
where the unvaluable treasure lay, which _Guascar_ had bury’d, would not
discover it to them.

[Sidenote: Cruelty of _Ruminagui_.]

[Sidenote: _Pizarro_ puts _Quizquiz_ to flight.]

[Sidenote: And takes _Cusco_.]

[Sidenote: Unvaluable Treasures taken.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable passage of a Dog.]

_Attabaliba_, before his death, desir’d that he might be bury’d in the
Territory _Quito_, by his Father _Guaynacava_, whom the _Peruvians_ for
his great Justice and Prudence in Government, believed that he would
arise, and settle the World so troubled and full of disorder in peace
and quiet: The Corps was accordingly carry’d thither in great State
after their manner, attended by his Brother, whom _Illescas Ruminagui_
which ran from _Attabaliba_ in the Battel, where he lay in ambush when
he might have done them good service; in the way to his entertainment,
receiv’d with all shews of sorrow; but when they were feasted to excess,
bury’d in sleep and Wine, he Massacred and flea’d _Illescas_ the Kings
Brother alive, and made a Taber of his Skin. Whilst _Attabaliba_’s
Funeral was thus bloodily solemniz’d, his General _Quizquiz_ rais’d a
great Army, which _Pizarro_ encountring after a valiant resistance,
totally routed; then marching victoriously to _Cusco_, he saw great
Fires in the City, and the Citizens fighting with the _Spaniards_, sent
before; but the Horse breaking in upon them, most of them fled the next
morning to the Mountains: Thus the _Spaniards_ became Masters of the
City, where they inflicted the most cruel tortures on all Sexes, by that
means to force them to discover, if they knew of any hidden Treasures,
being not satisfi’d with what they found there, although they had gotten
a greater Treasure in _Cusco_ than that that they had extorted from
_Attabaliba_ before: Nay, they gave those that were murther’d for Food
to their Dogs: Among the rest, _Didacus Salazar_ having a very fierce
Dog call’d _Bezerril_, had also an old _Indian_ Woman his Prisoner, to
whom he gave a Letter to deliver to the General _Pizarro_; the Woman had
not gone many Paces before she was set upon by _Bezerril_, whom
_Salazar_ let loose, that he might delight himself in seeing the Dog
tear the poor old Woman; but she observing him come running at her with
so great fierceness, fell down upon her Knees, and holding forth the
Letter, cry’d, _Good my Lord, good my Lord Dog, I must carry this Letter
to General_ Pizarro, whereupon the furious Curr having more compassion
than the _Spaniard_, stood still a little, and at last lifted up his Leg
in a scornful manner, Urin’d upon her, and return’d satisfi’d; at which
sportive behavior of the Cur and the Chrone, _Salazar_ laughing, was so
well pleas’d, that he gave the Woman her life.

[Sidenote: _Almagro_’s unhappy Journey.]

[Sidenote: King’s Town.]

After _Cusco_ had been sufficiently Plunder’d, _Pizarro_ made _Almagro_
Governor thereof, with the Territories belonging to it, and built near
the River _Lima_ a Town, which they call’d _Los Reyes_. Mean while,
_Almagro_ receiv’d Letters Patent from the Emperor, in which he was
nominated _Marshal_ of _Peru_; encourag’d by that honor, he took a great
design in hand, for the _Peruvians_ had reported, that the Golden
_Chili_ lay to the South; and _Almagro_ being encourag’d, and assisted
by _Pizarro_, March’d inquest thereof with two Troops of Horse, and five
hundred Foot: But mean while there happen’d so great Rains, and such
foul Weather, that the Ways were almost unpassable, so that the
Expedition grew very troublesome; yet however he went on, in which hard
March he lost both Horse and Men.

[Sidenote: _Mango Inga_ takes _Cusco_.]

[Sidenote: Contest between _Almagro_ and _Pizarro_.]

[Sidenote: _Almagro_ strangled.]

Whilst _Almagro_ was upon this undertaking, _Francisco Pizarro_ receiv’d
Letters Patent from the Emperor, in which he was Intitul’d _Duke of
Peru_, but with a _Salvo_ for the honor before given to _Almagro_; yet
these balanc’d honors bred great dissention between the Duke and
Marshal, which _Mango Inga_ another of _Attabaliba_’s Brothers
observing, laid hold of the opportunity, and setting upon the _Spanish_
Garrison in _Cusco_, took the City. Whereupon _Pizarro_ immediately sent
his Horse thither, under the Command of _Alphonso Alvarado_, and _Gomes
de Todoya_, against whom the _Indians_ fought very valiantly, insomuch,
that the Battel was a long time doubtful; yet at last the _Spaniards_
got a bloody Victory, and regain’d _Cusco_; hither after some time,
_Almagro_ returning with ill success, having effected nothing, was kept
out by _Ferdinand Pizarro_, under pretence that he could not open the
Gate without Order from his Brother the Duke. _Almagro_ much offended
thereat, yet saying little, was so privately let into the City, that he
surpriz’d the Governor _Ferdinand Pizarro_, and his Brother _Gonsalvo_,
with _Alphonso Alvarado_ Prisoners; swearing that he would not rest
before he had rooted all the _Pizarro_’s out of Peru. But whilst he was
passing the intended Sentence of Death upon them, _Gonsalvo_ and
_Alvarado_ broke Prison; and got away to the Duke, who troubled for his
Brother _Ferdinand_ there in custody, and in danger of his life, came to
Composition; whereupon _Ferdinand_ was also releas’d: But this was no
sooner done, and he had got his Brother safe there, but the Duke
regarding nothing less than the keeping of the new-made Peace, sent to
_Almagro_, that the Emperor having given him the prime Command over
_Peru_, he requir’d him to leave _Cusco_, or else he would force him.
_Almagro_ sent answer, That if he could see the Emperor’s Hand, he would
immediately obey, otherwise not; whereupon both Parties prepar’d for
War, wherein they had many sharp bickerings in a short time: But
_Almagro_ being too weak fell into the Dukes hands, who order’d him to
be strangled in the Gaol, and his body afterwards to be drawn to the
Market-place, and there publickly Beheaded.

_Ferdinand Pizarro_ being not long after sent to _Spain_, with the
fifths of the gotten Treasure for the Emperor, was Imprison’d in the
Castle _Motto_, for _Almagro_’s Death: But what further happen’d to him
there, or became of him, hath never been Recorded by any Pen.

[Sidenote: _Ferdinand Pizarro_ never obtains his liberty.]

[Sidenote: Young _Almagro_ stabs the Duke.]

But young _Almagro_, instigated by his Guardian _John Rada_, resolving,
to be reveng’d for his Fathers Death; to that purpose he went to _Los
Reyes_, where by the help of some hir’d Male-contents, he design’d to
Murder the Duke upon St. _John_’s day, in the Church at high Service:
But this business was not so closely carry’d, but the Duke had some
inkling thereof, who therefore stay’d at home, and went not to Mass that
day. The Conspirators doubting the event, hearing that their Plot was
discover’d, though defeated in their purpose, yet not fail’d in their
Courage, ran at noon day to the Palace, crying, _Kill the Tyrant, kill
the Traytor_. But _Pizarro_ being so much forewarn’d, had lock’d up the
Gates, and arm’d himself, which when they could not enter, yet they went
back through the City, and waving a bloody Sword, cry’d, _Pizarro is
slain_; this being believ’d, above two hundred private Friends to
_Almagro_ appear’d, who all ran to the Palace, crouding about the Gates:
And _Francisco de Chares_ coming out at a private Door, hoping to
pacifie the Mutineers, was immediately Stab’d; but they rushing in the
way he came, found some stout opposition, for seven Halberdiers of his
Guard fought till they were all kill’d in the Dukes presence; but
_Pizarro_ was taken alive, and being brought before _Almagro_, he
Savagely Butcher’d him with his own hands; which done, they ran crying
along the Streets, _Long live the Emperor, and_ Didacus Almagro.

[Sidenote: Great slaughter in _Los Reye_.]

But after all this, _Pizarro_’s Party joyning together, valiantly
withstood the Conspirators, so that a considerable number were slain on
both sides, yet _Almagro_ at last getting the better, confiscated the
Goods of all those that were against him; and now every one shew’d him
the respect of Chief Governor, till the Emperor should either settle
him, or send another.

From hence Marching to _Cusco_, he had like to have paid for all, but
prevented by private intelligence thereof; which happen’d thus,

[Sidenote: Strange Transactions between _Alvarado_, _Sotello_, and
           _Almagro_.]

[Sidenote: Fight between _Castro_ and _Almagro_.]

[Sidenote: _Castro_’s Cruelty.]

_Garcias Alvarado_ and _Christopher Sotello_ were Joynt-Governors of
_Cusco_; but quarrelling, and coming to Blows in like manner, _Sotello_
was slain: This _Almagro_ took very hainously, as being his intimate
Friend, giving forth threatning Speeches of Revenge; which _Alvarado_
inform’d of, and intending some way or other to prevent all Dangers, and
save himself, he invited _Almagro_ to a Feast, but privately resolving
to make it a Bloody Banquet, by his Death at the Table. Of this he being
inform’d, as we mention’d before, staid at home, and privately sent for
some Soldiers that had belong’d to _Sotello_, sending word that he was
indispos’d: _Alvarado_, under a shew of Kindness, goes to _Almagro_,
hoping to perswade him to come to his prepar’d Treat; but so soon as he
was enter’d the Hall, they clapp’d to the Gate, and the Soldiers falling
upon _Alvarado_, slew him: But soon after _Almagro_ was call’d in
question, and not long enjoy’d this his usurp’d Authority; for the
Emperor _Charles_ sending the Learned _Vacca de Castro_ with full
Authority to _Peru_, to settle that disturb’d Kingdom, _Almagro_ now
us’d to Govern, had no Ears to become a Subject; therefore he march’d
with an Army to meet _Castro_, by whom, after a bloody Fight, being
beaten and put to flight, having four thousand Men, he fell into the
Victors Hands near _Cusco_, where he was treated very severely; for
shortly after he was condemn’d to be Beheaded; others were strangled,
and some torn in pieces with Horses.

[Sidenote: _Vela_ Vice-Roy of _Peru_.]

[Sidenote: Murders _Xuarez_.]

[Sidenote: Is taken and put in Prison.]

Not long after this great Execution, _Blasco Nunnez Vela_ came to
_Peru_, and being appointed Vice-Roy, had four Councellors assign’d him,
with whom he was to consult in all Affairs; and especially to set the
_Indians_ at liberty, which till then had suffer’d much misery under the
_Spanish_ Tyranny: To perform which, the Emperor had given an Order
under his Great Seal, which was to be publish’d and proclaim’d in all
Places. _Vela_ at his arrival faithfully perform’d all his Commands,
seiz’d upon _Vacca de Castro_, because he had Executed _Almagro_ without
any Examination or Tryal; yet by this means he got the hatred of all, so
that most of the _Spaniards_ chose _Gonsalvo Pizarro_ for their Chief,
whereby Affairs grew daily more and more out of Order. _Nunnez Vela_
laid all the blame thereof upon _William Xuarez_, Governor of _Lima_,
whom he sent for in the Night, and correcting over-severely, gave him
also two mortal Wounds, of which he presently died: The Body was in the
Morning drawn along the Streets, which caus’d so great a murmuring
amongst the Inhabitants, that soon after they seem’d to make a general
Insurrection: Wherefore _Nunnez Vela_ fearing the worst, resolv’d to
convey himself from thence _incognito_, and pass to _Truxillo_: But his
four Councellors advis’d him to the contrary; yet he took his own way,
causing all his Treasure to be sent aboard; and having made ready his
Horses to depart, the Common People in a tumultuous manner set upon the
Palace, catching, snatching up, and carrying away all the Silver they
could find, and meeting the Vice-Roy, seiz’d, and thrust him into a
Dungeon; which done, they fell at variance amongst themselves; for some
would have him executed, but others insisted to have him sent Prisoner
to _Spain_; which last being the more moderate, getting the upper Hand,
_Vela_ was put aboard, and committed to the custody of _Didacus
Alvarez_, who Anchoring in the Mouth of the River _Tombez_ (kindness
growing betwixt them) releas’d the Vice-Roy his Prisoner, and set him
ashore, who not long after got some Forces together.

[Sidenote: Is Beheaded.]

Mean while _Pizarro_ was every where acknowledg’d for Supreme Governor,
who having Intelligence of the Vice-Roys Design, sent _Francisco
Carvayales_ thither, between whom and _Vela_ was a sharp Encounter; but
at last being worsted, and retaken by _Carvayales_, he was soon after
executed, and his Head plac’d on a Pole near the Gallows.

The Emperor _Charles_ turmoil’d with Wars at home, saw no likelyhood to
settle the confus’d Affairs of _Peru_; yet at last he thought it
convenient to send one _Peter Gasca_ thither, an Ecclesiastick, of a
subtile and ingenious Wit, who landing _Anno 1546._ in _Lima_, with no
other Title than _Chief Councellor to the Emperor_, took quite another
course than _Vela_, perswading them all, that Affairs should be setled
in order, according to their own desires, and former Miscarriages never
be remembred, being utterly deleted by an Act of Oblivion.

[Sidenote: _Gasca_’s murderous Exploits.]

[Sidenote: _Gonsalves Pizarro_ strangled.]

[Sidenote: Cruelty us’d on _Carvayales_.]

The News of this General Pardon spreading it self far and near, wrought
a great change; for _Pizarro_’s Intimates, and those nearest of Concern,
shrunk daily from him; which _Gasca_ observing, march’d against him; and
that they might make the more haste, they loaded several _Peruvians_,
chain’d, with their Arms, whom when they lagg’d, they switch’d and
whipp’d before them. And now both Armies being met, and discharging
their Cannons at one another, with considerable loss to each side, whole
Regiments came running over to _Gasca_; so that _Pizarro_ being quite
forsaken, yielded himself to the mercy of the Conqueror, who accus’d him
of High Treason, and caus’d him to be strangled in a Dungeon, and fix’d
his Head on a Marble Pillar in _Lima_, environ’d with Iron Rails, and
inscrib’d with a brief Account of all his Offences. But _Gasca_ not thus
satisfied, hang’d up several Commanders, and whipping and stigmatizing
others, condemn’d them after to the Gallies: But his greatest spight was
against the Field-Marshal _Carvayales_, a Person of the Age of fourscore
years, whom tying to a Horses Tail, he caus’d a whole Hour to be drawn
up and down the Market-place, scorn’d and derided of all People; which
done, he was quarter’d alive.

Not long after _Gasca_ surrendred the Command of _Peru_ to the Learned
_Cianca_, and carried an unvaluable Treasure to _Germany_, for the
Emperor _Charles_, who gave him in requital for his faithful Service,
the Bishoprick of _Valentia_.


                               SECT. XII.
  _The Expeditions of_ John Stade, _and_ Nicholas Durando Villegagnon.

[Sidenote: _Stade_ taken by the _Cannibals_.]

[Sidenote: His strange Entertainment amongst them.]

About the same time that _Gasca_ arriv’d in _Spain_, _John Stade_ had
the Command over a small Fort rais’d of Stone and Earth, on the Island
_Maro_, adjacent to _Brasile_, because the Salvage People of _Tupin
Imba_ sail’d twice a year from the Countrey of Brikioka, to _Maro_, at
the time when the Plant Abbati was ripe, of which they made the Liquor
that they generally drink at their Humane Banquets: They also landed on
Maro about the _Bratti_-Fishing. This _Bratti_ is a Fish of a very
delicious taste, either caught in Nets, or shot by the _Tupin Imba_, and
carried to their several Habitations. Against these People _Stade_ kept
a continual Guard, when _Heliodorus Hesse_, Son to _Eobanus Hesse_, the
famous _Latin_ Poet in _Germany_, came to visit him. _Stade_ to
entertain his Guest the better, went into the Woods to hunt for Venison,
where he was taken by the _Tupin Imba_, of which the King march’d in the
Rear with a great Palm-Tree Club, and carried him towards the Sea side,
that he, with others that waited on the Shore, might make up a
_Kawewipepicke_ (that is, _A Feast of Rosted Men_) But because _Stade_
being a _German_ of a large Body, well-skinn’d, young, plump and fat,
they all concluded to spare this Dainty, and carry him alive to
_Brikioka_, that with such a Banquet they might highly caress their
Wives: But the Journey being long, and a just melancholy possessing him
with fear, and the terror of certain death, and to be Food for such
ravenous _Cannibals_, so macerated and consum’d him, that he was almost
dwindled away to Skin and Bone; whereupon thinking him thus lean to make
but few savory Morsels, they chang’d their resolutions, and growing
better acquainted, he having learn’d their Tongue, and being able to
discourse with them, they lik’d his company so well, that they let him
live amongst them. Nine years _Stade_ had been a Slave amongst these
Man-eaters, when the _French_ coming thither, bought him for a few
Trifles, and carried him to _Normandy_, where landing _Anno 1555._ he
went from thence to _Hamburgh_, being his Native Countrey.

[Sidenote: _Durande_’s Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Dissention in the new Colony.]

[Sidenote: Wickedness of _Cointak_ against the Ministers.]

[Sidenote: _Durande_ drowns three Religious Men.]

_Nicholas Durande_ a _Frenchman_ set Sail from _Havre de Grace_, at the
same time when _Stade_ came thither. This _Durande_ having lost a Castle
in _Brittain_, to the great prejudice of the _French_, out of a pretence
of advancing their Affairs, and to fill up their almost exhausted
Treasury, reported, That the _Spanish_ and _Portuguese_ Forces were
driven out of _India_, where they had gather’d so much Wealth; and it
would certainly redound to the Honor and Profit of _France_, if they
could become Masters of the Gold and Silver Mines. King _Henry_ the
Second approving of the Proposal, and the more because the Admiral
_Gasper Coligni_ was also very earnest, looking upon it as a safe
Retreat for the Protestants, at that time cruelly persecuted: and
_Durande_, sensible of the Admirals thoughts, privately inform’d him,
That in his _American_ Design he chiefly aim’d to plant a True Church of
God in _America_, where the Professors might enjoy themselves peaceably.
This Report being spread amongst those that call’d themselves
_Protestants_, (fled from _Switzerland_ in great numbers to _France_)
made many of them venture upon the Design; who having fitted themselves,
and setting sail with three Ships, after some time arriv’d on the Coast
of _Brasile_, and landed on the _Rock-Island_, in the Haven _Januario_:
Here _Durande_ built several Watch-houses, and the Fort _Coligni_, which
he fortified with a considerable number of Guns: Not long after he writ
to _John Calvin_, That he would please to furnish this new Plantation in
_Brasile_ with good and able Teachers of the Gospel; which Request being
immediately taken into serious consideration by the Classes, one _Philip
Corguileray_, a Gentleman near _Geneva_, set Sail out of the Haven
_Honfleurs_, with three Ships, freighted with some Provisions, several
Persons of divers Trades, and two Ministers, _Peter Richer_, and
_William Chartier_: But he had scarce made _Africa_, when they began to
have a scarcity of Victuals; wherefore they turn’d their Design of
setling the Gospel in _America_, to Pyracy, where they made small
scruple or difference, whether Friends or Foes, but made Prize of all
they could light upon, though indeed their Ministers both preach’d and
perswaded the contrary, amongst whom a Controversie happening, put other
Business into their Heads; for one _John Cointak_, formerly a _Parisian
Sorbonist_, was also amongst those that remov’d from _Geneva_, who
pretended that _Coligni_ had promis’d him a Ministers place, so soon as
he landed at _Brasile_; but _Richer_ and _Chartier_, not satisfied that
there was any such Promise, and consequently thinking themselves not
obliged by his bare Assertion, told him, That themselves being able,
under God, to perform the Work, they needed no such Coadjutor: This bred
so great a Rancor between them, that _Cointak_ accus’d them for teaching
false Doctrine, and chiefly that they did not mix the Wine at their
Sacraments with Water, which Father _Clemens_ had strictly commanded.
_Durande_, being prevail’d on by the Cardinal of _Lorein_, joyn’d with
_Cointak_, and thereupon so sharply persecuted the _Protestants_, that
he starv’d several of them, which others to escape fled to the
_Brasilians_: Nay, he took _John Du Bordell_, _Matthias Vermeil_, and
_Peter Bourdon_, out of their Sick-Beds, and tying their Hands and Feet,
threw them headlong from a Rock into the Sea: Soon after which, the
bloody Persecutor return’d with ill success to _France_, where he wrote
a Book against the Reform’d Religion; but all the Honor which he gain’d
was, that all Parties on both sides accounted him a distracted Person.


                              SECT. XIII.
   _The Expeditions of_ John Ribald, Renatus Laudonier, _and_ Gurgie.

[Sidenote: _Florida_ unhappily discover’d.]

[Sidenote: _Ribald_’s Voyage.]

[Sidenote: The Garrison in _Florida_ in great want.]

[Sidenote: Unheard-of Hunger.]

_Florida_ being upon the Continent of _America_, and so call’d by _John
Pontæus_, who landed there upon _Palm-Sunday_, though _Sebastian Gaboto_
a _Venetian_, imploy’d by _Henry_ the Seventh King of _England_, landed
there before, may well be term’d _the_ Europeans _Bloody Stage_,
_Pontæus_ being slain here: But _Ferdinand Sotto_ exercis’d against the
Inhabitants inhumane Cruelty five years together; yet at last died of a
deep discontent, because he could not reach his Aims, having condemn’d
so many _Floridans_ fruitlesly to dig for Gold in the Mines. However,
since that, _Julian Sumanus_ and _Peter Ahumada_ undertook the Work
anew, but with the like bad Success. _Anno 1545._ one _Lodowick
Cancello_, a _Dominican_, thought to effect great things with four of
his Associates; but landing on _Florida_, was destroy’d by the Natives.
But _Gasper Coligni_ the Marshal, neither discourag’d by these miserable
Proceedings, nor the former Treachery of _Durande_, prepar’d for a new
Expedition thither; and accordingly _John Ribald_ was fitted with two
Ships from _Diep_, at the Charge of _Charles_ the Ninth King of
_France_, wherewith having sail’d thirty Degrees Northern Latitude, he
came before the Promontory of _Francisco_, where he ran up into the
Mouth of a wide River, to which he gave the denomination of _Dolphin_,
upon whose Banks were whole Mulberry-Woods, which nourish’d Silk-Worms
in strange abundance. From hence he sail’d by the _Wolves Head_ (a Point
so call’d, because great numbers of Wolves breed there) and leaving the
_Cedar-Island_, landed on _Florida_, where he built a Triangular Fort,
and having furnish’d it with Men, Guns, and Provisions, sail’d back for
more Supplies to _France_; but coming thither, found all things in
disorder, occasion’d by a War amongst themselves; so that the _French_
which guarded and dwelt in the Fort, waited in vain for Relief, and
their Provisions growing scant, thought it fittest and their best way to
build a Vessel, and sail from thence; which having effected, and being
gone about the third part of their Voyage there hapned such a Calm for
twenty Days, that they made not the least way, which drove them to so
great extremity, their Provisions being spent, that they drank their own
Urine, and fed upon their old Shoes, which also in a short time failing,
they agreed amongst themselves to kill and eat one of their Sea-men,
call’d _Henry Lacher_, on whose Flesh they liv’d some days; but being
again driven to the greatest want imaginable, in this extremity of
Desparation, their Condition being altogether hopeless, an _English_
Frigat discovering them, and observing by their manner of Sailing that
they were in some great want, drawing near, sent their Long-boat aboard,
and found them so weak, that they were not able to handle their Tack;
whereupon generously taking pity of them, they reliev’d them, and
conducted them to the Coast of England, and then brought them to Queen
_Elizabeth_, who had formerly design’d to rig a Fleet for _Florida_.

[Sidenote: _Laudonier_’s Voyage.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable difference in the _French_ Fleet.]

Mean while, no News having been heard of the foremention’d _French_
Plantation in _Brasile_, and _Coligni_’s Difference with the King being
decided, he prevail’d so much, that _Renatus Laudonier_ should with
three Ships sail to relieve the Garrison in the late deserted Fort.
_Laudonier_ landing in _Nova Francia_, found a Stone with a _French_
Inscription, plac’d on the Shore by _Ribald_, and hung full of Laurel
Garlands: Then he visited the King _Saturiona_, whose Son _Atorcus_ had
several Children by his own Mother, according to a Salvage Custom
observ’d in that Countrey. Whilst they stay’d here, a Fiery Meteor
appear’d in the Sky, with such fervor, that some Rivers boyl’d with the
heat of it, and the Fish parboyl’d, died; nay more, it scorch’d all the
Plants far and near: The Natives ascrib’d this Plague to the _French_
Cannons, by which means they stood in great fear of the _French_, who
might have done great things had not they differ’d amongst themselves;
For a Sea-man nam’d _Rubel Patracon_, pretending to have skill in
_Necromancy_, would undertake to shew the Places where the Gold and
Silver Mines were, which the rest of the Sea-men believing, rebell’d
against _Laudonier_, and though sick, imprison’d him, forcing him to
sign a Writing to this effect, That the two Ships, of which the Rebels
made _Vassar_ and _Trincant_ Commanders, should with his leave and
permittance sail to _New Spain_ for Provisions. Whilst they were
preparing for their Voyage, _Rupiferrir_ having been sent to the King
_Utina_, came back with many rich Presents, and withal brought
Information of the Gold and Silver Mynes _Apalatica_; but _Vassar_ and
_Trincant_ taking no notice thereof, set forth, and took a _Spanish_
Carvel, richly laden before _Havana_, whose Commander they agreed to
release on the payment of a great Ransom; but the Masters Son being sent
ashore to fetch the Money which they had agreed for, in stead thereof,
made his Fathers Mischance known; whereupon two great Frigats and a
Galley were the next Morning very early sent to attaque the _French_,
between whom was a sharp Encounter; but in a short time the two Pyrats
were sunk, and the Prisoners sold for Slaves, excepting a few that
escap’d in their Long-boat.

[Sidenote: Great cruelty of the _Spaniards_ against the _French_.]

[Sidenote: _Gurgie_’s valiant Exploits against the _Spaniards_.]

In this interim _Laudonier_ receiving no Supply from _France_, was
brought to great extremity; for the Rebels had carried great part of his
Store with them. In these straights he was forc’d by those that staid
with him, contrary to the Articles of Peace lately made with King
_Utina_, to take him Prisoner, in hopes that for his Liberty he would
procure them some Provisions; but the Inhabitants incens’d at the
baseness of so unexpected an Action, could not be wrought upon by any
means to give them Relief; but grown more perverse than before,
appointed a general Meeting to elect another King; so that out of all
hopes, they utterly gave themselves over for lost. In this desperate
condition, _John Haukins_, a great Sea-Captain, came thither with four
_English_ Ships, who pitying their misery, furnish’d them with
Necessaries, and having onely four Vessels, lent them one, because
_Laudonier_ was at that time too weak to endure the Sea; but not long
after recovering strength, and all things ready to set Sail, _Ribald_
came to an Anchor before _Charles-Fort_, with seven Ships from _Diep_:
Within few days after, the _Spanish_ Admiral _Peter Melandez_ arriv’d
with eight Frigats, whereof the French having Intelligence, cut their
Cables, and stood out to Sea, whom the _Spaniards_ chac’d, but could not
reach; whereupon leaving them, they landed in the Mouth of the River
_Dolphin_, where by help of the _Moorish_ Slaves they began to intrench
themselves; of which _Ribald_ having notice, immediately sail’d thither,
at least to disturb, if not absolutely drive them from their Work; but
surpriz’d in the way by a great Storm, lost most of his Fleet, ingag’d
among the Rocks; yet the Men were most of them sav’d. In this Storm the
_Spaniards_ also suffer’d great damage, yet made an Advantage of the
_Frenchmens_ Misfortune, marching with all speed to _Charles-Fort_, in
which were onely two hundred weak Men, _Ribald_ having taken the primest
Soldiers along with him. In the Morning before Sun-rise the _Spaniards_
made a fierce Assault, and in a short time became Masters of the Place,
which _Laudonier_ seeing, fled in a Boat; others leaping from the Walls
into the Moat, sav’d themselves by swimming: Whoever fell into the
Victors Hands, was without mercy slain; nay, such was the _Spaniards_
inveterate malice to the _French_, that wanting living Bodies, they
exercis’d their Cruelty upon the dead, pulling out their Eyes, and
cutting off their Members, carrying them in Triumph on the Points of
their Swords. In the interim, the Storm ceasing, _Ribald_ approach’d
_Charles-Fort_, with his shatter’d Fleet, but was so amaz’d when he saw
the _Spanish_ Flag set upon the Walls, and _Vallemond_ marching towards
him with a Squadron of _Spaniards_, that although a River lay between
them, yet he presently came to a Treaty, and deliver’d up all his Men,
being above four hundred, upon promise of good Quarter; but the
_Spaniards_ in stead of keeping their Agreement, bound them, leading
them all to the Castle, where, both against their Articles, and the Law
of Arms, they massacred them, and burnt their Bodies; but _Ribald_ being
quarter’d, they fix’d his Limbs upon Poles about the Walls, sending his
Head to _Sevil_. When _Charles_ the Ninth, King of _France_, receiv’d
notice hereof, he was not in the least concern’d at the _Spanish_
Cruelty us’d to his Subjects, out of a particular hatred to _Coligni_,
the first Promoter of the Voyage. But though the _French_ Crown so
little regarded the inhumane Usage committed by the _Spaniards_ in
_Charles-Fort_, yet _Dominicus Gurgie_ shew’d himself so highly
concern’d thereat, that turning all his Goods into Money, he levied two
hundred Soldiers, and fourscore Sea-men, which he put aboard three small
Ships, pretending that he would onely touch at _Brasile_; but sailing
beyond _Cuba_, he stood directly for _Florida_, where after his Landing
he was kindly receiv’d by _Saturiona_ the King, who complaining much
against the _Spaniards_ Oppressions, sent to joyn with him his Kinsman
_Olotocara_, having the Command of a great Army.

[Sidenote: Is ungratefully rewarded.]

The _Spaniards_ by this time had not onely strengthned _Charles-Fort_,
but also rais’d two others on each side of the River _Mayo_, in which
three Holds lay Garrison’d above four hundred choice Soldiers. Those in
the new Forts made little resistance; but quitting the same, and flying
into a neighboring Wood, fell into an Ambuscade of _Indians_, who slew
thirty of them, and preserv’d ninety for a Publick Execution. Thus they
march’d on victoriously to _Charles-Fort_, where by the way sixty
_Spaniards_ sallying out, were every one cut off, which much facilitated
the _Frenchmens_ Work. The Governor _Melandez_, seeing a certain ruine
attend him, fled into the Woods; but met there by the _Floridans_,
return’d to the _French_, of whom he begg’d Life for himself, and some
of his People: Yet _Gurgie_ deaf to all intreaties, would hear nothing,
but pressing on, took them all Prisoners, and as a just Reward of their
Cruelty to his Countrey-men, hang’d them on the next Trees: After which
Execution, it can scarce be express’d how kindly the Natives entertain’d
the _French_, because they had freed the Countrey from the _Spanish_
Oppressions. Thus having accomplish’d his Design, and returning home, he
was nobly receiv’d at _Rochel_, but had not the least Countenance for
all his trouble from the King; the Cardinal of _Lorein_ telling him,
_That for his good Service he ought to suffer death, because he had
fitted out three Ships upon his own Account, without Authority_.


                               SECT. XIV.
      _Four_ English _Expeditions, under the Conduct of our Famous
  Sea-Captains_ Martin Forbisher, _Sir_ Francis Drake, Thomas Candish,
                           _and_ John Smith.

[Sidenote: _Forbisher_’s Expedition.]

Captain _Forbisher_ sailing to the Northern Parts of _America_, _Anno
1576._ chusing a bad time, the Year being too much spent, and the Ocean
so full of Ice, that it forc’d him to return to _England_: Not many
Months after, he renew’d his Voyage, Queen _Elizabeth_ having rigg’d
out, and sent under his Command one Frigat and two Ketches, Mann’d with
a hundred and forty Men: The twenty sixth of _May_ he weigh’d Anchor,
and sail’d to the _Orkenies_, lying to the North of _Scotland_, where
landing, he found the poor Islanders fled out of their Huts, into Caves
and Dens among the Rocks. From thence he steer’d North-North-West,
through abundance of floating Pieces of Timber, which oftentimes gave
him great stops. The fourth of _July_ he made _Friezland_, where he met
with a great Storm of Hail, mix’d with Snow: Before the Shore lay a
great Ridge of Ice, which hindred for a while their Landing: Here he saw
several Wild People, but could not come to speak with them; for upon the
least approach they fled; yet when they saw any advantage, made
resistance: At last, three of them came unarm’d to the Shore, beckoning
_Forbisher_ to come to them; which he had done, had not great numbers of
the Natives appear’d too soon from an Ambuscade in a Wood, and behind a
Hill, who seeing themselves discover’d, march’d up into the Countrey,
three onely staying on the Shore, of whom the middlemost feigning to be
lame, at last fell down, whom his Companions took up, and carried a
little way, but then forsook, by which the _English_ observing their
Design, shot that the Sand flew all about him; whereupon forgetting his
Lameness, he ran as swift as a Deer up a Hill.

_Forbisher_’s Men had by this time fill’d two Barrels with a Mineral not
unlike Gold, but was afterwards found to be of little value. Nothing
else of Remark did he find here, except great long-hair’d Men, who being
exceeding salvage, subtilly plot nothing else but to murder, lurking for
Men, like Wild Beasts for their Prey, whom, when caught, they tear in
pieces. Close fitted to their Bodies, they wore the Skins of several
Wild Beasts, priding in the Tails which hung down betwixt their Legs.
Their Tents are of conjoyn’d Whalebones, cover’d over with the like
Skins, the Entrance always facing the South. They use Bowes, Arrows,
Slings, and two sorts of Boats: In the biggest they can carry seventeen
Men, which are made of several Wooden Planks clinch’d together, and
cased on both sides with Leather: The smallest ones are cover’d just in
the same manner, much resembling a Weavers Shuttle, having in the middle
a Hole, wherein a Man sits, who drawing the Cover of the Boat about his
Waste by Strings, with one Oar makes swift Passage.

The Countrey it self is barren, yet feeds abundance of Deer, Hares,
Wolves, Bears, and Dogs like Wolves, whose Flesh serves the Inhabitants
for Food.

This Countrey seems to be exceedingly troubled with great Earthquakes,
because several pieces of Rocks, and whole Mountains rent asunder, may
be seen in divers places.

The fourth of _August_, _Forbisher_ having elevated the Pole to sixty
eight Degrees, beyond what _Sebastian Cabot_, the first Discoverer of
those Parts, and set out by _Henry_ the Seventh, had done (for _America_
Northward never before had been so far penetrated) and laden with a sort
of shining Sand, which he believ’d might contain much of a Golden Oar,
having with him three of the Natives, _viz._ a Man, a Woman, and a
Child, set Sail for _England_, and the seventh of _September_ came to
_Milford_-Haven, and not long after arriv’d in _London_, where in short
time the Salvages died.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Sir _Francis Drake_’s Expedition.]

At the same time when _Forbisher_ sail’d Northerly, Sir _Francis Drake_
also, fitted out by Queen _Elizabeth_, steer’d another Course, sailing
by _Cape Blanko_ and _Cape Verde_, along the _African_ Coast, to
_Brasile_, where he caught several Sea-Wolves, and Anchoring in the
River _La Plata_, furnish’d himself with Fresh Water: Then proceeding on
his Voyage through the crooked _Straights of Magellan_, he came to an
Anchor before _Moucha_, wash’d by the _South Sea_. The Islanders
receiv’d him very courteously, because they were inform’d that the
_English_ were at great Wars with the _Spaniards_, to avoid whose
Cruelties, they had deserted the main Continent, and setled on _Moucha_.
One of these _Mouchaners_ going aboard, serv’d them for a Pilot to the
Haven _Valparizo_, where _Drake_ burnt the _St. Jago_, a small Village,
and plundring all the Countrey about it, got together a great Treasure
of Gold and Silver. Before _Arica_ he took three _Spanish_ Ships, richly
laden; and before _Lima_, four more, having an unvaluable Treasure of
Pearls and Gold aboard them. Thus inrich’d, he steer’d his Course
Northerly to forty two Degrees; but the Cold forcing him to fall four
Degrees to the Southward, he discover’d a very pleasant and inhabited
Coast, the People whereof shew’d him great kindness: The King himself
coming aboard with a great Train, set a Crown of Gold upon _Drakes_
Head, and gave him a Golden Scepter, and an Ivory Chain. After this he
inspected the Islands _Tidor_, _Ternata_, _Java_, _Zeilon_, and _Cape de
Bona Esperanza_, from whence, after a three Years Voyage, having
encompass’d the World, he came safe to _London_, where he rested not
long; for sailing _Anno 1585._ to _America_, he took great Prizes from
the Cities _St. Jago_, _St. Domingo_, _St. Augustin_, and _Carthagena_,
setting them all on Fire. Thus again returning home victoriously, and
after the famous defeat of the _Spanish Armado_, he rigg’d out a new
Fleet, having for his Vice-Admiral Captain _Hawkins_: Their Design was
to have sail’d to _Panama_; but both dying, and so the Commission
ceasing, the expected great and golden Project also died with them.

[Sidenote: _Candish_ his Expedition.]

A Year after the death of these famous Navigators, Captain _Thomas
Candish_ Mann’d with a hundred and twenty Men, and Provisions for two
Years, setting sail in a lucky Hour, a second time encompass’d the
World, passing the _Straights of Magellan_; in which Voyage having got
above ten times the value of his Charge, by taking the _Spanish_ Carrack
_St. Anna_, valued at twenty Tun of Gold; and at last freighted with a
Mass of Treasure, he came safe into the River of _Thames_.

[Sidenote: _Smith_’s Voyage.]

But much worse success had Captain _John Smith_, who weigh’d Anchor
_Anno 1614._ with two Ships, fitted out by several Merchants in
_London_, for _New-England_, and on the Island _Monachigga_ to load
Copper, Gold, and other Minerals that were to be had there, and also to
fish for Whales: But there were no such Minerals to be found there, nor
any Whales to be taken on the Coast, because the time of the Year was
past; so that he return’d home without Success. However, not long after,
they undertook the same Expedition a second time, but with worse
Fortune; for being gotten in sight of _Virginia_, he was treacherously
set upon, and taken by the _French_, who accus’d him, that he had
destroy’d the Plantations in _Nova Francia_, and unless he would make
satisfaction for the Damage, they threatned him with death. He was
carried Prisoner to _Rochel_, in a _French_ Ship; but not far from
thence surpris’d by a mighty Storm, _Smith_ finding an opportunity,
leap’d into the Boat, and driving betwixt the Waves, at last, half dead,
was thrown upon the Island of _Oleron_, whom afterwards, having lost
all, an _English_ Ship took in, and brought to his Native Countrey.


                               SECT. XV.
     Netherland _Expedition by_ Jaques Mahu, _and_ Simon de Cordes.

[Sidenote: _Mahu_’s Voyage.]

Five Ships being fitted out at _Rotterdam_, the Command of them was
given to _Jaques Mahu_ and _Simon de Cordes_, who on the twenty seventh
of _June, Anno 1598._ weigh’d Anchor from the _Goree_, and sail’d on an
immense Voyage; at last landing at the Island _St. Jago_, they won a
strong Castle there, and took two Barques; but at last Articled with the
_Portuguese_, that they might undisturb’d supply themselves with Fresh
Water, yet they, as if they minded no Agreements, whilst the _Dutch_
were filling their Casks, came down upon them with two hundred Horse,
each having a Foot-Soldier behind him; but the _Hollanders_ made so
stout resistance, that they put them all to flight.

The City of _St. Jago_, which gives Denomination to the whole Island, is
built long-wise, having a convenient Haven, like a Crescent: Through the
City glides a River, on both sides of which, beyond the Town, arise
several high Mountains: That part which faces the Sea, hath
Fortifications, defended with strong Bulwarks. The _Portuguese_ had
brought all their Guns to bear towards the Sea, to sink the _Holland
Ships_, which they invited thither under pretence of kindness; but a
great Storm hindred the Fleet, that they could not Anchor at the
appointed place; onely two of the Ships sail’d pretty near, but not
within Shot.

[Illustration: St. IAGO]

From hence steering to the Desolate Island _Brava_, they saw nothing but
five ruin’d Houses, the Door of one stopp’d up with great Stones, which
being taken away, was found full of _Turkish_ Wheat, which prov’d a
great kindness to the Sea-men.

[Sidenote: _Mahu_ dies.]

[Sidenote: _Cordes_ his Voyage.]

Mean while the Admiral _Mahu_ died, and his Body put into a Chest fill’d
up with Stones, was thrown over-board; so that _Simon des Cordes_
carrying the Flag, steer’d his Course to _Guinee_, there to refresh
himself; for most of his Men were so weakned by the Scurvey, that they
were scarce able to hand the Sails.

[Sidenote: Strange King in _Guinee_.]

Arriving at their intended Port, the Sick were carried ashore; and the
Vice-Admiral _Beuningen_, being conducted by a _French_ Guide, went to
the Vice-Roy of that Countrey, who sat on a low Bench, with a
Sheeps-skin under his Feet, in a Violet-colour’d Cloth Suit, without any
Linnen, Shirt, Shoes, or Stockins; on his Head a Cap made of yellow,
red, and blue Eastern Cloth; his Face whitened with Ashes, shew’d in
several places its natural blackness, appearing through the Colours;
about his Neck a Collar or Chain of Glass Beads: Behind him sat his
Nobles, with Cocks Feathers on their Heads, and their Skins painted Red.

_Beuningen_ plac’d by the King on a Mat, complain’d to him, That the
_Guineans_ fled from him where-ever he came, though in Friendship, to
barter _European_ Commodities with them, against Fruits, Poultrey,
Sheep, and other Provisions: Whereupon the King promis’d to furnish him
therewith, and invited _Beuningen_ to Dinner. After some stay, the Kings
Wives entred the Palace, a very mean and ill-favour’d Building, more
like a great Barn than a Kings House, and plac’d a kind of nasty Trough
on the Ground, in which lay nothing but some wild Herbs, and a piece of
a smoak’d Sea-Calf; and though he was a Person of the largest size, and
corpulent, yet he eat sparingly. _Beuningen_, though exceeding hungry,
found little rellish in such kind of Meats; wherefore spreading a
Napkin, his Attendants brought him some Bisket and _Spanish_ Wine,
whereof after the King had tasted, he lik’d so well the rellish, that it
rock’d him asleep, whilst _Beuningen_ walk’d to the Sea-side to refresh
himself; but the _Guineans_ coming about him, he was forc’d to return to
the King, who waking at the noise, appear’d highly incens’d at his
People, and took _Beuningen_ into his House: However the Subjects,
notwithstanding the Kings Commands, when _Beuningen_ was sent into a
neighboring Hut, kept Watch about it all Night: The next Morning early
an old Woman entred, muttering to her self, and went out and in to
_Beuningen_ three times one after another, knocking on a Box not unlike
a Pair of Bellows, out of which flew abundance of Dust about
_Beuningen_, which caus’d a great Laughter amongst the _Guineans_. The
King also coming to him, presented him with two Goats, and four Hens,
and so conducted him back to the Ships.

[Sidenote: Bloody Sea, very strange.]

[Sidenote: Salvages in the _Straights of Magellan_.]

_Beuningen_ seeing that there was no good to be done, set sail from
thence, and coming before the River _La Plata_ in _America_, it appear’d
Blood-red. Out of the Water which was taken up in Buckets, started a
sort of Insects like Fleas, which caus’d a strange and sad Distemper
amongst the Sea-men, that when any Meat was offer’d to them, so soon as
ever they put it to their Mouths, they would fall down backwards in a
swoon, foaming and frothing at the Mouth, and turning up the White of
their Eyes, die distracted. Suffering under this Disaster, they hasted
from thence with all speed, and sailing into the _Straights of Magellan_
they kill’d above fourteen hundred _Penguyins_, which is a Bird that
preys on Fish, and lives in Holes under Ground; they somewhat resemble a
Goose, onely they stand more upright, and are double-crested, with two
plumy Combs. Coming to an Anchor in the _Green-Bay_, there arose a great
Storm, which continued several days, so that they were forc’d to moor
their Vessels with four Anchors, extremely afflicted both with Hunger
and Cold, preserving themselves alive by eating young Grout, at that
time not above a span high from the Ground; but this course Food bred an
incurable Dropsie, that posted them on to a sudden death. Afterwards,
when the Weather grew more pleasant, the Inhabitants being Gyants, most
of them eleven Foot high, grew more troublesom, oftentimes assailing
them, and throwing Darts pointed like Harping-Irons, at which they were
very expert. Their Salvage Natures may appear by their Dealings with the
dead _Hollanders_, cutting off their Heads, and bruising them to pieces,
sticking Darts through their Hearts, and cutting off their Privities.

[Sidenote: A wild Woman.]

At last the Fleet getting into the _South Sea_, were by stress of
Weather separated one from another: Two Ships, being the _Faith_, and
the _Good Tydings_, were driven back into the _Straights of Magellan_,
where they suffer’d the uttermost extremity of Hunger: Here they took a
wild Woman, and two Children, who being of a sallow Complexion, had a
great hanging Belly, a wide Mouth, crooked Legs, long Heels, and Breasts
like Cows Udders; about her Neck a String of Snail-shells, and upon her
Back a Beasts Skin, fastned about her Neck with the Sinews of it; her
Food nought else but live Fowls: The same Diet the Children fed upon:
The youngest being but six Months old, had his Mouth full of Teeth, and
ran without any help: The eldest they carried to _Amsterdam_; but having
kept the Woman aboard two Nights, they gave her several Trifles, and set
her ashore. Here they found old Ice in the middle of Summer, four Foot
thick.

_Beuningen_ lingred in the _Straights of Magellan_, and being tired out
with Hunger, Cold, and Storms, return’d home; and had they not by
accident taken abundance of Coneys, they had all perish’d. Above two
Years had this unhappy Voyage lasted, when they arriv’d at their Native
Countrey, with six and thirty Men, being all that remain’d alive of a
hundred and five.


                               SECT. XVI.
                 _The Expedition of_ Oliver van Noord.

[Sidenote: _Porto Desire._]

[Sidenote: Sea-Dogs.]

Two Months after _Mahu_, _Oliver Van Noord_ set sail with four Ships,
and two hundred forty eight Men, from the _Maes_. Having reach’d the
_Princes Island_, he lost seven of his Men by the Treachery of the
_Portuguese_; and Anchoring before the City _Javeiro_, he was no better
entertain’d by the same Nation: Here having a Rencounter, and both Sides
receiving considerable Loss, he steer’d for St. _Sebastian_, a fruitful
Island, producing an Herb very wholesom against the _Scurvey_: Here the
Sea-men found great store of Sea-Mews, and Parrots, besides several
sorts of delicious Fish. The approaching Winter advis’d them from
entring the _Straights of Magellan_ so late; wherefore they judg’d it
best to seek a convenient Harbor, to put their Sick ashore to refresh
themselves. The Island _St. Hellen_, for its fruitfulness, seem’d to be
the most convenient for this purpose; but a great Storm preventing them,
they came to _St. Clara_, where taking in Fresh Water, they cast Anchor
in _Porto Desire_. In this Haven they saw a kind of Sea-Dogs, whose
fore-parts being overgrown with long Hair, seem’d like a Lyon, and the
Feet like Mens Hands; over their Eyes and Upper-lips grew black and
white Hair, which in Stormy Weather stands staring upright, but in Calm,
lies flat and smooth; they Urine backwards, sleep very soundly, and cast
their Young every Month: Their Flesh well-boyl’d prov’d a savory Dish.

[Sidenote: Strange Tombs.]

_Van Noord_ going ashore here, saw not a Man; but only Burying-places on
high Rocks, built of red Stones, and adorn’d both within and without
with Bowes, Arrows, and other strange things: Under the Heads of the
Dead lay four-square Shells, and other things artificially carv’d.
Curiosity made them desirous to make a further search into the Countrey;
wherefore he rowed during a whole Tide up a River; and when their Boat
ran aground at the time of Ebb, he walk’d several Leagues up into the
Countrey, where he saw nothing but Deer, Buffles, and Ostriches: and
because he saw no People, he judg’d the Coast to be uninhabited; but
returning again, he found it otherwise; for the Sea-men, though
commanded to stay in the Boat, which lay in the middle of the River,
went ashore, where they were so fiercely set upon by thirty of the
Natives, that three of them were kill’d, and another wounded in the Leg.
These People are very strong and Salvage, with painted Faces, and long
Hair; but after this Encounter, they saw no more of them.

But _Van Noord_ having spent fourteen Months in search, and lost a
hundred Men, set sail again with three Ships; for one of them, being the
_Unity_, he burnt at the Island _Clara_, where he Winter’d, because of a
great Leak which could not be stopp’d. Here they brought five thousand
Fowls aboard, which much increased their Stock of Provisions.

From hence parting the Wide Ocean, into the _Straights of Magellan_,
four times the Fleet attempted to go into the _South-Sea_, and was as
often driven back by cross Weather into the _Straights_; but the fifth
time prov’d more successful; for having got through, and left the
_Straights_ a handsom way astern, they discover’d two Islands, from one
of which the Sea-men going aland, brought four Boys and two Girls; who
afterward instructed in their Tongue, inform’d them concerning the
scituation of the Countreys thereabout.

[Sidenote: _Philip-Stadt_ forsaken through famine.]

After that, the Fleet Sail’d into _Hungers Haven_, where they found the
ruines of the deserted _Philip-Stadt_, which Captain _Thomas Candish_
had seen fourteen years before, fortifi’d with four Bulwarks; but now
onely some Houses, a Church, and a Gibbet were standing: Four hundred
_Spaniards_ built that City, as a Key to the _Straights_ of _Magellan_.
But all their Provisions being spent in three years time, and no relief
coming from _Spain_, and what they Sow’d expecting the hopes of a
Harvest, the Salvages coming down by night destroy’d; which caus’d so
great a Famine to rage amongst them, that many dy’d, not so much as
putting off their Clothes, who lying in the Houses unbury’d, occasion’d
such a stench in the City, that the remainder fled into the Field; where
they liv’d a whole year by the Fruits of the Trees, Herbs, and Roots: At
last, three and twenty of them, amongst which were two Women remaining
yet alive, resolv’d to travel to the River _La Plata_ and accordingly
set forward, but what became of them could never yet be heard, only one
_Ferdinando_ that was of that company, accidentally wandring from the
rest, happen’d to light upon _Candish_’s Fleet.

[Sidenote: _Mocha_, what kind of Island.]

Here _Van Noord_ set on Shore the Vice-Admiral _Jacob Claeszoon
Ilpendam_, for some crimes which he had committed; and leaving him
behind, Sail’d from thence thorow the South-Sea along the Coast of
_Chili_ and _Mocha_; which Island, of a considerable bigness, rises in
the middle with a forked Mountain, from which a convenient River comes
flowing down into the Countrey.

[Sidenote: _Cica_, a strange Drink.]

The Inhabitants conducted the _Hollanders_ to their Village, consisting
of about fifty Houses built of Straw, but were forbid to go into their
Huts: Upon the Mens call the Women appear’d, which being divided into
three parties, humbly kneel’d down before them; and soon after an old
Woman brought an Earthen Can full of _Cica_, a Liquor made of _Mays_,
whose extracted Juyce, boyl’d and put into Tubs, ferments like our Beer
or Ale, with a cap of Barm, with which they treated the _Hollanders_,
who drinking moderately, were well refresh’d; but the Natives will ply
this Liquor, till they make themselves Distracted, and are mad Drunk.

[Sidenote: _Van Noord_ takes a _Spanish_ Ship.]

From hence _Van Noord_ steer’d his course to _Sancta Maria_, where in
his way he took a _Spanish_ Ship, call’d _Buon Jesus_, that is, _Good
Jesus_, and receiv’d intelligence from the Prisoners, that the Admiral
_Simon de Cordes_, with twenty three Men was kill’d by the _Americans_
on the Promontory _Lavapia_, being the head Land or Point opposite to
_St. Maries_; that a year since, tydings were brought to _Lima_ of his
Fleet; so that they had made all things ready to withstand him. But _Van
Noord_ hinder’d by strong contrary Winds, not able to reach _Sancta
Maria_, stood directly for _St. Jago_, in whose Haven lay a great
_Spanish_ Ship full of _Indians_, and two other going in, which two he
set on Fire, and the third he Tow’d towards his Fleet; repenting
extremely that he had given liberty, and set _Francisco de Ivarro_
Commander of the _Buon Jesus_ ashore; because he afterwards understood
from the _Spanish_ Pilot, that _Ivarra_ threw ten thousand two hundred
pound weight of Gold, pack’d in fifty two Cases, over-board, when he
observ’d that he was like to loose his Ship.

The Fleet Sailing forward came to an Anchor before the _Thieves-Island_,
whose Inhabitants are very light Finger’d, go stark naked, and are of
great strength; they found the Women much Disfigur’d, their Noses, Lips,
and Cheek-bones eaten by the _French_ Pox.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Performs great things.]

In the Bay _La Baya_, the _Dutch_ Admiral, with a _Spanish_ Flag on his
top-Mast, sent one of his Sea-men in a Fryers garb ashore, if possible
under that disguise, to get Provisions; which falling out according to
their Design, they were supply’d with all manner of Victuals: After
that, the _Hollanders_ burnt five Villages on the Island _Capull_; took
a _Chinesy_ Vessel, one _Spanish_ Barque, and a _Carvel_ Laden with
Brandy from _Cocos_; and after a great and bloody Fight sunk the Admiral
of the _Manilla_’s, and so at last with various fortunes arriv’d at
_Rotterdam_, having in three years encompass’d the World.


                              SECT. XVIA.
               _The Expedition_ of George Van Spilbergen.

_Anno 1614._ the eighth of _August_, the _East-India_ Company of the
_United Netherlands_ set out seven Ships under the Command of _George
Spilbergen_, who coming to _Cape St. Vincent_, and engaging with the
_Portuguese_, took one of their Ships, and so proceeded on his Voyage to
the _Straights_ of _Magellan_, but by a huge Storm, the Fleet was
separated. Amongst those that were scatter’d was the good Ship call’d
_Meruw_, in which some of the crew had conspir’d to have kill’d the
Master, and seiz’d the Vessel; but he having some inkling thereof, set
so stoutly upon two of the chief Contrivers with his drawn Hanger, that
he forc’d them to leap over-board, and as stoutly ordering the rest, set
all to rights.

[Sidenote: Strange Corps.]

But _Spilbergen_ Landing on one of the _Penguyn_ Islands, found two Dead
Bodies just cover’d with Earth, about their Necks was a Chain of
glistering Snail Shells neatly strung; the Grave stuck full of Bowes and
Arrows, was pleasant to look upon, between several high Mountains, whose
tops lay bury’d in Snow: The Fleet came out of the _Straights_ of
_Magellan_, but not without great danger, for the South-Sea much
disturb’d by tempestuous Weather, seem’d to raise its Waves up to the
Sky, so that they had enough to do, from being ingag’d among the Rocks:
But at last with great difficulty, wonderfully escaping all danger, they
Anchor’d before _La Mocha_, an Island which on the North side lies low,
and on the South defended by Rocks.

[Sidenote: _Spilbergen_ in great danger.]

[Sidenote: Strange sheep.]

_Spilbergen_ seeing abundance of Men standing on the Shore, Row’d
thither to Barter for Merchandize, amongst them was a Sheep with a long
Neck, bunch-Back’d like a Camel, a little Mouth, and long Legs; which
Beast serves them in stead of Horses, to carry their burthens, and
perform their Tillage. The _Americans_ breed up these Sheep every where,
by reason of the extraordinary benefit they receive from them, some of
them keeping no less than eighteen hundred. Their Shepherds ride upon a
Beast almost like an Ox, and carry in their hands Copper-plates, hung
round about with Bells, which they shake, making a different noise when
their Sheep shall go in or out; and on their Heads wear Feathers like
Coronets, standing upright.

[Sidenote: St. _Maries_ burnt.]

[Sidenote: And also _Val Parysa_.]

From thence, _Spilbergen_ departing, Landed at last on the Island of
_St. Mary_, where he burnt all the _Spanish_ Villages; as he did also in
_Val Parysa_.

After going ashore, in the Haven _Quintero_, he saw abundance of Wild
Horses drinking out of a Rivulet, supply’d with fresh Water from an
adjoyning steep Mountain; so soon as they espy’d Men, they instantly
running away, were seen no more.

[Sidenote: Bloody fight between the _Hollanders_ and _Spanish_ Fleet.]

Having left _Quintero_, and spent a Moneth in Sailing farther, they
discry’d eight great Ships; whereupon the Prisoners inform’d them, that
it was the _Spanish_ Fleet, of which _Roderigo de Mendoza_ was Admiral,
fitted out on purpose to fight _Spilbergen_, whose coming (as we said)
was known a year before. At midnight _Mendoza_ Boarded _Spilbergen_, but
was so roughly receiv’d, that he was forc’d to Retreat with the loss of
the Ship _St. Francisco_. At Day-break, the _Holland_ Admiral fir’d at
_Mendoza_, who answering with equal courage, occasion’d a smart
Engagement, wherein the _Spaniards_ were so hard beset, that they put
forth a White Flag; but it was immediately taken in again by the
Commanders aboard, choosing rather to die, than surrender, because they
had mock’d at _Mendoza_, when he hinted the difficulty of the Enterprize
in the Grand _Peruvian_ Councel, saying, _They went out, onely to take a
few disabled_ Hollanders, _and tying them hand and feet, carry them to
Execution_. Yet their high and proud Stomachs prov’d very fatal to them,
for afterwards totally routed and put to flight, most of them sunk by
the way.

[Sidenote: _Calyow de Lima._]

This done, the _Hollanders_ victoriously Sail’d to _Calyow de Lima_,
having a convenient Haven: The City adorn’d with curious Houses and
Temples, is strengthen’d by a Platform, Planted with great Guns towards
the Sea, and the Shore was guarded by eight Troops of Horse, and four
thousand Foot; whereupon _Spilbergen_, who was yet to go so great a
Voyage, judg’d it no way convenient to adventure the loss of all on the
good or bad event of a Battel, especially being so much over-power’d by
the number of the Enemy: Wherefore seeing no hopes of Victory, setting
forward to _Guarma_, he got some fresh Provisions.

[Sidenote: _Peyta_ burnt.]

Against the City _Peyta_, he play’d his Cannon with such fury, that the
Townsmen deserted the place, which he observing, set it on fire, and
Sail’d to _Aquapulque_, where from the Fort at first the _Spaniards_
fired some Guns at them; but soon after changing humor, they came to an
Accommodation, furnishing the _Hollanders_ with convenient Provisions.
Passing on, and coming to _Selaques_, both Natives and _Spaniards_
having suffer’d some of the _Hollanders_ to Land; after set upon them
treacherously in a Thicket, but to their little advantage, for they made
so good a Defence, that the Assailants not able to bear the brunt, fled
with great loss.

_Spilbergen_ Sailing from hence to the _Manilla_’s, waited there for the
_Spanish_ Admiral _Juan de Silva_, who had made (as was reported) great
preparations for him long since; but seeing it was in vain, at last he
return’d to _Zealand_ where he came to an Anchor, loaden with Riches, in
the middle of Summer, _Anno 1617._


                              SECT. XVII.
_The Expedition of_ William Corneliszon Schouten, _and_ Jacob Le Maire.

[Sidenote: _Mabrabomma_, what manner of Isle.]

[Sidenote: _Schouten_ in great danger.]

[Sidenote: Incredible many Eggs.]

[Sidenote: Great Corps.]

[Sidenote: _Ketch_ burnt.]

[Sidenote: Strange Horn.]

Some Merchants that were call’d the _Austrian_ Company, fitted out one
Ship with sixty five, and a Ketch with two and twenty Sea-men, giving
the Command thereof to the Captains _Schouten_ and _Le Maire_: _Anno
1615._ they Weigh’d Anchor from the _Texel_; the first took a view of
one of the three Islands, call’d _Mabrabomma_, lying before _Cape Sierra
Leona_. This Island appearing a great height out of the Sea, was not
inhabited, they seeing onely three Wild Buffles, many Wild Cats, Birds
which bark’d like Dogs, Wild Palm-Trees, Lemon-Trees, Turtles,
Crocodiles, Partridges, and Storks: From hence, passing by the dangerous
Shelf _Abrolhos_, they ran into _Porto Desire_, where on the Rocks they
found abundance of Eggs, and Spierings, or Smelts, and Spiregrass
sixteen Inches long, wherefore they call’d that Inlet _Spierings-Bay_.
Their Sloop also brought two Sea-Lions, and one hundred and fifty
_Penguins_ from the _Penguin_ Isles, having Sail’d two Leagues up the
River; in the interim, the ground being meer Stone, and their Anchors
coming home, the great Ship drove against a Rock, and at Ebbing Water,
broke off the outermost Planks and Iron-Work, and the Ketch also
striking on a high Shelf, was at low Ebb two Fathom with her Keel above
the Water, and had without peradventure been overset, and bilg’d, but a
fresh North-West Wind kept her upright, yet at last, the Weather growing
calm, she lean’d, but the Tide coming in very fast, set her afloat, so
that she was miraculously sav’d; then setting Sail again to
_King’s-Island_, they found so many Eggs of black _Mews_, that one
without stirring from his place, might reach above fifty Nests, and in
each of them at least three Eggs, which they carry’d aboard by
thousands. Their Boat Rowing Southerly down the River, found some
Ostriches, and Beasts not unlike Stags, but with exceeding long Necks.
On the Hills lay Stones heap’d one upon another, which removing, they
found Dead Bodies of eleven Foot long; here they spent their time in
cleansing their Ships, and new Sheathing the Ketch, but as they were
Tallowing, the Flame accidentally got between the Crevisses which
immediately taking Fire, in a short time consum’d it to Ashes: The great
Ship had gotten a Horn in her Bow, seven Foot under Water; this Horn
being firm without any hollowness, and not unlike a great Elephants
Tooth, struck thorow two Ashen and one Oaken Plank, sticking in a Rib of
the like Wood, and yet above half a Foot remain’d out to be seen.

[Sidenote: Great Mews.]

At length _Schouten_ Weighing Anchor from _Porto Desire_, and Sailing to
four and fifty Degrees Southern Latitude, met whole Shoals of Whales,
insomuch, that he was fain to Tacque to and again to shun them.
Sea-Pies, bigger than Swans, came flying in great numbers aboard,
suffering themselves to be taken with the hand. On the North-side they
spy’d a high and scraggy Coast spreading it self to the East South-East,
which they call’d, The _States Countrey_, that which lay to the Westward
of it, _Maurice_ of _Nassau_, the Islands in fifty seven Degrees
_Barnevield_’s Isles, and the sharp Point in which lay the Snowy
Mountains, Southward of the _Magellan Straights_ end, the _Cape_ of
_Hoorn_.

[Sidenote: _Straights Le Maire._]

_Schouten_ had now gotten the height of fifty nine Degrees, when he
enter’d the South-Sea, through the new passage between _Mauritius_ and
the _States-Countrey_, which was call’d from his Partner, _The Straights
of Le Maire_.

[Sidenote: Isles in the South-Sea.]

Near the two Isles _Juan Fernando_, they found great store of Fish,
after that they view’d these Islands, that lay scatter’d up and down the
South-Sea, each of them they nam’d according to their several occasions,
calling the first, _The Isle of Dogs_, because they have abundance of
Dogs there that could not bark: Another, _The Bottomless Island_,
because the Sea was so deep about it, that they could not come to an
Anchor. The Inhabitants who go naked, with their Skins pounced full of
strange shapes, of blue Snakes, Dragons, and such like Creatures,
Salli’d out of the Woods upon the _Hollanders_ with great Clubs, to
which was fasten’d the Sword or Snout of a Sword-Fish, and also with
Slings.

Somewhat further they came to _Water-Land_, and _Flyes-Island_, the
first so nam’d, because the Shore round about was planted with Trees,
but in the middle all lay cover’d with Salt-Water; the other from the
_Flyes_, which with incredible numbers troubled the Sea-men four days
together.

[Sidenote: Strange entertainment at the Horn Islands.]

Moreover, the Reception or Entertainment which _Schouten_ was welcom’d
withal, at the _Hoorn-Islands_, being very remarkable, we will in brief
relate:

Anchoring in nine Fathom Water, Shelly ground, before a fresh Rivulet,
three _Hollanders_ sent to the King were by him courteously entertain’d,
who with strange humility, not bow’d, but kissing their Feet fell flat
on the ground, and put the _Hollanders_ Feet upon his Neck; and after
this manner of Salutation, waited upon them aboard: Yet although this
King fawn’d so much, and seem’d so humble, yet he was very severe over
his Subjects, for finding one that had filch’d a Sword, he not onely
brought and restor’d it, but immediately Executed the Thief before their
Faces.

_Le Maire_ and _Arias Claeszoon_ were much honor’d here, for the old and
young King put their Crowns on their Heads, curiously Wrought of fine
White Feathers, and the end adorn’d with small Red and Green Feathers;
they gave also to each of them a Pigeon, White to their Wings, the
hinder part Black, and under their Bellies Red.

In the interim, the King of _Water-Island_ visited the other, by whom
_Le Maire_ was treated: When they met, they made strange shews of Honor
to each other, but at last shew’d their Salvageness by eating raw Fish,
and rudely Dancing before the _Hollanders_. _Le Maire_ going into the
Countrey, and climbing up a high Mountain, saw nothing but Morass Wilds,
and Vallies, lying under Water: The King and his Retinue here kept him
company, during his stay there, when weary with walking, they sate down
together under Coco-Nut-Trees; the young King tying a String about his
Leg, climb’d with exceeding dexterity up a high Tree, bringing several
Coco-Nuts down with him, which he open’d very expeditiously.

_Arias Claeszoon_, Rowing ashore one night, found the King sitting under
a Roof, resting on four Pillars, where several Naked Women Danc’d before
him according to their Musick, which was Taboring upon a hollow Piece of
Wood, which yielded a murmuring sound without any distinct Tune.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _Cava_ a strange Liquor.]

[Sidenote: Impudent Women.]

But the two Kings meeting again, the next day Complemented one another
with more antick and ridiculous Postures, sitting side by side under the
Roof, imploring their God, with their Hands folded, and their Heads
bow’d to the ground: At this interview, four _Holland_ Trumpeters and
Drummers stood playing before the King, to the great admiration and
amazement of the Islanders, which were near ten thousand gather’d
together upon the News of the strangers to attend the two Kings. Soon
after a great company of Rusticks came running thither, which had a
green Herb call’d _Cava_, ty’d about their middle; on a sudden they
began all to chaw this _Cava_, throwing that which they had chaw’d into
a large Woodden Trough, then putting Water to it, they Kneaded it
together; which done, brought the Liquor on their Heads to the two
Kings, before whom they kneel’d when they gave them any: Yet
notwithstanding they receiv’d such honor from their Subjects, they
shew’d servile respects to the _Hollanders_, for every King presented
them with a Pig, which they first laid on their Heads, then kneeling,
put it down at _Le Maire_’s Feet, and bowing their Heads to the ground,
rose again. They wear their Hair long, which Brayded, hung on the left
side of their Heads down to their Hips, ty’d at the end with two Knots;
but the Nobility had two such Locks: All of them went naked, their
Privities onely cover’d. The smallest of the Men exceeded the biggest of
the _Hollanders_ in tallness. The Women had long Breasts hanging like
Satchels down to their Bellies, and so unshamefac’d, that they
prostituted themselves to any, in sight of all Men; and still at low
Water, their business was to catch Fish, which they greedily eat raw.

[Sidenote: Strange wild men.]

[Sidenote: Deform’d people.]

After all this Entertainment, Weighing from hence, _Schouten_ Sail’d
along the Coast of _New-Guiny_, where three Boats full of _Negro_’s came
Rowing towards them, Slinging very fiercely Stones at them, and hovering
about, attended their motion all night. Next morning, seven Boats more
coming to their assistance, they set upon the _Hollanders_, but soon
fled from their Bullets; yet two of the _Negro_’s were taken, that in
each Nostril wore a Ring. Sailing further, several Boats came aboard of
them, whereof those that Row’d, breaking their _Assagays_ or Launces
over their Heads, enter’d the Ship; the Hair of their Heads and Beards
bedawb’d with Lime, flew about, whilst they Danc’d on the Decks, after
they had eaten a good Meal: But they endeavor’d to reward this their
kind Entertainment with Treachery, for going ashore, they soon after
return’d in greater numbers, and sat upon the Anchors which lay over the
Bows of the Ship, and there being a great calm, endeavor’d to Towe the
Ship towards the Shore, whilst others threw Stones and Arrows. But so
soon as the _Hollanders_ firing their Guns Wounded several of them, they
all fled, except some which they took Prisoners, whereof one whom they
afterwards call’d _Moses_, did them great service.

But _Le Maire_ was amaz’d at nothing more, than when on the next Coast
he saw several little Houses built about nine Foot high, out of which
many People issu’d, which were all deform’d, either having Wry Noses,
Bow Legs, Squint Eyes, or crooked Backs, and all in one part or another
mis-shapen.

At last, Anchoring before _Jacatra_, the Ship was stopt there by order
of the _East-India_ Company, and the Men divided and put aboard those
Ships that Sail’d from _India_ to _Holland_, and arriv’d in safety at
_Flushing_, after they had Sail’d about the World, in two years and
eighteen days.


                              SECT. XVIII.
     _Voyage of the_ Nassavian _Fleet, under the Command of_ Jaques
                L’Heremite, _and_ Geen Huigo Schapenham.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Exploits of _L’Hermite_.]

The _United Netherlands_, to abate the _Spanish_ Greatness, set out a
considerable Fleet, which they sent to try their fortune, in making
Prize of what ever they could light upon in any of their Havens wash’d
by the South-Sea.

_Jaques L’Hermite_ had ten Ships under his Command, Mann’d with sixteen
hundred thirty seven Men, and two hundred ninety four Brass and Iron
Guns, with which he set Sail from _Goree_, _Anno 1623._ and coming
before _Cape Vincent_, he discover’d eleven _Turkish_ Pirates, whom
fighting, he beat, and re-took the _Holland_ Ships they had made Prize
of.

At _Roxents Head_, _L’Hermite_ gave chase to fifteen _Spanish_ Ships,
and coming up with them, sunk eleven, and took four laden with Sugar.
Afterwards Anchoring at _Safia_, he sent the Ship _Over-yssel_, and a
Frigat call’d the _Gray-Hound_, to Convoy home the Prizes; afterward
being inform’d, that thirty _Spanish_ Ships were making to them, Sailing
into the Haven _St. Vincent_, the Spring Water that he supply’d his
empty Cask with being brakkish, caus’d an excoriation of the Guts, which
brought the Bloody-Flux, whereby he lost many of his Sea-men; being well
entertain’d by the Salvages of _Antonio_, they went on to _Sierra
Leona_, a Mountainous Point full of Lime-Trees, here they found the
Names of _Sr. Francis Drake_, and other _English_ cut in a Rock.

After that he put in at the fruitful Island _Annabon_, where he caus’d
his Chirurgeon to be Beheaded.

[Sidenote: _Vegar_ a wicked man.]

This wicked Man being brought to the Torture, would confess nothing
concerning the Crimes objected against him, but being strip’d for
Execution, they found a small Bag hanging on his Breast, in which lay a
Serpents Skin and Tongue, with which he had Poyson’d several Men, but he
confess’d nothing.

The first of _February_, the Fleet came to _Cape de Pemias_, which they
know at a great distance, by its high Mountains cover’d with Snow.

In short time after, Sailing by the Mouth of the _Straights_ of _La
Maire_, they met with very tempestuous Weather, and seventeen of their
Men going ashore, were devour’d by the _Cannibals_ of _Terra del Fuogo_.
These People being all _Whites_, and of a large Stature, Paint
themselves Red, and go stark naked, except some of highest quality who
tie a Deer Skin about their Necks; and the Women cover their Nakedness
with a piece of Leather: They live in Bowers made of the Branches of
Trees, Stak’d three Foot deep, in a round at bottom, and above like our
Tents, Canopy’d, the top of which open, to carry out the Smoke like a
Chimney; and have no other Houshold-stuff than some Baskets, in which
they lay their few Fishing Implements. They go continually Arm’d with
Clubs, Arrows, Slings, and Stone-Knives: Their Boats being only the
Trunk of a Tree made hollow, rise up before and behind like a Half-Moon,
and are fourteen, and some sixteen Foot long, and two broad, and Row
swifter than a Pinnace with many Oars. Lastly, they are so Salvage, that
they seem rather to be Beasts than Men, knowing no Religion, ill
Natur’d, cruel and Treacherous.

From hence, passing on, _L’Hermite_ refresh’d at the desolate Isle
_Fernando_, and so Steer’d his Course to _Calla de Lima_, on whose
Coast, taking a _Spanish_ Vessel, the Prisoners told him, that their
Plate-Fleet had Weigh’d Anchor, and were gone to _Panama_; only the
Admiral which carry’d forty Brass Guns, with fifty Merchant-Men, lay
close under the Shore, Guarded by three Stone Bulwarks, Fortifi’d with
fifty Guns.

_L’Hermite_ having a design upon these, took three _Spanish_ Vessels
that were going thither, and at midnight, sent Captain _Adrian Tol_,
_Peter Slobbe_, and _Meindert Egbertszon_, with twelve well Mann’d
Boats, furnish’d with Brass Drakes, and Hand-Granado’s, to Attaque the
_Spanish_ Fleet that lay hard by; and whilst some gave a false Alarm on
the North of _Callao_, the Boats Rowing from Ship to Ship, in short time
fir’d forty of them; although the _Spaniards_ from the Shore endeavor’d
by their Shot to drive back the Enemy, neither the Fort or Admiral
sparing Powder nor Ball.

