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Title: A Finnish Grammar
Author: Eliot, C. N. E.
Language: English
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Transcriber’s Note: _italics_, =bold=.



                                 London

                              HENRY FROWDE

                             [Illustration]

                    OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE
                            AMEN CORNER, E.C.



                                    A
                             FINNISH GRAMMAR

                                   BY
                          C. N. E. ELIOT, M.A.
                    FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD

                                 Oxford
                         AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
                                  1890

                         [_All rights reserved_]

                                 Oxford
                     PRINTED AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
                BY HORACE HART, PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY



PREFACE.


My object in writing this book has been to give an account of Finnish
sufficient to enable any one to understand the grammatical structure of
the written language, and also to place before the student of philology
an account of the chief phenomena it presents. In this latter respect
I am conscious that my treatment is very inadequate on account of my
inability to make myself acquainted with the many dialects spoken by the
peasantry in various parts, the importance of which for the scientific
history of the language cannot be overrated. I trust, however, that I may
meet with indulgence, as the present work is, to the best of my belief,
the only grammar of Finnish in English, and the only syntax (except brief
sketches) in any language more generally accessible than Swedish.

The Finnish language is still in so unsettled and fluid a condition,
as regards both forms and style, that it is often hard to say what is
correct and what not. A foreigner naturally cannot venture to decide
what ought or ought not to be, and I have merely endeavoured to give an
account of the forms and constructions found in existence. The examples
are taken chiefly from the Kalevala and Bible (which are generally cited
by references), from the Suomen Kansan Sananlaskuja of Ahlqwist, from
various modern works, and some from the dictionaries of Lönnrot and
Geitlin. The remainder have all been approved by natives, and will,
hence, I trust, be found idiomatic.

I must acknowledge my obligations to the grammars of Genetz and
Hämäläinen, to the Finska Språkets Satslära of Jahnsson, and especially
to the excellent Suomen Kielen Lauseoppi of Setälä.

But more than to all of these I am indebted to the constant assistance
and collaboration of my friend Mr. Putro of the Finnish School in St.
Petersburg, to whose thorough knowledge of the language this work owes
whatever accuracy it may possess. I have also to thank Mr. J. Marshall
for several philological suggestions.

                                                          C. N. E. ELIOT.

_March 20, 1890._



                    HÄNEN KUNINKAALLISEN MAJESTETINSA

                        LÄHETTILÄÄLLE PIETARISSA

                HÄNEN YLHÄISYYDELLENSÄ SIR R. MORIERILLE

                             KUNNIOITUKSELLA

                                 OMISTAA

                                 TEKIJÄ



INTRODUCTION.


In this book I have endeavoured to give a simple and clear account of
the Finnish language, chiefly of that form of it which is now recognised
as the ordinary vehicle of literary composition, and have thought it
better to set aside as far as possible scientific disquisitions. I now
proceed to briefly discuss from a purely theoretical point of view some
of the phenomena presented by this curious tongue, in doing which I
must express my special obligations to the various works of Professors
Donner and Setälä, and also to the account of Die Sprachen der Uralischen
Völker in the second volume of Dr. Friedrich Müller’s Grundriss der
Sprachwissenschaft.

The phonetic system of Finnish is characterized by a great paucity
of consonants and a correspondingly great development of vowels. The
alphabet has but thirteen of the former: =d=, =g=, =h=, =j=, =k=, =l=,
=m=, =n=, =p=, =r=, =s=, =t=, =v=. Of these it must be observed that =d=
is in modern times only a literary invention, though as it exists in
Esthonian and other cognate languages there is no reason to object to
its use. It always represents a =t= which has been weakened by phonetic
laws, but in the mouths of the peasantry the sound is either entirely
omitted, or else replaced by a cerebral letter (represented in writing by
=l= or =r=) or by =v= or =j=. =G= also is only found in the combination
=ng=, which has exactly the same sound as in English. The letter =h= is
apparently never original in the middle of words. It appears to me to
have really two sounds—as an initial or between vowels, it is simply the
English =h=, but before =t= and =k=, it is =χ=. The other consonants
offer no remarkable peculiarities; =v= appears to be pronounced as in
English (labio-dental), and not to be a labio-labial (modern Greek β).

The simple consonants are pronounced much more lightly than in English.
=T= and =k= in the middle of a word when pronounced naturally by a
native, who is not trying to speak distinctly to a foreigner, often
seem almost inaudible, and it is noticeable that in foreign words, with
which the language is overrun, German and Swedish =k=, =t=, =p= (when
not initial) are always represented by =kk=, =tt=, =pp=. It is highly
probable that Finnish (like Esthonian) once had the sounds =b=, =d=,
=g=. In Agricola are found such forms as =näghe= for =näe=, =virdhat=
for =virrat=. On the other hand, everything points to the fact that the
original tongue from which the Finno-Ugric languages were developed had
only ten or eleven consonants: =k=, =t=, =p=, =s=, =j=, =r=, =l=, =n=,
=m=, =v=, and perhaps =h= or =χ=. For the many curious sounds found in
Lapp, Syrjenian, Ostiak, etc., all look as if they were degenerations
from a simpler original.

Finnish has eight simple vowels: =a=, =ä=, =e=, =i=, =o=, =ö=, =u=, =y=
(=ü=). All of these can be either short, or long, and in the latter
case the letter is written double. These doubled letters appear to be
genuine long vowels, and to contain no diphthongal element. There are
no triphthongs, but sixteen diphthongs, though on the whole Finnish has
more simple vowels than other languages of the same group, particularly
Lappish.

Though no difference is made in writing between the different values of
the vowel =i=, it appears that there really is a distinction between its
value in words like =otti=, or =oli=, where the vowels are hard, and in
words like =näki= where they are soft. The hard sound comes very near
the Russian =ы= and the Turkish =i̱= in such a word as ‎‏اچملوايدكز‏‎
achmali̱yi̱di̱ni̱z.

The vocalization of words is governed by three laws. The first is well
known under the name of vowel harmony. The essence of this is that the
hard (=a=, =o=, =u=) and soft (=ä=, =ö=, =y=) vowels cannot coexist in
the same word. Not only the Finno-Ugric languages, but also Samoyede,
Turkish, Mongolian, and Manchu, have this law at least in the rudimentary
form that a root does not contain both hard and soft vowels; but there
is much variety as to the degree in which the vowels of the suffixes
are assimilated to those of the root to which they are added. The most
highly developed form of the law is found in the Turkish dialects
(particularly in Yakut), where the vowels of the root and suffix must
not only not be discordant, but are as much as possible assimilated to
one another. Thus ‎‏پدريكز‏‎ is pronounced pederiniz, _your father_, but
‎‏دوستكز‏‎ dostunuz, _your friend_. The same principle appears to prevail
in Samoyede, from which are cited such forms as =marg-an=, =tob-on=,
=üg-ün=, =tšel-en=. The other extreme, where the harmony prevails only
between the vowels of the root but not between those of the root and the
suffixes, is found in nearly all the Finno-Ugric languages except Finnish
and Hungarian. In some languages (e.g. Mordvinian) the harmony is not
rigorously observed even in the root. It is doubtful if such languages
really represent a more primitive phonetic system than Finnish. They
may have become affected owing to Russian influence by an inability
to accurately distinguish the hard and soft vowels, particularly =a=
and =ä=, for, though it is very probable that originally the vowel of
the suffix was not necessarily the same as that of the root, one would
expect those languages which retain the primitive system to distinguish
the suffix more clearly than the others from the root, which does not
seem to be the case. Finnish in this respect holds a midway position.
The vowels of the suffixes are not assimilated, as in Turkish, but they
are always of the same quality as those of the root. The suffix =s—n=
or =h—n=, however, found in the illative and passive, seems to show an
approach to the Turkish system, as its vowel is always the same as that
which precedes it: =kotihin=, =työhön=, =töihin=, =kylähän=, =talohon=,
=saa(d)ahan=, =saatihin=, =saatanehen=, =saataisihin=.

The second vocalic law of Finnish is the exact opposite of the vowel
harmony—viz. vowel differentiation. The occurrence of incongruous vowels
in one word is discordant, but the excessive repetition of the same vowel
is disagreeably monotonous. To avoid this =a= is often changed into =o=
in words where =a= is the dominant vowel (pp. 9, 10 for the details),
=patoja= for =pataja=, =annoin= for =annain=; but =otin=, =sotia= for
=ota-in=, =sota-ia=. So also in the Eastern dialect =kaloa= for =kalaa=.
On the same principle =a= and =ä= change to =e= in comparatives and
passives, and thus we have =vanhempana= and =tapetaan= instead of such
monotonous forms as =vanhampana= and =tapataan=. Also two =i=’s meeting
generally become =ei=.

The third rule relates to the disappearance of final or medial =e=, and
the consequent shortening of words. The chief accent of Finnish, as now
pronounced, is on the first syllable of a word, and it is therefore
very natural that final vowels should be omitted. In the dialect spoken
about S. Petersburg this phenomenon is very frequent and such forms as
=miss= for =missä=, =yks=, =kaks= for =yksi= and =kaksi= are common in
the mouths of the peasantry. This may, however, be due to the influence
of Esthonian and Russian. In correct Finnish final =e= is omitted only
in the nominative singular of polysyllabic stems, the consonantal
groups which remain being simplified if the laws of euphony require
it: so =sisare=, =tantere=, =kysymykse= become =sisar=, =tanner=, and
=kysymys=. In the middle of words the final =e= of a stem disappears
before nominal suffixes beginning with =t= (and sometimes =n=) and before
verbal suffixes beginning with =k= or =n=, and this rule applies to
dissyllables also. Now one would suppose on _a priori_ grounds that the
invariable accent on the first syllable is not original, but has replaced
some older and less simple system, just as the variable accentuation of
Russian is older than the stereotyped system of Polish. Even in modern
Finnish I doubt if the rule that every word is accented on the first
syllable is really true. An educated Finn will always maintain that in
a word like =revitään= the main accent is on the first syllable, but to
my ear it appears to be distinctly on the last (=-tään=), indeed, it
is hard to see how this long syllable could be pronounced without an
accent. What is undoubtedly true is that no syllables are slurred over
as in Russian and English. There is, as far as I know, no historical
proof that some of the suffixes were accented in Finnish; but it is
highly probable on general grounds and explains many phenomena presented
by both vowel and consonantal changes. For instance, the termination of
the first infinitive, =ta= (representing an original =tak= or =takse=),
when added to the stem =tule=, produces =tulla=, which is quite natural
if the original form was =tuletá=, as the light vowel would drop out
before the accented syllable; similarly =syöksenén= becomes =syösnen=
for =syöksnen=. Sometimes a whole syllable is omitted, e.g. =alenetá=
becomes =aleta=. For some reason the =e= is generally not omitted if
it is preceded by =k=, =p=, =v=, or =m=. This is not an absolute rule,
as one finds forms like =tointa= (st. =toime=), =nähdä=, =tehdä= (st.
=nähe=, =teke=), but it is hard to see why if =tule-tá= becomes =tulla=,
=luketá= should not become =luhda=. The length of the first vowel has
nothing to do with the matter, as =nouse= makes =nousta=. =A= and =ä=
occasionally disappear in much the same way. Thus =vieras= stands for
=vierasa=, =löynnyt=, =tiennyt= are formed from =löytä=, =tietä=; and
superlatives regularly lose final =a=; =suurin=, for =suurimpa=.

The rules for the changes of consonants fall into three main groups.
Firstly only =n=, =r=, =s=, or =t= are admitted as finals and only a
few simple combinations occur in the middle of words. When the loss
of a vowel produces groups which are euphonically disagreeable, they
are simplified; =veitstä=, =kolmant=, =suurimp=, =säkenöitstä= become
=veistä=, =kolmas=, =suurin=, =säkenöitä=.

The second group of changes concerns the letters =t=, =k=, =s=, =h=.
The group =ti= has always a tendency to become =si= in syllables which
never had the accent. The letter =h=, which is suspected of never being
original when a medial, represents =t=, =k=, and =s=. =S= between two
vowels immediately before a termination always becomes =h=. =Vierasa=
makes in the nominative =vieras=, =a= being lost owing to the accent
being on the first syllable. But the genitive =vierasan= becomes
=vierahan=, and in the ordinary language this is contracted to =vieraan=.
So too =t= becomes =h= under similar circumstances, perhaps having
passed through =s=. The nominatives =kevät=, =terve=, and =vene= appear
to represent stems =kevätä=, =tervete=, and =venete= (for the partitives
are =kevättä=, =tervettä=, =venettä=) and form the genitives =kevähän=,
=venehen=, =tervehen=. The same change appears in the declension of past
participles ending in =-nyt= or =-nut=. Again, =kt= before a termination
which was presumably once accented becomes =ht=—a combination of which
the language is very fond. Thus the roots, =haakte=, =ykte=, =kakte=
produce such forms as =haahden=, =yhtä=, =kahtena=, in all of which the
first syllable was probably not accented. But in the nominative the
first syllable was accented and the words became first =haakti=, =ykti=,
=kakti= (rule =15=), and then =haaksi=, =yksi=, =kaksi= (rule =37=).

The third rule is the most important and singular. It requires the
softening in some way of the three hard consonants =k=, =t=, =p=, when
they occur at the beginning of a short open syllable which becomes
closed. It is stated in detail on pp. 13, 14, 15. These conventional
rules are of great practical utility, for they are of almost universal
application and can be used with perfect certainty in building up the
most complicated forms. On the other hand, if one tries to explain them,
they remain unique and mysterious, if considered only in reference to
the closed syllable. Now there is one exception to their action: the
addition of the pronominal suffixes produces no change in the consonants
of a noun. But there are a good many cases where consonants are softened
without the syllable being closed. Some of these cases (e.g. infinitives
and negative verbs) are justly treated as closed syllables because a
final consonant has been lost. But (1) we find forms like =auringoita=,
=palkinnoita= from =aurinko=, =palkinto=; (2) many forms seem to waver
between =p= and =v=, e.g. =pi= or =vi= in the 3rd sing. of verbs; =pa= or
=va= in the participle.

In Esthonian, where an almost identical rule is found, it is obvious that
in the present state of the language at any rate the theory of the closed
syllable does not apply at all.

It has been already seen that, though there is no actual proof that
terminations in Finnish received the accent, the supposition that they
once did so is not only agreeable to analogy, but explains many phenomena
in the phonetics of the language. On this principle the rule about the
closed syllable might be restated in the form that when a syllable
received the accent, owing to the addition of a suffix[1], the consonant
at the beginning of that syllable was weakened. Thus =aúrinko= remains
with =nk=, =aurinkón= becomes =auringon=, but =aurinkoná= remains. The
pronominal suffixes produce no change, because they are merely enclitic
pronouns and have no accent. =Auringoita= can be easily explained by
the tendency to accent a syllable containing a formative element and a
diphthong. The advantage of this explanation of the weakening as due to
change of accent is that, if true, it enables us to compare the phenomena
presented by Finnish with laws accepted as prevailing in other languages,
particularly with what is known in Teutonic philology as Werner’s law
affecting non-initial soft spirants. By this law when =χ=, =þ=, =f=,
=s= close the syllable bearing the chief accent they remain; in all
other cases they pass into the corresponding sonants =ȝ=, =ð=, =ƀ=, =z=.
Thus an original =wórþe= produces =warþ=, but an original =(we)wurþmé=
produces =wurðúm=.

All Finnish accidence is concerned with the addition of suffixes
to roots, subject to the above rules for the change of vowels and
consonants. In the present state of the language these roots are mostly
dissyllabic, though there are also plenty of monosyllables. There is
reason to believe, however, that these dissyllabic roots are mostly
the result of the combination of a monosyllable with very primitive
suffixes, and it is probable that the original roots were of the form
consonant + the vowel =a= + consonant. The root was differentiated in
various ways by changing =a= to =o=, =u=, =i=, =e=, etc., by raising
it to a diphthong or long vowel, or by altering the consonants within
certain limits. Examples of this development of roots are contained in
Donner’s Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Finno-Ugrischen Sprachen.

Finnish, like all the cognate languages, has no distinctions of gender.
It possesses two numbers, the singular and plural, all traces of the
dual which exists in Ostiak and Vogul having been lost. Three elements
are used to form the plural—=t=, =i=, and =loi=. Of these =t= is found
only in the nominative and genitive plural, in which latter case it
appears variously as =tt=, =d=, or, like the =t= of the partitive and
infinitive, is omitted. This suffix appears also in Esthonian (as =d=),
Mordvinian, and Ostiak (=tl=). Vogul, Syrjenian, and Cheremissian have
quite different suffixes, while Lappish and Hungarian employ the letter
=k=, apparently identical with the =g= which characterises the dual in
Ostiak and Vogul. It has been suggested that as =k= cannot be a final
in Finnish, it has been changed to =t=; but Mordvinian, which has no
objection to final =k=, also has =t= as a plural sign. The vowel =i= is
used in all the cases except the nominative and genitive to mark the
plural, being inserted immediately before the case termination. It is
similarly used in Esthonian and Lappish, and there are traces of it in
Hungarian. It has been explained as representing =k= weakened to =j=.
In the Kalevala and many dialects (e.g. that of Savo) a suffix =loi= is
found before the plural termination, chiefly in the partitive, essive,
and translative: =mahti-loi-ta=, =pilvi-löi-ksi=, =tähti-löi-nä=. It is
never found in the nominative, nor, for euphonic reasons, in the cases
which otherwise contain =l=. The =i= is evidently the ordinary plural
sign, and as =pata + i + na= becomes =patoina=, it is probable that
this =loi= represents =la + i=. Ostiak has a suffix =tl= in the plural
(but this appears to represent simple =t=), Cheremissian adds =vlja= or
=vila=, and in Samoyede =la= appears to be used indifferently with =t= as
a plural sign. The syllable =la= is used in Finnish to denote a place:
e.g. =setälä=, _uncle’s house_, from =setä=, and =lo= is a diminutive
termination. Possibly these forms should be treated as diminutives, but
the analogy with Samoyede is curious. It is noticeable that according to
our ideas the plural is not used very strictly; thus the numerals take a
singular noun, the partitive when signifying many people likewise takes
a singular verb; the verb =on= is used with the nominative plural, and
in poems, proverbs, etc., a plural noun has as often as not a singular
verb. On the other hand, the plural is often used where there seems
to be no real idea of plurality. For instance, we find expressions
like =olla kylmillä=, _to be in the cold_; =omin luvin=, _of one’s own
accord_. The instructive, prolative, and comitative are generally used
in the plural, even when one definite person is described, and there
is no distinction between the singular and plural suffixes for the
third person. Now, in some languages which appear to present the least
developed type of the agglutinative principle, as for instance Manchu,
the plural is not regularly distinguished from the singular, and though
Finnish has advanced enormously beyond this stage, it appears to have
developed a less acute sense of number than the Aryan languages. It is
therefore very possible that some of the plural suffixes were in their
origin not strictly plural. The =t= might thus be identical with that
of the determinate accusative of pronouns (=minut=, etc.) and with the
=t= or =te=, which characterises the definite declension in Mordvinian.
Possibly the =k= of the other languages of the group may be connected
with the suffixes =-kko=, =-kkaha=, which have an idea of quantity.

Nearly all the cases had originally a local meaning. On pp. 131-133
will be found some account of their relation to one another, and the
development of their significations. As is there shown, there are three
groups of cases which more or less correspond, the so-called interior
and exterior groups, and another composed of the partitive, the essive,
and the translative. These latter have simple suffixes, =ta=, =na=, and
=ksi=. In the other groups another element is added to the suffix, in the
interior cases =s= (supposed to represent =sisä=), and in the exterior
=l= (supposed to represent =luo=). The terminations of the inessive
(=ssa=), the elative (=sta=), the adessive (=lla=), and the ablative
(=lta=) clearly stand for =s + na=, =s + ta=, =l + na=, =l + ta=. The
combination =n + ta= is also used sporadically (p. 23) to form a case
analogous to the elative and ablative. The relation of the three cases
indicative of motion to is, however, less obvious. The termination of
the translative is =ksi= (or =kse=), that of the illative =sen= or =h-n=
(with the vowel of the previous syllable between the two consonants),
and that of the allative =-lle=, sometimes pronounced =llen=. Now,
Finnish contains clear traces of a dative in =-ne= or =-nek= (pp. 24
and 128). The illative shows a suffix =-sen=, but dialects give forms
which represent =he-sen= or =se-sen= (which are supported by the analogy
of other languages), which may be explained as the characteristic of
the internal cases plus a case termination. The allative =-lle(n)= may
therefore be explained as =l + hen=, though it can equally well represent
=l + ne=. The termination =sen=, which is weakened to =h-n=, or merely
=n= preceded by a long vowel, is perhaps for =ksen=, for the termination
of the translative has a great tendency to be weakened and even disappear
(=alas=, =ulos=, =taa=, =ty’ö=, 1st infinitives, etc.). We thus get three
groups exactly corresponding: (1) =na=, =ta=, =kse=; (2) =s + na=, =s +
ta=, =s + ksen=; (3) =l + na=, =l + ta=, =l + kse=.

The prolative, ending in =-tse=, is not often used and is perhaps
identical with the termination =-ten=, found in some adverbs (=täten=,
=miten=, =siten=, etc.). The caritive has regularly the termination
=-tta=, but in adverbs this sinks to =-ti= (=ääneti=, =huoleti=).
Dialectically are found =tak=, =tah=, and =ta=, and a comparison of the
cognate languages leaves no doubt that =taka= or =taχa= was the original
form. It is quite clear that this ending is closely connected with the
caritive adjectival suffix =-ttoma=, which has much the same form in all
the cognate languages, except Ostiak, where it is wanting. In Mordvinian
we have =vtomo= or =ftïma=, and in Lappish =täbme= or =tebme=. Otherwise
the suffix seems to represent an original =tama=. Perhaps the =f= or =v=
of Mordvinian may represent some element (e.g. =k=) added to the stem
before the suffix, which has produced in Finnish =tt=. The termination
of the abessive has been explained as the word =taka=, _back_. But if
this is so, what becomes of the caritive adjective, which shows no trace
of this syllable =ka=? The conclusion that the element denoting absence
or negation is =ta=—perhaps with some other consonant before it—seems
inevitable. =Ta= is used to denote motion from (the original meaning of
the partitive), and the connection between this idea and absence is not
impossible.

There remain several cases characterised by the letter =n=, with or
without a vowel. We have (1) a genitive, with the termination =n= in the
singular, and taking =t= as well in the plural; (2) an accusative, found
only in the singular and identical in form with the genitive; (3) an
instructive identical in the singular with the genitive, but without the
element =t= in the plural; (4) a comitative, formed with the syllable
=ne=. This last may be explained as a local case, related to the syllable
=na= of the essive or locative as the =ta= of the 1st infinitive is
to the =te= of the second. The instructive termination is probably in
reality the same as that of the genitive. It does not seem unnatural that
a case denoting relation should be used adverbially to denote the manner
in which an action is performed. The case is used chiefly in the plural,
in which it does not take the element =t=, doubtless to distinguish it
from the genitive. The genitive seems either to have or to have had
the termination =n= in all the Finno-Ugric languages. It is noticeable
that it is strictly a case representing relation, and does not denote
origin. Its regular place is before the word which depends on it. It is
probably akin to the dative ending in =-ne=. The accusative ending in
=n= plays only a very small part in Finnish, as it is never used except
to denote the total object in the singular of a finite verb. The partial
object (p. 126) is always in the partitive, whether singular or plural;
the total object plural is in the nominative, and the total object
singular of an imperative or impersonal (so-called passive) verb is also
in the nominative. Usage with regard to the object of an infinitive
is fluctuating, but the primitive rule seems to be that it was in the
partitive or nominative. It would seem that when the agent is not defined
(imperative, passive, infinitive) the simple nominative was regarded
as sufficient, as there could be no confusion between the subject and
object. But when the subject is expressed by a word or termination, it
was felt necessary to emphasise the object by some termination. =T= in
the plural was apparently enough, but in the singular we find =n=, which
might be identified with the suffix of the genitive, but for the fact
that Ostiak, Cheremissian, and Vogul have =m= or =me=, and Lappish =m=,
=b=, =p=, or =w= pointing to an original =m=.

There is also a termination =t= occurring in the accusatives of the
personal pronouns in Finnish, and found also in Hungarian, Mordvinian,
and Syrjenian, which marks the determinate accusative. This is perhaps
identical with the =t= of the plural. The nominative, as such, has no
termination. In the plural it has the simple plural sign =t=; in the
singular it is identical with the root, unless altered (as is often the
case) by purely phonetic laws.

The Finnish adjective is not distinguished from the noun, but it presents
this peculiarity that contrary to the usage of the cognate languages it
agrees with its substantive in number and case. This is probably due
to Aryan influences, and has on the whole been a misfortune, for as
soon as it is possible to construct sentences in which the connection
of adjectives and substantives, far removed from one another in place,
can be indicated by similar terminations, it is inevitable that authors
should construct complicated phrases of the German or Greek type, which
so much disfigure contemporary Finnish literature.

Finnish possesses a comparative and superlative, both having the
termination =mpa=, the comparative being distinguished by the addition of
the letter =i= before this suffix. This =i= might possibly be identified
with that which marks the oblique cases of the plural, on the supposition
that it is a determinative element which gradually acquired a plural
signification in nouns. The comparative ending is also found in the
pronouns =jompi=, =kumpi=, and =molempi=. Though the present numerals of
the Finno-Ugric languages are based on a decimal system, it is clear that
the original base was seven. For in all the languages the numbers from
one to seven are obviously identical, whereas the words for eight, nine,
ten are different. Finnish, with the Baltic dialects, and Mordvinian,
represents ten by =kymmenen=, =kümme=, or =kemen=; Lappish, Cheremissian,
and Vogulian give =lokke= (or =loγe=), =lu=, =lau=, which signify simply
_number_ (Finn. =luku=). Ostiak has =jon=, which recalls the Turkish =on=
and Yakut =uon=, but which has also been explained as =ljon= (= =luku=).
Cheremissian has =das=, which looks as if it had been borrowed from the
Russian =десять=, though this explanation can hardly be extended to the
Magyar =tiz=. The numbers eight and nine clearly contain in most of the
languages the numbers two and one, so that they must mean ten minus two,
and ten minus one, but the element denoting ten is not clear: Finnish,
=kahdehsan=, =yhdeksän=; Lappish, =kaktse=, =aktse= (=kuekte=, _two_;
=akte=, _one_); Syrjenian =kökja-mi̱s=, =ök-mi̱s= (=ki̱k=, _two_; =ötik=,
_one_); Mordvinian, =kafksa=, =vehksa= (=kafta=, _two_; =ifkä=, _one_);
Cheremissian, =kändeχsje=, =indeχsje= (=kok=, _two_; =ik-tä=, _one_). The
Magyar, Ostiak, and Vogul for eight (=nyole=, =njigedlaχ=, =njålå-lu=)
seems related, but not the words for nine. The word for a hundred is the
same in all the languages.

The personal pronouns are declined almost exactly like nouns. =Minä=,
=sinä=, =hän= appear to represent original forms =mi-nä=, =ti-nä=,
=sä-nä= (? for =tä-nä=). The oblique cases in the singular of the 1st and
2nd person are formed either from the stems =minu= and =sinu= (which have
been adopted by the literary language), or =mu=, =su=. The plural stems
are =me=, =te=, =he=, apparently strengthened forms of =mi=, =ti=, =hi=,
which take =i= in the oblique cases, but which (like the demonstrative
pronouns) do not take =t= in the nominative.

The genitive of the personal pronoun is supplied by the pronominal
affixes, which are added to nouns. They are for the singular =ni=, =si=,
=nsa=; for the plural =mme=, =nne=, =nsa=. The 1st person singular =ni=
is difficult to explain, for the pronominal root is =mi=. Probably final
=m= was changed to =n= (cf. the verbs), and the =i= was a later addition.
So too the 2nd person singular varies between =si= and =s=. It is clear
that in the 3rd singular and all the persons of the plural an element,
perhaps the =n= of the genitive, is added to the noun, so that =nsa=,
=mme=, =nne= stand for =n-sa=, =n-me=, =n-te=. It is noticeable, however,
that in Ostiak and Vogul the 2nd person is distinguished by the element
=n=, and not =t=, in all three numbers: sing. =nen=, =nän=; plur. =nen=,
=nan=; dual =nin=. These suffixes are added to the declined noun, after
the case termination, whereas in Hungarian the case terminations are
added after the pronominal affix. In Cheremissian either combination
seems possible. It is a remarkable fact that when the pronominal affixes
cause a syllable to be closed, the initial consonant of that syllable
is not weakened as in other cases. =Tapa + mme= and =tapa + nsa= do not
become =tavamme=, =tavansa=, but =tapamme=, =tapansa=. The explanation
of this is very easy if the principles suggested above are correct.
The pronominal affixes are enclitics, and hence =tápa-nsa= does not
change its accent, while =tapa-lla= becomes =tavá-lla=. But what is much
more curious is that while the simple genitive singular and nominative
plural are =tavan= and =tavat=, the same cases with suffixes appear as
=tapamme= or =tapansa=. If these forms are not due to analogy they must
be explained on a principle which seems to prevail in Finnish, that it
is unnecessary to add more than one suffix defining the relations of
words, unless there is a question of local position. Thus in the plural
the sign of number is considered a sufficient mark both of the nominative
and accusative.

The other pronouns call for little comment, but it is noticeable that
the relative pronouns and adverbs are fully developed, so that, although
many phrases which we should render by temporal and relative clauses
are expressed by infinitives and participles (as in Turkish), they can
also be expressed by sentences like those of Aryan languages. All the
Finno-Ugric languages show an attempt to differentiate the verb from
the noun, which is least successful in the Eastern languages, and most
fully realized in Finnish. Yet here one can at once discard a mass
of forms—the so-called infinitives and participles—which are simple
substantives. Their use is explained on pp. 184-202. The infinitives
are formed with two suffixes, =ta= and =ma=. The first appears in the
1st infinitive as =ta=, =da=, or =a=, and in the 2nd infinitive, in a
weakened form, as =te=, =de=, or =e=. The second suffix =ma= appears in
the 3rd infinitive in its proper form, and as a diminutive in the fourth
and fifth infinitives, of which the latter is used only in one case.
The present participle, active and passive, is formed by adding =va=,
a common adjectival termination, to the simple or to the passive stem.
The past participle active is formed by adding =-nehe= (nom. =nut= or
=nyt=) to the stem (cf. such nominal stems as =venehe=, _boat_; =puhehe=,
_conversation_), while the past participle passive is a simple noun with
the suffix =u= or =y=, and identical with such forms as =luku=, =itku=,
=maksu= (p. 45), except that it has the =t= which characterises the
passive.

Setting aside these forms we have the finite verb, which shows two
distinct formations, indicating two separate modes of thought. The 1st
and 2nd persons singular and plural take suffixes obviously identical
in origin with the pronominal affixes, while the 3rd person, singular
and plural, is a simple predicate. The affixes for the verb are 1st sing
=n=, 2nd sing. =t=, 1st plur. =mme=, 2nd plur. =tte=. In as far as these
are not absolutely the same as the suffixes added to nouns, they show an
attempt to differentiate the verb, but =n= is clearly the same as =-ni=;
=t= is a more original form of the 2nd singular, which was once =ṭi=, and
=mme= is the same in nouns and verbs. The 2nd person plur. in nouns =nne=
has been already explained as =n-te=; in the verb =mme= and =tte= perhaps
represent =k + me=, =k + te=. Thus it is only in the 1st person plural
that the nominal and verbal suffixes absolutely coincide. =Toivomme=
means either _we hope_ or _our hope_.

The formation of the 3rd persons is quite different. The plural
termination is =vat=. In modern Finnish the singular, as a rule, takes
no termination, but merely lengthens the final vowel, if not already
long or a diphthong. But (as stated on pp. 62 and 63) the termination
=pi=, which is found in monosyllabic verbs, and in the weakened form
=vi= in others, is frequent in dialects, and used sometimes in the
literary language. This suffix appears in all the Baltic dialects in the
forms =b=, =p= for the singular, and =vat=, =ba=, =va= for the plural.
In Lappish it does not occur in the 3rd person sing. or plur., but in
the 1st person plural (=p=, =be=, or =p=), in the 2nd dual (=bätte=,
=ppe=, =bet=, =vette=) and plural (=bättet=, =ppet=, =bet=, =vetteð=),
and in the 3rd dual (=ba=, =van=, =v=). It also occurs sporadically in
Cheremissian as the sign of the 3rd person. Now it is quite plain that
the Finnish =-va-t= is the plural form of =pi= or =vi=. An analogy for
final =a= sinking to =i= can be found in the nominative and comparatives
(=suurempi= for =suurempa=), and it is therefore likely that the 3rd
person singular and plural ended in =pa= and =vat= (p. 15). No doubt this
=pa= or =va= is identical with the suffix of the present participle.
In the plural indeed the two forms are absolutely identical even in
the modern language: =tuovat=, =antavat=, =tulevat= are either the 3rd
person plural present or nominative plural of the participle present.
The 3rd person is thus simply a predicate, the verb substantive being,
as often, omitted. =Pa= or =va= would thus be in its origin a suffix of
the present: =pi= or =vi= does not appear in any of the other moods or
tenses, but =vat= is the universal termination of the plural. Perhaps
it was not original in any tense but the present, as Setälä quotes from
old writers and dialects such forms as =sanoit= (=sanoivat=), =näghitt=
(=näkivät=), =olisit= (=olisivat=), etc. But it must be remembered that
the termination =va= has not a marked temporal signification, as it is
used to form simple adjectives like =lihava=, _fat_; =terävä=, _sharp_.
If then we regard =saavat= as a simple adjective from the root =saa=,
denoting _taking_, there is no reason why =saivat=, =saanevat=, etc.
should not be adjectives from =sai=, =saane=, which express modifications
of that root. But this is a question of chronology, and it is more
probable that when those stems were formed =vat= was accepted as a suffix
of the 3rd plural. In Esthonian the =va= is sometimes added to the active
past participle (=tulnuva=), and similar forms are quoted from Agricola.
In modern Finnish the 3rd person singular generally ends simply in a long
vowel, perhaps the remains of a diphthong ending in =u=, which occurs in
some dialects.

Besides the personal terminations already discussed, we find in reflexive
verbs (in some of which however the reflexive meaning is not very
clear) =me= as the suffix of the 1st singular (=annoime=, =luome=,
=siirrime=[2]), =te= for the 2nd person (=weäite=, =seisotaite=,
=tungeite=), =ksen=, =kse=, =ihe= for the 3rd person. These latter forms
are carefully discussed by Setälä (Suom. Ug. Seuran Aikakauskirja, No.
II, 1887, p. 33 ff.), and he seems to prove satisfactorily that they
represent =k + sen=, of which the first element is a present suffix,
found also in the imperative and negative, and the second the pronoun of
the 3rd person, found also in the optative, passive, and other forms.
The terminations =me= and =te= might be explained as the original forms,
seeing that the roots of the 1st and 2nd personal pronouns are probably
=mi= and =ti=, but they are more likely to be due to false analogy, the
real meaning of =he= (= =sen=) in the 3rd person having been forgotten.

We have thus for terminations indicative of person the following:—

         Sing.                         Plur.

    1. =n= (=me=)                    =m + me=

    2. =t= (=te=)                    =t + te=

    3. (a) =pi=, =vi=, long vowel    =vat= or simple =t=.
       (b) =sen=, =hen=, =se=, =he=.

We have now to consider what are the other formative elements used in
the Finnish verb, in doing which it is best to take first the finite
affirmative conjugation, leaving aside the negative and passive forms.
We may also leave aside the compound tenses which have doubtless arisen
under foreign influences (cf. the Magyar forms).

We have seen that in nouns the possessive affixes =n-sa=, =m-me=, =n-ne=
pointed to the fact that another element besides the strictly pronominal
affix was added to the stem. The =mme= and =tte= of the plural verb
are also best explained as =k + me=, =k + te=. This =k= occurs in many
other verbal forms, and is of rather uncertain meaning, but apparently
originally used in the present tense. It occurs in most of the cognate
languages, particularly Lappish. The moods and tenses of the Finnish verb
are very simple. The indicative has but two simple tenses (as in most of
the cognate languages), a durative, which answers to both our present
and future, and an aorist. There are three other moods, the potential or
concessive, which represents an action as possible but not actual, the
conditional, and the imperative, with which the optative may be taken to
form one tense.

The present indicative adds the personal endings direct to the stem; the
other forms add some element between the stem and terminations, which are
the same as in the present (=n=, =t=, =mme=, =tte=, =vat=), except that
the 3rd singular never takes =pi= or =vi=.

The past tense (generally called imperfect) is formed by adding the vowel
=i= to the stem, which generally causes euphonic changes. =Saa=, _to
receive_; =sain=, _I received_; =anta=, _to give_; =annoin=, _I gave_;
=tule=, _to come_; =tulin=, _I came_. This suffix is used in Lappish in
the forms =je=, =ie=, =i=, and traces of it occur in Magyar, Mordvinian,
Cheremissian, Syrjenian, and Vogul. Ostiak is peculiar in using the
simple stem for the past, and adding =de= to mark the present. The suffix
=i= or =je= is perhaps the same as =ja= used to form nouns expressing
the agent (e.g. =kalastaja=, _a fisherman_). Another termination used
extensively in all the Baltic dialects is =-si=. This is quite regular
in verbs whose root ends in =ta=, for =lupat(a)i= becomes naturally
=lupasi=, and =pyyt(ä)i= =pyysi= (_v._ p. 16 for detailed rules). But
in Esthonian and the South Western dialect of Finnish this termination
is added to a great many words which have no =t= in the stem. E.g.
Esthonian: stem =palu=, pres. =palun=, pret. =palusin=; stem =pühki=,
pres. =pühin=, pret. =pühkizin=. These forms are perhaps the result
of analogy, which was particularly easy on account of the contracted
verbs. A comparison of the present =lupaan= (from which =t= has been
lost) and the imperfect =lupasin= naturally suggests that =si= is the
characteristic suffix of the latter. On the other hand, Mordvinian,
Cheremissian, Vogul, and some forms of Ostiak (as well as the Samoyede
languages) all have =s= or =š= as a sign of the preterite, so that =si=
may possibly contain another tense element distinct from =i=.

The concessive is characterised by the syllable =ne=, or sometimes =no=
in dialects. A conjunctive formed with this element occurs in most of
Baltic dialects, Cheremissian, Vogul, and Ostiak.

The conditional has in Finnish a double suffix =i + si=. The =i= is
doubtless identical with that of the imperfect. The syllable =si= is no
doubt for =ksi=, for the Esthonian conditional is regularly formed with
this suffix. =Palu=, =wiska=, =pühki=, =sȫ= form =paluksin=, =wiskaksin=,
=pühiksin=, =sȫksin=. Esthonian generally has this suffix without =i=,
but the other Baltic dialects employ the Finnish form. Lappish also has
a subjunctive showing the syllable =kči=, =čči=, or =či=, but the form
is unknown in the Eastern languages. It is noticeable that both =ne= and
=se= are found in dialects doubled (=myysisin= from =myy=, _to sell_;
=tullenen=, for =tulnenen=, from =tulla=, _to come_), and also combined
in the form =neisi=, which occurs several times in the Kalevala (e.g.
xxiii. 219, 220. =Tuosta sulho suuttuneisi Mies nuori nuristuneisi=).

The imperative consists of a 2nd person singular, which in literary
Finnish is merely the root in a closed form (=anna=, =ota= from =anta=,
=otta=), but which in dialects is found ending in =k= (=annak=, =otak=,
etc.), and of a 1st and 2nd plural ending in =kaamme=, =kaatte= (or
=kaa=) in the literary language, though =kama=, =kamme=, =katte= are
also found. A 3rd person singular in =kaan= also occurs, but rarely.
The optative consists of a 2nd person singular ending in =os=, of a 3rd
person singular in =koon=, and a 3rd person plural in =koot=. These forms
have been generally explained as weakenings of suffixes =kasa= (=kaha=)
and =koso= (=koho=), and as representing =kasamme=, =kasatte=, =koso=,
=koson=, and =kosot=. It appears to me that the evidence brought forward
by Setälä (p. 111 ff.) disproves this theory. He points out (1) that
the forms =kaha=, =koho= never occur in those dialects which otherwise
preserve =h= between vowels, e.g. in the illative and passive; (2) that
the Eastern dialects change the =kaa= or =kää= of the imperative into
=koa=, =keä=, which change never occurs when an =h= has been lost.
Besides no particular explanation has ever been offered of the suffixes
=kasa=, =koso=. The proper suffixes then of the imperative and optative
are =ka=, =ko=, which are obviously related (cf. =ne=, dialect =no=, in
the concessive). These suffixes appear in Esthonian as =gā= (_dial_) and
=gu=, and a suffix =ka=, =k=, or traces of it, occurs not only in the
Baltic languages, but in all the other members of the group. It seems
to be identical with the =k= which appears in the negative conjugation
and elsewhere, and which is the least definite in signification of
suffixes merely indicating the verbal character of the root. Thus the 2nd
person singular of the imperative is an elementary verbal form without a
personal termination. The forms =kaamme=, =kaatte= have evidently added
to this suffix the personal termination. The long vowel appears to be an
invention of the modern literary dialect. In poetry and dialects we find
the forms =kämme=, =käme=, and =käte=.

The termination =os= of the optative is doubtless for =ko + s= where =s=
represents the 2nd person singular. In Kalevala xxxiii. 257-8 we find
a form in =kosi=, =Kun on kuollet kuolkosipa, kaotkosi kun kaonnet=,
cf. Kanteletar (p. 14, 2nd ed., 1884) =Tehkös liito lintuseni=. The 3rd
person singular ending in =koon= is undoubtedly for =kohon=, where the
second element represents the 3rd personal pronoun =hän= or =sen=. The
assimilation of the vowel to the =o= of =ko= resembles the phenomena
presented by the illative. The plural =koot= is similarly for =kohot=,
where the second element represents =het= or =set=, that is the 3rd
personal pronoun with the plural suffix. The terminations =kaan= and
=kaat=, which occur dialectically, show similar formations with the =ka=
of the imperative.

Besides the forms of the finite active verb discussed above, Finnish also
possesses what is called a passive, but is no doubt really an impersonal
verb, used in all the tenses but the imperative. From the root =tuo= come
the present =tuodahan=, imperf. =tuotahin=, concessive =tuotanehen=,
conditional =tuotaisihin=. But the root ending in a short vowel like
=repi= makes =revitähän=, =revittihin=, =revittänehen=, =revittäisihin=.
In all these forms the last element is obviously a termination =h-n=,
which is vocalized analogously to the illative. This is probably the 3rd
personal pronoun =hän= or =sen=. Besides this termination there is added
to the root the element =tta= after a short vowel, and =ta= after a long
one. This suffix is probably identical with the causal and transitive
terminations =ta=, =tta= (p. 110). Thus the passive forms are really
causal verbs used impersonally in the 3rd person singular.

It is noticeable that while the imperfects and other tenses are
=tuotihin=, =sanotihim=, etc., the present has =tuodahan=, =sanotahan=,
etc. This points to the syllable =tta= or =ta= having being closed
originally by some element which has disappeared. Now the passive
present in Esthonian is formed regularly with the syllable =kse= which
is doubtless the present suffix =k= and the pronoun =se=. Thus the roots
=palu=, =wiska=, and =pühki= form the passives =palutakse=, =wizatakse=,
=pühitakse= corresponding very closely to an original Finnish =sano +
ta + k + sen= which becomes =sanota’hen= and then =sanotaan=. Personal,
neuter, or passive verbs are formed by the addition of the vowels =u= or
=y=, with or without the addition of =t=, =nt=, or =p= (p. 111). Such
verbs, however, are not counted as part of the regular conjugation, as
they cannot be formed from all verbal stems.

On the same footing as these reflexive verbs stand the various derivative
forms described p. 110 ff. Some of them—e.g. the causal suffixes—have
so distinct a meaning and are used so frequently that they might almost
be given among the regular forms of the verb; others are only added to
comparatively few verbs and vary in their signification. Some of them
are the same suffixes which occur in the regular conjugation; =ksi=, a
frequentative or diminutive, is no doubt identical with the =si= of the
conditional: =ne=, and perhaps the =n= of =nta=, is the suffix of the
concessive; =ele=, or =le=, used in Finnish only to form frequentatives
and diminutives, appears in Lappish as a sign of the subjunctive mood
(Set. p. 158). It is thus clear that the verbal forms consist of a root
(that is to say, a form which may be considered as a root for Finnish,
without prejudice to the question how far it is absolutely primitive), to
which are added certain formative affixes and a termination indicating
person. Some of these formative affixes have been accepted as definitely
indicating mood or tense, others have not been so accepted and have a
vaguer signification. Thus =anta + i + si + n= is described as the 1st
person singular of the conditional of =anta=, _to give_, =isi= being
indicative of the mood, but =käärämöittelee=, which represents =käärä
+ mä + i + tta + ele=, is not regarded as having any modal or temporal
suffix.

In Finnish, as in most of the cognate languages except Hungarian and
Ostiak (where however there are traces of another system) there is no
simple negative particle, and negation can only be expressed by means
of the negative verb, =en=, =et=, =ei=, =emme=, =ette=, =eivät=, which
is prefixed to the closed form of the root. There is no doubt that this
form has lost a final =k=, and is therefore identical with the second
person singular of the imperative, and is the simplest verbal form. In
the past, the past participle is used with the negative verb, and in the
other moods the tense stem. The imperative and optative add =ko= to the
stem and the negative particle is formed from the root =äl= or =el= which
is obviously closely akin to such forms as =ellen= (p. 69) and perhaps is
the negative root combined with the suffix =le=.

Although the common opinion about Finnish is that it is hopelessly unlike
any European language, it must be admitted by all who have studied it
that it represents a very close approximation to the Aryan type, due
no doubt to the strong and consistent foreign influence to which it
has been subjected. As is well known, the vocabulary is overrun with
German or Scandinavian words, often the equivalents of the simplest
ideas, which have been borrowed, not lately, but before the earliest
period of which we have any record. In the structure of the language
itself this approximation is not less striking. It manifests itself
in two ways—negatively and positively. As for the first, Finnish has
abandoned many constructions which are found in the other languages
of the group, but which are unknown to Aryan grammar. Thus we find no
traces of the object being incorporated with the verb, or of the verb
taking possessive as well as predicative suffixes. On the other hand,
the positive resemblances are very numerous. It cannot be denied that
the declensions, whatever be their origin, are in their present form
very similar to those of Latin and Greek. The case suffix forms a whole
with the noun; it influences the vowels and consonants of the latter;
the pronominal suffixes must be added after it, and not between it
and the stem. The only difference between Finnish and Greek or Latin
declension is that the former is much more regular and transparent in
its character, though, even here, some cases, as the partitive singular
and genitive plural, show considerable diversity. The adjective is fully
declined, agrees with its substantive, and takes degrees of comparison.
The verb is clearly distinguished from the noun, and the scanty supply
of primitive tenses has been supplemented by a number of forms combined
with the auxiliary verb after the analogy of German or Swedish. There
are a great many infinitival and participial constructions, which recall
the Turkish; but, on the other hand, the relative pronouns and particles
are fully developed. On the whole, it may be fairly said that Finnish
really presents no great differences from Aryan languages except in its
euphonic laws, the use of the pronominal suffixes, the infinitives and
participles, and some syntactical peculiarities. Compared with such a
language as Ostiak (or even Magyar) it shows the clearest traces of
foreign influence, and of non-Aryan material recast in a western and
Aryan mould.

On the other hand, it must be remembered that agglutinative languages
represent a stage through which Aryan languages have doubtless past. The
real difference between the forms presented by Finnish, and those of
Latin, Greek, or Sanskrit, is that while the former has but a limited
number of suffixes, and uses them regularly in the same sense, the latter
had a superfluously rich store, and used sometimes one, sometimes another
to express the same idea. Hence it is that we find different case endings
for nouns, adjectives, and pronouns; and several ways of inflecting verbs
and nouns.

The tendency to advance from the primitive forms and constructions of
the Ugro-Altaic languages to a mode of expression more in harmony with
western thought reaches its height in the modern literary Finnish. It is
no reproach to this language to say that it is artificial. Nearly all
modern languages have the same origin. Out of a mass of dialects one
is selected by circumstances as representative, and becomes a language
while the others remain dialects. A number of such dialects are spoken in
Finland, and no doubt if any of them had received an independent literary
development, it might have produced a language almost as different
from written Finnish as is Esthonian. Neither can one be surprised at
the number of newly invented words in Finnish. All the languages of
modern Europe have borrowed the vocabulary of mediaeval Latin, either
by taking the words as they found them, or by translating the component
parts of them into equivalents supplied from their own grammar. English
has generally adopted the former, German the latter method. Finnish
has followed boldly in the same track, and endeavoured to find native
equivalents for the chief modern ideas. It is perhaps presumptuous for
a foreigner to judge whether the result is successful. One is inclined
to think that the change has been a little too sudden. Finnish is
an admirable vehicle for such poetry as the Kalevala or for simple
narrative. It had not advanced at all beyond this state when it was used
to represent the most complicated forms of European thought, and, as
it still keeps its homely native character, the combination sometimes
appears rather odd. Besides, as there is no authority to determine
exactly what are the accepted phrases for the literary dialect, or the
proper equivalents of foreign words, a good deal of confusion reigns, and
even natives have occasionally some difficulty in understanding modern
authors. It is a great pity that writers do not adopt a simpler style. As
it is, they have chosen German models, and the combination of exceedingly
involved phrases with manifold inflectional forms distinguished only by
slight differences produces sentences which rival in difficulty ancient
Greek, a language which was generally obscure except in the hand of a
master. Yet though Finnish deserves its undesirable reputation of being
the most difficult language spoken in Europe, except perhaps Basque, it
seems to be an undoubted fact that the area over which it is spoken is
being enlarged at the expense of Russian and Swedish.

The group of languages to which Finnish belongs is at present spoken by
tribes scattered over the more northern parts of European Russia and
immediately to the east of the Ural. In Siberia we have Ostiak, spoken
by tribes about the river Obi (for the Ostiak of the Yenisei appears
to be a different language), and Vogul, spoken by scattered tribes on
either side of the Ural. With these languages is connected Magyar,
though owing to foreign influences and its great literary development,
comparable only to that of Finnish, it presents many peculiarities.
Though both the grammar and vocabulary of these languages leave no doubt
of their relation to the rest of the group, they differ from them in many
points of detail. The case terminations present few resemblances; Vogul
and Ostiak have a dual, and they all more or less employ constructions
rejected by most of the other languages, such as the incorporation of the
object in the verb, the distinction between predicative and possessive
suffixes in the verb, etc. Also it is remarkable that they have not
developed fully the peculiar negative constructions of Finnish and the
more western languages.

East of the Voguls dwell a race called Syryenians or Zyrjenians (Russian
=Зыряне=), whose head quarters are at the town of Ishma, on the Pechora;
south of these again are the Votiaks, mostly in the government of
Viatka. On the north bank of the Volga, to the west of Kazan, live the
Cheremissians, speaking two dialects, some scattered settlements of
whom are found further east, while to the south of these again, mostly
about the rivers Oka and Sura, are numerous scattered settlements of
Mordvinians, who have likewise two dialects. None of these are literary
languages. Besides them we have Lappish, in three dialects spoken in the
northern parts of Finland, Sweden, and Russia, and the various Baltic
idioms, with Suomi or Finnish.

The relation of these languages to one another have been ably
described in Dr. Donner’s work, ‘Die gegenseitige Verwandschaft der
Finnish-Ugrischen Sprachen.’ He divides the whole group into two
divisions, the first called Ugric, and comprising only Ostiak, Vogul,
and Magyar; the second called Finnish, including all the other languages.
This second or Finnish division is divided into two groups, the Permian
and Volga-Baltic, the former including only the Syrjenians, Permians,
and Votiaks, the latter again in two sub-divisions, the Volga group
or Mordvinian and Cheremissian, and the West Finnish group including
Lappish, Esthonian, and Finnish.

This classification may be represented thus in a table:—

    Finno-Ugrian Languages

                {1. Ostiak.
    A. Ugrian.  {2. Vogul.
                {3. Magyar.

                {i. Permian { Syrjenians, Permians, Votiaks.
                {
                {           {_a._ Volga group  {Cheremissian, Mordvinian.
    B. Finnish. {           {
                {ii. Volga  {                  {1. Lappish.
                {    Baltic {_b._ West Finnish {2. Esthonian, Livish,
                {           {                  {   Votish, Vepsish.
                            {                  {3. Finnish.


All these languages have a certain common vocabulary, and a common
grammatical substratum, though many of them possess constructions unknown
to the others. The pronouns, numerals, and in a less obvious degree the
pronominal affixes of nouns and verbs are also identical. The Ugrian
languages however, seem to have parted company with the rest before a
system of declension had been fixed. Their nominal suffixes seem to be
mostly later formations, though we find =t=, =tl=, or =k= for the plural,
and traces of =l= as a local element. Corresponding phenomena appear in
the conjugation of verbs, as noticed above.

The remaining languages—or Finnish group—have not developed any striking
differences from the Ugric division, but they show greater resemblance
to one another in details. They all have local cases characterised
by the letter =s= (unknown in the Ugric group), others characterised
by =l=, an abessive ending in =ta= or =tak=, and negative adjectives
characterised by the syllable =tem=, or =tom=. They mostly agree in
having a peculiar form for the negative conjugation. The present of
the positive conjugation has =p= (or =v=) regularly or sporadically in
certain persons, and the remaining verbal forms, though far from agreeing
absolutely, show a sufficient resemblance to warrant us in regarding them
as the results of a common development.

From the accounts given of Syrjenian and Votiak it would seem that they
were the first to cease to participate in this common development. They
appear to be characterised by few striking peculiarities, but to show
a less degree of conformity to a common standard than the remaining
languages. The phonetic system of Syrjenian seems to be much the same as
that of Cheremissian or Mordvinian, except that it has a great fondness
for the sound of =i̱=. The pronouns of both numbers, and the pronominal
affixes of the singular, show much more resemblance to the Finnish
than to the Ugrian, but the pronominal affixes of the plural (=ni̱m=,
=ni̱d=, =ni̱s=) are curious, and obviously represent the singular
affixes in combination with a syllable =ni̱=, which may perhaps be akin
to the Finnish plural demonstrative =ne=. In the verb, the 1st person
singular has no personal termination. In the plural we find =m=, =ni̱d=,
=ni̱s=, as in nouns. Generally Syrjenian seems to be more thoroughly
agglutinative, as opposed to inflected, than the Finnish language. In
this it may be compared with Cheremissian, where the plural is formed
by the syllable =vlja= (or =vi̱lä=) added between the stem and case
termination, just like =jas= in Syrjenian. The Permian languages have
some close analogies in detail with the Ugrian group. Thus twenty is
=ki̱s= in Syrjenian, =kōs= or =χūs= in Ostiak, =husz= in Magyar; the
reflexive pronoun is =as= or =ats= in Syrjenian and Votiak, =at= in
Ostiak.

Of the remaining languages Mordvinian is in many ways the most
remarkable. Though generally admitted to be nearly akin to Cheremissian,
it has many constructions peculiar to itself. Thus it has a fully
developed object conjugation and two forms of declension, the definite
and indefinite. It has a great fondness for the letter =f=. On the
other hand, such phenomena as the suffix =n-za= for the 3rd person, the
word =kemen=, _ten_, the regular formation of the imperfect with =i=,
infinitives in =ma=, and participles in =f= (Finn. =va=) show a near
approach to Finnish. Cheremissian has also developed some new singular
negative forms, by which the verbal root is negatived (in the preterite)
by a suffix =te + l=, after which the personal suffixes are added.

The connection of the West Finnish languages is much more striking
than that of those which have already been discussed. The resemblance
of Lappish to Finnish and Esthonian is a little disguised owing to the
elaborate phonetic system of this language, which has an extraordinary
fondness for diphthongs, and also a very extensive provision of
consonants, including some (e.g. =γ=, =θ=, =δ=) which do not occur in any
of the cognate languages. The nominal declension is very similar to that
of Finnish. Compare the singular forms =tšalme=, =tšalmen=, =tšalmesn=,
=tšalmest=, =tšalmetaka= with =silmä=, =silmänä=, =silmässä=, =silmästä=,
=silmättä=. In the singular the genitive and partitive have lost their
termination (cf. the Esthonian forms, nom. =silm=, gen. and part.
=silma=). The analogy in the plural is still closer; the nominative ends
in =h= or =k=, but the other cases are characterised by the insertion of
=i=, =tšalmeh= or =tšalmek=, =tšalmiti=, =tšalmi=, =tšalmin=, =tšalmisne=,
=tšalmist=, =tšalmitaγa= corresponding to =silmät=, =silmiä=, =sílmien=,
=silminä=, =silmissä=, =silmistä=, =silmittä=. There are also forms in
=l=, =le=, =lt=, or =ld=. The partitive case appears to be peculiar to
the West Finnish languages. The pronouns of Lappish point the other way,
and are all but identical with those of Mordvinian, =mon=, =ton= or
=don=, =son=, =mi=, =ti= or =di=, =si=; Mordvinian =mon=, =son=, =ton=,
=min=, =sin=, =tin=. The singular affixes are =m=, =d=, =s= (Mordv. =n=,
=t=, =nza=), but those of the plural take the characteristic =k= (=mek=,
=dek=, =sek=). There are also dual forms. The verb is peculiar in using
different affixes for the present and preterite. Otherwise it is much the
same as the Finnish forms. We have =b= or =p= as a sign of the present,
=je= or =i= for the preterite, =ket=, =kus=, etc. in the imperative;
comparatives formed with =fč-=, =kč-=, =č-= (=ksi=), or =le=. The
negative conjugation also shows close analogies. Lappish has thus a great
resemblance to Finnish, but is much nearer than the remaining western
languages to Cheremissian and Mordvinian, thus connecting these latter
with Finnish and the Esthonian languages.

