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Title: Brazil and Her People of To-day
Author: Winter, Nevin O. (Nevin Otto)
Language: English
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BRAZIL AND HER PEOPLE OF TO-DAY



Works of NEVIN O. WINTER


    Mexico and Her People of To-day      $3.00

    Guatemala and Her People of To-day    3.00

    Brazil and Her People of To-day       3.00

  L. C. PAGE & COMPANY
  53 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass.



[Illustration: PICKING COFFEE.

(_See page 267_)]



                               BRAZIL AND
                               HER PEOPLE
                                OF TO-DAY

                            AN ACCOUNT OF THE

                  CUSTOMS, CHARACTERISTICS, AMUSEMENTS,
                         HISTORY AND ADVANCEMENT
                 OF THE BRAZILIANS, AND THE DEVELOPMENT
                            AND RESOURCES OF
                              THEIR COUNTRY

                                   BY

                             NEVIN O. WINTER

              Author of “Mexico and Her People of To-day,”
               “Guatemala and Her People of To-day,” etc.

                 ILLUSTRATED FROM ORIGINAL AND SELECTED
                        PHOTOGRAPHS BY THE AUTHOR

                             [Illustration]

                                 BOSTON
                         L. C. PAGE AND COMPANY
                                 MDCCCCX

                           _Copyright, 1910_,
                         BY L. C. PAGE & COMPANY
                             (INCORPORATED)

                          _All rights reserved_

                    First Impression, September, 1910

                      _Electrotyped and Printed by
                           THE COLONIAL PRESS
                  C. H. Simonds & Co., Boston, U.S.A._



PREFACE


The favourable reception given by the public to the two previous books,
“Mexico and Her People of To-day” and “Guatemala and Her People of
To-day,” induced the writer to continue his studies of the Latin-American
countries and people. To this end an extensive trip was made through
several of the republics on that great continent to the south of us, and
this work is the first result of that journey. Like the previous books it
is presented as a study of the country and people from the most reliable
authorities, as well as a record of impressions. In its preparation many
books have been read and scores of people, Americans, Europeans and
Brazilians, have been consulted and interviewed. The author’s purpose has
been to present this treatise upon a neighbouring republic and study of
our fellow Americans from a broad viewpoint, and avoid the narrowness of
some writings in which everything different or unfamiliar is deemed a fit
subject for caustic criticism. With this brief explanation of the purpose
of this book, and method of its preparation, “Brazil and Her People of
To-day” is given to the public.

The author desires to acknowledge his sense of obligation to Hon. Irving
B. Dudley, Ambassador of the United States of America to the United
States of Brazil, for courtesies and favours extended to the author; to
Hon. John Barrett, Director of the International Bureau of the American
Republics for kindly words of introduction; and to the Bulletin, issued
by the Bureau, for permission to use three or four photographs as
illustrations in this book.

    TOLEDO, OHIO, August, 1910.



CONTENTS


    CHAPTER                                                           PAGE

        I. THE COUNTRY                                                   1

       II. ALONG THE COAST TO THE CAPITAL                               23

      III. THE CITY OF BEAUTIFUL VIEWS                                  48

       IV. AROUND AND ABOUT THE BAY                                     77

        V. MINAS GERAES AND MINING                                      91

       VI. A PROGRESSIVE STATE                                         109

      VII. AN AMERICAN COLONY UNDER THE SOUTHERN CROSS                 134

     VIII. THE TEMPERATE ZONE                                          142

       IX. THE AMAZON                                                  164

        X. THE PEOPLE AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS                        192

       XI. EDUCATION AND THE ARTS                                      214

      XII. RAILWAYS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT                              236

     XIII. COFFEE                                                      260

      XIV. THE LAND AND SEA FORCES                                     277

       XV. RELIGIOUS INFLUENCES                                        287

      XVI. THE EMPIRE                                                  304

     XVII. THE REPUBLIC                                                330

    XVIII. A LAND OF PROMISE                                           353

           APPENDICES                                                  371

           INDEX                                                       383



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


                                                                      PAGE

    PICKING COFFEE (_see page 267_)                          _Frontispiece_

    MAP                                                                  1

    FALLS OF IGUASSÚ                                                    10

    THE MUNICIPAL THEATRE, PERNAMBUCO                                   26

    THE BOAT LANDING, BAHIA                                             30

    RIO DE JANEIRO. LOOKING ACROSS THE BAY AT SUGAR LOAF                41

    THE PAULO AFFONSO FALLS                                             46

    AVENIDA CENTRAL, RIO DE JANEIRO                                     53

    ONE OF THE BENDS OF THE BEIRA MAR, RIO DE JANEIRO                   55

    THE LANDING AT RIO DE JANEIRO                                       57

    CARIGADORES MOVING A PIANO                                          65

    THE TREASURY BUILDING, RIO DE JANEIRO                               67

    THE CITY HALL, RIO DE JANEIRO                                       69

    THE “WHITE HOUSE” OF BRAZIL                                         71

    CLUSTER OF BAMBOOS IN THE JARDIM BOTANICO                           83

    AN OX TEAM OF MINAS GERAES                                          92

    RUA DIREITA, SÃO PAULO                                             114

    BUZZARDS AT THE MARKET, SÃO PAULO                                  116

    THE YPIRANGA                                                       118

    GENERAL VIEW OF THE IMMIGRANT STATION AT SÃO PAULO                 120

    THE PICTURESQUE FAZENDA DA LAPA AT CAMPINAS                        126

    “MONTE ALEGRE” FAZENDA                                             129

    A RUBBER PLANTATION OF MANIÇOBA RUBBER TREES                       133

    VIEW IN VILLA AMERICANA                                            136

    A BRAZILIAN FRUIT MARKET. MELONS FROM VILLA AMERICANA              138

    LOADING COFFEE AT SANTOS DOCKS                                     145

    CUTTING RICE WITH AN AMERICAN HARVESTER                            146

    SELLING CATTLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL                                156

    VIEW OF PORTO ALEGRE                                               159

    A SCENE ON THE AMAZON NEAR ITS MOUTH                               174

    A NEW SETTLER IN THE JUNGLE                                        189

    NEGROES IN BRAZIL                                                  195

    LABOURERS’ HOMES ON A PLANTATION                                   201

    THE FIFTEENTH OF NOVEMBER IN SÃO PAULO                             212

    A SCHOOL FOR BOYS IN SÃO PAULO                                     216

    A SCHOOL FOR GIRLS IN SÃO PAULO                                    219

    STUDENTS AT THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, PIRACICABA                   225

    THE MUNICIPAL THEATRE, RIO DE JANEIRO                              233

    THE MUNICIPAL THEATRE, SÃO PAULO                                   234

    THE SÃO PAULO RAILWAY, NEAR SANTOS                                 256

    DRYING COFFEE                                                      268

    CHURCH AT NICTHEROY                                                295

    THE BEAUTIFUL CHURCH AT JUIZ DE FORA. A SHRINE ON TOP OF THE
      MOUNTAIN                                                         299

    A TYPICAL BRAZILIAN STREET                                         308

    A MUD AND THATCH COTTAGE                                           316

    A GENERAL VIEW OF BAHIA                                            323

    A RURAL HOME                                                       330

    A BRAZILIAN CRUISER                                                342

    A FARMER’S HOME                                                    353



BRAZIL AND HER PEOPLE OF TO-DAY



CHAPTER I

THE COUNTRY


“Norte-Americano,” politely suggested a Brazilian to me in the course of
a conversation, and I accepted the correction.

“We also are _Americanos_,” he continued. After that I was very careful
to make the distinction, although in an unguarded moment it would
sometimes appear. “_Ingles_” or “_Norte-Americano_,” would sometimes be
asked, although the most of the Brazilians can spot the “_Yanqui_,” as he
is called with all due respect. It is said that our former Secretary of
State, during his circular tour around South America, was very careful in
all his speeches to call himself a North American, and this one little
distinction aided in increasing his popularity. It is often the delicate
little recognition that pleases these Latin people, who are themselves
full of flattery and compliments. It is time for the people of the United
States, especially as they are now entering upon an era of commercial
conquest, to recognize that these people of the great continent south
of us are just as much entitled to the use of that term, of which they
are likewise proud, as we ourselves are; that though these people are
Brazilians, Argentinians, Chileans, etc., they consider themselves first
and foremost as Americans, in order to distinguish themselves from
Europeans, Asiatics and Africans. We can say to them: “We are North
Americans, you are South Americans; but we are all Americans, and proud
of our homes in this great, glorious and promising continent.”

The vastness of Brazil is not fully realized. The geographical maps
of South America are usually drawn on a smaller scale than those of
the United States, so it is not generally known that the United States
of Brazil are larger than the United States of America, exclusive of
Alaska and the island possessions. From the most northerly point to the
extreme southerly boundary is a distance of two thousand six hundred and
seventy-five miles. For the sake of comparison one might say that if
our own Atlantic coast line was prolonged in the same way it would reach
from the southernmost extremity of Florida to the Hudson Bay region of
upper Canada. It extends from four degrees twenty minutes North Latitude
to thirty-three degrees forty-five minutes South, or thirty-eight degrees
in all. The last ten degrees are below the Tropic of Capricorn and in
the temperate zone. From a point near the city of Recife, or Pernambuco,
to the most westerly point, is a distance of two thousand seven hundred
and twenty-nine miles. From there the country to the south narrows
continuously, until it is but a few hundred miles wide in the state of
Rio Grande do Sul. A line drawn west from near the city of Bahia, or
São Salvador, would give about the medium width. Rio de Janeiro is in
longitude nearly half-way across the Atlantic from New York to London,
while the easternmost land, Cape San Roque, is still seven hundred miles
farther to the east. Within these confines is a territory of three
million three hundred and thirty-two thousand seven hundred and thirty
square miles, according to the best estimates, and this makes it the
fifth country in the world, being exceeded in extent only by China, the
British Empire, the United States of America and Russia.

On the South American continent Brazil easily ranks first, as it
occupies almost one-half of the entire surface of the continent, and is
three times as extensive as its next largest neighbour, the Argentine
Republic. The other republics of South America follow in the following
order: Colombia, Bolivia, Peru, Venezuela, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay and
Uruguay. The frontiers of this immense republic join those of all the
other republics, except Chile, and also touch the borders of British,
French and Dutch Guiana, the only foreign possessions on the mainland of
this great continent. With one or two little exceptions the boundaries
have now been settled by arbitration, so that the future will probably
make little change in the limits as now outlined. It is shut off from
communication with the Pacific coast by the lofty Andes, and that at
least partly accounts for the lack of development in the western part of
Brazil. In all, Brazil’s coast line amounts to about four thousand miles,
all of which is on the Atlantic, and this includes nearly two-thirds of
her entire boundary line. It would take a fifteen knot steamer ten days
of continuous steaming to travel along this entire coast.

It was a surprise to me to find that it is next to impossible, except
in the basin of the Amazon, to get away from the mountains. Hill and
valley alternate everywhere, rarely rising to great heights, however,
except along the coast, and seldom sinking into great crevasses or
cañons. The highest mountain in Brazil, Itatiaia, between Rio de Janeiro
and São Paulo, has an altitude of only nine thousand eight hundred and
twenty-three feet, while the extreme height of the peaks in most of the
ranges seldom exceeds four thousand five hundred feet. The highest range
is in general confined to a belt, or chain of mountains, which follows
the Atlantic shore, lying at the most but a few miles from the coast, and
at times reaching clear to the water’s edge, which is known as the Serro
da Mar. This range runs from Pernambuco to the borders of Uruguay, so
that the coast, wherever seen from the sea, presents only an outline of
mountains and serrated peaks, although at the extreme south they scarcely
exceed the dignity of hills. The rise from the water’s edge is frequently
very abrupt, and this has made the problem of railroad construction
from the seaports to the interior a difficult as well as expensive
proposition.

The broadest plains are probably in the states of Paraná and Rio Grande
do Sul, where they assume the appearance of pampas, and it is on
those plains that the stock-raising industry has assumed its greatest
proportions. Much of the states of Matto Grosso and Amazonas has been
practically unexplored, so that the maps of those regions are, for the
most part, guesswork, made up from the reports of travellers and amateur
scientists, who have written reports of their travels through them. On
the government maps one will find the outlines of rivers which are many
miles away from the location given them, and the names of towns will
appear in the heavy type given only to places of great importance; and
yet, if any settlement exists at all at that point, it consists only of
a few huts or a little Indian village. Although travellers have visited
those sections, the land is untouched by the hand of man, and as virgin
as our own western prairies were a half century ago. This land is mostly
claimed by families who have never set foot upon it, and yet it has been
the cause of deadly feuds among rival claimants; some basing their title
upon ancient Portuguese grants, and others upon more recent ones by the
republic. There are no roads that can be utilized by commerce, and only
the waterways exist to give access to the outside world.

Brazil is a land of great water-courses. It not only has within its
borders the greatest river in the world, but it also possesses several
rivers which form the chief tributaries of the Rio de la Plata, another
of the most extensive fluvial systems in the world. Because of the coast
range of mountains nearly all of the water, even from within a few miles
of the Atlantic coast, runs hundreds and even thousands of miles north to
the Amazon, or south to the La Plata, before finally reaching the ocean.
The great amount of the rainfall has made these streams numerous, as well
as very broad, as they near their outlet. Between the sources of the two
great systems there intervene but two short leagues of swampy ground,
which are the common source of the Amazon and the La Plata, the “river of
silver,” as it is named. The basin of the Amazon is larger than the basin
of the Mississippi, the Missouri and many others together. It is as large
as two-thirds of our own great land. The amount of water discharged
is almost incredible. For hundreds of miles from its mouth the depth
sometimes reaches one hundred and fifty feet, and in no place in the
channel is it less than sixty feet. Its mouth is wider than the entire
length of the lordly Hudson. Ocean steamers run between Iquitos, two
thousand five hundred miles from its mouth, and European ports, as well
as New York; and many of its tributaries, such as the Madeira and Negro,
are mighty rivers in themselves. The Paraná, with its wonderful cascades,
and the Uruguay, have their origin in Brazil, and the Paraguay drains
many thousands of square miles of her territory. These three rivers
form the principal sources of the Rio de la Plata, which carries to the
Atlantic Ocean a volume of water exceeded by few rivers in the world.

On the western side of the Atlantic ridge the country forms a series of
ridges, or plateaus, making, as some one has characterized it, a colossal
stairway. These sudden drops make many fine waterfalls as the waters rush
onward toward the Paraná River. The states of São Paulo and Paraná are
especially rich in these cascades and rapids, and thus furnish unlimited
water power awaiting development. They are no less interesting to the
tourist, for nothing in nature is more interesting or fascinating than
a fine waterfall, where the waters rush headlong in their precipitous
course. The Tieté River alone furnishes many of those cascades, one of
them, the Itapura, having a height of forty-four feet. Another is the
Urubuhunga, near the former, the water passing over the two being of
great volume.

All of these waterfalls, however, are overshadowed by the wonderful falls
of the Iguassú, situated on the river of the same name, near its junction
with the Paraná River, and on the borders between the republics of Brazil
and Argentina. A dozen miles away the smoking columns of mist which crown
the falls are plainly visible, and its thunderous roar may sometimes
be heard for twenty miles. As one approaches nearer, the mist is more
plainly seen and the roar of the waters is heard. The first view of these
magnificent falls in their solitary grandeur is inspiring. They have the
same general shape as Niagara, and are fifty feet higher. The entire
falls are more than two miles in width, with a number of islands dividing
the cataract. This may be divided into two sections, the Brazilian and
Argentine falls. The head falls are on the Brazilian side and occur on
an acute horseshoe bend, somewhat similar to that at Niagara, which is
caused by the unequal erosion. Below the falls are depths which a hundred
fathom line has failed to sound, and the natives call them bottomless.
There is a triple leap of three hundred and twenty feet, the last one
alone being a drop of two hundred and thirteen feet over sheer precipices
of dark rock. At the present time it is difficult of access, because it
is reached by ascending the Rio de la Plata and Paraná River, a journey
of almost two weeks, or by a several days’ journey overland from Ponta
Grossa, in the state of Paraná. Some day, when the means of communication
become better, it will no doubt be visited by thousands of people each
season. It still remains in all its primitive beauty, for the hand of man
has as yet done nothing to detract from or add to what nature herself
created. It is like another Niagara set out in the midst of a wilderness,
with dense lines of waving bamboo or other trees marking the boundaries
of the stream. Like Tennyson’s _Brook_, the Iguassú might say:

    “For men may come and men may go,
      But I go on forever.”

[Illustration: FALLS OF IGUASSÚ.]

Above these falls on the Paraná are the wonderful Guayra falls, one
hundred and twenty-five miles above the junction with the Iguassú; and
four hundred miles still farther up are the Uberaponga falls, with many
smaller cataracts intervening. Below Guayra cataract the current piles
up in the centre with a corkscrew action, and then dives down again into
midstream. It returns to the surface in eddies which leap up twelve or
fifteen feet in the air, making, as one scientific investigator terms it,
“rapids with which the whirlpool rapids of Niagara are a quiet duckpond
in comparison.” One is lost in considering this frantic water power here
awaiting the harnessing by man.

Of the climate of Brazil much has been said in a disparaging way. It
has been classed as a tropical country, and therefore subject to all
the ills supposed to be connected with such a climate. And yet the
climate is so varied that the subject can not be dismissed in a single
paragraph. It is hot in places, but even in Rio de Janeiro the evenings
are generally very pleasant and comfortable, the thermometer usually
going down to about sixty degrees Fahrenheit. At least one can always
find it so by establishing his home a few hundred feet above the sea
level, on one of the adjacent hills. I doubt if the people of Rio suffer
from the oppressively hot nights as much as New Yorkers or Chicagoans,
and I was there in December, supposed to be one of the hottest months.
Fifteen hundred to two thousand feet above the sea level the climate is
really delightful, and one need not pity the people who dwell there. Some
one has said that the whole country might be compared to a beautiful
Tennessee, without the rigours of winter. Along the Amazon it is hot and
humid, and yet I have met Englishmen who had lived in Manaos and Pará
for years, and who sighed to go back to those places because they loved
the climate. In the southern states of Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul the
climate is about the same as Argentina, which is regarded as temperate.

There is plenty of rainfall everywhere except in two or three states,
almost underneath the equator. On the Atlantic coast it ranges from one
hundred to two hundred inches annually. Along the Amazon it is much
greater, and on the inland plateaus it will probably average seventy-five
inches per year. Thus, in the vast area of Brazil, almost every variety
of climate will be found, except the extreme cold, which is absent. It
used to be thought that people could not live so near the equator, but
proper hygiene takes away all danger of the so-called tropical diseases,
so dreaded by most people from colder climes.

As one writer has well said: “Diseases in cold climates are always looked
upon as calamities quite independent of climatic conditions; even if
ignorant of their causes, pathologists always had an explanation ready.
In the case of warm countries, it is otherwise. Without any further
inquiry the climate has been blamed as the enemy. The European nations
drew around themselves sanitary cordons of quarantine and disinfection
against cholera, yellow fever and plague, and for a long time never
thought of going right to the source of trouble and improving sanitary
conditions in the countries where these diseases had their origin.”

It has really been a base libel upon these countries to blame everything
upon the climate and climatic conditions. The heat and humidity may
make some diseases more fatal, but at the same time they seem to act
as preventative to others which are far more fatal in colder climates.
The United States taught the world this lesson at Havana and in Panama,
and it has been a valuable one for the world. Brazil has wakened up
to this necessity, and now Santos, Bahia, and other cities, as well as
the capital, have followed a cleaning-up policy that has brought the
death-rate down to where it will compare favourably with other cities of
the world.

The United States of Brazil is a republic very much like the United
States of America in form. Its constitution is modelled after that
of the United States, a Portuguese translation of which was made for
them. It differs, however, in some respects. A president, for instance,
is ineligible to succeed himself; and even a vice-president, who has
succeeded to the presidency, can not be a candidate for that office
without a term intervening. The power of the national government is
less than that of our own, and the state has greater importance. This
condition was made almost necessary in the formation of the republic
in order to gain the adherence of many of the states, as they aimed to
get as far away from the centralization idea as possible. The great
distances separating them likewise, and slow communication between them,
has encouraged these differences. In many respects the state governments
are too powerful, and the national government too weak. Each state has
its own army, although in a measure subject to the national government,
but this local militia is more loyal to the state than the national
government. The unoccupied land is the property of the various states,
instead of the national government as with us, and this has contributed
in making the state governments of unusual importance.

The republic is composed of twenty states, one territory and the Federal
District, in which is situated the national capital. The states are very
uneven in size, the largest being Amazonas, with more than a million
square miles of territory, one-third of the whole, and Sergipe having
only about twenty-five thousand square miles. Out of the total population
of about eighteen million, more than one-fifth live in the state of
Minas Geraes, while the great state of Amazonas contains only about
one person for each five square miles of territory. The state of Matto
Grosso, second in size and also colossal, has even a smaller ratio of
population, according to the statistics, which are probably not very
accurate on these little known states. São Paulo has heretofore been the
most powerful state, and Rio Grande do Sul has had the most checkered
history, for its German inhabitants have not always been in harmony or
sympathy with the Latins, who predominate in the other states, and they
have maintained several uprisings on their own account.

The republic was established on the 15th of November, 1889, and there
have been six presidents elected. The term of office is four years.
A vice-president is elected who serves in the event of the death or
incapacity of the President; the present President having succeeded
to the office on the death of Dr. Affonso Augusto Moreira Penna, in
June, 1909. The National Assembly is composed of a Senate and House
of Deputies. Each state and the federal capital are entitled to three
senators who serve for nine years, and a deputy is allowed for each
seventy thousand inhabitants, with a minimum of four for any state. The
congress now consists of sixty-three senators and two hundred and fifteen
deputies, one-third of the former being elected every three years. Each
state has its own president, congress, cabinet and other officials,
almost identical with the federal officials. The qualifications for
suffrage are quite generous; but only a small proportion of those
qualified actually vote at the elections, which are always held on
Sunday, and generally in the churches. It is safe to say that on
those days the religious services do not claim much attention. There
is generally a clique, or oligarchy, in each state, which dominates
political affairs. These men absolutely dictate the matters of the state
and represent the affairs of that state in national politics. Corruption
is quite a common thing, but that the farther up one goes the less of it
is to be found is my belief. The several presidential administrations
have been good, but many of the municipal administrations have followed
crooked paths openly.

“_Ordem e Progreso_,” order and progress, is the motto of the Republic
of Brazil. The flag consists of a green rectangle, representing the
vegetable kingdom, with a diamond-shaped yellow block in the centre,
representing the mineral wealth. In the centre is a blue circle, which
corresponds with the blue of the skies, with the above motto across it.
Within the blue circle are twenty-one stars, representing the twenty
states and federal district, five of which are grouped to represent the
constellation of the Southern Cross. The coat of arms contains the same
colours and emblems arranged in an artistic design, and with some other
insignia added.

The developed part of Brazil is only a small part of the whole country.
It constitutes a fringe along the Atlantic coast, and bears about the
same relation to the whole country as the original thirteen states do to
the United States as at present constituted. There are few large cities,
but numerous small towns of from five to twenty thousand, and many
villages are scattered over the land. No part is overpopulated, the most
densely populated being the states of Alagoas and Rio de Janeiro, with
an average of perhaps twenty-three to the square mile, and there is no
danger of even those states being overpopulated for some time yet. In a
land where all the year around is a growing season this is a very small
population, even considering the mountainous character of most of the
country. If peopled as densely as France, Brazil would have a population
of not less than three hundred and twenty million. It is almost purely
an agricultural country, although some advancement has been made in
manufactures through government encouragement and high customs duties.
Especially has this been true in cotton goods, and there are many small
factories of these textiles scattered over the land, most of them run
by the water power which is so abundant in most sections. Some other
factories have been started through concessions being granted, but by far
the greatest part of the goods used are imported from the manufacturing
nations of the world. This governmental assistance causes many of the
factories to feel that to some extent they are government enterprises.
The same policy has been followed with railroads of guaranteeing returns
instead of making grants of lands, which would be an incentive to the
railroad to aid in development. The São Paulo-Rio Grande Railway is one
exception to this rule, and it is prospering. The Central Railroad, which
has over a thousand miles of main track, is owned and operated as a
government institution, and this method has not been a success any more
than the Lloyd Brazilian line of national steamers. Money goes in from
all sources, but the government treasury is compelled every year to make
up deficits.

Brazil was discovered in the year 1500 by the Portuguese navigator
Pedro Alvares Cabral, who took possession of it in the name of his
sovereign. It was first named Terra de Santa Cruz, the Land of the Holy
Cross, but the name was changed to that of the dyewood which had been
in use before. The French soon after began to trade with the natives,
but they were driven off by the Portuguese. The Huguenots of the country
likewise attempted to establish a free religious colony at what is now
Rio de Janeiro, but this attempt was also frustrated, and Rio did not
become an important place until the middle of the eighteenth century. The
Jesuits sought to make a religious settlement out of São Paulo, but the
energetic “Paulistas” rose in their might and drove them into the Spanish
territories.

The Portuguese began to colonize the country, and established a number of
settlements along the coast. Pernambuco was founded in 1526 and Bahia in
1549, as compared with New York in 1614 and Boston in 1621. The country
was divided into fifteen capitancias, each with fifty leagues of coast,
and stretching inland in parallel lines to the westernmost limits of the
country. These were granted by the king to Portuguese nobles. Numerous
struggles took place with the Spaniards, who tried to seize all of South
America, and were in actual control of nearly all of the rest of the
South American coast. The political outline was finally determined by
natural configurations. The Portuguese kept in control of the district
penetrated by the Amazon and its tributaries, as far as they were
navigable, and the Spaniards got control as far as the Rio de la Plata
was navigable on the south; and between these two boundaries the land
was kept in the hands of the Portuguese. Where navigation was impeded on
the Paraguay, Paraná and Uruguay Rivers, there Spanish domination ended.
On the remainder of the coast the Spaniards maintained their supremacy,
except the small Dutch, French and English settlements in Guiana. It
speaks well for the indomitable perseverance of a small country like
Portugal that they acquired and maintained for three centuries such a
vast empire, when the mother country is smaller than one island at the
mouth of the Amazon.

When King John brought his court over to Brazil, in 1809, a national
spirit was engendered. After he returned to Portugal, it was not long
until an independent spirit arose and revolution was in the air. Then
came a new-world empire, during which the Dom Pedros, I and II, reigned.
Each was expelled from the country; the first with rejoicing, the
second with sadness, and, perhaps, many a tear. When one considers that
the republic only reaches its majority in this year of 1910, and that
slavery was abolished only twenty-two years ago, both of these changes
being accomplished without bloodshed, the progress of the country can be
better understood, and many of its shortcomings more easily overlooked.
Furthermore the early advance of the country was stunted by the lust for
gold of the first Portuguese colonists. Everything was sacrificed to
immediate results, in order that they might return to the homeland and
live in luxury. It was different from the motive that influenced either
Puritan or Cavalier in our own land, for they sought liberty. The evil
effects of this early exploitation have been felt during the intervening
centuries, not alone in Brazil, but throughout all of South America.



CHAPTER II

ALONG THE COAST TO THE CAPITAL


It is a delightful journey of a little more than two weeks from New York
to the capital of Brazil. In a little more than twenty-four hours after
leaving that metropolis, even in the middle of the winter, the vessel
is ploughing through balmy seas, and the passengers are sitting on the
spacious decks of the comfortable steamers with all wraps discarded.
As the route of these steamers is east of that of vessels bound for
the Caribbean seas, few boats are sighted, and day after day is passed
without the sight of a sail. For thirteen days our ship, the _Vasari_,
sailed through stormless waters, with only one full-rigged schooner
coming within our horizon, and no land to be seen.

It was not until near the equator that even a rain storm clouded the
skies, and then fleeting showers chased each other across the skies,
and peals of thunder and flashes of lightning occasionally created a
diversion. The sunsets were wonderful. As evening approached, dark
clouds seemed to gather near the horizon; the sun slowly approached them,
and then dropped suddenly out of sight. Streaks of red and crimson,
silver and gold shot out, and these diffused and melted into each other
with the constant variations of the kaleidoscope. The contrast of bright
hues with the dark, ominous-looking clouds was striking. There was no
twilight, and darkness immediately followed. It was the time of the full
moon also. Just a little while after the setting of the sun the moon
would rise on the opposite side of the boat. An immense and luminous ball
the Queen of the Night appeared, and rapidly climbed up over the bank of
clouds; and then, as it dwindled in size, it increased in brilliancy,
until the dancing waves were covered with a silvery sheen. Never have I
seen such beautiful scenes as we witnessed for several nights when near
the equatorial line.

Watches were changed each day since we were constantly travelling
eastward, as one will see by consulting a map. New York is situated in
longitude seventy-four degrees west, while the easternmost coast of
Brazil is in longitude thirty-five degrees west. At last the sandy
shores of Rio Grande do Norte are sighted, and the vessel rounds Cape San
Roque. Far out at sea little sails appear in considerable numbers, and
when near enough to see them it is found that they are simply rafts made
of logs fastened together. These are the “catamaran” fishing boats, from
the port of Pernambuco. The adventurous boatmen will sometimes venture
out a hundred miles to sea in these simple and frail-looking crafts, and
they are seldom lost.

Pernambuco, or Recife, is the first port at which the transatlantic
steamers stop, and it is either here, or at Bahia, that the American
traveller down the east coast first sets his foot on Brazilian soil. It
is the second city of importance in northeastern Brazil, and the state
of Pernambuco, of which it is the capital, is second in importance only
to Bahia. Recife is nearer to Europe than any other South American port,
and it is usually made the first port of call by the many steamers which
ply to that continent. A coral reef extends along the shore, and at a
distance of a few hundred feet from it, thus making a natural harbour for
vessels that are not of too deep draught; and it is this reef that gives
the name to the city, for Recife means a reef. It is a natural wall
rising straight up out of the water, on the top of which has been built
a low wall of stone. At high tide this wall is generally high enough to
keep out the sea. Recife is a busy port and a great shipping port for
sugar, as that is the particular product of this state. The influence of
the early Dutch colonists here can still be traced in the old buildings.
One finds in travelling through Brazil that each state has only one
principal production, which supports the people, and the export tax on
which provides the government with funds. At one time this state had a
monopoly in sugar production and Pernambuco sugar was known the world
over.

[Illustration: THE MUNICIPAL THEATRE, PERNAMBUCO.]

Recife is divided into three parts by streams of water or lagoons, and
there are many bridges connecting the various parts. In fact it is cut
up so much by these arms of the ocean that it has been called the South
American Venice. The city is fifth in size in the republic, and is quite
a pretty little city with plazas and parks after the usual style. In the
oldest part of the city the streets are narrow and crooked, but on the
other and larger peninsula, the blocks of houses are larger, the streets
wider, and there are some good stores as well as tram cars. The colour
of the inhabitants is rather marked, but there is, possibly, not so large
a percentage of the negro element as in the larger city lower down on the
coast.

The state of Pernambuco is a state about the size of Ohio, and one of
the important states in the republic. Its population exceeds the million
mark. Because of its large black population, many of whom were formerly
slaves, education has not advanced here as much as in a number of the
states farther south. Its commerce is considerable, with sugar as the
leading item. Cotton is also an important production. At the port one can
see cotton coming in on wagons, ox-carts, the backs of mules and even on
the black shoulders of the inhabitants. The coast-line of Pernambuco is
only a little over a hundred miles in length, but the state runs inland
for several hundred miles.

It will probably be surprising to many people to know that the whaling
industry is quite an important one along this coast, for this sport is
supposed to be confined to polar waters. And yet I have personally seen
whales on the western coast of South America almost as far north as the
equator. On this coast they are caught up to within twelve degrees of
the line. Along the coast of Bahia there are several whaling stations,
most of which are in the vicinity of the city of Bahia. As soon as the
Antarctic winter sets in, the whales begin to migrate northward and reach
these waters in May. From then until November the whaling boats may be
seen at any time out on the Atlantic with all sails set, looking for a
“blow,” which marks the presence of the game. Passengers on the steamers
also watch for the same signs, as it is a novel sight to those making
their first trip, and the older travellers are also looking for any
diversion.

The whales caught are full of blubber, but the whalebone in the jaws of
the variety found here is too short to have much commercial value. The
whales generally average from thirty to fifty feet in length, but catches
are sometimes made of these marine monsters that will reach sixty feet
long. The longest one of which any record has been made was seventy feet
from its nose to the end of its tail, and yielded nearly six thousand
quarts of oil. The meat is also considered quite a delicacy by many of
the Bahians, who devour it eagerly. The methods pursued by the whaler are
primitive, and more than half the whales once harpooned finally escape.
And yet with all this primitiveness, the average annual catch is from
three to four hundred whales, which is not such a bad record.

A day’s run brings the traveller to the most important city in Brazil
north of Rio de Janeiro. It is situated on a bay which is generally
classed as one of the fine harbours of the world. When Americus Vespucius
entered this beautiful and commodious harbour with a fleet, he named it
Bahia da Todos os Santos, the Bay of All Saints, in honour of the feast
day on which it was first seen. When this discovery was reported to the
King of Portugal, he sent out an expedition with instructions to build
a city “strong enough not only to keep the natives in awe, but also to
resist the attack of any more formidable army.” The present city was
founded in 1549, so that the city has outgrown its swaddling clothes
long ago. It has also been a city of importance, as it was for almost
two centuries the seat of colonial power, and the residence of the
Governor-General representing the Crown. The city was originally named
São Salvador, and should be called that to-day, but the name of the state
clings to the capital as well.

The bay up which the vessel sails to its anchorage has sheltered many and
strange craft during the past four centuries since its first discovery.
It is a magnificent expanse of water, completely sheltered from the open
sea, and large enough to contain all the navies of the world, for it is
from ten to twenty miles wide and twenty-seven miles in length. There are
no docks, and the boat generally anchors about half a mile from shore.
As soon as the port officer has visited the ship, a gang of bandits in
the form of men of dark visage crowd around the gangway, and seek to take
the passengers ashore. It is necessary to bargain very carefully, and pay
nothing to the boatman until the round trip has been made; otherwise you
will be compelled to pay extra for your return to the ship.

The city is divided into an upper and a lower town, and is quite an
imposing place. The lower part is a narrow, sun-baked strip along the sea
front, and is devoted to the shipping and banking interests. One would
think that even they would want to get away from the foul-smelling odours
which prevail along the waterfront. As one writer has said, “there is a
distinct and separate bad smell to every house.”

[Illustration: THE BOAT LANDING, BAHIA.]

During the day this section is a busy place, but at night a funereal
quiet prevails. The upper city, or _Cidade Alta_, is reached by a long
winding road, or by means of the ascensors, or elevators, of which there
are several. The upper city is composed of broader streets, is in every
way more attractive, and the air seems much purer and sweeter than in the
lower town.

The sights are novel enough, too, especially if it is the first Brazilian
city visited. Here one will also meet with that luxuriant growth of
flowers, which are seen in every plaza and private dooryard. The public
buildings, of which there are a number, for this city is the capital of a
state as large as California, are very creditable. The governor’s palace,
the senate building, the municipal and other buildings occupy conspicuous
sites. There are many churches, of which the Cathedral is the most
interesting, and is one of the oldest buildings in the country, having
originally been built as a Jesuit college. Clubs, theatres and bathing
resorts also add a liveliness to life in this city. Bahia has always been
known for its noted names in literature, and many of the brightest men in
Brazilian arts and letters were natives of this state.

The bright hues of the buildings add a brilliance of colour to the city
which some one has described as “mashed rainbows.” There are vivid
yellow, green, purple, sky blue, terra-cotta and many other equally
striking shades. Many of the buildings are covered with porcelain tiles,
which render them very attractive. Some of the windows are ornamented
with a lace work of wrought iron, and occasionally the decoration over
the doors is of the same metal, which is said to be of negro designing.
Some of these houses date back to colonial times, but others have more
cosmopolitan characteristics. The fronts of the yards are ornamented with
flowering trees and shrubs that harmonize (in some instances) with the
bright colours adorning the plaster covering of the adobe brick, which
is the basis of construction used here. Most of the houses are only
one story, although two stories are fairly common, and occasionally a
sky-scraper three stories in height may be encountered.

There is one thing that will impress itself upon the traveller, and that
is the colour of its inhabitants, for it is said that Bahia has a greater
proportion of negroes than any other Brazilian city, but it would be a
close race between that city and Pernambuco. One might think that he had
stepped into one of our southern states, except for the fact that none
of the kinky-haired inhabitants speak English. All of them jabber in the
guttural Portuguese. Everywhere one goes there are negroes, and negroes
of every hue from the aboriginal blackness to a chocolate brown and
saffron yellow. I counted fifty people as they passed by me on one of the
principal streets. Of this number forty-five were decidedly black, three
were surely white, and the remaining two I was not certain about. At the
same time a fellow-traveller counted thirty-five on the other side of the
street, and said that he was sure of only two white people out of that
number. This was about the middle of the day, when the white people were
probably taking their siesta, and the proportion would not hold good over
the whole city. It is certain, however, as statistics show, that at least
eighty per cent. of the population have a sprinkling of negro blood in
their veins. And yet, with all this preponderance of blacks, the attempt
of the United States to appoint a negro consul at this port almost raised
a tropical hurricane just a few years ago.

The shade of black does not mean social ostracism, and one will find
white and black side by side in every social circle. Along the docks, and
in the markets, one may see the negro men bearing heavy burdens on their
heads, after the manner of Mexican cargadors, while the women sit around
with a few articles for sale, and smoke huge, black cigars while waiting
for prospective customers. The women also have that peculiar stride,
which is characteristic of those who are accustomed to carry loads upon
their heads. Some of the negro women are monstrous in size, and weigh
from two hundred to two hundred and fifty pounds. Their dress, which
consists of a long, white sleeveless chemise cut low in the neck, is so
simple that it is easy to see that no padding is used. Nearly all wear
white, or brightly coloured turbans, some wear shawls folded across the
shoulders, and all are either barefooted or wear a heelless slipper.

The shacks made of lumps of clay thrust between slats like lath, and
roofed with thatch, which one may find on the edge of the city, are the
homes of many of these improvident blacks. In this climate there is
no need to lay up for to-morrow, and children are not expensive, for
clothing is not needed until several years after they become members
of the family. Some of the poor babies may wear a simple coin or chain
around the neck, but that will be all, except perhaps the innocent
smile of childhood. And yet most of these negroes seemed to be busy
at something, although the wages earned are no doubt very small. They
impressed me as being rather superior in type to many of our negroes,
such as one may find in some parts of Mississippi or Alabama.

It is not good policy for a white man to appear on the street without
a coat, as he will lay himself liable to insult by the negroes. One of
the men from the steamer took off his coat and carried it on his arm. A
white man warned him, but he did not understand the language. It was not
long until some negroes began to throw things at him. As soon as he put
his coat on again these insults stopped. Coatless comfort on hot days is
reserved by the negroes themselves.

The breath of the tropics prevails at Bahia, as it is not far from the
equatorial line. A ride to the suburb of Rio Vermelho, which looks out
upon the sea, passes through avenues of tropical trees and past fields
of bananas. To me the palm is the most interesting tree of the tropics.
The mango with its dense foliage, the umbrella tree with its curious yet
graceful shape, and many flowering trees—all of these are beautiful; but
when I see the palm, I feel like saying with the poet:

    “I love the Palm
    With his leaves of beauty, his fruit of balm.”

Tropical fruits of many kinds grow in abundance. The Bahia oranges, which
are green in colour, have a fine flavour. The cajú is a peculiar fruit
about the size of a lemon, with the seed growing out at one end, as
though it was stuck on in some way. This fruit is sweet but astringent,
and is considered a great blood purifier. The kidney-shaped nut, when
raw, is dangerous to eat because of poisonous juice it contains; but a
roasting drives out the poisonous quality and the nut is then delicious.
The mango, which, to those who have cultivated a liking, is the most
delicious of fruits, grows to great size in Bahia, and has a most
excellent flavour. One feels like getting into a bathtub, however, after
eating one, in order to get rid of the muss made in eating it. I have
not yet learned to be fond of this tropical fruit for, like olives, the
taste is acquired, and it oftentimes requires many and repeated efforts
to cultivate a taste. There is a fruit that grows out of the side and
trunk of great trees, which much resembles an immense hedge apple, that
is peculiar to this district. It grows to an immense size, and the
natives are very fond of it. Then there are melons called the mammão,
that grow on trees, and which much resemble the cantaloupe in appearance,
but differ in flavour. This melon is said to have excellent digestive
properties because of the abundance of pepsin which it contains. All
of these, and many more novel things one will find in the markets. The
curious little marmosette monkeys, which are not much larger than a
good-sized rat, are very common. Then again, this is the home of talking
parrots, and their shrill screeches are heard from almost every doorway.

The first experience of the traveller with Brazilian money is rather
amusing. In New York I had obtained five thousand five hundred reis,
which seemed like a large sum of money, enough to pay for the whole
trip. Imagine my surprise when I found it lacked five hundred reis of
enough to pay for my first meal on shore! It cost three hundred reis
to mail a letter to the States, and a street car ride cost another four
hundred reis. My boatman cheated me out of one thousand reis without
moving an eyelid. All of these things caused me to put pencil to paper
in a little calculation. I found that I was a millionaire for the first
time in my life. At the rate of exchange then prevailing three hundred
and twenty-five dollars would buy one million reis, the money of the
country. You may feel like a millionaire when the bank clerk hands over
to you a package of bills, with thousands of reis printed all over
them; but the illusion soon vanishes when your hotel bill is presented
after a few days’ stay, for a million reis soon disappears. The reis
in an infinitesimal coin, so small that you could scarcely see it with
a magnifying glass, for one thousand of them are worth only thirty-one
cents. The milreis (one thousand reis) is used as the unit, and accounts
are thus carried in the decimal system, with the dollar mark at the end
of the thousand. Thus, one million reis, which is one thousand milreis,
or, as it is generally called, one conto, would be written 1,000$000. It
is the same as the Portuguese monetary system, although the Brazilian
milreis is only worth about half as much as that of Portugal. The money
is all paper, and the most of it is the dirtiest and filthiest money I
have ever handled. Some of the bills are so tattered, torn and greasy
that it is almost impossible for a stranger to tell what denomination
they are. The small denominations are large and awkward coins of several
different issues, and of several different sizes.

The state of Bahia is one of the larger states of Brazil, and has a coast
line of several hundred miles. It is traversed by mountains in every
direction, and that has perhaps been the cause of the tardy development
of the country through railroad construction, because of the difficulties
and expenses involved. There are a couple of railways which run inland
from Bahia, but no railroad connects it with the adjoining states. It is
always necessary to come back to the capital city, and take the steamer
again for whatever port one is bound for. The productions of the state
are varied, and a great deal of the products is exported. The tobacco
export from this port is greater than that of all the other productions
together. The leaf tobacco is exported in great quantities, but the
Bahia cigarettes and cigars have a great reputation in Brazil; and the
manufacture of them furnishes employment to thousands of the dusky-hued
Bahians. When you consider that the women aid the men in smoking, it will
be seen that the home consumption is no inconsiderable quantity.

A dusky boatman rowed me out to the vessel, just as the sun was setting
in a lurid glow behind the hills, which form the background of Bahia.
The dancing waves reflected the lurid colours of the retreating sun, and
the bright colours of the Bahia houses seemed to be borrowed from that
radiant orb. Then, as darkness fell, the electric lights were lighted
in the lower town and up on the hill; and Bahia looked like a city of
enchantment. Here and there moved streaks of light as the electric
cars dashed along; and again, similar streaks moved up and down as the
ascensors carried their loads. Rockets were going up in various parts of
the city, for some religious celebration was being held. It was amidst
such scenes that our good ship weighed anchor and we moved south, getting
farther and farther away from the fierce breath of the tropics at each
revolution of the rapidly revolving propeller.

[Illustration: RIO DE JANEIRO. LOOKING ACROSS THE BAY AT SUGAR LOAF.]

With land in sight about half the time, it was almost a three days’
journey to cover the intervening distance of seven hundred and fifty
miles to Rio de Janeiro. On the morning of the third day the passengers
were on deck early, for the capital was nearing. The sandy shores of the
mainland were visible, with their background of rugged peaks. Little
rocky islands with the surf dashing up against their jagged edges rose
out of the water, and were successively passed. Schools of fish that swam
so near to the surface, that they could be followed by the agitation
of the water which they caused, were chased by flocks of birds that
ever and anon dashed beneath the surface and came up with their prey.
As the morning fog lifted, curious forts with disappearing guns could
be outlined on the shore, and one imposing fort on a prominent peak
seemed to protect the city. Then old Sugar Loaf, which has been so much
pictured, lifted its lofty head out of the gloom, with Corcovado and the
other peaks in the background. Gradually the harbour of Rio de Janeiro,
which is said by all travellers to be one of the most beautiful, if not
the most beautiful bay in the world, unfolded itself; and back of the
blue waters of the bay were the white walls and red-tiled roofs of the
city, and above and beyond the city were the fantastic peaks of the many
oddly formed hills which form the background of this fascinating city.

There are a number of other states in this section of Brazil, each of
which deserves some mention. Between Pernambuco and Bahia lie two of
the smaller states, Alagoas and Sergipe. The former is a state almost
as large as Indiana, and is the most populous in the republic. It is a
rich agricultural state, with sugar and cotton as the principal crops.
The name, A-lagoas, means the lakes, and it is upon one of the principal
of these that the capital, Maceio, is situated. This is a pretty little
town of forty thousand or more inhabitants. The people of the state are
generally Portuguese, with more or less mixture of the native or negro
races. The two military presidents of Brazil were from this state.
Sergipe, the smallest state, is nearly twice as large as our own state
of Massachusetts, and has a population of about half a million. On the
coast it is low, hot and swampy, but in the interior the soil is higher,
and most of it very fertile. It has neither a railroad nor a good port,
so that the state is greatly handicapped in its commerce. The capital is
Aracajú, which is a pretty little tropical city of about twenty-five
thousand people. It is quite probable that Sergipe will one day be
absorbed by one of the larger states, as the financial problem is a
serious one.

Sections of each of the three states lying north of Pernambuco, Parahyba,
Rio Grande do Norte and Ceará lie within what is termed an arid belt.
This seems a very strange occurrence so near the equator. There are,
however, droughts there that last for several years, and so greatly
impoverish the people that government succour becomes necessary. When
I was in Brazil a government commission was just starting for that
section to study the question, and see what could be done to introduce
dry farming methods. Parahyba, which is a little larger than Alagoas, is
perhaps the least affected, but still its climate is generally hot and
dry. In the lowlands sugar and rice are cultivated, and in the uplands
cereals. Cotton is likewise one of the chief products, and a great many
cattle are raised in the interior. The capital city has the same name,
and is an interior town connected with the seaport, Cabedello, by rail.