In this valiant Exploit the _Hollanders_ had onely seven Men kill’d, and
fifteen Wounded: About break of day, seven of the _Spanish_ Ships
floated, burning towards the _Dutch_ Fleet, which were as terrible as
now Fire-ships, which forc’d them to Weigh Anchor to shun them.

After that, _L’Hermite_ took two Ships laden with Wine, a third full of
Wood, and a fourth with Wheat: One of these Prizes he fitted and
prepar’d for a Fire-ship, and sending her to Board the _Spanish_
Admiral, it ran aground within shot of him; whereupon being batter’d by
the Admirals Guns, and those from the Bulwarks, and at last taking Fire
gave but a small blow, because most part of the Powder had taken Wet.

In this interim, while thus their design went prosperously on, their
Admiral _L’Heremite_ dy’d, whom they Bury’d on the Island _Lima_, and
_Schapenham_, in defiance of the Vice-Roy in _Callao_, caus’d one and
twenty _Spaniards_ to be hang’d at the Yard-Arm, because he had sent him
a scornful Answer on the Proposals concerning the delivery of the
Prisoners.

[Sidenote: _Vershoor_’s Exploit.]

[Sidenote: _Schapenham_’s remarkable Exploits.]

[Sidenote: _Schapenham_ dies.]

_Cornelius Jacobszoon_ Sailing to _Pisco_ with four Sail from the Fleet,
could do no good there, for he not onely found the City to be surrounded
with a Wall of fifteen Foot high, but having also many Earthen Redoubts,
behind which lay above two thousand arm’d Men, wherefore he deserted the
same after some Rancounters: But the Rear-Admiral, _John Williamszoon
Vershoor_, who was sent to _Gainquil_, had much better luck; for he not
onely took that Metropolis, but also burnt a new Royal _Gallion_, and
two lesser Vessels; carry’d a conquer’d Vessel to _Lima_; slew above a
hundred _Spaniards_, and threw seventeen overboard, because they had
shot Poyson’d Bullets against the Law of Arms; of which Conquest Captain
_Engelbert Shutte_ had the greatest honor: But the Sea-men grew weaker
and weaker by the Scurvy, and all of them would have perish’d, had they
not found a soveraign Herb on the highest Mountains of _Lima_.
_Schapenham_ being chose Admiral in _L’Heremites_ place, Weigh’d Anchor
from _Callao_, and ran into the Inlet _Piscadores_, where on the shore
he rais’d a Sconce; yet not long after departed from thence without any
effect, but lost twenty eight Men, through the bad Conduct of their
Commanders; the like number he lost also at _Aquapulque_, on the side of
which City stands a Castle with four strong Bulwarks; the _Holland_
Fire-ship lay just without the reach of the shot, the rest lay along the
shore in a row, there to seize upon the Vessels expected thither from
the _Manillaes_: But because the Scurvy raged amongst the Sea-men, and
disabled them, they waited in vain, _Schapenham_ Sail’d through the
South-Sea to the _Ladrones_, where he found store of Provisions. _Anno
1625._ in _March_, he drop’d Anchor before _Maleye_, and from thence
went with _Herman Spiult_, the Governor for the _East-India_ Company in
_Amboina_, to _Ceram_, where they Conquer’d the Fort _Lochoe_, and soon
after _Cambella_; then the Fleet being divided, _Schapenham_ carry’d
home two Ships from _Batavia_, and the remainder return’d at several
times, they being hir’d to serve the _East-India_ Company to _Surratta_,
_Malacca_, _Coromandel_, and the _Molucco Isles_: _Schapenham_ Deceasing
near _Bantum_, and being Bury’d on _Pulo Boftok_, the Ships arriv’d at
the _Texel_ in _July, Anno 1626._


                       Henry Brewer _his Voyage_.

_Anno 1643._ _Brewer_ set Sail with four Ships from _Reciffo_, and ran
close along the _States-Isle_, so dangerous and Rocky, that he durst not
put in to the Land; from which flew great abundance of Party-colour’d
Ducks, with sharp Bills, about the Ships, and under the Keels swam also
Whales.

[Sidenote: Sea Lions.]

[Sidenote: _Brewer_’s Haven.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable Exploits.]

On the West side of the _Straights Le Maire_, _Brown_ ran into
_Valentine_’s Inlet, where he was much troubled by the Winds which came
whistling through the hollow Mountains with great and sudden gusts: The
shore afforded red and black Strawberries, _Carville_ and Muscles, to
the great refreshment of the Sea-men, who daily saw Sea-Lions, but could
not come to shoot one of them, for no sooner they perceiv’d any body,
but they Diving under Water, swam away; and though they saw Mens
Foot-steps of eighteen Inches long, yet they never found any Men. Thence
Sailing into the South-Sea, along the Coast of _Chili_, they enter’d a
Bay which they nam’d _Brewer’s-Haven_; where Landing, they walk’d
towards a great Smoke which they saw afar off, but coming near it, found
only two Houses within a large Plain, full of Sheep, Oxen, and Horses;
before the Houses stood Woodden Crosses.

[Sidenote: _Ter Bergen_’s Exploit.]

[Sidenote: _Castro_ a City.]

[Sidenote: Stream _Chili_.]

[Sidenote: _Brewer_ Dies.]

[Sidenote: Strange accident.]

[Sidenote: _Baldivia_, a brave City.]

The _Dolphin_ Pink and a great Boat being sent to the Inlet, lay the
following Night at an Anchor near a high Mountain; from whence, in the
Night, two great Guns were fir’d, whereupon, Lieutenant _William Ter
Bergen_ Landed with sixteen Musqueteers, and climbing up the Mountain,
found a Village behind the same, where all things were in Alarm, Drums
beating, Trumpets sounding, Bells ringing; the Villagers suddenly firing
their Guns on _Ter Bergen_, who being supply’d with thirty four Men,
Encounter’d the Enemy so Valiantly, that he fled into the Woods, not
without the loss of Men and Horses: The Guns with which they had shot in
the Night lay onely on a Redoubt: _Ter Bergen_ persuing this Victory,
March’d into the Woods, and shot the _Spanish_ Commander _Andreas Munes
Iserrera_ from his Horse, got great store of Treasure which lay hid
under the Tree, being brought out of _Carelmappa_, which Village he set
afire, and kill’d all the Horses, and Weigh’d Anchor with the Admiral
_Brewer_ to _Michael de Cabuco_ where not being able to Land, because of
the many obscure Rocks and Shoals, they set Sail to _Castro_, which they
conquer’d and burnt without the least resistance: This City situate on a
Mountain is stately built among Flowry Meadows, delightful Orchards, and
brave Fountains; the Sea before it flows daily fourteen Foot. _Brewer_
also burnt a _Spanish_ Ship, and set some Houses afire, took three
_Spaniards_ Prisoners on _Las Bahias_, who inform’d him, that the Winter
Season was almost over, but that it was never known by any to pass over
so mildly, ill Weather generally using to blow down Houses, Trees, and
rend Rocks asunder; that there was much Gold in _Osorno_ and _Baldivia_,
which last they had some years since deserted for hunger, but it was
since Garrison’d by three hundred _Castilians_, that none could get at
the Fort _Conception_ (which lay a League Westerly from thence) but in a
small Boat, that there were on the place near two thousand Inhabitants.
Moreover, an ancient Matron call’d _Lovysa Pizarra_, from _Quintian_,
one of the Isles in the _Chilean_ In-Land-Sea, being fetch’d from
thence, gave information, that forty years since, before the _Indians_
took up Arms, the _Spaniards_ were quietly setled in _Osorno_, and in so
good a condition, that an ordinary Planter had at least three hundred
Slaves, of which, every one was to procure a certain quantity of Gold;
that the Isles _Chiloves_ were divided into above a hundred Colonies or
Plantations, the _Chileses_ serving the _Castilians_ as their true
Governors; those that do good Service the King of the Colony makes them
Commanders, and that the _Chileses_ had Rebell’d in several places.
_Brewer_ on the _Chileses_ request took some of them, with their Wives
and Children into his Ship, furnish’d with Arms, he digg’d a Chest of
Silver and a Brass Gun out of the Earth, and soon after being sick,
dy’d. His Successor _Elias Herkmans_ prosecuting those Publick Affairs,
sent the Pilot of the _Unity_ out of _Brewer’s Haven_, and some Sea-men,
with two _Chilean Casiques_ with a Boat to _Carelmappa_; but being
surpriz’d by a violent Storm, stood in for _Horse-Island_, where he and
the _Casiques_ Landing, he order’d seven Sea-men to carry the Boat to a
safer Harbor; but being driven from the shore by strong Winds it took in
so much Water as fill’d and sunk it, so that all of them were drown’d.
_Horse-Island_ being destitute of Provisions and Lodgings, those that
were Landed expected nothing but Death, till they found out a small Hut,
and in the same six brave Sheep, and a good quantity of Potatoe Roots,
which serv’d for Bread: But when this their new-found Store was almost
spent, they happily were fetch’d off by the Boat belonging to the Ship
_Amsterdam_, and with the whole Fleet came to an Anchor before
_Baldivia_. This City built by the _Castilians_, consisted formerly of
five hundred and fifty fair Houses, and was divided into Streets and
cross Ways, with two large Markets, and as many costly Churches.

[Sidenote: Why the _Chileses_ grew strange to the _Hollanders_.]

The _Chileses_ unsufferably oppress’d, slew all the _Spanish_ Garrison,
and into the Governor’s Mouth and Ears pour’d melted Gold; of his Skull
they made a Drinking-cup, and of his Shin-bones, Trumpets; after this,
the City fell almost to decay, onely a great part of the Wall remain’d
yet standing: The _Chileans_ hereupon flock’d hither by thousands, some
on Horses, others on Foot, all Arm’d with Lances of a Foot long:
_Herkman_ hereupon informing them by an Interpreter, that they being
mortal Enemies of the _Spaniards_, would joyn with the _Chileans_
against that common Foe; and desir’d, that they might build a Fort on
the Market-place in _Baldivia_, for a defence against all Invasions, and
that they might be supply’d with Provisions which the Fleet wanted; all
which the _Chileans_ granted, and accordingly brought in store of Sheep,
Hogs, and Cattel: But so soon as _Herkman_ began to make the least
mention of Gold, they were all abash’d, and said, that they knew of no
Gold Mines, nay, their Hair stood an end, when they heard the name of
Gold; so horribly the _Spaniards_ had dealt with their Parents: After
this, the _Chileans_ growing more and more strange, did not in the least
countenance the building of the Fort, and the longer the Fleet staid,
the less Provisions they brought aboard; upon which, the Ships were
necessitated, without any remarkable Exploits, to set Sail and return to
_Reciffo_.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



                            The Second Book,
                               CONTAINING
                             A DESCRIPTION
                                   OF
                            NORTHERN AMERICA



                                CHAP. I.
  _Of the Bounds of_ America, _and of the Division of the_ Mexican _or
                        Northern part thereof_.


[Sidenote: The Bounds and Division of _Northern America_.]

Having in the first part of this Volume discours’d at large concerning
the original of the _Americans_, and whether that part of the World
call’d _India Occidentalis_, or _America_, were known to the Ancients,
or own its Discovery wholly to the Moderns, as also of all the
Discoveries that have been made of the several parts thereof, and by
whom, we shall now pass on to the Topographical part, describing every
particular Province or Region, by giving an account of their Situation,
Temperature, Productions, Nature of the Soil, and Quality of the
Inhabitants. _America_, lying Westward of the _Azores_, and the Worlds
Meridian, is by some suppos’d to consist of one vast Island, and several
lesser ones, scatter’d about it: Nor can this supposition be thought
vain, if, as many think, it be inviron’d on the North-side, as toward
the East, South, and West it is known to be; East and South, by the
_Atlantick Ocean_; and West, by _Mar del Zur_: But because the
North-West Passage, though attempted by many, as _Nelson_, _Davis_,
_Forbisher_, _Button_, _Smith_, _Hudson_, and others, hath not yet by
any been fully discover’d; so that it is not certainly known whether
_America_ be joyn’d to _Greenland_, and the _Arctick_ Region, by a
continu’d Tract of Land, or sever’d by the Ocean: We shall follow the
method of those Geographers, who, reputed sufficiently Authentick, have
divided this new World into Islands, and two grand _Peninsula_’s joyn’d
together by an _Isthmus_, or Neck of Land, call’d _The Straight of
Darien_, by some _The Straight of Panama_, lying almost under the
Equinoctial Line, and extending in length from _Nombre de Dios_
Southward above a hundred Miles, and from East to West seventeen Miles
over in the narrowest place. Of these two grand _Peninsula_’s the
Northern is generally call’d _America Mexicana_, from _Mexico_ the chief
City of the Province, properly call’d _Mexicana_; which was heretofore
without doubt the most potent, rich, and flourishing of all the Kingdoms
of the _Indians_, at least on the North-side of the _Isthmus_. In the
division of the several Provinces of _America_, as well those of the
Northern as of the Southern Continent, we find so various an account
among the several Geographers that have written of them (not any two of
them agreeing in one and the same order) that to reconcile the differing
methods of so many disagreeing Authors would be an endless work:
wherefore we shall pitch upon the surest course, and not omitting the
mention of any of the Provinces taken notice of by the said Authors,
hereby endeavor to take in whatsoever material hath been observ’d by all
of them, and by the way take occasion to shew how one differs from
another in the distribution of them. Those therefore of the Northern
_America_ (that as near as can be we may bring the design of many into
one) seem most fitly describ’d in this following order: 1. _Estotiland_;
2. _Terra Laboratoris_, or _Nova Britannia_; 3. _Canada_, or _Nova
Francia_; 4. _Nova Scotia_; 5. _New England_; 6. _New Netherlands_, now
call’d _New York_, as being in the possession of the _English_; 7. _New
Holland_; 8. _New Swedeland_; 9. _Apalchen_, now call’d _Virginia_; 10.
_Florida_; 11. _Jucatan_; 12. _Honduras_; 13. _Nicaragua_; 14.
_Veragua_; 15. _Costarica_; 16. _Anien_; 17. _Nova Hispania_; 18.
_Guacatimala_; 19. _Nova Gallicia_; 20. _Nova Biscaia_; 21. _Nova
Mexico_; 22. _Cibola_; 23. _Nova Granata_; 24. _Tontonteac_; 25.
_Quivira_; 26. _Nova Albion_; to which by most Authors is added
_California_; which being an Island we thought fit to reserve to be
spoken of amongst the Islands, as also _Terra Nova_, or _New-found
Land_; which last lies utmost West, as the other East of Northern
_America_. Some there are also (and particularly _Monsieur de Martini_)
who among the above-mention’d Provinces have inserted _Greenland_,
though doubtless with little reason, since though it be granted that it
is not divided by any Sea, yet it is evident, if any credit may be given
to all modern Maps and Globes, that the greatest part of _Greenland_
lies in the Hemisphere of the known World; and therefore we have judg’d
it most convenient to refer the particular mention thereof to the
Description of the _Arctick_ Region.

The Islands of _Northern America_ are 1. _Terra Nova_, or _New-found
Land_; 2. The _Island of Assumption_; 3. The _Bermudas_, or
_Summer-Island_; 4. _Hispaniola_; 5. _St. John Porto Rico_; 6. _Cuba_;
7. _Jamaica_; 8. The _Lucayes_; 9. The _Caribes_, or _Antillæ_; 10.
_Margarita_; 11. _Cubagua_; 12. _La Trinidad_; 13. _Tabago_; 14.
_California_, the biggest of all the _American_ Islands.

The length of the _West-Indies_ is generally computed to be from the
utmost South of _Terra Magellanica_, to the farthest North of
_Estotiland_, about six thousand _English_ Miles, reaching from six
Degrees of Northern, to fifty three of Southern Latitude; the breadth
from _St. Michael_ or _Piura_ Westward, to _Parabaya_, a Town on the
Coast of _Brasil_ Eastward, three thousand nine hundred Miles, and the
whole compass thirty thousand.


                               SECT. II.
                              Estotiland.

That the _English_ have been very great Undertakers of Voyages and
Discoveries toward the North-West, appears by the denomination of divers
places, both from the Persons which have Sail’d thitherward, and also
from such of our own Countrey Names as were thought fit to be there
fix’d, as beyond the _Arctick Circle_ are Sir _James Lancaster’s Sound_,
Sir _Dudley Diggs’s Cape_, Queens _Annes Foreland, Cumberland Isles,
Davis’s Straight, &c._ on this side toward the _Arctick Circle_,
_Button_’s and _Brigg_’s _Bay_, _Hudson_’s _Sea_, otherwise term’d _Mare
Christianum_, out of which more Westerly runs a narrow Sea call’d
_Hudson_’s _Straight_: beyond _Hudson_’s _Sea_ towards the _Arctick
Circle_ is a place call’d _New North-Wales_; and on this side answerable
to it, between _Button_’s _Bay_ and the _Christian Sea_, lies _New
South-Wales_; all which places we find generally set down in the
_American_ Hemisphere, but in the Geographical Discourses thereof little
is said of them, if so much as nam’d. The farthest part of Land
Northward, between _Hudson_’s _Gulph_ and _Hudson_’s _Straight_, betwixt
fifty seven and sixty Degrees of Northern Latitude, goes generally by
the Name of _Estotiland_, I mean that properly so call’d (for
_Estotiland_ is by some as largely taken as _Canada_, by _Cluverius_,
_Golnitzius_, _Peter du Val_, and others, namely for all that Tract of
Land extending from that supposed _Straight of Anian_, which divides
_America_ from _Asiatick Tartary_, as far as the utmost point of Land
that shoots toward the _Atlantick Ocean_) which Southerly towards _Terra
Laboratoris_ is bounded with a River vulgarly call’d _Rio Nevado_, or
_The Snowy River_. _Estotiland_ seems to have deriv’d its Name from its
lying more Easterly than the rest of the Provinces, and, according as
_Nova Britannia_ is plac’d in some Charts, might very well be taken for
the same, though it hath not been so term’d by any Author, but rather
_Terra Laboratoris_, _Cortereatis_, and _Nova Britannia_ are generally
receiv’d to be all one.

[Sidenote: First discovery of _Estotiland_.]

[Sidenote: The Nature of the People.]

This Province is affirm’d by _Matthias Quadus_, and _J. Antonius
Maginus_, to have been the first discover’d Countrey of the new World,
and that by _Antonius Zeno_, a Patrician of _Venice_, in the Year of our
Lord 1390. which was long before the Expedition of _Columbus_, through
the encouragement of _Zichmus_, King of the Isle of _Friezland_; but by
whomsoever found out, or at whatsoever time, it is commonly affirm’d to
be not ill furnish’d with Provisions of all sorts, as Beasts, Birds,
Fish, Fowl, and Fruits, having a Soil indifferent fertile, in respect of
the coldness of the Climate. The People in general (for some there are
that live wild and salvage up and down the Woods, and go naked, whereas
the Clothing of the Countrey is the Skins of Beasts and of Sea-Calves,
call’d _Morses_) are reported not onely tolerably civil, but also
ingenious and expert both in mechanick Arts, and other necessary
Faculties, insomuch that the first Voyagers to this place are said to
have observ’d of them upon this first Discovery, That they sow’d Corn,
brew’d Beer and Ale, and Traded by Sea to _Greenland_, _Friezland_, and
other places, to the distance of fifteen hundred Miles; and that they
were not altogether void of the use of Letters, but that their Character
was onely proper to themselves and not intelligible by any other Nation:
Moreover, there is a certain Tradition, that there was here and there
some little knowledge of the _Latine_ Tongue amongst them, and that
there were found divers _Latine_ Books in a Library of one of their
Kings; the reason of which, if true, is conjectur’d to be from certain
_Europeans_ who understood that Language, having in Ages past suffer’d
shipwrack upon those Coasts, where chancing to abide either through
constraint or choice, they might haply at their Decease leave behind
them some Books and other Monuments of the _Latine_ Tongue. They were
observ’d to use such a kind of Javelin or short Dart, as was known to be
us’d by the People of _Java_, and some other Islands of the
_East-Indies_; whereupon it seems not wholly improbable, that they might
for a long time have entertain’d Traffick and Correspondence with them.

[Sidenote: Description of the _Morses_.]

The _Morses_, or Sea-Calves before mention’d, are about the bigness of a
young Heifer, the Hunting of which by the Natives, who take them in
great numbers, is to them in the stead of Whale-fishing, which is not
there so good, for they draw a great quantity of Train-Oyl out of them.
On each side of the Jaw of this amphibious Creature (for it is said to
live very much on the Land, as well as in the Water) there sticks out a
crooked Tusk, winding downward like an Elephants _Proboscis_, above a
Cubit in length, and as white and hard as Ivory: It is esteem’d of great
vertue, at least it passes for such among those who take it for other
than what it is, for it is frequently vended for Unicorns-horn; of which
imposture Dr. _Brown_ takes notice, and gives a Caution against in his
_Vulgar Errors_.

This Countrey is suppos’d, and that probably enough, to have store of
Brass and Iron Mines; but for the Mines of Gold and Silver, which some
have imagin’d there, the Northerly Situation of the Countrey, and by
consequence the coldness of the Climate, give sufficient cause to
question the truth of any such assertion. What chief Towns, Cities,
Rivers and Mountains there are in this Province, is not yet deliver’d by
any, onely _Maginus_ and _Quadus_ make mention of four principal Rivers,
which disperse themselves through the Countrey, and take their source
out of a great Mountain in the midst thereof.


                               SECT. III.
                           Terra Laboratoris.

[Sidenote: Situation.]

_Terra Laboratoris_, by some call’d _Nova Britannia_, by others
_Corterealis_, (though there are some who make _Laboratoris_ and
_Corterealis_ two distinct Countreys, comprehended, according to _Peter
du Val_, under _Nova Britannia_, as the more general Province; or,
according to _Cluverius_, under _Canada_) lies from about fifty four to
fifty seven Degrees of Northern Latitude, between _Estotiland_ and the
River _Canada_, which _Maginus_ and some others, though for what reason
is not express’d, name _Fretum trium Fratrum_, _The Bay of the three
Brethren_; others, _The River of St. Laurence_, and is, according to the
said Author, of so vast a bigness, that the Mouth of it extends it self
thirty five _Italian_ Miles wide; likewise of such a length, as to have
been navigated a continu’d Voyage of eight hundred Miles. The
denomination of _Terra de Laborador_, or _Laboratoris_, seems probably
enough conjectur’d to be from the cultivability (if one may so term it)
of the Soil, or its aptness for Cultivation or Tillage; that is, because
by the painful Hand of the Labourer or Husband-man it may be rendred so
fertile, as to yield all sorts of Grain and Fruits; haply in allusion to
that fruitful Countrey of _Campania_ in _Italy_, vulgarly known by the
Name of _Terra di Lavoro_. As for the Appellation of _Terra
Corterealis_, it need not be question’d, but that it derives it self
from _Gaspar Corterealis_, a _Portuguese_ Gentleman, who about the Year
of our Lord 1500. is thought by some to have made the first discovery of
these Parts; though Sir _Sebastian Cabot_ a _Venetian_, is more
generally believ’d to have been the Man that (under the favour and
countenance of _Henry_ the Seventh, King of _England_) first discover’d
them, at least the adjoyning Island _Terra Nova_, or _New-found Land_;
but just onely discover’d, being hinder’d the farther prosecution of
that Design, by the important Affairs in which the said King was about
that time involv’d; neither did _Corterealis_, whether he was the first,
or came after, do any more, for returning within a year after his first
setting out, he was never heard of; nor, as _Osorius_ a _Portuguese_
Historian writes, any of his Company, being all suppos’d to have been
drown’d by Shipwrack; and in like manner _Michael Corterealis_, who the
year following set forth with two Ships in quest of his Brother
_Gaspar_. Upon which series of Misfortunes the _Portuguese_ being wholly
discourag’d, and giving over this Design, the _French_ of _Armorica_ or
_Bretany_ succeed them in it with somewhat better success about the Year
1504. whereupon it came to be term’d _Nova Britannia_, or _New Britain_.
The ancient Inhabitants of this place were formerly of a Nature, like
the generality of the _American_ People, somewhat bruitish and salvage,
but by long conversation with the _French_, are said to have cast off
their original wildness, and become more civilly manner’d: they are very
jealous of their Wives, by report much addicted to Soothsaying, though
otherwise having little of Religion, or of any other kind of Learning;
they dwell for the most part in Caves under Ground, feed chiefly upon
Fish, and are accounted most expert Archers. Whatever places the
_French_ have built here besides, those of chiefest note are _St.
Maries_, _Cabo Marzo_, and _Brest_.


                               SECT. IV.
                         Canada, or New France.

[Sidenote: Situation.]

_Canada_, as it is taken for one and the same Province with _New
France_, contains _New France_, properly so call’d, _Nova Scotia_,
_Norumbega_, and some adjoyning Islands, as the _Canada_ of _Cluverius_,
lying more North-Westerly, comprehends (as we have already intimated)
_Estotiland_, _Laboratoris_, and _Corterealis_, and, according to the
most modern Division (for that of _Cluverius_ neither consents with the
latest Authors, nor agrees with exact Survey, it being nam’d _Canada_,
in respect the River _Canada_ runs through it) hath on the North _Terra
Corterealis_, on the South _New England_, and on the East the Ocean, and
hath between forty five and fifty two or fifty three Degrees of Northern
Latitude. The River _Canada_ is judg’d to be the largest of all the
Rivers of _America_, as those Rivers generally the largest of all in the
World besides; it rises in the Western parts of this Province which
remain yet undiscover’d, and in some places spreads it self into huge
Lakes, some of them a hundred Miles in compass, with many little Islands
dispersed up and down in them, and so running from the West about a
hundred Leagues, falls at last into the North part of _St. Lawrence
Bay_, being that wide _Emboucheure_ of thirty five Miles breadth already
mention’d. This River is extraordinary full of Fish, among which there
is one sort more remarkable than the rest, call’d by the Inhabitants
_Cadhothuis_, having Heads resembling the Heads of Hares, and Bodies as
white as Snow; they are taken for the most part before the Isle _de
Lievres_. The Countrey on both sides of the River is pleasant and
indifferently fertile, especially towards the South-West, where upwards
from the River the Ground rises into many little Hills, invested most of
them with Vines, with which and several other sorts of Trees this
Countrey abounds, being well water’d with a great many lesser Streams,
all of them falling into the River _Canada_.

[Sidenote: First discovery.]

That this Countrey is term’d _New France_, from having been discover’d
by the _French_, at least more fully than before, there needs no
question to be made; but whether _Joannes Verrazanus_, under _Francis_
the First of _France_, or _Sebastian Cabot_ before spoken of, were the
first in this Discovery, may admit of something of dispute: the _Cabots_
indeed, (for _John_ the Father is by some mention’d to have accompanied
his Son) who by all are own’d the first Discoverers of _New-found-Land_
and _Terra de Baccalaos_, are also commonly reputed to have first found
out the Province of _New France_, together with some parts adjacent,
though perhaps it might be upon this Ground that _Terra de Nova_, or
_New-found-Land_, not being known at first to be an Island, _New France_
and that might be taken for one continu’d Province; and it appears so
much the more probable, because _Canada_, or _Nova Francia_, is by some
call’d _Terra Nova_; however it be, or whoever were the first
Adventurers, _Quarteri_ and _Champlain_ are the two _French_-men that
have gain’d so much fame by making a more ample and particular search
into these parts, that this Province may seem from thence to have
sufficient claim to the Title of _New France_, whereof that part more
especially so call’d, lies on the North-side of the River _Canada_, and
Southward to _Terra Corterealis_. The Winter is here very long, and so
much the more severe by reason of a cold North-West Wind which blows
most part of the Winter Season, and brings with it so thick a Snow, that
it continues upon the Ground most commonly till after _May_. The
Countrey is for the most part wooddy, but in the Champain parts thereof
very fruitful of Corn, and all sorts of Grain, especially Pulse: It hath
also Fish, Fowl, wild Deer, Bears, Marterns, and Foxes in abundance, and
of Hares such plenty, that one of the little Islands belonging to this
Province, is by the _French_ nam’d _L’Isle des Lievres_, or _The Island
of Hares_: But the most peculiar Commodity belonging to this Countrey is
the _Esurgnuy_, a kind of Shell-Fish, extraordinary white, and approv’d
of singular vertue for the stanching of Blood; to which purpose they
make Bracelets of them, not onely for their own use, but also to vend
them to others; but _John de Laet_ and others have observ’d no other
than a superstitious use of them amongst the Salvages, in their Funeral
Rites for the Dead: the manner of their taking it is very remarkable;
for when any one is condemn’d to die, or taken Prisoner, they cut off
all his fleshy parts in long slices, and then throw him into the River,
where they let him lie twelve hours, and at last pulling him out again
find his Wounds full of _Esurgnui_. _Quadus_ and _Maginus_ make mention
of three ancient Towns, namely _Canada_ (denominated as the Province,
from the River) _Hochelai_ and _Hochchelaga_, giving Name to a Territory
about it, which Geographers either take no notice of, or make some
question of the being of such Towns; however, a late Describer of the
_West-Indies_, not mentioning the other two, gives this description of
the last, _viz._ _Hochchelaga_:

“This City (saith he) said to be the Seat and Residence of a King of
this Country whom the Natives, at least some of them, acknowledge and
reverence, carrying him sometimes in great pomp upon their Shoulders
sitting upon a Carpet of Beasts Skins, is situate far within Land, at a
distance of six or seven Leagues from the River _Canada_, and is a kind
of fortifi’d place, encompass’d about with a threefold Range of Timber
Ramparts one within another, of about two Rods high from the Ground,
with cross Planks, or pieces of Timber jutting out, on purpose to hinder
an Enemy’s Scaling or getting up; towards the top there is as it were a
Scaffold or Gallery fram’d, from whence they may throw down Stones of
which there is always good store ready, or what else to annoy the
Assailants: It hath one onely Gate for Entrance, and that likewise well
fortifi’d after their manner: There are guess’d to be in it fifty or
sixty great Houses, built (as the maner of the _Americans_ that live in
Houses usually is) in a square Figure, each side being about fifty Foot
long, or more, and sixteen or twenty broad, but not many Stories high;
and in the midst of the Court or void space, a place to make their Fire,
and do other necessary work about it. Moreover the Territory round about
this Town is both rich in Soil, and pleasant in Prospect.”

Besides these three above-mention’d Towns there are several others,
which are not untaken notice of in the most modern Descriptions and
Maps, _viz._ 1. _Stadac_, or _Stadacone_, somewhat Westward of a small
Isle call’d _The Isle d’Orleance_; 2. _Quebeque_, which being made a
Colony of the _French_, and the Natives expell’d, came to be Entituled
_St. Croix_; 3. _Tadoussac_, which lies in that part of the Countrey
denominated from the River _Saguenay_, and by some call’d at this day
_Nouvelle Biscaye_, a delightful place, and full of stately Trees, and
hath likewise a good and safe Haven, capable of receiving twenty Ships;
4. _Trois Rivieris_, or three Rivers; 5. _Monreal_; 6. _Sillery_; 7.
_Richelieu_; besides two strong Castles or Forts, _Franceroy_ and St.
_Lewis_; the First built by _Monsieur Robeval_ at his Landing here,
about the Year 1540. the other design’d for a Colony, in the Year 1611.
by _Monsieur Champlany_, but hinder’d by the Invasion of the _Iroquois_.
The smaller Rivers that run out of the Gulph of St. _Lawrence_, and the
grand River _Canada_ towards the North, on which side chiefly lies this
Province, are, 1. _Chichesedec_, 2. St. _Margarite_, 3. _Lesquemin_, 4.
_Saquenay_, before-mention’d, 5. _Montonne_; and on the South side, the
River _Mary_. The principal Tribes of the ancient Natives of this
Countrey were; on the North side of _Canada_ the _Canadans_, the
_Betisiamites_, the _Hurons_, the _Algoniquins_, the _Quenongebins_, the
_Algoingequins_, the _Attagopantans_, the _Atticameques_, the
_Nipisiriniens_; and on the South side, the _Etechemins_, and the chief
Heads or Princes of these Tribes were call’d _Sagamores_.

[Sidenote: Strange Fish nam’d _Chaousarou_.]

_Jaques Quartier_ Complementing their King _Agouthanna_, took up his
Quarters a whole Winter at St. _Croix_, a Sandy Promontory, overflow’d
by the River _Canada_, into which falls the Lake _de Champlain_, grown
round about with Chestnut Trees; in it breeds the strange Fish call’d
_Chaousarou_, generally ten Foot long, with Heads like Sharks, and two
rows of Teeth in their Mouths, their Skins full of strong Scales, which
are sufficient Shields against Swords and Lances, are great devourers of
other Fish and Fowls, which they take after this manner, _viz._ they
swim amongst Reeds or Canes, and lie still with their Mouths open;
whereat the Birds sitting down upon them, are immediately swallow’d.

The Natives of _Nova Francia_ anoint their bodies with Oil; in the
Summer they go naked, and in the Winter mantle themselves in Furs. Their
Warlike Accoutrements are Darts and Clubs, but chiefly great Shields.
They are revengeful, cruel, and fraudulent; their Women common to all
Men, from fifteen to twenty, after which, Marrying, they become very
Chaste. Their Diet is _Indian_ Corn, fresh and salt Fish, Venison,
_Buffalo_’s and Beavers flesh; wiping their Fingers (when greasie) on
their Heads, or their Dogs backs, which wait for the Scraps.

[Sidenote: Strange proof of Valor.]

[Sidenote: Wonderful opinion of God.]

[Sidenote: Flood.]

[Sidenote: Sorcerers.]

[Sidenote: They boast their Extract from Heaven.]

[Sidenote: Their strange Relation concerning it.]

[Sidenote: As also of the Creation, and Souls of the Deceased.]

[Sidenote: Strange Rock.]

[Sidenote: Thunder.]

[Sidenote: _Thakabech_ an Idol.]

[Sidenote: Funeral-Feast.]

At that season when the Corn covers the ground, to any heighth, they eat
Cockles, Dogs, dead Caryon, and the Skins wherewith they Clothe
themselves. When they have eaten their fill, they tabering on their
Bellies, cry, _Tapoue Mikispoun_, that is, _Verily I am satisfi’d_. They
give their Sick a speedy Cure, either immediately killing them, or
inhumanely exposing them to the Woods, to be devour’d by ravenous
Beasts, but if they die suddenly, they in howling tone pronounce _Ove,
Ove_, thereby to chase the Souls of the Deceas’d out of their Huts; they
stick the bodies on Woodden Prongs, cover them with Bark, and lay their
Clothes and Arms by them; all what remains of the Funeral Feasts is
burnt, whereas at other times, what e’re is brought on their Table they
eat, though ready to burst. They make the first Proofs of their Valour
by undergoing a most prodigious Torment, in this manner; Two by consent
tie their naked Arms together, on which they suffer burning Sulphur to
be pour’d, till the flesh starts from the bone; if either of them
shrink, or pull back his Arm, he is accounted by them ever after as an
ignominious and base Coward. They call God _Atahocan_, and believe that
one _Messou_ first drowning the world by a general Deluge, restor’d it
again after a wonderful manner, _viz._ _Messou_ hunting with Wolves,
they scented a Deer which being closely pursu’d, leap’d into a
neighboring Pool, the Wolves following it, were drown’d; _Messou_ coming
thither, stood amaz’d at a Bird, which inform’d him, that the Wolves
were pluck’d down, and held fast in the bottom by horrible Monsters,
whereupon he diving, the Pool immediately began to swell, and at last
the whole surface of the Earth to be overflow’d. _Messou_ afterwards let
a Raven flie to fetch a Clod of Earth, but in vain, for all the Land lay
drown’d in Water; at last a Rat diving to the bottom, brought a lump of
Earth, out of which _Messou_ restor’d the World; shot Arrows into Trees,
which became fruitful Branches. Here also reside an innumerable many
_Sorcerers_, call’d _Pillotoa_’s, which sometimes being possess’d with a
Frenzy, scourge themselves in a terrible manner, insomuch that the Blood
runs down by their sides: These People are held in great esteem, for
they boast themselves to have their Original from Heaven upon this
occasion, _viz._ _Ataensic_, a certain great Queen or Goddess, residing
above the Stars, had a sick Husband, who Dreamt that he should be
restor’d to his former health so soon as he could but taste of the
Fruits which grew on a Tree, whereby the Family of Heaven were kept
alive, but that the Tree must needs be cut down, which _Ataensic_
obeying, gave onely two blows, when the Tree, to her great amazement,
fell out of Heaven down to the Earth; there being by this means nothing
more left to eat in Heaven: _Ataensic_ follow’d the fallen Tree, and
being big with Child, bare a Daughter, which growing up to years, was
Deliver’d of two Daughters, _viz._ _Taoviscaron_ and _Jouskeha_, the
eldest of which slew the youngest: By these Fables we may discern their
obscure knowledge of _Noah_’s Flood, _Eve_’s Fall, and _Cain_’s Murder.
No less ridiculous is that which they believe concerning the Creation,
_viz._ That the Waters were inclos’d within a Frog, which _Jouskeha_
causing to be cut open, all Streams and Rivers issuing out, had their
Original from thence: This done, _Jouskeha_ open’d a Pit, out of which
came all sorts of Beasts; they ascribe a Bodily shape to the Soul, as
also Immortality, but that they live together in a great Village towards
the West; from which removing sometimes, they knock at the Doors of
their former Friends in the Night, and sow deserted Grounds: That the
Journey towards the Village in which the Souls reside is very strange;
the Highway thither beginning at a Rock nam’d _Ecaregniendi_, where they
first Paint their Faces, which done, they go to a Hut inhabited by an
old Man, nam’d _Osotrach_, who takes the Brains out of the Souls Head;
after which they walk to a broad River, which they cross on a narrow
Plank or Bridge, on which a Dog encountring, forces them to leap into
the Water, which carries them down to the foremention’d Village. They
acknowledge one _Oki_ for the Governor of the Sea, and seasons of the
Year: They also Religiously Worship the Rock _Tsankchi Arasta_, which
they believe some ages ago was once a Man, but afterward Transform’d
into a Rock, in which a _Dæmon_ resides, who can make their Journies
either successful or dangerous, wherefore they offer him Tobacco. Their
opinion of Thunder is likewise very ridiculous, for they say that the
Devil endeavoring to vomit a horrible Serpent, by straining to evacuate
the same, rents the Clouds, and occasions Thunder. Lastly, They relate
of a Dwarf call’d _Thakabech_, who climb’d on the top of a Tree, which
by his blowing thereon grew so high, that it touch’d the Clouds, and
_Thakabech_ easily stept into them, where he found all sorts of delight
and pleasure; but having a Sister on Earth, descended again along the
Tree, and fetching his Sister, conducted her above the Stars; mean
while, _Thakabech_ going in the Night to see if he had taken any thing
in his Net which he had pitch’d, found it full of Fire, and observing
the same very narrowly, saw that he had taken the Sun, but durst not
approach the same, by reason of its great heat; but making a Mouse, sent
her to gnaw the Net in pieces, and set the Sun at liberty. Every twelfth
year they keep an extraordinary great Funeral-Feast; for on the Set-time
they flock from all parts to the appointed place, every one carrying
thither the Bodies or Bones of their Deceas’d Friends, wrapt up in
Clothes, and hang them over their Meat, which they eat singing; such
fond and Superstitious Conceits make up the Religion of these poor
deluded People.


                                SECT. V.
                        Accadia, or Nova Scotia.

_Nova Scotia_, or _New Scotland_, formerly call’d _Accadia_, is commonly
accounted a part of _New France_, (_viz._ that part which lying on the
South side of the River _Canada_, and shooting South-Easterly into a
bosom of the Sea, forms it self into a _Peninsula_, between the Gulph of
St. _Lawrence_, and the Bay _Francoise_) nevertheless, because of the
different concernments of this part of the Countrey, in regard the right
of claim to several places in this district, most especially of all
_Nova Francia_ besides, hath been long in dispute between _Us_ and the
_French_, it will be most convenient to Treat of it apart; and because
the Series of Affairs, from its first discovery, till of late years,
appears faithfully represented on the _English_ part, in a Remonstrance
Address’d to the King and Council by Sir _Lewis Kirk_, and his Brother
_John Kirk_ Esquire; it will not be amiss (onely adding some few things
upon occasion) to follow exactly the Narration of Affairs, deliver’d in
the said Remonstrance to this effect.


  “1. The whole Tract or Space of Land in _America_, lying on either
  side of the River _Canada_, which a long time since were known by
  the Names of _Nova Francia_, and _Nova Scotia_, were at first
  discover’d and found out by the _English_, in the time of _Henry_
  the Seventh, King of _England_; which Expedition was first
  undertaken at the Command and Charges of that King; afterwards
  further’d and carry’d on by the favorable Aspect of Queen
  _Elizabeth_; so that in process of time, for many years together,
  the said Tract of Ground, with absolute Priviledge of free Commerce,
  fell under the Jurisdiction and Power of the Crown of _England_:
  Neither was it unto any other _Christian_ Princes, or their Subjects
  more clearly known or discover’d, untill about the year 1600. some
  of the _French_ understanding the benefit arising by Traffique in
  the River of St. _Lawrence_, having formerly seiz’d upon that Tract
  of Land, situate on the North side of the said Floud or River
  _Canada_, did afterwards, in _Anno 1604._ (_under the Conduct of_
  Peter de Gua, _Lord_ of Monts, _who in the year 1606. was follow’d
  by_ Monsieur de Pourtrincourt) Possess themselves of _L’Accadie_,
  lying on the South side of the said River, naming the whole _Nova
  Francia_, challenging to themselves for many years, at least _de
  facto_, the Possession thereof, with sole liberty of Commerce there.

  “2. In _Anno 1621._ King _James_ of _England_ looking upon the
  Possession gotten there by the _French_, as upon an Invasion, did by
  his Letters Patents Grant unto Sir _William Alexander_ a _Scotchman_
  (_Created afterwards Earl of_ Sterling, _by King_ Charles _the
  First_) _L’Accadie_, by the Name of _Nova Scotia_; who in the year
  1622, and 1623. _after Sir_ Samuel Argal _had driven out_ Biard
  _and_ Masse, _and demolishing their Fort, carry’d them Prisoners_ to
  Virginia; having obtain’d the Possession thereof, they Planted a
  Colony therein, and kept Possession for about two years after, until
  such time, as upon the Marriage of his Majesty King _Charles_ the
  First, with the Lady _Henrietta Maria_, the said _L’Accadie_, or
  _Nova Scotia_, was by Order of the King of _England_ return’d into
  the Possession of the _French_.

  “3. Afterwards a War arising between his Majesty King _Charles_ the
  First, and _Lewis_ the XIII. _Anno 1627._ and _1628_. Sir _David
  Kirk_ and his Brethren and Relations of _England_, did by vertue of
  his Majestie’s Commission, send to Sea (at their great charge) first
  three, afterwards nine Ships, with Warlike Preparations for
  recovering of the Possession of the said Lands, lying on either side
  of the said River _Canada_, and to expel and eject all the _French_
  Trading in those Parts, wherein they had good Success; and in _Anno
  1627._ did there seize upon about eighteen of the _French_ Ships,
  wherein were found a hundred thirty five Pieces of Ordnance,
  design’d for relief of the _Royal Fort_ in _L’Accadie_, and
  _Quebeck_ in _Nova Francia_, under the Command of _Monsieur de
  Rocmand_, and _Monsieur de la Tour_, Father of _de la Tour_,
  Governor of the said _Royal Fort_, whom, together with the said
  Ships and Guns, they brought into _England_; and in the year 1628.
  they Possess’d themselves of the whole Region of _Canada_ or _Nova
  Francia_, situate on the North side of the River, together with the
  Fort or Castle of _Quebeck_, Sir _Lewis Kirk_ being then constituted
  Governor of the place, the _French_ being then either expell’d or
  convey’d into _England_, and the Arms of the King of _England_ being
  publickly there erected, and every where plac’d; and before the year
  1628. it was brought to pass by the said Sir _William Alexander_,
  (assisted both by the advice and charge of the said _Kirk_) that in
  the parts of _L’Accadie_, or _Nova Scotia_, on the South side of the
  River _Canada_, the whole place, with the Forts thereon built, being
  by him subdu’d, presently came under the Power of the King of
  _England_; that Region on the South side falling into the Possession
  of the said Sir _William Alexander_, and that on the North side,
  into the Possession of the _Kirks_.

  “4. On _March 29. 1632._ a Peace being concluded between King
  _Charles_ the First, and _Lewis_ the XIII. it was amongst other
  things on the part of the King of _England_ agreed, That all the
  Forts, as well in _L’Accadie_ as in _Nova Francia_, should be
  restor’d into the Possession of the Subjects of the _French_ King,
  which was exactly perform’d on the part of the _English_, though to
  the great damage of the _Kirks_; but on the part of the _French_,
  although it was agreed, as in the fourth and fifth Articles of Peace
  is set down, (to which reference is had) yet nothing was ever
  perform’d of their parts; so that the _Kirks_ did thereupon suffer
  loss, to the value of five thousand Pounds _Sterl._ which were to be
  paid them by _Monsieur de Cane a French-man_, but remain unpaid to
  this day.

  “5. _Anno 1633._ the King of _England_ taking notice, that although
  the Forts and Castles, according to the League, were deliver’d up
  into the Possession of the _French_, (especially such as had been
  erected during their Possession thereof) yet that his _English_
  Subjects were not to be excluded from Trade or free Commerce, in
  those Regions that were first Discover’d and Possess’d by his
  Subjects, did, with the advice of his Council, by his Letters
  Patents, Dated _May 11. 1633._ upon consideration had of the
  Expences, which the said _Kirks_ had laid out upon the reducing of
  that Countrey with the Fort of _Quebeck_, to the value of
  50000^{lb.}; and also of their ready obeisance in resigning up the
  same on his Royal Command, Grant unto Sir _Lewis Kirk_, and his
  Brother _John Kirk_ and his Associates, for the term of thirty one
  years (not yet expir’d) full Priviledge, not only of Trade and
  Commerce in the River _Canada_, and places on either side adjacent,
  but also to Plant Colonies, and build Forts and Bulwarks where they
  should think fit.

  “6. By vertue of which Commission, Sir _Lewis Kirk_ and his Brother
  _John Kirk_, and his Associates, in the Moneth of _February_ next
  following, _viz._ in 1633. set forth a Ship call’d _The Merry
  Fortune_, Laden with Goods of a considerable value, consign’d to
  those parts, where during her Trading there, without any just
  offence given; and in time of Peace, she was by the _French_
  forceably seiz’d on, and carry’d into _France_ and her Lading, as if
  she had been lawful Prize, Confiscated; whereupon the _Kirks_
  suffer’d loss, to the value of twelve thousand Pounds. And although
  the Lord _Scudamore_, Ambassador in _France_, by the King of
  _Englands_ special Command, and the said _John Kirk_ being there in
  Person, by the King’s Command, did often earnestly urge, that the
  Moneys due to the said _Kirks_, and the said Ship, with her Lading,
  might be restor’d, which for no other cause had been seiz’d upon and
  sold, but only for that by the King’s Commission she was found
  Trading at _Canada_; yet he could obtain nothing, but after some
  years fruitless endeavors return’d into _England_ without
  accomplishing his desires.

  “7. In the year 1654. _Cromwel_, although an unjust Usurper of the
  Government, yet upon consideration of the Premises, taking a just
  occasion for requiring the Possession of _L’Accadie_, sends forth
  several Ships under the Command of one _Sedgwick_, who by vertue of
  the Authority granted him by _Cromwel_, assaulted and subdu’d the
  aforesaid Forts in _Nova Scotia_, and restor’d them into the
  Possession of the _English_: And although in the year 1655. a League
  of firm Peace and Amity being concluded between _Cromwel_ and the
  _French_ King, the _French_ Ambassador did often urge the
  Restitution to the Possession of the _French_; yet for the same
  causes aforesaid, which had mov’d _Cromwel_ to seize upon them, it
  was thought fit still to retain the Possession of them; and although
  according to the purport of the twenty fifth Article of the Peace,
  Commissioners on both sides were to be appointed for the deciding
  and determining that Controversie; yet nothing was done therein,
  neither did the Commissioners ever meet within three Moneths, as in
  the twenty fourth Article of the Treaty was provided and agreed: So
  that now the case is very clear, that the Possession to the
  _English_ remains firm and just, and that the Forts and Bulwarks
  before specifi’d, are without all peradventure under the Power and
  Jurisdiction of the King of _England_.”


Since the Restauration of his present Majesty, the _French_ Ambassador
representing unto the King the Pretensions of the _French_ unto the
several Forts and other places in _Accadie_, and urging the
non-performance of the Articles of Agreement between _Oliver Cromwel_
and the _French_ King, mov’d the King of _England_, _As a profess’d
Enemy to all Violence_, for a Restitution of all the Forts and other
places which were then in the possession of the _English_: Not long
after which, whether upon the Ambassadors request, or upon other
important Affairs intervening, or upon what other ground soever it were,
the _French_ were suffer’d to re-enter on the foresaid places, and do
yet keep Possession of them, till such time as the _English_ claim under
the just Title of the _Kirks_, shall meet with some fit occasion of
being reviv’d.

That which we suppose gives the _French_ so much the more confidence in
their claim of this Country, is their presumption upon the Expedition of
_James Quartier_, whom they will have to be the first Discoverer, if not
Possessor, not onely of the Isle of _Assumption_, but also of this Coast
of _Nova Francia_, not taking notice it seems of _Sebastian Cabot_,
under _Henry_ the Seventh.

The chief places of Note in this Countrey, are, 1. _Port Royal_, a
Colony of _French_, said to have been Planted there by _Monsieur de
Montz_ in 1604. by report, capable of receiving a thousand Ships; and in
1613. (the _French_ being driven out by Sir _Samuel Argal_, Governor of
_Virginia_, who took Prisoners _Biard_ and _Masse_, and demolish’d the
Fort at _Port Royal_) given by Patent, as aforemention’d, to Sir
_William Alexander_; afterwards by him sold again to the _French_; then
in the time of _Oliver Cromwel_ re-taken by Major _Sedgwick_; lastly,
re-possess’d by the _French_. 2. St. _Luke’s Bay_, or _Portua Mouton_.
3. _Gaspe_, or _Gachepe_. 4. _The Haven of Passepay._ 5. The _Bay de
Toutes Isles._ 6. _The Fort de la Heve._ 7. _The Cape of Sable._ Within
the Southern Point _Forchu_, lies the Isle _Longu_, which boasts of a
Silver Mine.

The most noted People of the ancient Inhabitants of _Accadie_ were the
_Iroquois_, lying most South-Westerly upon the Sea Coast, who us’d to
drive a great Trade in Beavers and other Commodities.

Westerly before the River _Chovacoet_ lies _Bacchus Isle_, full of
Vineyards.

[Sidenote: Remarkable manner of living.]

The Inhabitants thereof differ very much from other Salvages, for they
shave all the Hair from the Crown of their Head, wear long Locks behind,
pleited together, and stuck full of Feathers, Paint their Faces black
and red, and go arm’d with Clubs, Bows, Pikes, and Arrows pointed with
Fish-bones: They Till their Ground very handsomly, and divide their
Fields with Hedges; they Plant Tobacco, Vines, Cabbages, _Maiz_, and
divers Colour’d Beans; the stalks of the _Maiz_ serve in stead of Poles
for their Beans to run up upon.

Beyond _Cape de Rocher_ lies the brave Harbor _Beauport_, which is
secur’d from all Winds by an Isle which lies in the midst of it. The
Countrey Manur’d in most places, and Fruitful, feeds store of Men and
Cattel.

The Haven of _Malabar_ is surrounded in a manner with little Huts,
cover’d with Mats, which in the Middle of the Room have a hole for the
Smoke to go out at. The Southern shore is Sandy, and very dangerous.

For the more full exemplification of what concerns this part of _Nova
Francia_, we shall conclude with an account of all Material Passages
relating to the _French_, from their own Narrations as followeth.

[Sidenote: _Quartier_’s Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Scurvy, when known.]

[Sidenote: Exploit of _de la Roque_.]


  The first discoverer of this Coast was _Jaques Quartier_, sent out
  _Anno 1534._ by the _French_ King, _Francis_ the First, in which
  Expedition he spent five Months; and going from thence to St.
  _Male_, discover’d the Inlet _Lawrence_, _Terreneuf_, and
  _Natiscotec_. The following year prosecuting his Voyage, he Sail’d
  into the great River _Canada_, and Winter’d near St. _Croix_, where
  he lost divers of his Men by the Scurvy, a Distemper till that time
  altogether unknown; and such was his condition, that none of his Men
  had escap’d with life, had not the Inhabitants taught him to cure
  the same with the Bark and Leaves of the Tree _Annedda_; with which
  many recovering, _Quartier_ Weigh’d Anchor, and treacherously
  carry’d the King _Donnacona_ with many of his Nobles, Prisoners to
  _France_; but most of them dying, _Quartier_ brought only a few of
  them back with him in his third Voyage, six years after the first,
  when arriving in the Haven St. _Croix_, he cast up a strong Fort,
  which he nam’d _Charlesbourg Royal_, where he staid a whole Winter.
  _Joan de la Roque_, whom the _French_ King had made Governor of
  _Quartier_’s new-discover’d Countries, Sailing thither with three
  Ships, met with _Quartier_’s Fleet near _Terreneuf_; from whence he
  was then going home, because he saw no hopes of subduing the
  Salvages with so small a Force as he had brought with him from
  _France_. But _de la Roque_ endeavoring to make a further discovery
  of _Canada_, Sail’d up the River _Saguenay_, where spending both
  time and Money, he was Commanded home by the _French_ King, and the
  fruitless Expeditions lay dead till about 1604.

[Sidenote: Of _de Monts_.]

[Sidenote: Of _Poutrincourt_.]

  When _Peter de Monts_ obtaining Letters Patents to Trade for Furs in
  the foremention’d Countries, Sail’d with two Ships beyond _Accadie_,
  up St. _Lawrence Bay_, where he Landed on the Isle St. _Croix_,
  where of ninety seven Men, with which he staid there a whole Winter,
  he lost thirty five; but having fresh Supplies sent him from
  _France_, he remov’d to _Port Royal_, where leaving forty Men, he
  return’d home; these forty being reduc’d to twenty three, and in
  great want, walking along the Sea-shore in a despairing condition,
  espy’d a Ship coming up with full Sail, which upon nearer approach,
  prov’d a _French_ Vessel, of which _Poutrincourt_ was Commander, who
  receiving his wretched Countrey-men with great joy, took them with
  him to _Port Royal_, being sent thither on purpose to settle a
  Plantation in _Accadie_: Meanwhile the Letters Patent granted to
  _Monts_, being call’d in, the first Planters in _Port Royal_ were
  forc’d to desert the same, and return home; and also _Poutrincourt_
  returning, came back again three years after to _Port Royal_, where
  finding the Houses standing as he had left them, he Manur’d the
  Countrey all about, and endeavoring to Plant _Christianity_ among
  the Natives, Christen’d among others an _Accadian_ Lord, who was
  above a hundred years old; all which _Poutrincourt_ Sailing back to
  France, related at the Court.

[Sidenote: Remarkable Transactions of some _Jesuits_.]

  The _Jesuits_ being also inform’d thereof, obtain’d leave of the
  Queen to send _Peter Biard_ and _Euemond Masse_ thither, on
  pretence, that _Henry_ the Fourth had himself promis’d them the same
  Priviledge in his Life time. But the Merchants at _Diep_, which were
  concern’d in the new Plantations with _Poutrincourt_, opposing the
  going over of the foremention’d _Jesuits_, express’d themselves very
  violent against them, and laid to their charge the Blood of the late
  King, which they said was yet reaking in _Paris_: _What assurance_
  (alleadg’d they) _had their Goods which were in the Custody of Men
  inclin’d to the_ Spaniards? _Must the_ Christian Religion _be
  promulgated? There are so many Orders of_ Monks _which may easily
  produce two Men; but if the Queen was resolv’d to send_ Jesuits
  _thither, they desir’d restauration of the Monies which they had
  disburs’d_: To which _Biard_ and _Masse_ harkening, gather’d up the
  demanded Monies, under pretence of being requir’d towards the
  Preaching of the _Christian Religion_ amongst these remote
  _Heathens_; by this means getting great Sums, they bought out the
  foremention’d Merchants, so that the new Plantations fell half to
  the _Jesuits_, who setting Sail, and arriving at _Port Royal_,
  turn’d all things topsiturvy, and so thwarted _Poutrincourt_ in his
  designs, that he was forc’d to complain to the _French_ Court of the
  _Jesuits_ oppression, whose aim it was to get all things into their
  own Possession; whereupon they Excommunicated _Poutrincourt_’s Son
  (who serv’d in his Father’s place at Court), and gain’d the Duke
  _Guereheville_ in _France_ to be of their Party, by promising him,
  that he should share in the new Plantations for a contracted Sum of
  Money: After this they receiv’d all sorts of Arms and Ammunition,
  with several Brass Guns, of the then King _Lewis_ the XIII. and
  other gifts Collected and gather’d out of their several Societies,
  for two new _Accadian_ Apostles. _Gilbert du Thet_, a subtile man of
  the same Order, transported their Necessaries.

  At this time all things going favorably with the _Jesuits_, they
  made themselves Masters of _Port Royal_, and began to raise a Fort
  on the River _Pemtagovet_; but there their happy Proceedings were
  stop’d, for Captain _Argal_ before-mention’d, Sailing thither in
  vindication of the _English_, was encounter’d by _du Thet_, (who
  firing the first Gun on _Argal_, was by him taken off with
  Chain-shot) and taking _Biard_ and _Masse_, carry’d them Prisoners
  to _Virginia_, and dismantled the Fort built at _Port Royal_, after
  which it was by King _James_ given by Patent to Sir _William
  Alexander_, as hath been already related, together with what of most
  remarkable hath happen’d since.


                               SECT. VI.
                              Norumbegua.

[Sidenote: Whence denominated.]

_Norumbegua_, lying between _Nova Scotia_ Northward, and _New England_
Southward, is so utterly not taken notice of by many as a distinct
Province, that it might seem to be swallow’d up and lost in the two
Countreys between which it lies, or at least to be thought a part of
_Virginia_ or _New England_ (for _Virginia_ largely taken is said to
contain _New England_, _Novum Belgium_, and _Virginia_, especially so
call’d) and that so much the rather, because the _Bessabees_, accounted
by _Sanson d’Abbeville_ an ancient People of _New England_, are written
to have liv’d near the River _Penobscot_, which is reckon’d to be the
same with _Pemtegovet_, or (as some will have it) _Norumbegua_, from
which, or from a certain great City of that Name, the Country for
fancy’s sake must needs be denominated; but since most commonly we find
it nam’d and treated of apart, it will not be improper to follow that
method, carrying the Bounds of _New England_ no farther Northward than
the River _Quinnebequi_ or _Sagadahoc_, and so determining the main part
of this Countrey to that space between the aforesaid River and
_Pemtegovet_, excepting a small Southerly portion upon the Banks of the
River _Chovacovet_; so that it appears chiefly situate under the forty
third Degree of Northern Latitude.

[Sidenote: Towns and Cities not certainly known.]

As for the Towns or Cities of this Province, there is but a very
uncertain account to be given, forasmuch as the pretended great City
_Norumbegua_, from whence the Province should take its Appellation, is
not acknowledg’d by any of the most authentick modern Writers, nor in
any late Voyage or Discovery any mention made either of that or any
other considerable Town or City. Dr. _Heylin_ supposeth it to be no
other than _Agguncia_, a poor little Village, that seems compos’d of a
company of Hutts or Sheaves, cover’d with the Skins of Beasts, or the
Barks of Trees. But the most favourable conjecture is, that it might
haply be the Ruines of an ancient Town, which the Natives call’d
_Arambeck_, and had probably deserted it long before the arrival of the
_Europeans_ in those parts; however, it is not very probable that the
Name of the Countrey should be deriv’d from this City, if ever there
were any such, or from the River, which appears to have been term’d
_Norumbegua_ on purpose to make way for this derivation, whereas
_Pemtegovet_ is the ancient Appellation that properly belongs to it; nor
hath any modern one been apply’d to it but that of _Rio Grande_, by
_Buno_ in his _Comment_ upon _Philip Cluverius_, upon what ground is
hard to tell, since it is observ’d by _Heylin_ and others, to be neither
large, nor otherwise much to be commended, being Navigable not above
twenty or thirty Miles, in respect of its many great Cataracts and Falls
of Water, an Inconvenience with which many other Rivers of _America_ are
prejudic’d, and rendred impassable.

Before and about the Mouth of this River, which is judg’d to be about
eight or nine Miles broad, lie many small Islands, or rather Hills,
inviron’d with Water, the chiefest of which is by the _French_ call’d
_La Haute Isle_, from the high and Mountainous appearance of it to those
that see it from afar off at Sea.

The aforemention’d _Buno_, though he names, as belonging to _Norumbega_,
these several places, _viz._ _Porto del Refugio_, _Porto Reale_,
_Paradiso_, _Flora_, and _Angolema_, from some obscure _French_
testimonies, without particularising any Author, yet he afterwards
confesses, that the Names given by the _French_, and those apply’d by
the _Spaniards_, are so various and disagreeing, and breed such a
confusion, that no Charts or Descriptions had concluded upon either.

As for those who will have _Norumbega_ deriv’d from _Norwegia_, in
respect of a Colony brought thither from _Norwey_, if the Etymologie be
not a little too much forc’d, the Invention may pass well enough till a
better be found out.

[Sidenote: The temperature and nature of its Soil.]

In this Countrey the temperature of the Air is not bad, nor the Soil
unfruitful, if it were well cultivated, chiefly towards the Rivers, and
where it is not either overgrown with Woods, or craggy with Hills and
mountainous Rocks: neither are the Woods unprofitable, for they afford
good Timber, and all kind of necessary and useful Wood, especially
Beeches, Fir-trees, Wallnut-trees, and other Nuts: The Plains are very
pleasant, and yield good Pasturage, onely the Maritime Coasts are so
shallow and full of Sands, that the Sailing near them is accounted
somewhat dangerous; and this may be imagin’d to be the reason that no
Authors have yet met with any Ports or Havens belonging to this
Countrey, which they have thought worthy their notice.

[Illustration]



                               CHAP. II.
                              New England.


As _Canada_ is by some accounted a general Province, containing _New
France_, _L’Accadie_, _Norumbega_, and other places, so under _Virginia_
largely taken, are comprehended _New England_, _New Netherlands_, and
_Virginia_ properly so call’d; however, since that part which vulgarly
goes under the Name of _Virginia_ and _New England_ were possess’d, if
not discover’d, at several times, and their Plantations promoted and
propagated upon several occasions, and by distinct Interests, and since
_New England_ hath been look’d upon as a place considerable enough for
Persons of very eminent quality to concern themselves in it, we rather
are induc’d to consider this Countrey as a principal part, than as any
way depending on, or being any Branch or Portion of _Virginia_.

[Sidenote: Situation of _New England_.]

It lies between _Norumbega_, which it hath Northward, and _New
Netherlands_ Southward, from forty one to forty five Degrees of Northern
Latitude, in the midst of the temperate Zone, and paralell to _France_
and some part of _Italy_ in the Western Hemisphere, so that one would
think it should enjoy the same temperature of Air; but the contrary is
found, for that part which borders upon the Sea is colder, partly by
reason that the Sea-waves break the reflexion of the Sun-beams, partly
by reason of the abundance of Vapors, which mounting upward, abate the
ardor of them; but the more Inland parts of the Countrey are
indifferently warm: Moreover it hath been found by certain experience,
that those Countreys which look towards the East, or Sun-rising, are
colder than those which lie towards the West, or Sun-setting, and those
that have the Evening Winds on them, warmer than those which have the
Morning Winds; which being so, it should follow, that the temperature of
the Air in those Regions is peculiar to the Bodies of those of our
Nation, who being accustom’d to a Climate somewhat temperate, are
neither able to endure extremity of Cold, nor immoderate Heat: Yet there
are who affirm, that _New England_, though situate in the midst of the
temperate Zone, nevertheless feels both extremities of the two opposite
Zones, in the Summer the heat of the Torrid, and in the Winter the cold
of the Frigid.

[Sidenote: First discovery.]

As for the first discovery of this Countrey, it is not to be expected
otherwise than that of the discovery of those other Countreys hitherto
discours’d of, that is to say very uncertain; but because the _French_
boast of _Joannes Verrazanus_ (who though an _Italian_, was employ’d by
the French King _Francis_ the First) as the first Discoverer, not onely
of _Nova Francia_, as hath been already intimated, but also of this
Countrey and the adjoyning Coast and Regions, we shall not think it
impertinent to give from their own Relations, a brief view of his
Voyage, and afterwards a particular Description of the _English_
Plantations there, and of their Transactions, both one with another, and
between them and the Nations. The Narration of _Verrazanus_’s Voyage is
as followeth:

[Sidenote: Remarkable Voyage of _Verrazanus_.]


  “On command of the _French_ King _Francis_ the First, _John
  Verrazanus_, _Anno 1524._ setting Sail Westward from the _Canary_
  Isles, discover’d a low _American_ Coast, in thirty four Degrees
  North Latitude, inhabited by naked People, which behind the sandy
  Hills facing the Sea, Manur’d many fruitful Plains. Then Sailing a
  hundred Leagues along the Shore Northerly, he view’d a Countrey full
  of Vines, which grew up amongst the Boughs of high Trees; and
  Sailing up a pleasant River, Landed on the Island _Clandia_, full of
  woody Mountains: thence he stood for the main Continent; where after
  having visited a King, Clad in wrought Deer-skin, he Sail’d by a
  Bay, at whose Mouth appear’d a Rock in an Inlet, twenty Leagues;
  where appear’d five small Isles, all of them exceeding fruitful.
  After this (being got a hundred and fifty Leagues to the Northward)
  he found very salvage People, whose Heads appear’d through
  Bear-skins and Sea-Calves. By this time having _Terreneuf_ on his
  Starboard, he return’d back to _Diepe_.”


Thus far _Verrazanus_ made some discovery of the Coast, which hath since
not onely been farther inspected by the _English_, but also by them
Planted and call’d _New England_.

[Sidenote: The setling of Plantations.]

This Countrey, whether first discover’d by the said _Verrazanus_, or
together with the rest of largely-taken _Virginia_, by Sir _Walter
Raleigh_, or, as some say, by Captain _Gosnald_, in the Year 1602. was
so well known to the _English_ in the beginning of King _James_’s Reign
here, that the setling and carrying on of Plantations in this part of
_America_, was vigorously promoted by many of the most eminent Persons
in _England_: whereupon it was about the Year 1606. being the fourth
Year of the said King, granted by Patent to several Lords, Knights,
Gentlemen and Merchants, under the denomination of _The Plymouth
Company_, both in favour of those generous Spirits, who studied and
endeavor’d the good of the Publick by foreign Plantations, and
indulgence to those, who not well satisfi’d with the Government of
Church and State, and willingly transporting themselves and Families
thither, as to their _Asylum_, could more conveniently be spar’d than
the better affected part of the People: And although the Colonies at
first sent over succeeded not according to expectation, yet in a short
time there Plantations were brought to very great perfection. Captain
_Weimouth_, who had been employ’d there by the Lord _Arundel_ of
_Warder_, for the discovery of the North-West Passage, falling short of
his Course, hapned into a River on the Coast of _America_, call’d
_Pemmaquid_; from whence he brought five of the Natives for _England_,
three of whose Names were _Mannida_, _Skettwarroes_ and _Tasquantum_,
and Landing at _Plymouth_, presented them to Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_,
whom he made use of as Instruments for the farther advancement of these
Plantations: they were all of one Nation, but of several parts, and
several Families; he kept them with him three years, and observing in
them an inclination to vertuous Designs, and Spirits above the Vulgar,
he gain’d information from them what great Rivers ran up into the Land,
what Men of note were seated on them, what Power they were of, how
Ally’d, what Enemies they had, and the like; and taking some light from
thence, sent away a Ship, furnish’d with Men, and all kind of
Necessaries convenient for the Service intended, under the Command of
Captain _Henry Chaloung_, a Gentleman of a good Family, and very capable
for Undertakings of this nature; and giving him sufficient Instructions
what to do, sent along with him two of the said Natives for his better
Conduct and Direction, ordering him by all means to keep the Northerly
Gage as high as _Cape Briton_, till they had discover’d the Main, and
then to beat it up to the Southward as the Coast tended, till they found
by the Natives they were near the place to which they were assign’d. By
that time they were about a hundred Leagues off the Island of _Canara_,
the Captain fell sick of a Feaver, and the Winds being Westerly, his
Company shap’d their Course for the _Indies_, and coming to _St. John de
Porto Rico_, the Captain went ashore for the recovery of his Health,
whilst the Company took in Water, and such other Provisions as they had
present need of, and spent some time in Hunting, and other Recreations;
after which steering their intended Course, they were met with by the
_Spanish_ Fleet that came from the _Havana_, taken Prisoners and carried
into _Spain_, the Ship and Goods being confiscated, the Voyage
overthrown, and the Natives lost.

Not long after the setting out of _Chaloung_, _Thomas Haman_ was sent by
Sir _John Popham_, Lord Chief Justice of _England_, towards the River of
_Sagadehoc_, to the succour of _Chaloung_, if need were; but not finding
him, after he had scowr’d the Coast all about, he return’d back into
_England_.

Captain _Prinne_ was likewise sent from _Bristol_, who arriving happily
in those Parts, brought back with him at his return the most exact
Discovery of that Coast that ever had been gain’d till then.

A while after, at the Charge of the said Sir _John Popham_, a hundred
Men were sent to settle a Colony at _Sagadehoc_, under the Command of
_George Popham_, _Raleigh Gilbert_, Master of the Ship, who seated
themselves in a _Peninsula_, at the Mouth of this River; which
attempting to discover, they met with a Wood near to an Island, distant
from the Line about forty five Degrees, and some odd Seconds, where they
easily went on Shore. In the Year 1608. the Commander of the Colony
deceasing, and not long after him the Lord Chief Justice, who had been
the chief that had furnish’d them with fresh Supplies, they return’d for
_England_ in those Ships that had been sent them with Succours: At which
unexpected return, the Patrons of the Design were so offended, that for
a certain time they desisted from their Enterprizes. In the mean while
the _French_ making use of this occasion, Planted Colonies in divers
places, when Sir _Samuel Argal_ from _Virginia_ disturb’d their Designs,
and brought away Prisoners all he could lay hold on.

Suddenly after Captain _Hobson_ and divers others were set out with very
great Preparations, and with them two of the Natives which had been
detain’d for some time in _England_, whom they thought to have made use
of, the better to draw the rest of the Natives to their Commerce; but
because a little before twenty four of them had been treacherously dealt
with by one _Hunt_, they contracted from thence so great an animosity
towards the _English_, that Captain _Hobson_ was constrain’d to return
without effecting any thing.

In the Year 1614. Captain _John Smith_ being sent to Fish for Whales,
and seek after Mines of Gold and Silver, Landed upon the Island of
_Monahiggan_, where he found some store of Whales, but not such as those
by whose Oyl they use to make so much profit.

About the same time (two of the Natives being recover’d, _Erpenow_ of
_Capawick_, that had escap’d from Captain _Hobson_, and _Assacumet_ of
_Pemmaquid_, one of those that had been taken Prisoners with _Chaloung_)
Captain _Harly_, with Necessaries convenient for such a Voyage, was
dispatch’d away by Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_, the Earl of _Southampton_
favouring the Design, and furnishing him with some Land-Soldiers under
the Command of Captain _Hobson_, who not discourag’d with his former ill
Success, resolv’d upon a second Adventure.

In the Year 1615. Sir _Richard Hakings_ undertook a Voyage into those
Parts by authority of the Council of the second Colony, but by reason of
the great Wars among the Natives, his Observations could not be such as
might give any farther light than what had been already receiv’d.

Soon after which Captain _Dormer_ coming for _England_ from
_New-found-Land_, and Landing at _Plymouth_, apply’d himself to the
Governor, by whom he was dispatch’d away, with Direction to meet Captain
_Rocroft_, sent away a little before; but _Rocroft_ being dead by that
time _Dormer_ could come after him to _Virginia_, where he heard he was,
he returning to _Capawick_, was there set upon by _Erpenow_, the
foremention’d Salvage, and other _Indians_ that were Conspirators with
him; and within a short while after at _Virginia_, whither he went to be
cur’d of the Wounds he receiv’d in that Assassination, he fell sick and
died.

About the Year 1623. Captain _Robert Gorges_, newly come out of the
_Venetian_ War, was employ’d by the Council of _New Englands_ Affairs as
the Lieutenant-General, to regulate the Abuses of divers Fisher-men and
other Interlopers, who without License frequented those Coasts: for
which Service he had assign’d to him all that part of the main Land
situate upon the North-East side of the Bay of the _Messachasets_.