There is no need to insist on the close connection of Livish, Votish,
Vepsish, and Esthonian with Finnish. The grammatical structure and
vocabulary of these languages is so alike that the fact is obvious not
only to a philologist, but to the most casual learner. Esthonian is now
far the most important of these languages, and has a certain amount of
literary culture. It has two chief dialects, that of Revel and that of
Dorpat[3].

In a few cases Esthonian shows older forms than Finnish, but on the
whole it is less primitive. Besides the Finnish consonants it possesses
=b=, =g=, =z=, and =ṅ=. The accent is on the first syllable, and has led
to weakening or loss of final syllables. The vowel harmony is known only
in the Dorpat dialect, and there not perfectly. Consonants are weakened
in much the same way as in Finnish, =pp=, =tt=, =kk= are reduced to
single consonants; =p=, =t=, =k=, =s= become =b=, =d=, =g=, =z=; =b=
becomes =w= or disappears, and =d=, =g=, =z= disappear. These changes,
however, do not in the present state of the language take place only when
syllables are closed, although the original form generally ended with a
consonant. Thus =tīb=, =urk=, =rind=, =toit=, =rid= form the genitives
=tīwa=, =urga=, =rinna=, =toidu=, =riu=; and the verbs =pühkima=,
=uskuma=, =prūkima=, =hoidma= form =pühin=, =uzun=, =prūgin=, =hoian=.
The noun has only eleven cases, the six local (exterior and interior)
the genitive, partitive, abessive, and translative, all almost identical
in form with Finnish, except that the genitive has lost the =n= of the
termination, and the other cases the final vowel. The plural takes =d= in
the nominative and =i= in the other cases. The pronouns resemble Finnish,
but the 3rd person singular and plural is the demonstrative =tema= or
=nema= in Esthonian, Livonian, and Votish, but Vepsish has =hän=, =hö=.
Esthonian has almost lost the pronominal affixes, which are used only
in adverbial forms, and replaced in most cases by the genitive of the
personal pronoun.

The affirmative verb closely resembles Finnish, except that the
concessive formed with =ne= has, except in the Dorpat dialect, been
almost entirely lost. The 3rd person singular present ends regularly in
=b=, and the 3rd plural in =wad=. The preterite is sometimes formed with
simple =i=, but generally with =si=, and the conditional with =ksi=. The
imperative 2nd singular has no termination, but as in Finnish the root
is weakened. The other persons are characterised by =gu= or =ge=. The
passive is formed by affixing =ta + k + se= in the present, and =ta + i=
(=ti=) in the preterite. The negative verb for the imperative is =ärä=,
=ärgu=, =ärge=, but in the other forms Esthonian does not affix personal
endings to the negative, but uses =ei= with all persons. Similarly
Livish has =äb= or =ab= for all persons except the second, where =ad=
is sometimes used. Votish and Vepsish follow Finnish. It will thus be
seen that Esthonian, closely allied as it is to Finnish, has lost many
peculiarities which it once no doubt possessed, but occasionally (e.g.
the passive present in =takse= and the conditional in =kse=) preserves
forms which in Finnish have been weakened or disguised.

It is easier to discuss the relations of the Finno-Ugric languages
to one another than to decide what are their affinities with other
groups. They are generally considered to be connected with the Samoyede,
Turkish, Mandchu, and Mongolian languages, that is to say, the ancestor
of each of these groups was related to the ancestor of the Finno-Ugrian
languages. When, however, identity of vocabulary cannot be proved, it
is dangerous to make comparisons on the ground of general grammatical
resemblances, because the grammar of agglutinative languages offers few
striking peculiarities, and represents a stage of development through
which may other languages, certainly the Aryan, have passed. The only
general description which can be given of the Finno-Ugric group is that
they are languages without gender, whose grammatical structure consists
entirely in appending suffixes. To these characteristics is generally
added another, the vowel harmony, but this exists very partially in the
Finnish group. Now without denying the possible relationship of Turkish,
Mongol, and Mandchu to Finnish, it must be admitted that they have only a
very general resemblance, and very many and precise differences. Mandchu
and Mongol, with their uninflected verbs, would have been put into quite
another class were they not undoubtedly akin to languages with a more
developed system. And why should Japanese be excluded? It presents no
phenomena incongruous with the grammar of the languages above cited, and
the want of vowel harmony cannot be alleged as a difficulty.

If, however, we turn to the Samoyede languages the case is very
different. They are usually mentioned as if they stood no nearer to the
Finno-Ugric group than Turkish or Mandchu, and yet the resemblances in
detail are numerous and striking.

They possess the vowel harmony, and apparently a law for the weakening
of consonants analogous to that of Finnish and Esthonian, e.g. =kinta=,
=kindan=; =mat=, =maden=; =sok=, =sogon=. The noun is strikingly like
Finnish. We find a genitive in =n=, an accusative in =m= or =p= (cf.
Lappish), a dative in =ni= or =n=, a locative in =nan= (cf. Finnish
=na=), and an instrumental in =se=. There are three numbers, the dual is
characterised by =g= or =hā= (cf. gen. in Ostiak, =ag= in Vogul), and the
plural is formed with =la= or =t= (=d=). The pronouns show a good deal of
variety, and it is evident that some forms (e.g. =pudar=, _thou_; =puda=,
_he_) are not real pronouns but substantives used as pronouns. Still we
find a general consensus for =man= as the 1st person singular, and some
form of the same word for the plural; =tan= for the second singular,
and =te=, =ten=, or =ši= for the plural (cf. Lappish, Cheremissian,
Syrjenian, and Mordvinian). The 3rd person exists in several forms,
=tep=, =sete=, =di=, etc., which may perhaps be compared with the Ostiak
=ten=, Cheremissian =tidä=, and Syrjenian =si̱a=. The pronominal affixes
are also extraordinarily numerous and varied, but they seem to include
=m= for the 1st singular, =t= or =d= for the 2nd, =jea= (cf. Magyar =ja=)
for the 3rd; =mu= or =met= for the 1st plural, and =ta= or =tet= for the
2nd. The interrogative pronouns are =kutö=, =hübea=, =hoke=, etc., _who_,
and =ma=, =mi=, _what_. The verb and noun are not sharply distinguished.
The verb takes two sets of pronominal suffixes, the predicative, with
which an intransitive verb is always conjugated, and the possessive,
which are used with both transitive and intransitive verbs. The
preterite is formed by adding =s=, which occurs as a preterite suffix in
Cheremissian, Mordvinian, Vogul, and Ostiak. The conjunctive is formed
with =nji=, =ne=, =na= (cf. the Finnish =ne=). The imperative is formed
with the syllable =kar=, =gar=, =har= (cf. Finnish =ka=). There is also
an optative with the suffix =rava=, so perhaps =kar= is =ka-ra=.

Besides this similarity of grammatical forms there is a large common
vocabulary. The following examples are taken at haphazard out of
Castren’s lexicon:—_River_, =jaha=, =joha= (Finn. =joki=); _hill_,
=pirda= (Finn. =vuori=); _dark_, =paebi=, =paevuda= (=pimeä=); _to blow_,
=pu’u= (=puhua=); _half_, =pealea=, =fealla= (=puoli=); _good_, =sava=,
=sova= (=hyvä=); _fire_, =tu= (=tuli=); _fish_, =kole=, =hale= (=kala=);
_tree_, =po=, =pe=, =pea= (=puu=); _bear_, =korg=, =kuerg= (=karhu=);
_earth_, =mon= (=maa=); _narrow_, _small_, =tîjea= (=tyhjä=, _empty_);
_to place_, =puenan= (=panna=); _live_, =jileadm= (=eleä=); _come_,
=tû’am=, =töak= (=tulla=)[4].

On the other hand, the Samoyede languages differ in many ways from
the Ugro-Altaic group. The numbers are entirely different. The Ostiak
Samoyede =ōker=, _one_, shows a faint resemblance to =yhte=, and
=sidea=, or =sede=, _two_, has been compared with =kahte=, but such
analogies are doubtful. Only the number _seven_, =sin=, =sjelde=,
=sjaibua= shows a resemblance with the Finno-Ugric forms. But it is
clear that the Samoyede numbers represent very primitive attempts at
numeration (e.g. Jurak. =hâsava-ju=, _Samoyede big number_, for _nine_,
=lutsa-ju=, _Russian big number_ for _ten_), and that in many cases
Turkish numbers have been borrowed (cf. =tjet=, =tet=, _four_, with Yakut
=tüört= and =kamass=, =khera= 40, =iliχ= 50, =althon= 60, with Turkish
=kirk=, =elli=, =altmish=). Samoyede is also more like the Turkish than
the Finno-Ugric language in its power of adding predicative and temporal
suffixes to nouns (which implies a want of distinction between the verb
and noun). Thus =lūtsa= means _a Russian_; =lūtsam=, _I am a Russian_;
=lūtsamsʻ=, _I was a Russian_.

The above sketch of Samoyede has no pretence to be exhaustive, and
may be charged with inaccuracy, inasmuch as words and forms are cited
indifferently from all the dialects. For a proper investigation of the
question it is no doubt necessary to thoroughly study the relations of
the Samoyede languages to one another, to establish the original forms,
and in particular to determine the influence of foreign languages,
whether Turkish or Finno-Ugric, on the Samoyede vocabulary. But unless
there is something strangely misleading in the superficial character of
these dialects, it appears to me that they undoubtedly stand far nearer
to Finno-Ugric than do Turkish or Mongolian, and should indeed be classed
as outlying members of the Finno-Ugric group. The want of similarity in
the numbers is certainly very strange, but the other resemblances in
vocabulary seem to me to be conclusive, unless all the words in question
are borrowed.



A FINNISH GRAMMAR.


The Finnish Alphabet consists of 21 letters, viz.: =a=, =d=, =e=, =g=,
=h=, =i=, =j=, =k=, =l=, =m=, =n=, =o=, =p=, =r=, =s=, =t=, =u=, =v= (or
=w=), =y=, =ä=, =ö=.

German characters are sometimes used, in which case w always represents
the =v= sound. In the Roman character =v= and =w= are used indifferently
to express the sound of the English _v_.

The pronunciation of the consonants offers little difficulty. Most of
them have the same sounds as in English.

=D=. In true Finnish words this letter is never found at the beginning or
end, and in the middle always represents a softened =t= (_vide_ changes
of consonants p. 13). Even in this position it is hardly ever heard in
the language as spoken by peasants, but replaced in the West Finnish
dialect by a sound between =r= and =l=, and in the Eastern dialect
entirely omitted. Educated people, however, pronounce it as in English.
Thus the educated pronunciation of the genitive case of =sota= is
=sodan=; but in dialects the forms =soran=, =solan=, or =soan= are found.
The letter =d= is always omitted in the Kalevala, which is written in the
Karelian dialect.

=G=, except in a few foreign words, is only found in the combination
=ng=, representing an original =nk=, pronounced as in English. In the
neighbourhood of St. Petersburg this letter is never used, =k= taking its
place.

=H= is a stronger aspirate than in English, and is almost the Russian _x_
or German _ch_. It is heard very distinctly at the end of syllables, e.g.
in =tehdä=.

=J= is the English _y_ in _yes_ or _yard_.

The remaining letters of the Roman Alphabet _b_, _c_, _f_, _q_, _x_, _z_,
and the Swedish _å_ (pronounced _o_) are sometimes met with in foreign
words, but an uneducated Finn will always pronounce =b= and =f= as =p=
and =v=, and is also incapable of producing such sounds as the English
_ch_ and _sh_, which when occurring in Russian names are generally
represented in a Finnish mouth by simple =s=.

There is also a slight aspiration found at the end of some words, as
=veneʻ=, _a boat_, =syödäʻ=, _to eat_. It is not usually written, and
hardly heard except in some dialects, though it has a grammatical
importance, and in some educational works is marked, as above, by an
inverted comma.

It will be seen that there is a great paucity of consonants in the
Finnish language; the alphabet contains but 13, and of these =g= and
=d= are never found at the beginning of native words. Further no word
can begin with two consonants, and foreign words, commencing with such
combinations, always lose one or more letters, for instance the Swedish
words =strand= (_shore_), and =spel= (_game_), appear as =ranta=, =peli=.

On the other hand there is an extraordinary wealth of vowel sounds, and
it is of capital importance to learn the exact pronunciation of them all.

The simple sounds are eight in number.

=A= is the Italian _a_ (English _a_ in _rather_ or _father_), but
pronounced quicker. It is always short.

=E= is the English _e_ in _met_.

=I= is the English _i_ in _bit_.

=O= is the English _o_ in _hot_.

=U= is the English _u_ in _bull_.

=Y= is the German _ü_ in _über_.

=Ä=, which must be carefully distinguished from =A=, is the short English
_a_ heard in _hat_, or _trap_, and must not be pronounced as the English
_a_ in _late_. Thus =hän=, _he_, is pronounced exactly like _hand_
without the final _d_. At the end of words (e.g. =työtä=) =ä= is more
difficult for an Englishman to pronounce, as the sound is not found in
English as a final.

=Ö= is like the French _eu_.

It is very important to observe that the simple vowels are all _short_
sounds. The corresponding long sounds are written by doubling the vowel.

=Aa= is a long Italian _a_, like the _a_ in _rather_, whereas the sound
of simple _a_ is shorter than that which we (generally) give to the vowel
in this word.

=Ee= is like the English _a_ in _pale_, _late_.

=Ii= is the English _ee_ in _keen_, _three_.

=Oo= is the English _o_ in _hope_.

=Uu= is the English _oo_ in _boot_.

=Yy= is the German _ü_, pronounced long.

=Ää= is the _a_ in _had_, but long. It is a rather difficult sound, but
can be obtained by lingering over the vowel of _had_ or _man_, taking
care not to change its quality.

=Öö= is the sound of the simple =ö= lengthened.

Besides these simple and double vowels there are also 16 diphthongs, in
which both vowels should be sounded but so rapidly and continuously as to
form one syllable. They may be divided into two classes.

(1) Those in which the stress is on the second vowel. =uo=, =yö=, =ie=,
e.g. =tuo=, _this_, =tie=, _a way_, =yö=, _night_.

(2) Those in which the stress is on the first vowel. Of these there are—

(_a_) Four ending in =u=. =au=, =ou=, =iu=, =eu=. =Kauppa=, _sale_,
=koulu=, _school_, =hiukka=, _a grain_, =leuka=, _chin_.

(_b_) Two ending in =y=: =äy=, =öy=. =Väylä=, _river bed_, =höyhen=,
_feather_.

(_c_) Seven ending in =i=: =ai=, =oi=, =ui=, =ei=, =äi=, =öi=, =yi=. E.g.
=nai=, _he married_, =koi=, _a moth_, =pui=, _he threshed_, =vei=, _he
led_, =päivä=, _day_, =löi=, _he struck_, =myi=, _he sold_.

These diphthongs, with the exception of those ending in =i=, are found
only in the first syllable of words, otherwise the two vowels form two
syllables: e.g. =tapa-us=, not =tapa͡us=, =kope-us=, not =kope͡us=, but
=talko͡issa=, =pape͡illa=.

The pronunciation of these diphthongs offers no difficulties when that
of the simple vowels has been mastered. It must be remembered that they
are real diphthongs where both vowels sounds are heard, but pronounced
rapidly, so that _au_, though very near the _ow_ in the English _how_, is
not quite like it. The pronunciation of =äy= and =öy= requires attention,
but is, like that of all the diphthongs, merely the result of pronouncing
the simple vowels rapidly.

The chief accent in Finnish is always on the first syllable of every
word. =Tálo=, =mínä=, =párempi=, =kívettä=.

There is a secondary accent, generally on the third, fifth,
... syllables, but occasionally on the fourth, sixth, ... e.g.
=op-pi-mát-to-múu-des-sán-sa= (_in his ability to learn_).

But =ó-pet-ta-mát-to-múu-des-sán-sa= (_in his ignorance_).

But in no case is the second or last syllable accented, so that such
sounds as _howéver_, _deláy_, are impossible.

The pronunciation of Finnish is generally described as easy, but this
is by no means the case. It is true that the language contains no sound
which is really difficult for an Englishman, but on the other hand
extreme care is necessary to pronounce even the simplest words correctly.
For instance, in the word =menemme= (_we come_), three things are to be
observed. The accent is on the first syllable, the =n= is single and not
double, and the =m= is doubled. An Englishman, who has not learned how
to pronounce, will in all probability say not =menemme=, but =menneme=.
This is because he finds it natural to double the =n= after the accented
syllable and hard to double the =m=, without accenting the second
syllable. It must be observed, that:—

(1) The simple consonants are pronounced very lightly; =tuli=, _fire_,
nearly rhymes to the English _fully_, but the =l= is lighter.

(2) The double consonants must be pronounced distinctly twice, as in
Italian. =Kuk-ka=, _flower_, =kyl-lä=, _enough_, =pap-pi=, _priest_.

(3) The simple vowels are very short, the long vowels are to be dwelt on,
but the length of a vowel has nothing to do with the accent. =Púhuu= must
not be pronounced as if it were =Puhúu=, or =puúhu=.

The observance of these rules is necessary, not only to insure a correct
pronunciation, but to prevent absolute confusion, for the paucity of
consonants in Finnish results in the existence of a mass of words, which
though very distinct to a native, are liable to be confounded by a
stranger, and the natural tendency of an Englishman or Russian to slur
over unaccented syllables results in complete unintelligibility. For
instance, =tuli= is _a fire_, or, _he came_, =tulli=, _a tax_, =tulla=,
_to come_ (infinitive), =tule=, _come_ (imperative and root), =tulee=,
_he comes_: =tullee=, the concessive of the same verb, =tuuli=, _a wind_,
=tuulla=, _to blow_. =Kylä= is _a village_, but =kyllä=, _enough_.
=Pitää=, _to hold_, =pyytää=, _to ask_, =peittää=, _to cover_, =peite=,
_a covering_, =pöytä=, _a table_.


OF THE FORMATION OF SYLLABLES AND WORDS.

A syllable ending in a simple vowel or diphthong is called _open_: one
ending in a consonant or the aspiration is called closed. E.g. =I-sä=,
_father_, =tuo-da=, _to bring_, consist of open syllables: =kis-sat=,
_cats_, =kir-jat=, _books_, of closed.

As already stated, a word cannot begin or end with more than one
consonant.

If a double consonant occurs in the middle of a word the first letter
must be pronounced with the preceding vowel and the second with the
succeeding, e.g. =pal-lo=, not =pall-o=.

=1.= (1) At the end of the first syllable of a word two consonants are
tolerated, provided the first be =l=, =r=, =n=, or =m=, and the second
=k=, =t=, =p=, or =s=. =Pilk-ku=, _a spot_, =kent-tä=, _a field_,
=simp-sukka=, _pearl_: otherwise one of the consonants must be rejected.

=2.= (2) At the end of the second or succeeding syllables may stand
only one consonant, and every word must end with a vowel or one of the
consonants =n=, =r=, =s=, =t=, =l= (rare), or the aspiration.

If the grammatical changes cause an agglomeration of consonants which
does not come under these rules, the consonants must be simplified or
changed; =syöks-tä= becomes =syöstä=: =avaim= (for =avaime=) becomes
=avain=.

One of the most characteristic features of the Finnish language is what
is called the _Harmony of the vowels_. Besides the division of the vowels
according to length, there is another by which they are classified
according to their quality as follows:—

    Hard        =a=, =o=, =u=.
    Soft        =ä=, =ö=, =y=.
    Neutral     =e=, =i=.

Long vowels and diphthongs belong to the same class as their component
elements, which can never be discordant, that is to say, =ay= or =äu= are
impossible combinations.

The first syllable of a word may contain any of these vowels. The
formation of the remaining syllables is determined by the following
rules:—

(1) If the first syllable contains a hard vowel, the vowels in the other
syllables must be either hard or neutral, but not soft, =Kala=, _a fish_:
ablative, =kalalta=. =Ansaita=, _to deserve_, =ansaitsevat=, _they
deserve_.

(2) If the vowel in the first syllable is soft, then the vowels of all
the other syllables must be soft or neutral, but not hard. =Tölli=, _a
cottage_, =töllissä=, _in the cottage_; =kätkein=, =käkeittäköön=.

(3) If the vowel in the first syllable is neutral, two cases occur.

(_a_) If the vowel of the second syllable is hard, as in the word
=vieras=, the succeeding vowels must be either hard or neutral:
=vierahaksi= (transitive case).

(_b_) If the vowel of the second syllable is either soft _or neutral_,
all the other vowels must be soft or neutral, but not hard. =Retki=, _a
journey_, partitive case, =retki-ä=; =sirppi=, _sickle_, =sirppiä=.

It will thus be seen that there are two forms of every termination
in Finnish, one containing hard and the other a soft vowel. Thus the
ablative ends in =-lta= or =-ltä=: =maa=, =maalta=, but =työ=, =työltä=.

The hard and soft vowels are never found coexisting in any simple Finnish
word, but there is no objection to such a compound as =kirkko-väki=,
=kirkko-isä=.

This principle of vowel harmony is really extremely natural, and
facilitates pronunciation, as will be seen by the example of French. An
Englishman pronouncing such combinations as _voulu_, or _du tout_ has, if
not accustomed to the language, a tendency to say _voulou_, _du tut_,
making the two vowels the same, because the sudden change in the position
of the pronouncing organs required to say _u_ or _ou_, or vice versa, is
a matter of some difficulty. It is the consciousness of this difficulty
which has led Finnish and other languages to adopt the rule that the
vowels of a word must be of the same character, so that no rude change
may be necessary for their pronunciation.

This vowel harmony is not found in all the Finno-Ugric languages. In
its fully developed form it exists (_v._ Dr. Donner, die gegenseitige
Verwandschaft der Finnish-ugrischen Sprachen, p. 9) only in Finnish, the
Dorpat dialect of Esthonian, Hungarian, one dialect of Tcheremissian
and one of Vogulian. In many others of these languages it is found
in an incomplete form, whence some think that it is an original
characteristic of the Finno-Ugric group, which has been lost by some
tribes whose phonetic sense was not keen. Some authorities hold that in
the Finno-Ugric language there are two kinds of vowel harmony: firstly,
that prevailing between the different syllables of a stem, which is
characteristic of all the tongues included in this group, and secondly
that which assimilates the vowels of suffixes to those of the stem—i.e.
that which obliges us to say =repinyt= and not =repinut=. This latter
species of vowel harmony is not primitive, but has been gradually
developed, perfectly in Finnish and Hungarian, and imperfectly in the
other languages. This view seems very reasonable.



CHANGES OF SOUNDS.


All Finnish words consist of a root to which certain suffixes have been
attached, but the addition of these latter often causes certain changes
in the final vowel and consonants of the original root. In order to
inflect words correctly it is necessary to know these changes.


A. _Changes of Vowels._

I. THE LONG VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS.

=3.= The long vowels are always shortened when followed by =i=, that is
to say, the vowel is written once and not twice. Thus =maa=, _earth_,
which takes an =i= in all the cases in the plural except the nominative,
forms =maita=, =maitten=, =maiksi=, etc., not =maaita=; =puu=, _tree_,
=puita=, =puiden=, =puiksi=.

=4.= The diphthongs with the accent on the second vowel, =uo=, =yö=,
=ie=, when followed by =i=, reject the first vowel, and thus form a
new diphthong—=työ=, _work_, becomes in the plural =töistä=, =töissä=,
=töiksi=, etc.; =vien=, _I lead_, =vein= (=vie-in=), _I led_; =luo=, _he
creates_, =loisi= (=luo-isi=), _he would create_.

=5.= Diphthongs ending in =i= reject this =i= if another =i= follows,
=uin=, _I swim_, =uin= (for =ui-in=), _I swam_.

In the root =käy=, _to go_, =y= is changed into =v= before a vowel—e.g.
=käy-in= becomes =kävin=.


II. SHORT VOWELS.

The simple vowels =o=, =ö=, =u=, =y= are invariable, but =a=, =ä=, =e=,
=i= are subject to certain changes in the last syllable of a root.


=A. Ä.=

When the vowels =A= and =Ä= at the end of a root are followed by the
=i= characteristic of the imperfect tense, or plural, they undergo the
following changes:—

=6.= (1) =Ä= is always rejected in disyllables—e.g. =heitän=, _I throw_,
=heitin=, _I threw_.

=7.= (2) =A= at the end of disyllabic roots is rejected before =i=, if
the vowel of the first syllable is =o=, =u=, =uu=, =ou=, =uo=, =oi=, or
=ui=: but is changed into =o= if that vowel is =a=, =e=, =i=, =aa=, =ii=,
=ai=, =au=, =ei=, =eu=, =ie=, or =iu=. Thus =ottavat=, _they take_, past
=ottivat= (for =ottaivat=); =nuora=, _a cord_, =nuorilla=, _with cords_;
=tupa=, _a hut_, =tuvissa=, _in huts_. But on the other hand, =kala=, _a
fish_, =kaloiksi=; =annan=, _I give_, =annoin=, _I gave_; =kannan=, _I
carry_, =kannoin=, _I carried_.[5]

Disyllabic verbs, where the final =a= is preceded by =t=, can change
it into =o=, but generally reject it, =ahtoi= or =ahti=: =kaartoi= or
=kaarti=.

=8.= Derivatives of verbs in =ma=, =ja=, =va=, always reject the =a=:
=sanova=, =sanovia=; =ottaja=, =ottajia=; =puhuva=, =puhuvia=.

=9.= (3) Polysyllabic verbs always reject =a= and =ä= in the imperfect.
=Odotan=, _I wait_, =odotin=, _I waited_, etc. The rejection also
takes place in polysyllabic substantives ending in =-mpa=, =-mpä=,
and derivatives in =va=, =vä=, =sa=, =sä=, and those where =h= or any
vowel but =i= precedes the final =a=, e.g. =vanhempa=, =vanhemmille=;
=sanova=, =sanovina=; =vieraha=, =vierahille=; =kapea=, =kapeita=. But
should the final =a= be preceded by two consonants, or the penultimate
syllable contain the vowel =i=, =a= and =ä= become respectively =o= and
=ö=; =asia=, _a thing_, =asioissa=; =karitsa=, _a lamb_, =karitsoita=;
=kynttilä=, _a candle_, =kynttilöitä=, _candles_. But the words =isäntä=,
=emäntä= always reject =i=, =isännille=, =emännille=.

=10.= (4) In cases which come under none of these heads, e.g. such a word
as =peruna=, _potatoe_, =a=, =ä= can be either dropped or changed to =o=,
=ö=, =perunia= or =perunoita=, partitive case plural.

=11.= (5) =a= and =ä= change to =e= before the comparative suffix
=-mpa= in disyllabic words, and before the suffix =ta=, =tta=, of the
passive. =Vanha=, _old_, comparative =vanhempi=; =istutan=, _I plant_,
=istutetaan=, passive.

=12.= (6) The nominative sing. of superlatives (stem =-impa=), and of
caritive adjectives (stem =-toma=), drops =a=: =kovimpa= becomes =kovin=
(by rules =24=, =46=); and =viattoma=, _innocent_, =viaton= (=46=).

=13.= (7) =a=, =ä= become =i= in the nominative sing. of comparatives,
stem =kovempa=, nominative =kovempi=.


=E.=

=14.= (1) =E= is always rejected before =i=. =Kive-illä= becomes
=kivillä=, _with stones_; =Mere-illä=, =Merillä=.

=15.= (2) Dissyllables ending in =e= always change that vowel to =i=
in the nominative singular. Stems, =mere=, _sea_, =tuule=, _wind_,
nominatives, =meri=, =tuuli=.

The only important exceptions to this rule are the words =itse=, _self_,
and =kolme=, _three_. =Nukke=, _a doll_, is also found, and =sine=,
_blue_, is used as well as =sini=.

The stem =miehe=, _man_, makes =mies= in the nominative sing.

=16.= (3) Polysyllabic stems ending in =e= reject it in the nominative
sing. Stem, =sisare=; nominative, =sisar=, _a sister_.

=17.= (4) The final =e= of a disyllabic stem disappears in nouns before
terminations commencing with =t=, and in verbs before terminations
beginning with =k= or =n=, provided that =e= is preceded by any simple
consonant but =k=, =p=, =v=, =m=, or by a double consonant of which
the last letter is =t= or =s= (except =ht=). Thus from the stem =une=
(_sleep_), =vuore= (_mountain_), =vete= (_water_) (nominative, =vesi=),
come the forms =unta=, =vuorta=, =vettä=, and from the verbal stems
=tule= (_come_), =mene= (_go_), such forms as =tulkaa=, =tullut= (for
=tulnut=), =menkää=. =Lapse=, _a child_, forms =lasta=, for =lapsta=;
=veitse=, _a knife_, =veistä= for =veitstä=.

But =e= remains in the verbs =potea=, _to fall ill_, =tuntea=, _to know_,
and in =itse=, _self_, =suksi=, _snowshoe_, =sääksi=, _a gnat_, =ripsi=,
_an eyelash_, =viiksi=, _a moustache_, which form their partitives in
=itseä=, =suksea=, etc.

=18.= But in disyllabic words =e= is not rejected if preceded by =k=,
=p=, =v=, or =m=. Thus the stems =joke=, _river_, =läpe=, _a hole_,
=kive=, _stone_, =Suome=, _Finland_, form their partitives =jokea=,
=läpeä=, =kiveä=, =Suomea=.

=19.= Likewise =e= remains in disyllables where it is preceded by =ht=,
or by any two consonants of which the last is not =t= or =s=: =tähte=,
_star_, and =lehte=, _leaf_, form =tähteä= and =lehteä=. =Onne=,
_fortune_, and =hanhe=, _goose_, =onnea= and =hanhea=.

But =yksi=, _one_, and =kaksi=, _two_ (roots =yhte= and =kahte=), form
=yhtä= and =kahta= for =yhttä=, =kahtta=. =Lumi=, _snow_, is also an
exception and forms =lunta=. Also the verbal stems =teke= and =näke=:
infinitive, =tehdä=, =nähdä=.

=20.= In polysyllabic words the =e= is always suppressed: root
=kysymykse=, _a question_, partitive case, =kysymystä= for =kysymykstä=.


=I.=

=21.= (1) When =i= at the end of substantives meets the =i= of the
plural, the first =i= changes into =e=, =risti=, _cross_, =risteissä=.
This rule is however not always observed, and forms like =ristissä=
are used for the plural. But in other cases, when two =i=’s meet, the
first falls out, pres. =etsivät=, imp. =etsivät=, not =etsiivät=. In old
Finnish, words like =etseivät= are found.

=22.= (2) When =i= (generally owing to the dropping of a consonant) is
found between two vowels it becomes =j=. =Kaloia= becomes =kaloja=.

=23.= All these four vowels, =a=, =ä=, =e=, and =i=, are rejected
before the =-i= of the terminations of the superlative: =vanha=, _old_,
=selkeä=, _bright_, =suure=, _great_, =auli=, _liberal_, make in the
superlative =vanhin=, =selkein=, =suurin=, =aulin=.


B. _Changes of Consonants._

=24.= A word cannot end with more than one consonant. If the rejection
of a final vowel leaves two consonants at the end of a word, one is
rejected, usually the first, e.g. =Lupaukse=, _a promise_. By rule =16=,
=e= is rejected in the nominative sing., and there remains =lupauks=,
which becomes =lupaus=. But if the second consonant is not one of those
allowed to end a word by rule =2=, it is rejected and the first only
kept. =Suurimpi= becomes =suurimp=, and as =p= is not a possible final
letter, =m= is kept, and by rule =46= (below) becomes =n=, =suurin=.


THE SOFTENING OF THE HARD CONSONANTS =K=, =T=, =P=.

General rule: Whenever one of the three hard consonants, =k=, =t=, =p=,
is found at the beginning of a naturally short and open syllable (that
is, one ending in a simple vowel) which becomes closed (that is, ends in
a consonant) owing to the addition of a suffix, then the hard consonant
is softened or rejected[6].

It must be observed that some syllables which are apparently open are
treated in grammar as being closed, because they end with the aspiration.
This aspiration, though hardly heard except in dialects, generally
represents an original consonant (_v._ the rules respecting the formation
of the Imperative, Infinitives I and II, and passive).

This curious rule of the softening of consonants pervades the whole
Finnish language and is one of its distinguishing features. The addition
of a final letter to a syllable necessitates a certain effort in order to
sound it accurately, and in order to compensate for the difficulty thus
added at the end the pronunciation of the first letter is made easier. It
is indeed clear that it is easier to say =kukan= than =kukkan=, if both
=k=’s are carefully pronounced; but an English mouth does not find it
easier to say =revin= than =repin=. But it must be remembered that the
Finnish language is extraordinarily susceptible in regard to consonants.
Mouths which are incapable of pronouncing two consonants at the beginning
of a word must have to struggle with difficulties in pronunciation which
we are quite incapable of understanding. It must also be remembered that
simple consonants are pronounced exceedingly lightly, so that their
disappearance is easier than it would be, were they sounded as strongly
as in our language.


=K.=

=25.= (1) =kk= becomes =k=. That is to say, when the final syllable of
=kukka=, _flower_, becomes closed by the addition of =n=, one of the
=k=’s is dropped, and we have =kukan= for =kukkan=. So =kirkko=,
=kirkossa=.

=26.= (2) =nk= becomes =ng=. =Aurinko=, _sun_, forms the genitive
=auringon=. =Kaupunki=, _town_, =kaupungin=.

=27.= (3) =lk=, =rk= become simply =l=, =r=, but if followed by =e=,
=lj=, =rj=. For example, =jalka=, _a foot_, genitive =jalan=; =märkä=,
_wet_, genitive =märän=; =kulke=, _leave_, =kuljen=, _I leave_; =särke=,
_break_, =särjen=, _I break_.

=hk= generally becomes simply =h=, but may remain unchanged; =tuhka=,
_ash_, genitive =tuhan=, but sometimes =tuhkan=; =sähkö=, _electricity_,
genitive =sähön=. In old Finnish such forms as =tuhvan= are found.

=28.= (4) Between two vowels =k= generally is lost altogether when the
syllable is closed; =tako=, _forge_, =taon=, _I forge_; =vika=, _a fault_,
genitive =vian=.

If the =k= is preceded by a diphthong ending in =i= or by simple =i=, a
=j= is developed when =k= falls out: thus =aika=, _time_, =poika=, _boy_,
=ikä=, _life_, make =ajan=, =pojan=, =ijän=. Similarly when =k= falls
out between two =u=’s or two =y=’s, a =v= is developed, at any rate in
pronunciation. The orthography varies between =uu= and =uvu=, but the
latter is generally adopted when there is any ambiguity, e.g. =puvun=,
from =puku=, _clothes_, not =puun=, because this is liable to be confused
with =puun=, the genitive of =puu=, _a tree_; =suvun= from =suku=, _a
family_; but =suun= from =sun=, _a month_; =luvun= from =luku=, _a
number_, but =luun= from =luu=, _a bone_.

=29.= (5) =sk=, =tk= remain unchanged, =lasku=, =laskun=, =itku=,
=itkun=.


=T.=

=30.= (1) =tt= becomes =t=, =opetta=, _teach_, =opetan=, _I teach_.

=31.= (2) =lt=, =rt=, =nt= become =ll=, =rr=, =nn=. =Pelto=, _field_,
=pellon=; =parta=, _beard_, =parran=; =kanta=, _base_, =kannan=.

=32.= (3) After a vowel or =h=, =t= becomes =d=. =Pata=, _pot_, =padan=;
=tahto=, _wish_, =tahdon=[7].


=P.=

=33.= (1) =pp= becomes =p=. =Pappi=, _priest_, =papin=.

=34.= (2) =mp= becomes =mm=, stem =kovempa=, _harder_, =kovemman=.

=35.= (3) In other cases =p= becomes =v=. =Lepo=, _rest_, =levon=;
=repi=, _tear_, =revin=; =halpa=, _cheap_, =halvan=.

=36.= N.B.—This softening of =k=, =t=, =p=, takes place if in a
polysyllabic radical one of them is the first letter of a syllable
whose vowel forms a diphthong with the =i= of the plural. =Harakka=,
_magpie_, =harakoita=; =aurinko=, =auringoita=, _sun_; =palkinto=,
=palkinnoita=, _reward_.

These rules for the weakening of consonants are rigorously observed
throughout the language, with the one exception that the addition of
the pronominal suffixes produces no change in a word. Though =tapa + n=
becomes =tavan=, =tapa + nsa= remains =tapansa=.


OTHER CHANGES OF CONSONANTS.

=T=, meeting with the vowel =i=, under certain circumstances becomes =s=.

=37.= =T= in the last syllable of a word, when preceded by a vowel or by
=l=, =n=, =r=, becomes =s= when a final =e= is rejected or changed into
=i=. E.g. in the nominative of the root =vete=, _water_, the final =e=
becomes =i= by rule, and =t= changes to =s=, forming =vesi=. Similarly
when the final =e= of =hyvyyte=, _goodness_, is rejected =t= becomes =s=,
forming the nominative =hyvyys=; so also =jälte= becomes =jälsi=, and
=varte=, =varsi=.

=38.= =T= also becomes =s= before =i= in the plural of ordinal numbers
whose stem ends in =-nte=. E.g. the essive singular of stem =neljänte=,
_fourth_, is =neljäntenä=; in the plural the corresponding case is
=neljänsinä=, for =neljäntinä=.

=39.= The plural of stems ending in =-ute=, =-yte=, forms the essive
and other analogous cases from a stem ending in =-ksi=. =Suuruus=,
_greatness_, has for the sing. the stem =suuruute= (e.g. essive
=suuruutena=), but forms in the plur. =suuruuksina=, etc. So also
from =hyvyyte=, _goodness_, comes from the sing. =hyvyytenä=, and
the plur. =hyvyyksinä=.

=40.= =T= in the last syllable of a verb, preceded by a double vowel or
=l=, =n=, =r=, changes to =s= before the =i= of the imperf., the vowels
=a=, =ä= being suppressed. Thus from =pyytää=, _to ask_, comes =pyysi=
(for =pyytäi=); from =taitaa=, _can_, =taisi=. But =pitää=, _to hold_,
makes =piti=, because this vowel is simple.

=Nousee=, _he arises_, forms the imperfect =nousi=, but =noutaa=, _he
brings_, makes =nouti=, to distinguish it from the other. Similarly
=kyntää=, _to plough_, generally forms its imperfect =kynti=, to
distinguish it from the same tense of =kynsiä=, _to scratch_.

In poetry forms like =kielti=, for =kielsi=, are found, and in the
ordinary language a number of verbs which should by the above rule form
the imperfect in =si=, either keep =ti=, as =hoiti= (=hoitaa=, _to
look after_), =jouti= (=joutaa=, _to have time_), or have alternative
forms, =hääti= or =hääsi= (=häätää=, _to keep off_), =sääti= or =sääsi=
(=säätää=, _to place_), =kiiti= or =kiisi= (from =kiitää=, _to hasten_),
=hyyti= or =hyysi= (=hyytää=, _to freeze_), =syyti= or =syysi= (=syytää=,
_throw out_), =sieti= or =siesi= (=sietää=, _to bear_), =jäyti= or
=jäysi= (=jäytää=, _to gnaw_).

=T= always becomes =s= in the imperfect of contracted verbs, =lupata=,
_to promise_, pres. =lupaan=, impf. =lupasin=.

The combination =ts= is pronounced in dialects as =tt= or =ht=; e.g.
=metsä=, _a forest_, appears as =mettä= or =mehtä=.

=41.= =K= before =t=, =d=, =n= becomes =h=. E.g. from the root =teke=,
whose final vowel is liable to be rejected, come =tehtiin=, =tehdään=,
=tehnen=, and also =tehkää=.

=42.= But =h= before =s= becomes =k=. Thus the stems =yhte=, _one_,
=kahte=, _two_, =haahte=, _a ship_, form the nominatives =yksi=, =kaksi=,
=haaksi=, =te= becoming =si= by the rules previously given, and =h=
changing to =k=.

=43.= In contracted words (_v._ page 18) =h=, when left as a final letter,
becomes =s=, =t=, or the aspiration. Stem =vieraha=, nominative =vieras=,
for =vierah=; stem =kevähä=, nominative =kevät=, for =kevähä=; stem
=venehe=, nominative =veneʻ=, for =venehe=.

Though the above rules are given as being convenient for grammatical
purposes, there is no doubt that in all these cases =h= is a weakening of
some other letter; indeed, there is reason to think it is never original
in Finnish. =Vieras= represents an original =vierasa=, and the genitive
=vierasan= is weakened into =vierahan= and =vieraan=. Similarly in
=yksi=, =yhden=, the =k= is more primitive.

=44.= =N=, after =l=, =n=, =s=, is frequently, though not always,
assimilated, especially in verbs. Thus =tul-nut=, =pur-nut=, =pes-nyt=,
become =tullut=, =purrut=, =pessyt=.

=45.= In polysyllabic verbs =n= becomes =t= before =k= and =t=. Thus root
=pakene= makes in the imperative =paetkaa= (for =pakenkaa=, which becomes
first =paketkaa=) and infinitive =paeta=. (The steps are =pakenetaʻ=,
=pakentaʻ=, =pakettaʻ=, =paettaʻ=, =paeta=.)

=46.= =M=, at the end of a word, always becomes =n=. Stem =avaime=,
_a key_, nominative =avain=, for =avaim=. Similar is the formation of the
nominatives of superlatives: =kovimpi= becomes =kovimp= by rejection of
the final vowel, and then =kovim= (rule =24=), which changes to =kovin=.

=47.= =M= also becomes =n= before terminations beginning with =t= or =n=.
Thus the stem =rahattoma=, _moneyless_, shortened to =rahatom=, makes
=rahatonta= and =rahatonna= in the partitive and essive cases.


CONTRACTION.

When two vowels are found together from the loss of a consonant or
other causes, they frequently become a long vowel or a diphthong. This
phenomenon is called Contraction, and occurs frequently in Finnish. It
can, like the loss of final vowels, be easily accounted for on phonetic
grounds, if it be remembered that the tonic accent of a word is always
on the first syllable, so that there is a natural tendency to drop or
pronounce quickly syllables at the end of words.

This contraction is of two kinds:—

=48.= I. The first kind takes place when the vowels of the two final
syllables of a word are the same, and the consonant between them (=h= in
nouns or =t= in verbs) falls out. Thus, =vierahan= becomes =viera͡an=
(two syllables); =lupatan=, =lupa͡an=; =tervehen=, =terve͡en=.

This form of contraction is universally employed in certain classes of
nouns and verbs, the uncontracted forms being only found in poetry and
the Karelian dialect.

=49.= II. The second kind is when the vowels of the last and penultimate
syllables of a word meet, the last vowel being =a= or =ä=. Under these
circumstances the assimilation of the second vowel to the first, and
contraction of the two into one long vowel is admissible, but not
obligatory, though it usually takes place if the first vowel is =o=,
=e=, or =ö=. Thus =lankean= (_I fall_), =kokoan= (_I collect_), become
=lankeen=, =kokoon=. But the contraction of =ia= or =ua= to =ii=, =uu= is
rare.

Forms like =silee=, =ainoo= for =sileä=, =ainoa= are found in poetry. In
prose this form of contraction is confined to verbs.

The contraction of two vowels into one long vowel or diphthong also
occurs in adding the case suffixes:—

(1) The =a= or =ä= of the partitive sing. with the final vowel of roots
ending in =a= or =ä= forms a long vowel, e.g. =jalka-a=, =leipä-ä= become
=jalka͡a=, =leipä͡ä=.

(2) When the =e= of a termination becomes =i= after the final vowel of a
root, this =i= forms a diphthong with that vowel, e.g. =korvaen= becomes
=korva͡in=; and when the =i= of the plural meets with the final vowel of
a root it forms a diphthong with it.

The point in all these cases is that, though no change takes place in
writing, the two vowels form one syllable instead of two.

Vowels which meet from the disappearance of =k= are often contracted in
pronunciation: =te͡en=, =nä͡in= from =teken=, =näkin=, are pronounced as
one syllable.



NOUNS.


Finnish is called an agglutinative language; that is to say, the words,
as they appear used in a sentence, are formed of roots, to which have
been added certain terminations: thus =taloiltansa=, meaning _from his
farms_, is made up from the root =talo=, and the suffixes =i= (a sign of
the plural), =-lta= (giving the idea of from), and =-nsa= (his).

Every root in Finnish ends in a vowel or a diphthong.

In adding suffixes to a root the rules for the changes of letters must be
carefully observed. The result of applying them is that from the original
full root there may be produced three modifications:—

(1) The closed form. Root =vete=, _water_, closed form =veden=.

(2) The shortened form, =paimen= for =paimene=.

(3) A form both closed and shortened. =tantere=, nominative =tanner=.


_Declension._

The Finnish noun is declined by adding suffixes to the root, which
undergoes any modifications required by the rules of Euphony.

There are fifteen cases, which, with the exception of the nominative,
may be regarded as the noun followed by a preposition, or rather
postposition. The Finnish word =maalta= corresponds to the English _from
land_, only the _from_ is put after _land_, and the two are written as
one word. =maalta= is analogous to such an expression as the Greek γῆς
ἀπό, only that in this case we have both a case-form and a postposition.
Most of the terminations have two forms, one with a hard, one with a soft
vowel. Roots with hard vowels take the hard termination, those with soft,
the soft ones. Thus we find =maa-ssa=, but =työ-ssä=.

These fifteen cases are as follow:—

(1) The _nominative_ has no suffix, though it does not always represent
the pure root. In =maa=, _land_, the two are identical, but the roots
=käte=, =vete=, =vieraha= produce the nominatives =käsi=, =vesi=,
=vieras=.

(2) The _partitive_ is formed by the suffix =ta=, =tä= or =a=, =ä=. It
may be roughly described as answering to a noun preceded in English by
the word _some_, or in French by the partitive article. =Leipää=, _some
bread_, _du pain_; =vettä=, _some water_, _de l’eau_.

(3) The _genitive_ is formed by the suffix =n=. =Puun=, _of the tree_.

The Finnish genitive really represents two cases, the genitive and
accusative, which have become confused in one form.

(4) The _inessive_ expresses the place, in which anything takes place,
and is formed with the suffix =-ssa=, =-ssä=. =Missä=, _where_ (_in
what_); =kirkossa=, _in the church_.

(5) The _elative_ expresses the place from which motion takes place,
and is formed with the suffix =-sta=, =-stä=. =Mistä=, _whence_ (_from
what_); =kirkosta=, _from the church_; =talosta=, _from the farm_.

(6) The _illative_ is formed by adding to the root the consonants =h—n=,
between which is inserted the last vowel of the root, or, if it ends
in a diphthong, the second vowel in that diphthong. =Talo=, =talohon=;
=metsä=, =metsähän=; =työ=, =työhön=. Generally the termination is
shortened by the omission of =h=, and we have forms like =taloon=,
=metsään=. It expresses the place into which motion takes place.

(7) The _adessive_ is formed with the suffix =-lla=, =-llä=, and
signifies the place on which, or the object with which, anything is done.
=Lattialla=, _on the floor_; =kädellä=, _with the hand_.

(8) The _ablative_ is formed with the suffix =-lta=, =-ltä=, and
expresses motion from. =Maalta=, _from the land_; =pöydältä=, _from the
table_.

(9) The _allative_ expresses motion towards, and is formed with the
suffix =-lle=. =Pellolle=, _to the field_; =rannalle=, _to the shore_.

(10) The _abessive_ is formed with the suffix =-tta=. It expresses the
absence of something; =rahatta=, _without money_.

(11) The _prolative_ is formed by adding the syllable =-tse=, and
expresses motion along; =talotse=, _along the farm_. In modern Finnish it
is rarely used in the singular. =Maitse=, =meritse=, _by land_, _by sea_.

(12) The _translative_ is formed with the suffix =-ksi=. It generally
is used to express some change in the form of existence. =Hän tuli
sotamieheksi=, _he became a soldier_.

(13) Whereas the _essive_, formed by adding =-na= or =-nä= to the root,
expresses a state of being regarded as continuous. =Lapsena=, _as a
child_.

(14) The _comitative_ is formed with the syllable =-ne=, and is generally
used in the plural, and with a possessive affix. =Lapsine= (or oftener
=lapsinensa=), _with his children_.

(15) The _instructive_ is formed by simply adding the letter =n= to a
root, and expresses the means by which anything is done. =Käsin=, _with
the hands_. The singular of the instructive is only used in poetry.

There are two numbers in Finnish, the singular and plural. For the
singular, the suffixes are added directly to the root: to form the plural
other letters are also added.

A. The nominative plural is formed by adding =t= to the root, e.g. root
and nominative sing. =maa=, nominative plur. =maat=; root and nominative
sing. =pata=, nominative plur. (by rule =31=) =padat=; root =vieraha=,
nominative sing. =vieras=, nominative plur. =vierahat=; root =vete=,
nominative sing. =vesi=, nominative plur. =vedet=.

B. The other cases, with the exceptions below mentioned, simply add =i=
to the root, which suffers the necessary phonetic changes, and then
take the same suffixes as the sing. =Maa=, inessive sing. =maassa=,
inessive plur. =maissa= (=3=); =pata=, illative sing. =patahan= or
=pataan=, illative plur. =patoihin= (=7=); =vieraha=, translative
sing. =vierahaksi= or =vieraaksi=, translative plur. =vierahiksi= or
=vieraiksi= (=11=).

C. But the genitive plural is formed with the suffix =-ite= (apparently a
combination of the two suffixes =i= and =t(e)= above mentioned), placed
before the case suffix =-n=.

This suffix is found in three forms:—

(1) =ite + n= becomes regularly =-iden=, =maiden=.

(2) Monosyllabic roots and polysyllabic roots ending with a long vowel
have a strengthened form, =-itte-n=, often found alternating with
=-ide-n=, e.g. =maitten=, =vierahitten=.

(3) The =t= drops out and the suffix becomes simply =-ie-n=, e.g.
=jalka-iten= becomes (rule =7=) =jalko-iten=, then =jalko-ien=, then
(rule =21=) =jalkojen=; =äiti-iten= becomes =äititen=, and then =äitien=.
Sometimes the =i= or =j= drops out between two vowels; e.g. =kirkkoen=.

Most of the cases above enumerated are common to nearly all the
Finno-Ugric languages, though the same suffixes are used with rather
different meanings.

The suffix =-na=, called here essive, is used in most other languages of
the family as a locative, and a few traces of this use are preserved in
Finnish, e.g. =kotona=, _at home_, =ulkona=, _out of doors_, (=olla=)
=läsnä=, _to be present_, =takana=, _behind_, =tänä pänä=, =tänään=,
_to-day_.

No accusative is usually given in Finnish grammars, because this case
coincides with the genitive in the sing., and with the nominative in
the plural. The accusative sing. is, however, etymologically a distinct
formation, with the termination =m= or =ma=, as is proved by a comparison
of the other languages of the family (Ostiak and Vogulian =ma=, =me=,
or =m=; Tcheremissian and Syrjenian =m=). As =m= cannot be a final in
Finnish, it becomes =n=, and the case is indistinguishable from the
genitive.

There is also an accusative in =-t=, found in the pronominal declensions
of Finnish, Ostiak, Syrjenian, and Mordvinian. It is supposed to
represent the demonstrative pronoun =ta= suffixed to a word, and perhaps
stands for =-nt=.

Another case which occurs sporadically, though not usually given in
grammars, is the Excessive, ending in =-nta=. This termination is much
used in the dialect spoken about St. Petersburg, and is even employed
by some writers. It expresses departure either from a place or a state;
e.g. =kotonta=, _from home_; =hän jäi palvelijanta=, _he gave up being a
servant_. =Hän muutti paimenenta rengiksi=, _he became a farm-labourer
instead of a shepherd_. It is also found in some adverbial forms, e.g.
=siintä=, =luonta=, =takanta=.

Another sporadic case is an allative or dative ending in =-nne=,
=-ne=, or =-n=. Its original form seems to have been =-nek=, for in
the Savo-dialect we find =tuonnek=, =tännek= instead of the ordinary
=tuonne=, =tänne=, _thither, hither_. In written Finnish this termination
is only used in a few adverbs, as =sinne=, _thither_, =muuanne=, _to
another place_. =Alle=, =päälle=, and =ylle= are also apparently for
=al-ne=, =pääl-ne=, =yl-ne=. In the expression =Jumalan kiitos=, _thanks
be to God_, =Jumalan= appears to be really this case, and similar strange
uses of an apparent genitive in old writings are no doubt to be explained
the same way.

It will be observed that the local cases are arranged in two sets of
three, one characterised by the presence of =s=, the other by that of =l=.

We have:—

    Inessive =s-sa= (for =s-na=)   Adessive =l-la= (for =l-na=)
    Elative =s-ta=                 Ablative =l-ta=
    Illative =sen= or =h-n=.       Allative =l-le= (for =l-len=)

The Essive in =na= and Excessive in =n-ta= are parts of a similar set.

The case called adessive (=-lla=) is also used as an instrumental, and
probably represents two original cases.

The primitive form of the abessive appears to have been =taka= or =taha=,
which is considered by some as identical with the word =taka=, _back_.
Besides the regular termination in =-tta=, the forms =-ta= and =-t= are
found in dialects, and =-ti= in some adverbs; =ääneti=, _silently_;
=huoleti=, _carelessly_. Closely connected with the abessive are the
caritive adjectives ending in =-ttoma=.

The prolative, though generally counted as one of the regular cases, is
really very seldom employed, and cannot be formed from the majority of
nouns.

The plur. inflection of the Finno-Ugric languages, gives three suffixes,
=t=, =k=, and =i=, of which =t= and =i= are found in Finnish. It has
been suggested that the =t= and =k= are really identical, =k= not being
allowable as a final letter. It is not improbable that =i= may be the
remains of a =k= weakened to =j= (cf. =26=, =27=).

=There are no genders in Finnish.=

The simplest way of dividing the declensions is by the form of the
Partitive case.

The _first_ declension has the partitive ending in =ta= or =tä=, after a
long vowel or diphthong.

The _second_ has the partitive ending in =a= or =ä=, after a short vowel.

The _third_ has the partitive in =ta= or =tä=, after a consonant.


_The First Declension._

This declension includes all words ending in a long vowel or a diphthong.

It has the following characteristics:—

(1) The partitive sing. has the suffix =ta= or =tä=, after a long vowel
or diphthong.

(2) The nominative sing. is the same as the root.

(3) No change of consonants takes place in the root.

(4) The genitive plur. is found ending in =-iden= or =-itten=, before
which the last vowel of the root is rejected by rule =3= or =4=.

(5) Monosyllabic roots form the illative in =h—n=, the last vowel of the
root being between the two consonants: =täi=, =täihin=; =jää=, =jäähän=.
But dissyllables ending in a long vowel, e.g. =harmaa=, =ehtoo=, have the
illative sing. in =-sen= and the illative plur. in =-sin= or =-hin=.
Sing. =harmaasen=, plur. =harmaisin= or =harmaihin=.

Example of a noun of first declension with a hard vowel. Puu, _a tree_:—

               _Sing._        _Plur._

    _Nom._     =puu=          =puut=
    _Part._    =puuta=        =puita=
    _Gen._     =puun=         =puiden= _or_ =puitten=
    _In._      =puussa=       =puissa=
    _El._      =puusta=       =puista=
    _Il._      =puuhun=       =puihin=
    _Ad._      =puulla=       =puilla=
    _Abl._     =puulta=       =puilta=
    _All._     =puulle=       =puille=
    _Abes._    =puutta=       =puitta=
    _Prol._   [=puutse=]      =puitse=
    _Transl._  =puuksi=       =puiksi=
    _Ess._     =puuna=        =puina=
    _Com._    (=puune=)       =puine=
    _Instr._  (=puun=)        =puin=

There is nothing to be remarked on the declension of this word, except
that in the plur. the diphthong =uu= is shortened to =u= before the vowel
=i=; =puissa=, etc., and not =puuissa=.

The declension of a noun with a soft vowel, e.g. =työ=, _work_, is
exactly analogous, except that the suffixes have the soft forms =-ssä=,
=-stä=, etc.