Rio Grande do Norte is the most northeasterly state, and was the first
land sighted by Europeans on the shores of South America. Its area of
twenty-two thousand square miles includes much arid territory where rain
is very uncertain. Artesian wells have been tried without much success,
and dry farming seems to be the only hope, although the droughts only
come periodically. Premiums have been offered for the digging of these
wells, and the construction of dams or reservoirs. One of the chief
industries outside of agriculture is the production of salt, of which
thousands of tons are made each year from the rich saline deposits along
the northern shore. Natal is the capital and chief seaport. Although this
city is not large to-day, it is very old, having been founded in 1597.

Ceará is a progressive state despite famines which have come about every
eleven years, and at times have greatly reduced the population, for
fevers have generally followed the famines. The inhabitants are workers,
and from this state have been drawn the labourers to develop the rubber
industry. Ceará was the first state to emancipate the slaves, and in
many ways the people have shown themselves progressive. They stick to
the home land regardless of famines and droughts, and cultivate their
fields assiduously. The cacao of this state is very fine, and the cattle
industry is an important one. This state, the size of Illinois, supports
a population of nearly a million, of which about fifty thousand live in
the capital city of Fortaleza.

Piauhy is a large state about which little is known. It has a population
of less than two to the square mile, and has a coast line not exceeding
ten miles on the Atlantic. Only a very small portion of the land is
cultivated. The principal exports are a white wax, made from the scales
of a palm, and a rubber known as Maniçoba rubber. The towns are small,
the largest, Therizina, also the capital, having a population of only
twenty thousand. There is much fine timber in the state, and probably not
a saw-mill to cut it. With railroads, men of enterprise and money, Piauhy
might be developed into a great, prosperous and influential state.

About half-way between Bahia and Pernambuco is the mouth of the São
Francisco River, another of the great water-courses of Brazil. For a
thousand miles from its mouth this river is navigable for small vessels,
except for a distance of about one hundred miles, where there are some
wonderful rapids and inspiring falls. In April, when the dry season
sets in, the people from the hillsides and mountains move down to plant
their corn, beans, rice and mandioca. The freshets leave a deposit of
fine white sand, which enriches the soil. It is not necessary to break
the ground. The native makes a hole in the ground, with a sharp stick,
into which a seed is dropped and then covered. He then builds a shelter
of the palm branches and awaits the maturing of his crops. When they are
gathered he sells his surplus to the traders, and moves up again into
the hills and mountains, where he lives a life of comparative ease and
idleness until the next season.

[Illustration: THE PAULO AFFONSO FALLS.]

The principal falls of the São Francisco are called Paulo Alfonso, and
are a two days’ trip up the river from its mouth, through tropical
scenery. The average width of this river above the falls is two-thirds
of a mile, and the volume of water is great, for it drains an immense
territory. The rapids begin some distance above the falls proper. The
whirling and churning water is dashed along on its way toward the final
leap, where this immense volume of water is forced through a break in the
precipitous banks, not more than fifty feet wide. The falls are slightly
crescent shaped. As the main body of the water rushes, leaps and surges
down the steep incline of the last rapids, it is hurled against a steep
black wall with great momentum; broken into foam and spray, swishing,
swirling and churning, it then rebounds only to be pushed over the abyss
at a right angle to its original course. The waters then rush forward
for a few hundred feet, only to be hurled back by another rock wall
three hundred feet high, thus forming a whirlpool, from which it finally
escapes and passes through a narrow gorge for several miles, from which
it emerges in a little quieter mood. The total fall of the water is two
hundred and seventy feet. The view from a height of nearly one hundred
feet, as one looks down upon the final leap of one hundred and ninety
feet, is awe-inspiring. There is not only a wonderful view of the falls
from that point, but a bird’s-eye view of the rapids, and the roar of the
falls and rapids is something terrific.



CHAPTER III

THE CITY OF BEAUTIFUL VIEWS


If the capital of Argentina deserves to be called the “City of Good
Airs,” then the capital of Brazil should be termed Buenas Vistas, the
“City of Beautiful Views.” Of all the cities in the world Rio de Janeiro
best deserves to be called by that name. This is not my opinion alone,
but it is the almost unanimous verdict of this most beautiful city.
Everywhere that the eye falls, it is met with a view that is a worthy
subject for the artist’s brush. The camera fiend is kept busy “pressing
the button,” for at almost every turn there is the temptation to expose
the sensitive plate which will reproduce the scene that so appeals to the
eye. But, although the plate or film faithfully reproduces the outline
and detail of the scene, the blue of the sky and the waters of the bay,
the green of the palms, and the other trees, the colours of the flowers
which are omnipresent, and the bright and varied tints of the houses are
sadly missing in the resulting photograph. All of these are absolutely
necessary to complete the picture, which lingers in the memory of one who
has visited this second city of South America.

When the early navigators sailed up the island-studded bay, which leads
to the present site of the capital of Brazil, they thought it must surely
be the mouth of a broad river, and, as it was in the month of January,
they named it, for want of a better name, Rio de Janeiro, the River of
January, and the name has clung to the bay and settlement, which has
grown into a thriving city, during the succeeding four centuries. No
one, however, since that time has been able to discover the supposed
river which led to the name. So this city of lovely views and of romantic
history bears, and has always borne, a name which is a misnomer, but this
fact has not affected either the beauty of the scene or the development
of the city. It is simply another illustration of the saying that there
is little in a name, and a rose by any other name would smell just as
sweet. The inhabitant of the city is even called a “flumenense,” from the
word meaning a river.

The full name of Brazil’s capital is San Sebastian de Rio de Janeiro,
and its foundation dates back to the year 1566, when a landing was
effected here by a few colonists near the famous Sugar Loaf mountain.
A citadel was built on a hill now called Morro do Castillo. Near this
was next erected a church called San Sebastian, in honour of the city’s
patron saint, which ancient structure is still standing as one of the few
memorials of the remote past, and within its walls rest the remains of
the city’s founder, Estacio de Sá. There are still a few other relics of
these earlier days, but most of them have been greatly altered, and many
of them practically rebuilt.

For a couple of centuries Brazil was the seat of Portuguese power in the
new world, and it was the centre of many political struggles during the
capitancias. It pulsated with that excitement that can only be found in
Latin cities, and many a plot and counterplot has been batched within its
environs. For a while, during Napoleon’s occupancy of the throne, it was
the seat of government, for the royal family of Portugal fled to these
hospitable shores, and all the wealth, pomp, splendour and gayety of a
powerful and extravagant court was transferred to this city. This lasted
only for a short time, for Napoleon was overthrown, and the royal family
returned to the mother land. Political discontent in Brazil soon led to
the establishment of an independent empire, with the son of the reigning
monarch of Portugal as the ruler of the new nation.

Rio, for nearly every one uses the short appellation, has seen many
changes. Starting as a small settlement of adventurers, it became
successively the capital of a capitancia, a province, a kingdom, an
empire and a republic. All of the latter changes have taken place within
the last century. And yet, among all those changes, from the extreme
of capitancia to republic, there has been none which so completely
affected the appearance, and perhaps final destiny of the city, as the
metamorphosis which has taken place during the past half dozen years.
The visitor to the Rio of a decade ago, with its antiquated streets,
old-fashioned architecture and foul-smelling open-sewered public
thoroughfares, which more nearly resembled alleys than streets, would
scarcely recognize the new capital of broad avenues, clean, well-swept
pavements and the beautiful boulevard which follows the sweep of the bay
for many miles.

[Illustration: AVENIDA CENTRAL, RIO DE JANEIRO.]

The old has not been entirely displaced by the new, for the famous
Ouvidor still remains, and during all the business hours of the day is
filled with a throng of shoppers, business men and the idle who spend
their waking hours in the cafés or other resorts. It is still the great
shopping as well as gossiping street. The people spread themselves over
the sidewalk and street, for all other traffic is excluded from this
street during those hours. It still possesses some of the best stores
and the best of everything that pleases the Brazilians. Thousands of
people pass through this street each day, who come for no other purpose
than to shake hands with and talk to friends. It may be that their only
desire is to see and to be seen. The officeholder comes here to feel the
pulse of the people, and the politician tries to hold a public reception
on the sidewalk. It is likewise a cosmopolitan crowd, for one will find
not only all classes of Brazilians, but many other nationalities. Swells
with silk hats bump up against half-dressed negroes with loads on their
heads. Lottery peddlers accost you on every corner, and sometimes pester
you until it becomes an annoyance. Many of the other streets might be
recognized as they have not been changed, although the nomenclature is
different, for there has been a new set of heroes and notables, whose
names should be preserved in this public way. Nearly all of the old
names have disappeared from the signs that face the traveller on all the
corners. Even on old Ouvidor, instead of that familiar word, appears in
places the name of Moreira Cesar. Other new names are 15th of November,
7th of September, Gonçalves Diaz (the poet), etc., etc.

A few years ago the city fathers decided that they would transform the
capital and make it not only a beautiful but a more beautiful city.
Engineers and architects were employed, plans were drawn up and work was
begun on an elaborate scale, which has not been entirely completed as
yet. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of the work was the construction
of the Avenida Central through the centre of the city, from sea to sea,
and its continuation around the bay where it is called Avenida Beira Mar.
The Avenida Central starts at a section of the city called the Mauá, and
extends through the heart of the city for a mile to the Monroe Palace.
A few years ago this was a tangle of narrow, foul-smelling streets and
lanes, which the government was compelled to buy at a large figure.
Night and day forces were set at work tearing down the old buildings,
removing the débris, constructing the drainage and paving, so that the
progress made was remarkably rapid for a tropical country, or for any
country or clime. Over three thousand men were kept at work night and
day, and four hundred buildings were demolished to carry out the work.
In less than two years the change was accomplished, and now this avenue,
one hundred and five feet in width, with broad pavements made of mosaic
worked into odd designs, a row of brazil trees on each curb, and in the
centre, alternating with artistic lamp-posts, has the appearance of one
of the famous avenues of Paris. Fine new buildings have been built on
each side, many of them of really artistic design and finish. The rounded
corner has been used at the street intersections, the building line being
on a curve of a considerable radius. This adds a beauty and dignity to
the architecture of buildings that is lacking in the cities of the United
States.

[Illustration: ONE OF THE BENDS OF THE BEIRA MAR, RIO DE JANEIRO.]

The Monroe Palace, which is a reproduction of the Brazilian building at
the St. Louis Exposition, and which received a medal for its artistic
design, marks the boundary between the two avenues. The building was
completed in 1906, and the sessions of the Pan-American conference were
held in it during that year, for which it had been specially constructed.
It is a beautiful building, and stands in a location where it appears to
the very best possible advantage. Here the Beira Mar (around the sea)
begins, and it is so named because it runs between the hills and the
bay, and follows the outline of the latter. Much of it is made land,
and occupies what was at one time the favourite breeding place of the
mosquitoes which were formerly the pest of this city. Double roadways
in places, of different elevations, small parks, and the ever-varying
outline of hill and bay, the intense shades of green of the dense
vegetation, and the palms in stately rows and silhouetted against
the horizon make this avenue the most beautiful and most fascinating
boulevard in the world. I never tired of riding along the Beira Mar,
for the angle of vision is constantly changing in its many turns and
twists, and every change is only a new vision of beauty and interest.
Thus the drive leads out past the Praia da Lapa, the Praia da Russell and
the Praia da Flamengo until it ends in the horseshoe curve of Botafogo,
where the exposition of 1908 was held and the buildings of which are yet
standing. The Beira Mar is one of the favourite residence districts, and
it is lined here and there with beautiful homes. It is easy to go into
raptures over such scenes, and dull indeed is the soul that could not be
stirred by them.

[Illustration: THE LANDING AT RIO DE JANEIRO.]

Among the other streets which have been widened is the Rua Uruguayana,
which starts at the custom house and cuts across the city at right angles
to the Avenida Central. It is a broad street for a Latin city, but is not
so wide as the other. The Avenida do Mangue is a picturesque street, with
its quadruple line of stately palms which run its entire length of a mile
or more. Rio is the home of the royal palm, and you see them all over
the city. The trees are round and smooth and almost as symmetrical as if
cut by a sculptor. No avenue of marble columns can equal these furnished
by nature. The Canal do Mangue runs through the centre of the Mangue and
there are four driveways along it, two on either side of the canal, as
it is very broad. Leaving the palms and following the canal, the avenue
makes a broad sweep and leads out to the new docks which are being
constructed at great expense. Immense warehouses have been built and
great cranes erected, but they are not in use, because it is necessary
to dredge a channel before the ocean-going vessels of deep draught can
reach the docks. Work is progressing, however, and it will not be long
until it will no longer be necessary for vessels to anchor out in the
open, and for both passengers and freight to be brought ashore either in
launches or row boats. Thus will one of the annoyances as well as one of
the big items of expense at this port be eliminated. Along the line of
warehouses, and parallel with the harbour line, an avenue has been laid
out that is more than three hundred feet in width. This gives abundant
room for railroad tracks, tram tracks and driveways for both wagons and
pleasure vehicles.

There are many pretty little parks scattered over the city, each one of
which is a miniature of beauty. The Jardim do Passeio Publico, near the
Monroe Palace, is one of these. Its profusion of vegetation is such as
can only be seen in a tropical climate, where there is no destroying
frost and where a kind nature encourages growth during the entire year.
The Praça da Republica is in the very centre of the city, and is the
largest park in the city proper. It was the chief theatre of action in
the memorable events in which the country was changed from an empire to
a republic within the short period of twenty-four hours. Because of this
event the name was changed from its former name of Praça d’Acclamacão.
There are many statues, in this and all the other parks, of men who have
been famous in the country’s history. One of the most noted is that of
Dom Pedro I in the Praça Tiradentes, which represents him in the act of
shouting the watchword “Independence or death,” after he received the
message from the Portuguese Cortes at Ypiranga, just outside the city of
São Paulo. There is also a fine monument to the Duke de Caxais, one of
the heroes of the Paraguayan war, in a park which bears his name. Another
striking feature of the city is the ancient Carioca Aqueduct, which is a
monument of picturesque grandeur where its lofty arches loom up over the
comparatively low buildings. It was built more than a century and a half
ago, but still remains as solid and substantial as when first built. It
is now used by the tramway company as a part of its line which ascends
the hill leading up to the Corcovado.

There are many charitable institutions in the city for the care of
unfortunates and the amelioration of suffering. There are orphan asylums,
free clinics for the treatment of various troubles, an institution
maintained by the society formed to combat the plague of tuberculosis,
and institutions for the care of the deaf and dumb, blind and insane.
The largest hospital in Rio de Janeiro, and perhaps on South American
soil, is the Santa Casa de Misericordia, which was founded by the Sisters
of Mercy in 1545. The buildings now occupied by this noted institution
have been in use for nearly three-quarters of a century, but they have
recently been overhauled and remodelled. The buildings are in a classic
and beautiful style of architecture, as are most of the public buildings
in Brazil. It has accommodation for more than twelve hundred patients.
One of the strange and unusual features of this hospital is a revolving
wheel made for the reception of unwelcome infants. In this wheel a cradle
is so arranged that when an infant is laid on it the wheel turns around,
and the little stranger finds a welcome it did not find elsewhere. No
questions are asked, no effort is made to find out who placed the infant
in the cradle, and the babe is taken care of until it is ready to go
forth and work for itself, or has been adopted by some good family.
If this institution does nothing else, it takes away the incentive to
infanticide which prevails in many places. There is also in the city a
Strangers’ Hospital, which is mainly supported by the foreign residents
of the capital, and it is an institution that has done a great deal of
good among those who are expatriated from their homes by the exigencies
of business.

The market is always an interesting place to visit in a Latin country,
for the life to be seen there is unique. The market scenes in Rio are
not so picturesque as in the cities farther inland, but there are still
many unique scenes to be witnessed. It is situated just at one side of
the Plaza 15th of November, and on the water front, so that the fishing
boats can unload direct into the market and the garbage can easily be
disposed of. The building is large and commodious, of an indifferent
architecture, but well adapted to its purposes. The deepest impression
made upon a visit to this place is the decidedly tropical characteristics
to be seen everywhere. Tropical fruits, consisting of oranges, bananas,
pineapples, mangoes, mammão, etc., are to be seen in great abundance
everywhere. The salted meat so commonly used is stacked up like cordwood.
It has a strong smell and is very salty, but it is much liked by the
common people, and frequently brings a better price than fresh beef. Fat
pork is salted in the same way and done up in rolls from which slices are
cut off for the customer. This fat is usually used in cooking the beans
which form such an important article of food. There are many kinds of
strange fish in that department, for the waters along the coast of Brazil
are filled with excellent fish. One fish, which is quite large, is very
peculiar, because its eyes extend out an inch or more from its head. Then
there are little jelly fish in great numbers, and a little creature that
looks like a miniature devil-fish which seems to be a favourite article
of food. Shrimps and oysters will also be found for sale. Birds of
brilliant plumage await the buyers in their cages, while green and purple
parrots sit sedately on their perches and fill the air with their rough
screeches. Chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys and guinea pigs are found
in abundance, and even dogs are caged up awaiting new owners. But the
numerous monkeys, from the little marmosettes to the big ones three or
four feet high, who sit and blink at you like curious little old men,
will probably hold the attention of the northern visitor longer than any
other one feature of the market at Rio de Janeiro.

To this market come the hucksters from all parts of the city for their
supplies, which they then peddle from door to door. Fish and vegetables
are carried in baskets that are hung on the ends of a long pole, which
is balanced across the shoulder. A score or more of fowls may be placed
in a basket which the peripatetic merchant carries around on his head,
while the inmates cackle and crow along the way. The bread merchant
carries his stock in trade on his head, in a contrivance which looks
more like a baby-crib than anything else. Onions and garlic are carried
on strings with the stems woven together with straw. Along the streets
one will constantly hear the oddly varying cries of these house-to-house
merchants, the flute-like whistles which some of them carry, and the
clapping of sticks by others or the strangely penetrating noise of the
scissors-grinder, which is made by touching a piece of metal to the
grindstone.

From the standpoint of comfort the great and imposing Avenida Central is
a failure. The sun beats down unmercifully during the hot days, and it
is not half so comfortable as streets like the Ouvidor, Gonçalves Diaz,
Quintana and others of the business streets which are so narrow that
they are shaded from curb to curb during most of the day, and the sun
does not really have a fair chance to get in its work. It is, however,
the centre of the street life, and at all times is a study of Brazilian
life. There is always a crowd of men in the many cafés, which line this
street on either side, and the tables of which are set out over half the
broad sidewalk, or more. After eating his noon breakfast, a man never
takes his coffee at the same restaurant, but always goes to one of the
cafés where he sips a small cup of strong, black coffee, smokes a few
cigarettes and gossips with his friends. The Brazilians drink coffee as
the German drinks beer—not in such great quantities, but fully as often.
In fact they drink so much that it must have got into their complexions.
A Brazilian proverb says that good coffee must be as “strong as Satan,
as black as ink, as hot as hades and as sweet as love.” It is certainly
black and strong, is served hot and enough sugar is used to make it very
sweet.

One is struck with the vivacity of the groups of men, who talk with
their hands, head, face and eyes, as well as with their mouths. Another
thing that impressed me was the uncomfortable style of dress, for the
average “flumenense” wears a rather heavy suit and derby hat in this hot
climate, and would never think of dispensing with his vest under any
circumstances. To make up for this one may often see the men carrying
fans and briskly fanning themselves. Where these young men, who are
clerks in business houses, or hold small-salaried government positions,
get the money to spend in these cafés is a mystery to me; for all drinks
are exceedingly high-priced, with the exception of coffee, which is
uniformly sold for one hundred reis, equal to three cents in our money.
In the matter of clothes, however, they are more economical, and they do
not dress as well as the ladies whom they delight to watch.

[Illustration: CARIGADORES MOVING A PIANO.]

From three to five in the afternoon the Avenida, from the Ouvidor to
the Avenida Hotel, is crowded with well-dressed ladies who make these
few blocks a sort of promenade. One will see handsomely gowned matrons,
demure little maidens, and _senhoritas_ who are just beginning to seek
the favours of the young men, and this gives them an opportunity to see
and be seen. The ladies wear huge Parisian hats and high heels, and are
gowned elaborately. Powder, paste, rouge and other cosmetics are much
in evidence, even among the younger ones, whose complexions hardly need
such aids to freshness. The figures are plump, and those of the matrons
have reached a stoutness that must be distressing to them. The men, whose
narrow shoulders and thin chests are in striking contrast to the plump
figures of the ladies, sit at the street tables of the cafés and watch
them as they pass; but they rather like than resent this, for it is the
custom of the country, and a long look is a mark of flattery which they
appreciate.

In the streets there is a constant movement. Carriages with liveried
drivers, high-wheeled carts loaded with freight, curious little Japanese
“kiosks,” in which walks a vendor of _dulces_, and _carigadores_ with
loads upon their heads pass along in endless procession. I have seen
pianos thus borne upon the heads of four men pass along the Avenida.
Other heavy articles of furniture, and large panes of plate glass are
carried in the same way. The old-fashioned, two-wheeled tilbury, so
common here, whisks along at as lively a rate as the horse can go. Only
one passenger dares ride in one of them, or a great commotion will be
raised among the other tilbury drivers. The “fon-fon” of the automobile
is constantly heard. A line of auto omnibuses is run along this avenue,
and then some of the four hundred or more private autos will be in view
at any time. Ice is delivered by automobile, for quick delivery is
important in a hot climate when the price is three cents a pound. The
automobile ambulance is sure to pass along, as it is always on the go,
and then there are a number of auto deliveries, police hurry-up wagons,
fire trucks, and even a street sprinkler propelled by gasoline.

[Illustration: THE TREASURY BUILDING, RIO DE JANEIRO.]

The police are omnipresent, and are to be found everywhere. There are
three classes of these guardians of the public peace: the civil, the
military and the mounted police. The former are under the prefect,
and the military police, who wear a different uniform, are under the
authority of the minister of war. The military police may be seen
several times a day, marching along in large or small squads with a
bugler to announce their coming. The civil police are more numerous but
less conspicuous. It is said that there are oftentimes more or less
serious conflicts of authority between the two police organizations. The
military police department has a number of auto patrol wagons which are
frequently seen on the streets. Whenever a call is sent to headquarters
a wagon is loaded up with ten or a dozen officers, and is then sent
pell-mell through the streets to the point of call, and frequently two
wagons thus loaded will appear. Perhaps the occasion of the call is some
harmless drunk (although drunkenness is not common), and it seems a joke
to see such a formidable force appear upon such an occasion. At night, a
policeman may be found upon almost any corner, and, if there is safety in
numbers, then Rio de Janeiro is a very secure place in which to live.

Along the Avenida are many fine office buildings belonging to private
concerns, some of which cover almost an entire square, and many of
which are truly architecturally beautiful structures. Perhaps among the
finest of these are the homes of three of the leading newspapers; the
_Jornal do Commercio_, _Jornal do Brazil_ and _O Paiz_. The variety
of architecture prevents any appearance of monotony. The Caixa de
Amortizacão, or treasury building, where the paper and gold money are
exchanged and equalized, is a very beautiful building on the corner of
the Rua Uruguayana. Near the other end of the Avenida are several fine
public buildings. One of these is the new Art Museum, and another the new
National Library, neither of which were quite finished at the time of my
visit. The Municipal Building is a unique and ornate building, brilliant
in colour and adorned with many statues. A number of stately palms which
stand near the building give it a very fine setting. The most beautiful
and striking building of all, however, is the magnificent Municipal
Theatre, which stands in a conspicuous location at a street intersection,
and in spacious dimensions, as well as stately appearance, well rivals
the far famed Opera House of Paris. It was built by the municipality
and cost several millions of dollars, and is said to have a capacity of
twenty thousand persons.

[Illustration: THE CITY HALL, RIO DE JANEIRO.]

Rio de Janeiro has been transformed. It used to be that the traveller,
frightened at the idea of yellow fever, would come here with his ears and
brain throbbing from the effects of quinine. He would walk over the city
with a smelling bottle under his nose for fear of contagion. Now it is
different. Once the home of yellow fever, smallpox and other plagues,
this great city has been renovated and overhauled, until now it is as
healthful as the average city. The municipal government deserves great
credit for the energetic and thorough manner in which this work has been
done. Hundreds of miles of underground sewers have supplanted the open
gutters of former days, and with the disappearance of the open sewers has
vanished the unpleasant odours which formerly pervaded the atmosphere.
Low, marshy ground has been filled up. The people were compelled to
remove the dirt from the tiles in which moss and fungi had grown, and
cement the joints so that there would be nothing to retain dampness.
The first floors of all buildings must be made of tile or cement, so
that rats can not get into the houses. And then the people scrub and
clean, and clean and scrub, in most parts of the city, so that it is
a fair rival of a Dutch town. The street cleaning department is alert
and active, so that the streets in general are cleaner than the average
American city. It is only when one of the heavy rain storms breaks on the
city that it is different, and then tons of red sand and mud are washed
down from the hills, and the street commissioner has his hands full for
a few days to clean up this mud. These tropical rains are veritable
downpours, and the amount of water that falls during even a comparatively
short rain is almost incredible.

[Illustration: THE “WHITE HOUSE” OF BRAZIL.]

The visitor is first inclined to look lightly upon the brilliant and
variegated colourings of the houses and other buildings, and think that
it is very much overdone. The longer one stays there, however, the more
the colouring seems to be in harmony with the tropics. Such brilliant
colours and light, airy effects would be entirely out of place in a land
where the trees lost their foliage, and snow covered the ground during a
part of the year. But here, where the sky is so blue, where the foliage
is ever green and where the sun is so bright, even the light blues and
greens, the pinks and terra-cotta colourings on the houses finally seem
in harmony. Sometimes, under a porch, one will see a landscape painting
on the wall of the house, and many of these paintings are well done.
The style of architecture is Portuguese and differs from the Spanish
style, which always includes a little court, or patio, in the centre.
In the Brazilian homes of the better class, a little green yard is
maintained in front of the houses, where a few flowers and shrubs are
cultivated, and, if large enough, a palm or two will be found. There is
no fine grass, however, such as grows in cooler climes, for the grass
found is very coarse and is planted stalk by stalk. A high iron fence
generally separates the yard from the street. In some of the better
homes with large yards, a little pavilion, or lookout, is built near the
street, from which the ladies of the family may view the processions and
_festas_, which are such a common occurrence here. These take the place
of the balconies erected for ladies where the houses are built up to the
street line as in the Spanish architecture.

The public buildings are scattered over different sections of the city,
but most of them not already enumerated are of rather indifferent
architecture. The Casa da Moeda (mint), the Congress and Senate
buildings, the Navy and War Departments and the President’s Mansion
are all in different sections. The latter bears several statues on the
roof, and connected with it are some very fine gardens. The National
Library contains a valuable collection of more than four hundred thousand
books, manuscripts and other important documents. The National Museum
is one of the oldest institutions in the capital. Originally intended
only as a museum of natural history, it has been extended until now it
includes all kinds of collections of scientific interest. It contains a
fine collection of specimens of animal and insect life in Brazil, and
specimens of the art and handiwork of the aboriginal tribes who still
inhabit many sections of the republic.

A splendid system of electric tramways exists under the management of a
company composed of American and Canadian capitalists. The routes are
rather complicated, and are quite confusing to the visitor at first. The
cars are called “bonds,” and the origin of the name is rather curious.
When the system was first inaugurated the people, who had heard a great
deal about American “bonds” in connection with the negotiations, applied
that name to the cars when they finally appeared, and the name has clung
to them ever since.

The city of Rio de Janeiro and its environs constitute the Federal
District, which is similar to the District of Columbia. The municipal
organization is controlled by the national government, but the people are
not disfranchised as in our own capital. The inhabitants of the district
elect three senators and ten deputies to the National Congress, and also
a city council of ten members which meets in session twice each year.
The chief executive is the Prefect, who is appointed by the President and
holds office for five years, unless previously removed. Under him are
several boards, through which the several departments of public work are
transacted.

In 1908 there was held in Rio an exposition in celebration of the
centennial of the opening of that port, and the other Brazilian ports to
the commerce of the world. The federal government appropriated a million
dollars for its palace and exhibit, and nearly all of the states erected
buildings, and appropriated a goodly sum toward the expenses. The United
States and Portugal were the only two foreign nations invited to take
a part in the exposition. The location was a most beautiful one at the
extreme end of the Beira Mar, and almost under the shadow of old Sugar
Loaf and Corcovado. A number of the buildings erected were of a permanent
character, and these, as well as many of the state buildings, still stand.

In striking contrast to the Rio of to-day was that of a century ago, when
foreign nations were first given the privilege of trading there. The
following extracts are made from “Notices of Brazil,” published in 1831
by an English writer:

“When the country was opened to the enterprise of foreigners, it was
not at all surprising that the City of Rio and its commerce should
have increased with an unexampled rapidity. Such was the avidity of
speculation in England, that everything was sent to Brazil without the
smallest regard to its fitness or adaptation to the climate, or the wants
of the people who were to purchase them. The shops were ransacked and
swept; and the consideration was not what should be sent, but how soon
could it arrive. In this way, when the multitude of cases were opened
at the custom-house, I have been told, the Brazilians could not contain
their astonishment and mirth at the incongruous things they saw displayed
before them; implements useful only to Canadians and Greenlanders, and
comforts and conveniences fit only for polar latitudes, were cased up and
sent in abundance to regions between the tropics.

“Among this ingenious selection was a large supply of warm blankets,
warming-pans to heat them, and, to complete the climax of absurdity,
skates to enable the Brazilians to enjoy wholesome exercise on the ice,
in a region where a particle of frost or a flake of snow was never seen.
However ridiculous or wasteful this may seem, these incongruous articles
were not lost in a new country, where necessity and ingenuity could apply
things to a use for which they were never intended by the sage exporters.
Even the apparently hopeless and inconvertible skate was turned to a
useful purpose. Then, as well as now, there was nothing in the country
so scarce as wrought iron for shoeing mules and horses; and though
“ferradors,” or smiths, are to be met at every rancho, “ferraduras,”
or shoes, are seldom to be had. When the people, therefore, found they
could not use these contrivances on their own, they applied them to their
horses’ feet; and many an animal has actually travelled on English skates
from Rio to Villa Rica.

“The bustle and activity of the place give a high idea of the commerce of
Rio. A multitude of negroes are constantly employed, who labour without
intermission the whole day in removing packages of different kinds. They
are generally lying open, either to be, or after having been examined;
and it presents really a curious and interesting spectacle to pass along
the courts and warerooms, through manufactures of every kind, and from
all parts of the globe.

“Having waded through these, I mounted upstairs, and I saw a multitude of
persons hard at work, as if it had been a large factory. These were the
stampers: every article, even to a single pair of gloves, stockings or
shoes, when the duty is paid, must be distinguished by this stamp. Three
or four hundred persons were engaged in this work. One ran the thread
through the corner of the stockings or shoes; another looped it to a
little perforated pellet of lead; and a third pressed it flat by striking
on it a stamp of the Imperial Arms. Any article, however minute, that
has not this attachment to it, is liable to be seized as contraband. The
process of stamping every article, however, is so tedious and troublesome
that it is found to impede business very much, and the fees on the leaden
stamp come to twice as much as the duty on the goods in the cost of
pieces of tape and other smaller things.”



CHAPTER IV

AROUND AND ABOUT THE BAY


There are many villages large and small, around the Bay of Rio de
Janeiro, but few of them are worth the visiting. Nictheroy, however, a
twenty minutes’ ride across the bay, is an exception, for the ride is
pleasant and this city is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro.
The national capital is situated in a Federal District very similar to
the District of Columbia. Ferries run every few minutes, and the trip
is a pleasant diversion. The city contains some thirty thousand or
more inhabitants, but there is nothing grand or distinctive about it.
It has several public squares after the usual fashion, the streets are
fairly broad but badly paved, and some of the public buildings are quite
respectable. There is a good system of street railways, and a trip can be
made out to the rather picturesque suburb of Sacco do San Francisco, or
Itajahý, which is also on the shores of the bay. Perhaps the principal
reason that takes travellers there is to say that they have been in
one of the state capitals, for it is too near the larger and far more
attractive city to have much charm when compared with the other. There is
a good beach, and it is possible that at some time, perhaps “to-morrow,”
a thriving resort may be built up on that side of the blue bay of Rio de
Janeiro.

During the empire, because of the many and almost constant scourges of
yellow fever, the diplomatic corps became solicitous about their own
health and sought a more healthful residence. Receiving the consent
of their various governments, and the approval of the Emperor, a new
diplomatic residence was established at Petropolis, a two hours’ journey
from the capital. This is the only instance known to me where the
diplomatic representatives live elsewhere than in the capital of the
country to which they are accredited.

The journey to this diplomatic centre is at the present time a combined
rail and steamer journey, although within a very short time, and perhaps
by the time this work appears, it will be possible to make the journey
by rail in a little more than half the time now necessary. If one has
the time, however, the combination journey is preferable, because it
affords a delightful journey across the blue waters of the bay, past
the Fiscal Island with its imposing edifice, near a number of other
islands to the Mauá landing where a connection is made with the oldest
railway in the republic. The first rails of this line, which is now a
part of the Leopoldina System, were laid more than a half century ago.
Almost immediately after entering the train the ascent begins, for it
is a climb of nearly a thousand metres to this other capital of the
country. As the train ascends many new and varying glimpses are caught
of the island-studded bay, and even of the city of Rio many miles away,
with Corcovado and Tijuca in the background. The cloud effects vary with
almost every trip. At times almost the entire bay is seen, and then
again, only fleeting glimpses are visible, as you seem to be looking
down upon a bed of billowy clouds. When the steepest part of the road is
reached the train is divided into small sections, and the upward ascent
is aided by the cog system, although very powerful locomotives are used.

A maximum grade of fifteen per cent. is reached in one or two places,
which is a very steep climb indeed, and you feel like holding yourself
in your seat. Narrow valleys, or rather passes, are traversed and there
is some cultivation, but the most of the way is rather a mass of trailing
vines and great, branching ferns. Blossoming vines and trees add beauty
to the scene, and immense trees loaded with orchids look down upon you in
a tantalizing way; detached rocks weighing thousands of tons are poised
on the edge of cliffs, and show the glacial effects in these passes.
Sometimes the brown and grim rocks rise above you like a mighty wall a
thousand or more feet high, as if nature had prepared a natural fort or
a gigantic toboggan slide ready for use. The little mountain streams had
become swift torrents, when I passed over this road, from the effects of
a severe storm that had just broken on these hills. The air becomes much
cooler as the elevation increases. At last the Alta da Serra, the top
of the mountain, is reached, and from there it is an easy ride down to
Petropolis nestling between lofty peaks.

Being the headquarters of a score or more representatives of the world’s
powers, Petropolis is an important city. Furthermore, during the hottest
season, it is the fashionable summer resort of Brazilian society, and
the wealth and gayety of the capital is transferred to this city. From
a small agricultural settlement it has grown into a social centre, an
educational centre and the site of a number of cotton mills, which
are located here because of the abundant water power. The scenery
about Petropolis is beautiful, and affords a number of fine drives and
horseback jaunts, which are the favourite recreation of the diplomats.
It is a combination of the temperate and tropical zones. Your hothouse
plants all grow out-of-doors. Rhododendrons are as large as wheat
shocks, and the azaleas are so large they do not look natural. Palms are
omnipresent, and the orange with its golden fruit ornaments almost every
yard.

The last Emperor, Dom Pedro II., had a beautiful home here which is now
used as a young ladies’ seminary. There are also a number of other good
schools, among which is a school for girls under the auspices of the
Methodist Episcopal Church South. It is situated on the top of a hill
above the city. The rooms have lofty ceilings eighteen feet high, its
bathroom is as large as the average living-room, and in every way it
resembles the palace which it once was, rather than a school building.
Yet as one looks around at the American desks, the blackboards, maps,
etc., on the walls, the school stamp is readily seen.

The social season lasts from December to May, the Brazilian summer, and
during that time the social life is gay, but it is rather dull the rest
of the year. The President, and most of his ministers, spend these months
here, and Petropolis thus becomes the summer capital. There are many fine
homes of Brazilian families, and some of the diplomatic representatives
occupy showy quarters. The home of the American Ambassador is a
delightful and charming place. The air is remarkably cool, especially in
the evening, even when Rio is sweltering. It is quite likely that the
official residences of the diplomats will be changed to Rio at some time
in the future, since the sanitary conditions have been so improved, and
yellow fever is no longer found there, except in an occasional sporadic
case such as might occur at some of our own Gulf ports.

[Illustration: CLUSTERS OF BAMBOOS IN THE JARDIM BOTANICO.]

There are many notable botanical gardens in the world, but there is only
one, in the general consensus of opinion, which is superior to that of
Rio de Janeiro, and it is in Buitenzorg, Java. To the northern traveller
every park in Rio is a sort of botanical garden, because of the many
and new varieties of plants, but a visit to the famous Jardim Botanico,
which is reached by one of the “bonds” that start from the Avenida Hotel,
is a revelation. The route leads out through a number of narrow streets.
At one place a branch line runs to Leme by a tunnel through one of the
hills, where a pretty stretch of beach may be seen. It has become quite a
favourite resort as well as residence place, and is worth a visit.

Continuing the journey the car passes by a small lake, called Lago
Ridrigo de Freitas, which is a fresh water lake, although separated from
the sea by only a narrow stretch of land. There are some interesting
old country-houses and modern villas, and a number of cotton factories
with their rows of workingmen’s houses built on the community plan. Many
fine glimpses of Tijuca, the Two Brothers and Corcovado are obtained
along the way. At last the avenue of palms grows nearer, the car stops
before a gateway of recent construction, and the famous gardens have
been reached. Before one’s vision extends a magnificent avenue of lofty
royal palms of even height. This avenue, composed of one hundred and
fifty palms, set at equal distances apart, and making a green arch
almost a hundred feet above ground, makes an imposing picture like a
great colonnade, with their white trunks. As you look up the avenue you
see two gigantic walls of gray wood, solidly roofed by huge green tufts.
It is a living arborescent gallery, enclosing a path about twenty feet
wide with a neatly gravelled walk. About half-way across is a fountain
in the centre of the avenue, and here is another avenue of palms which
runs at right angles to the other, but this avenue is far less imposing
than the one just described. The contrast between the lofty palms and
some of the pygmy shrubs and flowers is most striking. In one part
of the gardens still stands a single palm, a tall, slender shaft one
hundred and twenty-five feet in height, which is called the “mother of
all the palms.” It was planted in 1808, the year of the foundation of
this garden, with elaborate ceremony by the Portuguese regent, and from
the seeds of this palm have been grown all the other royal palms in this
garden, so it is said. A tablet has been placed on this palm bearing a
statement of this fact.

Another feature which is most interesting is the profusion of bamboos,
which are found in dense clusters, and also in shady avenues, where the
tops are so intertwined that it is impossible for the sun to penetrate
through. One begins to appreciate the beauties of the graceful bamboo
when seen under such advantageous conditions. Sometimes an avenue is
lined for some distance with similar trees, then with others; sometimes
with one species on one side of the walk and an entirely different
species on the other side; again they are in clumps all alike or all
different, an endless variety in grouping. Fine specimens of the rubber
trees are to be seen, and one can get a good idea of this tree which
yields such a valuable article of commerce to the world of to-day. The
clove, nutmeg, cinnamon and other spice-bearing trees, which are many
decades old, may be seen, as well as specimens of the tea plant. The “cow
tree,” which secretes a fluid that resembles milk, and a tree which, upon
being tapped, pours forth a stream of pure, cold water may both be found.

It will not be necessary for one to travel up the Amazon to see the
vegetation that grows there, for specimens of almost every species may
be found here. Monster trees from the Amazon country which overtop even
the lofty royal palms, and reach a height of from one hundred and fifty
to two hundred feet, grow here luxuriantly. Trees with great buttresses,
which look like strained muscles, and others, with gigantic vines
clinging to them, which are slowly sapping the life out of the friendly
tree, grow here, just as they do in the primeval forests. Parasites of
every kind may be seen on the trunks, and in the angles formed by the
limbs. Some of the trees are almost covered with these parasitic growths.
Orchids, which would be almost priceless in the markets of New York, are
found blooming here amidst the wild tangle of vines. Specimens of the
gigantic lily, called the Victoria Regis, a native of Brazil, and whose
leaves measure from ten to twenty feet in diameter, grow in the waters of
this same garden. There are also little glimpses of almost virgin forest,
that may be seen in the two thousand acres of this treasure-house of
botanical specimens. The many shades of green are varied by the colours
of the poincetta and other flowers, and in and through all flit birds
of many hues, swift flying humming birds and monstrous butterflies. The
researches which have been made by the various learned directors of these
botanical gardens have proven of inestimable value to the scientific
world.

One soon discovers that Rio has more than the seven hills which were
boasted by Rome, for there are three times that number that look down
upon the bay. A number of these rounded knolls are within the borders
of the city itself, and the narrow, winding streets crawl up to the
very summit. Others are surmounted by a few houses, while the sides of
the hills simply display their red slope to the city. But it is to the
suburbs that one must go for the finest views of the city and surrounding
country. One of the favourite trips is to Tijuca, the summit of which
is almost reached by an electric line, and many of the wealthier people
have their summer or all-the-year-round homes on its slopes. As the road
climbs up to the summit, many beautiful views are obtained of the scenery
surrounding Rio. It is a view of peaks, and valleys and ocean, for very
little of the city is visible. The road passes through dense forests, so
that one is constantly sheltered from the fierce sun.

Sylvan pathways are flanked with beautiful plants, shrubs and flowers.
Leaping cascades are set in veritable flower gardens, and natural
labyrinths and grottos abound. The highest point is nearly fourteen
hundred feet above sea level. This route is now a favourite automobile
drive also, but is not safe to make after heavy rains because of the
narrow roadway in many places.

It is, however, to Corcovado that one goes for a magnificent view
of Rio and the bay of the same name. This famous hunchback mountain
almost overshadows the city and the climb up affords views of dazzling
magnificence. It is a great granite cone, precipitous on all sides save
one, and an electric line, which follows this slope, now takes the
traveller almost to the very summit. Leaving the station in the city,
the road first runs over the old and well-preserved Carioca Aqueduct
where, for a few blocks, the car runs along high above the red-tiled
roofs of the capital city. Then it begins the climb up along the side
of the mountain. Now one obtains a view of the bay, and again one looks
out over the city to the Serra da Mar mountains in the distance; again
it is Tijuca, or the peak of Tingue, that dominates the horizon. The
abandoned aqueduct follows the bends of the road and has been broken in
many places, for new water pipes now carry the water supply from the
original source. An old and famous convent, Santa Theresa, is seen, where
husbands used to place their wives for safekeeping when departing on
a military expedition. Past hotels, villages and showy private homes
the road winds and twists. Finally the line changes to the rack system,
as the grade becomes more steep, and at last, after a climb for a few
minutes up steps hewed out of the solid rock, the little pavilion is
reached that crowns the mountain’s summit. Here beautiful views meet the
gaze of the traveller in every direction; mountains on one side, the
sea and beautiful bay on the other. On a clear day a panorama of fifty
square miles may be seen with the unaided eye. Sheer precipices of more
or less bare rock extend down for a distance of fifteen hundred feet or
more. A stone merely dropped over the crowning walls would descend to the
plains below. It is to the bay that one will turn with most interest.
There, in the distance, is the seemingly narrow channel through which
all boats must pass on their way to the city. Then nearer to the city is
the famous Sugar Loaf, with its curious outline. The blue waters of the
bay studded with numerous small islands, the curved shores, the white
streaks which mark the cities, and the broad white line, which indicates
the Avenida Central and the Beira Mar, acquire a new meaning, and become
photographed upon one’s memory in indelible colours; it is then one
fully realizes that he is gazing upon one of the most beautiful panoramas
that nature has prepared for the delectation of mankind.



CHAPTER V

MINAS GERAES AND MINING


There is another route to Bello Horizonte, the capital of the state of
Minas Geraes, but I chose the one through Petropolis, because I was to
have the pleasure of the company of the American Embassador. Petropolis
was the one time capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro. There are
other cities in the state of Rio besides Petropolis. Among these are
Therezopolis, which occupies a magnificent site on a commanding hill
that gives a fine view of the surrounding country, and Nova Friburgo,
the oldest immigrant settlement in Brazil. This city was established
almost a century ago by a number of Swiss colonists, and is reached by
another railway of almost an equal ascent with the route to Petropolis,
heretofore described. This little colony has grown into a prosperous
settlement and preserves many of the characteristics of the race which
founded it.

Boarding the semi-weekly express train at Petropolis, which is here
termed “_grande velocidade_,” we were soon winding around the hills and
through the narrow passes threaded by the river. Occasionally little
primitive villages and a few unimportant adobe towns picturesquely
grouped along the banks of the stream were passed. The scenery is
beautiful as pass after pass unfolds itself on the journey down to lower
altitudes. One is impressed by the extent of mountainous territory which
is encountered by the traveller all over the republic, with the exception
of the country traversed by the mighty Amazon and its tributaries. It
is a constant surprise to see the vast amount of soil in Brazil that is
actually without development. Mile after mile of this land, which is
within a comparatively short distance of the capital, had the appearance
of never having been occupied by settlers, or ever having been disturbed
by agriculturists. Although broken it could well be adapted to the
raising of stock, at least for sheep and goats, for these animals would
find sustenance. It seemed to me that cattle could be raised profitably
also, since it would not be necessary to feed them, as pasture will grow
all the year round.

[Illustration: AN OX TEAM OF MINAS GERAES.]

The few natives who did live in the little mud-brick huts, with
thatch roofs, that cling to the side of the hills eked out a very poor
existence, if one judged by the appearance of everything around their
homes. A few chickens and pigs with plenty of dogs, perhaps a mule and
a cow, constituted the only stock that one could see. A little patch
of corn, a banana stalk or two, and perhaps a patch of mandioca root,
seemed to be the only attempt at agriculture of the improvident negro or
poor whites who dwell on these beautiful hills. The houses contain only
the very crudest of furniture with rude beds and the very simplest of
culinary outfit. Nature is perhaps too bountiful, and man depends upon
that bounty rather than his own exertions.