By these several Colonies sent so thick one after another, both a full
Discovery of the Countrey came to be made, and a large gap open’d to the
free possession thereof; yet in regard of the many disappointments and
misfortunes the several Companies sent over met with, and counting the
vast Charges their setting forth cost the Undertakers, which would have
been still increas’d by the need of continu’d Supplies, in all
probability _New England_ would have been but thinly peopled to this
day, had not a great Tide of People, possess’d with an aversion to the
Church-Government of _England_, and fled into _Holland_ for _Liberty of
Conscience_, eagerly taken hold of this opportunity to make themselves
Masters of their own Opinions, and of a Place where they might erect a
Government suitable thereunto: and though at first there were some
Exceptions taken, as if this Countrey was to be made a Receptacle of
Sectaries, and such as condemn’d the Ecclesiastical Government of the
Nation, insomuch that Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_, to whom they apply’d
themselves, desiring him to mediate for them to the Council of _New
Englands_ Affairs, when they perceiv’d the Authority they had from the
_Virginia_ Company, could not warrant their abode there, had enough to
do (notwithstanding his Apology, _That these things hapned contrary to
his expectation_) to wipe away the jealousie which was entertain’d of
him, it being Order’d, that no more should be suffer’d to pass into _New
England_, but such as should take the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy:
yet at last there was little notice taken who went, perhaps upon
consideration, that the vast resort of People thither would be of
greater advantage to the Plantations, than their different Opinions, at
so remote a distance, could be prejudicial, so long as they acknowledg’d
Obedience to the King and Civil Power: However, Sir _Ferdinando_, to
clear himself the better, mov’d those Lords that were the chief Actors
in the Business, to resign their Grand Patent to the King, and pass
particular Patents to themselves of such part of the Countrey along the
Sea-Coast, as might be sufficient for them: To this Motion there being a
general Assent given by the Lords, and a Day appointed for the
conclusion thereof, an Act was made for the Resignation of the Patent,
alloting to each Man their several Bounds. From the uttermost parts
began the Limits of the Lord _Mougrave_, and ended at _Hudson_’s
_River_. To the Eastward of which River, for the space of sixty Miles in
length, was placed the Duke of _Richmond_’s Assignment: Next to him was
setled the Earl of _Carlile_: Next him the Lord _Edward Gorges_: Next
the Marquess of _Hamilton_: Then Captain _John Mason_: And lastly his
own, which extended to the great River _Sagadehoc_, being sixty Miles,
and so up into the Main Land a hundred and twenty Miles, which he was
pleas’d to call by the Name of _The Province of Main_.

The Landing of the _English_ in _Plymouth_ Plantation was very much
facilitated by the great Mortality that hapned amongst the _Indians_
about that time, amongst the _Pecods_, _Narragansets_, _Nianticks_,
_Tarantines_, _Wippanaps_, and those of _Abargini_, _Agissawang_, and
_Pockanekie_, their _Powwows_, or Doctors, seeing with amazement their
_Wigwams_, or Streets, lie full of dead Bodies, and in vain expecting
help from _Squantam_ their good, or _Abbamoch_ their bad God. Not long
before, that blazing Comet, so much talk’d of in _Europe_, apppear’d
after Sun-setting in their Horizon South-West for the space of thirty
Sleeps, (for so they reckon their Days). They Landed at first with
little or no resistance, a handful of Men onely being sent before to
keep possession for their Companions, who arriv’d eight days after; when
the Natives appearing with their Bowes and Arrows, let flie their long
Shafts amongst them; whereupon one Captain _Miles Standish_ with his
Fowling-piece shot the stoutest _Sachem_ amongst the _Indians_, as he
was reaching an Arrow from his Quiver; which the rest seeing, fled into
the Woods and Thickets.

The same Year the _Merchant-Adventurers_ in _England_ sent forth store
of Servants to provide against the Wants of that place; amongst whom
came over a mix’d Multitude, who setled themselves in the Bosom of the
Cape now call’d _Gloucester_.

About the Year 1631. there fled to the _English_ at _Water-town_ the
_Indians_ that dwelt thereabouts, for protection against the
_Tarratines_, a sort of cruel and salvage Cannibals, by whom near the
Town of _Saugust_, in the very dead time of the Night, one Lieutenant
_Walker_ being on a sudden alarm’d, was shot through his Coat and Buff
Jacket with two Indian Arrows. That Night the _English_ stood upon their
Guard, and the next Morning sent word to other parts; who gather’d
together, and taking counsel how to quit themselves of these _Indians_,
agreed to discharge their great Guns; whose redoubled noise, ratling in
the Rocks, struck terror into the _Indians_, and caus’d them to betake
themselves to flight. The Autumn following, others of the _Indians_, who
till then had held a good correspondence with the Planters, began to
quarrel about the Bounds of their Land; but a great Mortality, by the
raging of the Small-Pox, breaking out amongst them, put an end to that
Controversie: There died amongst the rest one of the chief of the
_Sagamores_ of the _Mattachusets_, call’d _Sagamore John_, who before
his Death had been instructed in the _Christian_ Faith, and took care
that his two Sons should be nurtured therein.

In the Year 1635. there arrived several Ships with great plenty of
Provisions, and many Persons of good Quality, and amongst the rest Sir
_Henry Vane_.

The same Year the People of _Cambridge_, otherwise call’d _New-town_,
hearing of a fertile place upon the River _Canectico_, remov’d thither,
and erected a new Corporation by the Name of _Banectico_, being
encourag’d thereunto by the Lord _Say_ and the Lord _Brooks_, and
planting a Forrest at the mouth of the River, call’d it _Saybrook
Forrest_.

About the Year 1638. the _Pequods_, a stout and Warlike Nation, lying to
the South-West of the _Mattachusets_, were discover’d upon their March
within some few Miles of _Hartford_: Their coming very much terrifi’d
all that inhabited thereabouts; but they took onely three Women and
return’d; one of whom making a violent resistance, had her Brains beaten
out; the other two they carried away with them, without abusing their
Persons, as it was suppos’d they would, for they esteem’d their own
_Shaws_, being black, beyond our Women. Their chief Design was to learn
to make Gunpowder; which seeing they could not effect, they look’d upon
their Prize as nothing so precious as they imagin’d.

A little after another _Indian_ War threatning the _English_, they
resolv’d together to send an Ambassador to _Cannonicus_, chief _Sachem_
of the _Naragansits_, endeavoring to prevent him from confederating with
the _Pequods_, who (as they had Intelligence) were about sending to him
to joyn with them: _Cannonicus_ being grown old, had resign’d the
Government to his Nephew _Mantinemo_, a stern Man, and of a cruel
Nature. The Ambassadors arriving at his Court, which was about eighty
Miles from _Boston_, the _Indian_ Prince assembled his chief
Councellors, and having Entertain’d the Ambassadors Magnificently, and
Feasted them Royally, gave them Audience in his State-house; where the
_Sachem_, to manifest his greater State, lay along upon the Ground, with
all his Nobility sitting about him, with their Legs doubled up, and
their Knees touching their Chin: The _English_ Interpreter having made
his Speech in the Name of the rest, both _Cannonicus_ and the young King
gave discreet Answers, signifying their Resolutions to keep a fair
Correspondence with the _English_, and yet not to fall out with the
_Pequods_: Who a little after making also their Addresses to the same
King, he disswaded them by many Reasons from making War with the
_English_, and to deliver into their hands those Persons that had
murther’d any of them. The _Pequods_ nevertheless, though they seem’d
inclinable to his Counsel, yet they acted as Enemies; for when the
_English_ sent a Company of Soldiers into their Countrey to treat with
them about delivering up the Murtherers, they made shew of willingness,
but spying their advantage, betook themselves to their Heels; and
whomsoever they took stragling by surprise, they revil’d and insulted
over in a most cruel manner, vilifying the _Christian_ Religion, and
uttering all the Blasphemies they could invent. Whereupon they rais’d
fresh Souldiers for the War, to the number of fourscore, out of the
several Towns in the _Mattachusets_, and with some _Indian_ Guides came
to their Fort, within which they had pitch’d their _Wigwams_, the
Entrance being on two sides, with intricate Meanders to enter; at which
were plac’d _Indian_ Bowe-men, who shot the foremost of the _English_;
yet they had little to boast of in the end, for the _English_ rushing in
through the winding Ways, and placing themselves round the _Wigwams_,
made a very prosperous Shot, by directing the Muzzles of their Musquets
against the _Indians_ which lay sleeping on the Ground: In the midst of
which rouzing terror and confusion they were defeated with little ado,
most of them being either wounded, kill’d, or taken. The _English_ thus
animated with the first Victory, send their Prisoners to the Pinnaces,
and prosecute the War in Hand, marching against the next Body of the
_Indians_, which lay Encamp’d on a Hill about two Miles distant, where
they gave them a second Overthrow, slaying many more than in the first
Engagement; the rest flying to a very thick inaccessible Swamp or Bog,
were there besieg’d by the _English_; and skulking up and down, as they
saw their opportunity they would Shoot at them with their Arrows, and
then suddenly fall flat along in the Water; at last the _English_
finding out a Passage into the Swamp, utterly defeated them, and put an
end to the War with the loss of few Mens Lives, and not many wounded.

In the Year 1640. there came over a fresh Supply of People into _New
England_, and finding no place to settle in within any of the former
erected Colonies, they repair’d to a place call’d _Long Island_, sever’d
from the Continent of _New-Haven_, about sixty Miles off the Sea.

The Year following the four Colonies, namely the _Massachusets_,
_Plymouth_, _Canectico_, and _New-Haven_, taking into consideration the
many Nations that were on all sides of them, as the _French_, _Dutch_,
_Jews_, and native _Indians_; as also how the three first went to lay
claim to Lands they never had any right to, and the last to be
continually quarrelling and contending, where they saw any hopes of
prevailing, by Commissioners chosen from the respective Colonies,
concluded a firm Confederation to assist each other in all just and
lawful Wars; upon which there came in certain _Indian Sachems_, as
_Pomham_, _Miantonemo_, _Soccanocoh_, and _Uncas_, who not onely
submitted to the _English_ Government, but also, if occasion were, in
matters of Controversie submitted to their Arbitration: But the Contest
between _Miantonemo_ and _Uncas_ was too hot to be appeas’d, (though the
_English_ were not wanting to interpose) unless by the Blood of one of
them, as will appear by the Consequence: _Uncas_ was a Prince of _For_,
whose Life _Miantonemo_, though a much more potent Prince, sought to
take away by treachery, hiring a young Man of the _Pequod_ Nation to
murther him, as the following Story renders suspected; for one dark
Evening this _Sachem_ passing from one _Wigwam_ to another, was Shot
through the Arm with an Arrow; but recovering the Palace, had the Arrow
pull’d out, and his Arm cur’d: the young Man that was suspected being
examin’d, how he came by that great store of _Wampompeage_ which was
found about him, and being able to give no good account, it increas’d
the suspicion, and induc’d _Uncas_ to complain to the _English_ at a
General Court held at _Boston_: Whereupon the young Man was Examin’d in
the presence of _Miantonemo_, who came thither with his Attendants; but
the young Man tutor’d, as suppos’d, by _Miantonemo_, pretended that
_Uncas_ had enjoyn’d him to feign that he was hir’d by _Miantonemo_ to
kill him: To which Tale of his little belief being given, it was
concluded upon farther Examination of him in private that he had done
the Fact: nevertheless they let him depart with _Miantonemo_, advising
him to send him home to _Uncas_; but he in stead of returning him cut
off his Head, and forthwith gather’d an Army of a thousand Men to fight
with _Uncas_; who met him with half the Men: the Battel being joyn’d,
the _Narragansets_, though the far greater multitude, were beaten by the
_Wawhiggins_, through the Valour of _Uncas_ their Prince; who perfected
his Victory by possessing himself of the Person of _Miantonemo_, whom,
having put his Life-guard to flight, he carried away with him in triumph
to the Town of _Hartford_, desiring to have the advice of the United
Colonies what to do with his Prisoner: Whereupon the Commissioners
having had sufficient proof of _Miantonemo_’s treachery towards this
Prince, advis’d _Uncas_ to put him to death, but not to exercise that
barbarous kind of cruelty which is usual amongst them in these Cases.
The _Sachem_, upon this advice, not long after pretended to remove him
to a safer place, but by the Way caus’d him to be Executed: His Subjects
and Kindred were troubled at his Death, but the little Princes his
Neighbors, over whom he had tyranniz’d, rather rejoyc’d.

In the Year 1645, the Sons of old _Canonnicus_, their Father being dead,
began to fall into hot Contentions with their Neighbors, and being
forbidden by the United Colonies, they did not stick to threaten Wars to
the _English_ also. Whereupon the Commissioners rais’d an Army of Horse
and Foot, and made Major General _Edward Gibbons_ Commander in Chief
over them. But the _Indians_ hearing of this Preparation, sent some of
their chief Nobility to the Commissioners of the United Colonies, who
were assembled at _Boston_, to Treat about Peace; to which the
Commissioners agreed, upon condition they should pay a part of the
Charges of the War; and that they should send four of their Sons for
Hostages till the Sum was paid; and the Hostages being sent back before
the _Wapom_ was all paid, the two Princes, _Pesicus_ and _Mexanimo_,
upon the sending a Company of Armed Men to demand it, sent the remainder
of the Money.

In the Year 1647. divers Persons of Quality ventur’d their Estates upon
an Iron Mill, which they began at _Braintree_, but it profited the
Owners little, rather wasting their Stock, the price of Labor in matters
of that nature, being double or treble to what it is in _England_.

These are the most material Transactions we find deliver’d by any one
which hapned from the first discovery till the Year before mention’d:
what hath hapned from that time to this, chiefly relates to the several
Revolutions that have been in _England_, and shall be therefore taken
notice of when we come to speak of the Government of these Plantations.

[Sidenote: The Commodities of this Countrey, together with the Trees and
           other sorts of Plants.]

Though there are, who having remain’d some time, and been concern’d in
those Parts, affirm the Soil of _New England_ to be nothing so fruitful
as it is believ’d and commonly deliver’d to be, yet we think it not
improper to give a brief account of the Trees and other Plants; also the
Beasts, Birds, Fishes, and other Commodities which most Writers will
have to be the production of this Countrey, especially since we find
them compactly summ’d up by an unknown Writer in the Language of the
_Muses_. The recital of the Plants and Trees, which (excepting the
Cedar, _Sassafras_, and Dyers _Sumach_) are all of the same kind with
those that grow in _Europe_, onely differing in nature, according as the
Epithets of many of them declare, is as follows:

         _Trees both in Hills and Plains in plenty be;
         The long-liv’d Oak, and mournful Cypress Tree;
         Skie-towring Pines, and Chesnuts coated rough;
         The lasting Cedar, with the Walnut tough;
         The Rozen-dropping Fir, for Mast in use;
         The Boat-men seek for Oars light, neat grown Sprewse;
         The brittle Ash, the ever-trembling Asps;
         The broad-spread Elm, whose Concave harbors Wasps;
         The Water-spungy Alder, good for nought;
         Small Eldern by the_ Indian _Fletchers sought;
         The knotty Maple, pallid Birch, Hawthorns;
         The Horn-bound Tree, that to be cloven scorns;
         Which from the tender Vine oft takes his Spouse,
         Who twines embracing Arms about his Boughs.
         Within this_ Indian _Orchard Fruits be some;
         The ruddy Cherry, and the jetty Plumb;
         Snake-murthering Hazle, with sweet Saxafrage,
         Whose Leaves in Beer allay hot Feavers rage;
         The Dyers Shumach, with more Trees there be,
         That are both good to use, and rare to see_.

[Sidenote: Beasts.]

The Beasts peculiar to this Countrey are the _Moose_, the _Rackoon_, and
the _Musquash_; the two first Land-Animals, the last Amphibious, which
with others common to them with us, are thus versifi’d by the abovesaid
Author:

           _The Kingly Lyon, and the strong-arm’d Bear;
           The large limb’d Mooses, with the tripping Deer;
           Quill-darting Porcupines, that Rackoons be
           Castled ith’ hollow of an aged Tree;
           The skipping Squirrel, Rabbet, purblind Hare,
           Immured in the self-same Castle are,
           Lest red-ey’d Ferrets, wily Foxes should,
           Them undermine, if Ramper’d but with Mold;
           The grim-fac’d Ounce, and rav’nous howling Wolf,
           Whose meagre Paunch sucks like a swallowing Gulph;
           Black glittering Otters, and rich Coated Beaver;
           The Civet-scented Musquash smelling ever._

Of such of these as are altogether unknown to us, take these brief
Descriptions.

[Sidenote: The _Moose_.]

The Beast call’d a _Moose_, is not much unlike red Deer, and is as big
as an Ox, slow of Foot, Headed like a Buck, with a broad Beam, some
being two Yards wide in the Head, their flesh is as good as Beef, their
Hides good for Clothing; if these were kept tame, and accustom’d to the
Yoke, they would be a great Commodity: First, because they are so
fruitful, bringing forth three at a time being likewise very uberous:
Secondly, because they will live in Winter without any Fodder. There are
not many of these in the _Massachusets_ Bay, but forty Miles to the
North-East there are great store of them.

[Sidenote: The _Rackoon_.]

The _Rackoon_ is a deep Furr’d Beast, not much unlike a Badger, having a
Tail like a Fox, as good Meat as a Lamb: These Beasts in the day time
sleep in hollow Trees, in a Moon-shine night they go to feed on Clams at
a low Tide, by the Sea side, where the _English_ hunt them with their
Dogs.

[Sidenote: The _Musquash_.]

The _Musquash_ is much like a Beaver for shape, but nothing near so big;
the Male hath two Stones, which smell as sweet as Musk, and being kill’d
in Winter, never lose their sweet smell: These Skins are no bigger than
a Coney-skin, yet are sold for five Shillings apiece, being sent for
Tokens into _England_; one good Skin will perfume a whole house full of
Clothes, if it be right and good.

[Sidenote: Birds.]

The Birds both common and peculiar are thus recited.

         _The Princely Eagle, and the soaring Hawk,
         Whom in their unknown ways there’s none can chawk:
         The Humbird for some Queens rich Cage more fit,
         Than in the vacant Wilderness to sit.
         The swift-wing’d Swallow sweeping to and fro,
         As swift as Arrow from_ Tartarian _Bowe.
         When as_ Aurora’s _Infant day new springs,
         There th’morning mounting Lark her sweet lays sings.
         The harmonious Thrush, swift Pigeon, Turtle-dove,
         Who to her Mate doth ever constant prove:
         The_ Turky-_Pheasant, Heath-cock, Partridge rare,
         The Carrion-tearing Crow, and hurtful Stare,
         The long-liv’d Raven, th’ominous Screech-Owl,
         Who tells, as old Wives say, disasters foul.
         The drowsie Madge that leaves her day-lov’d Nest,
         And loves to rove, when Day-birds be at rest:
         Th’Eel-murthering Hearn, and greedy Cormorant,
         That near the Creeks in morish Marshes haunt.
         The bellowing Bittern, with the long-leg’d Crane,
         Presaging Winters hard, and dearth of Grain.
         The Silver Swan that tunes her mournful breath,
         To sing the Dirge of her approaching death.
         The tattering Oldwives, and the cackling Geese,
         The fearful Gull that shuns the murthering Peece.
         The strong-wing’d Mallard, with the nimble Teal,
         And ill-shape’t Loon, who his harsh Notes doth squeal.
         There Widgins, Sheldrakes and Humilitees,
         Snites, Doppers, Sea-Larks, in whole million flees._

Of these the _Humbird_, _Loon_, and _Humility_ are not to be pass’d by
without particular observation.

[Sidenote: The _Humbird_.]

The _Humbird_ is one of the wonders of the Countrey, being no bigger
than a Hornet, yet hath all the Dimensions of a Bird, as Bill, and Wings
with Quills, Spider-like Legs, small Claws: for Colour, she is as
glorious as the Rain-bow; as she flies, she makes a little humming noise
like a Humble-bee, wherefore she is call’d the _Humbird_.

[Sidenote: The _Loon_.]

[Sidenote: The _Humility_, or _Simplicity_.]

The _Loon_ is an ill-shap’d thing like a Cormorant, but that he can
neither go nor flie; he maketh a noise sometimes like Sowgelders Horn.
The _Humilities_ or _Simplicities_ (as we may rather call them) are of
two sorts, the biggest being as large as a green Plover; the other as
big as Birds we call _Knots_ in _England_. Such is the simplicity of the
smaller sorts of these Birds, that one may drive them on a heap like so
many Sheep, and seeing a fit time shoot them; the living seeing the
dead, settle themselves on the same place again, amongst which the
Fowler discharges again: These Birds are to be had upon Sandy Brakes, at
the latter end of Summer before the Geese come in.

[Sidenote: Fishes.]

No less Poetical a Bill of Fare is brought of the Fish on the
Sea-Coasts, and in the Rivers of _New England_ in these subsequent
Verses.

           _The King of Waters, the Sea shouldering Whale,
           The snuffing Grampus, with the Oily Seale,
           The storm presaging Porpus, Herring-Hog,
           Line-shearing Shark, the Catfish and Sea Dog,
           The Scale-fenc’d Sturgeon, wry-mouth’d Hollibut,
           The flounsing Salmon, Codfish, Greedigut:
           Cole, Haddock, Hage, the Thornback, and the Scate,
           Whose slimy outside makes him seld in date,
           The stately Bass, old_ Neptune’s _fleeting Post,
           That Tides it out and in from Sea to Coast.
           Consorting Herrings, and the bonny Shad,
           Big-belly’d Alewives, Mackrills richly clad
           With Rainbow colours, Frostfish and the Smelt,
           As good as ever Lady_ Gustus _felt.
           The spotted Lamprons, Eels, the Lamperies,
           That seek fresh Water-Brooks with_ Argus _Eyes,
           These watery Villagers, with thousands more,
           Do pass and repass near the Verdant Shore_.


                   Kinds of Shell-fish.

           _The luscious Lobster, with the Crabfish raw,
           The brinish Oyster, Muscle, Periwigge,
           And Tortoise sought for by the_ Indian _Sqaw,
           Which to the Flats dance many a Winters Jigge,
           To dive for Cocles, and to dig for Clams,
           Whereby her lazie Husbands guts she crams_.

[Sidenote: The _Seal_.]

To speak of the most unusual of these sorts of Fish; First the _Seal_,
which is call’d the _Sea-Calf_, his Skin is good for divers uses, his
Body being between Flesh and Fish, it is not very delectable to the
Palate, or congruent with the Stomack; his Oil is very good to burn in
Lamps, of which he affords a great deal.

[Sidenote: The _Shark_.]

The _Shark_ is a kind of Fish as big as a Man, some as big as a Horse,
with three rows of Teeth within his Mouth, with which he snaps asunder
the Fishermans Lines, if he be not very circumspect: This Fish will leap
at a Mans hand if it be over board, and with his Teeth snap off a Mans
Leg or Hand if he be Swimming; these are often taken, being good for
nothing but Manuring of Land.

[Sidenote: The _Hollibut_.]

The _Hollibut_ is not much unlike a Pleace or Turbut, some being two
yards long, and one wide, a Foot thick; the plenty of better Fish makes
these of little esteem, except the Head and Finns, which Stew’d or Bak’d
is very good; these _Hollibuts_ be little set by while _Basse_ is in
season.

[Sidenote: The _Basse_.]

The _Basse_ is one of the best Fishes in the Countrey, and though Men
are soon weary’d with other Fish, yet are they never with _Basse_; it is
a delicate, fine, fat, fast Fish, having a Bone in his Head which
contains a Sawcerful of Marrow, sweet and good, pleasant to the Palate,
and wholsom to the Stomack: When there be great store of them, we only
eat the Heads, and Salt up the Bodies for Winter, which exceeds Ling or
Haberdine: Of these Fishes some are three, and some four Foot long, some
bigger, some lesser; at some Tides a Man may catch a dozen or twenty of
these in three hours; the way to catch them is with Hook and Line: The
Fisherman taking a great Cod-line, to which he fasteneth a piece of
Lobster, throws it into the Sea, the Fish biting at it, he pulls her to
him, and knocks her on the head with a Stick.

[Sidenote: _Alewives._]

_Alewives_ are a kind of Fish which is much like a Herring, which in the
later end of _April_ come up to the fresh Rivers to Spawn, in such
multitudes as is almost incredible, pressing up in such shallow Waters
as will scarce permit them to Swim, having likewise such longing desire
after the fresh Water Ponds, that no beatings with Poles, or forcive
agitations by other devices, will cause them to return to the Sea, till
they have cast their Spawn.

[Sidenote: _Clamms_ or _Clamps_.]

_Clamms_ or _Clamps_, are a Shell-fish not much unlike a Cockle, they
lie under the Sand and have every one of them a round hole to take Air,
and receive Water at. When the Tide ebbs and flows, a Man running over
these _Clamm_ banks will presently be made all wet, by their spouting of
Water out of those small holes: These Fishes are in great plenty in most
places of the Countrey, which is a great Commodity for the feeding of
Swine, both in Winter and Summer; for being once us’d to those places,
they will repair to them as duly every Ebb, as if they were driven to
them by Keepers: In some places of the Countrey there be _Clamms_ as big
as a Peny white Loaf, which are great Dainties amongst the Natives, and
would be in great esteem amongst the _English_, were it not for better
Fish.

Other Commodities which this Countrey is said to yield, are, in
down-right Prose, Furrs, Flax, Linnen, Iron, Pitch, Masts, Cables, and
some quantity of Amber; so that if what many Authors have consented to
assert concerning _New England_ be not a meer Fiction, what e’re hath
been affirm’d of the unfruitfulness of the Country will demonstrably be
found invalid.

[Sidenote: Noxious Creatures.]

There are also to be found here some hurtful Creatures, of which, that
which is most injurious to the Person and Life of a Man is the
_Rattle-Snake_, which is generally a yard and a half long, as thick in
the middle as the small of a Mans Leg; she hath a yellow Belly, her Back
being spotted with black, russet, yellow, and green colours, plac’d like
Scales; at her Tail is a Rattle, with which she makes a noise when she
is molested, or when she seeth any approach near her; her Neck seems to
be no thicker than a Mans Thumb, yet she can swallow a Squirril, having
a great wide Mouth, with Teeth as sharp as Needles, wherewith she biteth
such as tread upon her, her Poyson lyeth in her Teeth, for she hath no
Sting. When any Man is bitten by any of these Creatures, the Poyson
spreads so suddenly through the Veins, and so runs to the Heart, that in
one hour it causeth Death, unless he hath the Antidote to expel the
Poyson, which is a Root call’d _Snake-weed_, which must be champ’d, the
Spittle swallow’d, and the Root apply’d to the Sore; this is present
Cure against that which would be present death without it: This Weed is
rank Poyson, if it be taken by any man that is not bitten; whosoever is
bitten by these Snakes, his flesh becomes as spotted as a Leopard, until
he be perfectly cur’d. It is reported, that if the Party live that is
bitten, the Snake will die, and if the Party die, the Snake will live.
This is a most Poysonous and dangerous Animal, yet nothing so bad as the
report goes of it in _England_; for whereas it is said to kill a Man
with its breath, and that it can flie, there is no such matter, for it
is naturally the most sleepy and unnimble Creature that lives, never
offering to leap or bite any Man, if it be not trodden on first; and it
is their desire in hot weather to lie in Paths, where the Sun may shine
on them, where they will sleep so soundly, that I have known four Men
stride over one of them, and never awake it; five or six Men have been
bitten by them, which by using of _Snake-weed_ were all cur’d, never any
yet losing his life by them. Cows have been bitten, but being cut in
divers places, and this Weed thrust into their flesh, were cur’d; A
small Switch will easily kill one of these Snakes. In many places of the
Country there be none of them, as at _Plymouth, New-town, Igowamme,
Nahant, &c._ In some places they will live on one side of the River, and
swimming but over the Water, as soon as they are come into the Woods,
they turn up their yellow Bellies and die. Up into the Countrey,
Westward from the Plantations, is a high Hill, which is call’d
_Rattle-Snake-Hill_, where there are great store of these Poysonous
Creatures.

There are likewise troublesome Flies.

First there is a wild Bee or Wasp, which commonly guards the Grape,
building by Cobweb habitation amongst the Leaves: Secondly a great green
Flie, not much unlike our Horse-Flies in _England_; they will nipp so
sore, that they will fetch Blood either of Man or Beast, and are most
troublesome where most Cattel are, which brings them from out of the
Woods to the Houses; this Flie continues but for the Moneth of _June_.
The third is _Gurnipper_, which is a small black Flie, no bigger than a
Flea; her biting causeth an itching upon the Hands or Face, which
provoketh scratching, which is troublesome to some; this Flie is busie
but in close Mornings or Evenings, and continues not above three Weeks;
the least Wind or heat expels them. The fourth is a _Musketor_, which is
not unlike to our Gnats in _England_; in places where there is no thick
Woods or _Swamps_, there are none or very few. In the new Plantations
they are troublesome for the first year, but the Wood decaying they
vanish: These Flies cannot endure Wind, heat or cold, so that these are
only troublesome in close thick Weather, and against Rain, many that are
bitten will fall a scratching, whereupon their Faces and Hands swell.

[Sidenote: The nature of the ancient Inhabitants.]

As touching the Nature of the ancient Inhabitants, they are to be
consider’d according to their several Shires or Divisions; those that
inhabit to the East and North-East bore the name of _Churchers_ and
_Tarrenteens_; those in the Southern parts were call’d _Pequods_, and
_Narragansets_; those Westward, _Connectacuts_ and _Mowhacks_; to the
North-West, of whom were the _Aberginians_.

[Sidenote: The nature of the _Mowhacks_.]

The _Mowhacks_ were ever accounted a cruel bloudy People, which were
wont to come down upon their poor Neighbors, with more than bruitish
Savageness, spoiling their Corn, burning their Houses, slaying Men,
ravishing Women, yea very _Canibals_ they were, sometimes eating on a
Man one part after another before his Face, and while yet living;
insomuch, that the very Name of a _Mowhack_ would strike the Heart of a
poor _Aberginian_ dead, till they had the _English_ on their sides to
succor them; for these inhumane Homicides confess that they dare not
meddle with a white Fac’d Man, accompany’d with his hot-mouth’d Weapon.

These _Indians_ are a People of tall Stature, long grim Visages, slender
Wasted, and having exceeding great Arms and Thighs, wherein they say
their strength lieth; which is such, that one of them hath been known to
kill a Dog with a fillip of his Finger, and afterwards to have flead and
sod him, and eat him to his Dinner. They are so hardy, that they can eat
such things as would make other _Indians_ sick to look upon; being
destitute of Fish and Flesh, they suffice Hunger and maintain Nature
with the use of Vegetatives; but that which they most hunt after, is the
flesh of Man: Their custom is, if they get a stranger near their
Habitations, not to Butcher him immediately, but keep him in as good
plight as they can, feeding him with the best Victuals they have.

These _Indians_ are more desperate in Wars than the other _Indians_,
which proceeds not only from the fierceness of their Natures, but also
in that they know themselves to be better Arm’d and Weapon’d; all of
them wearing Sea Horse Skins and Barks of Trees, made by their Art as
impenetrable, it is thought, as Steel, wearing Head-Pieces of the same,
under which they March securely and undantedly, running, and fiercely
crying out, _Hadree Hadree succomee succomee_, _We come to suck your
Blood_, not fearing the feather’d shafts of the strong-arm’d Bow-men,
but like unruly headstrong Stallions, beat them down with their
right-hand _Tamahawks_, and left-hand Javelins, being all the Weapons
which they use, counting Bowes a cowardly fight. _Tamahawks_ are Staves
of two Foot and a half long, with knobs at one end as round and big as a
Foot ball; a Javelin is a short Spear, headed with sharp Sea-Horse
Teeth; one blow or thrust with these sharp Weapons, will not need a
second to hasten death from a _Mowhacks_ arm.

[Sidenote: The nature of the _Indians_ inhabiting Eastward.]

The _Tarrenteens_ saving that they eat not Mans flesh, are little less
Salvage and cruel than these _Cannibals_; our _Indians_ do fear them as
their deadly Enemies, for so many of them as they meet, they kill. Take
these _Indians_ in their own proper and natural disposition, and they
are reported to be wise, lofty-spirited, constant in friendship to one
another, true in their promise, and more industrious than many others.

[Sidenote: The nature of the _Pequods_ and _Narragansets_.]

The _Pequants_ are a stately Warlike People, just and equal in their
dealings; not treacherous either to their Country-men, or _English_, to
whom (except in time of War) they were not any ways uncivil. Their next
Neighbors the _Narragansets_, are the most numerous People in those
Parts, the most rich also, and the most industrious; being the
Store-house of all such kind of wild Merchandize as is amongst them.
These Men are the most curious Minters of their _Wampompeage_ and
_Mowhakes_, which they form out of the inmost Wreaths of
Periwinkle-shells. The Northern, Eastern, and Western _Indians_ fetch
all their Coyn from these Southern Mint-Masters. From hence they have
most of their curious Pendants and Bracelets, from hence they have their
great Stone Pipes, which will hold a quarter of an Ounce of Tobacco,
which they make with Steel Drills and other Instruments; such is their
Ingenuity and dexterity, that they can imitate the _English_ Mold so
accurately, that were it not for matter and colour, it were hard to
distinguish them; they make them of green, and sometimes of black Stone;
they are much desir’d of our _English_ Tobacconists, for their rarity,
strength, handsomness, and coolness. Hence likewise our _Indians_ had
their Pots, wherein they us’d to seeth their Victuals before they knew
the use of Brass. Since the _English_ came, they have employ’d most of
their time in catching of Beavers, Otters, and _Musquashes_, which they
bring down into the Bay, returning back loaden with _English_
Commodities, of which they make double profit, by selling them to more
remote _Indians_, who are ignorant at what cheap rates they obtain them,
in comparison of what they make them pay, so making their Neighbors
ignorance their enrichment: They were never known to be desirous to take
in hand any Martial Enterprize, or expose themselves to the uncertain
events of War; wherefore the _Pequants_ call them _Women-like Men_,
resting secure under the conceit of their popularity, and seeking rather
to grow rich by industry, than famous by deeds of Chivalry.

[Sidenote: The nature and complexion of the _Aberginians_.]

Most of these Northward _Indians_ are between five and six Foot high,
straight Body’d, strongly compos’d, smooth Skin’d, merry Countenanc’d,
of Complexion more swarthy than the _Spaniards_, black Hair’d, high
Foreheaded, black Ey’d, out-Nos’d, broad Shoulder’d, brawny Arm’d, long
and slender Handed, out Breasted, small Wasted, lank Belly’d, well
Thigh’d, flat Kneed, with handsome grown Legs, and small Feet: In a
word, take them when the Blood skips in their Veins, when the Flesh is
on their Backs, and Marrow in their Bones, when they frolick in their
antique Deportments and _Indian_ Postures, they are more amiable to
behold (though onely in _Adam_’s Livery) than many a trim Gallant in the
newest Mode; and though their Houses are but mean, their Lodging as
homely, Commons scant, their Drink Water, and Nature their best
Clothing, yet they still are healthful and lusty. Their smooth Skins
proceed from the often anointing of their Bodies with the Oyl of Fishes,
and the fat of Eagles, with the grease of _Rackoons_, which they hold in
Summer the best Antidote to keep their Skin from blistering with the
scorching Sun; it is their best Armor against the _Musketoes_, and the
surest abrasour of the hairy Excrement, and stops the Pores of their
Bodies against the nipping Winters cold. Their black Hair is natural,
yet is brought to a more Jetty colour by Oyling, Dying, and daily
dressing; sometimes they wear it very long, hanging down in a loose
dishevel’d Womanish manner, otherwise ty’d up hard and short like a
Horse Tail, bound close with a Fillet, which they say makes it grow the
faster; they are not a little Phantastical in this particular; their
Boys being not permitted to wear their Hair long till sixteen years of
Age, and then they must come to it by degrees; some being cut with a
long foretop, a long lock on the Crown, one of each side of his Head,
the rest of his Hair being cut even with the Scalp; the young Men and
Soldiers wear their Hair long on the one side, the other being cut short
like a Screw; other cuts they have as their Fancy leads them, which
would torture the Wits of the most exact Barber to imitate. But though
they are thus proud of the Hair of their Head, you cannot wooe them to
wear it on their Chins, where it no sooner grows, but it is stubb’d up
by the roots, for they count it as an unuseful, cumbersome, and
opprobrious excrement, insomuch as they call him an _English_ Mans
Bastard that hath but the appearance of a Beard.

[Sidenote: The Apparel, Ornaments, Paintings, and other artificial
           Deckings of the _Indians_.]

The Cloathing of the _Indians_ is only a pair of _Indian_ Breeches to
cover their secret Parts, which is but a piece of Cloth a yard and a
half long, but between their Groins, ty’d with a Snakes Skin about their
middles, one end hanging down with a flap before, the other like a tail
behind. In the Winter time, the more Aged of them wear Leather Drawers,
in form like _Irish_ Trouses, fasten’d under their Girdle with Buttons:
They wear Shooes likewise of their own making, cut out of a _Mooses_
Hide; many of them wear Skins about them, in form of an _Irish_ Mantle,
and of these some are Bears Skins, _Mooses_ Skins, and Beaver Skins
sew’d together, others Otter Skins, and _Rackoon_ Skins; most of them in
the Winter having his deep Furr’d Cat Skin, like a large Muff, which he
shifts to that Arm which lieth most expos’d to the Wind. Although they
are poor, yet is there in them the sparks of natural Pride, which
appears in their longing desire after many kind of Ornaments, wearing
Pendants in their Ears, in form of Birds, Beasts, and Fishes, Carv’d out
of Bone, Shells, and Stone, with long Bracelets of their curious wrought
_Wampompeage_ and _Mowhackees_, which they put about their Necks and
Loins; these they count a rare kind of Decking; many of the better sort
bearing upon their Cheeks certain Pourtraitures of Beasts, as Bears,
Deers, _Mooses_, Wolves, _&c._ some of Fowls, as of Eagles, Hawks, _&c._
which is not a superficial Painting, but a certain Incision, or else a
raising of their Skin by a small sharp Instrument, under which they
convey a certain kind of black unchangeable Ink, which makes the desir’d
form apparent and permanent. Others have certain round Impressions down
the outside of their Arms and Breasts, in form of Mullets or
Spur-rowels, which they imprint by searing Irons: Whether these be Foils
to illustrate their unparallel’d Beauty (as they deem it) or Arms to
blazon their antique Gentility, cannot easily be determin’d: But a
_Segamore_ with a _Humbird_ in his Ear for a Pendant, a black Hawk on
his Head for his Plume, _Mowhackees_ for his Gold Chain, good store of
_Wampompeage_ begirting his Loins, his Bowe in his Hand, his Quiver at
his Back, with six naked _Indian_ Lacquies at his Heels for his Guard,
thinks himself little Inferior to the great _Cham_.

[Sidenote: Their Diet, Cookery, Meal-times, and Hospitality at their
           Kettles.]

In Winter time they have all manner of Fowls and Beasts of the Land and
Water, Pond-fish, with _Cathaires_ and other Roots, _Indian_ Beans and
_Clamms_; in the Summer they have all manner of Sea-fish, with all sorts
of Berries. For the ordering of their Victuals, they Boil or Roast them,
having large Kettles which they Traded for with the _French_ long since,
and do still buy of the _English_ as their need requires, before they
had substantial Earthen Pots of their own making. Their Spits are no
other than cloven Sticks, sharpen’d at one end to thrust into the
ground; into these cloven Sticks they thrust the Flesh or Fish they
would have Roasted, behemming a round fire with a dozen of Spits at a
time, turning them as they see occasion. They seldom or never make Bread
of their _Indian_ Corn, but seethe it whole like Beans, eating three or
four Corns with a mouthful of Fish or Flesh, sometimes eating Meat
first, and Corns after, filling the Chinks with their Broth. In Summer,
when their Corn is spent, _Sqoutersquashes_ is their best Bread, a Fruit
like a young Pumpion: But as all are fellows at Foot-ball, so they all
meet Friends at the Kettle, saving their Wives, that Dance a
Spaniel-like attendance at their Backs for their Fragments. If their
occasions cause them to Travel, the best of their Victuals for their
Journey is _Nocake_, (as they call it) which is nothing but _Indian_
Corn parch’d in the hot Ashes; the Ashes being sifted from it, it is
afterwards beaten to Powder, and put into a long Leathern Bag, truss’d
at their Back like a Knapsack, out of which they take thrice three
Spoonfuls a day, dividing it into three Meals. If it be Winter, and Snow
be on the ground, they can eat when they please, making use of Snow for
their Drink; in Summer, they must stay till they meet with a Spring or
Brook; with this strange _viaticum_ they will travel four or five days
together. They keep no Set-Meals, their Store being spent, they champ on
the Bit, till they meet with fresh Supplies, either from their own
endeavors, or their Wives industry, who trudge to the _Clam-banks_ when
all other means fail. Though they are sometimes scanted, yet are they as
free as Emperors, both to their Countrey-men and _English_, be he
stranger, or near acquaintance; counting it a great discourtesie, not to
eat of their high-conceited Delicates.

[Sidenote: Of their hardiness.]

Their hardiness is much to be admir’d, no ordinary pains making them so
much as alter their countenance; beat them, whip them, punch them, if
they put on a resolution, they will not winch for it; whether it be
their benumm’d insensibleness of smart, or their hardy resolutions, is
hard to resolve; It might be a _Perillus_ his Bull, or the Rack might
force an out-cry from them, but a _Turkish_ drubbing would not move
them, the unexpected approach of a mortal Wound by a Bullet, Arrow, or
Sword, striking no more terror, nor causing no more exclamation in them,
than if it had been a shot into the body of a Tree; such Wounds as would
be sudden death to an _English_ Man, would be nothing to them; whether
it be, that by their rare skill in the use of Vegetatives, or by
Diabolical Charms, they cure them; nevertheless, the very name and
thoughts of death is so hideous to them, or any thing that presents it
so terrible, that a hundred of them will run from two or three arm’d
with Guns. In the Night they need not to be feared, for they will not
budge from their own Dwellings, for fear of their _Abamacho_ (the Devil)
whom they much fear, specially in evil enterprizes, they will rather lie
by an _English_ fire than go a quarter of a Mile in the dark to their
own Dwellings; but they are well freed from this Scare-crow since the
coming of the _English_, and less care for his delusions.

[Sidenote: Of their Kings, Government, and Subjects obedience.]

Now for the matter of Government amongst them; it is the custom of their
Kings to inherit, the Son always taking the Kingdom after his Fathers
death. If there be no Son, then the Queen rules; if no Queen, the next
to the Blood-Royal; who comes in otherwise, is but counted an usurping
Intruder, if his fair carriage bear him not out the better, they will
soon Unscepter him. Some say the chief _Powahe_ is next in Dignity and
Authority to the King, and when he dies, Marries the _Squasachem_, or
Queen.

The Kings have no Laws to Command by, nor have they any annual Revenues;
yet commonly are they so either fear’d or beloved, that half their
Subjects estate is at their Service, and their Persons at his Command,
by which Command he is better known than by any thing else; for though
he hath no Kingly Robes to make him glorious in the view of his
Subjects, nor daily Guards to succor his Person, nor Court-like
attendance, nor sumptuous Palaces; yet do they yield all submissive
subjection to him, accounting him their Soveraign; going at his Command,
and coming at his Beck, not so much as expostulating the cause, though
it be in matters thwarting their wills; he being accounted a disloyal
Subject that will not effect what his Prince Commands. Whosoever is
known to Plot Treason, or to lay violent hands on his lawful King, is
presently Executed. Once a Year he takes his Progress, accompanied with
a dozen of his best Subjects, to view his Countrey, to recreate himself,
and establish good Orders. When he enters into any of their Houses,
without any more Complement, he is desir’d to sit down on the Ground,
(for they use neither Stools nor Cushions) and after a little respite
all that are present come in, and sit down by him, one of his Seniors
pronouncing an Oration gratulatory to his Majesty for love, and the many
good things they enjoy under his peaceful Government. A King of large
Dominions hath his Vice-Roys, or inferior Kings under him, to agitate
his State Affairs, and keep his Subjects in good Decorum. Other Officers
there are, but how to distinguish them by Name is something difficult.
For their Laws, as their Vices come short of many other Nations, so they
have not so many Laws, though they are not without some, which they
inflict upon notorious Malefactors, as Traitors to their Prince,
inhumane Murtherers, and, some say, Adulterers: for Theft, as they have
nothing to steal worth the Life of a Man, therefore they have no Law to
Execute for Trivials, a Subject being more precious in the Eye of his
Prince, than, where Men are so scarce, to be cast away upon so sleight a
matter. A Malefactor having deserv’d Death, and being apprehended, is
brought before the King, and some other of the wisest Men, where they
enquire out the original of the thing, after proceeding by aggravation
of Circumstances he is found Guilty, and Cast by the Jury of their
strict Inquisition, he is Condemn’d and Executed in the following
manner: The Executioner comes in, who blind-folds the Party, sets him in
the publick view, and Brains him with a _Tamahauke_, or Club; which
done, his Friends bury him.

[Sidenote: Of their Marriages.]

Now to speak something of their Marriages, the Kings and the _Powwows_,
or great Doctors, may have two or three Wives, but seldom use it, Men of
ordinary Rank having but one; which disproves the report, that they had
eight or ten Wives apiece. When a Man hath a desire to Marry, he first
gets the good will of the Maid or Widow, after, the consent of her
Friends for her part; and for himself, if he be at his own disposing,
and if the King will, the Match is made, her Dowry of _Wampompeage_
paid, the _Sagamore_ or King (who for every Marriage hath a Fathom of
_Wampompeage_, which is about the value of seven or eight shillings)
joyns their Hands, never to part till Death, unless she prove a Whore,
for which they may put away their Wives.

[Sidenote: Of their Worship, Invocations, and Conjurations.]

As it is natural to all Mortals to worship something, so do these
People, but exactly to describe to whom their Worship is chiefly bent,
is very difficult: They acknowledge especially two, _Ketan_, some say
_Tantum_, their good God, and _Hobamocco_, some say _Squantum_, their
evil God; to _Ketan_ they Sacrifice (as the ancient _Heathens_ did to
_Ceres_) after their Garners be full with a good Crop. They likewise
Invocate this God for fair Weather, for Rain in time of Drought, and for
the recovery of their Sick; but if they do not hear them, then they
verrifie the old Verse, _Flectere si nequeo Superos Acheronta movebo_,
their _Powwows_ betaking themselves to their Exorcismes and Necromantick
Charms, by which they bring to pass strange things, if we may believe
the _Indians_, who report of one _Pissacannaw_, that he could make the
Water burn, the Rocks move, the Trees dance, and metamorphose himself
into a flaming Man. In Winter, when there is no green Leaves to be got,
he would out of the Ashes of an old Leaf, calcin’d and put into the
Water, produce a new green Leaf: And of a dead Snakes Skin, a living
Snake, both to be seen, felt and heard. The manner of their action in
their Conjuration is thus: The Parties that are sick or lame being
brought before them, the _Powwow_ sitting down, the rest of the Indians
giving attentive audience to his Imprecations and Invocations, and after
the violent expression of many a hideous bellowing and groaning he makes
a stop, and then all the Auditors with one voice utter a short _Canto_;
which done, the _Powwow_ still proceeds in his Invocations, sometimes
roaring like a Bear, other times groaning like a dying Horse, foaming at
the Mouth like a chased Boar, smiting on his naked Brest and Thighs with
such violence, as if he were mad: Thus will he continue sometimes half a
day, spending his Lungs, sweating out his Fat, and tormenting his Body
in this diabolical Worship. Sometimes the Devil, for requital of their
Worship, recovers the Party, to nuzzle them up in their devillish
Religion. But since the _English_ (upon whom, and in whose presence it
is said the _Powwows_ could never work their Witchcrafts) frequented
those Parts, they daily fall from his Colours, relinquishing their
former Fopperies, and acknowledge the Power of the _English_-man’s God,
as they call him. And it is reported of them, that at the very first
they were so tractable to the _Christian_ Religion, that they would say
King _James_ was good, and his God good, but their _Tanto_ nought,
though of their two Gods he was accounted the good one.

[Sidenote: Of their Wars.]

They use no other Weapons in War than Bowes and Arrows, saving that
their Captains have long Spears, on which, if they return Conquerors,
they carry the Heads of their chief Enemies that they slay in the Wars,
it being the Custom to cut off their Heads, Hands and Feet, to bear home
to their Wives and Children, as true tokens of their renowned Victory.
When they go to their Wars, it is their Custom to paint their Faces with
diversity of Colours, some being all black as Jet, some red, some half
red and half black, some black and white, others spotted with divers
kinds of Colours, being all disguis’d to their Enemies, to make them
more terrible to their Foes, putting on likewise their rich Jewels,
Pendents, and _Wampompeage_, to put them in mind that they Fight not
onely for their Children, Wives and Lives, but likewise for their Goods,
Lands and Liberties. Being thus Arm’d with this Warlike Paint, the
antique Warriors make towards their Enemies in a disorder’d manner,
without any Soldier-like Marching, or Warlike Postures, being deaf to
any word of Command, ignorant of falling off or on, of doubling Ranks or
Files, but let flie their winged Shaftsmen without either fear or wit:
Their Artillery being spent, he that hath no Arms to Fight, finds Legs
to run away.

[Sidenote: Their Games and Sports of Activity.]

They have two sorts of Games, one call’d _Puim_, the other _Hubbub_, not
much unlike Cards and Dice, being no other than Lottery. _Puim_ is fifty
or sixty small Bents of a Foot long, which they divide to the number of
their Gamesters, shuffling them first between the Palms of their Hands;
he that hath more than his Fellow, is so much the forwarder in his Game:
Many other Whimsies be in this Game, which would be too long to commit
to Paper. He that is a noted Gamester hath a Hole in his Ear, wherein he
carries his _Puims_ in defiance of his Antagonists. _Hubbub_ is five
small Bones in a small smooth Tray; the Bones be like a Die, but
something flatter, black on the one side and white on the other, which
they place on the Ground, against which violently thumping the Platter,
the Bones mount, changing colours with the windy whisking of their Hands
to and fro; which action in that sport they much use, smiting themselves
on the Breast and Thighs, crying out _Hub, Hub, Hub_; they may be heard
play at this Game a quarter of a Mile off: The Bones being all black or
white make a double Game; if three of one colour, and two of another,
then they afford but a single Game; four of a colour, and one differing,
is nothing; so long as the Man wins he keeps the Tray, but if he loose
the next Man takes it. They are so bewitch’d with these two Games, that
they will lose sometimes all they have; Beaver, _Moose_-skins, Kettles,
_Wampompeage_, _Mowhacks_, Hatchets, Knives, all is confiscate by these
two Games. For their Sports of action they have commonly but three or
four, as Football, Shooting, Running, and Swimming; when they play
Countrey against Countrey, there are rich Goals, all behung with
_Wampompeage_, _Mowhacks_, Beaver Skins, and black Otter Skins: Their
Goals are a Mile long plac’d on the Sands, which are as even as a Board;
their Ball is no bigger than a Hand-ball, which sometimes they mount in
the Air with their naked Feet, sometimes it is sway’d by the multitude,
sometime also it is two days before they get a Goal, then they mark the
Ground they win, and begin there the next day. Before they come to this
Sport they paint themselves, even as when they go to War, in policy to
prevent future mischief, because no man should know him that mov’d his
patience, or accidentally hurt his Person, taking away the occasion of
studying revenge. Before they begin, their Arms are put off, and hung
upon some neighboring Tree, after which they make a long scrowl on the
Sand, over which they shake Hands, and with loving Hearts scuffle for
Victory. While the Men Play, the Boys Pipe, and the Women Dance and Sing
Trophies of their Husbands Conquests; all being done, a Feast summons
their departure.

Such is their dexterity in Shooting, that they can hit a running Hind,
or flying Pigeon, without a standing pause or left-ey’d blinking; they
draw their Arrows between their Fingers and the Thumb, their Bowes are
quick, but not very strong, not killing at above six or seven score
distance: Shooting at one another, they have a trick with swift
conveyance to shun the Arrow; this they do to make them expert against
time of War. They are train’d up to their Bowes even from their
Childhood; for little Boys with Bowes made of little Sticks, and Arrows
made of great Bents; will hit down a piece of Tobacco-pipe every time a
good way off. As these _Indians_ are good Marks-men, so are they well
experienc’d where the very Life of every Creature lieth, and know where
to smite him to make him die presently. Their Swimming is not after our
_English_ fashion, of spread Arms and Legs, which they hold too tiresom,
but like Dogs, their Arms before them, cutting through the Liquids with
their right Shoulder: In this manner they will Swim very swift and far,
either in rough or smooth Waters, sometimes for their ease lying as
still as a Log; sometimes they will play the Dive-doppers, and come up
in unexpected places.

[Sidenote: Of their Huntings.]

For their Hunting, it is to be noted, that they have no swift-footed
Greyhounds to let slip at the sight of the Deer, no deep-mouth’d Hounds,
or scenting Beagles, to find out their desired Prey; themselves are all
this, who in that time of the year when the Deer comes down, having
certain Hunting-houses in such places where they know the Deer doth
usually frequent, in which they keep their Rendezvouz, their Snares, and
all their Accoutrements for that Employment: when they get sight of a
Deer, _Moose_, or Bear, they study how to get the Wind of him, and
approaching within shot, stab their Mark quite through, if the Bones
hinder not. The chief thing they Hunt after is Deer, _Mooses_ and Bears:
It grieves them more to see an _English_-man take one Deer, than a
thousand Acres of Land. They Hunt likewise after Wolves, wild Cats,
_Rackoons_, Otters, Beavers, and _Musquashes_, Trading both their Skins
and Flesh to the _English_. Beside this Artillery they have other
devices to kill their Game, as sometimes Hedges, a Mile or two Miles
long, being a Mile wide at one end, and made narrower and narrower by
degrees, leaving onely a Gap of six Foot long; over against which in the
day-time they lie lurking, to shoot the Deer which come through that
narrow passage; so many as come within the circumference of that Hedge,
seldom return back to leap over, unless they be forc’d by the chasing of
some ravenous Wolf, or sight of some accidental Passenger: In the Night,
at the Gap of this Hedge, they set Deer-traps, which are Springes made
of young Trees, and smooth wrought Cords, so strong, that it will toss a
Horse if he be caught in it.

[Sidenote: Of their Fishings.]

In the Trade of Fishing they are very expert, being experienc’d in the
knowledge of all Baits for several Fishes, and divers Seasons; being not
ignorant likewise of the removal of Fishes, knowing when to Fish in
Rivers, and when at Rocks, when in Bays, and when at Seas: Since the
_English_ came they are furnish’d with _English_ Hooks and Lines, for
before they made them of Hemp, being more curiously wrought, of stronger
Materials than ours, and hook’d with Bone-Hooks; but laziness drives
them to buy, more than profit or commendations wins them to make of
their own. They make likewise very strong Sturgeon-nets, with which they
catch Sturgeons of twelve, fourteen, and sixteen, and some eighteen Foot
long in the day-time, and in the night-time they betake themselves to
their Birchen _Canoos_, in which they carry a forty-fathom Line, with a
sharp-bearded Dart fastned at the end thereof; then lighting a Torch
made of Birchen Rinds, they wave it to and again by their _Canoo_ side,
which the Sturgeon much delighted with, comes to them tumbling and
playing, turning up his white Belly, into which they thrust their Lance,
his Back being impenetrable; which done, they hale to the Shore their
strugling Prize. They have often recourse into the Rocks whereupon the
Sea beats, in warm Weather, to look out for sleepy Seals, whose Oyl they
much esteem, using it for divers things. In Summer they Fish any where,
but in Winter in the fresh Water onely, and Ponds; in frosty Weather
they cut round Holes in the Ice, about which they will sit like so many
Apes with their naked Breeches upon the cold Ice, catching of Pikes,
Pearches, Breams, and other sorts of fresh-Water Fish.

[Sidenote: Of their Arts and Manufactures.]

Their Arts and Manufactures are divers, as first their dressing of all
manner of Skins, which they do by scraping and rubbing, afterwards
painting them with antique Embroiderings in unchangeable Colours;
sometimes they take off the Hair, especially if it be not kill’d in
season. Their Bowes they make of a handsom shape, strung commonly with
the Sinews of _Mooses_; their Arrows of young Elder, feather’d with
Feathers of Eagles Wings and Tails, headed with Brass in shape of a
Heart or Triangle, fastned in a slender piece of Wood six or eight
Inches long, which is fram’d to put loose in the pithy Elder, afterwards
bound fast for riving: Their Arrows are made in this manner, because it
might shake from his Head, and be left behind for their finding, and the
Pile onely remain to gaul the wounded Beast. Their Cordage is so even,
soft, and smooth, that it looks more like Silk than Hemp. Their Sturgeon
Nets are not deep, nor above thirty or forty Foot long, which in ebbing
low Waters they stake fast to the Ground where they are sure the
Sturgeon will come, never looking more at it till the next low Water.
Their _Canoos_ are made either of Pine-trees, which before they were
acquainted with _English_ Tools, they burn’d hollow, scraping them
smooth with Clam-shells and Oyster-shells, cutting their out-sides with
Stone Hatchets. These Boats are not above a Foot and a half, or two Foot
wide, and twenty Foot long. Their other _Canoos_ be made of thin Birch
Rinds, close Ribb’d, and on the in-side with broad thin Hoops, like the
Hoops of a Tub; these are made very light, a Man may carry one of them a
Mile, being made purposely to carry from River to River, and from Bay to
Bay, to shorten Land-passages. In these cockling Fly-boats, wherein an
_English_-man can scarce sit without a fearful tottering, they will
venture to Sea, when an _English_ Shallop dare not bear a Knot of Sail,
scudding over the over-grown Waves as fast as a wind-driven Ship, being
driven by their Paddles, being much like Battle-doors; if a cross Wave
(which is seldom) turn her Keel up-side down, they by swimming free her,
and scramble into her again.

[Sidenote: Of their Language.]

Their Language, is onely peculiar to themselves, not inclining to any of
the more refined Tongues. Some have thought they might be of the
dispersed _Jews_, because some of their words are near unto the
_Hebrew_; but by the same rule they may conclude them to be some of the
gleanings of all Nations, because they have words which sound after the
_Greek_, _Latine_, _French_, and other Tongues. Their Language is hard
to learn, few of the _English_ being able to speak any of it, or capable
of the right pronunciation, which is the chief grace of their Tongue:
They pronounce much after the Diphthongs, excluding _L_ and _R_ which in
our _English_ Tongue they pronounce with as much difficulty, as most of
the _Dutch_ do _T_ and _H_, calling a Lobster a _Nobstann_. Every
Countrey doth something differ in their Speech, even as our Northern
People do from the Southern, and Western from them; especially the
_Tarrentine_, whose Tongue runs so much upon _R_ that they wharle much
in pronunciation. When any Ships come near the Shore, they demand
whether they are King _Charles’s Torries_, with such a rumbling sound,
as if one were beating on an unbrac’d Drum. In serious Discourse our
Southern _Indians_ use seldom any short Colloquies, but speak their
minds at large, without any interjected Discourses from any, the rest
giving diligent audience to his utterance; which done, some or other
returns him as long an Answer: They love not to speak _multa, sed
multum_; seldom are their words and their deeds strangers. According to
the matter of their discourse, so are their acting Gestures in their
Expressions.

[Sidenote: Of their Deaths, Burials and Mourning.]

The _Indians_ are of lusty and healthful Bodies, not experimentally
knowing those Diseases which are incident to other Countreys, as
Feavers, Pleurisies, Calentures, Agues, Consumptions, Convulsions,
Apoplexies, Dropsies, Gouts, Pox, Measles, or the like, but spin out the
thred of their Days to a fair length, numbering sixty, eighty, some a
hundred years: But when any one lies a dying, the doleful cries, and
throbbing sighs of the Friends and Relations, express unspeakable
sorrow; and when the Party is dead and laid in the Ground, they not
onely weep and howl for a good space over the Grave, but also keep
Annual Solemnities of Mourning, rubbing their Faces with black Lead all
about the Eye-brows, and part of their Cheeks; yet do they hold the
Immortality of the Soul, in which their _Indian_ Faith jumps much with
the _Turkish Alchoran_, dreaming of a certain Paradise, or South-West
_Elysium_, wherein they shall everlastingly abide, solacing themselves
in odoriferous Gardens, fruitful Corn-fields, green Meadows, bathing
their tawny Hides in the cool Streams of pleasant Rivers, and sheltering
themselves from Heat and Cold in the sumptuous Palaces fram’d by Nature,
concluding, that neither care nor pain shall molest them, but that
Natures bounty will administer all things with a voluntary contribution
from the Store-house of their _Elysium_; at the Portal whereof, they
say, lies a great Dog, whose churlish snarlings deny admission to
unworthy Intruders: wherefore it is their custom to bury with them their
Bowes and Arrows, and good store of their _Wampompeage_ and _Mowhacks_,
the one to affright that affronting _Cerberus_, the other to purchase
more immense Prerogatives in their Paradise. For their Enemies and loose
Livers, whom they account unworthy of this imaginary Happiness, they say
that they pass to the infernal Dwellings of _Abamocho_, to be tortur’d
according to the Fictions of the ancient _Heathen_.

[Sidenote: Dispositions, Employments, Usage by their Husbands, Apparel,
           and Modesty of the Women.]

The drudgery of all laborious sorts of Work, and the management of all
domestick Affairs, lies wholly upon the _Indian_ Women, who are made
meer Slaves by their Husbands; they build the Houses, sowe and reap the
Corn, provide Lobsters for their Husbands to bait their Hooks when they
go a Fishing for _Basse_ or Cod; and for these Lobsters they are many
times forc’d to dive in the extreamest Weather, then lug home a great
weight of them upon their Backs, as also all the Fish which their
Husbands catch for pleasure, from the places where they were caught:
They dress all the Meat, serve it up to their Husbands, and waiting till
they have fill’d their Bellies, are glad of their leavings. In Summer
they gather Flags, of which they make Mats for Houses, and Hemp and
Rushes, with Dying Stuff, of which they make curious Baskets, with
intermixed Colours and Pourtraictures of antique Imagery. These Baskets
are of all sizes from a Quart to a Quarter, in which they carry their
Luggage. In Winter they are their Husbands Caterers, trudging to the
Clam-banks for their Belly-timber, and their Porters to lug it home.
They likewise sew their Husbands Shoes, and weave Coats of _Turky_
Feathers, besides all their ordinary Houshold drudgery which daily lies
upon them, insomuch that a great Belly hinders no business, nor doth a
Child-birth take much time, but the young Infant being greas’d and
footed, wrapp’d in a Beavers Skin, bound with his Feet up to his Bum,
upon a Board two Foot long and one Foot broad, and his Face expos’d to
all nipping Weather, this little _Pappouse_ travels about with his
bare-footed Mother to paddle in the Icy Clam-banks, after three or four
days of Age have confirm’d her recovery. For their Carriage, it is very
civil, Smiles being the greatest grace of their Mirth. Their Musick is
Lullabies in Rocking their Children, who generally are as quiet as if
they had neither Spleen or Lungs. Their Voices are generally both sweet
and well order’d, so far as pure Nature teacheth them. Their Modesty
drives them to wear more Clothes than the Men, having always a Coat of
Cloth or Skins, wrapp’d like a Blanket about their Loyns, reaching down
to their Hams, which they never put off in Company.

[Sidenote: Towns built by the _English_ in _New England_.]

There are to be reckon’d up forty five chief Towns, besides what others
there may be of less note, built or made habitable by the _English_
since their first arrival in _New England_, till about the Year 1650.

[Sidenote: _St. Georges Fort._]

First, _St. Georges Fort_, where the first Plantation was setled, at the
Mouth of the River _Sagadebock_, in a kind of _Peninsula_, or half
Island.

[Sidenote: _New Plymouth._]

The second, _New Plymouth_, seated no less commodiously upon a large
Bay, call’d by the Natives _Pautuxed_; where they first setled that went
over out of dissatisfaction to the Church-Government of _England_.

[Sidenote: _Salem._]

The third, _Salem_, call’d by the _Indians_, _Mahumbeak_; which stands
on the middle of a Neck of Land very pleasantly, having a South River on
the one side, and a North River on the other side. This Town seems to
have been built in the Year 1628. by a part of that Company, who, being
sent over by the _Merchant-Adventurers_, setled themselves in this Cape.

[Sidenote: _Charles-town._]

The fourth _Mashawmut_, or _Charles-town_, situate on a Neck of Land on
the Northside of the River _Charles_. The form of this Town, in the
Frontispiece of it, resembleth the Head, Neck, and Shoulders of a Man;
through the right Shoulder whereof runs the Navigable River _Mistick_,
which by its near approach to _Charles_ River in one place, makes the
chief part of the Town a _Peninsula_: It consists of a hundred and fifty
Dwelling-houses, many of them beautifi’d with pleasant Gardens and
Orchards: Near the Water-side is a large Market-place, forth of which
issue two fair Streets; and in it stands a large and well built Church.

[Sidenote: _Dorchester._]

The fifth, _Matapan_, or _Dorchester_, a Fronteer Town, standing over
against the Island near the Sea-side: It is water’d with two small
Rivers, and is built in the form of a Serpent turning its Head
Northward; it hath Orchards and Gardens full of Fruit-trees.

[Sidenote: _Boston._]

The sixth is _Boston_, anciently _Accomonticus_, the Center and
Metropolis of the rest, built in the form of a Heart, and fortifi’d with
two Hills on the Front-part thereof, the one having great store of
Artillery mounted thereon, the other having a strong Battery, built of
whole Timber, and fill’d with Earth: At the Descent of the Hill lies a
large Cave or Bay, on which the chief part of this Town is built,
over-topp’d with a third Hill, all three like over-topping Towers,
keeping a constant Watch to foresee the approach of foreign Dangers. The
chiefest part of this City-like Town is crowded upon the Sea Banks, and
wharf’d out with great Industry and Cost, the Edifices large and
beautiful, whose continual enlargement presageth some sumptuous City.

[Sidenote: _Roxbury._]

The seventh, _Roxbury_, situated between _Boston_ and _Dorchester_,
water’d with cool and pleasant Springs issuing from the Rocky Hills, and
with small Freshets watering the Valleys of this fertile Town: The form
of it resembleth a Wedge double pointed, entring between the two
above-mention’d Towns; and in the room of those Swamps, or tearing
Bushes which were there before, they have now goodly Fruit-trees,
fruitful Fields and Gardens.

[Sidenote: _Lynne._]

The eighth is _Lynne_, or (according to the _Indian_ Name, _Saugus_)
situated between _Salem_ and _Charles-town_, near a River, whose strong
Freshet at the end of Winter fills all her Banks, and with a violent
Torrent vents it self into the Sea. This Town is almost square,
consisting many years ago of above a hundred Dwelling-houses, having
also an Iron Mill in constant use. The Church being on a level Land,
undefended from the North-West Wind, is made with Steps descending into
the Earth.

[Sidenote: _Water-town._]

The ninth is call’d _Water-town_, anciently _Pigsgusset_, situated upon
one of the Branches of _Charles_-River, water’d with many pleasant
Springs and small Rivulets, running like Veins throughout her Body. This
Town began by occasion of Sir _Richard Saltingstall_, who arriving with
store of Cattel and Servants, Winter’d in these Parts.

[Sidenote: _New-town._]

[Sidenote: _Harverd Colledge._]

In the Year 1633. there was erected between _Charles-town_ and
_Water-town_, a Place call’d _New-town_, and by the _Indians_,
_Amongcangen_, since nam’d _Cambridge_, being the tenth in order: It is
in form like a List of Broad-cloth, reaching to the most Southerly part
of _Merrimeck_ River; it hath comely and well order’d Streets, and two
fair Colledges; the first call’d _Harverd Colledge_, from Mr. _John
Harverd_, who at his Death gave a thousand Pounds to it; to the other
Mr. _John Harnes_ was the chief Benefactor. This Town was appointed to
be the Seat of the Government, but it continu’d not long.

[Sidenote: _Ipswich._]

The eleventh call’d _Ipswich_, or _Sawacatuc_ by the _Indians_, is
situated on a fair and delightful River, issuing forth from a very
pleasant Pond, and afterwards breaking its Course through a hideous
Swamp of large extent; it lies in the _Sagamoreship_, or Earldom of
_Aggawan_, now by the _English_ call’d _Essex_.

[Sidenote: _Newbury._]

Twelve Miles from _Ipswich_, near upon the Streams of _Merrimeck_ River,
is situated the twelfth, call’d _Newbury_.

[Sidenote: _Hartford._]

The People of _New-town_, or _Cambridge_, upon their removal of the
Plantation of _Canectico_, passing up the River, built a Town, which
they call’d _Hartford_, the thirteenth in number, divers others coming
in the room of those that departed from _Cambridge_.

[Sidenote: _Concord._]

The fourteenth, seated upon a fair fresh River (whose Rivulets are
fill’d with fresh Marsh, and her Streams with Fish, it being a Branch of
that large River of _Merrimeck Allwives_) is built in the Inland
Countrey, and call’d _Concord_: It consisted at first of above fifty
Families: Their Buildings are for the most part conveniently plac’d on
one streight Stream under a Sunny Bank, in a low Level. The People that
first set forth to build this Town, sustain’d great hardship and misery,
by reason of the uncouth Ways, and extremity of the Weather, it being
the first Inland Town that was built.

[Sidenote: _Hingham._]

South-East of _Charles_-River, upon the Sea-Coast, is situated the
fifteenth Town _Hingham_; the form whereof is somewhat intricate to
describe, by reason of the Seawasting Crooks, where it beats upon a
moultring Shore; yet in some places the Streets are compleat: It
consisted at first of about sixty Families.

[Sidenote: _Dukesbury_, or _Sandwich_.]

The sixteenth is in _Plymouth_ Government, situate upon the Sea-Coast,
first nam’d _Dukes-bury_, afterwards _Sandwich_.

[Sidenote: _Newhaven._]

About the year 1617. a new Supply coming over into these Parts, and not
finding in the _Mattachusets_ Government any commodious place to settle
in, they after much search took up a place somewhat more Southerly, near
the _Shalles_ of _Capecod_, where they found a commodious Harbor for
Shipping, and a fit place to erect a Town in, which they built in a
short time, with very fair Houses and compleat Streets; and shortly
after several others: Amongst which they erected a new Government, which
from their first Fronteer Town, being the seventeenth, was call’d
_Newhaven_.

[Sidenote: _Dedham._]

The eighteenth is in the Government of the _Mattachusets_, and call’d
_Dedham_, being an Inland Town, situate about ten Miles from _Boston_ in
the County of _Suffolk_, well water’d with many pleasant Streams, and
abounding with Gardens and Fruit-Trees: It consisted at first of about a
hundred Families, being generally given to Husbandry.

[Sidenote: _Weymouth._]

The nineteenth being also in this Government is call’d _Weymouth_,
batter’d on the East with the Sea Waves; on the South-West Rocks and
Swamps make it delightful to the Deer, as the ploughable Meadow-Lands to
the Inhabitants.

About the Year 1638. _Printing_ was brought over into _New England_.

[Sidenote: _Rowly._]

About six Miles from _Ipswich_, North-Eastward, was erected another Town
call’d _Rowly_, being the twentieth.

[Sidenote: _Hampton._]

About the Year 1639. began the one and twentieth Town _Hampton_, in the
County of _Norfolk_, to be built: It is situate near the Sea-Coast, not
far from the River of _Merrimeck_: The great store of salt Marsh did
entice the People to set down their Habitations there.

[Sidenote: _Salisbury._]

Not far from this Town of _Hampton_, was erected the two and twentieth,
call’d _Salisbury_, seated upon the broad swift Torrent of
_Merrimeck_-River: It lieth on the Northern side, over against the Town
of _Newbury_, the River between them being about half a Mile broad, but
hath an Island in the midst thereof, which makes it the more easily
passable. The situation of this Town is very pleasant, the Skirts
thereof abounding in fair and goodly Meadows, with good store of stately
Timber in many places upon the Uplands.

[Sidenote: _Long-Island, Southampton._]

About the Year 1640. by a fresh Supply of People that setled in
_Long-Island_, was there erected the twenty third Town, call’d
_Southampton_; by the Indians, _Agawom_.

[Sidenote: _Sudbury._]

The same Year also the Town of _Sudbury_, being the twenty fourth, began
to be built in the Inland Countrey: It is furnish’d with great store of
fresh Marsh, but lying very low, it is much endammag’d with Land-floods.

[Sidenote: _Braintree._]

About this time there was built at Mount _Wollestone_, by some old
Planters and certain Farmers of the great Town of _Boston_, a Town nam’d
_Braintree_, being the twenty fifth, within the _Mattachusets_
Government: It is well peopled, and hath great store of Land in Tillage.

[Sidenote: _Gloucester._]

In the Year 1641. Mr. _Richard Blindman_ coming from _Green Harbour_, a
Place in _Plymouth_ Patent, with some few People of his acquaintance,
setled in _Cape Anne_, where they built the twenty sixth Town, and nam’d
it _Gloucester_.

[Sidenote: _Dover._]

There is also situate upon _Puscataque_ River, to the North-East of
_Boston_, a Town call’d _Dover_, being the twenty seventh, the People by
voluntary resignation being under the _Mattachusets_ Government.

[Sidenote: _Wooburn._]

In the Year 1642. was erected the eight and twentieth Town, call’d
_Wooburn_.

[Sidenote: _Reading._]

In the Year 1644. _Reading_ the nine and twentieth Town was built, being
in the Government of the _Mattachusets_; it is well water’d and situated
about a great Pond, having two Mills, a Saw-Mill, and a Corn-Mill, which
stand upon two several Streams.

[Sidenote: _Wenham._]

A little after was built the thirtieth Town in this Colony, call’d
_Wenham_, situate between _Salem_ and _Ipswich_; it is very well
water’d, as most Inland Towns are, and the People live altogether on
Husbandry.