               _Sing._        _Plur._

    _Nom._     =työ=          =työt=
    _Part._    =työtä=        =töitä=
    _Gen._     =työn=         =töitten=, _or_ =töiden=
    _In._      =työssä=       =töissä=
    _El._      =työstä=       =töistä=
    _Il._      =työhön=       =töihin=
    _Ad._      =työllä=       =töillä=
    _Abl._     =työltä=       =töiltä=
    _All._     =työlle=       =töille=
    _Abes._    =työttä=       =töittä=
    _Prol._   [=työtse=]      =töitse=
    _Transl._  =työksi=       =töiksi=
    _Ess._     =työnä=        =töinä=
    _Com._    [=työne=]       =töine=
    _Instr._  [=työn=]        =töin=

According to rule =4= before the =i= of the plural the vowel =y= is
rejected from the diphthong =yö=. So =suo=, =yö=, =tie= form in the
plural =soissa=, =öillä=, =tein=.


_The Second Declension._

The second declension has the following characteristics:—

(1) The partitive sing. ends in =-a= or =-ä= (=-ta=, =-tä=) after a short
vowel. (Polysyllables have often =-ta=, =-tä=.)

(2) The nominative has the same number of vowels as the root, and
generally preserves those vowels unaltered except that the final =a= or
=ä= of comparatives and final =e= become =i=.

(3) The illative sing. ends in the last vowel of the root doubled with
=n= suffixed; =kirkkoon=, not =kirkohon=.

(4) The genitive plur. generally ends in =-jen= or =-en=, as described
above. In the ordinary language this =-en= is further weakened to =-in=
after the vowel of the root, unless that vowel is itself =i=.

(5) Hard consonants at the beginning of the last syllable are of course
softened by rules =24-35=, when the syllable becomes closed.

This declension comprises—

A. Roots ending in the vowels =o=, =ö=, =u=, =y=, which never change.

Example:—=Aurinko=, _the sun_.

               _Sing._        _Plur._

    _Nom._     =aurinko=      =auringot=
    _Part._    =aurinkoa=     =aurinkoja=, =auringoita=
    _Gen._     =auringon=     =aurinkoen=, =aurinkoin=
                              =aurinkojen= _or_ =auringoiden=
    _In._      =auringossa=   =auringoissa=
    _El._      =auringosta=   =auringoista=
    _Il._      =aurinkoon=    =aurinkoihin=
    _Ad._      =auringolla=   =auringoilla=
    _Abl._     =auringolta=   =auringoilta=
    _All._     =auringolle=   =auringoille=
    _Abes._    =auringotta=   =auringoitta=
    _Prol._   [=auringotse=]  =auringoitse=
    _Transl._  =auringoksi=   =auringoiksi=
    _Ess._     =aurinkona=    =aurinkoina=
    _Com._    [=aurinkone=]   =aurinkoine=
    _Instr._  [=auringon=]    =auringoin=

Here in the majority of cases the =k= is weakened to =g=, because the
syllable which it commences becomes closed containing a single vowel or
a diphthong formed by that vowel with the =i= of the plural; but the
=k= remains in such places as the illative, where the syllables remain
open. The original form of the genitive plur. would be =aurinkoiten=.
This is weakened to =auringoiden=. Then the =d= dropping out we have
=aurinkojen=, =aurinkoen=, _or_ =aurinkoin=.

=Luettu= (past participle), meaning _read_, is thus declined:—

               _Sing._       _Plur._

    _Nom._     =luettu=      =luetut=
    _Part._    =luettua=     =luettuja= _or_ =luetulta=
    _Gen._     =luetun=      =luetuitten=, =luituiden=
                             =luettujen= _or_ =luettuin=
    _In._      =luetussa=    =luetuissa=
    _El._      =luetusta=    =luetuista=
    _Il._      =luettuun=    =luettuihin=
    _Ad._      =luetulla=    =luetuilla=
    _Abl._     =luetulta=    =luetuilta=
    _All._     =luetulle=    =luetuille=
    _Abes._    =luetutta=    =luetuitta=
    _Prol._     ——            ——
    _Transl._  =luetuksi=    =luetuiksi=
    _Ess._     =luettuna=    =luettuina=
    _Com._      ——            ——
    _Instr._    ——            ——

Here =tt= is weakened to =t= when the syllable becomes closed (rule
=30=), and the partitive and genitive plur. either take or reject =t=.

The declension of words with soft vowels is precisely similar, except
that the suffixes have soft vowels. =Eläimistö=, _animal kingdom_,
=lyöty=, _struck_.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =eläimistö=      =eläimistöt=
    _Part._    =eläimistöä=     =eläimistöjä=
    _Gen._     =eläimistön=     =eläimistöjen=
                                =eläimistöen=
                                =eläimistöin=
    _In._      =eläimistössä=   =eläimistöissä=
    _El._      =eläimistöstä=   =eläimistöistä=
    _Il._      =eläimistöön=    =eläimistöihin=
    _Ad._      =eläimistöllä=   =eläimistöillä=
    _Abl._     =eläimistöltä=   =eläimistöiltä=
    _All._     =eläimistölle=   =eläimistöille=
    _Abes._    =eläimistöttä=   =eläimistöittä=
    _Transl._  =eläimistöksi=   =eläimistöiksi=
    _Ess._     =eläimistönä=    =eläimistöinä=

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =lyöty=          =lyödyt=
    _Part._    =lyötyä=         =lyötyjä=
    _Gen._     =lyödyn=         =lyötyjen=
                                =lyötyen=
                                =lyötyin=
    _In._      =lyödyssä=       =lyödyissä=
    _El._      =lyödystä=       =lyödyistä=
    _Il._      =lyötyyn=        =lyötyihin=
    _Ad._      =lyödyllä=       =lyödyillä=
    _Abl._     =lyödyltä=       =lyödyiltä=
    _All._     =lyödylle=       =lyödyille=
    _Abes._    =lyödyttä=       =lyödyittä=
    _Transl._  =lyödyksi=       =lyödyiksi=
    _Ess._     =lyötynä=        =lyötyinä=

Here the =t= of =lyöty= is weakened when the syllable is closed, but
the =t= of =eläimistö= remains, being preceded by =s= and consequently
unchangeable.

B. All roots ending in =a=, =ä=, except superlatives for adjectives, e.g.
=pata=, _a pot_. In this declension the final =a= frequently becomes =o=
in the plural by rule =7=. Dissyllabic words reject =t= in the partitive
both sing. and plur., and in the genitive plur.; but polysyllabic words
optionally preserve it in these cases.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =pata=           =padat=
    _Part._    =pataa=          =patoja=
    _Gen._     =padan=          =patojen=, [=pataen=]
                                =patain=
    _In._      =padassa=        =padoissa=
    _El._      =padasta=        =padoista=
    _Il._      =pataan=         =patoihin=
    _Ad._      =padalla=        =padoilla=
    _Abl._     =padalta=        =padoilta=
    _All._     =padalle=        =padoille=
    _Abes._    =padatta=        =padoitta=
    _Prol._   [=padatse=]       =padoitse=
    _Transl._  =padaksi=        =padoiksi=
    _Ess._     =patana=         =patoina=
    _Com._    [=patane=]        =patoine=
    _Instr._  [=padan=]         =padoin=

Such words as =sota=, _war_, =korva=, _the ear_, do not change the final
=a= to =o= in the plural.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =sota=           =sodat= (=30=)
    _Part._    =sotaa=          =sotia=
    _Gen._     =sodan=          =sotain= _or_ =sotien=
    _In._      =sodassa=        =sodissa=
    _Il._      =sotaan=         =sotiin=
                etc.             etc.

Polysyllabic nouns are declined as follows:—

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =korkea=         =korkeat=
    _Part._    =korkeata=       =korkeita=
               =korkeaa=        =korkeoita=
    _Gen._     =korkean=        =korkeiden= (=-eoiden=)
                                =korkeitten= (=-eoitten=)
    _In._      =korkeassa=      =korkeissa=
    _Il._      =korkeaan=       =korkeihin=
                etc.             etc.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =harakka=        =harakat= (=25=)
    _Part._    =harakkata=      =harakoita=
               =harakkaa=       =harakkoja=
    _Gen._     =harakan=        =harakoiden=
                                =harakoitten=, =harakkojen=
    _In._      =harakassa=      =harakoissa=
    _Ill._     =harakkaan=      =harakkoihin=
                etc.             etc.

Similarly, =Isäntä=, _a father of a family_, makes =isäntää=, =isännän=
(=t= becoming =n= by rule =31=), =isännässä=. This word in the plur.
loses its final vowel, and does not change it to =o=. =Isännät=,
=isäntiä=, =isäntien= (=-äin=), =isännissä=, etc.

Comparatives whose root ends in =-mpa=, =-mpä=, change the final vowel
to =i= in the nominative sing.; e.g. =parempa=, _better_. Nominative
=parempi=, partitive =parempaa= _or_ =parempata=, genitive =paremman=
(by rule =34=), inessive =paremmassa=, etc. Plur. nominative
=paremmat=, partitive =parempia=, genitive =parempien=, =parempaen=,
_or_ =parempain=, inessive =paremmissa=, illative =parempiin=, etc. All
comparatives reject the final =a= before the =i= of the plural.

C. All roots ending in =-i=. The root of the plural ends in the diphthong
=ei= or short =i=, e.g. =kaupunki=, _a town_.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =kaupunki=       =kaupungit=
    _Part._    =kaupunkia=      =kaupunkeja= _or_ =kaupungeita=
              [_rarely_         _or_ =kaupunkia=
               =kaupunkita=]
    _Gen._     =kaupungin=      =kaupungeiden=, =kaupunkein=,
                                _or_ =kaupunkien=
    _In._      =kaupungissa=    =kaupungeissa=
    _El._      =kaupungista=    =kaupungeista=
    _Il._      =kaupunkiin=     =kaupunkeihin=
    _Ad._      =kaupungilla=    =kaupungeilla=
    _Abl._     =kaupungilta=    =kaupungeilta=
    _All._     =kaupungille=    =kaupungeille=
    _Abes._    =kaupungitta=    =kaupungeitta=
    _Prol._    =kaupungitse=    =kaupungeitse=
    _Transl._  =kaupungiksi=    =kaupungeiksi=
    _Ess._     =kaupunkina=     =kaupunkeina=
    _Com._    [=kaupunkine=]    =kaupunkeine=
    _Instr._  [=kaupungin=]     =kaupungein=

Here =k= becomes =g= when the syllable is closed, and =ii= in the plur.
=ei= (=26= and =21=).

D. Dissyllables ending in the vowel =e=, preceded by =k=, =p=, =v=, a
doubled consonant, or two consonants of which the last is =h=, =j=,
or =m=; that is to say, roots like =reke=, =nukke=, =hanhe=, =kolme=,
=pilve=, etc.

A few words coming under none of these heads also belong to this
declension.

_a._ With a few exceptions the final =e= becomes =i= in the nominative
sing.

_b._ The plur. stem ends in simple =i= (=14=), but in speaking =ei= is
sometimes used in order to distinguish the sing. and plur.

=Läpe=, _a hole_.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =läpi=           =lävet=
    _Part._    =läpeä=          =läpiä=
    _Gen._     =läven=          =läpien=
                                =läpein=
    _In._      =lävessä=        =lävissä=
    _El._      =lävestä=        =lävistä=
    _Il._      =läpeen=         =läpiin=
    _Ad._      =lävellä=        =lävillä=
    _Abl._     =läveltä=        =läviltä=
    _All._     =lävelle=        =läville=
    _Abes._    =lävettä=        =lävittä=
    _Prol._   (=lävetse=)       =lävitse=
    _Transl._  =läveksi=        =läpiksi=
    _Ess._     =läpenä=         =läpinä=
    _Com._    (=läpene=)        =läpine=
    _Instr._  (=läven=)         =lävin=

=P= is weakened to =v= in the closed syllables (=35=).

=Reke=, _a sledge_.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =reki=           =reet=
    _Part._    =rekeä=          =rekiä=
    _Gen._     =reen=           =rekien=, _or_ =rekein=
    _In._      =reessä=         =reissä=
    _Ill._     =rekeen=         =rekiin=
    _Ess._     =rekenä=         =rekinä=
                etc.             etc.

=K= is dropped by rule =28=. Notice that the word takes the soft
terminations.


_The Third Declension._

The third declension has the following characteristics:—

(1) The partitive sing. ends in =ta= or =tä= _after a consonant_.

(2) The nominative sing. is never the same as the root.

(3) The root is closed in the partitive sing. and first form of the
genitive plur., and sometimes in the nominative and essive sing.

The nouns belonging to this declension may be classed under two
divisions.


_First Division._

This comprises all words belonging to this declension which have the
illative sing. ending in a doubled vowel and =n=.

To this class belong—

I. Dissyllabic roots ending in =e= preceded by =h=, =l=, =n=, =r=, =s=,
=t=, =lt=, =nt=, or =rt=, and all roots ending in =-hte=, =-kse=, =-pse=,
=-tse=.

E.g. =Vete=, _water_.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =vesi=           =vedet=
    _Part._    =vettä=          =vesiä=
    _Gen._     =veden=          =vetten= _or_ =vesien=
    _In._      =vedessä=        =vesissä=
    _El._      =vedestä=        =vesistä=
    _Il._      =veteen=         =vesiin=
    _Ad._      =vedellä=        =vesillä=
    _Abl._     =vedeltä=        =vesiltä=
    _All._     =vedelle=        =vesille=
    _Abes._    =vedettä=        =vesittä=
    _Prol._   [=vedetse=]       =vesitse=
    _Transl._  =vedeksi=        =vesiksi=
    _Ess._     =vetenä=         =vesinä=
    _Com._    (=vetene=)        =vesine=
    _Instr._  (=veden=)         =vesin=

In the nominative sing. =te= becomes =si= by rule =37=. The partitive
sing. and first genitive plur. are formed from the closed root. In the
majority of the cases of the sing. =vete= becomes =vede= when the root is
closed by the addition of a suffix, while in the plur. =te + i= becomes
=ti=, which changes to =si= by the rule above quoted.

The stem =miehe=, _man_, forms the nominative =mies=, partitive =miestä=,
genitive =miehen=, inessive =miehessä=, etc. Plur. =miehet=, genitive
=miesten=, partitive =miehiä=, inessive =miehissä=, etc.

=Toise=, _second_.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =toinen=         =toiset=
    _Part._    =toista=         =toisia=
    _Gen._     =toisen=         =toisten=, _or_ =toisien=
    _In._      =toisessa=       =toisissa=
    _El._      =toisesta=       =toisista=
    _Ill._     =toiseen=        =toisiin=
    _Ad._      =toisella=       =toisilla=
    _Abl._     =toiselta=       =toisilta=
    _All._     =toiselle=       =toisille=
    _Abes._    =toisetta=       =toisitta=
    _Prol._   [=toisetse=]      =toisitse=
    _Transl._  =toiseksi=       =toisiksi=
    _Ess._     =toisena=, _or_  =toisina=
               =toisna=
    _Com._    (=toisene=)       =toisine=
    _Instr._  (=toisen=)        =toisin=

Roots ending in =se= change this termination in the nominative to =nen=.
Thus =kirjase=, _a little book_, =venäläise=, _Russian_, =iloise=,
_glad_, =vihollise=, _hostile_, form in the nominative =kirjanen=,
=venäläinen=, =iloinen=, =vihollinen=. In all such words the partitive
sing. and first genitive plur. are formed from the closed root and the
essive sing. has two forms.

II. All words of more than one syllable ending in =-e=.

E.g. Root:—=Kolmante=, _third_.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =kolmas=         =kolmannet=
    _Part._    =kolmatta=       =kolmansia=
    _Gen._     =kolmannen=      =kolmansien=
    _In._      =kolmannessa=    =kolmansissa=
    _El._      =kolmannesta=    =kolmansista=
    _Il._      =kolmanteen=     =kolmansiin=
    _Ad._      =kolmannella=    =kolmansilla=
    _Abl._     =kolmannelta=    =kolmansilta=
    _All._     =kolmannelle=    =kolmansille=
    _Abes._    =kolmannetta=    =kolmansitta=
    _Prol._   [=kolmannetse=]   =kolmansitse=
    _Transl._  =kolmanneksi=    =kolmansiksi=
    _Ess._     =kolmantena=     =kolmansina=
    _Com._    [=kolmantene=]    =kolmansine=
    _Instr._  [=kolmannen=]     =kolmansin=

Here (1) the =e= is rejected in the nominative (rule =16=), and =kolmant=
becomes =kolmas= (=24= and =37=). (2) The partitive also is formed from
the shortened root (=kolmant=), and =kolmantta= becomes =kolmatta=. (3)
The cases of the singular and nominative plural, where the last syllable
of the root is closed, change =nt= to =nn= (rule =31=). (4) The essive
sing. in the form taken from the full root preserves the root entire,
=kolmanna= is not used. All the cases of the plural which take =-i=
reject the final =e= before that letter, and change =nt= to =ns= (rule
=37=).

Similarly =kannukse=, _a spur_, makes in the nominative =kannus=
(rules =16= and =24=). The root remains unaltered in the genitive,
etc., =kannuksen=, while the partitive is =kannusta= for =kannuksta=.
Similarly in the plural we have =kannukset=, genitive =kannuksien= _or_
=kannusten=, partitive =kannuksia=.

=Kalleute=, _dearness_, makes in the nominative sing. =kalleus= (=24=
and =37=), partitive =kalleut-ta=, illative =kalleuteen=, genitive
=kalleuden=, etc.; plur. nominative =kalleudet=, first genitive
=kalleutten=, but the second genitive is =kalleuksien=, and all the
remaining cases are of the same type (partitive =kalleuksia=, illative
=kalleuksiin=, etc.), being formed exactly as if the root was =kalleukse=.

Adjectives like =lyhyte=, _short_, =ohute=, _thin_, drop the =t=
altogether between two vowels. E.g. nominative sing. =lyhyt=, partitive
=lyhyttä=. But the genitive =lyhyte-n= becomes =lyhyen=, the illative
=lyhyteen=, =lyhyeen=, etc.; plur. =lyhyet=, genitive =lyhyitten=,
=lyhytten=, partitive =lyhyitä= (or =lyhyviä= for =lyhyiä=).

III. All superlatives in =-mpa= or =-mpä=, and all negative adjectives in
=-ttoma=.

The termination =-mpa= is shortened to =n= (=24= and =46=) in the
nominative, partitive, and genitive plur. (first form), and of course
becomes =-mma= when the last syllable is closed in the other cases
(=34=); =-ttoma= becomes =-ton= in the nominative sing., partitive sing.,
and first form of genitive plur. (=46=).

E.g. =suurimpa=, _very large_:—

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =suurin=         =suurimmat=
    _Part._    =suurimpata=,    =suurimpia=
               =suurinta=
    _Gen._     =suurimman=      =suurimpain=, =suurinten=,
                                _or_ =suurimpien=
    _In._      =suurimmassa=    =suurimmissa=
    _El._      =suurimmasta=    =suurimmista=
    _Il._      =suurimpaan=     =suurimpiin=
    _Ad._      =suurimmalla=    =suurimmilla=
    _Abl._     =suurimmalta=    =suurimmilta=
    _All._     =suurimmalle=    =suurimmille=
    _Abes._    =suurimmatta=    =suurimmitta=
    _Prol._   [=suurimmatse=]   =suurimmitse=
    _Transl._  =suurimmaksi=    =suurimmiksi=
    _Ess._     =suurimpana=,    =suurimpina=
               _or_ =suurinna=
    _Com._    [=suurimpane=]    =suurimpine=
    _Instr._  [=suurimman=]     =suurimmin=

In the plural the final =a= is lost before the =i= (=9=).

So also =viattoma=, _guiltless_ (the termination =-ttoma= corresponds
to the English termination _-less_, or the prefixes _un-_, _in-_).
In Nom. =viaton=, =a= being lost, =m= becomes =n=, and the syllable
being thus closed =tt= becomes =t=. Partitive from the same shortened
root =viatonta=. Genitive, etc. =viattoman=, etc., nominative plur.
=viattomat=, genitive =viatonten=, =viattomain= _or_ =viattomien=,
partitive =viattomia=, etc.


_Second Division._

(1) The illative sing. ends in =-sen=, the illative plur. in =sin=, or
=hin=.

(2) The shortened form of the root is always employed in the nominative
sing., which ends in =s=, =t=, or the aspiration.

(3) The plural is formed from the shortened root, and the stem ends in a
long diphthong of which the last letter is =i=.

(4) The partitive plur. after this diphthong has the termination =-ta=,
=-tä=.

(5) The second genitive plur. ends in =-den= (=-tten=).

This class is composed of what are called contracted nouns (rule =47=).

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =uros=           =uroot=
    _Part._    =urosta=         =uroita=
    _Gen._     =uroon=          =urosten=, =uroiden=, =uroitten=
    _In._      =uroossa=        =uroissa=
    _El._      =uroosta=        =uroista=
    _Il._      =uroosen=        =uroihin=, =uroisin=
    _Ad._      =uroolla=        =uroilla=
    _Abl._     =uroolta=        =uroilta=
    _All._     =uroolle=        =uroille=
    _Abes._    =urootta=        =uroitta=
    _Transl._  =urooksi=        =uroiksi=
    _Prol._   [=urootse=]       =uroitse=
    _Ess._     =uroona=         =uroina=
               _or_ =urosna=
    _Com._    [=uroone=]        =uroine=
    _Instr._  [=uroon=]         =uroin=

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =vieras=         =vieraat=
    _Part._    =vierasta=       =vieraita=
    _Gen._     =vieraan=        =vierasten=, =vieraiden=, =vieraitten=
    _In._      =vieraassa=      =vieraissa=
    _El._      =vieraasta=      =vieraista=
    _Il._      =vieraasen=      =vierailun=, =vieraisin=
    _Ad._      =vieraalla=      =vierailla=
    _Abl._     =vieraalta=      =vierailta=
    _All._     =vieraalle=      =vieraille=
    _Abes._    =vieraatta=      =vieraitta=
    _Transl._  =vieraaksi=      =vieraiksi=
    _Prol._   [=vieraatse=]     =vieraitse=
    _Ess._     =vieraana=       =vieraina=
               _or_ =vierasna=
    _Com._    [=vieraane=]      =vieraine=
    _Instr._  [=vieraan=]       =vierain=

In poetry we also find a declension: =uros=, =vieras=, genitive =urohon=,
=vierahan=, etc., illative =urohosen=, =vierahasen=, plur. =urohot=,
=vierahat=, =urohissa=, =vierahissa=, etc., so that it is clear the roots
are =uroso=, =vierasa=, being weakened.

Analogously are declined such words as =terve=, _healthy_, =kevät=,
_spring_.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =terve=          =terveet=
    _Part._    =tervettä=       =terveitä=
    _Gen._     =terveen=        =tervetten=, =terveiden=
    _Il._      =terveesen=      =terveisin= _or_ =terveihin=

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =kevät=          =keväät=
    _Part._    =kevättä=        =keväitä=
    _Gen._     =kevään=         =kevätten=, =keväiden=
    _Il._      =kevääsen=       =keväisin=, _or_ =keväihin=

Stems =ikehe=, _a yoke_, =okaha=, _point_ or _prickle_.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =ies= _or_       =ikeet=
               =ijes=
    _Part._    =iesta=, _or_    =ikeitä=
               =ijestä=
    _Gen._     =ikeen=          =iesten=, =ikeiden=, =ikeitten=
    _In._      =ikeessä=        =ikeissä=
    _Il._      =ikeesen=        =ikeisin=, _or_ =ikeihin=
    _Ess._     =iesnä=,         =ikeinä=
               =ikeenä=

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =oas=            =okaat=
               (rule =27=)
    _Part._    =oasta=          =okaita=
    _Gen._     =okaan=          =oasten=, =okaiden=, =okaitten=
    _In._      =okaassa=        =okaissa=
    _Ill._     =okaasen=        =okaisin=, _or_ =okaihin=
    _Ess._     =oasna=,         =okaina=
               =okaana=

=Vapaa=, _free_, =koree=, _beautiful_ (for =korea=).

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =vapaa=          =vapaat=
    _Part._    =vapaata=        =vapaita=
    _Gen._     =vapaan=         =vapaiden=, =vapaitten=
    _In._      =vapaassa=       =vapaissa=
    _Il._      =vapaasen=       =vapaisin=, =vapaihin=
    _Ess._     =vapaana=        =vapaina=

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =koree=          =koreet=
    _Part._    =koreeta=        =koreita=
    _Gen._     =koreen=         =koreiden=, =koreitten=
    _In._      =koreessa=       =koreissa=
    _Il._      =koreesen=       =koreisin=, =koreihin=
    _Ess._     =koreena=        =koreina=

Participles whose nominative ends in =nut= or =nyt= (that is past active
participles), like =oppinut=, =lyönyt=, form the genitive, inessive,
etc., from a root ending in =nehe=, contracted =nee=; but the nominative
and partitive sing., and one form of the essive sing. and genitive plur.
are formed from a root ending in =ute=, =yte=, which loses its final
vowel.

               _Sing._          _Plur._

    _Nom._     =oppinut=        =oppineet=
    _Part._    =oppinutta=      =oppineita=
    _Gen._     =oppineen=       =oppinutten=, =oppineiden=
    _In._      =oppineessa=     =oppineissa=
    _El._      =oppineesta=     =oppineista=
    _Il._      =oppineesen=     =oppineisin=
    _Ad._      =oppineella=     =oppineilla=
    _Abl._     =oppineelta=     =oppineilta=
    _All._     =oppineelle=     =oppineille=
    _Abes._    =oppineetta=     =oppineitta=
    _Prol._    =oppineetse=     =oppineitse=
    _Transl._  =oppineeksi=     =oppineiksi=
    _Ess._     =oppineena=      =oppineina=
               _or_ =oppinunna=
    _Com._    (=oppineene=)     =oppineine=
    _Instr._  (=oppineen=)      =oppinein=

So also =lyönyt=, partitive =lyönyttä=, genitive =lyöneen=, inessive
=lyöneessä=, essive =lyöneenä=, _or_ =lyönynnä=; plur. nominative
=lyöneet=, partitive =lyöneitä=, genitive =lyönytten= _or_ =lyöneiden=,
etc.


_Compound Nouns._

Finnish, especially the modern literary dialect, abounds in compound
nouns, in which the last word of the compound is defined by that which
precedes it, so that the first word is practically an adjective. Thus in
=pääkaupunki=, _a capital_, =kaupunki= means a town, and the word =pää=,
_a head_, describes what sort of town is intended. So also =rautatie=,
_a railway_, from =rauta=, _iron_, and =tie=, _a road_; =tullihuone=,
_a custom house_; =puutarha=, _a garden_ (=puu=, _a tree_, =tarha=, _an
enclosure_), =kirkkotarha=, _a churchyard_ (=kirkko=, _church_, =tarha=,
_enclosure_). Sometimes the first word is an adjective, as =omatunto=,
_conscience_, from =oma=, _own_, and =tunto=, _feeling_. This is written
as one word, because =omatunto= conveys a different meaning from the
separate words =oma= and =tunto=.

When a compound is made up of more than two words, all but the last
may be regarded as a single word qualifying the last, and then be
decomposed in their turn. For instance in =ylioppilaskirjasto=,
_University students’ library_, =kirjasto=, _library_, is qualified
by =ylioppilas=, describing what kind of a library is meant, and in
this word =ylioppilas=, =oppilas=, _student_, is particularised by the
addition of =yli=. Similarly =isänmaanrakkaus=, _patriotism_, is composed
of =isänmaa=, _fatherland_, and =rakkaus=, _love_, and =isänmaa= again is
composed of =isä=, _father_, and =maa=, _land_.

Generally the first word of a compound is used in the nominative case.
=Sairashuone=, _a hospital_ (stem =sairaha=). Frequently, however, it
is in the genitive, this case being either (_a_) descriptive, as in
=maantie=, _highroad_, literally _road of the land_: =talonpoika=,
_peasant_, literally _son of a farm_; (_b_) subjective, that is to say,
if the compound were developed into a phrase the word in the genitive
would become the subject, as =kuunvalo=, _moonlight_; (_c_) objective,
that is to say, if the compound were developed into a phrase the word in
the genitive would become the object, =hatuntekijä=, _a hatmaker_.

More rarely other cases are used, as =toimeentulo=, _subsistence_,
=kuntoonpano=, _arrangement_, _accomplishment_.

As a rule, only the last word of a compound is declined, the preceding
member remaining unaffected by inflection. But if the first member is
an adjective, then both parts of the word receive inflections, e.g.
=vierasmies=, _a stranger_, forms the genitive =vieraanmiehen=, inessive
=vieraassamiehessä=, etc. But =vierasmiehen= is not wrong.



THE ADJECTIVE.


Adjectives are declined exactly like substantives, and like them have no
gender.

Besides declension they are susceptible of inflections indicating the
comparative and superlative degrees.

I. The Comparative is formed by adding to the root of the positive
=-mpa= or =-mpä=. =Huono=, _bad_, =huonompa=, _worse_; =paksu=, _fat_,
=paksumpa=, _fatter_. Root, =iloise=, _gay_ (nominative of positive
=iloinen=), comparative =iloisempa=.

If a dissyllabic root end in =a= or =ä=, that vowel becomes =e= before
the termination =mpa=. =Vanha=, _old_, =vanhempa= (=13=).

It is important to note that the suffix =-mpa= is added to the root, and
not to the nominative of the positive.

The stem thus formed is declined with the usual suffixes, after the
models given above: =mpa= in the nominative sing. becomes =mpi=, and in
the cases where the syllable is closed =mma=.

II. The Superlative is formed by adding to the root of the positive the
suffix =impa=. Before this suffix the vowels =a=, =ä=, =e=, =i= are
rejected, and =aa=, =ää=, =ee=, become =ai=, =äi=, =ei=. Thus =iso=,
_great_, =isoimpa=: =huono=, _bad_, =huonoimpa=; but =köyhä=, =köyhimpä=,
=valkea=, =valkeimpa=, etc.

The root thus obtained is declined after the third declension. Notice the
difference in the declension of comparatives and superlatives. In the
comparative the final =a= becomes =i= in the nominative sing., in the
superlative it is lost and =mp= becomes =n= by rule =2=.

Comparative stem =suurempa=. Superlative stem =suurimpa=.

                              _Sing._

    _Nom._  =suurempi=                     =suurin=
    _Gen._  =suuremman=                    =suurimman=
    _Part._ =suurempaa= (=ta=)             =suurimpaa=, =suurinta=
    _Ill._  =suurempaan=                   =suurimpaan=
    _Ess._  =suurempana=                   =suurimpana=, =suurinna=
              etc.                          etc.

                              _Plur._

    _Nom._  =suuremmat=                    =suurimmat=
    _Gen._ [=suurempaen=] =suurempain=     =suurinten=, =suurimpain=
                                           =suurimpien=
    _Part._ =suurempia=                    =suurimpia=
             etc.                            etc.

Examples of the formation of the comparative and superlative.

    _Positive._               _Comparative._          _Superlative._

    =vanha=, _old_            =vanhempi= (=11=)       =vanhin=
    =raaka=, _raw_            =raaempi=  (=28=, =9=)  =raain= (=28=)
    =vapaa=, _free_           =vapaampi=              =vapain=
    =ihava=, _fat_            =lihavampi=             =lihavin=
    =köyhä=, _poor_           =köyhempi= (=11=)       =köyhin=
    =terävä=, _sharp_         =terävämpi=             =terävin=
    =suruinen=, _sorrowful_   =suruisempi=            =suruisin=
    =lyhyt=, _short_          =lyhyempi=              =lyhyin=
    =aulis=, _liberal_        =auliimpi=              =auliin=
    =paksu=, _fat_            =paksumpi=              =paksuin=
    =mieto=, _mild_           =miedompi= (=32=)       =miedoin=
    =rikas=, _rich_           =rikkaampi=             =rikkain=
    =kaunis=, _beautiful_     =kauniimpi=             =kauniin=, =kaunein=
    =oppinut=, _learned_      =oppineempi=            =oppinein=

The following words are irregular, the comparative and superlative being
formed from different roots to the positive.

    _Positive._               _Comparative._          _Superlative._

    =hyvä=, _good_            =parempi=                =paras=, =parhain=
                                                       (root =paraa=)
    =paljo=, _much_           =enempi=                 =enin=
    =pitkä=, _long_           =pitempi=                =pisin= (as if from
                                                        root =pitä=)
    =moni=, _many_            =useampi=                =usein=

=Molemmat=, _both_, is an isolated comparative form.

The following adjectives are not declined or compared, but remain
invariable in all cases.—=Aika=, _strong_; =aimo=, _good_; =kelpo=,
_worthy_; =eri=, _different_; =koko=, _all_; =ensi=, _next_; =viime=,
_last_; =pikku=, _little_. =Kaikki=, _all_, is not usually changed in the
nominative plural, but otherwise is declined.



FORMATION OF SUBSTANTIVES AND ADJECTIVES.


Some substantives and adjectives are primitive—that is to say, they
consist of roots which cannot be further analysed, and to which the case
suffixes are directly attached. But a great number of words are not mere
roots, but roots with additional syllables which modify the meaning of
the original root.

The following are the principal syllables so added to roots to form nouns
and adjectives.



SUBSTANTIVES.


I. The following suffixes are used to form substantives from verbs.

=-ja.= A factitive suffix, that is to say, denoting the doer of the
action denoted by the root. =Luoja=, _the creator_ (=luo=, _to create_).
=Kalastaja=, _a fisherman_. When a root ends in =e= this letter is
generally changed to =i= before the suffix =-ja=. =Teke=, _to make_,
=tekijä=, _a maker_; =luke=, _to read_, =lukija=, _a reader_. This suffix
is also found in the forms =-jame= (nominative =-jan= or =-jain=),
=-jaise= (=-jainen=), =-jaa=.

=-ri= has the same meaning as =-ja=: =mylläri=, _a miller_, =juomari=, _a
drunkard_, =petturi=, _a deceiver_. (This is really a foreign termination
from the Swedish =-re=.)

=-ma= (the termination of the third infinitive) expresses an action or
the result of an action. =Sanoma=, _report_ (“a speaking”), =elämä=,
_life_, =kuolema=, _death_.

=-mise= (nominative =minen=, the termination of the fourth infinitive)
expresses a continuous action, or an action in an abstract sense.
=Laulaminen=, _singing_, =eläminen=, _living_.

=-nto=, =-nta= (chiefly poetical), =-nti= (added to monosyllabic roots)
express an action or a state arising from an action. =Luonto=, _nature_
(from =luo=, _to create_), =uskonto=, _religion_ (“believing,” from
=uskoa=, _to believe_), =tuonti=, _bringing to_, or _importation_,
=vienti=, _bringing away from_, or _exportation_, =laulanta=, _singing_.

=o= (=ö=) and =u= (=y=) (before which the last vowel of the root is
rejected) form abstract nouns denoting action. =Muisto=, _memory_,
=makso=, _payment_, =tulo=, _arrival_, =lähtö=, _departure_, =luku=,
_reading_, =itku=, _weeping_, =maksu=, _payment_.

=-okse= or =-ukse= (nominative =-os= or =-us=) also form abstract nouns
expressing an action, and are specially added to trisyllabic verbs
ending in =-ta=. =Valmistus=, _preparation_, =harjoitus=, _practice_,
=vastaus=, _answer_. The same suffix is sometimes found in combination
with =-ma= (=-ma + ukse= = =mukse=) =juopumus=, _drunkenness_.

=-io= has the same meaning. =Huomio=, _attention_, =palkkio=, _a reward_.

=-ee= (original stem =ehe=, closed form =eʻ=) expresses action or the
product of action: =puhe=, _conversation_, =kanne=, _accusation_.

=-ime= (nominative =-in=) expresses the instrument with which an action
is performed. =Avain=, _a key_ (‘the opener’), =uistin=, _a fishhook_,
=viskain=, _anything used to throw things away_, e.g. _a bucket_;
=viskin= is also found.

II. The following suffixes are used to form derivative nouns from other
nouns.

=-se=, =-ise= (nominative =-nen=, =-inen=) are used to form family names,
like the Russian terminations =-овъ=, =-евъ=, =Peltonen=, =Koskinen=,
=Karhunen=, etc.

=-ttare= (nominative =-tar=) is a similar affix for feminine names.
=Karhutar=, =Ilmatar= (_daughter of the air_), =Manalatar= (_daughter of
death_).

=-laise= (nominative =-lainen=) is used to form designations of
nationality. =Suomalainen=, _a Finn_; =Ruotsalainen=, _a Swede_;
=Venäläinen=, _a Russian_; =Englantilainen=, _an Englishman_.

The following suffixes are used to form diminutives—

=-se= (nominative =-nen=), or =ise= (nominative =-inen=). =Kirjanen=,
=emonen=, =poikanen=.

=-lo.= =Purtilo=, =kotelo=.

=-ue=, =ye= (originally =ute=, =yte=; nominative =-ut=, =-yt=). =Poiut=,
=kuuhut=, =päivyt=, =päähyt=.

=-kka=, =-kaise= (nominative =kainen=). =-kkee= (original form =-kkehe=,
nominative =keʻ=). =Annikka=, =mullikka=, =lapsukainen=, =silmäke=.

The following terminations have a local significance—

=-kko= or =-ikko= indicates a place where anything is found in a
quantity; =rapakko=, _a muddy place_; =kivikko=, _a heap of stones_;
=koivikko=, _a birchwood_; =kuusikko=, _firwood_.

=-la=, added to the name of a person, expresses the place where that
person lives; =pappila=, _a priest’s house_; =setälä=, _uncle’s house_;
=tuonela=, _the house of death_.

=-nko= or =-nte= is used to form local substantives. =Alanko=, _a
low-lying place_ (=Alankomaat=, _the Netherlands_), =ylänkö=, _a height_;
=tasanko=, _a plane_.

Suffixes denoting a collection of objects are—

=-sto=, generally used of inanimate objects; =kirjasto=, _a library_;
=laivasto=, _a fleet_; =hongisto=, _pinewood_.

=-uee= (original form =uehe=, nominative =-ueʻ=), generally used of
animate objects; =matkue=, =laivue=, =seurue=.

III. Names of abstract qualities are formed from adjectives with the
suffix =-ute=, =-yte= (nominative =-us=, =-ys=). Before this suffix =a=,
=ä=, =e= are changed to =u= or =y=, and form a long vowel; =hyvyys=,
_virtue_ (=hyvä=); =rakkaus= (from stem =rakkaa=); =arkuus=, _cowardice_;
=turhuus=, _vanity_. If a root ends in =i= or =ii= this vowel generally
becomes =e= in dissyllabic roots, and =u= in polysyllabic. =Kalleus=, but
=naapuruus=, =kumppanuus=.



ADJECTIVAL TERMINATIONS.


The commonest adjectival suffix is =-ise= (nominative =-inen=), which is
added usually to nouns. =Aamu=, _morning_, =aamuinen=, _early_; =kulta=,
_gold_; =kultainen=, _golden_. This suffix is sometimes added to cases,
especially the essive; =yksinäinen=, =ominainen=, =luonteinen=. Similarly
the very common suffix =-llise= (nominative =-llinen=) is the result
of adding =ise= to the adessive or allative—=maallinen=, =rahallinen=,
=vihollinen=.

=-ttoma= (nominative =ton=) is a caritive suffix signifying without or
deprived of (cf. the English _-less_); =isätön=, _fatherless_; =rahaton=,
_moneyless_. It is frequently added to the third infinitive of verbs,
e.g. =kuolematon=, _immortal_.

=-kkaha= (nominative =-kkas=) is the exact contrary of this last suffix,
and signifies progressing or provided with; =rahakas=, _having much
money_; =voimakas=, _strong_.

=-isa= and =-va= have much the same meaning as =-kkaha=; =kuuluisa=,
_glorious_; =kalaisa=, _rich in fish_; =lihava=, _fat_; =terävä=, _sharp_.

=-se=, =-kaise=, and =-hka=, =-hko= are used to form adjectival
diminutives; =lyhykäinen=, _short_ (Russian =коротенькій=), =pitkähkö=,
_longish_.

The suffix =-mainen= forms adjectives meaning like, or rather; English
_-ish_; =lapsimainen=, _childish_; =poikamainen=, _boyish_; =hyvämäinen=,
_pretty good_.



THE NUMERALS.


The following are the numerals, cardinal and ordinal, given in the
nominative sing.

               _Card._                 _Ord._

            1. =yksi=                  =ensimäinen= _or_ =ensiímmäinen=
            2. =kaksi=                 =toinen=
            3. =kolme=                 =kolmas=
            4. =neljä=                 =neljäs=
            5. =viisi=                 =viides=
            6. =kuusi=                 =kuudes=
            7. =seitsemän=             =seitsemäs=
            8. =kahdeksan=             =kahdeksas=
            9. =yhdeksän=              =yhdeksäs=
           10. =kymmenen=              =kymmenes=

The numbers from 11 to 20 are formed by adding =toista=, that is the
partitive of =toinen=, to the corresponding number below 10.

           11. =yksitoista=            =yhdestoista=
           12. =kaksitoista=           =kahdestoista=
           13. =kolmetoista=           =kolmastoista=
           14. =neljätoista=           =neljästoista=
           15. =viisitoista=           =viidestoista=
           16. =kuusitoista=           =kuudestoista=
           17. =seitsemäntoista=       =seitsemästoista=
           18. =kahdeksantoista=       =kahdeksastoista=
           19. =yhdeksäntoista=        =yhdeksästoista=
           20. =kaksikymmentä=         =kahdeskymmenes=

(that is, two tens).

The numbers between twenty and thirty are formed analogously to those
between 10 and 20, that is to say, the numbers up to one, two, three,
etc., are prefixed to the partitive case of =kolmas=.

           21. =yksikolmatta=          =yhdeskolmatta=
           22. =kaksikolmatta=         =kahdeskolmatta=
           23. =kolmekolmatta=         =kolmaskolmatta=
           24. =neljäkolmatta=         =neljäskolmatta=
           25. =viisikolmatta=         =viideskolmatta=
                              etc., till
           30. =kolmekymmentä=         =kolmaskymmenes=

and then as before the numerals up to ten prefixed to the partitive of
=neljäs=, _fourth_, e.g.

           36. =kuusineljättä=         =kuudesneljättä=
           37. =seitsemänneljättä=     =seitsemäsneljättä=
           38. =kahdeksanneljättä=     =kahdeksasneljättä=
           39. =yhdeksänneljättä=      =yhdeksäsneljättä=
           40. =neljäkymmentä=         =neljäskymmenes=
           41. =yksiviidettä=          =yhdesviidettä=

and so on till

           50. =viisikymmentä=         =viideskymmenes=
           51. =yksikuudetta=          =yhdeskuudetta=
                etc.                    etc.
           60. =kuusikymmentä=         =kuudeskymmenes=
           65. =viisiseitsemättä=      =viidesseitsemättä=
           70. =seitsemänkymmentä=     =seitsemäskymmenes=
           75. =viisikahdeksatta=      =viideskahdeksatta=
           80. =kahdeksankymmentä=     =kahdeksaskymmenes=
           85. =viisiyhdeksättä=       =viidesyhdeksättä=
           90. =yhdeksänkymmentä=      =yhdeksäskymmenes=
          100. =sata=                  =sadas=
          200. =kaksi sataa=           =kahdes sadas=
          300. =kolme sataa=           =kolmas sadas=
          400. =neljä sataa=           =neljäs sadas=
          500. =viisi sataa=           =viides sadas=
          600. =kuusisataa=            =kuudes sadas=
          700. =seitsemän sataa=       =seitsemäs sadas=
          800. =kahdeksan sataa=       =kahdeksas sadas=
          900. =yhdeksan sataa=        =yhdeksäs sadas=
         1000. =tuhat=                 =tuhannes=
         2000. =kaksi tuhatta=         =kahdestuhannes=
                etc.                    etc.
    1,000,000. =miljona=               =miljonas=
    2,000,000. =kaksimiljonaa=         =kahdesmiljonas=

The numbers between the hundreds are formed simply by placing the
required number after =sata=, e.g.

101 =satayksi=, =satayhdes=; 221 =kaksi sataa yksikolmatta=, and
similarly 4872 will be =neljätuhatta kahdeksan sataa kaksikahdeksatta=.

The Finnish system of numbers, though apparently difficult to understand,
is really very simple when the principle is once grasped. Starting
with the ten simple numbers, all the numbers up to a hundred which are
multiples of ten are expressed in the form two tens, three tens, etc.,
=kaksikymmentä=, =kolmekymmentä=. The word =kymmenen= is put in the
partitive, because, as will be seen in the syntax, a number requires this
case after it. The interval between 10 and 20 is regarded as a set of
ten, and 11 is 1 _of the second set of ten_[8] (the first set being from
1 to 10), similarly from 20 to 30 is the third set of ten, and 27 is 7
_of the third set of ten_. Accordingly these intermediate numbers are
expressed by a unit followed by the partitive case of an ordinal number,
=viisiyhdeksättä=, _five of the ninth_ (set of ten), that is, 85. An
exactly similar way of calculating can be traced in the Russian method of
computing time, e.g. ten minutes past six is represented by

    Десять минуть седьмаго. Ten minutes of the seventh (hour).

The system of numeration just explained is at present giving way to
another form borrowed from Russian and Swedish, where the numbers above
twenty are formed exactly as in ordinary European languages. 21 is
=kaksikymmentä yksi=, 37 =kolmekymmentä seitsemän=, 74 =seitsemänkymmentä
neljä=, and so on with all the others. Though the older method is still
employed in the interior of Finland, the other is almost universally
employed where the Finns come much into contact with strangers, which is
not wonderful, for such forms as =yksikolmatta=, though more primitive
in Finnish than =kaksikymmentä yksi=, and agreeable to the genius of the
language, are difficult for foreigners to understand, without a good deal
of explanation.

The numbers up to ten are declined exactly like substantives.

=Yksi= has its root =yhte=. Partitive =yhte=, genitive =yhden= (=31=),
inessive =yhdessä=, etc., essive =yhtenä=.

=Kaksi=, root =kahte=, partitive =kahta=, genitive =kahden= (=31=),
inessive =kahdessa=, etc., essive =kahtena=.

=Kolme=, root and nominative (N.B.—Nominative is not =kolm_i_=) =kolmea=,
genitive =kolmen=, =kolmessa=, etc.

=Neljä=, partitive =neljää=, genitive =neljän=, etc.

=Viisi=, root =viite=, partitive =viittä=, genitive =viiden= (=31=),
inessive =viidessä=, etc., essive =viitenä=.

=Kuusi=, root =kuute=, partitive =kuutta=, genitive =kuuden= (=31=), etc.

=Seitsemän=, partitive =seitsentä=, =seitsemää=, genitive =seitsemän=,
inessive =seitsemässä=.

=Kahdeksan=, partitive =kahdeksaa=, genitive =kahdeksan=, inessive
=kahdeksassa=.

=Yhdeksän=, partitive =yhdeksää=, genitive =yhdeksän=, inessive
=yhdeksässä=.

=Kymmenän=, =kymmenen=, partitive =kymmenää=, =kymmentä=; genitive
=kymmenän=, =kymmenen=; inessive =kymmenässä=, =kymmenessä=.

The ordinals are also declined exactly as substantives.

=Ensimäinen=, root =ensimäise=, partitive =ensimäistä=, genitive
=ensimäisen=, etc.

=Toinen=, root =toise=, partitive =toista=, genitive =toisen=, etc.

=Kolmas=, root =kolmante=, partitive =kolmatta=, genitive =kolmannen=
(=30=).

=Neljäs=, =neljänte=, partitive =neljättä=, genitive =neljännen=.

=Viides=, =viidente=, partitive, =viidettä=, genitive =viidennen=.

=Kuudes=, root =kuudente=, partitive =kuudetta=, genitive =kuudennen=.

=Seitsemäs=, root =seitsemänte=, partitive =seitsemättä=, genitive
=seitsemännen=.

=Kahdeksan=, root =kahdeksante=, partitive =kahdeksatta=, genitive
=kahdeksannen=.

=Yhdeksän=, root =yhdeksänte=, partitive =yhdeksättä=, genitive
=yhdeksännen=.

In the composite forms =ensimäinen= and =toinen= are replaced by =yhdes=
and =kahdes=.

=Sata= is declined like any other noun in =a=; =tuhat= comes from the
stem =tuhante=, and makes genitive sing. =tuhannen=, genitive plur.
=tuhansien=, partitive sing. =tuhatta=, partitive plur. =tuhansia=.

In both ordinal and cardinal numbers expressing any multiple of ten,
e.g. 70, 120, 2000, all the words forming the expression are declined
quite regularly except the nominative of cardinals, where the partitive
is employed in the second number, e.g. =Viisi sataa= 500 (here the word
=sataa= is in the partitive), partitive =viittä sataa=, genitive =viiden
sadan=, inessive =viidessä sadassa=, etc.

=Kuudes-Tuhannes=, 6000th. Partitive =kuudetta tuhatta=, genitive
=kuudennen tuhannenen=.

But in words designating numbers _between the tens_, and consisting of a
simple number and a number in the partitive case only, the first number
is declined and the second remains in the partitive, e.g. =yksitoista=,
makes =yhdentoista=, =yhdellätoista=, and similarly the others.

The fractional numbers (with the exception of =puoli=, _a half_) are
formed by adding =-kse= to the corresponding ordinal; the noun is then
declined like number.

½ =puoli=, ⅓ =kolmannes=, ¼ =neljännes=, ⅕ =viidennes=, ⅙ =kuudennes=,
⅐ =seitsemännes=, ⅛ =kahdeksannes=, ⅑ =yhdeksännes=, ⅒ =kymmenennes=,
⅟₂₁ =kaksikymmentäyhdennes=, ⅟₁₀₀ =sadannes=, etc. So also ⅔ =kaksi
kolmannesta=, ³⁄₇ =kolme seitsemännestä=. These numbers can also be
formed with the ordinals, and the word =osa=, _a part_. =Neljäs osa=,
_the fourth part_, or ¼. Numbers like 1½, 2½, are expressed as _a
half of the second_, _a half of the third_, etc., =puoli-toista=,
=puoli-kolmatta=.

The distributive numbers are =yksittäin=, _one by one_; =kaksittain=,
_two by two_; =kolmittain=, etc.

=Yksinäinen=, _simple_; =kaksinainen=, _double_; =kolminainen=, _triple_;
=nelinäinen=, _fourfold_, etc.



PRONOUNS.


The personal pronouns are declined almost exactly like nouns.

First person =minä=; the singular is formed from the root =minu=, the
plural from the root =me=.

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =minä=                      =me=
    _Part._    =minua=                     =meitä=
    _Gen._     =minun=                     =meidän=
    _In._      =minussa=                   =meissä=
    _El._      =minusta=                   =meistä=
    _Il._      =minuun=                    =meihin=
    _Ad._      =minulla=                   =meillä=
    _Abl._     =minulta=                   =meiltä=
    _All._     =minulle=                   =meille=
    _Abes._    =minutta=                   =meittä=
    _Transl._  =minuksi=                   =meiksi=
    _Ess._     =minuna=                    =meinä=

The other cases are not used.

Second person, =sinä=, root in sing. =sinu=, in plur. =te=.

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =sinä=                      =te=
    _Part._    =sinua=                     =teitä=
    _Gen._     =sinun=                     =teidän=
    _In._      =sinussa=                   =teissä=
    _El._      =sinusta=                   =teistä=
    _Il._      =sinuun=                    =teihin=
    _Ad._      =sinulla=                   =teillä=
    _Abl._     =sinulta=                   =teiltä=
    _All._     =sinulle=                   =teille=
    _Abes._    =sinutta=                   =teittä=
    _Transl._  =sinuksi=                   =teiksi=
    _Ess._     =sinuna=                    =teinä=

Third person =hän=, _he_, _she_, or _it_, there being no distinction of
genders. Root in sing. =häne=, in plur. =he=.

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =hän=                       =he=
    _Part._    =häntä=                     =heitä=
    _Gen._     =hänen=                     =heidän=
    _In._      =hänessä=                   =heissä=
    _El._      =hänestä=                   =heistä=
    _Il._      =häneen=                    =heihin=
    _Ad._      =hänellä=                   =heillä=
    _Abl._     =häneltä=                   =heiltä=
    _All._     =hänelle=                   =heille=
    _Abes._    =hänettä=                   =heittä=
    _Transl._  =häneksi=                   =heiksi=
    _Ess._     =hänenä=                    =heinä=

There are also found accusatival forms ending in =-t=: =minut=, plur.
=meidät=, =sinut=, plur. =teidät=, =hänet=, plur. =heidät=. The forms in
=-n= are also used as accusatives.

In poetry and some dialects shortened forms are also found: first person
nominative =ma= or =mä=, partitive =mua=, genitive =mun=, adessive
=mulla=, ablative =multa=, allative =mulle=. Second person =sa= or =sä=,
=sun=, =sua=, =sulla=, =sulta=, =sulle=. Third person =hällä=, =hältä=,
=hälle=. For the part. =minuta=, =sinuta= are found in the Bible, and
=milma=, =silma= in poetry.

=Mie=, =sie=, =hä=, are used in the Wiburg dialect.


_Possessive Pronouns._

The possessive pronouns are usually expressed by suffixes added to nouns.

These suffixes are:—

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    1st pers.  =-ni=                       =-mme=
    2nd  ”     =-si=[9]                    =-nne=
    3rd  ”     =-nsa= _or_ =-nsä=          =-nsa= _or_ =nsä=

(1) To form the nominative sing. of a noun with a possessive suffix the
suffix is added to the _root_. =Käsi=, _a hand_, but =käteni=, _my hand_;
=kysymys=, _a question_, =kysymyksesi=, _thy question_, because the roots
are =käte=, =kysymykse=.

(2) In the other cases the suffix is added after the termination, but
should a case end in a consonant, that consonant is rejected before the
suffix. =Veljeni=, _my brothers_, because =veljetni= is euphonically
disagreeable.

(3) The possessive suffix does not cause the consonants of the root
to be weakened: _e.g._ =pelto=, genitive =pellon=, but with suffix
=peltomme=, etc. =Kirkko=, _church_, =kirkon=, but =kirkkonsa=.

But =d= in the genitive plur. remains and does not become =t=: _e.g._
=maidensa=.

(4) The term of the translative before a pronoun-suffix is =-kse= not
=-ksi=.

_E.g._ =Tapa=, with suffix =-ni=.

               _Sing._                      _Plur._

    _Nom._     =tapani=                     =tapani=
    _Part._    =tapaani=                    =tapojeni= _or_ =tapaini=
    _Gen._     =tapani=                     =tapojani= (=7=)
    _In._      =tavassani=                  =tavoissani= (=7=, =35=, =36=)
    _Il._      =tapaani=                    =tapoihini=
    _Ad._      =tavallani=                  =tavoillani=
                and so the allative, etc.    etc., etc.
    _Transl._  =tavakseni=                  =tavoikseni=
    _Ess._     =tapanani=                   =tapoinani=

Here the genitive sing. =tapani= is for =tavanni=, the nominative
sing. for =tavatni=, =tapaani= in the illative for =tapaanni=. The =p=
is weakened to =v= only where the _case_ inflexion requires it. The
declension of the second person sing. is exactly analogous, only =-si= is
affixed instead of =-ni=.

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =tapasi=                    =tapasi=
    _Part._    =tapaasi=                   =tapojasi=
    _Gen._     =tapasi=                    =tapojesi= _or_ =tapaisi=
    _In._      =tavassasi=                 =tavoissasi=
    _El._      =tavastasi=                 =tavoistasi=
    _Il._      =tapaasi=                   =tapoihisi=
    _Ad._      =tavallasi=                 =tavoillasi=
    _Abl._     =tavaltasi=                 =tavoiltasi=
    _All._     =tavallesi=                 =tavoillesi=
    _Abes._    =tavattasi=                 =tavoittasi=
    _Transl._  =tavaksesi=                 =tavoiksesi=
    _Ess._     =tapanasi=                  =tapoinasi=
    _Com._     =tapanesi=                  =tapoinesi=

For the declension of the first person plur. =-mme= is suffixed to all
the cases.

                _Sing._                    _Plur._

    _Nom._    =tapamme=                    =tapamme=
    _Part._   =tapaamme=                   =tapojamme=
    _Gen._    =tapamme=                    =tapojemme=, =tapaimme=
    _In._     =tavassamme=                 =tavoissamme=
    _El._     =tavastamme=                 =tavoistamme=
    _Il._     =tapaamme=                   =tapoihimme=
    _Ad._     =tavallamme=                 =tavoillamme=
    _Abl._    =tavaltamme=                 =tavoiltamme=
    _All._    =tavallemme=                 =tavoillemme=
    _Abes._   =tavattamme=                 =tavoittamme=
    _Transl._ =tavaksemme=                 =tavoiksemme=
    _Ess._    =tapanamme=                  =tapoinamme=
    _Com._    =tapanemme=                  =tapoinemme=

The second person is declined exactly like the above, only =nne= and not
=-mme= is suffixed.

The third person of the sing. and plur. alike takes the suffix =-nsa=
(=-nsä=), which in all the cases except the nominative, genitive, and
partitive is optionally shortened to =n=, before which the preceding
vowel is doubled.