The mandioca is a small shrub with a tuberous root that grows in nearly
every part of Brazil. It grows to the enormous size of fifteen and twenty
pounds, and somewhat resembles an enormous radish or sugar beet. In its
natural state it contains a very poisonous juice which must be eliminated
before the real substance can be used for food. It is first pressed and
then washed, and the water must be thrown away for it is poisonous. The
root is then ground into a meal which is very rich in starch. One large
root will sometimes produce as much as two gallons of this prepared
meal. After being crushed the meal is at once roasted, or otherwise it
will turn sour and be spoiled. Tapioca is one of the products of this
tropical tuber. The utilization of this root was first discovered by the
Indians, who found a method of getting rid of the poisonous qualities.
To-day, the mandioca, or farina, flour is one of the principal articles
of food in Brazil, not only among the poorer classes but also with the
well-to-do. Many of the articles served on the hotel tables are thickened
with the mandioca meal. This, with rice and beans, furnishes the almost
exclusive food of the poor. On the railway trains one will see that this
meal comprises one of the chief articles of the lunches which have been
brought by one’s fellow passengers.

It is perhaps wrong to think only of the practical in the midst of scenes
of natural beauty, but as our train whirled along with its _grande
velocidade_, past rapids which could be converted into incalculable power
for the manufacturing so essential in the world, I could not refrain
from thinking what fine power was here going to waste. A little of it
is utilized in generating electricity for the cities of Nictheroy and
Petropolis, and there are a few cotton mills run by the water power of
this stream. Not one unit of the available power is utilized, however,
although in this land of expensive fuel there is a great call for
electric power and current. At last the Parahyba River, a still finer
stream of water, is reached and the railroad follows up this stream. At
Entre Rios (which means “between the rivers”) a change is made from the
Leopoldina Railway to the Central, which is a government line. After a
couple of hours the train reaches Juiz de Fora, which is the largest town
in the state of Minas Geraes. In 1867 Juiz de Fora was described by a
writer as a town with “a single dusty or muddy street, or rather road,
across which palms are planted in pairs.”

At the present time this city contains a population of perhaps
twenty-five or thirty thousand people. It is in a region of great
productiveness, and in a mild and semi-tropical climate. The surrounding
hilly country forms a rich and extensive coffee district, and is
also very favourable to the growth of corn and beans, as well as
other products. Cattle raising is also an important industry. It is a
comparatively modern town, and its streets are laid out much wider than
the older towns. There are several colleges here, and the public schools
are unusually good, so that the number of educated persons is exceeded by
few places in the entire republic. Several small manufacturing industries
have been established to make use of the rapids in the Parahyba River
which flows through the city.

About a ten hours’ journey in a northerly direction from Juiz de Fora
lies Bello Horizonte, the new capital of the state of Minas Geraes. After
leaving Juiz de Fora the railroad climbs the higher altitudes, and it is
not long until the coffee region is left behind. The atmosphere becomes
cooler and more exhilarating as the altitude increases. Like most of the
cities Bello Horizonte is built in a valley surrounded by hills, with
a river running through it. It is a city made to order, for the site
was selected only sixteen years ago. At that time there was scarcely a
habitation on the chosen site, but the location seemed to please the
government and so it was decided to erect a city to be used as a capital.
Like La Plata, in Argentina, it is a city built after an architect’s
designs, and, because of the elaborate plans made for it, was given the
name “_bello_,” which signifies beautiful. It has been likened by the
enthusiastic Brazilians to our own city of Washington, because of its
broad avenues and many plazas, and the modern style of its buildings.
The principal avenue, Affonso Penna, named after the late President, who
founded this city while he was President of the state, is one hundred
and fifty feet broad, and has a triple row of shade trees its entire
length. The public buildings are attractive because of their newness, and
are a radical departure from most of the public buildings that one may
see in Brazil. A magnificent palace for the executive has been erected,
and a number of buildings for the legislature and other branches of the
government. The city is well lighted and is altogether a bright and
cheery place.

The state of Minas Geraes is one of the largest and most important states
in Brazil. It is larger than France and contains a population of more
than four millions of people. It derives its names from its mineral
wealth, for Minas Geraes signifies general mines. It has within its
borders many mines, and possesses the oldest gold mine in the country.
There are many small towns but no large cities, so that most of the
population dwell in small villages. Much of this state, like many of the
others, is still undeveloped, and railroads have not yet penetrated
large sections of it.

This state has the honour of having struck the first blow for freedom
from the oppressive rule of Portugal. Joachim José de Silva Xavier is the
traditional hero of this event in Brazil. This patriot was a travelling
dentist and, because of his occupation, was nicknamed Tiradentes, which
means “to draw teeth.” He belonged to a club of men who had banded
together for patriotic purposes. Spurred on by the success of the
American revolution, and angered by the attempt of the mother country
to impose iniquitous taxes upon the colony, these men met in secret for
many months. Tiradentes in his trips around the country preached his
revolutionary doctrine, and many new adherents were added to their cause.
The wandering dentist was probably not the originator of the various
schemes of this body of dreamers, for far abler men than he were among
them, but he probably did more to spread the doctrine than any of the
others. At length, in 1789, before their plans were fully matured, the
plot was discovered, and the leaders were arrested in Ouro Preto, at
that time the capital, and thrust into prison in that city. They were
imprisoned in dark and damp cells for many months, pending the trial and
decision of the matter.

Each one of the conspirators was finally condemned to death, but all
escaped this extreme penalty through influential connections, except the
unfortunate Tiradentes. He was made the scapegoat of the whole affair,
and was executed in the public square of Ouro Preto, on the 21st of
April, 1792. His body was quartered and the head exposed in that city.
The right arm and leg, and also the left arm and leg, were each sent to
different cities, there to be exposed publicly as a warning to other
possible conspirators. His house was torn down and the ground salted to
purify it; and it was ordered that no building ever again be constructed
on that tainted soil. His property was confiscated; his family and their
descendants were declared “infamous” and disgraced, even to the third
generation. To-day, the name of Tiradentes is honoured all over Brazil,
monuments have been erected to him and streets named after him in many
cities. In the principal plaza of Ouro Preto is a marble column, upon
which stands a statue of the martyred “tooth-puller.” The pedestal
of this monument is the original stone on which he was exposed in a
pillory and publicly scourged, on the very spot on which now stands his
splendid monument. Many of the places connected with this conspiracy are
preserved; and even the spot on which stood the house of Tiradentes,
which was destroyed by order of the government, is sacredly preserved and
guarded for the patriotic lessons which it teaches.

A branch of the Central Railroad runs from the main line back among the
hills to this city of Ouro Preto, the “black gold.” It lies in the hollow
of a narrow valley and is completely surrounded by high, rock-capped
hills. All about the hills are the rough, red and gray, yellow and brown
holes made by the old miners, which have been enlarged and washed by the
rains. The roughly paved streets ascending and descending the hills are
narrow, crooked and irregular. Carts and carriages are of little use,
and the freight is generally carried on the backs of pack mules. One can
see building timbers, stones, flour and water thus carried through the
streets of Ouro Preto on almost any day.

Although gold mining in Brazil never reached the proportions it did
in Mexico and Peru, it was no inconsiderable factor in the early
development of the country. As early as the middle of the sixteenth
century, parties of intrepid pioneers had penetrated several hundred
miles into the interior. They found auriferous ground in some of the
streams in what is now the state of Minas Geraes. As soon as the news
reached the settlements other parties of explorers followed, and the
tablelands, mountains and streams of this district were overrun from
São Paulo to the south and from Bahia on the east. One can not help but
admire the rugged courage of these sturdy prospectors, who set out into
the tractless forests and moorlands in search of the yellow metal. They
bridged rivers, enslaved the Indians and dotted the province with little
settlements. It was not long until a small but steady stream of gold was
trickling across the sea to Portugal. The crown exacted a tax of twenty
per cent. on the entire output, and this naturally led to a great deal of
smuggling.

Because of this surreptitious mining it is impossible to give the entire
output of the gold mines of this province. Official records, however,
show that between the years 1700 and 1820, no less than thirty million
ounces having a value of more than $500,000,000 were produced. Legends of
the fabulous production of certain mines are recounted, and a few mines
were worked for more than a century.

Because of the crude methods in use, and the difficulty of working them
at great depths, many of the mines were abandoned before they were really
exhausted. One of the principal mines now worked is the Morro Velho,
which was operated in a desultory way for a long time by the colonial
settlers. In 1818 it was pronounced exhausted. A few years later this
mine was reopened and has been worked by an English company ever since,
and is still producing a profitable output. It has now reached a great
depth. Gold is found nearly all over the state of Minas, although the
production to-day is not so great as in the earlier days. A great deal of
it is low grade ore, which can be worked profitably only with the latest
improved machinery, so that not only the cost of operation can be reduced
to a minimum but the greatest percentage of the gold and silver may be
extracted from the gravel and quartz.

Many other minerals are found in this state, but few of them are worked.
There are a number of iron outcrops reported which are said to be
composed of almost pure ore. Copper has been found in Minas, as well as
in several other states, although little exploitation has been done, and
platinum is also mined. Brazil contains the largest mines of manganese
ore that have yet been discovered. This metal promises to be of more
value in the future. Monazite, an essential element in the manufacture
of mantles for incandescent gas lights, is mined in large quantities and
shipped to Europe.

Many precious stones are found in Brazil. Among them are amethysts,
tourmalines, aquamarines, topaz—and, lastly, the diamond. India was the
original source of diamonds. In 1728, almost two centuries ago, these
precious stones were first discovered in Brazil. For a century and a
half Brazil held the absolute supremacy in the production of diamonds,
until the discovery of the South African fields transferred the centre
of the diamond industry to that region. Although the number of diamonds
of Brazil to-day is far less than those of South Africa, it is said by
experts that the Brazilian diamonds have a far larger proportion of what
are classed as the “first water,” those which have a tinge of bluish
steel in them, than any other country, and the diamonds of that country
bring the very highest market price.

The centre of the diamond industry in Brazil is at Diamantina, in the
state of Minas Geraes, although these precious stones are also found in
the states of Motto Grosso, Bahia, Goyaz, and Paraná. Heretofore the
methods of mining diamonds in Brazil have been of the very crudest sort,
the same that have been used almost from the time of the first discovery.
Just recently American capital has purchased the leading mines, and
modern dredging machinery has been installed, as well as machinery
for the separation of the gravel products from the diamonds. These
machines are run by water power generated from the streams along which
the diamonds are found. This will revolutionize the diamond industry in
Brazil, and the possibilities are that the production of diamonds in that
country will be greatly increased.

There is, and has always been, a fascination about the diamond. Not only
is it unrivalled for lustre, brilliancy and fire, but it is so hard that
no known substance can cut it or make the slightest indentation save,
another diamond. The popular saying that it takes a diamond to cut a
diamond is literally true. Furthermore, it is composed of pure carbon,
and is thus related to two of the commonest of substances, coal and
graphite. The appearance of the diamond when first picked up is very
different from its appearance after the skillful cutter and polisher have
done their work, for it is very dull and the non-expert would probably
not recognize it.

The discovery of the diamonds in Brazil was by accident. In searching
for gold and silver some singular stones, supposed to be pebbles,
were discovered. The negro labourers were attracted by their uncommon
qualities and geometric forms, and showed them to their masters. In the
card games which were popular in the mining camps these pebbles had been
used for counters. At length, an officer, who had been in India, and had
seen the diamonds of that country, suspicioned their real nature. Upon a
comparison of the weight with other pebbles he found a great difference.
As a result some were sent to Lisbon to be examined, from whence they
were forwarded to Holland, and the Hollanders pronounced them to be
real diamonds. It has been estimated that during the one hundred and
eighty-one years since the discovery of diamonds, Brazil has produced
two and one-half metric tons of these valuable stones, or twelve million
carats. The value of the production each year amounts to about one
million dollars of actual value. This is small in comparison with the
mines of South Africa, but no such force or vitality has been expended in
the mining. And yet the production is much simpler. The diamantiferous
fields of South Africa have required the most expensive machinery,
and every device that human ingenuity could devise for the successful
extraction of the diamonds. In Brazil, so far as discovered, the diamond
deposits are all alluvial and are found on the surface, and in or along
the beds of rivers. Hence no deep mining is necessary as in Africa. These
river gravels also contain a considerable amount of gold, which helps to
pay the cost of dredging. The primitive processes in use are very similar
to those in use in placer gold washing. The gravel is dug out and placed
in small wooden bowls. The miners then proceed to a convenient place on
the stream and laboriously wash out their material, gradually getting rid
of the particles not wanted. Sometimes a pit is excavated, and a part of
the stream diverted into it for the washing process.

Although no diamonds have been found in Brazil as large as some of the
extraordinary gems that have been unearthed in the Kimberly mines,
some beautiful and large stones have been discovered. One of these,
called the “Regent of Portugal,” weighed two hundred and fifteen carats,
and has been estimated to be worth more than a million dollars. It is
now numbered among the French state jewels. Another was the “Star of
the South,” which was found by a negress who was at work in the mines
near Diamantina. This diamond weighed in the rough two hundred and
fifty-four and one-half carats, but when cut was reduced to one hundred
and twenty-five carats. It is a fine stone of first quality. A large
one was discovered in 1908 which was one and one-third inches long and
three-quarters of an inch in width, which would make it of extraordinary
size.

The discovery of the Braganza diamond is an interesting story. This was
in 1791. Three men who had been convicted of capital offences were sent
out into exile among the Indians and wild beasts. As they were forbidden
to enter any city, or hold any communication with the world, they
searched for treasure. While washing for gold in the Abaite River, they
were attracted by the gleam of a curious stone. As diamond washing was
prohibited they took the stone to a priest. He ventured to lead them to
the governor, and the diamond was presented to him. At the request of the
priest the three men were pardoned, but the government retained the gem.

The black diamonds, called “carbonados,” are found in greater quantities
in Brazil than in any other country. These are used solely for commercial
purposes in making points for drills. They are as hard as the other
diamonds, but lack the transparency and brilliancy of the white stones.
The “carbonados” are found in much larger sizes than the others, one of
three thousand and seventy-eight carats having been discovered. These
stones have a considerable value and are worth from $25 to $75 per carat,
the price depending upon the demand and supply. Nothing has ever been
discovered that is so good for drilling hard rocks as the diamond drills
made from these “carbonados,” and they have been successfully used in
drilling many railroad tunnels.



CHAPTER VI

A PROGRESSIVE STATE


It is a distance of three hundred miles from Rio to São Paulo, the second
city in the republic, and the ride is very interesting, especially so
for the first two or three hours. This time is taken by the railway
line to climb over the ridge of mountains, which everywhere pass close
to the shore. For some time after leaving the Central station in Rio,
the train passes through the city and suburban towns, over which a good
and frequent suburban service is run. Then a strip of rather low land
gives the traveller a fairly good view of a Brazilian forest of small
trees and undergrowth, matted together with parasites, and forming an
almost compact mass of green in which many orchids may be seen. Fairly
well cultivated fields are passed at intervals until the ascent begins
at Belem, from which time there is very little cultivation. Some grand
glimpses of mountain scenery are revealed as the train turns around
bends and emerges from one or another of the numerous tunnels along the
line. Mountains, hills and valleys, flowing streams and cascades, mingle
in a panorama of wonderful beauty. At Barra do Pirahy the São Paulo road
branches off from the line to Bello Horizonte, and gradually descends to
lower levels.

Much of the land, as the slopes become less steep, has been cultivated
in the past with coffee, but it is now abandoned. Dead, or nearly dead,
coffee trees are still standing amidst the wild growth that has sprung up
since the land was abandoned. This part of Minas Geraes was at one time
regarded as one of the richest coffee sections in Brazil, and would be
valuable land even to-day were it not for the improvident and wasteful
methods of the average planter. The trees were planted too thick, and no
effort made to place back in the soil any of the elements taken out. It
was considered cheaper to buy virgin soil in a new location than to do
anything to build up the land already owned. The same thing is seen in
other parts of Minas Geraes and the state of Rio de Janeiro, the latter
being the state in which was originally grown the famous “Rio” coffee.

The road follows the Parahyba River most of the way, sometimes on one
bank and again on the other. The valleys become broader, although
occasionally a cut is made through an interesting ridge. The towns are
more numerous and larger during the last hundred miles. The Italian
element grows more pronounced, and many Italians may be seen at the
stations and on the trains. Ox teams drawing clumsy carts seem to be
the principal conveyances for freight, and two-wheeled carriages of an
antiquated type, which must have been the originals of the London hansom
cabs, convey the passengers. At one station an old style automobile
was sandwiched in between these two classes of vehicles, and it seemed
strangely out of place, except that the automobile was as antiquated for
that class of conveyances as the others were in their line.

Immense ant hills dot the landscape in many places. These hills are
oftentimes from three to four or five feet in height, and look strangely
like old-fashioned bee hives with their rounded tops. The red dust sifts
in through the car windows in clouds. As the windows must be kept closed
on this account, one is given a turkish bath under very disadvantageous
circumstances. Furthermore, no matter how hot it is, the sweltering
traveller is not permitted to remove his coat, as that is a breach of
etiquette not allowed here. I tried it and was immediately requested very
politely to put it on. You may expectorate on the floor as much as you
like, but to remove your coat—“No, Senhor; it is against the rules of the
company.”

The dust is caused by the red clay which is used as a ballast here
because it is found all along the line, and is cheaper than stone. A few
coffee fields are passed, and then we enter a valley many miles broad,
and one has his first glimpse of really level land in Brazil. At length,
after eleven hours’ ride, the train rolls into the Norte station of the
City of São Paulo, and the _carigadores_ begin their struggle for your
luggage. Then, after being released from their clutches, you are turned
over to the tender mercies of the cabman, and the traveller welcomes the
comfort of a bath in his hotel to get rid of the dust of travel.

The city of São (pronounced Sah-o, with a nasal sound after the a)
Paulo is the second city in the republic in population and commercial
importance. It is situated on a plain with low hills upon the entire
horizon. Its population is in the neighbourhood of three hundred and
fifty thousand. Although little coffee is produced within fifty miles of
São Paulo, yet it is the centre of that trade, and the great increase in
the production has caused the wonderful growth of this city. It is more
like an American city than any of the other Brazilian towns, because, in
whatever direction one looks, the high smoke-stacks of some of the many
factories may be seen. The suburbs are many and new, and everywhere are
signs of building activity and the construction of public improvements.
The growth of the city has really been marvellous. Twenty years ago
São Paulo was a comparatively unimportant city of twenty-five thousand
people. Now it has grown and broadened out until it covers a wide
territory. Real estate values have increased until to-day real estate on
Rua São Bento, or Rua Quinze de Novembro (15th of November), is almost as
high as on the principal streets in similar towns of the United States.
It has become the distributing and manufacturing centre for this, the
most progressive state in the republic. The temperature of São Paulo may
have something to do with the energetic character of the people. Although
the latitude is not much different from Rio, its altitude of more than
2,000 feet renders the climate very agreeable. I was there in the middle
of their summer, and, although the days were quite warm, the nights were
delightfully cool, and blankets were very comfortable on one’s bed.

[Illustration: RUA DIREITA, SÃO PAULO.]

The business centre of the city is a triangle composed of the two streets
above mentioned, and the Rua Direita, the straight street. Around this
triangle in the afternoons the ladies walk on their shopping tours; in
the evening it is the promenade, and all the people who are down town at
night may be seen somewhere on that route. São Paulo is not a typical
Brazilian town, for it has outgrown many of those characteristics to
be seen in the towns which are more peculiarly Portuguese. There is a
large foreign element, and their influence is notable in every part of
the city, and even in the life of the Paulistas themselves. A great deal
of the exclusiveness of the family life has disappeared, and the young
women of the city may be seen out upon the street on a shopping tour,
or performing an errand, unaccompanied by the duenna, which would be
unknown in more conservative Rio. There are perhaps one hundred thousand
Italians in the city, and added to these are several thousands of
other nationalities, with only a small sprinkling of those of American
birth. And yet, although the number of Americans is small, the American
influence is paramount, and everywhere I went, among high officials or
business men, I found a great interest in things American, and an effort
to copy after and learn from the institutions in the United States. Their
aim is progress and, although some of the methods are rather crude and
sometimes impractical, the effort is apparent and great good is being
done.

The Tramways, Light and Power Company of São Paulo has had a great
influence in this city and has, I believe, been an educational feature in
the business development. It is owned by the same group of capitalists
who control the company having similar concessions in Rio, but their
influence is more easily traced here. The charter of this company is
Canadian, but its methods are strictly what we term American, and a
number of our fellow-citizens are at work with it. Brazilian young men
consider it a credit to be in the employ of this company. They furnish an
excellent system of electric traction with about eighty miles of track.
The electricity is developed from a waterfall on the Tieté River, a few
miles away. A great deal of freight is hauled on the tram lines, and it
is no uncommon sight to see car load after car load of squealing pork
hauled through the streets.

English is taught in the public schools, and is a required language
before a degree is given, so that it will not be many years before the
educated classes will all have a knowledge of that language. “And,” said
the able director of the schools, “we aim to teach a conversational
knowledge of the language and not merely a reading knowledge.”
“Furthermore,” he said, “we are copying after the educational methods
of the United States just as fast as it is possible to introduce new
methods. It can not all be done at once, for certain prejudices exist in
favour of the old systems.”

[Illustration: BUZZARDS AT THE MARKET, SÃO PAULO.]

“_Estado_, Senhor? _Correio?_” These are the cries that greet one’s
ears as the hustling little newsboys ply their trade, just as their
counterparts do in our own land. This city supports a dozen dailies. The
two above mentioned are very enterprising publications, which publish
more foreign news than the average American daily, although the most
of it is European. Then the lotteries are everywhere in evidence. In
some blocks there are three or four agencies, besides the vendors on the
streets. The Brazilians are born gamblers, and this is their favourite
method of wooing the fickle goddess of fortune. There is a national
lottery, and perhaps the next most popular one is that of this state.
There is a drawing nearly every day, with an occasional grand prize of
fifty thousand dollars. I met one American who had just drawn a prize of
sixty thousand dollars in the National lottery, and this had caused quite
a flutter in the English speaking colony. The people forget that not one
dollar is paid out for perhaps four that are paid in, but they are always
hoping that the lightning will strike in their direction. Men, women and
school children, people in silk and rags, black, white and brown, all
buy the little strips of paper with the magic numbers on them, and they
eagerly scan the drawings when posted. Brazil is not alone in this folly,
however, for all the republics surrounding her encourage the same form of
gambling.

As São Paulo is the capital of a state there are the usual public
buildings that one will find for the transaction of the public business.
The finest and most imposing building in the city is the Municipal
Theatre, which is a very fair rival to the one in Rio de Janeiro. It is
not quite finished as yet, but the exterior is very fine and in good
taste. There are some beautiful homes on the Avenida Tiradentes and the
Avenida Paulista, the latter being a comparatively new street. The new
thoroughfares are broad and roomy, while the streets in the old town are,
for the most part, very narrow and illy adapted for the traffic of a
large city. This is overcome to a certain extent by allowing the cars and
street traffic to move only one way on many streets.

[Illustration: THE YPIRANGA.]

Just beyond São Paulo, and only a short ride by electric car, is a
magnificent building known as the Ypiranga, which deserves more than
passing notice, for it is built on the site of the birthplace of
Brazilian independence. Dom Pedro, representative of the Portuguese
authority in Brazil, was also the son of the King of Portugal. In the
struggles between Brazil and the Cortes of Lisbon, which was striving
to increase the taxes of that country, and at the same time remove what
little constitutional liberty had been granted, this prince was heart
and soul on the side of the people. During the long struggle Dom Pedro
had ingratiated himself with the people, until all were united with
him. Insult was heaped upon the Brazilian deputies in the Cortes, by
refusing to let them speak in behalf of their country’s cause. At length
a peremptory order was sent to Dom Pedro ordering his immediate return
to Portugal. The messenger bearing this decree met the prince as he was
returning with a hunting party on the bank of a little stream called the
“Ypiranga.” Upon reading it he called upon his followers, and declared
that he would never leave Brazil. “_Independence ou morte_ (independence
or death), is my watchword,” said he. The party took up this watchword,
and it spread like wildfire all over the land. This was on the 7th of
September, 1822, and a month later Dom Pedro was proclaimed Emperor of
Brazil. One will find many streets in Brazil named 7th de Setembro, in
commemoration of this _grito_, or shout of independence.

The museum is very imposing, as it stands on an eminence that overlooks
the country for miles around. It is built of marble, but the red sand
of the country has given it a very peculiar effect, almost like that of
old ivory. It contains much that is of scientific interest. Especially
fine is the collection of humming birds, beetles and butterflies. There
are several specimens of the _Louvadeus_ grasshopper, which raises its
feelers and poses itself almost in the attitude of prayer. The name
means “praise God.” One of the principal objects of interest is a large
painting representing the scene when the prince pronounced the watchword
“independence or death.”

[Illustration: GENERAL VIEW OF THE IMMIGRANT STATION AT SÃO PAULO.]

The governments of several different states are endeavouring to
induce immigrants to come in. The efforts of São Paulo have been most
successful, and their methods are copied by other states. This state
maintains a splendid immigration office in the city of São Paulo, which
is strictly up to date. The immigrants upon landing at Santos are taken
by special train to this station, and here they are kept for a week or
ten days at government expense. During this time they are housed in
excellent quarters, given good food, and kept under the supervision of
doctors. Many have had their entire expenses from their homes paid by
the government. In these buildings are offices where immigrants are
secured employment on the various _fazendas_. A record is kept of each
_fazendero_ to see if he carries out his contracts. Notices are posted up
where labour is wanted on _fazendas_ or railroads. Written contracts are
made and signed between employer and employee in legal form. The wages
generally received are from $.90 to $1.25 per day for such labourers.
Interpreters are kept who are able to converse in the many languages that
will be required. The labourer is then forwarded to his destination in
the interior at government expense. It is far different from the way they
are received in our own land, and I only wish that a few hundred thousand
of those seeking the shores of the United States each year would turn
their steps down this way. They would be better off there than they are
in our own great cities.

When I visited this immigration station there were about nine hundred
immigrants there who had just been landed. Of this number four-fifths
were Spaniards, with a sprinkling of Russians, Poles, Austrians,
Hungarians and Italians. A few days later I saw a couple of hundred
more of the same varied nationalities landed at Santos, and loaded on a
special train for São Paulo. I always pity these poor immigrants who come
to a new country with no money, few clothes, many children, and nothing
else but a big hope of something, or faith in somebody, in their breast.
The total number of immigrants reaching all Brazil in the past year, the
excess over those leaving, would not exceed eighty thousand.

The government of São Paulo has established a number of colonies in the
state, one or two of which I visited. In these colonies the land is
platted in tracts of about fifty acres, which are sold to the colonists
at $500 per tract, payable one-tenth each year. The colonist is allowed
to live one year free of charge in the colony house, but within this time
he must construct his own home. Some of these colonies have proven quite
successful, and many immigrants have thus been able to acquire a home
with their own vine and fig tree surrounding it. It is certainly the best
thing for the colonist, for he has a chance to secure his own home and
that ought to be a stimulus to bring out the best there is in a man. In
the less developed part of the state, lands will be given the colonist
practically free.

The Italian element in Brazil is large, and is increasing each year by
immigration. In all of the cities of southern Brazil the Italians are
numerous, but they probably reach their largest percentage in the state
of São Paulo, where they number about forty per cent. of the population.
Of the two and a half millions of people in that state there are perhaps
one million of Italian birth. Everywhere one can see evidences of these
children of sunny Italy, who have sought homes in the new land because
of the overcrowding at home. Most of them come from northern Italy, and
they are said to make better workmen than those from Southern Italy. It
would be difficult for the coffee planters to work their plantations were
it not for these people, and every plantation has one or several colonies
of these labourers. They are generally preferred to the negro labourers
by the planters. The most of them are industrious and frugal. Many of
them eventually join one of the government colonies, and purchase a small
tract of land; others become tradesmen, and open a small store to cater
to those of their own nationality; still others travel from door to door
selling small household articles needed by the housewives. One will hear
the same street cries, see the same characteristic packs and bundles,
and observe the same styles of dress that are common in the northern
provinces of Italy. In recent years the number of Italians coming to
Brazil has because of restrictions of the Italian government.

There is still an abundance of soil in this state, nearly three times as
large as all New England, awaiting development. The entire western half,
which is composed of fertile virgin soil, is practically unexploited.
The recent completion of the railroad, which follows the Tieté River
to its junction with the Paraná, will open that section to emigration.
Along this river, and the other water courses of the state, much fine
hardwood timber is found that is well adapted for finishing lumber. Some
of the woods are similar to and will take as fine a polish as mahogany.
The difficulty is in marketing them. The logs will not float, so that it
is necessary to build rafts on which to transport them. As none of the
streams flow direct to the Atlantic, the logs must be sent down through
the La Plata system, and the many waterfalls make this impracticable.
Cheap railroad rates furnish the only solution to this problem.

The water power awaiting development in this state is almost incredible.
As the rainfall is large and frequent the volume of water is constant
and reliable. On the Tieté River alone there are hundreds of feet of
hydraulic falls that could furnish thousands of horsepower energy for
practical purposes. The same might be said of the Piracicaba, the Rio
Grande, the Paranapanema, and the Mogy-Guassu Rivers, as well as the
mighty Paraná itself, which forms the western boundary of São Paulo.

One of the most interesting trips made by me in Brazil was to Riberão
Preto, which is in the very centre of the richest coffee district in
the world. The route first led over the tracks of the São Paulo Railway
to the town of Jundiahy. This line runs through the hills and gradually
reaches a lower level. No villages of importance are passed until
Jundiahy is reached, and that is interesting only as a railroad junction
point. Here a change was made to the Paulista Railway, over which a ride
of an hour takes the traveller to Campinas, a city once very flourishing
because the centre of the coffee trade. During the past few years this
town has declined, because the coffee production in this neighbourhood
has greatly decreased. The city probably contains twenty-five thousand
people, and is a typical Brazilian town—far more representative than
its more successful rival of São Paulo. There are hundreds of acres
of coffee trees still producing in the Campinas district, but they are
not well kept, as it seems to be the general intention of abandoning
it when the present trees cease to bear. I visited one plantation in
this neighbourhood, the Fazenda da Lapa, and it was very interesting,
because it was the first one that I had examined, but it cannot compare
with the ones later to be described. The charming hospitality of these
_fazenderos_ is most captivating. On the visit to this plantation the
owner served us a meal of fruit fit for a king’s table. It was in the
early days of January, and we had oranges, bananas, figs, mangoes,
pineapples, strawberries, plums and several varieties of grapes, all
of them raised on the plantation, and most of which we had ourselves
assisted in picking.

[Illustration: THE PICTURESQUE FAZENDA DA LAPA AT CAMPINAS.]

At Campinas is located the Instituto Agronomico, which is an experimental
institution of the state government. Its purpose is to study the various
enemies which attack vegetation and discover means, if possible, for
their eradication. It also experiments with the raising of various kinds
of grain, and the cultivation of fruits. The work laid out for this
institution is a good one, for what is needed in Brazil is a practical
application of good agricultural principles, a study of the soil and a
knowledge of what it is adapted for. The equipment of this institution
is good, and the buildings are large and commodious. But a great deal of
money is spent for what might be termed the show features, where it could
better be expended for practical purposes. There is a great field, I
believe, for the cultivation of fruits. In a country such as this, where
fruit trees grow almost without cultivation, a very large percentage of
the fruits are imported. For instance, at the hotels the fruit served
would be American or Portuguese apples, and Malaga grapes. And yet, right
here at this institute, I saw grapes finer, in my opinion, than those
brought over thousands of miles of water. With proper cultivation nearly
every one of the common fruits of the tropical and temperate zone could
be raised here, and of fine quality. Instead, thousands of dollars are
sent out of the country for the fruits which might be better raised at
home.

From Campinas the journey was continued over the Mogyana Railroad, a
narrow gauge track. The line passes through coffee plantations for some
distance, and then into uncultivated lands, where the only industry
is the raising of stock. A part of the land traversed is abandoned
agricultural land, and part of it has never been under cultivation. The
cattle seen on these farms are only of fair quality, for not much care
has been taken in breeding the animals up to a high standard. With many
bends and graceful curves the road follows a stream, cuts across valleys
and around hills. There is no part of the ten hours’ journey when hills
of fair size are not a prominent feature in the foreground. A number
of towns are passed, and a few very narrow gauged railroads run off
to plantations, which cannot be seen from the railroads. The soil is
almost the colour of dried blood, and this red dirt filters in through
the windows in great clouds. This blood-red dust colours everything it
touches with a reddish hue. The clothing is soon tinted with it, and even
the children’s complexions show the effects, for Brazilian children, like
their cousins all over the world, like to play in the dirt. But this red
soil is good coffee land, and coffee plantations are seen crowning the
summits of the hills. At last the train reaches Riberão Preto, near which
are situated the best and largest coffee plantations, not only in Brazil
but in the world. The town is comparatively modern, for this district
is newer than Campinas, and it has been growing in importance year after
year in the past two decades. It is now a city of ten or fifteen thousand
people.

[Illustration: “MONTE ALEGRE” FAZENDA.]

At the station were waiting carriages from the hospitable “Monte Alegre”
_fazenda_, the residence of Colonel Francisco Schmidt, who is known as
the “coffee king.” This man came to Brazil as a poor emigrant boy a half
century ago, and hoed coffee trees for other _fazenderos_, and on lands
which he now owns. Seated on the broad veranda of “Monte Alegre,” one
could see avenues of coffee trees stretching out over the hills, and
good coffee lands are always hilly, until they were lost in the horizon.
Although it was not possible to see, yet one knew that they continued in
the same unbroken rows down the other slope. I rode in a carriage with
the Colonel for hours through a continuous succession of coffee trees,
during the three days that I was his guest, with no end in sight. When
you consider that there are from two hundred and fifty to three hundred
trees to each acre, you will readily realize that the number of trees
soon runs into the thousands, then into the tens of thousands, and
finally into the millions. So do not be surprised when I tell you that
this coffee king has already growing upon his various _fazendas_ the
almost incredible number of eight million coffee trees. I did not see all
of them, but I saw so many that numbers lost their meaning, and I could
only think in millions.

Twenty-three million pounds of coffee were marketed by this man in one
year. This is enough to give every man, woman and child in the United
States and Canada a cup of coffee for breakfast for one week. He has
twenty railroad stations on his thirty-two different _fazendas_. He has
twenty machines run by water or steam power for cleaning coffee, and
acres upon acres of drying yards, all of which are scenes of activity
in the harvesting season. Nearly a thousand horses are employed in the
work of the plantations, besides more than that number of mules and oxen.
There is also a fully-equipped sugar mill, which turns out thousands of
pounds of refined sugar each year. In fact, the Colonel told me, as we
were seated at the great dining table, that would seat forty persons,
and which was spread with the good things of life: “Everything on the
table, except the flour used in making the bread, was raised on this
plantation.”

The Colonel reminded me of the feudal lords of old, for the eight
thousand people who live on his plantations not only depend on him for
labour, but look up to him and tip their hats respectfully whenever they
see him. The work of taking care of the coffee trees is all let out to
families at so much a thousand trees per year, and a family will take
care of five thousand trees. The price paid is from $25.00 to $30.00
per thousand per year for hoeing and cleaning the fields, and they are
paid in addition to this for picking the coffee at established rates.
Furthermore, they are permitted to plant corn and beans in between the
coffee rows which gives them an extra profit. Day labourers are paid at
the rate of $.90 to $1.00 for each day’s work.

Everything about this plantation is conducted in a systematic manner, and
in that is the secret of Colonel Schmidt’s success. The thirty-two farms
are all connected with his home by telephone, for which more than eighty
miles of telephone wire have been strung. Everything, including plumbing
supplies, is kept in systematic order and the owner himself knows where
each article may be found. Machinery when not in use is carefully stored
under shelter to protect it from rust. A half dozen blacksmiths, as
many woodworkers, harnessworkers, shoemakers, etc., are kept on the
plantation, and even a private tailor is employed at the house. A dozen
or more general stores are operated for supplying the wants of the
employees. With this and much more detail this great plantation is run on
modern business methods, with as perfect a system of bookkeeping as the
average business man employs. From these books can be told at a glance
the exact cost of each plantation for each year, its production and the
net profit to the owner. And, above all, the Colonel is a charming host,
and finds time to make it interesting for those, like myself, who visit
him where he is king.

[Illustration: A RUBBER PLANTATION OF MANIÇOBA RUBBER TREES.]

The “Dumont” _fazenda_ adjoins the one just described, and it is the
second largest plantation in Brazil, and perhaps in the world. It was
formerly owned by the family of Santos-Dumont, the aeronaut, but is now
under the control of an English company. They own a private railroad with
more than forty miles of track, which runs to Riberão Preto. The track
is only twenty-six inches wide, and the cars are rather narrow with room
for only one person on each side of the aisle. A special train, with
the best car the road possesses, drawn by a Baldwin engine, was sent for
us and we were taken over the coffee plantation, which possesses nearly
five million trees. It was also very interesting to travel over the
thousands of acres owned by them, in and through the rows of coffee trees
which almost brushed up against the car in places, in this comfortable,
if diminutive coach, and see the methods of culture and care of the
coffee, which is slightly different than that pursued on the other. It
was also interesting to find an up-to-date American in charge of the
vast interests of this English company, and to know that one of our own
nationality is making good in the coffee-raising industry as well as in
other lines. This company markets all its own coffee through an auxiliary
company in England in packages under its own labels. The “Dumont”
_fazenda_ is also conducting an experiment in rubber culture, and now
has forty thousand trees growing, some of which are almost ready to tap.
If rubber continues to advance, as it has in the past year, this part of
their plantation may prove more profitable than the growing of coffee.



CHAPTER VII

AN AMERICAN COLONY UNDER THE SOUTHERN CROSS


Have you ever heard of the Villa Americana in Brazil?

Quite likely you have not, for I had never heard of it myself until my
visit to that interesting country brought it to my notice. We frequently
hear of German villages, Hungarian settlements and Italian colonies,
but a settlement of North Americans on the other side of the equator is
something new. And yet the colony is not new, for it was established more
than a generation ago; children have grown up and married, who still call
themselves North Americans, and who have never set foot on soil over
which waves the stars and stripes. In travelling over Brazil I frequently
met with American young men and women who informed me that they came from
the Villa Americana. So often did that name reach my ears that I decided
to visit this place, and see for myself what kind of a settlement it was,
and how these voluntarily expatriated fellow countrymen lived in this
land so different from our own. It is a journey of about two hours from
Campinas on the Paulista Railway.

But first let me tell you the history of this colony. At the close of the
civil war many Southern families, whose plantations had been devastated
by the northern armies, felt that they could not live again under the
old flag. Proud spirited and unconquered, these brave southern veterans
who had marched with Stonewall Jackson, and the Lees, and Johnsons,
decided that they would leave the land that had given them birth and seek
fortunes anew in a new land, and amidst new surroundings. Brazil appealed
to the leaders in this movement because the plantation system was
similar to that under which they had been raised, and slavery was legal
in that land, which was still an empire. A few men went as an advance
guard and selected a site about one hundred miles northwest of the city
of São Paulo. A favourable report was made to those still back in the
States, and it was not long until several hundred families had left their
Southern homes, and were making new homes underneath the Southern Cross.
In all it is estimated that at least five hundred American families
located in that section of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between the
years 1865 and 1870. They came from Texas, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee,
and perhaps one or two other of the seceding states.

As I stepped off the _rapido_, as the express train is called down
there, the name Villa Americana, which means American Village, on the
neat little station struck a sympathetic chord in my heart. It seemed
good also to see a number of tall, slender men, typical Southern types,
such as one might see at almost any station in Tennessee or Georgia,
standing on the platform awaiting the incoming train. One member of the
colony, who was in the government employ, was with me and performed the
introductions necessary. “How do you do,” “Glad to see you,” “Come around
and see me,” and similar cordial expressions came from every one. And
the best of it is that they were sincere, and not the empty, meaningless
expressions so often heard. It was a pleasure to accept several of these
invitations, as many as my limited time allowed.

[Illustration: VIEW IN VILLA AMERICANA.]

On entering the home of perhaps the most prosperous member of this
colony I felt like standing at “attention,” and giving a salute when I
saw the silk starred and striped banner of Uncle Sam fastened up on the
wall of the “best room.” The house itself, with its large hall, roomy
apartments and broad veranda surrounding the house, looked like one
of the plantation houses so common in the South. This man had a large
family of children, all of whom, with one exception, had been educated
in the schools of the United States, and two boys were at that time in
one of our colleges. About the whole house was an American atmosphere
that warmed the very heart’s blood in a traveller so far away from home.
And so it was in the other houses I visited; in every one was the same
cordiality, the same pleasure at seeing some one from the “States,”
and the same loyalty to everything American. In some of the younger
members one could detect a slight accent in speaking English, which is
always noticeable when children learn a Latin tongue in their babyhood.
The older ones said that these young people speak the Portuguese with
a similar foreign accent. The young ladies of the American colony,
and there are a number of them, were typical American girls, bright,
cheery and free as their sisters are at home, and so different from the
Brazilian young women among whom they live, and who are so hampered by
the customs and traditions of the race. We took a “trolley” ride over the
settlement, but it is rather different from the American trolley, for it
is nothing more than an old-fashioned buckboard.

Many of the original members of the colony became dissatisfied, and
returned to their former homes. There are, however, four or five hundred
Americans still living in this colony, or within a radius of a few miles.
A few have moved to other parts of Brazil, and others have intermarried
with Brazilians; but, in general, they have remained true to their
Americanism. Some of the original families purchased slaves and worked
their plantations in that way, until that institution was abolished in
1888. A few have prospered very much, but many others have done just
fairly well. One of the wealthiest men made his little fortune out of
watermelons. Others have sugar plantations and make brandy, or raise
coffee; and still others do general farming, similar to what they were
accustomed in the Southern States. A Protestant church, called the Union
Church, adorns one hill, and a school-house in a conspicuous building is
in another part of the village.

[Illustration: A BRAZILIAN FRUIT MARKET. MELONS FROM VILLA AMERICANA.]

Some one had told me that the war was a tabooed subject; that the few
older members still left were fighting the battles over. When I met the
oldest member of the colony, who had left the United States in 1865,
the impulse came to test this subject. I mentioned the fact that my
own father had served in the Union army and fought for his country on
that side. This old man, who was past the allotted three score and ten,
and who had fought with that intrepid warrior, Stonewall Jackson, then
told me the whole history of the colony, and the causes that led to its
establishment. “It was a mistake,” he said, “but we did not realize it
then, and afterwards it was too late to sacrifice what we had here and
move back. We still love the old flag.” When I left, he gave me the
Brazilian embrace as a special mark of favour; and I verily believe that
I left a good friend in this old man who had the traits that we all love
in the Southern gentleman.

When Senator Root, then Secretary of State, visited Brazil four years
ago, a new station was named Elihu Root in his honour on the Paulista
Railway, and this name stands out conspicuously on every time-table of
that line. The special train conveying him passed through the Villa
Americana, and he was asked to stop and address the Americans. When the
train stopped many of the older residents met him with tears in their
eyes; and, I was told, the eyes of the distinguished American were not
dry; and he has said that it was the most pathetic incident in his trip.
He was asked whether it would be better for the colony to remain in
Brazil or return to the United States. “Stay where you are,” he said,
“and be good Brazilians. You will find the States so changed that they
would no longer seem like home.”

The Secretary was right. A few months before my own visit one of the
prosperous members of the colony went, with his family, to his old home
in Texas, with the intention of remaining there. He left his property in
the hands of an agent for sale. A few weeks after his arrival in Texas he
cabled to his agent not to sell the property, as he was coming back. In a
few months he and his family returned to the Villa, giving as his reason
that the old neighbourhood had changed so much that it did not seem so
much like home as Brazil.

The members of this colony are now Brazilian subjects, the younger ones
because of their birth in that land, and the older ones by virtue of a
general proclamation. Few of them actually take any part in the politics
of the land. All of them, of course, speak the Portuguese language,
but use the English in their homes. They are still Americans at heart.
My visit to this little American settlement in the very heart of the
great Republic of Brazil will always remain a pleasant memory of a most
delightful trip.



CHAPTER VIII

THE TEMPERATE ZONE


Brazil is not all within the tropics. The Tropic of Capricorn passes
through the suburbs of the city of São Paulo. South of this line is the
temperate zone, within which is included the states of Santa Catharina
and Rio Grande do Sul, almost the entire state of Paraná, and a part of
the states of São Paulo and Matto Grosso. Leaving São Paulo, a ride of
two hours over a unique railroad carries the traveller to the busiest
port in Brazil. The ride down the Serro is delightful on a clear day.
The train is divided into small sections, each with its own powerful
little engine, which are attached to a cable. One section is always taken
up while another is going down in order to balance the load. Through
tunnels, over tressels and along shelves cut out of the solid rock, the
train gradually descends until the coast level is reached, and a short
ride carries the traveller into the splendid station at Santos.

The city of Santos is not alone one of the most important ports of
Brazil, but of the world as well, because of the enormous quantity of
coffee shipped from it. At one time it was noted in a different way. It
was then regarded as one of the most unhealthy cities in the Americas.
I talked with a man who had lived there for twenty-five years, and he
told me that in times of pestilence the dead bodies would be taken out to
the cemetery by the score each day. People who went there hardly dared
to breathe, so fearful were they of contagion. The Brazilian government
deserves great credit for the changes that have been wrought in Santos,
for the death rate is no greater than in the average coast city, as
complete sanitation has been effected, and a good water supply brought in.

The name of Santos is an abbreviation of the original name Todos os
Santos (All the Saints), for it was on All Saints’ Day that the site
was discovered by Braz Cubras, in 1543. It was plundered by the English
Vice-Admiral Cook in 1651, under orders from Admiral Thomas Cavendish.
Because of its admirable bay Santos early became an important port. It is
situated on a point of land which becomes an island in the rainy season.
It looks quite picturesque as one sails up the channel to the docks,
with the tropical vegetation and the surrounding hills which slope almost
to the water’s edge.

It is the only harbour along the Atlantic coast where vessels can unload
without resort to lighters. A very extensive system of docks has been
constructed here, which will be two and one-half miles in length when
finished. Several dozen vessels will then be able to lay at the wharf
at the same time, as frequently happens in the busy season. More than
one thousand boats call here each year. The city is not especially
interesting, as there is nothing to distinguish it from other Brazilian
cities. The main interest lies along the docks. And, by the way, the
Docas de Santos Company have a contract that is worth a fortune. This
company constructed the docks, and are given a concession which is
bringing in millions of dollars in profit.

[Illustration: LOADING COFFEE AT SANTOS DOCKS.]

In the coffee season the docks, the streets of the shipping quarter
and the warehouses have a busy appearance. The streets are almost
rendered impassable by the wagons loaded with bags of coffee. Dozens of
_carigadores_ hurry back and forth between the wagons and warehouses,
or between warehouses and boats, with two or three bags of coffee on
their shoulders. Women dart here and there among the wagons, and pick,
or scrape up, the berries which have been spilled upon the ground during
the loading and unloading; and they sometimes realize a fair sum for a
day’s work. In the warehouses the coffee is emptied out in immense piles,
sorted and resacked in bags of uniform weight, and then stacked up in
piles which number thousands of bags. From these docks the coffee is sent
out to Europe and America, and from there distributed to all parts of the
civilized world.