[Sidenote: _Spring-field._]

About the Year 1645. one Mr. _Pinchin_, having out of desire to improve
his Estate by Trading with the _Indians_, setled himself in a place very
remote from any of the Towns of the _Mattachusets_ Colony, yet under
their Government, and great store of People still resorting to him, they
at last erected a Town upon the River _Canectico_, calling it
_Spring-field_, being the one and thirtieth Town; it is very fitly
seated for a Beaver Trade with the _Indians_, in regard it is situate
upon this large Navigable River, and upon some Rivulets of the same.

[Sidenote: _Haverhill._]

In the Year 1648. was founded the Town of _Haverhill_, being the two and
thirtieth, about a Mile or two from the place where the River of
_Merrimeck_ receives into it self the River _Shawshin_, which is one of
her three chief Heads.

[Sidenote: _Malden._]

Not long after, the Town of _Malden_, being the three and thirtieth
Town, was built by certain People that came out of _Charles-Town_; these
two Towns being sever’d the one from the other by the large River of
_Mistick_.

The rest we shall onely name, as 34. _Berwick_, alias _Chawun_. 35
_Oxford_, alias _Sagoquas_. _Falmouth_, alias _Totam_. 36. _Bristol._
37. _Hull_, alias _Passataquack_. 38. _Dartmouth_, alias _Bohanna_. 39.
_Norwich_, alias _Segocket_. 40. _Taunton_, alias _Cohannet_. 41.
_Greens-Harbour._ 42. _Yarmouth._ 43. _Northam_, alias _Pascataqua_. 44.
_Exeter._ 45. _Weymouth._

The chief Rivers of _New England_ are, _Pascataway_, _Sagadahoc_,
_Pemmaquid_, _Agamentico_, _Merrimeck_, _Tachobacco_, _Mistick_,
_Narraganset_, _Mishuwin_, _Connectacut_, _Newichwavoch_, _Kynebequy_.

[Sidenote: The present state of the Natives.]

The _Indian_ Natives are now become so weak in number, and in some
measure reduc’d to a dread of the growth of the _English_, that of late
years they have not practis’d any thing against them, or at least, not
justifi’d them by numbers in open Hostility, willing rather to purchase
their Peace and buy off Injuries committed by them at the Price of their
Lands and Possessions.

And although care and expence hath been many years apply’d to the
Conversion of _Indians_ to the Faith, however inclinable they seem’d at
first to the imbracing thereof, not then so well discerning the
insincerity of its Professors; yet there are so few of late who do
imbrace it or persevere in it (wanting a good Foundation for instruction
in Moral Honesty, and perhaps the example of it in those that undertake
to instruct them in Religion;) that _Christianity_ to them seems a
_Chimera_, Religion a design to draw them from the libidinous Pleasures
of a lazy Life; however, some there are who make Profession of
_Christianity_, and some who are educated in the Schools of _New
Cambridge_, to entitle them to Preach the Gospel in their own Language.

One great hindrance to the Propagation of the Faith amongst those
_Heathens_, is the diversity of their Languages; for it is commonly
known, that the Natives themselves do not understand one another, if
their Habitations are but at forty Miles distance.

[Sidenote: Church-Government among the _English_.]

Their Church-Government and Discipline is Congregational and
Independent, yet in some places more rigid than others, for in many
Towns there yet remains some leaven of _Presbytery_, from which Sects
our _Independency_ had its Original; insomuch, that one of the most
remarkable Opposers of _Episcopal Government_, Doctor _Bastwick_ (who,
spoil’d so much Paper in railing at the Church Government of _England_,
and crying up _Liberty of Conscience_) finding the Apostacy of his own
Brethren of _Boston_ from their first Principles, and his, generally
prevail over them, even to the denying that liberty to others, which
they seem’d only to aim at, did write a large and vehement _Dehortatory
Epistle_ to them from their _New Lights_ or _Paths_, saying, _That
according to their present Tenents, they could not pretend to be, or
other than a Christian Synagogue_.

[Sidenote: Their Civil Government and Laws.]

Their Laws and Methods of Government are wholly of their own framing,
each Colony for themselves, makes an Annual choice of Governor, Deputy
Governor, and a certain number of Assistants, by the plurality of
Suffrages collected from their several Towns, the Electors are only
Free-men and Church-Members; for he that is not a Member of their
Church, can neither chuse, nor be chosen a Magistrate, nor have his
Children Baptiz’d; besides the loss of many other Priviledges, and
liable moreover to frequent, if not constant Mulcts for absenting
themselves from _Divine Worship_ (so call’d) in their Meeting-houses.

Since the transmitting of the Patent in _New England_, the Election is
not by Voices, nor erection of Hands as formerly, but by Papers, thus:

The general Court-electory sitting, where are present in the Church, or
Meeting-house at _Boston_, the old Governor, Deputy, and all the
Magistrates, and two Deputies or Burgesses for every Town, or at least
one; all the Freemen are bid to come in at one Door, and bring their
Votes in Paper for the new Governor, and deliver them down upon the
Table, before the Court, and so pass forth at another Door; those that
are absent, send their Votes by Proxies. All being deliver’d in, the
Votes are counted, and according to the major part, the old Governor
pronounceth, _That such an one is chosen Governor for the year ensuing_.
Then the Freemen, in like manner, bring their Votes for the Deputy
Governor, who being also chosen, the Governor propoundeth the Assistants
one after another. New Assistants are, of late, put in nomination, by an
Order of general Court, beforehand to be consider’d of: If a Freeman
give in a Blank, that rejects the Man nam’d; if the Freeman makes any
mark with a Pen upon the Paper which he brings, that elects the Man
nam’d: Then the Blanks and mark’d Papers are number’d, and according to
the major part of either, the Man in Nomination stands elected or
rejected; and so for all the Assistants. And after every new Election,
which is, by their Patent, to be upon the last Wednesday in _Easter_
Term, the new Governor and Officers are all new Sworn. The Governor and
Assistants chuse the Secretary. And all the Court consisting of
Governor, Deputy, Assistants, and Deputies of Towns, give their Votes as
well as the rest; and the Ministers and Elders, and all Church-Officers,
have their Votes also in all these Elections of chief Magistrates:
Constables, and all other inferior Officers, are sworn in the general,
quarter, or other Courts, or before any Assistant.

Every Free-man when he is admitted, takes a strict Oath, to be true to
the Society or Jurisdiction.

There are two general Courts, one every half year, wherein they make
Laws or Ordinances: The Ministers advise in making of Laws, especially
Ecclesiastical, and are present in Courts, and advise in some special
Causes Criminal, and in framing of Fundamental Laws.

There are besides four Quarter-Courts for the whole Jurisdiction,
besides other petty Courts, one every quarter at _Boston_, _Salem_, and
_Ipswich_, with their several Jurisdictions; besides every Town, almost,
hath a petty Court for small Debts and Trespasses, under twenty
Shillings.

[Sidenote: Actions and Causes.]

In the general Court, or great quarter Courts, before the Civil
Magistrates, are try’d all Actions and Causes Civil and Criminal, and
also Ecclesiastical, especially touching Non-members: And they
themselves say, that in the general and quarter Courts, they have the
Power of Parliament, Kings-Bench, Common-Pleas, Chancery,
High-Commission, and Star-Chamber, and all other Courts of _England_,
and in divers Cases have exercis’d that Power upon the Kings Subjects
there, as is not difficult to prove. They have put to death, banish’d,
fin’d Men, cut off Mens Ears, whip’d, imprison’d Men, and all these for
Ecclesiastical and Civil Offences, and without sufficient Record. In the
lesser quarter Courts are try’d, in some, Actions under ten Pounds, in
_Boston_, under twenty, and all Criminal Causes not touching Life or
Member. From the petty quarter Courts, or other Courts, the parties may
appeal to the great quarter Courts, from thence to the general Court,
from which there is no Repeal.

[Sidenote: Grand-Juries.]

Twice a year, in the said quarter Courts held before the general Courts,
are two Grand-Juries sworn for the Jurisdiction, one for one Court, and
the other for the other; and they are charg’d to enquire and Present
Offences reduc’d by the Governor who gives the Charge.

[Sidenote: Trials.]

Matters of Debt, Trespass, and upon the Case, and Equity, yea and of
Heresie also, are try’d by a Jury.

The Parties are warn’d to challenge any Jury-man before he be sworn; but
because there is but one Jury in a Court for trial of Causes; and all
Parties not present at their Swearing, the liberty of challenge is much
hinder’d, and some inconveniences do happen thereby. Jurors are return’d
by the Marshal, he was at first call’d _The Beadle of the Society_.

The Parties in all Causes, speak themselves for the most part, and some
of the Magistrates where they think cause requireth, do the part of
Advocates without Fee or Reward.

Though among the several Colonies which were founded here by the
confluence of dissenting Zealots, this Government is exercis’d,
differing from that of the Church and State of _England_: yet in those
Provinces which are granted by particular Persons, the Government is
much more conformable to that of _England_; but as the _Mattachusets_ or
_Bostoners_ were from the beginning the most Potent and Predominant of
all the rest of the Colonies, (insomuch, that _Boston_ may well be
accounted the Metropolis of all _New England_,) so of late years they
have still usurp’d more and more Power and Authority over the rest; and
especially have not stuck to give Laws to the foresaid Provinces
allotted to particular Persons, and have gone about wholly to subjugate
those places to themselves, intrenching upon the rights of the true
Proprietors; and that, even contrary to the Kings express Commands by
his Officers, there, and as it were in open defiance of his Majesty and
Government, as is evident from this following Narration, of their
behavior upon a business of this nature.


[Sidenote: Proceedings of the _Mattachusets_ against his Majesties
           Commissioners.]

In the Year of our Lord 1665. his Majesties Commissioners for the
Affairs of _New England_, being in the Province of _Mayne_, the People
being much unsetled in Point or Government, by reason the _Mattachusets_
Colony, or _Boston_ Government, did usurp compulsively a Power over them
contrary to their wills; and the right of Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ Heir,
who had his Commission then in the place, did unanimously Petition to
his Majesties Commissioners to settle the Government; upon which the
said Commissioners examin’d the Bounds and Right of Mr. _Gorges_ Patent,
with all the Allegations and Pretensions on both sides, and so according
to their Instruction from his Majesty, did settle a temporary Government
under his Majesty’s immediate Authority, until such time as his Majesty
should give his final determination thereof; and for that end did
Institute Justices of the Peace to Govern the Province according to the
true Laws of _England_. Also his Majesty was pleas’d by his _Mandamus_
in _April 1666_, to the Governors of _Boston_, to signifie that it was
his will and pleasure, That the Province of _Main_ should stand good as
his Commissioners had setled it, until he had more leisure to determine
it; yet notwithstanding, after three years quiet possession, and
exercising of Government by the Kings Justices, according to their
Commission granted by his Majesty’s Commissioners, the _Bostoners_,
without any Conference with the said Justices, did in a hostile manner
oppose the King’s Power, _July 1668._ which was as followeth:

The General Court of _Boston_ sent their Warrants to keep Court at
_York_ under their Authority, and for that purpose Commissionated
Magistrates by their own Authority, namely Major General _John Leveret_,
Mr. _Edward Ting_, Captain _Richard Walden_, and Captain _Robert Pike_:
Whereupon the King’s Justices did oppose their Warrants, and sent Post
to _New York_, with an Address to General _Nicholas_, for Advice what to
do therein; who forthwith dispatch’d away to the Governors of _Boston_,
informing them of the danger of their Proceeding, it being an open
breach of Duty, to subvert the Government establish’d by his Majesty’s
Power; also sent the King’s _Mandamus_, _April 1666._ that will’d to the
contrary. Notwithstanding the _Boston_ Magistrates in _July 1668._ in
order to their _Boston_ Commission, came to _York_ Town in the said
Province, with several Armed Men, Horse and Foot, to keep Court under
their Authority; Opposition was made by the King’s Justices, and his
Majesty’s Power was urg’d, but little regard thereunto shewn; his
Majesties _Mandamus_ was likewise much insisted upon, and produced by
the Justices, who ask’d the _Bostoners_ what they thought of it? and how
they durst act so contrary to the King’s Will and Pleasure? Major
General _Leveret_ told them, That he believ’d it might be the King’s
Hand, but he had a Commission from the general Court at _Boston_, which
he would follow and observe by the help of God. The same day in the
Afternoon the said Major General _Leveret_, with the rest of the
_Boston_ Magistrates, seiz’d and imprison’d the Province Marshal in
doing his Office, and then forthwith went in warlike posture to the
Court-house, where the King’s Justices sat in Judicature, and putting
them from their Seats, sat down themselves in their Places, and Executed
their _Boston_ Commission. The King’s Justices drew a _Protest_ against
their Proceedings, and so left the Decision to God’s Providence, and his
Majesty’s good Pleasure. Then they turn’d out all Officers, both
Military and Civil, and Swore others in their Places under their
Authority; they forc’d the whole Record of the Province out of the
Recorders House contrary to his Will, by vertue of a Special Warrant
from that Court. They imprison’d the Mayor of the said Province about
three weeks, forcing him to give in five hundred Pound Bonds, not to act
according to his Commission; which with some Reservations he was forc’d
to deny for the security of his Estate.

These riotous Proceedings thus acted with such a precipitate fury, so
incens’d his Majesty, that speedy care had been taken to reduce them to
reason, had they not upon mature consideration bethought themselves
afterwards to yield Obedience to his Majesties Orders.

Having treated at large of all that concerns _New England_ in general,
both in reference to the Natives and the _English_ Planters, we shall
conclude with a brief view of the Provinces of _Laconia_ and _Main_, as
they are truly Describ’d (among other ingenuous Collections and
Observations of the Affairs of _America_, and especially these Parts) by
_Ferdinando Gorges_ Esq; Heir to the above-mention’d Sir _Ferdinando_,
and thereby sole Lord of the said Provinces, onely contracting what hath
been by him deliver’d more at large.

[Sidenote: A brief Description of _Laconia_, a Province in _New
           England_.]

Among divers Plantations of the _English_ happily Founded in _New
England_, is a Province to the Landward, nam’d _Laconia_, so call’d by
reason of the great Lakes therein, but by the ancient Inhabitants
thereof it is call’d _The Countrey of the Troquois_: It lies between the
Latitude of forty four and forty five Degrees, having the Rivers of
_Sagadehock_ and _Merrimeck_ on the Sea-Coast of _New England_,
Southerly from it; into each of which Rivers there is a short Passage,
frequented by the Salvages inhabiting near the Lakes. Also it hath the
great Lakes which tend towards _California_ in the South Sea on the West
thereof: On the North thereof is the great River of _Canada_, into which
the said River disgorgeth it self by a fair large River, well
replenish’d with many fruitful Islands: The Air thereof is pure and
wholesom, the Countrey pleasant, having some high Hills, full of goodly
Forrests, and fair Valleys and Plains, fruitful in Corn, Vines,
Chesnuts, Wallnuts, and infinite sorts of other Fruits, large Rivers
well stor’d with Fish, and inviron’d with goodly Meadows full of
Timber-trees.

One of the great Lakes is call’d _The Lake of Troquois_, which together
with a River of the same Name, running into the River of _Canada_, is
sixty or seventy Leagues in length.

In the Lake are four fair Islands, which are low and full of goodly
Woods and Meadows, having store of Game for Hunting, as Stags,
Fallow-Deer, Elks, Roe-Bucks, Beavers, and other sorts of Beasts which
come from the Main Land to the said Islands.

The Rivers which fall into the Lakes have in them good store of Beavers;
of which Beasts, as also of the Elks, the Salvages make their chiefest
Traffick.

The said Islands have been inhabited heretofore by the Salvages, but are
now abandon’d by reason of their late Wars one with another: They
contain twelve or fifteen Leagues in length, and are seated commodiously
for Habitation in the midst of the Lake, which abounds with divers kinds
of wholesom Fish.

From this Lake run two Rivers Southward, which fall into the Eastern and
Southern Sea-Coast of _New England_.

Into this Lake there went many years since certain _French_ of
_Quebeck_, who sided with the _Algovinquins_, with the help of their
_Canoos_, which they carried the space of five Miles over the
_Impossible Falls_, to Fight a Battel in revenge of some former Injuries
done by the _Troquois_ to the _Algovinquins_, who had the Victory; for
which cause the _French_ have been so hated ever since by the Nation of
the _Troquois_, that none of them durst ever appear in any part of that
Lake. But their Trade, said to be sixteen thousand Beavers yearly, is
partly sold to the _Dutch_, who Trade with the Westend of the said Lake
over Land by Horses, from their Plantation upon _Hudson_’s _River_: and
another part is conceiv’d to be purchas’d by the _Hiroons_, who being
Newters, are Friends both to the one and the other; and these _Hiroons_
bring down the greatest part of all by the River of _Canada_.

The Way over Land to this great Lake, from the Plantation of
_Pascataway_, hath been attempted by Captain _Walter Neale_, once
Governor, at the Charges of Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_, Captain _Mason_,
and some Merchants of _London_, and the Discovery wanted but one days
Journey of finishing, because their Victuals was spent, which, for want
of Horses, they were enforc’d to carry with their Arms, and their
Clothes, upon their Backs: They intended to have made a settlement for
Trade by Pinnaces upon the said Lake, which they reckon to be about
ninety or a hundred Miles from the Plantation over Land.

The People of the Countrey are given to Hunting of wild Beasts, which is
their chiefest Food.

Their Arms are Bowes and Arrows. Their Armor is made partly of Wood, and
partly of a kind of twisted Stuff like Cotton-Wool.

Their Meat is Flour of _Indian_ Corn, of that Countreys growth, sodden
to Pap, which they preserve for times of Necessity when they cannot
Hunt.

This Province of _Laconia_, however known by a distinct Name, is
included within the Province of _Main_, which offers it self next to our
consideration.

[Sidenote: Of the Province of _Main_.]

All that part of the Continent of _New England_, which was allotted by
Patent to Sir _Ferdinando Gorges_ and to his Heirs, he thought fit to
call by the Name of _The Province of Main_. It takes it beginning at the
entrance of _Pascatoway_ Harbor, and so passeth up the same into the
River of _Newichwavoch_; and through the same unto the farthest Head
thereof; and from thence North-Westwards for the space of a hundred and
twenty Miles; and from the Mouth of _Pascatoway_ Harbor aforesaid,
North-Eastward along the Sea-Coast, to _Sagadehock_; and up the River
thereof to _Kinibequy_ River, even as far as the Head thereof; and into
the Land North-Westwards, for the space of a hundred and twenty Miles.

To these Territories are also adjoyn’d the North half of the Isles of
_Sholes_, together with the Isles of _Capawick_ and _Nautican_, as also
all the little Islands lying within five Leagues of the _Main_, all
along the Sea-Coast, between the aforesaid Rivers of _Pascatoway_ and
_Sagadehock_.

He no sooner had this Province setled upon him, but he gave publick
notice, That if anyone would undertake by himself and his Associates, to
Transport a competent number of Inhabitants, to Plant in any part of his
Limits, he would assign unto him or them such a proportion of Land, as
should in reason satisfie them, reserving onely to himself some small
High-Rent, as 2 _s._ or 2 _s._ 6 _d._ for a hundred Acres _per Annum_:
and if they went about to build any Town or City, he would Endow them
with such Liberties and Immunities, as should make them capable to
Govern themselves within their own Limits, according to the Liberties
granted to any Town or Corporation within this Realm of _England_. And
as for others of the meaner sort who went as Tenants, that they should
have such quantities of Land assign’d them as they were able to manage,
at the Rate of 4 _d._ or 6 _d._ an Acre, according to the nature or
situation of the Place they settle in.

And for the Division of the Province, and the Form of Government which
he intended to Establish, he first divided the Province into several
Parts; and those again he subdivided into distinct Regiments, as East,
West, North, and South; those again into several Hundreds, Parishes and
Tythings, and these to have their several Officers to Govern, according
to such Laws as should be agreed upon by publick Assent of the
Free-holders, with the approbation of himself or Deputy, and the
principal Officers of the publick State.

The setled Government for the general State, to whom all Appeals were to
be made, and from whom all Instructions for the welfare of the Publick
were to issue, were to consist of himself or his Deputy, who was to be
chosen every three year by himself, with the advice of his Council: Next
a Chancellor for the determination of all Causes; A Treasurer, to whom
the care of the publick Revenue was to be committed; A Marshal, whose
Office was to oversee the Regiments, and to provide Men for publick
Service; An Admiral, to take care of all Maritime Affairs, to whom a
Judge of the Admiralty was to be joyn’d to determine all Maritime
Causes; A Master of the Ordnance, to look to the publick Arms and
Ammunition; A Secretary, to receive Intelligence, and to acquaint
himself or Deputy therewith. To these belong all their several Officers
and Ministers for the Execution of all Matters proper to their several
Places.

The chief Town of this Province is call’d _Gorgiana_, which is Govern’d
by a Mayor, the rest are onely inconsiderable Villages or scatter’d
Houses; but through Encouragement given to Adventurers and Planters, it
may prove in time a very flourishing Place, and be replenish’d with many
fair Towns and Cities, it being a Province both fruitful and pleasant.


                               SECT. II.
                  New Netherland, now call’d New York.

That Tract of Land formerly call’d _The New Netherland_, doth contain
all that Land which lieth in the North parts of _America_, betwixt _New
England_ and _Mary-Land_; the length of which Northward into the
Countrey, as it hath not been fully discover’d, so it is not certainly
known: The breadth of it is about two hundred Miles. The principal
Rivers within this Tract, are _Hudson_’s-River, _Raritan_-River,
_Delaware-Bay_-River. The chief Islands are the _Manhatans_-Island,
_Long_-Island, and _Staten_-Island.

The first which discover’d this Countrey was _Henry Hudson_, who being
hir’d by the _East-India_ Company to seek a Passage in the _Northern
America_ to _China_, set Sail _Anno 1609._ in the _Half-Moon_ Frigat;
coming before _Terre-neuff_, he stood about towards the South-West,
where Sailing up a great River, he found two Men Clad in _Ruffelo_’s
Skins; and from thence arriv’d safe at _Amsterdam_.

_New Netherland_ thus discover’d, invited many Merchants to settle a
firm Plantation there; to which purpose they obtain’d Letters Patents in
1614. granted them by the _States_ in the _Hague_, That they might onely
Traffick to _New Netherland_; whereupon they earnestly prosecuting the
Design, sent out _Adrian Block_ and _Godyn_, who discover’d several
Coasts, Isles, Havens, and Rivers.

The Countrey, as they said, being then void, was therefore free for any
body that would take possession of it: Notwithstanding which pretence,
they were scarce warm in their Quarters, when Sir _Samuel Argal_,
Governor of _Virginia_, having first spoil’d the _French_ in _Accadie_,
as we said, disputed the Possession with these also. And although they
pleaded _Hudson_’s Right (who by Commission from King _James_, and upon
an _English_ Account, had lately discover’d those Parts) and pretended
they had not onely bought all his Cards and Maps of the Countrey, but
all his Interest and Right also, and had fully contented him for all his
Pains and Charges in the Discovery; yet the said _Hudson_ being an
_English_-man, and acting all that he did by Commission from the King of
_England_, upon Debate it was concluded, That the Land could not be
alienated after Discovery without the King of _England_’s consent,
especially it being but a part of the Province of _Virginia_, already
possess’d by the Subjects of _England_: So that they were forc’d to wave
that Title, and the _Dutch_ Governor submitted his Plantation to His
Majesty of _England_, and to the Governor of _Virginia_, for and under
him: Upon which Terms for a good while they held it. Afterwards, upon
confidence, it seems, of a new Governor sent from _Amsterdam_, they not
onely fail’d to pay the promis’d Contribution and Tribute, but fell to
fortifie themselves, and to entitle the Merchants of _Amsterdam_ to an
absolute Propriety and Dominion of the Country, independent of any
other; building Towns, as _New Amsterdam_; raising Forts, as _Orange
Fort_, near the Branch of the _Nordt River_, which they call
_Hell-Gate_. Complaint whereof being made to King _Charles_, and by his
Ambassador represented to the _States_, they disown the business, and
declare by Publick Instrument, that it was onely a private Undertaking,
_viz._ of the _West-India_ Company of _Amsterdam_. Whereupon a
Commission was granted to Sir _George Calvert_, made Lord _Baltimore_ in
_Ireland_, to Possess and Plant the Southern parts thereof, lying
towards _Virginia_, by the name of _Mary-land_; and to Sir _Edmund
Loyden_, to Plant the Northern parts towards _New England_, by the name
of _Nova Albion_: Which makes the _Dutch_ the second time seem willing
to compound; and for the Sum of two thousand and five hundred Pounds,
they offer to be gone, and leave all they had there. But taking
advantage of the troubles in _England_, which then began to appear, and
soon after follow’d, they not only go back from their first
Propositions, and make higher Demands, but also most mischievously (as
some report) furnish the Natives with Arms, and teach them the use of
them, as it may be thought, expecting to use their help upon occasion,
against the _English_.

[Illustration: NOVI BELGII]

After His Majesties Restauration, His Majesty being truly inform’d of
his just Pretences to all that Usurp’d Territory call’d _New
Netherland_, (the same having been formerly part of _New England_) and
of how great prejudice to the Act of Navigation, and how dangerous
Intruders the _Dutchmen_ are generally upon other Princes Dominions,
what mischief might ensue to all our _English_ Plantations in time of
War, if the _Dutch_ were permitted to strengthen themselves in the very
heart of His Majesties Dominions, being Masters of one of the most
commodious Ports and Rivers in _America_: His Majesty resolv’d to seize
upon the same, as his undoubted Right, and in _May 1664._ having
design’d four Commissioners to the perfecting of Affairs in _New
England_, Collonel _Richard Nichols_, Sir _Robert Carr_, _George
Cartwright_, and _Samuel Mawrick_ Esquires, with three Ships of War to
convey them to _Boston_: The matter was so order’d, that the same Ships
serv’d for the reducing of the Town and Fort of _New Amsterdam_, upon
conditions, advantageous to His Majesty, and easie to the _Dutch_.

Now begins _New Netherland_ to lose the Name, for His Majesty having
conferr’d by Patent upon his Royal Highness the Duke of _York_ and
_Albany_, all the Acquisitions made upon Foraigners, together with
_Long-Island_, the West end whereof was wholly setled and Peopled by
_Dutch-men_; his Royal Highness impower’d, by Commission as his
Deputy-Governor, Colonel _Nichols_, Groom of his Bed-chamber, to take
the Charge and Direction of Reducing and Governing all those
Territories; it was by him thought fit, to change some principal
denominations of Places, _viz._ _New Netherland_ into _York-shire_; _New
Amsterdam_ into _New York_; _Fort-Amscel_ into _Fort-James_;
_Fort-Orange_ into _Fort-Albany_; and withal, to change _Burgomasters_,
_Schepen_, and _Schout_, into Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriff, with
Justices of the Peace; so that all the Civil Policy is conformable to
the Methods and Practise of _England_, whereas _New England_ retains
only the name of _Constable_ in their whole Rolls of Civil Officers.

It is plac’d upon the neck of the Island _Manhatans_, looking towards
the Sea; encompass’d with _Hudson_’s River, which is six Miles broad;
the Town is compact and oval, with very fair Streets and several good
Houses; the rest are built much after the manner of _Holland_, to the
number of about four hundred Houses, which in those parts are held
considerable: Upon one side of the Town is _James-Fort_, capable to
lodge three hundred Souldiers and Officers; it hath four Bastions, forty
Pieces of Cannon mounted; the Walls of Stone, lin’d with a thick Rampart
of Earth; well accommodated with a Spring of fresh Water, always
furnish’d with Arms and Ammunition, against Accidents: Distant from the
Sea seven Leagues, it affords a safe Entrance, even to unskilful Pilots;
under the Town side, Ships of any Burthen may Ride secure against any
Storms, the Current of the River being broken by the interposition of a
small Island, which lies a Mile distant from the Town.

About ten Miles from _New York_ is a Place call’d _Hell-Gate_, which
being a narrow Passage, there runneth a violent Stream both upon Flood
and Ebb; and in the middle lie some Rocky Islands, which the Current
sets so violently upon, that it threatens present Shipwrack; and upon
the Flood is a large Whirlwind, which continually sends forth a hideous
roaring, enough to affright any Stranger from passing farther, and to
wait for some _Charon_ to conduct him through; yet to those that are
well acquainted, little or no danger: It is a place of great Defence
against any Enemy coming in that way, which a small Fortification would
absolutely prevent, and necessitate them to come in at the West end of
_Long-Island_ by _Sandy Hook_, where _Nutten Island_ forces them within
the Command of the Fort at _New York_, which is one of the best Pieces
of Defence in the North parts of _America_. It is built most of Brick
and Stone, and cover’d with red and black Tyle, and the Land being high,
it gives at a distance a pleasing prospect to the Spectators. The
Inhabitants consist most of _English_ and _Dutch_, and have a
considerable Trade with _Indians_ for Beaver, Otter, and
_Rackoon_-Skins, with other Furrs; as also for Bear, Deer and
_Elke_-Skins; and are supply’d with Venison and Fowl in the Winter, and
Fish in the Summer by the _Indians_, which they buy at an easie Rate;
and having the Countrey round about them, they are continually furnish’d
with all such Provisions as is needful for the Life of Man, not onely by
the _English_ and _Dutch_ within their own, but likewise by the adjacent
Colonies.

[Sidenote: _Manhattans_ River.]

The _Manhattans_, or _Great River_, being the chiefest, having with two
wide Mouths wash’d the mighty Island _Watouwaks_, falls into the Ocean.
The Southern Mouth is call’d _Port May_, or _Godyns Bay_. In the middle
thereof lies an Island call’d _The States Island_; and a little higher
the _Manhattans_, so call’d from the Natives, which on the East side of
the River dwell on the Main Continent. They are a cruel People, and
Enemies to the _Hollanders_, as also of the _Sanhikans_, which reside on
the Western Shore. Farther up are the _Makwaes_ and _Mahikans_, which
continually War one against another. In like manner all the Inhabitants
on the West side of the River _Manhattan_ are commonly at Enmity with
those that possess the Eastern Shore; who also us’d to be at variance
with the _Hollanders_, when as the other People Westward kept good
Correspondency with them.

On a small Island near the Shore of the _Makwaes_, lay formerly a Fort,
provided with two Drakes and eleven Stone Guns, yet was at last
deserted.

[Sidenote: Wholesom Waters.]

This Countrey hath many removable Water-falls, descending from steep
Rocks, large Creeks and Harbors, fresh Lakes and Rivulets, pleasant
Fountains and Springs, some of which boyl in the Winter, and are cold
and delightful to drink in Summer. The Inhabitants never receive any
damage by Deluges; neither from the Sea, because the Water rises not
above a Foot; nor by the swelling Rivers, which sometimes, for a few
days covering the Plains, at their deserting them, leave them fat and
fruitful. The Sea-Coast is Hilly, and of a sandy and clayie Soil, which
produces abundance of Herbs and Trees.

[Sidenote: Trees.]

The Oak grows there generally sixty or seventy Foot high, and for the
most part free from Knots, which makes it the better fit for Shipping.

The Nut-trees afford good Fuel, and a strange Prospect when the Wood is
set on fire, either to hunt out a Deer, or to clear the Ground fit to be
Till’d.

Some Plants brought hither, grow better than in _Holland_ it self, as
Apples, Pears, Cherries, Peaches, Apricocks, Strawberries, and the like.

[Illustration: NOVUM AMSTERODAMUM]

[Sidenote: Vines.]

Their Vines grow wild in most places, and bear abundance of blue, white,
and Muskadine Grapes: Sometime since the Inhabitants made a considerable
advantage by the Wine of them, which is not inferior to either _Rhenish_
or _French_.

[Sidenote: Water Lemmons.]

All manner of Plants known in _Europe_ grow in their Gardens: The
Water-Lemmons, no less pleasing to the Palate than healthful when grown
ripe; they are about the bigness of an indifferent Cabbage: the
_English_ press a Juice out of them, which if it did not turn sowre in a
short time, might well be compar’d with _Spanish_ Wine.

The _Calabashes_ which grow there, made hollow, serve for Water-cups.

Pumpions are also there in great abundance.

[Sidenote: Wheat.]

Their Wheat though Set six Foot deep, grows very speedily: Kidney-Beans
being planted amongst it, they will wind about the Stalks thereof.

[Sidenote: Pease.]

Gray Pease grow here so fast, that they gather them twice a year.

In one Field Physical Herbs and _Indigo_ grow wild in great abundance;
and Barley springs above a Mans heighth.

Moreover, there are divers sorts of sweet-smelling Flowers.

[Sidenote: Soyl of the Mountains.]

The Hills are most of a fat and clayie Soil, fit to make Pots,
Tobacco-pipes, or any other sort of Earthen Ware.

[Sidenote: Gold and Silver-Mines.]

In some places also is store of Mountain Crystal, and that sort of
Mineral which we call _Muscovia Glass_: Others afford Marble, Serpentine
Stone, and other sorts of hard Stone. And though the Natives did not
think it worth their while, or were not in a capacity to dig for
Minerals themselves, yet it remains without contradiction, that the
Mountains inclose both Gold and Silver.

When Captain _William Clieff_, _Anno 1645._ us’d the _Indian_
Interpreter _Agheroense_ (to decide the Differences which arose between
the _West-India Company_ and the wild People call’d _Makwaes_,) he
observ’d him to paint his Face with a yellow glittering colour, which he
judg’d to be of some rich Mineral: whereupon buying some of the said
_Agheroense_, he put it into a Crusible, and gain’d two small pieces of
Gold out of the same, valu’d at six Shillings; but keeping it private,
and purchasing a great quantity of the said Mineral from _Agheroense_
(who had show’d him the Mountain which produced the same) extracted good
store of Gold out of it; which possessing _Clieff_ with a belief of
having found out a business of great consequence, he sent _Arent Corsen_
of _New-haven_ with the fore-mention’d Mineral to _Holland_; but the
Ship being never heard of afterwards, and the Princess Pink, in which
Captain _Clieff_ was himself, with store of the new-found Mineral, being
cast away, the Business came to nothing.

[Sidenote: Paint after a strange manner.]

The Inhabitants, though divided into several Nations, yet agree in many
things, as in painting their Bodies, Shields, Clubs, and other Utensils
in their Houses. The Colours wherewith they paint themselves they press
out of Plants, or make them of certain Stones grownd into very fine
Powder. The chiefest Plant is not unlike the Myrtle, onely it hath more
Boughs, and bears red Berries; the Juice of which being dry’d in the
Sun, is afterwards preserv’d in little Bags. The Natives temper their
Colours with Water, and paint their Bodies with the same: It is as good
a Purple as can be found. They also draw Ships, Trees, and Beasts after
a very rough manner: In stead of Feathers they wear pleited Hair, which
being colour’d red, hath an excellent gloss, which never fades though it
Rain on the same.

[Sidenote: Horses.]

The Horses bred in this Countrey, being either brought thither from
_England_ or _Utrecht_, far exceed those of _English_ breed; but are
both of them subject to a strange Disease, of which many die in few
hours. The same Distemper also seizes on Cattel if they go into Forrest
Pasture: But the onely thing to cure the same, is Hay from salt Marshy
Grounds.

[Sidenote: Hogs.]

The Oaken Woods have store of Hogs, which if taken and fatned with
_Turkish_ Wheat, are most delicious Meat.

[Sidenote: Sheep.]

The Sheep, though they breed well there, yet are very scarce, because
the Planters not being able to spare Men to watch them, they are often
devour’d by Wolves.

There are also abundance of Deer, all sorts of Fowls, Turkies, Geese,
Ducks, Pigeons, and the like.

[Sidenote: Lyons.]

The Lyons, whose Skins the _Indians_ bring to Market, are taken on a
high Mountain fifteen days Journey South-West from thence.

[Sidenote: Black Bears.]

There are likewise many black Bears, fearful of humane kind, but if
Hunted, they run direct on those that pursue them: they sleep all the
Winter, lying six Weeks on one side, and six on the other, and sucking
their Feet all the time: They generally lurk among Brambles, or in the
Concavities of some hollow Mountain.

[Sidenote: Strange Beasts.]

On the Borders of _Canada_ there is seen sometimes a kind of Beast which
hath some resemblance with a Horse, having cloven Feet, shaggy Mayn, one
Horn just on their Forehead, a Tail like that of a wild Hog, black Eyes,
and a Deers Neck: it feeds in the nearest Wildernesses: the Males never
come amongst the Females except at the time when they Couple, after
which they grow so ravenous, that they not onely devour other Beasts,
but also one another.

Towards the South of _New York_ are many Buffles, Beasts which
(according to _Erasmus Stella_) are betwixt a Horse and a Stag: though
they are of a strong Constitution, yet they die of the smallest Wound,
and are subject to the Falling-sickness: they have broad branchy Horns
like a Stag, short Tail, rough Neck, Hair colour’d according to the
several Seasons of the Year, broad and long Ears, hanging Lips, little
Teeth, and Skin so thick, as not easie to be pierced: The Females differ
from the Males, for they have no Horns; both may easily be made tame:
when Hunted, they vomit out a sort of scalding Liquor on the Dogs: they
have great force in their Claws, for they can kill a Wolf with the same
at one blow: their Flesh, either fresh or salted, is a good Diet: their
Claws also cure the Falling-sickness.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Harts.]

But no Beasts are more plentiful here than Harts and Stags, which feed
up and down in great Herds: when they are Hunted by Wolves or Men, they
immediately take the next River, where they are caught several together,
by being cross’d in their Swimming, and affrighted by the Eccho which
comes from the Mountains, made by the Hunters hollowing on the other
Shore, which makes them fearful of Landing: whilst the Huntsmen joyning
several pieces of Wood together get upon them, and Rowing towards these
Deer, intercept them, being tir’d and out of breath.

[Sidenote: Musk-Cats.]

Moreover, this Countrey breeds many Musk Cats, especially in Marshy
Grounds. These Beasts are beautiful to the Eye, having black speckled
Skins, their Mouths, full of sharp Teeth, and their Tails being long
trail after them.

Many of the Learned maintain a Dispute concerning Civet, Whether it be
the Seed of the Civet-Cat? the Affirmative, which _Cardanus_ maintain’d,
is contradicted by _Julius Scaliger_. _Matthiolus_, an Author of no
little credit, supposes that Civet is the Sweat of the Cat, because it
is most chiefly taken when these Beasts are exceedingly vex’d and
wearied: But since the Sweat runs from all parts of the Body, which
nevertheless do not all produce Civet, it is impossible that Sweat
should be Civet. Others account Civet to be the Dung of the Cats; which
last seems to come nearest to truth: for certainly it is nothing else
but an Excrement in the fleshy parts about their Pizzle, or near the
Fundament. The Cats being in pain to be discharg’d of this Civet, free
themselves from it by rubbing a Tree; and also fawn on those which take
it from them with a Spoon.

[Sidenote: _Plin._ lib. 32. cap. 3.]

Besides all other wild Creatures, the Countrey according to _Adrian
Vander Donk_, produces yearly eighty thousand Beavers. _Pliny_ relates,
that these Beasts bite off their Pizzles and throw them to the Hunter,
which are an exceeding good Medicine to help Abortion, stop the Monethly
Flowers, Giddiness in the Head, Gout, Lameness, Belly and Tooth-ach,
Rhumes, Poyson, and the Evil. But _Pliny_ makes a great mistake herein,
for the Beavers have a small Pissel fasten’d to their Back-bone, in such
a manner, that they cannot loose them but with hazard of their lives:
They live in the Water, and on the Shore, in great companies together,
in Nests built of Wood, which deserve no small admiration, being made
after this manner: The Beavers first gather all the loose Wood, which
they find along the Banks of the Rivers, of which, if there be not
enough, they bite the Bark off from the Trees in the neighboring Woods,
then with their Tusks, of which two grow above, and two below in their
Mouths, they gnaw the main body of the Tree so long, till it drops
asunder: Their Nests very artificial, are six Stories high, cover’d on
the top with Clay to keep out Rain; in the middle is a passage which
goes to the River, into which they run so soon as they perceive a Man;
to which purpose one of them stands Sentinel, and in the Winter keeps
open the Water from freezing, by continual moving of his Tail, which is
flat without Hair, and the most delicious Meat that can be had. The
Beavers go big sixteen Weeks, and once a year bring forth four young,
which suck and cry like young Children, for the Dam of them rises on her
hinder Feet, and gives her Teats, which grow between the fore-legs to
two of her young, each of them one; the foremost legs of a Beaver
resemble those of a Dog, the hindermost those of a Goose; on each side
of the vent are two swellings within two thin Skins; out of their vent
runs generally an Oily moysture, with which they anoint all the parts of
their body which they can reach, to keep them from being wet; within
they are like a cut-up Hog; they live on the Leaves and Barks of Trees;
they love their young ones exceedingly; the long Hairs, which shining,
stick out on the back, fall off in Summer, and grow again against
Harvest; they have short Necks, strong Sinews and Legs, and move very
swiftly in the Water, and on the Land; if incompass’d by Men or Dogs,
they bite most severely; the right _Castoreum_, so highly esteem’d by
Physicians, is a long _Vesica_, not unlike a Pear, within the body of
the female Beaver, the _Indians_ mince the Cods of the Male Beavers
amongst their Tobacco, because they produce no _Castoreum_.

[Sidenote: Fowls in _New York_.]

This Country abounds also with Fowls; for besides Hawks, Kites, and
other Birds of Prey, there are abundance of Cranes, of several sorts,
some grey, some brown, others quite white; all of them have firm Bodies,
and Bones without Marrow, Claws of a finger long, strong and crooked
Bills, their Brains dry, their Eyes little and hollow, hard Features,
the left Foot lesser than the right, both deform’d, their Blood thick,
and the Excrements of a horrid smell; they breed most in old Woods,
whose ground is without Brambles, and also near the Water, for they feed
on Fish, and devour all sorts of Fowls, nay, snatch up Hares, Rabbets,
Tortels, and several other sorts of Animals, which they carry away with
them in the Air; nay, when hungry, they seize on one another; some of
them fly abroad for their prey about noon, others at Sun-rising; they
fall like Lightning on what e’re they pursue; they drink little, except
the Blood of those Creatures which they devour; they are very
libidinous, coupling above thirty times a day, not only with their like,
but also with the Hens of Hawks, and other Birds; they lay their biggest
Eggs in thirty days, and the lesser in twenty days; they generally bring
forth three young; those of them that cannot endure to look full against
the Sun, are thrown out of their Nests; the young ones when they begin
to be fledg’d, are by the old carry’d into the Air, and let flie, but
supported by them; their sight is wonderful quick; for though they flie
as high as ever they are able to be discern’d, yet they can see the
least Fish that is in the Water, and a Hare lying in the Bushes: their
Breath stinks horribly, wherefore their Carcases suddenly rot; though
they are libidinous, yet they live long; most of them die of hunger,
because their Bills when they grow old, grow so crooked, that they
cannot open the same, wherefore they flie up into the Air against the
Sun, and falling into the coldest Rivers, loose their Feathers and die.

[Sidenote: Pigeons.]

Besides the foremention’d Birds of prey, there are abundance of Storks,
Ravens, Crows, Owls, Swallows, Gold-finches, Ice-birds, Kites, Quails,
Pheasants, and Winter _Kings_, and which are most remarkable for their
rich Feathers, the _Spechtes_, they pick great holes in Trees, and make
a noise as if a Man were cutting down a Tree. The Pigeons flie in such
flocks, that the _Indians_ remove with them to the place where they make
their Nests, where the young ones being taken by hundreds, serve them
for a Moneths Provision.

[Sidenote: Pretty Birds.]

Moreover, _New York_ breeds a strange Bird about a Thumb long, full of
glistering Feathers; it lives by sucking of Flowers like a Bee, and is
so tender, that it immediately dies if water be spirted upon it; the
Carcase being dry’d, is kept for a Rarity.

[Sidenote: Turkies.]

But this Countrey abounds chiefly in Turkies, whose plenty deserves no
less admiration than their bulk, and the delicious taste of their Flesh,
for they go feeding forty or fifty in a flock, and weigh sometime forty
or fifty pound apiece; the Natives either shoot them, or take them with
a Bait stuck on an Angle: In _March_ and Harvest the Waters swarm with
Geese, Teal, Snites, Ducks, and Pelicans, besides many strange sorts of
Fowls not known in _Europe_.

[Sidenote: Fish.]

The Rivers and Lakes produce Sturgeon, Salmon, Carps, Pearch, Barbils,
all sorts of Eels, and many other Fish which are taken near Water-falls:
The Sea affords Crabs with and without Shells, Sea-cocks, and Horses,
Cod, Whiting, Ling, Herrings, Mackrel, Flounders, Tar-buts, Tortels, and
Oysters, of which some are a Foot long, and have Pearl, but are a little
brownish.

[Sidenote: _Rattle-Snake._]

Amongst the Poysonous Creatures which infest _New York_, the chiefest
and most dangerous is the _Rattle-Snake_, whose description we have
already had at large in _New England_.

[Sidenote: Constitution of the Inhabitants.]

[Sidenote: Their Diet.]

The Inhabitants have their Hair black as Jet, harsh like Horse-hair;
they are broad Shoulder’d, small Wasted, brown Ey’d, their Teeth
exceeding white; with Water they chiefly quench their Thirst: Their
general Food is Flesh, Fish, and _Indian_ Wheat, which stamp’d, is
boyl’d to a Pap, by them call’d _Sappaen_: They observe no set time to
Eat, but when they have an Appetite their Meals begin. Beavers Tails are
amongst them accounted a great Dainty: When they go to Hunt, they live
several days on parch’d Corn, which they carry in little Bags ty’d about
their middle; a little of that said Corn thrown into Water swells
exceedingly.

[Sidenote: _Hudson_’s adventures remarkable.]

_Henry Hudson_ relates, That Sailing in the River _Montains_, in forty
Degrees, he saw the _Indians_ make strange Gestures in their Dancing and
Singing; he observ’d farther, that they carry’d Darts pointed with sharp
Stones, Sodder’d to the Wood; that they slept under the Sky on Mats or
Leaves; took much Tobacco, and very strong; and that though courteous
and friendly, they were very Thieves. He Sailing thirty Leagues further,
went in his Boat to an old _Indian_ Commander of forty Men and seventeen
Women, who conducted him to the Shore, where they all dwelt in one
House, artificially built of the Barks of Oak-trees; round about it lay
above three Ships load of Corn, and _Indian_ Beans to dry, besides the
Plants which grew in the Fields. No sooner had _Hudson_ enter’d the
House, but he was receiv’d on two Mats spread on the ground; and two Men
immediately were sent out to shoot Venison or Fowls; and instantly
returning, brought two Pigeons; a fat Dog, whom they nimbly flea’d with
shells, was also laid down to the fire: They also made other
Preparations for _Hudsons_ Entertainment, but not willing to venture
himself amongst them, that Night, tasted not of it, notwithstanding the
_Indians_ breaking their Darts, threw them into the fire, that thereby
they might drive away all fears and jealousies from him.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: _New Netherlanders_ Apparel.]

The Habits of the Natives, especially of the Men, are few; the Women go
more neat than the Men; and though the Winter pinches them with
excessive cold, yet they go naked till their thirteenth year: Both Men
and Women wear a Girdle of Whale-fins and _Sea-shells_; the Men put a
piece of Cloth, half an Ell long, and three quarters broad, between
their Legs, so that a square piece hangs behind below his Back, and
another before over his Belly. The Women wear a Coat which comes half
way down their Legs, so curiously wrought with _Sea-shells_, that one
Coat sometimes costs thirty Pounds. Moreover, their Bodies are cover’d
with Deer-skins, the lappets or ends of which hang full of Points; a
large Skin button’d on the right Shoulder, and ty’d about the middle,
serves for an upper Garment, and in the Night for a Blanket: Both Men
and Women go for the most part bare-headed; the Women tie their Hair
behind in a tuft, over which they wear a square Cap wrought with
_Sea-shells_, with which they adorn their Foreheads, and also wear the
same about their Neck and Hands, and some also about their middle.
Before the _Hollanders_ were Planted here, they wore Shoes and Stockings
of _Buffelo_’s-skins; some likewise made Shoes of Wheaten-straw, but of
late they come nearer to our Fashions: The Men Paint their Faces with
several Colours; the Women only put here and there a black Spot; both of
them are very reserv’d.

[Sidenote: Their houses.]

[Sidenote: Remove.]

Their Houses are most of them built of one fashion, onely differing in
length; all of them agree in breadth of twenty Foot: They build after
this manner, they set Peel’d Boughs of Nut-Trees in the ground,
according to the bigness of the place which they intend to build, then
joyning the tops of the Boughs together, they cover the Walls and top
with the Bark of Cypress, Ashen, and Chest-nut-Trees, which are laid one
upon another, the smallest side being turn’d inwards: according to the
bigness of the Houses, several Families, to the number of fifteen dwell
together, every one having his Apartment. Their Fortifications are most
of them built on steep Hills, near Rivers; the access to them is onely
at one place, they are built after this manner: They set great Poles in
the Ground, with Oaken _Pallisadoes_ on each side, cross-ways one
amongst another; between the crosses they set other Trees, to strengthen
the Work: Within this inclos’d they generally build twenty or thirty
Houses, of which some are a hundred and eighty Foot long, and some less,
all of them full of People: In the Summer they pitch Tents along by the
River side to Fish; against Winter they remove into the Woods, to be
near their Game of Hunting, and also Fuel.

[Sidenote: Many Wives.]

[Sidenote: Marriages.]

[Sidenote: Whoring permitted.]

[Sidenote: Strange Marrying.]

[Sidenote: Child-bearing Womens strange actions.]

[Sidenote: Funerals.]

[Sidenote: Mourning over the dead remarkable.]

To take many Women is not customary here, only amongst Military
Officers, who Marry three or four Wives, which so well agree, that there
is never any difference betwixt them; those that are not of Age, never
Marry but with the consent and advice of their Parents: Widows and
unmarry’d Men follow their own opinion and choice; only they take
Cognizance of their Estates and Extraction: The Bridegroom always
presents the Bride; for the least offence, the Man after having soundly
beaten his Wife, turns her out of Doors, and Marries another, insomuch,
that some of them have every year a new Wife: On breach of Marriage, the
Children follow the Mother, from whom they account their Generation:
They account Adultery, if committed under the bare Canopy of Heaven, a
great Sin: Whoring is Licenc’d to single Women, if they receive Money
for it, and no Man scruples to Marry them; nay, those that are Marry’d,
boast how many they have enjoy’d before their Marriage: She that is
inclin’d to Marry, covers her whole body, and sets her self wrapt up in
the middle of the way, where a Batchelor passing by sees her, and makes
up the Match blindfold: When impregnated, they take great care that
their Fruit receives no hindrance nor prejudice: When the time of their
Delivery approaches, (which they know exactly) they go to a Melancholly
place in the Woods, though in the coldest Weather, where they raise up a
Hut of Mats, and bring the Child into the World without any help or
Company, wash the Child in cold Water, and wrap it up in Mats; then a
few days after going home, they bring up the Infant with great care,
none putting them out to Nurse: So long as a Woman gives suck, or is
quick with Child, she will not admit of Copulation; one who hath the
Flowers, never comes abroad: In time of sickness they faithfully assist
one another: When any die, the nearest Relations shut their Eyes; and
after having watch’d them some days, they are Interr’d after this
manner: The Corps is plac’d sitting with a Stone under its Head, near it
they set a Pot, Kettle, Dish, Spoons, Money, and Provisions to use in
the other World; then they pile Wood round about it, and cover it over
with Planks, on which throwing Earth and Stones, they set _Pallisadoes_,
and make the Grave like a House, to which they shew Veneration,
wherefore they account it a great piece of villany to deface any thing
of it: The Men make no shew of sorrow over the Dead, but the Women mourn
exceedingly, and carry themselves very strangely, beating their Breasts,
scratching their Faces, and calling night and day on the name of the
Deceas’d: The Mothers make great Lamentation at the Death of their
Children, especially Sons, for they shave off the Hair of their Heads,
which at the Funeral is burnt in the presence of all their Relations;
which is also perform’d by the Women when their Husbands die; besides,
they black all their Faces, and putting on a Hart-skin Shirt, mourn a
whole year, notwithstanding they liv’d very contentiously together.

[Sidenote: Conjurers.]

On some occasions they go a Worshipping of the Devil, to a certain place
where the Sorcerers shew strange Feats of Activity, tumbling over and
over, beating themselves, and not without great noise leaping in and
about a great Fire: at last they make a great Cry all together; upon
which (as they say) the Devil appears to them in the shape either of a
tame or wild Beast: the first signifies bad, and the other good fortune;
both inform them of future Events, though darkly; and if the business
fall out contrary, they affirm that they have not rightly understood the
Devil’s meaning. Moreover they bewitch some in such a manner, that they
foam at the Mouth, throw themselves into the Fire, and beat themselves
severely; and so soon as they whisper in the Ear of those whom they have
bewitch’d, they immediately recover their former health.

[Sidenote: Language of the _New Netherlanders_.]

The Language of this Countrey is very various, yet it is divided into
onely four principal Tongues, as the _Manhattans_, _Wappanoo_,
_Siavanoo_, and _Minqua_’s, which are very difficult for Strangers to
learn, because they are spoken without any Grounds or Rules.

[Sidenote: Money.]

Their Money is made of the innermost Shells of a certain Shell-fish,
cast up twice a year by the Sea: These Shells they grind smooth, and
make a Hole in the middle, cutting them of an exact bigness, and so put
them on Strings, which then serve in stead of Gold, Silver, and Copper
Coin.

[Sidenote: Vices and Vertues.]

[Sidenote: Strange Stoves.]

Now to say something of the Vices and Vertues of the Inhabitants. They
are in the first place very slovenly and nasty, stubborn, covetous,
revengeful, and much addicted to filching and stealing. Some appear
reserv’d, using few words, which they utter after serious consideration,
and remember a long time. Their Understandings being improv’d by the
_Hollanders_, they are quick of apprehension, to distinguish good from
bad: they will not endure any Oppression, but are very patient of Heat,
Cold, Hunger and Thirst. They have a strange way of using Stoves, which
are set in the Ground and cover’d with Earth, into which they go through
a little Door. A sick Person coming into the same, sets himself down,
and places hot Stones round about him; which done, and having sweat a
considerable time, he leaps into cold Water, by which he finds ease of
all his Distempers.

[Sidenote: Arms.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable actions of some Prisoners.]

[Sidenote: Laws.]

[Sidenote: Council-Assembly.]

Though these People know no great distinction between Man and Man, as
other Nations, yet they have noble and ignoble Families amongst them;
superior and inferior Offices, which they enjoy by Inheritance; but
sometimes the Martial Offices are bestowed according to the Valour of
the Persons: Their Generals seldom give their Enemies a Field-Battel, by
drawing or dividing their Men into Regiments or Companies, but make it
their whole Design to defeat their Enemies by sudden Sallies from
Ambuscado’s; for they never stand out a close Fight, unless compell’d to
it, but if encompass’d round, they fight to the last Man. When any
danger threatens, the Women and Children are convey’d to a secure place.
Their Arms formerly were Bowes and Arrows, and Battel-axes, but now they
use Musquets, which they have learn’d to handle with great dexterity.
Their square Shields cover all their Bodies and Shoulders. About their
Heads they tie a Snakes Skin, in the middle of which sticks either a
Fox’s or Bear’s Tail. They cannot be known by their Faces, they are all
over so besmear’d with Paint of divers colours. They seldom give Quarter
to their Enemies, except Women and Children, which the Conquerors use as
their own, that by that means they may increase and strengthen
themselves: and if any Prisoner is not kill’d presently after the
Battel, but falls into the Hands of one whose Relations have formerly
been slain by his Party, he is Roasted three days by degrees before he
gives up the Ghost. It deserves no small admiration, that the Sufferer
during the whole time of his Torture, Sings till he breathes his last.
They have few or no Punishments for any Offence, committing few Crimes
which are by them accounted Capital. If any one steal, and the Goods be
found in his custody, the Governor of the place where he resides
commands him onely to restore the same to the Owner. If any one murther
or kill the other, the Relations of the slain, if they can take the
Malefactor in twenty four hours, may without Examination or delay put
him to death also; but that time being once expir’d, the Revenger is
liable to be kill’d in the same time by his Relations whom he slew. All
Obligations have their power and vertue from certain Presents deliver’d
upon the making of a Contract, which is done thus: They dry as many
Sticks as they have Articles, which if they agree upon, every Man on the
concluding of the Discourse lays a Present before the others Feet.
Sometimes they hang up the Presents, because they are often three days
in Consultation before they resolve; after which if the Presents be
taken down, it is a certain sign of their Agreement; but if not, they
proceed no farther, unless the Articles and Presents are alter’d. On
Businesses of consequence the Commonalty repair to their Governor’s
House, there to hear and enquire what the Nobility there assembled have
concluded or resolv’d on; at which the best Orator standing up, tells
them their Intentions. It happens sometimes that a turbulent Person
making a Mutiny, and refusing to hearken to reason, is immediately
beheaded by one of the Nobility; in contradiction of which none dare
presume to speak the least word.

[Sidenote: Religion.]

[Sidenote: Diabolical Worship.]

[Sidenote: Their ridiculous Opinion of God.]

[Sidenote: As also of the Creation.]

There are scarce any steps of Religion found amongst these People, onely
they suppose the Moon to have great influence on Plants. The Sun, which
over-looks all things, is call’d to witness whene’re they Swear. They
bear great respect, and stand much in fear of _Satan_, because they are
often plagued by him when they go a Hunting or Fishing: wherefore the
first of what they take is burnt in honor of him, that he to whom they
ascribe all wickedness might not hurt them. When they feel pain in any
part of their Body, they say that the Devil sits in the same. They
acknowledge that there resides a God above the Stars, but troubles not
himself with what the Devil doth on Earth, because he continually
recreates himself with a most beautiful Goddess, whose original is
unknown: She on a certain time (say they) descended from Heaven into the
Water, (for before the Creation all things were Water) into which she
had instantly sunk, had not the Earth arose under her Feet, which grew
immediately to such a bigness, that there appear’d a World of Earth,
which produc’d all sorts of Herbs and Trees; whilst the Goddess taking
to her self a Hart, Bear, and Wolf, and Conceiving by them, she was not
long after deliver’d of several Beasts at one time: and from thence
proceeded not onely the diversity of Beasts, but also Men, of which some
are black, white, or sallow; in nature fearful like a Hart, or cruel and
valiant like a Bear, or deceitful like Wolves: after this the Mother of
all things ascended up to Heaven again, and sported there with the
Supream Lord, whom they say they know not, because they never saw him:
wherefore they shall have less to answer for than _Christians_, which
pretend to know him to be the Punisher of things both good and bad,
which are daily committed by them: and for this ridiculous Opinion they
can hardly be brought to embrace the _Christian_ Faith.

[Sidenote: Of the Immortality of the Soul.]

Concerning the Souls of the Deceased, they believe, that those which
have been good in their life-time, live Southward in a temperate
Countrey, where they enjoy all manner of pleasure and delight; when as
the Wicked wander up and down in a miserable Condition. The Eccho which
resounds from the Cries of wild Beasts in the Night, they suppose to be
the Spirits of Souls transmigrated into wicked Bodies.

[Sidenote: Their _Canticas_, or Dancing.]

At their _Canticas_, or Dancing-Matches, where all Persons that come are
freely Entertain’d, it being a Festival time. Their Custom is when they
Dance, for the Spectators to have short Sticks in their Hands, and to
knock the Ground and Sing altogether, whilst they that Dance sometimes
act Warlike postures, and then they come in painted for War with their
Faces black and red, or some all black, some all red, with some streaks
of white under their Eyes, and so jump and leap up and down without any
order, uttering many Expressions of their intended Valour. For other
Dances they onely shew what antick Tricks their ignorance will lead them
to, wringing of their Bodies and Faces after a strange manner, sometimes
jumping into the Fire, sometimes catching up a Firebrand, and biting off
a live Coal, with many such tricks, that will affright rather than
please an _English_-man to look upon them, resembling rather a company
of infernal Furies than Men.

[Sidenote: Their sitting in Council.]

When their King or _Sachem_ sits in Council, he hath a Company of Arm’d
Men to guard his Person, great respect being shewn him by the People,
which is principally manifested by their silence. After he hath declared
the cause of their Convention, he demands their Opinion, ordering who
shall begin: The Person order’d to speak, after he hath declar’d his
mind, tells them he hath done: no Man ever interrupting any Person in
his Speech, nor offering to speak, though he make never so many long
stops, till he says he hath no more to say. The Council having all
declar’d their Opinions, the King after some pause gives the definitive
Sentence, which is commonly seconded with a shout from the People, every
one seeming to applaud and manifest their Assent to what is determin’d.

If any Person be condemn’d to die, which is seldom, unless for Murther
or Incest, the King himself goes out in Person (for you must understand
they have no Prisons, and the guilty Person flies into the Woods) where
they go in quest of him, and having found him, the King shoots first,
though at never such a distance, and then happy is the Man that can
shoot him down; for he that hath the fortune to be Executioner, is for
his pains made some Captain, or other Military Officer.

They grease their Bodies and Hair very often, and paint their Faces with
several Colours, as black, white, red, yellow, blue, _&c._ which they
take great pride in, every one being painted in a several manner.

Within two Leagues of _New York_ lieth _Staten-Island_, it bears from
_New York_ West something Southerly: It is about twenty Miles long, and
four or five broad, most of it very good Land, full of Timber, and
producing all such Commodities as _Long-Island_ doth, besides Tin and
store of Iron Oar; and the _Calamine_ Stone is said likewise to be found
there: There is but one Town upon it, consisting of _English_ and
_French_, but it is capable of entertaining more Inhabitants.

Betwixt this and _Long-Island_ is a large Bay, which is the coming in
for all Ships and Vessels out of the Sea.

On the North-side of this Island _After-skull_ River puts into the Main
Land, on the West-side whereof there are two or three Towns, but on the
East-side but one. There are very great Marshes or Meadows on both sides
of it, excellent good Land, and good convenience for the setling of
several Towns. There grows black Walnut and Locust, as there doth in
_Virginia_, with mighty, tall, streight Timber, as good as any in the
North of _America_: It produceth any Commodity which _Long-Island_ doth.

_Hudson_’s River runs by _New York_ Northward into the Countrey, towards
the Head of which is seated _New Albany_, a Place of great Trade with
the _Indians_, betwixt which and _New York_, being above a hundred
Miles, is as good Corn-Land as the World affords, enough to entertain
hundreds of Families, which in the time of the _Dutch_ Government of
these Parts could not be setled by reason of the _Indians_, excepting
one Place, call’d _The Sopers_, which was kept by a Garrison, but since
the Reducement of these Parts under His Majesties Obedience, and a
Patent granted to his Royal Highness the Duke of _York_, which is about
six years, by the care and diligence of the Honorable Collonel
_Nichols_, sent thither as Deputy to his Highness, such a League of
Peace was made, and Friendship concluded betwixt that Colony and the
_Indians_, that they have not resisted or disturb’d any _Christians_
there, in the setling or peaceable possessing of any Lands within that
Government, but every Man hath sat under his own Vine, and hath
peaceably reap’d and enjoy’d the Fruits of their own Labors, which God
continue.

[Sidenote: _Raritan-River._]

Westward of _After-skull_ River before mention’d, about eighteen or
twenty Miles, runs in _Raritan_ River Northward into the Countrey some
scores of Miles; both sides of which River are adorn’d with spacious
Meadows, enough to feed thousands of Cattel: The Wood-Land is very good
for Corn, and stor’d with wild Beasts, as Deer, Elks, and an innumerable
multitude of Fowl, as in other parts of the Countrey. This River is
thought very capable for the erecting of several Towns and Villages on
each side of it, no place in the North of _America_ having better
convenience for the maintaining of all sorts of Cattel for Winter and
Summer Food.

Upon this River is no Town setled, onely one at the Mouth of it; but
next to it, Westward, is a Place call’d _Newasons_; where are two or
three Towns and Villages setled upon the Sea-side, but none betwixt that
and _Delaware-Bay_, which is about sixty Miles, all which is a rich
Champain Countrey, free from Stones, and indifferent level, having store
of excellent good Timber, and very well water’d, having Brooks or Rivers
ordinarily, one or more in every Miles travel. This Countrey is peopled
onely with wild Beasts, as Deer, Elks, Bears, and other Creatures, so
that in a whole days Journey you shall meet with no Inhabitants except a
few _Indians_. It is also full of stately Oaks, whose broad-branch’d
tops serve for no other use, but to keep off the Suns heat from the wild
Beasts of the Wilderness, where is Grass as high as a Man’s Middle,
which serves for no other end, except to maintain the Elks and Deer, who
never devour a hundredth part of it, than to be burnt every Spring to
make way for new. How many poor People in the World would think
themselves happy, had they an Acre or two of Land, whilst here is
hundreds, nay thousands of Acres that would invite Inhabitants.

[Sidenote: _Delaware-Bay._]

_Delaware-Bay_, the Mouth of the River, lieth about the mid way betwixt
_New York_ and the _Capes_ of _Virginia_.

The best Commodities for any to carry with them to this Countrey is
Clothing, the Countrey being full of all sorts of Cattel, which they may
furnish themselves withal at an easie Rate, for any sort of _English_
Goods, as likewise Instruments for Husbandry and Building, with Nails,
Hinges, Glass, and the like. They get a Livelihood principally by Corn
and Cattel, which will there fetch them any Commodities: Likewise they
Sowe store of Flax, which they make every one Cloth of for their own
wearing; as also Woollen Cloth, and Linsey-woolsey; and had they more
Tradesmen amongst them, they would in a little time live without the
help of any other Countrey for their Clothing; for Tradesmen there are
none but live happily there, as Carpenters, Blacksmiths, Masons,
Taylors, Weavers, Shoemakers, Tanners, Brickmakers, and so any other
Trade: Them that have no Trade betake themselves to Husbandry, get Land
of their own, and live exceeding well.

We shall conclude our Discourse of this Countrey with a notable
Character given thereof by a late Writer, as to the great advantage of
happy living in all respects, for whosoever shall be pleas’d to betake
himself thither to live.

[Sidenote: The Character of a happy Countrey.]

“If there be any terrestrial happiness (saith he) to be had by any
People, especially of an inferior rank, it must certainly be here. Here
any one may furnish himself with Land, and live Rent-free, yea, with
such a quantity of Land, that he may weary himself with walking over his
Fields of Corn, and all sorts of Grain, and let his Stock amount to some
hundreds; he needs not fear there want of Pasture in the Summer, or
Fodder in the Winter, the Woods affording sufficient supply, where you
have Grass as high as a Man’s Knees, nay, as high as his Waste,
interlac’d with Pea-Vines, and other Weeds that Cattel much delight in,
as much as a Man can pass through: And these Woods also every Mile or
half-Mile are furnish’d with fresh Ponds, Brooks, or Rivers, where all
sorts of Cattel, during the heat of the day, do quench their thirst, and
cool themselves. These Brooks and Rivers being inviron’d of each side
with several sorts of Trees and Grape-Vines, Arbor-like interchanging
places, and crossing these Rivers, do shade and shelter them from the
scorching beams of the Sun. Such as by their utmost Labors can scarcely
get a Living, may here procure Inheritances of Lands and Possessions,
stock themselves with all sorts of Cattel, enjoy the benefit of them
whilst they live, and leave them to their Children when they die. Here
you need not trouble the Shambles for Meat, nor Bakers and Brewers for
Beer and Bread, nor run to a Linnen-Draper for a supply, every one
making their own Linnen, and a great part of their woollen Cloth for
their ordinary wearing. And how prodigal (if I may so say) hath Nature
been to furnish this Countrey with all sorts of wild Beasts and Fowl,
which every one hath an interest in, and may Hunt at his pleasure;
where, besides the pleasure in Hunting, he may furnish his House with
excellent fat Venison, Turkies, Geese, Heath-hens, Cranes, Swans, Ducks,
Pigeons, and the like; and wearied with that, he may go a Fishing, where
the Rivers are so furnish’d, that he may supply himself with Fish before
he can leave off the Recreation. Here one may travel by Land upon the
same Continent hundreds of Miles, and pass through Towns and Villages,
and never hear the least complaint for want, nor hear any ask him for a
Farthing. Here one may lodge in the Fields and Woods, travel from one
end of the Countrey to another, with as much security as if he were
lock’d within his own Chamber: And if one chance to meet with an
_Indian_ Town, they shall give him the best Entertainment they have, and
upon his desire direct him on his Way. But that which adds happiness to
all the rest, is the healthfulness of the Place, where many People in
twenty years time never know what Sickness is; where they look upon it
as a great Mortality, if two or three die out of a Town in a years time.
Besides the sweetness of the Air, the Countrey it self sends forth such
a fragrant smell, that it may be perceiv’d at Sea before they can make
the Land: No evil Fog or Vapor doth any sooner appear, but a North-West
or Westerly Wind immediately dissolves it, and drives it away. Moreover,
you shall scarce see a House, but the South-side is begirt with Hives of
Bees, which increase after an incredible manner: So that if there be any
terrestrial _Canaan_, ’tis surely here, where the Land floweth with Milk
and Honey.”

[Illustration: Noua TERRÆ-MARIÆ, tabula]

[Illustration]



                                   A
                            NEW DESCRIPTION
                                   OF
                               MARY-LAND.


                               SECT. III.

Before We proceed to the Description of this Countrey, it will be first
requisite to relate the true occasion and means, whereby this part of
_America_ came to be erected into a Province, and call’d _Mary-land_.

[Sidenote: The situation.]

In the Year of our Lord 1631. _George_ Lord _Baltemore_ obtain’d of King
_Charles_ the First, of _Great Brittain, &c._ a Grant of that part of
_America_, (first discover’d by the _English_) which lies between the
Degrees of thirty seven and fifty Minutes, or thereabouts, and forty of
Northerly Latitude; which is bounded on the South by _Virginia_; on the
North, by _New England_, and _New Jersey_, part of _New York_, lying on
the East side of _Delaware Bay_; on the East, by the Ocean; and on the
West, by that part of the Continent which lies in the Longitude of the
first Fountains of the River call’d _Patomeck_.

In pursuance of this Grant to his said Lordship, a Bill was prepar’d,
and brought to His Majesty to Sign, who first ask’d his Lordship, what
he should call it, there being a Blank in the Bill designedly left for
the Name, which his Lordship intended should have been _Crescentia_; but
his Lordship leaving it to His Majesty to give it a Name, the King
propos’d to have it call’d _Terra-Mariæ_, in _English_, _Mary-land_, in
honor of his Queen, whose Name was _Mary_; which was concluded on, and
inserted into the Bill, which the King then Sign’d; and thereby the said
Tract of Land was erected into a Province by that Name.

His Lordship somewhat delaying the speedy passing of it under the Great
Seal of _England_, dy’d in the _interim_, before the said Patent was
perfected; whereupon a Patent of the said Province was shortly
afterwards pass’d to his Son and Heir, (who was Christen’d by the Name
of _Cœcil_, but afterwards confirm’d by the Name of _Cœcilius_,) the now
Lord _Baltemore_, under the Great Seal of _England_, bearing Date _June
20. 1632._ in the eighth Year of His said Majesties Reign, with all
Royal Jurisdictions and Prerogatives, both Military and Civil in the
said Province, as Power to Enact Laws, Power of pardoning all manner of
Offences, Power to confer Honors, _&c._ to be held of His said Majesty,
His Heirs and Successors, Kings of _England_ in common Soccage, as of
His Majesties Honor of _Windsor_ in the County of _Berks_ in _England_;
yielding and paying yearly for the same to His Majesty and to His Heirs
and Successors for ever, two _Indian_ Arrows of those parts, at the
Castle of _Windsor_ aforesaid, on Tuesday in _Easter_ Week, and the
fifth part of all Gold and Silver Oar, which shall happen to be found in
the said Province.

[Sidenote: The Bounds.]

“By the said Patent is Granted to his Lordship, his Heirs and Assigns,
all that part of a _Peninsula_, lying in the parts of _America_, between
the Ocean on the East, and the Bay of _Chesapeack_ on the West; and
divided from the other part thereof by a right Line drawn from the
Promontory, or _Cape_ of Land call’d _Watkin’s-Point_, situate in the
aforesaid Bay, near the River of _Wigcho_ on the West, unto the main
Ocean on the East, and between that bound on the South, unto that part
of _Delaware Bay_ on the North, which lies under the fortieth Degree of
Northerly Latitude from the Equinoctial, where _New England_ ends; and
all that Tract of Land between the bounds aforesaid, that is to say,
passing from the aforesaid Bay call’d _Delaware Bay_, in a right Line by
the Degree aforesaid, unto the true _Meridian_ of the first Fountains of
the River of _Patomeck_; and from thence stretching towards the South,
unto the furthest Bank of the said River, and following the West and
South side thereof, unto a certain place call’d _Cinquack_, near the
Mouth of the said River, where it falls into the Bay of _Chesapeack_,
and from thence by a streight Line unto the aforesaid Promontory, or
place call’d _Watkin’s-Point_, which lies in thirty seven Degrees and
fifty Minutes, or thereabouts, of Northern Latitude.”

[Sidenote: Title.]

By this Patent his Lordship and his Heirs and Assigns are Created the
true and absolute Lords and Proprietaries of the said Province, saving
the Allegiance and Soveraign Dominion due to His Majesty, His Heirs, and
Successors; so that he hath thereby a Soveraignty Granted to him and his
Heirs, dependant upon the Soveraignty of the Crown of _England_.