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =tapansa=                   =tapansa=
    _Part._    =tapaansa=                  =tapojansa=, =tapojaan=
    _Gen._     =tapansa=                   =tapojensa=, =tapojeen=,
                                           =tapainsa=
    _In._      =tavassansa=, =tavassaan=   =tavoissansa=, =tavoissaan=
    _El._      =tavastansa=, =tavastaan=   =tavoistansa=, =tavoistaan=
    _Il._      =tapaansa=, [=tapahaan=]    =tapoihinsa=, [=tapoihiin=]
    _Ad._      =tavallansa=, =tavallaan=   =tavoillansa=, =tavoillaan=
    _Abl._     =tavaltansa=, =tavaltaan=   =tavoiltansa=, =tavoiltaan=
    _All._     =tavallensa=, =tavalleen=   =tavoillensa=, =tavoilleen=
    _Abes._    =tavattansa=, =tavattaan=   =tavoittansa=, =tavoittaan=
    _Transl._  =tavaksensa=, =tavakseen=   =tavoiksensa=, =tavoikseen=
    _Ess._     =tapanansa=, =tapanaan=     =tapoinansa=, =tapoinaan=
    _Com._     =tapanensa=, =tapaneen=     =tapoinensa=, =tapoineen=


_Demonstrative Pronouns._

The demonstrative pronouns are =tämä=, _this_, =tuo=, _that_, and =se=,
_it_ or _that._ The corresponding plur. roots are =nämä=, =nuo= _or_
=noi=, and =ne=.

=Tämä=:—

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =tämä=                      =nämät= _or_ =nämä=
    _Part._    =tätä=                      =näitä=
    _Gen._     =tämän=                     =näiden=, =näitten=
    _In._      =tässä=                     =näissä=
    _El._      =tästä=                     =näistä=
    _Il._      =tähän=                     =näihin=
    _Ad._      =tällä=                     =näillä=
    _Abl._     =tältä=                     =näiltä=
    _All._     =tälle=                     =näille=
    _Abes._    =tättä=                     =näittä=
    _Transl._  =täksi=                     =näiksi=
    _Ess._     =tänä=                      =näinä=
    _Instr._   =tämän=                     =näin=

=Tuo=:—

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =tuo=                       =nuot= _or_ =nuo=
    _Part._    =tuota=                     =noita=
    _Gen._     =tuon=                      =noiden=, =noitten=
    _In._      =tuossa=                    =noissa=
    _El._      =tuosta=                    =noista=
    _Il._      =tuohon=                    =noihin=
    _Ad._      =tuolla=                    =noilla=
    _Abl._     =tuolta=                    =noilta=
    _All._     =tuolle=                    =noille=
    _Abes._    =tuotta=                    =noitta=
    _Transl._  =tuoksi=                    =noiksi=
    _Ess._     =tuona=                     =noina=
    _Instr._   =tuon=                      =noin=

In poetry are found such forms as =tää= for =tämä=, =nää= for =nämä=,
=tään= _or_ =tän= for =tämän=.

=Se=.—The nominative, genitive, and instructive sing. are formed from the
root =se=, the remaining cases of the singular from =si=, except the
inessive and elative which are irregular. The nominative plur. is =ne=.
The remaining cases from the root =nii=.

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =se=                        =ne= _or_ =net=
    _Part._    =sitä=                      =niitä=
    _Gen._     =sen=                       =niiden=, =niitten=
    _In._      =siinä=                     =niissä=
    _El._      =siitä=                     =niistä=
    _Il._      =siihen=                    =niihin=
    _Ad._      =sillä=                     =niillä=
    _Abl._     =siltä=                     =niiltä=
    _All._     =sille=                     =niille=
    _Abes._    =sittä=                     =niittä=
    _Transl._  =siksi=                     =niiksi=
    _Ess._     =sinä=                      =niinä=
    _Instr._   =sen=                       =niin=


_Interrogative Pronouns._

The interrogative pronouns are =kuka=, =ken=, _who_, =mikä=, _what_,
=kumpi=, _which_ or _what of two_.

The root of =kuka= is =ku=, the syllable =ka= being added to the former
which would otherwise be monosyllabic. The plural is not much used.

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =kuka=                      =kutka=
    _Part._    =kuta=                      =kuita=
    _Gen._     =kunka=                     =kuiden=, =kuitten=
    _In._      =kussa=                     =kuissa=
    _Il._      =kuhun=                     =kuista=
    _Instr._    ——                         =kuin= _or_ =kuinka=
                etc.                        etc.

In poetry are found =ku= (nominative sing.), =kut= (nominative plur.),
=kun= (genitive sing.).

The root of =ken= is =kene=, but in the partitive sing. and nominative
plur. this is shortened to =ke=, and the same form is optionally used
for the other cases. The root of the plural except in the nominative is
=kei=.

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =ken=                       =ketkä=
    _Part._    =ketä=                      =keitä=
    _Gen._     =kenen=                     =keiden=, =keitten=
    _In._      =kessä= _or_ =kenessä=      =keissä=
    _Il._      =kenehen= _or_ =kehen=
                etc., etc.                  etc., etc.

=Mikä= is declined like =kuka=: the plur. root is =mi=.

               _Sing._                     _Plur._

    _Nom._     =mikä=                      =mitkä=
    _Part._    =mitä=                      =mitä=
    _Gen._     =minkä=                     [=miden= _or_ =mitten=]
    _In._      =missä=                     =missä=
    _Instr._   =min=                       =min=
                etc.                        etc.

In poetry are found =mi= (nominative) and =min= (accusative).

=Kumpi= is declined like a comparative.


_Relative Pronouns._

The relative pronouns are =joka=, _who_ or _which_, =jompi=, _which of
two_.

=Joka= is declined on the same principle as =kuka=, =jompi= like a
comparative.

               _Sing._   _Plur._     _Sing._    _Plur._

    _Nom._     =joka=    =jotka=     =jompi=    =jommat=
    _Part._    =jota=    =joita=     =jompaa=   =jompia=
    _Gen._     =jonka=   =joiden=    =jomman=   =jompien=
                   =joitten=              =jompain=
    _In._      =jossa=   =joissa=    =jommassa= =jommissa=
                     etc.                     etc.


_Indefinite Pronouns._

The indefinite pronouns are =joku=, _some one_, =jompi-kumpi=, _one of
two_; both the component parts are declined.

Nominative =joku=, =jompikumpi=, genitive =jonkun=, =jomman-kumman=,
inessive =jossakussa=, =jommassa-kummassa=, etc.

=Jokin=, _something_, =kukin=, _each_, =mikin=, _anyone_ or _anything_,
=kumpi-kin=, _one or other of two_: decline only the first part.

=Kukaan=, =mikään=, =kenkään=, =kumpikaan=, =kumpainenkaan=, meaning
_anyone, anything_, etc., are used only in negative sentences or in
questions which are virtually negative; the suffix =-kaan=, =-kään=, is
not declined.

=Joka=, _any_ or _every_, is not declined. =Joka mies=, _any man you
like_.


_Reflexive Pronoun._

The reflexive pronoun is =itse=, _self_. It is declined. Genitive
=itsen=, partitive =itseä=, etc. It always takes a pronominal suffix
to define its meaning: =itseäsi= (partitive) _thyself_, =itseksensä=
(translative) _himself_.

Among pronouns may also be reckoned the following:—

=Muu=, _another_ (=muuta=, =muun=, etc., plur. =muut=).

=Muutama= _or_ =eräs=, _some one_.

=Molempi=, plur. =molemmat=, _both_.

=Kaikki=, plur. =kaikki=, _all_. =Koko=, indeclinable, _all_.

=Moni=, _many_.

=Sama=, _the same, or_ =samainen=.

=Oma=, _one’s own_.



THE VERB.

The verbs in Finnish, as in other languages, are transitive or
intransitive, and have an active and passive voice. It is further to be
noticed that the negative verb is conjugated quite differently to the
affirmative.

The verb may be considered to have seven moods:—the indicative, the
concessive, the conditional, the optative, the imperative, the verbal
substantive, and the verbal adjective.

Before giving an example of the conjugation of a verb it will be well to
examine the formation of these moods and their various tenses. At first
only the simple tenses will be considered, that is to say those formed by
the addition of suffixes to a verbal root. The compound tenses are formed
by combining certain verbal forms with parts of the verb ‘to be.’


_Formation of the Moods and Tenses of an Affirmative Verb._

All parts of the finite verb, except the optative and imperative, mark
the person by the following terminations:—

    _Sing._                                _Plur._

    1. =-n=                                1. =-mme=
    2. =-t=                                2. =-tte=
    3. (=-pi=, =-vi=) _or none_            3. =-vat=, =-vät=

In ordinary Finnish the third person singular receives no termination,
but the final vowel of the root is lengthened in the present indicative,
if not already a long vowel or diphthong. Thus, the roots =anta=, =repi=,
=tuo= form the third person sing. present, =antaa=, =repii=, =tuo=. On
the same principle the third person sing. of the concessive ends in
=-nee=, the tense stem ending in =-ne=. In the imperfect and conditional
the tense stem is used unaltered.

Monosyllabic verbs sometimes receive the termination =-pi= in the third
person present, e.g. =saapi=, =tuopi= for =saa=, =tuo=. Another variety
of this termination is in =vi=, used very frequently in the Kalevala and
the Karelian dialect.

This termination =pi= or =vi= is obviously primitive and is akin to
the plur. =-vat= which has the plur. suffix =t=. It is found in all
the Baltic dialects in the form of =b=, =p=, or =v=, and sporadically
in Cheremissian, but not apparently in the other languages of the
Finno-Ugric group.

The _indicative_ mood has two simple tenses, the present (also used as a
future) and the imperfect.

The _present indicative_ has no tense terminations, and is formed by
adding the personal terminations to the root; the third sing. having
no termination, is of course the simple root, and always ends in a
double vowel or diphthong, except in the verb substantive =on=, _he is_.
Thus, taking the root =repi= and adding to it the present terminations
given above, we get for the present infinitive =revi-n= (by rule =35=),
=revi-t=, =repii=, =revi-mme=, =revi-tte=, =repi-vät=.

The stem of the _imperfect indicative_ is formed by adding to the root
the vowel =i=, before which the last vowel of the root is changed or
lost according to rules =3-9=, =14=, =21=. To the stem thus formed are
added the personal terminations. Thus on adding to the root =saa= the
termination =i=, we get =sai=, and this forms =sain=, =sait=, =sai=,
=saimme=, =saitte=, =saivat=. Similarly the root =tuo= with the suffix
=i= becomes =toi=, and the imperfect =toin=, =toit=, etc.; =antaa= forms
=antoi= (=annoin=, =31=, =annoit=, etc.).

The _concessive_ mood is formed by adding to the root the syllable
=-ne=, and then suffixing to this the personal terminations. It has
only one tense. Sometimes the suffix =-ne= becomes assimilated to the
preceding consonant. Root =saa=, conditional-stem =saane=; 1. =saanen=;
2. =saanet=; 3. =saanee=. 1. =saanemme=; 2. =saa-nette=; 3. =saanevat=.
But =nousne= becomes =nousse=; =noussen=, =nousset=, =noussee=, etc., the
shortened root of =nouse= being =nous=.

The _conditional_ has also only one simple tense formed by placing the
syllable =-isi= after the root and suffixing the personal terminations.
The final vowel of the root is lost or altered before the termination
=-isi= according to the rules given, but =a= and =ä= remain unchanged
except in monosyllabic verbs. Root =saa=, stem of conditional =saisi=;
1. =saisin=; 2. =saisit=; 3. =saisi=. 1. =saisimme=; 2. =saisitte=; 3.
=saisivat=.

This suffix =-isi= is perhaps akin to the formative suffix =-kse= (_v._
page 112).

The _imperative_ is characterized by the addition of =ka=, =kä= to the
stem, the only persons used being the second sing. and first and second
plur. The first person sing. is altogether wanting, and the third person
sing. and plur. are supplied by the optative.

The second person sing. is the root, but in a closed form. Thus the roots
=lyö=, =tako=, =otta=, =anta=, =pyrki=, =teke= form the imperatives
=lyö=, =tao= (=28=), =ota= (=30=), =anna= (=31=), =pyri= (=27=), =tee=
(=28=). This person had no doubt once the syllable =ka= (=kä=) suffixed,
which became reduced to =-k=, and thus closed the syllable. In dialects
are found such forms as =annak=, =otak=, clearly showing the origin of
the form.

The first and second persons plur. are formed by suffixing =kaamme=
(or =kämme=), and =kaatte= (or =kätte=) to the root. In the second
person the suffix =tte= is usually omitted, and the form ends simply in
=-kaa=. Thus from the roots above cited we have =lyökäämme=, =lyökää=;
=takokaamme=, =takokaa=; =ottakaamme=, =ottakaa=, =antakaamme=,
=antakaa=; =pyrkikäämme=, =pyrkikää=; =tehkäämme= (this root undergoes
special changes), =tehkää=.

The _optative_, which in some ways may be regarded as forming one
complete tense with the imperative, is characterized by the addition of
=ko=, =kö= to the root.

The second person sing. ends in =os= (e.g. =lukeos=, =antaos=),
apparently =ko= with the affix of the second person; =lukekos=, which
has perhaps lost a final vowel, becomes =lukeos= by rule =28=.

The third person sing. ends in =koon= for =kohon=, and the third plur. in
=koot= for =kohot=; =antakoon=, =antakoot=; =pyrkiköön=, =pyrkikööt=.

When owing to the loss of a vowel this =k= follows immediately after
=l=, =r=, or =n=, it becomes assimilated to those letters, =tullos= for
=tulkos=; =purros= for =purkos=; =mennös= for =menkös=.

The _infinitive_ in Finnish is a real substantive, that is to say, just
as from a verbal root can be derived, by the addition of suffixes,
forms expressing person, time, and modality, so by the addition of
other suffixes to the same root can be formed nouns, which can take the
ordinary case terminations and also the pronominal suffixes.

These infinitives are five in number. Their signification and use, which
constitute one of the great difficulties of the Finnish language, will be
explained in the Syntax.

I. The termination of the first infinitive is =-taʻ= (=-tä=), e.g.
=saada= (rule =32=); root =nous= (for =nouse=), =nousta=; root =tul=
(=tulee=), =tulla=. Between two simple vowels this =t= drops out and the
termination is simply =a= (=ä=); =sano-ta=, =sanoaʻ=; =repitä=, =repiä=.
N.B.—The syllable =ta= (=tä=) or =a= (=ä=) is closed with the aspiration.

This infinitive has only one case, the translative, which is used with
the personal suffixes, e.g. =juo=, _to drink_, =juo-da-kse-ni=, _for my
drinking_, =lukeaksesi=, _for thy reading_.

II. The stem of the second infinitive is formed by adding =-teʻ= to
the root, the syllable being closed. This =te= becomes =e= between
two simple vowels like the =ta= of the first infinitive. It has as a
rule only two cases, the inessive and instructive (though some verbs
have more), to which the personal suffixes can be added, e.g. =saa=,
=saade=, =saadessa=, =saadessani= (_in my receiving_); instructive
=saaden=. =Tule=, shortened root =tul=, infinitive II =tulle=, inessive
=tullessansa=, instructive =tullen=; =repi=, infinitive =repie=,
=repiessä=, =repien=.[10]

III. The third infinitive is formed by adding =ma= (=mä=) to the root.
There is nothing irregular in its formation or declension. It is used in
most of the cases of the sing., but only occasionally takes the personal
suffixes, e.g. =sano=, infinitive III =sanoma=, genitive =sanoman=,
=sanomalla=, =sanomatta=, etc., exactly like a noun.

IV. The fourth infinitive is formed by adding =mise= to the root. It
has two cases, the nominative which ends in =minen=, and the partitive
in =mista=. =Sano=, =sanominen=, =sanomista=; =teke=, =tekeminen=,
=tekemistä=, =tekemistänsä=, etc.

V. The fifth infinitive, which is not much used except in poetry,
and may be regarded as a diminutive derived from infinitive III, is
formed by adding =maise= to the root. It is used only in the adessive
plural, and always with a personal suffix. =Nouse=, _to rise_,
=nouse-mais-i-lla-nsa=; =tule=, =tulemaisillani=.

There are two _participles_ or verbal adjectives in Finnish. They are
simply adjectives formed from a verbal root by the addition of a suffix.

I. The first verbal adjective is formed by adding =va= (=vä=) to the
root. (Sometimes this suffix is found in the form of =pa=, =pä=.) The
adjective so formed is declined in the ordinary way.

II. The stem of the second participle is formed by adding =nehe=
(shortened =nee=) to the root. This termination (as explained p. 40)
becomes =nut= or =nyt= in the nominative, e.g. =oppi=, _to learn_,
=oppinehe=, nominative =oppinut=, genitive =oppinehen= (_or_ =neen=),
=oppineella=, etc., partitive, =oppinutta=, essive =oppineena= _or_
=oppinunna=, illative =oppineesen=, plur. =oppineet=, genitive
=oppinutten=, =oppineiden=, partitive =oppineita=, etc.


_The Passive._

All the forms of the finite passive verb in Finnish are _impersonal_,
e.g. =tuodaan= means ‘_people bring_,’ or ‘_there is a bringing_,’ in
French ‘on apporte;’ but there are no personal forms like the Latin or
Greek passives.

The root of the passive is formed by adding =ta= or =tä= to the verb. The
same changes are made as for the infinitive I active; but,

A. If the =t= of the passive termination comes between two simple vowels
it is doubled, e.g. =leipo=, =leivotta= (=35=).

B. Simple =a= and =ä= become =e= before the =t=, which is then doubled,
=kaiva=, =kaivetta=; =heittä=, =heitettä=.

The root thus formed receives a termination analogous to the illative,
that is to say =h—n= with the same vowel between them as precedes the
=h=. In the passive the =h= drops out, and the =n= is preceded by a long
vowel. The syllable =ta= in the present is closed with the aspiration.

For instance:—=Saa= makes =saadaan=, that is =saa + ta’ + han=, the
=h= dropping out and the =t= being softened; =syö=, =syödään= for
=syö-tä’-hän=. So too =sido=, =sidotta=, =sidotahan=, which becomes
=sidotaan=; =mene= (which is shortened to =men=) becomes =mennään=;
=kaiva=, =kaivetta=, =kaivetaan=. It is to be noticed that in verbs
ending in a long vowel or diphthong, the passive present has the form
=daan=, the =t= being softened. But where the =t= is doubled after a
short vowel the present passive ends in =taan=.

The _imperfect_ tense is formed as in the active by adding =i= to the
stem, but the consonants are not softened, because the syllable =ti=
does not end with the aspiration, e.g. the present passive is formed by
adding =taʻ= (with the aspiration) to the root: =saa-taʻ= which becomes
=saada=, and then with the termination =saadaan=. But the imperfect has
the stem =saati=, which gives =saatiin=. So we have root =sido=, present
=sidotaan=, but imperfect =sidottiin=; =repi=, present =revitään=,
imperfect =revittiin=; =tule= (shortened =tul=), present =tullaan=,
imperfect =tultiin=.

The _concessive_ passive is formed by adding to the passive root in
=ta=, the modal termination =ne=, and the usual suffix, =saata + ne +
hen= = =saataneen=. The consonants are not weakened, e.g. =tultaneen=,
=sidottaneen=. The final =n= is frequently omitted, e.g. =saatanee=.

The _conditional_ is formed by placing =isi= after the syllable =ta=, and
suffixing the termination =hin= =saata + isi + hin=; =saataisiin=; =tul=
(=tule=), =tulta=, =tultaisiin=.

In the _optative_ the termination =ko= is added between =ta= and the
suffix =hon=, =saata-ko-hon=, =saatakoon=.

The _imperative_ is not used.

Theoretically of course all the five _infinitives_ can be formed for
the passive as well as the active verb, but practically only two are
ever used: (_a_) The inessive sing. of the infinitive II. The root is of
the form =saatate=, which becomes =saatae=, and we have such forms as
=saataessa=, =noustaessa=. (_b_) The instructive of infinitive III formed
by adding =ma= to the root ending in =ta= and suffixing =n=, =saataman=,
=luvattaman=.[11]

There are two _participles_.

I. Formed as in the active by adding =va= or =vä= after =ta=, =tä=;
=saatava=, =revittävä=.

II. Formed by adding =u= or =y= after =ta= or =tä=, before which vowels
=a=, =ä= always fall out; =saata + u=, =saatu=; =revittä + y=, =revitty=.


_The Negative Conjugation._

The conjugation of the negative verb is entirely different from that of
the positive.

In Finnish there is no word exactly corresponding to the English words
‘not,’ ‘no.’ Instead there is a negative verb, consisting of a root
combined with the personal terminations, and which may be literally
translated ‘not I,’ ‘not thou,’ ‘not it,’ etc.

The root of this verb in the present is =e= or =ei=, and it is conjugated
as below.

       _Sing._                       _Plur._

    1. =en=                          =emme=
    2. =et=                          =ette=
    3. =ei=                          =eivät=

The forms for the imperative are formed from the root =äl= or =el=.

       _Sing._                       _Plur._

    1. ——                            =älkäämme=, =elkäämme=
    2. =älä=, =elä=                  =älkäätte=, =elkäätte=,
                                     _or_ =älkää=, =elkää=

The optative is formed similarly.

       _Sing._                       _Plur._

    2. =ällös= _or_ =ellös=          ——
    3. =älköön= _or_ =elköön=        =älkööt= _or_ =elkööt=

There is also a form used in dubitative or conditional sentences.

       _Sing._                       _Plur._

    1. =ellen=                       =ellemme=
    2. =ellet=                       =ellette=
    3. =ellei=                       =elleivät=

This form is used in composition with the present or conditional: =minä
tulen, ellei paha ilma estä=, _I will come if the bad weather does not
stop me_. =Elleivät olisi kotona=, _in case they are not at home_.

The negative _present_ of an active verb is formed by prefixing this verb
to the root, _which is always closed by the aspiration_.

Root =tuo=, _to bring_.

    _Sing._                          _Plur._

    =en tuo=, _I do not bring_       =emme tuo=, _we do not bring_
    =et tuo=, _thou dost not bring_  =ette tuo=, _ye do not bring_
    =ei tuo=, _he does not bring_    =eivät tuo=, _they do not bring_

But the root =repi= makes—

    _Sing._                          _Plur._

    =en revi=                        =emme revi=
    =et revi=                        =ette revi=
    =ei revi=                        =eivät revi=

the root being closed by the aspiration, and consequently becoming =revi=
by rule =35=.

The negative _imperfect_ is formed by prefixing the verb =en=, etc., to
the nominative of participle II active. The participle takes the plur.
inflexions in the plur.

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en tuonut=                    =emme tuoneet=
    2. =et tuonut=                    =ette tuoneet=
    3. =ei tuonut=                    =eivät tuoneet=

Or from the root =repi=—

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en repinyt=                   =emme repineet=
    2. =et repinyt=                   =ette repineet=
    3. =ei repinyt=                   =eivät repineet=

The negative of the _concessive_ is formed in the same way by prefixing
the negative verb to the root, to which is added the syllable =-ne=.

=Saa=, _to receive_; root for the concessive, =saane=, negative
concessive.

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en saane=                     =emme saane=
    2. =et saane=                     =ette saane=
    3. =ei saane=                     =eivät saane=

In an exactly similar manner the conditional is formed by adding =isi= to
the root, and prefixing the negative verb.

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en saisi=                     =emme saisi=
    2. =et saisi=                     =ette saisi=
    3. =ei saisi=                     =eivät saisi=

The negative _imperative_ is formed by prefixing to the root of the verb
(closed by the aspiration in the singular) the imperative forms of the
negative verb given above. In the plur. =ko= (=kö=) is suffixed to the
root of the verb to be negatived.

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme saako=
    2. =älä saa=                      =älkäätte saako=

Similarly—

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme repikö=
    2. =älä revi=                     =älkäätte repikö=

The negative _optative_ is formed by suffixing =ko=, =kö=, to the root,
and employing before it the negative forms of the optative verb. The use
of the suffix =ko= in the negative imperative shows how closely the two
forms are allied.

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =ällös saako=                  ——
    3. =älköön saako=                 =älkööt saako=

The negative of the _passive_ is similarly formed by prefixing the
verb =ei= to the passive root—that is, to the root of the verb with
the syllable =ta= (=tä=) added, but without the termination which
characterises the affirmative passive. This root is closed by the
aspiration, but the imperfect is formed with participle II, passive,
_e.g._ roots =saa=, =repi=, =tule= (=tul=), passive roots =saada=,
=revitä=, =tulla=.

    _Pres._ =ei saada=, =ei revitä=, =ei tulla=
    _Imp._ =ei saatu=, =ei revitty=, =ei tultu=
    _Conc._ =ei saatane=, =ei revittäne=, =ei tultane=
    _Cond._ =ei saataisi=, =ei revittäisi=, =ei tultaisi=
    _Opt._ =älköön saatako=, =älköön revittäkö=, =älköön tultako=

_Imperative_ not used.


_The Auxiliary Verb._

The conjugation of the positive auxiliary verb =olla=, _to be_, is as
follows:—

            _Present._                     _Imperfect._

       _Sing._      _Plur._             _Sing._     _Plur._

    1. =olen=       =olemme=         1. =olin=      =olimme=
    2. =olet=       =olette=         2. =olit=      =olitte=
    3. =on=         =ovat=           3. =oli=       =olivat=

            _Concessive._                 _Conditional._

       _Sing._      _Plur._             _Sing._     _Plur._

    1. =lienen=     =lienemme=       1. =olisin=    =olisimme=
    2. =lienet=     =lienette=       2. =olisit=    =olisitte=
    3. =lienee=     =lienevät=       3. =olisi=     =olisivat=

              _or_,

       _Sing._      _Plur._

    1. =ollen=      =ollemme=
    2. =ollet=      =ollette=
    3. =ollee=      =ollevat=

            _Imperative._                   _Optative._

       _Sing._      _Plur._             _Sing._     _Plur._

    1. ——           =olkaamme=       2. =ollos=     ——
    2. =ole=        =olkaa= _or_     3. =olkoon=    =olkoot=
                    =olkaatte=


                             _Infinitive._

     I.   _Part._ =olla=              III. _Gen._ =oleman=
        _Transl._ =ollakse(ni)=             _In._ =olemassa=, etc.
    II.     _In._ =ollessa=            IV. _Nom._ =oleminen=
         _Instr._ =ollen=                 _Part._ =olemista=
                                        V.  _Ad._ =olemaisillani=

                             _Participles._

    _Pres._ =oleva=                       _Perf._ =ollut=

                      _Passive forms.—Indicative._

    _Pres._ =ollaan=                      _Perf._ =on oltu=
    _Imp._  =oltiin=                     _Plupf._ =oli oltu=

           _Concessive._                   _Conditional._

    _Simp._ =oltaneen=                    _Simp._ =oltaisiin=
    _Comp._ =lienee oltu=                 _Comp._ =olisi oltu=

            _Optative._                    _Infinitive._

    =oltakoon=                         II.  _In._ =oltaessa=
                                      III. _Gen._ =oltaman=

                           _Participles._

    _Pres._ =oltava=                      _Perf._ =oltu=.

In poetry are found various contracted forms, mostly produced by the
omission of =l= from the root. Present indicative 1. =oon=, 2. =oot=;
plur. 1. =oomme=, 2. =ootte=. Conditional: =oisin=, =oisit=, =oisi=,
=oisimme=, =oisitte=, =oisivat=. Concessive: =lien=, =liet=, =lie=.
Passive form: =liedään=.

With the aid of this auxiliary and certain participles are formed the
compound tenses of the Finnish verb. These are:—

(1) The perfect, formed with the present of the auxiliary and the
nominative of participle II, which in the plur. takes the plural
terminations, as is the case in all the other tenses: =olen, olet, on
saanut=; =olemme, olette, ovat saaneet=, _I, thou, he has received_.

(2) The pluperfect, formed by prefixing the imperfect of the auxiliary to
the same participle: =olin, olit, oli saanut=; =olimme, olitte, olivat
saaneet=, _I had received_, etc.

(3) The compound concessive, formed by adding the conditional of the
auxiliary to the same participle: =lienen, lienet, lienee saanut=;
=lienemme, lienette, lienevät saaneet=, _I may have received (il se peut
que j’ai reçu)_.

(4) The compound conditional, formed by prefixing the conditional of
the auxiliary to the same participle: =olisin, olisit, olisi saanut=;
=olisimme, olisitte, olisivat saaneet=, _I should have received_, etc.

When these four tenses of the verb ‘to be’ are combined with participle
I, they form a future, of which there may be four varieties:—

(1) =Olen=, etc., =saava=, _I shall receive_; (2) =olin=, etc., =saava=,
_I was about to receive_; (3) =lienen saava=, _perhaps I shall receive_;
(4) =olisin saava=, _I might have received_.

Though the plur. of these forms should grammatically be =olemme saavat=,
which forms are employed in the literary language, yet in the spoken
language the participle does not take the plural termination.

The compound tenses of the passive are formed by adding the tense of the
verb =olla= to participle II, passive.

    _Perf._       =on saatu=       _Plupf._      =oli saatu=
    _Comp. Conc._ =lienee saatu=   _Comp. Cond._ =olisi saatu=

The negative forms for these tenses are formed by putting the auxiliary
verb in the negative form, and keeping the participle as before. The
negative forms of the auxiliary verb are:—

              _Present._

       _Sing._           _Plur._

    1. =en ole=          =emme ole=
    2. =et ole=          =ette ole=
    3. =ei ole=          =eivät ole=

              _Imperfect._

       _Sing._            _Plur._

    1. =en ollut=         =emme olleet=
    2. =et ollut=         =ette olleet=
    3. =ei ollut=         =eivät olleet=

              _Concessive._

       _Sing._            _Plur._

    1. =en liene=         =emme liene=
    2. =et liene=         =ette liene=
    3. =ei liene=         =eivät liene=

             _Conditional._

       _Sing._            _Plur._

    1. =en olisi=         =emme olisi=
    2. =et olisi=         =ette olisi=
    3. =ei olisi=         =eivät olisi=

It is hoped that with the aid of the foregoing explanations the
conjugation of a Finnish verb will be perfectly clear.

The verbs may be divided into three conjugations.


_First Conjugation._

The characteristics of this conjugation are as follow:—

(_a_) The root always ends in a long vowel.

(_b_) There is no change of consonants.

(_c_) The third person sing. of the present tense is the simple root.

(_d_) The last vowel of the root is liable to changes before the =i= of
the past tense and conditional.

(_e_) In the present passive, and in infinitive I the termination =ta=
becomes =da=.

This conjugation includes:—

1. All monosyllabic roots. In participle I active they take either =va=
(=vä=) or =pa= (=pä=).

2. Trisyllabic roots ending in =oi= or =öi=. These have only =va= (=vä=)
in the participle I.

Monosyllabic verbs occasionally take the termination =pi= in the third
person sing. present indicative, _e.g._ =lyöpi=, =saapi=. This is
especially frequent in the dialect spoken about St. Petersburg.

The trisyllabic verbs ending in =oi=, =öi=, also frequently form their
infinitive in =ta=, that is to say, the root also exists in a form
ending in =-tse=. =Haravoida= is the infinitive from the root =haravoi=;
=haravoita=, the infinitive from the derived root of the same meaning
=haravoitse=.

Examples: =saa=, _to receive_; =tuo=, _to bring_.

        _Active Voice._  _Indicative Mood._

             _Present._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =saan=                         =saame=
    2. =saat=                         =saatte=
    3. =saa=                          =saavat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en saa=                       =emme saa=
    2. =et saa=                       =ette saa=
    3. =ei saa=                       =eivät saa=

              _Imperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =sain= (=3=)                   =saimme=
    2. =sait=                         =saitte=
    3. =sai=                          =saivat=

                      _Negative._
       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en saanut=                    =emme saaneet=
    2. =et saanut=                    =ette saaneet=
    3. =ei saanut=                    =eivät saaneet=

               _Perfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olen saanut=                  =olemme saaneet=
    2. =olet saanut=                  =olette saaneet=
    3. =on saanut=                    =ovat saaneet=

                      _Negative._

        _Sing._                       _Plur._

    1. =en ole saanut=                =emme ole saaneet=
    2. =et ole saanut=                =ette ole saaneet=
    3. =ei ole saanut=                =eivät ole saaneet=

               _Pluperfect._  _Affirmative._

        _Sing._                       _Plur._

    1. =olin saanut=                  =olimme saaneet=
    2. =olit saanut=                  =olitte saaneet=
    3. =oli saanut=                   =olivat saaneet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en ollut saanut=              =emme olleet saaneet=
    2. =et ollut saanut=              =ette olleet saaneet=
    3. =ei ollut saanut=              =eivät ollet saaneet=

            _Simple Concessive._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =saanen=                       =saanemme=
    2. =saanet=                       =saanette=
    3. =saanee=                       =saanevat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en saane=                     =emme saane=
    2. =et saane=                     =ette saane=
    3. =ei saane=                     =eivät saane=

           _Compound Concessive._ _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =lienen saanut=                =lienemme saaneet=
    2. =lienet saanut=                =lienette saaneet=
    3. =lienee saanut=                =lienevät saaneet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en liene saanut=              =emme liene saaneet=
    2. =et liene saanut=              =ette liene saaneet=
    3. =ei liene saanut=              =eivät liene saaneet=

            _Simple Conditional._ _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =saisin=                       =saisimme=
    2. =saisit=                       =saisitte=
    3. =saisi=                        =saisivat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                       _Plur._

    1. =en saisi=                     =emme saisi=
    2. =et saisi=                     =ette saisi=
    3. =ei saisi=                     =eivät saisi=

          _Compound Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olisin saanut=                =olisimme saaneet=
    2. =olisit saanut=                =olisitte saaneet=
    3. =olisi saanut=                 =olisivat saaneet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en olisi saanut=              =emme olisi saaneet=
    2. =et olisi saanut=              =ette olisi saaneet=
    3. =ei olisi saanut=              =eivät olisi saaneet=

                 _First Future._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olen saava (saapa)=           =olemme saava= _or_ =saavat (pa)=
    2. =olet saava (pa)=              =olette saava= _or_ =saavat (pa)=
    3. =on saava (pa)=                =ovat saava (pa)=

    Such forms as =ovat saavat= are avoided on account of the repetition
    of =vat=.

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en ole saava=, _or_ =saapa=   =emme ole saava=, _or_ =saavat=
    2. =et ole saava=                 =ette ole saava=
    3. =ei ole saava=                 =eivät ole saava=

    The other futures =olin saava=, =lienen saava=, and =olisi saava=
    are conjugated exactly similarly.

               _Imperative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =saakaamme=
    2. =saa=                          =saakaa(tte)=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme saako=
    2. =älä saa=                      =älkää saako=

               _Optative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =saaʻos=                       ——
    3. =saakoon=                      =saakoot=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =ällös saako=                  ——
    3. =älköön saako=                 =älkööt saako=

                     _Infinitive._

      I.                =saada=
         _Transl._      =saadakse(ni)=
     II. _Iness._       =saadessa=
         _Instr._       =saaden=
    III.                =saama=, _used in nearly all the cases_
     IV. _Nom._         =saaminen=
         _Part._        =saamista=
      V. _Adess. Plur._ =saamaisilla(ni)=, (_always with suffix_).

                     _Participles._

      I. =saapa= _or_ =saava=
     II. =saanut=

                    _Passive Voice._

    _Present_         _Aff._ =saadaan=
                      _Neg._ =ei saada=
    _Imperfect_       _Aff._ =saatiin=
                      _Neg._ =ei saatu=
    _Perfect_         _Aff._ =on saatu=
                      _Neg._ =ei ole saatu=
    _Pluperfect_      _Aff._ =oli saatu=
                      _Neg._ =ei oltu saatu=, _or_, =ei ollut saatu=
    _Concessive_      _Aff._ =saataneen=
                      _Neg._ =ei saatane=
    _Concess. Comp._  _Aff._ =lienee saatu=
                      _Neg._ =ei liene saatu=
    _Conditional_     _Aff._ =saataisiin=
                      _Neg._ =ei saataisi=
    _Cond. Comp._     _Aff._ =olisi saatu=
                      _Neg._ =ei olisi saatu=
    _Optative_        _Aff._ =saatakoon=
                      _Neg._ =älköön saatako=

               _Infinitive._ The only forms used are—

     II. _Iness._ =saataessa=
    III. _Instr._ =saataman=

       *       *       *       *       *

         _Active Voice._  _Indicative Mood._

             _Present._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                       _Plur._

    1. =tuon=                        =tuomme=
    2. =tuot=                        =tuotte=
    3. =tuo=                         =tuovat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en tuo=                       =emme tuo=
    2. =et tuo=                       =ette tuo=
    3. =ei tuo=                       =eivät tuo=

             _Imperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =toin= (=4=)                   =toimme=
    2. =toit=                         =toitte=
    3. =toi=                          =toivat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en tuonut=                    =emme tuoneet=
    2. =et tuonut=                    =ette tuoneet=
    3. =ei tuonut=                    =eivät tuoneet=

              _Perfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olen tuonut=                  =olemme tuoneet=
    2. =olet tuonut=                  =olette tuoneet=
    3. =on tuonut=                    =ovat tuoneet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en ole tuonut=                =emme ole tuoneet=
    2. =et ole tuonut=                =ette ole tuoneet=
    3. =ei ole tuonut=                =eivät ole tuoneet=

               _Pluperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olin tuonut=                  =olimme tuoneet=
    2. =olit tuonut=                  =olitte tuoneet=
    3. =oli tuonut=                   =olivat tuoneet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en ollut tuonut=              =emme olleet tuoneet=
    2. =et ollut tuonut=              =ette olleet tuoneet=
    3. =ei ollut tuonut=              =eivät olleet tuoneet=

            _Simple Concessive._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =tuonen=                       =tuonemme=
    2. =tuonet=                       =tuonette=
    3. =tuonee=                       =tuonevat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en tuone=                     =emme tuone=
    2. =et tuone=                     =ette tuone=
    3. =ei tuone=                     =eivät tuone=

             _Compound Concessive._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =lienen tuonut=                =lienemme tuoneet=
    2. =lienet tuonut=                =lienette tuoneet=
    3. =lienee tuonut=                =lienevät tuoneet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en liene tuonut=              =emme liene tuoneet=
    2. =et liene tuonut=              =ette liene tuoneet=
    3. =ei liene tuonut=              =eivät liene tuoneet=

           _Simple Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =toisin= (=4=)                 =toisimme=
    2. =toisit=                       =toisitte=
    3. =toisi=                        =toisivat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en toisi=                     =emme toisi=
    2. =et toisi=                     =ette toisi=
    3. =ei toisi=                     =eivät toisi=

          _Compound Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olisin tuonut=                =olisimme tuoneet=
    2. =olisit tuonut=                =olisitte tuoneet=
    3. =olisi tuonut=                 =olisivat tuoneet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en olisi tuonut=              =emme olisi tuoneet=
    2. =et olisi tuonut=              =ette olisi tuoneet=
    3. =ei olisi tuonut=              =eivät olisi tuoneet=

               _First Future._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olen tuova= (=tuopa=)         =olemme tuova= _or_ =tuovat (pa)=
    2. =olet tuova= (=pa=)            =olette tuova= _or_ =tuovat (pa)=
    3. =on tuova= (=pa=)              =ovat tuova= (=pa=)

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en ole tuova= _or_ =tuopa=    =emme ole tuova= _or_ =tuovat=
    2. =et ole tuova=                 =ette ole tuova=
    3. =ei ole tuova=                 =eivät ole tuova=

              _Imperative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =tuokaamme=
    2. =tuo=                          =tuokaa(tte)=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme tuoko=
    2. =älä tuo=                      =älkää tuoko=

               _Optative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =tuoʻos=                       ——
    3. =tuokoon=                      =tuokoot=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =ällös tuoko=                  ——
    3. =älköön tuoko=                 =älkööt tuoko=

                     _Infinitive._

       I.                =tuodaʻ=
          _Transl._      =tuodakse(ni)=
      II. _Iness._       =tuodessa=
          _Instr._       =tuoden=
     III.                =tuoma= _used in nearly all the cases_
      IV. _Nom._         =tuominen=
          _Part._        =tuomista=
       V. _Adess. Plur._ =tuomaisilla(ni)= (_always with suffix_)

                    _Participles._

       I. =tuopa= _or_ =tuova=
      II. =tuonut=

                   _Passive Voice_

    _Present_       _Aff._ =tuodaan=
                    _Neg._ =ei tuoda=
    _Imperfect_     _Aff._ =tuotiin=
                    _Neg._ =ei tuotu=
    _Perfect_       _Aff._ =on tuotu=
                    _Neg._ =ei ole tuotu=
    _Pluperfect_    _Aff._ =oli tuotu=
                    _Neg._ =ei oltu tuotu=, _or_ =ei ollut tuotu=
    _Concessive_    _Aff._ =tuotaneen=
                    _Neg._ =ei tuotane=
    _Conces. Comp._ _Aff._ =lienee tuotu=
                    _Neg._ =ei liene tuotu=
    _Conditional_   _Aff._ =tuotaisiin=
                    _Neg._ =ei tuotaisi=
    _Cond. Comp._   _Aff._ =olisi tuotu=
                    _Neg._ =ei olisi tuotu=
    _Optative_      _Aff._ =tuotakoon=
                    _Neg._ =älköön tuotako=

                     _Infinitive._

    The only forms used are—

     II.           _Iness._ =tuotaessa=
    III.           _Instr._ =tuotaman=

                    _Participles._

      I. =saatava=, =tuotava=
     II. =saatu=, =tuotu=

Similarly =lyö=, _to strike_, makes in the present =lyön=, =lyöt=, =lyö=,
=lyömme=, =lyötte=, =lyövät=; imperfect =löin= (by rule =4=); concessive
=lyönen=; conditional =löisin= (=4=); imperative =lyö=, =lyökäämme=,
=lyökää=; infinitives =lyödä=, =lyödessä=, =lyömän=, =lyöminen=,
=lyömäisilläni=; participles =lyövä= and =lyönyt=; passive =lyödään=, etc.

So also =satuloi=, _saddle_, forms present indicative =satuloin=,
=satuloit=, =satuloi=, =satuloimme=, =satuloitte=, =satuloivat=;
imperfect =satuloin= (=5=); concessive =satuloinen=; conditional
=satuloisin=; imperative =satuloi=; optative =satuloiʻos=; infinitives
=satuloida=, =satuloidessa=, =satuloiman=, =satuloiminen=,
=satuloimaisillani=; participles =satuloiva=, =satuloinut=; passive
=satuloidaan=.


_Second Conjugation._

The second conjugation has the following characteristics:—

(1) The root ends in a short vowel.

(2) The consonant at the beginning of the last syllable is liable to the
usual changes, when that syllable becomes closed.

(3) In the third person sing. present indicative the final vowel is
lengthened.

(4) The first infinitive has the termination =a= (=ä=).

(5) The root of the passive ends in =tta= (=ttä=), and hence the present
passive in =taan=.

(6) The first participle active _always_ ends in =va= (=vä=).

To this conjugation belong:—

A. All roots ending in =o=, =ö=, =u=, =y=.

B. All dissyllables ending in =a=, =ä=, and polysyllables ending in =ta=
(=tä=) after =h=, =l=, =n=, =r=, =s=, =t=; =heittä=, _to throw_; =tappa=,
_to kill_; =armahta=, _to pity_; =sivalta=, _to strike_; =ymmärtä=, _to
understand_.

(1) In these verbs =a= or =ä= is always changed to =e= before the
termination of the passive, =kaata=, =kaadetaan=.

(2) Before the =i= of the imperfect, polysyllables always reject =a= or
=ä=, =pelasta=, =pelasti=, etc.

Dissyllabic verbs vary in their treatment of =a=, _though_ =ä= _is always
rejected_. If the vowel of the first syllable is =o= or =u=; then =a= is
generally rejected. =Otta=, _take_, imperfect =otti=; =muista=, =muisti=.
But if the vowel of the first syllable is =a= or =e=, the =a= of the
last syllable generally becomes =o=; =laula=, =lauloi=, _sing_; =anta=,
=antoi=, _give_. But a great number of verbs ending in =ta=, and having
=a= in the first syllable, use _both_ forms; =ahtoi= _or_ =ahti=, _blow_;
=karttoi= _or_ =kartti=, _to avoid_; =saattoi= _or_ =saatti=, _to lead_.

If a verb ending in =lta=, =nta=, or =rta= (or the corresponding forms
in =ä=) elides the vowel before =i=, then =t= becomes =s=; =kieltä=, _to
deny_, =kielsi=; =kumarta=, _to adore_, =kumarsi=, etc. The same change
occurs after a long vowel in the forms =löysi=, _found_; =tiesi=, _knew_;
=taisi=, _knew how to_; =pyysi=, _asked_; =kaasi=, _threw down_; =huusi=,
_shouted_. Most verbs of this type, however, take =ti=, though some have
double forms.

C. All verbs ending in =i=.

D. All dissyllables ending in =ke=, =te=, =pe=; e.g. =luke=, _to read_;
=lähte=, _go away_; =kylpe=, _to bath_.

This =e= is elided before =i=, and =t= is sometimes changed to =s=;
=tunte=, _to feel_, =tunsi=.

In infinitive II either the =e= of the root or that of the termination is
changed to =i=, generally that of the root; =lukiessa= _or_ =lukeissa=,
but never =lukeessa=.

Examples of conjugation II:—Roots =repi=, _to tear_; =luke=, _to read_.
The =p= of =repi= becomes =v= in a closed syllable, and the =k= of =luke=
drops out (by rules =34= and =27=).

             _Present._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =revin=                        =revimme=
    2. =revit=                        =revitte=
    3. =repii=                        =repivät=

                      _Negative._ (The root closed by the aspiration.)

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en revi=                      =emme revi=
    2. =et revi=                      =ette revi=
    3. =ei revi=                      =eivät revi=

             _Imperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =revin=                        =revimme=
    2. =revit=                        =revitte=
    3. =repi=                         =repivät=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en repinyt=                   =emme repineet=
    2. =et repinyt=                   =ette repineet=
    3. =ei repinyt=                   =eivät repineet=

               _Perfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olen repinyt=                 =olemme repineet=
    2. =olet repinyt=                 =olette repineet=
    3. =on repinyt=                   =ovat repineet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en ole repinyt=               =emme ole repineet=
    2. =et ole repinyt=               =ette ole repineet=
    3. =ei ole repinyt=               =eivät ole repineet=

               _Pluperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olin repinyt=                 =olimme repineet=
    2. =olit repinyt=                 =olitte repineet=
    3. =oli repinyt=                  =olivat repineet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en ollut repinyt=             =emme olleet repineet=
    2. =et ollut repinyt=             =ette olleet repineet=
    3. =ei ollut repinyt=             =eivät olleet repineet=

                _Concessive._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =repinen=                      =repinemme=
    2. =repinet=                      =repinette=
    3. =repinee=                      =repinevät=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en repine=                    =emme repine=
    2. =et repine=                    =ette repine=
    3. =ei repine=                    =eivät repine=

           _Compound Conditional._  _Affirmative._

    1. =lienen repinyt=               =lienemme repineet=

    (The formation of the remaining persons will now be clear.)

           _Compound Conditional._  _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en liene repinyt=             =emme liene repineet=

              _Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =repisin=                      =repisimme=
    2. =repisit=                      =repisitte=
    3. =repisi=                       =repisivät=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en repisi=                    =emme repisi=

         _Compound Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olisin repinyt=               =olisimme repineet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

       =en olisi repinyt=             =emme olisi repineet=

               _Imperative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =repikäämme=
    2. =revi=                         =repikää=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme repikö=
    2. =älä revi=                     =älkää repikö=

               _Optative._ _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =repiʻös=                      ——
    3. =repiköön=                     =repikööt=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =ällös repikö=                 ——
    3. =älköön repikö=                =älkööt repikö=

                    _Participles._

       I. =repivä=
      II. =repinyt=

                   _Infinitives._

      I.           =repiä=
         _Transl._ =repiäksi=
     II.   _Ines._ =repiessä=
          _Instr._ =repien=
    III.           =repimä=, etc.
     IV.    _Nom._ =repiminen=
           _Part._ =repimistä=
      V.  _Adess._ =repimäisillä(ni)=

                    _Passive._

    _Present_        _Aff._ =revitään=
                     _Neg._ =ei revitä=
    _Imperfect_      _Aff._ =revittiin=
                     _Neg._ =ei revitty=
    _Perfect_        _Aff._ =on revitty=
                     _Neg._ =ei ole revitty=
    _Pluperfect_     _Aff._ =oli revitty=
                     _Neg._ =ei ollut revitty=, _or_
                            =ei oltu revitty=, etc.
    _Concessive_     _Aff._ =revittäneen=
                     _Neg._ =ei revittäne=
    _Comp. Concess._ _Aff._ =lienee revitty=
                     _Neg._ =ei liene revitty=
    _Conditional_    _Aff._ =revittäisiin=
                     _Neg._ =ei revittäisi=
    _Comp. Cond._    _Aff._ =olisi revitty=
                     _Neg._ =ei olisi revitty=
    _Optative_       _Aff._ =revittäköön=
                     _Neg._ =älköön revittäkö=
    _Infin. II. Iness._     =revittäessä=

                   _Participles._

      I. =revittävä=
     II. =revitty=

       *       *       *       *       *

             _Present._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =luen= (=28=)                  =luemme=
    2. =luet=                         =luette=
    3. =lukee=                        =lukevat=

                      _Negative._ (The root closed by the aspiration.)

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en lue=                       =emme lue=
    2. =et lue=                       =ette lue=
    3. =ei lue=                       =eivät lue=

              _Imperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =luin=                         =luimme=
    2. =luit=                         =luitte=
    3. =luki=                         =lukivat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en lukenut=                   =emme lukeneet=
    2. =et lukenut=                   =ette lukeneet=
    3. =ei lukenut=                   =eivät lukeneet=

               _Perfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olen lukenut=                 =olemme lukeneet=
    2. =olet lukenut=                 =olette lukeneet=
    3. =on lukenut=                   =ovat lukeneet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en ole lukenut=               =emme ole lukeneet=
    2. =et ole lukenut=               =ette ole lukeneet=
    3. =ei ole lukenut=               =eivät ole lukeneet=

                      _Pluperfect._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olin lukenut=                 =olimme lukeneet=
    2. =olit lukenut=                 =olitte lukeneet=
    3. =oli lukenut=                  =olivat lukeneet=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en ollut lukenut=             =emme olleet lukeneet=
    2. =et ollut lukenut=             =ette olleet lukeneet=
    3. =ei ollut lukenut=             =eivät olleet lukeneet=

              _Concessive._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =lukenen=                      =lukenemme=
    2. =lukenet=                      =lukenette=
    3. =lukenee=                      =lukenevat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en lukene=                    =emme lukene=
    2. =et lukene=                    =ette lukene=
    3. =ei lukene=                    =eivät lukene=

           _Compound Concessive._  _Affirmative._

    1. =lienen lukenut=               =lienemme lukeneet=

    (The formation of the remaining persons will now be clear.)

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en liene lukenut=             =emme liene lukeneet=

                _Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =lukisin= (=14=)               =lukisimme=
    2. =lukisit=                      =lukisitte=
    3. =lukisi=                       =lukisivat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en lukisi=, etc.              =emme lukisi=, etc.

              _Compound Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =olisin lukenut=, etc.         =olisimme lukeneet=, etc.

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    =en olisi lukenut=, etc.          =emme olisi lukeneet=, etc.

                _Imperative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =lukekaamme=
    2. =lue=                          =lukekaa=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme lukeko=
    2. =älä lue=                      =älkää lukeko=

                _Optative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =lukeʻos=                      ——
    3. =lukekoon=                     =lukekoot=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =ällös lukeko=                 ——
    3. =älköön lukeko=                =älkööt lukeko=

                     _Participles._

      I. =lukeva=
     II. =lukenut=

                     _Infinitives._

      I.           =lukea=
         _Transl._ =lukeaksi=
     II.   _Ines._ =lukiessa=
          _Instr._ =lukien=
    III.           =lukema=, etc.
     IV.    _Nom._ =lukeminen=
           _Part._ =lukemista=, etc.
      V.  _Adess._ =lukemaisilla(ni)=

                      _Passive._

    _Present_     _Aff._ =luetaan=
                  _Neg._ =ei lueta=
    _Imperfect_   _Aff._ =luettiin=
                  _Neg._ =ei luettu=
    _Perfect_     _Aff._ =on luettu=
                  _Neg._ =ei ole luettu=
    _Pluperfect_  _Aff._ =oli luettu=
                  _Neg._ =ei ollut luettu=
    _Concessive_  _Aff._ =luettaneen=
                  _Neg._ =ei luettano=
    _Comp. Cond._ _Aff._ =lienee luettu=
                  _Neg._ =ei liene luettu=
    _Conditional_ _Aff._ =luettaisiin=
                  _Neg._ =ei luettaisi=
    _Comp. Cond._ _Aff._ =olisi luettu=
                  _Neg._ =ei olisi luettu=
    _Optative_    _Aff._ =luettakoon=
                  _Neg._ =älköön luettako=
    _Infin. II. Iness._  =luettaessa=

                     _Participles._

      I. =luettava=
     II. =luettu=

Similarly =tako=, _to forge_, makes the present =taon=, =taot=, =takoo=,
=taomme=, =taotte=, =takovat= (=k= being lost by =28=); imperfect
=taoin=, =taoit=, =takoi=, =taoimme=, =taoitte=, =takoivat=; concessive
=takonen=; conditional =takoisin=; imperative =tao=, =takokaa=; optative
=takoʻos=, =takokoon=; infinitives =takoa=, =takoessa=, =takoman=,
=takominen=, =takomaisillani=; participles =takova=, =takonut=; passive
=taotaan=, etc.

=Otta=, _to take_; present =otan= (=30=), =otat=, =ottaa=, =otamme=,
=otatte=, =ottavat=; imperfect =otin=, =otit=, =otti=, etc.; concessive
=ottanen=; conditional =ottaisin=; imperative =ota=, =ottakaamme=;
optative =ottaos=, =ottakoon=; infinitive =ottaa=, =ottaessa=, =ottaman=,
=ottaminen=, =ottamaisillani=; participles =ottava=, =ottanut=; passive
=otetaan=, etc.

=Rakenta=, _to build_, has in the present =rakennan= (=31=), =rakennat=,
=rakentaa=, =rakennamme=, =rakennatte=, =rakentavat=; imperfect
=rakensin=, =rakensit=, =rakensi=, etc.; passive =rakennetaan=, etc.

=Ymmärtä=, _to understand_, has similarly present (=31=) =ymmärrän=,
=ymmärrät=, =ymmärtää=, etc.; imperfect =ymmärsin=; passive =ymmärretään=.

=Pyrki=, _to strive_, makes in the present =pyrin=, =pyrit=, =pyrkii=,
=pyrimme=, =pyritte=, =pyrkivät=; imperfect =pyrin=; concessive
=pyrkinen=; conditional =pyrkisin=; imperative =pyri=, =pyrkikää=;
infinitive =pyrkiä=, etc.; passive =pyritään=, etc.

=Tappa=, _to kill_; present =tapan=, =tapat=, =tappaa=, etc.; imperfect
=tapoin=, =tapoit=, =tappoi=, (=7=); concessive =tappanen=; conditional
=tappaisin=; imperative =tapa=, =tappakaamme=; infinitive =tappaa=,
=tappaessa=, =tappaman=, =tappaminen=, =tappamaisillani=; passive
=tapetaan= (=11=).


_Third Conjugation._

This conjugation comprises all verbs where the radical is liable to
become closed by the loss of the final vowel, from which results a
variety of consonantal changes. The verbs which are conjugated in this
way fall into two classes.

I. Dissyllabic roots ending in =le=, =ne=, =re=, =se=, and all
polysyllabic roots ending in the vowel =e=.

These verbs have the following characteristics.

A. The root is closed—

(1) Before =t= in infinitive I and II and in the passive verb;

(2) Before =n= in the conditional and participle II active;

(3) Before =k= in the imperative.

B. The root may then be further changed by assimilation—

(1) Before =t= in the infinitive. The roots =tule=, =mene=, =pure= make
their infinitives =tulta=, =mentä=, =purta=, which become =tulla, ennä=,
=purra=. But roots ending in =se=, like =nouse=, keep the infinitive in
=sta=,—=nousta=; for =st= is not a group liable to assimilation. Further
simplifications of consonantal groups may take place; for example, root
=syökse=, _to throw down_, shortened to =syöks=, infinitive =syökstä=,
becomes =syöstä=; root =säkenöitse=, infinitive =säkenöits-tä= becomes
=säkenöitä=.

(2) The =l=, =r=, or =t= at the end of the closed root always assimilates
the =n= of the conditional and of participle II active. The final =s=
sometimes assimilates =n=; frequently in participle II, rarely in the
conditional.

_E.g._ The roots =tule=, =pure=, =kaitse=, which in their closed forms
become =tul=, =pur=, =kait=, form the conditionals =tullee=, =purree=,
=kainnee=, and the participles =tullut=, =purrut=, =kainnut=. =Nouse=
forms =nousnee=, rarely =noussee= and participle II =nousnut= or
=noussut=.