The through steamers to Argentina and Uruguay do not stop at any
Brazilian ports south of Santos, so that it is necessary to take the
national boats. It is a law of the country that coast steamers must fly
the Brazilian flag. There are two lines that make the various stops, of
which the Costeira Line of Lage Brothers is probably the best, as they
have English captains.

After leaving Santos the tropical plants and palms grow less luxuriantly,
and the vegetation more closely resembles our Gulf States. The first port
at which the boat stops is Paranaguá, the only harbour, and the only
port of any importance on the coast of the state of Paraná, a state about
the size of Pennsylvania. There is a strip of lowland along the coast
that is subtropical, being low, flat and marshy. On these marsh lands
rice has been very successfully cultivated during the past few years.
West of the coast range of mountains the climate is more temperate, and
there are some fine plateaus that extend as far as the Paraná River on
the western boundary.

[Illustration: CUTTING RICE WITH AN AMERICAN HARVESTER.]

Paranaguá is a thriving town of ten thousand or more, and has one of the
finest harbours on the coast. From this port a railway has been built to
the capital, Curytiba, and Ponta Grossa, the second largest town in the
state, a distance of nearly two hundred miles. This line is a triumph
of engineering, for it climbs over the Serro da Mar without resorting
to the aid of cogs or cables. A ride over it affords some magnificent
views in the richness and variety of views to be seen as the train runs
around bends, and bursts forth from the many tunnels along the line. This
route is said to have been the scene of many tragic deaths during the
revolution of 1893-4, when revolutionists were carried by train to the
highest points along the line, and then brutally hurled into the depths
below.

It is a journey of about four hours to Curytiba, which is a pretty
little city of half a hundred thousand people, more or less. It is one
of the largest cities south of São Paulo, and is situated at an altitude
of 2,500 feet above sea level, thus giving it a pleasant and equable
temperature. The city is comparatively modern with the usual public
buildings of a capital, plazas filled with shrubbery and flowers, and a
Botanical Garden of which the people are very proud.

Paraná is a rich state in natural resources. It was formerly united
with São Paulo as one province, and the original inhabitants have many
of the same qualities as the Paulistas. Many foreign colonies have been
established by state aid, and some of them have prospered. Italians,
Poles and Germans constitute the colonists, of whom the Poles are
probably the most numerous. There are large areas of forests, of which a
tree known as the Paraná pine is the most common, as well as most useful.
This tree grows to a lofty and imposing height, with a trunk several feet
thick. It is used much the same as our own pine, and a great deal of it
is exported to the other Brazilian states, as well as to Argentina and
Uruguay.

The most valuable article of commerce at the present time is the _Ilex
Paraguayensis_, from which the herb maté, or Paraguay tea, is made.
Brazil is a great producer of this tea as well as coffee. From this maté
is brewed a beverage that is used by twenty million or more of South
Americans, for one will see its disciples in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay,
Chile and Argentina, and probably other countries as well. The early
Jesuit missionaries were the first discoverers of the virtue of this
plant, when they found the Indians chewed it, and by doing so were able
to undergo great hardships with very little solid food. These fathers
experimented with the shrub, or rather tree, and instructed the Indians
in its cultivation. At a later time immense forests were discovered, and
it is from them that the principal crop is now obtained.

The state of Paraná produces more of this preparation than any other
country, and several million dollars’ worth of it are shipped each year
to the other states and foreign countries. Its production has been the
source of wealth to not a few in that state, for the _yerbales_, as
the plantations are called, have proven very profitable. It is made
from the leaves of a tree that is generally about the size of an orange
tree, but will sometimes grow to a height of twenty-five feet, and
with a trunk two, and even three feet, in circumference. One tree will
oftentimes yield ninety pounds of the prepared herb. As the plantations
are generally remote, the gatherers go together in their long trips
across country. The season begins in December, and lasts for a number of
months. Firing, and in some places, the picking, drying and packing were
all formerly done on the grounds, but now machinery has been installed
for the different processes of preparing it for the market. By the old
process the maté gatherers cleared off a space of ground, and then beat
it down very hard. The freshly cut stems and leaves were first placed in
the centre and a fire built around it; then placed on poles with a fire
underneath. Drying the leaves two or three days reduced them to a dry
powder, and they were then packed in bags made ready to be taken back to
the markets. Large copper pans placed over a slow fire now take the place
of this primitive process.

A number of scientists claim high medicinal qualities for the beverage.
They say that it has more stimulating and tonic effects than the common
tea, with absolutely none of the bad or unpleasant effects. Instead of
keeping the user awake, for instance, it is claimed that the user is
never troubled with insomnia. It can be made and used the same as any
tea, but it is commonly taken from the _cuya_, and drawn up through the
_bombilla_. The _cuya_ is a small bowl or gourd, with a little opening
through which the maté is put in. Hot water is then poured over, and a
little sugar added. The _bombilla_ is a small pipe, with a strainer on
the end, through which the beverage is sipped. Some of these _cuyas_
and _bombillas_ are very elaborate and made of pure silver. Hot water
and another lump of sugar must be added every few minutes to keep it
palatable. It is a very common sight to see the natives sitting outside
their homes sipping this favourite drink of theirs, its use oftentimes
supplanting the stronger intoxicants. Some hotels and restaurants serve
it, and many foreigners become as fond of maté as those who were born in
the country, and its use is being introduced in a small way in Europe.

As the vessel proceeds farther south it stops at Florianapolis, capital
of the state of Santa Catharina. The coast of this state is, perhaps,
the most beautiful of all the Brazilian states, excepting that of Rio de
Janeiro. The maritime range rises very abruptly to a great height, with
only a very narrow strip between it and the sea. There are several good
harbours. Florianapolis lies on an island, about five miles from the
mainland which the city faces. It makes a beautiful picture. Where Rio
is grand, there is a softness about this scene that also appeals to the
poetic side of nature. Back of the city rises the background of hills,
green with semi-tropical verdure, which reach a height of three thousand
feet. The entire island is almost a garden of beauty with its variegated
hues of shrubs and flowers, and the driveways which are overhung with
trees and vines. It is not as large as Curytiba, but is more important
in a commercial sense than that neighbouring capital, because it is a
shipping port at which several vessels call each week.

The state of Santa Catharina is somewhat similar to Paraná, although not
so large. The plateaus are devoted to stock raising, of which horses
and mules form a large part. The majority of the small but tough and
wiry mules used in the states farther north come from this state.
Some tobacco, sugar and dairy products are also exported, and fruit is
now being cultivated on a much larger scale than formerly. A number
of German colonies are found in this state, and some of them are so
pronouncedly Teutonic that the Portuguese tongue is scarcely understood.
This shows not only in the architecture of these towns, but also in
the dress and manners of the inhabitants, although the greater part of
the German element has lived here for a long time. Joinville, Blumenau
and Brusque are three of these distinctly German settlements. It is a
question whether they have advanced faster than the native Brazilians.
At least it is certain that they have not kept pace with the Fatherland,
probably because there has been no continued influx of new blood into the
settlements.

Leaving Florianapolis the vessel skirts along the shores of Santa
Catharina, and for a long distance along the low coast of the state of
Rio Grande do Sul, until the port of the same name, the most southerly
port of the republic, is reached. The coast line of this state is
peculiar in that it consists of lakes or lagoons, which are separated
from the sea by comparatively narrow strips of land. The principal lake,
called Lagoa dos Patos (Ducks Lake), is one hundred and fifty miles long
and from twenty to thirty miles wide, and has only one narrow channel
connecting it with the ocean, that at Rio Grande do Sul, at its southerly
extremity. The lake is not very deep, but a twelve foot channel has been
dredged to Pelotas, and a ten foot channel has been completed almost to
Porto Alegre. At the entrance there are sandbars which make it impossible
for deep draught vessels to enter, but the coasting boats proceed up to
the furthermost extremity, at which is located the largest city of the
state, Porto Alegre, the “merry port.”

The government is now engaged in the work of dredging a channel to a
depth of ten meters (thirty-two and eight-tenths feet) over this bar
which, with the port works planned, will give Rio Grande do Sul one of
the best harbours on the Brazilian coast, and will probably make it the
chief city south of São Paulo. The cost of this improvement will be
about $10,000,000 in gold, for which a special tax of two per cent. on
all goods coming into the state through this channel has been levied.
The port works will cost almost an equal sum, and a concession has been
granted to a company which agrees to make this improvement. The plan
adopted is to construct two parallel dikes, or jetties, from the mouth of
the river into the new harbour, and there construct basins which will be
large enough to manœuvre the largest vessels afloat. Rubble stones and
immense cement blocks will be used for this work, and it is estimated
that at least four million tons of this material will be required. At
least ten million cubic yards will have to be dredged for the channel and
basins. The sand and clay brought up by the dredges will be deposited
inside the revetments in order to fill up the low land. This improvement
was formally begun December 11th, 1907, and the preliminary work has
been done, so that the main part of the undertaking is now progressing
very satisfactorily. An American engineer is in charge of the work, but
the contract is held by a French company. It is expected that this much
needed improvement, which has been under consideration for a quarter of a
century, will be completed in 1913. This will revolutionize this port and
make Rio Grande do Sul a port of call for European and American steamers.
It will not only give an easy outlet to Southern Brazil, but a much
shorter one for Northern Uruguay and a part of Argentina.

Rio Grande do Sul of to-day is a thrifty little city of twenty-five
thousand inhabitants, with pretty parks and narrow streets, but nothing
outside of its shipping to attract much attention to itself. There are
schools, colleges and churches, charitable institutions and a library,
all of which are excellent in themselves. It is about eight hundred
miles from Rio harbour. A decade hence it will be a much more important
and a much larger city than at present. A few miles farther up the lake
is the larger town of Pelotas, which is the centre of the beef curing
establishments, of which there are so many along this lake. In addition
to the beef consumed locally these _xarqueados_ prepare and export more
than $6,000,000 worth of this dried and salted meat annually.

The southern part of Rio Grande do Sul is composed of prairie lands,
called _campos_, which comprise perhaps two-thirds of the area of this
state, which is twice as large as the state of New York. These plains are
covered with pasture, and contain only a little timber along the streams.
These great _campos_ are divided up into _estancias_ or _fazendas_, which
are frequently many thousands of acres in extent. Natural boundaries,
such as streams and ridges, have generally been chosen, which not
only serve as natural fences, but settle absolutely all questions of
ownership. The house of the _estanciero_ is generally situated on an
elevation which overlooks the estate, and around it are grouped the huts
of the labourers. There is, as a rule, no cultivation of the soil except
to supply the wants of those dwelling on the estate. The entire attention
is devoted to the raising of cattle, of which there are more than four
million in the state. A few raise mules to supply the cities. The _Rio
Grandense_, as the inhabitant is called, is, first of all, a ranchman.

In the spring, men, called the _tropeiros_, visit all the _estancias_,
and bargain for the cattle at so much a head for cash. They are then
formed into great herds and driven overland to the _xarqueados_, which
is the name given to the killing establishments of Brazil. In these
establishments the salted and dried beef is prepared, which forms the
principal meat supply of central and northern Brazil, where few cattle
are raised.

[Illustration: SELLING CATTLE IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL.]

The process of preparing this meat is quite interesting, for it is so
much different from the methods of preparing and preserving beef in
our own country. Pelotas is the greatest centre of this industry, but
thousands of head of cattle are also killed at Bagé, Quarahim, San
Gabriel and other towns. The work of killing and curing is done in the
season from November to May, which are the summer months. After an animal
has been killed the carcass is taken to a long and broad dissecting
shed, where it is immediately set upon by a man and boys armed with long
knives. In less than ten minutes, as a rule, the hide has been removed,
and all the meat cut in strips and removed from the bones. These strips
of meat are made as large as possible. After being cut up the strips are
hung up for a time on poles to cool, but no artificial cooling process
is used. They are then immersed in immense tanks filled with strong salt
brine. Later, they are placed in a tank filled with a still stronger
brine, and, finally, into a third solution of great strength.

After being sufficiently soaked in this strong brine, the strips of
meat are piled up with alternate layers of salt. From these piles the
meat is laid out on rows of railings, and thoroughly dried in the sun,
which gives it the final process of curing and seasoning. This meat then
becomes the _xarque_, or jerked beef, which forms a most important
article of food in Brazil, and can be seen for sale in the meat markets
all over the country. It is bound in bales of about two hundred pounds,
covered with sacking and shipped to the markets. To use it the meat
must first be soaked for a time in water to remove the excess of the
salt preservative, and then it is boiled or roasted, making a nutritive
diet of which the people are very fond. The tongues are prepared in the
same way, and shipped to the northern markets. The hides are salted to
preserve them, the bones, horns and hoofs are boiled to remove all the
tallow and glue, and all of these products are shipped to Europe. The
process as followed to this day is a wasteful one. The same care and
economy of manufacture followed in the United States would yield far
greater profits to the manufacturers. A half million or more of cattle
are slaughtered and cured in this way, in the state of Rio Grande do
Sul each year, and it could be developed to far greater proportions
under proper management. It will not be, however, until foreign capital
develops the industry, as it has in Argentina.

[Illustration: VIEW OF PORTO ALEGRE.]

At the northern end of the lagoon is the principal city of Southern
Brazil, Porto Alegre. It is a neat and prosperous city, in which nearly
all the foreign banks and business houses doing business in Brazil
have branches. The view in travelling up the lagoon is not especially
attractive, for it consists mostly of flat fields along which are miles
of racks, on which the jerked beef is laid out to dry. The city itself
is built on a promontory which juts out into the river. The commercial
prosperity of this city began with the colonizing of a lot of Germans
soon after the revolution of the middle of the last century in Germany.
The Teutonic element is very marked in Porto Alegre, as well as in other
cities of the state, such as Novo Friburgo and São Leopoldo, which are
still more distinctly German. There is a large municipal theatre, city
hall, cathedral and other public buildings. In fact, commercially as well
as in every other way, Porto Alegre is the leading city south of São
Paulo.

Rio Grande do Sul has a population of about a million and a quarter,
thus making it fifth in population in the republic. Its climate is
temperate, and the winter season sometimes becomes quite cool. Snow
occasionally falls, and, when the cold winds blow in from the west, the
still waters freeze over. It resembles very much the plains of Uruguay,
on which also immense herds of cattle feed. A number of minerals are
found, and it contains about the only profitable coal mines that have yet
been discovered in Brazil. Near Porto Alegre are some coal mines that
have been worked for years; but they are not worked near to their full
capacity, because the freight rates are so high that the coal cannot be
shipped profitably to the other Brazilian states. A little gold is mined
as well as some silver, lead and copper. A number of precious stones such
as amethysts, topaz, tourmalines, aquamarines and moonstones are found in
certain sections.

Rio Grande do Sul has had a chequered career almost ever since its
settlement. For a long time its ownership was contested between Spaniards
and Portuguese, although at an earlier time, when the capitancias were
formed, no one considered it worth the taking. Many of the original
settlers came from the Azores, and some of the inhabitants are still
glad to call themselves Azoreans. It was not until 1822 that it was
definitely united with the rest of Brazil, but at that time it was joined
to the empire as a separate province. The independent and martial
spirit, engendered by the many wars, has made the state very independent,
and this has caused it to be turbulent. Quite a good deal of railway
construction has been done in the past decade, and this has added to
the prosperity of the country by opening up new districts to trade and
commerce. The construction of railways is comparatively easy. The Uruguay
River on the western boundary furnishes good communication with Uruguayan
and Argentinian ports, and regular steamship service is maintained on it.
There are also some rivers emptying into the lake, which are navigable
for small craft.

The state of Matto Grosso, (the dense forest) is an empire in itself, for
it contains a greater area than the original thirteen colonies. It is
one-sixth as large as the United States. It is not only an undeveloped,
but practically an unexplored country, whose resources are only half
understood. Much of it is as wild as it was when Sebastian Cabot made
his way up the Paraguay River early in the sixteenth century. All of
its supplies are conveyed up the waterways of the La Plata system, and
it takes a month to reach Cuyaba, the capital, from Rio de Janeiro.
It has a population not exceeding one person to each four square
miles of territory, so that there are few towns. Cuyaba has perhaps
twenty thousand souls, and has long ago passed the century mark of its
existence. It is said to be quite an attractive little city.

It is a five days’ ride from Rio to Buenos Ayres. From there it is a
journey of about six days up the Paraná and Paraguay Rivers to Ascuncion,
the capital of the Republic of Paraguay. A two days’ ride above
Ascuncion carries one within the borders of Matto Grosso. The Paraguay
River, which, up to this point, has been wide, gradually narrows. The
scenery becomes wilder, and the river runs between mountains, at the
base of which grow giant palms and tree-like ferns. Vines and creepers
bind together the tall trees, which stand in a mass of impenetrable
vegetation. The only break in this is an occasional farmhouse along
the bank. Many kinds of wild birds and some wild animals are seen,
alligators abound in the water and fish are plentiful. The jaguar is not
uncommon. It is only after several changes of steamers, and a journey of
twenty-seven hundred miles by river boats, that one at last reaches the
capital of this monstrous province. The Paraguay River is well adapted to
navigation. As far as Ascuncion it has a depth of at least twenty feet.
For several hundred miles above this city the depth never goes below
twelve feet. There are few islands and it is more easy of navigation
than the Paraná, which is so much obstructed by shoals and rapids. This
fortunate natural outlet will render a cheap and easy transportation for
the produce of this state when developed. The northern part of this state
drains into the Amazon, and a number of the rivers are navigable almost
to the centre of the state.



CHAPTER IX

THE AMAZON


What a prospect of unlimited forest greets the visitor to the Amazon.
What a land of dreams and mysteries is unfolded. Three or four hundred
miles to the south, and as great a distance to the north, stretches an
unbroken forest and jungle, until one reaches the open plateaus of Matto
Grosso, on one side, or the boundaries of Venezuela and the Guianas, on
the other. To the west there are trees and trees, set close together,
and mingling their boughs with the intertwining vines into a vegetable
infinity. Much of it is still an unknown land, untrodden by the foot of
white man. The tangle has been threaded at different places by exploring
expeditions and the rubber gatherers, but to the world it is still an
unconversant wilderness. A traveller finds vegetation of one kind on one
river, and the same form on another stream a hundred miles away. He then
infers that all the intervening territory has the same character, and so
reports it. He may be right; and again he may be mistaken.

In the regions between ten degrees on either side of the equator lies the
major part of this primeval forest. Forest and rivers alike depend on
the rain. The moist trade winds, which blow westward from the Atlantic,
meet the cold blasts from the lofty, snow-capped Andes, and precipitation
follows. The forests protect the rivers by preventing evaporation, and
the rivers nurse the trees by increasing the moisture in soil and air.
Thus this region, which has the greatest rainfall in the world, has
produced the mightiest river and the largest stretch of forest on the
globe.

Like a huge wall rise the tall trees on every hand. A photograph of a
thousand feet of the bank at one place would answer for the same amount
of bank at any other place, except that the palms might predominate in
some places more than at others. There are no solitary tree trunks;
neither are there groups of trees of the same species. It would scarcely
be possible to find a half-dozen trees of the same kind to the acre.
Penetrate this forest and you have the feeling of having entered a maze
or a web. There are plants and trunks but no leaves near the ground. It
is the vines that cause one to feel that he has been entrapped. Vines are
here, there and everywhere. The great tree trunks are wreathed with them,
and the branches above are woven together with them into a labyrinth of
leaves and stems. They are not little puny stems, such as may be found in
our northern woods, but many of them are giants with woody fibre, almost
like that of the tree trunks themselves. They ascend one tree and stretch
across a half a dozen others; and then may drop down to the ground again.
They are twisted, knotted and looped into almost every conceivable shape.
Some have smooth stems and others are covered with spines; some are round
or square, and others are gathered together into bundles.

Follow up the vines for fifty feet and you meet with the parasites in
countless variety. They are grouped, massed and interwoven; they cling to
the trees wherever there is a chance, and feed on the moist air. There
are hundreds of cord-like air-roots which dangle in the air, and others
send a branch down to mother earth for sustenance. Delicate orchids bloom
among the other plants on the branches. Many trees depend more on the
air than soil for sustenance. Cut a tree, and it will probably remain
green and throw off new branches. Then further up one will see the green
roof composed of the matted leaves and vines, which almost exclude the
light from the ground below. Some of the largest trees spread over the
others a wide, thick roof of verdure, like a vast umbrella. The mighty
columnar stems, which bear aloft this solid roof of lofty green, would
make the proudest of earth’s beings feel awed and humbled. The visitor
to these forests feels his own insignificance. It is almost impossible
to keep in a straight line, for in some places the thickets are too
dense to be passable. You feel your loneliness. At sea or on the desert
one has a definite horizon, a fixed boundary. Here you are absolutely
separated from the world. The thicket is so compact that oftentimes it
is impossible to see more than a score of feet. An army of men could
not find you, and, unless an experienced woodman, it would be almost
impossible to find the way by yourself. One can only tramp along hour
after hour, cutting the narrow path as well as possible, but seeing only
an interminable stretch of unbroken forest ahead as far as the eye can
penetrate.

The jaguar, called by the natives _onca_, as well as several other
species of these cat-like animals, are encountered in these forests.
The commonest variety is almost as large as the Asiatic tiger and is
sometimes almost as dangerous. The tapir is the largest animal found in
South America, and it frequents these Amazonian jungles. It is, however,
a sluggish animal, something like a large hog, but a dangerous fighter
when cornered. Monkeys abound, and their strange human-like faces may be
seen gazing down upon the unwelcome intruders from the lofty branches
above. The natives are very fond of certain species, which they esteem
a great delicacy. Small red deer are also found, but they are not so
palatable as our northern species. The paca is a rodent about two feet
long, and is considered a choice delicacy. They look very much like a rat
except that they are spotted and tailless. The sloth is one of nature’s
curiosities which seems to have been left over from a prehistoric age.
It is not only peculiar in looks, with its little round bullet-like
head, but is as peculiar in its habits. It always hangs upside down on
a limb, and lives all its days in a sort of dead calm between eating
and sleeping. It is likely to fall asleep between steps in moving from
one place to another. After taking a few steps the sloth will probably
fall in almost a state of exhaustion. Its utmost speed would probably
be fifteen or twenty feet in an hour on the ground. Like some kinds of
insects, they are distasteful to other animals, and carnivorous beasts
will eat them only as a last resort. They are sluggish and very hard to
kill, for their circulation seems to be as sluggish as their movements.
The ant-bear is another strange animal occasionally encountered, and is
very valuable, for it lives entirely on those pestering insects. The
peccary, armadillo, capivara and tatou are other animals peculiar to
these forests. Lizards are very numerous. In size they vary from the
little house lizards, which dart out from dark corners, to the big fat
ones two feet long which the natives prize very highly.

In the number and variety of fishes the Amazon is especially prolific.
Agassiz says: “The Amazon nourishes about twice as many species as the
Mediterranean, and a more considerable number than the Atlantic Ocean
from one pole to the other. All the rivers of Europe combined, from the
Tagus to the Volga, do not feed more than one hundred and fifty species
of fresh water fish, and yet in one little lake in the neighbourhood
of Manaos we have discovered more than two hundred species, the greater
part of which have not yet been observed elsewhere.” The largest is the
river cow, or manatee, which is really a mammal, although it never leaves
the water. This fish, or animal, oftentimes obtains a length of fifteen
feet, and the meat is said to taste very much like coarse pork. The most
valuable fish from a food standpoint is the pirarucu, which often grows
to seven feet in length, and weighs as much as two hundred and twenty
pounds. It has an elongated snout covered with bony plates or scales,
the body being cylindrical. It is generally caught with a harpoon in
clear water. The salted and dried meat brings a good price, and is sold
everywhere along the Amazon, making one of the principal articles of
food. The piranha is a salmon-like fish, which is rather feared for it
has a habit of biting pieces of flesh from the limbs of bathers. It is
very voracious in its eating and will take almost any kind of bait. In
some places the natives capture a supply of fish by pouring the juice of
a vine into the water, which seems to have the effect of an anæsthetic
upon them. Turtles also abound, and are considered a great delicacy
by the natives. A full grown turtle will reach three feet in length.
They are most easily caught during the egg-laying season, when they are
trapped on the sandy banks where they have gone to lay their eggs. The
latter are greedily eaten, so that it is a wonder the species does not
become extinct.

The birds of this valley are brilliant in their plumage beyond those of
any other portion of the world. Parrots and paroquets of all sorts abound
in countless numbers, some of the former being of large size. The finest
species is the hyacinthine macaw, which is three feet long from the beak
to the tip of its tail. With its beak this bird can crack a nut which it
is difficult to crack with a hammer. The toucan, with its curved beak
almost as large as its body, the curious umbrella bird, the dancing “cock
of the rock,” the humming-birds and many other species add bright flashes
of colour to the otherwise sombre colours of the woods.

It is in the numbers and varieties of insectivorous birds that these
forests specially abound. Hundreds of them may be seen at almost any time
moving about with the greatest activity, from species no larger than a
sparrow to others the size of a crow. There are tanagers, ant-thrushes,
fly-catchers and bargets, running up the trees and flitting about the
leaves or lower branches. The hustling crowd lose no time, and, although
seeming to move in concert, each bird is occupied on its own account in
searching bark, leaf or twig. Then again, in a few minutes, all these
hosts may disappear and the forest will remain deserted and silent. One
bird, the organ bird, is a remarkable songster. When its notes are heard
for the first time, it is hard to resist the impression that it is a
human voice. It is especially noticeable because of the general absence
of song birds in the tropical forests.

The numbers and varieties of insects are countless from the gorgeous
butterflies to the leaf insects, which it is almost impossible for the
uninitiated to discover because of the close resemblance to the foliage
which they inhabit. The Amazon is really the despair of the naturalist
by reason of the abundance of its plant and animal life. One naturalist
reports having found upwards of seven thousand insects in one locality.
Included in this list were five hundred and fifty distinct specimens
of the butterfly. No description can convey an adequate idea of the
beauty and diversity in form of this class of insects. There are many
beautifully coloured beetles, whose delicate tints are marvels of beauty.
There are flies which swarm along the banks in such numbers as to look
like columns of smoke. The ants themselves are an interesting study, for
their numbers are legion. There are ants that fly and ants that crawl;
some that bite and others that sting; species that are carnivorous and
species that are purely vegetable feeders; good and bad, big and little,
industrious and lazy. No form of insect life is more interesting than
these little creatures that can teach lessons to the human race. The
jaguar, or tapir, does not create so great a commotion in the forest,
as the armies of foraging ants which oftentimes march. They carry death
and destruction to all other forms of insect life which can not fly far
enough, or run fast enough, to escape these enemies. Wherever they move
the whole animal world is set in commotion, and every living creature is
possessed of but one idea, and that to get out of the way just as soon
as possible. The ants march along in solid columns in a given direction,
clearing the ground, bushes and small trees of every living thing. They
will even attack a human being, if he should fail to get out of the way,
and a few bites or stings will soon cause him to scamper away as fast as
his legs can carry him.

[Illustration: A SCENE ON THE AMAZON NEAR ITS MOUTH.]

For more than a hundred miles before reaching the mouth of the Amazon its
dirty current colours the otherwise blue waters of the Atlantic. Entering
the delta by one of the numerous outlets, the steamer passes through
channels which are surrounded on either side by islands covered with
dense vegetation a hundred feet or more high, with a border of lilies
and other aquatic plants. It is like a fairy garden, and the islands are
peopled with a noisy population of monkeys and parrots. Occasionally, a
huge snake may be exposed to view on the limb of a tree. There are many
kinds of trees, from adolescent saplings, as big as your arm, to immense
trunks many feet through. And what a variety of palms! There are little
palms that branch out like fans and do not grow high. There are palms,
loaded with cocoanuts, which lean out over the water’s edge at a very
pronounced angle. One species is armed with fearful spines, but bears
an edible nut, while the cohune palm grows great clusters of hard, oily
nuts. Above all the members of this arborial family tower the lofty
royal palms, which are the aristocrats of this family.

The native finds this tropical tree most useful, for

    “To him the palm is a gift divine,
    Wherein all uses of man combine,
    House and raiment and food and wine.”

The tree which bears the Brazil nuts of commerce is one of the highest of
the Amazonian trees and overtops the royal palm. Its foliage is of a deep
green and spreads out on all sides. The nuts grow in a great pod as large
as a good-sized apple, and inside the thick husk will be found fifteen or
twenty of these rich and delicious nuts. Flowering trees are omnipresent
in these forests, and some of them are covered with beautiful flowers; or
perhaps it may be a vine that bears the flowers one sees in the canopy
overhead. They are neither buttercups nor violets, and yet it may be that
they resemble those better known blossoms.

After threading this system of narrow channels the boat enters the river
proper, which at first is very wide and is more like an inland sea;
the natives call it the sea-river. In places it opens out in sea-like
expanses; at times the boat coasts along the shore near enough to hear
the monkeys chatter, and again it is out so far that the shore is only
a hazy line. The lower river varies from two to ten miles in width, but
you are never sure whether you are not mistaking the shores of islands
for the actual banks of the river. Slowly past you floats débris that has
come for two thousand miles on these yellow waters. Mixed up with the
water may be soil from Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and half of the republics
of South America. You pass the mouths of streams which are themselves
navigable for a thousand miles by vessels. In all it has been said that
the Amazon and its tributaries furnish fifty thousand miles of navigable
waters, half of which are available for steamers. There are few towns of
any size, and only a few miserable little villages. Along the bank is
an occasional cleared patch on which stands the little wood and thatch
hut of a rubber gatherer. Naked babies play on the shores and barefooted
men and women gaze at your steamer as it goes by. There are no roads in
the forest, and if a path is blazed to-day in six months it would be
impassable. Every one travels by water, except the rubber gatherers and
medicine hunters, who chop their way through the undergrowth.

Nature’s apothecary shop is located here, for hundreds of medicinal
plants have been found in these woods and jungles. Sarsaparilla is
probably the most profitable, but ipecac, oil of copaiba, and many other
drugs useful in stopping a tooth-ache or poisoning a dog, are extracted
from trees and vines of the Amazon Valley. Gums and balsams, essential
oils and dyeing substances, spices and aromatic plants are also among the
varied products.

Rain! Rain! Rain! One tires of hearing its ceaseless patter on the roof,
and everything is soon covered with a coat of rust. Every article made of
leather, which is allowed to stand for a few days, becomes covered with a
down-like fungi of green mould. From November to February is the “rainy”
season, and then the rain falls in perfect torrents, and the Amazon, fed
by all its connecting streams, rises twenty-five, thirty or forty feet
above its usual level. Thousands of square miles of territory are then
submerged, and inland seas are formed in many places. The fall of the
river is not more than two hundred inches in the first thousand miles
from its mouth, and the current is not very swift. For this distance the
depth will average one hundred and fifty feet.

After travelling up the Amazon as far as from Boston to Chicago the Rio
Negro is reached. The name means the black river. As one writer says,
“the Rio Negro is as black as one’s hat and the Amazon is as yellow as
pea soup.” It is a very wide river at its mouth, and the steamer turns up
into its black waters. Just ahead may be seen a haze of white buildings
with their red tile roofs. Here, in the midst of this vast wilderness,
where the forest stretches out for hundreds of miles in each direction,
and where a monkey could travel for days by jumping from branch to
branch, is located a live, hustling town with fine public buildings,
electric lights, electric tram lines and a theatre that would be a credit
to any town. The ridges of the roofs are sometimes so covered with
turkey-buzzards as almost to make one think at first sight that they are
artificial ornaments. They used to be the chief sanitary force, but the
new waterworks and sewer system have greatly relieved their labours. Like
Pará, this city smells of rubber and the day dreams of the inhabitants
are permeated with that one idea.

Above the junction with the Rio Negro the Amazon is called the Solimoes,
for a thousand miles, and beyond that it is known as the Marañon. At
Iquitos, in Peru, this river is a mile wide. The area of the basin
of this river is three times that of the Mississippi. The Tocantins,
Xingu, Tapajos, Purus, Negro, Jurua, and Madeira, all noble streams in
themselves, pour their floods into this one channel. The last named
river leads to the famous Acre territory, which has proven a bonanza for
Brazil. She paid Bolivia $9,600,000 in 1904, and in the next five years
it paid back nearly $24,000,000 in export duties on rubber alone.

The great traveller of a century ago, Baron von Humboldt, declared
that “The valley of the Amazon in the near future is bound to become a
great centre of civilization and the world’s greatest storehouse.” This
prediction has not proven true, for more than a century has passed since
the statement was made and little development has been made. The natural
resources are there, just as Humboldt saw them, however, and still await
the efforts of man to turn them to good account. Right at the mouth of
the Amazon lies the great state of Pará, as large as two states the size
of Texas, with only half a million inhabitants, less than one person
to each square mile of territory, scattered over its confines. It has
a fertile soil capable of producing almost anything necessary for the
support and comfort of life; it possesses tablelands at an elevation
high enough to escape the moisture of the river and continued heat of a
tropical sun; in the mouth of the Amazon is an island almost as large as
Portugal, which is capable of supplying thousands of head of cattle for
the world’s food supply.

The trouble with Pará is that the people think of nothing, deal in
nothing and dream of nothing but rubber. To quote the American Consul:
“Last year the United States took twenty thousand tons of crude rubber
at a cost of $64,000,000, and we are still howling for more. The other
things we took are small, although Brazil nuts, balsams, deerskins and a
few other items amounted to something. What did we send them? Practically
nothing that they could buy elsewhere. Some flour, petroleum, hardware
and such other things as they themselves have looked up and found good.”
And yet the city of Pará is a thousand miles nearer to New York than it
is to London or Hamburg, where the principal buying is done. The federal
government receives twenty per cent. of the market value of every ton of
rubber shipped, and in return promises, at some time in the future, to
give the people good roads and other improvements. That happy day has not
yet arrived, but rubber seems to be becoming higher each year and more
difficult to procure. This perhaps accounts for the lack of improvement
in some directions, that neither government nor people take time to think
of anything except the one staple of rubber.

The city of Santa Maria de Belem do Pará is the principal port of the
Amazon basin, and the greatest rubber shipping port in the world. It lies
nearly a hundred miles from the Atlantic, but is as much on the Atlantic
as New Orleans is on the Gulf, and is usually called an Atlantic port.
It is only a few miles from the equator, and consequently is quite hot,
for its elevation is only a few feet above sea level. And yet right here,
almost on the “line,” has grown up a beautiful city of over one hundred
thousand people, who enjoy life and live almost as many years as those
in more favourable locations. This city with the long name is generally
known as Pará, although Belem, meaning Bethlehem, is the proper name.
It is perhaps the prettiest city in Brazil, except Rio de Janeiro, and
has many parks and plazas filled with the luxuriant vegetation and
noble palms which grow so luxuriantly here. Statues ornament nearly all
of their public squares and parks, and many of them are well done. The
public buildings are numerous and tasty, as is most of the architecture
of the country.

The sanitary conditions of the city have been greatly improved in the
past few years, and a new sewer system to be worked by pumps something
like the New Orleans method has just been begun. It is as a shipping port
that the city is best known. To quote again from the American Consul:
“Eight hundred and fifty-three steamers entered the port of Pará in 1908,
having a tonnage of nine hundred and fifty thousand tons, but it was
mainly remarkable for the fact that we did not fly the flag on even one
cargo boat.” It is only in the last few decades that this city has become
very important, for no longer ago than the Civil War Pará was only a
tropical trading port.

The docks are busy places, for steamers from all parts of the world, and
flying many flags, come here. Men of all shades, from a dirty yellow to
black and white, are busy handling the staple commodity of rubber. The
rubber is all put up in sacks, and taken to the shipping houses, of
which there are scores near the wharves. Every one handles “caoutchouc”
and the air smells of it, the hot sun giving it an odour of burnt rubber.
Everywhere they are cutting the dried rubber, which looks like great
cheeses, chopping it, packing it, carrying it and loading it on vessels.

The Amazon district dominates the rubber market of the world. Pará and
Manaos are the greatest rubber exporting ports of that district. From
these cities the rubber buyers make their expeditions into the very heart
of the Amazon, and its many tributaries are nearly all the home of rubber
gatherers. From these centres the Indian gatherers make their expeditions
by canoe, and through almost trackless forests to the trees which they
are tapping. These trees do not grow in clumps, but one will be found
here, another there, and oftentimes these single trees are at a distance
of several hundred yards from each other. The amount of crude rubber that
the native can gather depends on how close the trees may be to each other.

Upwards of one hundred rubber-bearing trees, vines and shrubs have
been classified; but the one known as the _Hevea_ is the rubber tree
_par excellence_ of Brazil. It is indigenous to the Amazon and its
tributaries. Trees are oftentimes found which are as much as twelve
feet in circumference, but those are exceptional. They require an
abundance of moisture, and it is only in the thick forest, where the
necessary moisture is constant and abundant, that they will reach this
extraordinary size, although the trees can be successfully cultivated. It
is quite probable that thousands of these trees are still undiscovered,
and perhaps large districts still await development; but it is equally
certain that the rubber prospector has threaded his way through thousands
of miles of Amazonian jungle in his search after this profitable article
of commerce. The present unprecedented prices have bestirred the
exporting firms to feverish activity. Sections of hitherto unpierced
forest are now being treaded by the prospector, with his Indian guides
busily engaged in cutting a path through the dense undergrowth and
labyrinth of vines. The howling of the enraged beasts thus disturbed in
their lairs, the fear of poisonous snakes, the dread of the fever-laden
mosquito, the annoyance of troublesome insects are nothing, with the
price of rubber soaring upwards towards three dollars per pound.

An American rubber expert, who recently visited the Amazon rubber camps,
says: “The past year more than seventy thousand tons of crude rubber,
having a value approximating $300,000,000, were produced, of which forty
thousand tons came out of the Amazon River. This was wholly wild rubber,
gathered almost entirely from a belt extending along the Amazon and its
tributaries, and running less than three miles into the interior. The
vast forest beyond these borders is substantially untouched; but with
the building of the railroad around the falls of the Madeira, which will
be completed in 1911, with the building of roads through the forest
connecting up rivers, and with the introduction of the gasoline boat,
vast districts heretofore inaccessible will be brought within the reach
of the rubber gatherer; and, while the gain in production each year has
been approximately but ten per cent. over the previous year, there is
no question that this percentage will increase largely from this time
forward.”

It is not the sap of the tree that produces the rubber, but a juice which
is yielded by the bark. As it flows this juice has the appearance of
milk, and acts in much the same way. If left to itself it will separate
into a lower fluid and a surface mass like cream, and this is the
so-called india-rubber. Less than fifteen per cent. of this “cream” in
the product of the tree is unprofitable and does not pay for the working.
Various ways have been devised to separate the rubber by processes of
coagulation. The native method has always been by a smoking heat, but
in some places chemicals are used; again separators, similar to those
employed in butter making, have been introduced with good results, so
it is said. The method and care used has a very marked influence on the
price and value of the crude rubber in the markets. The heating by smoke
is generally considered to produce the cleanest and purest form of rubber
for commercial export.

The tapping of a rubber tree is a seemingly simple operation, and yet it
requires considerable skill to so tap a tree as to produce the maximum
of sap, and inflict the minimum of injury to the tree. A tree properly
treated will stand continual tapping for twenty years, while a tree
abused might die after two or three seasons. Hence it is to the interest
of all to preserve the life of the tree. The tapper first affixes a small
cup to the tree, and then with a wedge-shaped axe makes a gash in the
bark, being careful not to penetrate the wood. This operation is repeated
at intervals of a foot in a line around the tree. Into these cups the
milk flows slowly. The next day a row of incisions is made just below the
first, and so on until the ground is reached. A good tree will yield up
to a height of at least twenty feet. An expert can tap a hundred trees a
day, provided that they are close together. The sap, which is collected
once each day, is then brought to the camp. Heat is then applied and
the crude rubber is made into roughly-shaped balls of different sizes.
The buyers usually cut these in two in order to see that no extraneous
substance has been placed inside to give weight. Stones have frequently
been found moulded in with the rubber, and stones are easier to gather
even along the Amazon than rubber. Many plantations of rubber trees,
principally of the Maniçoba species, which will grow on higher and drier
lands of the interior, have been set out in Brazil, but their production
is very small when compared with that of the dense Amazonian forests.

Of the other valuable trees of the Amazon basin Agassiz says: “The
importance of the basin of the Amazons to Brazil, from an industrial
point of view, can hardly be over-estimated. Its woods alone have an
almost priceless value. Nowhere in the world is there finer timber,
either for solid construction or for work of ornament, and yet it is
scarcely used even for the local buildings, and makes no part whatever of
the exports. The rivers which flow past these magnificent forests seem
meant to serve, first as a waterpower for the sawmills, which ought to be
established along their borders, and then as a means of transportation
for the material so provided. Setting aside the woods as timber, what
shall I say of the mass of fruits, resins, oils, colouring matters and
textile fabrics which they yield?” These words of this great naturalist,
although written years ago, are just as true to-day. At least one hundred
and fifty varieties of valuable hardwood timbers have been found in these
forests. As mahogany and other better known woods become scarcer, these
woods will certainly find a market.

[Illustration: A NEW SETTLER IN THE JUNGLE.]

The great state of Amazonas, which is more than two-thirds as large as
the United States east of the Mississippi, is an empire in itself. It is
difficult to predict what may be its future. Some scientific men say
that civilization will again be centred in the tropics; if so, then here
will be the future Europe. Any prediction would be only guesswork, for
no man with only human foresight could look into the future and foretell
the development. The possibilities are visible to even the shallow
observer; the uncertain trend of civilization no one can with certainty
prognosticate. Nature is kind, if her laws are obeyed, and the white man
endures the climate better than his copper-coloured brother. It would be
the lazy man’s paradise, for it takes little labour to provide the simple
wants. The only difficult task is to fight nature in her prodigal growth.
The struggle of the northern farmer with weeds is an infantile task in
comparison with the constant fight against every kind of growth in this
climate. It would be a hopeless task for one man, lone handed and without
means, to locate in this wilderness and attempt to carve out his fortune.
Goodly sized colonies would do better, and, by their energetic and united
efforts, nature would be conquered and compelled to contribute of her
bounty to the welfare and support of man.

Outside of Manaos and a few small towns and settlements the population
of the state of Amazonas consists almost entirely of Indians. One
industrious writer has listed nearly four hundred separate and distinct
tribes. Many of these are extinct, or practically extinct, but a large
number of distinct tribes are still found on the different rivers that
have widely divergent habits and physical characteristics. A few of
these tribes live a retired existence in the forests, but most of them
mingle with the white people, and are employed by them in gathering
rubber or other products of the forests. The skin of the Indians is a
coppery-brown colour. They are of a medium height, but have not the high
cheek bones of the North American Indian. Like the latter, however, they
are undemonstrative, and do not betray their emotions of joy and grief,
wonder or fear. They will undoubtedly be driven out and disappear as the
white race settle in the tropics, for their inflexible character prevents
them from adapting themselves to changed conditions.

Although these Indians have dropped cannibalism, and other inhuman
practices, they are still simple children in their customs and beliefs.
They live as their ancestors have lived for centuries, have adopted
few of the conveniences or luxuries of civilization, and live a
hand-to-mouth existence. Religious holidays are observed with a strange
mixture of superstition. Their idea of a holiday, whether religious or
secular, is “bonfires, processions, masquerading, confused drumming and
fifing, monotonous dancing kept up hour after hour without intermission,
and, the most important part of all, getting gradually and completely
drunk.” They are kindly disposed toward aliens, and are as hospitable
as their circumstances permit. The Tupi-Guarini language is generally
spoken, or at least understood, and this has been reduced to written form
by the Jesuit clergy.



CHAPTER X

THE PEOPLE AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS


The Brazilian people are made up of three distinct races: Europeans of
every nationality, but most of Latin origin, Indians and negroes, the
latter two nationalities being more or less mixed in the process of
assimilation, and distributed all along the seaboard and the rivers,
from the Amazon to the Paraná. In Brazil there is no race problem or
antagonism between white and black, or Indian, and the hopeful ones say
that in course of time not only all race distinctions, but even colour
distinction, will disappear, and be merged in the new Brazilian type.

The pure Indians are now found only on the Amazon, the headwaters of
the Paraguay, and the sections remote from the railways of such states
as São Paulo, Paraná, Bahia and others. Most of them were never the
bloodthirsty race that our own redskins were, although a number of the
tribes were cannibalistic in their practices. The number still existing
is placed at about six hundred thousand. There was no regular spreading
of civilization and population, but it was done through the sporadic
settlement of advancing posts which were pushed out into the wilderness.
They were at first armed against the Indians, who were then hostile,
but most of the aborigines were finally subjugated, and gathered into
settlements by the conquerors. These settlements formed the nuclei about
which the towns began to grow. As there were few European women in the
country, the Portuguese took wives from among the conquered people, and
such a connection was not considered a _mesalliance_, even by those of
good birth.

From these alliances arose the mixture of Indians and Europeans, which
runs through many of the very best families in Brazil. In the state of
São Paulo, for instance, this mixture became very marked, and produced
an almost white race as the strain of Indian blood became less. It was
from this race that the original “Paulistas” sprang, who distinguished
themselves among the Brazilians for their bravery in driving the savage
Indians from the coast, and later by their enterprise and administrative
capacity. I met one of these men in that state who was a wealthy
_fazendero_, and a graduate of one of the best schools in our own land.
I was impressed by his courtesy and intelligence, and finally asked him
from what nationality he was descended. He said that his ancestry were
Portuguese and Indian. “And,” he then added, “I am proud of the Indian
blood in me.” From the way he said it, it was plain to be seen that he
meant it; and such is the feeling of all those who have that mixture.
Some of the very best men in that and other states have at least a slight
trace of the aborigine blood in their veins.

[Illustration: NEGROES IN BRAZIL.]

The negroes, just as in our own land, were originally brought to Brazil
and sold in bondage. The first slaves were imported into the state of
Bahia in 1574. Just seventeen years later the official records give the
population of that settlement as two thousand whites, four thousand negro
slaves and six thousand civilized Indians. This will give a little idea
of how rapidly the negroes were brought into the country by the slave
traders. Great sugar plantations were worked, and on these were employed
the cheap labour. The black slaves so exceeded in number the whites that
insurrections broke out in many places. In Minas Geraes, for instance,
out of a population of fifty thousand in the early part of the eighteenth
century, thirty-five thousand were negro slaves, and most of these recent
imports. Some of the whites were so fearful of their own lives, that the
governor petitioned the King to put into execution the “Black Code,”
which meant that the right leg of a fugitive slave might be cut off and a
wooden one substituted. Thus, by terror, the excess of blacks was kept in
subjection.