[Sidenote: The first Seating.]

His Lordship, in the Year 1633. sent his second Brother Mr. _Leonard
Calvert_, and his third Brother Mr. _George Calvert_, with divers other
Gentlemen of Quality, and Servants to the number of two hundred Persons
at least, to settle a Plantation there; who set Sail from the _Cowes_ in
the _Isle of Wight_ in _England_, on _Novemb. 22._ in the same Year;
having made some stay by the way, at the _Barbadoes_ and _St.
Christophers_ in _America_, they arriv’d at _Point Comfort_ in
_Virginia_, on _February 24._ following; from whence shortly after they
Sail’d up the Bay of _Chesapeack_, and _Patomeck_ River. And having
review’d the Country, and given Names to several places, they pitch’d
upon a Town of the _Indians_ for their first Seat, call’d _Yoacomaco_,
(now Saint _Maries_) which the then Governor Mr. _Leonard Calvert_,
freely Purchas’d of the Natives there, for the Lord Proprietaries use,
with Commodities brought from _England_.

That which facilitated the Treaty and Purchase of the said place from
the _Indians_, was a resolution which those _Indians_ had then before
taken, to remove higher into the Countrey where it was more Populous,
for fear of the _Sansquehanocks_, (another, and more Warlike People of
the _Indians_, who were their too near Neighbors, and inhabit between
the Bays of _Chesapeack_ and _Delaware_) there being then actual Wars
between them, insomuch, that many of them were gone thither before the
_English_ arriv’d: And it hath been the general practice of his
Lordship, and those who were employ’d by him in the Planting of the said
Province, rather to purchase the Natives Interest, (who will agree for
the same at easie rates) than to take from them by force, that which
they seem to call their Right and Inheritance, to the end all Disputes
might be remov’d touching the forcible Incroachment upon others, against
the Laws of Nature or Nations.

[Sidenote: The number of Inhabitants.]

Thus this Province at the vast Charges, and by the unweary’d Industry
and endeavor of the present Lord _Baltemore_, the now absolute Lord and
Proprietary of the same was at first Planted, and hath since been
supply’d with People and other Necessaries, so effectually, that in this
present Year 1671. the number of _English_ there amounts to fifteen or
twenty thousand Inhabitants, for whose Encouragement there is a
Fundamental Law establish’d there by his Lordship, whereby _Liberty of
Conscience_ is allow’d to all that Profess to believe in _Jesus Christ_;
so that no Man who is a _Christian_ is in danger of being disturb’d for
his Religion; and all Persons being satisfi’d touching his Lordships
Right, as Granted by his Superior Soveraign, the King of _Great
Brittain_, and possess’d by the consent and agreement of the first
_Indian_ Owners, every Person who repaireth thither, intending to become
an Inhabitant, finds himself secure, as well in the quiet enjoyment of
his Property, as of his Conscience.

Mr. _Charles Calvert_, his Lordships onely Son and Heir, was in the Year
1661. sent thither by his Lordship to Govern this Province and People,
who hath hitherto continu’d that Charge of his Lordships Lieutenant
there, to the general satisfaction and encouragement of all Persons
under his Government, or otherwise concern’d in the Province.

The precedent Discourse having given you a short Description of this
Province from its Infancy to this day, together with an account of his
Lordships Patent and Right, by which he holds the same; we will here
speak something of the Nature of the Countrey in general, and of the
Commodities that are either naturally afforded there, or may be procur’d
by Industry.

The Climate is very healthful, and agreeable with _English_
Constitutions; but New-comers have most of them heretofore had the first
year of their Planting there in _July_ and _August_, a Sickness, which
is call’d there _A Seasoning_, but is indeed no other than an Ague, with
cold and hot Fits, whereof many heretofore us’d to die for want of good
Medicines, and accommodations of Diet and Lodging, and by drinking too
much Wine and Strong-waters; though many, even in those times, who were
more temperate, and that were better accommodated, never had any
_Seasonings_ at all; but of late years, since the Countrey hath been
more open’d by the cutting down of the Woods, and that there is more
plenty of _English_ Diet, there are very few die of those Agues, and
many have no _Seasonings_ at all, especially those that live in the
higher parts of the Country, and not near to the Marshes and Salt-water.

In Summer, the heats are equal to those of _Spain_, but qualifi’d daily
about Noon, at that time of the Year, either with some gentle Breezes,
or small Showres of Rain: In Winter there is Frost and Snow, and
sometimes it is extremely cold, insomuch, that the Rivers and the
Northerly part of the Bay of _Chesapeack_ are Frozen, but it seldom
lasts long; and some Winters are so warm, that People have gone in half
Shirts and Drawers only at _Christmas_: But in the Spring and Autumn,
(_viz._) in _March_, _April_, and _May_, _September_, _October_, and
_November_, there is generally most pleasant temperate Weather: The
Winds there are variable, from the South comes Heat, Gusts, and Thunder;
from the North or North-West, cold Weather; and in Winter, Frost and
Snow; from the East and South-East, Rain.

The Soyl is very fertile, and furnish’d with many pleasant and
commodious Rivers, Creeks, and Harbors.

The Country is generally plain and even, and yet distinguish’d with some
pretty small Hills and Risings, with variety of Springs and Rivulets:
The Woods are for the most part free from Underwood, so that a Man may
Travel or Hunt for his Recreation.

The ordinary entrance by Sea into this Country is between two _Capes_,
distant each from the other about seven or eight Leagues; the South
_Cape_ is call’d _Cape Henry_; the North, _Cape Charles_; within the
_Capes_ you enter into a fair _Bay_, Navigable for at least two hundred
Miles, and is call’d _Chesapeack Bay_, stretching it self Northerly
through the heart of the Countrey, which adds much to its Fame and
Value: Into this Bay fall many stately Rivers, the chief whereof is
_Patomeck_, which is Navigable for at least a hundred and forty Miles:
The next Northward, is _Patuxent_, at its entrance distant from the
other about twenty Miles, a River yielding great Profit as well as
Pleasure to the Inhabitants; and by reason of the Islands and other
places of advantage that may Command it, both fit for Habitation and
Defence: Passing hence to the Head of the Bay, you meet with several
pleasant and commodious Rivers, which for brevity we here omit to give
any particular account of: On the Eastern Shore are several commodious
Rivers, Harbors, Creeks, and Islands; to the Northward whereof you enter
into another fair Bay, call’d _Delaware Bay_; wide at its entrance about
eight Leagues, and into which falls a very fair Navigable River.

[Sidenote: The natural Commodities of the Countrey.]

This Countrey yields the Inhabitants many excellent things for Physick
and Chyrurgery; they have several Herbs and Roots which are great
Preservatives against Poyson, as _Snake-Root_, which presently cures the
bitings of the _Rattle-Snake_, which are very Venomous, and are bred in
the Countrey; others that cure all manner of Wounds; they have
_Saxafras_, _Sarsaparilla_, Gums and Balsoms, which Experience (the
Mother of Art) hath taught them the perfect use of.

An _Indian_ seeing one of the _English_ much troubled with the
Tooth-ach, fetch’d a Root out of a Tree, which apply’d to the Tooth,
gave ease immediately to the Party; other Roots they have fit for Dyers,
wherewith the _Indians_ Paint themselves as _Pacoone_ (a deep red,)
_&c._

The Timber of these parts is good and useful for Building of Houses and
Ships, the white Oak for Pipe-staves, the red for Wainscot; there is
likewise black Wall-Nut, Cedar, Pine, and Cypress, Chest-nut, Elme, Ash,
and Popelar, all which are for Building and Husbandry: Fruit-trees, as
Mulberries, _Persimons_, with several kind of Plumbs, and Vines in great
abundance.

Of Strawberries there is plenty, which are ripe in _April_, Mulberries
in _May_, Rasberries in _June_, and the _Maracok_, which is something
like a Lemon, is ripe in _August_. In Spring time there are several
sorts of Herbs, as Corn-sallet, Violets, Sorrel, Purslane, and others
which are of great use to the _English_ there.

In the upper parts of the Countrey are _Buffeloes_, _Elks_, _Tygers_,
_Bears_, _Wolves_, and great store of Deer; as also Beavers, Foxes,
Otters, Flying-Squirils, _Racoons_, and many other sorts of Beasts.

Of Birds, there is the Eagle, Goshawk, Falcon, _Lanner_, Sparrow-hawk,
and _Marlin_; also wild Turkies in great abundance, whereof many weigh
fifty Pounds in weight and upwards, and of Partridge great plenty: There
are likewise sundry sorts of singing Birds, whereof one is call’d a
_Mock-Bird_, because it imitates all other Birds; some are red, which
sing like Nightingales, but much louder; others black and yellow, which
last sort excels more in Beauty than tune, and is by the _English_ there
call’d the _Baltemore-Bird_, because the Colours of his Lordships Coat
of Arms are black and yellow: Others there are that resemble most of the
Birds in _England_, but not of the same kind, for which we have no
names: In Winter there are great plenty of Swans, Cranes, Geese, Herons,
Duck, Teal, Widgeons, Brants, and Pidgeons, with other sorts, whereof
there are none in _England_.

The Sea, the Bays of _Chesapeack_ and _Delaware_, and generally all the
Rivers, do abound with Fish of several sorts; as Whales, Sturgeon,
Thorn-back, Grampuses, Porpuses, Mullets, Trouts, Soules, Plaice,
Mackrel, Perch, Eels, Roach, Shadd, Herrings, Crabs, Oysters, Cockles,
Mussels, _&c._ but above all these, the Fish whereof there are none in
_England_, as _Drums_, _Sheeps-head_, _Cat-fish_, _&c._ are best, except
Sturgeon, which are there found in great abundance, not inferior to any
in _Europe_ for largeness and goodness.

The Minerals may in time prove of very great consequence, though no rich
Mines are yet discover’d there; but there is Oar of several sorts,
_viz._ of Tin, Iron, and Copper, whereof several trials have been made
by curious Persons there with good success.

The Soyl is generally very rich, the Mould in many places black and
rank, insomuch, that it is necessary to Plant it first with _Indian_
Corn, Tobacco, or Hemp, before it is fit for _English_ Grain; under that
is found good _Loam_, whereof has been made as good Brick as any in
_Europe_: There are store of Marsh-grounds for Meadows; great plenty of
Marle, both blue and white; excellent Clay for Pots and Tiles: To
conclude, there is nothing that can be reasonably expected, in a place
lying in the same Latitude with this, but what is either there found
naturally, or may be procur’d by Industry, as Oranges, Lemons, and
Olives, _&c._

[Sidenote: Commodities which are, or may be procur’d by industry.]

We need not here mention _Indian_ Corn, (call’d _Mayz_) Pease and Beans
of several sorts, being the peculiar products Planted by the _Indians_
of that part of _America_.

All sorts of _English_ Grain are now common there, and yield a great
encrease; as Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Pease, Beans, _&c._ good Beer of
Wheat or Barley Malt, after the _English_ Mode, is made, even in the
meanest Families there; Some drink Beer of _Indian_ Corn, others of the
Stalks thereof, or of the Chipps of the _Pockykerry_-Tree, all which
make a sort of fresh and pleasant Drink; but the general Diet of the
Country is now _English_, as most agreeable to their Constitutions.

There are few able Planters there at present, but what are plentifully
supply’d with all sorts of Summer and Winter Fruits; as also of Roots
and Herbs, of all sorts out of their Gardens and Orchards, which they
have Planted for their Profit as well as Pleasure: They have Pears,
Apples, Plumbs, Peaches, _&c._ in great abundance, and as good as those
of _Italy_; so are their Mellons, Pumpions, Apricocks, Cherries, Figgs,
Pomegranates, _&c._ In fine, there is scarce any Fruit or Root that
grows in _England_, _France_, _Spain_, or _Italy_, but hath been try’d
there, and prospers well.

You may have there also Hemp, Flax, Pitch, and Tar, with little labor;
the Soyl is apt for Hops, Rape-seed, Annice-seed, Woad, Madder, Saffron,
_&c._ there may be had Silk-worms, the Country being stor’d with
Mulberry-trees, and the superfluity of the Wood will produce Pot-ashes.

There is a great quantity of Syder made there at present, and as good as
in any other Countrey; good Perry and Quince-drink is there likewise
made in great plenty: The Ground doth naturally bring forth Vines in
great quantities, the quality whereof being something corrected by
Industry, (as there have been several trials thereof already made there)
may no doubt produce good Wine, to the great encouragement and advantage
of the Undertakers.

Brave Ships may be built there with little charge, Clab-board, Wainscot,
Pipe-staves, and Masts for Ships, the Woods will afford plentifully;
some small Vessels have been already built there: In fine, Beef, Furrs,
Hides, Butter, Cheese, Pork, and Bacon, to Transport to other Countreys,
are no small Commodities, which by Industry, are, and may be had there
in great plenty, the _English_ being already plentifully stock’d with
all sorts of Cattel and Horses; and were there no other
Staple-Commodities to be hop’d for, but Silk and Linnen (the materials
of which apparently will grow there) it were sufficient to enrich the
Inhabitants.

But the general Trade of _Mary-land_ at present depends chiefly upon
Tobacco, it being the Planters greatest concern and study to store
himself betimes with that Commodity, wherewith he buys and sells, and
after which Standard all other Commodities receive their Price there;
they have of late vented such quantities of that and other Commodities,
that a hundred Sail of Ships from _England_, _Barbadoes_, and other
_English_ Plantations, have been usually known to Trade thither in one
Year; insomuch, that by Custom and Excize paid in _England_ for Tobacco
and other Commodities Imported from thence, _Mary-land_ alone at this
present, hath by his Lordships vast Expence, Industry, and Hazard for
many years, without any charge to the Crown, improv’d His Majesties, the
King of _Englands_ Revenues, to the value of Forty thousand Pounds
_Sterl. per annum_ at least.

The general way of Traffick and Commerce there is chiefly by Barter, or
Exchange of one Commodity for another; yet there wants not, besides
_English_ and other foraign Coyns, some of his Lordships own Coyn, as
Groats, Sixpences, and Shillings, which his Lordship at his own Charge
caus’d to be Coyn’d and dispers’d throughout that Province; ’tis equal
in fineness of Silver to _English Sterling_, being of the same Standard,
but of somewhat less weight, and hath on the one side his Lordships Coat
of Arms stamp’d, with this Motto circumscrib’d, _Crescite &
Multiplicamini_, and on the other side his Lordships Effigies,
circumscrib’d thus, _Cæcilius Dominus Terræ-Mariæ_, &c.

[Sidenote: The Government.]

The Order of Government and settled Laws of this Province, is by the
Prudence and endeavor of the present Lord Proprietary, brought to great
Perfection; and as his Dominion there is absolute (as may appear by the
Charter aforemention’d) so all Patents, Warrants, Writs, Licenses,
Actions Criminal, _&c._ Issue forth there in his Name: Wars, Peace,
Courts, Offices, _&c._ all in his Name made, held, and appointed.

Laws are there Enacted by him, with the advice and consent of the
General Assembly, which consists of two Estates, namely, the first is
made up by the Chancellor, Secretary, and others of his Lordships
Privy-Council, and such Lords of Mannors, and others as shall be call’d
by particular Writs for that purpose, to be Issu’d by his Lordship: The
second Estate consists of the Deputies and Delegates of the respective
Counties of the said Province, elected and chosen by the free voice and
approbation of the Free-men of the laid respective Counties.

The Names of the Governor and Council in this present Year 1671. are as
followeth, Mr. _Charles Calvert_, his Lordships Son and Heir, Governor;
Mr. _Philip Calvert_, his Lordships Brother, Chancellor; Sir _William
Talbot_ Baronet, his Lordships Nephew, Secretary; Mr. _William Calvert_,
his Lordships Nephew, Muster-Master-General; Mr. _Jerome White_,
Surveyor-General; Mr. _Baker Brooke_, his Lordships Nephew; Mr. _Edward
Lloyd_, Mr. _Henry Coursey_, Mr. _Thomas Trueman_, Major _Edward
Fits-Herbert_, _Samuel Chew Esq._

His Lordship, or his Lieutenant there for the time being, upon due
occasion, Convenes, Prorogues, and Dissolves this Assembly; but
whatsoever is by his Lordships Lieutenant there, with the consent of
both the said Estates Enacted, is there of the same Force and Nature as
an Act of Parliament is in _England_, until his Lordship declares his
dis-assent; but such Laws as his Lordship doth assent unto, are not
afterwards to be Alter’d or Repeal’d but by his Lordship, with the
consent of both the said Estates.

Their chief Court of Judicature is held at St. _Maries_ Quarterly every
Year, to which all Persons concern’d resort for Justice, and is call’d
_The Provincial Court_, whereof the Governor and Council are Judges: To
the Court there doth belong several sworn Attorneys, who constantly are
present there, and act both as Barristers and Attorneys; there are
likewise chief Clerks, Bayliffs, and other Officers, which duly attend
the Court in their respective places.

The Province is divided at present, so far as it is inhabited by
_English_, into Counties, whereof there be ten, _viz._ St. _Maries_,
_Charles_, _Calvert_, _Anne Arandel_, and _Baltemore_ Counties, which
first five lie on the West side of the Bay of _Chesapeack_; on the
Eastern side whereof, commonly call’d _The Eastern-Shore_, lies
_Sommerset_, _Dorchester_, _Talbot_, _Cæcil_, and _Kent Counties_, which
last is an Island lying near the Eastern-shore of the said Bay.

Besides the Provincial Court aforenam’d, there are other inferior
Courts, appointed to be held in every one of the Counties six times in
the year, for the dispatch of all Causes, not relating to Life or
Member, and not exceeding the value of three thousand weight of Tobacco;
the decision of all other Causes being reserv’d to the Provincial or
higher Court before-mention’d, and there lies Appeals from the
County-Courts, to the Provincial Court.

There are Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, and other Officers appointed
by the Lord and Proprietary, or his Lordships Lieutenant for the time
being, in the said respective Counties; and without four Justices, of
which one to be of the _Quorum_, none of the said respective
County-Courts can be held; any of his Lordships Privy Council may sit as
Judge, in any of the said County-Courts, by vertue of his place.

These Courts are appointed to be held at convenient Houses in the said
Counties, which commonly are not far distant from some Inn, or other
House of Entertainment, for accommodation of Strangers; one of the said
six County Courts in each County is held for settling of Widows and
Orphans Estates.

There are Foundations laid of Towns, more or less in each County,
according to his Lordships Proclamation, to that effect Issu’d forth in
the year 1668. In _Calvert County_, about the River of _Patuxent_, and
the adjacent Cliffs, are the Bounds of three Towns laid out, one over
against _Point Patience_, call’d _Harvy Town_, another in
_Battel-Creek_, call’d _Calverton_, and a third upon the Cliffs, call’d
_Herrington_, and Houses already built in them, all uniform, and
pleasant with Streets, and Keys on the Water side. In the County of St.
_Maries_, on the East side of St. _Georges_ River, is the principal and
original Seat of this Province, where the general Assembly, and
Provincial Courts are held, and is call’d St. _Maries_, being erected
into a City by that Name, where divers Houses are already built: The
Governor hath a House there call’d St. _John_’s; the Chancellor Mr.
_Philip Calvert_, his Lordships Brother, hath another, and in this place
is built and kept the Secretaries Office, where all the Records are
kept, all Process, Grants, for Lands, Probates of Wills, Letters of
Administration are issu’d out: the Plat of a Fort and Prison is lately
laid there, upon a point of Land, term’d _Windmil-Point_, from a Windmil
which formerly stood there, the situation is proper, for that it
commands the breadth of the said River of Saint _Georges_; so that when
it is finish’d, all Shipping may safely Ride before the Town, without
the least fear of any sudden Assault, or Attempt of Pirats or other
Enemy whatsoever. This City has formerly been the usual place of abode
for his Lordships Lieutenants, and their Retinue; but of late years the
present Governor, Mr. _Charles Calvert_, hath built himself a fair House
of Brick and Timber, with all Out-houses, and other Offices thereto
belonging, at a place call’d _Mattapany_, near the River of _Patuxent_
before-mention’d, where he and his Family reside, being a pleasant,
healthful, and commodious Seat, about eight Miles by Land distant from
St. _Maries_.

[Sidenote: Of the _Indians_ in _Mary-land_.]

The _Indians_ in _Mary-land_ are a People generally of streight, able,
and well proportion’d Bodies, something exceeding the ordinary pitch of
the _English_, their Complexion Swarthy, their Hair naturally long and
black, without Curle, which generally they cut after some strange
Fantastical Mode; nay, sometimes they Dye it with red and other
preposterous Colours: They Liquor their Skins with Bears Grease, and
other Oyls, which renders them more tawny, and less apt to receive
injury from the Weather: They are subtile from their Infancy, and prone
to learn any thing their Fancy inclines them to, in other things
slothful.

There are as many distinct Nations among them as there are _Indian_
Towns, (which are like Countrey-Villages in _England_, but not so good
Houses) dispers’d throughout the Province: Each Town hath its King (by
them term’d _Werowance_) and every forty or fifty Miles distance differs
much from its Neighbors in Speech and Disposition: The _Sasquahanocks_,
though but few in number, yet much exceed the rest in Valor, and
Fidelity to the _English_; the rest being generally of a more
Treacherous Spirit, and not so stout, and the number of the _English_ do
already exceed all the _Indians_ in the Province.

The _Werowance_ is assisted by Councellors, call’d _Wisoes_, who are
commonly of the same Family, and are chosen at the pleasure of the
_Werowance_: They have Captains in time of War which they term
_Cockorooses_.

Most of their Governments are Monarchical, (except the _Sasquahanocks_,
which is a Re-publick) but for succession they have a peculiar Custom,
that the Issue of the Males never succeed, but the Issue-Male of the
Female succeed in Government, as the surer side: They all submit to, and
are protected by the Lord Proprietaries Government; and in case of any
Assault or Murder, committed on any _English_, the Party offending is
try’d by the Laws of the Province; and in case of any new Election of
King or Emperor among them, they present the Person so Elected to the
Governor for the time being, who as he sees cause, either alters or
confirms their Choice.

In the Year 1663. at the _Indians_ Request, the present Governor Mr.
_Charles Calvert_, and some others of his Lordships Privy-Council there,
went to _Pascatoway_, in this Province, to be present at the Election of
a new Emperor for that Nation: They presented a Youth nam’d
_Nattawasso_, and humbly Requested to have him confirm’d Emperor of
_Pascatoway_, by the Name of _Wahocasso_; which after some charge given
them in general, to be good and faithful Subjects to him, the Governor
accordingly did, and receiv’d him into his Protection.

They pay great Respect and Obedience to their Kings and Superiors, whose
Commands they immediately Execute, though with an apparent hazard of
their Lives.

The Mens chief employment is Hunting, and the Wars, in both which they
commonly use Bowes and Arrows; some of late have Guns and other Weapons,
by a private Trade with some _English_ Neighboring Plantations: They are
excellent Marks-men, it being the onely thing they breed their Youth to:
The Women Plant and look after the Corn, make their Bread, and dress
what Provisions their Husbands bring home. Their way of Marriage is by
agreement with the Womens Parents or Friends, who for a certain Sum of
their Money, or other Goods, deliver her to the Man at a day appointed,
which is commonly spent in jollity.

[Sidenote: Their Money.]

There are two sorts of _Indian_ Money, _Wampompeage_ and _Roanoack_,
these serve among them as Gold and Silver do in _Europe_, both are made
of Fish-shells, which they string like Beads; _Wampompeage_ is the
largest Bead, sixty whereof countervails an Arms length of _Roanoack_,
which is valued at six Pence _Sterling_; with this they purchase
Commodities of the _English_, as Trading-Cloth, _&c._ of which they make
themselves Mantles, which is something shaggy, and is call’d _Dutch
Duffels_; this is their Winter Habit; in Summer they onely wear a narrow
slip of the same to cover those parts, which natural modesty teaches
them to conceal; the better sort have Stockings made thereof, and pieces
of Deer-Skin, stitch’d together about their Feet in stead of Shooes: The
Womens Apparel is the same, but those of the best Quality among them
bedeck themselves with _Wampompeage_ or _Roanoack_, or some other toy.

[Sidenote: Manner of habitation.]

Their Houses are rais’d about the height of a large Arbor, and cover’d
with Barks of Trees very tite, in the middle whereof is the Fire-place,
they lie generally upon Mats of their own making, plac’d round the Fire,
a Woodden-bowl or two, an Earthen Pot, and a Mortar and Pestle, is their
chiefest Houshold-stuff; he that hath his Bowe and Arrows, or Gun, a
Hatchet, and a _Canoo_, (a term they use for Boats) is in their minds
rarely well provided for; each House contains a distinct Family, each
Family hath its peculiar Field about the Town, where they Plant their
Corn, and other sorts of Grain afore-mention’d.

[Sidenote: Civility to the _English_.]

They are courteous to the _English_, if they chance to see any of them
coming towards their Houses, they immediately meet him half-way, conduct
him in, and bid him welcome with the best Cates they have: The _English_
giving them in like manner civil Entertainment, according to their
Quality.

The _Werowance_ of _Patuxent_ having been Treated for some days at St.
_Maries_, by the then Governor, Mr. _Leonard Calvert_, his Lordships
Brother, at his first coming thither to settle that Colony, took his
leave of him with this Expression, _I love the_ English _so well, that
if they should go about to kill me, if I had so much breath as to speak,
I would Command my People not to revenge my death; for I know they would
not do such a thing, except it were through my own default._

In Affairs of concern, they are very considerate, and use few words in
declaring their intentions; for at Mr. _Leonard Calverts_ first arrival
there, the _Werowance_ of _Pascatoway_ being ask’d by him, _Whether he
would be content, that the_ English _should sit down in his Countrey?_
return’d this answer, _That he would not bid him go, neither would he
bid him stay, but that he might use his own discretion._ These were
their expressions to the Governor at his first entrance into
_Mary-land_, whom then they were jealous of, whether he might prove a
Friend or a Neighbor, but by his discreet Demeanor towards them at
first, and friendly usage of them afterwards, they are now become, not
only civil, but serviceable to the _English_ there upon all occasions.

The _Indians_ of the Eastern shore are most numerous, and were formerly
very refractory, whom Mr. _Leonard Calvert_ some few years after his
first settling the Colony, was forc’d to reduce, and of late the Emperor
of _Nanticoke_, and his Men were deservedly defeated by the present
Governor, Mr. _Charles Calvert_, who reduc’d him about the year 1668.
which has since tam’d the ruder sort of the neighboring _Indians_, who
now by experience, find it better to submit and be protected by the Lord
Proprietaries Government, than to make any vain attempt against his
Power.

These People live under no Law, but that of Nature and Reason, which
notwithstanding leads them to the acknowledgement of a Deity, whom they
own to be the Giver of all good things, wherewith their Life is
maintain’d, and to him they Sacrifice the first Fruits of the Earth, and
of that which they acquire by Hunting and Fishing: The Sacrifice is
perform’d by their Priests, who are commonly ancient Men, and profess
themselves Conjurers; they first make a Speech to their God, then burn
part, and eat and distribute the rest among them that are present; until
this Ceremony be ended, they will not touch one bit thereof; they hold
the Immortality of the Soul, and that there is a place of Joy, and
another of Torment after Death, prepar’d for every one according to
their Merits.

They bury their Dead with strange expressions of Sorrow (the better sort
upon a Scaffold, erected for that end) whom they leave cover’d with
Mats, and return when his flesh is consum’d to Interr his Bones; the
common sort are committed to the Earth without that Ceremony; but they
never omit to bury some part of their Wealth, Arms, and Houshold-stuff
with the Corps.


                               SECT. IV.
                               Virginia.

[Sidenote: Situation of _Virginia_.]

[Sidenote: First Discovery.]

The most Southerly part of _Virginia_ (for all that Tract of Land,
reaching from _Norumbega_ to _Florida_, and containing _New-England_,
_New-York_, _Mary-land_, and this part we are now about to Treat of, was
by Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ term’d _Virginia_, in Honor of our Virgin-Queen
_Elizabeth_) lies between _Mary-land_, which it hath on the North, and
_Carolina_, which it hath on the South, from thirty six, to near thirty
eight Degrees of Northern Latitude; and with the rest of those Countries
which were comprehended under the same Denomination, was by the
Encouragement, and at the Expence of the said Sir _Walter Rawleigh_,
first Discover’d (as some say) by Captain _Francis Drake_, for his many
notable and bold Exploits, afterwards Knighted by the Queen: But upon
examination we find little reason to ascribe the first Discovery thereof
to Sir _Francis Drake_, whose chief performances, from the time he first
made himself Eminent at Sea, were against the _Spaniards_, and for the
most part in the _Spanish-Indies_; as his taking of _Nombre de Dios_,
and _Vinta Cruz_, with an infinite mass of Treasure; his taking of
_Santo Domingo_ in _Hispaniola_, and of _Carthagena_ in _Castella Anna_;
and that which seems to have given occasion of attributing to him the
first Discovery of these parts, was his touching upon the North part of
the Isle of _California_, where being nobly Entertain’d by _Hioh_, a
King of that Countrey, and having a Surrendry thereof made to him, in
behalf of the Queen of _England_, he upon a Pillar erected, Inscrib’d
the Arms of _England_, with the Queens Name and his own, and call’d the
place _Nova Albion_: Certain indeed it is, that Sir _Walter Rawleigh_
was the first Promoter of this Discovery; for, after Mr. _Martin
Forbisher_ had been sent by Queen _Elizabeth_ to search for the
North-West Passage, which was in the year 1576. and for which he also
was by the Queen advanc’d to Knight-hood, and nobly rewarded; and Sir
_Humphrey Gilbert_ obtaining the Queens Letters Patents, for attempting
a Plantation, had reach’d _New-found-land_ (though perishing in his
return) he upon these Relations and Inducements undertook by others (for
his employments would not permit him to go in Person) to gain
Discoveries to the Southward; and accordingly in the year of our Lord
1584. obtain’d a Commission from the Queen, to discover and Plant new
Lands in _America_, not actually possess’d by any _Christians_, who,
with the assistance of Sir _Richard Greenvil_, and others, provided two
small Barques, under the Command of Captain _Philip Amidas_, and Captain
_Arthur Barlow_, who setting Sail the 27. of _April_, fell the 2^d of
_July_ following with the Coast of _Florida_, and made Discovery of the
Isle of _Wokokon_, _Roanoack_, and the Continent of _Wingandacoa_, which
they left; and arriving in _England_ about the midst of _September_
following, Her Majesty upon the relation of their Discoveries, was
pleas’d to call this Countrey _Virginia_.

[Illustration: NOVA VIRGINIÆ TABULA]

_April 9. 1585._ Sir _Richard Greenvil_, with seven Sail, and several
Gentlemen, left _Plymouth_; and on _May 26._ Anchor’d at _Wokokon_, but
made their first Seat at _Roanoack_ on _August 17._ following, which
lies in thirty six Degrees of Northerly Latitude, or thereabouts, where
they continu’d till _June 1586._ during which time they made several
Discoveries in the Continent and adjacent Islands; and being endanger’d
by the treachery of the Salvages, return’d for _England_, and Landed at
_Portsmouth_ on _July 27._ following.

Sir _Walter Rawleigh_ and his Associates, in the year 1586. sent a Ship
to relieve that Colony, which had deserted the Countrey some while
before, and were all return’d for _England_ as is before-mention’d.

Some few days after they were gone, Sir _Richard Greenvil_, with three
Ships, arriv’d at the Plantation at _Roanoack_, which he found deserted,
and leaving fifty Men thereto keep Possession of that Countrey, return’d
for _England_.

The year following, Mr. _John White_, with three Ships, came to search
for the fifty _English_ at _Roanoack_, but found them not, they having
been set upon by the Natives, and dispers’d so, as no News could be
heard of them, and in their room left a hundred and fifty more to
continue that Plantation.

In _August 1589._ Mr. _John White_ went thither again, to search for the
last Colony which he had left there; but not finding them, return’d for
_England_ in _Septemb. 6. 1590._

This ill Success made all further Discoveries to be laid aside, till
Captain _Gosnol_ on _March 26. 1602._ set Sail from _Dartmouth_, and on
_May 11._ following, made Land at a place, where some _Biscaners_, as he
guess’d by the Natives information, had formerly fish’d, being about the
Latitude of forty eight Degrees Northerly Latitude; from hence putting
to Sea, he made Discovery of an Island which he call’d _Marthas
Vineyard_, and shortly after of _Elizabeth_’s Isle, and so return’d for
_England_, _June 18._ following.

In the Year 1603. the City of _Bristol_ rais’d a Stock, and furnish’d
out two Barques for Discovery, under the Command of Captain _Martin
Pring_, who about _June 7._ fell with the North of _Virginia_ in the
three and fortieth Degree, found plenty of good Fish, nam’d a place
_Whitson-Bay_, and so return’d.

In the Year 1605. the Right Honorable _Thomas Arundel_ the first, Baron
of _Warder_, and Count of the _Roman_ Empire, set out Captain _George
Waymouth_, with twenty nine Sea-men, and necessary Provisions, to make
what Discoveries he could; who by contrary Winds, fell Northward about
one and forty Degrees and twenty Minutes of Northerly Latitude, where
they found plenty of good Fish; and Sailing further, discover’d an
Island, where they nam’d a Harbor, _Pentecost-Harbor_; and on _July 18._
following, came back for _England_.

In the Year 1606. by the sollicitation of Captain _Gosnol_, and several
Gentlemen, a Commission was granted by King _James_ of _Great Brittain_,
_&c._ for establishing a Council, to direct those new Discoveries;
Captain _Newport_ (a well practic’d Marriner) was intrusted with the
Transportation of the Adventurers in two Ships, and a Pinace, who on
_Decemb. 19. 1606._ set Sail from _Black-wall_, and were by Storm,
contrary to expectation, cast upon the first Land, which they call’d
_Cape Henry_, at the Mouth of the Bay of _Chesapeack_, lying in thirty
seven Degrees, or thereabouts, of Northerly Latitude: Here their Orders
were open’d and read, and eight declar’d of the Council, and impower’d
to chose a President for a year, who with the Council should Govern that
Colony: Till _May 13._ they sought a place to Plant in, Mr. _Winkfield_
was chose the first President, who caus’d a Fort to be rais’d at
_Powhatan_, now call’d _James-Town_: In _June_ following, Captain
_Newport_ return’d for _England_, leaving a hundred Men behind him;
since which time they have been sufficiently supply’d from _England_,
and by the indefatigable Industry and Courage of Captain _John Smith_,
(one of the Council at that time, and afterward President of the Colony)
they made several Discoveries on the Eastern shore, and up to the Head
of the Bay of _Chesapeack_, and of the principal Rivers which fall into
the said Bay.

_Virginia_ being thus Discover’d and Planted, King _James_ by his
Letters Patent bearing Date _April 10._ in the fourth year of his Reign,
1607. Granted Licence to Sir _Thomas Gates_, Sir _George Summers_, and
others, to divide themselves into two several Colonies, for the more
speedy Planting of that Countrey, then call’d _Virginia_, between the
Degrees of thirty four and forty five of North Latitude, that is to say,
taken in that large extent, mention’d in the beginning: The first Colony
to be undertaken by certain Knights, Gentlemen, and Merchants, in, and
about the City of _London_: The second to be undertaken, and advanc’d by
certain Knights, Gentlemen, and Merchants, and their Associates, in, or
about the City of _Bristol_, _Exon_, _Plymouth_, and other parts.

At the first Colonies Request, in the seventh year of the same King, a
second Patent was Granted to several Noblemen and Gentlemen, (including
Sir _Thomas Gates_, and some of his former Fellow-Patentees) bearing
Date _May 23. 1610._ whereby they were made a Corporation, and Body
Politique, and stil’d, _The Treasurer, and Company of Adventurers and
Planters of the City of_ London, _for the first Colony of_ Virginia: And
by this Patent, there was Granted to them, their Successors and Assigns,
two hundred Miles to the Southward, from a _Cape_ of Land in _Virginia_,
call’d _Point Comfort_; and two hundred Miles to the Northward of the
said _Cape_, along the Sea-shore, and into the Land from Sea to Sea.

And on _March 12. 1612._ the said King, in the ninth year of his Reign,
Grants them a third Patent, of all Islands lying in the Sea, within two
hundred Miles of the Shore of that Tract of Land on the Continent,
granted to them by the said former Patent, _Jac. 7._

In the Year 1615. Captain _Smith_ procur’d by his Interest at Court, and
the King’s Favor, a Recommendation from His Majesty, and divers of the
Nobility, to all Cities and Corporations, to Adventure in a standing
Lottery, which was erected for the benefit of this Plantation, which was
contriv’d in such a manner, that of 100000. Pounds which was to be put
in, 50000. onely, or one half was to return to the Adventurers,
according as the Prizes fell out; and the other half to be dispos’d of
for the Promotion of the Affairs of _Virginia_, in which, though it were
three years before it was fully accomplish’d, he had in the end no bad
Success.

In the eighteenth Year of the said King’s Reign, at the Request of the
second Colony, a Patent was Granted to several Noblemen and Gentlemen,
of all that Tract of Land lying in the parts of _America_, between the
Degrees of forty and forty eight of Northerly Latitude, and into the
Land from Sea to Sea, which was call’d by the Patent _New England in
America_: For the better Government whereof, one Body-Politick and
Corporate was thereby appointed and ordain’d in _Plymouth_, consisting
of the said Noblemen, Gentlemen, and others, to the number of forty
Persons, by the Name of _The Council establish’d at_ Plymouth _in the
County of_ Devon, _for the Planting, Ruling, Ordering, and Governing of_
New England _in_ America.

[Sidenote: The Patent of _Virginia_ made void.]

The Miscarriages and Misdemeanors of the aforesaid Corporation for the
first Colony of _Virginia_, were so many and so great, that His said
Majesty was forc’d, in or about _October 1623._ to direct a _Quo
Warranto_, for the calling in of that former Patent, which in _Trinity_
Term following was legally Evinc’d, Condemn’d, and made Void, by
Judgment in the Court of the then _Kings-Bench_; as also all other
Patents, by which the said Corporation claim’d any Interest in
_Virginia_. Thus this Corporation of the first Colony of _Virginia_ was
dissolv’d, and that Plantation hath been since Govern’d and Dispos’d of
by Persons Constituted and Impower’d for that purpose from time to time,
by immediate Commissions from the Kings of _England_.

[Sidenote: The Patent of _Mary-land_ granted to the Lord _Baltemore_.]

In the Year of our Lord 1631. the Right Honorable _George_ Lord
_Baltemore_ obtain’d a Grant of King _Charles_ the First of _Great
Britain_, _&c._ of part of that Land to the Northward, which is now
call’d _Mary-land_; but this Patent of _Mary-land_ was not perfected
till 1632. as you may understand more fully by the precedent Discourse
of _Mary-land_, which by express words in the said Patent is separated
from, and thereby declar’d not to be reputed for the future, any part of
_Virginia_.

[Sidenote: The Patent _Carolina_ granted to several Noble Persons.]

And in the fifteenth Year of the Reign of King _Charles_ the Second of
_Great Britain_, _&c._ on _March 24. 1663._ _Edward_ Earl of
_Clarendon_, then High-Chancellor of _England_, _George_ Duke of
_Albemarle_, _William_, now Earl of _Craven_, _John_ Lord _Berkley_,
_Anthony_ Lord _Ashley_, Sir _George Carterett_ Knight and Baronet, Sir
_William Berkley_ Knight, and Sir _John Colleton_ Knight and Baronet,
obtain’d a Patent from His Majesty, of the Province of _Carolina_, which
lies to the Southward of _Virginia_, in which is included some part of
that Land which formerly belong’d to the said dissolv’d Company of
_Virginia_. So that _Virginia_ at present extendeth it self onely, and
is situated between thirty six and thirty seven Degrees and fifty
Minutes, or thereabouts, of Northern Latitude, and is bounded on the
North, by _Mary-land_; on the South, by _Carolina_; on the East, by the
Ocean; and on the West, by the South-Seas.

[Sidenote: Rivers of _Virginia_.]

The Entrance by Sea into this Countrey is the same with that of
_Mary-land_, between _Cape Henry_ and _Cape Charles_, plac’d on each
side of the Mouth of the Bay of _Chesapeak_; on the West side whereof
you first meet with a pleasant and commodious River call’d
_James-River_, about three Miles wide at its Entrance, and Navigable a
hundred and fifty.

Fourteen Miles from this River Northward lies _York-River_, which is
Navigable sixty or seventy Miles, but with Ketches and small Barques
thirty or forty Miles farther.

Passing hence to the North you discover a third stately River, call’d
_Rappahanock_, which is Navigable about a hundred and thirty Miles—from
whence following the Shore to the North you enter into _Patomeck-River_,
which is already describ’d in the precedent Discourse of _Mary-land_, to
which Province this River belongs, whose Southerly Bank gives Bounds to
that part of _Virginia_ and _Mary-land_.

To these Rivers many other Inland Branches and Rivulets are reduc’d, the
chief of which are hereafter specifi’d.

[Sidenote: Nature of the Countrey.]

The Countrey is generally even, the Soil fruitful, the Climate
healthful, and agreeable with _English_ Constitutions, especially since
the increase of Inhabitants, and accommodation of good Diet and Lodging,
which the first Planters found great want of heretofore. For many years,
till of late, most New-comers had the first Year in _July_ and _August_,
a Disease which is call’d _A Seasoning_, whereof many died, like to what
is mention’d before in the Description of _Mary-land_, though more
mortal and common than in _Mary-land_, because _Virginia_ is a lower
Countrey, and somewhat hotter, insomuch that formerly divers ill of that
Distemper have come purposely from _Virginia_ to _Mary-land_, to recover
their Health; but now, since the Countrey is more open and clear from
Wood, few die of it, and many have no _Seasonings_ at all.

This Countrey affordeth generally all such Roots, Herbs, Gums, and
Balsoms, as are express’d before in the Relation of _Mary-land_.

[Sidenote: Trees]

All sorts of Trees for Building and Husbandry, Fruit-Trees, Vines, _&c._
are found in both Countreys, equal in goodness and quantity, onely in
such things as require more Sun, and that may be produc’d by Industry,
there may be some little difference, because _Virginia_ is somewhat more
to the Southward of _Mary-land_, as in Vines, Oranges, Lemmons, Olives,
Silk, _&c._

[Sidenote: Silk-Grass.]

There is a Plant grows naturally in this Countrey, and in _Mary-land_,
call’d _Silk-Grass_, which will make a fine Stuff with a silky Gloss,
and better Cordage than Hemp or Flax, both for strength and durance.

[Sidenote: Fruits peculiar to _Virginia_.]

The wild Beasts, Birds, and Fish, are much the same also in this
Countrey as are before describ’d in the precedent Description of
_Mary-land_: Nevertheless we shall think it proper not to omit some
Fruits, Plants, Beasts, _&c._ mention’d by the most authentick
Describers of _New England_, as peculiar to that Countrey. The Fruits
are, their _Putchamines_, which are a kind of Damsons; _Messamines_, a
kind of Grapes; _Chechinquamins_, a sort of Fruit resembling a Chesnut;
_Rawcomens_, a Fruit resembling a Goose-berry; _Macoquer_, a kind of
Apple; _Mettaquesunnauks_, a sort of Fruit resembling _Indian_ Figs;
_Morococks_, resembling a Straw-berry, besides a Berry which they call
_Ocoughtanamnis_, somewhat like to Capers.

[Sidenote: Roots.]

Their peculiar Roots are _Tockawaugh_, good to eat; _Wichsacan_, of
great vertue in healing of Wounds; _Pocones_, good to asswage Swellings
and Aches; _Musquaspen_, wherewith they Paint their Targets and Mats.
Also they have in great request a Pulse call’d _Assentamen_, and the
Plant _Mattouna_, of which they make Bread.

[Sidenote: Beasts.]

Their peculiar Beasts are, the _Aroughena_, resembling a Badger; the
_Assapanick_ or _Flying-Squerril_; _Opassum_, a certain Beast having a
Bag under her Belly, wherein she carrieth and suckleth her Young;
_Mussascus_, which smelling strong of Musk, resembleth a Water-Rat;
_Utchunquois_, a kind of wild Cat.

Their peculiar Fish are _Stingrais_.

[Sidenote: Rivulets.]

On the West side of the Bay of _Chesapeak_, between _Cape Henry_ and the
Southerly Bank of the River of _Patomeck_, are three fair Navigable
Rivers, as is before mention’d, into which the other small Rivulets
fall, which here we will give some account of, as also of the _Indian_,
or antient Names by which these three principal Rivers were formerly
known. The first whereof is _Powhatan_ (now call’d _James-River_)
according to the Name of a large and considerable Territory that lieth
upon it. The Rivers that fall into this Southward, are _Apamatuck_;
Eastward, _Quiyonycohanuc_, _Nansamund_, and _Chesapeak_; and Northward,
_Chickamahania_.

The second Navigable River is _Pamaunkee_, by the _English_ now term’d
_York-River_. The Rivulet that falls into this is _Poyankatanck_.

The third (which is before describ’d, and usually known by the Name of
_Rappahanoc_) was formerly term’d _Toppahanoc_.

This we thought fit here to insert, to the end no colour of mistake
might remain to after Ages concerning the derivation or original change
of such proper Names, especially being Places of great advantage to the
Colony.

[Sidenote: Several People of the ancient natives of _Virginia_.]

The chiefest of those Tribes or Divisions of People among the _Indians_,
that were by Name known to the _English_ at their first arrival, were
upon the River _Pouhatan_ the _Kecoughtans_, the _Paspaheges_, (on whose
Land is seated _James-Town_) the _Weanocks_, the _Arrohatocks_, the
_Appametocks_, the _Nansamunds_, the _Chesapeacks_, &c. On the River
_Pamaunkee_, are the _Youngtanunds_, the _Mattapaments_, &c. On the
River _Toppahanoc_, the _Manahoacks_, the _Moraghtacunds_, and the
_Cuttatawomens_. On the River _Patawomek_, the _Wighcocomocans_, the
_Onawmanients_, and the _Moyanances_. On the River _Pawtuxunt_, the
_Acquintacsuacs_, the _Pawtuxunts_, and the _Matapunients_. On the River
_Bolus_, the _Sasquesahanoes_: Southward from the Bay, the _Chawonocks_,
the _Mangoacks_, the _Monacans_, the _Mannahocks_, the _Masawomeks_, the
_Atquanahucks_, and the _Kuscarawaocks_, besides a number not material
to be nam’d, as having had little of Transaction that we hear of with
the Planters.

[Sidenote: Number of Inhabitants.]

The number of _English_ Inhabitants in this Country are in this present
Year 1671. about thirty or forty thousand, who are plentifully stock’d
with all sorts of tame Cattel, as Cows, Sheep, Horses, Swine, _&c._ and
all sorts of _English_ Grain; great store of brave Orchards for Fruit,
whereof they make great quantities of Cyder and Perry.

They have been much oblig’d by that worthy Gentleman Mr. _Edward
Digges_, Son of Sir _Dudley Digges_, who was Master of the Rolls, and a
Privy Councellor to King _Charles_ the First, of _Great Britain_, _&c._
For the said Mr. _Digges_ at his great Charge and Industry, hath very
much advanc’d the making of Silk in this Countrey, for which purpose he
hath sent for several Persons out of _Armenia_ to teach them that Art,
and how to wind it off the Cods of the Silk-worms; and hath made at his
own Plantation in this Colony for some years last past, considerable
quantities of Silk, which is found to be as good Silk as any is in the
World, which hath encourag’d divers others to prosecute that Work.

[Sidenote: The Commodities of _Virginia_.]

Though this Countrey be capable of producing many other good
Commodities, yet the Planters have hitherto imploy’d themselves for the
most part in Planting of Tobacco, as they do in _Mary-Land_; whereof
there are two sorts, one which is call’d _Sweet-scented_, and the other
call’d _Oranoack_, or _Bright and Large_, which is much more in
quantity, but of lesser price than the former; and the Plantations upon
_York River_ are esteem’d to produce the best of that sort of
_Sweet-scented_: There is so much of this Commodity Planted in
_Virginia_, and Imported from thence into _England_, that the Custom and
Excise paid in _England_ for it, yields the King about fifty or
threescore thousand Pounds _Sterling_, _per annum_: With this Commodity
the Planters buy of the Ships that come thither for it (which are above
a hundred Sail yearly from _England_, and other _English_ Plantations)
all Necessaries of Clothing, and other Utensils of Houshold-stuff, _&c._
which they want, though they make some Shoes, and Linnen and Woollen
Cloth in some Parts of _Virginia_, of the growth and Manufacture of the
Countrey; and if they would Plant less Tobacco (as it is probable they
will e’re long find it convenient for them to do, it being now grown a
Drug of very low value, by reason of the vast quantities planted of it)
they might in time provide themselves all Necessaries of Livelyhood, and
produce richer and more Staple-Commodities for their Advantage.

Their usual way of Trafique in buying and selling is by exchange of one
Commodity for another; and Tobacco is the general Standard, by which all
other Commodities receive their value; but they have some _English_ and
foreign Coyns, which serve them upon many occasions.

The Government is by a Governor and Council, Appointed and Authoriz’d
from time to time by immediate Commission from the King of _Great
Brittain_: And Laws are made by the Governor, with the consent of a
General Assembly, which consists of two Houses, an Upper and a Lower;
the first consists of the Council, and the latter of the Burgesses
chosen by the Freemen of the Countrey; and Laws so made are in Force
till His Majesty thinks fit to alter them.

The chief Court of Judicature is call’d _The Quarter-Court_, because it
is held every quarter of a Year, where all Causes Criminal and Civil are
heard and determin’d, and the Judges of this Court are the Governor and
Council: The present Governor in this Year 1671. is Sir _William
Berkley_, who was made Governor by King _Charles_ the First, of _Great
Brittain, &c._ in the Year 1640. And those of the Council are Sir _Henry
Chichesly_, who is one of the greatest and most considerable Planters
there, and Mr. _Edward Diggs_ before-mention’d, Mr. _Thomas Ludwel_
Secretary, Major-General _Robert Smith_, and divers other worthy
Gentlemen.

That Part of the Country where the _English_ are Planted, is divided
into nineteen Counties, _viz._ _Northampton-County_ in _Acomack_, on the
Eastern shore; and on the Western shore, _Corotuck_, _Lower-Norfolk_,
_Nansemund_, _Isle of Wight_, _Surry_, _Warwick_, _Henerico_, _James_,
_Charles_, _York_, _New-Kent_, _Glocester_, _Middlesex_, _Lancaster_,
_Northumberland_, _Westmoreland_, _Rappahanock_, and _Harford-Counties_.

In every one of these Counties there are inferior County-Courts kept
every Month; these take no Cognizance of Causes relating to Life or
Member, or exceeding a certain limited Value, such being refer’d to the
Quarter-Courts only, to which likewise there lie Appeals from their
Inferior Courts.

There are Sheriffs, Justices of the Peace, and other Officers in every
respective County, appointed by the Governor, for the Administration of
Justice, who sit there according to his Order, and whereof these
County-Courts are chiefly compos’d.

There are few Towns as yet erected in this Colony; the Principal Seat of
the _English_ there, is at a Place call’d _James-City_, in Honor of King
_James_ of _Great Brittain, &c._ This is situated in a _Peninsula_, on
the North-side of _James River_, and has in it many fair Brick and other
good Houses: In this place are held the Quarter-Courts, General
Assemblies, the Secretaries Office, and all other Affairs and greatest
Concerns of the Colony are here dispatch’d. On the same side, nearer the
Mouth of this River, stands _Elizabeth-City_, containing also several
good Houses of Brick and Timber.

Sir _William Berkley_, the present Governor resides at a place somewhat
distant from _James-City_, call’d _Green-spring_, a fair Brick House,
which he himself caus’d to be Built.

The other Towns of Note belonging to the _English_, are only
_Henricopolis_, or _Henry’s-Town_ (so nam’d from Prince _Henry_ then
living, built in a very convenient place, more within Land, about eighty
Miles distant from _James-City_) and _Dale’s-Gift_, so nam’d from Sir
_Thomas Dale_ Deputy-Governor of the Countrey, about the Year 1610.

The _Indians_ of _Virginia_ far exceed those of _Mary-land_, in
Treachery and Cruelty to the _English_ there, as will appear by this
following Relation of their Proceedings towards them, since the first
Seating of that Colony, wherein nevertheless, the Civility of some
particular Persons at their first Landing is not to be omitted.

[Sidenote: Transactions between the _English_ and the Natives.]

Upon the first arrival of Captain _Amidas_ and Captain _Barlow_ in
_Wingandacoa_, now _Virginia_, they were accosted by _Granganimeo_ (the
King’s Brother of that Countrey) who, attended with a Train of forty or
fifty Men, came in a very civil manner to Treat about a Commerce of
Trade and Traffique, which immediately began between them, and several
Barters were made: _Granganimeo_, who was very just of his word, and
always kept his promis’d Day of meeting, fancying most a Pewter Dish,
gave twenty Deer-skins for it, and boring a Hole therein, hung it about
his Neck for a Breast-plate; afterwards he, with his whole Company, and
his Wife and Children, frequently and familiarly did eat and drink
aboard the _English_ Ships, the King himself call’d _Wingina_, lying
sick at his chief Town, six days Journy off, of a dangerous Wound which
he had receiv’d from a neighboring King his mortal Enemy. Some of the
_English_ going to Land upon the Isle of _Roanoack_, were met by
_Granganimeo_’s Wife, who, her Husband being absent, commanded her
Servants some to draw their Boat ashore, some to carry them on their
Backs to Land, others to carry their Oars into the House for fear of
stealing; and having caus’d a great Fire to be made to warm them, and to
dry those that had been wet in their Voiage, she afterwards entertain’d
them with a plentiful Feast or Banquet after that Country fashion; and
when they took alarm at the coming of two or three of her Men with Bows
and Arrows, she caus’d the Bows to be broken, and the Men to be beaten
out of the House, besides several other demonstrations of extraordinary
civility; and when not withstanding all this they could not be perswaded
to Lodg any where but in their Boat, she us’d all means imaginable to
make them quit their Jealousy, and accept of a Lodging in the House.

In the Year 1585. a Company that went over with Sir _Richard Greenvil_,
burnt the Town of _Aquascogoc_, for a Silver Cup that was stoln by some
of the _Indians_, took Prisoner _Menatonon_, King of _Chawonoc_, who
gave Relation of a King about three days Journy off, who possess’d an
Island rich in Pearl, which was taken in a deep Water that inviron’d it.
Going towards the Countrey of the _Mangoacks_ (among whom in the
Province of _Chaunis Temaotan_, they heard of a Mine of strange Copper
call’d _Wassador_, with _Skiko_, the King of _Chawonock_’s Son, and
_Manteo_, a faithful Salvage, for their Guide) they were treacherously
dealt with by _Wingina_, alias _Pemissapan_ (for so, his Brother
_Granganimeo_ being lately dead, he had alter’d his Name) who endeavor’d
to stir up a Confederacy of the _Chawonocks_, _Moratocks_, and
_Mangoacks_ against them; yet by the urgent perswasions of _Ensenore_
his Father, the truest Friend the _English_ had, after the death of
_Granganimeo_, and seeing them safe return’d from their Journey, wherein
he thought they had all perish’d, and especially upon _Menatonon_’s
sending Messengers to them with Pearl, and _Okisco_ King of
_Weopomeock_, to yield himself Vassal to the Queen of _England_, his
Hatred was somewhat cool’d; but _Ensenore_ deceasing soon after, he
return’d to his old treacherous Practices again, and in the end, while
he was contriving Mischief against the Planters, he himself was shot,
taken Prisoner, and beheaded.

After the Company left upon _Virginia_ by Sir _Richard Greenvil_, (for
he himself was return’d) tir’d out with hunger, hardship, and the many
extremities they were at last reduc’d to, had deserted the Place, and
obtain’d passage for _England_, through the civility of Sir _Francis
Drake_, pitying their distress, fifty Men more were Landed upon
_Roanoack-Isle_, by the same Person, who how they were surpris’d and
destroy’d by the Natives, was discover’d at large to the Supply that was
sent over in the Year 1587. by Mr. _White_.

A small Party under Captain _Smith_ going down the River to
_Keconghean_, were very fiercely assaulted by sixty or seventy
_Indians_, but their Musquet-shot did such Execution amongst them, that
they fled into the Woods and left behind them the Image of their God,
which had been carry’d before them as their Standard, and not long after
sent one of their _Queiongcasocks_ to offer Peace, and to redeem their
_Okee_; which _Smith_ granting, on condition six onely of them would
come unarm’d and load his Boat with Provisions; and promising more over
to become their Friend, and furnish them with Beads, Copper, and
Hatchets: They accepted the Condition, and brought him Venison, Turkies,
wild Fowl, Bread, and what else they had, Singing and Dancing in sign of
Friendship till they departed.

In his next Voyage for the discovery of the Head of _Chickamahania_
River, he was, through the neglect of his Sea-men who were sent to watch
the Booty, taken Prisoner; in which condition he was kept a whole Month:
then being releas’d, he got Provisions for the People in _James-Town_;
which had they not timely receiv’d, they had all abandon’d the Place,
and return’d to _England_.

[Sidenote: King _Powhatan_.]

[Sidenote: _James-Town_ burnt.]

While Affairs stood thus in a mean condition, Captain _Newport_ arriving
there with a Ship and sixty Men to strengthen the Plantations, he went
to _Weromocomoco_, where King _Powhatan_ kept his Court, and found him
sitting on a Bed of Mats, and an Embroider’d Leather Cushion, Cloth’d in
Deer-skins; at his Feet sat a young Maiden, and on each side of the
House twenty Concubines; his Head and Shoulders painted red, and a Chain
of white Beads about his Neck. _Newport_ to oblige him, gave him an
_English_ Youth; for which he receiv’d _Powhatans_ Friend _Mamontak_;
with whom returning, he found a sad accident, for the Fire had not onely
burnt the Houses of the new Planters, but also the Pallisado’s about
_James-Town_, made for a Defence against the Enemies Assaults, and most
of their Store; which was so much the worse, because it hapned in the
Winter, and indeed had prov’d very fatal, had not a Ship, which was
suppos’d to be lost, happily arriv’d there with a considerable quantity
of Provisions.

[Sidenote: _Smith_’s Voyage.]

[Sidenote: His remarkable Exploits.]

Whilst the Town was rebuilding, _Smith_ set Sail in an open Barque with
fourteen Men, and discover’d two Isles before _Point Charles_, to which
he gave his Name; then ran into the Inlet _Chesapeack_, in the midst of
which lay several Islands, by the Sea-men call’d _Russels_. Before the
River _Wighcomoco_ they found a disturbed Sea, and more Northerly a Bay
with fresh and hot Water, and at last he met with two _Virginians_,
which conducted the _English_ along a Creek to _Onawmoment_, where some
hundreds of them lay in Ambuscade, according to _Powhatan_’s
appointment, to cut off _Smith_; who leaping forth on a sudden appear’d
like Devils, all painted; but the Bullets flying about made them all run
away. _Smith_, whose Design was onely to discover the Countrey, and the
Silver Mine of _Patawomeck_, ten Leagues up into the Countrey, found the
Metal to be of little value, so that he return’d with little Success,
being newly cur’d of a poysonous Wound in the Arm, which was given him
by a Fish not unlike a Shark, whilst he lay aground near _Toppahanock_.

A while after being inform’d of _Powhatan_’s Design to destroy the
_English_, (though he had been lately Presented by _Newport_ with a
Silver Basin, a rich Chair, Bed, and Furniture belonging to it, with
other things of value) he, to prevent him, chose forty eight out of two
hundred Men which were Garrison’d in _James-Town_, then going to
_Werowocomoco_, Landed with much trouble, the River being frozen above
half a Mile from the Shore.

A _German_ Soldier amongst _Smith_’s Company giving private notice to
_Powhatan_ of the Design of the _English_, made his Escape by flight:
But _Smith_ going on to _Pamaunke_, found King _Opechancangough_ with
seven hundred Men in Arms, threatning a fierce Battel; but _Smith_
making directly up to him, set his Pistol on his Breast, and forc’d him
to lay down his Arms. _Powhatan_ by this time provided with Swords and
Musquets by two _Dutch_-men, also began to bestir himself afresh; but
his Intentions being too soon known, he was again quieted, and forc’d a
second time to send _Smith_ a String of Pearl; after which a Peace was
concluded between all the Natives and the _English_.

Many other Quarrels and Encounters there were in the Infancy of the
Plantation between the _Indians_ and the _English_, wherein it would be
endless to recount all the Treacheries and Ambuscades of the Salvages,
some of which had prov’d very pernicious to the Planters, had they not
been betray’d to Captain _Smith_ by _Pocahonta_, King _Powhatan_’s
Daughter, who upon all occasions shew’d her self a great Friend to the
_English_, having sav’d the Captain’s Life, when, being her Father’s
Prisoner, he was just brought to Execution.

This Lady was afterwards brought into _England_, Christned by the Name
of _Rebekah_, and Married to one Mr. _Rolf_, and died at _Gravesend_ in
an intended Voyage back to her own Countrey.

Nor did their Cruelties and Treacheries end when the Plantation came to
be more setled, for on the two and twentieth of _March_ about the Year
1621. in the time of Sir _Francis Wyat_’s Government, they generally
combin’d to destroy all the _English_ there; and carried on this
devilish Design with such dissimulation and dexterity, that in one day
they cut off seven hundred Men, Women, and Children, there being at that
time not above fifteen hundred in the Countrey.

Since which time, in the Year of our Lord 1643. there hapned another
bloody Massacre, wherein near five hundred _English_ were in one Night
miserably butcher’d by those barbarous and perfidious Salvages: whose
Blood the present Governor, Sir _William Berkley_, nobly and justly
reveng’d the Year following, utterly destroying most of them, and taking
Prisoner their chief Emperor, _Opichancono_, who died not long after in
Prison.

Having given but a small hint, in its proper place, of the Story of
Captain _Smith_’s Imprisonment by _Powhatan_, and his deliverance from
Death by _Pocahonta_; we have thought not improper to reserve the Story
of it, being very remarkable for a particular Relation, before we
conclude our Description of _Virginia_, since otherwise we should have
interrupted the Series of our former Discourse.


 _The Relation of Captain_ Smith_’s being taken Prisoner by_ Powhatan,
   _and of his being deliver’d from Death by his Daughter_ Pocahonta.

The Salvages having drawn from one _George Cassen_, whither Captain
_Smith_ was gone, prosecuting that opportunity, they follow’d him with
three hundred Bowe-Men, conducted by the King of _Pamaunkee_, who in
divisions, searching the turnings of the River, found two of his Men by
the fire side, whom they shot full of Arrows, and flew. Then finding the
Captain, who, as is said, us’d the Salvage that was his Guide as his
Shield, (three of them being slain, and others sore gall’d) the rest
would not come near him: Thinking thus to have return’d to his Boat,
regarding them as he march’d, more than his way, he slipp’d up to the
middle in an Osier-Creek, and his Salvage with him, yet durst they not
come to him, till being near dead with cold, he threw away his Arms:
Then according to their composition, they drew him forth, and led him to
the Fire, where his Men were slain; diligently they chaf’d his benumm’d
Limbs, he demanding for their Captain, they shew’d him _Opechankanough_,
King of _Pamaunkee_, to whom he gave a round Ivory double compass Dyal.
Much they marvel’d at the playing of the Fly and Needle, which they
could see so plainly, and yet not touch it, because of the Glass that
cover’d them; but when he demonstrated by that Globe-like Jewel, the
roundness of the Earth, and Skies; the Sphere of the Sun, Moon, and
Stars, and how the Sun did chase the Night round about the World
continually; the greatness of the Land and Sea; the diversity of
Nations, variety of Complexions, and how we were to them _Antipodes_,
and many other such like matters, they all stood as amaz’d with
admiration: Notwithstanding, within an hour after they ty’d him to a
Tree, and as many as could stand about him prepar’d to shoot him; but
the King holding up the Compass in his Hand, they all laid down their
Bowes and Arrows, and in a triumphant manner led him to _Orapaks_, where
he was after their manner kindly Feasted, and well us’d.

Their order in conducting him was thus; Drawing themselves all in Fyle,
the King in the midst had all their Bowes and Swords borne before him.
Captain _Smith_ was led after him by three great Salvages, holding him
fast by each Arm; and on each side six went in Fyle with their Arrows
nocked. But arriving at the Town (which was but onely thirty or forty
Hunting Houses made of Mats, which they remove as they please, as we our
Tents) all the Women and Children staring and gazing at him, the
Souldiers first all in Fyle wheel’d off to the Rear in good Order; on
each Flank were Officers, like Serjeants to see them keep their
Postures: A good time they continu’d this Exercise, and then cast
themselves in a Ring, Dancing in such several Postures, and singing and
yelling out such hellish Notes and Screeches; being strangely Painted,
every one his Quiver of Arrows, and at his Back a Club; on his Arm a Fox
or an Otters-skin, or some such matter for his vambrace; their Heads and
Shoulders Painted red, with Oyl and _Pocones_ mingled together, which
Scarlet-like colour, made an exceeding handsome show; his Bowe in his
Hand, and the Skin of a Bird with her Wings abroad dry’d, ty’d on his
Head, a piece of Copper, a white Shell, a long Feather, with a small
Rattle growing at the Tails of their Snaks ty’d to it, or some such like
Toy. All this while _Smith_ and the King stood in the midst, guarded, as
before is said, and after three Dances they all departed. _Smith_ they
conducted to a long House, where thirty or forty tall Fellows did guard
him, and e’re long, more Bread and Venison was brought him than would
have serv’d twenty Men, I think his Stomack at that time was not very
good; what he left, they put in Baskets and ty’d over his Head. About
midnight they set the Meat again before him; all this time none of them
would eat a bit with him, till the next Morning they brought him as much
more, and then did they eat all the old, and reserv’d the new as they
had done the other, which made him think they would feed him for
slaughter: Yet in this desperate estate to fend him from the cold, one
_Maocassater_ brought him his Gown, in requital of some Beads and Toys
_Smith_ had given him at his first arrival in _Virginia_.

Two days after a man would have slain him (but that the Guard prevented
it) for the death of his Son, to whom they conducted him to recover the
poor man then breathing his last. _Smith_ told them, that at
_James-Town_ he had a Water would do it, if they would let him fetch it,
but they would not permit that; but made all the preparations they could
to assault _James-Town_, craving his advice, and for recompence he
should have Life, Liberty, Land, and Women. In part of a Tablebook he
writ his mind to them at the Fort, what was intended, how they should
follow that direction to affright the messengers, and without fail send
him such things as he writ for, and an Inventory with them. The
difficulty and danger, he told the Salvages, of the Mines, great Guns,
and other Engines, exceedingly affrighted them, yet according to his
Request they went to _James-Town_, in as bitter weather as could be of
Frost and Snow, and within three days return’d with an Answer.

But when they came to _James-Town_, seeing Men sally out as he had told
them they would, they fled; yet in the night they came again to the same
place where he had told them they should receive answer, and such things
as he had promis’d them, which they found accordingly, and with which
they return’d with no small expedition, to the wonder of them all,
supposing that he could either Divine, or the Paper could speak: then
they led him to the _Youthtanunds_, the _Mattapanients_, the
_Payankatanks_, the _Nantaughtacunds_, and _Onawmanients_ upon the
Rivers of _Rapahanock_, and _Patawomek_, through intricate ways, and
back again by divers other several Nations, to the Kings Habitation at
_Pamaunkee_, where they entertain’d him with most strange and fearful
Conjurations. Not long after, early in the Morning, a great fire was
made in a long House, and a Mat spread on each side thereof; on the one
they caus’d him to sit, and all the Guard went out of the House, and
presently there came skipping in a great grim Fellow, all Painted over
with Coal, mingled with Oyl; and many Snakes and Wesels-skins stuff’d
with Moss, and all their Tails ty’d together, so as they met on the
Crown of his Head in a Tassel; and round about the Tassel was a Coronet
of Feathers, the Skins hanging round about his Head, Back, and
Shoulders, and in a manner cover’d his Face; with a hellish voice, and a
Rattle in his Hand. With most strange gestures and passions he began his
Invocation, and environ’d the fire with a Circle of Meal; which done,
three more such like Devils came rushing in with the like antique
Tricks, Painted half black, half red; but all their Eyes were Painted
white, and some red strokes like _Mutchato_’s, along their Cheeks: round
about him those Fiends Danc’d a pretty while, and then came in three
more as ugly as the rest, with red Eyes, and white strokes over their
black Faces; at last they all sate down right against him, three of them
on the one hand of the chief Priest, and three on the other; then all
with their Rattles began a Song, which ended, the chief Priest laid down
five Wheat Corns, then stretching his Arms and Hands with such violence,
that he sweat, and his Veins swell’d, he began a short Oration: at the
conclusion, they all gave a short groan, and then laid down three Grains
more; after that, began their Song again, and then another Oration, ever
laying down so many Corns as before, till they had twice incircled the
Fire; that done, they took a bunch of little Sticks, prepared for that
purpose, continuing still their Devotion, and at the end of every Song
and Oration, they laid down a Stick between the Divisions of Corn: till
night, neither he nor they did either eat or drink, and then they
feasted merrily, with the best Provisions they could make: Three days
they us’d this Ceremony, the meaning whereof they told him, was to know
if he intended them well, or no. The Circle of Meal signifi’d their
Countrey, the Circles of Corn the bounds of the Sea, and the Sticks his
Countrey. They imagin’d the World to be flat and round, like a Trencher,
and they in the midst. After this they brought him a Bag of Gun-powder,
which they carefully preferv’d till the next Spring, to Plant as they
did their Corn, because they would be acquainted with the nature of that
Seed. _Opitchapam_, the King’s Brother, invited him to his House, where,
with as many Platters of Bread, Fowl, and wild Beasts, as did environ
him, he bid him wellcome, but not any of them would eat a bit with him,
but put up all the remainder in Baskets. At his return to
_Opechancanoughs_, all the Kings Women, and their Children, flock’d
about him for their Parts, as a due by Custom, to be merry with such
Fragments.

At last, they brought him to _Meronocomoco_, where was _Powhatan_ their
Emperor. Here more than two hundred of those grim Courtiers stood
wondering at him, as he had been a Monster; till _Powhatan_ and his
Train had put themselves in their greatest Braveries. Before a Fire,
upon a seat like a Bedsted, he sat cover’d with a great Robe, made of
_Rarowcun_-Skins, and all the Tails hanging by. On either hand did sit a
young Maid, of sixteen or eighteen years of Age, and along on each side
the House, two rows of Men, and behind them as many Women, with all
their Heads and Shoulders Painted red; many of their Heads bedeck’d with
the white Doun of Birds, but every one with something, and a great Chain
of white Beads about their Necks. At his entrance before the Emperor,
all the People gave a great shout. The Queen of _Appamatuck_ was
appointed to bring him Water to wash his Hands, and another brought him
a bunch of Feathers, in stead of a Towel to dry them: Having Feasted him
after their barbarous manner as well as they could, a long consultation
was held, but in conclusion, two great Stones being brought before
_Powhatan_, as many as could, laid Hands on him, dragg’d him to them,
and thereon laid his Head, when being ready with their Clubs, to beat
out his Brains, _Pocahontas_, the Emperors dearest Daughter, seeing no
intreaty could prevail, got his Head in her Arms, and laid her own upon
his to save him from death; whereat, the Emperor was contented he should
live to make him Hatchets, and her Bells, Beads, and Copper; for they
thought him a Man of all Occupations like themselves; for the King
himself will make his own Robes, Shoes, Bowes, Arrows, Pots, Plant,
Hunt, or do any thing as well as the rest.

[Illustration: A New _DISCRIPTION OF_ CAROLINA _By Order of the_ Lords
Proprietors]

Two days after, _Powhatan_ having disguis’d himself in the most fearful
manner he could, caus’d Captain _Smith_ to be brought forth to a great
House in the Woods, and there upon a Mat by the Fire to be left alone.
Not long after, from behind a Mat that divided the House, was made the
most doleful noise he ever heard; then _Powhatan_, more like a Devil
than a Man, with about two hundred more as black as himself, came unto
him, and told him, That now they were Friends, and presently he should
go to _James-Town_, to send him two great Guns and a Grindstone, for
which he would give him the Countrey of _Capahowosick_, and for ever
esteem him as his Son _Nantaquoud_. So to _James-Town_ with twelve
Guides _Powhatan_ sent him. That Night they Quarter’d in the Woods, he
still expecting (as he had done all this long time of his Imprisonment)
every hour to be put to one Death or other, for all their Feasting: but
Almighty God (by his Divine Providence) had mollifi’d the Hearts of
those stern _Barbarians_ with compassion. The next Morning betimes they
came to the Fort, where _Smith_ having us’d the Salvages with what
kindness he could, he shew’d _Rawhunt_, _Powhatan_’s trusty Servant, two
Demi-Culverins and a Milstone, to carry to _Powhatan_: they found them
somewhat too heavy; but when they saw him Discharge them, they being
loaded with Stones, amongst the Boughs of a great Tree loaded with
Isickles, the Ice and Branches came so tumbling down, that the poor
Salvages ran away half dead with Fear. But at last we regain’d some
Conference with them, and gave them some Toys, and sent to _Powhatan_’s
Women and Children such Presents, as gave them in general, full content.


                                SECT. V.
                               Carolina.

[Sidenote: Situation and Description of _Carolina_.]