C. A strong consonant at the beginning of the penultimate syllable in
polysyllabic words is also liable to softening in forms derived from
the closed root, but _not_ in forms derived from the full root. Root
=rohkene=, _to dare_; infinitive I =rohjeta=.

D. The final =e= is dropped in the imperfect.

E. The third sing. present has =ee=.

F. Trisyllabic roots in =ne= change =n= to =t= in the imperative, and
have the infinitive I ending in =ta= preceded by a vowel so that =ne= is
altogether lost; e.g. =alene=; imperative =aletkoon=; infinitive =aleta=.

G. The participle I active ends in =va=, =vä=.

In the verbs =näke= and =teke= =k= becomes =h= when the root loses its
final vowel.

II. The second division of this conjugation comprises all trisyllabic
roots ending in =ta=, =tä= preceded by a short vowel. Such are =lupata=,
_to promise_; =hakkata=, _to strike_; =pelkätä=, _to fear_, etc.

In these verbs the following changes occur:—

A. In the present the =t= of the syllable =ta= (=tä=) is lost, and if the
preceding vowel is =a= or =ä=, a long vowel is formed. That is, =lupata=,
=pelkätä= become =lupaa=, =pelkää=. If the preceding vowel is =o=, =ö=,
or =e=, the vowels may be assimilated into one long vowel or remain as
they are. =Putota=, =putoa=, _or_ =putoo=; =kerketä=, =kerkeä=, _or_
=kerkee=; but if the vowel of the penultimate syllable is =u=, =y=, or
=i=, such assimilation rarely occurs.

B. In the imperfect the final vowel is lost and =t= becomes =s= before
the =i= which characterizes this tense; =lupasin=, etc.

C. The root is closed in the concessive, and the final =t= assimilated
to the =n=; =lupata-nen= becomes =luvat-nen= (=34=), and then =luvannen=
(=30=).

D. In the conditional the last syllable of the root is generally
completely lost; =lupaisi= for =lupata-isi=; but a trace of it remains
in such forms as =kokoaisi= (alternative for =kokoisi=) representing
=kokotaisi=.

V. Similarly infinitives I, II, and the passive are formed from the
closed root, and as the _formative_ syllable =ta= is closed by the
breathing, =tt= becomes =t=; that is to say, the full root =lupata=
becomes the closed root =luvat=; to this is added the closed syllable
=taʻ=, and =luvattaʻ= becomes =luvata=. Similarly the passive =luvataan=.


_Examples._

Division I. Roots =tule=, _to come_; closed form =tul=. =Nouse=, _to
rise_; closed form =nous=.

              _Present._ _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =tulen=                        =tulemme=
    2. =tulet=                        =tulette=
    3. =tulee=                        =tulevat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en tule=                      =emme tule=
    2. =et tule=                      =ette tule=
    3. =ei tule=                      =eivät tule=

              _Imperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =tulin=                        =tulimme=
    2. =tulit=                        =tulitte=
    3. =tuli=                         =tulivat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en tullut=                    =emme tulleet=
    2. =et tullut=                    =ette tulleet=
    3. =ei tullut=                    =eivät tulleet=

               _Perfect._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olen tullut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en ole tullut=, etc.

               _Pluperfect._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olin tullut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en ollut tullut=, etc.

                _Concessive._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =tullen=                       =tullemme=
    2. =tullet=                       =tullette=
    3. =tullee=                       =tullevat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en tulle=, etc.

                _Comp. Concess._  _Affirmative._

    1. =lienen tullut=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en liene tullut=

               _Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =tulisin=                      =tulisimme=
    2. =tulisit=                      =tulisiitte=
    3. =tulisi=                       =tulisivat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en tulisi=, etc.

           _Compound Conditional._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olisin tullut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en olisi tullut=, etc.

              _Imperative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =tulkaame=
    2. =tule=                         =tulkaa=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme=
    2. =älä tule=                     =älkää tulko=

               _Optative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =tullos=                       ——
    3. =tulkoon=                      =tulkoot=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =ällös tulko=                  ——
    3. =älköön tulko=                 =älkööt tulko=

                     _Infinitives._

      I.            =tulla=
          _Transl._ =tullakse(ni)=
     II.            =tulle=
            _Ines._ =tullessa=
           _Instr._ =tullen=
    III.            =tuleman=
     IV.     _Nom._ =tuleminen=
            _Part._ =tulemista=
      V.            =tulemaisilla(ni)=

                     _Participles._

     I. =tuleva=
    II. =tullut=

                      _Passive._

    _Pres._       _Aff._ =tullaan=,
                  _Neg._ =ei tulla=
    _Impf._       _Aff._ =tultiin=
                  _Neg._ =ei tultu=
    _Conc._       _Aff._ =tultaneen=
                  _Neg._ =ei tultane=
    _Comp. Conc._ _Aff._ =lienee tultu=
                  _Neg._ =ei liene tultu=
    _Cond._       _Aff._ =tultaisiin=
                  _Neg._ =ei tultaisi=
    _Cond. Comp._ _Aff._ =olisi tultu=
                  _Neg._ =ei olisi tultu=
    _Opt._        _Aff._ =tultakoon=
                  _Neg._ =älköön tultako=

                     _Participles._

      I. =tultava=
     II. =tultu=

       *       *       *       *       *

             _Present._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =nousen=                       =nousemme=
    2. =nouset=                       =nousette=
    3. =nousee=                       =nousevat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en nouse=                     =emme nouse=
    2. =et nouse=                     =ette nouse=
    3. =ei nouse=                     =eivät nouse=

              _Imperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =nousin=                       =nousimme=
    2. =nousit=                       =nousitte=
    3. =nousi=                        =nousivat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =en nousnut= _or_
       =noussut=[12]                  =emme nousneet=
    2. =et nousnut=                   =ette nousneet=
    3. =ei nousnut=                   =eivät nousneet=

               _Perfect._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olen nousnut=, _or_ =noussut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en ole nousnut= _or_ =noussut=, etc.

               _Pluperfect._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olin nousnut= _or_ =noussut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en ollut nousnut= _or_ =noussut=, etc.

                 _Concessive._  _Affirmative._

    1. =nousnen= _or_ =noussen=       =nousnemme= _or_ =noussemme=
    2. =nousnet= _or_ =nousset=       =nousnette= _or_ =noussette=
    3. =nousnee= _or_ =noussee=       =nousnevat= _or_ =noussevat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en nousne= _or_ =nousse=, etc.

            _Compound Concessive._  _Affirmative._

    1. =lienen nousnut= _or_ =noussut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en liene nousnut= _or_ =noussut=, etc.

              _Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =nousisin=                     =nousisimme=
    2. =nousisit=                     =nousisitte=
    3. =nousisi=                      =nousisivat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en nousisi=, etc.

          _Compound Conditional._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olisin nousnut= _or_ =noussut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en olisi nousnut= _or_ =noussut=, etc.

             _Imperative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =nouskaamme=
    2. =nouse=                        =nouskaa=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme nousko=
    2. =älä nouse=                    =älkää nousko=

              _Optative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =nouseos=                      ——
    3. =nouskoo=                      =nouskoot=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    2. =ällös nousko=                 ——
    3. =älköön nousko=                =älkööt nousko=

                     _Infinitives._

      I.            =nousta=
          _Transl._ =noustakse(ni)=
     II.            =nouste=
            _Ines._ =noustessa=
           _Instr._ =nousten=
    III.            =nouseman=, etc.
     IV.     _Nom._ =nouseminen=
            _Part._ =nousemista=
      V.            =nousemaisilla(ni)=

                     _Participles._

      I. =nouseva=
     II. =nousnut=, _or_ =noussut=

                      _Passive._

    _Pres._       _Aff._ =noustaan=
                  _Neg._ =ei nousta=
    _Impf._       _Aff._ =noustiin=
                  _Neg._ =ei noustu=
    _Conc._       _Aff._ =noustaneen=
                  _Neg._ =ei noustane=
    _Comp. Conc._ _Aff._ =lienee noustu=
                  _Neg._ =ei liene noustu=
    _Cond._       _Aff._ =noustaisiin=
                  _Neg._ =ei noustaisi=
    _Cond. Comp._ _Aff._ =olisi noustu=
                  _Neg._ =ei olisi noustu=
    _Imp._        _Aff._ =noustakoon=
                  _Neg._ =älköön noustako=

                     _Participle._

      I. =noustava=
     II. =noustu=

Roots =lupata=, _to promise_; =kokota=, _to collect_.

       _Present Indicative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =lupaan=                       =lupaamme=
    2. =lupaat=                       =lupaatte=
    3. =lupaa=                        =lupaavat=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._

    1. =en lupaa=
    2. =et lupaa=, etc.

              _Imperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =lupasin=                      =lupasimme=
    2. =lupasit=                      =lupasitte=
    3. =lupasi=                       =lupasivat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en luvannut=, etc.

                _Concessive._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =luvannen=                     =luvannemme=
    2. =luvannet=                     =luvannette=
    3. =luvannee=                     =luvannevat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en luvanne=, etc.

             _Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =lupaisin=                    =lupaisimme=
    2. =lupaisit=                    =lupaisitte=
    3. =lupaisi=                     =lupaisivat=

                    _Compound tenses._

               _Perfect._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olen luvannut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en ole luvannut=, etc.

               _Pluperfect._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olin luvannut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en ollut luvannut=, etc.

               _Concessive._  _Affirmative._

    1. =lienen luvannut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en liene luvannut=, etc.

               _Conditional._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olisin luvannut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en olisi luvannut=, etc.

                _Futures._  _Affirmative._

      I. =olen lupaava=
     II. =olin lupaava=
    III. =lienen lupaava=
     IV. =olisin lupaava=

                      _Negative._

    =en ole lupaava=, etc.

               _Imperative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =luvatkaamme=
    2. =lupaa=                        =luvatkaa=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme luvatko=
    2. =älä lupaa=                    =älkää luvatko=

                _Optative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =luvatkoon=
    2. =luvatkos=                     =luvatkoot=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älköön luvatko=
    2. =ällös luvatko=                =älkööt luvatko=

                     _Infinitives._

      I. =luvata=
         =luvatakse(ni)=
     II. =luvatessa=
         =luvaten=
    III. =lupaama=, etc.
     IV. =lupaaminen=
         =lupaamista=
      V. =lupaamaisilla=

                     _Participles._

    =lupaava=
    =luvannut=

                      _Passive._

    _Ind. Pres._ _Aff._ =luvataan=
                 _Neg._ =ei luvata=
    _Imp._       _Aff._ =luvattiin=
                 _Neg._ =ei luvattu=
    _Conc._      _Aff._ =luvattaneen=
                 _Neg._ =ei luvattane=
    _Cond._      _Aff._ =luvattaisiin=
                 _Neg._ =ei luvattaisi=
    _Imp._       _Aff._ =luvattakaan=
                 _Neg._ =älkään luvattako=
    _Opt._       _Aff._ =luvattakoon=
                 _Neg._ =älköön luvattako=

                     _Infinitives._

     II. =luvattesa=
    III. =luvattaman=

                     _Participles._

    _Present_ =luvattava=
    _Past_    =luvattu=

       *       *       *       *       *

              _Present Indicative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =kokoan= _or_ =kokoon=         =kokoamme= _or_ =kokoomme=
    2. =kokoat= _or_ =kokoot=         =kokoatte= _or_ =kokootte=
    3. =kokoaa= _or_ =kokoo=          =kokoavat= _or_ =kokoovat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en kokoa= _or_ =en kokoo=
    2. =et kokoa= _or_ =et kokoo=
    3. =ei kokoa=

              _Imperfect._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =kokosin=                      =kokosimme=
    2. =kokosit=                      =kokositte=
    3. =kokosi=                       =kokosivat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en koonnut=, etc.

               _Concessive._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =koonnen= (=28=)               =koonnemme=
    2. =koonnet=                      =koonnette=
    3. =koonnee=                      =koonnevat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en koonne=, etc.

                _Conditional._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. =kokoaisin= or =kokoisin=      =kokoaisimme= or =kokoisimme=
    2. =kokoaisit= or =kokoisit=      =kokoaisitte= or =kokoisitte=
    3. =kokoaisi= or =kokoisi=        =kokoaisivat= or =kokoisivat=

                      _Negative._

    1. =en kokoaisi= or en =kokoisi=, etc.

                       _Compound tenses._

               _Perfect._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olen koonnut= (=28=), etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en ole koonnut=, etc.

               _Pluperfect._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olin koonnut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en ollut koonnut=, etc.

               _Concessive._  _Affirmative._

    1. =lienen koonnut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en liene koonnut=, etc.

              _Conditional._  _Affirmative._

    1. =olisin koonnut=, etc.

                      _Negative._

    1. =en olisi koonnut=, etc.

               _Futures._  _Affirmative._

      I. =olen kokoava=
     II. =olin kokoava=
    III. =lienen kokoava=
     IV. =olisin kokoava=

               _Imperative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =kootkaamme=
    2. =kokoa= _or_ =kokoo=           =kootkaa=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älkäämme kootko=
    2. =älä kokoa= _or_ =kokoo=       =älkää kootko=

                _Optative._  _Affirmative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =kootkoon=
    2. =kootkos=                      =kootkoot=

                      _Negative._

       _Sing._                        _Plur._

    1. ——                             =älköön kootko=
    2. =ällös kootko=                 =älkööt kootko=

                     _Infinitives._

      I. =koota=
         =kootakse(ni)=
     II. =kootessa=
         =kooten=
    III. =kokoama= _or_ =kokooma=, etc.
     IV. =kokoaminen= _or_ =kokoominen=
         =kokoamista= _or_ =kokoomista=
      V. =kokoamaisilla= _or_ =kokoomaisilla=

                      _Participles._

    _Present_   =kokoava= _or_ =kokoova=
    _Past_      =koonnut=

                       _Passive._

    _Indic. Pres._ _Aff._ =kootaan=
                   _Neg._ =ei koota=
    _Impf._        _Aff._ =koottiin=
                   _Neg._ =ei koottu=
    _Conc._        _Aff._ =koottaneen=
                   _Neg._ =ei koottane=
    _Cond._        _Aff._ =koottaisiin=
                   _Neg._ =ei koottaisi=
    _Imp._         _Aff._ =koottakaan=
    _Opt._         _Aff._ =koottakoon=
                   _Neg._ =älköön koottako=

                     _Infinitives._

     II. =koottaessa=
    III. =koottaman=

                    _Participles._

    _Present_ =koottava=
    _Past_    =koottu=

Other examples: root =rohkene=, _to dare_.

    _Pres._ =rohkenen=, =rohkenet=, =rohkenee=
    _Impf._ =rohkenin=
    _Conc._ =rohjennen=, =rohjennet=
    _Cond._ =rohkenisin=
    _Imp._  =rohkene=, =rohjetkaa= (=45=)
    _Inf._  =rohjeta=, =rohjete=, =rohkenema=, =rohkenemisen=,
            =rohkenemaisillani=
    _Part._ =rohkeneva, rohjennut=
    _Pass._ =rohjetaan=

Root =alene=, _to sink_.

    _Pres._ =alenen=
    _Impf._ =alenin=
    _Conc._ =alennen=
    _Cond._ =alenisin=
    _Imp._  =alene=, =aletkaa= (=45=)
    _Inf._  =aleta=, =alete=, =alenema=, =aleneminen=, =alenemaisellani=
    _Pass._ =aletaan=

Root =syökse=, _to cast_.

    _Pres._ =syöksen=
    _Imp._  =syöksin=
    _Conc._ =syösnen= (=1=)
    _Cond._ =syöksisin=
    _Imp._  =syökse=, =syöskää=
    _Inf._  =syöstä= (=1=), =syöste=, =syöksemä=, =syökseminen=,
            =syöksemäisilläni=
    _Part._ =syöksevä=, =syösnyt=
    _Pass._ =syöstään=

Root =säkenöitse=, _to glitter_.

    _Pres._ =säkenöitsen=
    _Imp._  =säkenöitsin=
    _Conc._ =säkenöinnen= (=1= & =44=)
    _Cond._ =säkenöitsisin=
    _Imp._  =sökenöitse=, =säkenöitkää=
    _Inf._  =säkenöitä= (=1=), =säkinöite=, =säkinöitsemä=,
            =säkenöitseminen=, =säkenöitsemäisilläni=.
    _Part._ =säkenöitsevä=, =säkenöinnyt=
    _Pass._ =säkenöitään=

Root =näke=, _to see_.

    _Pres._ =näen= (=28=), =näet=, =näkee=, =näemme=, =näette=, =näkevät=
    _Inf._  =näin=, =näit=, =näki=, =näimme=, =näitte=, =näkivät=
    _Conc._ =nähnen= (=41=)
    _Cond._ =näkisin=
    _Imp._  =näe= (=28=), =nähkää= (=41=)
    _Inf._  =nähdä=, =nähde=, =näkemä=, =näkeminen=, =näkemäisilläni=
    _Part._ =näkevä=, =nähnyt=
    _Pass._ =nähdään=           _Part._ =nähty=


_Reflexive Verbs._

Under this name are comprised a great number of verbal forms, formed by
adding certain suffixes to the simple transitive root, many of which are
not used in ordinary written and spoken Finnish.

A. Reflexive verbs are formed by adding to the root the suffixes =utu=,
=yty=, or =untu=, =ynty=. For instance, =anta=, _to give_, makes
=antautua= or =antauntua=; =teke=, _to do_, =tekeytyä= or =tekeyntyä=.
The =u= or =y= may be assimilated to the last vowel of the root, which
gives us forms like =antaantua=, =tekeentyä=. These verbs are conjugated
quite regularly.

B. This suffix is also found in the shorter form =u=, =y=. =Antaa=,
=antauta=; =löytää=, _to find_, =löytyä=, _to be found_; =muuttaa=, _to
change_ (_act_), =muuttua=, _to change oneself_.

These verbs generally present some peculiarities in their conjugation.

(1) They usually have the old ending =pi= in the 3d sing. indicative
present; =antauupi=, but =antau= is also found.

(2) The imperfect ends in =si=; =antausin=, =antausit=, =antausi=, etc.
This =s= is the remains of an original =t=, showing that the termination
=u= is only short for =utu=.

(3) The same =t= is preserved in the infinitive and passive—=antauta=,
=antautaan=.

C. In the Kalevala and the Karelian dialect are found a great quantity
of more or less irregular reflexive forms, which are often explained by
supposing that the reflexive pronoun =itse= is added to the verb, and
then weakened in various ways to =ihe=, =ite=, =ik=, =k=, etc. But this
explanation is very doubtful.

For example. From =muuttaa=, _to change_, comes the form =muuttain=, _I
change myself_.

       _Sing._                         _Plur._

    1. =muuttain=                      =muuttaimme=
    2. =muuttait=                      =muttaitte=
    3. =muuttaikse=, _or_ =muuttaihe=  =muuttaivat=

The termination =kse= or =ihe= for the third person sing. is
characteristic of these verbs. We also find the termination =me= for the
first person sing., =te= for the second, and =se= or =set= for the third.

The concessive is =muuttainnen=, and the conditional is =muuttaisisin=,
etc. The imperative and optative =muuttaitkaan=, =muuttaitkoon=[13].


_The Formation of Verbs._

Verbs are either primitive, that is to say, they consist of a simple
root, to which are added the various modal and personal terminations,
or they are derivative, that is to say, besides these terminations some
formative syllable is added to the root, such as =ta=, =ele=, =aise=. It
is not easy to assign a precise meaning to all of these terminations,
particularly to the commoner, which are used in many and not very
definite senses.

Simple roots are either transitive or intransitive in their meaning.

Derivative transitive verbs are formed with the following suffixes,
which, however, are sometimes also found in verbs of neuter signification.

(1) =ta=, =tä=, which must not be confounded with the =ta= of the first
infinitive, is added to verbal roots ending in =e=, which is rejected.

=päästää=, _to let go_, but =päästä=, intransitive. (N.B. The first
verb is for =päästätä=, the second for =pääsetä=, so that the =t= of
the latter belongs to the termination of the infinitive, but the =t=
of the latter to the stem). =Paksuntaa=, _to thicken_, but =paksuta=,
_to grow thick_; =peljättää=, _to frighten_, but =peljätä=, _to fear_;
=viertää=, _to roll down_, transitive or intransitive, but =vierrä= only
intransitive.

(2) =tta=, =ttä=, is added chiefly to roots ending in =u= or =y= which
are not rejected. =Juottaa=, _to give to drink_ (=juoda=, _to drink_);
=käyttää=, _to use_ (from =käydä=); =menettää=, _to cause to go or lose_
(=mennä=, _to go_); =näyttää=, _to show_ (=nähdä=, _to see_); =tuottaa=,
_to cause to bring, to get_ (=tuoda=, _to bring_); =kuolettaa=, _to kill_
(=kuolla=, _to die_).

(3) =utta=, =yttä=, is added mostly to polysyllabic roots: =kävelyttää=,
_to make walk_; =epäilyttää=, _to make doubt_; =huomauttaa=, _to make
observed_; =liikuttaa=, _to move_, trans. (=liikkua=, intrans.).

Reflexive neuter verbs (_vide_ p. 109) are formed with the following
suffixes:—

(1) =u= or =y=, added chiefly to dissyllabic roots ending in =a= and =e=,
which are rejected, and to polysyllables in =ta= and =oitse=:—=löytyä=,
_to be found, to exist_ (=löytää=, _to find_); =tuntua=, _to be felt_
(=tuntea=, _to feel_); =muuttua=, _to change_, intransitive (=muuttaa=,
_to change_, trans.); =täytyä=, _to be sufficient_ or _necessary_
(=täyttää=, transitive); =rakastua=, _to be in love with_ (=rakastaa=,
_to love_, transitive); =kuulua=, _to be heard_ (=kuulla=, _to hear_).

(2) =untu=, =ynty=, shortened into =utu=, =yty=:—=antauntua=, =antautua=,
or =antauta=, _to give oneself up_ (=antaa=, _to give_); =jakauntua=,
=jakaantua=, =jakautua=, or =jakauta=, _to be divided_ (=jakaa=, _to
divide_); =kääriytyä=, _to be involved_ (=kääriä=); =vetäytyä=, _to
retire_ (=vetää=).

There is also a suffix =pu=, =py=, used to form a few words of
intransitive signification:—=joupua=, _to get drunk_ (=juoda=, _to
drink_); =syöpyä=, _to eat one’s fill_ (=syödä=, _to eat_); =jääpyä=,
_to remain behind_ (=jäädä=, _to remain_); =saapua=, _to arrive_ (from
=saada=, cf. ‘se rendre’). =Luopua=, =vaipua=, and =viipyä= seem to be
formed with the same suffix.

Frequentative verbs are formed with the suffixes =ele=, =ksi=, and =nta=,
either separately or combined. It is often hard to determine the exact
force of these suffixes. Sometimes they signify a repeated or prolonged
action, sometimes they form a kind of verbal diminutive, expressing
an action slightly or gently performed, sometimes there is no real
difference between the meanings of the original and derived verbs.

(1) =ele= is added mostly to dissyllabic roots ending in =a=, which is
lost before the suffix. The first infinitive ends in =ella=, and the verb
is conjugated after the third conjugation, e.g. =kysellä=, _to ask often_
(Russian =спрашивать=), from =kysyä=, _to ask_ (Russian =спросить=);
=katsella=, _to observe, or regard_, from =katsoa=, _to look_; =ellellä=,
_to live_, from =elää=; =hypellä=, _to jump_ (=попрыгивать=), from
=hypätä= (=прыгать=).

(2) =ksi= is added to the dissyllabic roots, especially to those ending
in =e=. =a= and =ä= become =e= before this suffix. =kuljeksia=, _to
wander_, from =kulkea=, _to go_; =eleksiä=, _to live_, from =elää=;
=anneksia=, from =antaa=, _to give_.

The termination =nta= is rarely found alone, but =ksenta=, =ksentele=,
and =ntele= occur, and =ksele= is a frequentative form. =Käyskellä=, _to
wander_, from =käydä=, _to go_; =saneskella= (=поговорить=) from =sanoa=,
=kuljeskella=, from =kulkea=.

Instantaneous or semelfactive verbs. These, when they have their strict
significance, denote an action done once or suddenly, and correspond to
Russian forms in =-нуть=. The terminations which have this sense are—

(1) =ahta=, added to dissyllabic verbs which lose their last vowel.
=Kilijahtaa=, _to give a cry_ (=воскликнуть=); =liikahtaa= (=liikkua=),
_to make a movement_ (=двинуться=); =elähtää=, _to come to life_ (but
also _to live_, _to grow old_).

(2) =aise=, added to dissyllables in =e=, =i=, =o=, and =u=, which fall
out before the termination. =kiljaista=, _to give a cry_; =puraista=, _to
give a bite_ (=purra=, _to bite_); =halkaista=, _to split_.

Verbal suffixes are also added to nouns, adjectives, and adverbs, the
verbs so formed having various meanings which can be easily illustrated
from English, where verbs are often formed from substantives or
adjectives with or without a suffix being added. In Finnish such derived
verbs have been divided into a variety of categories; such as—(1)
Instructive, which imply the provision of something with the object
denoted by the noun, cf. the English _to butter_, _to arm_. (2) Factive,
denoting the conversion of something into the object or quality denoted
by the original word, cf. English _to blacken_. (3) Operative, implying
the use or action of the substantive, cf. English _to drop_, _to boat_.
(4) Essive, denoting the existence or activity of something in the
capacity of the noun, cf. English _to idle_.

These classes of verbs are not denoted by special suffixes, but the
syllables =ta=, =i=, =itse=, =tta=, =sta= are added to form verbs which
may have any of these significations.

=Ta= is added to monosyllables and roots which are susceptible of being
closed, likewise to trisyllables ending in =ra=, =la=, =na=. Many of the
verbs formed with this affix end in =sta=; but the =s= belongs to the
root, not to the suffix. Examples—=perustaa=, _to found_ (=perus=, _a
foundation_), =vaatettaa=, _to clothe_ (=vaate-=); =veistää=, _to cut_
(=veitse=, _a knife_); =poistaa=, _to drive away_ (=pois=); =yltää=, _to
reach_ (=yli=); =kumartaa=, _to bow_ (=kumara=); =kiirehtää=, _to hurry_
(=kiire=); =sairastaa=, _to be ill_ (=sairas=).

This termination sometimes becomes =a=, the =t= being lost, e.g.
=harjata=, _to comb_; =kullata=, _to gild_. Here the =ta= is of course
the termination of the infinitive.

Roots ending in =eʻ= with the aspiration generally suffix =ti= and not
=ta=, though sometimes both forms are found. The aspiration becomes
=h= before the =t=, =vaatehtia=, _to clothe_; =kiirehtiä=, _to hurry_;
=tervehtiä=, _to salute_, etc.

The termination =i= is added to dissyllables ending in =ä=, =e=, =i=, and
also to such dissyllables ending in =a= as have =o= or =u= as their first
vowel, whereas dissyllables in =a= with =a=, =e=, or =i= for their first
vowel, suffix =o=. This rule is analogous to no. =7=, and is prompted by
a desire to avoid the repetition of the same in succeeding syllables. In
all cases the final vowel of the stem is elided before the termination.
Examples—=kukkia=, _to flower_ (=kukka=); =sotia=, _to fight_ (=sota=);
=munia=, _to lay eggs_ (=muna=); =huolia=, _to care_ (=huoli=); but
=sanoa=, _to speak_ (=sana=); =neuloa=, _to sew_ (=neula=); =leipoa=, _to
bake_ (=leipä=).

The termination =itse= is added chiefly to trisyllabic roots, but also to
dissyllables. In trisyllabic words the final =a= and =ä= of stems always
become =o= and =ö= before =i=; in dissyllables the final vowel sometimes
undergoes this change and is sometimes rejected. The verbs so formed
are conjugated according to conjugation III, so that the infinitive
ends in =oita= for =oitse=. This termination is closely related to the
termination =i=, so much so that almost all the words formed with it have
double forms. For example, from =satula=, _a saddle_, is formed either
the verbal stem =satuloi=; infinitive =satuloida=; present =satuloin=; or
the stem =satuloitse=; infinitive =satuloita=; present =satuloitsen=.

Examples of verbs: =iloita=, _to be glad_ (=ilo=); =hedelmöitä=, _to
give fruit_ (=hedelmä=); =askaroita=, _to work_ (=askere=); =jumaloita=
(=jumala=), _to deify_; =palmikoita=, _to twine_ (=palmikko=).

=tta=, =itta=. These terminations are added to monosyllables, to
dissyllables ending in =i=, =o= (=ö=), and =u= (=y=), and trisyllables
in =a= (=ä=) (which always changes to =o=) and =e=. Dissyllabic and
polysyllabic words prefer the termination without =i=. This suffix is the
same as that used to form transitive verbs from intransitive, and a large
proportion of the verbs which are derived from nouns by its addition are
factitive. =Päättää=, _to finish_ (=päättyä=, _to end_, intransitive);
=jäättää=, _to freeze_; =kirjoittaa=, _to write_; =lahjoittaa=, _to
make a present_; =hyvittää=, _to use well_; =syyttää=, _to accuse_;
=kunnioittaa=, _to honour_.

=sta= or =ista= is added generally to dissyllabic stems, whose final
vowel is lost before =i=, though =a= sometimes becomes =o=. =Metsästää=,
_to hunt_; =kärjestää=, _to sharpen_; =kalastaa=, _to fish_; =ylistää=,
_to extol_; =yhdistää=, _to unite_; =äänestää=, _to express an opinion_,
_to vote_.

Another class of verbs are called translative, and express a change to
the state denoted by the noun from which the verb is formed.

Such are formed with the following terminations:—

(1) =ne= is added chiefly to dissyllables, also to trisyllables in =ea=
(=eä=), whose final =a= (=ä=), and sometimes =o=, changes to =e=. The
verb so formed is conjugated according to the third conjugation, and
the syllable =ne= altogether disappears in the infinitive, which ends in
=eta=. =Aleta= (present =alenen=) _to sink down_; =musteta=, _to become
black_; =lähetä=, _to draw near_; =pimetä=, _to grow dark_.

(2) =a= or =ä= is added mostly to dissyllabic roots ending in =i=, which
changes to =e=; if added to roots ending in =a=, this vowel generally
becomes =o=. It is also added to trisyllables in =ea= (=eä=). =Soeta=,
_to become blind_ (=sokea=).

A small number of verbs are formed from adjectives by the addition of
the suffix =ksi= or =ksu=, before which =a= and =ä= are often changed
to =e=. These verbs, sometimes called _censitive_, express the light in
which something is regarded. =Halveksia=, _to hold cheap_ (=halpa=);
=hyveksiä= _or_ =hyväksyä=, _to find good_, _to approve_; =pahaksua= _or_
=paheksia=, _to find bad_, _to be angry at_; =väheksiä= _or_ =vähäksyä=,
_to find small or despise_.



POSTPOSITIONS.


The place of prepositions in other languages is supplied by
postpositions, that is to say, by words which follow a substantive
(mostly in the genitive or partitive case). These words are not, however,
really analogous to the indeclinable prepositions of other languages;
they are cases of substantives, some of which are found used in the
nominative case. For instance, =ali= (not used as a substantive) means
a place under something else. From this are formed the cases =alla=,
=alle=, =alta=, etc., which are used as prepositions, e.g. =kissa on
pöydän alla=, _the cat is in the place under the table_, that is,
_under the table_; =kissa meni pöydän alle=, _the cat went to the
place under the table_, that is, _under the table_; =kissa tuli pöydän
alta=, _the cat came from the place under the table_, or _from under
the table_. A list of these substantives, which are mostly fragmentary
in their declensions, is given in the Syntax. A few of them precede the
substantive which they govern and can hence be called prepositions. Such
words mostly require that the substantive which they govern should be in
the partitive, whereas postpositions follow a word in the genitive.

In these words we may distinguish two classes:—

A. Those which are used as postpositions only in one case, and which
have become more or less petrified. Such are =ennen=, _before_; =ilman=,
_without_; =kanssa=, _with_; =varten=, _for_.

B. Those which are used in several cases. Some of these are ordinary
substantives used in the nominative and other cases. The postpositional
usage of such words corresponds to such English phrases as ‘in the
middle of.’ Such are =joukko=, _a crowd_; (=joukossa=, =joukkoon=);
=jälki=, _a footstep_ (=jälessä=, =jälestä=, =jälkeen=); =kohta=, _a
place_ (=kohdalla=, =kohdalta=, =kohdalle=, =kohtaan=); =puoli=, _a half_
(=puolessa=, =puolesta=, =puolella=, =puolelta=, =puoleen=); =pää=, _a
head_ (=päässä=, =päästä=, =päähän=, =päällä=, =päälle=, =päältä=).

Others, though clearly substantives in their form, are not used except
as particles:—=yli=, =ylitse=, =yllä=, =ylle=, =yltä=; =ympäri=,
=ympärillä=, =ympäriltä=, =ympärille=; =alla=, =alta=, =alle=; =edessä=,
=edestä=, =eteen=, =edellä=, =edeltä=, =edelle=; =luota=, =luona=, =luo=;
=ohessa=, =ohesta=, =oheen=, =ohitse=; =myötä=, =myöten=, and others.



THE ADVERB.


There are two classes of adverbs in Finnish: (1) Independent adverbs, (2)
Adverbial suffixes.

The independent adverbs are often cases of nouns which differ from
postpositions only in this, that they are used absolutely, and not in
connection with another word. Thus in =käydä kaupungin ympäri=, _to go
round the town_, =ympäri= may be described as a postposition, while in
=käydä ympäri=, where it stands alone and absolute, it is an adverb.
Similarly in =kulkea puutarhan ohitse=, _to pass by the garden_,
=ohitse= is a postposition, but in =pian se menee ohitse=, _it will soon
be over_, it is an adverb.

These independent adverbs are formed in different ways:—

A. Some are primitive words, whose grammatical formation is not clear,
e.g. =nyt=, _now_; =heti=, _soon_; =aina=, _always_; =vielä=, _yet_;
=koska=, _when_.

B. A second class is formed by the addition of certain suffixes.

(1) Adverbs are formed from adjectives by the addition of =sti=, perhaps
related to the suffix of the elative, =sta=, e.g. =hywä=, _good_,
=hywästi=, _well_; =tietty=, _known_; =tietysti=, _certainly_. =lti=
is also found (cf. ablative =lta=); =laajalti=, _widely_, e.g. =se
on laajalti tunnettu=, _he is widely known_; =paksulta=, _much_ or
_thickly_; =syvältä=, _deeply_.

(2) =ten= or =ti= (cf. prolative =tse=) is added to pronouns. =Täten=,
_so_; =miten=, _how_; =siten=, _so_; =muuten=, _otherwise_; =peräti=,
_entirely_.

(3) =isin= (instructive) is added to nouns. =Maisin=, _by land_;
=takaisin=, _back_.

(4) =nne= is added to pronouns, and forms adverbs of direction. =Sinne=,
_thither_; =tänne=, _hither_; =minne=, _whither_; =jonnekunne=, _to
somewhere or other_.

(5) =tusten=, =tuksin=, =ksuttain=, =kkain=, are used to form
adverbs expressing a mutual relation. =Rinnatusten=, _side by side_;
=käsityksin=, _hand in hand_; =peräksyttäin= _or_ =peräkkäin=, _one
behind the other_.

(6) =oin=, or sometimes =ain= (probably from =ajoin=, =aika=, _time_),
is added to the adessive case of pronouns to form temporal adverbs.
=Silloin=, _then_; =milloin=, _when_; =muinoin=, _formerly_.

C. Various cases of nouns are used as adverbs:—

_Nominative_—E.g. =kohta=, _soon_; =kyllä=, _enough_.

_Accusative_ or _genitive_—=kauan=, _long_; =paljon=, _much_.

_Partitive_—=ulkoa=, _outside_; =salaa=, _secretly_.

_Inessive_—=tässä=, _here_; =missä=, _where_; =yhdessä=, _together_;
=pystyssä=, _straight, upright_.

_Elative_—=tästä=, _hence_; =mistä=, _whence_; =ainoastaan= _or_
=ainoastansa=, _only_.

_Illative_—=yhteen=, _together_; =tarkkaan=, _accurately_.

_Adessive_—=tuolla=, =siellä=, _there_; =kaikkialla=, _everywhere_.

_Ablative_—=kaikkialta=, _from all sides_; =muualta=, _from another
place_.

_Allative_—=uudelleen=, _anew_; =verkalleen=, _gradually_.

_Essive_—=ulkona=, _outside_; =kotona=, _at home_; =huomenna=,
_to-morrow_; =kaukana=, _far_.

_Translative_, where =kse= is generally abbreviated to =s=,—=alas=,
_below_; =ulos=, _without_; =myös=, _also_.

_Abessive_, where =tta= becomes =ti=,—=ääneti=, _silently_; =huoleti=,
_without care_.

_Instructive_—=niin=, _so_; =kuin=, _how_; =tosin=, _truly_; =harvoin=,
_rarely_; =kaksittain=, _two at a time_.

The second infinitive is also used adverbially in the instructive,
=nimittäin= (for =en=), _that is to say_.

Adverbs are also found in the comparative and superlative degree, and
are then in the essive, partitive, and translative cases, or adessive,
ablative, and allative. The termination =ksi= of the translative often
sinks to =s=, or merely the aspirate. =Likempänä=, _nearer_; =likempää=,
=likemmäksi= (=-mmäs= _or_ =-mmaʻ=), =likemmällä=, =likemmältä=, etc.

The adverbial suffixes are added to the end of other words. The principal
are—

=Ko=, =kö=, which gives an interrogative meaning to the word to which it
is affixed, like =ли= in Russian.

=Han=, =hän=, =pa=, =pä=, have a strengthening or affirmative force.

=Ki=, =kin=, have a copulative sense,—=minäkin=, _I too_.



CONJUNCTIONS.


According to their signification conjunctions may be divided into—

(_a_) _Copulative_—=ja=, =ynnä=, and =sekä=, _also_; =sekä ... että=,
_both ... and_; =ka=, =kä= (enclitic), _and_.

(_b_) _Disjunctive_—=eli=, =tahi=, =tai=, =taikka=, _or_; =joko ... tai=,
_either ... or_.

(_c_) _Adversative_—=mutta=, =vaan=, _but_; =kuitenkin=, =toki=,
_however_.

(_d_) _Inferential_—=sentähden=, =siksi=, _therefore_; =siis=,
=niin-muodoin=, _consequently_; =niin=, _so, accordingly_.

(_e_) _Causal_—=sillä=, _for_; =kun=, =koska=, _because_.

(_f_) _Comparative_—=kuin=, _than_; =ikäänkuin=, _as, if_.

(_g_) _Temporal_—=kun=, _when_; =jahka=, =heti kuin=, _as soon as_;
=ennenkuin=, _before that_; =sittenkuin=, _after that_.

(_h_) _Final_ and _Consecutive_—=että=, =jotta=, _that_.

(_i_) _Conditional_—=jos=, _if_.

(_j_) _Concessive_—=vaikka=, =jos=, =kohta=, _even if_.

(_k_) _Interrogative_—=ko=, =kö= (enclitic), =tokko=, =josko=, =vai=, _is
it ... or_ (like the Latin ‘utrum’ ... ‘an’).

It will be noticed that these conjunctions are in great part merely cases
of pronouns or adjectives, e.g. =sentähden=, =kuin=, =sillä=. =Ynnä=
appears to be a contracted essive from =yksi=; and =ja= and =toki= to be
borrowed words.



INTERJECTIONS.


1. _Of joy_—=aha=, =ahaa=, =hei=.

2. _Laughter_—=haha=, =hihi=.

3. _Grief_—=ai=, =aiai=, =voi=, =oi=, =voivoi=.

4. _Mockery_—=ähä=, =kutti=, =piti=, =piti-piti=.

5. _Astonishment_—=no=, =noh=, =ha=, =kah=, =kas=.

6. _Disgust_—=hyi=, =hyihyi=, =ui=, =uiui=.



SYNTAX.


Finnish sentences are formed of the same elements as those found in other
European languages—subjects, predicates, objects, attributes, etc.; but,
as the simplest phrases offer certain peculiarities, it is well, before
analysing the use of the various forms, to give some general rules.


_The Subject._

I. The Subject is in the nominative case if it is _total_, that is to
say, if something is predicated of the whole of the subject. Thus,
=ihmiset kuolevat=, _men die_, because the verb applies to the whole
race of men; =lapset tulevat=, _the children come_, that is to say,
_all the children in question_. Personal pronouns and a substantive in
the singular always are in the nominative, when subject to a sentence.
In other words, the subject is put in the nominative, (1) when the
proposition is universal. =Ihmiset kuolevat=, _men die_; =linnut
lentävät=, _birds fly_. (2) When it is preceded by the definite article
or other determinative adjective in English. =Sotamiehet läksivät=,
_the soldiers set out_; =nämät pojat olevat ahkerat=, _these boys are
industrious_. (3) When the subject is a single definite substantive or
pronoun, which is really the same as the case of an universal proposition.

II. But the subject is put in the partitive case, if something is
predicated, not of its whole extent, but of part of it. Thus, one says
=viini on hyvää=, _wine is good_; =viini on pöydällä=, _the wine is on
the table_; but =viiniä on pöydällä=, _there is some wine on the table_.
Similarly, =miehet tulevat=, _the men are coming_; but =miehiä tulee=,
_some men are coming_.

It is to be noticed—

(1) That in negative phrases, where the verb is =ei ole=, =ei näy=, =ei
kuulu=, =ei tunnu=, etc. (which are generally rendered in English by
such phrases as ‘there is no,’ or ‘there is not’), the subject is always
in the partitive, e.g. =siellä ei ole ketään=, _there is nobody there_;
=tässä joessa ei ole kaloja=, _there are no fish in this river_.

(2) The partitive can only be the subject to an intransitive verb,
because the mere fact of any word being the subject to a transitive verb
implies that the whole or a definite part of the subject is regarded as
acting. Thus, one can say, =varkaita tuli talooni=, _some thieves came
into my house_; but _some thieves stole my things_ must be rendered by
=varkaat= (_or_ =jotkut varkaat=) =varastivat tavarani=.

The subject can be altogether omitted if it is a pronoun of the first or
second person, and also in certain impersonal expressions, like =tuulee=,
_it is windy_. In such sentences as =on mahdotonta tehdä sitä=, _it is
impossible to do this_, the verbal noun is to be regarded as the subject.

Such sentences as _one says_, or _people say_, where the subject is
indefinite, are expressed in Finnish either by the passive verb (_v._ p.
181), or by the third person plural, no noun or pronoun being employed
to represent the subject. =Sanovat pääskysten jo tulleen=, _they say the
swallows have already come_; =Venäjällä hakkaavat paljo metsää=, _they
cut a great deal of wood in Russia_.

The third person sing. is also used in this sense: =kesällä elää vaikka
ilmalla=, _in summer one can live easily_ (literally, _on air_); =tekee
minkän jaksaa=, _one does as much work as one can_.

The second person sing. is also used in this impersonal sense, much as
in Russian. =Kävelet kadulla, et näe mitään, mutta yht’äkkiä putoat
kuopaan=, _one walks along the street, sees nothing, and suddenly tumbles
into a hole_.


_The Predicate._

The verb of a sentence usually agrees in number with the subject, if the
latter is in the nominative. But

(1) If the subject is in the partitive, either sing. or plural, the verb
is always in the sing. The real subject of the verb in such cases is not
the partitive itself, but such a word as =joukko=, =paljo=, or =vähä=
understood before it.

(2) If the subject is a noun with a numeral (which in Finnish requires
the partitive after it), the verb is also in the singular.

(3) When the verb =olla= is used with the adessive in the construction
rendered by the verb ‘have’ in English, it always remains in the 3rd
sing., no matter what the subject may be.

(4) In proverbs, the Kalevala, and popular speech generally, a singular
verb is very frequently found with a plur. nominative. Such an
irregularity is clearly rendered much easier and less glaring by the
analogy of the cases quoted above.

The verb =olla=, _to be_, is sometimes omitted, especially in proverbial
phrases.

=Oma maa mansikka, muu maa mustikka=, _one’s own land is a strawberry,
foreign lands are only blackberries_. =Ei pyyssä kahden jakoa=, _a
partridge is not enough for two_.

If the predicate takes the form of an auxiliary with a noun or adjective,
this latter may be put in several cases.

I. In the nominative, when the complement expresses a quality inherent in
the subject, without any reference to other things.

II. But it is put in the partitive if the subject is regarded as referred
to a class in common with which the subject shares the quality in
question.

Thus, =veitset ovat terevät= means _these knives_, or _the knives are
sharp_; but =veitset ovat teräviä= means _knives are sharp_, or _belong
to the class of sharp things_. =Kivi on kova=, _the stone is hard_, i.e.
not a soft stone; =kivi on kovaa=, _stone is a hard substance_.

It is noticeable that—

(_a_) If the subject is in the sing., and denotes a living being,
the complement must be in the nominative; one must say =ihminen on
kuolevainen=, not =kuolevaista=.

(_b_) If the subject denotes a part of the body, the complement must
be also in the nominative: =Hiukset ovat mustat=, _the hair is black_.
=Kädet ovat tarpeelliset=, _hands are necessary_.

III. The complement is put in the essive if it denotes the state in which
a thing is at a given time. Thus, =isäni on kipeänä=, _my father is (now)
ill_; =isäni on kipeä=, _my father is an invalid_. =Hän on pappi=, _he
is a clergyman_; but =hän on jo kauan ollut pappina=, _he has long been
a clergyman_. =Suomenmaa on osa Venäjän valtakuntaa=, _Finland is a part
of the Russian empire_; but =tähän vuosisataan asti Suomenmaa oli osana
Ruotsin valtakunnasta=, _till the beginning of this century Finland
formed part of the kingdom of Sweden_. Often there is little difference
between the nominative and essive. Thus one can say either =sydän on
suruja täysi=, or =täynnä=, _the heart is full of woe_; but =täynnä=
gives a more precise and literal idea of fullness than =täysi=.

IV. With the other auxiliaries, signifying to become, or pass into a
state (=tulla=, =ruveta=, =muuttua=, etc.), the complement is put in
the translative. =Ilma muuttuu lämpimäksi=, _the weather grows warm_.
=Poika rupesi palvelijaksi=, _the boy began to be a servant_. =Ukko käy
heikoksi=, _the old man gets weak_. =Hän joutui työmieheksi=, _he became
a workman_.

Such sentences as _it is impossible to go_, or _it is necessary for
you to go_, may be rendered in Finnish as =mahdotonta on mennä=, or
=tarpeellista on että menette=; but in both cases the real subject is
the infinitive, or the sentence with =että= which replaces it.

In such sentences the adjective, combined with the verb =olla=, can
be put either in the partitive or in the nominative; but it is very
hard, not only to give rules for the employment of the two cases, but
even to state the exact difference of meaning between them. As has
been seen above, =kivi on kova= means _the stone is hard_, but =kivi
on kovaa=, _the stone belongs to the class of hard things_. The same
distinction appears to prevail in the case under consideration, but, as
the difference is very subtle, it is not surprising that it is often
hard to trace. On the whole, the partitive is more usual, because the
use of the nominative implies, strictly speaking, that the subject and
the complement are co-extensive. But the nominative is more definite,
inasmuch as it vaguely implies the existence of particular personal or
temporal conditions. Thus, =parasta on mennä= is the equivalent of _it is
best to go_; and it is perfectly logical to use the partitive, as clearly
it is not meant that the terms _going_ and _best_ are co-extensive.
But =paras on mennä= means rather _the best thing for us under the
circumstances is to go_; and in this case the use of the nominative is
also logical, because the two terms are co-extensive. It can be easily
imagined that with so slight a distinction the nominative and partitive
are used almost indifferently in most cases. Thus, it is equally correct
to say =on surkea nähdä sinua tuossa tilassa=, or =on surkeata=, _it is
sad to see you in this position_. But it is noticeable that—

(1) =Parempi= and =hyvä= are always used in the nominative. =Parempi on
odottaa=, _it is better to wait_. =Hyvä on olla terveenä=, _it is good
to be healthy_. In the case of =parempi=, at any rate, this is quite
natural, as there can hardly be said to be a class of better things
without reference to particular circumstances. But this point cannot be
pressed, as other comparatives are used in the partitive.

(2) In such phrases as =on mahdotonta=, _it is impossible_; =onko
luvallistra=, _is it allowable_; =onko mahdollista=, _is it possible?_
the partitive is nearly always used.


_The Object._

The object, like the subject, can be either total or partial. It is
regarded as total when the whole of the object is represented as affected
by the action of a transitive verb, and partial when only a part of it
is affected by such action. Thus in =mies ampui linnut=, _the man shot
the birds_, the object is total; but in =mies ampui lintuja=, _the man
shot some birds_, it is partial, because in the first case no birds are
thought of except those shot, who all come under the action of the verb,
whereas in the second there is a vague reference to all existing birds,
of which some only have been shot. Further, the object is regarded as
partial whenever the action of the verb is continuous or incomplete,
because the action is, so to speak, extending over the object, but has
not yet embraced the whole of it. Thus, in =minä kirjoitan kirjettä=, _I
am writing a letter_, the object is regarded as partial; but in =minä
olen kirjoittanut kirjeen=, _I have written a letter_, it is total. The
object of a negative verb is always in the partitive.

The object may be put—

    1. In the accusative;
    2. In the partitive;
    3. In the nominative.

_By accusative is meant that case which corresponds in the singular with
the genitive, and in the plural with the nominative._

I. The total object of an active finite verb, in any mood but the
imperative, is put in the accusative, unless it is a cardinal number.

=Hän myi hevosen=, _he sold the horse_. =Veljeni panee rahat taskuun=,
_my brother puts the money in his pocket_. =Ammuin pyyt metsässä=, _I
shot the partridges in the wood_; but =ammuin viisi pyytä=, _I shot five
partridges_.

II. The Object is put in the partitive if it is partial, whatever the
verb may be. From what has been said above it will be seen that this
implies that the partitive must be used:—

(1) When the object is strictly speaking partial and denotes a part of
something, not a whole. =Antakaa minulle maitoa=, =teetä=, etc., _give
me some milk_, _some tea_, etc. =Hän söi leipää ja voita=, _he ate some
bread and butter_. =Isä antoi rahaa pojalle=, _the father gave the boy
some money_.

(2) When the verb is negative. =En saanut kirjaa=, _I did not receive the
book_. =Me emme tunne ystävääsi=, _we do not know your friend_. =Älä revi
kirjaa=, _don’t tear the book_. =Lasta ei rakasteta=, _the child is not
loved_.

(3) When the action of the verb is continuous and not finished. =Hän
lukee kirjaa=, _he is reading the book_. =Seppä takoo rautaa=, _the smith
is hammering the iron_. =Hän juuri toimittaa sitä asiata=, _he is just
now doing the business_. Often there is a difference in the meaning of
a verb, according as it is followed by the accusative or partitive; the
former denoting that the action is more complete. =Han löi koiraa=, _he
~struck~ the dog_; but =hän löi koiran=, _he ~killed~ the dog_. =Hän repi
kirjaa=, _he ~tore~ the book_; but =repi kirjan=, _he ~tore~ the book
~to pieces~_. A great many verbs never take a total object, because from
the nature of their signification, their action cannot be definite and
complete, but must be regarded as continuous. This is especially the case
with verbs expressing a feeling. =Niin rakasti Jumala maailmaa=, _so God
loved the world_. =Neuvoin ystävääni olemaan menemättä=, _I advised my
friend not to go_. =Odotin häntä kaksi tuntia=, _I waited two hours for
him_. =Seurasin häntä Helsinkiin asti=, _I followed him to Helsingfors_.
=Vihatkaatte pahaa=, _hate evil_.

III. The object is also put in the nominative—

(1) If it is the total object of an imperative. =Anna leipä pojalle=,
_give the boy the bread_. =Vie hevonen talliin=, _take the horse to the
stable_.

(2) If it is the total object of an infinitive, which depends on an
imperative, and sometimes in other cases (_vide_ p. 185). =Käske tuoda
ruoka pyötään=, _order the food to be put on the table_. =Antakaa
lähettää sähkösanoma=, _have a telegram sent_.

(3) If it is a cardinal number. =Maksoin kolme ruplaa=, _I paid three
rubles_.

(4) As has already been stated, the so-called passive is an impersonal
verb with its total object in the nominative and its partial object in
the partitive. For a detailed explanation, _vide_ p. 181.

An intransitive verb can sometimes take an accusative after it to express
the result of its action. =Äiti makasi lapsensa kuoliaaksi=, _the mother
lay on her child and killed it_ (lit. _slept her child dead_). =Juoksi
itsensä väsyksiin=, _he ran himself tired_. =Hän joi itsensä siaksi=, _he
drank himself silly_. =Puhui suunsa puhtaaksi=, _he spoke out his mind_.


_Of the Agreement of Substantives and Adjectives with one another._

As a rule, an adjective agrees with a noun in case and number.

=Hyvä mies=, _a good man_; =hyvät miehet=, _good men_. =Näissä suurissa
kaupungeissa=, _in these large towns_. =Köyhille lapsille=, _to the poor
children_.

There are, however, a considerable number of exceptions.

(1) Adjectives, as well as substantives, from which they can hardly be
distinguished, enter very readily into composition as the first member of
a compound word, and then are not declined, e.g. =mustameri=, _the Black
Sea_. =Isokyrö=, =Vähäkyrö=, names of villages. Cf. such expressions as
=mennyt vuonna=, =rankka sateella=, =tuiskusäällä=, =pakkasilmalla=.

(2) Some adjectives are never declined: =aika=, =kelpo=, =oiva=, =ensi=,
=viime=, =eri=, =joka=, =koko=, =nyky=, =pikku=.

=Ensi maanantaina=, _on next Monday_. =Kelpo miehelle=, _to the good
man_. =Eri osat=, _separate parts_. =Joka paikassa=, _in every place_.

(3) A certain number of adjectives and pronouns, instead of following
the regular construction, take after them an instructive plur. or a
partitive sing., e.g. =olla pahoilla mielin=, _to be in a good temper_;
=tulla hyville mielin=, _to get into a good temper_. =Samalla ajoin=, _at
the same time_. =Kaikissa paikoin=, _everywhere_. =Omilla korvin= _or_
=silmin=, _with one’s own eyes_ or _ears_. =Näillä seuduin=, _in this
part of the world_.

(4) The words =kulta=, _dear_; =parka=, =raiska=, =raukka=, =riepu=,
_poor_, _wretched_; =vaivainen=, _poor_; =vainaja=, _dead_; =paha=,
=pahanen=, =polo=, =polonen=, _poor_, though written separately, form
a sort of compound with a substantive, which they may either precede
or follow. Only the last of the two words is declined. Thus, =poika
polosella oli kiire=, _or_ =polo pojalla=, _the poor boy had to hurry_.
=Älä suututa äiti kultaani=, _or_ =kulta äitiäni=, _do not anger my
dear mother_. =Minä en nähnyt lapsi parkaani=, _I have not seen my poor
child_. =Woi minua mies parkaa=, _woe is me, poor man_.

As will be perceived from the rules given above (p. 124), an adjective
predicated of a substantive does not always agree with the latter, but
may be in the partitive, essive, or translative, when the substantive is
in the nominative.

A substantive in apposition to another is usually in the same case.

It is to be noted that in such expressions as _the town of Petersburg_,
_the Emperor Alexander_, the Finnish idiom conforms to the English
in this respect, that if the object is inanimate, the proper name is
put in the genitive. =Helsingin kaupunki=, _the town of Helsingfors_.
=Suomenmaa=, _Finland_. In the case of a river either the nominative or
genitive can be used. =Nevan joki= _or_ =Neva joki=, _the river Neva_.

But if the proper name denotes an animate object, or a ship, it is
put in the nominative, and remains in that case, even though the
word in apposition to it is inflected. =Keisari Suuriruhtinas Georg
Aleksandrovitschin kanssa=, _the Emperor with the Grand Duke George
Alexandrovitch_. =Professori Alquistin kuolema on suuri vahinko
Suomelle=, _the death of Professor Alquist is a great blow to Finland_.

When a word in apposition denotes the state of the subject at a given
time, and not a general characteristic, it is put in the essive case.
=Poikana hän oli sairas=, _as a boy he was ill_.


_The Article._

There is no article in Finnish. Sometimes =yksi= (_one_) is used to
represent the indefinite article, and in poetry the definite article is
frequently expressed by a pronoun, such as =tuo= _or_ =se=.

The rules given above will have made it clear, however, that under
some circumstances Finnish can mark by the use of the cases the same
distinction which we mark by the article. It may be said roughly that
the nominative generally represents a substantive with the definite
article in English (this would be still more true of French), and the
partitive a substantive without an article. Thus, =linnut ovat puussa=
means _the birds are in the tree_; but =lintuja on puussa=, _there
are birds in the tree_. =Ammuin lintuja= is _I shot some birds_;
=ammuin linnut=, _I shot the birds_. So, too, =kivet ovat kovat= means
_the stones are hard_; while =kivet ovat kovia= means rather _stones
are hard_. It would, however, be misleading to state such rules too
dogmatically, as doubtless many instances could be found where the use of
the nominative and partitive would not correspond to that of the article
in English. Naturally, a language which has no articles and no gender
is obliged to construct sentences differently from tongues which have
these distinctions, and Finnish sentences, particularly in the older and
simpler literature, are generally more precise than ours.