The proportion of black population is much greater in the northeastern
states than elsewhere. As one journeys south they become less numerous,
until, when you reach the extreme southern states, they are uncommon.
In the state of Bahia, those with a negro admixture far outnumbered
the whites. This is due not only to the fact that slavery was first
introduced there, but also because it was sooner abolished in that state,
and fugitive slaves escaping from the coffee plantations fled there, just
as they did to our own Northern states. Those who were able to buy their
freedom in other states went there as well as those who were voluntarily
freed by their masters, as thousands were all over Brazil. In Minas
Geraes perhaps one-third of the population have negro blood in their
veins.

When slavery was finally abolished, in 1888, there were perhaps seven
hundred and fifty thousand slaves in the empire, the most of these being
held in the coffee producing states. In São Paulo to-day the negro
population is very small, as it is said that the former slaves soon
became decimated by the excesses in which they indulged when freedom was
gained. In the whole republic perhaps very near to one-half the entire
population has at least a trace of negro blood in their veins. The
mixture is very marked in the north, and down as far as Rio de Janeiro,
and almost to São Paulo. There is, however, no race prejudice that I
could perceive. In schools I saw kinky-haired boys and girls side by side
with the whites, and in all public places they mingled freely. Negro
lawyers and doctors appeared to be patronized by the whites, and their
families seemed to have friends among all classes. Officially, at least,
there is no distinction, and men have occupied the highest offices in the
republic, who unmistakably had a trace of the negro blood. Americans, who
live there, as well as some native Brazilians, tell me that there is
a growing prejudice among those free from the negro blood against that
race, and even the slightest mixture of it, until it has now become very
noticeable in many ways, and is even making itself felt in political
circles. I am making this statement solely upon the authority of those
who live there, and ought to know better than a traveller; but, as for
myself, I saw no evidence whatever of such a state of public sentiment.

Says Dr. Hale in his book, “The South Americans,” “I was invited one
evening to a small dinner-party at which we were to meet Senhorita X——,
a young lady freshly launched into society, whose musical talent was
exceptional, even in this land naturally so gifted with love of both
poetry and music. I was the only one of the guests who had not met her,
so that she was smothered with greetings before I was presented; but
when my turn came, I was astonished to find before me what we would call
a mulatto—kinky hair, thick lips and prominent teeth. There was not the
least trace of embarrassment in her or the rest of the company. She sat
opposite me at table, played for us later some brilliant piano pieces,
and kissed all the ladies good-bye with so much ease that was absolutely
impossible to conceive any difference among us on account of race.”

The next largest foreign element is the Italian, of whom there are two
million or more. They readily adapt themselves to Brazil, because of the
similarity of customs and language. They are frugal and industrious, and
are gradually acquiring wealth and power. A great influence has also
been wielded by the German colonists who flocked to Southern Brazil in
great numbers, about the middle of last century. There are perhaps nearly
one-half million of this stock. They have not progressed as have the
Germans in the United States, perhaps because a living came too easily,
and nature was too bountiful. The majority of them went to Brazil after
the revolution of 1848, and one can trace many of the settlements by
the names of the towns. They do not intermingle or intermarry with the
Brazilians like the other colonists, and one can find whole communities
where no one understands the Portuguese language. They are citizens of
Brazil, and yet take little interest in the body politic, neither caring
for the position of alderman or policeman.

It is the Portuguese element in Brazil, of course, that are the most
interesting, and there is at least a remnant of the pure Portuguese
left. And they have many good and excellent qualities. As a race they
frequently lack what Americans term the practical element, but they have
some of the finer traits, frequently missing in our own people. They
have an innate courtesy which is sometimes almost overwhelming. If the
same thing was done by an Anglo-Saxon, in the same profuse manner, it
would be looked upon as overdone; but, coming from a Brazilian, it is
done with such a grace and smoothness that seems only natural. You are
greeted with an exquisite courtesy, especially after one or two meetings,
and the parting is a series of courtesies. You shake hands about half a
dozen times before finally separating, then pause and turn as you reach
the door and make a final bow before leaving the room; and this final
courtesy is always awaited by your host. If friends separate, or meet
after an absence, they fall into one another’s arms and mutually pat each
other on the back as a mark of affection. This is never done upon first
acquaintance. It is a slow ceremony when there is a large list to be
greeted, but it is faithfully gone through with; first a hand shake, and
then the embrace if the intimacy warrants it.

The street car conductor hands you your ticket with a little courtesy,
and even the hotel servant, and they are always men, finds time to say
_obligado_ (much obliged), when you hand him the gratuity he expects as a
matter of right. The _carigador_ at the station, who carries your baggage
to the train, may haggle with you over the price, but when the affair is
settled he courteously tips his hat and wishes you a _bom viaje_, which
means “a pleasant voyage.” If you remove your coat on the train, or
enter a first-class car without wearing a collar and tie, the conductor
reproves you with a little courtesy, as though he was performing a very
unpleasant duty. The clerk in the store never hurries you in making your
purchases, but patiently places himself at your disposition. And so it
is as you travel all through the country, there is courtesy present
everywhere, and you can not help but like the people for these traits.

[Illustration: LABOURERS’ HOMES ON A PLANTATION.]

They might also teach us something in their philosophical outlook upon
life. The doctrine of “don’t hurry” and “don’t worry” is deeply rooted,
and gives them greater enjoyment in life than among a race whose nerves
are continually on edge. They resent any assumption of superiority, but
recognize freely and generously the good qualities of the Anglo-Saxon.
There is a lax moral tone on the part of the men which could be much
improved, and which would greatly benefit the country at large.

In the homes that I visited excellent taste was shown in the furnishing
and decorations. There was only one arrangement that grew painfully
monotonous. In the reception room a couch was always placed against
the wall, and the chairs for guests invariably placed at right angles
to this, a row at each end. This gives the host or hostess a chance to
see each guest, and the favoured one is invited to share it with her,
or possibly to occupy it alone. The chairs are oftentimes stiff and
uncomfortable, but it is bad taste to move them, or twist around in them,
as Americans are often accustomed to do. The house is yours for the time
being. As one man told me in broken English, “your house” and “your
friend.” And it was my house, at least I was welcome in it; and he was my
friend, I am pleased to say, for he proved it. When you are going away
in Brazil, your friends always accompany you to the station, no matter
how far away or how early in the morning. I must admit it is a pretty
custom, and makes you feel that friends are a good thing to have. I have
had Brazilian friends, of only a few days’ standing, perform this little
courtesy, men of prominence and influence, and I confess that it reaches
a tender place in my heart.

The Brazilian women are handsome in their youth. Their bright eyes and
dark features at that age are very fascinating. Especially in Rio their
physique is much better than that of the men, for the “stronger sex” in
that city are mostly narrow-shouldered and rather thin-chested. The women
dress with good taste, but their styles have no uniqueness about them,
for they wear the same high-heeled, uncomfortable-looking shoes, and the
same large Parisian-shaped hats that have driven men to despair the world
over. As their years increase, however, they have a tendency to become
stout, due perhaps to hearty eating and lack of exercise. I must say that
the Brazilians are particularly fond of eating, and in this hot climate
will devour much more food, and especially meat, than those from colder
climes; and, in addition, they seldom eat the noon breakfast, or dinner,
without at least half a bottle of light wine of some kind.

At Rio, and in Northern Brazil, the women are subject to all the social
restrictions that have ever been the lot of women in Latin countries. The
young women can not go out unaccompanied by an older woman or the family
servant, and in the social life there is nothing of what American women
would term freedom. They perhaps do not miss this so much, for it has
been the custom of the race for generations untold. At São Paulo, and
some of the other southern states, there is a noticeable breaking away
from the centuries-old traditions, due, perhaps, to foreign influence.
There one can see even young Brazilian ladies out alone on a shopping
tour; and, although there is not freedom of association among young
people of the two sexes, the beginning of the change is apparent, and
I would not be surprised to see even a radical change in this respect
in another decade or two. The women there are beginning to feel the
narrowness of their lives, and to long for the freedom which they see
the young people of other nationalities enjoy. One will likewise find
women employed in some of the stores, and occasionally, in other public
positions in the cities of that state.

It is true that political ideals in Brazil are not so lofty as they
should be. If the reports of investigation committees are true in our
own land, however, our own stables need a little looking after. There
is undoubtedly more “graft” in Brazil than with us. Nevertheless, the
Brazilians are not without ideals. The development of the artistic in
parks and buildings is a convincing proof of this. The officials demand
work to be up to specifications, and then want their “graft” to be over
and above this, instead of the American practice of “skinning the job”
to accomplish the same end. This is their system, and there is generally
not so much coarse juggling as sometimes happens with us. Bankruptcy is
not so common as with us, and bills contracted by private individuals are
generally paid. The men are reprehensible in their private conduct, but
the women are generally good.

Said an American to me, who has lived in that country for forty years,
and who is the best judge of Brazilian character that I know: “The
Brazilian women, those who have not the mixture of negro blood, are good
and pure, and in them lie the great hope of the race.” They are domestic,
are the mothers of large families, and nowhere is there a sincerer love
for their children shown than by these Brazilian women. In Rio there
is a fast set, just as there is in every large city where there is
wealth, and an idle class, and where every opportunity exists for the
indulgence in vice. In the lower classes, and there are practically only
two classes in Brazil, looseness in the sexual relation is very common
and the percentage of illegitimacy is high. It is not looked down upon,
and neither the unfortunate children nor their mothers receive social
ostracism.

The upper classes of the Brazilians are a well educated and cultivated
people. Most of them have been schooled in France, and speak the French
language almost as fluently as their own. In Paris there is always a
goodly sized Brazilian colony, and the boats passing between Rio and
Europe always carry a number of Brazilians to and from that European
capital. They find the atmosphere of the French capital more congenial,
and full of the _simpatica_ which means so much to the Latin people. The
girls who go abroad for education are all sent to the convents of France,
but many boys are now sent to schools in the States, especially for a
technical education. Those who do go come back enthusiastic over the
United States, and many of them bring back American wives, much to the
discomfiture of the parents.

An aristocracy exists which can yet be traced, and it is an aristocracy
of wealth. It divides, with a sharp distinction, the aristocracy from
the labouring element. It is perhaps unreasonable to expect the classes
developed by a monarchical form of government to disappear so soon, for
the spirit was imbued in the dozen or more generations preceding the
present one. Among that class it was considered a disgrace to labour with
one’s hands, and this fact has made politics and the holding of political
positions a profession. This weakness in politics is, in my opinion, one
of the evils of Brazil. It becomes a business and a passion with the men,
even in a more intense degree than in our own land. The young man must
first secure the title of doctor, and every professional man, physician,
lawyer, civil engineer, teacher, etc., receives this title.[1] Then he
must obtain some government appointment. Finally, when his own prestige
becomes great enough, he seeks election to some office. To politics can
be blamed the lack of advancement in many lines.

Said one of the wealthiest and most progressive business men in Rio de
Janeiro, himself a Brazilian, to me: “Politics are the curse of the
country. It is all words and delay. The politicians like to talk about
their great country. They boast that the Amazon is the greatest river in
the world, so large that the Mississippi dwindles into an insignificant
stream in comparison; that Rio is the finest harbour in the world and
capable of floating all the navies in existence; and that Brazil has the
greatest undeveloped natural resources in the world. When any of the
resources are developed, however, it is not these men who help to do it,
but it is the foreigner who sees the opportunity and grasps it. Congress
meets and talks politics, instead of passing the necessary legislation.
They want to subsidize everything instead of giving competition a chance.
I am past sixty years of age, and it has been that way ever since I can
remember.” This is quite a severe arraignment of the evils of politics,
but it was exemplified during my own visit. The regular session of
Congress came to an end in October, and a special session was at once
convened, because the necessary appropriation bills had not been passed.
This was just a few days before the special service must adjourn, and no
progress had then been made. Long speeches were made, but most of the
talk was regarding the two candidates for the presidency. As this was the
first time in the history of the country that there had been two active
candidates for this high office, the senators and deputies spent their
time arguing the merits of their respective candidates. The Congress had
then been in continuous session for almost nine months.

Another unfortunate condition and characteristic is the dependence upon
what Americans would term “pull,” or influence. Even the well qualified
young man depends more upon that than upon the real qualifications
he possesses. So many are looking for “soft snaps” that it becomes
absolutely necessary to provide them. I heard of this from so many
sources, both native and foreign, that I am fully impressed with its
evil. It is even customary in educational institutions for students,
who have not been diligent, to bring to their professors at examination
time letters of recommendation from influential persons, stating why
this particular student should be passed or given his degree. Foreign
teachers soon shut down upon this method, and it has had a beneficial
effect in their schools. Any work that is done under a concession must
have a government inspector on the payrolls, and the man appointed is
frequently one who knows nothing about the work, but draws his salary. A
college must have a government inspector, who has nothing in particular
to do except that he must attend the examinations, and no degree is
granted without his approval. This inspector may or may not be qualified
for the position, but the salary of three hundred milreis per month from
the college makes it a nice political appointment, for it is practically
a sinecure.

The Brazilians are ambitious, but a lack of energy interferes with what
they otherwise might accomplish. In many of the government departments
and industries foreigners are employed at large salaries, which might
just as well be filled by natives, if the young men would only qualify
themselves. Very many of the agricultural schools and experimental
stations are in the charge of foreigners, Americans, Belgians, French
and German. They are rather fanciful and visionary in their plans, and
will not begin at the bottom as is necessary. They would rather build
the superstructure first, for that is the showy part. It is perhaps the
innate ambition, however, that will finally lead the country out of the
rut. They are willing to be led but cannot be driven.

“There is no public opinion in Brazil,” said one of the most influential
and ablest men in Brazil, a man who has travelled extensively and made a
study of other nations. “The masses do not think. The politicians plan
and carry out things themselves and create the opinion.” This strikes
me as being true. Politicians are the same everywhere, and here they
have practically a free hand. A large percentage of the population are
not able to read or write, and the percentage of those who do take an
interest in politics is small. They say that there is no use; but it is
a bad precedent. In every state there is a small clique who rule the
politics of that state. If a man announces himself as a candidate for
president, for instance, these wise men get together and announce their
positions; and this announcement is everywhere taken without question,
as the choice of the state. No political ring in the United States has
ever been able to wield such absolutely despotic power as these cliques.
There the voters will occasionally wake up and smash the corrupt machine,
while in Brazil the elections are usually merely perfunctory occasions
that must be gone through with. This does not mean that every one of
these machines is bad, for many of the men who have this power use it for
the benefit of the people, and have done much to advance the interests of
the masses. To them great credit should be given, for, having it in their
power to do absolutely as they wish, they have the courage and honesty
to use this power in the interest of the people, just as much as if they
had secured it from the people by a popular suffrage. Out of the eighteen
million people in the country there are perhaps six hundred thousand
qualified to vote, and there have never been more than four hundred
thousand votes cast in any presidential election.

The people enjoy play, and always welcome “_festa_” occasions. Holidays
are numerous and all join in their celebration. Brazil has two
independence days, the 7th of September and the 15th of November, which
are national holidays and universally celebrated. The carnival season,
however, which occurs the week preceding Lent, is the occasion of the
greatest merrymaking. It lasts for three whole days in Rio de Janeiro,
and, during that time, business is wholly suspended in the cities. There
are processions with music, and the streets are full of people in mask
and gown, who dance and sing and blow horns and make disagreeable noises
in general. Disguised in dominoes and masks they blow their horns, talk
in falsetto voices, while the balconies and windows are filled with
crowds of onlookers, women and children being especially prominent. Few
people wear their best clothes, for it is the custom to squirt perfumed
water over passers-by from these balconies. This perfumed water is
contained in little leaden vials, which are sold at stands all over the
city. The streets are hung with the banners of all nations, little flags
and coloured lanterns, and have all the appearance of a gala occasion.

[Illustration: THE FIFTEENTH OF NOVEMBER IN SÃO PAULO.]

On the last of the three days a grand procession is held. It is a
procession of mounted military bands, men and women in ancient costume,
immense floats, _papier-mache_ figures, grotesque animal representations,
men burlesquing women actresses, and women dressed as pages. King
Carnival, upon a gorgeous throne, is always a part of the procession.
The procession winds in and around one street after another, along
the Avenida Central and the Beira Mar, and often takes hours to pass a
given point. At night masquerade balls at the various theatres end the
gaieties. The galleries and boxes are always filled with an interested
audience, but the floor is given up to revelry and suggestive dancing,
which would not merit the approval of polite society.



CHAPTER XI

EDUCATION AND THE ARTS


The educational facilities in Brazil are not of the best in the republic
as a whole. In some of the states, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro
and a part of Minas Geraes, the provisions are fairly good, but in none
of them has the work been systematized in the same way that it has in
our own land. Until the establishment of the republic the instruction
was almost entirely in the hands of the church, but the duty now rests
upon the various states and municipalities. Statistics upon education in
Brazil are very unreliable, just as are their census reports, so that
whatever or whosesoever figures are followed there will be errors. It
is perhaps safe to say that not over twenty-five per cent. of the total
population are able to read and write.

The government has issued a volume which gives the figures of school
enrolment of the various states, which is the first attempt on the part
of the federal government to give educational statistics. In a few
of the states, so the official report says, the estimates of school
enrolment are not complete, since it was impossible to secure complete
returns from some of the rural districts, but in the main they may serve
to give a fairly adequate idea of the educational facilities in the
republic; at any rate, they are the best figures that are obtainable.
The figures include all schools, whether of public or private character,
state or municipal. The total number of primary schools reported is
eleven thousand one hundred and forty-seven, of which one thousand
eight hundred and fifteen are public municipal schools, seven thousand
and eighty nine public schools under state control, and mostly in the
smaller towns and villages, and two thousand two hundred and forty-five
private schools, most of which are in the larger towns and cities.
The state schools, which are improperly designated as rural schools,
have an enrolment of three hundred and forty thousand six hundred and
ninety-seven, and an attendance of two hundred and forty thousand six
hundred and ninety. The municipal schools have an enrolment of one
hundred and six thousand seven hundred and fifty-four, and an attendance
of sixty-nine thousand four hundred and thirty-two. Private primary
schools have an enrolment of one hundred and ten thousand eight hundred
and forty-one, and an attendance of eighty-one thousand and sixty-six.
Of the three hundred and twenty-seven secondary institutions twenty-nine
are public and two hundred and ninety-eight under private control, the
former having an enrolment of four thousand and the latter of twenty-six
thousand two hundred and fifty-eight. No figures of the actual attendance
at these institutions were given, but it would probably not be much
less than the enrolment. If these government figures are correct, and
the population is twenty million five hundred and fifteen thousand as
claimed, in that same report, then scarcely three per cent. of the
population may be regarded as enjoying school privileges. This estimate
takes on new significance when one considers that the proportion of rural
population is very high, as compared with the entire population, and
shows how much less the facilities are in those sections. In the Federal
District, for instance, which includes the city of Rio de Janeiro, and
where the population is almost entirely urban, there is an estimated
population of eight hundred and fifty-eight thousand, and a school
enrolment of sixty-one thousand nine hundred and thirty-three. In the
state of Alagoas, on the other hand, with an almost equal population, and
where it is altogether rural with the exception of a few coast towns,
there is a school enrolment of only fourteen thousand and ninety-two.
The state of Pernambuco, with only one town of any size, and that the
capital, has a school enrolment of only twenty-two thousand eight hundred
and fifty-two, in a reported population of one million three hundred and
ten thousand. More comparisons might be made, but with these explanations
the reader can figure them out from the table.[2]

[Illustration: A SCHOOL FOR BOYS IN SÃO PAULO.]

The school instruction, except in the Federal District and the
professional schools, is in the hands of the various states. In none
of them does a compulsory educational law exist, and, if it did, the
facilities do not exist to take care of those of school age who would
thus be obliged to attend. As will be seen by the comparisons the
provisions for instruction and the illiteracy vary much in the different
states. Some of the states are richer than others, and can afford to
spend more money for public requirements, and others are naturally more
progressive. All of the schools in the various states are modelled on the
same general plan. I have chosen those of São Paulo for illustration,
because that state has made better progress along educational lines than
the others, and because I made a special study of the school system of
that state.

[Illustration: A SCHOOL FOR GIRLS IN SÃO PAULO.]

The schools are divided into three classes: primary, secondary and
superior. The primary schools are again divided into preliminary and
complementary instruction. The preliminary instruction is given in
ungraded schools, and the law requires the establishment of an ungraded
school in every community where there are from twenty to forty pupils
of school age, although this has not always been done. Where there are
six or more of these schools, a “school group” may be established, in
which teaching is graded. In this state there are about eighty of these
school groups. In addition there are a number of night schools where
similar instruction is given to those who are unable to attend the day
schools, or who have passed the school age and lacked the opportunity for
an education in their youthful days. Of these there are thirty-four in
the state at the present time. A few free kindergarten schools are also
maintained in the capital, but this feature of instruction has not been
developed much as yet.

The secondary instruction is given in what are termed gymnasiums. All of
these schools, whether public or private, in order to be recognized over
the country, must conform to the regulations laid down by the National
Gymnasium at Rio de Janeiro. They must observe the programmes and courses
of study laid down by that institution, and the student in one of these
gymnasiums is given the degree of bachelor of letters, or science, after
a course of study covering six years. In the state of São Paulo, there
are three of these schools: one in São Paulo, one in Campinas and one in
Riberão Preto. The course of study is about equal to that of the average
high school in the United States, and prepares the student to matriculate
in the schools for superior instruction. The so-called superior schools
are those devoted to technical and professional education. For superior
instruction there are in this state two institutions: the Law School and
the Polytechnic School, of which the former is a federal institution,
and has graduated some of the brightest lawyers and statesmen of the
republic. The Polytechnic School is devoted, as its name indicates, to
the teaching of the practical sciences, and is fitted with the necessary
apparatus for such instruction. The school year in the public schools
is generally from the first of February, or March, to the end of the
following November, but the professional schools do not begin as a rule
until the first of April. A model school, the Braz _Grupo_, is maintained
in São Paulo, which is used as the name would indicate, as an example for
the other schools.

One school of which this state is very proud is the Normal School, which
has departments for all grades from the kindergarten up. Its primary
object is to prepare teachers for the work in the other schools, and
in this respect it is doing an admirable work. As its accommodation is
limited the students are only admitted upon special recommendation, and
it is sometimes difficult for a boy or girl to secure admittance, as it
is always full. The normal course extends over a period of four years,
and covers a wide range of subjects. It is fitted up with a good library,
a chemical laboratory, gymnasium, modelling rooms and apparatus for
manual work. It has turned out several hundred graduates, of whom the
proportion of women exceeds that of men in about the same proportion as
they do in our own land.

The director of public instruction in this state is a progressive man,
and is making many improvements in the work. He made a trip to the
United States in order to study the system there, and brought back a
great many practical ideas. He is arranging the courses of study and
method of instruction in the schools of this state after the system in
use in the United States. It cannot be done all at once as there are
certain prejudices in the minds of some that must first be overcome.
This process has been in operation for several years, and one can see
the good results. The building was originally planned by an American
lady teacher, who was brought down for that purpose. The only two modern
languages taught, except the Portuguese, are French and English. This
is a compliment to our tongue to have it chosen in preference to the
German and Spanish, as is generally the rule. Their method of teaching
the English is very practical too. This means that in the course of a few
years the English language will be much more common than it is to-day. I
found that the people were anxious to learn English, and those who did
know it were proud of the accomplishment. Formerly they desired to know
only French, in addition to Portuguese, for that was the polite language;
but, as commerce has developed, the desire to know English has increased
in proportion, until now all those who are able to go to the higher
institutions of learning are taking up the study of English.

There are a number of other institutions of learning in this state, most
of them under the auspices of the various Roman Catholic orders. Some
of these schools are of a very high order and are doing their share in
the work of raising the standard of education. One of the best of their
institutions is a large convent school for the education of girls. The
most important non-Catholic institution is the Mackenzie College, which
was founded by Presbyterian missionaries, but is now undenominational. At
its head is the venerable Dr. Horace M. Lane, a scholarly and able man,
whom I am glad to enrol as a friend. Dr. Lane first came to Brazil in
1857 as a physician, and has lived there continuously since that time,
except for a period of fourteen years, during which he practised medicine
in the United States. When the college was endowed with $50,000 by John
T. Mackenzie, of New York, whose name it now bears, Dr. Lane was chosen
president and has remained at the head ever since. The will of the above
benefactor left the college a large additional sum of money. Dr. Lane
understands the Brazilians as few Americans do. He is a very kindly and
generous critic, and frankly tells them their faults without flattery.
His candour and frankness have won him friends and the respect of all,
and even of the Catholic clergy. Mackenzie College is unique in that it
has never asked recognition of the government, but is affiliated with
the University of the State of New York. This institution has been in
existence a number of years, and its instructors have had the pleasure of
seeing many of its graduates reach positions of the greatest importance,
both at home and abroad. The resident foreigners send their children
there, and the Brazilians do likewise. A graduate of Mackenzie College
has a recognized standing all over the republic even though it has not
asked for government recognition, and placed itself under the necessity
of maintaining an official inspector on its pay roll.

[Illustration: STUDENTS AT THE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, PIRACICABA.]

The O Granberry College, at Juiz de Fora, in the state of Minas Geraes,
is another progressive North American college, under the auspices of
the Methodist Episcopal Church South, that is making a reputation in
Brazil. I had the privilege of attending the commencement exercises at
this college, in company with the American Ambassador and his military
attaché. The _festa_ exercises, as they term it in Brazil, were attended
by a very large audience. Representative citizens of the community,
including the mayor of the city and the president of the Camara, which
is a sort of county council, were present on the platform. This shows a
truly liberal spirit, for perhaps only a very small proportion of the
audience were other than Roman Catholics. This school maintains, in
addition to the regular academic courses, schools of pharmacy, dentistry
and theology. Their schools of pharmacy and dentistry are among the very
best in the republic. A government military instructor is also kept to
drill the boys and young men in military tactics, much the same as in
the colleges of our own land. I was surprised to find a number of young
women taking up the study of pharmacy and dentistry, for it seemed a
wide departure in this land of conservativeness and tradition, which
has heretofore denied to woman that larger field granted to the sex in
Anglo-Saxon countries. The generous spirit and encouragement shown to
these institutions, conducted by aliens and Protestants, and the wider
field granted to women, are good omens, I believe, for the future of the
land.

A number of states have established agricultural schools, which promise
much for the future. The best one of these schools is the Escola
Agricola, at Piracicaba, which is maintained by the state of São
Paulo. The site for this college was presented to the state by one of
its progressive citizens. The Secretary of Agriculture of that state
travelled widely throughout the United States and Europe, studying places
and methods, and finally decided to establish the school on the American
system. He then engaged Dr. Clinton D. Smith, an American, who had been
at the head of a prominent agricultural college in the United States,
to take charge of the work. The faculty also include two Frenchmen, one
Belgian, one Bulgarian, one Portuguese and a number of Brazilians, making
quite a cosmopolitan board of instructors.

The institution is housed in a large, beautiful building, and its
equipment is equal to our own best institutions. The student is
instructed in the analysis of soils, and the introduction of modern
machinery for their cultivation; in botany, and a good course in stock
raising; and in physics, even to measuring the force of a waterfall,
or winding a dynamo. There is also a course in physiology, hygiene and
medicine for emergencies, as well as much-needed instruction in political
economy. The most practical feature is the actual work on the farm which
every student is obliged to do. He must work for two hours each day in
the actual occupation of handling a plow, rigging a harrow, managing a
mower or reaper, and learn how to repair any of the common machines on
the plantation. Students from a number of states attend the school, and
many of them are sons of wealthy Brazilians. As the able director told
me: “It is a good and much-needed training for a set of boys born where
slavery was in existence, and in a land where to work with the hands is
a sign of inferiority. The hope of the college is to exert a fundamental
influence on agriculture, where monoculture is the rule and polyculture
ought to be.” It will do more than that, for such instruction will have
an important bearing in developing the character of these young men as
well.

Portuguese writers are prolific. Few countries have produced more
literature, compared with the number who speak the language, than
Portugal and Brazil. The Portuguese language is especially rich in
expression, and is said to be the nearest to the classic Latin of any
living dialect. It lends itself easily to poetic expression, and there
have been many poets. The Brazilians are fond of elaborate and flowery
expressions, and this verboseness and ornate form of expression runs
through their literature and public speaking. At the commencement
exercises mentioned above the addresses of some of the graduates were
most elaborate. Where an American graduate would have started out with
“Ladies and Gentlemen,” and perhaps have added “our dear professors
and honourable trustees,” the Brazilian youth took several minutes to
make his introductory remarks, and pass around his compliments to the
professors and other dignitaries who were on the stage. No one was
omitted in the general round of compliments. Impromptu poems spring up on
every and all occasions, and the recent visit of a high state official
of the United States prompted more than one poetic effusion, many of
which were fortunately suppressed by the committees in charge of the
festivities.

Brazil has produced a number of eminent writers. The best known, and
perhaps most widely loved of all, is Gonçalves Diaz, who has been called
the Longfellow of Brazil. He died nearly a half century ago, but his
memory has been honoured by monuments and streets named in his honour,
and his name has been kept green by continuous quotations from his
writings. The “Song of the Exile,” written by him, has been called the
“Home, Sweet Home” of the Brazilians, and is said to be quoted more than
any other poem in the language. Says Mrs. Wright:[3] “No translation has
ever been made which in any sense reveals the exquisite delicacy of touch
in the original, or its plaintive rhythmic melody, though many attempts
have been made to put it into English and other languages. Throughout
the six stanzas of which it is composed, the little poem voices a heart
cry of homesickness. After recounting, with childlike simplicity, the
charm of his native land, its palm trees, and the sweet-voiced Sabiá,
the favourite songbird of Brazil, he prays with touching pathos to be
spared to return, that he may once more see its glorious palms and hear
the Sabiá sing.” Diaz had received a good education in Portugal, and
became a professor of history in the college at Rio. Many of his poems
have a historic basis and deal with events of history. He served on
several government commissions, among which was a trip up the Amazon with
a scientific commission. On this trip his health was ruined, and from
that time he was an invalid to the time of his death. On his return from
a trip to Europe his vessel was shipwrecked, and his remains went to a
watery grave, at the early age of forty.

There have been many other and excellent writers, both of fiction
and poetry, in the past century, but few of them are known to the
English-speaking world, as translations have not been made. Some
excellent histories have been written also, which have been fostered and
preserved by the Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute. Dr.
Machado de Assis is one of the most distinguished living writers, who has
written both poetry and fiction. Dr. Olavo Bilac has also written many
beautiful poems, and is one of the best-known writers and orators of
the day. I had the pleasure of meeting him, and listening to an address
by him, and it was a very pleasing address, distinguished for its purity
of style. Dr. Ruy Barbosa, prominent also in political circles, has been
a prolific writer in many lines. There is scarcely an important subject
that his pen has not touched upon, from fiction to the intricate problem
of international law. Baron de Rio Branco, a member for many years of the
official cabinet, and Dr. Joaquim Nabuco, late Ambassador to the United
States, who died a few months ago in Washington, are also writers of
considerable merit.

The press of Brazil is a strong factor in the literature of the country,
as well as in the politics. Nearly every politician is a writer, and,
conversely, nearly every writer is more or less of a politician. Speeches
are published in full, and politics and literature fill a large part
of the space in the average Brazilian newspaper. The first newspaper
established in Brazil was the _Gazeta do Rio_, in the year 1808, and
other newspapers followed soon after in many other cities. The oldest
paper in the capital, as well as the most influential one to-day, is
the _Jornal do Comercio_, originally established as the _Spectator_,
in 1824. Its contributors have included all the leading politicians and
writers since that time. It is a large and well-printed newspaper of
many pages, and is well edited. _O Paiz_, _Correio da Manhã_, _Jornal
do Brazil_, _Gazeta de Noticias_, _Diario do Commercio_, _Diario de
Noticias_, _A Noticia_, _O Seculo_, _Correio da Noite_ and _A Tribuna_
are the other leading daily newspapers in the city to-day. _O Malho_
and _Revista da Semana_ are weekly reviews, while _O Tico-Tico_ and
_Fon-Fon_ are illustrated comics. São Paulo, the second city, has a
dozen daily newspapers, more than the average city of the United States
of the same size. _O Estado de São Paulo_ and the _Correio Paulistina_
are the leading and most influential ones. The _Brazilian Review_, a
weekly journal, is the only English periodical published in the country,
but there are several German and Italian publications. There are also a
number of class publications and trade journals, and nearly every town
and city has a local daily or weekly publication.

The artistic sense is one of the essential elements of the Latin
character. It has perhaps reached its highest development with the
Italian race, but the Spaniards and the Portuguese also have this talent
well developed. The traveller throughout Latin America can not fail to be
impressed by the transplanted art that he finds everywhere in evidence.
In Mexico, Central America and Peru he will find the original sense
tinged with the Indian influence of the ancient races, who developed
an architectural style of their own. Along the Atlantic coast of South
America this element is lacking, because the Indians of that coast had
not reached an advanced civilization, and lived in the crudest way. Hence
the architecture of Brazil corresponds more nearly to the established
schools that one will find in Latin Europe.

The Latin Americans strive for beauty, and, for myself, I must say that
in general I admire their style. Some of their buildings would not
appear well in a cold climate, but in design and decoration they are
well adapted to the country. The government buildings, the plazas, the
numerous statues, all have lines of beauty that please the eye. In small
towns far from the railway one will oftentimes stumble upon a church, a
convent or some other building of real artistic beauty and design. These
buildings in a sense satisfy the artistic hunger of the race, and they
are the objects to which every resident points with pride.

[Illustration: THE MUNICIPAL THEATRE, RIO DE JANEIRO.]

The municipal theatre is one of these buildings that one will find in
all the larger cities, where social life has attained anything of a
metropolitan development, and even in smaller towns, where that stage
has not been reached. It is constructed with the same care and regard
for artistic proportions as the municipal building or the governmental
palace, and, in many instances, with even more taste. The _teatro
municipal_, as it is always named, is almost invariably built in an
open place, where the view is unobstructed, while many of the public
edifices are crowded up to the street line, and often hemmed in between
surrounding buildings. Frequently it is exposed on all four sides, and an
effort is made to give it an artistic appearance from whatever angle it
is viewed, instead of limiting the artistic touches to the façade. Public
money has been used for the construction of these buildings, and money
from the same source, either municipal or national, is used to provide
for the presentation of the drama or opera. It is only in this way that
the best Italian, French, Portuguese and Spanish artists could ever be
brought to Latin America, for the box receipts alone would not prove
profitable. No one dreams of objecting to the use of the public money in
this way, for the idea is inbred, and in accordance with the traditions
of the race. This idea of practically subsidizing things artistic sounds
strange to Anglo-Saxon ears, but among the Latins it is considered a
proper function of government.

[Illustration: THE MUNICIPAL THEATRE, SÃO PAULO.]

There are many beautiful opera houses in Brazil. At Manaos, a thousand
miles up the Amazon, in a city surrounded on all sides by almost
impenetrable forests, stands the Amazonas Theatre, a structure finished
in white marble and richly decorated with allegorical paintings, the
cost of which exceeded a million dollars in gold. In Pará, near the
mouth of the same stream, is the La Paz Theatre, built by the state
government, and which is a beautiful structure. Pernambuco, Bahia and
many other cities have creditable theatres, but the _teatro municipal_
of Rio de Janeiro, and the one at São Paulo, are the finest examples in
Brazil, and perhaps in all of South America. The municipal theatre in São
Paulo has not been entirely completed, although it has been in course
of construction for several years. The interior and exterior are both
richly decorated, the exterior with statues and allegorical designs, the
interior with paintings. The musicians’ stand is below the level of the
orchestra seats in accordance with the Wagner system. The total cost will
be about two million dollars in gold. The municipal theatre of Rio with
its marble front, bronze decorations and beautiful dome one hundred and
forty-seven and one-half feet high, which gives a crown effect, is the
handsomest public building in that capital, and cost considerably more
than the one at São Paulo. These municipal theatres are sometimes rented
for other public functions, but in general the dignity and character of
the entertainments is preserved.



CHAPTER XII

RAILWAYS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT


Brazil has an excellent system of fluvial waterways throughout the
Amazon district, where this great river and its many affluents give
access to nearly every part of that basin. Upon these streams boats are
run at regular or irregular intervals, which make connections with the
regular lines on the Amazon running to Pará. The Amazon Steamship Company
maintains forty small vessels on the Amazon and its tributaries, and
there are other smaller companies operating in the same waters. Regular
lines of steamers ply to the United States and Europe from Iquitos,
Manaos and Pará. It will never be necessary, perhaps, to construct
railroads through this richly watered country, except where rapids
obstruct navigation, for railroad construction is difficult and the cost
of transportation would necessarily be much more expensive. Coast lines
run from Pará as far down as Rio de Janeiro, a journey of ten days to
two weeks, including the various stops that are usually made. From Rio
there are many lines that touch at Santos, and two Brazilian lines that
run down as far as Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost port. There is
also communication by steamer from Rio up the Plata, Paraguay and Paraná
Rivers to Cuyaba, capital of the state of Matto Grosso. In all there are
several hundred vessels flying the Brazilian flag and operating either
along the coast or on the rivers of the republic.

In the matter of railway communication there is very much to be desired
still. There are in the entire republic to-day about twelve thousand
miles of railway in operation. These lines are being extended at the
rate of a few hundred miles each year. For the year 1909 the increase in
mileage amounted to about six hundred miles. These extensions are being
pushed out by a number of different lines into regions hitherto untouched
by railway communication. These new lines have nearly all had a certain
return, generally six per cent., guaranteed upon the capital invested by
the federal or state governments. It speaks well for the condition of
the country when one finds that many of these guarantees have never been
called upon, for, almost from the very start, the traffic received has
paid the running expenses, and even greater returns than those guaranteed
to the company.

The great need of the country is a longitudinal railway, so that there
will be continuous communication between Pará, at one extreme, and
Rio Grande do Sul, at the other. In this respect better progress has
been made in southern Brazil than in the northern part. It will not
be many months, after this book is issued, until there will be an all
rail route from Rio Grande do Sul to Rio de Janeiro, and from there
for a considerable distance up into the state of Minas Geraes. This
does not cover more than half of the distance, however, and it will be
necessary to construct many hundreds of kilometres of the parallel iron
rails before the project reaches completion. Pará, Camocim, Fortaleza,
Pernambuco, Bahia, and other ports, have railroads which run inland for
a greater or less distance, but are not connected up with the other
systems. This makes it necessary for the passenger to take ship in going
from one port to another, and for freight to be loaded upon steamers in
order to reach the other than local markets of the country.

The local freight rates are so high, too, that it is often cheaper to
ship freight from a European port to the capital, for instance, than to
ship the same amount of freight from another part of the republic. This
excessive charge for railway haul is a short-sighted policy, and does
not tend to build up a local interchange between the different sections
of the country. On the government railroad, the Central, the freight
rates are so high between São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, a distance of
only three hundred miles, that it is cheaper to ship goods from the
former city to Santos at high rates, transship them to a steamer, and pay
port dues as well as loading and unloading charges at each end, than to
forward over the railroad. It is a condition that the government could
and should regulate, and it has been talked about many times; but, like
many political projects, it has ended in talk. At the present time a
commission has this matter in charge, and it remains to be seen what they
will do.

What might be called the backbone of the railroad system of Brazil is the
Estrado de Ferro Central do Brazil. This is one of the oldest lines in
the country. There were about forty miles of it open to traffic as early
as 1858. It was formerly known as the Dom Pedro II Railway, in honour
of the Emperor, but upon the establishment of the republic the name was
changed to the Central. The construction was first undertaken by an
American company, but it was later taken over by the Imperial Government
and completed by them to the city of São Paulo. The development and
extension of the line has been almost continuous, until at the present
time more than one thousand miles are in operation by this government
railroad. The most of the track is of standard gauge, the same as the
American lines, although a part of it is of the narrow gauge, one metre
in width. The main line runs to São Paulo, and that is an important line,
for it is the only railroad running to the important states of the south.
The train service is good, and it pleases one to see American locomotives
at the head of nearly all the trains, and many of the cars were built in
American shops. The passenger coaches on all the Brazilian lines open at
the end after the American plan, but the freight cars are built after the
English models.

An important branch of this system is that which runs through Juiz de
Fora, and to and beyond Bello Horizonte, in the State of Minas. This
line passes through an important and well-settled section of the country,
and is bringing the towns and rich valleys of that great state into
direct communication with the capital. The upper part of this branch is
narrow gauge, and it is being pushed northward to tap the rich mineral
section of the state, where it is said that there are great quantities
of manganese and other minerals awaiting development. Another branch is
reaching out toward Diamantina, the famous diamond centre in Brazil.
It seems to me that the government can not do better for itself, or
for the people, than to spend just as much money as is possible in the
development of these railway lines, for the land is already settled
by a great many people, and easy communication will aid in inducing
new settlers to locate there. Furthermore, railway communication is
one of the best means in the world to unite the different sections of
the country, and develop a national as well as patriotic spirit. The
people of the states will feel that they have something in common, and
interchange of traffic will also bring about a better acquaintance
among the citizens of the various states. The operation of the Central
Railroad has not been very successful from a financial standpoint, as
too many sinecures have been created for political favourites. The cost
of operation has always been excessive.

The Paulista Railway was the first railroad to be constructed entirely
of Brazilian capital. Its tracks begin at Jundiahy, although its trains
are run into the city of São Paulo. The proposition for this railroad was
first offered to British capital, but they turned down what proved to be
a veritable gold mine. The first work on this line was begun in 1870,
and its tracks have been gradually extended until now it operates about
seven hundred miles of road, about one-third of which is standard and the
balance metre gauge. It reaches to Bebedouroa and Pontat, with branches
to Jahu and other points. By the original contract the government
guaranteed seven per cent. on the investment required, but this guarantee
was later released by the company in return for some other favours. It
has the right to raise tariffs in order to keep the investment on a seven
per cent. basis, but the present high freight rates yield returns far in
excess of that. One part of the concession of this road is a privileged
zone of nearly twenty miles on each side, within which district it has
the exclusive right of both passenger and freight traffic. It reaches
up into the _terra roxa_, the red earth where the blood-red soil dyes
everything its own colour. This is the coffee land, the great freight
producer for this line. In one year, 1906, this line carried nearly
ten million bags of coffee, each bag weighing about one hundred and
thirty-two pounds, besides all the other miscellaneous freight.

The Mogyana Railway is another narrow gauge railroad which starts at
Campinas, and runs in a northerly direction up through the coffee
country. It was started shortly after the Paulista Railway, and upon
practically the same guaranty of the investment, and the same rights to
exclusive territory. Branches have been built for feeders, and the main
line has been extended, until now this company has a mileage of more
than eight hundred miles. The road was evidently built by the kilometre,
and the contractors got in as many kilometres between given points as
possible. Beautiful curves abound everywhere, and it would be difficult
to find a straight half-mile of track between Campinas and Riberão Preto,
a distance of about two hundred miles. The line is well built and is
now being ballasted. A few sections have been straightened out, but it
contains dozens of unnecessary and nerve-racking curves. This railway
is also a great freight producer, especially for coffee. It has paid
dividends of twelve per cent. for several years, and could probably have
paid more except for charter restrictions. The furthermost point now
reached by this railroad is Araguary, in the state of Minas Geraes. From
Araguary this company has in contemplation the extension of its line to
Goyaz, in the state of Goyaz. For the good of the country it is to be
hoped that this project will be carried out in the near future.

Goyaz is as large as France, Belgium, Holland and England combined,
is very similar in topography to Minas Geraes, and also contains
considerable mineral wealth. Politically it is in the centre of the
republic. The maps show a great square block in this state which is
marked “site for the future capital of Brazil.” It will be many years,
however, before this project will be realized, and not until railroads
are constructed, for at the present time there is not a mile of railroad
track in the state. The site is a delightful one among the mountains.
There are splendid natural resources in Goyaz, but the population
scarcely exceeds one to the square mile. The river Maranhão traverses the
state, almost from one end to the other, and it is navigable by small
vessels for hundreds of miles within the state. The Araguaya marks the
western boundary, and is also navigable for a long distance. Both of
these rivers are affluents of the Tocantins, which pours its waters into
the Amazon flood.

The Sorocabana Railway system is an important line in this section of
the state and promises much for its future development, as it is pushing
extensions in several directions. It is now operated by an American
corporation made up of Canadian, American and English capitalists. The
main line begins at São Paulo, and then branches out in several different
directions, northwest, west and southwest, and will eventually be the
connecting link between the trunk lines to the western and southern
states. It is thus destined to be one of the greatest railroad systems
in the republic. The Sorocabana is also a narrow gauge railway. It has a
government guarantee of six and seven per cent., and a privileged zone
on each side gives it a local monopoly. This company took the lines over
from the state government of São Paulo, and they have obtained a number
of valuable privileges.

The Sorocabana Railway Company now operates about seven hundred miles of
railroad. One branch has its terminus at Jundiahy, and from there runs
through the important city of Piracicaba. From Jundiahy to Piracicaba it
passes through a great deal of undeveloped country, but at the latter
place it reaches one of the prettiest sections I have seen in Brazil. As
far as the eye can reach the eye falls upon cultivated fields of coffee,
sugar cane, corn, fruit, etc. In the distance the horizon is everywhere
bounded by the hills, which seem to form a frame for the picture. The
city itself is clean and attractive, with wide streets, and beautiful
plazas. It is situated on a knoll with all the streets slightly sloping
down, so that in the distance one can see the green fields and boundary
of mountains. It has a good sugar factory, owned by a French syndicate,
a cotton mill and other industries. The finest sight is the falls on
the Piracicaba River, which are within the city itself. These falls are
beautiful and furnish thousands of horse power, only a portion of which
is now utilized.

The main line extends from São Paulo to Bauru, a distance of three
hundred miles, and passes through some rich coffee lands which are now
being developed.

At Bauru the Sorocabana connects with the Nord Oeste do Brazil
(Northwestern), which is a projected line to run across the immense
state of Matto Grosso and into Bolivia. The projectors believe that this
line will eventually be a part of the proposed Pan American railroad.
Construction has been completed up to Itapura, on the Tieté River near
its junction with the Alta Paraná, and trains are now running to that
village. The most of the line after Bauru follows the general course of
the Tieté River, and passes through an entirely undeveloped country, much
of which is forest land where large quantities of fine hardwood timber
are found. This is the first railroad to touch the borders of the great
undeveloped state of Matto Grosso, and it means much for that state. At
Miranda, a hundred miles or more of grade has been completed, and work is
being pushed from that town toward Itapura. Materials and supplies are
sent up through the Rio de la Plata and its connections. Many hundreds of
miles of this projected trunk line have not yet been touched, although
preliminary surveys have been made over the entire distance.