_Carolina_ is that part of _Florida_ which lies between twenty nine and
thirty six Degrees and thirty Minutes of Northern Latitude: It is wash’d
on the East and South, with the _Atlantick_ Ocean; on the West with
_Mare Pacificum_, or the South Sea; and on the North, bounds on
_Virginia_. A Countrey wherein Nature shews how bountiful she can be
without the assistance of Art, the Inhabitants (excepting a little
_Maiz_ which their old Men and Women Plant) depending meerly on the
natural and spontaneous Growth of the Soil for their Provisions, the
Woods furnishing them with store of Fruit and Venison, and the Rivers
with plenty of several sorts of wholsom and savory Fish.

This Maintenance, which without forecast or toil they receive from the
natural fruitfulness of the Countrey, will, if we consider either the
largeness of their Growth, or the duration of their Lives, be thought
neither scanty nor unhealthy, their Stature being of a larger size than
that of _English_-men, their Make strong and well proportion’d, a
crooked or mis-shapen Person being not to be found in the whole
Countrey; and (where the chance of War, which they are almost
continually engag’d in one against another in their little Governments,
spares any of them) they live to an incredible old age; so that when the
_English_ came there, they found some of their Kings, who saw descend
from them the sixth Generation.

[Sidenote: Productions of the Soil.]

The Soil is very rich and fertile, producing naturally Walnuts, Grapes
(of which the _English_ who are there Planted have made very good Wine)
Apricocks, Bullys, with a multitude of others; besides the Woods also
are full of very good Peaches, and all the Season of the Year strew’d
all over with Strawberries. Mulberry-Trees are the common growth of the
Woods; and to assure you they are the natural Offspring of the Place,
and grow to an incredible bigness, one whereof the _English_ (who are
new Planted at _Albemarle Point_ on _Ashley_ River) made use to fasten
the Gate of their Pallisado to, was so large, that all who came from
thence say, they never saw any Oak in _England_ bigger, which is but the
ordinary size of the Mulberry-Trees of this Countrey, which is so sure
an Argument of the richness of the Soil, that the Inhabitants of
_Virginia_ enquiring of the Seamen who came from thence, concerning the
Quality and Product of the Countrey, when they were inform’d of the
large Mulberry-Trees it produc’d, were so well satisfi’d with it, that
they made no farther Enquiry. There are also other Trees, as Ash,
Poplar, and Bay, with several sorts unknown to us of _Europe_; but those
which make it almost all one general Forrest of large Timber-Trees, are
Oak, both red and white, and Cedar. There are also here and there large
Groves of Pine-Trees, some a hundred Foot high, which afford a better
sort of Mast than are to be had either in _Mary-Land_ or _Norway_. These
larger Trees weaving their luxuriant Branches into a close Shade, suffer
no Under-wood to grow between them, either by their Droppings, or else
the Heads of Deer which loosening all the tender Shoots, quite destroy
it; so that a great part of the Countrey is as it were a vast Forrest of
fine Walks, free from the heat of the Sun, or the incumbrance of Shrubs
and Bushes, and so clear and open, that a Man may easily ride a Hunting
amongst the Trees, yielding a Prospect very pleasant and surpassing. On
the Skirts of these Woods grow lesser Trees and Shrubs of several sorts;
amongst them are sundry Dying Materials, which how well the Inhabitants
know how to make use of, appears in the Deer-Skins that the chief of
them wear, which are Painted, or rather Dy’d, with several lively
Colours. But amongst their Shrubs, one of most note and use is that
whose Leaves make their _Casini_, a Drink they frequently use, and
affirm to be very advantageous for the preservation of Health; which, by
the description our _English_ give of the size, colour, and shape of the
Leaf, the sort of Tree it grows on, and the taste, colour, and effects
of the Drink, which is nothing but the Decoction of the Leaf, seems to
be the very same with the _East-India TEE_, and by those who have seen
and tasted both, affirm’d to be no other, and may very probably be a
spontaneous and native Plant of this Place, since those who give us an
account of it, tell us, that this so much valu’d Leaf grows most
plentifully in _Nanking_, a Province in _China_ under the very same
Latitude, and very much agreeing in Soil and Situation with this of
_Carolina_.

What Herbs else the Countrey produces, the _English_ Enquirers (who by
minding their Plantations and Settlement there, have been taken off from
such unprofitable Actions) give us but little account, onely they say,
that those Plats of Ground which have been formerly clear’d off by the
_Indians_ for the Planting their Corn, they found thick cover’d with
three-leav’d Grass and Dazies, which the fertility of the Soil thrusts
forth, whenever the Natives remove their Tillage to some other place,
and leave the Earth to its own production; and in other parts they found
plenty of Garden Herbs growing wild. The low and Moorish Grounds are for
the most part overgrown with Sedge and Reeds, and such other Trash,
which usually incumbers rich and uncultivated Lands; those they call
_Swamsas_, which with a little Husbandry would prove very good Meadows.
There are also some large and pleasant _Savanas_, or grassy Plains.

These are a part of the Trees and Plants best known to us, that Nature
of her self produces, in a Soil which contrives and nourishes any thing.
The _English_ who are now Planted in the most Northern parts of it, at
_Albemarle_, bordering on _Virginia_, have Apples, Pears, Cherries,
Apricocks, Plumbs, and Water-Melons, equalling, and if you will believe
the Inhabitants, both in largeness of size and goodness of taste,
exceeding any in _Europe_. And they who are Setled farther South on
_Ashley_ River, have found that the Oranges, Lemmons, Pomegranates,
Limes, Pomecitrons, _&c._ which they Planted there, have thriven beyond
expectation; and there is nothing which they have put into the Earth,
that through any defect in the Soil, hath fail’d to prosper.

[Sidenote: Commodities of the Countrey.]

Besides those things which do serve to satisfie Hunger, or provoke it,
the Land doth with great return produce Indigo, Ginger, Tobacco, Cotton,
and other Commodities fit to send abroad and furnish foreign Markets;
and when a little time shall have brought those kind of Plants to
maturity, and given the Inhabitants leisure to furnish themselves with
Conveniences for ordering those things aright, the Trials that they have
already made of the Soil and its fitness for such Plantations, assure
you, that besides Silk, enough to store _Europe_, and a great many other
considerable Commodities, they shall have as great plenty of good Wine
and Oyl, as any part of the World.

The Mould is generally black, mellow, and upon handling feels soft, and
(to use their Expression who have been there) soapy, and is generally
all over the Countrey just like the fine Mould of our well order’d
Gardens. Under this black Earth, which is of a good thickness in most
places that they have try’d, there lies a Bed of Marle, and in some
parts Clay.

[Sidenote: Fish and Water-Fowl.]

The Rivers are stor’d with plenty of excellent Fish of several sorts,
which are taken with great ease in abundance, and are one great part of
the Natives Provision, who are never like to want this Recruit, in a
Countrey so abounding in large Rivers, there being in that one small
Tract between _Port Rasal_ and _Cape Carteret_, which are not one Degree
distant, five or six great Navigable Rivers, that empty themselves into
the Sea. These Rivers are also cover’d with Flocks of Ducks and Mallard,
whereof millions are seen together, besides Cranes, Herons, Geese,
Curlews, and other Water-Fowl, who are so easie to be kill’d, that onely
rising at the discharge and noise of a Gun, they instantly light again
in the same place, and presently offer a fresh Mark to the Fowler. At
the Mouths of the Rivers, and along the Sea-Coast, are Beds of Oysters,
which are of a longer Make than those in _Europe_, but very well tasted,
wherein are often found good large Pearls, which though the unskilful
_Indians_ by washing the Oysters do commonly discolour, and spoil their
lustre, yet ’tis not to be doubted, but if rightly order’d, there will
be found many of value, and the Fishing for them turn to some account.

Besides the easie Provisions which the Rivers and Sea afford, their
Woods are well stock’d with Deer, Rabbets, Hares, Turtle-Doves,
Phesants, Partridges, and an infinite number of Wood-Pigeons and wild
Turkies, which are the ordinary Dishes of the _Indians_, whose
House-keeping depends on their Fishing and Hunting, and who have found
it no ill way of Living in so fertile a Countrey, to trust themselves
without any labor or forecast, to the Supplies which are there provided
to their hands, without the continual trouble of Tillage and Husbandry.
Besides, these Woods are fill’d with innumerable variety of smaller
Birds, as different in their Notes as Kinds.

[Sidenote: Temperature of the Climate.]

The Temperature of this Province is agreeable to a Countrey, whose
Position is on the warmer side of the temperate _Zone_, but yet the Heat
is not so sultry nor offensive, as in Places under the same Latitude in
the _Old World_; to which moderation of Heat, as well as the healthiness
of it, the vast _Atlantick_ Ocean, lying to the East and South of it,
may perhaps not a little contribute, an instance whereof some think
_China_ to be; to which deservedly admir’d Countrey _Carolina_ exactly
answers in its Position and Latitude, the trending from North-East to
South-West of its Coast, and the lowness of its Shore, and wants nothing
but Inhabitants, to make it equal, if not excell, in all conveniences of
Life, as it doth in richness of Soil, that flourishing Empire. The
healthiness of the Air is such, that it is not onely benign and
favorable to the home-bred _Indians_, and Constitutions accustom’d to
it, but the _English_-men who first Planted on _Ashley_ River, though
for some other Conveniences they Planted on the side, or almost middle
of a Morass, and were encompass’d with a salt Marsh, where the Air, pent
up with Woods that surrounded them, had not that freedom it hath in open
and cultivated Countreys, yet lost not in a whole years time, of a
considerable number, any one Person, of any Disease to be imputed to the
Countrey, those few that dy’d in that time sinking under lingring
Distempers which they brought with them, and had almost worn them out
before they came thither. The _Bermudians_ (who being accustom’d to the
pure Air of their own Island, cannot without hazard of their Lives put
themselves into any other Place) assur’d of the healthiness of this
Place, which is the next Land to them, and under the same Latitude,
venture hither. And generally all the _English_ Planting in the
_West-Indies_, are so taken with the Conveniences of this Countrey,
which, as some of the most considerable of the _English_ in those Parts
say of it, promises all that the Heart of Man can wish, that they send
the overplus of their People hither; to which the Inhabitants of
_Barbados_, a skilful and wary sort of Planters, well knowing in all the
parts of the _West-Indies_, have been found to remove the Hands they
could spare. As the Summer is not intolerably nor offensively hot, so
the Winter is not troublesom nor pinching, but enough to correct the
Humors of Mens Bodies, the better to strengthen them, and preserve their
Healths, and so far to check the growth of Plants, that by this stop
they may put out more regularly, and the Corn and other Fruits the
better ripen together, and be ready seasonably at the Harvest, the want
whereof in some Countreys hinders the beneficial Growth of several
valuable Commodities, the continual Spring all the year long making that
their Crops are never ready, their Trees being laden with green and ripe
Fruit at the same time, which is to be seen in the Vines growing between
the _Tropicks_, where, though they bear excellent Grapes, yet they
cannot make any Wine, whilest the mixture of ripe and sowre Grapes upon
the same Branch, renders them unfit for the Press, which from Grapes so
blended, though of a good kind, would squeeze out a very crude and
useless Liquor. This also is the reason why many Parts where our Wheat
will grow very well, do yet lose the benefit of it, whilest the several
Ears ripening unequally, never make the Crop fit for the Sickle. But
this Countrey hath Winter enough to remove that Inconvenience, and to
put such a stop to the Rise of the Sap, and the Budding of Plants, as to
make the several kinds of Fruits Bud and Blossom in their distinct
Seasons, and keep even pace till they are fit to be gather’d.

[Sidenote: Nature, Constitutions, and Manners of the Inhabitants.]

To this happy Climate the native Inhabitants are very well suited, a
strong, lusty, and well shap’d People, who to their well knit and active
Bodies, want not stout and vigorous Minds; they are a People of a good
Understanding, well Humor’d, and generally so just and Honest, that they
may seem to have no notice of, as their Language hath no word for,
Dishonesty and Cheating; and the worst Name they have for ill Men is,
that they are not good. They are a stout and valiant People, which
appears in the constant Wars they are engag’d in, not out of
covetousness, and a desire of usurping others Possessions, or to enrich
themselves by the Spoils of their Neighbors, but upon a pitch of Honor,
and for the glory of Victory, which is their greatest joy, there being
no parts of their Lives wherein they enjoy so much satisfaction, and
give themselves so wholly to Jollity, as in their Triumphs after
Victory. Valor therefore is the Vertue they most esteem and reward, and
he which hath behav’d himself well in the Wars, is suffer’d to wear the
Badges of Honor, and is advanc’d beyond others with some Marks of his
Courage; which amongst some is blacking the Skin below his Eyes with
black Lead, in fashion something of an Half-Moon; which Mark of Courage
is not suffer’d to be worn by any, but those who by some brave Action,
as killing the Enemy’s Leader, _&c._ hath signaliz’d himself in their
Encounters. They are faithful to their Promises, fair and candid in
their Dealings, and so far from Dishonesty, that they want even the
Seeds of it, _viz._ Forecast and Covetousness; and he will be very
little apt to deceive you to Day, who troubles not himself much about to
Morrow, and trusts for the Provisions of the Day to the Day it self;
which proceeds not in them for want of Wit, but desire of Content and
Quiet, or by the help of their natural Reason they enjoy that Happiness
which the Philosophers could not by their Study and Reading attain to,
whilest these Men cut off those Desires which Learning could never help
the other to Govern; and which if once permitted to run out beyond the
present, are capable of no Rest nor Bounds. In their Conversation they
are courteous and civil, and in their Visits make Presents to one
another; when they meet, their way of Salutation is stroaking on the
Shoulders, and sucking in their Breath; and if he be a great Man whom
they Salute, they stroak his Thighs too; as civil an Address, as those
Patterns of good Breeding, the Hero’s, us’d to their Princes, who in
their greatest Courtships, we are told, embrac’d their Knees: After
their Salutation they sit down; and it is usual with them to sit still
almost a quarter of an hour before they speak, which is not an effect of
stupidity or sullenness, but the accustom’d Gravity of their Countrey;
for they are in their Tempers a merry, frollick, gay People, and so
given to Jollity, that they will Dance whole Nights together, the Women
sitting by and Singing, whilest the Men Dance to their Ayrs, which
though not like ours, are not harsh or unpleasing, but are something
like the Tunes of the _Irish_: So that if we will not let our selves too
fondly admire onely the Customs we have been bred up in, nor think Men
are to be valu’d for making Legs after our Mode, or the Clothes they
wear, which, the finer and gayer they are, always the more to be
suspected of Luxury and Effeminateness; if we will allow but these Men
to follow the Garbs of their own Countrey, and think them fine enough in
a shape onely to hide their Nakedness before, or a Deer-skin hanging
loosely on their Shoulders, and their Women not ill Dress’d in Garments
of Moss, and Necklaces of Beads, whilest the Fashion of their Courts
require no other Ornaments; if, I say, a long and pleasant Life, without
Distemper or Care, be to be valu’d, without the incumbrance of
unnecessary Trinkets; if Men are to be esteem’d for Valor, Honesty,
Friendship, Humanity and good Nature, though Strangers to the
ceremonious Troubles we are accustom’d to, the Natives of _Carolina_
will as little, or perhaps less, deserve the Name of _Miserable_, or
_Salvage_, as those that give it them. ’Tis true, the _French_ and
_Spaniards_ who have Planted amongst them, or with little Armies
travell’d their Countrey, have been ill handled by them; but yet the
_Indians_ never did them any harm, or treated them otherwise than
Friends, till those _Europeans_ by their breach of Faith and several
Outrages, had provok’d their just Revenge; and they did nothing but what
most virtuous and generous sort of Men are apt to do, to revenge those
Affronts, which did not agree with their Tempers tamely to endure. That
this did not proceed from treachery and inconstancy in their Natures, is
apparent in the contrary Correspondence they have had with the _English_
Setled amongst them, to whom they have been all along very kind, as they
were at first very covetous of their Company; for after that some of
their King’s Relation had been at _Barbados_, and had seen and admir’d
the Temper, Fashions and Strength of the _English_ there, and had been
very civilly Treated in that Island, they were so well satisfi’d with
them, that at the coming of the _English_ to Settle there, the several
little Kingdoms strove with all the Arts and Arguments they could use,
each of them to draw the _English_ to Plant in their Dominions, by
commending the richness of their Soil, conveniency of their Rivers, the
healthiness of their Countrey, the disparagement of their Neighbors, and
whatever else they judg’d might allure the _English_ to their
Neighborhood. Nor was this onely the first heat of Men fond of
Novelties, and as soon weary of them again, but ever since the _English_
first Planted at _Albemarle Point_, on _Ashley_ River, they have
continu’d to do them all manner of friendly Offices, ready on all
occasions to supply them with any thing they have observ’d them to want,
not making use of our Mens Necessities, as an opportunity to enhance the
Price of their Commodities, a sort of fair Dealing we could scarce have
promis’d them amongst civiliz’d, well bred, and religious Inhabitants of
any part of _Europe_; and though they are much frighted with our Guns,
both small and great, yet like innocent and well-meaning People, they do
not at all distrust our Power, but freely, without suspicion, trust
themselves, both Men and Women, even their Kings themselves, in our
Town, Lodging and Dancing there frequently whole Nights together, upon
no other Pledges but the bare confidence of our mutual Friendship; nor
do our Men use any greater caution in Conversing with them, stragling up
and down, and travelling singly and unarm’d through their Woods for many
Miles about, and are so far from receiving any injury or ill treatment
from them, that on the contrary they are kindly us’d and Entertain’d,
and guided by them in their Way whenever they desire it; and when any of
our Men meet them in their Walks, the _Indians_ all stand still till
they are gone by, civilly Saluting them as they pass. Nor doth this
Assurance of theirs bound it self within their own Homes, they of their
own accords venturing themselves aboard our Ships, have gone voluntarily
with our Men to _Virginia_ and _Barbados_. Nor have the _English_ been
wanting on their parts in any thing that may preserve this Amity, being
very cautious of doing them any injury, bartering with them for those
things they receive of them, and buying of them even the waste Land they
make no use of.

Besides the simplicity of the _Indians_ Diet, it is very remarkable,
that they have a general aversion to those two things which are most
acceptable to our Palates, and without which few of us either eat or
drink with any delight; for in their Meats they cannot endure the least
mixture or rellish of Salt; and for their Drink, they utterly abominate
all manner of strong Liquor; to the latter whereof, their large Growth
and constant Health, is perhaps not a little owing.

[Sidenote: Their manner of Government.]

Every little Town is a distinct Principality, Govern’d by an Hereditary
King, who in some places is not Son, but Sisters Son to the precedent
King, the Succession of the Blood-Royal being continu’d by the safer
side. The great Business of those Princes is to lead their Men out
against their Enemies in War, or against the Beasts in Hunting; for
unless it be to appoint them where to Hunt, or else to Consult about
making some Attempt upon their Enemy, he hath but small trouble in the
Government of his Subjects, who either through their own Honesty, or the
few occasions they have for Controversies in their _extempore_ way of
Living, need few Laws, and little Severity to keep them in order; but
yet they Govern their People without Contract, and fail not of a ready
Obedience to their Commands; so that when some of them have bought
things of such of the _English_, who by the Orders made amongst our
selves were not to Traffick with the _Indians_, they have, upon
Complaint made to their _Casiques_, been restor’d again, though in
strict Rules of Law they were neither bound by, nor oblig’d to take
notice of the Rules which were made onely to Govern our own People, and
had at just Prices bought what they carry’d away; such is the Honesty of
Men, whose Principles not being corrupted with Learning and Distinction,
are contented to follow the Dictates of right Reason, which Nature has
sufficiently taught all Men for the well ordering of their Actions, and
enjoyment and preservation of humane Society, who do not give themselves
up to be amus’d and deceiv’d by insignificant Terms, and minding what is
just and right, seek not Evasions in the Niceties and Fallacies of
Words.

[Sidenote: _Carolina_ granted by Patent to several Noble Persons by His
           Majesty.]

The same is to be said of the first Discovery of this Countrey, as hath
been formerly said of _Virginia_ and _Florida_, of both which it
partakes; but as to the present Interest and Propriety, the _English_,
besides all _Virginia_ intirely, have also so much of _Florida_ as makes
up this considerable Province of _Carolina_, which soon after the happy
Restauration of His present Majesty King _Charles_ II. from whom it
receives Denomination, was granted by Patent to _Edward_ Earl of
_Clarendon_, L. Chancellor of _England_, _George_ Duke of _Albemarle_,
_William_ Earl of _Craven_, _John_ Lord _Berkley_, _Anthony_ Lord
_Ashley_, Sir _George Carteret_, Vice-Chamberlain of His Majesty’s
Houshold, Sir _William Berkley_, Knight and Baronet, and Sir _John
Colleton_, Knight and Baronet.

[Sidenote: Their care for Setling and Improving of this Plantation.]

The Lords-Proprietors of this Countrey, for the better Settlement of it
according to their Patent granted unto them by His Majesty, and for the
enlargement of the King’s Dominions in those parts of _America_, have
been at great Charge to secure this so rich and advantageous a Countrey
to the Crown of _England_, to whom of ancient Right, by the Discovery of
Sir _Sebastian Cabott_ in the time of _Henry_ the Seventh, it doth
belong, and for its Situation, Fertility, Neighborhood to our other
Plantations and several other Conveniences, of too valuable
consideration to be negligently lost: By the Care therefore and
Endeavors of those Great Men, it hath now two considerable Colonies
Planted in it, the one of _Albemarle_, on the North side, bordering on
_Virginia_, where are some hundreds of _English_ Families remov’d
thither from _New England_, and some of our other Plantations in the
_West-Indies_; and another towards the middle of the Countrey, at
_Charles-Town_, or _Ashley-River_, a Settlement so hopeful, for the
healthiness of the Land, and convenience of access by a large deep
Navigable River, and so promising in its very Infancy, that many of the
rich Inhabitants of _Barbados_ and _Bermudas_, who are now crowded up in
those flourishing Islands, and many in our other _American_ Plantations,
are turning their Eyes and Thoughts this way, and have already remov’d
part of their Stock and Servants thither. Nor is it to be doubted, but
that many, following the Example of those who went to _Albemarle_, will
be drawn to this better Plantation at _Ashley-River_, from
_New-England_, where the heat of their Zeal, and the coldness of the
Air, doth not agree with every Man’s Constitution; and therefore it is
to be thought, that many well temper’d Men, who are not much at ease
under such Extreams, will be forward to remove hither.

[Sidenote: Fair Terms propos’d to whomsoever shall remove thither.]

The Lords-Proprietors, for the comfortable subsistence, and future
enrichment of all those who shall this Year 1671. Transport themselves
and Servants thither, allow every Man a hundred Acres _per_ Head, for
himself, his Wife, Children and Servants, he carries thither, to him and
his Heirs for ever, paying onely one Peny an Acre, as a Chief-Rent;
which Peny an Acre is not to be paid these nineteen years; and those
Servants who go along thither with their Masters, shall each also have a
hundred Acres upon the same Terms, when he is out of his Time. But
though these Conditions are very advantageous, and the Countrey promises
to the Planter Health, Plenty and Riches at a cheap Rate, yet there is
one thing that makes this Plantation more valuable than all these, and
that is the secure possession of all these things with as great
certainty as the state of humane Affairs, and the transient things of
this Life are capable of, in a well continu’d Form of Government,
wherein it is made every Man’s Interest to preserve the Rights of his
Neighbor with his own; and those who have the greatest Power, have it
limited to the Service of the Countrey, the Good and Welfare whereof
whilest they preserve and promote, they cannot miss of their own, the
Lords Proprietors having no other aim, than to be the greatest Men in a
Countrey where every one may be happy if it be not his own fault, it
being almost as uncomfortable, and much more unsafe, to be Lord over,
than Companion of a miserable, unhappy, and discontented Society of Men.

With this Design the Lords-Proprietors, who are at great Charge for
carrying on this Plantation, have put the framing of a Government into
the Hands of one, whose Parts and Experience in Affairs of State are
universally agreed on, and who is by all Men allow’d to know what is
convenient for the right ordering Men in Society, and setling a
Government upon such Foundations, as may be equal, safe, and lasting;
and to this hath a Soul large enough to wish well to Mankind, and to
desire, that all the People where he hath to do might be happy. My Lord
_Ashley_ therefore, by the consent of his Brethren, the rest of the
Lords Proprietors, hath drawn up, to their general satisfaction, some
fundamental Constitutions, which are since, by their joynt approbation,
confirm’d to be the Model and Form of Government in the Province of
_Carolina_; the main Design and Ballance thereof (according to the best
of my memory, having had a Copy thereof) in short is as followeth:


[Sidenote: The Model drawn up by the Lord _Ashley_ for the Government of
           _Carolina_.]

1. Every County is to consist of forty square Plots, each containing
twelve thousand Acres. Of these square Plots each of the Proprietors is
to have one, which is to be call’d a _Signiory_. Eight of these square
Plots are to be divided amongst the three Noble-men of that County,
_viz._ a _Landgrave_, who is to have four of them; and two _Casiques_,
who are to have each of them two apiece; and these square Plots
belonging to the Nobility, are to be call’d _Baronies_. The other twenty
four square Plots, call’d _Colonies_, are to be the Possession of the
People: And this Method is to be observ’d in the Planting and Setting
out of the whole Countrey; so that one Fifth of the Land is to be in the
Proprietors, one Fifth in the Nobility, and three Fifths in the People.

2. The _Signories_ and _Baronies_, that is, the hereditary Lands
belonging to the Proprietors and Nobility, are all entirely to descend
to their Heirs, with the Dignity, without power of alienation, more than
for three Lives, or one and twenty years, or two Thirds of their
_Signiories_ and _Baronies_, and the rest to be _Demesne_.

3. There will be also some Mannors in the Colonies, but none less than
three thousand Acres in a Piece, which, like the rest of the Colony
Lands, will be alienable, onely with this difference, that it cannot be
parcell’d out, but if sold, it must be altogether.

4. There is to be a Biennial Parliament, consisting of the eight
Proprietors, the _Landgraves_ and _Casiques_, and one out of every
Precinct, that is the six neighboring Colonies, for the People, chosen
by the Freeholders; these are to sit and Vote altogether for the making
of Laws, which shall be in force no longer than sixty years after their
Enacting, the great mischief of most Governments, by which not onely the
People are mightily entangled by multiplicity of Rules and Penalties,
and thereby laid open to the Malice and Designs of troublesom Men and
cunning Projectors; but, which is far worse, the whole frame of the
Government in tract of time comes to be remov’d from its original
Foundation, and thereby becomes more weak and tottering.

5. There are eight supream Courts for the dispatch of all publick
Affairs; the first consists of the _Palatine_, who is the eldest of the
Proprietors, and hath power to call Parliaments, and dispose of publick
Offices. The other seven supream Courts are, 1. The chief Justices for
the determining of Controversies of _Meum_ and _Tuum_, and judging of
Criminals. 2. The Chancellors, for passing of Charters, and managing the
State Matters of the Province. 3. The High-Constables, for Military
Affairs. 4. The Admirals, for Maritime Affairs. 5. The High-Stewards,
for Trade. 6. The Treasurers, for the publick Stock; and 7. The
Chamberlains, for Ceremonies, Fashions, Marriages, Burials, _&c._ These
are the seven supream Courts, to whom lies the ultimate Appeal in all
Causes belonging to them. Each of these Courts consists of one
Proprietor, and six other Councellors, whereof two are chosen by the
Nobility, and two by the People. All the number of these eight Courts
joyn’d together make the Grand Council, which are in the nature of a
Council of State, and are entrusted with the management of Affairs of
greatest concernment. There is also in every County a Court, and in
every Precinct another; from the Precinct Court there lies an Appeal to
the County Court, and from the County Court to the Proprietors Court, to
which the Matter in question belongs, and there is the last decision and
determination thereof, without any farther Appeal. And to keep the
People from the Charges and vexation of long Suits, to the enriching of
Men cunning in Words, care is taken, that no Cause shall be Try’d more
than once in any one Court, and that profess’d Pleaders for Money shall
not be allow’d.

_Liberty of Conscience_ is here also allow’d in the greatest latitude,
but yet so, that neither Atheists, or Men of no Religion, are permitted;
Atheism, Irreligion, and vicious Lives being condemn’d, as disagreeable
to humane Nature, inconsistent with Government and Societies, and
destructive to all that is useful to, or becoming of Mankind; as on the
other hand, rigorous Imposing of, and hot Contentions about the
Ceremonies and Circumstances of Religion, is an occasion of perpetual
Strife, Faction and Division, keeps Men from sedate and temperate
Enquiries after Truth, eats out the great Cement of humane Conversation,
_Charity_, and cannot be found in any one, who hath but modesty enough
to think himself less than a _Pope_, and short of _Infallibility_.

There is also to be a Register of all Grants and Conveyances of Land, to
prevent even the occasions of Controversies and Law-Suits.

There are several other less considerable Particulars in this
Government, all contriv’d and design’d for the good and welfare of the
People; all which are so well put together, and in such equal proportion
ballance each other, that some judicious Men who have seen it, say, it
is the best and fairest Frame, for the well-being of those who shall
live under it, of any they have seen or read of.

[Illustration]



                               CHAP. III.
                                Florida.


[Sidenote: Situation and Bounds.]

South-West of _Virginia_ lieth the spacious Countrey of _Florida_,
remarkable hitherto rather by the great pains which the _Spaniards_ have
taken, and the ill Successes they have met with in the discovery and
search of this Province, than by any thing else they have discover’d in
it answerable to their desires. On the East it hath the _Atlantick
Ocean_, or _Mare del Nordt_; on the South, and South-West, the Gulph of
_Mexico_ and _Mare Virginium_; and full West, part of _New Gallicia_,
and some other Countreys, not yet perfectly known.

[Sidenote: _Ponce_’s Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Water to make old People look young.]

This Countrey is also one of those, said to have been first of all
discover’d by Sir _Sebastian Cabot_, at the Charges of the King of
_England_, about the Year 1497. but afterwards more throughly search’d
into by _John Ponce de Leon_, a _Spaniard_, who in the Year 1512. set
Sail with three Ships out of the Haven _St. German_ in _Porto Rico_,
North-West to the Isles _Del Veio_, _Caycos_, _Yaguna_, _Amaguyao_,
_Manegua_, and _Guanahani_, first discover’d by _Christopher Colonus_,
and call’d _St. Salvador_: After that Steer’d North-West by a Coast,
which (because of its pleasant prospect) was call’d _Florida_ or
(according to the more common Opinion) because it was on _Palm-Sunday_,
which the _Spaniards_ call _Pascha de Flores_, (or _Pascha Florida_)
that he Landed here: And to find out a Haven he kept sight of the Shore,
which appear’d South-West from him. Here the Ships met with so strong a
Tide, that notwithstanding they had a fresh Gale of Wind, yet could they
not stem it; one of the Ships was driven to Sea out of sight; the other
two casting Anchor, which raking, drove toward the Shore; whither, being
beckned by the _Indians_, they immediately went; when no sooner he
Landed, but they ran in great Companies to make themselves Masters of
the Vessels, kill’d one _Spaniard_, and wounded two more: the Night
approaching put an end to the Fight. From hence Sailing to the River _La
Cruix_ for Wood and Water, they were resisted by sixty Natives, which
they put to flight with their Guns, and took one Prisoner; after which
they erected a Stone Cross. The Promontory, by which glides the strong
Current, lies in twenty Degrees North-Latitude, and call’d _Cabo de
Corrientes_, as the Row of Isles, before the Main Land _Los Martyres_,
because the Cliffs at a distance appear like Men standing on Poles.
Lastly, after some small Encounters with the _Floridans_, _Ponce_
return’d home, being onely inform’d falsly by the _Indians_, that in
_Florida_ was a River, and on the Isle _Bimini_ a Fountain, whose Waters
made old People young.

[Sidenote: _Vasquez_’s Expedition to _Florida_.]

[Sidenote: Habit of a _Floridan_ King.]

But after this _Florida_ remained not unvisited; for eight years after
the foremention’d Voyage, _Lucas Vasquez de Aylom_ weighed Anchor with
two Ships from _Hispaniola_, to fetch Slaves from the adjacent Isles for
the Gold-Mines, which Labor the Natives were not able to perform:
therefore steering his Course Northwardly, he Sail’d along the Coast of
_Chicoa_ and _Gualdape_, by them call’d _Cabo de St. Helena_, and _Rio
Jordan_, where the Natives look’d upon the Ships as Sea-Monsters, and
seeing Bearded Men in them, fled: the _Spaniards_ pursuing them,
overtook one Man and a Woman; who being well Entertain’d, and Clad in
_Spanish_ Habits, made the Strangers so acceptable to their
Countrey-men, that their King sent fifty Men Aboard of them with
Provisions, and to invite the Sea-men to his Dominions. The King sat
with a great Cloth about him, made fast on his Shoulders, covering his
Belly, Breast and Back with the Lappet thereof, and being long, was held
up by one of his Servants; over one of his Shoulders hung a String of
Pearl that came three times about, and reach’d down to his Thighs; on
his Head he wore a Cap full of Ribbonds; his Arms and Legs were also
surrounded with a double Chain of Pearl; in his right Hand he held a
very rich Staff: But the Queen went almost naked, onely a piece of a
wild Beasts Skin hung down before her from her left Shoulder to her
mid-Leg, and a double String of Pearl about her Neck hung down between
her Breasts, and her Hair Comb’d behind reach’d down to the Calves of
her Legs; about her Wrists and Ancles hung also Strings of Pearl.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Treachery of _Vasquez_.]

[Sidenote: _Indians_ misused.]

On the King’s Command, the _Spaniards_ were permitted to make inspection
into the Countrey, in which they were every where courteously
Entertain’d, and not without Gold and Silver Presents. Returning Aboard,
_Vasquez_ invited the _Indians_ to go with him, under pretence of
returning them thanks for the Favours which they had bestowed upon him;
but no sooner had he gotten a considerable number in his Ships, but he
set Sail, and losing one Ship, arriv’d with the other safe at
_Hispaniola_ with a few _Indians_, for most of them with grief and
hunger died at Sea, and those that remain’d alive, liv’d on dead
Carrion.

[Sidenote: _Vasquez_ defeated by the _Floridans_.]

Some few years after, _Vasquez_ receiving Letters Patent from the Court
of _Spain_ for the Government of _Florida_, fitted out a Ship thither in
1620. which brought a good Return of Gold, Silver, and Pearls; whereupon
he himself went not long after, and coming into the River _Jordan_, lost
one of his Ships, which proved not the worst Accident; for Landing two
hundred Men, they were all of them either slain or wounded by the
Inhabitants; so that _Vasquez_ was forc’d to sound a Retreat: And after
that the _Spaniards_ were less willingly drawn to that Coast, and the
rather, because the Inhabitants seem’d poor, and had little Gold but
what they procur’d from the _Otapales_ and _Olugatono_’s, sixty Leagues
Northward up in the Countrey.

[Sidenote: _Narvaez_ his Expedition.]

[Sidenote: Strange Booty.]

[Sidenote: He is in great extremity.]

[Sidenote: _Cabeca_ is Stranded.]

[Sidenote: His strange Entertainment at _Malhado_.]

Notwithstanding these unsuccessful Expeditions, _Pamphilus Narvaez_
retain’d so much Courage, that obtaining Letters Patents from the
Emperor _Charles_ the Fifth, he fitted out four Sail and a Brigantine,
weigh’d Anchor from _Cuba_ with six hundred Men and eighty Horse, in the
Year 1528. On _Florida_ he Landed three hundred Foot and forty two
Horse; they found many empty Huts, but in a great House a golden Bell
hid amongst the Nets, Chests full of Merchandise, and in each a dead
Body cover’d with Beast Skins, and painted; Pieces of Linnen Cloth, and
Wedges of Gold, which they had from the remote Countrey _Apalache_.
_Narvaez_, though against the Opinion of _Nunnez Cabeca_, march’d up
into the Countrey, whilst the Fleet was to stand along the Shore, and
travelling fifteen days saw neither House nor Man, onely here and there
some _Palmito_-Trees: Crossing a River on Floats, they were Encountred
by two hundred of the Natives; of which the _Spaniards_, having routed
them, took six Prisoners, who furnish’d them plentifully with _Indian_
Wheat. After this they march’d fifteen days farther, without discerning
the least foot-step of a Man; but at last they met an _Indian_ Lord with
a considerable Train, before whom march’d several Pipers: being told by
_Narvaez_ that his Journey was for _Apalache_, he conducted the
_Spaniards_ with a _Canoo_ over a River, and Landing again, walk’d with
them to his Village, where he Entertain’d them with great civility.
_Narvaez_, after a long and troublesom Journey, came at last in sight of
_Apalache_, a Village which contained two hundred and forty Straw
Houses, built between the Mountains on a Moorish Soyl, full of Nut,
Pine, and Savine-Trees, Oaks, Laurel, and short _Palmito_’s, besides the
Trees, which blown down in several places by a strong Wind from between
the Hills, and lying cross, cumber the High-ways: There are many deep
Pools, and also Bears, Lyons, and other ravenous Creatures, which make
the Ways very dangerous. _Narvaez_ falling suddenly on the Village, took
the _Casique_ Prisoner, as also store of Wheat, Mortars to pound it,
Hides, and Thred-spun Cloaks. Here he rested twenty five days, during
which time some of his Men Journey’d farther into the Countrey, yet
found none but poor People, troublesom Ways, and an unfruitful Soyl:
twice they were set upon by the Natives, who kill’d some of the Horses
and Men: They being a very strong People run stark naked, and as swift
as a Deer, Diving under Water from the _Spaniards_ Bullets; which not a
little amazing _Narvaez_, he thought it convenient to set upon the
Village _Aute_, lying on the Shore: Nine days he was in a miserable
condition before he got any Wheat, Pease, or other Provisions from this
Village; the getting whereof cost him very dear, for the Villagers
behav’d themselves so valiantly, that they kill’d many _Spaniards_, and
some of their Horses, which since they left the Haven of _St. Cruce_ had
travell’d two hundred and eighty Leagues; so that being tir’d and out of
heart, they could not carry the Sick and Wounded, who not able to go,
fell down dead in the Way: whereupon it was judg’d convenient to make
five Barques, in which they made their Shirts serve for Sails, the
Horses Tails and Mayns for Ropes, their Skins to hold fresh Water; with
which putting out to Sea, they saw no Land in seven days; and running
through the Straights of _St. Miguell_, Steer’d along the Coast of _Rio
del Palmes_; where they suffer’d great Drought, insomuch that some
drinking salt Water, died thereof: at last Landing, they were in the
Night set upon by a _Casique_, who having given _Narvaez_ a great Wound
in the Face, fled, leaving behind him a Sable Cloak, scented with Amber;
three days they rang’d again along the Sea-shore, when the Barque of
_Nunnez Cabeca_ being behind, was by Storm driven on the Shore, where a
hundred _Indians_ waited to cut them off, but were pacifi’d with some
Trifles: Thus being bereav’d of Arms, Provision, and all manner of
Necessaries, they found themselves on an Isle, by the Inhabitants call’d
_Malhado_, where they were lodg’d and maintain’d so long as they had any
thing left; but Famine grew at last to such a heighth, that they
devour’d one another, and in a short time of eighty Men there remain’d
onely four alive, _viz._ _Nunnez Cabeca_, _Castillo_, _Orantes_, and
_Estevanico_, who at last by Land reach’d to _New Gallicia_, and soon
after to _Mexico_, having escap’d a thousand Dangers. Of _Pamphilus
Narvaez_ never any tydings being heard, it is suppos’d he was drown’d.

[Sidenote: _Sottus_’s Expedition very remarkable.]

[Sidenote: Strange dealing of the _Cofachiquians_.]

[Sidenote: A Maid Governs the Countrey.]

[Sidenote: Great Treasure of Pearls.]

[Sidenote: Great Tempest.]

[Sidenote: _Sottus_’s farther Journey very remarkable.]

[Sidenote: The City _Mavilla_.]

[Sidenote: Cruel Fight.]

[Sidenote: _Sottus_ dies.]

[Sidenote: Strange Fight.]

After this miserable Adventure, the Business of _Florida_ lay dead for
eleven years, till _Ferdinandus Sottus_, chosen Governor of _Cuba_,
obtain’d so much of the Emperor _Charles_ the Fifth, that he ventur’d
one Expedition more for _Florida_: Besides Seamen he carried five
hundred Foot, and three hundred and fifty Horse; with which Landing in
the Bay _Del Espirito Santo_, he march’d against the Casique
_Vitacucho_, whom he took Prisoner, with a thousand of the Natives, whom
he either put to the Sword, or caus’d them to be torn in pieces by Dogs;
and staying all the Winter in _Apalache_, fortifi’d that place, and
furnish’d himself with Provisions; he was inform’d, that thirteen days
Journey from thence lay the Kingdom of _Cofachiqui_, abounding with
Gold, Silver, and Pearls, which made every one of the _Spaniards_ very
desirous to go thither, notwithstanding the Way was very dangerous; for
the valiant _Floridans_ lying in Ambuscade in the Corn-Fields, wounded
and kill’d many of them by Shooting from thence. _Sottus_, so soon as
_March_ approached, set forward on his Way. In the poor Province of
_Achalaqui_ he found a few young People, and the old most of them blind.
From _Cofachiqui_ he was follow’d by four thousand Natives, who carried
the _Spaniards_ Luggage, and serv’d them as Guides through Woods and
Wildernesses. The seventh day they stopp’d at a great River, whither
_Sottus_ sent four Companies to seek out a Passage over, whereof three
return’d without any effect, but the fourth, Commanded by Captain
_Annasio_, and a Colonel of a thousand _Cofachiquians_, came to a
Village built along the River; in which they made a miserable Rout,
killing all they lighted on, and hanging the Sculls of the Dead by their
sides: this done, they march’d back. _Sottus_ at last espying a Village
on the other side of the River, beckned to the Natives to come over to
him; whereupon six came immediately; who understanding that he desir’d
their friendly Assistance and Trade, promis’d to acquaint their
Governess, being a young Maiden: who soon after came over to _Sottus_,
and presented him with a String of Pearl: he complain’d to her for
Provisions, which she promis’d in part to store him with. Crossing the
River he found a brave Countrey, where were Pearls as big as gray Pease,
Copper of a golden colour, but no Gold. Out of the Tombs of their
Princes the _Spanish_ Officers, with the leave of the fore-mention’d
Maid their Governess, got an incredible Treasure in Pearls. In the
Village _Tolomeco_ they did the like. But here their Provisions growing
scarce, the Army was divided into two Bodies, _Balthasar de Gallegos_
leading one, and _Sottus_ the other; yet the Design of them both was on
the Province of _Chalaque_; whither marching, they were surpris’d by
such a violent Storm, that few would have been left to relate their
Adventures, had not the Trees bore it off from them; for it not onely
Thundred and Lightned as if Heaven and Earth would have met, but also
Hail-stones fell down as big as Eggs, which beat down the Boughs of
Trees. In the pleasant Valley _Xualu_, belonging to the Kingdom of
_Cofachiqui_, they rested fifteen days, and then march’d through
Countreys of _Guaxale_, _Acostes_, and _Coza_, where above a thousand
_Indians_, adorn’d with Plumes of Feathers and rich Furr Cloaks, came to
meet and welcom them, and to desire them from the _Casique_ to stay
there all the Winter; but _Sottus_ resolving to go to the Haven
_Achusi_, refus’d the same. After this he view’d _Talisse_, fortifi’d
with woodden and earthen Bulwarks; where the Casique _Tascalusa_, a Man
as big again as an ordinary _Spaniard_, receiv’d _Sottus_ with great
civility, and conducted him to _Mavilla_, lying in a pleasant place. The
City, surrounded with double Pallisado’s, fill’d up with Earth between,
(where also at eighty Paces distant from one another, stands a Tower to
contain eighty Soldiers) hath two Gates, eighty Houses, in every one of
which dwell a thousand Men, and a large Market-place in the middle;
where whilst the _Spaniards_ were in the midst of their Mirth, they on a
sudden heard a great cry of Arms; the first Assault was made by seven
thousand, which still increased by fresh Supplies; but the _Spaniards_
at last setting the City on fire, broke through them, and left above
eleven thousand slain, either by the Smoak and Flame, or by their
Bullets, Swords, Horses Heels and Dogs; the _Spaniards_ also lost eighty
three Men and forty three Horses. Thence going to _Chicora_ they were
stopt by the Natives before a deep River with high Banks, which at last
crossing, not without great trouble and blood-shedding, they Winter’d in
the Village _Chicora_, where the Inhabitants let them rest very quietly
for two Moneths; at the end of which, joyning together in the Night,
they shot fire into the Straw Roofs, and maintain’d a Fight of two hours
long, in which the _Spaniards_ lost forty Men, fifty Horses, and all
their Hogs, which were burnt in the Houses. From thence going to
_Chicacolla_ they were resisted in most places, and in the Fort
_Alibamo_ Engag’d by four thousand _Floridans_, who waited for their
coming; but those were so shrewdly handled, that half of them were
slain, and _Sottus_ became Master of the Fort, as also of _Chisca_,
which he Storm’d and took unawares. With no less trouble and danger did
he get over the River _El Grande_, where he discover’d a Village that
contain’d above four hundred Houses, and many delightful Fruit-Trees.
The Casique _Casquin_, maintain’d the _Spanish_ Army six days in this
place, and taking five thousand of his Subjects, march’d with them to
_Capaha_, which hath a deep and broad Moat on three sides thereof: the
fourth was fortifi’d with strong Pallisado’s, through which the
_Spaniards_ breaking, made way for _Casquin_, who put all to the Sword,
the Governor onely escaping in a _Canoo_ to a neighboring Isle. The
Entrance being thus taken by the _Spaniards_, _Casquin_ return’d home.
After which _Sottus_ concluded a Peace with _Capahaes_ the Governor, and
took up his Quarters in the Village _Vitangue_, where he receiv’d
continual Sallies; but taking fifteen _Casiques_ Prisoners, threatned to
burn them alive, unless they would procure them some Gold; yet not being
able to get any, they had only their Hands cut off and were sent away.
Moreover, _Sottus_ help’d the _Guachacoya_’s, to ruine those of
_Anilco_; which Design prov’d successful, yet not according to
_Sottus_’s desire, for he found not the Gold-Mines which he expected,
but spent in this five years Progress the great Treasure which he took
out of _Atibaliba_’s Palace; and the Pearls which he got in _Florida_,
for the Oysters being open’d against the Fire, and the Pearls drill’d
through with a hot Iron, lost much of their lustre, neither would his
People consent to build a City in the Haven _Achusi_. In the midst of
these Transitions _Sottus_ died of the Bloody-flux, and his Body was
Interr’d in the River _El Grande_. After which his Successor _Ludovicus
de Alvarado_ had worse success, for half of the Army being wasted by the
excessive heat, the rest resolv’d to desert _Florida_, utterly
despairing to be ever able to resist the valiant Natives. In the
Province of _Auche_ they procur’d a Guide, whom, because he mis-led them
in their Way, they caus’d to be torn in pieces by their Dogs: after
which they march’d without a Guide through such bad Ways, that they lost
a hundred of their Men and eighty Horses, besides many _Floridans_ that
carried their Luggage: At last coming to the River _El Grande_ they
conquer’d two Villages; which fortifying, they took up their Winter
Quarters in them. But this being the fourteenth year, in which the River
us’d generally to overflow and drown all the adjacent Countreys, on a
sudden, to their great amazement, the Wood which they had gather’d for
the building of Barques to carry them home, was wash’d away, their
Provisions spoil’d, and their Habitations drown’d: and to this
Inconvenience was added another yet greater; for the Governors round
about rais’d all the Forces they could possibly, to revenge themselves
on the _Spaniards_ for their great oppression. But _Alvarado_ being
inform’d of this Design by the Casique _Anilco_, caus’d thirty of the
Abettors of the Plot to have their Hands cut off. Not long after this
the _Spaniards_ set Sail, when a thousand _Canoos_ that came to Engage
them lay sixteen days amongst them, killing and wounding several of the
Seamen, and sunk a Barque with forty eight Men, and also kill’d many
Horses which were yet on the Shore; the Prisoners they took were
strappado’d to death, and the Horses shot: yet some of them got safe
from _Panuco_ to _Mexico_.

[Sidenote: Expedition of _Ahumada_ and _Samano_.]

These above-mention’d Expeditions to _Florida_, notwithstanding they
fell out unfortunately, nevertheless by the permission of _Philip_ the
Second, King of _Spain_, _Peter Ahumada_ and _Julius Samano_, with five
_Dominican_ Monks, made another Attempt, and Landed with several great
Crosses, that thereby they might reduce the _Floridans_, whose Language
they understood not, to their Faith: But they fearing treachery,
resisted them, and kill’d the Monks with Clubs, flay’d them, and hung
their Skins in their Temples.

[Sidenote: The Expedition of _Menendez_.]

Notwithstanding these and many worse Accidents that hapned, yet the
_Spanish_ King ventur’d once more, and sent _Peter Menendez_ to
_Florida_; whither he was follow’d by three _Jesuits_ from _Rome_,
_viz._ _Peter Martinius_, _Joan Roger_, and _Francis Villaregius_: The
Master of the Ship in which they went being ignorant where he was,
judg’d it convenient to Land; whereupon nine _Netherlanders_ and four
_Spaniards_, amongst which was _Martinius_, went ashore on _Florida_,
whilst a Storm arising drove the Ship to _Cuba_; by which means those
that were Landed were left in a miserable condition, having no Food but
wild Herbs, on which they fed twelve days: so that this Expedition also
came to nothing.

[Sidenote: Voyage of _Ribald_ and _Laudoniere_.]

At last the _French_ following the foot-steps of the _Spaniards_, _John
Ribald_ and _Rene Laudoniere_ having Sail’d several times to _Florida_,
discover’d several Coasts; but their Men were often set upon by the
_Spaniards_, and cut off.

[Sidenote: The Expedition of _Dominicus Gurgius_.]

[Sidenote: Valiant Exploit of _Gurgius_.]

_Anno 1567._ _Dominicus Gurgius_ set Sail thither with three Ships,
which carried two hundred Soldiers and eighty Sea-men; with which
entring the River _Tacatucouru_ he Landed, and found a Youth call’d
_Peter du Bre_, who escap’d when the _Spaniards_ cruelly massacred the
_French_ in the Garrison _Carolina_; after which _du Bre_ ranging up and
down, at last serv’d _Saturiona_, Governor of _Florida_; whom deserting,
and now meeting with the _French_ his Countrey-men, he brought several
_Casiques_ to joyn with them against the _Spaniards_, whom they drove
out of three Forts, which were all by the Command of _Gurgius_
dismanteled.

[Sidenote: City _Augustine_.]

_Florida_ is call’d by the Natives, _Irquasa_. The _Spaniards_ have
built two Forts on the same, the one erected on the Promontory _Helena_,
is Consecrated to the Apostle _Matthew_. The City and the Fort
_Augustine_ lies near the River _May_. Both City and Fort stand on a
Hill, which is pleasant and well set with Trees. Between the _Foreland_
is a deep and wide Channel, which washes the City and Fort; it is
eight-square, at each corner there stands a round Tower, in which the
Soldiers keep Guard; the Countrey is water’d by two Rivers, which
gliding between the _Main_ and the _Foreland_, are great Safeguards to
the Fort. The City is almost square, onely against the Fort it is much
closer built than in any other place, and divided into four Streets. The
Church stands without of the City, and before it the _Augustine_
Cloyster.

[Illustration: PAGUS HISPANORUM in Florida]

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Constitution of the _Floridans_.]

[Sidenote: Their strange Consultation.]

[Sidenote: Their Food in time of War.]

[Sidenote: Their Priests are Sorcerers.]

[Sidenote: Strange actions.]

[Sidenote: Cruelty on the conquer’d.]

[Sidenote: Remarkable Mourning for the Dead.]

The Inhabitants of _Florida_ are an Olive colour, tall, and without any
deformity; their Skins generally painted, and their Bodies naked, onely
a Deer’s Skin about their middle, their Hair long and black, hanging
down to their Hams, but most of them tie it in a Knot on the top of
their Heads; two small Boards cover their Breasts, and six lesser hang
on their Arms, two Bells at each Ear, and a Cap on their Head, with a
Feather: Their Quivers, which are always full of Arrows, sharpned with
Fish Bones, hang by their Sides; In their left-Hand they hold a great
Bowe, with which they go to War, the King walking before with a Club.
They Consult daily about warlike Affairs in the King’s Palace, where he
himself sits on a high Seat; the Grandees salute him first with their
Hands lifted over their Head, crying _Ha, He, Ya_, at which the rest cry
_Ha, Ha_; then every one sits down on a Stool round about the Room. If
they have any Business of Consequence to debate, then the King sends for
the ancientest Persons and Priests, call’d _Jawas_; this done, they give
a Cup of _Cassine_ (which is a hot Drink made of Herbs) to the King;
after which every one drinks in order out of the same Cup. This Liquor
occasions Sweat, quenches Thirst, and satisfies the Appetite for twenty
four hours. When they March against their Enemies they live on _Indian_
Wheat, Honey, smoak’d Fish, and divers sorts of wild Roots, amongst
which they mix Sand and Cinders, to preserve them the longer. No sooner
are the two Armies come within sight one of another, but the Kings of
both Parties roll their Eyes about in their Heads, mutter something to
themselves, and make strange Gestures and Exclamations; which is
answer’d by a general Cry of the whole Army: then each King turning
himself with great Reverence to the Sun, takes a woodden Platter with
Water, which he throws over his Army so far as he is able, and begs of
the Sun to grant him, that he may spill his Enemies Blood in like
manner; then throws another Dish-full into the Fire, wishing that his
Soldiers may thus Offer the Bodies of their Foes to the Flames; then
step forth the Priests, who are always skill’d in the Art of Necromancy,
and seating themselves on a Shield in the midst of the Army, draw a
Circle, in which they make many strange Gestures, not without muttering
to themselves, and seemingly say a Prayer of a quarter of an hour long;
during which they deport themselves so strangely, that they rather seem
to be Devils themselves, than Charmers of the Devil: They turn their
Eyes quite round, and their Bodies as if without Joynts; at length being
wearied they leap out of the Circle, and inform the King of the number
and condition of the Enemies Army. Those whom they take Prisoners they
flay alive, and drying their Skins at the Fire, tie them to long Poles,
and carry them home as Trophies of their Victory, and afterwards set
them up in some Field or spacious place, putting both Men and Women to
watch them; then comes the Priest with a woodden Image, and utters
Execrations against the slain Enemies; at a corner of the Fields kneel
three Men, one of which striking with great force on a Stone, gives as
many Blows as the Priest pronounces Curses, whilst the other two shake
their _Calabashes_ fill’d with Stones, and Sing many strange Songs: No
sooner is this ended, but the Women whose Husbands are slain in the
Battel, walking to the King, cover their Faces with their Hands, make
many strange Gestures, and desire liberty to take what revenge they can,
and licence also to Marry at the limited time; all which the King
permitting, they return thus comforted home crying. Not long after they
go to the place where their Husbands lie buried, where they crop their
Hair up to their Ears, and throw it on the Grave, as also the Arms and
Drinking-Cups which the Deceased us’d in their life-time; after which
they may not Marry before their Hair be grown again to their Shoulders.
The same Custom is also observ’d when their King is buried but then also
all his Subjects Fast and Howl three days together, stick his Grave full
of Arrows, and burn his House and all his Goods.

[Sidenote: _Floridans_ differ amongst themselves.]

The _Floridans_ differ amongst themselves very much, for those that
inhabit the Province _Panuca_, which borders upon _New Spain_, are
valiant and cruel People, Offering their Prisoners to their Idols, and
eating them. The Men pluck up the Hair of their Beards by the Root, make
holes through their Nose and Ears, and Marry not till their fortieth
Year.

Next to these follow the Realms of _Aranaris_ and _Albardaosia_,
inhabited by a People, which exceed all others in subtilty.

The Natives of _Jaquazia_ run faster than a Deer, and tire not though
they travel a whole day.

[Sidenote: Hermophrodites.]

The best Swimmers are found in _Alpachia_, _Authia_, and _Someria_,
where the Women Swim through deep and great Rivers with their Children
in their Arms. Here also are many Hermophrodites, which carry all the
Luggage when an Army is upon a March.

[Sidenote: Their manner of taking Crocodiles.]

[Sidenote: As also their Deer.]

We find mention’d also two other Provinces of note, _viz._ _Colas_
(which lies near the Point call’d _Cape Florida_) and _Tegista_, or
_Florida_ properly so call’d, being that long _Peninsula_, which
pointing upon the Isle _Cuba_, by the Cape _Los Martyres_, stretcheth it
self North and South about a hundred Leagues in length, but not above
thirty in breadth where it is largest. In this Province is the _Rio de
lo Spirito Santo_. The Soyl, though it produces _Indian_ Wheat twice a
year, yet it is never Dung’d, but when the Corn (which is planted in
_March_ and _June_) is in, they burn the Weeds; the Ashes of which
serves them in stead of Soil. The King divides the Corn according to
every Mans Family. In the Winter they dwell four Moneths in the Woods,
where they build small Huts of Palm-boughs, feed on Venison, smoak’d
Fish, and Crocodiles, which have pure white Flesh, and are caught after
this manner: On the Shore of the Rivers they build little Houses full of
round Holes, in which they place a Watch, who is to give notice to ten
or twelve Associates, cover’d all over with Boughs full of little sharp
Prickles, which they thrust into the Crocodiles Throat, who with open
Mouth comes running at them, and so throwing him on his Back, stick his
Belly full of Arrows, and kill him with Clubs. But with more subtilty
and art they take their Deer, _viz._ They hide themselves under a Stags
Skin, so cunningly, that it seems as if living, which they place near
the Rivers where the Deer generally come to drink, when on a sudden they
shoot them.

[Sidenote: _Floridans_, though libidinous, yet live long.]

Their Priests serve in stead of Chirurgeons, wherefore they always carry
a Bag full of Herbs about with them, which are chiefly good against
venereal Distempers; for these People are exceeding libidinous; nay,
Sodomy and defiling of young Children is accounted no sin: Yet though
they are much inclin’d to Women, they attain to a great Age.

_Rene Laudoniere_ Landing not far from the City _Augustine_, situate on
the Banks of the River _May_, met with the _Floridan_ Governor
_Saturiona_, who conducted him to the _French_ King’s Court of Arms,
erected two years before, which _Saturiona_, as a testimony of his zeal
to the _French_, had Crown’d with Laurel and Flowers. _Saturiona_ had
with him also his Son _Atoreus_, who had begotten divers Children on his
Mother; whom his Father after that time no more acknowledging, resign’d
her up wholly to him: At which time also his great Grandfather being
then living, was above a hundred and fifty years old, and saw his
Childrens Children to the fifth Generation.

[Sidenote: Their horrid Religion.]

The Religion in _Florida_ is abominable, wicked, and cruel: When they
return Conquerors from a Battel, the old Women rake off the dry’d Hair
from the fore-mention’d Poles, hold it aloft, and thank the Sun for
their Victory. But the Offerings of their first-born Sons are terrible,
for they knock out their Brains with a Club in the presence of the King.
Their annual worshipping of the Sun is also very ridiculous; for filling
the Skin of a Stag full of sweet-smelling Herbs, they hang the Horns and
Neck with Garlands, and carry it with the noise of their kind of Vocal
and Instrumental Musick, to a high Trunk or hollow Body of a Tree, on
which they place the stuff’d Stag, with his Head towards the Sun; which
done, they falling down, desire that he would please to afford them
plenty of all such Fruit as they Offer to him; after which taking their
leave, they let the fore-mention’d Skin remain there till the following
Year.

The _Spaniards_ since their Defeat in the Fort _Carolina_, and their
Engagement with Sir _Francis Drake_, _Anno 1585._ have had little
disturbance on _Florida_.

[Sidenote: _Drake_’s Exploit on _Florida_.]

_Drake_ having burnt and plunder’d _Domingo_ and _Carthagena_, steer’d
along the Coast of _Florida_, and discover’d a Beacon on the same;
whereupon he sent out Spies, who sail’d a League up a River, on whose
Banks they saw a Fort, and somewhat higher the Town _Augustine_, built
full of woodden Houses; all which being related to him, he steer’d
thither, fir’d his Guns twice against the Fort _St. John_; which the
_Spaniards_ answering onely with one Volley, fled, with their Commander
_Peter Menendez_; when the _English_ prepar’d to Storm, a Prisoner,
being a _French_-man, came in a Boat from them to _Drake_, and inform’d
him that the _Spaniards_ had left the City _Augustine_ and Fort _St.
John_; to which _Drake_ going, found there Pallisado’s of pleited
Boughs, cover’d with Earth, and a Chest with two thousand Pound, for the
payment of the Soldiers, and fourteen Brass Guns, with which he set Sail
from thence.

The Mountains of this Countrey are onely the _Apalatei_, suppos’d by the
Natives to have rich Mines of Gold in them, and which the _Spaniards_
saw, but had not time, nor other accommodation to stay and search them,
by reason they were so much wearied and wasted with a long March before
they gat thither, and found the People so stout and obstinate
thereabouts, that in stead of entertaining them with their Hens and
Fowl, as other places had done, they were welcom’d with Blows, and made
to return, leaving not a few of their best Soldiers behind.

Rivers there are many, and those very large and commodious, as 1. _Rio
Secco_, or _The Dry River_, so call’d by the _Spaniards_ (as some think)
because they could find no Gold in it. 2. _Rio Grande_, or _The Great
River_. 3. _Ligeris._ 4. _Garunna._ 5. _Sequana_, _&c._ These last, so
nam’d by the _French_, who, after the _Spaniards_, for some time had,
but never held any long possession of the Countrey. There are also _Rio
de Flores_, _Rio de Nieves_, and _Rio de Spirito Santo_, lesser Streams,
yet all of them, with the rest, falling at several places into the great
Lake of _Mexico_; and some of them not a little haunted by the _Caymans_
or _West-Indian_ Crocodiles, a Creature, as hath been said before,
dangerous both at Sea and Land.

The Natives, who as yet hold Possession and Command of it for the most
part, are themselves generally sorted into certain Tribes or great
Families; all which are Govern’d severally by Chiefs of their own, whom
they call _Paracoussi_, and by reason thereof are almost continually in
Feud and War one with another.

The Towns and Places most known in this Province, are 1. _St. Helens_,
seated on or near unto a Promontory of the same Name, where this
Countrey bordereth on _Virginia_. 2. _Fort Charles_, or _Arx Carolina_,
built and so nam’d by the _French_ King, but afterwards ruin’d by the
_Spaniards_. 3. _Port Royal_, a well frequented Haven, at the Mouth of a
River which beareth the same Name. More within Land there is, 1.
_Apalache_, an old Town of the Natives, formerly a Place of great
resort, but now a poor thing of about forty or fifty Cottages; and yet
as poor as it is, _Pamphilius Narvaez_, as before related, when he
search’d the Countrey, found the Natives not willing to part with it:
for though he took it from them, it was not without some resistance, and
they quickly recover’d it again: and at the 2. nam’d _Aute_, another old
Town of theirs, nine days March from the other, they overtook him, and
fell so resolutely upon him, that he left not a few of his best Soldiers
dead upon the place, and was content himself to march quietly away with
the rest. 3. _Ochalis_, a Town consisting of about five or six hundred
Sheds and Cottages likewise of the Natives. 4. _Vittacuche_, a Burrough
of two hundred Houses.

There is also on the Eastern Shore of this _Peninsula_, _St. Matthews_,
a Place possess’d and well fortifi’d by the _Spaniards_; and _St.
Augustines_ on the same Shore, but lying somewhat more Southerly than
the other, at the Mouth of a River of the same Name, taken and sack’d by
Sir _Francis Drake_ in the Year 1585.

[Illustration: YUCATAN _Conventus Iuridici Hispaniæ Novæ Occidentalis,
et_ GUATIMALA CONVENTUS IURIDICI]

[Illustration: St. FRANCISCO DE CAMPECHE]


                               SECT. II.
                                Jucatan.

_Jucatan_ is a _Peninsula_, or half-Island, being encompass’d with the
Sea on all sides, save onely to the South-West, where it is joyn’d to
_Guaxata_, its farther and more Easterly Point looking towards _Cuba_.
The knowledge of, when, and by whom this Province was discover’d, is
included in that of _New Spain_, of which some will have it to be a
part. The whole Province contains in compass nine hundred Miles or more,
and lies between eighteen and twenty two Degrees of Northern Latitude,
or thereabouts, the Air somewhat hot, and the Soil not altogether so
fertile as some other parts of _New Spain_ are; but in recompence
thereof the People are so much the more industrious, living for the most
part by Handicraft Trades. Neither is it altogether unstor’d with Corn
and divers sorts of Fruits, besides what it hath of Fowl and Beasts, as
Geese, Hens, Deer, _&c._ particularly it yieldeth plenty of Wax and
Honey, by reason of its frequent Swarms of Bees. They report some
special things of this Province, as namely, that the People of the
Countrey us’d generally, and long before the _Spaniards_ came thither, a
certain Ceremony of Religion, not much unlike to our Baptism, and which
they call’d by a Name that in their Language signifi’d _Regeneration_,
or _A Second-Birth_; that they observ’d it so diligently, that few or
none amongst them omitted to initiate themselves by it, believing, that
thereby the Seeds and Ground-work of all Goodness was laid in them, and
that they were fortifi’d by it against the assaults and temptations of
evil Spirits; that after they were three or four years old, till they
came to twelve, they usually thus Wash’d and Baptiz’d themselves; and
that none were permitted amongst them to Marry, that were not first
initiated after this manner; that they chose likewise a solemn Day upon
which to do this; and that the Friends and Relations (especially the
Father and Mother) of the Parties to be initiated, as well as the
Parties themselves, always Fasted three days before the said Initiation;
and that a great many of the Natives had a Tradition, or general Report
amongst them, that of ancient time this Province of _Jucatan_ was
possess’d and cultivated by a certain People which came thither from the
East, after a tedious long wanderring, and many hardships endur’d at
Sea, having escap’d the Hands of their Enemies onely through the power
of the Deity they worshipp’d; who help’d them, and made them to pass
securely, even through the Waves of the Sea. All which, if true, seems
not a little to confirm the Report which goeth for currant in the
_Welsh_ Chronicles, of one _Madoc ap Owen_, the Son of _Guineth_, a
Prince of that Countrey, who is said to have fall’n upon a far Countrey
this way in his Travels; which he lik’d so well, that having secur’d to
his Companions their safe abode there during his absence, he return’d
himself into _Wales_ for more Men; and that he transported thither as
many as he could carry in ten Barques full fraught. This he is said to
have done about the Year of our Lord 1170. but neither he nor any of his
Men were ever heard of since; and the success of the Expedition, it
seems, little enquir’d after by the _Welsh_. However, the Relation seems
not altogether incredible.

The chief Towns of the Province are, 1. _Merida_, in the Navel of the
Countrey, and the Seat of the Governor, twelve Leagues distant from the
Sea on either side. 2. _Valladolidt_, thirty Leagues distant from
_Merida_. 3. _Campeche_, a great Town, consisting of about three
thousand Houses or more, when first conquer’d by the _Spaniards_; who
found such Monuments of Art and Industry in it, as did clearly argue,
that the Place had been once possess’d by some People that were not
barbarous. It is now call’d _St. Francisco_, and was surpriz’d in the
Year 1596. by Captain _Parker_, an _English_-man, who took the Governor
himself and some other Persons of Quality with him, together with a Ship
richly laden with Gold and Silver, besides other Commodities of good
value. 4. _Tabasco_, by the _Spaniard_ now call’d _Villa de Nuestra
Sennora de Victoria_, and commonly _Victoria_ onely, in memory, as ’tis
thought, of the first great Victory which _Cortez_ obtain’d over these
People at the Battel of _Potonchan_, as hath been said. 5. _Cintla._ 6.
_Potonchan._ 7. _Salamanca._

All along the Coast of this Countrey there lie certain Islands, some
within the Bay or Gulph call’d _Honduras_, pertaining to the next
Province, as 1. _La Zarza._ 2. _La Desconescida._ 3. _Vermeia._ 4. _Los
Negrillos_; and some without it, as 1. _Zaratan._ 2. _Pantoia._ 3. _De
Mugeres_, or _The Island of Women_; so nam’d by the _Spaniards_, who at
their first Discovery of these Parts, for a long time together could
meet with none but Women. The chief of them is call’d _Acusamil_,
commonly _Cozamul_, and is fifteen Leagues in length, and about five in
breadth, and was as it were the Thorow-fare, or Common Road of the
_Spaniards_, when they first discover’d the Countreys of _New Spain_:
For first here Landed _Ferdinando de Corduba_; after him _John de
Grialva_, and others; and last of all the fortunate _Cortez_. It is now
call’d _St. Crux_.

[Illustration]



                               CHAP. IV.
                               Guatimala.


[Sidenote: Its Situation and Bounds.]

_Guatimala_ stretcheth to the _Isthmus_, or Neck of Land, which, as we
said, joineth the Northern and Southern parts of the _New World_
together.

This Countrey is bounded Northward with the _Peninsula_ of _Jucatan_
abovesaid, and part of the Gulph or Bay of _Honduras_; on the South,
with _Mare del Zur_; on the East and South-East, it hath _Castella
Aurea_; and on the West, _New Spain_. The length of it lieth upon the
Coast of _Mare del Zur_, and is said to be little less than three
hundred Leagues; but the breadth not half so much, and in some places
very narrow. It is generally a fertile and good Countrey in all
respects, but especially abounding in Cattel and good Pastures; it is
subdivided into seven inferior Provinces or Countreys, which are 1.
_Chiapa._ 2. _Verapaz._ 3. _Honduras._ 4. _Nicaragua._ 5. _Veragua._ 6.
_Costa Rica_; and 7. _Guatimala_, specially so call’d: all differing in
Language and Customs one from another.

The Bishoprick (as it is now call’d) of _Chiapa_ is border’d on the West
with _New Spain_; on the East with _Vera Paz_; and on the South with
_Mare del Zur_. It is a Countrey much shaded with Woods, and those
replenish’d with many fair and goodly Trees, of divers sorts, and of the
largest size, as Oaks, Pines, Cedar, Myrtle, and Cypress-Trees, besides
others which yield them a good kind of Rozen, precious Gums, _&c._ also
several sorts of Balsom, as white, red, green, and black, not onely
pleasant to the Scent, but an excellent Remedy for all manner of green
Wounds: the best of it drops out of the cut Bodies of the Trees; and the
worst is press’d out of the Wood and Leaves.

[Sidenote: Trees and Plants.]

There are also proper to this Countrey several other kinds of Trees and
Plants, as that whose Fruit tastes like Pepper and Cloves, being of a
great heighth; a Tree whose Leaves cure all ulcerated Sores, or the
bitings of any poysonous Beast.

There is a sort of Cabbage call’d _Ilantas_, which grows to the heighth
of a Tree, so that Birds make their Nests in them; they are eaten
likewise like other common Cabbages.

There is also an Herb with narrow Leaves, which is no sooner touch’d,
but it shrinks up to nothing; but at the going away of those which touch
it, it obtains its former vigour.

[Sidenote: Birds.]

Here are likewise Quails, Ducks, Geese, Pheasants, Parrots,
Turtle-Doves, Pigeons, and the like, in great abundance.

Amongst the several sorts of Falcons which breed in this Countrey, there
is one sort which hath one Foot proper to its kind, the other like that
of a Goose; it feeds on Fish along the Rivers.

The Bird _Toto-Queztall_, which is somewhat smaller than a Pigeon, with
green Feathers and a long Tail, is taken onely for its Tail, which when
the _Indians_ have pull’d out, they let the Bird fly again, there being
a Law amongst them, that whosoever kills one of them, is to suffer
death.

The Cranes here are of a dark Gray; the biggest of them have a tuft of
Feathers like a Crown upon their Heads.

[Illustration]

[Sidenote: Birds.]

The Birds _Guacamayes_, which are red and blue, are like a _Peruan_
Goose.

[Sidenote: Beasts.]

Moreover, the Countrey yields brave Horses, Goats, Sheep, Rabbets, and
Foxes; also wild Dogs, Leopards, Lyons, and Tygers.

The wild Hogs which breed here have their Navels on their Backs, and
have no Tails, they smell exceeding strong, and feed together in great
Companies.

The _Taquatrin_, a certain Beast proper to those Parts, hath a Bag under
its Belly, in which it generally carries seven or more young ones, and
hath also a bald Tail; it creeps into Houses in the Night to steal Hens.

Here is also a certain Beast (whose Name we find not) about the bigness
of a Rabbet, and like a Rat, and carries its young ones on its back
whensoe’re it comes abroad.

The Serpents, which are very numerous here, trouble the Inhabitants
exceedingly, especially near the Village _Ecatepeque_, where there are
such an abundance on two little Hills, that none dares approach them;
some of them are very poysonous, for if touch’d with a Stick, the Poyson
runs up the same: and whoever are anointed with the Blood of a dead
Serpent, die a lingring Death. _John de Laet_ relates, that the
_Indians_ took one which carried thirty young ones, which being a Finger
long, crep up and down immediately; and the old one, being above twenty
Foot long, serv’d the Natives for Venison.

Amongst other Beasts is also the _Teuthlacokauhqui_, or _Fortress of the
Serpents_; it hath a Head like an Adder, thick Belly, glittering Scales,
a black Back, sprinkled with white Crosses; at its Tail there grows
yearly a Bone, with which it makes a noise when it stirs; its poysonous
Teeth destroy those which are bit therewith in twenty four Hours, unless
the part which is wounded be held in the Earth so long till the pain be
over. Notwithstanding the noise, terrible aspect, and gestures of this
Animal, the _Indian_ Hunters make nothing to take the same by the Tail,
and wrap it up in Linnen, and carrying it home make it tame. It is able
to live a whole Year without either Meat or Drink; its Head when cut off
grows to the bigness of a Man’s Thigh in ten days time.