THE USE OF THE CASES.

The majority of the cases of the Finnish noun have, at any rate in
their origin, a local meaning. Of these local cases two obvious groups
are found, one called the interior local cases (inessive, elative,
and illative), the other the exterior cases (the adessive, ablative,
and allative). Another group is formed by the essive, partitive, and
translative, which, however, do not hang together so closely as the cases
above cited, inasmuch as the primary local meaning has in all of them
been obscured by metaphorical uses. In all these groups the first member
(inessive, adessive, essive) denotes originally rest in a position; the
second (elative, ablative, partitive) motion from; the third (illative,
allative, translative) motion to. From the original local meaning, all
the cases, except the allative, come to indicate time. It may be roughly
said that the first member denotes present time, the second past time,
and the third future time. They are also used in a metaphorical sense,
in which case the first members of the groups denote the state in which
anything is, the second the state from which anything passes, and the
third the state into which anything passes. In the first and second
groups there is a close correspondence in the metaphorical use of the
various members of the group: that is to say, if one member can be used
metaphorically to express existence in a state, the others can be used to
express a transition from or to it. Most of the cases have, however, in
addition to these common uses, others which are peculiar to themselves
and are not shared by the other members of the group.

The usage of the first and second group also shows many coincidences.
It is generally said that the first group denotes local position with
regard to the interior, and the second with regard to the exterior of the
object. In the present state of the language, however, the distinction in
this form is not very clearly observed, as will be seen by the examples
given. The second group has a tendency to denote persons rather than
things, whereas the first is used more of inanimate objects. The third
group is mainly used in metaphorical senses. It is noticeable that there
are many coincidences between the uses of the partitive and the elative.

Most of the other cases call for little comment. The instructive is used
mostly adverbially, but plays a considerable part in the construction of
sentences, and is likely to be troublesome to a beginner on account of
its resemblance to the genitive in form. The prolative is rarely used.
The comitative and abessive express respectively the presence and absence
of an object. The former is not much used, but the peculiarities of the
Finnish construction have caused the latter to in some ways take the
place of a negative.

As has already been stated in the Accidence, it would appear that in
some of the cases two forms have been merged in one. Thus it appears
that the adessive represents (1) a local case, (2) an instrumental. So,
too, the genitive represents (1) a case denoting the relation existing
between objects, (2) a dative. The nominative is also used (1) as a real
nominative, (2) as an accusative, having perhaps lost the termination in
this latter case.

=To understand Finnish syntax it is of the greatest importance to
remember that there is no real distinction between nouns, adjectives,
adverbs, prepositions, infinitives, and participles. In fact, all the
words of a sentence, except the forms of a finite verb (and a few
particles which have become petrified) are nouns, and as such are
susceptible of declension, so that the significance of the cases has an
importance extending over almost the entire grammar.=


_Nominative._

Most of the uses of the nominative have already been indicated.

I. It is employed as the subject of a sentence if the subject is total.
The subject of a transitive verb is always considered as total (_vide_
p. 122). =Ihmiset kuolevat=, _men are mortal_. =Seppä myi hevosen=, _the
smith sold the horse_. =Mitä sijat maksavat?= _what do the places cost?_

II. It also is used in the predicate, under the conditions mentioned,
page 123. =Silta on leveä=, _the bridge is wide_. =Ystäväni tytär on
seitsemän vuotias=, _my friend’s daughter is seven years old_.

III. It is used as the direct object after an imperative, or an
infinitive depending on an imperative (_vide_ p. 128). =Lyökämme käsi
kätehen= (Kal. i. 21). =Päästä piika pintehestä= (Kal. i. 173). =Kun
solmit ystäwyyttä, tee aina umpisolmu=, _when you tie the knot of
friendship, make it hard to untie_. =Tuokaa minulle kahvi=, _give me the
coffee_. =Pankaa tämä kirje postiin=, _post this letter_.

IV. When the passive form of the verb is used, the subject (or more
properly object) is put in the nominative, if it is total. =Hän saatetaan
kotia=, _he is conducted home_ (_vide_ p. 182).

V. The nominative is used as the vocative. =Oi ukko ylijumala!= =Weli
kulta, weikkoseni, kaunis kasvinkumppalini!=

VI. The nominative absolute is frequently used. Kal. xvi. 192-3. =Tuonen
hattu hartioilla, Manan kintahat käessä=, _the hat of death on thy head,
and the gloves of death on thy hands_. =Ei vahinko tule kello kaulassa=,
_misfortune does not come with a bell round his neck_. =Harvoin on se
mies piippu poissa suusta=, _this man is rarely without a pipe in his
mouth_. =Hän makaa ulkona pää paljaana=, _he sleeps out of doors with his
head bare_.


_The Partitive Case._

The original meaning of this case seems to have been motion from a place,
and traces of this signification are found in the forms =kotoa=, =ulkoa=,
=kaukaa=, =takaa=, =tyköä=, and =luota=. =Tulla ulkoa=, _to come from
out of doors_; =nähdä kaukaa=, _to see from far_. The partitive is also
apparently used locally in such expressions as =tulkaa tätä tietä=,
_come this way_; =minä käyn tietä=, _I go by the road_; =he kulkivat
matkaansa=, _they went on their way_. Perhaps, however, these might be
explained by supposing that the intransitive verbs =tulla=, =käydä=, etc.
take a cognate object. The use of the partitive of the participle passive
(p. 198) to denote ‘after’ is noticeable.

Hence the case passes not unnaturally to mean what is taken from, or
forms part of a thing.

I. A substantive preceded by words which express a quantity or measure is
put in the partitive. =Joukko ihmisiä=, _a crowd of men;_ =naula lihaa=,
_a pound of meat_; =paljo rahaa=, _much money_; =vähä voita=, _a little
butter_.

Similarly a cardinal number, if it is the subject of a sentence, is
followed by the partitive sing. of the word which it qualifies. =Kolme
poikaa=, _three boys_; =seitsemän veljeä=, _seven brothers_. In the same
way we have, =kaksi kymmentä=, _two tens_ or _twenty_. But if the word
qualified by the numeral would not be in the nominative in ordinary
European languages, the two agree in case (_vide_ p. 172).

II. The word expressing quantity is omitted and the partitive stands
alone as the subject of the sentence. This construction can often, though
not always, be rendered by the word ‘some’ in English, or by ‘de’ with
the article in French. =Leipää on pöydällä=, _there is some bread on
the table_ (_il y a du pain sur la table_). It is to be noticed that in
this construction the verb of which the partitive is the subject must be
intransitive, and is always in the singular, though the subject should be
in the plural. =Onko teillä vaatteita?= _have you any clothes?_

The subject of a negative sentence is put in the partitive, in cases
where we should say in English,—‘There is not’ or ‘there is no.’ =Ei ole
täällä ihmisiä=, _there are no men here_. In such a sentence as =en ole
merilohia, syvän aallon ahvenia= (Kal. v. 122), _I am not a salmon_, the
partitive must be explained as indicating a class, _I am not one of the
salmons_. In ordinary Finnish the partitive is only used in this way
with determining adjectives. Thus one says, =En ole vaimo=, _I am not a
woman_; but =En ole niitä vaimoja jotka unhottavat miehensä=, _I am not
one of the women who forget their husbands_.

III. The object is put in the partitive whenever it is not total (_vide_
rules given above, p. 127). =Juoda kahvia=, _to drink some coffee_;
=poika lukee kirjaa=, _the boy is reading the book_. The object of a
negative verb is always regarded as partial. =Poika ei antanut kirjaa=,
_the boy did not give the book_. =Hevonen ei jaksanut vetää kuormaa=,
_the horse could not carry the load_.

V. As stated in the rules given p. 123, the complement of a sentence is
put in the partitive when it expresses a whole of which the subject is
a part. The partitive is particularly used to express the substance of
which a thing is made. =Sormus on kultaa=, _the ring is gold_. =Kieli on
lihaa ja hampaat ovat luuta=, _the tongue is flesh, and the teeth are
bone_.

VI. In a sentence expressing comparison the word =kuin= (_than_) can
be omitted, and the word which follows the comparative be put in the
partitive. =Kuu on pienempi kuin aurinko=, _or_ =kuu on pienempi
aurinkoa=, _the moon is smaller than the sun_. =Pietari on suurempi
Helsinkiä=, _St. Petersburg is larger than Helsingfors_. =Eikö Abanan ja
Pharpharan wirrat Damaskussa ole kaikkia Israelin vesiä paremmat?= _Are
not Abana and Pharphar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of
Israel?_

VII. Adjectives expressing height or size require the partitive. =Kirkon
torni on kaksi sataa jalkaa korkea=, _the church tower is 200 feet high_.
=Joki on kaksikymmentä jalkaa syvä=, _the river is 200 feet deep_. =Silta
on puolta virstaa pitkä=, _the bridge is half a verst long_.

VIII. The partitive is used in salutations, exclamations, etc., where
it is to be explained by the omission of some word. =Hyvää iltaa=,
=hyvää huomenta= _(I wish you) good morning_; =kiitoksia=, _thanks_;
=terveisiä=, _my compliments_; =mahdotonta!= _impossible!_ =kauheaa=,
_horrible!_ So too in such expressions as =voi päiviäni=.


_Accusative._

I. The direct object of a finite active verb, if not in the imperative,
is put in the accusative, when the action of the verb is regarded as
total (_vide_ p. 126). =Isä ostaa kirjan pojalle=, _the father buys the
book for the boy_. =Kauppamies saa rahat=, _the merchant receives the
money_.

II. The accusative is also used to denote duration of time. =Viivyn
päivän=, =viikon=, =muutamat viikkokaudet=. =Itki illat=, =itki aamut=,
=yöhyet ennemmin itki=, Kal. v. 7, 8. It is also used in answer to the
question, how many times, or which time. =Minä olen täällä ensimäisen
kerran=, _I am here for the first time_. =Mina olen ollut Helsingissä
muutamat (useat, monet) kerrat=, _I have been many times at Helsingfors_.

But expressions with =joka=, such as =joka kerta=, =joka päivä=, are used
in the nominative. =Olen joka kerta matkustanut meritse=, _I have several
times travelled by sea_. =Hän on minun nähnyt harva kerta=, _he has
rarely seen me_. =Minä ratsastan joka päivä=, _I ride every day_.


_Genitive._

I. The genitive in Finnish is used with nouns—

(1) As the subjective genitive. =Alqwistin teokset=, _the works of
Alquist_; =kaupungin kadut=, _the streets of the town_.

(2) As the objective genitive. =Vanhempain rakkaus=, _love for one’s
parents_; =jumalan pelko=, _fear of God_.

(3) As the determinative genitive. =Helsingin kaupunki=, _the town of
Helsingfors_; =kunnon mies, kunnon valkea=, _a good man, a good fire_.

II. Adjectives ending in =-inen=, which express age, measure, character,
etc., take the genitive. =Vanha=, _old_, follows the same rule. =Sen
muotoinen=, _of this kind_; =sormen pituinen=, _of a finger’s length_;
=venäläisen luontoinen=, _a Russian in character_. =Pullo on kolmen lasin
vetoinen=, _the bottle holds three glasses_. =Susi on koiran näköinen=,
_a wolf looks like a dog_. =Miehen peukalon pituinen, waimon waaksan
korkeuinen= (Kal. ii. 115). If the word in the genitive is an adjective,
numeral, or pronoun, it is written as one word with the word on which it
depends. =Pahankurinen=, _ill-behaved_; =hyväntapainen=, _well-behaved_.

III. The genitive is also used—

(1) With certain impersonal verbs, such as =täytyy=, =pitää=, =tulee=,
=käskee=, =sopii=, =kelpaa=, =tarvitsee=, and with the verb =olla=,
when this latter is used with certain adjectives. =Minun pitää
lähteä ulkomaalle=, _I must go abroad_. =Hänen sopii viipyä täällä=.
=Subjectisanan tulee olla nominativissa tai partitivissa=, _the subject
must be in the nominative or partitive_. =Parempi minun olisi, parempi
olisi ollut=, _better had it been for me_. =Ei hänen ollut vaikea päästä
ulos=, _he had no difficulty in getting out_.

(2) A good many words expressing some state or feeling are used with the
verb =olla=, and a genitive of the person who feels. =Minun on jano=, _I
am thirsty_; =minun on nälkä=, _I am hungry_; =minun on tarve=, _I must_.
=Hänen on aika mennä=, _it is time for him to go_. Similarly, =Rikkaiden
on velvolisuus antaa köyhille=, _it is the duty of the rich to give to
the poor_. =Sotamiehen on pakko mennä vaaraan=, _it is the duty of a
soldier to go into danger_. In these latter sentences the genitive seems
quite natural in our idiom, but they are really closely analogous to the
phrases given above. In the dialect spoken about St. Petersburg it is
usual to say =minulla= (not =minun=) =on jano, nälkä=.

Some of the examples quoted above support the idea (_v._ p. 24), that
there is an old dative in Finnish ending in =n=, which has become
confused with the genitive. It is hardly possible to explain otherwise
such expressions as =Jumalan kiitos=, _thank God_; =Anna minun olla
rauhassa=, _leave me in peace_.

IV. The genitive is used with the infinitives and participles to denote
the agent. Examples of this use will be found in the description of the
use of those parts of the verb (p. 184, ff.).

This use is also found after caritive adjectives. =Miekan miehen
käymätöntä= (Kal. xxviii. 257), _untouched by the sword of man_.


THE INTERNAL CASES—INESSIVE, ELATIVE, AND ILLATIVE.

The inessive, elative, and illative are sometimes called the interior
cases, because they express existence in and motion from or to the
interior of an object. The adessive, ablative, and allative, on the other
hand, are called the external cases, because they indicate rest on and
motion from or into the exterior surface of an object. However, this
distinction is not always kept up in the use of the cases, and the choice
of the interior or exterior case in a given phrase seems often to be
regulated by idiom or caprice, rather than by a reference to the original
meaning.


_Inessive._

I. The proper meaning of this case is existence in an object. =Mies istuu
tuvassa=, _the man sits in the hut_. =Parempi kala suussa kuin haava
päässä=, _a fish in the mouth is better than a wound in the head_. =Vene
kulkee vedessä=, _the boat moves in the water_. Here the inessive is
used, because, though motion is indicated, it is motion _within_ a given
space, and not to or from a given point.

There is much irregularity as to the use of the exterior and interior
cases of local proper names, (1) Names ending in =la= always take the
interior cases for euphony. =Urjalassa=, not =Urjalalla=. (2) Names of
countries not ending in =maa=, and foreign names generally take the
interior cases; but the word =Venäjä=, _Russia_, is always used in the
forms =Venäjällä=, =-ltä=, =-lle=. (3) Names of countries ending in =maa=
are generally used in the exterior cases, but the interior cases are used
in speaking of things being found in the country. =Olin Saksanmaalla=, _I
was in Germany_, but =Saksamaassa on paljo sotamiehiä=, _there are many
soldiers in Germany_. But =Suomenmaa=, _Finland_, is always used in the
interior cases.

Besides this strict use, the inessive is employed in a variety of
expressions either metaphorically or in a loose local sense. Most of
such phrases are quite obvious, and can be rendered in English by the
preposition ‘in.’

II. It is used to express the time within which anything occurs.
=Viidessä viikossa=, _in five weeks_. =Valmistuuko työ kahdessa
päivässä=, _finish the work in two days_. =Pietarista Hatsinaan voi
matkustaa puolessa toista tunnissa=, _one can go from Petersburg to
Gatchina in an hour and a half_.

III. From expressing the place in which the subject is, it is used by a
natural transition to express the surroundings, state, or condition of
anything. Thus it is employed in speaking of the weather. =Olin ulkona
tuulessa ja sateessa=, _I was out in the wind and rain_. =Minä ajoin
hevosella lumessa ja tuiskussa=, _I drove in a snow storm_.

Also in a number of metaphorical expressions. =Olla eksyksissä=, _to
be in error_; =olla hyvässä kunnossa=, _to be in good condition_;
=olla hyvässä turvassa=, _to be safe_; =olla hyvissä voimissa=, _to be
prosperous_. =Te olette oikeassa ja minä olen väärässä=, _you are right
and I am wrong_. =Olen ollut pari tuntia kovassa päänkivistyksessä=,
_I had a violent headache for a couple of hours_. =Kello on
epäjärjestyksessä=, _the watch is out of order_. =Siinä tapauksessa=, _in
that case_. =Kaikki on mieli melkeässä, Ajatukset arvoisessa= (Kal. v.
177).

IV. In a number of expressions the inessive is used where the adessive
would seem more natural to express close connection between two objects,
particularly in the case of one thing being fixed or hung on another.
=Kala on ongessa=, _the fish is on the hook_. =Takki on naulassa=, _the
coat is hung on the nail_. =Pitäkää hattu päässä=, _keep your hat on your
head_. =Hänellä ei ollut saappaita jalassa=, _he had no boots on his
feet_.

V. It also expresses the occupation in which one is engaged. =Poika on
työssä=, _the boy is at work_. Cf. =Olla pidoissa=, =häissä=, _to be at a
banquet_ or _marriage_. Notice such idiomatic phrases as =olla kalassa=,
_to be fishing_; =olla heinässä=, _to be making hay_; =olla marjassa=,
_to collect berries_. It is noticeable that the verb =käydä=, _to go to_,
or _frequent_, is generally followed by the inessive. =Käydä kirkossa=,
_to go to church_; =käydä katsomassa=, _to go to sea_.

VI. It is also used to express that an object is covered or soiled with
some liquid. =Nenänsä on veressä=, _his nose is bleeding_. =Silmät ovat
vesissä=, _the eyes are full of tears_. =Sinun otsas hiessä pitää sinun
syömän leipää=, _in the sweat of thy face shall thou eat bread_. Cf. also
the expression =Järvi on jäässä=, _the lake is frozen_.

VII. It is used to express that certain qualities reside in a man.
=Hänessä on jaloutta=, _he is noble_ (_nobility is in him_). =Sinussapajo
onkin koko mies=, _you are a man worth the name_. =Ei ole lapsessa heinän
niittäjätä=, _a child cannot be a haycutter_. =Teissä on kuume=, _you are
feverish_.


_Elative._

As the inessive expresses properly rest in something, so the elative
expresses motion from the interior of something. Many of its uses
correspond to those of the inessive already described.

I. The strict literal use is to denote motion from an interior. =Mies
lähti tuvasta=, _the man went out of the hut_. =Lohi hyppäsi merestä=,
_the salmon leapt out of the sea_. =Metsästäjä tuli kotia metsästä=, _the
huntsman came home from the forest_. =Kaatakaa olut pullosta lasiin=,
_pour the beer out of the bottle into the glass_.

II. In expressing time, the elative is used to denote the beginning of
a period—that is to say, the period is regarded as setting forth from
a given date. =Pääsiäisestä on seitsemän viikkoa Helluntaihin=, _from
Easter to Whitsuntide is seven weeks_. =Eilisestä illasta alkaen=, _since
last night_. =Me läksimme matkaan aamusta=, _we set out in the morning_
(beginning from the morning). =En ole nähnyt häntä Joulusta saakka=, _I
have not seen him since Christmas_. =Siitä hetkestä=, _from that hour_.

III, IV, V, VI. In all such expressions as those quoted under these
headings for the inessive, the elative can be used when cessation _from_
an occupation or condition, or purification _from_ any defilement is to
be expressed. =Tulin kotiin tuiskusta ja tuulesta=, _I came home from
the snow and wind_. =Kadota silmistä, näkyvistä=, _to disappear from
view_. =Päästä pulasta=, _to get out of difficulties_. =Poika oti lakin
päästänsä=, _the boy took the cap off his head_. =Pese nenäsi verestä=,
_wash the blood off your nose_. =Pyyhi silmäsi kynelistä=, _dry your
eyes_. =Järvi lähti jäästä=, _the lake became free of ice_. =Tulla pois
työn teosta=, =kalasta=, _to cease working_ or _fishing_.

VII. The elative is also used by a natural transition to express
separation or difference from. =Minun on vaikea päästä virasta vapaakai=,
_it is hard for me to get away from my work_. =Mies ei saa luopua
vaimostansa=, _a man cannot be separated from his wife_. =Lätin kieli on
kokonaan eroavainen Suomen kielestä=, _the Lettish language is perfectly
different from Finnish_.

Besides these uses, which are parallel with those of the inessive, the
elative has a variety of other significations. These mostly arise in
a quite intelligible manner, from the idea of motion from, taken in a
metaphorical sense.

VIII. In many phrases the elative is used almost like the partitive, that
is to say, it denotes one or more persons or things taken or selected
from a number. =Nuorin veljistä=, _the youngest of the brothers_.
=Urhoollisin sotilaista=, _the bravest of the warriors_. =Laatokka on
suurin Europan järvistä=, _Ladoga is the largest lake in Europe_. =Yksi
näistä vaimoista=, _one of these women_.

There is, however, a slight difference in the meaning of the elative and
partitive in such expressions, inasmuch as the former always implies a
certain part of a given quantity which is in the mind of the speaker.
Thus one says =kolme sisarta=, _three sisters_, a merely numerical
expression. But =kolme sisaristani= means _three of my sisters_. So
=naula voita= means _a pound of butter_; but =naula voista=, _a pound of
the butter_, referring to a particular kind or mass of butter.

IX. From denoting the starting-point, the elative is used to express
the origin or cause of anything, or the material from which a thing is
made. =Kuolla myrkystä=, _to die of poison_. =Hän puhisi vihasta=, _he
snorted from anger_. =Poika oli kylmästä köntistyneenä=, _the boy was
numb with cold_. =Tyhjästä loi Jumala maailman=, _God created the world
from Chaos_. =Hänestä tuli kelpo sotilas=, _he made a good soldier_.
=Ei lapsesta laulajaksi=, _a child can’t be a singer_ (proverb). =Hän
on hyvästä perheestä=, _he is of good family_. =Sanasta sana syntyy,
kypenestä maa kytee=, _one word gives birth to another, and the
world catches fire from a spark_. =Sormus on tehty kullasta=, _the
ring is made of gold_. =Munan kuori on kovasta aineesta=, _the shell
of an egg is of a hard substance_. =Venäjän valtio on kokoonpantu
monenlaisista kansallisuuksista=, _the Russian empire is composed of many
nationalities_.

In this sense it is often used to denote the object, particularly with
words denoting speaking or some feeling. For instance, =puhua asiasta=,
_to speak of a thing_, the thing being regarded as the point from
which a conversation is started. =Kiitoksia kysymästänne=, _thanks for
your question_. =Siitä voitte olla varma=, _you may be sure of it_.
=Mitä pidätte Suomen kielestä?= _How do you like Finnish?_ =En välitä
kenestäkään=, _I don’t care for anybody_. =Älkää surko huomisesta
päivästä=, _take no thought for the morrow_.

N.B.—There is a curious use of =minusta= to denote ‘in my opinion, as far
as I am concerned.’

X. Somewhat similar is the use of the elative in expressions denoting
price. The Finnish idiom is to say =möin kirjan markasta=, _I sold the
book for a mark_; =ostin kirjan markasta=, _I bought the book for a
mark_; and =sain markan kirjasta=, _I received a mark for the book_. That
is to say, ‘I bought a book from a mark,’ the price being regarded as
the origin of the transaction. =Mitä tahdotte viikossa tästä huoneesta?=
_how much do you want per week for this room?_ =Silmä silmästä ja hammas
hampaasta=, _an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth_. =Kauppamies on
myönyt tavaransa kalliista=, _the merchant sold his goods dear_.

XI. The elative is used to express the object in which any one is rich
or poor. =Rikas rahasta=, _rich in money_, that is to say, money is
regarded as the cause of the riches. =Kaivo on tyhjä vedestä=, _the well
is empty of water_. =Huoneet olivat täydet väestä=, _the rooms were full
of people_.

XII. The elative is also used in a variety of expressions, in which the
cause or commencement of an action is emphasized by an idiom different
to our own. Thus one says, not to seize by the ear, but from the ear,
=pitää korvasta=; =sidottu käsistä ja jaloista=, _bound hand and foot_.
=Damokleen miekka riippui hivuskarvasta=, _the sword of Damocles hung by
a hair_, and metaphorically, =saada kiini rikoksesta=, _to convict of
crime_. =Sanasta miestä, sarvesta härkää= (proverb), _a man is held by
his words and an ox by the horns_.

By an idiom of the language verbs denoting to find, or seek, and also
often verbs of seeing and hearing, are followed by an elative where we
should use an expression implying rest in a place. =Mistä hänen löysit?=
_where did you find him?_ =Milloin hyvänsä tuli huoneesen, tapasi hänen
aina lukemasta=, _whenever one went into the room, one always found him
reading_.

The elative comes to be used much as the accusative of respect in
Latin, to mark the part in which anything is affected. =Mies on kipeä
silmistänsä=, _the man is ill from his eyes_. =Hän on kömpelö käsistä=,
_he is clumsy with his hands_. =Raukea jaloista=, _foot-sore_. =Koivu on
tuuhea latvasta=, _the birch has spreading branches at the top_. =Veitsi
on terävä kärestä=, _the knife has a sharp edge_.


_Illative._

The original meaning of the illative is motion into the interior of
an object, from which it passes into the general sense of motion to.
Most of its uses are parallel to those of the inessive and elative.
=Mennä kouluun=, =kirkoon=, _to go to school_ or _to church_. =Lähteä
Amerikaan=, =Sipiriaan=, _to go a journey to America_, _to Siberia_.
=Merimies putosi laivalta veteen=, _the sailor fell from the ship into
the water_.

It must, however, be noticed that a good many actions are regarded as
implying motion to, in Finnish, which by our idiom are followed by
prepositions signifying rest in. Thus one says, =Hevoset seisahtuivat
pihaan=, _the horses stopped in the court_. =Sananlennätin tolpat ovat
pystytetyt tien viereen=, _the telegraph wires are laid along the road_.
=Me perustamme koulun kaupunkiin=, _we founded a school in the town_.

The most singular instance of this is, that the verbs signifying to
remain or to leave invariably take this case, or the allative. _To stay
at home_ is =jäädä kotiin=, the original meaning of the verb having
apparently been to go to a place and stay there. Similarly =jättää=,
_to leave behind_, and =unhottaa=, when it is used in the same sense,
take the illative. =Jätin hattuni teaatteriin=, _I left my hat in the
theatre_. =Unhotin rahakukkaroni kotiin=, _I left my purse at home_.

II. The illative is used in two ways to denote time.

A. It denotes the _end_ towards which a period is regarded as advancing,
and can be translated by _until_ or _to_. =Pääsiäisestä on seitsemän
viikkoa Helluntaihin=, _it is seven weeks from Easter to Whitsuntide_.
=Kuu kiurusta kesään=, _it is a month from the time when the lark sings
to summer_ (proverb). =Vieläkö on pitkältä Jouloon?= _is it still long
till Christmas?_

In this sense it is often used with the preposition =hamaan=, or the
postpositions =asti= and =saakka=. =Tähän päivään saakka=, _up till that
day_; =myöhään yöhön saakka=, _till late at night_; =hamaan viimeiseen
päivään asti=, _till the day of one’s death_.

B. The illative is also used idiomatically to express the space of time
during which anything has _not_ taken place. =En ole nähnyt häntä kahteen
vuoteen=, _I have not seen him for two years_. =En ole syönyt kunnolleen
kolmeen päivään=, _I have not eaten properly for three days_. =Ei ole
ollut näin kaunista syksyä miesmuistiin=, _there has not been such a fine
autumn in the memory of man_.

C. It is also used to express the period of time in which an action is
performed. =Ansaitsee viisi ruplaa viikkoonsa=, _he earns five roubles a
week_. In this use the suffix is nearly always added to the case, but the
words =aikaan=, =aikoihin=, and =puoleen= (in compounds), and =seutuun=
are used in expressing time loosely. =Siihen aikaan=, _or_ =näihin
aikoihin=, _at that time_. =Joulun seutuun=, _about Christmas time_.
=Talven puoleen=, _in winter time_.

III, IV, V, VI. Like the inessive and elative, the illative is used
in a variety of metaphorical expressions, when entrance into a state
or condition is denoted. =Joutua eksyksiin=, _to go into error_, _to go
astray_. =Tulla toimeen=, _to get on_, _manage satisfactorily_. =Ei se
käy laatuun=, _that is impossible_. =Joutua hukkaan=, _to perish_. =Ajoi
hevosen uuvuksiin=, _he rode his horse till it was tired_. So also it is
used in speaking:—

(1) Of occupations, which are begun. =Hän meni työhön=, _he went to his
work_; and also such expressions as =mennä kalaan=, _to go fishing_;
=mennä marjaan=, _to go berry gathering_.

(2) Of the place on which anything is put. =Upseeri pani hattunsa
naulaan=, _the officer hung his hat on the peg_. =Vedä sappaat jalkaan=,
_to put on one’s boots_.

(3) Of liquids. =Hän löi nenänsä vereen=, _he gave him a bloody nose_.
=Järvi meni jäähän=, _the lake froze_.

VII. The illative also expresses the use to which anything is put,
or the purposes for which it is capable of being used. The origin of
this sense of the case is clearly shown by the derivation of the verb
to use, =käyttää=, which is the causal form of =käydä=, _to go_, and
means _to make a thing go in a certain direction_. =Hän käytti rahansa
hyviin tarkoituksiin=, _he employed his money for good purposes_.
=Tuhlasi aikansa turhuuteen=, _he wasted his time_. So also =Hän sopii
kaikkeen=, _he can do everything_. =Lappalaiset ovat kykenemättämiä
sotapalvelukseen=, _the Laps are not fitted for military service_.
=Mustalainen ei pysty työhön=, _a gipsy is not a good worker_. =Hän on
valmis kaikkeen hulluuteen=, _he is ready for any folly_.

VIII. Somewhat similar is the use of the illative to express the object
or desired goal of an action. =Isä kehoittaa poikaa ahkeruuteen=, _the
father exhorts the boy to be diligent_. Similarly =kehoitta iloon=, etc.
=Kasvattakaa lapsenne Jumalan pelkoon ja hyviin tapoihin=, _bring up
your children to fear God and behave properly_. =Minä neuvoin ystävääni
kärvällisyyteen=, =malttavaisuuteen=, _I advised my friend to be
patient_, or _prudent_. =Kenraali innostutti sotamiehet urhouteen=,
_the general exhorted his soldiers to bravery_.

IX. The illative is further used with verbs expressing feeling, chiefly
those formed with =u= or =y=, the idea being apparently that the feeling
passes from the subject to the object. For instance, =olla rakastunut
johonkin=, _to be in love with some one_. Cf. the Russian idiom =онъ въ
нее влюбленъ=. =Olen kyllästynyt näihin riitoihin=, _I am weary of these
quarrels_. =Siihen voitte luottaa=, _you may be sure of this_. =Hän ei
mielistynyt heidän neuvoonsa ja tekoonsa=, _he was not pleased with their
advice and doings_. =Tyydytkö siihen?= _are you satisfied with this?_

X. There is a curious idiom by which in certain phrases the illative
seems to be used to express the agent or cause of an action. =Kuolla
nälkään=, _to die of hunger_; =kuolla veteen=, _to be drowned_. =Nukkui
nuoret, nukkui vanhat Wäinämöisen soitantohon=, _old and young were
thrown into sleep by the songs of Wäinämöinen_. =Murehisin murtumatta=,
=huolihin katoamatta= (Kal. v. 216-7).

The idea in these phrases seems to be that the subject of the verb passes
_into the power_ of whatever is denoted by the illative.

XI. The illative is also used to express likeness. This is quite natural
with such a verb as =verrata=, _to compare_. E.g. =Verrattuna meihin, on
hän onnellinen=, _compared to us, he is happy_. The verb =vivahtaa=, _to
be like_, also takes this case: =vivahtaa veljeensä=, _he is like his
brother_; but the original meaning of the word is apparently physical
motion, to glance quickly by or into. By a similar idiom the verb
=tulla=, _to come_, with the illative means to resemble. =Hän tulee
isäänsä=, _he is like his father_. The use of the simple verb =olla=,
_to be_, with this case to express likeness is however truly singular,
and is apparently to be explained only by analogy. =Lapsi on isäänsä=,
_the child is like its father_. It is, however, exactly parallel to the
Russian expression =онъ въ отца, въ мать=. Cf. =Vesa kasvaa kantohonsa=,
_the young sprout grows like the parent stem_ (proverb).

XI. The illative expresses the limit which a number reaches. =Luku nousi
kahteen-sataan=, _the number reached two hundred_. =Siellä oli lapsia
viiteenkymmeneen=, _there were as many as fifty children_.

From this use the illative is also used to denote price. =Myydä halpaan
hintaan=, _to sell cheap_; =myydä kalliisen hintaan=, _to sell dear_.
=Tässä on omenoita kymmeneen kopekkaan=, _here are apples for ten
copecks_.


THE EXTERNAL CASES—ADESSIVE, ABLATIVE, AND ALLATIVE.

The external cases correspond in their general significance and
employment to the internal cases already described, only while these
latter denote rest within and motion to or from the interior of an
object, the former in their strict meaning imply rest on and motion to or
from the surface of an object. But as may be seen by the examples this
distinction is not always very strictly observed. The external cases have
a tendency to denote animate objects.


_Adessive._

I. The adessive primarily denotes the place on which an action takes
place. =Poika istuu lattialla=, _the boy sits on the floor_. =Tuskin
voin olla jaloillani=, _I can hardly stand on my legs_. =Hän asuu tällä
kadulla=, _he lives in this street_. =Millä paikoilla?= _whereabouts?_
=Saksan maalla kasvaa hyviä viinirypäleitä=, _in Germany good grapes
grow_. =Kivet laikkui lainehilla, Somerot vesillä souti= (Kal. xliv. 261,
2).

II. The adessive is also used to mark time, when the period is not
definitely specified by a cardinal number or otherwise. =Päivällä=,
_in the day_, _by day_; =yöllä=, _by night_; =keväällä=, _in spring_;
=kesällä=, _in summer_; =syksyllä=, _in autumn_; =talvella=, _in winter_;
(but =viime kesänä=, _last spring_, because the time is determined by the
adjective).

=Kalat tärpäävät kesällä=, _fish bite in spring_. =Aamulla ani varahin=,
_very early in the morning_ (Kal. iv. 303). =Kysyi työtä iltaisella=, _he
asked for the work in the evening_ (Kal. xxxii. 6).

III. Like the inessive the adessive is used in a loose or metaphorical
sense to denote the external circumstances under which anything takes
place. Thus it is used of the weather. =Kuivalla säällä=, _in dry
weather_; =tuulella=, _in windy weather_. =Minä palasin kotiin sateella=,
_I returned home in the rain_. =Joka tyynellä makaa, se tuulella soutaa=
(proverb), _he who sleeps in a calm, rows in a wind_.

=Olla hereellä= _or_ =valveella=, _to be awake_. =On tulolla sade=, _it
is going to rain_. =Olen menolla=, _I am going_.

And in some cases where according to our ideas the circumstances denoted
are distinctly internal, e.g. =olla hyvällä tai pahalla mielellä=, _to
be in a good or bad humour_. =Olla hyvällä päällä=, _to feel courageous_.
Cf. Kal. xliv. 269, 270. =Nuoret naiset naurusuulla, Emännät ilolla
mielin.=

In particular it is thus used with verbal nouns to express that an action
is being undertaken. =Kirjan käännös on tekeellä= (_or_ =tekeilla=), _the
translation of the book is being made_. =Kangas on kuteella=, _the cloth
is being woven_.

IV. By a closely analogous use the adessive signifies the occupation in
which any one is engaged (cf. the use of the inessive in this sense).
=Olla ongella=, =nuotalla=, _to be engaged in fishing with a hook_ or
_net_.

This use is particularly frequent in the case of games or meals.
=Olla päivällisellä=, _to be at dinner_; =olla aamiaisella=, _to be
at breakfast_; =olla koppisilla=, _to be playing ball_. =Lapset ovat
piiloisilla=, _the children are playing hide and seek_.

V. The adessive is also used to signify with, near, or in the house of
(French _chez_). =Poika on meillä=, _le garçon est chez nous_. =Hänellä
on vieraita=, _he has guests staying with him_. =Vietin kolme päivää
eräällä ruotsalaisella herralla maalla=, _I spent three days with a
Swedish gentleman in the country_.

From an extension of this use it comes to denote possession, and in
combination with the =olla= replaces the verb _to have_, which does
not exist in Finnish. =Minulla on kirja=, _I have a book_. =Hänellä on
luunkolotus=, _he has the rheumatism_. =Mikä este sinulla oli?= _what
hindered you?_

In this idiom the verb is always in the third person sing., even though
the substantive is in the nominative plur. =Isällä on harmaat hiukset=,
_the father has white hair_. =Onko teillä saksia?= _have you a pair of
scissors?_ =Hevonen on rengillä=, _the man has the horse_. =Hyvällä on
nimiä paljo, pahalla tapoja paljo=, _good has many names and evil many
shapes_. =Jumalalla on onnen ohjat, Luojalla lykyn avaimet= (proverb),
_God has the reins of fortune, the Creator has the keys of luck_. Cf.
Kal. xliii. 337. =Jumalall’ on ilman wiitta, Luojalla avaimet onnen.=

VI. It also denotes the price at which a thing is bought or sold. =Minä
ostin kirjan kahdella markalla=, _I bought a book for two marks_.
=Kauppamies möi kaikki tavaransa suurella voitolla=, _the merchant sold
all his goods at a great profit_. =Ostin matot huokeammalla (hinnalla),
kuin niiden arvo on=, _I bought these carpets for less than they are
worth_.

VII. Besides these various significations which can be deduced from the
primary meaning of rest on, the adessive has quite another use, viz. as
an instrumental to denote the means or the object by which an action is
accomplished. It would seem that two originally distinct forms have been
confused in the case as it at present exists in Finnish, though it might
be possible to derive this instrumental meaning from the metaphorical
uses quoted under III. =Näin sen omilla silmilläni=, _I saw it with my
own eyes_. =Oillä päivät jatketaan, virsillä vähät oluet= (proverb), _the
days are lengthened by the nights, and a little beer goes further if one
sings_. =Elä koukulla kohenna, kärryksellä käännyttele= (Kal. xxiii.
401-2)—=Kansalla karhukin kaadetaan= (proverb).

VIII. From this use is derived another, signifying the way in which
anything is done. =Ilolla=, _joyfully_. =Monella tavalla=, _in many
ways_; =ei millään tavalla=, _in no way at all_. =Sen teen mielelläni=,
_I do it with pleasure_.


_Ablative._

I. The ablative expresses motion from the surface of anything. =Lapsi
putosi pöydältä=, _the child fell from the table_. =Ei köyhä korkealta
kaadu, luudan päältä lattialle=, _the poor cannot have a great fall: only
as high as a besom from the floor_ (proverb). =Korkealta kakko lenti
... Allit aalloilta syviltä, Joutsenet sulilta soilta=, _the eagle flew
from high, the wild duck from the deep waves, the swans from the watery
marshes_.

II. It is also used in various expressions denoting time.

A. In such sentences as ‘year after year,’ ‘day after day.’ In Finnish
the first word is put in the nominative and the second in the ablative.
=Päivä päivältä hän tulee kipeämmäksi=, _day by day he gets worse_.
=Myrsky kiihtyy hetki hetkeltä=, _the storm grows stronger every hour_.
=Odotan häntä tunti tunnilta=, _I expect him every hour_.

B. In sentences expressing money earned in a given time. =Hän saa
kaksituhatta markkaa vuodelta=, _he receives two thousand marks a year_.
=Maksavat rengille viisitoista ruplaa kuukaudelta=, _the servant is paid
fifteen roubles a month_.

C. The time from which anything begins. =Kaupunki on viima vuosisadalta=,
_the house dates from the last century_. =Niinkuin asetus tammikuun
viidenneltä päivältä määrää=, _according to the provisions of the decree
of January 5_.

Similarly—=Kello kuudelta aamulla nousin työtä tekemään=, _I begin to
work at_ (that is, _beginning from_) _six o’clock in the morning_. =Tulee
pimeä jo kello neljältä=, _it gets dark at four o’clock_.

III. It is used analogously to the adessive (No. IV), to express
cessation from an occupation, game, or meal. =Miehet tulivat ongelta=,
_the men came home from fishing_. =Tulimme päivälliseltä=, _we came from
dinner_. =Lapset lakkasivat sokkosilta=, _the children stopped playing
blind man’s buff_.

IV. The ablative denotes motion from a person or from his house.
=Vierahat tulivat teiltä=, _the strangers came from you_. =Palvelija tuli
isännältä=, _the servant came from his master_. Cf. =Ostin tavaroita
kauppamieheltä=, _I bought some goods of the merchant_. So also =Minä
sain äidiltäni kirjeen=, _I received a letter from my mother_. =Kysyivät
häneltä=, _they asked of him_.

V. From the idea of separation the ablative comes to denote the person
who loses anything or from whom anything is hidden, defended, etc. It
becomes in fact very nearly what is called the ‘dativus incommodi’ in
Latin Grammar. =Häneltä kuoli äiti=, _his mother died_ (_died from
him_). =Ei Jumala kiellä lapsiltansa iloa=, _God does not forbid joy to
his children_. =Ei tytär salaa äidiltänsä mitään=, _the daughter hides
nothing from her mother_.

VI. The cause which prevents an action is put in the ablative. =Tyttö
ei päässyt kotoa astiain pesulta=, _the maid could not leave the house
because she had to wash the things_. =En jouda kesäisiltä kiirehiltä=, _I
cannot come on account of the work that has to be done in summer_. =En
voinut nukkua koiran haukunnalta=, _I could not sleep on account of the
dogs barking_.

VII. The ablative is also used to denote the part or quality with respect
to which anything is predicated of an object. =Hän on hyvä tavoiltansa=,
_he has a good disposition_. =Munat ovat väriltään ja suuruudeltaan
erilaisia=, _eggs are of different colours and sizes_. =Poika on iältään
jo kymmenvuotias=, _the boy is ten years old_ (_in his life_). =Tyttö on
solakka varreltaan=, _the girl has a graceful figure_. =Ukko on vielä
ketterä jalalta=, _the old man is still quick-footed_. =Tunnen hänen
näöltä=, _I know him by sight_. =Mies on Matti nimeltä=, _the man is
Matthew by name_.

VIII. It is apparently to this use that must be traced such expressions
as =maistua hyvältä=, =karvaalta=, _to taste good_ or _bitter_.

Verbs which express the impression made by an object on the senses are
generally followed by an adjective in the ablative describing the nature
of the sensation. If it is remembered that the distinction between the
adjective and substantive is very slight, we may explain such a phrase
as =näyttää kauniilta= as _looks with regard to beauty_, that is, _looks
beautiful_.

Examples—=Hän näyti Saksalaiselta=, _he looked like a German_. =Miltä
nyt tuntuu?= _how do you feel now?_ =Mansikka maistuu makealta=,
_strawberries taste sweet_. =Se näyttää luonnollisemmalta=, _it seems
more natural_.


_Allative._

I. The allative expresses motion on to or into the neighbourhood of an
object. =Lapsi putosi lattialle=, _the child fell on to the floor_.
=Tahdotteko viedä minun Uudelle Kadulle?= _will you show me the way to
New Street?_ =Lähen Pohjolan tuville, Lapin lasten tanterille=, _I go to
the dwellings of the North, to the plains of the Laplanders_.

II. It expresses also the external circumstances of an action when those
circumstances are regarded as not already existing, but as to be entered
on. =Koska saatte työnne alkeille?= _when will your work be begun?_ =Minä
panen kankaan kuteille=, _I put the stuff to be woven_.

III. Like the adessive and ablative it is used of occupations, games,
or meals, in which one engages, but always with the idea of entering
on or beginning. =Menkäämme ongelle=, _let us go and fish_. =Emäntä on
käskenyt ruoalle=, _the mistress of the house has asked us to dinner_.
=Olen kutsuttu kahville=, _I am invited to take coffee_. =Lapset rupeevat
piilosille=, _the children begin to play hide and seek_.

IV. From meaning motion into the neighbourhood of an object or to the
house of anyone (e.g. =Meille tuli vieraita=, _guests came to see us_),
it comes to be used as a dative to express the remote object of an
action. =Äiti antoi kirjan pojallensa=, _the mother gave a book to her
son_. =Jumala on laupias syntisille=, _God is merciful to sinners_.
=Olen kiitollinen teille=, _I am obliged to you_; =olen ottanut itselleni
vapauden=, _I have taken (for myself) the liberty_. =Minun on mahdoton
määrätä aikaa takaisin tulolleni=, _I cannot fix the date of my return_.

V. The allative is sometimes, though rarely, used in the way described
under the ablative IX. =Ilma näyttää kauniille=, _the weather looks
fine_. Cf. Kal. xli. 23. =Jo kävi ilo ilolle=, =Riemu riemulle remahti=,
=Tuntui soito soitannalle=, etc.


_Abessive._

The abessive expresses the absence of anything.

    =Joka syyttä suuttuu,
    Se lahjatta leppyy=,

_He who is angry without a cause is reconciled without a reward_
(proverb).

    =Joka kuritta kasvaa,
    Se kunniatta kuolee=,

_He who grows up without education dies without honour_ (proverb), =Olkaa
huoletta=, _don’t trouble yourself_ (_be without care_). =Elä suihki
sutsunatta, Eläkäräämi rätsinättä, Elä liiku liinaisetta= (Kal. xxiii.
215), _go not without raiment, wander not without a shirt, stray not
without a kerchief_. =Vanhempien tiedotta=, _without the knowledge of
one’s parents_. =Muitten avutta=, _without the help of others_.

For emphasis the particle =ilman= is placed before the abessive.

    =Ilman tau’in tappamatta,
    Ottamatta oivan surman=,

_Without being slain by disease or taken by a natural death_ (Kal. xvi.
178, 9).

The use of the abessive of the third infinitive is particularly frequent,
see below, p. 193.


_Essive._

I. The original use of the essive is locative, but this only survives
in some adverbial expressions: =ulkona=, _out of doors_; =kaukana=,
_far_; =luona=, _near_; =takana=, _behind_; =kotona=, _at home_; =läsnä
olla=, _to be present_; =kokonansa=, _altogether_ (_in its entirety_);
=keskenänne=, =keskenänsä=, etc., _between you, them_; and such
expressions as =olla rannempana=, _to be near shore_; =olla sisempänä=,
_to be inside_.

II. From this use comes that denoting a definite period of time during
which something happens; =tänäpänä=, _to-day_; =huomenna=, _to-morrow_;
=Maanantaina=, =Tiistaina=, etc., _on Monday, Tuesday,_ etc. =En ole
maannut kolmena viimeisenä yönä=, _I have not slept there the last three
nights_. =Ihmiset käyvät pyhänä kirkossa=, _people go to church on a
Saint’s day_. =Eip’ on toiste tullutkana, Ei toiste sinä ikänä=, _She
never came again, Never again in this life_ (Kal. v. 138). =Jo päivänä
muutamana, huomenna moniahana= (Kal. v. 53).

III. From a metaphorical use of this local meaning the essive comes to
denote the character or state in which the subject of a sentence is. It
is used thus—

(1) As the predicate. =Isäni on pappina=, _my father is a priest_.

    =Taivas köyhän kattona,
    Maantie permantona= (proverb),

_The sky is the roof of the poor man and the high road his floor_. =Mikä
on asiana?= _what’s the matter?_

(2) As the appositional case.

    =Minkä nuorena oppii
    Sen vanhana muistaa= (proverb),

_What one learns young one remembers when old_. =Nuorna vitsa
väännettävä=, _one should bend the bough while it’s young_ (proverb).
=Poikana minä en tuntenut häntä=, _as a boy I never knew him_.


_Translative._

I. The original meaning of the translative, like that of the illative and
allative, seems to be motion to; but this only survives in a few adverbs.
=Ulos=, _out of doors_ (‘foras’); =luoksi= or =luoʻ=, _to_; =taakse= or
=taaʻ=, _backwards_; =sisemmäksi=, _inwards_; =rannemmaksi=, _nearer
shore_.

II. In a temporal sense the translative is used to express the time
in which a thing _is to be_ (not _was_) accomplished. =Poika rupesi
palvelukseen vuodeksi=, _the boy entered service for a year_. =Hän jäi
meille yöksi=, _he stayed with us for the night_ (the event, though in
the past, is regarded from the point of view when it was future).

It also expresses a limit of time: =tämä kirja valmistuu jouluksi=, _the
book will be ready by Christmas_. =Voinko saada ne ensi maanantaiksi?=
_can I have them by next Monday?_

It is also used to express place in numerical order. =Ensiksi=, _first_,
_in the first place_; =toiseksi=, _in the second place_.

III. The most frequent signification of the translative is metaphorical,
viz. the state into which anyone or anything passes. It can be used thus
after transitive and intransitive verbs. =Tulla köyhäksi=, _to become
poor_. =Ilma ei muutu selkeäksi=, _the weather does not become clearer_.
=Ne tulevat valmiiksi=, _they will be ready_. =Myrsky käy raivoisaksi=,
_the storm grows high_. =Emäntä leipoi jauhot leiviksi=, _the housewife
baked the flour into bread_. =Itse tuon sanoiksi virkkoi=, (frequent
phrase in Kalevala), _himself thus put this into words_. =Kaupunki paloi
tuhaksi=, _the town was burnt to ashes_.

It is also used as a complement after verbs of naming, calling,
considering, perceiving, etc. (_v._ p. 201), the idea being that in
consequence of the action of such verbs the object passes into a new
state. =Kutsutte minun mestariksi ja Herraksi=, _ye call me master and
Lord_. =Näkivät hänen kuolleeksi=, _they saw he was dead_. =Älkää
pahaksi panko=, _don’t take it amiss_. =Tunnen itseni hyvin sairaaksi=,
_I feel very ill_. The verb =pitää= is peculiar in always taking the
essive, and not translative, after it. E.g. =Pitää jotakin häpeänä=, _to
think a thing a shame_.

IV. It also expresses the purpose or use for which anything serves.
=Hän kelpaa opettajaksi=, _he is fit for a schoolmaster_. =Mitä voin
tehdä palvelukseksenne?= _what can I do for you (for your service)?_
=Olkoon tämä teille opiksi=, _let this be a lesson to you_. =Yhtiö lasten
suojelemiseksi=, _a society for protecting children_. =Juon viiniä
terveydekseni=, _I drink wine for my health_. =Juoda onneksi=, _to drink
to some one’s health_.

By an extension of this use the translative is used almost like the
essive (cf. the dative of the complement in Latin). =Se on hänelle
häpeäksi=, _he ought to be ashamed of it_ (_it is for a shame to him_).
Compare also =miksi?= _why?_

The translative can be used idiomatically in such phrases as _He speaks
Finnish well for a foreigner_, or _considering that he is a foreigner_,
=hän puhuu suomea hyvin ulkomaalaiseksi=. So too, =Laiva on purreksi
hyvä kulkemaan=, _the ship goes well for a sailing-boat_. =Poika on
liian viisas ikäiseksensä=, _the boy is very clever for his age_. A good
example of this use is found in Kal. v. 63 ff. =Sileähk’ on silkaseksi=,
=Kuleahka kuujaseksi=, =Evätöin emäkalaksi=, =Ihala imehnoksiki=,
=Pää-rivatoin neitoseksi=, =Vyötöin veen on tyttöseksi, Korvitoin
kotikanaksi=.

VI. This use is analogous to the adverbial use of the translative, which
is frequent. For instance, =pahaksi= (or =kovaksi=), =hyväksi onneksi=,
_fortunately, unfortunately_. =Osaksi=, _partly_. =Elää herroiksi=, _to
live en grand seigneur_.

With this may be compared its use to express the language in which
anything is written. =Kirja on käännetty suomeksi=, _the book is
translated in Finnish_. So =Saksaksi=, _in German_; =Ruotsiksi=, _in
Swedish_; =Venäjäksi=, _in Russian_.


_Comitative._

I. The comitative is used to express the person in whose company, or the
object in connection with which an action takes place. It is always used
in spoken Finnish in the plural, even if only one person or object is
referred to, but in the old language and in printed books the singular
is sometimes found. It nearly always takes a pronominal affix. =Mies
meni pois vaimoinensa=, _the man went away with his wife_. =Vetivät
verkon kaloinensa=, _they drew in the net with the fish_. =Otti lapsen
äitinensä=, _he took the child with its mother_. =Kesä on tullut ihanine
ilmoinensa=, _the summer is come with beautiful weather_. =Sata miestä
miekkoinensa=, _a hundred men with their swords_ (Kal. xi. 100).

When the comitative is combined with an attribute, the latter frequently
ends in =n=, not =ne=. For instance, =järvet saoin saarinensa=, _lakes
with a hundred islands_ (Kal. xxiv. 459). =Ei hänen sovi tulla tänne
tuhmin tapoinensa=, _he ought not to come here with his foolish ways_.
=Älä tule sisään likaisin jalkoinesi=, _don’t come in with your dirty
feet_.

Copious examples of this case will be found in Kalevala, xxiv. 444-462.
=Jää nyt pirtti terveheksi, Pirtti lautakattonesi=, etc.


_Instructive._

I. The instructive is used to express the instrument or the manner in
which an action is performed. The instructive of substantives is chiefly
used of parts of the body and in modern Finnish always in the plural.
=Paljain jaloin=, _with bare legs, barelegged_. =Poika meni ulkos paljain
päin=, _the boy went out bareheaded_. =Omin käsin=, _with one’s own
hands_; =omin silmin=, _with one’s own eyes_. =Ristissä käsin=, _with
hands crossed_. =Kaikki huonekalut ovat sikin sokin=, _all the furniture
is topsy-turvy_. =Kulkea jalan=, _to go on foot_. =Alla päin=, _with
one’s head hanging down_ (Kal. iii. 501 and following lines). =On meillä
valta omin luvin tulla huoneesenne=, _we have authority to come into
your room without asking leave_. =Kahden ynnä=, _both together_; =yksin
mielin=, _with one accord_; =yksin syntyi Wäinämöinen=, _Wäinämöinen was
born alone_.

It is noticeable that generally when this case is used, either a noun
with an adjective is found or two nouns both in the instructive. Thus one
can say =kissa repi ovea kynsin hampain=, whereas if only one word were
used it would be better to use =kynsillä= _or_ =hampailla=.

The instructive rarely takes pronominal suffixes. Kal. ix. 507, 509, =En
liiku omin lihoini ... En väiky omin väkini=.

II. The instructive of adjectives is frequently used adverbially to
express manner.

(1) The instructive _singular_ of an adjective is used adverbially to
qualify another adjective or adverb in the positive. =Tavattoman kaunis=,
_exceedingly beautiful_; =kauhean ruma=, _horribly ugly_; =hyvin hyvä=,
_very good_; =tämä yö oli hirveän pitkä=, _the night was terribly long_.

(2) The instrumental _plural_ of adjectives in the comparative or
superlative is used to define verbs. =Puhu nopeammin=, _speak quicker_;
=aurinko paistaa kirkkaammin=, _the sun shines brighter_.

III. The instructive plural is also used in a temporal sense, and denotes
an indefinite or recurring period of time. Thus =linnut laulavat illoin=,
=aamuin=, _the birds sing in the morning_, _in the evening_ (whereas if
a definite morning or evening is meant the essive must be used). In
this sense the termination =sin= is often used, which is really the
instructive plural of an adjective with a nominative =nen= formed from
the noun. Thus =me alamme työn aamuisin kello kahdeksasta=, _we begin to
work at eight in the morning_. =Iltaisin rupeamme aikaisemmin maata=, _we
go to led earlier in the evening_. =Hän tekee talvisin kauppamatkoja=,
_he makes business journeys in the winter_. =Onko teillä tapa valvoa
öisin?= _are you in the habit of not sleeping at night?_

This same ending is added to substantives in a sense somewhat analogous
to the prolative. =Minä menen rautateisin=, _I go by rail_. =Sotaväki
matkusti osaksi maisin osaksi merisin=, _the troops travelled partly by
land, partly by sea_.


_Prolative._

This case is rarely used, and in fact has no sense when formed from any
but substantives expressing some kind of local position. It expresses
motion by or over anything, and is chiefly employed in adverbial
expressions, and generally in the plural. =Tulla meritse tai maitse=, _to
come by sea or land_. =Järven ranatse=, _along the shore of the lake_.
=Niemen nenitse=, _round the promontory_. =Aalloitse=, _by sea_. =Minä
kylvän kyyhättelen Luojan sormien lomitse=, _I sow by the finger of God_
(lit. through the interval of the fingers). Kal. ii. 297 =(Mehiläinen
lenti) Otavaisten olkapäitse, Seitsentähty en selitse=, _(the bee flew)
over the shoulder of the great bear, over the back of the seven stars_.



THE ADJECTIVE.


Most of the peculiarities of the Finnish Adjective have been already
noticed. The various rules for its concord with a substantive have been
given on p. 128 f., and rules for the cases used after comparatives and
superlatives on pp. 136 & 143. With reference, however, to this latter
subject, it may be as well to recapitulate the rules.