To the southwest the Sorocabana Railway passes through rich coffee and
cotton lands to Itarare. Here it connects with the São Paulo-Rio Grande
Railway, which is also one of the important links in the lines connecting
up the Southern states, Uruguay and Argentina. From Itarare the São
Paulo-Rio Grande Railway runs in a southerly direction through Ponta
Grossa, to the banks of the Uruguay River, where it will connect with the
Santa Maria and Uruguay Railway. It already has in operation over four
hundred miles. Only a couple of hundred miles are uncompleted to make a
continuous line, with the various connections, from Rio de Janeiro to
Rio Grande do Sul, and Montevideo, Uruguay. The charter of this company
also involves the building of a railroad from the port of São Francisco
at right angles to and crossing the main line, following the Iguassú
River to where it empties into the Alta Paraná. The concession of this
line gives it all the unoccupied lands on either side for six miles, with
the obligation to settle the same within fifty years. This was done by
the government to induce the railroad company to encourage immigration,
and populate the country. The company also agrees to settle one block of
land with immigrants for each one hundred kilometres of track, each block
to contain one hundred lots suitable for agriculture or cattle raising,
within two years after the approval of each completed section.

The Santa Maria and Uruguay Railway runs at present from near Passo
Fundo, south through Cruz Alta to Santa Maria, where it connects with the
line which crosses the state of Rio Grande do Sul, from the prosperous
port of Porto Alegre to Uruguayana, on the Uruguay River, the boundary
line with Argentina, and there connects with the lines of that republic.
This railroad passes through a rich country, and along its line many
colonies have been established which have become very prosperous. The
climate of this state is cooler, and resembles that of large sections
of the United States. At Cacequy there is a branch to the city of Bagé,
where numerous _xarqueados_ are established, and from there runs to
Pelotas and the city of Rio Grande. From near Bagé, also, a branch is
being extended toward the borders of Uruguay, and probably before this
book appears there will be continuous communication by this route with
Montevideo, the capital of that republic.

From Montevideo it is but a few hours ride by comfortable steamer to
Buenos Aires, where connection is made with the extensive railway systems
of that republic. By way of the Buenos Aires al Pacifico and Transandine
lines through rail communication now exists to Valparaiso and Santiago,
Chile, and the rich “Valley of Paradise,” south of the latter city. In a
year or two also it will be possible to go by rail from Buenos Aires, via
the Central Argentina and the government lines, up to La Paz, the capital
of Bolivia. The Peruvian government has also a project for a railroad
across the Andes from Lima to La Paz, although this is far from being
realized as yet. It simply gives an idea of the railway development that
has taken place, and what is projected for the future.

North of Rio de Janeiro there has not been so much or so systematic
railway development, as there has been south of the federal capital. The
principal company operating in that direction, the Leopoldina Railway,
is also the company having the greatest mileage of any road in the
republic. Its lines traverse the states of Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo
and Minas Geraes, and have a total mileage of over eighteen hundred
miles. This system has been made up by the consolidation of a number of
different lines. Hitherto it has not been able to run its track into the
city of Rio de Janeiro, because of the opposition of the Central, which
road claimed a monopoly. Its terminals have been at Nictheroy across the
bay, and at Mauá. At last the right was granted, a depot constructed,
and, by this time, the trains of the Leopoldina Railway will be running
into the capital city. They promise service from that city to Petropolis
in a little over an hour, instead of two hours by the present combination
of rail and boat. This line taps rich coffee and sugar lands, reaches
back into the mineral section of Minas Geraes, and passes near lands
where fine timbers, such as rosewood, abound. It also connects with the
port of Victoria, which is destined to be an important port for the
products of this district. One of the lines is gradually being pushed up
toward Bahia, and will eventually connect with the lines of that state,
of which there are three or four spurs that spread inland in different
directions from the city of Bahia.

The state of Espirito Santo (Holy Spirit) tapped by the Leopoldina
system, stretches along the Atlantic coast for nearly three hundred
miles. With an area of twenty thousand square miles it has a population
of less than twelve to the square mile. It is a tropical state with much
rain and dense vegetation along the coast lowlands. The capital city,
Victoria, has a good harbour which is now being improved by the national
government. In coffee shipments this port ranks third in importance.
A railroad is also being constructed from Victoria to Diamantina, but
progress up to date has been rather slow.

The next largest system in northern Brazil is the Great Western Railway,
whose lines run from Maceio, in the state of Alagoas, through Recife, or
Pernambuco, capital of the state of that name, Parahyba, capital of the
state of Parahyba, and ending at Natal, capital and chief seaport of the
state of Rio Grande do Norte. A number of branches wind their tortuous
way inland, and each year extensions are being made. The total length
of the lines of this company now exceed nine hundred miles, upon all
of which a government guarantee of at least six per cent. exists. These
lines were formerly operated under several different names, but have
recently been consolidated.

In the state of Ceará there are two railways. One connects the port and
capital city, Fortaleza, with Senador Pompeu, a couple of hundred miles
inland; another line runs from the port of Camocim to the interior town
of Ipu. A short railway connects Caxias, on the river Itapucurú, with
Floris, on the Paranahyba River. This is the only railway in the state
of Maranhão, the sixth state in the republic and as large as Texas. Its
natural resources have hardly been investigated, but they are no doubt
very rich. St. Luiz is the capital and one of the ports. The adjoining
state of Piauhy has no railroad. There is, however, excellent river
communication with the seaports. A railway is projected from the port of
Santo Luiz to run down and connect with the line now running from Bahia
north. From Belem, or Pará, there is one short railroad that runs to
Braganca, a distance of about one hundred miles.

The Madeira-Mamoré railroad is an isolated railroad, being built in the
western part of Brazil by an American company under contract with the
Brazilian government. One must go a thousand miles up the Amazon, and
then six hundred and sixty miles up the Madeira River to Santo Antonio
de Rio Madeira, where this line begins, and which is in the very heart
of South America. Above the rapids there are several hundred more miles
of navigable waters, upon which a service of steamers is maintained.
There are few people in that section of the country, and it may never
be popular with immigrants. The line is being constructed in pursuance
of an agreement with the Republic of Bolivia when the Acre (pronounced
Ack´ray) territory was ceded by that government to Brazil. The rich
eastern slope and fertile plains of Bolivia are practically bottled up.
Its products, including a large rubber and cacao production, either had
to be transported over the Andes, or around a couple of hundred miles
of rapids and cataracts on the Madeira River, to the part of the stream
where navigation is uninterrupted. From there they were carried down on
steamers to Manaos, or Pará, and then to the markets of the world by
ocean-going vessels. This line will be about two hundred miles in length,
and will open up one of the richest sections of Bolivia, a part of Peru,
which also borders on the Acre territory, and the rich territory itself,
which produces a large amount of rubber and cacao, and much of which has
never been exploited at all. Many native Indians inhabit this section,
and their little rafts and row boats navigate all the streams. In these
the Indian rubber gatherers visit the different sections, tap the trees,
and bring the rubber to the establishments of the various companies
engaged in the rubber trade, which may be found in many places.

The first sod for this railway was turned in 1871, but this auspicious
beginning soon ended in disaster. Again, in 1878, a second attempt was
made, and work was prosecuted faithfully for a year. A survey was cut
through the almost impenetrable forest, and four miles of track were
completed. At that time, however, sanitation was not understood as well
as now, and the great mortality stopped the work, as it did in Panama.
This time a sensible beginning was made by first looking after the
health conditions, and practically the same methods are employed as are
followed by the United States on the Isthmus. Sanitary buildings were
erected with provision made against infection from mosquito bites, and
a fully equipped hospital was built and furnished. By these means the
health of the twenty-five hundred employees has been looked after in
a thoroughly scientific way. At the present writing about fifty miles
of track have been completed, and a dozen engines are already at work.
Forces of workmen are engaged in cutting down the forest, grading, laying
track and rails, and all the other processes incidental to building a
railroad. Nature has not changed one iota, for malarial fever is still
malarial fever, the rainfall is as great as ever, and vegetation is just
as luxuriant; but science has taught man how to conquer nature, and it
will not be many years until locomotives will be hauling freight and
passengers around these falls in a few hours, where formerly it required
weeks. Americans may take a pardonable interest in this project, for it
is American energy and American equipment that is doing the work.

[Illustration: THE SÃO PAULO RAILWAY, NEAR SANTOS.]

I have reserved for the last one of the most important, as well as one
of the most interesting railroads in the world, the São Paulo Railway.
This line is important, not from the amount of mileage, for it only runs
from the port of Santos to Jundiahy, a distance of about one hundred
miles, but because of the amount of freight shipped over it. It is the
only railroad in the state of São Paulo running to the coast, and all
the products of that state are shipped over it. Two-thirds or more of
the world’s coffee is produced in Brazil, and of this three-fourths is
shipped from this one port, and all of it hauled over this one road. As
high as thirteen million sacks of coffee, weighing sixty kilograms each,
have been shipped from this port in a single year. It has a monopoly
of thirty-one kilometers on each side of the track. This restriction
heretofore has prevented any other railroad from entering Santos,
although both the Mogyana and the Sorocobana have surveyed routes and
projected lines to it, because of the excessive freight rates charged.
Both of the other roads are narrow gauge, and the expense of reloading
for a short journey, and the rates demanded by this monopolistic line,
are a big drain on the revenues of the other railroads.

The São Paulo Railway originally held a seven per cent. guarantee from
the government, but this was long ago released. Its earnings have
been so great in some years that the company did not know what to do
with the surplus. It was allowed to pay only twelve per cent. to the
stockholders, and the balance must either be paid to the state or the
rates reduced. Unwilling to do either, this company has built fine
stations where there are not more than a score of people, and has
expended money in every way to keep down the net earnings under that sum.
For six miles, soon after leaving Santos, the road climbs the Serra do
Mar by means of cables. This is divided into four sections, each with
its own power station. The trains are run in sections of three or four
cars each, with an engine on each section. One section goes up as another
comes down on each cable. A few years ago the traffic became so congested
that it was necessary to construct a second roadway over the Serra, the
one roadbed being considerably lower than the other. The mountainside is
paved in some places to prevent landslides. Water courses and gullys of
masonry and cement have been constructed everywhere to carry away the
rain, which sometimes falls here with almost the force of a cloudburst.
The road is well ballasted with a crushed stone found in the hills
which is as hard as granite. The Luz station in the city of São Paulo,
belonging to this company, is by far the finest station in South America,
and one of the finest in the world. The railroad is owned by an English
company, and the engines and equipment are distinctly English, and the
entire track is built with the care and precision of an English railroad,
with an overhead bridge or tunnel at each station to pass from the
station on one side of the track to that on the other. The road has only
one little branch in addition to the main line.



CHAPTER XIII

COFFEE


Brazil is not only the land where the nuts come from, but it is also
the land where the world’s coffee comes from as well. Two-thirds, and
possibly three-fourths, of all the coffee used in the world is produced
by this one great country. It matters little whether your grocer labels
your coffee Mocha, Java, or any other name, it is a pretty safe guess
to say that it was raised in Brazil. Richer than gold have proven the
stretches of red soil where this berry grows. This soil occurs at
intervals from the state of Pernambuco south almost to Rio Grande do Sul,
the southernmost state. Of Brazil’s production three-fourths or more is
grown in the state of São Paulo, thus making the production of this one
state alone more than half of the world’s production. Considering the
enormous quantity of coffee consumed, this product and its cultivation in
Brazil becomes of world-wide interest.

The name coffee is derived from Kaffa, a town in Arabia, where it was
first grown. Coffee began to be introduced into Europe in the fifteenth
century, where coffee houses were established and soon became very
popular. In Turkey and England they later came under royal displeasure;
in the former country, because the seduction of the beverage kept the
people from the services of the mosque, and caused them to ignore the
hours for prayer; in the latter, because the coffee houses were believed
to be places of sedition, and disloyalty to the crown. In spite of royal
displeasure and the restrictions of the government, however, the use of
the coffee beverage continually grew, and the restrictive measures seemed
to have little effect on its use.

About the middle of the eighteenth century the cultivation was introduced
into the New World, in Guatemala, Mexico, the West Indies and Brazil.
In the latter country it is said to have been introduced about 1761, by
a deserter who came to that country and brought with him a few seeds.
Its cultivation was, however, on a very small scale for a number of
decades, but was gradually introduced into a number of states where it
was found adapted to the soil. It was not until early in the nineteenth
century that the cultivation of this plant on a large scale was begun at
Campinas, and within a few years the production had reached an important
figure. In the first year of that century it is said that two bags were
sent to foreign markets from Brazil. A dozen years later the shipment
of bags was numbered by the thousands, until, in 1817, the exports are
reported to have been in excess of sixty thousand bags. The state of
São Paulo from the very first took the lead in production of coffee, as
the soil of that state seemed especially adapted to its cultivation. In
this state alone, at the present time, it is estimated that there are
nearly seven hundred millions of trees, and the annual production will
average more than ten million sacks, or one billion three hundred and
twenty million pounds of this berry. These figures will not be materially
altered for several years, because of the restrictive legislation
prohibiting the planting of new trees, which will be explained more in
detail later.

Successful cultivation of coffee, like that of almost any other valuable
crop, requires certain conditions of soil and climate. These are a
rich earth, a certain rarefication of air and plenty of moisture. The
_terra roxa_ (red earth) of Brazil is very rich, and is the result of
the decomposition of rocks of basaltic origin. The best lands are at an
altitude of one thousand five hundred feet, or more, above sea level and
require eighty inches or more of annual rainfall. Furthermore, hilly
lands with an eastern exposure are generally chosen. Although plantations
are sometimes found on comparatively level ground. Too much or too little
moisture, or a frost, will spoil a season’s crop. A coffee field, with
its trees laid out in regular rows stretching as far as the eye can see
to the top of the hills in either direction, is a beautiful sight. In the
foreground the rows of trees, with the roads at regular intervals and
the contrast of green against the red soil, are plainly visible; but, as
distance increases, they blend together until the whole seems a field of
living green, gently swaying in the breeze. Like a great panorama these
fields spread out in every direction in the neighbourhood of Riberão
Preto, the centre of the richest coffee district.

Coffee trees are a matter of slow growth, requiring at least four years
to mature after the young plants are set out. The seed is always planted
in the woods, where patches are cleared for that purpose, and where the
necessary shade and moisture are found. They are always transplanted
during the rainy season, when about eighteen months old and perhaps
a foot high, and during this work the tender plants are handled very
carefully. In many countries the young trees are shaded by banana stalks,
but that method is not followed in Brazil. Corn is oftentimes planted
between the rows of coffee trees to bring an extra crop, but this method
is not approved by the best planters, as coffee trees exhaust the soil
rapidly enough by themselves. On some of the old _fazendas_ the plants
are set in rows not more than eight or ten feet apart, but the newer
plantations are at a distance of from twelve to fifteen feet. The trees
are carefully pruned, and the ground weeded each year, and a crop will
be produced about the fifth year after planting. If the trees are left
to grow untrimmed they will reach a height of eighteen or twenty feet,
but they are usually kept down to a height of about twelve feet, or
less, and are not allowed to spread out too much. One quickly learns
to distinguish between a well-kept and a poorly-cultivated coffee
plantation by its trimmed or untrimmed appearance. The growth of weeds is
sometimes allowed, especially on hillsides, as the roots of the weeds
prevent the soil from washing during the tropical downpours. Otherwise
the rich surface dirt will disappear down into the valleys below. A
planter’s credit was at one time determined by the number of trees he
owned, and that was the reason that some of the fields were planted so
closely together. It has been proven, however, by experience, that close
planting does not pay. One of the most successful planters told me that
even the wagon roads, which are left at intervals of perhaps five hundred
feet, were not a loss, for the trees on each side produced so much more
abundantly that they made up for the row or two of trees left out for the
road.

The coffee tree is an evergreen, and usually has a single trunk with
many branches. The leaves are long, smooth and dark green in appearance.
They are almost a shiny green like the holly, and look as though they
had been varnished. The blossoms grow in great abundance in the axils of
the branches, and a field in blossom is most entrancing. In the early
morning, after a refreshing shower, or while the dew still lingers, the
fields with their small, white blossoms are not only a beautiful sight to
the eye, but an aroma arises from them that fills the air with a sweet
perfume. The fruit usually grows in clusters of from a half dozen to a
dozen berries, which surround the joints almost like a necklace just over
the leaves. When ripe, the coffee berries resemble very much a cranberry
of medium size. Then the coffee field is again a pretty picture, for the
white flowers have turned into beautiful red berries, and the bushes
resemble richly loaded cherry trees. The tree will produce abundant crops
after the sixth year, and I saw fields that were at least thirty-five
years old, and still bearing profitable crops. It is said that the coffee
trees will produce as long as the life of man. There are two kinds
of trees cultivated in Brazil: the common and the yellow-berried, or
Botucatu, and generally called the Bourbon. The yellow-berried variety
develops more rapidly, and gives more abundant crops, but its cultivation
is more difficult. This latter is the one most generally cultivated at
the present time, but it brings a lower price because it is said to be
inferior to the other in aromatic qualities and the weight of the grain.
Its introduction came about when the price was very high and every
planter was anxious to obtain as great a production as possible.

The coffee trees begin to blossom in September and continue to bloom
for several weeks. The maturing process is also irregular, and covers
a period of a couple of months. It requires a number of months for the
berries to mature, and in the state of São Paulo, for instance, the first
picking does not take place until the last of May or first of June. From
that time on the plantations are scenes of activity for five or six
months, until the last of the crop is dispatched to the commission houses
in Santos. The fields will then be filled with men, women and children
with their baskets, gathering up the precious fruit, ready to be taken to
the drying yards.

At harvesting time thousands of pickers flock to the coffee regions from
other parts of Brazil, as they are able to earn good wages for a few
weeks. Many whole families will travel for days on foot, when they have
not enough money to pay their railroad fares. There is often considerable
rivalry among the pickers to see who can pick the most; but there is
also the further incentive to rapid work in the fact that all wages are
paid at so much for a fixed quantity. Fifty pounds is considered a good
day’s picking when it is done from the trees. The method in general
operation on the large _fazendas_ is to strip the branches of all their
coffee berries, by pulling them between the fingers, and then others
follow up and pick up the berries, leaves, etc., from the ground, or the
sheets which have been spread out to catch them. In this way only one
picking is made even though some of the berries have become overripe, and
others are green owing to the uneven ripening. This causes a considerable
unavoidable loss. In an extraordinary season a tree may produce as much
as seven pounds of coffee, but a fair average is three pounds per tree.

[Illustration: DRYING COFFEE.]

The gathering and preparation of the berries is a difficult and laborious
operation involving a number of processes. The large plantations are
equipped with all the necessary paved yards and machinery for this
work, and the smaller planters send theirs to central factories, or
_beneficios_, as they are called. The coffee must be washed, pulped,
dried and submitted to several stages of preparation. The washing is a
simple process, but the work of drying requires the greatest care, for
it exercises a great influence on the value of the coffee. There are at
least two distinct processes in the preparation of the coffee, but it is
always first washed and then soaked in order to soften the pulp, so that
it can be removed, for the coffee beans are in the centre. This “pulping”
is done by a revolving cylinder set with teeth, after which the beans are
run into tanks for a thorough washing to remove all traces of the pulp.

Some have a series of these tanks through which the coffee is passed,
and the beans are then carried by means of running water out through the
paving yards. On these great yards of beaten earth, paved with bricks or
cemented, and sometimes tarred (for they dry quicker on a tarred floor),
the berries are spread out in thin layers to dry. If you would take up
a handful at this time you would find they were covered with a soft
gummy substance. No artificial drying process equals that of the sun’s
rays. Men with wooden rakes, and in their bare feet, are kept constantly
busy turning over the berries to hasten this process, which oftentimes
requires many days, and even weeks, for it is necessary that they be
evenly dried.

You probably expect to see a green berry or bean at this time but they
are still covered with a parchment-like skin. When they are finally
dried this parchment skin is removed by passing the beans through
heavy rollers, and the chaff is cleared away by machine work similar
to that used for similar processes in wheat threshing and cleaning. By
a continuous process the beans are passed through machines which husk,
fan, polish and sort them according to sizes. The berries are now a light
olive-green colour. The little round beans are classed as “Mocha” and
another size as “Java,” etc. The various grades are then sacked in coarse
sacks, labelled with the name of the _fazenda_ and the grade, and shipped
to Rio de Janeiro, or Santos, where the great commission houses are
located.

The commission houses are important institutions and practically own many
of the _fazendas_ through advance loans, and the planter is helpless
against charges that are oftentimes excessive. In the warehouses the
coffee is all emptied out in great piles, and repacked in new sacks,
often being regraded by the commissionaires. The planter is burdened with
a great number of expenses. The net price to him the past year was only a
little over four cents per pound. Among these expenses the following is a
fair list as taken from an official publication, and verified to me by a
leading planter: transportation to the railroad station, transportation
to Santos, municipal export tax, resacking charges, shipping old sacks
back, brokers’ commission (should be three per cent., but is in fact much
higher), a special tax of $1.00 per sack and an _ad valorem_ export tax
of nine per cent., and a number of other minor charges. In the end it is
the commission man who has the smallest amount of work and least risk,
who makes the big money at the present price of coffee. It used to be
when the planter received ten to twelve cents per pound for his coffee
that the _fazendero_ rolled in wealth, and no extravagance or luxury was
beyond him. At the present time only those who have the latest improved
machinery, so that the cost of preparation is reduced to a minimum,
are making much money. A rise or fall of a cent per pound often means
prosperity to the coffee producer or the reverse. The price to-day is not
more than one-third of what it was a number of years ago. It is probably
quite possible to simplify the cultivation of coffee trees so that there
would be a considerable margin of profit at the present prices. One
progressive planter looks after forty thousand trees with one man, four
mules and two machines of a recent pattern, according to a report that I
saw.

The steady decrease in the price of coffee during several years led to a
new departure in economics, by the three great coffee producing states
of Brazil. A sack of coffee (one hundred and thirty-two pounds), which
in 1895 was worth almost $20.00 in Europe, had fallen to $8.00 in 1905.
The coffee planters were almost in despair over this low price, which
threatened to spell ruin for many of them within a short time. Among
themselves they had attempted various measures, but all of them had
failed. An attempt had been made as early as 1901, by the state of São
Paulo, to remedy this situation, by a practically prohibitive tax upon
new plantations, allowing each planter to set out each year only five per
cent. of what he already possessed. This would not much more than replace
the natural decay. This order was originally made for a period of five
years, but has since been continued for another period of the same length.

This measure failed to bring about the desired result. Finally, when the
crop of 1906-7 promised to be such an unusual crop, the planters appealed
to the government for further relief. The state was equally interested,
since by far the greatest part of the revenue of the state, and the
various municipalities as well, is derived from its tax upon coffee,
and they were afraid that the planters would become panicky and abandon
coffee cultivation. Because of this alarm the governments of the three
states of Rio de Janeiro, Minas Geraes and São Paulo entered into an
agreement, known as the Taubaté Agreement, by which these states, acting
through São Paulo, agreed to buy up on the market the surplus production
and store it until such time as, in the judgment of the commissioners,
conditions warranted its sale.

This judgment was based upon the observation that coffee trees exhaust
themselves by such an extraordinary crop, and yield only average crops
for the next two or three years. They figured that by that time the
natural increase in the consumption would give a market for this coffee.
Further, it was known that coffee improves, rather than deteriorates,
with age. A special export tax of $0.60 to $1.00 per sack was established
at the ports of Rio and Santos, and the government of São Paulo was
authorized to borrow not to exceed $45,000,000 to raise a fund to
purchase the coffee, each of the three states jointly binding themselves
in the obligation. As a result of this agreement that state purchased
eight million sacks of coffee in the market, and these were stored in a
number of central points in Europe, as well as in New York. Money was
borrowed at comparatively high rates. Both the state obligation was given
and the stored coffee pledged as collateral security. At that time it
was estimated that there would be, including the new crop, a surplus
stock of fourteen million sacks of coffee, representing almost one year’s
consumption.

The result of this action of the coffee producing states has not been
what was expected. The price has not increased as was predicted, and
the interest and other expenses have been a great drain upon revenues.
Another part of the scheme was to limit the exportations from the
country; nine million sacks being fixed for the year 1908, nine million
five hundred thousand for the year 1909, and ten million for the
following years. All coffee exported above that amount would be subject
to an additional tax which made it prohibitive. Furthermore, the crops
were rather larger than was expected, so that the surplus stock had not
appreciatively decreased. In the winter of 1909-10, the time of my
visit, there was a movement on foot, which gained a great many adherents,
to arbitrarily destroy ten per cent. of the previous season’s crop, but
this was not done. Within four months after the new crop came in, the
limit allowed for export had been reached, and the export trade was at
a standstill. It was a new attempt to get around the law of supply and
demand. The final result of this attempt is as yet problematical, and
remains to be seen. It was a bold and original effort that has many
defenders, and many critics as well, right among the Brazilian people.

If not the best, the Brazilians make one of the best cups of coffee in
the world. Never have I tasted such delicious coffee as I did almost all
over that republic. The Brazilians understand fully the art of preparing
this delicious beverage, and make it fit for kings and queens. They
generally choose a coffee berry at least two years old, as they say that
age improves the aroma. Some even say that five or six years’ storage in
a dry place is still better. Another essential, they say, is to roast and
grind the coffee fresh every day. The roasting process is very thorough,
for it is roasted until the average American housewife would call it
burned. The black roasted coffee is reduced to a fine powder, and then
placed in a woollen bag through which hot water is poured. It is _never_
allowed to boil, so that their coffee is rather a percolation than an
extraction. I am not a cook, but I do know that the coffee as prepared
by the Brazilians is delicious, and seems to be free from the harmful
effects. In the morning it is served in about equal proportions with hot
milk, but at all other times clear. Little dainty cups of black coffee
with plenty of damp sugar are always served at social calls, at nearly
all public offices and in many other places where one visits. In fact, if
you called on a Brazilian family, and coffee or some other refreshment
were not served, you would almost be justified in believing that your
call was not especially welcome. I drank coffee many times, and at all
hours, when offered, and often feared the consequences, but never felt
the slightest ill effect.



CHAPTER XIV

THE LAND AND SEA FORCES


“You had better take off your hat,” said a friend to me, as some national
troops were marching by on the Avenida Central, in Rio de Janeiro; “if
you do not, some one may knock it off,” he continued. Then I noticed that
every man and boy respectfully lifted his hat as the flag passed him;
and I did the same. Three regiments of infantry passed along, each with
its banner fluttering in the breeze, and as many times did we lift our
hats in salute to the green and yellow starred emblem of Brazil; and I
must confess that the sentiment involved in this tribute to the flag, for
which we are supposed to be willing to bleed and die at all times, is
commendable, and worthy of emulation.

Brazil is not a military nation in the sense that European nations are
such. The proportion of soldiers to the population is greater than in
the United States, but far less than in almost any European nation.
The total number of men under arms, including the military police, does
not exceed fifty thousand men. Of this number more than one-half are
state troops. The soldiers are not much in evidence in any part of the
republic, except those doing police duty. A compulsory military service
does not exist, after the German or French model, although the right of
conscription by either state or federal government is a part of the law,
and can be resorted to whenever, in the judgment of either government,
such a step becomes necessary. Retired or active officers are stationed
at nearly all the colleges, by whom instruction in military tactics is
given after established systems, much the same as in our own educational
institutions. The term of enlistment in the federal army is for three
years, with certain privileges in the event that the soldier re-enlists
when a term has expired. One of these privileges is the choice of a free
grant of land in one of the government colonies, and the gift of an
outfit of agricultural implements with which to cultivate it.

Another inducement is in the way of additional remuneration. The
entire republic is divided into seven districts, in each of which
a barrack is maintained. The federal troops are divided into twenty
different regiments, and a number of battalions are made up of the
different branches of the service. The arms of all troops are of the
latest improved Mauser type, and the artillery is exclusively of German
manufacture.

The state troops number a considerable force. They are different in
organization from the state militia of the United States, because they
are regular troops under arms. The most of them serve in the various
cities of the states as military police. They are a good and effective
force in preserving order; and yet they have often been the source
of serious trouble, for this system has enabled a state ring to defy
national authority, because they had right at hand an armed force of
their own, which primarily owned allegiance to the state government.
The state of São Paulo alone has in its employ a force that exceeds
five thousand well-armed and trained troops. Rio Grande do Sul, that
turbulent and impetuous southern state, has an almost equal force, and
the “Rio Grandenses” have been proven puissant and effective in more than
one skirmish with federal troops. Bahia maintains about three thousand
soldiers under arms in her barracks, and Minas Geraes comes next with
twenty-five hundred. There is not a single state which does not have
at least a few hundred men enrolled under its own banner. If all of
these state troops would be loyal to the federal government, as they
undoubtedly would be at this time, it would give a fairly good fighting
force with which to meet any aggression from without.

The revolt of a national navy seems like a very unusual and almost
ludicrous proceeding; yet Brazil had such an experience early in the
history of the republic. For six months the Brazilian navy under Admirals
Mello and Saldanha da Gama openly defied the authority of President
Floriano, the second incumbent of that high office. Admiral Mello,
who was in command of the navy, sent a short and curt message to the
President ordering him to resign the presidency within six hours, or a
bombardment of Rio de Janeiro would follow. President Floriano was made
of stern stuff and flatly refused to resign. The Admiral then weakened
in his threat and did not bombard the capital. Had he carried it out
great destruction would undoubtedly have followed. The most of the navy
remained in the bay, but a few of the boats escaped and joined the land
insurgents in the southern part of the republic. The navy, cut off from
supplies of food and fuel, was obliged to yield in the end, and the
national government was victorious.

A quarter of a century ago the Brazilian navy was easily the most
powerful in the southern hemisphere. At that time no other South American
republic could boast of a navy of any considerable strength. Brazil then
possessed a number of battleships, cruisers and other boats that were
very creditable, and the cost of which had been very great. Since that
time both Argentina and Chile have spent large sums of money building up
their naval strength, and the discrepancy in sea forces is not so great
as formerly. Both of these nations have made great financial sacrifices
in order to dispute the supremacy of their bulky neighbour on the water.
Ever since the establishment of an independent empire in Brazil more
attention had been devoted to building up a formidable sea force than
an army, and the same conditions exist to-day. It is perhaps not a bad
thing for Brazil to have a strong navy because of its extensive coast
line. Furthermore, because of the loose cohesion between the states,
this arm of the national government adds greatly to its prestige. Nearly
all the most powerful states have an extensive sea coast, and the navy
would greatly assist the federal government in the event of any revolt
against its authority. Although each state has its own military force,
as heretofore described, none of them have any armed vessels to protect
their ports. It is quite possible also, that a united interest in a
powerful navy may aid in furthering a national and federal spirit which
will aid in breaking down the idea of state loyalty as against federal
unity, which has been hitherto predominant. If this should be the result,
then the money invested in these seemingly useless monsters of the deep
may be well spent.

The only instance when the navy has been in actual service was during the
conflict with Argentina, and the Paraguayan war, when some engagements
took place on the Paraná and Paraguay Rivers, between some of the smaller
boats of Brazil and some armed vessels of Paraguay. In these encounters
the former were victorious, and the Brazilians are proud of referring to
the glorious traditions of the history of their navy.

The principal naval establishment is at Rio de Janeiro, near the landing
dock. The naval yards here are quite extensive, and a couple of thousand
men are usually employed. Several small cruisers and some river boats
have been constructed there, but all the large boats have been built
abroad, and the most of them in British yards. At the present time the
boats listed in the Brazilian navy number about fifty. This includes
every vessel, large and small, many of which are practically useless from
the modern view point of practical war values. They could only be used
in patrolling inland rivers, where neither armed vessels nor forts would
be encountered. This list includes seven vessels that are classed as
battleships, eight cruisers, nine torpedo boats, and then the auxiliary
fleet, consisting of several small gun boats, dispatch boats, etc.

This list does not embody, however, the new vessels which are now being
received from English builders. A couple of years ago contracts were
let for three Dreadnaughts, two scout ships, two torpedo boats and ten
torpedo boat destroyers. The addition of these boats will again place
Brazil in the first rank of naval powers in the southern hemisphere. The
three Dreadnaughts are claimed by the Brazilians to be the most powerful
of their kind that have yet been constructed. They contain some new
modifications in the placing of armour and the equipment of guns.

These monster warships will be named the Minas Geraes, São Paulo and the
Rio de Janeiro, in honour of the three most powerful states. The first
named has already been delivered, and is now in Brazilian waters. The
other two will follow at intervals of a few months, and the smaller boats
will all be added to the navy during the year 1910. One innovation is the
placing of twelve-inch guns in the upper towers instead of the ten-inch
guns which have been used heretofore. This feature, the British builders
claim, gives these boats the most powerful armament of any ships afloat.
Nine-inch armour has been used where seven and eight inch has generally
been used. Then secondary batteries of great strength have been added in
the centre line of the boats, which are also a novel feature. A speed of
almost twenty-two knots an hour for these leviathans has been generated
by the builders on the several trial runs. Each of the new battleships
will be five hundred and forty-three feet in length with a displacement
of nineteen thousand two hundred and eighty tons and a draught of
twenty-five feet. The two scout ships will be named Bahia and Rio Grande
do Sul after two more states. These vessels have been built for speed,
and will be able to rush through the water at the rate of twenty-six
and one-half knots per hour. They are now considering the advisability
of adding submarine boats to the navy in order to complete the naval
equipment.

“These new ships,” say the Brazilian authorities, “make it impossible for
the great powers to start any so-called pacific demonstration against
Brazil. To have any chance of success against the Brazilian Dreadnaughts,
and other subsidiary ships, a power ought to have a number of ships at
least double; but there is no country, England included, that can send
so far from home such a considerable part of its navy without danger.”
It has had one effect, and that has been to stir up its ambitious
neighbour on the east coast, Argentina, and that country has recently
let a contract with an American shipyard for two battleships which,
according to Argentinian naval authorities, will be still more powerful
Dreadnaughts than the new Brazilian ships.

For the education of young men for the army and navy the government
maintains a number of schools. The Escola Militar, or military school of
Rio Janeiro, is the West Point of Brazil. Here cadets are educated in
military science and fitted for positions as commissioned officers. A
military school is also maintained at Porto Alegre, where the children of
military officers are educated at the government expense. There is also a
Navy College in the same city for technical instruction in naval science.
Schools for apprentices are also maintained in a number of the principal
ports. The majority of those who enter these schools, both army and navy,
are of mixed nationality, either negro or Indian. Instruction is given in
all of the elementary studies in addition to army or naval science. The
few years instruction received in those institutions by these men, who
generally come from poor and ignorant homes, makes them not only better
educated men but better fitted to assume the duties of citizens of a
great republic.



CHAPTER XV

RELIGIOUS INFLUENCES


The Indians, whom the Portuguese found in Brazil, had not advanced in
civilization as had the Incas in Peru, or the Aztecs in Mexico. They were
more or less nomadic, although the different tribes kept within certain
general limits as did the North American Indians. Perhaps the bounty of
nature and the hot climate deadened the impulse to mental effort and
exertion that leads to a higher civilization. There are evidences of the
existence of the family relation and marriage customs, but polygamy was
practised. Cannibalism was common too; and it is said that they not only
devoured their enemies killed in war, but even ate their relatives as a
special mark of favour and consideration.

The Indians generally believed in three great or chief gods. The sun was
the god of the animal kingdom, the moon of the vegetable kingdom and Ruda
was the god of love and reproduction. In addition to these chief gods
there was a multitude of inferior deities who served various purposes.
The fact that there was some idea of a future life, or a “happy hunting
ground” in the beyond, is shown by the burial custom of depositing in
the grave of the dead warrior the bow and arrow, and vessels in which
to prepare food. It was also the custom to hang a number of friends or
relatives upon the death of a chief, in order that the departed might
have congenial company in the next world. The importation of negroes
from Africa also brought in a great deal of superstition, and a tendency
toward idolatry and fetichism, which can be traced in the religious and
moral customs even to this day.

It is impossible not to admire the early missionaries of the Roman
Catholic Church. They followed side by side with those adventurers and
explorers who pushed their way through trackless forests and almost
impassable swamps in their search for earth’s treasures. It was the
Jesuits who did most of the early evangelizing work in Brazil. This order
was more humanely disposed toward the natives than some of the orders who
accompanied the Spanish Conquistadores, for they endeavoured to protect
the natives from injustice. It was in the middle of the 16th century that
the members of this order began their evangelizing, work in Brazil. They
plunged into regions hitherto unpenetrated by white men. They went out
alone among the cannibal tribes who dwelt on these shores, and lived with
them. They learned the languages, and soon were able to preach to them in
their own tongues. These brave missionaries exhorted the Indians to lay
aside their practice of cannibalism and polygamous marriages, and adopt
the new faith. In order to appeal to their childlike natures every device
and paraphernalia of pomp and procession was adopted in their services.
Miraculous appearances and finds became common, so that sacred sites for
the building of the religious edifices were frequently located by this
means.

In order to give an unprejudiced view of the methods and purposes pursued
by the early Jesuit missionaries I quote from Baron de Santa-Anna
Nery,[4] himself a Catholic: “The Missionaries did not insist upon any
strict theological teaching, being sure that their orthodoxy would soon
be disfigured; they had but one aim in view, to render gentle and good
these unhappy human beings, who gave themselves up recklessly to every
impulse of their violent passions.

“The God of the Christians became for these imaginative savages the
awe-inspiring _Tupan_. Satan was incarnate in the person of the terrible
Anangá. Then they grasped a trinity, based upon the Catholic Trinity, and
composed of the sun, the moon and Ruda, the god of love. We took part
in our childhood at processions where fetich beliefs were mixed up with
Christian rites. The ingenious priests who invented ceremony certainly
did more than all the other preachers put together to perpetuate a
semblance of the Catholic faith amongst the Indians.

“When the Indians celebrated any saint’s day they erected an altar
in their hut upon which they placed an image of the Saint and at its
feet is placed the _Siare_. In front of the house they raise a large
thatched roof. Tables are set up and everything prepared for dancing and
merrymaking.”

In this way were the native Indians induced to adopt at least the
external forms of religion. It was not long until the majority of the
aborigines became nominal adherents of the new religion. Wherever a
tribe became baptized a church was erected in which to hold services,
and a priest was left in charge. These priests instructed the Indians
in rudimentary agriculture as well as theology, and the superiority of
the educated priest over the ignorant native soon gave him a position
of great vantage and influence. Power proved pleasing to the Jesuit.
It was not long until the priests were really stronger than the civil
authorities, and a practical theocracy sprang into existence.

They fought for the freedom of the Indian. The colonists wanted to
enslave these poor natives, and make them work, willingly or unwillingly,
on the plantations which they themselves were too lazy to cultivate.
This was strenuously resisted by the Jesuit fathers, and by the church
authorities in general, and led to many hard struggles. So when we read
of the early struggles between the “Paulistas” and the Jesuits, one
cannot help but sympathize with the latter, for they were championing
the rights of the weak. And yet their motives do not seem to have been
wholly altruistic, for they eventually endeavoured to reduce the Indians
to a blind obedience to their own whims and will. Though they gave him a
great measure of peace, they made him a blind servant to the will of an
ambitious priesthood. The colonists continued their efforts to enslave
the Indians, and in the end the Jesuits were expelled for a time from
several of the states.

One of the most noted of this order was named José Anchieta, who was a
native of Teneriffe, and the son of a Portuguese nobleman. It was as
much due to his courage and genius as any other cause that the Jesuit
influence spread as it did and became established so firmly that it has
not been shaken even to this day in many sections of Brazil. He was
sincere, eloquent, learned and an indefatigable worker. He went among
the Indians, learned their language and acquired an almost superhuman
influence among them. He became looked upon by the natives as almost
divine. Water poured over his bones is said to have worked a thousand
miracles, and a few drops of it are reported to have turned water into
wine. Other men of power and influence there were, and a string of
missions was established among all the capitancias. These reached up
the Amazon to the uppermost limits of Portuguese territory, and even to
the region claimed by the Spanish Jesuits, where some minor conflicts
of authority ensued. The Jesuits founded a number of educational
institutions in Brazil, which have exerted a great and good influence,
and many of these exist even to-day. This is greatly to the credit of
this remarkable order.

Bahia has always been a great centre of church influence in Brazil.
There is one chapel in that city that was founded in 1582. It was
built upon a spot where a miraculous image of a Virgin was said to
have been discovered. And so one will find all over Brazil, as well as
in Spanish-America, churches whose foundation is built upon alleged
sacred spots, and many of them are now places for pilgrimages. One of
these is the church of Nuestra Senhora de Peñha, which can be seen on
a conspicuous height as one proceeds up the harbour of Rio de Janeiro.
This church is reached by a series of three hundred and sixty-five steps.
During one week in October thousands upon thousands of the natives visit
this sacred shrine, and many of them climb up all of these steps on
their knees as evidence of contrition, or act of penance. Everywhere
church _festas_ are celebrated, and many of these retain in a remarkable
degree the traditions of old. In Bahia the natives celebrate one
_festa_ occasion by gathering together all the donkeys of the city, and
elaborately decorating them with foliage and flowers.

[Illustration: CHURCH AT NICTHEROY.]

At Pará is celebrated a _festa_ which is noted in the country. The origin
of the celebration is generally described as herewith given. Two hunters
sought rest under the shade of a tree while returning from a hunt, and
fell asleep. A strange woman appeared to one of the men in a dream, and
told him to search in a thicket nearby. To his great surprise a beautiful
image of the Virgin was found near the trunk of a palm tree. The two men
were overjoyed at the find and presented it to the governor, who placed
it in the palace chapel. On a certain day it was decided to show the
image to the public, but the image had disappeared. A search disclosed it
in the same thicket. A second time it was placed in the palace chapel,
and a second time it found its way back to the thicket. This transpired
at least twice more, although tradition differs as to the exact number
of times, and then it was decided to build a chapel on that spot. This
was done. Miracles have been very numerous at this shrine. Its virtues
have so spread that thousands visit it, and a great procession is formed
each year with the statue occupying an important position in it. Everyone
joins in the procession, and the occasion is made a great event at Pará.
The collection of relics in the form of wax arms and wax legs, with red
spots showing where deadly wounds had been healed, and wax heads with
red spots showing where sores or wounds had been cured is exceedingly
ghastly. The belief of the people in these traditions is no doubt much
less than in former times, and many who take part in the _festas_ now
probably do so principally because it is a custom hallowed by age.

It is surprising in travelling over the country to see the number of
shrines and small chapels which dot the wayside and crown the summit of
many hills. Some miraculous story is told about each one, and there is a
shrine or relic of some kind in each one which is greatly venerated. I
copy from a description given by Dr. H. C. Tucker, agent of the American
Bible Society in Brazil:[5]

“In the early history of Brazil a town was often founded by setting up a
Growing Stone, a Healing Cross or a Miracle-Working Image. These images
are often called “Apparecido” or “Apparecida,” from their “appearing” in
some cave, or wild forest, stream, or on the seacoast. It is supposed
that “The Lord of Matosinhos” appeared near that place from which event
the brotherhood of Bom (good) Jesus of Matosinhos had its origin. The
main temple or church, the seven chapels, oratorios, wooden figures
seated around a table representing the Last Supper, the image of Judas
and the great knife with which the pilgrims give him a dig as they pass
by, the Agony in the Garden, the rough wayside cross of hardwood bearing
a rude figure, dedicated to Our Lord of Matosinhos, with an inscription
showing that it began to work miracles about the year 1700; the gigantic
figures of the prophets, the carved work in wood and stone, the paintings
of various kinds, the instruments of the Passion, the miracle-room
with the large number of wax figures and hundreds of memorial tablets,
representing the miracles performed by the image; the side chapels of St.
Francis de Assisi, St. Francisco de Paula and others, the two pulpits,
the two boxes and two open confessionals, the representation of the
Trinity and the Burial of Christ, the altar tomb, covered with a board,
which when removed shows a full sized effigy of Our Lord of Matosinhos,
with angels kneeling around and praying, which is the grand object of
the pilgrimage and where the pilgrims prostrate themselves and kiss the
hand of the image with great devotion; on another side the cradle of
Bethlehem, above the fine silver chandeliers:—these are some of the many
curious things, in crude shape found in this church.”

Sunday is a holiday, just as it is in France and Spain. The stores are
usually open in the morning, but closed in the afternoon. The women go
to church service in the morning, and in the afternoon all go out to the
races or whatever other form of sport occurs on that day. Bull fighting
was long ago abolished in Brazil, and in fact has disappeared from nearly
the whole of South America. Easter Sunday is always a day for processions
and solemn service in all the churches. In fact nearly a week is given
over to the Easter ceremonies, when images of Christ and the Virgin and
sacred pictures are carried through the streets of nearly every city and
village.

The agents of the American Bible Society have traversed almost the entire
republic from one end to the other in their work of distributing Bibles
and Testaments. The colporteurs travel by rail, mule, steamer, canoe, or
any other way that will take them to their destination, and oftentimes
endure hardships almost as great as the Jesuit missionaries of old. Dr.
Tucker says: “It is painfully depressing to one engaged in offering the
Scriptures to hear three-fourths of them say: ‘I don’t know how to read.’
Another obstacle is the religious superstition of the people concerning
the Bible we offer them, and the belief so strongly inculcated by the
priests that they have no right to read even the version accepted by
the Roman Catholic Church.” In one town of Minas Geraes the priest read
a letter from the Bishop of Diamantina in which the people were warned
against the “false Bibles” and advised that the men ought not to be
allowed to stop at any place. This aroused the ignorant people to almost
a fury, and cries of “Away with these heretics, kill them, kill them,”
were heard from numerous throats. Many armed themselves with sticks and
even guns in their fanatical frenzy. No damage was done, however, for
cooler counsels finally prevailed, but it is indicative of the intolerant
spirit shown by the clergy—not to the work of Protestant denominations,
but to the distribution of the Bible by this non-sectarian organization.
Many times the books were forcibly taken from the colporteurs and burned.
It also shows how different the Roman Church is in Brazil from our own
land. In the United States the Roman Catholic clergy encourage education
and the reading of the Scriptures to all of their flock. They maintain
parochial schools at great expense in their efforts to educate the
youths. They unite with other organizations in common efforts to upbuild
and better the world. Some of the most severe critics have been members
of that church from other countries, who have visited Brazil, and other
countries of South America.

[Illustration: THE BEAUTIFUL CHURCH AT JUIZ DE FORA. A SHRINE ON TOP OF
THE MOUNTAIN.]