No less resolute are the Indians in taking the _Ibitobaca_, which is an
Ell long, of a crimson Colour, full of black and white Specks, the Bones
whereof they wear about their Necks in stead of Chains.

[Sidenote: The Serpent _Iquanna_.]

The _Iquanna_ is a Serpent which doth no manner of hurt, though terrible
to look upon to those which know it not, having a Bag under its Chin, a
glittering Comb on its Head, and on its Back sharp Bones, which stand
like a Saw, and a long Tail: It lays fifty Eggs at a time as big as
Acorns, of a very good taste, and fit to eat when boyl’d: It also lives
both in the Water and on the Land.

[Sidenote: Baboons.]

Here are also many Baboons, which are big and heavy, with ugly Heads,
short Legs like a Man, and Tails standing upwards; they eat all sorts of
Fruit, but chiefly covet after Wine and Bread; and are so lascivious,
that they often set upon Women: The Females generally bring forth two,
one Male, and the other Female. There is also another sort, whose Skins,
being red, are full of little Spots.

The ancient Inhabitants of _Chiapa_ (divided into the _Chiapaneca_’s,
the _Zeques_, the _Zeltates_, and the _Quelenes_) are very Civil and
Witty, also skilful in Painting, Singing, Breaking of Horses, and many
other Trades.

[Sidenote: Towns and Villages of Note.]

The Places of more principal note in this Countrey, inhabited by the
_Spaniards_, are 1. _Ciudad Real_, pleasantly seated in the midst of a
round Vale or Plain, and almost encompass’d with Hills representing the
form of an Amphitheatre; also at the Foot of one which stands in the
midst of the rest, the City is built. It is a City specially Priviledg’d
by the King of _Spain_, having a Court of Justice, Cathedral, and
_Dominican_ Cloyster; of a pure and temperate Air, and the Countrey
round about plentifully abounding both in Corn and Fruit, onely somewhat
too cold to produce Lemmons and Oranges; but for Pears, Apples, Peaches,
Quinces, Cherries, and the like, they grow here in great abundance.

2. _Chiapa_, which giveth Name to the Valley aforesaid; It is a Bishop’s
See, and famous, if but for one of its Prelates, _viz._ _Bartholomeo de
las Casas_, of the Order of _Predicants_, who was Bishop of this City,
and his Memory justly precious amongst the poor _Americans_ at this day,
for his Charity towards them, and for the stout and zealous opposition
which he made against the _Spaniards_ cruel and inhumane dealings with
the Natives at the beginning of their Conquests: by which at last,
notwithstanding much difficulty and resistance made by interested
Persons of the other Side, he procur’d them liberty, and an Edict from
the Emperor in favor of them; whereby they were declar’d to be a Free
People, and not Slaves, and the _Spaniards_ forbidden to use them any
longer as such, or to force them to any kind of Labour against their
wills, or otherwise than by agreement with them, which Liberty they
enjoy to this day; and though the _Spaniards_ are said to give them very
small Wages in some places, and for their Work in their Sugar-Mills
(which is no small Labor) not above five _Reyals_, or Two shillings six
pence a Week, for the Maintenance of themselves, their Wives and
Children, yet by reason it is with Consent, and in a Countrey where all
things are plentiful and cheap, their Condition is much better than it
was, and the favor which that good Bishop did them, never to be
forgotten. It is at present a great and populous City, and lieth almost
in the mid-way betwixt the Cities of _Mexico_ and _Guatimala_.

3. _St. Bartholomews_, in the Countrey of the _Quelenes_.

4. _Tecpatlan_, the chief of twenty five Villages, said to belong to the
_Zoques_. Here the _Dominicans_ have another Cloyster.

The _Zeltates_ possess a fruitful Countrey, have thirteen Villages
planted with Trees that yield _Cochenile_, being under a Common-wealth
Government.

The chief Place of the _Quelenes_ is _Copanavatzla_, where there is good
Cheese, and store of brave Cattel: The River _Chiepa_ gliding through
the midst thereof, loseth it self in the Northern Ocean. In this part of
the Country are Beasts not unlike Apes, with long Tails, which they wind
about the Legs of those whom they find swimming and so pull them under
Water; wherefore they that go to Swim take Axes along with them, to cut
off their Tails.

The Water of the River _Blanco_ is clear and wholsom, running for the
most part through Rocky Grounds, which nevertheless are overspread with
Trees.

In the highest Ground of _Chiapa_, a League and a half from the City
_Reall_, spring clear Fountains, whose Water ebbs and flows every six
hours.

Near the Village call’d _Afixa_ is one which runs three years together,
though in the driest Season, and is dry three years, though it Rain
never so much.

Not far from the Village _Cinacatan_ is another Spring, whose Water
cures several Sicknesses, but kills all Birds and Beasts which drink of
the same.

Here are likewise divers Baths.

The Rivers which run out of the Valley _Chiapa_, fall into two great
Pits.

Near the Village _Bartholomew_, in the Province _Quelenes_, is a strange
Cavern, out of which by the throwing of a stone into the same, are heard
mighty noises like claps of Thunder.

Not far from the Village _Chicomucolo_, appears a Cavern, in which is a
great Plain on one side, and a standing Lake, whose Water is like Sand,
on the other.

The _Spaniards_, if they wanted not Slaves, might dig good store of
Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, Tin, and Quicksilver, out of the Mynes on
the Mountain _Ecatepeck_, which is in nine Leagues compass: The Wind
blows so strong after Sun-rising, that no Man is able to travel for it,
but in the Night.


                               SECT. II.
                               Vera Paz.

[Sidenote: Situation and Bounds.]

_Vera Paz_, or _The Countrey of True Peace_, was so nam’d by the
_Spaniards_, as they say, because it was never conquer’d by the Sword,
but reduc’d to Obedience onely by the Preaching of the _Dominican_
Fryers. It is bounded on the West and South-West with _Chiapa_; on the
East with some part of _Guatimala_ and _Honduras_; and on the North with
_Jucatan_. It contains about thirty Leagues in length, and almost as
much in breadth, being a woody and mountainous Countrey for the most
part, yet well distinguish’d with Valleys and lower Ground. It is much
subject to Rain, which ’tis said to have for nine Moneths of the Year
almost continually; by reason whereof the Countrey, being otherwise hot,
is much annoy’d with a kind of _Mosquit_, or great sort of Gnats, which
spoil the Fruit very much, and are otherwise not a little trouble to the
People. Moreover, there happen oftentimes terrible Earthquakes and
Storms, with Thunder and Lightning.

[Sidenote: Commodities of the Countrey.]

The chief Commodities of this Countrey, are a kind of Amber, which some
call _Liquid Amber_, which drops from divers of their Trees, and is said
to be a Commodity very precious, and of much use; _Mastick_, _Sanguis
Draconis_, _Gum Anime_, _Sarsaparilla_, _China-Wood_, and divers other
Medicinal Drugs, which it affordeth in great plenty. The Woods afford a
sweet smell, and the Trees in the same grow a wonderful heighth.

The Canes which grow here, being a hundred Foot long, and proportionably
thick, serve for Timber.

There is also a hard Wood call’d _Iron-Wood_, either from its hardness
or colour, or both, which never rots.

The abundance of Flowers which grow here afford nutriment to innumerable
swarms of Bees, which are about the bigness of small Flies. Their Honey,
which is somewhat tart, they hide in the Roots of Trees, or in the
Earth. Another sort, which is made by the Wasps, bereaves those that
taste of their Senses.

[Sidenote: Beasts.]

The noted’st Beast in this Countrey is the _Danta_, which resembles a
Mule, hath no Horns, but Ash-colour’d long Hair, short Neck, hanging
Ears, thin Legs, with three Claws before and two behind, long Head,
narrow Forehead, little Eyes, a Nose hanging over its Mouth, little
Tail, sharp Teeth, and a Skin which is six Fingers thick, and scarce
penetrable by any Weapon. This Beast is taken in Traps, Holes, or else
with Dogs, which he often kills when hunted towards the Water. They say
that this Beast taught Men first to Let-blood; for if it be too full of
Blood, it pricks it self against a sharp Cane, and stops up the Orifice
again very carefully. The Flesh thereof is good Meat, as also that of
the _Ross_-Lyons, which in the day-time sleep on a high Tree, where they
are shot by the _Indians_.

The Tygers are much more dangerous to be taken; yet the _Indians_
Hunting them, eat them in stead of Beef; and also through all _New
Spain_.

The Bears, which make the Ways very dangerous to travel, have black
frizled Hair, broad Tails, Feet like Mens Hands: but since the _Indians_
have made use of Guns, which they learn’d from the _Spaniards_, they
have much lessen’d the number both of Bears and Tygers.

There are likewise many Leopards, Apes, and wild Goats (whose Skins
serve the Natives for Drums) Hogs, and _Armadillo_’s.

Amongst their Fowls, are Eagles and Parrots.

The Countrey is so well stor’d with Water, that in three Leagues space
are above thirty Rivulets, and as many Fountains.

[Sidenote: Medicinal Plants.]

On the Mountains grow great quantities of _Sarsaparilla_, _Mechoacan_,
and the _China-Root_, which being yellowish hath several
Saffron-colour’d Knobs on the top. The _Sarsaparilla_ grows with many
Stalks, creeping along over the Ground; the Body thereof is tough and
full of Prickles, the Leaves broad and sharp at the ends, and are of a
bluish colour on one side, and green on the other, and bear Clusters of
Flowers, which close like Buds, and are first green, next vermilion-red,
and lastly blackish: within are two hard Stones, which inclose a white
Kernel, by the _Indians_ call’d _Juapecanga_.

The Bay _Golfo Dulce_, which pours its muddy Water into the Sea, feeds
the great Fish _Monati_, and a great number of Crocodiles.

Several Rivers abounding with Fish fall also into the same, having their
Banks set all along with Trees, in whose Boughs, joyn’d together on the
top, those sort of Birds make their Nests which prey on Fish.

The Women in this place are much shorter Liv’d than the Men, so that
there are often thirty Widowers to one Widow. Women with Child are
Deliver’d by themselves in the High-way; and from thence they go to the
next River to wash themselves and the Child.

[Sidenote: Places of note.]

As for any Towns or Places of much Traffick or Note, inhabited by the
_Spaniards_, we find not any nam’d, save onely _St. Augustines_; near
unto which there is said to be a Cave and Fountain within Ground, which
converts the Water that falleth into it out of several lesser Springs,
into a kind of Alabaster or Stone, perfectly white, and fashions it
likewise into Pillars, Statues, and other artificial Forms of very
curious Workmanship, as _Laet_ reporteth.


                               SECT. III.
                               Honduras.

[Sidenote: Situation and Bounds.]

_Honduras_ hath on the South, _Guatimala_ abovesaid; on the West, a
certain Bay, or Arm of the Sea, which they call _Golfo Dulce_, from the
abundance of fresh Waters which run into it from all Parts; on the North
and North-East, the _Atlantick Ocean_; and somewhat to the South-East,
_Nicaragua_. It contains in length, _viz._ from East to West, Coasting
along upon the Sea, about a hundred and fifty Leagues, and in breadth
eighty. The Countrey is rich both in Corn and Pasturage, being said to
be very much advantag’d that way by the constant overflowings of the
Rivers, which are very many, about _Michaelmass_-time, and which the
People order so well, that they water their Gardens, and exceedingly
fertilize the whole Champain, or lower part of the Grounds by them.

The fruitful Valleys of this Countrey were anciently very well
inhabited, till vast multitudes of the Natives were destroy’d by the
_Spaniards_ Cruelties, of which the Bishop _Bartholomeo de las Casas_,
in his Letter to the Emperor _Charles_ the Fifth, gives this Relation:

[Sidenote: Cruelties of the _Spaniards_.]

“The young Children (saith he) they murder’d, beating out their Brains
against the Stones; the Kings and Princes of the Countrey they either
scorch’d to death, or threw them to the Dogs to be torn in pieces; the
poor People they drove into their Houses, and then set them on fire;
those that remain’d were condemn’d to the greatest slavery imaginable,
being us’d in stead of Mules and Horses, and having greater Burdens laid
upon them than they were able to carry, insomuch that thousands of them
fell down dead under them; some out of despair running into the Woods
were famish’d, after they had kill’d and eat their Wives and Children
for Hunger. In this one Province onely they massacred above twenty
hundred thousand Men, and amongst others, Persons of Quality, which had
civilly Entertain’d them: nay, they tortur’d the poor innocent Natives
all the ways they could possibly invent, onely to know of them where
their Gold lay; particularly _Diego de Valasco_ spar’d none that ever
fell into his hands; insomuch that in a Moneths time above ten thousand
were slain by him: He hang’d thirteen Noble-men, to twelve of whom he
gave the Denomination of _The twelve Apostles_; and the chiefest of them
he call’d in a derision, _Jesus Christ_. Some they suffer’d to starve to
death, with their Heads compress’d between the cloven Barks of wild
Vines; some also they buried alive, and leaving onely their Heads to
appear above Ground, bowl’d Iron Bullets at them, and forc’d them to eat
one another; besides infinite other hellish Cruelties, too horrid and
dreadful to be recounted.”

[Sidenote: Commodities of the Countrey.]

This Countrey produces much _Maiz_, Wheat, Honey, and great
_Calabashes_, from whence the first Discoverers call’d that Sea _Golfo
de las Ybueras_, because they met with abundance of _Calabashes_,
floating on the Water, which at _Santo Domingo_ bear the Name of
_Ybueras_.

This Countrey is water’d by three Rivers, the first _Chamalucom_, which
glides by the City _San Pedro_; the second _Ulva_, inhabited on both
Shores; the third _Haguaro_, the Grounds adjacent to which would prove
very fruitful, were the Inhabitants not too lazy. In stead of a Plough
they use a long Pole, with two crooked Staves at the end, one bent
downwards and the other upwards, with which they cut and turn the Earth.
The Natives feed on several Roots, Flesh, and Vermine.

At their Feast they make themselves Drunk with a Drink made of Honey,
Noble-men heretofore onely drinking the Liquor of _Cacao_; of late it is
common, and made by all People, though never so mean. They speak several
Languages, the chiefest whereof is that of the _Chontales_, a salvage
People. They divide their Year, call’d _Joalar_, that is, _Passing_,
into eighteen Moneths, and each Moneth into twenty Days. They formerly
measur’d the Year by the Nights, and began the Year forty days sooner
than the _Europeans_.

[Sidenote: _New Valladolid._]

The Towns in this Province are 1. _New Vallodolid_, by the _Indians_
nam’d _Comayagua_, lying in a pleasant Valley under a temperate Climate.
The Cattel brought hither from _Spain_ increase exceedingly. The
Silver-Mynes are also so well stor’d, that they keep the Melting-house
in the Town always employ’d.

The Governor of this Place hath his Residence next to the
Treasury-Chamber.

_Anno 1588._ the Bishop’s See was translated hither from _Truxillo_:
Nineteen years before which _Francisco de Monteio_ sent his Lieutenant
_Alphonso de Cacenes_ thither, to build a Village half way between the
Southern and Northern Ocean; who accordingly erected the Town _Santa
Maria de Camoyagua_, near a River Navigable for _Canoos_, which
disembogues in _Puerto de Cavallos_. The remaining part of the Way to
the Haven _Fonseca_ being passable for Carrs (which was a means to
prevent many Inconveniences which us’d to happen to Travellers on the
Way between _Panama_ and _Nombre de Dios_) the _Spanish_ King was so
much concern’d at the first proposal hereof, that he sent the famous
Surveyor _Baptista Antonello_ thither, and he rather, because he
received information, that the new Way, along which they carried the
Merchandise from _Peru_, _Mexico_, and other Countreys along the South
Sea, lay very pleasantly, by reason of the brave Vineyards, Corn-Fields,
Fruit-Trees, Pastures, Streams abounding with Fish, Herds of Deer, and
Cony-Warrens; yet _Antonello_ meeting with many troubles, would not
undertake the Business.

_New Valladolid_ is adorn’d with a great Church, a Cloyster, belonging
to the Monks _De la Merced_, and handsom Streets.

[Sidenote: _Gratias a Dios._]

2. Thirty Leagues Westward from this City lies another call’d _Gratias a
Dios_, begun by Captain _Gabriel de Royas_, _Anno 1530._ that so he
might be near the Gold-Mines: But because the Natives kept the new
Inhabitants in continual alarm, and daily Storm’d the unfinished
Fortifications, _Royas_ was necessitated to leave off building any
farther, the rather, because none came to his assistance from the
neighboring Garrison.

Six years after _Gonzales de Alvarado_ undertook this Work, and built
the City on a Rocky Mountain; which, though otherwise barren, produc’d
lusty Horses and strong Mules.

[Sidenote: _St. Pedro._]

3. _San Pedro_, though lying under a hot and unwholsom Climate, us’d
formerly to be a brave City of Trade; but it is gone much to decay since
_Golfo Dolce_ hath been discover’d, because from that Bay the
Commodities are carried in Barques up into the Countrey.

[Sidenote: _Juan de Puerto de Cavallos._]

4. The Village _Juan de Puerto de Cavallos_, inhabited by Factors and
Moors: It receiv’d that Denomination, because not far from it several
Horses were forc’d to be thrown over-board in a Storm. Though it be but
ill fortifi’d, yet it hath an exceeding large Haven. Captain
_Christopher Newport_ arriving here _Anno 1591._ found two hundred
Houses, and in them a considerable Booty left, notwithstanding four
Ships richly laden had lately set Sail from thence.

Six years after _Newport_, Capt. _Ant. Sherly_ re-took the Place, and
leaving the Haven open for Pyrats, _Alphonsus Coriado_ judg’d it
convenient to remove the Trading Place to _Amatique_; he built the
Village _Thomas de Castilla_, and fortifi’d the same against all manner
of Assaults.

[Illustration: TRUXILLO.]

Behind _Cavallos_ lies the Valley _Naco_, which is exceeding fruitful,
being situate between high Mountains, where formerly was found plenty of
Silver.

[Sidenote: _Truxillo._]

5. Eastward from _Cavallos_ appears the famous City _Truxillo_, near a
large Bay; secur’d from all Storms by two Cliffs, full of Trees; the
Mouth of the Haven call’d _Joan Gil_, is above two Leagues broad, and
receives two Rivers, one from each side of the City: The Stream
_Quaimarotte_ flows Eastward, and the River _Antonio_ Westward, both
abounding in Fish. The Countrey round about produces abundance of all
sorts of Provisions, and chiefly abounds in Grapes, which are gather’d
twice a year: Eight days after _August_ they cut their Vines, which
afford them ripe Grapes again in _October_; they have two Harvests of
Corn; also Lemons and Oranges are very plentiful: The Cattel brought
hither from _Spain_ are exceedingly increas’d to an incredible number.

_Truxillo_ it self lying on a steep Mountain, is defended on that side
which respects the Sea, with a thick Wall of six Foot high; between
which and the Haven are many brambly Bushes, which prevent the access to
the Wall, onely a narrow and steep way leading up to the City, which
hath a strong Gate, guarded with two Brass Guns, and sufficiently
Fortifi’d to oppose an Enemy. The Eastern Cliff, which bends before the
Haven is call’d _Punta la Rye_, on which stands a House with a high
Beacon: Beyond the Wall Eastward, near the Haven, is a Ship-yard, before
which stands a large Woodden Cross: The Castle in which the City Store
is kept, joyns to the Wall, near unto which, within the Town appears St.
_Francis_ Church; but the Cathedral call’d _Eglesia Major_, is seen
above all other Buildings: The Houses cover’d with _Palmito_-Leaves,
have Walls of Pleited Bushes, Plaister’d over within and without: Behind
the City, where it lies open, are exceeding high Mountains.

[Sidenote: Attempts upon this place by the _English_ and _Dutch_.]

_Anno 1576._ the _English_ falling on this strong Place, carry’d a rich
Booty from thence; after which, Capt. _Anth. Sherly_ and Capt. _Will.
Parker_ ventur’d once more on the same, but being discover’d by the
Centinel, were forc’d to Retreat, not without a considerable loss: When
not long after, Captain _John Van Hoorn_ a _Hollander_, attempting the
same, had much better success; for he Weighing Anchor for _Pernambuc_,
with four Frigats, three Ketches, and a Sloop, set Sail to _Truxillo_,
where arriving, lay close before the City with his four Frigats, which
fired very fiercely on the Town; the Inhabitants of which not being
idle, kill’d three Men in one Ship, forc’d her to fall farther off from
the Castle: Whilst the Ketches and Sloop went about a Gun shot Westward
beyond the City, towards the River _Antonio_, where they Landed two
hundred and fifty Soldiers, which march’d with all speed up the Hill,
where the Castle lay which they Scal’d at Noon-day; the Besieged being
provided with seven Guns, shot, and threw Stones continually amongst
them, yet were forc’d to Retreat from the _Dutch_ Hand-granado’s: During
the storm, the Admiral himself Landed, but before he came out of the
Boat, the foremention’d Soldiers had made themselves Masters of the
Fort, with the loss of onely eight Men, and were busie Pillaging all
places they came at, and carrying their gotten Booty to a Watch-house
near the Castle on the Shore; when on a sudden a Fire happen’d in the
East part of _Truxillo_, which increas’d in such a manner, that in few
hours two third parts of the City lay in Ashes; every one then had
enough to do to save themselves, yet for all the haste they made,
several _Hollanders_ were kill’d at the blowing up of the Magazine, and
most of the Booty lost by the Fire; insomuch that they carry’d but two
hundred thirty nine Skins, six Bales of _Indigo_, eight hundred and
twenty Pounds of _Sarsaparilla_, seven Brass, and three Iron Guns, four
Clocks, and some few trifles with them; having before made an agreement
for twenty Pound of Silver, with the Governor _Joan de Miranda_, who
inform’d them, that they had not the least knowledge of the _Hollanders_
Fleet, till the Evening, when the Beacon on _Punta La Rye_ was fir’d:
Moreover, that the City was inhabited by two hundred _Spaniards_, and as
many more _Mulatoes_ and _Moors_; and that the Trade thereof was much
gone to decay, because there had been no Gallies there in two years
before.

Twenty seven Leagues from this City lies the Village _Jorgo de Olancho_,
where four thousand _Spaniards_ force Tribute from sixteen thousand
_Indians_, who possess much Gold.


                               SECT. IV.
                               Nicaragua.

[Sidenote: Situation and bounds.]

_Nicaragua_ is a County of this Province, border’d Northward with
_Honduras_; on the East, with the _Atlantick Ocean_, and part of
_Veragua_; on the South, with _Mare del Zur_; and on the West, with
_Guatimala_, being call’d by _Diego Lopez de Salzado_, _The New Kingdom
of_ Leon, and comprizing several little Territories, as _Nicoya_,
_Nequecheri_, _Mabyth_, _Deria_, _Masaya_, _Mandigua_, _Cacoloaque_,
_Cepeoco_, _Los Micos_, _Madira_, and the _Contales_. It hath few Rivers
in it, the want whereof is supply’d by the benefit of a great Lake, in
the midst of the Countrey, call’d by the _Spaniards_, _Laguna de
Nicaragua_, containing, as is suppos’d, above one hundred Leagues in
compass. It empties it self by the Port of _St. Juan_ into the
_Atlantick_ or North-Sea, but reacheth as far as the South or _Mare del
Zur_, at least within a very few Leagues; and from whence some _Spanish_
Captains are said to have made a passage, though with much difficulty,
into the Lake, and from thence to the North-Sea. It is abundantly well
stor’d with good Fish, but withal much haunted with Crocodiles; and the
Countrey about it so plentiful in all things, especially Cattel,
Cotten-Wool, Sugars, and all kind of Fruits: Amongst which, the chiefest
is the _Zeiba_, which is of so great a thickness, that fifteen Men
holding Hand in Hand, can scarce encompass the same. The _Callabashes_
ripen here in fourteen days time: The Sea along the Coast, breeds Whales
and other Sea-Monsters, which are often seen above Water.

[Sidenote: Nature of the Inhabitants.]

The Inhabitants of this Countrey, (except the _Chontales_, which live on
the Mountains, and maintain their old Salvage Customs) have for the most
part learnt the _Spanish_ Tongue and Manners, and exercise themselves in
all sorts of Arts and Siences, especially in Working of Silver, making
of Clothes, Wax-Work, and the like: From the Mountains they gather
Balsom, Liquid-Amber, Turpentine: They also drive a great Trade in
Cotton, Skins, and several sorts of Provisions, to _Panama_, and _Nombre
de Dios_.

The Lake _Laguna de Nicaragua_, which hath a hundred and seventeen
Leagues in Circumference, and round about inhabited, is by three Leagues
of Land separated from the South-Sea; and discharges its Waters into the
River _Desaguadero_, which falls into the Northern Ocean. _Alphonsus
Calera_, and _Diego Machuca de Zuaso_, were the first that Sail’d out of
the foremention’d Lake into the Sea, not without many dangers, by reason
of the great Water-falls, call’d _Rondales_, which fall into the River
_Desaguadero_, and forc’d them often times to draw their Barques over
the Land.

[Sidenote: Cities.]

The chief City is, 1. _Leon_, which is surrounded with Woods, and lies
close by the Lake; hath a great Church, five Cloysters belonging to the
_Monks, de la Mercede_, several Houses for the King’s Officers, and a
hundred and twenty thousand Families of _Indians_ which pay Tribute.
Three Leagues beyond _Leon_ appears a high spiry Mountain, from whose
top, both Morning and Evening, rises a mighty smoke, and sometimes casts
out great sulphurous Stones over the neighboring Fields, and on a sudden
mighty Flames. A _Dominican_ Monk, in hopes to get some melted Gold out
of its burning Mouth, went up the same with four of his Fraternity, and
carry’d an Iron Chain and a Kettle, which were no sooner let down into
the hole, but they were immediately melted; yet not so discourag’d, they
resolv’d to venture a second time with stronger Materials, which
nevertheless had the same, or rather worse event; for the Fire flew out
in such a manner, that the _Dominicans_ sadly scorch’d, had enough to do
to escape with Life, since which none durst presume to approach the
same.

But besides the Episcopal City _Leon_, Erected by _Franciscus
Fernandez_, 2. _Granada_ acknowledges the same Builder, and lying also
on the shore of _Laguna de Nicaragua_, is adorn’d with a Castle, Church,
and several Sugar-Mills: Not far from it lie the small Lakes _Masaya_
and _Lindiri_; the first which is inclos’d between exceeding high
Mountains, covers the Foot of the burning Mountain _Masaya_; the other
falls into _Laguna de Nicaragua_, near which is the smoky Mountain
_Munbacho_, surrounded with Fruit-Trees.

3. _&_ 4. The Towns _Jean_, and _Neuva Segovia_, which are not far from
thence, are of little consequence.

5. _Realeio_, this is, as it were, the _Chattam_ of _America_, being a
place on the South-Sea, where the King of _Spain_ hath all his Ships
built that are made of _American_ Timber, and inhabited by few or none
but Shipwrights, Mariners, and Men of that kind of Profession.

6. _&_ 7. _Nicoya_, _Avarines_.

8. _Cartago_, forty Leagues distant from _Nicoya_, and lying almost in
the midst of the _Isthmus_, or _Streight_ of _Darien_, equally distant
both from the North and South Sea; on both which it is said likewise to
have a convenient Port or Haven for Shipping.

[Sidenote: Strange manner of Dancing.]

The _Spaniards_, when first they Landed here, call’d this Countrey
_Mahomets Paradise_, because of its exceeding Fruitfulness. The _Cacao_
which they use here in stead of Money, is not unlike the Stone of an
Almond. The Inhabitants, in stead of using a Steel and Flint to strike
Fire withal, rub two pieces of Wood together so long, till one of them
is kindled; and burn the Boughs of Pine-Trees in stead of Candles.
Amongst the several Languages which they speak, the _Mexican_ is the
chiefest: Amongst their Recreations, Dancing is principal, which is
perform’d after a very strange manner, for they meet sometimes two or
three thousand together, according to the bigness of the Province, in a
spacious Field, which is made clean before for that purpose: He that
leads the Dance goes backward, and with many strange Gestures, turns
himself about, which the rest, following four and four together in a
row, imitate, whilst their _Tambores_ beat on hollow Instruments, and
sing Songs, which are first answer’d by the Ring-leader of the Dance,
and then seconded by the whole Company, each of them waving a Fan or a
_Callabash_, and being all adorn’d with Plumes of Feathers on their
Heads, and Strings with Shells about their Arms and Legs; they also act
several antick Tricks, the one, the blind Man, the other, the Cripple,
one feigns himself to be deaf, the other makes a wry Mouth, one cries,
and another laughs, whilest others drink healths in _Chocolate_, which
continues till Midnight.

[Sidenote: The Fish _Manati_.]

A King of this Countrey in former times us’d to feed the Fish _Manati_
with Bread, in the Lake _Guainabo_, where it would appear at its being
call’d _Matto_, _Matto_, which signifies _Noble-minded_, and oftentimes
carry eight or ten Boys on its Back from one side of the Lake to the
other; but being shot by a _Spaniard_ with an Arrow, never appear’d
again.

There is likewise a black Beast in this Countrey call’d _Cascu_,
resembling in some things a Hog; it hath a hard Skin, little Eyes, open
Ears, cloven Feet, short Nose, and makes such a terrible noise, that it
affrights those which hear it.

No less strange and wonderful is the Fox-Ape, which hath two Bellies one
under another; in the lowermost of which it carries its Young, which are
never brought into the World till they are able to shift for their own
Food. It hath the Body of a Fox, Feet like a Man’s Hands, and Ears like
a Batt.

It will not be amiss before we conclude with this Province, to give you
a Relation of the Discourse which hapned _Anno 1527._ between the
_Spanish_ Commander _Francisco de Monteio_ and the _Nicaraguan_ Casique
_Alquinotex_, who being a hundred and ten years old, told him, “That
before the _Spaniards_ arrival there, great numbers of his Soldiers
perish’d after a strange manner; for after having vomited abundance of
Worms, they fell down dead on a sudden: those that escap’d the Contagion
differing amongst themselves, made two Parties, which twice Engaging
with one another, each of them lost above a hundred and fifty thousand
Men. Yet both these Plagues were no ways to be compar’d to the Slaughter
which the _Spaniards_ had made amongst them.”

About the same time an _Italian_, call’d _Hieronymo Bonzo_, Lodging with
a _Nicaraguan_ Noble-man that understood the _Spanish_ Tongue, was thus
set upon by him: _What do not_ (_Oh_ Christ) _the_ Christians _do! they
no sooner get their Foot into an_ Indian_’s Hut, but they commandingly
call for Maiz, Honey, Winter-Clothes, Gold, Silver, and a Woman to cool
their lustful desires: Certainly there is nothing more vicious on
Earth_. To which _Bonzo_ gave him this Answer: _The wicked_ Spaniards
_commit oftentimes unseemly things_. The _Indian_ again suddenly
retorted, saying, _Where are any such Men to be found as good_
Spaniards? _I have never known any but wicked Villains._ To which
_Bonzo_ said, _Why have you made place for them on_ Nicaragua? Which was
thus reply’d to by the Noble-man: “All People round about took Oath on
the first News of the _Christians_ arrival, to hazard all, and fight to
the last Man, before they would be under the insupportable Yoke, with
which they had heard other Countreys were oppress’d with by them. To
which purpose they made ready Bowes, Arrows, Lances, Stones, Clubs, and
other Weapons of War: But when it came to the trial, the _Spanish_
Horse, of which they had never seen the like, struck such a terror into
the _Indians_, that they fled, and sent two Agents to _Monteio_ to
desire Peace; but their Design was onely to gain time, that they might
gather new Forces, to venture a second Encounter; which prov’d as fatal
to them as the first. Then desiring Peace once more, they gather’d all
that were able to bear Arms, and swore one to another not to stir a
Foot; and withal made a Law, That whosoever did shrink should be kill’d
immediately: But the Women being inform’d hereof, begg’d that they might
rather suffer under the _Spanish_ Yoke, than be torn in pieces by their
Dogs, or kill’d by their Bullets and Swords, alledging, that they were
not able to resist the _Spaniards_; and entreated them, that if they
were resolv’d to go on with their first Design, they would first send
their Wives and Children to the other World, that so they might not fall
into the hands of the merciless and bloody _Christians_: Whereupon most
Voices judg’d it convenient to make use of the Opportunity, and to
submit to _Monteio_. But his cruel dealings made some to contradict that
Determination, for which they paid dearly; for not onely they, but their
little Infants, were put to the most cruel Deaths imaginable; which made
many of them also to lay violent hands on themselves.”


                                SECT. V.
                               Costarica.

[Sidenote: Bounds and Nature of the Countrey.]

_Costarica_ borders on the East with _Veragua_; on the South and East,
with the Sea; and on the North, with _Nicaragua_. The Countrey it self
is barren and mountainous; whose Inhabitants were valiant enough to
Encounter with the _Spanish_ Forces, being unwilling to lose their
former Priviledges.

This Coast was discover’d full by _Christopher Columbus_, who _Anno
1502._ Sailing up the Rivers _Belen_ and _Veragua_ with Barques, took
much Gold out of the Mynes _Urira_, but chiefly from between the Roots
of Trees which were grown together.


                               SECT. VI.
                                Veragua.

[Sidenote: Bounds and Nature of the Country.]

_Veragua_ is bounded on the West with _Costarica_; on the East it hath
the District, or Countrey of _Panama_, being otherwise wash’d on all
sides by the Sea. It hath its Name from a River of great note in this
Tract, by which it was first discover’d. The Countrey is for the most
part mountainous, and the Soil outwardly barren, but recompencing all
defects with the abundance of its more inward Wealth, that is to say, in
the richness of its Mynes, of which it is said to afford many, and so
inexhaustibly rich and good, that the _Spaniards_ here know no end of
their Wealth; although by the stoutness and untameableness of the
Natives, it was a long time, and they met with many difficulties, before
they could make themselves Masters of the Treasure.

[Sidenote: Its chief Towns.]

The chief Towns they have here are 1. _La Conception_, lying at the
Mouth of a River so nam’d, and the Seat of the Governor.

2. _La Trinidad_, upon the Banks of the same River likewise, but down
towards _Port Beleno_, and about six Leagues Eastward of _Conception_.

3. _St. Foy_, twelve Leagues more to the South, where the _Spaniards_
melt their Gold, and cast it into Bars or Ingots.

4. _Carlos_, a Town they have upon the Coast of _Mare del Zur_.

5. _Philippina_, another on the West of _Carlos_; both of these seated
upon a large capacious Bay; before which there lie certain little
Islands, to the number of thirty or more, which the _Spaniards_ are said
to have wholly dispeopled long since, by forcing the Natives over into
the Continent to work in the Mynes, as usually they did before the
Emperor’s Prohibition: but now they use Slaves or _Negro_’s, which they
buy for that purpose from _Guinee_ and other Parts.


                               SECT. VII.
                     Guatimala, properly so call’d.

[Sidenote: Bounds of the Country.]

_Guatimala_, specially so call’d, hath on the West the River _Xicalapa_,
which divides it from _Vera Paz_; on the East it is bounded with the
Countrey of _Nicaragua_; on the North, with _Honduras_; and on the
South, with _Mare del Zur_.

This Countrey was conquer’d by _Peter de Alvarado_, _Anno 1525._ It is,
by reason of its neighborhood with _Vera Paz_, not altogether clear of
Mountains, but otherwise well water’d with Rivers, and enrich’d with
fair and fruitful Valleys, which afford not onely good Pasturage, and
many great Herds of Cattel, but likewise good store of Wheat, _Maiz_,
and other Fruits of the Earth. Great plenty of Cotton-Wool is generally
both here and in the other Provinces, _viz._ _Vera Paz_, _Chiapa_, &c.
some Medicinal Woods likewise, and Liquors, and absolutely the best
Sulphur in _America_. The People are generally tractable and well
dispos’d, both in point of Religion and civil Government.

[Sidenote: Towns of note.]

The Towns of chief note are 1. _Guatimala_, now call’d _St. Jago de
Guatimala_ since the re-building thereof; for about the Year 1586. it
was almost buried in Ashes, which one of the neighboring Mountains, for
the space of six Moneths together, continually belch’d out in such
fearful quantities, that many People were slain, the old City deserted,
and a new one built in another place. The day before this sad Accident
hapned, the neighboring Mountains were observ’d to shiver, and a great
noise was heard from under Ground; which amazing the _Indians_, the news
thereof was carried to the Bishop, _Franciscus Moroquin_, who narrowly
enquiring into the Causes of these Accidents, and what they might
portend, found that a sad Event would suddenly follow, as accordingly it
did; for about midnight on the eighth of _August, Anno 1541._ such a
mighty store of Rain fell, as if the Clouds had been all dissolv’d into
Water, which came rowling from the Rocky Mountains with such violence,
that it wash’d down great Stones, which carried on by the strength of
the Water against the Houses, beat them down; and none could have seen
how they were ruin’d, had not the mighty flashes of Lightning, follow’d
by terrible claps of Thunder, lighted the Night. Some instantly
deserting this miserable place, fled up into the Countrey, and there
built a new _Guatimala_ (as above-mention’d) sur-nam’d _St. Jago_, three
Leagues farther towards the East, in a Valley through which flow two
Rivers, between two _Vulcans_, or smoaking Mountains, which sometimes
vomit forth terrible Flames, mix’d with dreadful Thunder-claps, Ashes,
and great Stones, insomuch that the Ground all about it, which is
exceeding fruitful, seems to move. There are many of these _Vulcans_ in
several parts of _America_, as namely at _Arequipa_ in the Kingdom of
_Peru_, at _Puebla de los Angelos_, in the Province of _Tlascalla_
abovesaid, a Mountain of so great heighth, that they are fain to go
little less than thirty Leagues turning and winding before they can
reach the top of it, and others in several other places. They are
generally Mountains of great heighth, and running sharp upwards, but at
the top containing some quantity of plain and level Ground; in the midst
whereof is a Pit or Hole, out of which abundance of Smoak and fiery
Sparkles are vomited almost continually, and so deep, that they are
suppos’d for the most part to reach to the very bottom of the Mountain.
Some of these _Vulcans_ cast forth neither Fire nor Smoak, yet are
clearly seen to burn at the bottom with a quick Fire, and which is so
extreamly hot, that it instantly melteth Iron, or any other Metal that
is cast into it, as by experience hath been found: for some conceiving
that the Matter which maintains these Fires within the Bowels of the
Earth so long together, can be nothing else but melted Gold, have
endeavor’d several times to extract and draw it forth in certain Vessels
of Iron and Brass, which they have caus’d to be let down into the bottom
of the _Vulcan_ or Pit, by long Iron Chains made on purpose: but, as we
said, the extream heat and force of the Fire below always melted them
before they could be drawn up again, and by that means hath rendred all
such Attempts frustrate. In this Town, now call’d _St. Jago_, reside
above six hundred _Spanish_ Commanders, and more than twenty five
thousand _Indians_ which pay Tribute. They have also a brave Church and
two Cloysters, one belonging to the _Dominicans_, and another to the
Order _La Merced_, and likewise a noble Hospital. Not far from thence is
a place call’d _Yzaleos_, where there are Orchards of _Cacoa_ two
Leagues in square, each of them producing yearly as much as fifty
thousand Men are able to carry. They reckon the _Cacao_ by _Contels_,
which is the number of four hundred; by _Xequipiles_, of eight thousand;
and by _Carga_’s, of twenty four thousand. In this County is a Mountain,
whose top smoaking continually consumes by degrees, and oftentimes
covers the neighboring Countrey with Ashes. The Water which flows from
the same differs very much, for some of it is wholsom and fit to drink;
some foul and stinking, and some turns Wood, if laid in the same, to
Stone. Here is also the Beast whose Head is highly esteem’d for the
_Bezoar_-Stone, which it carries in the same. Here is likewise a little
Bear, which in stead of a Mouth, hath a long Nose with a round Hole in
it, and a hollow Tongue, with which it sucks Honey, and disturbs the
Nests of Pismires. The Women in this Place make curious Earthen Ware,
colour’d either red or black with the Mud of two several Brooks. The
_Indians_ call’d the boyling Fountains in this County _Hell_, because
they bubble up a Bowes-shot high, and make the River _Caliente_, which,
notwithstanding it hath pass’d half a League through a wide Channel,
retains its exceeding heat. Not far from it lies a Stone, which having a
Crack in the middle, sends forth a thick Damp, and against bad Weather a
thundering noise. On the Mountains grow exceeding large Trees,
especially Oak. Here Pismires which are of an extraordinary bigness, are
brought to Market amongst other Provisions.

2. _St. Salvador_, forty Leagues distant from _Guatimala_ Eastward, and
seated upon the River _Guacapa_, and having about it a small Territory,
which by some is accounted a distinct Countrey or Province.

3. _Acaputla_, a Town of the Natives, situated at the Mouth of the
River, and being as it were, the Port-Town to _St. Salvador_.

4. _Trinidad_, a Town of great resort, being the greatest Empory and
Place of Traffick for all sorts of Commodities, betwixt the People of
_New Spain_ and those of _Peru_.

5. _St. Michaels_, two or three Leagues distant from the Bay _Fonseca_,
upon the South Sea.

6. _Xeres de la Frontera_, on the Confines of this Province, towards the
Borders of _Nicaragua_, besides several Villages which we shall have
occasion to mention.

In the middle of a Lake within this Territory is an Island, on which the
_Indians_ had a Tradition, That a Man no sooner set his Foot but he died
immediately: Which Opinion of theirs was chang’d when the _Spaniards_
went thither in Boat-fulls and return’d safe again, with Relation that
they had seen a large Stone Image, resembling a Woman; before which lay
the Ashes and Bones of slain People.

Round about the Village _Guaymoco_ grow great Balsom-Trees, which afford
Timber of fifty five Foot long. From this Village leads a Way to the
City _Salvador_, near which the fore-mention’d River _Guachapa_ runs
with so many windings, that the Traveller is forc’d to cross the same
several times before he can come to the Foot of a Mountain which
formerly cast out terrible Flames; but now the combustible Matter being
consum’d, there appears onely a great Hole on the top, with Ashes in a
large compass round about it. At the Foot of the same are two Pits, one
of which smoaks continually in such a manner, that it stifles all those
that approach it; yet the Mountain is well overspread with Cedars and
Pine-Trees.

Three Leagues farther lies the Village _Nixapa_; and not far from thence
the Hill _Elmal Pais_, which consists of great Stones and Ashes,
wonderfully mixt together: No less wonderful is a Brook which flows in
the Night till Morning, and then sinks into the Ground: And in the
Countrey _Choluteca_ is another, which hides it self at Noon, and
appears again towards Night. The Cavern which formerly produc’d Fire and
Smoke, now affords good Water to the Village _Curcatan_, and City
_Salvador_: Near the Village _Yztepegve_ are five Springs, which cast up
Allom and Sulphur. The Natives _Chontales_ which speak several
Languages, flock to the Village _Mimilla_, to make Offerings; not far
from hence are two Pits, one of which is full of boyling Water, and the
other as cold as Ice: Moreover, _Cocori_ lies near a high Mountain, on
the top of which is a very turbulent Lake.

[Sidenote: Havens.]

The chiefest Haven of this Countrey, which lies along the South-Sea, is
_Bahia de Fonseca_, Discover’d by _Gonsalves Davila_, _Anno 1522._ and
so nam’d from _Joan Rodrigas de Fonseca_, Bishop of _Burgos_; In the
middle thereof appears the Island _Petronella_, with nine others, of
which four are inhabited by _Indians_.

The good conveniency of the Haven _Fonseca_, induc’d some of the
_Spaniards_ to make a new Passage from the side of the Southern Ocean,
to the Northern, _viz._ from _Panama_ to _Nombre de Dios_, designing it
to reach from the said Haven _Fonseca_, unto _Puerto de Carellos_, which
are distant one from the other forty five Leagues; most of it good way,
except some over-grown Mountains, which might be made passable with
little trouble; to which purpose they built the Town _Buena Esperanca_,
yet nevertheless the Work remain’d unprosecuted.

There are moreover reckon’d as appertaining to _Guatimala_, the small
Provinces _Soconusco_, _Suchitepec_, and _Chilulteca_, the chief of them
being _Soconusco_, to which belongs the Town of _Gevetlan_, where the
_Spanish_ Governor hath his Residence; the rest seem to be onely small
Territories about Towns of the same Name, in like manner as St.
_Salvador_, and St. _Miguel_ before-mention’d.

[Illustration]



                                CHAP. V.
                  The Kingdom of Mexico, or New-Spain.


[Sidenote: Bounds of _New-Spain_.]

_New Spain_, the chiefest part of the Northern _America_, reckons in
length from the East-Point of _Yucatan_, to the place where _Mechoacon_
juts against _Guadalajara_ three hundred and sixty Leagues; and in
breadth from the Northern parts of _Panucos_, to the Southern Ocean, a
hundred and eighty Leagues; besides a great part which lies to the
Northward, behind inaccessable Mountains and Wildernesses; inhabited by
the _Tepecuaenes_, _Guachucules_, _Cacatequas_, _Tecaxquines_, and
others; and was, before the _Spaniards_ Conquer’d and Dismember’d it,
much larger than now it is; for as much as it comprehended the whole
Province of _New-Gallicia_, and reach’d from the furthest Point of the
_Peninsula_ of _Jucatan_ Southward as far as _New-Biscay_, and the
Confines of _California_ Northward; containing in length seven hundred
Leagues and more, and about half as much in breadth: But since the
Conquest by _Hernando Cortez_ and his Followers, the whole Countrey of
_New-Gallicia_ is taken from it, and made a distinct Government or
_Audiencia_, as the _Spaniards_ call it, of it self.

[Illustration: NOVA HISPANIA NOVA GALACIA GVATIMALA]

[Sidenote: The Original.]

The Natives of the Countrey are of the Race of the _Chichimecæ_, a
Salvage and Wilde sort of People, of the Province of _New-Gallicia_,
especially in the Parts of _New-Biscay_, living in Forests and in deep
Caves under Ground; whose Posterity do still at this day much trouble
and annoy the Countrey thereabouts; notwithstanding all the endeavors of
the _Spaniards_, and the Garrisons which they keep in those parts on
purpose to destroy them. About five hundred years ago, or more,
according to the account of the _Mexican Annals_, divers Hoards, as they
are call’d, of these _Chichimecæ_, weary, it seems, of their Woods and
subterraneous dwellings, issu’d out into the more open Air, and fell
down in huge multitudes into these Southerly parts of _America_, which
are now call’d _Mexico_ and _New-Spain_; not all at once, but at several
times, and under several names, _viz._ of the _Suchimilci_, _Chalcæ_,
_Tepanecæ_, _Tlascaltecæ_, and others, who subduing or driving out the
People they found in those parts, Seated themselves in their room: And
though at first every Nation or Company of them, as they came, seiz’d
upon some Province apart by themselves, and held it, as it were, in
Soveraignty to themselves, without acknowledgement of any dependance or
subjection to their Neighbors, or those that were there before them; yet
in Tract of time, and by fortune of the Wars, which they made one upon
another, they fell under the Government of one King, _viz._ the King of
_Mexico_, which was the chief City of the Province.

[Sidenote: The state of the _Mexican_ Kingdom before the _Spaniards_
           arrival.]

This Kingdom, at the time that the _Spaniards_ first Discover’d the
Countrey, was Govern’d by a Prince, nam’d _Motezuma_; one, who by his
Valor and good success in the Wars, had in a few years of his Reign,
before the _Spaniards_ came thither, subdu’d the better part of a
hundred Cities and great Towns to his Dominion; and held in actual
submission to his Government, and Tributary to him, no less than thirty
several _Casiques_ or petty Princes; every one of which paid him
Tribute, and were able upon occasion to bring into the Field an hundred
thousand Men: He is said to have been, for his Person, a wise and good
Prince, just, affable, and tender of his Subjects good: but by reason of
some heavy exactions, which his own power, and the Practise of his
Ancestors before him, gave him the confidence to Impose upon the
Conquer’d People, a great part of his Subjects liv’d but unwillingly
under his Obedience, and rather by constraint than otherwise: being also
further exasperated against him by one barbarous Custom, which the
_Mexicans_ frequently us’d, _viz._ the Sacrificing of Men. Their manner
was, whensoever they had any solemn occasion of doing Honor to their
Devil-god _Vitzilopuchtli_, as they call him, to send out an Army of Men
from _Mexico_, into some of the subdu’d Provinces, (in case they had no
Enemies nearer Hand) and to fetch in as many Men as they thought good,
to be Sacrific’d; whose flesh likewise afterwards they did eat in a
solemn Banquet. This being a business of their Satanical Religion, and
_Motezuma_ a Prince extremely Superstitious and Devoted to the Service
of his gods, it is said, that he Sacrific’d commonly, one year with
another, twenty thousand Men, and some years, upon extraordinary
occasions, not less than fifty thousand: So great and grievous a
Tyranny, by the just Judgement and Permission of Almighty God, for their
great and unnatural sins, did the Enemy of Mankind exercise upon them.
He was likewise much given to Women, but it was onely to such as were
counted his Wives; of which he is said to have had no less than a
hundred and fifty with Child by him at one time.

[Sidenote: The bounds of the _Mexican_ Kingdom.]

[Sidenote: Riches of _Mexico_.]

The Bounds of this Kingdom at present are thus; on the East it hath a
large Arm of the Sea, which they call _The Bay of New-Spain_, or _The
Gulf of Mexico_; On the West, it hath some parts of _New-Gallicia_, and
_Mare del Zur_; on the North, the rest of _New-Gallicia_, and part of
_Florida_; and on the South, _Mare del Zur_ again, and part of
_Guatimala_. It extendeth it self in length from _Jucatan_ South-East,
to the Borders of _New Gallicia_ Northward, above eight hundred
_Italian_ Miles, and in breadth, from _Panuco_ to the South Sea, about
half so much. It lieth wholly under the _Torrid Zone_: nor is it a
Countrey generally so mountainous or high seated, as some others of
_America_ are but for the most part level or low; yet is it so fann’d,
(for three parts at least of four, by the cooling Blasts of the Sea, and
the Heats otherwise so moderated with frequent Rains, which it hath
constantly three Moneths in the Year, _viz._ _June_, _July_, and
_August_) that the Air is rendred thereby exceeding temperate, and the
Climate not unhealthful, especially to temperate Bodies, and such as are
never so little us’d to it. A goodly Countrey it is, of inexhaustible
Wealth and Riches, whether we regard the Mynes of Gold, Silver, Brass,
Iron, _&c._ of all which it hath many, and very good; or the Fruits of
the Earth, abundance of Cattel, plenty of Corn and Grain, of which they
have two Harvests; or any other Commodities and Endowments of Nature,
which serve for the enriching of the World. Amongst other things, it
affords _Cassia_, the Fruit whereof is a thing well known, and much
commended by the Apothecaries for its use in Physick, especially in
Purgations, and removing of all Obstructions of Phlegm, Choler, _&c._
Such store of Balm, Amber, all sorts of Gums and precious Liquors, as no
Countrey in the World is better furnish’d with excellent Perfumes and
Physick, than the Kingdom of _New Spain_.

[Sidenote: _Tunas_-Tree.]

Among the many other sorts of Trees which this Countrey produces, the
most remarkable is their _Tunas_, of which, there being five kinds, one
is call’d _Cumbeba_, from whence proceeds that admirable Tincture,
commonly known by the Name of _Cochinele_, which is thus made: On the
top of this Tree is found a Worm, which hath the bigness and shape of a
great Louse, which so increases, that in one years time a hundred Trees
shall be stock’d from the seed of one of these Animals. The Worm it self
being white, after the Skin is carefully pull’d off, put in cold Water
or Ashes, and so dry’d, becomes _Cochinele_. The best sort of it is to
be had in _Tlascala_, and that in so great a quantity, that no less than
five or six hundred _Arrobes_ of _Spanish_ Measure (each _Arrobe_ is as
much as five _English_ Bushels) is yearly Transported thence. The other
sort, which grows on the Mountains, and that which is not so carefully
gather’d, call’d _Chichimecas_, Dyes not so well as the right
_Cochinele_. The _Tunas_ also bears a Fruit long and whitish, with a
smooth Shell, and full of little Seeds like Figs: The red, which are
inferior in taste to the white, colours the Urine red.

[Sidenote: Pine-Apples.]

The Pine-Apples which grow here differ from the _Spanish_, for the Pulp
is not inclos’d in a Shell: They have a pleasant smell, and a Pulp,
which if eaten much of, causes an Appetite, it being of a tartish taste;
they keep good a long time when Salted.

[Sidenote: Fruit _Cacao_.]

But much more beneficial is the _Cacao_, with which Fruit _New Spain_
drives a great Trade; nay, serves for Coin’d Money. When they deliver a
Parcel of _Cacao_, they tell them by five, thirty, and a hundred. Their
Charity to the Poor never exceeds above one _Cacao_-Nut. The chief
reason for which this Fruit is so highly esteem’d, is for the
_Chocolate_, which is made of the same, without which the Inhabitants
(being so us’d to it) are not able to live, notwithstanding it causes
Phlegm and Vomiting to those that are strangers thereto. When the
_English_ Commander _Thomas Candish_ coming into the Haven _Guatulco_,
burnt two hundred thousand Tun of _Cacao_, it prov’d no small loss to
all _New Spain_, the Provinces _Guatimala_ and _Nicaragua_ not producing
so much in a whole year. The Trees on which this Fruit grows are divided
into four sorts, differing in bigness and shape: all of them are very
tender, for they will not onely grow in no place but on their usual
Ground, but cannot endure the cold Nights Storms, or excesses of Heat;
wherefore the _Cacao_-Trees which grow out of the Fruit that falls off,
come to no perfection, except in shady and warm Valleys; which is also
the reason why the Planters of _New Spain_ plant the great Leafy Tree
_Cacaoquanthly_ (that is, _The Mother of the Cacao_’s) near the
_Cacao_-Tree, that it may the better grow under the Shadow thereof; in
which manner whole Woods are planted: In the second year it bears Fruit,
which is first ripe in _January_, and again in the midst of Summer.
Amongst the four sorts the chiefest is _Quathuitl_, of an indifferent
heighth, and full of sharp-pointed Leaves, which are fast to the Boughs
without Stalks, and bears a great Flower of a yellowish colour, which
falling off, leaves long, tough, and hairy Threds behind them, out of
which grows the _Cacavently_, a Fruit which is oval, heavy like a Melon,
of a Saffron-colour, of a fat and thick Juice, a bitterish, yet pleasant
taste, and very cooling; being dry’d in the Sun it is thereby made fit
to keep; it is likewise highly esteem’d, because the _Chocolate_ is made
of the same. Before the _Spaniards_ made themselves Masters of _Mexico_,
no other Drink was esteem’d but that of the _Cacao_; none caring for
Wine, notwithstanding the Soil produces Vines every where in great
abundance of it self. But besides the _Quathuil_, _New Spain_ hath three
other sorts of _Cacao_-Trees, _viz._ _Mecanal_, pleasant to behold for
its heighth, large Leaves and Fruit; the next is the _Xochucaual_, which
is less than the former; and lastly the least sort, which is call’d
_Halcacahual_. The Fruit of these four sorts of Trees, though differing
in shape, yet is all one in power and operation.

[Illustration]

The _Spaniards_ to make _Chocolate_ mix _Maiz_ (by the _Mexicans_ call’d
_Tlaolli_) either whole or Ground, or boyl’d before with Chalk.
Moreover, they put the red Kernels also in the Drink, which grow in the
Fruit of the _Achiote_-Tree. Of the Kernels, which are dry and cooling,
boyl’d in Water, and stirr’d till it comes to a Pap, they make Cakes,
which mix’d with the _Chocolate_, gives it a cleansing power, and takes
away all tastes that cause vomiting.

The Pepper _Mecaxochite_, which grows creeping along the Earth, with
long and fragrant Leaves, round Stalks, hairy Roots, and three long Cods
which shoot upwards. This Pepper tempers the over-cooling property of
the _Chocolate_. Lastly, it consists also of _Xochinacatlis_,
_Tlilxochitle_, and the Rozenish Gum, _Holli_. The _Xocinacatli_ is a
Tree with small Leaves, and great Flowers hanging on long Stalks that
bend downwards, within of a purple, and without of a dark-green colour,
of a sweet smell, and resembling an Ear; and this Flower also gives a
pleasant taste and wholsom operation to the _Chocolate_. The
_Tlilxochitle_ runs up to the tops of Trees like Ivy; the Flowers, of a
darkish brown colour, cleanse the Nerves, strengthen the Brain, and take
away the rawness of the Stomach. The _Holli_ drops out of the
_Holquabuytle_, a smooth barky Tree full of Moisture, which at first
appearance is white, then yellowish, and lastly black, which kneaded
into round Balls and Roasted, is a remedy against a Loosness and
soreness of the Bowels.

[Sidenote: Nature of the People.]

The Natives of the Countrey are very ingenious in divers mechanical
Arts, especially in making of Feather-Pictures, a piece of Curiosity
wherein they are held to be incomparably, or rather inimitably
excellent; and so industrious at it, that although the _Americans_
generally are not a People over-much addicted to any kind of Labor or
Study, yet at this they will sit a whole day together, without either
Meat or Drink, onely out of a natural affection they have to the Work,
and a desire to be excellent in it; The Countrey indeed affords them
great variety of Birds and other Fowl, of most rare and exquisite
Colours, which is a great advantage to their Skill, and helps much to
the accomplishment of their Work. They Paint likewise very curiously
upon their Cottons; and are held to be generally the best Goldsmiths in
the World; of most perfect skill in the purging and refining of all
sorts of Metals, but especially of Gold and Silver: And yet in other
things so strangely stupid and ignorant, that when the _Spaniards_ first
appeared amongst them, not a few of them (as ’tis reported) took the
Horse and Man both for one Creature; and when the Horse Neighed, they
would enquire very seriously what he said.

[Sidenote: Lakes of _New-Spain_.]

There are likewise many fair Lakes in this Province, but the principal
are those of _Chapala_ and _Mexico_: the former of which is in the more
Northern parts of the Kingdom, towards the Borders of _New Gallicia_,
and is chiefly famous for the abundance of good Salt that is yearly made
and Transported thence. The other of _Mexico_ is one of the largest and
goodliest in the World, of circular form (as some say) little less than
nine hundred Miles in compass, environ’d with the main Land, the
_Peninsula_, or Cape of _Florida_, _Jucatan_, and the Island _Cuba_,
having two onely Passages in and out, and both of them well fortifi’d:
the one betwixt the Point of _Jucatan_ and the Isle _Cuba_, where the
Tyde violently enters; and the other betwixt the said Island and the
Cape of _Florida_, where it goeth as violently out: upon which Gulf the
King of _Spain_ hath always some good Ships in readiness for all
occasions; and by them, ’tis suppos’d, he doth more assure his Estates
in those parts of _America_, than by all the Garrisons besides.

The whole Kingdom of _Mexico_, or _New Spain_, is subdivided into these
Inferior Provinces:

[Sidenote: The several Provinces.]

1. The Arch-bishoprick of _Mexico_. 2. The Bishoprick, _Mechoacon_. 3.
_Los Angelos_, or _Tlascale_. 4. _Guaxaca._ 5. The Lordship _Panuco_:
And 6. the Province _Tabasco_.

_Mexico_, the chief Province of _New-Spain_, so denominated from
_Mexico_ the chief City, not only of the Province, but of all _America_;
lying between _Tlascale_ and _Mechoacan_, extends in length from North
to South, a hundred and seventeen Leagues; and in breadth along the
Southern Ocean, seventeen, but up in the Countrey, fifty four Leagues:
In which circumference lie to the North-East, _Lateotlalpa_,
_Mextitlan_, _Xilotepeque_, and _Panuco_; Westward, _Matalzingo_, and
_Cultepeque_; Eastward, _Tuzcoco_; South-East, _Chalco_; Southward,
_Suchimilco_, _Tlaluc_, _Coyxca_, and _Acapulco_.

[Illustration: NOVA MEXICO]

[Sidenote: Bounds of _Mexicana_.]

It is bounded on the East, with the Gulf of _Mexico_; on the West, with
_Mechoacan_; on the North, with _Panuco_, and some parts of
_New-Gallicia_; and on the South, with _Tlascalla_.

[Sidenote: Nature of the Countrey.]

This Countrey is both large and rich, containing not much less than one
hundred and thirty Leagues, both in length and breadth; and if it yields
any thing to _Peru_ in the plenty of Gold and Silver, ’tis certain it
much excels it in many other Commodities; as namely, in all sorts of
Fruits, abundance of Cattel, plenty of Corn and Grain; in all which, the
advantage this Countrey hath, not only of _Peru_, but of all the other
Provinces of _America_ beside, is well known: Not to speak any thing of
the great plenty and variety of good Fish, which both the Rivers and
Lakes of this Countrey afford, which is very great; insomuch, that the
very Tribute of the one Lake of _Mexico_ is said to yield an Income of
above twenty thousand Crowns yearly, one with another.

The People of the Countrey are generally Industrious and Active,
especially since the _Spaniards_ came among them; rich Merchants, if
they apply themselves to it; and they say likewise good Soldiers, when
they are train’d and imploy’d that way.

[Sidenote: Chief Towns of _Mexicana_.]

The chief Towns and places of the Province are, 1. _Mexico_, both
anciently and at present, the Metropolis and Capital City; being the
Seat of an Archbishop, and the ordinary Residence of the Vice-Roy, and
chief Governors of _New-Spain_.

[Sidenote: Description of the City _Mexico_.]

This City, by the _Indians_ was formerly call’d _Tenustatan_, lies in
nineteen Degrees and a half to the Northward of the _Equinoctial-Line_,
rais’d out of a brackish Lake, full of muddy Water; whose circumference
along the Mountains is seventy Leagues: This Lake swarms continually
with Boats, which carry the People to and again from one inhabited
Island to another; four Stone-bridges, no less costly than artificial,
with Arches and Gates in several places, lead from the City to the Main
Continent.

The fresh Water which they have in the City _Mexico_, is led into the
same through Pipes that lie in the bottom of the Lake; but none are to
enjoy the benefit thereof, before they have paid a certain Sum of Money
to the King’s Collectors.

Moreover, the City divided into Islands, contains above sixty thousand
Houses, which being built on several Isles, have large Bridges, which
reach from one to another; some that lie in the middle of the Lake, they
approach in little Boats; round about the Lake, especially where the way
leads from the Continent into the City, lie several Suburbs, all
inclos’d with Walls; between which stand strong Towers, cover’d on the
top: To keep off the force of the Water, the _Tenustatans_ have with
great labor and charge, made a Bank through the Lake, half way along the
City: But the Lake _Laguna_, from whose bottom _Mexico_ is rais’d, is
divided in two parts, the _Sweet Lake_, which is higher than the _Salt_,
falls in to the same through Sluces, with Bridges built on the Bank that
leads from the City to the main Land: The _Salt-Lake_, which hath
brackish and bitter Water, ebbs and flows according as the Wind blows;
no Fish is able to live in the same, because the Water which in the
sight of _Mexico_ falls into the same out of the Mountains, hath a
sulphury Ground: All along the shore, much Salt is made, with which the
Citizens drive a great Trade: There are continually above a hundred
thousand Boats (by the _Indians_ call’d _Acales_, and by the
_Spaniards_, _Canoos_) going off and on from one shore to another: The
fresh Water Lake, which is bigger than the salt, and feeds small Fishes,
hath above fifty Suburbs about the same, of which, some boast five
thousand, and others ten thousand Houses: Nay, the Suburb _Tescuco_, in
former times was no way inferior to _Mexico_ in bigness; since the
_Spaniards_ have been Masters of this City, they stopt up many Moats, to
inlarge their narrow Streets.

Besides three publick Markets, every open place affords all sorts of
Provisions daily; the _Indians_ call the Markets _Tianguystly_, and the
_Spaniards_, _Tianguez_; the first and chiefest stands in _Tatelulco_,
adorn’d with Galleries on three sides; in the middle of this Square,
which is accounted the biggest in the World, stands next to the place of
Execution, a stately Fountain; the Tents which are every Week pitch’d up
here for Trade, amount to above thirty thousand. The second Market
call’d St. _John_’s, is in _Mexico_, and swarms continually with People.
The third is call’d _Hipolito_, from the _Guardian-Saint_ of the City,
whither every Wednesday and Thursday comes such a multitude of People,
that this spacious Market is too little for them; for the sale of every
Commodity, a peculiar corner is allotted; but great Packs are left to be
dispos’d of in Boats, which lie near the shore.

At the four corners of the City, at present call’d _St. John_, _St.
Maria la Rotonda_, _St. Pablo_, and _St. Sebastian_, are above four
thousand _Spanish_ Families, and thirty thousand _Indians_, besides what
inhabit _Tatelulco_, now _St. Jago_.

[Sidenote: The Temperature of the Air.]

The Air in this place is very strange; in the day time, the Sky is
generally Serene; the North Wind against the Evening brings Rain, of
which the Mountain _Tepeaquilla_ lying a little League beyond the City,
gives certain Testimonies; for when a black Cloud appears on the top
thereof, it is certain to be blown from thence over _Mexico_ with Rain:
After a moist Evening follows a Star-light Night, and a pleasant
Morning: From _September_ till _May_, it is generally dry Weather here,
but if it chances to Rain, the Rain is attended with a Storm, which
occasions a sulphurous Fogg, very unwholsom, and so dark, that one Man
cannot discern another, and causes a pain through all the Limbs, nay
sometimes Death it self; wherefore, whensoe’re it approaches, every one
keeps close in his House, or goes into the Countrey.

Moreover, it is worthy of observation, how strangely this City is
alter’d since its being Conquer’d by the _Spaniards_, and especially
when _Anno 1629._ it was overflow’d by a mighty Deluge; which alteration
by _Barnabe Cabo_, in a Letter to the _Jesuite Hernande Leon_, is thus
set forth:

[Sidenote: _Barnabe Cabo_, his Description of Mexico.]

[Sidenote: _Mexico_ overflow’d.]

_Mexico_, says he, lying in a Valley between high Mountains, hath
seventy Leagues in circumference: The Valley being Oval, is for the most
part interspers’d with Lakes, which the _Indians_, and after them the
_Spaniards_ have digg’d, only the Lake which washes _Mexico_ is natural;
and to stop the Water-falls, there are Banks and Sluces every where: The
Flood before _Mexicalcingo_ flows a Fathom and a half higher than before
_Mexico_. The four other Lakes to the Northward have much more Water
than the _Mexicalcingo_, of which, some have scarce four, others but
three Leagues in circumference; when as _Mexicalcingo_’s Lake reckons
fifteen, and _Mexico_’s sixteen. On the breaking of the Banks, _Mexico_
hath often suffer’d great damage, wherefore the Vice-Roy _de Valesco_
took special care to make a vent for the Water through the lowest
Mountains; whereupon the Countrey being Survey’d, the Northern Coast
near the Village _Gueguenoca_, was found to be the most convenient. But
about the manner of letting the Water out, the Surveyors could no ways
agree; most of them were of opinion to dig Channels, into which the
Lakes might discharge their Waters; others, thought best to make a
Gutter under Ground, which last _Valesco_ put in hand with unhappy
success, because the Laborers who under-min’d the Ground, were choak’d
with the falling in of the Sand, or stifled with the sulphurous Vapors
rising out of the Earth: Nevertheless, they gave not over the Work,
though they began it quite another way, for a _French_-Man, call’d
_Henry Martin_, advis’d to deepen the River _Quaiotitlan_, which falls
into the _Laguna_, and by that means make it a Bay, into which the
_Laguna_ might pour her over-charg’d Waters: Which design, though
contradicted by the Jesuit _John Sanchez_, was put in practice; by which
means the Water fell in a short time so much, that they could walk dry
to the Cliff _El Ponnel_, lying a League from the City; wherefore they
continually labour’d on this Work, till such time _Conde de Getues_ came
over for Vice-Roy, who judg’d the Charge to be unnecessary, nay
Commanded the Ditches to be broken down, which stopt the Water along the
Silver Mines of _Pachuca_, that he might see exactly how much it would
over-flow _Mexico_: After which the Flood rose yearly higher and higher;
till at last, _Anno 1629._ a mighty Rain falling, swole the _Laguna_ in
such a manner, that it over-whelm’d all _Mexico_, wash’d down the
Houses, all Merchandizes which could not endure the Water, were spoil’d,
and had not they had innumerable Boats to help them, thousands of People
might have perish’d in this Deluge: But at last, _Henry Martin_ restor’d
again the fore-mention’d Channel to its former Perfection, and brought
the Flood which fell down out of the Mountains within the Banks of the
River.

[Sidenote: Stately Palaces.]

_Quantitlan_ digg’d also a Channel of eight thousand Fathom long, and
made an Arch’d Sewer under Ground of the same length, which Sewer hath
at every two hundred Fathoms distance, Vent-holes, and a hole of sixty
Fathom deep, and by this means, diverting abundance of Water, they dry’d
_Mexico_ in a short time: When the Banks and Streets began no sooner to
appear, but they fell to work to raise the Ground, and to lay Bridges,
and also to build more Boats. The Citizens likewise found it convenient
to make another deep Sewer for the carrying away of more Water,
notwithstanding it requir’d twenty years labor. The River, which in a
manner runs through the middle of the City, is curb’d by a Wall; a
crooked Bridge, with many Arches, and of a long extent, leads to the
City, in which stand many brave Palaces, with pleasant Walks of Trees
about them; the Cloysters of several Orders of Fryers, appear with high
Spires and Turrets, above all other Buildings.

[Sidenote: And Monasteries.]

The _Franciscans_ have here four very sumptuous Buildings: The first,
Consecrated to St. _Francis_, stands in the uppermost part of _Mexico_,
within a large square Court, and on each a pleasant Walk of Trees: The
Cloyster it self is very high, and trebble Wall’d, with Towers and
Galleries about it: In the middle of the City stands another
Tower’d-Cloyster, call’d St. _Jago_. The third lies a little distance
from it, which being built long, hath a stately Turret, and is call’d
_Maria de Rodonda_. The fourth, not far from the first, but much
smaller, is nam’d _San Diego_; these belong to the _Franciscans_. The
_Augustin_ Monks are also no way inferior to the _Franciscans_, for
magnificent Structures, with spacious Halls, high Towers, and rich
Balconies: The first is denominated from St. _Augustine_, just behind
which appears _San Pabla_, less stately than the rest. St. _Sebastian_,
near the _Laguna_, is built in manner like a Church, whose Tower ends
like a Pyramid. The Cloyster _San Cruz_, belonging also to the
_Augustines_, built square, stands near the Market, in the middle of
which stands a stately Fountain: The Court within inviron’d with thick
Walls, amazes the beholders by the pleasantness of its situation.

Moreover, the _Dominicans_ inhabit two brave Cloysters; the chiefest
Dedicated to St. _Dominic_, is eight square; to which is adjoyning a
pretty large Church, with a Steeple: The second, which stands on one
side of _St. Jago_, and consists of three several Structures, is call’d
_Collegio de Porta Cœli_. Opposite to _St. Jago_, near the great Market
the _Jesuits_ have a stately Colledge, or High-School, where many are
brought up in the Latin and Greek Tongues, whence it is call’d, _Casa
Professa Les Estudios_.

There is also another Habitation of Religious Men, call’d _Illefonse
Sanna Noviciad_, which for State, may vie with any Royal Palace.

[Sidenote: Cloysters belonging to the _Monks_ of _La Merced_.]

The _Monks_ of _La Merced_ dwell in two Cloysters, both Consecrated to
the Virgin _Mary_, yet Sirnam’d _Montseratte_, and _Carmel_: The first
lying not far from the River, is a mean Structure, in comparison to the
last; the uppermost Tower of whose Temple appears above all other
Buildings, in the upper part of _Mexico_ near the Cloyster of St.
_Francis_.

[Sidenote: Womens Cloysters.]

The Women have also fourteen Cloysters here, the chiefest whereof is
Dedicated to _Catharine_ of _Siena_; but much more splendid is that of
_Santa Teresa_, built like an Imperial Palace; famous for its stately
Gardens, and round Fountain, which continually spouts Water. The rest,
which we shall onely name, are _La Encarnacio_, _Santa Ines_,
_Jesus-Maria_, _Laurenso_, _Las Des-calcas_, _Santa Clara_, _Juan de la
Penitentia_, _Regina Cœli_, _Santa Monica_, _las Rocogidas_, _Jeronymo_,
and _Conceptione_; besides the Almshouses, _Real de los Indios_, and
_Nostra Senora del Amor_: There are likewise eight Hospitals, _viz._ _de
Dios_, _del Spiritu Santo_, _Juan de Doys_, _de la Misericordia_, _de
san Hippolito_, and _de san Lazaro_. The three chief Churches bear the
Name of _Catharine_, _Martin_, and _Vera Cruz_; and the Clergy-men
thereto belonging, enjoy many stately Palaces, amongst which are _Juan
de Lateran_, _de Christo_, and _las Nivas_.

[Sidenote: The Vice-Roy’s Palace and Arch-bishop’s Seat.]