_Comparative._ After an adjective in the comparative can be used:—

I. The word =kuin=, followed by the substantive in the proper case.
=Oletkos sinä suurempi kuin meidän isämme Abraham?= _art thou greater
than our father Abraham?_

II. Or else the word =kuin= is omitted and the substantive is put in
the partitive. The sentence quoted above from the Bible might have been
equally well written—=Oletkos sinä suurempi meidän isäämme Abrahamia?=

III. Such expressions as ‘it is better to,’ and the like, are rendered
by =parempi on= (_or_ =olisi=), with the first infinitive. =Parempi on
nöyränä olla=, _it is better to be humble_.

_The superlative_ can be used either absolutely, or with some word
depending on it in such phrases as ‘_the greatest of kings_’. Such a
word is put either in the partitive or in the elative, with very little
difference in the meaning. The elative, however, implies reference to a
more definite class than the partitive. =Suurin kuninkaita= is _greatest
of kings_; but =suurin kuninkaista=, _the greatest of the kings_.

Not only are adjectives and substantives declined in exactly the same
manner, but the distinction between them is very slight. The same form
is sometimes used both as a noun and an adjective e.g. =lysti=, =ikävä=,
or adjectives are used in cases which seem to imply that they have a
substantival meaning; =Olla lujassa=, _to be firm_; =olla kylmillä=, _to
be cold_. Some substantives can be compared, as if they were adjectives.
=Rannempi=, _nearer shore_, =mielellämmin=, _more agreeably_; so too
=syrjempi= (=syrjä=), =talvempana=, =keväämpänä=, popular expressions for
_later in winter_ or _spring_. =Minä jätän illemmäksi=, _I leave it till
later in the evening_.



PRONOUNS.


_Personal Pronouns._

The personal pronouns are always employed when there is any emphasis on
them in English; otherwise, they are mostly omitted, the termination of
the verb indicating the person with sufficient clearness. Thus one says,
=Minä olen sen tehnyt, et sinä=, _I did it, not you_; but =Tahtoisin
lähteä huomenna, jos ette pane vastaan=, _I should like to leave
to-morrow if you have no objection_.

If the subject of _both_ a principal and subordinate sentence is a
pronoun of the first or second person, it is always omitted in the
subordinate sentence. =Ottakaa mitä tahdotte=, _take what you like_. =Hän
sanoi ettei tunne tätä miestä=, _he said he did not know the man_.

=Sinä= and =Te= are used with much the same distinction as =Du= and =Sie=
in German, that is to say, the plural is used out of politeness when
speaking with anyone but inferiors or intimate friends.


_Possessive Pronouns._

There are no pronominal adjectives in Finnish corresponding to _my_,
_thy_, etc. Their place is supplied (_a_) by the genitive of the personal
pronoun, (_b_) more frequently by the pronominal affixes.

When the possessive pronoun is emphatic, both the genitive and the affix
are used, and in the Bible this construction is frequent, even when
there is no particular emphasis. As a rule, however, the affix alone is
sufficient in the 1st and 2nd persons.

The affix of the 3rd person, however, is used alone only when it refers
to the subject of the principal verb; for instance, =Hän ei nähnyt
vaimoansa=, _he has not seen his wife_; but =Ettekö nähneet hänen
vaimoansa?= _have you not seen his wife?_ Similarly, _He has not seen
his_ (another person’s) _wife_ must be rendered, =Hän ei nähnyt hänen
vaimoansa=.

Such a sentence as _that is mine_ is rendered by =Se on minun=. =Ei minun
oppini ole minun=, _my doctrine is not mine_.

_It is I_ is rendered by =minä olen=.

The affixes =ni=, =si=, =nsa=, etc. have a simple possessive sense
when added to nouns, but they are added to a variety of other words
under circumstances which render it impossible to translate them by the
possessive pronoun in English. It would appear that they simply denote
that the pronoun which they represent is to be taken in connection with
the word to which they are added. When the two ideas of House and I are
taken together this naturally means ‘my house,’ but other combinations
have to be rendered in a different manner.

I. In old Finnish, particularly in the Bible, they are added to the cases
of the personal pronouns for emphasis. =Tutkikaat raamatuita, sillä
niissä te luulette teillenne ijankaikkisen elämän olevan=, _search the
Scriptures for in them ye think ye have eternal life_ (S. John v. 39).
=Puhukaan itse hänestänsä=, _let him speak for himself_ (S. John ix. 21).
=Että te rakastaisitte teitänne keskenänne=, _that ye might love one
another_ (S. John xiii. 34). This use is found chiefly in the western
dialect of Finnish.

II. They are similarly added to various adjectives. =En minä ole
yksinäni=, _am not alone_. Cf. the use of =hyvänsä= with pronouns.
Similarly in such phrases as =rakastakaa toinen toistanne=, etc. (_vide_
p. 171). =Olkoon sinänsä=, _let it be_; =olla semmoisenansa=, _to be like
it_ or _him_; =jättää työ siksensä=, _to leave one’s work as it is_.
=Hän on suorastansa hullu=, _he is a perfect fool_. Cf. =mieleiseni=,
_agreeable to me_.

III. They are very commonly added to postpositions (_vide_ p. 203 ff.),
or to adverbs (which however are mostly cases of nouns or adjectives).
=Ainoastansa=, =kokonansa=; =yhtenään=, =yleensä=.

IV. They are also added to infinitives and participles in many
constructions (_vide_ pp. 184-200).


_Demonstrative Pronouns._

The demonstrative pronouns are as follows:—

=Tämä=, _this_, is used of both persons and things. =Nämä talot ovat
minun=, _these houses are mine_. =Tällä miehellä ei ole rahaa=, _this man
has no money_. =Tuo=, _that_, is also used of both persons and things.
=Tuo tyttö on kaunis=, _that girl is good-looking_. =Tuo ei ole oikein=,
_that is not correct_.

=Se= is used of the third person if anything but a human being is spoken
of. =Missä on koira? Se ei ole huoneessa=, _where is the dog? He’s not
in the room_. =Ne kalat ovat pienet=, _these fish are small_. =Mitä
pidätte siitä=, _what do you think of it?_ In popular language and in the
Kalevala it is also used as the equivalent of =hän=. =Se puhuu totta=,
_he speaks the truth_. =Se mies joka paikkansa pitää= (proverb), _he is
a man who keeps his place_. It is also used adjectively to emphasize
a word, and often corresponds to our article. =Se koira vinkasi johon
kalikka kävi=, _the dog who is hit howls_ (proverb).


_Reflexive Pronouns._

The reflexive pronoun in Finnish is supplied by the oblique cases of
=Itse=, _self_, always with the addition of the proper possessive affix.
The genitive, however, is rarely used, and only with prepositions.
=Ostin itselleni hatun=, _I bought myself a hat_. =Itsestänsä paha
pappi saarnaa= (proverb), _a bad priest preaches about himself_. =Tunne
itsesi=, _know thyself_. =Auta itseäsi ja jumala sinua auttaa=, _help
yourself and God will help you_. _Vide_ below (p. 170) for other uses of
this word =itse=.

The genitive of the reflexive pronoun is supplied by the adjective =oma=,
_own_, corresponding to the Russian =свой=. The noun qualified by this
adjective takes the proper pronominal affix. =Minä otin oman osani, ja
hän ei sinun osaasi ottanut vaan oman osansa=, _I took my share, and he
did not take your share, but his own share_. =Oma= has not always the
reflexive meaning, but is used simply for emphasis as ‘my own,’ etc. in
English. =Tämä on minun oma taloni=, _this is my own cottage_. =Omat
on virret oppimani, omat saamani sanaiset.= It is also used without
reference to a definite subject to mean ‘one’s own.’

    =Omat maat makuisimmat
    Omat metsät mieluisimmat.=

_One’s own lands are more pleasant and one’s own forests sweeter_ (than
those of others).


_Interrogative Pronouns._

(1) =Kuka= is a substantive. The nominative singular and plural means
_who?_ and is only used of persons. The remaining cases =kussa=, =kusta=,
=kuhun= _or_ =kunne=, =kuin=, =kun=, etc., are mostly used as particles.
=Kuka luulisi häntä niin viekkaaksi?= _Who would have thought him so
clever?_ =Kutka tuolta tulevat?= _Who come from there?_

(2) =Ken= is identical in meaning with =kuka=, being also a substantive
and only used of persons. The nominative is rarely used, but the oblique
cases supply those of =kuka=. =Kenen kirja tämä on?= _Whose book is
this?_ =Kenellähän olisi rahaa?= _Who is likely to have any money?_

(3) =Mikä= has two uses: (1) when applied to persons it is always used
adjectively. =Mikä mies tuo on?= _what man is that?_ =Mi sinä olet
miehiäsi?= (Kal. ii. 134.) _what manner of man art thou?_ (2) When
applied to things it can be used either adjectively or substantively. It
will be noticed that this is exactly similar to the use of _what_ in
English. =Mikä on nimesi?= _what is your name?_ =Mitä maksoitte?= _what
did you pay?_ =Millä kadulla asutte?= _what street do you live in?_

(4) =Kumpi= is either a substantive or an adjective, and means _which of
two_. =Kumpi teistä= (_or_ =teitä=) =tulee?= _Which of you is coming?_
=Kumpaa viiniä paremmin rakastatte, punaistako vain valkoista?= _Which
wine do you prefer, red or white?_ =Hän saapui Turkuun, jossa kaupungissa
viipyi kaksi viikkoa=, _He arrived at Åbo, in which town he remained two
weeks_.


_Relative Pronouns._

=Joka=, _who_ or _which_, is a substantive, and sometimes an adjective.
=Joka myllyyn menee se tomuun tulee=, _he who goes to the mill gets
dusty_ (proverb). =Poika, jolle annoitte kirjan, on veljeni=, _the boy to
whom you gave the book is my brother_.

=Jompi=, _which of two_, is not frequently used: =Ota näistä kirjoista
jomman tahdot=, _take which of these books you like_. =Pata kattilata
soimaa: musta kylki kummallakin=, _the pot abuses the kettle; but both
are black_. =Kuka=, =kumpi=, and =mikä=, are also used as relatives. =En
tiedä kuka se on=, _I do not know what is_. =Jos tietäisin mitä tahdotte,
niin antaisin=, _if I knew what you wanted I would give it you_. N.B. The
word =kuin=, meaning _as_, is sometimes used as a relative pronoun.


_Indefinite Pronouns._

I. One kind of indefinite pronoun is formed by the union of the relative
and interrogative in their shortened form. =Joku=, _some one_, _some
one or other_; =jompikumpi=, _one or other of two_. =Joku kolkuttaa=,
_some one is knocking_. =Tuli joitakuita miehiä=, _some men came_. =Sano
jommalle kummalle=, _tell one or other of them_.

II. The relative and interrogative pronouns when combined with the suffix
=kin=—=jokin=, =kukin=, =mikin=, =kumpikin= _or_ =kumpainenkin=—are
used as indefinite pronouns in affirmative sentences. The same pronouns
combined with =kaan=—=kukaan=, =kenkään=, =mikään=, =kumpikaan=—are used
only in negative phrases or dubitative questions, and then mean, _no
one_, _none_, _nothing_, and _neither_. =Menköön jokin hänen jälkeen=,
_let some one go after him_. =Ei kukaan tiedä mihin hän meni=, _no one
knows where he went_. =Oletteko kuulleet jotakin uutta?= _have you
heard something new?_ =En mitäkään=, _nothing_. =Ei johtunut kenenkään
mieleen=, _no one remembered_ (_it came into nobody’s mind_). =Kelpaako
näistä kumpikaan?= _will either of these do?_

Under many circumstances the interogative and relative pronouns are used
as indefinite.

(1) In sentences meaning ‘some do one thing, some another.’ Cf. the use
of =кто= in Russian. =Mikä itkee, mikä nauraa=, _one weeps and another
laughs_. =Kuka uskoo, kuka ei=, _some believe, and some don’t_. =Ketä
nälättää, ketä janottaa=, _one is hungry, and another thirsty_.

(2) When two interrogatives or relatives are combined together and
one takes the suffix =kin= in such expressions as =vieraita tuli mikä
mistäkin=, _strangers come some from one side some from another_
(Lat. _alii aliunde_). =Haastelivat minkän mitäkin=, _they talked of
different subjects_. =Tekivät tuttavuutta kuka kunkin kanssa=, _they made
acquaintances one with another_.

(3) Interrogatives and relatives are turned into indefinite pronouns by
the addition of the words =hyvänsä=, =tahtonsa=, =tahansa=, =ikänänsä=,
=ikinä=, corresponding to the Latin _cumque_, _libet_, _vis_, and such
English expressions as _who you like_, _who you will_, or _ever_. =Sen
taitaa kuka hyvänsä tehdä=, _anyone can do that_; =missä ikänänsä
olette=, _wherever you are_; =tulkoon kuka tahtonsa= _or_ =tahansa=,
_whoever comes_; =kuka ikinä sen löytää=, _whoever finds it_.

(4) The use of the simple interrogative for the indefinite pronoun is
peculiarly frequent in phrases beginning with =vaikka=. =Tulkoon vaikka
kuka=, _come who may_. =Maksoi vaikka mitä=, _whatever it cost_. =Oli
hän waikka kuka=, _whoever he may be_. Cf. =vaikka koska=, _whenever_;
=vaikka missä=, _wherever_.


_Various Pronominal Adjectives._

I. =Eräs=, =muutama= and =muudan= _or_ =muuan=, all mean _some_, _a
certain_. =Eräänä aamuna=, _one morning_. =Muutamia miehiä astui
huoneesen=, _several men came into the room_. =Oli kerran muudan ukko=,
_there was once an old man_.

II. =Itse.= This word, which means _self_, is used as a reflexive
pronoun, as described above, p. 166. It is also used simply for emphasis.
=Minä itse=, _I myself_; =hän on itse hyvyys=, _he is goodness itself_.
When =itse= is used with a substantive it can either precede, in which
case it is not declined and takes no pronominal suffix, or else follow,
in which case it is put in the same case as the substantive and has a
suffix. =Itse asiassa se ei mitään tee=, _as a matter of fact that makes
no difference_. =Kuulin kerran, ukon itsensä puhuvan=, _I once heard the
old man himself say_.

When =itse= is used with postpositions it often remains unchanged
while the postposition takes the pronominal suffix. =Itse puolestani
olen tyytyväinen=, _for my part I am content_. =Hän on itse kauttansa
rikastunut=, _he has grown rich by his own exertions_ (_through
himself_). =En siitä huolisi itse tähteni=, _I should not trouble about
it on my own account_.

III. =Kaikki=, _all, every_, is the Latin _omnis_. =Koko=, _all_ or _the
whole_, is _totus_. This latter word is properly a substantive meaning
collection, and it is not declined when used as an adjective. =Kaikki= is
declined, but its accusative singular is either =kaikki= _or_ =kaiken=.
The nominative and accusative plural are also generally =kaikki=, but
=kaiket= is used in the sense of =koko=. N.B. =Hän on minulle kaikki
kaikessa=, _he is all in all to me_.

IV. =Moni= is generally used in the singular, =moni mies=, _many a man_.
When it is used as the subject of a sentence, the partitive =monta=
is generally employed. =Monta miestä, monta mieltä=, _many men, many
opinions_ (proverb).

The plural =monet= has generally the sense of various. =Monet venäjän
kansat elävät kalastuksella=, _many races in Russia live by fishing_.

V. The word =toinen=, _another_ or _second_, is used with the pronominal
suffixes as a reciprocal pronoun. In this case either the oblique case
may be used alone with the suffix, or the nominative, without the suffix
be added. =He rakastavat toisiansa=, _they love one another_, or =He
rakastavat toinen toisiansa=.

=Muu= means _other_ or _another_, whereas =toinen= usually means _the
other_, or at any rate refers to a definite person. Thus =Näistä miehestä
toinen on venäläinen, toinen saksalainen=, _one of these men is a
Russian, the other a German_. =Se ei ole kukaan muu kuin kuningas itse=,
_this is no other than the king himself_. =Ovatko toiset tulleet?= _are
the others come?_ =Onko ketään muita tullut?= _Has anyone else come?_

The adverbial forms =muualla=, =muualta=, =muualle= seem derived from a
stem =muuka=, which is not found in the nominative. =Miehet ovat muualta
tulleet=, _the men have come from another country_.[14]

VI. The indeclinable adjective =joka= has much the same meaning as
=jokainen=, namely _each_ or _every_. =Joka vuosi=, _every year_. =Se
nähdään joka aika=, _that is always seen_. =Annoin rahaa joka miehelle=,
_I gave every man some money_. =Joka toinen, kolmas, neljäs=, etc.,
_every second, third, fourth_, etc. =Joka toisena päivänä=, _every other
day._



NUMBERS.


The use of the numbers presents some peculiarities.

A. =Yksi=, _one_, is an adjective which agrees with the substantive it
qualifies. =Hän aina puhuu yhtä asiaa=, _he always talks on one subject_.
=Olla yhdessä neuvossa=, _to be concerned in a plan_.

B. The other numbers require that the word they qualify should be in the
partitive singular, _if the number is in the nominative_. Under these
circumstances the verb is the singular. =Kolme poikaa on talossa=, _three
boys are in the house_. =Viisi tuhatta miestä=, _5000 men_. =Seitsemän
kalaa=, _seven fishes_.

But with words that have no singular, both the numeral and substantive
are put in the nominative. =Yhdet, kahdet häät=, _one, two marriages_.
=Viidet sakset=, _five pairs of scissors_. =Kahdeksat sukat=, _eight
pairs of stockings_.

C. If the numeral is in an oblique case, then the substantive is put in
the same case also, _but in the singular_. =Viidelle pojalle=, _to five
boys_. =Kolmelle kymmenelle miehelle=, _to thirty-six men_.

But in the Kalevala, one finds such expressions as =löyti kuusia jyviä=,
=Seitsemiä siemeniä=.

D. If the number and substantive have a pronoun or adjective agreeing
with them, this latter is put in the plural and in the same case as the
number. But the substantive obeys the preceding rules, if the attribute
is in the nominative plural, the verb is also in the plural. =Nämät
viisi poikaa tulivat kotia=, _these five boys come home_. =Anna leipää
näille viidelle pojalle=, _give some bread to these five boys_.

N.B. In all the numbers except =yksi= the accusative is the same as the
nominative. =Näin kaksi miestä=, _I saw two men_. =Ampui viisi lintuja=;
_he shot five birds_; but =Näin yhden miehen=, _I saw one man_.


_Expression of a date._

I. To express the year the word =vuosi= is employed, and a cardinal
number after it. If =vuosi= is used in the local or in the essive case
this number is not inflected. =Vuonna tuhatta= (_or_ =tuhat=) =kahdeksan
sataa kahdeksankymmentä yhdeksän=, _in the year 1889_.

But if the genitive of =vuosi= is used, then the number is also put in
the genitive. =Vuoden tuhatta kahdeksan sataa kahdeksankymmentä viiden
sato=, _the harvest of 1885_.

II. The day of the month is expressed in two ways.

(1) First comes the name of the month in the genitive, then an ordinal
number in the essive, and the word =päivänä=. =Maaliskuun kolmantena
päivänä=, _March 3_.

(2) Or the numeral and =päivänä= come first, and are followed by the name
of the month in the partitive. =Kolmantena päivänä Maaliskuuta.=

III. The hour expressed by the word =kello=, which remains under all
circumstances invariable, followed by a cardinal numeral which can
be inflected. =Kello on kuusi=, _it is six o’clock_. =Nousen kello
neljältä=, _I get up at five o’clock_.

The half hours are expressed in much the same way as in German or
Russian. _Half past four_, =puoli viisi=; _half past five_, =puoli
kuusi=; _half past six_, =puoli seitsemän=, etc. _A quarter past five_
is expressed by =se on neljänneksen yli viisi= (_five plus a quarter_),
and _a quarter to six_ by =se on neljännestä vailla kuusi= (_six minus a
quarter_).

The names of the days of the week and months are as follows:—

    _Sunday_       =Sunnuntai=.
    _Monday_       =Maanantai=.
    _Tuesday_      =Tiitai=.
    _Wednesday_    =Keskiviikko=.
    _Thursday_     =Torstai=.
    _Friday_       =Perjantai=.
    _Saturday_     =Lauantai=.

    _January_      =Tammikuu=.
    _February_     =Helmikuu=.
    _March_        =Maaliskuu=.
    _April_        =Huhtikuu=.
    _May_          =Toukokuu=.
    _June_         =Kesäkuu=.
    _July_         =Heinäkuu=.
    _August_       =Elokuu=.
    _September_    =Syyskuu=.
    _October_      =Lokakuu=.
    _November_     =Marraskuu=.
    _December_     =Joulukuu=.



THE VERB.


The moods and tenses of the Finite verb in Finnish are very simple.

The present and imperfect with the compound tenses called perfect and
pluperfect form the entire indicative mood.

I. The present indicates—

(1) An habitual action, or an action which is going on at the present
time. =Joka päivä hän lukee sanomalehden alusta loppuun saakka=, _every
day he reads the newspaper through from one end to the other_. =Mihin
menette? Menemme metsään=, _where are you going? we are going to the
wood_. When it is desired to emphasise the fact that some one is engaged
in an action at the present time, such phrases as =he ovat kalastamassa=,
_they are fishing_, may be used (_v._ p. 191).

(2) A future action, as we say ‘he comes to-morrow.’ Some distinction is
made between these two uses by the fact that while a verb representing an
action as going on always takes an object in the partitive, a verb which
represents an action as to be completed in the future takes an object in
the genitive. =Kirjoitan kirjettä=, _I am writing a letter_; =huomenna
kirjoitan kirjeen=, _I shall write a letter to-morrow_. =Kun saan tietää
missä asuu, niin menen hänen luo=, _when I know where he lives I shall go
and see him_.

(3) In a few expressions the present indicative is used in a concessive
sense. =Maksaa mitä maksaa=, _cost what it may_. =Sano mitä sanot=, _say
what you will_.

II. The imperfect is used in two senses:—

(1) It denotes an action in past time, either habitual or isolated,
either continuous or momentary; it thus corresponds to several past
tenses in other languages. =Seuraavana päivänä tuli nuori rouva
aamiais-pöytään, kun muut olivat lopettaneet=, _next day the young
lady came down to breakfast when the rest had finished_. =Tapasitko
sisartani?= _did you meet my sister?_ =En tavannut=, _I did not meet
her_. =Joka päivä lähti hän kävelemään pääkadulle=, _every day he took
a walk in the principal street_. =Lohi loimahti merehen=, _the salmon
jumped into the sea_. =Itki yötä kaksi kolme=, _he wept two or three
nights_.

(2) It is also used like the present in a concessive sense, but much more
frequently than that tense. =Kävi miten kävi, asiaan on ryhtyttävä=,
_come what may, the business must be begun_. =Oli kumpi hyvänsä=,
_whichever of the two it is_. Cf. such expressions as =kuka niitä kaikkia
muisti? Lempo niitä ymmärsi=.

It is noticeable that in the narrative portions of the Kalevala and other
poems the present and imperfect are used almost indifferently (_v._
extracts at end of book). Perhaps the sound of the terminations =pi= and
=vi=, which, like the imperfect, end in =i=, made the confusion easier.

III. The perfect corresponds pretty nearly to the tense formed with the
auxiliary _have_ in English. =Olemme maanneet vähän aikaa niin lähdemme
järvelle koko yöksi=, _we have slept a little and are going out on the
lake for the whole night_. =Oletteko ennen kuulleet sitä laulua?= _have
you heard that song before?_ =En ole nähnyt häntä moneen aikaan=, _I have
not seen him for a long time_.

IV. The pluperfect expresses an action finished in past time, and may be
rendered by _had_ in English. =Kun hän sen sanonut oli, meni hän taas
ulos=, _when he had said this he went out again_. =Oliko hän ehkä saanut
tiedon asiasta?= _had he by any chance heard of the matter?_

It will be observed that there is no real future tense in Finnish. Its
want is supplied in several ways.

A. By the present tense as described above.

B. By a periphrastic conjugation consisting of the present participle
and the present or imperfect of =olla=. This corresponds to the Russian
future with =буду=, and denotes a future action the time of which is not
specified. =Ennenkuin päivät tulevat koskas olet sanova....=, _before
the days come in which thou shalt say...._ (Eccl. xii. 1). =Hän on
vapahtava kansansa heidän synneistänsä=, _He shall save His people from
their sins_.

C. By the concessive. This tense is frequently used to imply something
probable or doubtful in the future. =Ostanevat kaupungista kirjat ja
tuonevat ne jo huomenna kotia=, _they will probably buy new books and
bring them home to-morrow_. =Tappaneeko hän itsensä?= (S. John viii. 22)
_will he kill himself?_

D. By the conditional, especially in conditional sentences. =Tulisin
huomenna, jos ehtisin=, _I shall come to-morrow, if I have time_. =Isäntä
ei palkitsisi sinua ennenkuin olisit työsi lopettanut=, _your master will
not pay you before you finish your work_.

E. Various periphrases are used, particularly when there is any idea of
necessity or obligation in the future. The following examples taken from
the translation of the Bible will show this. =Minä saan nähdä hänen,
mutta en nyt=, _I shall see him, but not now_ (Num. xxiv. 17, but the
passage continues =minä katselen häntä waan en lästä=). =Teidän pitää
minua etsimän=, _ye shall seek me_ (S. John vii. 34). =Sillä ei sitä pidä
unhotettaman heidän siemenensä suussa=, _for it shall not be forgotten
out of the mouths of their seed_ (Deut. xxxi. 21). =Autuaat ovat siviät
sillä he saavat maan periä=, _blessed are the meek for they shall inherit
the earth_ (S. Matt. v. 5).


_The Concessive._

This mood represents an action as possible, and is particularly used in
questions, or in sentences introduced by such particles as =ehkä=, which
imply a doubt or question.

It has two tenses.

I. The present, implying a potential action in the present or future.
=Lieneekö totta mitä sanotaan?= _is it likely that what people say is
true?_ =Hän sen parhaiten tietänee=, _he probably knows best_. =Jos et
tuostana totelle=, _if thou willst not obey that_. =Osannet palkan ottaa,
osaa työkin tehdä=, _wouldst thou know how to receive the reward, learn
how to do the work_. =Sureneeko Jumala härkiä?= _doth God care for oxen?_
=Ei suattane sinua Saaren suurehen sukuhun=, _they are not likely to
tolerate your alliance with the great family of the island_ (Kal. xi. 71).

II. The past, implying a potential action in past time. =Hän lienee
luullut minua toiseksi=, _he probably thought I was some one else_. =Ei
liene sinua luotu Ison tammen taittajaksi= (Kal. ii. 145), _thou art
probably not created to break the mighty oak_. =Lieneekö hän arvanuut
ketä puhutteli?= _did he know with whom he spoke?_


_The Conditional._

The conditional mood has two tenses, the present and past, which denote
an action dependent on certain conditions in present or past time.

It is used:—

(1) In conditional, comparative, and concessive sentences, both in the
protasis and apodosis. When used in the sentence introduced by =jos=, or
some similar particle, the present implies that the condition is not yet
realised, and the past that it has not been. But this distinction is not
always observed, the present being used of a condition not realized in
the past. =Jos menisitte tässä myrskyssä järvelle niin hukkuisitte=, _if
you were to go on the lake in this storm you would be drowned_. =Parempi
olisi ollut Ilman impenä eleä=, _it would have been better to live as
the virgin of the air_ (Kal. i. 161). =Jos varani myöntäisivät niin
matkustaisin ulkomaille=, _if my means allowed me I should go abroad_.
=Kukapa ... käkiä kukutteleisi, Lintusia laulattaisi, Jos minä menisin
muunne, Saisin marja muille maille. Jos tämä kana katoisi, Tämä hanhi
hairahtaisi=, etc. (Kal. x. 441 ff.).

The word =jos= is sometimes omitted and replaced by the interrogative
suffix =-ko= after the verb. Kal. xi. 95:—=Nauraisitko Saaren naiset,
Pitäisit pyhäiset piiat, Niin siitä tora tulisi, Sota suuri lankeaisi=,
_were you to seduce the maidens of the island a quarrel would come of it
and a great war fall on us_.

(2) In final sentences to express the object of an action. =Ilmoittakaat
minulle että minäkin tulisin ja kummartaisin häntä= (S. Matt. ii.
8), _bring me word that I may come and worship him also_. =Kirjoitan
hänelle että hän toimittaisi sen asian=, _I am writing to him that he
may undertake the affair_. =Olkaa hiljaa, lapset, että saisin rauhassa
työskennellä=, _be quiet, children, that I may work in peace_. =Ava suusi
suuremmaksi ... pääsisin mahasta maalle= (Kal. xvii. 583), _open thy
mouth ... that I may come forth from thy stomach_.

(3) In temporal and relative sentences when the temporal particle or
relative involves some idea of purpose, capacity, etc. =En tahtonut
ruveta kirjoittamaan ennenkuin saisin varman tiedon asiasta=, _I did not
wish to write before I received certain news of the affair_. =Päätin
lakkauttaa kauppaliikkeeni kunnes ajat paranisivat=, _I determined
to close my business till the times should be better_. =Sen mä
mieheksi sanoisin, Urohoksi arveleisin, Joka jouseni vetäisi, Kiveräni
kiinnittäisi.= (Kal. xxvi. 357). N.B. The conditional is used only if the
principal verb is in a past tense or conditional.

(4) In Oratio Obliqua.

_a._ After verbs of wishing, asking, commanding, etc. =Käske että
palvelija valjastaisi hevosen=, _tell the servant to get the horse
harnessed_. =Tahdotko että se heti tehtäisiin?= _do you wish it to be
done at once?_

_b._ To represent the imperative in the Oratio recta. =Isäntä sanoi että
rengit menisivät pellolle=, _the master told the servants to go to the
fields_. =Hän viitasi että he vaikenisivat=, _he motioned to them to be
silent_.

(5) As a polite form of statement, request, or question, from which, as
mentioned above, it often comes to be used as a future. =Minä luulisin
että hän ostaisi talonne=, _I should think he would buy your house_.
=Voisitteko kertoa minulle?= _can you tell me?_ =Tahtoisin puhua
kanssanne=, _I should like to talk to you_. =Näyttäisitte minulle=,
_please show me_. =Enkö saisi ...?= _can I have ...?_ =Menisitte
noutamaan yhdet hyyryvaunut=, _please go and call a cab_.

(6) To express a wish with such particles as =jos=, =jospa=, =kunhan=,
etc. =Jospa hän tulisi!= _if he would only come!_ =Jospa olisin
tietänyt!= _had I only known!_ =Kunhan tuttuni tulisi!= _if my friend
would but come!_


_Imperative and Optative._

Though these moods are given as two in the Accidence on account of
the slight difference in their form, they may be treated as one
syntactically, as they supply one another’s deficiencies, the imperative
being only used in the 2nd sing. and 1st and 2nd persons plur., and the
optative only in the 2nd sing. and the 3rd person singular and plural. In
poetry a 2nd pers. plur. optative ending in =otte= is occasionally found.
There is no difference between the meaning of the two in 2nd person
singular.

The imperative expresses:—

I. A command or request. =Lähe nyt kanssa laulamahan=, _come to sing with
me_ (Kal. i. 14). =Toki tullos toinen kerta=, _come again_ (Kal. v. 137).
=Käy pian välehen jou’u=, _go quickly and finish the business_ (Kal. l.
211). =Ellös menkö poikaseni Parempikin itseäsi=, _aspire not, my son,
to those that are better than thyself_ (Kal. xi. 69).

II. A condition. =Sano mitä sanot, en siitä kuitenkaan välitä=, _you
may say what you like, but I don’t care_. =Teen minä sen vaikka hän
kieltäköönkin=, _I shall do it, even though he forbid it_.


_The Passive._

The passive, as has already been mentioned in the Accidence, is
impersonal. =Käytetään= means _there is a using_, or _one uses, people
use_. The clearest proof of the real character of the form is to be found
in the fact that the verb substantive =olla=, _to be_, has a so-called
passive.

Examples:—=Niin kohta kun ollaan tultu=, _as soon as people come_. =Ennen
oltiin terveempiä=, _people were healthier formerly_. =Siihen oltaneen
tyytyväisiä=, _this will probably prove satisfactory_ (_people will be
satisfied with this_). =Järvellä oltaessa tuuli kovasti=, _while they
were on the lake, the wind blew violently_.

(1) The passive of ordinary verbs is used absolutely; that is to say, no
noun is connected with it as subject or object. =Koulussa kirjoitetaan ja
luetaan=, _they read and write in the school_. =Helsingissä huvitellaan
paljo talven aikoina=, _there is much amusement in Helsingfors in winter
time_. =Suomen järvissä ja joissa kalastetaan=, _people fish_ (or _there
is fishing_) _in the lakes and rivers of Finland_.

(2) As the above examples show, the passive represents the action of
a verb without designating the agent. It is not unnatural that such
forms should be used in an imperative or optative sense, for the second
singular of the imperative is simply the root of the verb. It is true
that the imperative is the closed root, due to the loss of =k=, but like
the passive it has no sign of person.

This use of the passive for the imperative is particularly common in
dialects, though it is also found in the literary language. Its usual
meaning is ‘_Let us_.’ =Mennään sisään=, _let us go in_. =Luetaan=, _let
us read_, or _it’s time to read_. =Lähdetään kotia=, _we ought to go
home_. =Mennäänkö jalan vain ajetaanko hevosella?= _Shall we go on foot,
or take a carriage?_

(3) This use of the passive for the imperative is important as explaining
the common use of the form with a nominative case. Such a phrase as =mies
tunnetaan= can be correctly translated as _the man is known_; but there
is no doubt that the nominative is really the object of an impersonal
verb, which naturally remains invariable, whatever the noun is. Now the
object of the imperative is also put in the nominative and not in the
accusative, though both in the case of the imperative and the passive
it may be put in the partitive, if partial. It would seem that in these
forms of the verbs, where the agent is not denoted by any suffix, it was
felt that the sense was sufficiently clear without adding any termination
to the noun to mark its exact relation to the verb.

The object of the passive, as above stated, can be either in the
nominative, if total, or in the partitive, if partial.

_a._ Nominative. =Koira ajetaan huoneesta ulos=, _the dog is sent out of
the room_. =Palvelija lähetetään viemään kirjettä postiin=, _the servant
is sent to take a letter to the post_. =Hevoset valjastetaan=, _the
horses are being harnessed_. =Ruis kylvetään syksyllä=, _rye is sown in
the autumn_. =Keskellä yötä sammutetaan tulet=, _the lights are put out
at midnight_. =Tässä sodassa tapettiin viisikymmentä tuhatta miestä=,
_fifty thousand men were killed in this war_.

_b._ Partitive. =Miksi sanotaan sitä Englannin kielellä?= _What is that
called in English?_ =Jos ei aleta varhain, niin ei työtä saada aikanansa
valmiiksi=, _the work won’t be ready in time if not begun early_.
=Poikaa ei vielä pantu kouluun=, _the boy was no longer sent to school_.
=Ei vielä ollut uutta kirkkoa rakennettu=, _the new church had not yet
been built_. =Ei kynttilätä sytytetä ja panna wakan ala=, _neither do men
light a candle and put it under a bushel_, S. Matt. v. 15.

When the personal pronouns are used with the verb, it is commoner,
particularly in speaking, to put them in the accusative ending in =t=,
e.g. =minut=, =sinut=, =hänet nähdään=, is more usual than =minä=,
=sinä=, =hän nähdään=. But the form with the nominative is not only
grammatically correct, but found in writing, especially in the Bible,
e.g. Rom. viii. 36, =Sinun tähtes me kuoletetaan yli päivää: me pidetään
niinkuin teurastettavat lampaat=, _for thy sake we are killed all the day
long: we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter_. Similarly 2 Cor. xi.
36, =Kuka pahoitetaan ja en minä pala?= _Who is offended and I burn not._
=Sillä he ravitaan=, _for they shall be filled_, S. Matt. v. 6. =Että te
heiltä nähtäisiin=, _that ye may be seen of them_, S. Matt. vi. 1[15].

The conjugation of a passive form contains not only the strictly
impersonal forms, like =luetaan=, _people read_, =luettiin=, _people did
read_, but also compound tenses formed with the past passive participle
which stand grammatically upon a different footing. For the participle
in question is a simple adjective (or substantive), and such phrases
as =kirja on luettu=, =kirjat ovat luetut= are exactly analogous to
=kirja on hyvä= and =kirjat ovat hyvät=. In some cases, however, double
constructions are possible: one can say either =kirjat eivät ole
löydetyt=, _the books have not been found_, which is a simple adjectival
construction; or =kirjoja ei ole löydetty=, in which the construction
with the participle is assimilated to that with the other forms of the
verb. If a participle of =olla= is employed in a compound tense in
this construction it must be the passive participle. =Kirjaa ei oltu
löydetty=, _the book was not found_.


INFINITIVES.

The five infinitives of the Finnish verb play a great part in the syntax,
and are often used to express the subordinate sentences (temporal,
final, etc.) of other languages. The simplest way to understand their
many uses is to recollect that they are equivalent to an English verbal
ending in _ing_, such as _cutting_. Now a word like this is a noun, but
it can also have an object, e.g. _cutting the wood_, and it can be also
combined with a substantive or pronoun indicating the agent, e.g. _my
cutting the wood_ or _the man’s cutting the wood_. Such expressions as
_my cutting the wood is unavoidable_, _during my cutting the wood_, or
_without my cutting the wood_ are intelligible in English, though not
idiomatic; but they are the literal translation of the Finnish idiom. In
other words, the infinitive is a noun capable of declension in certain
cases and of being combined with a genitive or personal affix to mark
the agent. As it is also a verbal noun, it is likewise capable of being
combined with a second substantive to mark the object of the action.
Thus =nähdessänsä minun päiväni= is literally ‘_in his seeing my day_,’
that is _when he saw_. The use of the fourth infinitive is slightly
different. In the phrase =Minun on tämä kirja lukeminen=, _I should read
this book_, it will be observed that the object is in the nominative.
This is because the literal meaning seems to be, _This book is a reading
for me_, though it must be admitted that the negative form =Ei ole minun
tätä kirjaa lukemista= does not lend itself to this explanation, and
can only be explained by supposing it is due to analogy. The object of
the other infinitives is mostly put in the partitive, partly perhaps
because, as the genitive and accusative are identical in form in the
singular, the subject and object might be confused if the latter were in
the accusative. The object is, however, often put in the nominative. The
rule generally given is that this is only right if the infinitive depends
on an imperative or a verb implying necessity, as =minun pitää ostaman
hevonen=, _I must buy a horse_. But this rule is not always observed in
the Kalevala, or even in modern books. E.g. Kal. xi. 127, =Onko saarella
sioa minun leikki lyöäkseni?=


_Infinitive I._

The first infinitive has two forms, one with the translative termination
and always used with a prominal suffix; the other with no case
termination and used without a pronominal suffix.

A. The longer form with the suffix is used to express the purpose of the
action of the main verb, and is rendered in English by _in order to_ or
by a simple infinitive. =Antakaa vettä juodakseni=, _give me water to
drink_. This is of course literally _give me water for my drinking_,
and is exactly analogous to the use of the same case of a noun in the
sentence, =Juon vettä terveydekseni=, _I drink water for my health_. It
is important to notice that the pronominal suffix always indicates the
subject of the action denoted by the infinitive, and not the object,
though in translation it is often necessary to invert the sentence. For
instance in S. John vii. 19 and 20 the questions ‘_Why go ye about to
kill me? Who goeth about to kill thee?_’ are rendered =Miksi te etsitte
minua tappaaksenne? Kuka sinua etsii tapaaksensa?= literally _Why seek
ye me for your killing? Who seeks thee for his killing?_ =Me pyysimme
venettä soutaaksemme=, _we asked for a boat to row in_. =Menkäämme tuolle
vuorelle katsellaksemme järveä=, _let us go up that hill to have a view
of the lake_. =Tahdon lukea laskun nähdäkseni onko kaikki oikein=,
_I want to read the bill to see if everything is right_. =Oli paljon
matkustellut ulkomailla täydentääkseen sivistystään=, _he had travelled
much abroad to complete his education_. The distinction between the uses
of the longer and shorter forms of the infinitive is not always observed
in dialects and poetry. Thus the longer form is used with impersonal
verbs, e.g. =Sinun täytyy mennäksesi=, _you must go_, where =mennä=
would now be used. So too =Älä pelkää ottaaksesi=, _fear not to take_.
Kal. i. 165, =Wilu tääll’ on ollakseni, Waiva wärjätelläkseni, Aalloissa
asuakseni, Weessä wierielläkseni=, _it is cold for me to be here, painful
to stay, to dwell in the waves, to roll in the water_. Cf. Kal. xliii.
401, and xvii. 507.

B. The fact that the last syllable of the shorter form of the first
infinitive is closed shows that it has undoubtedly lost a letter or
syllable. It is probable therefore that the short form is not really the
nominative from which the translative is derived, but a translative which
has lost its termination. Cf. =luo=, =taa= for =luoksi=, =taaksi=. The
employment of the form is also agreeable to its origin, for its manifold
uses, as given in grammars, may be summed up in the formula that it
defines the meaning of verbs, adjectives, and substantives; that is to
say, it expresses that towards which an action tends, which is one of
the uses of the translative (p. 159). Such phrases as =voin=, =tahdon=,
=tiedän lukea=, _I can read_, _wish to read_, or _know how to read_ might
be expressed as _I have power_, _will_, or _knowledge for reading_.

In some cases the use of the translative and this infinitive are
obviously analogous. =Ei sovi suuttua=, _it is not fitting to be angry_.
=Hän sopii sotamieheksi=, _he is fit for a soldier_. =Ei minun kelpaa
juoda vettä=, _it does not suit me to drink water_, can be also expressed
in the form, =Vesi ei kelpaa minulle juotavaksi= (_or_ =juomaksi=).

The short form of this infinitive never takes suffixes in ordinary
Finnish, though it does occasionally in the Kalevala; e.g. the first
lines =Mieleni minun tekevi, Aivoni ajattelevi, Lähteäni laulamahan,
Saa’ani sanelemahan=. =Onko saarella sioa ... Minun laulut laulellani=,
_is there a place on the island for me to sing my song_ (Kal. xxix. 137).
Cf. =Onpa saarella sioa ... Sinun laulut laulellasi= (_ib._ 147).

The subject of the infinitive, which in the longer form is denoted by a
suffix, is in the case of the shorter form either not expressed at all in
such a phrase as =Isä antoi kirjan pojalle lukea=, _the father gave the
boy the book to read_; or it is put in the _genitive_. =Isä toi kirjan
pojan lukea=, _the father bought the book for the boy to read_, literally
_for the boy’s reading_.

The short form of the infinitive is used:—

(1) As the subject of impersonal verbs like =täytyy=, =tulee=, =kelpaa=.

=Paha koira tarvitsee tappaa=, _one ought to kill a bad dog_. =Täytyy
köyhän kärsiä, pitää kiittää päälliseksi=, _the poor must endure and give
thanks into the bargain_ (proverbs). =Sinun tulee puhua totta=, _you must
speak the truth_.

In this use two constructions are possible. One can say either =talossa
pitää olla isäntä=, _the master must be in the house_, or =Isännän pitää
olla talossa=. In this latter case the fact of the obligation affecting
the person is emphasized, while the sentence with the nominative means
rather, _the master’s being in the house is necessary_.

(2) As the complement of the verb =olla= combined with an adjective or
substantive. =Se kirja on hyödyllinen pojan lukea=, _this book is useful
for the boy to read_. =Ei ole aikaa lähteä=, _it is not time to go_.
=Pyyntösi on mahdoton kenenkään täyttää=, _your prayer is impossible for
anyone to fulfil_. =Tämä kuorma on raskas sinun kantaa=, _this burden is
hard for you to bear_. =On vaikea sanoa=, _it is hard to say_.

(3) It is used to define the meaning of verbs. =Talon mies ei osaa
lukea=, _the farm servant does not know how to write_. =Alkaa sataa=, _it
begins to rain_. =Laiska lapsi ei tahdo oppia=, _a lazy child does not
want to learn_. =Hän ei ymmärrä puhua=, _he does not know how to speak_.
=En voi tulla=, _I cannot come_. =Hän saa odottaa=, _he can wait_.
=Aiotko viipyä täällä=, _do you mean to stay here_. =Sallitteko minun
mennä?= _do you allow me to go?_ =Klaus lähteä lupasi=, _Klaus promised
to go_ (Kanteletar).

(4) It is used much like the longer form to express the object of an
action. =Tuo kala muidenkin katsella=, _bring the fish for others to
see_. =Panen maata=, _I am going to bed_. =Onko teillä hevosta myödä?=
_have you a horse to sell?_ =Arvelevi miten olla kuin eleä=, _he
considered what he should do, how he should live_.

There is another use of this infinitive, when it is employed with a verb
of kindred meaning in an adverbial sense. This use is very frequent in
the Kalevala and poetry and occasionally found in prose. It is to be
noted, however, that the infinitive generally represents what would be
the principal verb in ordinary language, while the verb in the indicative
indicates the manner in which the action is performed. Thus such a phrase
as =astua taputtelevi=, means _walking he stamped_ or _he stamped as he
walked_. =Härkä käyä källeröitti= (Kal. xx. 43), equivalent to =astui
keveästi=; cf. =Astua lykyttelevi, Käyä kulleroittelevi= (Kal. ii. 165).
=Waka vanha Wäinämöinen Ajoa karittelevi= (Kal. viii. 18). =Soutoa
melastelevi= (Kal. v. 41). =Astua ajattelevi, Käyä kääpäröittelevi.
Polttaa tuprutteli havannaansa.=

The first infinitive is hardly ever used in the passive form, but the
active form may be used with a passive verb or in sentences where our
idiom would use the passive infinitive. =Rautatie aiotaan rakentaa=, _the
railway is meant to be built_ or _there is an intention to build the
railway_. =Linnoitus voidaan ottaa=, _the fortress can be taken_.

The infinitive cannot be used with a negative on account of the peculiar
character of the Finnish negative verb. For the various devices used to
overcome this difficulty _vide_ pages 193 and 219.


_Infinitive II._

This infinitive is only employed in two cases, the inessive and the
instructive.

(1) The inessive expresses an action coincident in time with the action
of the principal verb, and must be rendered in English by a temporal
sentence, the subject of which appears in Finnish as a genitive, but
where the subject of the principal and subordinate sentences are the
same in English, the infinitive takes a pronominal suffix. =Palvelijan
tullessa kotiin, isäntä läksi metsään=, _when the servant came home, the
master went into the wood_, or literally ‘_on the coming home of the
servant_.’ =Abraham teidän isänne iloitsi nähdessänsä minun päivääni= (S.
John viii. 56), _your father Abraham rejoiced to see (when he saw) my
day_. =Ollessani teidän kanssanne=, _when I was with you_. =Astuessansa
ahoa, Saloviertä vierressänsä kuuli= (Kal. xliv. 77), _as he went through
the desert place, as he walked near the wood he heard_.

This infinitive is frequently used in the passive. =Kaskea poltettaessa=,
_while the forest was burning_. =Kotiin tultaessa ei ollut ketäkään=, _on
coming home, there was no one_. Kal. iii. 245, =Eikä lie sinua nähty ...
Tätä maata saataessa, Ilmoa suettaessa=, etc.

The active infinitive is also used impersonally. =Aika menee arvellessa,
päivä päätä käännellessä=, _time passes while one thinks, and the day
while one turns one’s head_ (proverb).

As the Finnish negative, owing to its peculiar character, cannot be used
with the infinitive, a negative temporal proposition is rendered by the
abessive or infinitive III, and the inessive of infinitive II. =Lukematta
istuessani=, _when I was not reading_; literally, _in my sitting without
reading_.

(2) The instructive of infinitive II is used to express the manner in
which an action is performed, and is generally rendered by a participle
in English. If the subject of the infinitive is expressed (in which case
it must be rendered otherwise than by a participle) it is put in the
genitive. This form is not used in the passive.

=Astui huollen huokaellen=, _he walked sorrowing and groaning_ (Kal. v.
13). =Muu seura vaikeni, jättäen heidät kahden kesken sanaotteluun=, _the
rest of the company was silent, leaving them to argue it out between
themselves_. =Toisinaan sydämellisesti syleillen erosivat=, _after
again heartily embracing they parted_. =Hän ei ollut ollenkaan ruma
nuorukainen=, _he was not at all a bad looking young man_ (literally,
_was not in his being_).

A few words, chiefly denoting perception, add suffixes to this
infinitive. =Sanoin sen heidän kuultensa=, _I said it in their hearing_.
=Hän teki sen rikoksen teidän tietenne=, _he committed this crime with
your knowledge_.


_Infinitive III._

The substantival nature of the Finnish infinitives is most apparent
in this form, for it is frequently used as a noun without any verbal
signification, e.g. =kuolema=, _death_; =elämä=, _life_; =sanoma=,
_speaking_ or _report_. Such a sentence as =kuvat ovat maalarin tekemät=,
which may be rendered either _the pictures are the work of the painter_,
or, _are made by the painter_, shows the connection between the purely
substantival and verbal uses of this infinitive.

Its other uses are very various.

I. It is used as a past passive participle. =Tämä kirja on isän antama=,
_this book has been given by my father_, or, _is the giving of my
father_. =Minä luen isän antamaa kirjaa=, _I read the book given by
my father_. As there is no real distinction between the noun and the
adjective, this use of a verbal substantive as a participle is not
unnatural. =Kirjoittamassansa kirjeessä hän ei ollut puhunut mitään
tästä=, _in the letter he wrote he did not say a word about it_. =Omat on
virret oppimani=, =Omat saamani sanaiset=.

This infinitive is as a rule only used as a past participle when the
agent is indicated, but in the Kalevala it is found used as simple past
participle without a genitive or affix. Kal. i. 51, =Viel’ on muitaki
sanoja, Ongelmoita oppimia, Tieohesta tempomia, Kanervoista katkomia,
Risukoista riipomia, Vesoista vetelemiä, Päästä heinän hieromia,
Raitiolta ratkomia=.

II. Most of the other cases of this infinitive are found used in a verbal
signification.

A. The case ending in =n= (which is considered by some grammarians as a
genitive, and by others, with greater probability, as an instructive) is
used with the impersonal verb =pitää=. =Ei sinun pidä tappaman=, _thou
shalt do no murder_. =Hänen pitää oleman ankara=, _he should be firm_.
This form is also used in the passive. =Lapset pitää otettaman mukaan=,
_one should take one’s children with one_. =Työt pitää saataman aikanansa
valmiiksi=, _the work should be got ready in time_.

B. The inessive expresses the action in which anyone is engaged. =He ovat
oleet jo kauan kalastamassa=, _they have long been fishing_. =Hän on
lintuja ampumassa=, _he is out shooting_. =Rupean käymään usein lukemassa
englantilaisia sanomalehtiä=, _I shall often read the English papers_.

C. The elative expresses an action from which anyone ceases, or which
is forbidden. =He tulivat kotia kalastamasta=, _they came home from
fishing_. =Milloin hyvänsä tuli huoneesen tapasi hänen aina lukemasta=,
_whenever one went into her room one always found her reading_ (v. p.
145). =Hän kielsi lapsia riitelemästä=, _he forbade the children to
quarrel_. =Jumala pelasti miehen hukkumasta=, _God preserved the man from
drowning_.

D. The illative is used:—

(1) After verbs, adjectives, and participles, which imply either
literally or figuratively motion to perform an action (_v._ the uses of
the illative given above). =Mies meni järvelle kalastamaan=, _the man has
gone to fish on the lake_. =Neuvon teitä kääntymään Herra V:n puoleen=,
_I advise you to apply to Mr. V._ =Ruvennee tulemaan lunta=, _it will
probably snow_. =Koko talo rupeaa palamaan=, _the whole house takes
fire_. =Hän ei ole tottunut säästelemään=, _he was not accustomed to live
economically_. =Minua käskettiin menemään pois=, _I was ordered to leave_.

(2) From such uses the illative passes naturally into an infinitive of
purpose. =Tulin kysymään=, _I have come to ask_. =Lähettivät palvelijat
häntä ottamaan kiini=, _they sent servants to take him_. =Meni
puhdistamaan itseänsä=, _he went to purify himself_. =Menemme puutarhaan
juomaan kahvia=, _let us go to take coffee in the garden_.

E. The adessive has two meanings, corresponding to the two uses of that
case in nouns.

(1) With the verb =olla= it denotes an action which one is on the point
of performing. The infinitive always takes a pronominal suffix in this
use. =Olen juuri lähtemälläni=, _I am just going_, literally, _I am on
my departing_. =Olin tekemälläni tuhmuuden=, _I was on the point of
committing a folly_.

(2) It expresses the means by which an action is performed. =Ostamalla
kaikkia saapi=, _one gets everything by buying_. =Hauskempaa on kalastaa
onkimalla kuin tarpomalla=, _it is more agreeable to catch fish by
angling than by netting_. =Pelasti henkensä uimalla=, _he saved his life
by swimming_. =Viittomalla osoiti hän meille tien=, _he showed us the way
by waving his hand_.

F. The abessive expresses an action without which the action of the
principal verb takes place. It is very largely used in Finnish to express
what is represented by negative sentences in other languages, on account
of the restrictions on the use of the negative words =en=, =et=, =ei=,
etc. It can take the pronominal suffixes. =Viivyttämättä=, _without
delay_. =Mies meni pois kenenkään huomaamatta=, _the man went away
without any one remarking it_. =Sen asian tunnen sanomattasikin=, _I know
that without your saying a word_. =Hänen hyväsydäminen isänsä ei voinut
olla hänelle antamatta tulevaa perintöösuutta=, _her good-natured father
could not help giving her the part of her inheritance due to her_.

In examples like this the abessive of this infinitive (often with
the verb =olla=) serves as a negative form of the other infinitives.
=Tahtoisin tulla=, _I should like to come_; but =Tahtoisin olla
tulematta=, _I should like not to come_ (_to be without coming_). =Hän
läksi minun nähteni=, _he went out while I was looking_. =Hän läksi minun
näkemättäni=, _he went out without my seeing_.

This infinitive is also used in a passive sense, though not in a passive
form. =Työ on vielä tekemättä=, _the work is not yet done_ (lit. _is
without doing_). In this sense it serves as a negative of the past
passive participle.

This case of the infinitive III is very common in the Kalevala. E.g. iv.
217, =Parempi minun olisi, Parempi olisi ollut Syntymättä, kasvamatta,
Suureksi sukeumatta=, which is equivalent to, _better had it been for me
not to have been born_, xliii. 417, =Vihoin päivän paistamatta, Vihoin
kuun kumottamatta=, etc.


_Infinitive IV._

The fourth infinitive, like the third, is used as a simple substantive.
=Se on parhain keino sen oppimiseen=, _that is the best means for the
study of it_. =Viipymisesi on sinua paljo vahingoitanut=, _your delay has
greatly injured you_.

There is also a use of this infinitive analogous to that of infinitive
I mentioned above, p. 188. In order to express a continued action the
verb is repeated in the partitive of infinitive IV with the pronominal
suffix. =Vähetä vähenemistään=, _to grow less and less_. =Äiti kiivastui
kiivastumistaan tyttärensä itsepintaisuudesta=, _the mother grew more and
more furious at her daughter’s obstinacy_. =Päivä alenee alenemistaan=,
_the sun sinks lower and lower_.

The fourth infinitive is used verbally in two cases:—

(1) In the nominative, as the subject to the verb =olla= in affirmative
sentences. It then denotes the necessity or propriety of performing an
action, the subject of which is put in the genitive. =Minun on tämä kirja
lukeminen=, _I ought to read this book_, or literally, _this book is a
reading for me_. =Meidän on tottuminen siihen=, _we must get used to it_.
=Tehty kauppa kiittäminen, tekemätön tietäminen=, _one should praise
a bargain which is made, but enquire into one which is not yet made_
(prov.). Copious examples can be found in Kal. xxiii. 61, =Tapa on uusi
ottaminen, Entinen unohtaminen=, etc.

(2) The partitive is, agreeably to general rules, used in a similar sense
in negative sentences, or interrogative sentences implying a negative.
=Ei ole minun tätä kirjaa lukemista=, _I need not read this book_. =Ei
koiraa karvoihin katsomista=, _one must not judge a dog by his coat_. =Ei
pojan isäänsä opettamista=, _a son should not teach his father_.

In such phrases as =minulla on vielä paljo sanomista=, _I have still much
to say_, the partitive depends on the word =paljo=, just as it does in
such a sentence as =paljo rahaa=, _much money_.


_Infinitive V._

This infinitive is only a diminutive form derived from infinitive III. As
a rule, it is only used in one case, the adessive plural, to denote an
action on the point of taking place (cf. infinitive III, E. 1). It always
takes the pronominal suffix. =Olin työtä alottamaisillani=, _I was on the
point of beginning to work_. =Juna on juuri lähtemäisillänsä=, _the train
is just going_. =Aurinko oli katoamaisillaan=, _the sun was just going
to set_. =Yhtiö on muodostumaisillaan=, _the company is on the point of
being formed_. =Mies oli kaatamaisillaan puuta=, _the man was on the
point of felling the tree_.