The Brazilian prides himself on his forbearance and generosity. So far
as I could observe there is absolute freedom of worship throughout the
republic. So far as official attitude goes, at least, that statement is
absolutely true. It is quite possible that missionary efforts in remote
districts might encounter a fanatical outburst, but, in the populated
centres, missionaries are undisturbed, and they are allowed to prosecute
their work free from open molestation; and everywhere that efforts have
been made greater or lesser congregations are being built up.

The Methodist Episcopal Church South has the greatest number of
missionaries at work in Brazil, this field having been given over to
it by the Methodist Episcopal Church. It has a number of missionaries
stationed in several different states, and in some places has built up
fair-sized congregations. Along with its religious work it conducts
a number of very excellent schools, which are doing a work that can
not be measured by material standards, for education is the great
need of the country. In particular, it has established schools for
the education of girls, and in this work it has been very successful.
Many families send their daughters to these schools in preference to
the government institutions. The O Granberry College of Juiz de Fora,
which welcomes both sexes, has been mentioned elsewhere. In the same
city is the Collegio Mineiro Americano, a very worthy institution with
an able faculty, in which about three hundred and fifty girls receive
instruction. Another very excellent girls’ school is conducted at
Petropolis, where they have a beautiful location up on a hill overlooking
the city. Other schools are located at Piracicaba, Riberão Preto, Bello
Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre.

The Presbyterian Church of the United States was one of the first
denominations to begin work in Brazil. It soon gained a large number
of adherents and founded that excellent institution of learning in São
Paulo, Mackenzie College. Some local disagreements among the native
members split the church, and one branch broke off from the parent
society in the United States. This society still maintains a separate
organization and has a number of congregations, but the rupture was an
unfortunate occurrence. The Baptists have also begun work in several
of the states. They have established schools for young boys and girls
in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Pernambuco. The Anglican Church has
churches in several cities, but does not prosecute missionary work, as
its churches are primarily for communicants of that denomination residing
in the country. The Protestant Episcopal Church also has organized a few
societies through missionary effort. There are quite a number of German
Lutheran Churches in the three southern states where the Germans have
settled, but they do not attempt any work outside of the German-speaking
population. One of these churches will be found in nearly every
community where there is a considerable German colony.

The Young Men’s Christian Association has entered the Brazilian field in
a number of places. At the present time it has associations organized
in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Porto Alegre and Pernambuco, with college
chapters at Mackenzie and Granberry Colleges and the Military School
in Porto Alegre. It is, I believe, doing a good work on the broad
lines adopted by that great world-wide organization, where people of
varying beliefs can unite their efforts for mutual profit, and also
for the general good of the communities in which they live. There is
a great field for this work, in my opinion, in this land where there
is so much religious indifference among the men, who seem to leave
the religious work almost entirely to the women of their families. At
present these institutions are cramped in their work by lack of funds,
but the secretaries, who are young Americans, are energetic in their
efforts and are doing the very best they can with the resources at their
command. They aid very much in the fraternizing of the native and foreign
elements of the communities. It is an age of almost complete religious
indifference, at least among the men of Brazil; and any movement that
will rouse the people from this lethargy, either within or without the
Roman school, will be beneficial to the country.



CHAPTER XVI

THE EMPIRE


The history of Brazil contains more exciting chapters, and has been the
most chequered of the South American republics. Its territory has been
the battleground of Spaniards, Portuguese, French, Indians and negroes.
It has been successively a capitancia, a province, an empire and a
republic. And yet, with all these changes and admixtures, the language,
customs, religion and laws of Brazil are substantially those of Portugal.
Rome gave these things as a heritage to that country, and she in turn
transmitted them to her colony in the New World.

Early in the year 1500, one Pedro Alvarez Cabral, a Portuguese nobleman,
sailed from Lisbon for the East Indies. Owing to some peculiar
instructions that had been given to him by the King of Portugal, he
sailed far west of the usual route for vessels bound to those islands.
One bright morning, during Easter week, land was sighted, and his
little fleet came to anchor off the coast of what is now the state of
Bahia. Believing that this was only an island he named it the “Island
of the True Cross,” and took formal possession of it in the name of his
sovereign. On Easter Sunday a landing was made, and the first mass was
held. A few days later the entire fleet departed, leaving only a couple
of mutinous sailors on shore.

The news of the discovery of this new land soon reached Portugal, and the
Crown of that country immediately made formal claim to the territory.
Expeditions were sent out by King Manuel to explore this supposed island.
One of these expeditions was in charge of Amerigo Vespucci, and it was
he who ascertained, after a careful examination, that this new land
was a continent and not an island. Wherever the Indians were seen they
were questioned about gold and silver, but, although the natives told
marvellous tales of wealth, no mines were located. The only object of
commercial value seemed to be the dyewood, known as brazil-wood; and,
in spite of the efforts of the Church to name the country Santa Cruz,
the holy cross, the name Brazil soon supplanted all other names, and has
clung to the country ever since, although religious names abound in
the geography of Brazil. Scores of ships of various nationalities soon
sought these shores for this precious wood, the commerce of which was
exceedingly profitable. For a quarter of a century this land, teeming
with fertility, remained unsettled, although explorations had been made
from the mouth of the Amazon as far south as the Rio de la Plata. The
resources of the country were fully appreciated, and Vespucci himself is
credited with saying, that if Paradise did exist on this planet it could
not be far from the Brazilian coast.

The earliest permanent settlers of Brazil were mutineers from the ships
bound for India. One of these, Diego Alvarez, was put ashore at Bahia;
another, John Ramelho, was left at Santos; and the third, Aleixo Garcia,
found his unsought habitation still farther south. Each of these men
married daughters of local chieftains, and they, and their descendants,
aided greatly in the final subjugation of the country, for they allied
themselves with the incomers. The first serious effort to colonize the
country was begun near Pernambuco, where an attempt was made to establish
a sugar plantation. This, however, was soon destroyed by some French
brazil-wood hunters. An expedition, consisting of four hundred persons,
was sent out under Martino Affonso de Souza a short time afterwards.
After sailing along the coast he finally dropped anchor, and established
the little settlement of São Vicente, near the present city of Santos,
in 1532.[6] It was not long after this that the Crown divided up the
whole Brazilian coast into parallel strips, each extending fifty leagues
along the coast, and running inland as far as the power of Portugal
extended; and these sections, called _capitancias_, were given to court
favourites. The grantee was given practically sovereign powers over this
territory in return for a certain tax which he was expected to pay. As
a result of this arrangement a number of permanent colonies grew up on
Brazilian soil. Of all the _capitancias_, that which included Pernambuco
became the most prosperous because it was in the track of all the vessels
from Europe, and also because it was found so well adapted to the
cultivation of the sugar cane, which, at that time, was very profitable.
Furthermore, little or no trouble was experienced with the Indians,
who had become allies of the white men. By the middle of the sixteenth
century this settlement was a flourishing one, and there were a half
dozen or more communities south of it.

The _capitancia_ system was not a success. Some of the grantees did not
succeed; others grew to be arrogant. This aroused the jealousy of the
Portuguese government, which began to make efforts to centralize the
colony, and sent out a governor-general with plenary powers and explicit
directions. A capital was built in the beautiful bay of Bahia, and
the success of sugar cultivation on these shores made this settlement
prosperous. Negroes were imported as slaves, and Bahia continued a great
distributing point of these human chattels for centuries. By the year
1585, it was estimated by a priest, that there were twenty-five thousand
white people in Brazil, twelve thousand of whom were in Bahia, and eight
thousand at Pernambuco. Rio de Janeiro, at that time, had a population of
less than a thousand.

[Illustration: A TYPICAL BRAZILIAN STREET.]

Other nations had been casting jealous eyes upon this Portuguese colony
in the New World. A large colony of French Huguenots, seeking more
congenial homes, settled at Rio de Janeiro, and formed friendly alliances
with the Indians. This policy was exactly the opposite of the policy of
the Portuguese settlers, who generally enslaved the aborigines wherever
possible. It was several years before these French colonists were finally
driven out of the country. In 1580 Brazil had become a Spanish possession
through the uniting of the throne of Spain and Portugal. Spain, however,
neglected Brazil, because it was not furnishing the golden wealth like
Mexico, Peru and their other American colonies. The Dutch conquest about
this time was far more formidable than all other opposition combined. The
Dutch East India Company had been so successful in securing the greater
part of the Portuguese possessions in the Pacific Ocean, that a West
India Company was organized to do the same thing in Brazil. Although
protected and subsidized by the Dutch government, this company was
organized for private profit. A fleet of privateers, flying the flag of
Holland, appeared at Bahia and captured that city; Pernambuco succumbed
a few weeks later. Although there were a number of reverses the Dutch
gradually extended their sovereignty until the whole of the northeastern
part of Brazil was in their control. This Dutch sovereignty lasted for
more than a quarter of a century, and it was not until Portugal had had
its sovereignty restored, and several sanguinary battles were fought,
that the Dutch West India Company relinquished its hold on these rich
provinces.

During the occupancy of the northern provinces by the Dutch, development
was going on in the south where Portuguese rule was undisputed. The
Paulistas had by this time developed into an energetic and aggressive
race. In their search for gold, and Indians whom they might enslave,
they had spread their conquest over the great interior plateaus; they
had rooted out all the settlements established by the Spanish Jesuits
on the upper Paraná and had spread south as far as Rio Grande do
Sul. Comparative commercial and governmental freedom had stimulated
progress, so that by the end of the seventeenth century the population
of Brazil had increased to three-quarters of a million. Many and bitter
were the contests waged with the Jesuit priesthood, and the Paulistas
were especially bitter in their opposition to this order. At last the
Portuguese government forcibly expelled them from all Brazil. Many
negroes escaped from their bondage, and fled into the interior, where
they refused to recognize white supremacy, and there set up independent
governments, and some of these strange republics lasted for fifty years.

It was not until the beginning of the 18th century that Rio de Janeiro
became a place of importance. The discovery of gold in Minas Geraes a
little while before caused a great influx of adventurers, and Rio was the
only gateway to the mining territory. It soon possessed a population of
several thousand and became a city of social and commercial importance.
Other communities grew and many new provinces were formed. With
increasing wealth and agricultural and mineral prosperity came evidences
of discontent with the body politic. The policies of the home government
became narrower and narrower, as the East India possessions were lost,
and they seemed determined to milk this one colony to the very last drop.
The colony was neither allowed to manufacture goods, nor purchase of
any country except Portugal; and this even was hampered in many ways by
burdensome imposts. All business transactions were burdened with heavy
fees; slaves were charged so much a head; all trades and professions
were taxed at ruinous rates, and certain lines of trade were let out
as monopolies to favourites. The governors interfered everywhere with
the administration of justice, and bribery was rampant on all sides.
Unauthorized taxes were imposed, forced loans exacted from individuals,
and young men were impressed into military service.

It is little wonder that dissatisfaction grew apace. A deep repugnance
spread over the land and the very name of government grew to be hated.
The hostility to Portugal and aversion to everything Portuguese permeated
all classes without distinction. One bright page shines out at this
period of the colony’s history during the administration of the Marquis
of Pombal, who became prime minister of Portugal in 1750. The marquis
punished bribery and incompetence without fear or favour, and for a few
years the colony greatly prospered. After twenty-seven years of rule he
was driven out, and the old abuses returned in even a greater degree, if
such was possible. The success of the revolution in the United States
about this time aroused many Brazilians to the possibility of freedom
from the galling yoke. A conspiracy arose in the state of Minas Geraes,
in a literary circle that existed there, but it was easily destroyed and
one man, Tiradentes, was executed.

About this time an incident happened which stemmed the tide of events
for a time. Napoleon was at the height of his power, and was overturning
monarchies with a ruthless hand. Having conquered Spain, his armies
descended upon Portugal in 1808. Fear seized the court, and Dom John,
although shedding tears over his unhappy country, decided to save his own
head by flight. Hence he embarked at Lisbon with all the royal family in
the men-of-war, and set sail for Rio. Fifteen thousand persons, including
many of the nobility and hangers-on, also embarked at the same time,
together with fifty millions of property and treasure, and arrived at
Rio the 8th of March, 1808. The king’s first act was to issue a decree
removing all the fetters on commerce, and opening up the ports to the
ships of all nations. Many other decrees followed, and all restrictions
upon foreigners were removed. The removal of these fetters to industrial
development, and the importation of so many people, well supplied with
money, inaugurated a new era for Brazil. A national bank was established,
the printing press set up and many new schools founded. Scholars and
artists flocked to this new capital, and the commercial nations sent
their representatives. Brazil was officially designated as the Kingdom of
Brazil. There were perhaps three million people in the country, of whom
one-third were negro slaves, and not more than one-fourth were white.
Sugar and tobacco were the great staple exports, for coffee had not at
that time reached the importance that it has to-day.

The coming of the royal court to Rio was not without its disadvantages
as well. Although it brought money, it also brought an extravagant
government with a swarm of parasites who had bankrupted Portugal, and who
now began their operations in Brazil. Money flowed freely, new offices
were created to supply places for favourites, and taxes were augmented to
pay these bills. Education increased, but the desire for holding office
was likewise intensified. The great estates were practically abandoned,
being left in the hands of slaves and subordinates. Everybody wished
to live near the court, and all the young men yearned for government
offices. This avidity exists even to this day, and its origin may perhaps
be traced back to this period in the country’s history. Politics became
the popular theme—not from the theoretical standpoint, but the practical
one of furnishing congenial employment at a good salary. If the salary
was not large enough, then recourse was had to other sources for more
revenue to keep up extravagant living.

All things have an end, and so did the royal court in Rio. Napoleon had
fallen, and events of momentous importance were transpiring in Portugal.
That country was jealous of the fact that the court resided in Brazil,
and demanded its immediate return. A Cortes had been summoned which
threatened trouble for the monarchy. The Brazilians forced King John,
before his departure, to sign a decree favouring a liberal constitution
such as Spain had just adopted. This he did with, perhaps, a mental
reservation, and a couple of days afterward embarked for Lisbon with a
large suite.

Upon his departure King John left his son Dom Pedro, a young man
just past his majority, as regent. This young man was a handsome and
active youth, fond of outdoor sports and a patron of the arts. He was
strong-willed, but passionate and unrestrained, and was entirely the
opposite of his vacillating, weak-willed father. His manners were frank
and attractive, but he loved public favour, and enjoyed being the
principal dramatic figure in any crisis. His courage was unquestionable,
he was prompt in decision, but he had no strong character for good. It
was not long until he had the opportunity to be the central figure in
truly dramatic events.

[Illustration: A MUD AND THATCH COTTAGE.]

King John seems to have had a presentiment of coming independence for
Brazil. His last words to Dom Pedro were: “I fear Brazil before long will
separate herself from Portugal; if so, rather than allow the crown to
fall to some adventurer, place it on thine own head.” The Cortes adopted
a grasping policy toward its big colony. They refused to listen to the
Brazilian delegates in that body, abolished certain of the provincial
courts, changed the governors, and sent garrisons to the principal
cities. The attempt to transform Brazil again into the position of a
province, after having been the sovereign country, aroused the whole of
Brazil into indignant protest. It was looked upon as open insult. The
spirit of rebellion, which had broken forth even before the departure
of the court, burst out with renewed energy. The newspapers were filled
with revolutionary editorials. When an order came for the return of the
popular young regent the people of São Paulo, Minas Geraes and other
states spoke with an almost united voice against this impolitic measure.

“How dare these deputies of Portugal deprive Brazil of her privy council,
her exchequer, her board of commerce, her court of requests, and so
many other institutions which promise us such future benefits? How dare
they dismember Brazil into isolated parts possessing no common centre
of strength and union? How dare they deprive your Royal Highness of the
regency with which your august father had invested you?” In response
to this and similar appeals the young prince announced that he would
remain in Brazil, and thus defy the Cortes. A ministry was formed at Rio
to look after the interests of the country, although independence had
not been proclaimed. José Bonifacio, an energetic and able patriot, was
made Prime Minister. No heed was paid to these rumblings by the Cortes,
and that body continued to pass restrictive and unpopular measures. The
Brazilian deputies finally withdrew in anger, and the Cortes sent armed
reinforcements to Brazil. Dom Pedro issued a proclamation to the people
urging resistance, and also called together a legislative assembly. The
final summons of the Cortes for his return reached him near São Paulo,
as he was returning from a hunt with a party of friends. Dramatically
drawing his sword the regent shouted, “Independence or Death,” and this
cry was taken up all over the country. On the 10th of October he was
solemnly crowned as the Constitutional Emperor of Brazil, and announced
that he would accept the constitution to be drawn up by the assembly soon
to convene. The places held by Portuguese troops soon after capitulated,
and it was not long before peace had fallen over the entire new empire,
although Portugal did not recognize her independence until 1825.

The mutation had been accomplished with very little opposition. The
Portuguese troops were soon withdrawn, and people began to breathe more
freely. Dom Pedro I, for this was his official title, had succeeded
in doing what he desired; he had created a new empire with himself as
the first legitimate monarch. He prided himself on establishing the
first constitutional monarchy of his own free will. On every possible
occasion he loudly proclaimed the beauties of the constitution and his
own liberalism. His speech to the first constituent assembly was of a
different tone, and was as follows: “I promise to adopt and defend the
constitution which you may frame, if it should be worthy of Brazil and
myself. We need a constitution that will be an insurmountable barrier
against any invasion of the imperial prerogatives.” This announcement
served to show a change of heart in the young ruler, and caused a storm
of protest from members of the assembly who were looking forward to real
liberty. They desired to curtail rather than enlarge imperial privilege.
The country was divided into two parties—liberal and conservative. The
former party had been the leaders in the independent movement, and the
Andrada brothers, members of that following, were in power. They were
fiercely opposed to everything Portuguese, and were unscrupulous in
dealing with personal enemies. Their policy soon ran counter to that of
the Emperor, and he summarily dismissed them. He appointed a conservative
ministry, headed by the Marquis of Paranaguá, and this ministry was
unsatisfactory to the liberals, who had been inflamed by the dismissed
Andradas.

The assembly itself became very independent and ignored the requests and
recommendations of the Emperor. That royal personage himself and his
Portuguese officers were attacked by both press and assembly. At last
Dom Pedro arranged his troops in front of the house where the assembly
met, and demanded the expulsion of the Andradas. When this was refused
he enforced his demand, and immediately issued a proclamation dissolving
the assembly, and deported a number of the members who were distasteful
to him. A new constitution was drawn up at the inspiration of the
Emperor. This instrument was promulgated as the fundamental law; but no
congress was summoned, and the Emperor ruled by despotic law pure and
simple. Ministers were appointed, and they soon resigned or were removed.
Opposition journals sprang up and flourished. Several states at the north
attempted to secede and form the “Confederation of the Equator,” but this
was suppressed by vigorous measures. A rebellion broke out in what is
now Uruguay, and which had been claimed by Brazil. This led to war with
Argentina, and a number of battles were fought between the troops of the
two nations. This necessitated a large increase in the Brazilian debt,
and the result was he had to acknowledge the independence of Uruguay. In
1826, by the death of his father, Dom Pedro succeeded to the throne of
Portugal, but he immediately chose to remain in Brazil and abdicated in
favour of his daughter Donna Maria.

A congress was finally summoned by the Emperor which met on the 3rd
of May, 1826. At first this congress was timid and subservient; the
second year it was less so, and by the third year it had the courage to
openly defy the Emperor. He insisted that their only duty was to pass
laws to increase taxes, but they endeavoured to make the ministries
accountable to congress. In 1829 he dissolved this body, because of
its intractability. By that act he destroyed the last remnant of his
hold upon the public. The Brazilians were practically a unit against
absolutism, and the native Portuguese, who upheld Dom Pedro, were in the
great minority. He appointed a liberal ministry, but that was a failure.
He then designated one composed exclusively of senators, but the people
resented this, for senators were appointed for life by the Crown. He
made a journey through some of the provinces, but his reception was
unfriendly. Riots broke forth on the streets of Rio. He appointed a new
ministry of reactionary tendencies, but that action failed to stem the
tide. A mob composed of the best people of Rio assembled, and marched
to the residence of the Emperor. The army and police were with them in
sympathy, and the troops guarding his person deserted him in this hour of
need. His resignation was demanded, but as firmly refused. No indignity
was offered his person, but the crowd refused to disperse. At last, very
early in the morning, Dom Pedro relented, and wrote out an abdication
in favour of his son, a lad of only five years. “I have voluntarily
abdicated in favour of my dearly beloved and esteemed son, Dom Pedro
de Alcantara. I shall retire to Europe and leave a country that I have
always loved and still love.” These were the Emperor’s words, written on
the morning of the 8th of April, 1831. He immediately left Europe, where
he died three years later, his life having been greatly shortened by the
many excesses to which he had yielded all his life.

[Illustration: A GENERAL VIEW OF BAHIA.]

The expulsion of Dom Pedro I left the country in an unsettled condition.
Revolutionary talk was in the air and no one knew what a day might
bring forth. Because of the extreme youth of the new Emperor, Congress
met and selected a provisional regency consisting of three members.
Trouble soon arose in Bahia, Pernambuco and Pará, and Rio seemed ready
for civil war. The regency had no real ascendency and petty jealousies
soon arose. In this crisis a patriot priest, Padre Diago Antonio Feijó,
who had been a leader of democratic opinion, was given absolute power.
He was a man of firm will and prompt execution. By his decisiveness all
disorders in the capital were soon quelled. Only isolated disorders
arose which were prompted by ambitious local politicians. In the
provinces _pronunciamentos_ were issued in high sounding language,
and the populace were greatly aroused. These local disaffections
sometimes gained considerable headway because of the slowness of
communication. As one writer puts it, “the words ‘liberty’ and ‘local
rights,’ ‘constitutionalism’ and ‘union’ were overworked in speeches and
proclamations.” In Pará, for instance, two hundred people were killed
in one night’s fighting. Ceará was in anarchy for several months and
Maranhão kept up a civil war for a whole winter. Padre Feijó was an
orator and a man of unswerving integrity, and soon made his influence
felt, for he was respected as well. When the regency was made elective
he was chosen by the electors. His one weakness was an unyielding
disposition which could not harmonize the discordant elements, and he
finally resigned. His successors did not do as well as the priest, who
had, at least, left a record of integrity, if he had been somewhat high
handed in his methods of overcoming opposition. The ten years of the
regency had been about the stormiest period in the history of Brazil.
Although the Emperor would not be of legal age until 1843, at the age
of eighteen, a strong demand went forth for him to take charge at once.
Though this was unconstitutional, no one seriously objected, and he
agreed to accept the responsibility. Hence it was, in 1840, at the
age of fifteen years, Dom Pedro II ascended the throne of Brazil, and
administered the country for almost half a century.

The new Emperor was the antithesis of his father in tastes and
disposition. Whereas the father was a sportsman, the son was a student
and an omnivorous reader. The first Pedro was a man of the world, the
second was the inverse. He was a conscientious monarch, and aimed to
decide all questions justly. He was respectful toward religion, but the
priesthood had no hold upon him. Like his father he was democratic in
his manners, but was negligent in his dress and cared naught for the
glitter of a court. He would rather read a favourite author than preside
over a state dinner. He kept his ear to the ground, and thus generally
knew the state of public opinion. The people loved him, and it was this
fact alone that forefended a republic for so many years. They sometimes
laughed at his eccentricities, but they respected his opinion; they had
confidence in the honesty of his purpose, which was a sincere compliment
to him.

Both internal and external peace generally reigned during the rule of Dom
Pedro II. Rio Grande do Sul, that independent and ebullient province,
remained in arms for several years, and it was not thoroughly subjected
until 1845. This civil war had lasted ten years. The government aided
Uruguay in her fight against the Argentine dictator, Rosas, but emerged
from this fight with a number of advantages gained. The worst war in
which Dom Pedro II engaged was the one waged with Paraguay, from 1865 to
1870.

This little republic was under the domination of a dictator by the name
of Lopez, who, because of some fancied affront, attacked a Brazilian
steamer passing up the Paraguay River. Lopez followed this up by an
expedition into Matto Grosso, and easily conquered the southern portion
of that province. Soon afterwards Lopez declared war against Argentina,
and Uruguay was also interjected into the struggle. Thus Lopez was
fighting the three republics lone-handed, each of which was more powerful
than his own; but Brazil was scattered, Argentina was not homogeneous
and Uruguay was disintegrated into political factions. Furthermore,
Paraguay was difficult of access, especially for Brazil, and the war
dragged along several years. Lopez pushed every advantage and, by the
very boldness of his initiative, seemed to carry everything before him
at first. Sanguinary battles were fought on Brazilian soil on several
occasions. The Duke of Caxias was finally made commander in chief. This
new commander was very slow in making his preparations, but the tide soon
turned after he got in the field. The audacious dictator was gradually
driven in; he was at last defeated and slain.

This did not supervene until nearly every man in Paraguay was slain
or disabled. Brazil gained absolutely nothing. She piled up a debt
of $300,000,000, and lost over fifty thousand much-needed citizens.
Argentina and Uruguay profited, but Brazil, after bearing the brunt of
the fighting and the lion’s share of the expense, realized no substantial
result.

During the entire reign of Dom Pedro II there was a ceaseless conflict
going on between the liberal and conservative factions. At first the
former gained the ascendency, but they failed to enact the expected
reforms, so a conservative cabinet was named. The rise in the value of
coffee and other profitable crops brought in an era of prosperity, which
continued the conservatives in power for many years. Liberty of speech
was unquestioned under this emperor, arbitrary imprisonment had ceased,
property rights were respected and the administration of justice had been
much meliorated. Bribery ceased to be done openly, as had been the custom
before. In 1850 an epidemic of yellow fever in Rio spread consternation
over the land so that even Congress adjourned in terror. Railways were
inaugurated, wealth increased and luxury followed. Then came a financial
crisis, and the defeat of the conservatives followed. Another boom
succeeded a short period of depression, and, about the close of our
own civil war, Brazil had easily made the most progress of any of the
nations of South America. The mass of the people, however, were not only
apathetic but ignorant; they lacked initiative and energy.

Thus it was that events drifted along with intermittent periods of
prosperity and depression. The conservatives would be in power a short
time, to be followed by the liberals. The Emperor retained his personal
popularity, but his daughter, the Countess d’Eu, heir to the throne,
was not so popular. During the Emperor’s visit to the United States and
Europe, in 1876, she served as regent. The general belief that she was
too much under the influence of the priesthood made the people fear her
possible accession to the throne, in the event of the Emperor’s death or
disability. There was evidently a weakening of Dom Pedro’s mental powers.
Because of his ill health he left the power of state with her while he
went abroad in search of relief. During this regency events transpired
that brought about the change from empire to republic, and the enfeebled
old emperor was forced to leave the country to which he had given the
best years of his life. The change could not have been long delayed,
however, for Brazil was surrounded by republics, republicanism permeated
the atmosphere, and the spirit of republican institutions was everywhere
abroad in the land.



CHAPTER XVII

THE REPUBLIC


Three things contributed to the change of government in Brazil from
empire to republic. The first of these was the natural trend toward a
republican form of government, since for more than a half a century
Brazil had been surrounded by republics. During that time she had been
the only representative of the monarchical system on the American
continent. The Emperor himself had recognized the inevitable, if one
may judge from his expressions. Had Dom Pedro at that time been in good
health, he would doubtless have recognized the handwriting on the wall
and voluntarily abdicated. Those who were disappointed in politics, or
had a fancied grievance, belonged to this republican element, as it was
the only thing that promised a change. The second contributing cause was
the fear of clerical domination in the event the government fell to the
Princess Isabel, daughter of the second Dom Pedro and heir to the throne.
That she was a devout and sincere member of the Church of Rome there
was no doubt; and this made the people fear an undue influence by the
priests, although she had during the regencies done no overt act. Her
personality was a sharp contrast to that of the amiable Emperor, for,
where he was simple and unaffected, she was autocratic and reserved. Her
husband, the Conde d’Eu, was cold in demeanour, close-fisted in money
matters and a foreigner—the latter being a point that the Brazilians had
never been quite able to overlook. If the count had been a Portuguese
nobleman the feeling toward him might possibly have been different. The
third and strongest reason was the abolition of slavery, which had been
urged from the throne by the crown princess the year before.

[Illustration: A RURAL HOME.]

In order to fully understand the slavery situation it is necessary to go
back a number of decades in the history of the country. At the beginning
of the 19th century there were perhaps two million of negro slaves in
Brazil. From about that period the movement for the abolition of slaves
began to make headway. Strong and influential men arose in a number of
different states and advocated the gradual eradication of this practice,
by freeing all children of slave mothers after a certain age had been
reached. It was not, however, until 1830, and after much agitation, that
the importation of slaves was made illegal; and for many years after this
there was a large clandestine infiltration of blacks. The Emperor was at
heart an abolitionist and favoured the movement as much as he dared. The
law of 1830 proving ineffectual, in 1854 a vigorous statute was enacted
suppressing the ingress of slaves and this was strenuously enforced. At
this time the slaves numbered two million five hundred thousand, nearly
forty per cent. of the population. The breaking out of the Paraguayan
war checked the trend of the abolition movement, but at its close, in
1870, it sprang up again more strongly than ever. In the following year
the so-called Rio Branco ordinance was passed, which declared that all
children of slave mothers should be free after their majority, as this
service should pay for their rearing and education. Proprietors were
required to register all slaves. This concession did not satisfy a
large element. In a few years a powerful party arose which demanded the
immediate manumission of all slaves, and this party numbered among its
adherents some of the strongest men in Brazil. Slavery was abolished
in the states of Amazonas and Ceará. A further bill, passed by the
national assembly, declared all slaves over the age of sixty years free,
on condition that they served their masters for three more years, and
established a scale of low redemption prices by which the slaves could
purchase their freedom. Rio de Janeiro was the centre of the abolition
movement, and São Paulo of the slave-holders’ strength. Many wealthy and
influential slave-holders in the latter state voluntarily unshackled all
their slaves for the sake of principle.

Encouraged by the state of public opinion, thousands of slaves
voluntarily left the estates, and the officials generally refused aid in
securing their return. So rapidly did the number of those held in bondage
decrease that, by 1887, there were only seven hundred and forty-three
thousand slaves in the whole empire, a little more than one-fourth of the
number a quarter of a century previous. When the Congress met in May,
1888, the speech from the throne announced that “the imperial programme
was absolute, immediate and uncompensated emancipation.” A bill was
introduced which contained the following two short articles:

I. Slavery in Brazil is declared extinct.

II. All acts to the contrary are revoked.

Within eight days the bill had passed both houses, had been signed by the
princess and was the law of the country. The votes against it were hardly
numerous enough to be worth the counting. By this act the strongest
upholders of the monarchy were alienated.

The rejoicings were confined almost exclusively to the labouring classes,
who believed this change would better their condition. Those injured,
the great plantation owners, made no open demonstration, but the seeds
of sedition were sown. The ambitious group of military officers,
who probably saw a chance of personal aggrandizement in a change of
government, realized their opportunity approaching. São Paulo was the
hotbed of the disaffection, for the big coffee planters of the state
felt the loss of slaves more than any other class. Furthermore that
state was the home of a group of influential men who were republicans
from principle. When the Emperor returned from Europe in August, 1888,
an immense reception was organized for him; and that man, whose mental
powers and perceptions were not so keen as formerly, failed to discern
the uneasy feeling underlying the surface. And yet the plot was then
well in hand for the final overthrow of monarchical conditions, as soon
as a favourable opportunity presented itself.

It was not until 1884 that any avowedly republican members were elected
to the national assembly, and then three were chosen, two of whom
afterward filled the office of president. Benjamin Constant, a professor
in the military school, in his teachings had spread republican doctrines
among the younger officers of the army, and insubordination followed in
certain quarters. The ministry seemed impotent against the power of the
army. The princess was still disliked, and her husband, the Conde d’Eu,
more so, and the Emperor was in failing health. It had been generally
understood by both parties that nothing would be done during the lifetime
of the Emperor. The regency of the princess had, however, become
prolonged and unpopular. As the army became disaffected the conde had
endeavoured to form a new Imperial Guard of Honour to protect the throne.
A plan was also formulated to send the entire army away in detachments
to various parts of the republic, and this was to be done on the 15th of
November. It was also rumoured that the Emperor would again place the
power of state in his daughter’s hands. On the 14th the report became
current that Constant and Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca would be arrested.
The ministry did not sleep that night, as rumours had reached it that a
part of the army at least would resist removal.

The republicans were busy too, and, early in the morning, a brigade of
the army drew up in front of the War Department, and a peremptory demand
was sent to the cabinet to surrender. Resistance was useless, for the
whole army was estranged. Consequently the entire cabinet telegraphed
their resignations to the Emperor at Petropolis. This reached the Emperor
just as he was leaving the imperial chapel, where he had attended mass.
Dom Pedro started for Rio immediately, which place he reached in the
middle of the afternoon. By this time the revolutionary chiefs had met
and organized a provisional government, having named themselves as
ministers, with General Deodoro da Fonseca as president. A manifesto was
promulgated and given to the public proclaiming a republic. The senate,
which had been a life position heretofore, was declared abolished and
Congress was dissolved. On the night of the 14th the city of Rio de
Janeiro had indulged in a celebration, and the Emperor was an honoured
guest. On the following evening he was again a guest of the city, but
practically a prisoner, for a republic had been proclaimed. The Emperor
was notified that he and his family would be compelled to leave within
twenty-four hours, but that their lives would be protected, and ample
financial provision made for them. On the night of the 16th all the royal
family were placed on board a steamer bound for Lisbon. The Emperor died
at Paris on the 5th of December, 1891.

The countess still resides in France with her three sons. The eldest
of these, the prince imperial, arrived at Rio de Janeiro a few years
ago with the intention of making a visit to the land of his birth. The
federal authorities refused permission for him to land, as they feared
his presence might result in a disturbance.

The opportune time for the republic had no doubt arrived, for the country
at large accepted this radical change with the greatest indifference.
Those who were not satisfied at least kept still and decided to await
developments. Outspoken monarchists were nowhere to be found. A military
dictatorship followed with many of its evils. Most of the governors of
the various provinces announced their submission to the new régime, but
the old officers of the monarchy were rapidly supplanted by republican
sympathizers or officers of the army. This provincial government lasted
for fourteen months, and effectually succeeded in making itself very
unpopular. In that time a series of laws were promulgated covering almost
every phase of government. The provinces were organized into states
after the model of the United States of America, church and state were
formally separated, civil marriage was established. Suffrage was made
universal with an educational qualification only, and many judicial
reforms were inaugurated. The green and yellow flag of the empire was
retained although a considerable change in the design was made, and the
imperial crown was eliminated from everything governmental. The republic
was recognized by the United States in a little over two months, and by
the other principal nations shortly afterward.

The first serious dissatisfaction arose out of delay in calling an
election for a new Senate and House of Deputies. This was finally
held, and the Congress met in Rio on the 15th of November, 1890. A
constitution which is patterned very closely after that of the United
States was adopted with few changes. One of the provisions was that the
first president and vice-president should be elected by the Congress,
and not by popular suffrage. Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca was chosen
President, receiving eleven more than a majority, and Marshal Floriano
Peixoto was selected for vice-president. The President, being a military
man both by education and training, the government continued military in
fact, for the constitution did not bother the new executive very much.
During the provisional government the banks had been conceded the right
to issue circulating notes, and the country was soon flooded with these
promissory obligations. Credit was easy and a speculative boom followed.
The amount of money in circulation had almost doubled in a few months,
and exchange began to fall. Congress viewed this condition with alarm
and passed measures restricting the issue of paper money. The President
vetoed this and other bills. A law was passed nullifying the veto, and
then the President forcibly dissolved the Congress. Rio was declared in
a state of siege, constitutional guarantees were suspended and martial
law evulgated. These measures proclaimed the President as a dictator.
In Pará armed resistance arose; the State of Rio Grande do Sul openly
revolted against President Deodoro, and he was unable to put it down.
The revolutionists announced that they were ready to “march to Rio and
depose the dictator.” The navy and most of the army declared against
the President and he finally resigned in favour of the vice-president,
in November, 1891. The first president was an able man in many ways.
He had distinguished himself in the Paraguayan war, and had held a
number of responsible positions, which he filled with credit. He was too
unyielding, however, and his ideas of strong and inflexible rule did not
harmonize with those of others almost equally powerful.

President Floriano had his troubles from the very beginning. Those
opposed to a military man for executor endeavoured to force the election
of a new president, but Floriano announced his determination to serve
the term for which he had been elected. He abrogated the decree of his
predecessor dissolving congress, and that body at once reassembled.
The relations between the executive and legislative branches of the
government were smooth at first. The year 1903, however, opened with
ominous murmurings, with rumours of revolutions and conspiracies. The
only effect this had upon President Floriano was to make him still more
severe and arbitrary. Rebellions broke out in Rio Grande do Sul again,
and also in Matto Grosso. The former insurrection lasted for three years,
but the latter was more quickly subdued.

In September, 1893, the entire navy under Admiral Mello, who had been
Minister of Marine, revolted. The Admiral issued a _pronunciamento_, of
which the following is a part, and is a fair sample of the whole: “The
President of the Republic has armed Brazilians against Brazilians; and he
has raised legions of so-called patriots, spreading mourning, want and
desolation in every nook and corner of the Republic, for the sole purpose
of gratifying his personal caprices and strengthening and perpetuating
the supremacy of his tyrannical dictatorship. Promising to be the
sentinel of the Treasury, the President has perjured himself and deceived
the nation, opening with sacrilegious hand the public exchequer to a
policy of bribery and corruption, thus abusing the authority which, in
an evil hour, the revolution placed in his hands.” The admiral, who had
been joined by some members of Congress and other prominent civilians,
threatened to bombard the city, but President Floriano acted quickly and
manned, as well as strengthened, all the fortifications in the harbour.
The admiral demanded the President’s resignation within six hours, and
that official flatly refused and defied the naval squadron.

[Illustration: A BRAZILIAN CRUISER.]

Congress stood by the President in this crisis and voted him funds. Rio
and Nictheroy were declared in a state of siege. Mello fired a few shots
at the city, which did considerable damage, but did not venture to carry
out his threat to bombard it. He finally escaped with the _Aquidaban_
and an armed transport, the _Esperanca_, and sailed for Rio Grande do
Sul to join the insurrectionists in that quarter of the republic, where
a provisional government had been set up. Admiral Saldanha da Gama was
left in charge of the insurgent fleet. A few months later Mello returned
northward with the _Aquidaban_ to Rio, but did not join the other vessels
in the harbour there. Admiral da Gama attempted to establish a blockade,
but the American Admiral Benham would not permit this, claiming it was an
unjustifiable interruption of commerce. An attempt was made to capture
the land forts and a sanguinary engagement ensued in which over eight
hundred men were killed and wounded. Soon afterwards the insurgents lost
several vessels which were sunk by government shells. The naval revolt
finally collapsed in March, 1894, but the commander, Admiral da Gama,
escaped on board a Portuguese man-of-war and joined the other admiral in
the south. This guerilla war in the south lasted until 1895; and it was
not until several thousand lives had been sacrificed and much property
destroyed that the beef eaters of the turbulent southernmost state
yielded, and a peace was once more restored which has lasted to this day.
President Floriano was very severe with the rebels who were captured, and
scores of them were shot. In fact, for a while, wholesale slaughter of
fellow Brazilians followed. Persons who were simply suspected of being
implicated in the rebellion were arrested and shot down.

The people were weary of military rule and, at the election in March,
1894, it was generally understood that a civil president should be
chosen. President Floriano himself advocated this and practically
selected his successor, Dr. Prudente José de Moraes Barros. A few months
after his term of office expired the ex-president passed away, as had his
successor, just a little while after his enforced resignation.

Republican ideas and principles made a great advance when Dr. Moraes
was inaugurated as president, on the 15th of November, 1894. He was a
lawyer by profession, and a native of the progressive state of São Paulo;
was a little past fifty years of age, and from the earliest days of his
career had been an ardent advocate of republican principles. Furthermore,
the new President was opposed to the use of force in enforcing public
administration. He had been a member of the provisional government of
his state, and was the first governor of that state under the republic,
as well as the first president of the national senate. He lived a
simple life, free from all ostentation, and his straightforwardness and
integrity brought to him the respect of all classes of Brazilians. Thus
it was with a thorough equipment that this new civilian President met the
responsible duties of his high office. The revolutionists insisted that
the election was invalid, on the ground that no voting had taken place in
the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catharina and Paraná, although
they had no objection to the new President personally. After peace was
restored the President granted amnesty to all who had borne arms against
the republic.

The natural consequence of the early days of extravagance began to be
felt. The national and state government seemed to have vied with each
other in multiplying the number of official employees, and in spending
money on public buildings and other works. To meet the deficits paper
money had been issued, and now the effects of this, together with the
fall in the price of coffee, were being experienced by the nation at
large, and retrenchment became necessary. Enemies both in official and
private circles grew up. The ruling party became split over retrenchment
policies, and an attempt was made to assassinate the President in
broad daylight, which, it was strongly believed, was the result of a
political plot. He would have been killed, had not a brave general thrown
himself in front of the President and received the fatal wound himself.
The effect of this conspiracy was to increase the admiration of the
people for the President, and to condemn the methods of his enemies.
An insurrection arose in the state of Bahia which required federal
assistance; and this was believed by many to be backed by monarchical
sympathizers, for it required an army of several thousand to quell it. A
_coup d’etat_ which had been planned early in 1897 by the vice-president,
who was in power during the temporary absence of the President to
recuperate his health, and who was backed by the discontented military,
was nipped in the bud by his sudden and unexpected return to the capital.
The boundary line with Argentina was settled during his administration,
by the arbitration of President Cleveland who determined the contention
in favour of Brazil.

In this way the four years of President Moraes’s term of office passed
by, and Dr. Manoel Ferraz de Campos Salles, also a civilian and a lawyer,
was chosen as his successor. An empty treasury, a country practically
without credit, and a commercial crisis are the conditions that
confronted the new President. A little later the Bank of the Republic
failed, and this dragged down to ruin many commercial enterprises as
well as a number of smaller banks. The President attacked these various
financial problems with great energy and considerable shrewdness. The
payment of interest on the public debt, which had been suspended for
three years, was resumed, and the value of the money slowly began to
rise. He managed by great shrewdness and tact to maintain his ascendency
over the turbulent majority in Congress. The only complaints were
because of the increase of taxes which were found necessary by his
administration. They were able to show, however, why the money was needed
and where it went. During his term another troublesome boundary question
with France, over the southern limits of French Guiana, was settled. The
dispute included a territory larger than Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, and
was submitted to the arbitration of the Swiss government and the entire
tract, except three thousand square miles, was awarded to Brazil. There
were no outside wars or internal revolutions during the term of Dr.
Campos Salles, and he retired at the end of his term to his home town of
São Paulo, where he still lives and enjoys the confidence and regard of
his fellow citizens.

The third civil President, who took office in 1902, was Dr. Francisco
de Paulo Rodrigues Alves, also a Paulista, like his two immediate
predecessors. He was elected peaceably, having been practically named
by his predecessor. He found the condition of the government very much
better than that individual had, for the finances were much improved.
President Rodrigues Alves announced as his program the improvement
of the sanitary conditions at Rio, and better shipping facilities.
The transformation of that city, which has been elsewhere described,
was the work of this administration and it remains as a monument to
him. More than a thousand houses were torn down to make room for the
improvements, and many millions of dollars were expended, but they were
well spent. When the port works are completed, which were started by
this administration, Rio will have a stone quay more than two miles in
length. A special impost of two per cent. gold on all imports into that
part was levied to pay for these improvements, and the government had no
difficulty in floating loans to secure the money.

Another dispute over boundary, which had long been the cause of friction
with Bolivia, was settled during the term of President Rodrigues Alves.
This was concerning the Acre tract, which includes some of the richest
rubber forests in the world. Brazil secured the land on the payment of
$10,000,000, and an agreement to construct a railroad which would give
Bolivia an outlet to the Amazon. It was in this territory that some
American adventurers sought to set up a little independent kingdom.
Several other serious boundary demarkations were likewise determined
during his term of office. It was during his administration that the Pan
American congress was held in Rio, which was the occasion of the visit
of Secretary Root to that country, and which aided much in strengthening
the friendly ties between the two countries. The consideration shown the
American representative was remarkable. With the exception of a couple of
little revolts which were really no more significant than strikes in our
own land which sometimes require the assistance of federal troops, the
administration of President Rodrigues Alves was marked by peace. He had
filled many public positions and retired from office respected by all,
and still lives to enjoy his honours.

In 1906 Dr. Alfonso Augusto Moreira Penna was elected President, having
served as vice-president under the previous administration. He was
a native of the state of Minas Geraes, and had served as president
(governor, we would say) of that state. President Penna made a tour
of the states before his inauguration and endeavoured to familiarize
himself with their needs. His administration is too recent to be able to
generalize it. All to whom I spoke, however, had only good words to say
for President Penna and his aims. He desired to reform the currency by
establishing a gold conversion fund. Under plans formulated by him and
his advisers the government has made considerable progress along that
line, and has gradually been adding to its gold reserve. His career was
ended by death on the 14th of June, 1909, having served less than three
years of his term, and being in the 62nd year of his age.

The duties of government fell upon the vice-president, Dr. Nilo Peçanha,
who immediately entered upon the discharge of that office. President
Peçanha is a native of the state of Rio de Janeiro, and was a noted
lawyer in that state before his elevation to the vice-presidency.
Although only thirty-nine years of age when elected to that office he had
held numerous offices in his own state, including that of representative,
president and national senator from that state. By reason of the
constitutional inhibition he was prohibited from being his own successor
to the office of president.

At the election held in March, 1910, Marshal Hermes da Fonseca was
elected for the presidential term beginning the 15th of November, 1910.
For the first time in the history of the republic there was an active
campaign in which two candidates, Dr. Ruy Barbosa, an able lawyer,
gifted orator and a civilian, opposed Marshal Hermes, on the ground that
he represented the military element which had proven so unfortunate in
the first few years of the republic. From the very beginning the trend
was toward the Marshal, the States of São Paulo, Bahia, the home of
Dr. Barbosa, and a part of Minas Geraes alone holding aloof from his
banner. Nevertheless, a vigorous campaign was waged, which cannot help
but be educational, for it gave the voters an opportunity they had never
had before—that of choosing between two candidates. The newly-elected
President was born in 1855, and began his military career at the
early age of sixteen. He has successively passed through the various
grades until he reached his present rank in 1906. He is considered an
authority on military matters, and served as Minister of War in the last
administration. There are those who fear the return of a military man
to the office of chief magistrate, but the result can not be told in
advance. As a citizen he stands high, and it is to be hoped that his
administration will redound to the credit of Brazil.