The Residence of the Vice-Roy which lies near the _Dominican_ Cloyster,
_Porto Cœli_, is so sumptuous a Structure, that it may stand in
competition with any of those Edifices which were so much cry’d up by
the Ancients; nevertheless, it is not to be compar’d to the
Arch-bishop’s Seat, built round like a Theatre, whose Luster expresses
the Quality of him that inhabits the same, he being Governor of the
Bishopricks of _Fascala_, _Guaxaca_, _Mechaocan_, _New Galicia_,
_Chiapa_, _Yucatan_, _Guatimala_, _Verapaz_, and the _Philippinas_. This
marvellous Structure was begun by _Ferdinand Cortesius_, but was
finish’d by _Sebastian Ramires de Fuenleal_; and not much inferior
thereunto is the _Casa de Cabildo Alameda_.

[Sidenote: The gallantry of _Mexico_ at this day.]

At present, _Mexico_ is thought to be one of the richest Cities of the
World, abounding (if reports be true) in all kind of voluptuous
gallantry and bravery, even to excess: It is suppos’d to contain about
six or seven Miles in compass, and to consist of above an hundred
thousand Houses or Families, whereof not the tenth part _Spaniards_, but
those that are, all Gentlemen, at least as to their garb and manner of
living; for they live most splendidly in all respects, both for Diet and
Apparel.

For the first, we have spoken so much already of the general plenty of
all things in the Kingdom of _New-Spain_, that pertain to this part of
pleasure, that it is not to be doubted: And for the second this may be
some instance, _viz._ that it is no extraordinary matter to see an
Hat-band or Role all of Diamonds, in some ordinary Gentlemans Hat; and
of Pearl among the common Citizens and Tradesmen. The Coaches (which
most Gentlemen keep) almost cover’d with Gold and Silver, richly beset
with Precious Stones, and within ordinarily lin’d with Cloth of Gold, or
the best _China_ Silk that can be gotten; of which Coaches, in time of
year, at the _Alameda_, as they call it, which is, as it were, _The
Hide-Park of Mexico_, and a place made of purpose for recreation and
delight, a Man shall observe not seldom, above a thousand or two
thousand Coaches, full of Ladies and Gallants coming thither onely to
take the Air, and their Pleasure, both the one and the other attended
with a numerous Train of Servants and _Mulattoes_ of both Sexes. In _la
Plateria_, which is but onely one Street in _Mexico_, nigh to the
Vice-Roy’s Palace, in less than half an hours space: with the turn of an
Eye, you may see Millions of Wealth in Gold, Silver, and Precious
Stones, in the Goldsmiths and Jewellers Shops thereabouts. In a word,
there is nothing hinders _Mexico_ from being the most absolute City in
the World for delight and bravery, but onely two Inconveniences to which
it is subject: The one is the danger of the Lake, with the Infalls
whereof it may seem to be almost continually threatned, and in the Year
1629. did actually suffer a very great calamity, the Waters breaking
through the Banks, and drowning a great part of the City, with the
destruction of much People, and the loss of all their Goods intirely,
through the avarice (as is suppos’d) of the Vice-Roy that then was, and
some other of the King’s Officers, who diverted the Money that should
have been employ’d for the fortifying and repairing of the Banks, to
their own proper uses: The other is from the nature of the Soil and
Ground it self on which it standeth; which is found to have a tincture
of _Sal_ Nitre in it, somewhat strong; and the Winds partly from the
Lake it self, and partly from the Hills about it, raising the Dust of
this Earth constantly every Evening, for many Moneths of the Year
together, so violently, that the Air is even darkned therewith for some
time: The Inhabitants are much annoy’d by it, and made subject to divers
Hypocondriacal Pains and Infirmities, and sometimes kill’d with it,
especially such as either cannot, or care not much to avoid it.

The City lieth about sixty Leagues, or a hundred and fifty Miles distant
from the _Atlantick_ or North Sea, from whence by the Port of _St. John
d’Ullua_, or _Vera Crux_, (which are the usual Landing-places) there is
a fair and easie March to _Mexico_, by the Cities of _Xalabar_,
_Perotta_, _Puebla de los Angelos_, and _Tlascalla_, all of them open
and unfortifi’d Places, (as likewise _Mexico_ it self) and the Countrey
round about very rich and well accommodated with all things.

[Sidenote: City _Chulula_.]

The next City of note in ancient times was _Chulula_, which being built
in a fruitful Plain, had above twenty thousand Dwelling-houses, and as
many more Banquetting-houses. The number of the Temples and Turrets were
equal with that of the days in the Year: The Government thereof belong’d
to a Mayor and six Aldermen, and one chief Priest; for they never went
upon the least Design before they had been at their Devotion; in which
the Priest’s Office was onely to perfume the Idols four times in twenty
four hours, _viz._ in the Morning, at Noon, after Sun-set, and at
Midnight; at which times none durst be absent, but they us’d also a
cruel Exercise on themselves, and one much more cruel on others, for on
usual Feast-days they abstain’d from Meat, Drink, and Sleep, scourg’d
their Bodies with knotted Cords after a miserable manner, evacuated
their Seed, that so they might curb all fleshly Desires, and met every
Night in a spacious place, where sitting down they wounded themselves
with Lances in their Legs and Arms, so long till the Blood gush’d out of
the same; which gathering in a Cup, they anointed their Temples
therewith, and dipt the Lances in the same, and then hung them up before
the Temple in Bundles of Straw. Of these were a great number, and the
more, because they never us’d their Lances but once. But on these Days,
which were Consecrated to the Idol _Tezcatlipuca_, every one besides the
Priests wore a new Rope made of the Hemp _Mangey_, of a Fathom long, and
a thick Knot at the end, with which they beat themselves so miserably on
their Backs, as if they intended to have broken them: After which the
Priests stay’d five days in the Temple, in which they us’d the like
cruelty, eating scarce once in twenty four hours.

Their Prisoners they us’d after a most horrid manner, _viz._ in their
Temples stood a round Stage of Stone; to the top of which they ascended
by a Square Scaffold, supported by twenty eight Pillars; behind which
appear’d thousands of Mens Heads, and amongst them the Prisoners that
were to be Offer’d sat stark naked, and guarded by several Armed Men;
three Foot from the Steps which led up to the top of the Scaffold, stood
a pyramidical Stone, (by the _Indians_ call’d _Quauxicalli_) and behind
it two round Chappels, cover’d on the top like Mitres, each had four
Holes in a large Gate, in which sat a horrid Representation, worshipp’d
by six Priests call’d _Chackalmua_, whereof one call’d _Papas_, or
_Topilzin_, whose Office was to pluck out the Hearts of the Prisoners,
being in greatest esteem, wore a red Mantle about his Body, not unlike a
long Coat, with broad Fringe, which trail’d after him upon the Ground,
and also a Crown of green and yellow Plumes on his Head; his Ears and
under Lip were likewise adorn’d with Precious Stones: The other five
appear’d in like manner with their Hands and Faces painted red, but
having Leathern _Fascia_’s about their Heads, and white Coats stitch’d
with Black on their Bodies, they might easily be distinguish’d from the
_Topilzin_; who on a sudden ran down the Stairs to the Prisoners, and
shew’d each of them an Image, (saying, _This is your God_) made of
_Bledo_ Paste, _Maiz_ and Honey, green Beads for Eyes, and Grains of
_Maiz_ for Teeth: whereupon the Prisoners were led up, and laid with
their Backs on the sharp Stone _Quauxicalli_; then the five Priests took
hold of their Leggs, Arms and Head, put woodden Collars about the
Sufferer’s Necks, whilst the _Topilzin_ shew’d Reverence to the Idol;
which done, with a sharp Stone he cut open the Breasts of the Prisoners,
who in a deplorable condition lay on the pyramidical Stone, and pulling
their Hearts out of their Bodies, shew’d the same reeking to the Sun,
and at last threw them toward the Idol, and the dead Bodies down the
Stairs, where some appointed for that purpose carried the same away; but
every one taking his own Prisoner, and roasting and boyling him, serv’d
him up to his Friends as a great Dainty.

This kind of Murdering was not onely us’d amongst the _Mexicans_, but
also by all the other neighboring _Indians_, and especially in the City
_Chulula_, which (as we have said before) signifies _The Sanctity of all
the Gods_: for in this Town six thousand Children were yearly Offer’d.

The Citizens hereof us’d to drive a great Trade, especially in
_Cochinele_.

Their Habits were several; for Persons of Note wore Cotton Coats, about
the Edges of which hung Feathers and pieces of Cony-skins: the meaner
sort went in _Nequons_, or a sort of Linnen Coats made of the hairy
Leaves of the Tree _Maguey_.

3. The City _Tezuco_, full of handsom Streets and fair Houses, is built
near the salt _Mexican_ Lake, yet hath no want of fresh Water, with
which it is supply’d by Gutters from the Mountains under Ground,
according to _Anthony Herrera_, it twice exceedeth in bigness the famous
City _Sivill_ in _Spain_.

4. _Quitlavaca_, by the _Spaniards_ call’d _Venezuela_, (because it is,
like _Venice_, surrounded with Water, and divided into several Isles,)
boasted formerly above two thousand Families: From the Town a Cawsey of
twenty Foot broad, and half a League long, leads through the Lake to the
Main Continent.

5. _Yztacpalapa_, a very populous Place, and lying part of it in the
salt Lake, and partly on the Main Land; where several fresh-water Pools
afford store of Fish, two Leagues distant from _Mexico_, to which leads
a broad Way; in the middle of which stands a Fountain, surrounded with
high Trees, which produces excellent Water.

6. _Mexicaltzingo_, situate upon the Lake _Laguna_, a Town consisting of
four thousand stately Houses.

7. _Cayocan_, in a fruitful Plain, containing six thousand, being but a
League and a half from _Yztacpalapa_: to which the neighboring Village
_Houcilopucho_ was not much inferior.

These three Places, before they were subdu’d by the _Spaniards_, boasted
many brave Temples and high Towers, whose lustre appear’d at a great
distance, but now being turn’d into Cloysters, they are inhabited by
Monks and Nuns.

The Salt made here of Earth, though not white, and onely fit to make
Pickle of, is Transported to many Places.

[Sidenote: Towns and pleasant Villages about _Mexico_.]

About _Mexico_ there are also several Villages, the chiefest of which
are 1. _Mastitlan_, a Town pleasantly seated upon the top of an huge
Mountain, in the midst of most delicate Groves and shady Woods, and
reckon’d to contain no less than thirty thousand Inhabitants in all,
dwelling either in the City, or upon the sides of the Mountain.

2. _Antepecque_; this is a Town belonging to the Marquess _de Valle_,
who is of the Posterity of _Cortez_, and said to be seated in the most
delicious place of all _New Spain_.

3. _Acapulco_, a Town seated upon the South-Sea, or _Mare del Zur_, yet
belonging to this Province. It is a haven-Town, and one of the most
frequented upon the South-Sea, situate upon a large and capacious Bay of
about a League broad at the Entrance, and affording many convenient
Stations and Docks for Shipping. At the bottom of the Bay Westward lieth
the Town, with a strong Castle very opportunely built, both for the
command and security of the Port, well wall’d and fortifi’d with
Bulwarks, and having a constant Garrison of four hundred Soldiers in it,
or thereabouts. The reason whereof, I suppose, may be chiefly this,
_viz._ that from this Port there is the greatest Traffick and
Entercourse held betwixt the _East_ and _West-Indies_, together with the
_Philippine_ Islands.

[Sidenote: Silver Mynes.]

The Countrey hath many rich Mynes of Silver in it, and some of Gold; the
chief of which are by _Herera_ reported to be these, _viz._ 1. Those of
_Puchuca_, fourteen Leagues distant from _Mexico_. 2. Of _Tasco_. 3.
_Talpuiana._ 4. _Cultepeque._ 5. _Zacualpa._ 6. _Zupanguo_, and divers
others.

The rest of the Villages are _Guatitlan_, _Tenyauca_, _Escapusalco_,
_Tacuba_, and _Suchimilco_.

[Sidenote: Strange Fountain.]

The neighboring Province _Xilotepeck_, which is exceeding fruitful, is
also famous for two Fountains, whereof one near the Village _Queretaro_
produces boyling Water, which when cool’d, is a wholsom Drink for
Cattel: The other for four years is full of Water, and for four years
after it is empty; in great rainy Seasons it is quite dry, and in
droughty Weather it overflows.

Between the Villages _Queretaro_ and _San Juan_, is a Plain which
extends it self seven Leagues in breadth, and seven in length, besides
two Leagues farther beyond _Quartero_, where a hundred thousand Head of
Cattel, and ten thousand Horses, find plentiful Pasture.

[Sidenote: The wonderful Mountain _Nevada_.]

The Mountain _Nevada_, near the City _De los Angelos_, deserves no small
admiration; for it begins at thirty Leagues end to rise exceeding high,
and being flat on the top, hath a wide gaping Mouth, whose bottom is
fathomless; from which at Sun-rising and setting rises a Smoak up
directly towards the Skie, but immediately after spreading like a Plume
of Feathers, it is dispers’d by the Wind, and no more seen till it
appears in a dusky Cloud. With the Smoak are also Ashes vomited up; yet
the Mountain is very pleasantly planted with lofty Cypress, Cedar, Oak,
and Pine-Trees. The neighboring Fields abound likewise with Wheat,
Cotton, and _Maiz_. There seldom appears any Rain here.

At the Foot of this Mountain lies the Village _Tepecco_, famous for the
Crystal and Allom gotten there. The Village _Ocotlan_ is also maintain’d
by the same: But _Tuculala_ by Gold-Mines, and fruitful Lands, which are
twice a year shaken by Earthquakes; wherefore the Inhabitants live not
in Stone Houses, but in little Straw Huts.

South-Eastward from _Nerada_ is excellent Sugar to be had, and on the
Mountain it self the famous Gum _Anime_, which drops out of a Tree
call’d _Jetaiba_, which is always green, with hard white Wood, a pale
yellow speckled Bark, three long soft Leaves hanging one over another on
one Stalk, and the Fruit on the middle of the Body. After the rainy
Season is past in _October_, then they cut a Hole in the Body of the
Tree, out of which the Gum drops: it hath a pleasant smell, and is
exceeding good against the Head-ache occasion’d by Colds.

Not far from hence appears the Valleys _Matalzingo_ and _Atzompam_,
which have excellent Pastures, in which _Diego Nunnez de Camargo_ bred
forty thousand Sheep out of two in ten years time.

And these are the chiefest Towns, Villages, and Countreys, which
surround the famous City _Mexico_.

[Sidenote: The first Foundation of the City of _Mexico_.]

Concerning the erecting of this City, the _Indians_ relate thus: That
the seventh Family of the _Navatlaca_’s, Extracted out of the Countrey
_Aztlan_, rang’d up and down not without thousands of Inconveniences,
from one Countrey to another, according to the Information which their
Sages had given their Spirit _Viztliputli_, till at last some of the
Priests straying from the Army, or rather Multitude, got into a
Wilderness, full of Brambles and Thorns, and came at length to a Place
where was a Spring of clear Water, in which the Fishes glitter’d like
Silver; where taking up their repose that Night, their Spirit inform’d
the oldest of them in a Dream, that they should find thereabouts a
_Tunal_ Tree (whose Leaves grow out of one another) under which, on a
Stone, lay the Heart of the famous Sorcerer _Copil_: This _Tunal_ Tree
should be discover’d by a Crane on the top of it, which in one Foot
should hold a Bird, and in the other a Bough of the Tree, near which
they were to build a City: The old Priest waking, and relating his
Dream, every one endeavor’d to find out the fore-mention’d Tree; at last
they found it, by discovering on the top a Crane, with spread-out Wings
looking up towards the Sun, and holding in his Claws a small Bird,
invested with curious Feathers: Whereupon they with all speed built a
Chappel of Turf and Clods of Earth, and cover’d the same with Canes, to
keep their Idol from the Weather, resolving, so soon as they could, to
build him a better Temple.

The Lake on whose Isles they setled, abounded with Fish and Fowls, which
they exchang’d with the neighboring People for Stone and Mortar for the
building of a Temple for _Viztliputzli_, and a new City; to which they
made a Cawsey in the Lake _Laguna_, and divided it into four great Wards
or Divisions, and subdivided them again into lesser; over which they
plac’d peculiar Idols, and order’d a Crane like that which they had seen
on the _Tunal_ Tree to be their City Arms. The dividing of the Wards
occasion’d great dislike amongst the Grandees, judging those to whose
lot they fell, not to be worthy of them; wherefore deserting the same,
and travelling along the Lake _Laguna_, they setled themselves at last
in a sandy Soil, which they call’d _Tlattellulco_, and entertain’d a
bitter hatred against their Countrey-men who kept the four Wards of the
new _Tenustitan_, doing them all the mischief they could; wherefore the
Assaulted were necessitated to chuse a King, that they might be the
better able to oppose their Enemies: But that they might not raise a
Discontent amongst themselves about electing a Governor, they judg’d it
fittest to take a Foreigner; amongst whom they found none so capable of
so great an Office as _Acamapixtli_, Grand-son to the King of
_Culhuacan_, whereupon sending Ambassadors thither, they obtain’d their
desires.

The new King was no sooner Crown’d, but he settled all things in order
with great Prudence, insomuch, that _Mexico_ grew daily to be more
famous and fear’d: But this sudden growth rais’d a jealousie amongst the
Neighbors, who dreaded their growing Power and Valor.

[Sidenote: Proceedings between the _Tapuneca_’s and _Mexicans_.]

The _Tapunecans_ who were also a valiant People, being the nearest to
them, and having _Azcapuzalco_ for their chief City, made it their main
design, utterly to root out the _Mexicans_, before they grew to be more
Populous and Potent; notwithstanding they had hitherto receiv’d Tribute
from them, for delivering the Lake _Laguna_ to them, which was a
quantity of Timber and Plants; yet they demanded not only more Tribute
than formerly, but also in such a manner, as was thought impossible to
have been perform’d, which was, that those Plants which were formerly
brought to them, as growing on the Land, should be set in the Water, so
as to come floating to them, as they grew, to _Ascapuzalco_, which if
they did not pay, they should expect to be all put to the Sword. The
_Mexicans_ much amaz’d hereat, and not knowing how to produce the
demanded Plants, _Viztliputzli_ inform’d the oldest Priest, that the
demands might be satisfi’d; and commanded him to throw Earth on the
Water, and to Sow Seed on the same, which at the usual time produc’d
_Maiz_, _Azi_, _Chias_, _Tomates_, and the like, with which the
_Tapunecans_ being satisfi’d, demand next a Goose, and a Hen which laid
Eggs, out of which the young ones should appear, when on the floating
Clods of Earth, the Nests came opposite to _Azcapuzalco_, which by the
advice of _Viztliputzli_, they perform’d fifty years one after another.
Mean while, _Acamapixtli_ (who had inlarg’d _Mexico_ with Streets,
Palaces, Temples, and Markets) dying, would not name any one to succeed
him, but left the choice of the Election to the Commonalty, who Crown’d
his Son _Vitzilovitli_, and Marry’d him to the King of _Tapunecans_
Daughter, that by that means they might gain his friendship, and be
eas’d of their strange Annual Tribute: Whereupon _Ayauchigual_, the King
of _Tapunecans_ Daughter being Marry’d to _Vitzilovitli_, was within
twelve Moneths deliver’d of a Son, which the Grand-father call’d
_Chimalpopoca_, which signifies _A Gun which gives Smoke_, and
afterwards was satisfi’d with two Geese, and some Fish yearly from the
_Mexicans_, onely as an Acknowledgment that they inhabited his Countrey.
_Chimalpopoca_ loosing his Parents, in his tenth year was Crown’d King,
with a Bowe and Arrows in his left Hand, and a Woodden Sword in the
right: Soon after he oblig’d his Mothers Father to be kind to the
_Mexicans_, for they being in great want for fresh Water, he had leave
by Channels to bring the same out of the Mountain _Chapultepec_, a
League distant from _Mexico_; to which purpose they made a Pipe of
Planks, and hollow Trees joyn’d together with Clay, quite through the
Lake; but this Pipe not being teight and durable, and the fresh Water by
that means mixing with the Salt, they sent Agents to _Azcapuzalco_, to
request Stones, Mortar, and Work-men to make a substantial Sewer: This
message was ill resented by the Council of _Azcapuzalco_; _What_, (said
they) _do the_ Mexicans _think, shall a rambling company of people,
which on Charity live in anothers Countrey, Command those that Govern
them to be their Servants?_ This grudge went so far, that at last they
took a Resolution without the King’s knowledge, (for he was suspected,
because of his Grand-chil’d _Chimalpopoca_) to forbid all manner of
Trade with the _Mexicans_; nay, to endeavor utterly to root them out;
yet some judg’d, that they ought to spare _Chimalpopoca_, while others
on the contrary said, _That he ought to be destroy’d, because his Father
being a_ Mexican, _he would to the utmost of his Power defend his
People_; which last being approv’d of, so troubled the King of the
_Tapunecans_, that he dy’d of grief; for the Design being soon after put
into execution, and the _Tapuneca_’s breaking in the Night into
_Chimalpopoca_’s Palace, Murder’d him; which Murder made the _Mexicans_
thirst for revenge; whereupon, setting themselves wholly against the
_Tapunecans_, they enter’d into a League with _Vezcuco_, and
_Culhuacan_, and chose _Izcoalt_, for his great Valor, for their King;
notwithstanding _Acamapixtli_ had begotten him on a Slave.

[Sidenote: _Izcoalts_ success against the _Tapanecas_.]

_Izcoalt_ was no sooner Crown’d, but he made great preparation for a
War, though against every ones Opinion, because of the Populousness of
the _Tapunecans_; yet it was concluded on, that they should request
Peace, and a place to inhabit on the main Continent, that so they might
remove from the Isles: This Request they thought could not be deny’d
them in _Azcapuzalco_, provided the _Mexicans_ brought their Gods
thither, and wholly conform’d themselves to the manners of the
_Tapunecans_, for otherwise they could expect nothing but utter Ruine:
Yet though every one else imbrac’d the Proposal, _Tlacaellel_, the
King’s Nephew, stiffly oppos’d it, alleging, that it did not agree with
the _Mexicans_ quality, to make so mean and slavish a Proffer; and that
they had best consider, first if there were no other means to be found:
and that he would willingly venture his Life in going to _Azcapuzalco_,
as a Spie, to pry into their whole Designs and Intentions, which was
perform’d accordingly; and soon after returning, he brought information,
that the _Tapunecans_ were making great preparations for War, and made
no mention at all of Peace; which news struck a general fear into all
Peoples Hearts; many desiring that they might save themselves by flight;
but _Izcoalt_ putting fresh courage into them, made an agreement with
the People, that if he was beaten by the _Tapunecans_, they should eat
him up; but if he prov’d Conqueror, they should all be at his Command;
to which all consenting, they boldly march’d with their King to the City
_Azcapuzalco_. The Front of the Army consisting of the prime Nobility,
was led by _Tlacaellel_, and the Rear _Izcoalt_ brought up, who was also
to give the sign on a Drum, when they should fall upon the Enemies; who
having ten Men to the _Mexicans_ one, suddenly Sally’d out of the Gates,
where they were so briskly entertain’d by _Tlacaellel_, that in a
confus’d manner they soon ran back into the City, whither the Conqueror
pursuing them, got within the Gates, where he put all to the Sword which
he could meet with; some fled to a steep neighboring Mountain, whither
being also follow’d, they threw down their Arms, and begg’d Quarter, to
serve the _Mexicans_ as Slaves, which was granted them, whilst _Izcoalt_
found an unvaluable Mass of Treasure in _Azcapuzalco_, and distributed
the Conquer’d Countrey amongst those who had behav’d themselves best.

This Conquest made the neighboring People jealous of the _Mexicans_,
whose Success and growing Power they dreaded.

[Sidenote: The _Cuyoacans_ utterly subdu’d by _Tlacaellel_.]

The Towns _Tacuba_ and _Cuyoacan_, though they had Governors of their
own, yet were subject to the _Tapunecans_, whose General advising those
of _Azcapuzalco_ to try another Encounter, they took up Arms again; but
before it came to a Battel, the _Cuyoacans_ play’d a subtile trick with
the _Mexicans_, for inviting them to an Idolatrous Feast, after they had
Eat, Drunk, and Danc’d, they forc’d them to put on Womens Apparel, to
their no small disgrace and ignomy; which remain’d not unreveng’d, for
the _Mexicans_ made a Poysonous Fume in the Gates of _Cuyoacan_, which
made Women with Child to Miscarry, and many to fall dangerously sick;
yet lastly, both Parties march’d into the Fields, where whilst _Izcoalt_
was elsewhere ingag’d, _Tlacaellel_ marching about, came upon the backs
of the _Cuyoacans_ with such eagerness, that they fled to a strong
Temple, which soon after was set on fire by _Tlacaellel_, who pursu’d
the Enemy ten Leagues.

This Conquest stir’d up the _Suchimilcos_, the first Family of the
_Navatlaca_’s, to stop the proceedings of the _Mexicans_, that they
might not, as they had already done to others, fall upon them; to which
purpose they thought to surprize the Conquering Army; but _Tlacaellel_
who led the Van, march’d in good Order to meet the _Suchimilcos_, fell
resolutely upon their whole Army, and after a short conflict, put them
to flight, and took the City _Suchimilco_ for _Izcoalt_, who being
Crown’d King there, Commanded the Conquer’d to make a direct Road
betwixt _Suchimilco_ and _Mexico_, of four Leagues long, both, that a
Trade might the easier be drove between these two Cities, and to keep
them the better in awe: Notwithstanding these examples, _Cuytlavacan_, a
City built at the Lake _Laguna_, trusting to the abundance of Boats,
which the Citizens knew how to use with great dexterity, daily molested
_Mexico_ with them by Water, whereupon _Izcoalt_ resolv’d to send his
Victorious Army thither, but _Tlacaellel_ opposing the same, promis’d to
subdue the Rebelling City with a considerable number of Boys, which had
skill in the managing of a _Canoo_, which being permitted him, he
accordingly made himself Master of _Cuytlavacan_, from whence the Boys
brought a great Booty, and divers Prisoners, whom they sent as an
Offering to _Vitzlipultzli_.

[Sidenote: _Tezcuco_ submits to the _Mexicans_.]

These unheard of Victories being spread far and near, mov’d _Tezcuco_
after several Skirmishes and Conflicts with _Tlacaellel_, to submit to
the _Mexican_ King, who chose the Governor thereof for his Prime
Councellor. _Izcoalt_ Deceasing, after having Reign’d twelve years, his
Son _Muteczuma_ was chosen his Successor; the Election and Coronation
being perform’d after the following manner.

[Sidenote: Coronation of _Muteczuma_.]

The new King mantled in Tygers Skins, was led into the chief Temple
before a Hearth, on which burnt Fire both Night and Day; not far from
which stood the Throne, where sitting down, he Offer’d Blood, which was
taken from his Cheeks, Ears, and Legs; after which, an Orator
Congratulated him, in the name of the Nobility; which done, they ended
the Solemnity in a great Dinner, Fire-Works, and Dancing: At the same
time it was establish’d, that all Future Coronations should be kept with
an Offering of Provisions, fetch’d by the King out of the Enemies
Countrey: wherefore _Muteczuma_ going to the Countrey _Chalco_, took
several of the Natives, whose reaking Hearts he Offer’d to
_Viztlipuztli_: Which done, the Coronation follow’d, to which an
innumerable company of People came flocking from all the neighboring
Provinces: Those which were Tributaries, brought Presents with them,
before which the Heralds carry’d the Coats of Arms belonging to the
Nobility of _Mexico_, in a good order.

[Sidenote: _Muteczuma_’s Brother taken Prisoner by those of _Chalco_.]

[Sidenote: An example of great Fidelity.]

Soon after the King’s Coronation, he march’d and fell upon _Chalco_, the
Inhabitants of which defended themselves very Valiantly, took
_Muteczuma_’s Brother, among several other Prisoners; to whom the
Conquerors proffer’d the Government; which at first he refus’d, but at
last accepted of on this condition, that a high Mast should be erected
with a Scaffold on the top, which made every one suppose, that
_Muteczuma_’s Brother did in that manner aim at a high Election, but he
at the appointed time, getting on the top of the Mast, call’d with a
loud voice, and spake to the taken _Mexicans_ which were there present
to this effect: _Chalco seeks to set me on the Throne, the Heavens will
not permit it; learn by me rather to die, than to live and be guilty of
Treason to your Countrey_: which he had no sooner said, but with some
Flowers which he held in his Hand, threw himself down from the Scaffold,
which so inrag’d the _Chalcoans_, that they immediately slew all the
other _Mexicans_ that were there present; which not long after was
reveng’d by _Muteczuma_, who not onely subdu’d _Chalco_, but several
other Provinces, leaving onely _Tlascala_ unattempted, that the
_Mexicans_ might have a neighboring Enemy to fetch Prisoners from for
their Offerings, and also by Skirmishing with them, train up their Youth
in Martial Discipline.

[Illustration]

Thus his Predecessors and he, having Conquer’d divers Provinces,
insomuch that he was now become absolute Emperor over a vast Tract of
Land, he resolv’d to settle the same in good order; to which purpose he
erected Courts of Judicature, with good Laws; built a stately Palace and
Temple; ordain’d several Customs to be observ’d in Religion; which done,
and having Reign’d twenty eight years, he Deceasing, left _Ticocic_ for
his Successor.

[Sidenote: Description of the Temple _Cu_.]

The foremention’d Temple was call’d _Cu_, being built of Stone, in form
like a Serpent, of an exceeding bigness, in the middle thereof there was
a spacious open place, and round about it Habitations, two Stories high,
the lowermost for the Inferior Priests, and the uppermost for the High
Priests; in this place also above ten thousand People Danc’d in a
Circle, on all high Feasts; four great Gates fac’d the like number of
broad Streets, each two Leagues long: On the outmost Gate stood large
Images, the Front of black Stones, Painted between each Lay with red and
yellow Colours, no less Beautiful than Artificial: On each corner of the
Temple were plac’d two Marble Statues of _Indians_, sitting with their
Arms stretch’d out, and holding a Candle, and on their Heads Plumes of
Feathers: Thirty high steps led up to a round place, set about with
Deaths-Heads, which was a Stage appointed for the slaughter of those,
whose Hearts were to be Offer’d to the Diabolical gods, and whose Heads,
their Bodies being eaten, were brought back to the Priests, who hung
them under the Stage, where every Head hanging till it dropp’d off, the
vacant place was immediately supply’d with a fresh Head. At the end of
the Stage stood two Chappels, cover’d like a _Cardinal_’s-Cap, in one of
which sate the Image of _Tiztlputzli_, and in the other _Tlaloc_, to
which led a hundred and twenty Stone steps.

But besides this stately Temple _Cu_, _Mexico_ boasted nine more,
standing not far asunder in a large Plain, all adorn’d with curious
Imagery, and set out with large Pillars, each being Dedicated to a
peculiar Idol, and built with magnificent Apartments, for the Priests to
lodge in; the chiefest of them Dedicated to an Idol call’d
_Tezeatlipuca_, or _Lord of the Humble_. This Temple was ascended to by
eighty steps, and had before it a spacious Court; within a low and broad
Gate appear’d a high Vail, which open’d into a spacious square Hall,
hung with Tapestry, at the end whereof stood large Images, and beyond
which were several Rooms, in which Assemblies met, Scholars were taught,
Judges sate, and Priests Resided.

[Sidenote: _Tlacaellel_ resigns the Kingdoms to _Ticocic_.]

[Sidenote: _Axayacan_ chosen King.]

But to return again to _Muteczuma_, his Funeral was no sooner finish’d,
but the four Prime Councellors were attended by the Commissioners of
_Tezcuco_ and _Tacuba_, in order to the Election of a new King:
_Tlacaellel_ being the chief amongst the Dukes, was by a general Vote
Saluted King, as being most worthy thereof, for his special Services
shown in behalf of the Empire of _Mexico_: But he humbly refusing the
same, was desir’d to Nominate another, whereupon he making choice of
_Ticocic_, _Muteczuma_’s eldest Son; the Council immediately bor’d a
hole through his Nose, and hung an Emrauld in the same. But before he
receiv’d the Crown, he was forc’d, according to the Custom, to fetch in
some of his Enemies for an Offering, which though he perform’d, yet he
lost more _Mexicans_ than he took Prisoners, not without sufficient
testimony of Cowardise; which being ill resented by the People, he was
Poyson’d in the fourth year of his Reign, and succeeded by his Brother
_Axayaca_, by the appointment of _Tlacaellel_; who having attain’d to a
great Age, and left the Charge of his Children to the new King, departed
this Life, to the great sorrow and grief of the whole Empire; by the
States whereof he was Bury’d with great Solemnity.

[Sidenote: His Victory against the _Teguantepecks_.]

In the mean time, _Axayaca_ went with a considerable Army to the remote
Province _Teguantepek_, to fetch Prisoners to be Offer’d at his
Coronation; and marching before alone, Challeng’d his Antagonist, the
King, to a single Combat, which he refus’d, and chose rather to fall
upon _Axayaca_ with all his Forces; whereupon, the _Mexicans_ cunningly
feign’d flight, ambuscaded themselves till the Enemies pursuing them,
gave them their desir’d advantage, for rushing out of their Ambuscade,
they set upon the _Teguantepecks_, so disorder’d, that they easily put
them to flight, and had the pursuit of them as far as _Guatulco_, a
noted Haven upon the South-Sea; from whence _Axayaca_ returning Victor,
receiv’d a Crown for a Reward; yet notwithstanding these Proofs of his
Valor, the Lord of _Tlatellulco_ Challeng’d him; whereupon he sent
Agents thither, with proffers, that since the Citizens of _Tlatellulco_
were of one Blood with the _Mexicans_, whom they deserted upon the
dividing of the Wards and Towns, just before the Election of the first
King _Acamapixtli_, they should, if they pleas’d, be receiv’d anew into
fellowship and alliance with the _Mexicans_, acknowledging one and the
same King for their Supreme Head and Governor: But the Ambassadors being
scorn’d and laugh’d at for their proffers, returning, related the same
to _Axayaca_, who immediately marching thither to take revenge, sent
part of his Army to fall on the Enemy by Water; whilst himself falling
upon them by Land, put the Lord of _Tlatellulco_, with his whole Army,
to flight, which was so closely pursu’d, that they forc’d their way into
the City with them, put the Governor to Death, and laid the Town in
Ashes; those which went by Water, having had no less success.

[Sidenote: _Autzol_ succeeds him.]

_Axayaca_, after eleven years Reign, Deceasing, bequeath’d his Crown to
_Autzol_, who sought to promote his Election by ingaging with the mighty
Province _Quaxutatlan_, whose Inhabitants, though but a little before,
they had been so bold as to demand Tribute of the _Mexicans_, yet
terrifi’d at the approach of _Autzol_’s Army, fled over an Arm of the
Sea, where they had been secure, had not _Autzol_ invented a floating
Isle of Planks, by which he got over his whole Army; upon which the
amaz’d _Quaxututlans_ immediately submitted themselves to the
_Mexicans_, who pursuing their Victory, extended their Dominions to
_Guatimala_, over a Tract of three hundred Leagues.

[Sidenote: _Autzol_’s Generosity and Magnificence.]

The new King having now subdu’d all his Enemies, and made himself
glorious by his Victories, was also ambitious to be as much extoll’d for
his Generosity and Magnificence; to which purpose he distributed all the
Wealth which was brought unto him from the neighboring Countreys,
amongst the Poor and the Nobility; to the first he gave Clothes and
Provisions; to the last, Plumes of Feathers and Arms. Moreover he caus’d
all mean Houses to be pull’d down and new ones to be built in their
places. Lastly, he consulted how to bring fresh Water into _Mexico_,
which was plac’d in a brackish Soil: Upon this Design he was so bent,
that when one of his Sages disswaded him from it, alledging, _That the
Water would drown the City_, he, in stead of following his Advice,
banish’d him his Presence, and upon his flying to _Cuyaocun_, caus’d him
to be fetch’d from thence and Executed. Then prosecuting his Design, he
cut the Ditch before _Cuyaocun_, by which means great store of fresh
Water came flowing into the Lake _Laguna_, which the Priests welcom’d
with strange Ceremonies; for some perfum’d the Water, others Offer’d
Quails Blood, whilst others play’d on several Musical Instruments, with
many other Ceremonies, which are at large describ’d in the ancient
_Mexican_ Chronicles, kept in the _Vatican_ Library at _Rome_. But the
Prophecy of the Executed Sorcerer was in a manner fulfill’d; for the
Water overwhelm’d a great part of _Mexico_, and divided the City into
Isles: But to prevent farther Mischief, _Autzoll_ caus’d Banks to be
rais’d, and Channels digg’d; and not long after, in the eleventh Year of
his Reign, he deceas’d: After which the _Mexican_ Kingdom tended towards
its period, as the ensuing Story will declare.

Amongst the _Mexican_ Nobility, _Mutexuma_, a melancholy Man, yet very
prudent, who resided in a stately Apartment near the great Temple _Cu_,
that there he might the better converse with _Viztlipuztli_, was elected
King; which he no sooner heard, but fled from hence: but being found
out, he was against his will led to the Grand Assembly, and from thence
to the holy Hearth, where for an Offering he drew Blood out of his
Cheeks, Ears, and Legs; and, according to an ancient Custom, the
_Council of State_ boring a Hole in his Nose, hung an Emerauld in the
same; after which the Lord of _Tescuco_ saluted him with a Speech; which
(since it is mention’d by _Joseph d’ Acosta_, together with several
other Speeches of Congratulation to their Kings, which were taught to
Schollars, to make them expert in their Language) it will not be amiss
to be annexed here, that of many this one may serve for a pattern of the
_Mexicans_ Eloquence, which is as followeth:

[Sidenote: The Lord of _Tescuco_ his Speech to _Muteczuma_.]


  “The great happiness, most noble _Muteczuma_, which is befall’n this
  Realm by your Election, may easily be conjectur’d from the general
  joy, none besides your self being able to undergo an Office, in the
  management whereof so much Prudence is requir’d: It is a most
  certain testimony that God loves _Mexico_, that he hath given its
  Inhabitants understanding to make such a Choice. Who can doubt, but
  that you who have expatiated through the Heavens, and convers’d with
  _Viztlipuztli_, may easily Govern us Mortals on Earth? Who can
  despair, but that the Vertue inclos’d within your Breast, will
  extend to the Widows and Orphans? Therefore rejoyce, O _Mexico_; the
  Heavens have granted us a Prince without Vice; Merciful, and not a
  Violator of the Laws; Affable, not despising common Conversation.
  And you, O King, let not this great Preferment occasion any
  alteration in your so long known Vertues: The Crown breeds care for
  the publick good; the troubles thereof must extend over the whole
  Realm, and every one in the Realm.”


[Sidenote: Preparation for the Coronation of _Muteczuma_.]

[Sidenote: His Grandeur.]

[Sidenote: The ruine of the _Mexican_ Empire prognosticated.]

_Muteczuma_ having heard out the Speech, would willingly have answer’d
the same, but could not utter a word for Tears, which gush’d from his
Eyes. Before he went out to fetch Prisoners for Offerings at his
Coronation, he first setled his Houshold Affairs. And whereas till this
time the Kings had been serv’d in their Palaces by ordinary Citizens, he
took Knights, and the chiefest of the Nobility, intending thereby to
make a distinction between the Nobility and the common People, and add
more Majesty to the Royal Dignity. This done, _Muteczuma_ marching
against a certain rebellious Province, fetch’d a considerable number of
People to be Offer’d to _Viztupuztli_. At his Return the Coronation-Day
was appointed, against which thousands of People came to _Mexico_; even
their very Enemies of _Tlascala_, _Mechoacan_, and _Tepeaca_, which were
never conquer’d by the _Mexicans_, flock’d thither in great numbers. All
those Countreys which were under Tribute bringing unvaluable Treasures,
came in vast Multitudes, which so throng’d the City, that the very tops
of the Houses were fill’d with Spectators, no King in _Mexico_ ever
going to the Throne in such splendor; nor was ever any King so much
fear’d by his Subjects, none of the common People daring to look in his
Face; neither did he ever set Foot on the Ground, but was always carried
in a Chair on the Shoulders of his prime Nobility; he never wore a Suit
of Clothes but once, nor ever us’d a Cup or Dish after it was once
foul’d; he strictly maintain’d the Laws which he had made, and often
went himself in a Disguise, to make a strict enquiry after all Affairs
whatsoever; by which means the _Mexican_ Power was now arriv’d to the
highest top: but, as other Realms, grown top-heavy with good Fortune,
turn at last topsie-turvy, just such a Misfortune befell _Mexico_; but
not without several fore-running signs of its destruction: for in the
City _Cholola_ their God _Quezalcoalt_ inform’d them, that a strange
People were coming to take possession of the _Mexican_ Dominions; and
their Soothsayers prognosticated the same, for which _Muteczuma_
committed them all to Prison, and doubtless had put them all to death,
had not they escap’d with the help of the Master of their diabolical
Art; and though they escap’d themselves, yet their Wives and Children
were all put to death upon the King’s Command: Soon after which appear’d
a mighty Comet, or blazing Star for a whole year together; the great
Temple _Cu_ was set on Fire, and burnt to the Ground none knew how; the
Water which was thrown on the same to quench it, burnt like Brimstone;
in the Skie appear’d three fiery Heads at noon-day, and out of a long
Tail shot Sparks on the Earth; the _Laguna_, between _Mexico_ and
_Texcuco_, began to swell into a Tide, which turn’d some Houses
topsie-turvy; a shrill Voice was heard in the Night crying on the Water,
_Children, your ruine is at hand; whither shall I carry you that you may
not be lost?_

[Sidenote: A miraculous story of a Bird.]

No less strange is what _d’ Acosta_ relates of a Bird presented to
_Muteczuma_, not unlike a Crane, which the Fishermen had taken on the
_Laguna_; on the shining Forehead of which there appear’d the
resemblance of two Armies Engag’d, and one defeated by the other, and
that whilst the Sages, call’d to interpret the meaning hereof, sat in
Consultation, the Bird vanish’d.

[Sidenote: Another of a Country-man.]

Moreover, there goes a Tradition, That a Countrey-man being at his
Labor, was taken up by an Eagle, and carried through the Air into a
gloomy Cave, where a Man lay fast asleep snoaring, when on a sudden he
heard a Voice afar off, saying, _Do you know that Man?_ whereupon the
Countrey-man taking special notice of the dormant Man, knew him, by the
Royal Apparel, to be _Mutexuma_; after which the Voice was heard again,
saying, _How soundly doth he sleep: the time is coming which provides
Punishments for many Crimes; burn the Snoarer with the Torch which he
holds in his Hands, he will feel no pain_: Not long after he being
inform’d hereof, and looking on his Thigh, found the same burnt, to his
no small amazement.

[Sidenote: News of the arrival of the _Spanish_ Fleet.]

Having now possess’d the Throne fourteen years, he receiv’d news of a
Fleet, and therewith a Draught of the Men and Vessels painted on Cloth.
This startling him, he immediately advis’d with his Council, who judg’d
it convenient to secure the Coast along the Southern Ocean with strong
Watches; yet nevertheless _Ferdinand Cortesius_ Landed with five hundred
Foot and sixty Horse, took the City _Potanchanum_, march’d through the
Countrey _Sicuchimalar_ to _Tascalleca_, where they had a sharp
Conflict, in which the _Spaniards_ were in great danger; and had not
they had six Field-Pieces with them, which did as much affright as hurt
the _Indians_, they had without doubt been cut off there. In
_Chiurutecal_ they were in as much danger; for certainly the _Spanish_
Army had been set upon in the Night, had not a Woman inform’d them of
it.

[Sidenote: _Muteczuma_ committed to Prison by _Cortesius_.]

Mean while _Muteczuma_ consulted with his Sorcerers to destroy
_Cortesius_ by Charms, who then was marching through _Chalco_, whereupon
a considerable number of Sorcerers went thither to the top of a high
Mountain, where, as they were beginning their Incantations and Charms,
their Idol _Tezcalipuca_ appear’d to them; and in an angry manner told
them, That _Muteczuma_ should lose his Crown and Life; and to confirm
his words, he shew’d them a dreadful spectacle; for looking about, they
saw the City in a light flame. This being told to _Muteczuma_, he
resolv’d to make himself as secure as he could, and went to meet
_Cortesius_ with costly Presents, delivering him the Crown in the
presence of all his Council; to which purpose he took one _Marina_,
experienc’d in the _Castilian_ Tongue, with him for his Interpreter; all
things then seeming to end in Friendship. But they continu’d not long in
that state; for _Cortesius_, whose whole Design was to bring _Mexico_
under the _Spaniards_ Subjection, not long after accus’d _Muteczuma_,
that _Coalcopoca_ had on his Commands storm’d the new _Spanish_ City
_Vera Crux_, which he could no way excuse; and notwithstanding
_Muteczuma_ deliver’d him _Coalcopoca_, with fifteen of his Nobles
Prisoners, who were all burnt with green Wood; yet he was committed
Prisoner, to the great discontent of the _Mexicans_, who said, “That
they were now come to a fine pass, to be thus fool’d by a few Strangers,
who had imprison’d their King, trampled upon their ancient Images,
endeavor’d to murther them all, and in despite of them brought their
mortal Enemies, the _Tascaltecans_ and _Guazuzingans_, into _Mexico_.”

[Sidenote: _Cortesius_ marches against _Velasquez_’s Party.]

About this time there were certain Ships come to _Vera Crux_, which was
a new Port-Town of this Countrey, that the _Spaniards_ had built since
their coming thither, and had Landed near upon a thousand Men; which was
an Accident that had like to have spoil’d the Design of _Cortesius_ and
all his Company at _Mexico_, these Men being sent by _James Velasquez_;
Governor of _Cuba_, expressly against _Cortesius_ and his Men, upon
pretence that they had acted not conformably to the Commission which
they had receiv’d from him, and gave him no account of their
proceedings; which in a great measure was true: for it must be
confess’d, that _Cortesius_ and his Men finding themselves to have
fall’n upon an Adventure that was certainly rich and good, and having
got such footing and interest in the Countrey already, by their Success
and Victories, and chiefly by their Confederacy with so many of the
Natives and People of the Countrey, revolted to them, did almost at
first, by a general consent, renounce their Commission, and dependency
upon _Velasquez_, and profess’d to act immediately from and for the King
of _Spain_. What pretences they had for such a Resolution, seemingly at
least irregular, is not so well known. Whatever they were, they proceed
in it, and the whole Company (excepting onely some few, who yet went
along with the rest) chuse _Cortesius_ anew for their Commander in
chief, and appoint likewise by common consent, all other Officers of
Justice, both Civil and Military, among themselves: and to give the
better colour at Court to their Proceedings, they send _Portocorrero_
and _Monteio_, two of their Principals, into _Spain_, with a rich and
noble Present to the Emperor, both to make report of the State of the
Countrey, and to procure immediate Commission from his Majesty, to
proceed; after which they advance towards Mexico, as hath been said.
_Velasquez_, being at _Cuba_, and understanding their Proceedings,
labor’d to intercept both their Messengers and Present, but could not;
and therefore sent _Pamphilius Narvaez_ with eleven Ships, and about
nine hundred or a thousand Men to apprehend _Cortesius_, and oppose his
Proceedings. This hapned about the time that the Differences were but
newly calm’d betwixt the _Spaniards_ and the People of _Mexico_; and
though it oblig’d _Cortesius_ to leave the City in a wavering and
unsetled condition, yet he took such order, that _Muteczuma_ still
remain’d under the Guard of the _Spaniards_ as before, assisted with
thousands of their Friends of _Tlascalla_, and he himself taking the
rest, and some few _Spaniards_ along with him, with undaunted courage
and resolution marches against _Narvaez_: and such was his good fortune,
that not onely _Narvaez_ became his Prisoner without much blood-shed,
but likewise all his Men joyn’d with him in his Design, through the
favour of the Chancery or supream Court of _St. Domingo_, and by the
procurement of the Licentiat _Vasquez de Ayllon_, a Judge of it, who was
sent with _Narvaez_ to accommodate the Differences. With this Recruit
_Cortesius_ marches back again to _Mexico_; but at his coming finds
things in a very bad condition; for the Citizens, gather’d together
under the Command of one _Quicuxtemoc_, had recourse to Arms, and for
three days and three Nights vex’d the _Spaniards_ with continual
Stormings, notwithstanding what-ever Commands they had to the contrary
from their imprison’d King, who at last, looking out of a Window,
endeavoring to appease them, was hurt with a Stone, of which he soon
after died, as they say, who would not have the _Spaniards_ thought to
have murder’d him, as the _Mexicans_ say they did, with divers other
Noble-men, and some of his Children, the very Night they fled. However
it were, not long after his Death, out of extream necessity, and chiefly
for want of Victuals, the _Spaniards_ were forc’d to leave the City in
the night-time, and with the loss of four hundred and fifty of their
Men, who were either slain or taken Prisoners at the passing of a
Draw-bridge, the rest making a heavy Retreat to their Friends at
_Tlascalla_. There is standing at this day in _Mexico_, upon the place
where so many of them were kill’d, a certain Hermitage, which they call
_Los Martyres_, or _The Hermitage of the Martyrs_, though but
improperly, if upon that occasion, as one of their own Writers
confesses, though he alledges no other reason.

[Sidenote: _Mexico_ taken by the _Spaniards_.]

This Retreat of the _Spaniards_ out of _Mexico_ hapned to be upon the
tenth of _July_ after mid-night, in the Year 1520. which the _Spaniards_
at _Mexico_ call _The Doleful Night_. Nevertheless the undaunted
_Cortesius_ being got, though with much difficulty and trouble, by
reason of the pursuit of the _Mexicans_ for a good part of the Way, to
his sure Friends of _Tlascalla_, neither lost his Courage, nor gave over
his Resolution of yet gaining _Mexico_, especially the way being now
laid open, and sufficient occasion given by the Death of _Muteczuma_,
and the provocations of the _Mexicans_ themselves, to make himself
absolute and sole Lord of the Place: wherefore having sent for, and
procur’d a competent Supply of fresh Soldiers from _Santo Domingo_, or
_Hispaniola_, _Almeria_, _Cuba_, and other places, being in all nine
hundred Foot, eight hundred Horse, and seventeen Pieces of Ordnance; he
joyns himself with the Auxiliary Forces of _Tlascalla_, which were no
less than a hundred thousand Men, Arm’d with Bowes and Arrows: and with
this Army marches again towards _Mexico_, and Besieges it both by Land
and Water, _viz._ with the help of thirteen _Brigantines_ or _Galliots_,
which he had built upon the Lake, and six thousand _Canoos_, or little
Boats, which his Friends and Confederates had procur’d him. By which
means, and by his Army on Land, in a short time he cut off all Provision
from the City, and after a Siege of full three Months or more, and a
most stout and obstinate resistance made by the People within, in which
they are said to have lost above a hundred thousand Men, beside those
which perish’d by Famine, Sickness, or otherwise, he took it by Storm
upon _Tuesday_ the thirteenth of _August 1521._ Sackt it first, and then
burnt it to the Ground; yet afterwards he caus’d it to be Re-built
again, far more Beautiful than at first it was; as in due place we shall
further see. They speak not of above fifty _Spaniards_ slain during the
whole Siege, six Horses, and not many _Tlascaltecans_.

[Sidenote: _Cortez_ advanc’d to Honors.]

In this manner, and with so little Charges to the Conqueror, there fell
to the Crown of _Spain_ the richest and goodliest Kingdom (one of them)
of the whole World, _viz._ the Kingdom of _Mexico_, which the Conquerors
presently nam’d _New Spain_; and in reference to which name, the
_Catholick King_ hath ever since stil’d himself in the plural number
_Hispaniarum Rex_, or _King of both Spains_; and all by the Valor,
Prudence, admirable Resolution, and happy Conduct of _Cortez_; who was
at first but a private Adventurer in the _American_ Plantations and
Discoveries, though otherwise a Gentleman of a good Family in _Spain_,
born at _Medellin_ in the Country of _Estramedura_. The Emperor
_Charles_ the Fifth, who was also then King of _Spain_, for his great
Services, endow’d him deservedly with many great and rich Territories in
the Provinces of _Tlascalla_, _Mechoacan_, and other parts thereabouts,
made him Marquess of the Valley, _viz._ of _Guaxata_, (which is his
chief Title) a rich and flourishing Province of that Countrey, Captain
General, or Commander in Chief, of all the Military Forces of
_New-Spain_, and General Discoverer of all the Maritime parts and Coasts
of _America_ towards the South-Sea, assigning him in propriety the
twelfth part of whatsoever should be discover’d, to him and his Heirs
for ever; but deny’d him the Government of _Mexico_ out of reason of
State, though ’tis said, he much desir’d it.

[Sidenote: The grand Haven _Acapulco_.]

Among the famous Havens which lie along the South Sea, and Northern
Ocean the chiefest is _Acapulco_ before-mention’d, whither all
Merchandize is sent to be transported to _China_, which is above two
thousand Leagues distant from thence; in which Voyage they generally
spend fourteen Months; four Sail, each of eight hundred Tun, appointed
for this Trade; generally two of them set Sail to _China_ in _March_,
and returning in Summer, have no sooner drop’d their Anchors, but the
other two set out from _Acapulco_, from whence the way by Land to
_Mexico_, is seventy two Leagues over steep Mountains, dangerous Rocks,
and several Rivers; the chiefest whereof are, first, _Del Papagayo_, or
_De las Balsas_, which runs exceeding strong, which the _Indians_ cross
on bundles of Canes ty’d upon _Callabashes_: Next _San Francisco_, which
though the biggest, yet hath many shallow places to wade over. The
_Mustichoes_ are no small Plagues to those that travel this way, for
their Poysonous Stings are the occasions of many Ulcerated Wounds, and
oft-times Death it self.

In this way lies also the Countrey _del Valle_, from which _Ferdinand
Cortesius_ receiv’d the Title of Earl.

[Illustration: PORTUS ACAPULCO]

The Mouth of the Haven _Acapulco_ gapes a full League North and South,
and within exceeding large, hath a nook call’d _Boca Grande_, where the
Ships Ride safe at an Anchor: More Easterly appears a Land Inlet, (by
the _Spaniards_ call’d _Puerto del Marques_) secur’d against all Winds;
near which is the City of _San Diego_, to which belongs a Fort, with six
Bulwarks, lying on a Promontory; the main of the City is one large
Street, consisting of fair and stately Houses, and leading directly to
the Haven; the Church which is of an oblong square, hath a high Steeple
in the middle.

[Sidenote: _Spilbergen_’s Expedition.]

A _Dutch_ Admiral, one _Joris Spilbergen_, after he had done the
_Spaniards_ all the mischief he could along the South Sea, ran with five
Sail under the Fort _Acapulco_, which fir’d ten Guns at him; whereupon,
the _Dutch_ Admiral Manning a Boat, with a white Flag, they agreed upon
a Cessation, and the _Spaniards_ went aboard of the Admiral, to whom
_Pedro Alvares_, and _Francisco Menendus_, having been a considerable
time in _Holland_, and speaking the Language of that Countrey very
perfect, promis’d that all his Demands should be satisfi’d; yet
_Spilbergen_ was suspicious that the _Spaniards_ had a design upon him,
wherefore he came and lay close under the Castle with his five Sail, and
made ready his Guns: But this suspicion was soon clear’d, when _Alvares_
and _Menendus_ proffer’d to stay as Hostages, till the Governor of the
Town sent the Admiral thirty Oxen, fifty Sheep, some hundreds of
Poultry, Coals, Oranges, Cittrons, and the like fresh Provisions; as
also Wood and Water; during which time, the Prisoners being set at
liberty, several Persons of Quality came to visit the Admiral, amongst
whom was Captain _Castilio_, one that had serv’d twenty years in the
_Low-Countrey_ Wars; and _Melchior Hernando_, Nephew to the Vice-Roy of
_New-Spain_, who desirous to see the Ships that durst set twice upon
_Rodrigo de Mendose_, Admiral of the King of _Spain_’s mighty Fleet,
stood amaz’d that such little Frigats durst Ingage with so many great
_Spanish_ Ships; and carry’d the Admiral’s Son to the Governor of the
City, call’d _Georgius Perro_, who civilly entertain’d him: Eight days
_Spilbergen_ spent here at _Acapulco_, admiring the courteous
Entertainment of the _Spaniards_, and the more, because that having News
but eight Moneths before of the _Dutch_ Fleet setting out, they had in
that short time made all things ready for resistance, the Fort having
seventeen Brass Guns, and four hundred Soldiers, besides many Noblemen
and Reformades, whereas at other times there us’d not to be above forty
Men, and four Guns in the same.


                               SECT. II.
                               Mechoacan.

[Sidenote: Bounds and Description of _Mechoacan_.]

The next Province of _New Spain_ is the Bishoprick of _Mechoacan_, which
hath on the North-East, _Panuco_; on the East, _Mexicana_, properly so
call’d; on the South part, _Tlascalla_; on the West, the Main Ocean, or
_Mare del Zur_; and last of all, more directly Northward, _Xalisco_,
which is a Province of _New Gallicia_: The Name signifieth in the
_American_ Language, as much as _A Fish Countrey_; and so it is, having
many fair Lakes and Rivers in it, abundantly well stor’d with Fish. The
Countrey so exceedingly pleasant and healthful, that ’tis usual for sick
Persons of other Provinces to come hither to recover their health, only
by the benefit of a good Air. The Soil so abundantly fertile of all
sorts of Grain, that of four measures of Seed, it hath been often
observ’d, they have reap’d the next Harvest, more than so many hundred
measures of the same Grain. Very well Wooded; and by reason of its many
Rivers and fresh Springs, equally rich in good Pasture: and besides
great plenty of Medicinal Herbs and Plants, it affordeth good store of
Amber nigh the Sea Coasts, Mulberry-trees, and consequently Silks; much
Honey, Wax, and divers other Commodities, both for necessity and
pleasure. The People of the Countrey are generally tall, of a strong
active Body, and a good Wit, especially in comparison of other Natives;
not unskilful in divers curious Manufactures, the most excellent
Feather-Pictures, afore-mention’d, being said to be found in this
Province. They seem more generally inclin’d to the Humors and Customs of
the _Spaniards_, than any other _Americans_; and receiv’d the Preaching
of _Christian Religion_, when time was, with much willingness; so that
the Countrey is now entirely _Christian_, and divided into several
Parishes.

[Sidenote: Languages belonging to the _Mechoacans_.]

The Languages which are spoken in _Mechoacan_ are several, as the
_Otomian_, _Chihcimian_, and the _Mexicans_, which is common through all
_New Spain_, and the _Tarascan_, a neat and brief Language, which
properly belongs to this Countrey.

[Sidenote: Tygers.]

The Lions and Wilde Dogs of this Countrey devour great numbers of Cattel
yearly, yet the greatest mischiefs happen from the Tygers, which often
fetch People out of their Houses, notwithstanding the Doors are lock’d,
for they break in thorow the Walls and Roofs, with much eagerness and
strength: Of the greatness whereof, _Jacob Bontius_ tells us this story,
That the Governor _Peter Carpentier_ set a Trap without the Walls of
_Batavia_, of great Timber, Pleited with Iron, Baiting it with a Goat;
which taking effect, the Tyger that was caught therein, impatient of
such close Imprisonment, rent the Timber, and getting out, left the Goat
untouch’d.

_Hugo Linschot_ relates, That the Tygers in the _West-Indies_ hurt no
_Spaniards_, exercising their cruelty onely on _Indians_; and that
finding a _Black_ and a _White_ Man sleeping together, they devour the
_Black_ and not the _White_: How far these assertions deserve to be
credited, may appear by an evident contradiction of the first, for it is
well known, many _Spaniards_ in the _West-Indies_ have been eaten by the
Tygers.

General _Fedreman_ marching in this Countrey at the Head of his Army,
was assaulted by a Tyger, which in despight of them all killing a
_Spaniard_, and three _Indians_, escap’d from them; no Trees serve for a
refuge against their fury, for they climb up to the top thereof, and
fetch down their Prey; their Claws are so exceeding Venomous, that
whoever is scratch’d with the same, is never to be cur’d; there is no
Beast but they will venture upon, wherefore they lie in the Bushes, from
whence they rush out upon them; but this disadvantage they have, that
most other Beasts are too nimble Footed for them, for they are a very
heavy Creature, whatever hath been deliver’d by the Ancients concerning
the Tygers swiftness.

As to the difference which they make in Humane Flesh, it is thus far
true: That they find more sweetness in Womens Breasts than other parts,
and chose a _Black_ Man before a _White_: Concerning the first, _France_
gives a sufficient testimony, when two Tygers, in the time of King
_Lewis_ the Twelfth, breaking loose, left a great number of Women lying
Breastless in the Road. The second is confirm’d by _John Johnston_’s
Relation of a strange accident that happen’d in _Bengale_, _viz._ A
_Moor_ dreaming that a Tyger fetch’d him out of the Ship, hid himself
the next Night between Decks, of which the Master asking the reason, was
inform’d concerning his Dream, which prov’d prophetick, for about
Mid-night a Tyger leapt into the Ship, and devouring the _Moor_, went
away without touching any one of the _Hollanders_, of which there were
thirty: But a Sea-man walking on the shore escap’d more wonderfully, for
a Tyger setting upon him behind, and a Crocodile before, he leaping from
betwixt them, discover’d to the Tyger the Crocodile, to whom the Tyger
directly running, and ingaging with the Crocodile, spar’d the Sea-mans
life: Notwithstanding the cruelty and mischief of these Tygers, the
_Indians_ are led by their sottish Superstition to worship them;
because, as they say, the Devil often appears to them in that shape.

[Sidenote: Squerrils.]

Besides the Tygers, the Inhabitants of _Mechaocan_ are exceedingly
molested with Squerrils, which not only carry much Fruit into their
Holes, but also under-mine the Houses, so that they often sink or fall
on one side, the mischief being the worse, because they increase daily.
Most of them bear four young at a time, which on the third day run about
for Prey, and can scarce be taken, because of their exceeding swiftness,
leaping a great distance from one Tree to another; their Tails serve
them on divers occasions; for leaping they use it like a Wing, and at
their crossing over a River, for a Sail; in tempestuous Weather, they
stop their holes therewith, to keep out the Wind.

[Sidenote: Several kinds of them.]

There are six several sorts of these Squerrils; the first call’d
_Tlilic_, cover themselves with their Tails; the second _Quapatchli_, is
as big again, and can never be made tame; the third _Techallotl_, with a
bald Tail and great Eyes; the fourth _Talmototly_, hath a thick Head,
and a Tail full of black and white streaks; the fifth _Quimitchpatlan_,
hath a little Head and long Legs, and leaping from one Tree to another,
seems to flie; the last sort call’d _Yztactechalotl_, is whitish.

[Sidenote: Foxes.]

The Foxes do also great mischief here, their Urine smells so horribly,
that forty days after, none are able to abide near the place where they
have urin’d, and on whatsoever Stuff or Cloth a drop thereof chanceth to
light, the stink can never be wash’d away.

[Sidenote: The Bird _Auras_.]

Here breeds also a sort of Birds, call’d _Auras_, which are not unlike
Moore-Hens; they flie exceeding high in the Air, feed on nought but
stinking Carrion, which they scent at a great distance; they have a
hairy Head and Neck, and ugly Face: Some of the Fowls of this Countrey
stay here all the year long, others go away, and return at certain
times.

[Sidenote: Ingenuity of the Natives.]

The Natives, since the _Spaniards_ coming thither, have gotten their
Habits and Language, learn’d all sorts of Trades; their Tables, Chests,
and Cupboards made of _Brasile_-Wood, are no way inferior to the best
that are made in _Europe_. Painting is also in great esteem amongst
them: They make handsom Clothes, Shooes, and strange Copper Locks. They
have a peculiar Art in Tilling their Ground: They teach the _Spanish_
Dogs several tricks, but not feeding them well, they cause them to run
from them, and turn wilde, whence they are call’d _Cimarrones_, because
they do much hurt to the Cattel.

The Inhabitants, when a Feaver or Ague is upon them at the highest, leap
into cold Water: against other Sicknesses they use Herbs, whose
soveraign Power Experience hath long since taught them.

Since the _Spaniards_ made _Mechoacan_ a Bishoprick, they have built
ninety four Schools, fifty Churches, several Hospitals and Cloysters,
inhabited by _Franciscan_ and _Augustin_ Monks.

There are said to be in this Bishoprick a hundred and fifty Towns or
Burroughs (besides many scatter’d Villages) most of which have
Free-Schools erected in them, for the Training up of Youth in the
_Christian_ Religion, good Literature and Arts; and few of them without
an Hospital for the Sick: of which Towns the principal are as followeth:

[Sidenote: Principal Towns.]

1. _Zinzoutza_, the Seat of the ancient Kings of _Mechoacan_. 2.
_Pascuar_, a City forty seven Leagues distant from _Mexico_, once a
Bishop’s See. 3. _Valladolid_, the Metropolis or chief City of the
Province, since the Episcopal Chair was remov’d from _Pascuar_ thither.
It lieth upon a great Lake, equal almost for bigness to that of
_Mexico_, and is about seven Leagues distant from _Pascuar_, towards the
East. 4. _St. Michaels_, a good Town, forty Leagues Westward of
_Mexico_, and in the Way to the _Zacatecas_, but lying in a Road that is
somewhat dangerous, being not a little infested with Salvages on both
sides of it. 5. _St. Philips._ 6. _La Conception de Salaya_, seventeen
Leagues distant from _Valladolid_, and a convenient Stage for
Travellers, being indeed, with the two last mention’d, built chiefly for
the defence and securing of the Countrey against the Salvages. 7.
_Guaxanata_, a Town on the Borders of _Panuco_, where there are very
rich Mynes of Silver. 8. _Leon_, another Town likewise of very rich
Mynes, twenty four Leagues distant from _Valladolid_, and threescore
from _Mexico_. 9. _Zamorra._ 10. _Villa de los Lagos_, and others.

Towards the Sea there is 1. _Acatlan_, but two Miles distant from the
Sea-Coast, and a small Town, yet by reason of a safe and very good
Harbor which it hath for Shipping, a Place of no little Trading. 2.
_Natividad_, another well known and convenient Haven upon _Mare del
Zur_, pertaining to this Province, and from whence they usually set Sail
for the _Philippine_ Islands. 3. _St. Jago de buena Speranza_, so call’d
by the _Spaniards_, perhaps from the abundance of good Pearls they found
upon this Coast. 4. _Colyma._ 5. _Zacatula_, and some others.

This Province, as we said, was at first a distinct Kingdom of it self,
yet subordinate and Tributary to that of _Mexico_; the King whereof
nam’d _Tamgaiva_, or _Bimbicha_, (as _Laet_ reporteth) at the first
coming of the _Spaniards_ thither, after the Conquest of _Mexico_,
voluntarily submitted himself to them, and was Baptiz’d. Nevertheless
afterwards, upon a pretence of I know not what Treason intended by him
against them, and which the _Spanish_ Writers themselves professedly
think to have been feigned, by command of _Nunnez de Gusman_, President
of the _Chancery_ of _Mexico_, he was most inhumanely burnt alive, and
his Kingdom seiz’d upon by the _Spaniards_.


                               SECT. III.
                               Tlascalla.

[Sidenote: Situation and Description of _Tlascalla_.]

The Bishoprick of _Tlascalla_, formerly call’d _Tlascalteca_,
_Tlaxcala_, and _Tlascalan_, is a Province of _New Spain_, which
extendeth it self entirely from one Sea to another, _viz._ from the
_Atlantick_ to _Mare del Zur_, with which it is bounded on the East and
West Parts, lying otherwise, and for the most part betwixt the Provinces
of _Mexicana_, last spoken of, and that of _Guaxata_, which followeth,
containing in length from one Sea to the other, not much less than an
hundred Leagues, and in some places fourscore in breadth; but towards
the South Sea growing much narrower. It is a Countrey exceedingly
plentiful both in Corn and Cattel, full of rich Pasturage, and so
plentifully stor’d with _Maiz_, Wheat, and other Grain, that it is
accounted as it were the Granary of _America_; besides Deer, all manner
of Venison, and great store of Fowl. There is likewise Copperess, Allom,
Silver-Mynes, _Manna_, _Anime_, and Liquid Amber, with a sweet smelling
Gum which drops out of a Tree. The Rivers feed no Fish, because they
fall with exceeding force from the Mountains; onely near _Topoyanco_, is
a deep Lake of fresh Water, inhabited round about by _Indians_, enjoying
the pleasure and profit of the many _Cumbeba_-Trees, which yield
_Cochinele_, producing yearly above two hundred thousand Duckets worth
of that Commodity. In this Lake swim black Hedge-hogs, whose Flesh is
good and wholsom to eat.

[Sidenote: The ancient State of the _Tlascallans_.]

The People of this Countrey, when the _Spaniards_ came first amongst
them, liv’d in the form of a Common-wealth, or Free-State, refusing to
be subject to the King of _Mexico_, with whom they had almost continual
War; and upon that account, as hath been said, assisted _Cortesius_ in
the Conquest of the Kingdom, without whose help ’tis most certain he had
never been able to do any thing. They enjoy therefore many special
Priviledges and Immunities more than other _Americans_ do. They pay no
Tribute, but onely a handful of Wheat yearly for every Person, by way of
acknowledgment, otherwise living, under the Protection of the
_Spaniards_, wholly in the Form of their ancient Government. In former
times they were great Man-eaters, and not onely eat the Flesh of their
Enemies, but also of one another, insomuch that Man’s-flesh hung in
publick to be sold.

[Sidenote: River _Zahuatl_.]

The River _Zahuatl_, which rushes out of the Mountain _Xicoleucalt_,
oftentimes overflows all the Countrey near it, and washes away divers
Houses. _Zahuatl_ signifies _Scabby Water_, because all those,
especially Children, that wash in the same, are sure to be Scabby. On
its Banks the _Spaniards_ have built many Houses, the fashion whereof is
now also imitated by the _Indians_ of this Province, who formerly built
quite after another manner; for they made low Houses of Earth, Wood and
Stone, with large and strange Chambers; some a Stones-cast one from
another, others close together, had narrow crooked Streets that ran
betwixt them.

[Sidenote: _Tlascallans_ Language.]

In this Province are two sorts of Languages spoken, _viz._ the
_Mexican_, and that of the _Ottomons_, who formerly deserting _Mexico_,
chose the _Tlascallans_ for their Protectors: They are a toilsom and
painful People.

To the Northward of _Tlascalla_ are Mountains, which all the year long,
except three Moneths, are cover’d with Mist; and the Woods on the tops
of them are a great shelter to Lyons, Tygers, Wolves, and wild Dogs,
call’d _Adives_, and other wild Beasts, which do much hurt to the small
Cattel. Here are also many Serpents and Adders.

The whole Province is said to contain two hundred good Towns and
Burroughs, and more than one thousand Villages, all of them exceedingly
populous, and suppos’d to contain in the whole above a Million and half
of Natives, besides _Spaniards_, who have some few Colonies in the
Countrey for securing of it.

[Sidenote: Towns and Villages.]

The chief Towns of the Province are 1. _Tlascalla_ it self, which
denominates the whole Countrey as the Metropolis, and where the Bishop’s
See was at first, till in the Year 1550. it was remov’d to _Puebla de
los Angelos_. It is a fair Town, and commodiously seated in the midst of
a large and fertile Champain of threescore Miles in compass. It
consisteth of four large and beautiful Streets or Quarters, and in the
midst of them where they all meet, hath a _Piazza_, or Market-place,
equal to that of _Mexico_, and able to receive twenty or thirty thousand
Persons conveniently, to Buy and Sell in it; and whose Shambles seldom
shew less than fifteen thousand Sheep, four thousand Oxen, and two
thousand Hogs.

2. _Puebla de los Angelos_, or _The City of Angels_, a Town built by
_Sebastian Ramirez_, a Church-man, and he that was the first President,
or chief Governor of _Mexico_, under the Crown of _Castile_. It was
built in the Year 1531. almost in the Road-way from _Vera Crux_ to
_Mexico_, and seated in a very delicate and fertile Countrey, and of a
good Air. It is a Bishop’s See, and valu’d at twenty thousand _Ducats_
of yearly Rent, the City it self suppos’d to contain about fifteen
hundred Families; where there is abundance of excellent Cloth made, and
for fineness not yielding to the best of _Spain_. Its chief Edifices
are, the Cathedral and four stately Cloysters, belonging to the
_Dominicans_, _Franciscans_, _Augustines_, and _Capuchins_; as also a
Free-School for five hundred _Indian_ Children, endow’d by _Ramirez_
with a yearly Revenue.

3. _Zempoallan_, seated upon a River of the same Name.

4. _Napalaca_, in the Valley _Ocumba_, ows its original to an _Indian_
call’d _Juan_, who at first had onely one House, and a Herd of Hogs
there, till upon his invitation, all the neighboring People came from
the tops of the Hills; insomuch, that in a short time, the place was
Peopled by thousands of Families.

5. _Guaxacingo_, all hitherto great and ancient Towns of the Natives.

6. _Segura de la Frontera_, a _Spanish_ Town, built by _Cortez_
presently upon the Conquest of _Mexico_, for the securing of the
Confines, as the Name importeth.

7. _Vera Crux_, a Town built by _Cortez_ and his Companions, at their
first Landing, and where afterwards, by a Stratagem, and out of a
resolution either to Conquer or Die in the Countrey, he caus’d all his
Ships to be burnt, that his Soldiers might not so much as think of
returning back from whence they came. The Town was at first built five
or six Leagues up within Land; but the place being found not to be so
healthful, the Inhabitants in a short time deserted it, and seated
themselves upon a Bay of the Sea, right over against _St. John D’
Ullua_.

8. _Medellin_, another _Span