With the single exception of the forced resignation of President Deodoro,
each president has been allowed to serve his term, and his successor has
been peaceably installed in the presidential chair. The semi-independence
of the states has made those political organizations far too important
in the Federal Union, and in many instances it has rendered local
administration cumbersome and costly. During the past three presidential
terms there have been no serious disturbances, and the government has
made great advances in the method of administration. The elections are
still arbitrary and, perhaps, in many instances unfair, but the civil
presidents have been men of character, and some of them have retired from
office far poorer than they went in.

[Illustration: A FARMER’S HOME.]



CHAPTER XVIII

A LAND OF PROMISE


WANTED: ten million immigrants.

This is the cry that comes up from this great republic, for Brazil to-day
possesses the greatest amount of undeveloped fertile land that is to be
found in the world. The republic is still in the process of creation,
but, when all the latent possibilities are uncovered, it will be a
towering giant. It is in the same condition that the United States was
three-quarters of a century ago. Now we have about thirty inhabitants to
the square mile, while Brazil has less than six. If the workers go there,
Brazil will be one of the greatest sources of food supply in the whole
world long before the end of this present century. There is scarcely an
article, useful either for food or raiment, that cannot profitably be
raised within its borders. Great states, which are empires in themselves,
are as well qualified for the abode of the white man as many of the
commonwealths within Uncle Sam’s borders. The heat is not such a bugaboo
as many endeavour to portray it, for the Americans who live there do not
complain of it at all. There are millions of untilled acres which, sooner
or later, will be centres of industry and activity. This development
will be difficult with individual effort, and it will be necessary for
colonies to be formed with sufficient capital for aggressive work. On
the Amazon, for instance, nature is too productive, too prolific, for
isolated effort. It needs united and constant work and push to conquer.
When once conquered, however, this very prodigality and fecundity will
reward human effort, and wealth will follow. If the engineer builds a
railroad, the tropical rains wash away the embankment; if the colonist
turns his back on his clearing for a few months it becomes covered with a
heavy growth; telegraph poles and fence posts put forth green leaves, and
railroad ties have been known to sprout in the rainy season.

Will this conquest of the tropics become necessary? If the doleful
predictions of Mr. J. J. Hill and others are true, the United States will
soon become an importer, rather than an exporter, of food supplies, and
other sources must be looked to and new virgin lands developed. We find
that in spite of the rapid development of Argentina and Canada, food
supplies are advancing by leaps and bounds, and every theorist is looking
for a solution. Science has provided means for overcoming the sources
of pollution found in the tropics, and the development can now take
place under healthful conditions. Brazil is awaiting that effort. Social
conditions may seem to be an obstacle; but a colony can practically
establish its own social conditions, and need not be bothered to any
great extent by those surrounding it. Brazil is the only country in South
America where church and state have been formally separated, and this is
a good indication of progress, for any form of religion may be practised
without fear of disturbance.

Brazil is a very expensive country in which to live as well as travel.
Nearly every article used in the house is imported, and the import duties
are very high. Not only that, but the tradesmen expect an exorbitant
profit in many instances. A pair of American shoes costing not to exceed
$4.00 in the States will retail here for $10.00. An American who lives
there came back from a visit to the States and brought back with him,
among other articles, a rug and a piano. The rug cost him $20.00 in New
York, and the duty amounted to $26.00. I did not learn what the piano was
worth, but it cost him nearly $200.00 to get it through the customs. All
goods for ladies’ wear and men’s furnishing are sold at correspondingly
high prices.

Table supplies are very high also. Most of the grocery sundries are
imported and bring good prices. Even the produce of the country is dear.
Vegetables in the market sell as high as with us, while fruit, in this
land which nature endowed so richly for fruit culture, is sold almost
if not entirely as high as in New York. Beef is the one item that is
comparatively cheap. Butter retails at 50 cents and upward a pound, eggs
at 35 and 40 cents a dozen in the summer season, and all kinds of poultry
for the table are correspondingly high. Café prices are expensive, except
for the little cups of coffee, and it is a mystery to me how the majority
of the people live, for wages are not nearly so good as in the United
States. Rent is another expensive item, so that it must take every dollar
the average man earns to keep up, and he cannot have anything left for a
savings account.

The American drummer has been down this way with some lines of American
goods. Through windows, where lovers have whispered sweet words to
willing ears for centuries, there comes the busy clatter of the American
sewing machine; on the coffee plantations, and even in the rubber camps,
Indians, negroes and whites listen to the quavering, and ofttimes grating
tones, of the American phonograph; in stores where the shopkeeper and
clerk sit listlessly, as though not caring whether you buy or not, the
cash is guarded by the unerring treasurer, the American cash register,
and the goods are oftentimes weighed on an American computing scale;
dark-eyed and dark-complexioned men pound at the keys of American
typewriters, and the machine is sometimes as erring in its spelling of
Portuguese as English in our own land; American farming implements may be
seen rusting in the weather, just as they are neglected by our farmers
in Oklahoma and Kansas; children are sometimes hauled around in little
American perambulators or express wagons, and cans, which have held the
products of the great oil trust, are now used to carry water from the
public fountains. The Yankee medicine-man has been here, although the
familiar terms of “pink pills for pale people,” and other household
words, are scarcely recognizable when translated into Portuguese. On
the bill-boards and on walls that are centuries old, and there are many,
one will see the familiar picture of a boy with a mountain codfish on
his back, and the message that this medicine will lay flesh on the
back of the thinnest Brazilian. American windmills turn around at the
beckoning of the Atlantic breezes, and American-built engines pull the
high-tariffed freight over the tortuous curves of the Brazilian railways.

Although the United States purchases almost one-third of the total
exports of Brazil, yet we send to Brazil only one-tenth of the imports,
and rank third in importance. This is, of course, due to the fact that
it has only been within the last few years that the United States has
developed into a great exporting country. It is due further to the fact
that American manufacturers have not studied the markets, as have those
of other countries; England and Germany in particular. British and German
banks have branches in Rio, Bahia, Pernambuco, Pará, Manaos, São Paulo,
Santos, and Porto Alegre, and these banks are great aids to business men
from these countries. Furthermore, all of these banks make money and pay
large dividends to their stockholders. At present there is no American
bank in the country, or in all of South America for that matter, while
Americans living and travelling there are all urging the establishment of
such an institution. Personally, I believe that it would be a successful
enterprise, if conducted along the lines pursued at home, for the methods
of the banks working there are slow and tedious, and it requires a half
hour to do what should be done in five minutes.

Another advantage of Europe has been in the matter of transportation.
There are several English, German, French, Italian and Spanish lines,
which run fine passenger steamers to Europe, thus giving service every
few days to that continent, and affording quick transportation for
freight. In addition there are many more boats, called intermediate
steamers, which also carry passengers, but are slower boats and make
a specialty of cargo. It is no longer necessary, however, to go to
Brazil by the way of Europe, for it takes much longer and is no more
comfortable. The Lamport and Holt Line maintain a bi-weekly line of
steamers between New York, Bahia, Rio and Santos, and they have some
excellent boats in service. The Vasari, on which I travelled, is as
comfortable as any of the European boats, and has accommodation for
a large number of first-class passengers. They make the trip from New
York to Rio in sixteen to seventeen days, which is about the same time
as the best boats from Southampton and Cherbourg, so that the passenger
saves the time consumed in the transatlantic voyage. I would like to see
the United States adopt the policy of encouraging a line of boats to
the South American ports either by subsidy or payment for better mail
service, so that there would be not only a more frequent but a quicker
service. It is a mistaken economy to refuse this means of extending
our commerce to the “other Americans,” who naturally, and Brazil in
particular, are favourably inclined, and appreciate the fraternal tie of
Americanism.

Furthermore, it is necessary for American manufacturers to study
the people and the market, more than has been done in the past. The
Brazilians are particular what they buy, and want the best. They are
not satisfied with just anything, as some seem to believe. Sometimes a
change in established models might be profitable—at least it would be
wise to print labels and directions in Portuguese for the convenience of
the people, as well as to please them by such a compliment. Travelling
representatives should be sent who not only speak the language, but
understand a little bit of the Latin nature, and their methods of doing
business. It is not possible to transact business in the same way that
it is done at home, for there are bound to be more delays. The European
salesmen understand that and cater to it. If the business is worth
cultivating at all it is worth working in the proper way to accomplish
results. I also believe in the establishment of American houses for the
sale of American goods. At present the greater part of the American goods
shipped there are sold through foreign representatives, who also handle
competing goods of other countries for similar purposes. This, added
to their natural preference, often leads to a secondary consideration
being given to the goods of Uncle Sam. The packing system of American
manufacturers has also come in for a great deal of criticism, because
the goods are not packed securely. It would be an object lesson to
these same manufacturers if they could see the care with which European
manufacturers pack their goods. Everything is done up with the greatest
care to prevent breakage and damage, while American manufacturers pack
their goods in the same way that they would for a short shipment in the
States; not taking into consideration the longer, harder and rougher
handling to which they are likely to be subjected.

The volume of business in Brazil has reached large figures. The total
imports for the year 1909, as reported by the Brazilian government,
amounted to $177,731,232. This is an average importation of $10.00 for
each man, woman and child in the republic. American manufacturers look
with longing eyes toward China with her teeming millions. And yet the
four hundred millions of Chinese used less than twice the value of
imported goods as compared with the eighteen millions of Brazilians.
The low wages, and consequently low purchasing power of the masses of
Chinese, will, for many decades, prevent that country from becoming a
great per capita importer. If the coffee situation improves there will
be a wonderful increase in Brazilian imports, for many improvements are
withheld in the coffee states at the present time on that account.

The exports for the same year were valued at $304,977,081. This leaves
a trade balance in favour of Brazil of $127,245,849, which is a
creditable showing. Some of the staple items of export are as follows:
coffee, $167,375,850; rubber, $94,630,305; cacao, $9,000,000; tobacco,
$9,696,685; hide, $9,097,705; maté (tea) $8,288,935; nuts, $1,121,278.
The total receipts of the government for 1909 amounted to about
$150,000,000, of which $93,297,952 was realized from import duties and
a small balance was left in the treasury. The estimates for the present
year are about $150,000,000. The total federal foreign debt is reported
to be $369,087,633.38. This does not include a considerable amount of
guaranteed and floating debt of the national government.

The system of raising revenue in Brazil is a perplexing and complex one
as well. Some of the states have a very small land tax. It would be far
better to increase this, and in that way force the breaking up of the
immense estates to which some of the land is held. Instead of that, they
resort to many petty little imposts to raise the necessary revenue. The
principal one, of course, is an export duty on everything. Every one in
the United States ought to take an interest in Brazil, for whoever drinks
a cup of coffee or cocoa, eats the Brazil nuts, uses a bicycle, owns an
automobile, wears rubber boots or mackintosh, has assisted in paying the
running expenses of one state or another, as well as that of the national
government. Therefore it is well to take an intelligent interest in what
we aid in supporting.

The revenues of the national government are raised mostly by import
duties. The most of these are levied by specific weight instead of _ad
valorem_, so that sometimes articles which are heavy, but comparatively
inexpensive, must pay a high duty. Then, in addition to regular duties,
there are often special imposts levied for the construction of port
works, or other public improvements. The states also have an export
duty on everything sent out of the state, and sometimes even from one
municipality to another. The farmer who hauls away a few bushels of beans
or mandioca root must pay the export tax to the proper official, or stand
a fine. All kinds of business are licensed. A merchant is sometimes
obliged to pay a half dozen of these licenses, because of the different
lines of goods carried. Each license permits the selling of certain
specific goods. Then, in addition, there are stamp duties on all forms of
commercial business, such as promissory notes, checks, drafts, receipts,
etc. When you get a draft cashed a receipt is duly made out by the bank,
a revenue stamp put on it and receipted by the recipient. Every article
manufactured in the country bears a revenue stamp, except, as in the case
with cotton goods, for instance, when so much a meter is paid to the
government. Their idea is that in this way they must make up for the loss
of import duties, by reason of goods being manufactured in the country.
Another form of raising money is by giving out monopolies. In the city
of São Paulo one man has the monopoly of the undertaking business. No
one can get a burial permit until he has the consent of this man, which
can only be obtained by paying him what his profit would probably be.
This would depend on whether the funeral would be of the first, second
or third class. The first-class funeral is very expensive, because it
provides for a fine funeral car with four richly-caparisoned horses, two
drivers and two footmen in elaborate livery, many carriages, and all
other requirements after the same expensive fashion.

There are many lines of business that could be very profitably pursued,
but it is necessary first to make a study of local conditions and
requirements; and this can best be done by having a representative
on the ground. The local political leaders should be consulted, so
that satisfactory arrangements can be made in the way of franchise or
concession for the conduct of business; and especially is this true if
the business to be conducted is manufacturing. All these preliminaries
should be attended to before the investment is made. These same
conditions apply to many of the Latin countries, because so many of their
laws are local. It is best to understand the local conditions thoroughly,
and this can only be done by some one on the ground, and in touch with
local conditions. After this is done the investment is safe, and in
general these enterprises are encouraged in every way by the various
state and municipal administrations.

Germany and England are engaged in a war for commercial supremacy in
South America, and the competition is very keen. In a financial sense
England practically owns Argentina, and has investments there of about
$2,000,000,000. In Brazil she has perhaps $650,000,000 invested in
bonds and business enterprises. It is all invested in things that
have helped to develop the resources, and much of it under government
guarantee. Germany has not more than half as much money invested, but
her representatives have been making serious inroads on the commerce of
Great Britain. At the wharves and in the warehouses the boxes and bales
with German marks on them seem to predominate. In the stores German goods
are driving out British manufacturers, and it is this aggressiveness
that has developed the hatred of Germany one finds among Englishmen
everywhere. The German caters to what he believes the Brazilian or the
Argentinian wants. Some of the methods pursued by German houses, however,
are reprehensible. If an American or English article proves popular it
will not be long until there will be a German imitation on the market,
similar in style and make, at a little cheaper price. It will probably
bear an English name too, in order to carry the deception still further.
Brazil is impartial in her purchases, and opens her hospitable doors to
the commerce of the world. If there is any leaning or favouritism, it is,
I believe, in favour of the United States. The goods sold by European
merchants we can sell if the effort is made. Trade here, as in other
parts of the world, is secured by the firm who can sell the best goods at
the least price, in the long run, and the German will lose out in some
lines, because their quality is cheap the same as their price.

The visit of Secretary Root and the battleship fleet did much to interest
Brazilians in the United States; the former by the tact and the charm of
his personality, the latter by the interest shown in South America. The
people are still talking about both events. Money was spent lavishly.
The state of São Paulo spent $250,000 on the occasion of the Root visit.
Our diplomatic representatives have also been improved, and it would
be difficult to find a better man for the place than our Ambassador to
Brazil, Hon. Irving B. Dudley.

The Monroe Doctrine is hard for the South Americans to understand. They
can not believe that it is an absolutely unselfish policy on the part
of the United States, and it has undoubtedly been the cause of much
political “jingoism” among their politicians. Every instance in which our
State Department interferes, or takes a stand in Latin-American politics,
is greedily seized upon by some element, and is frequently fostered by
foreigners, who fear American influence and trade competition. The fact
that it is not a clearly-defined or definitely promulgated statement
leaves it open to unfair and unfavourable interpretation. Each person or
country interprets it according to its own hopes or fears. The formidable
strength of the United States and the recent policy of expansion has
oftentimes caused the element of fear to predominate. In its best
interpretation the Monroe Doctrine is rather like a big boy who makes
himself a self-appointed guardian over the weaker one, which the latter
does not want, and will not appreciate until he is in danger of a good
whipping from a superior. It is better understood now than formerly,
perhaps, but the atmosphere is still hazy when the Monroe Doctrine is
mentioned. Two incidents happened while I was in South America which
enabled me to observe the trend of newspaper criticism concerning this
little-understood policy of the United States. It is a grave question
whether it has not done more harm to possible American supremacy in South
America than benefit.

“Order and Progress” is a good motto for any country. With order will
come progress, and with progress order is more easily maintained. The
future is painted in rosy colours by Brazilian writers and statesmen. All
reasonable deductions point that way. Natural resources are there, and
the greatest need is for people to develop them. It is not an El Dorado,
for nothing can be accomplished without work, thought, and planning. The
latent ambition of the people has been aroused, and they are looking
forward into the future. The United States can take a much larger part in
the development of the country than she has in the past. It is the hope
of the writer that such will be the case. The American business man can
do far worse than to make a little study of this resourceful republic.
The people are awaiting the American merchant, manufacturer and banker;
they are seeking the American scientist, educator and expert in all
lines; and they will welcome the American traveller who is searching for
a good opportunity of investment.



FOOTNOTES


[1] The profession of a man can often be told by the ring he wears, which
is generally placed on the first finger. The ruby signifies a lawyer,
the emerald a physician, the sapphire a civil engineer, the turquoise a
military engineer and the granada, a red stone almost like a ruby, is
worn by a chemist.

[2] See appendix.

[3] “The New Brazil,” by Marie Robinson Wright.

[4] Land of the Amazons.

[5] The Bible in Brazil.

[6] NOTE.—The author desires to acknowledge his obligation for a number
of historical facts to The South American Republics, by Hon. Thomas C.
Dawson, and published by G. P. Putnam’s Sons, of New York and London.



APPENDICES


I

AREA AND POPULATION

The statistics of area and population of the various states are widely
divergent. One authority gives the total area as five million six hundred
and eighty-two thousand four hundred and fifteen square miles, and the
figures of population range from fifteen million to twenty-two million.
The figures herewith given are, in the writer’s opinion, the most
reliable, although the estimates of population are too high by perhaps
ten per cent. The total population probably does not exceed eighteen
million. The last census in 1900 gave the total number of inhabitants
as a little less than fifteen million, but it was considered very
inaccurate. The following table gives the estimated population in 1909:—

  +-------------------+---------+----------+---------------+-----------+
  |   State           |   Area  |Population|    Capital    |Inhabitants|
  +-------------------+---------+----------+---------------+-----------+
  |Alagoas            |   22,580|   744,193|    Maceio     |  40,000   |
  |Amazonas           |  732,250|   286,269|     Manao     |  60,000   |
  |Bahia              |  164,600|  2,427,59|     Bahia     | 205,000   |
  |Ceará              |   40,240|   973,266|   Fortaleza   |  48,360   |
  |Espirito Santo     |   17,310|   240,452|   Victoria    |  20,000   |
  |Goyaz              |  288,470|   292,605|     Goyaz     |  13,475   |
  |Maranhão           |  177,520|   572,304|   São Luiz    |  50,000   |
  |Matto Grosso       |  532,550|   135,279|    Cuyaba     |  25,000   |
  |Minas Geraes       |  221,890| 4,119,971|Bello Horizonte|  25,000   |
  |Pará               |  443,790|   510,465| Pará (Belem)  | 120,000   |
  |Parahyba           |   28,850|   562,534|   Parahyba    |  25,000   |
  |Paraná             |   85,430|   374,961|   Curityba    |  40,000   |
  |Pernambuco         |   49,560| 1,350,391|  Pernambuco   | 120,000   |
  |Piauhy             |  116,490|   383,205|  Therezina    |  20,000   |
  |Rio de Janeiro     |   26,630| 1,061,418|   Nictheroy   |  40,000   |
  |Rio Grande do Norte|   22,190|   314,420|    Natal      |  23,000   |
  |Rio Grande do Sul  |   91,250| 1,317,060| Porto Alegre  |  90,000   |
  |Santa Catharina    |   28,620|   367,113| Florianopolis |  30,000   |
  |São Paulo          |  112,280| 2,612,878|   São Paulo   | 350,000   |
  |Sergipe            |   15,090|   408,348|    Aracajú    |  25,000   |
  |Federal District   |      540|   855,920|Rio de Janeiro | 800,000   |
  |Acre               |  114,600|    70,000|               |           |
  |                   +---------+----------+               |           |
  |                   |3,332,730|19,910,646|               |           |
  +-------------------+---------+----------+---------------+-----------+


II

EDUCATION

The educational facilities in all of the states are inadequate, as the
statistics show, but in some of them, they are not only inadequate
but poor. The Ministry of Industry, Transportation and Public Works
has recently published a volume of general statistics, from which the
following table has been compiled, the first three columns giving the
figures for primary education, and remaining two columns relating to
secondary education:—

  +-------------------+-------+---------+-----------+-------+----------+
  |State              |Schools|Enrolment| Attendance|Schools| Enrolment|
  +-------------------+-------+---------+-----------+-------+----------+
  |Alagoas            |   271 |   3,255 |  10,959   |   7   |    837   |
  |Amazonas           |   250 |   5,476 |   4,495   |   5   |    452   |
  |Bahia              | 1,007 |  47,288 |  32,135   |  24   |  2,010   |
  |Ceará              |   382 |  16,267 |  12,982   |  16   |  1,183   |
  |Federal District   |   419 |  57,271 |  36,106   |  43   |  4,662   |
  |Espirito Santo     |   175 |   6,359 |   4,674   |   6   |    439   |
  |Goyaz              |   162 |   6,134 |   4,149   |   4   |    347   |
  |Maranhão           |   217 |  11,941 |   8,231   |   9   |    638   |
  |Matto Grosso       |   107 |   5,288 |   4,677   |   7   |    466   |
  |Minas Geraes       | 2,178 | 119,613 |  66,252   |  51   |  4,281   |
  |Pará               |   433 |  19,870 |  17,093   |  11   |    938   |
  |Parahyba           |   223 |   9,870 |   6,852   |   7   |    527   |
  |Paraná             |   309 |  13,566 |  10,640   |   7   |    483   |
  |Pernambuco         |   386 |  21,139 |  15,104   |  17   |  1,613   |
  |Piauhy             |   146 |   7,754 |   6,030   |   6   |    438   |
  |Rio de Janeiro     |   485 |  24,773 |  16,075   |  14   |  1,486   |
  |Rio Grande do Norte|   152 |   7,601 |   6,547   |   5   |    378   |
  |Rio Grande do Sul  | 1,516 |  67,370 |  50,809   |  26   |  3,605   |
  |S. Catharina       |   376 |  14,159 |  10,535   |   9   |    905   |
  |São Paulo          | 1,708 |  82,089 |  61,066   |  46   |  4,146   |
  |Sergipe            |   245 |   8,839 |   5,797   |   7   |    419   |
  |                   +-------+---------+-----------+-------+----------+
  |                   |11,147 | 565,922 | 991,188   | 327   | 30,258   |
  +-------------------+-------+---------+-----------+-------+----------+


III

THE AMAZON BASIN

It may be interesting to the reader to take a brief survey of the Amazon
and its tributaries. It will, at least, give a little idea of this vast
river system, which is the most marvellous in the world.

_Tocantins._ This river empties into the Amazon near its mouth, and some
have disputed its right to be named as an affluent of that river. James
Orton says this river “flows over a bed of diamonds, rubies, sapphires,
topazes and opals” on its way to the sea. With its branches, the Maranhão
and Araguay, it reaches out in a southerly direction for hundreds of
miles, and carries an immense volume of water.

_Xingu._ “The Xingu,” says an eminent authority, “receives fourteen
tributaries on its right and sixteen tributaries on its left bank,
the principal of which is the Iriri.” Any of these feeders would be
considered large rivers in any part of Europe.

_Tapajoz._ The source of this river is in the great state of Matto
Grosso, where it is formed by the union of the Arinos and Juruena. It
is eight hundred and twelve miles in length, but it is interrupted by a
number of cataracts. In some places the width of the Tapajoz is as great
as ten miles, but where it joins the Amazon it is only a trifle more
than a mile from shore to shore. Santarem, an ancient Indian village, is
situated on this river near its mouth, and has now grown into a town of
several thousand inhabitants.

_Madeira._ One of the largest of the rivers which flow into the Amazon
is the Madeira, which means the river of wood, owing to the number of
uprooted trees which float along its course. At low water these trees
are oftentimes thrown up on the sand banks, where they accumulate in
great masses. It is formed by a number of Peruvian and Bolivian streams.
This river is said to have a course of three thousand one hundred and
twenty-five miles, most of which is navigable for small boats at least.

_Purus._ This river is more than a mile wide at its mouth and has an
entire length of two thousand two hundred and eighty miles. Even in the
dry season it is navigable for almost a thousand miles. A dozen or more
rivers empty their contents into this stream, the names of which are
known to but few, and yet they are goodly rivers in themselves.

_Jurua._ There is a regular service of steamers up the Jurua for nine
hundred and thirty-eight miles of its one thousand two hundred and fifty
miles. This river was known to the early discoverers, and had been fully
explored nearly four centuries ago by those adventurers.

_Japura._ Yapura and Yapuru are other names of this river which serves as
a boundary between Brazil and Colombia for a distance. A regular service
of steamers is maintained on it also for several hundred miles.

_Rio Negro._ The Negro, or Black River is one of the principal arms of
the Amazon. It is more than a thousand miles in length and is one of the
largest rivers in this basin. It is joined to the Amazon by four mouths,
the broadest of which exceeds a mile in width. Through the Cassigueare
this river is put into direct communication with the Orinoco River, which
flows north into the Atlantic. There is a stretch of several miles, where
the water, at times, flows into the Atlantic through the Amazon, and at
others through the Orinoco. The Rio Branco, the White River, is the
principal tributary of the Rio Negro.

From the Peruvian Andes to its mouth the Amazon is three thousand
seven hundred and fifty miles long, of which two thousand five hundred
miles are in Brazil. Fair sized steamers can sail up the river three
thousand two hundred and fifty miles, and boats of lighter draft can go
up another one hundred and fifty miles. It would be wearisome to name
all the various affluents of this king of waters, for they are legion.
The names are interesting, if one looks at the meaning, for they are
nearly all Indian names. Thus the Carapauatuba is the “spot abounding
in mosquitoes,” the Gyrparana is the “river of the axe,” the Jacaré the
“river of alligators” and the Guariba is the “shrieking monkey.”


IV

SUGGESTIONS FOR TRAVELLERS

The Portuguese language is universally used in Brazil. Although very
similar to Spanish it is difficult for the Spanish linguist to understand
unless well versed in that tongue, for the ear will not readily catch the
difference in the sounds. The money is the same as the Portuguese system
also, with the _milreis_ as the unit. It is better in travelling through
South America to carry your exchange in English pounds, for all exchange
is figured on that basis; otherwise American dollars are converted into
pounds and then again into the money of the country, and the traveller is
likely to pay a double exchange.

Railroad travel in Brazil is rather high, and you are allowed no free
baggage. If you have a large trunk it will cost you almost as much to
carry it as for your own ticket. It is well to reduce your baggage to
a minimum in all of South America. The service on most of the roads is
quite good; the cars are very comfortable, being built on the American
plan. The most disagreeable feature is the dust at times, and it is
well to choose a day following a rain if such a thing is possible, and
provide yourself with a good dust coat. Good boats run several times a
week between Pernambuco, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro and Santos, and smaller
coasting boats touch at the smaller ports. If the traveller is going to
Argentina it is well to purchase a through ticket, otherwise a $10.00 tax
is charged by the government for every ticket that carries one out of the
country. It costs nothing to get in the country, but $10.00 to get out,
providing the ticket is bought there.

Comfortable hotels will be found in the cities with a minimum rate
of about $3.00 per day for everything. Only coffee is served in the
morning, but the other two meals are very substantial ones with an
overabundance of meats. They are very cleanly in general, with good bath
accommodations. A few of the hotels have elevators, but most of them
do not. Cab charges are high. Although they are limited by law, it is
always best to find out the proper charge beforehand and not trust to the
driver’s conscience, for he may not have any. The prices at the stores
are generally elastic too, so that a good bargainer is right in his
element.

Have your mail plainly and carefully addressed. Do not use the word
“Esq.,” as it is likely to be considered a part of the name. In Brazil
city directories are indexed according to the first name. Thus John Smith
would be found under “J” and not under “S.” The postage on a letter is
now two hundred reis (six cents) for each half ounce and a post card
is one half that sum. The mail service is generally pretty sure but
oftentimes very slow, as I found out by experience.

In nearly all of Brazil light-weight clothing may be worn all the year
round. A light overcoat is almost necessary, and in the extreme southern
part heavier clothing would be comfortable in the winter time. It is well
to remember that the seasons below the equator are the opposite of those
in northern latitudes.

If the traveller has the time it is an interesting trip to go to Buenos
Aires and see that wonderful city, and then across the Andes by the
railroad, which has now been finished, to Chile. It is only a three days’
voyage from Santos to Montevideo and a night’s trip from there across
the river to Buenos Aires. From Valparaiso comfortable steamers run to
Panama, and the traveller can visit the several republics on the west
coast. Furthermore this trip affords an opportunity to visit Panama and
see the great work that is being done there. From Buenos Aires the return
trip to New York can be made by this route in less time than by Europe or
by the direct steamers.


V

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Many books have been published on Brazil in times past, but very few have
been devoted to that country in the past quarter of a century. The recent
books have nearly all been descriptions of a circular tour of South
America in one volume. For the benefit of the reader, who desires to make
a further study of this interesting republic, a list of those books which
have been found most interesting by the writer, is herewith given:—

    AGASSIZ, LOUIS: A Journey to Brazil. Boston, 1868.

    AKERS, CHARLES EDMOND: A History of South America, 1854-1904.
    London, 1904.

    BATES, HENRY WALTER: The Naturalist on the river Amazon.
    London, 1864.

    BROWN, C. BARRINGTON: Fifteen Thousand Miles on the Amazon and
    its Tributaries. London, 1878.

    CARPENTER, FRANK G.: South America: social, industrial and
    political. Akron, Ohio, 1900.

    CLARK, FRANCIS E.: The Continent of Opportunity. New York, 1907.

    CURTIS, WILLIAM ELEROY: The Capitals of Spanish America. New
    York, 1888.

    DAWSON, THOMAS C.: The South American Republics. New York, 1903.

    EWBANK, THOMAS: Life in Brazil. New York, 1856.

    FLETCHER, JAMES C. AND D. P. KIDDER: Brazil and the Brazilians.
    Boston, 1866.

    GIBBON, LARDNER AND WM. L. HERNDON: Exploration of the Valley
    of the Amazon. Washington, 1854.

    HALE, ALBERT: The South Americans. Indianapolis, 1907.

    KEANE, A. H.: South America; comprising a volume of Stanford’s
    compendium of geography and travel. London, 1901.

    KERBEY, J. ORTON: The Land of To-morrow. A newspaper
    exploration up the Amazon and over the Andes. New York, 1906.

    MARKWICK, W. FISHER: The South American Republics. New York,
    1901.

    MARTIN, PERCY F.: Through Five Republics of South America.
    London, 1906.

    MATHEWS, EDWARD D.: Up the Amazon and Madeira Rivers. London,
    1879.

    ORTON, JAMES: The Andes and the Amazon; or, Across the
    Continent of South America. New York, 1870.

    RUHL, ARTHUR: The Other Americans. New York, 1907.

    SANTA ANNA NERY, FEDERICO: The Land of the Amazons. Translated
    from the French. London, 1901.

    SMITH, HERBERT H.: Brazil, the Amazons and the coast. New York,
    1879.

    SOUTHEY, ROBERT: A History of Brazil. London, 1817.

    SPRUCE, ROBERT: Notes of a Botanist on the Andes and Amazon,
    during years 1849-1864. London, 1908.

    TUCKER, HUGH C.: The Bible in Brazil. New York, 1902.

    VINCENT, FRANK: Around and About South America. New York, 1890.

    WELLS, JAMES W.: Exploring and Travelling Three Thousand Miles
    through Brazil. London, 1886.

    WETMORE, CLAUDE H.: In a Brazilian Jungle. Boston, 1903.

    WRIGHT, MARIE ROBINSON: The New Brazil; its Resources and
    Attractions. Philadelphia, 1907.



INDEX


    Acre, territory of, 179, 254, 348.

    Agassiz, Louis, 187.

    Agriculture, 126, 354.

    Agricultural colleges, 225.

    Alagoas, state of, 42.

    Alta da Serra, 80.

    Amazon, the, 7, 164 _et seq._, 354, 375.

    Amazonas, state of, 6, 188, 333.

    Ambition of Brazilians, 209.

    Americans, 115, 209, 222, 225, 240, 245, 253, 342, 344, 356, 360.

    Americanos, 1.

    American Ambassador, 82, 324.

    American Bible Society, work of, 297.

    American colony, 134.

    Anchieta, José, 292.

    Andes, the, 4, 378.

    Anglican Church, 301.

    Ants, 173.

    Ant hills, 111.

    Ant-bear, 169.

    Aracajú, 42.

    Araguary, 244.

    Architecture, 231-4.

    Area of Brazil, 371.

    Argentina, Republic of, 281.

    Arid land, 43-4.

    Aristocracy, 206.

    Army, the, 277-9.

    Ascuncion, capital of Paraguay, 163.

    Automobiles, 66, 111.

    Avenida Central, 53, 63, 277.


    Bagé 249.

    Bahia, city of, 20, 28-36, 194, 293, 308, 323;
      bay of, 30;
      state of, 39.

    Bamboos, 84.

    Baptist Church, 301.

    Barbosa, Ruy, 230, 351.

    Barra do Pirahy, 110.

    Bauru, 247.

    Beef, salted, 157-9.

    Beira Mar, Avenida, 53, 55.

    Belem, 109.

    Belem (Pará), 181.

    Bello Horizonte, 96.

    Bibliography, 382.

    Bilac, Olavo, 229.

    Birds, 171.

    Bolivia, Republic of, 254, 348.

    Bombilla, 150.

    “Bonds,” 72.

    Botanical Garden, 82-5.

    Brazil, vastness of, 2;
      boundaries of, 4;
      history of, 19, 323 _et seq._;
      kingdom of, 314;
      empire of, 323;
      republic of, 14, 16, 334 _et seq._

    Brazil nuts, 175.

    Brazil-wood, 305.

    Buenos Aires, 162, 250, 381.


    Cabral, Pedro Alvarez, 19, 304.

    Cacao, 255.

    Cajú, the, 3.

    Campinas, 125, 262.

    Camocim, 253.

    Campos Salles, Manoel Ferraz de, 346.

    Cannibalism, 190, 192.

    Capitancias, 20, 307.

    Capricorn, Tropic of, 2, 142.

    Carioca Aqueduct, 58.

    Carriages, 65.

    Carigadores, 65, 112.

    Carbonados, 108.

    Carnival, 211.

    Catamaran boats, 25.

    Caxias, Duke of, 58.

    Ceará, state and city of, 44, 253, 333.

    Central Railway, 95, 100, 109, 239.

    Chile, Republic of, 281.

    Church, Catholic, 287 _et seq._

    Climate, 11, 354.

    Coast, extent of, 4.

    Coal, 160.

    Coffee, Cultivation of, 63, 95, 102, 110, 127, 131, 144, 203-7, 243,
        257, 260 _et seq._;
      picking of, 267;
      commission houses, 270;
      production of, 274.

    “Coffee King,” the, 129.

    Colors, bright, 32, 70.

    Colonies, government, 122.

    Conservatives, the, 327.

    Constant, Benjamin, 335.

    Congress, 71, 207, 321, 338.

    Conveyances, 111.

    Cortes, the, of Portugal, 316, 318.

    Corcovado, 4, 79, 88-9.

    Cotton, 27.

    Cotton mills, 94.

    Courtesy, 199.

    Cow tree, 85.

    Cubras, Braz, 143.

    Curytiba, 146, 147.

    Customs, 52, 60, 62, 64, 111, 199 _et seq._, 276, 315.

    Cuya, the, 150.

    Cuyaba, 161.


    Deodoro da Fonseca, President, 336, 339.

    Diaz, Gonçalves, the poet, 228.

    Diamantina, 241.

    Diamonds, 103-8.

    Diseases, 13.

    Docks, 57.

    Dom Pedro I, 58, 118, 315 _et seq._

    Dom Pedro II, 1, 324 _et seq._

    Dreadnaughts, new, 284.

    Dumont Fazenda, 132.

    Dust, 111.

    Dutch, settlements of, 21, 26, 309.


    Easter, 297.

    Education, 241 _et seq._, 286, 373.

    Elections, 211, 352.

    English language, 116, 221.

    England, 366.

    Entre Rios, 95.

    Equator, the, 23.

    Espirito Santo, state of, 251, 252.

    Estacio de Sá, 50.

    Eu, Countess d’, 328, 331, 337.

    Exposition, 73.

    Exports, 358, 362.

    Export tax, 273.

    Expensiveness of living, 355.


    Farina, 94.

    Fazenderos, 126, 194.

    Fazenda da Lapa, 126.

    Federal District, 72.

    Feijó, Padre, 323.

    Festas, 211.

    Fish, 61, 169.

    Fiscal Island, 79.

    Floriano Peixoto, President, 280, 339, 340.

    Florianapolis, 151.

    Flumenense, 49.

    Fortaleza, 45, 253.

    France, 205.

    Fruits, 60, 126.


    Gambling, 117.

    Germans in Brazil, 147, 152, 159, 366.

    German Lutheran Church, 301.

    Gold Mining, 100-2.

    Gonçalves Diaz, 53.

    Goyaz, state of, 244.

    Graft, 204, 327.

    Granberry College, 223, 300.

    Grass, 71.

    Great Western Railway, 252.

    Guayra, falls of, 11.

    Guianas, the, 4.


    Hermes da Fonseca, Marshal, 351.

    Hevea rubber, 183.

    History, 58, 98, 118, 304 _et seq._

    Holidays, 211.

    Hospitals, 59.

    Hotels, 380.

    Houses, 32, 34.

    Huguenots, the, 20, 308.

    Humming birds, 86, 171.


    Iguassú, falls and river of, 9, 248.

    _Ilex Paraguayensis_, 148-50.

    Illiteracy, 214.

    Immigration, 120, 353.

    Imports, 358, 362.

    Import duties, 355.

    Independence, 317.

    Indians, 176, 190, 192;
      religion of, 287-291.

    Infants, hospital for, 59.

    Insects, 119, 172.

    Instituto Agronomico, 126.

    Inspectors, 209.

    Iquitos, 8, 179.

    Iron, 102.

    Italians, 111, 122.

    Itajahý, 77.

    Itapura, 9.

    Itatiaia, Mt., 5.


    Jaguar, the, 167.

    Japura River, 377.

    Jardim Botanico, 83.

    Jesuits, the, 20, 288, 310.

    John, King, of Portugal, 21, 313-5.

    Juiz de Fora, 95, 300.

    Jundiahy, 246, 256.

    Jurua River, 377.


    Lagoa dos Patos, 153.

    Lane, Horace M., 222.

    La Plata River, 161.

    Leopoldina Railway, the, 95, 250.

    Liberals, the, 327.

    Literature, 227-9.

    Lloyd Brazilian Co., 19.

    Lopez, the Paraguayan dictator, 325.

    Lotteries, 52, 116.

    Luz station, 258.


    Maceio, 42, 252.

    Mackenzie College, 222.

    Madeira-Mamoré Railway, the, 253-6.

    Madeira River, 8, 185, 254, 376.

    Mammão, 36, 37.

    Manaos, 12, 170, 178, 183, 189.

    Mango, the, 36.

    Maniçoba Rubber, 45.

    Mangue, Avenida do, 56.

    Mandioca, 93.

    Manganese, 103.

    Manatee, the “river cow,” 170.

    Marmosette monkeys, 37.

    Markets, 60.

    Maranhão, state of, 253, 323;
      river, 245.

    Matto Grosso, 6, 161-3, 247.

    Maté, 148-150.

    Matosinhos, shrine of, 296.

    Mauá, the, 53.

    Mello, Admiral, 280, 341.

    Methodist Episcopal Church South, 81, 300.

    Military service, 278.

    Minas Geraes, 95 _et seq._, 110, 240, 280, 311.

    Mining, 100 _et seq._

    Missionaries, Jesuit, 288;
      Protestant, 290.

    Mogyana Railway, the, 127, 243.

    Monroe Doctrine, 368.

    Monroe Palace, 53, 54.

    Montevideo, 381.

    Money, Brazilian, 37.

    Monkeys, 61, 168.

    Monte Alegre plantation, 129.

    Moraes Barros, Prudente José de, 344.

    Morro do Castillo, 50.

    Morro Velho mine, 102.

    Morality, 201.

    Mountains, 5, 8, 92, 109.

    Municipal Theatres, 118, 233.

    Museums, 71, 119.


    Natal, 44, 252.

    National Library, 71.

    Navy, the, 280;
      revolt of, 280-5, 341.

    Negroes, 32-4, 194-7, 311;
      religion of, 288.

    Negro, Rio, 8.

    Nervousness of Brazilians, 64.

    New York, 23.

    Newspapers, 67, 116, 230.

    Niagara, comparison with, 9.

    Nictheroy, 77, 251.

    Normal School, 220.

    Northwestern Railway, the, 247.

    Norte-Americanos, 1.

    November, 15th of, 60.

    Novo Friburgo, 91.


    Old Rio, 74.

    Opinion, public, 210.

    Oranges, 36.

    Orchids, 86.

    Ordem e Progreso, 17.

    Ouro Preto, 98, 100.

    Ouvidor Rua, 52, 64.


    Palm, the, 36, 81, 83, 174-5.

    Panama, lesson of, 13.

    Pan American Conference, 55.

    Pan American Railway, the, 247.

    Pará, state of, 179;
      city of, 12, 180-3, 254, 294, 323.

    Paraguayan war, 282, 325.

    Paraguay River, 8, 161-2.

    Paraguay tea, 148-150.

    Paraná River, 8.

    Paraná, state of, 6, 12, 147-9.

    Paranaguá, 145, 146.

    Parahyba River, 95, 111.

    Parahyba, state of, 43.

    Parasites, 86.

    Parks, 57.

    Parrots, 171.

    Paulistas, the, 20, 193, 291, 310.

    Paulista Railway, the, 125, 242.

    Paulo Affonso Falls, 46-7.

    Peçanha, Dr. Nilo, 350.

    Pelotas, 153, 157.

    Penna, Dr. Affonso, 97, 344.

    People, the, 92, 192 _et seq._

    Pernambuco, 20, 25-7, 33, 252, 306;
      state of, 27, 260.

    Peru, 254.

    Petropolis, 78-81, 91, 300.

    Pianos, 65.

    Piauhy, 45.

    Pine, 147.

    Piracicaba, 246.

    Plains, 6.

    Politics, 203-6, 352.

    Police, 66.

    Polytechnic School, 220.

    Ponta Grossa, 10, 146, 248.

    Population, 371.

    Portugal, 50, 304.

    Portuguese, the, 20, 198.

    Porto Alegre, 153, 159, 249.

    Presbyterian Church, 301.

    Press, the, 230.

    Protestant churches, 299 _et seq._

    Protestant Episcopal Church, 301.

    Purus River, 376.


    Railways, 161, 236 _et seq._, 379.

    Rain, 69, 177.

    Rainfall, 7.

    Recife, 25-7.

    Red soil, 128.

    Religion, 191, 287 _et seq._

    Revolution, 146.

    Revenue, sources of, 263-5.

    Rhododendrons, 81.

    Riberão Preto, 125, 128.

    Rice, 146.

    Rio de Janeiro, 11, 41, 48 _et seq._, 234, 283, 301, 309, 311;
      state of, 77, 251;
      bay of, 77, 89.

    Rio Grande do Norte, 25, 43.

    Rio Grande do Sul, 153, 325, 340;
      state of, 6, 12, 16, 152 _et seq._, 279.

    Rio Negro, 179, 377.

    Rio de la Plata, 7.

    Rio Vermelho, 35.

    Rivers, 7.

    Rodrigues Alves, Francisco de Paulo, 347.

    Roman Catholic, 222.

    Root, Secretary, 139, 368.

    Rubber, 133, 178, 180, 183-7, 255;
      trees, 85.


    Saldanha de Gama, Admiral, 280, 341.

    Salt, 44.

    Salted meats, 61.

    Santa Maria and Uruguay Railway, the, 249.

    Santo Antonio, 254.

    Santa Catharina, 151.

    San Roque, Cape of, 3, 25.

    San Sebastian, 50.

    Santa Theresa, convent of, 88.

    Santos, 143-5, 256, 307.

    São Paulo, state of, 109 _et seq._, 196, 262, 279, 334.

    São Paulo Railway, the, 125, 142, 256-8.

    São Paulo-Rio Grande Railway, the, 248.

    São Francisco River, 45-7.

    São Salvador, 29.

    Schmidt, Francisco, 129.

    Senador Pompeu, 253.

    Serra do Mar, 5, 88, 146, 258.

    Sergipe, state of, 42.

    Shipping, 182.

    Shrines, 295.

    Slavery, 195;
      abolishment of, 330-4.

    Sloth, 168.

    Smith, Clinton D., 225.

    Snakes, 174.

    Society, 82.

    Solimoes River, 178.

    Sorocobana Railway, the, 245.

    South America, republics of, 4.

    Spain, 309.

    Spaniards, 21.

    State militia, 279.

    Statistics, 371-4.

    Steamers, 236.

    Stones, precious, 103-8.

    Subsidies, 207.

    Sugar Loaf, 41, 50, 89.

    Suggestions for travellers, 378.

    Sunset, 24.

    Sunday in Brazil, 297.

    Survey, lack of, 6.


    Tapajoz River, 179, 375.

    Tapioca, 94.

    Taubaté agreement, 273.

    Temperate zone, 159.

    Temperature, 11.

    Terra Roxa, 128, 263.

    Theatres, 68, 233.

    Therezopolis, 91.

    Therizina, 45.

    Tieté River, 9, 116, 247.

    Tijuca, 79, 83, 87.

    Timber, 124, 187-8, 251.

    Tiradentes, 98, 313.

    Tocantins River, 179, 375.

    Toucan, 171.

    Tramways, 72.

    Transformation of Rio, 68.

    Treasury, 67.

    Tropical vegetation, 86.

    Tropical jungle, 164-7.

    Turtles, 170.

    Turkey-buzzards, 178.


    Uberaponga, falls of, 11.

    Undeveloped resources, 124.

    United States, 13, 338, 358, 360.

    Uruguay, 160, 250;
      war with, 320.

    Uruguay River, 8, 161.

    Uruguayana, Rua, 56.

    Urubuhunga, falls of, 9.


    Valorization, coffee, 272.

    Vasari, the, 23, 360.

    Vegetation, 70.

    Vespucci, Amerigo, 305.

    Victoria, 251, 252.

    Victoria Regis lily, 86.

    Villa Americana, 134.

    Vines, 166.


    Watercourses, 7.

    Waterfalls, 8, 46.

    Water power, 124.

    Whaling, 27.

    Women, 64, 71, 202-4.


    Xarque, 157.

    Xavier, Joachim, 98.

    Xingu River, 179, 375.


    Young Men’s Christian Association, 302.

    Ypiranga, 58, 118.

[Illustration: MAP OF BRAZIL]





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