PARTICIPLES.

The participles may be called verbal adjectives, just as the infinitives
are verbal substantives. But, as has already been observed, there
is no clear distinction between adjectives and substantives in the
Finnish language, and the participles are used substantively in many
constructions, just as the third infinitive is used adjectively. They
sometimes lose all temporal signification and become mere adjectives, as
=oppinut=, _learned_; =väsynyt=, _tired_; =mädännyt=, _rotten_.

When used with a verbal meaning the present participles (part. I)
indicate an action beginning or continuing, and the past participles
(part. II) an action which is completed. The temporal signification is
not very marked. It is noticeable that the passive participles have two
distinct meanings, one impersonal like the rest of the so-called passive
verb, the other distinctly passive.

All the participles can be used—

(1) As attributes or predicates.

(2) To form the compound tenses of verbs in conjunction with the verb
=olla=, after the manner already explained.


_Participle I—Active._

This participle denotes an action taking place or which is to take place
in the future, just as the present indicative represents both a present
and future tense. =Lentävä lintu saa jotakin, istuva ei mitään=, _the
bird who flies catches something: the bird who sits still nothing_. =Ei
työtä tekevä nälkään kuole=, _the man who works does not die of hunger_.
=Kysyvä ei tieltä eksy=, _he who asks does not lose his way_. =Hukkuva
oljen korteenkin tarttuu=, _a drowning man catches at a straw_ (provs.).

In the combination with the verb =olla= it has a future signification
(_v._ p. 176).

The essive of this participle is used with the verb =olla= to signify
something pretended by the subject. In this sense it is often in the
plural, though the subject itself is singular. =Hän on olevinansa= (_or_
=olevanansa=) =oppinut=, _he pretends to be learned_. =Hän on paljonkin
tietävinänsä=, _he thinks he knows a great deal_. =Hän oli lähtevänänsä
eilen, mutta ei mennyt=, _he pretended he was starting yesterday, but did
not go_. So also it is used in speaking of dreams and hallucinations.
=Minä olin näkevinäni=, _I thought I saw_. Gen. xxxvii. 7, =Katso, me
olimme sitovanamme jalallisia wainiolla= (_of a dream_); cf. Gen. xli.
17, =Unessani olin minä seisovana=.

Words ending in =ja= as a rule correspond to English forms in _er_. E.g.
=rakentaja=, _a builder_; that is to say they denote an action, like the
present participle, but do not define the time in any way. Sometimes,
however, they are used exactly like the present participle, e.g. Kal.
xvi. 169, =Se oli poukkujen pesiä Räpähien räimyttäjä=, which means, not
_she was a washerwoman_, but _she was washing clothes_. Similarly, =Pappi
oli ristijänä=, _the priest was christening a child_. Cf. Kal. x. 111,
=Miesten syöjille sioille=.


_Participle II—Active._

The past active participle expresses an action, which has taken place at
any past time. =Ei ole vuoksen voittanutta, Yli käynyttä Imatran= (Kal.
iii. 182), _there is no (waterfall) that has conquered the Vuoksa or
surpassed Imatra_. =Äijä on tänne tullehia, Ei paljo palannehia= (Kal.
xvi. 270), _there are many who have come down here, not many who have
gone back_. =Alkää häiritkö nukkunutta=, _wake not the sleeper_.

The translative singular of this participle is used in connection with
the verb =tulla= to denote an incidental or chance action. =Hän tuli
sanoneeksi, kertoneeksi ...=, _he happened to say in the course of
conversation ..._ =Mennessään kaupunkiin tuli nähneeksi ...=, _as he went
to the town he happened to see ..._ =Puodissa käydessään tuli ostaneeksi
uuden maton=, _in going round the shops he happened to buy a new carpet_.
Cf. Kal. ii. 149, =Sai toki sanoneheksi=, _scarce had he said it_.
=Olkoon menneeksi=, _it does not matter_, or _let that pass_.


_Participle I—Passive._

This participle has not a simple temporal signification, but has always
an idea of desirability, or necessity. =Kunnioitettava Herra=, _a man
to be honoured_. In combination with the verb =olla= it can be used
either as a simple adjective, e.g. =se on korjattava=, _that should
be corrected_, or as a part of the impersonal passive verb, =sitä on
korjattava=. It is sometimes used with a genitive of the agent like the
infinitive. =Sentähden oli etsittävä kahdenkeskistä yksinäisyyttä=, _on
this account it was necessary to seek for a tête-à-tête interview_.
=Sanokaa, mitä tietä minun on mentävä=, _tell me what road I should
take_. =Tämä asia on meidän mielessämme pidettävä=, _we must keep that in
mind_.

The translative singular of this participle is used exactly like the
illative of the third infinitive, but with a passive signification.
=Setä toi kirjoja lasten luettavaksi=, _the uncle brought books for the
children to read_ (_for the reading of the children_). =Hän antoi veitsen
hiottavaksi=, _he gave the knife to be sharpened_.


_Participle II—Passive._

This participle is really a substantive expressing the result of the
verb’s action. From this it passes easily to an adjectival meaning. For
instance, =työ on tehty=, _the work is a thing done_, is much the same
as _the work is done_. In combination with =olla= it is used to form
tenses of the passive impersonal verb, and as such, can take an object,
otherwise it has the same signification as the past passive participle in
other languages. =Puhuttu puhe ammuttu nuoli=, _a word once spoken is an
arrow shot forth_. =Unhotettu maksettu velka=, _a debt paid is forgotten_
(proverbs). =Jos mun tuttuni tulisi=, _if one known by me were to come_.

It is noticeable that when used in this sense the past passive participle
does not as a rule take the pronominal suffix. Thus one says, =ostettu
kirja=, _the book that has been bought_, but by preference, =ostamani
kirja=, _the book that has been bought by me_.

Part. II passive is also used substantively in the partitive singular to
express an action antecedent to the action of the principal verb. As the
original meaning of the partitive is motion from, this is very analogous
to the use of the elative of infinitive III. Like other expressions of
the same nature (e.g. the inessive of infinitive II) this use is rendered
in English by a temporal sentence. The subject of that sentence is
represented in Finnish by a genitive, or by a pronominal suffix, if the
subjects of the principal and temporal sentence are the same.

=Jopa tuonne tultuansa, Matkan päähän päästyänsä= (Kal. xlii. 25), _after
he had come thither and reached the end of his journey_. =Muutaman päivän
kuluttua=, _after a few days_. =Luettuaan sanomalehtiä ja syötyään
aamiaisen=, _after he had read his paper and eaten his breakfast_.
=Kävelyltään palattuaan=, _after returning from his walk_. =Juotuaan
kolme, neljä lasia teetä=, _after drinking three or four glasses of tea_.
=Sotamiehen kotiin palattua=, _when the soldier had come home_. =Päivän
laskettua=, _when the sun had set_.

As however this participle denotes a completed rather than a past action,
it is sometimes used in cases where we have to translate it by a present
participle. Kal. xvii. 593, =Hyvin laait tultuasi=, _thou hast done
well in coming_. xlvi. 284, =Terve, terve tultuasi= (=terve tuloa= is a
common expression), _hail to thee in thy coming_. These two examples show
clearly the substantival character of the participle.


_Use of Participles in Oblique Oration._

The participles have another use in Finnish—viz. they correspond to the
construction known in Latin grammar as the accusative and infinitive in
subordinate sentences.

In other words, a subordinate sentence which in English begins with the
word _that_ (and some others), and which might in Finnish be represented
by a similar sentence beginning with =että=, can be put in a shorter
and more idiomatic form by: (1) omitting the word =että=; (2) replacing
the finite verb by the _genitive singular_ of the participle; (3)
representing the subject by a genitive, partitive, or pronominal affix.
Thus =se luulee että hän tekee Jumalalle palveluksen=, _he thinketh
that he doeth God service_ becomes =se luulee tekevänsä Jumalalle
palveluksen=.

The participle present is used in this construction when the action
of the subordinate sentence is coincident with that of the principal
sentence or future to it, and the past participle when the action of the
subordinate sentence is anterior. _He thinks he will receive the book_,
=luulee kirjan saavansa=. _He thinks he has received the book_, =luulee
kirjan saaneensa=. Notice that a past tense does not require necessarily
the past participle. =Hän luuli lintuja olevan metsässä=, _he thought
there were birds in the wood_. Here the present participle is used
because the action of the two verbs is contemporaneous.

The noun or pronoun which is the subject in the expanded sentence is
put in the genitive when total, in the partitive when partial, and
represented by the pronominal suffix when the subjects of the two
sentences are the same. The participle remains in the genitive sing.
whatever be the case or number of the subject.

This use is more frequent in affirmative than in negative sentences, but
there is no objection to such sentences as =En luule voivani tulla=, _I
do not think I can come_, where the _principal_ verb is negatived. It is
however very rarely used when the verb of the _subordinate_ sentence is
negatived (_vide_ p. 220 for some curious irregularities in this respect).

Examples:—=Kuin hän siis kuuli hänen sairastavan=, _when he heard he
was ill_. =Luuletteko olevan mitä vaaraa?= _do you think there is any
danger?_ =Minä päivänä toivotte saapuvanne perille?= _on what day do you
expect to arrive?_ =En usko häntä näkeväni=, _I don’t believe I shall
see him_. =Minä luulen sotamiesten jo saapuneen leiriin=, _I think the
soldiers have already gone to the camp_. =En usko palvelijan varastaneen
rahoja=, _I do not believe that the servant has stolen the money_.
=Tiedän vieraita tulevan=, _I know that some strangers have come_. =Näin
vettä satavan=, _I see that it is raining_. =Kuulin laivoja tulleen=, _I
heard that some ships had arrived_. When the verb =olla= is used in this
construction, its complement remains in the same case as it would be in
an expanded sentence, _if it is in any case but the nominative singular_.

                      { =vesi on hyvää=,
    =Luulen että=     { =poika on terveenä=,
                      { =syytetyt ovat tuomitut kuolemaan=.

become

                    { =veden olevan hyvää=
    =Luulen=        { =pojan olevan terveenä=
                    { =syytettyjen olevan tuomitut kuolemaan=.

But if the complement is a nominative singular it appears as a genitive
singular when the subject is put in that case.

=Luulen että poika on ahkera= becomes =Luulen pojan olevan ahkeran=.

It is possible to still more abridge the proposition by rejecting
=olevan= and putting the complement in the translative. =Luulen pojan
ahkeraksi=. =Tiesi hetkensä tulleeksi=, _he knew that his hour had come_.
=Huomasin hänen menneeksi=, _I noticed he was gone_. =Kertoi veneen
kaatuneeksi=, _he related that the boat had been upset_ (_v._ page 158).

If the predicate of the subordinate sentence in the expanded form is
a passive verb, the passive participle can be used in the genitive
singular. The subject of such a proposition is always in the partitive.
As a rule only part. I passive is used in the genitive, part. II being
generally in the translative according to the construction mentioned
above.

=Tiedän häntä odotettavan=, _I know they are waiting for him_. =Näin
karhua ammuttavan=, _I see the bear is being shot at_; but =Epäilen
karhua tappetuksi=, _I doubt if the bear has been killed_. =Uskon metsää
hakattavan=, _I think the forest is being cut down_; but =Uskon metsän
hakatuksi=, _I think the forest has been cut down_.

These participal constructions are also employed when the verb
introducing the subordinate sentence is in the passive form. Under such
circumstances the subject of the subordinate sentence may either remain
in the nominative or pass into the genitive.

=Siinä makasiinissa kuulutaan saatavan oikeata kiinalaista teetä=, _this
shop is said to receive real Chinese tea_. =Sanotaan varustettavan
sotaretkeä=, _it is said that an expedition is being armed_. =Luultiin
ihmisiä kuolleen=, _it was thought the men were dead_.

The intransitive verbs =näkyä=, _to be seen_; =näyttää=, _to appear_;
=tuntua=, _to feel_; =kuulua=, _to be heard_, also take the genitive of
the participle.

=Hän kuuluu eronneen miehestään ja lähteneen Pietariin=, _she is said to
be divorced from her husband and to have left for St. Petersburg_. =Et
näy tuntevan vanhaa ystävääsi=, _you don’t seem to know your old friend_.
=Ei kuulu saadun kaloja=, _it is said no fish have been caught_[16].



PREPOSITIONS, POSTPOSITIONS, AND ADVERBS.

As has been already explained in the Accidence the greater number of
these words in Finnish are declinable substantives, and take the various
cases under just the same rules as an ordinary noun. With the exception
of a certain number of petrified and isolated forms, they may be compared
to the word _midst_ in English. We say _he came from the midst_, _went
into the midst_, or _stood in the midst_. In the language of Finnish
grammarians such forms would be considered as adverbs. Whereas in such
expressions as _in the midst_, or _from the midst of the crowd_, they
would be called postpositions or prepositions. This practice of declining
adverbs and postpositions is, however, carried to lengths for which no
analogy can be found in English. Thus =myöhä=, is _late_ (an adjective),
but _to come late_ is rendered by =tulla myöhään=; on account of the idea
of motion in the verb. _To watch late into the night_ is =valvoa myöhälle
yötä=, and such an expression as _later on_ (of a date) is rendered by
the essive =myöhempänä=.

Most, but not all, postpositions, are capable of taking the pronominal
affixes, with or without a genitive of the personal pronoun before them.

The subjoined list of prepositions and postpositions gives all the words
considered as falling under these categories by ordinary grammars. As a
matter of fact, it might very well be either enlarged or curtailed, which
last would be better, as some of the words are substantives in ordinary
use. But I have thought it better to adhere to the conventional list.

I. Postpositions and Prepositions used in only one case.

(1) =Ennen= (instrumental of =ensi=). Preposition followed by partitive.
_Before._ =Ennen Kristuksen syntymää=, _before the birth of Christ_.
=Ennen aikojansa=, _before one’s time_; _too soon_. =Ennen tuloani=,
_before I came_.

(2) =Halki=, _across_. Preposition followed by genitive. =Halki metsän=,
_through the wood_. =Lenti kokko halki taivon=. (Kal. ii. 265).

(3) =Ilman= (instrumental of =ilma=), _without_, preposition with
partitive. =Ilman apua=, _without help_. =Ilman rahaa=, _without money_.
=Ilman sitä=, _besides_. Also used with the abessive. =Ilman muiden
avutta=, _without the help of others_. =Hän otti rahat vastaan ilman
lukematta=, _he received the money without counting it_. =Ilman maan
alistamatta, Ilman kasken kaatamatta= (Kal. ii. 254).

(4) =Kanssa=, _with_. Postposition with the genitive. =Pojan kanssa=,
_with the boy_. =Isänsä kanssa=, _with his father_. =Kanssa= takes
the pronominal suffixes. =Minun kanssani=, =sinun kansassi=, =hänen
kanssansa=, etc. =Hän kulki kanssani koko matkan=, _he went all the way
with me_. =Puhuiko hän kanssasi?= _did he speak to you?_

(5) =Kautta= (partitive of =kausi=). Postposition after the genitive,
_through_, or _by the help of_; like =kanssa= it takes the pronominal
suffixes. =Minun kauttani=, _by my help_. =Hän on tunnetu isänsä kautta=,
_he is known on account of his father_. Also used as a preposition in the
sense of _all over_. =Huhu leviää kautta kaiken kaupungin=, _the rumour
spreading over the whole city_. =Kävelimme kylien kautta=, _we went
through the villages_.

(6) =Paitsi=, _besides_. Preposition with the partitive. =Paitsi sinua ei
ole minulla yhtään ystävää=, _I have no friend but you_. =Paitsi sitä=,
_besides this_. =Paitsi veljensä apua olisi hän joutunut hukkaan=, _he
would have been ruined without his brother’s help_.

(7) =Pitkin=, _along_. Preposition with the partitive. =Käydä pitkin
tietä=, _to go along a road_. =Lapset juoksentelevat pitkin pihoja=, _the
children run about in the courts_.

(8) =Poikki=. Postposition or preposition with genitive, _across_:
=Kulkea joen poikki=, _to cross the river_. =Jänis juoksi poikki tien=,
_the hare ran across the road_.

(9) =Puhki=. Preposition or postposition, _across_. =Luoti meni puhki
lasin=, _the bullet came through the glass_.

(10) =Suhteen= (illative of =suhde=), postposition with genitive, _in
relation to, compared with_. =Wähä tarpeen suhteen=, _small for one’s
wants_. =Palkan suhteen oli tyytyväinen=, _he was satisfied with the
remuneration_.

(11) =Takia=, =Tautta=, =Tähden=, postposition with genitive, _for the
sake of_, _for_, _in consequence of_.

=Älä minun tähdeni vaivaa näe=, _do not trouble on my account_. =Kipeän
jalkani tautta en voi astua=, _I can’t stand on account of my bad leg_.
=Nälän tähden=, _from hunger_. =Kauppamies viipyi pari päivää asiansa
takia=, _the merchant waited a couple of days for affairs_.

(12) =Varten=. Preposition with partitive, _for_, _for the use of_. =Isä
osti vaatteita lapsiansa varten=, _the father bought clothes for his
children_. =Kouluja varten=, _for the use of schools_. =Mitä varten sinä
itket?= _why do you weep?_

(13) =Vuoksi=, _for the sake of, for_ (much the same as =tähden=).
Postposition with the genitive. =Rahan vuoksi=, _for money_. =Minä
lueskelen huvin vuoksi=, _I read for pleasure_.

II. Postpositions and Prepositions which are declined in several cases.

(1) The following words, usually considered as cases of a nominative
=ali= which is not found, are used as postpositions with the genitive to
express rest or motion under an object.

_a._ =Alla=, rest under. =Pöydän alla=, _under the table_. =Paljaan
taiwaan alla=, _under the open heaven_. Also metaphorically, =Hänellä on
suuret maat allansa=, _large countries are under his dominion_. =Johdon
alla=, _under the direction of_. =Oven suussa orren alla=, Kal.

_b._ =Alta=, motion from under. =Koira tuli pöydän alta=, _the dog came
from under the table_. =Itse altansa=, _of oneself_. =Hän on mies itse
altansa=, _he is a self-made man_. =Karhu nousi petäjän alta=, _the bear
got up from under the fir tree_.

_c._ =Alle=, motion to the place under an object. =Koira juoksi pöydän
alle=, _the dog ran under the table_. =Antaa asia toisten tuomion alle=,
_to leave a thing to another person’s discretion_. =Kala ui sillan alle=,
_the fish swam under the bridge_.

_d._ =Alitse= _or_ =alatse=, expressing motion across a space under an
object. =Lintu lensi auringon alatse=, _a bird flew under_ (or _across_)
_the sun_. =Yli kuun, alitse päivän=, _above the moon, but below the sun_.

(2) From the nominative =asen=, _place_, come =asemessa= and =asemesta=,
postpositions with genitive, _in the place of_, _instead of_. =Miehen
asemesta=, =leivän asemesta=, _instead of a man_, _bread_, etc. =Talon
pojat suorittavat veronsa rahan asemesta viljassa=, _the peasants pay
their taxes in corn instead of money_.

(3) From =esi=, the space before an object, are formed the following
postpositions which require the genitive before them.

_a._ =Edessä=, rest before. =Hevonen on reen edessä=, _the horse is
(harnessed) in front of the sledge_. =Älä seiso edessäni=, _do not stand
before me_. =Pilvet ovat kuun edessä=, _there are clouds over the moon_.

_b._ =Edestä=, motion from before. =Siirtyä jonkun edestä=, _to move from
before some one_, _to get out of the way_. =Edestä= is also used somewhat
loosely to express _for_, _instead of_, etc.; e.g. =Kristus kuoli meidän
synteimme edestä=, _Christ died for our sins_. =Tee se minun edestäni=,
_do it instead of me_, _for me_.

_c._ =Eteen=, the illative, expresses motion into the space before an
object. =Wiholliset seisahtuivat leirin eteen=, _the enemy marched up
to the camp and halted_. When used metaphorically, like =edestä=, it
means _for_. =Isä tekee työtä lastensa eteen=, _the father works for his
children_. =Katsoa eteensä=, _to look before_ or _take care_.

_d._ =Edellä= expresses rest on a space before an object, and is nearly
the same as =edessä=, the only difference being that between the inessive
and adessive cases. =He kävivät minun edelläni=, _they walked before
me_. =Prepositionit käytetään partitivin edellä=, _prepositions are used
before the partitive_.

_e._ =Edelle= expresses motion into a place before anything. =Hän ajoi
hevosensa koko joukon edelle=, _he drove his horse on to a place before
all the people_. =Kuningas asetti johtajat kansan edelle=, _the king
appointed leaders for the people_.

_f._ Similarly =edeltä= expresses motion from a place in front of
anything. =Mies läksi toisten edeltä=, _he went from before the others._

(3) =Joukko=, _a crowd_, _number_.

_a._ =Joukossa=, _in the crowd_ or _among_. Postposition with the
genitive. =Elää ihmisten joukossa=, _to live among men_. =Älä istu
pilkkaajain joukossa=, _be not among the scornful_.

_b._ =Joukkoon= expresses motion into or with. =Katosi kansan joukkoon=,
_he was lost in this crowd_.

(4) =Jälki=, _footstep_ or _trace_, is used in several cases to mean
_behind_, chiefly of motion.

_a._ =Jälessä=, _behind_. =Mennä jonkun jälessä=, _to walk behind
anyone_. =Paimen kulkee laumansa jälessä=, _the shepherd goes behind his
flock_. =Tuli minun jälessäni=, _he walked behind me_.

_b._ =Jälestä=, _behind_ or _after_, with the idea of motion from.
=Jumalten jälestä ovat ihmiset=, _men come next to gods_. =Hän tuli minun
jälestäni=, _he came later than I_. Also used in exactly the same sense
as =jälessä=. =Sen jälestä on iso joki=, _behind it is a big river_.

_c._ =Jälkeen= means simply _after_, the force of the illative case
having been lost. =Kristuksen syntymän jälkeen=, _after the birth of
Christ_. =Minun luuloni jälkeen=, _according to my opinion_. =Kello
kolmen jälkeen=, _after three o’clock_. =Minä kirjoitan sanainne
jälkeen=, _I write from your dictation_.

(5) =Kera=, meaning _company_ or _society_, is used as a postposition
with the genitive in the nominative, adessive, and allative, in the
signification of _with_, or _beside_.

_a._ =Kera=:—=Sen kera=, _therewith_. =Istuin isännän kera=, _I sat with
the master of the house_.

_b._ =Keralla=:—=Minä menin hänen kerallansa=, _I went with him_.
=Kenenkä keralla olette olleet?= _with whom were you?_

_c._ =Keralle=:—=Tule keralleni=, _come with me_.

(6) =Keski=, _the middle_. From this are formed the following:—

_a._ =Kesken.=

i. Preposition with the partitive, or rarely with the genitive, _in the
midst of_. =Hän pysähtyi kesken puhettansa=, _he stopped in the middle of
his speech_. =Poika itki kesken lauluansa=, _the boy wept in the midst of
his song_.

ii. More commonly as a postposition with the genitive. =Heidän kesken
syntyi riita=, _a controversy arose between them_. =Kahden keskan=,
_tête-à-tête_. =Olkoon se sanottu kahden kesken=, _let this be between
ourselves_. =Asia on sovittu miesten kesken=, _the matter has been
arranged among the men_.

_b._ =Keskenä=, literally, _in the midst_, is used with the pronominal
suffixes in a reflexive sense which closely resembles the Latin _inter
se_. =He pitävät vihaa keskenänsä=, _they hate one another_. =Me sovimme
keskenämme=, _we became reconciled_. =Pilatus ja Herodes tulivat
ystäviksi keskenänsä=, _Pilate and Herod were reconciled_.

_c._ =Keskellä= (dial. =Kesellä=). Preposition with the partitive, or
postposition with the genitive, _in the midst of_. =Keskellä kaupunkia=
_or_ =kaupungin keskellä=, _in the middle of the town_. =Keskellä
virtaa=, _in the middle of the stream_. =Keskellä kesää=, =alvea=,
=yötä=, =päivää=, _in the middle of summer_, _winter_, _the night_,
_the day_.

_d._ =Keskeltä=, _from the midst_. Preposition with the partitive, or,
more usually, postposition with the genitive. =Tulla keskeltä peltoa=
_or_ =pellon keskeltä=, _to come from the middle of the field_. =En
nähnyt miestä keskeltä huonetta=, _I did not see the man from the middle
of the room_.

(7) =Kohta=, _a place_ (_or_ =kohti=) gives the following forms:—

_a._ =Kohdalla=, =kohdalta=, and =kohdalle=, denote rest in, or
motion from and to a place in the vicinity of something else, and are
postpositions with the genitive. =Talo on kirkon kohdalla=, _the house is
near the church_. =Ota pois tuolit ikkunan kohdalta=, _take the chairs
away from the window_. =Katu on laaistu talon kohdalta=.

_b._ =Kohtaan=, the illative postposition with the partitive, means _for_
or _in respect of_. =Hän on hyvä ystäviänsä kohtaan=, _he is good to his
friends_. =Rakkaus Jumalaa kohtaan=, _love of God_. =Lapset ovat nöyrät
isäänsä kohtaan=, _the children are humble before their father_.

_c._ =Kohti=, _or_ =kohden=, postpositions with the partitive. =Tulla
kaupunkia kohti= _or_ =kohden=, _to come to the town_. =Hän kulki kotia
kohti.= =Maksetaan viisi markkaa päivässä miestä kohden.=

(8) =Liki.= The nominative, adessive, allative, and ablative are used to
mean _near_.

_a._ =Liki=, preposition with partitive. =Talo on liki kaupunkia=, _the
house is near the town_. =Reppänä on liki lakea=, _the smoke hole is near
the roof_.

_b._ =Likellä=

_c._ =Likelle=

_d._ =Likeltä=

are used either as prepositions with the partitive, or as postpositions
with the genitive. =Minä asun kaupungin likellä=, _or better_, =likellä
kaupunkia=, _I live near the town_. And similarly the other two cases are
used to express motion towards or from the neighbourhood of an object.

(9) =Lähi=, _neighbourhood_, is used in the adessive, allative, and
ablative in exactly the same sense as =liki=, either as a preposition
with the partitive, or as a postposition with the genitive. =Kirkon
lähellä= _or_ =lähellä kirkkoa=, _near the church_, etc. =Rannan lähellä=
(_or_ =lähellä rantaa=) =kasvavat kaihlat=. =Minä ammuin linnun aivan
läheltäni=, _I shot a bird quite near me_.

(10) =Luo=, which is not found as a substantive in the nominative, is
used in the essive, partitive, and translative as a postposition with the
genitive.

_a._ The essive, =luona=, means _with_ or _at the house of_ (French
_chez_). =Lapset asuivat setänsä luona=, _the children lived with their
uncle_.

_b._ The translative, =luoksi=, is used to express motion to the house
or presence of a person. =Milloin tulette minun luokseni?= _when are you
coming to see me?_ =Keisari käski ruhtinaan tulla hänen luoksensa=, _the
emperor ordered the prince to appear before him_.

_c._ There is a form =luo=, no doubt shortened from =luoksi= and really
a translative, which is used in the same sense as =luoksi=. =Minä menen
tuttujeni luo=, _I am going to see my acquaintances_.

_d._ The partitive =luota= denotes motion from the house or presence of a
person. =Lähettiläs tuli keisarin luota=, _the ambassador came from the
emperor_. =Milloin läksit hänen luotansa?= _when did you leave him?_

(11) =Läpi=, =lävitse= (=läpitse=), mean _across_. =Läpi= means literally
_a hole_.

_a._ =Läpi= is either a postposition with the genitive, or a preposition
with the same case. =Kuula meni ikkunan läpi=, _the bullet came through
the window_. =Aurinko paistaa läpi ikkunan=, _the sun shines through the
window_. =Katosi läpi käsien=, _it fell through his hands and was lost_.

_b._ =Läpitse= _or_ =lävitse=, the prolative, is used in much the same
sense, expressing a motion along and through an object. =Nuoli tunkesi
seinän läpitse=, _the arrow passed through the wall_. =Ei puhalla tuuli
turkin lävitse=, _the wind does not pierce through a fur_.

(12) =Muka=, _nearness_ or _likeness_.

_a._ =Muassa=, _with_. Postposition with genitive. =Kulkea muiden
muassa=, _to journey in company with others_. =Ei minulla ollut rahoja
muassani=, _I had no money about me_.

_b._ The essive =mukana= is also used in the same sense. =Kuka on sinun
mukanasi?= _who is with you?_

_c._ =Mukaan=, postposition with the genitive, means _with_, or
_according to_, _agreeably to_, _after_. =Lähteä toisten mukaan=, _to go
with the others_. =Tehkää käskyn mukaan=, _do as you are bid_. =Neuvon
mukaan=, _according to the advice_. =Luonnon mukaan=, _naturally_.
=Tapansa mukaan=, _according to his custom_. =Koetti hän kasvattaa
itsensä Turgenjevin naistyyppien mukaan=, _she tried to form herself
after Turgenieff’s female types_.

(13) _a._ =Myötä=, postposition with genitive, meaning _with_. =Onko
rahoja miesten myötä?= _have the men money with them?_ =Hän ei ottanut
aseita myötänsä=, _he did not take the arms with him_.

_b._ =Myöten=, postposition with partitive, meaning _along_ or _according
to_. =Käydä tietä myöten=, _to follow a road_. =Tahtoasi myöten=, _as you
wish_. =Virta paisui äyräitänsä myöten=, _the river flowed by its banks_.

(14) =Ohi=, _side_, forms the following postpositions with the genitive.

_a._ =Ohessa=, _at the side of_. =Istui tien ohessa=, _he sat by the
wayside_. =Muun ohessa puhui=, _among other things he said_.

_b._ =Ohesta=, _from the side_, rarely used. =Nousi tien ohesta=, _he
rose from the way side_.

Similarly

_c._ =ohella= (_or_ =ohilla=),

_d._ =ohelta=,

_e._ and =oheen=

in much the same sense, _by the side of_ or _with_. =Hän kulki minun
ohellani=, _he came with me_. =Ääni kuului tien ohelta=, _a noise was
heard from the road_. =Iso kivi on pellon ohella=, _there is a big stone
by the field_. =Istautui tien oheen=, _he sat down by the wayside_.

_f._ =Ohitse= _or_ =ohi= expresses motion along or by the side of
anything. =Kulkea jonkun ohitse=, _to pass a person_. =Me ajoimme heidän
ohitsensa= (_or_ =ohi=), _we drove by them_. =Ammuin linnun ohitse=, _I
missed (shot beside) the bird_.

(15) =Perä=, the _extreme_ or _hinder part_ of anything, forms
postpositions with the genitive.

_a._ =Perässä=, _behind_. =Lapsi käy isän perässä=, _the child walks
behind the father_. =Sairaswaunut kulkevat sotajoukon perässä=, _the
ambulance goes behind the army_.

_b._ =Perästä=, _behind_ or _after_, generally implying that the second
object depends on the first, which is thus a point of departure. =Sen
perästä=, _afterwards_. =Toinen toisensa perästä=, _one after another_.
=Kolmen wuoden perästä=, _after three years_.

_c._ =Perään=, _after_, implying motion. =Mennä jonkun perään=, _to go to
look for some one_. =Katsoa lapsen perään=, _to look after the children_.
=Miksi ette lähettäneet minun perääni?= _why did you not send for me?_

(16) The local cases of =Puoli=, _a half_ or _side_, are used as
postpositions with the genitive.

_a._ =Puolessa=, _at_ or _near_. =Turun puolessa=, _round Turku_ (_Åbo_).
=Pohjan=, =idän puolessa=, _in the North_, _in the East._

_b._ =Puolesta=, _from the side of_ or _for_, _on behalf of_. =Puhua
itsensä puolesta=, _to speak for oneself_. =Se tapahtukoon minun
puotestani=, _it can be done as far as I am concerned_. =Sen puolesta,
että....=, _for this reason, that...._ =Hän nousi maansa puolesta=, _he
rose up for his fatherland_.

_c._ =Puolella=, _on the side of_. =Tuuli on idän puolella=, _the wind is
in the East_. =Olla kuninkaan puolella=, _to be on the king’s side_. N.B.
=toisella puolella= followed by partitive. =Toisella puolella järveä=,
_on the other side of the lake_.

_d._ =Puolelta=, _from the side of_, _from_. =Tuli syttyi tuulen
puolelta=, _the fire burnt in the side when the wind blew_.

_e._ =Puolelle=, _to the side of_, _to_. =Mennä wihollisten puolelle=,
_to go over to the enemy_.

_f._ =Puoleen=, _to the side of_, _to_. =Katsoa jonkun puoleen=, _to look
towards a person_. =Kenenkä puoleen minun olisi käännyttävä?= _to whom
shall I turn?_

(17) =Pää=, _the head_ or _extremity_, forms postpositions with the
genitive.

_a._ =Päässä=

_b._ =Päästä=

_c._ =Päähän=

are used to express a distance or limit in space. =Kuula menee kahden
virstan päähän=, _the bullet carries two miles_. =Suomen raja on jonkun
penikulman päässä Pietarista=, _the Finnish frontier is some miles from
Petersburg_. =Minä tunsin tulijan viiden kymmenen sylen päästä=, _I
recognised the new comer from several yards’ distance_. =Vihollinen on
virstan päässä=, _the enemy is a mile off_. =Päästä= is also used of
time. =Viikon päästä=, _after a week_.

_d._ =Päällä=

_e._ =Päältä=

_f._ =Päälle=

express respectively rest on, motion from above or into the space above
an object. =Olla veden päällä=, _to float_. =Tuuli on meren päältä=, _the
wind comes from the sea_. =Lentää katon päälle=, _to fly on to the roof_.
=On sadekaapu palttoon päällä=, _there is a cape on the great coat_.

(18) =Rinta=, _breast_ or _side_, forms postpositions with the genitive.

_a._ =Rinnalla=

_b._ =Rinnalle=

expressing rest by, or motion to the side of. =Poika istuu isänsä
rinnalla=, _the boy sits by his father’s side_. =Laskea joku jonkun
rinnalle=, _to put some one by some one else_, i.e. _to compare_. =Älä
pyri hänen rinnallensa=, _strive not to be like him_.

    =Jos arvossa mä oisin=
    =Ja rikkahitten rinnalla.=—_Popular song._

(19) =Seka=, _a mixture_ or _collection_, forms postpositions with the
genitive.

_a._ =seassa=

_b._ =seasta=

_c._ =sekaan=

=Kiiltää kulta rikkojenkin seasta=, _gold glitters in what one throws
away_. =Panna wettä wiinin sekaan=, _to mix water with wine_. =Ihmisten
seassa=, _among men_. =Seassamme=, _between us_.

(20) =Sisä=, _the interior_, is used as a postposition in all the local
cases.

_a._ =Sisässä=

_b._ =Sisästä=

_c._ =Sisään=

_d._ =Sisällä=

_e._ =Sisältä=

_f._ =Sisälle=

=Oletko ollut tämän huoneen sisässä=, _have you been in this room?_
=Kärme tuli puun sisästä=, _the snake came out of the tree_. =Onko kirkon
sisällä paljo väkeä=, _are there many people in the church?_

(21) =Taka=, meaning _the space behind anything_, forms postpositions
with the genitive.

_a._ =Takaa= (partitive), _from behind_ or _after_. =Hän tuli oven
takaa=, _he came from behind the door_. =Iso honka näkyy koivujen takaa=,
_there is a great fir behind the beeches_. =Wuoden takaa=, _after a
year_. It means also _according to_. =Woimansa takaa=, _according to
one’s power; with all one’s might_.

_b._ =Takana= (essive), _behind_. =Käydä jonkun takana=, _to go behind_
or _follow any one_. =Seisoa seinän takana=, _to stand behind the wall_.
=Rahat on takanani=, _the money is in my keeping_. =Olla turvan takana=,
_to be under the protection of_.

_c._ Translative—=taaksi=, =taakse=, =taa=, _back_, _backwards_, or
_across_. =Katsoa taaksensa=, _to look backwards_. =Lähteä meren taaksi=
(_or_ =taa=), _to go across the sea_. =Aurinko laskeutuu vuorten taa=,
_the sun sets behind the mountains_.

(22) =Sisäpuoli=, _interior_, is used in the adessive, ablative, and
allative.

_a._ =Sisäpuolella Suomalaiset kanssaheimot eivät asu kaikki suomen
rajain sisäpuolella=, _all the Finnish tribes do not live within the
Finnish frontier_.

_b._ =Kuuluiko ääni huoneen sisäpuolelta?= _was the voice heard within
the room?_

_c._ =Paimen ajoi lampaat aitauksen sisäpuolelle=, _the shepherd drove
the sheep into the sheepfold_.

(23) =Tykö=, _nearness_, forms postpositions with the genitive which have
exactly the same meaning as the corresponding cases of =luo=. =Tyköä=,
_from_; =työ=, _to_ (e.g. =minä tulen miehen työ=); =tykönä=, _at_ or
_with_. The form =työ= is due to the fact that a termination, probably
that of the translative, has been lost. It is only used dialectically.

(24) =Ulkopuoli= (cf. =sisäpuoli=), _the exterior_, is used in the
adessive, allative, and ablative as either a preposition with the
partitive or a postposition with the genitive. =Kaupungin ulkopuolella=
or =ulkopuolella kaupunkia=, _outside the town_. Similarly are employed
the other cases to express motion to or from the outside of anything.

(25) =Vasta=, _the place opposite anything_.

_a._ =Vastassa=, postposition with the genitive, means _opposite_,
_facing_. =Hänen vastassansa=, _opposite him_. =Toistensa vastassa olevat
kaupungit=, _the cities lie facing each other_.

_b._ =Vastaan=, postposition with the genitive, has the same meaning
with the idea of motion towards added, which however seems to disappear
in many metaphorical uses. =Mennä isän vastaan=, _to meet one’s father_.
=Minä en ole sitä vastaan=, _I am not against that_. =Tehdä käskyä
vastaan=, _to disobey a command_. =Sitä vastaan=, _on the other hand_.

_c._ =Vastoin= (instructive plural) is a preposition with the partitive,
meaning _against_ or _contrary to_. =Vastoin virtaa, tuulta=, _against
the river, the wind_. =Vastoin tahtoani=, _against my wish_. =Älkää
pakoittako tyttäriänne vastoin mieltä=, _do not compel your daughters
against their will_. =Vastoin lakia=, _against the law._

_d._ =Vasten=[17] (instructive singular from a form =vasti=), preposition
or postposition with the partitive, is used in much the same sense as
=vastoin=, but means also (1) _about, towards_. E.g. =älä lyö poikaa
vasten silmiä=, _don’t hit the boy about the eyes_. =Hän sai vasten
silmänsä=, _he got one in the eye_; (2) as a postposition with the
genitive it means _for_, _on account of_. =Moni tekee työtä ainoastansa
omaa hyötyänsä vasten=, _many work only for their own profit_. But
=varten= is better in this sense.

_e._ =Vastapäätä= is used in the meaning of _opposite_ or _vis-à-vis_,
as a preposition with the partitive. =Kirkko on rakennettu vastapäätä
raastupaa=, _the church is opposite the court-house_.

(26) =Väli=, _the midst_, forms postpositions with the genitive. All
the local cases are used: =Välissä=, =välistä=, =väliin=, =välillä=,
=välille=, =välitse=. =Kirkon ja pappilan välillä on maantie=, _there is
a road between the church and the parsonage_. =Kansan välitse=, _through
the midst of the people_. =Sano hänelle suoraan silmien väliin=, _tell
him to his face_.

(27) =Yli=, meaning the place above anything, is used in various forms as
a preposition or a postposition with the genitive.

_a._ =Yli= (1) as a preposition with the genitive expresses existence
above an object; e.g. =Pilvet liitävät yli meren, yli maan=, _the
clouds glide over land and sea_. =Yli päämme on kirkas taivas=, _the
bright heaven is above us_. We also find expressions like =kello on yli
viiden=, _it is after five o’clock_. It also expresses metaphorically
pre-eminence. =Hän on kunnioitettava yli muiden=, _he is more honourable
than the rest_. It is used metaphorically in such expressions as =yli
wuoden=, _more than a year_; =maata yli aikansa=, _to sleep too long_.
=Yli sen mitä ennen on maksettu=, _what has been paid in addition to
previous payments_.

(2) =Yli= is also used as a postposition with the genitive, and as
such expresses motion over a thing, so that the object moving remains
temporally above it. =Matto on levitetty koko lattian yli=, _the carpet
is spread over all the floor_. =Hän tuli wähän yli puoliwäliin matkaa=,
_he came a little over half way_. =Hän katseli olan yli=, _he looked over
his shoulders_.

_b._ =Ylitse= (prolative) expresses motion over and across an object.
=Purjehtia meren ylitse=, _to sail across the sea_. =Kun pääsisi tämän
raskaan ajan ylitse=, _when one has got over these hard times_.

_c._ =Yllä=

_d._ =Yltä=

_e._ =Ylle=

literally expressing rest on, and motion from or to the space above
an object, are used as postpositions with the genitive to express the
wearing, putting on or taking off of clothes. =Pojan yllä on uusi takki=,
_the boy has a new coat on_. =Hänellä on waatteet yllänsä=, _he has
clothes on_. =Riisua waatteet yltänsä=, _to take off one’s clothes_.
=Panna, pukea yllensä=; _to put on clothes_. Cf. =oli loassa yltä päältä=
(adverb), _to be dirty from head to foot_.

(28) =Ympäri=, the space surrounding, gives the following forms.

_a._ =Ympäri= is used as a postposition with the genitive. =Laiva purjehti
maan ympäri=, _the ship sailed round the land_. It is also used as a
preposition with the genitive or partitive in much the same sense.
=Riittikö oma leipä ympäri vuoden?= _is your own corn enough for the
year?_

_b._ =Ympärillä=

_c._ =Ympäriltä=

_d._ =Ympärille=

are postpositions with the genitive expressing rest in, motion from or to
the space round an object. =Kuori on puun ympärillä=, _the tree has bark
round it_. =Panna sontaa puun ympärille=, _to manure a tree_. =Metsät
ovat kadonneet kaupungin ympäriltä=, _the forests have been cut down
round the town_. =Miksi on kääre sormesi ympärillä?= _why have you a
bandage on your finger?_ =Ota huivi kaulan ymperiltä=, _take the
handkerchief from round your neck_.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES.


As has been explained, the negative in Finnish only exists in combination
with the personal pronouns as a negative verb, and there is no word
corresponding to _no_ or _not_. This peculiarity naturally makes the
structure of negative sentences different from that of other languages.

(1) The answer ‘no’ to a question must be rendered by the proper person
of the negative verb, with or without the root of the verb negative.
To the question =Tuletteko?= _are you coming?_ the negative answer is
=en tule= _or_ =en=, if one person is referred to, but =emme tule= _or_
=emme=, if more than one. Similarly, to =tulevatko lapset?= _are the
children coming?_ the negative reply must be =eivät tule= _or_ =eivät=.

(2) If a sentence contains such words as _never_, _no one_, _nothing_,
_nowhere_, etc., they are expressed by using the proper person of the
negative verb, with the proper case of the interrogative pronoun or
the interrogative adverb, which receive the termination =kaan= _or_
=kään=, sometimes shortened into =aan= _or_ =ään=. =Emme ole nähneet
ketäkään= _or_ =ketään=, _we have seen no one_. =Missä olette käyneet?
En missäkään=, _where have you been? Nowhere_. =Onko hän koska ollut
Helsingissä? Ei koskaan= (_or_ =Ei milloinkaan=) _has he ever been to
Helsingfors? No, never_.

(3) It is clear that as the negative is always joined to a personal
pronoun, sentences where it qualifies an infinitive in most languages
(for instance, _it would be better not to go_) cannot by any means
be rendered literally in Finnish. Such sentences are turned quite
differently, the chief device being to use the abessive of inf. III; for
instance, _I advise you not to go_, =minä kehoitan teitä, älkää menkö=,
_or_ =olemaan menemättä=. =Olisi parempi olla kirjoittamatta=, _it would
be better not to write_. _The house is not sold_, =talo on myömättä= (but
=ei ole myöty= is also possible). _The present is not given_, =lahja on
antamatta= (_or_ =ei ole annettu=). _You need not go_, =ei sinun pidä
mennä= (where =ei= negatives =pidä= not =mennä=), _or_ =sinun pitää olla
menemättä=. _You will have to go away and not see your sister_, =teidän
pitää matkustaa pois sisartanne näkemättä=.

Sentences are occasionally found where =ei= apparently negatives an
infinitive. E.g. S. John vii. 34, =Teidän pitää minua etsimän ja ei
löytämän=, _ye shall seek me and not find me_. But this construction is
really elliptical for =ja ei pidä löytämän=.

Nevertheless this use of the negative verb with an infinitive or
participle is occasionally found, even in the Kalevala; e.g. xxviii. 262,
=Sie vanno valat ikuiset ... ei sotia käyäksesi=, _swear eternal oaths
... that thou willst not go to war_. And immediately afterwards, =Vannon
mie valat vakaiset En kesänä ensimmäisnä ... Saa’a suurihin sotihin=, _I
swear firm oaths that in the first summer ... I will not go to war_. Here
=käyäksesi= and =saa’a= (for =käydäksesi= and =saada=) are infinitives
constructed with =ei= and =en=. In the first passage =et= would have
seemed more natural. So again in xliii. 237, =Sanoit et käyväsi sotoa=,
_thou saidst thou wouldst not go to war_. As these constructions do not
seem capable of being explained by the principles of Finnish syntax, they
are probably due to the influence of foreign languages.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.


If an interrogative sentence does not contain an interrogative pronoun
or adverb, its character is marked by adding the particle =ko= or =kö=
to some word in the sentence. Thus one says =menettekö kotiin?= _are you
going home?_ But in such sentences as =mihin menette?= or =kuka menee?=
it is unnecessary to use =ko=, as the sentence already contains a word
which makes its interrogative character clear. It will be noticed that
this use of =ko= is exactly similar to that of =ли= in Russian.

The termination =ko=, =kö= is added to the word on which the chief
interrogative stress is laid.

=Tiedättekö mihin hän on lähtenyt?= _do you know where he is gone?_
=Isäkö sen sanoi?= _was it the father who said so?_ =Meritsekö aiotte
matkustaa?= _are you thinking of going by sea?_

In a negative question the termination =kö= is always attached to the
negative verb. =Ettekö ole nähneet häntä?= _have you not seen him?_ =Eikö
jo lakkaa satamasta?= _hasn’t it stopped raining yet?_

In a disjunctive question the particle =ko=, =kö= is attached to the
first alternative which is connected with the second by the word =vai=.
=Poikako se on vai tyttö?= _is that a boy or a girl?_

But if there are two verbs in the sentence =ko= or =kö= is added to each.
=Onko hän vielä kotona vai läksikö?= _is he still at home or has he
started?_

In such a sentence as, _Are you coming or not?_ one can say either
=Tuletteko vai ette?= or, =tuletteko vai ettekö tule?=

The manner of giving a negative reply has been described above. Though
there are two words, =ja= and =niin= (instr. plural of =se=), which can
be used for ‘yes,’ the usual way of giving an affirmative reply is, to
repeat the word which in the question has =ko= attached to it. =Tuliko
pappi?= _has the priest come?_ =Tuli=, _yes_.



OTHER SENTENCES.


Causal, temporal and consecutative sentences offer no special
peculiarities, being introduced by the conjunctions given in the
accidence and having the verb in the indicative mood. The particle =että=
is generally combined with the negative verb: =etten=, =ettet=, =ettei=,
etc.

Concessive sentences, introduced by =vaikka=, =vaikkapa=, _or_ =jos
kohta=, have the verb in either the indicative or the conditional. =Hän
oli niin köyhä ettei ollut mitä syödä=, _he was so poor that he had
nothing to eat_. =Vaikka näin häntä usein, kun olin Pietarissa= (_or_
=Pietarissa olessani=), =emme kuitenkaan ole tutut=, _though I often
saw him when I was at Petersburg, we were not well acquainted_. =Vaikka
hän vannoisi en sittekään uskoisi=, _though he should swear I would not
believe him_.

The first member of a conditional sentence is introduced by =jos=, or,
if negative, by =jollen=, =ellen= (=jollet=, =jollei=, etc., =ellet=,
=ellei=, etc.). The second is often introduced by =niin=. In such
sentences as _if I go, he will come_, where the realization of the
condition is considered as certain, the indicative is used—=Jos menen
niin hän tulee=. But where the realization is doubtful the conditional
present is employed, and where it is no longer possible the conditional
past. _If I were to go, he would come_, =jos menisin, niin hän tulisi=.
_If I had gone, he would have come_, =jos minä olisin mennyt, niin hän
olisi tullut=.

Final sentences are introduced by =että= _or_ =jotta=, or in the negative
form by =etten=, =ettet=, =ettei=, etc. The verb is in the conditional.
As has been described above (pp. 192 and 198) final sentences can also
be rendered by infinitives and participles. =Ilmoittakaat minulle että
minäkin tulisin ja kumartaisin häntä= (S. Matt. ii. 8), _tell me, that I
may come and worship him_. =Hän kävelee ettei vilustuisi=, _he walks that
he may not catch cold_.



ORATIO OBLIQUA.


A sentence in oratio obliqua can be rendered by the participial
constructions above described, or by a sentence beginning with =että=,
_that_. In this latter case the sentence is constructed exactly as in
English.

=Hän sanoi ettei se ole varma, mutta että koettaisi tiedustaa tarkemmin=,
_he said it was not certain, but that he would endeavour to obtain more
accurate information_. =Minä kysyin häneltä oliko hän kuullut että
ystäväni oli kuollut ja pyysin että hän kirjoittaisi=, _I asked him if he
had heard that my friend was dead, and begged him to write_.

The word =muka= is often used to denote that a statement rests not on the
authority of the speaker but of some one else.

=Hän ei tahtonut viipyä: oli muka kovin väsyksissä=, _he did not want to
wait, saying he was very tired_. =Luulevat hänen veljensä tulevan: hän
oli muka kirjoittanut jollekulle=, _people think his brother is coming:
it is said he has written to some one_. =Hän eroitti palvelijansa se
kun oli muka varas=, _he dismissed his servant because he was a thief_
(according to his master’s statement).



ON THE DIALECT OF THE KALEVALA.


There are two main dialects of Finnish, the Western, which has produced
the modern literary language, and the Eastern, in which the Kalevala is
written. There are also many others of which perhaps the most important
is that called the Savolaks dialect, which is hardly a literary language,
though in the ‘Lönrötin Albumi,’ p. 286, there is a story called
‘Keisarin tuttu’ written in it. It appears to be characterized by a
great fondness for the sound of =i=, which is added to other vowels;
e.g. =tiällä= for =täällä=, =hiän= for =hän=. On the other hand =i= is
often apparently shortened to a semivowel, merely modifying the previous
consonant; e.g. =olj= for =oli=. The letter =d= does not occur, but
is represented by =j= or =v=, =meijänni= for =meidänkin=, =käyvä= for
=käydä=. The dialect would seem to be generally characterized by a soft
and rather thick utterance. =Olen= becomes =oun= and =olette=, =outta=.
=V= is frequently doubled; e.g. =hyvvee päivee=, and =o= is often used
for =a=; e.g. =mokomoo= for =mokomaa=. So also we have forms like
=soatanoo= for =saatanee=, =pankoo= for =pankaa=. The root of verbs has
the letter =k= added in the negative and imperative forms: =en annak=,
=annak=.

On the Eastern frontier of Finland and in the adjoining parts of the
Russian Government of Olonetz is spoken a dialect called Karelian, which
in its present form is much corrupted by the influence of Russia. The
Kalevala, however, which was mostly collected in this part of the world,
is written in a pure Finnish dialect, which has come to be accepted as
the ordinary language of poetical composition.

The chief peculiarities of the dialect of the Kalevala are as
follows[18]:—

I. The letter =d= does not exist. =T= disappears altogether in the cases
where in the ordinary dialect it is softened to =d=. For instance—=saa’a=
(=saada=), =pöyän= (=pöydän=), =tieän= (=tiedän=), =tahon= (=tahdon=),
=kahen= (=kahden=), =yhen= (=yhden=), =puhas= (=puhdas=), =ouoille=
(=oudoille=), =eellä=, =eessä= (=edellä=, =edessä=), =sio= (=sido=).

II. Similarly the letter =k= is dropped altogether when in literary
Finnish it either becomes =j= or remains unchanged.

(1) =lk=, =rk= in a closed syllable become simple =l= and =r=, not =lj=,
=rj=: e.g. =jälen= for =jäljen= (=jälki=), =kulen= for =kuljen=.

(2) =sk= and =tk=, which are not subject to softening in ordinary
Finnish, become =s= and =t= in closed syllables: =kosen= for =kosken=,
=kaselle= for =kaskelle=, =itettävä= for =itkettävä=.

III. =rt=, =lt= are not assimilated in the infinitive of verbs of conj.
3: =kuulta=, =surten= for =kuulla=, =surren=.

IV. The pronominal affixes do not always prevent consonants being
softened as in ordinary Finnish: =ajansa= for =aikansa=, =iäni= for
=ikäni=.

V. Where long vowels and diphthongs are the result of contraction, the
Kalevala employs dissyllabic forms. These contracted forms in ordinary
Finnish may be divided into two classes.

(_a_) The long vowel is the result of the omission of =h= (representing
an original =s= or other consonant) between the two component vowels.
In such cases the Kalevala always employs the fuller and more primitive
forms with =h=. So we have =vierahan= for the literary =vieraan=,
=kotihin= for =kotiin=, =käyähän= for =käydään= (=d= omitted).

(_b_) But there are a number of cases where the long vowels =aa= and
=ää= in ordinary literary Finnish are not the result of the omission of
=h=. Under these circumstances the Kalevala has =oa= instead of =aa= and
=eä= instead of =ää=. Thus the partitive singular of =kala= is formed by
suffixing =a=—that is =kala-a=. In ordinary Finnish this gives =kalaa=
(dissyllabic), but in the Kalevala we find =kaloa=. This form may be
compared with the partitive plural, =kaloja=, where =a= becomes =o= in
ordinary Finnish. It is to be noted however that the change to =oa=
occurs in the Kalevala even when the vowel of the first syllable is
=a=—=oroa= for =oraa=.

The instances of this change fall under three categories:

(1) Partitive cases of nouns and adjectives: =aikoa= for =aikaa=, =ilmoa=
for =ilmaa=, =luutoa= for =luutaa=, =päiveä= for =päivää=, =tereä= for
=terää=.

(2) The first infinitive of verbs: =ajoa= for =ajaa=, =eleä= for =elää=,
=lenteä= for =lentää=, =piteä= for =pitää=.

(3) Contracted verbs of class 3: =arvoan= for =arvaan=, =lupoan= for
=lupaan=, =lepeämättä= for =lepäämättä=.

VI. The plural (except the nom.) is sometimes formed with the suffix
=-loi=, before the case suffix. This form is used chiefly in words ending
in =o=, =ö=, =u=, =y=, =i=, and =e=; e.g. =rekilöitä=, =ristilöitä=,
=lukkoloita=, =mahtiloita=.

VII. The style of the Kalevala is characterized by the frequent use of
derivative forms from nouns ending in =o=, =nen= (_or_ =onen=), =yt=
(or =ut=), and =kainen=. These forms have a diminutive or endearing
significance. They are mostly quite incapable of translation into
English, but correspond to the Russian diminutives. E.g. from =emä= are
formed =emo=, =emonen=, and =emyt=; from =isä=, =iso=, =isonen=, and
=isyt=; from =kaunis=, =kauno=, =kaunokainen= _or_ =kaunukainen=; from
=kesä=, =kesonen= and =kesyt=; from =meri=, =meronen= and =meryt=; from
=neiti=, =neitinen=, =neito=, =neitonen=, =neiyt=, and =neityinen=; from
=puu=, =puuhut=; from =päivä=, =päivönen= and =päivyt=; from =veli=,
=velo=, =vello=, =veljyt=, =veijo=, =veito=, =veitonen=, =veikko=, and
=veikkonen=.

We also find a great quantity of derivative verbs ending in =ella=,
=skella=, =ahta=, =alta=, etc., in which the exact force of the syllable
added is often obscure.

VIII. In verbs the 3rd person sing. of the present is formed with the
suffix =vi=, a weakening of the original =pi= used in monosyllables.
E.g. =tekevi=, =ajattelevi=, =sanovi=, =ajavi=, =kaatelevi=. But in
monosyllables =pi= is always used, =uipi=, =saapi=.

IX. Some verbal stems ending in =a= or =ä= reject this vowel before =t=,
=k=, =n=, and are conjugated as if they belonged to the third class. Thus
=löytää= forms the past participle =löynnyt= for =löytänyt=: =tietää=
forms concessive =tiennen= and past part. =tiennyt=. So =seista=,
=seiskaamme=, =seissut= from =seiso=.

X. In the formation of the passive many verbs ending in =ta=, =tä= reject
this syllable and also the consonant =n=, if it precedes. =Löytää= makes
the passive stem =löyttä= instead of =löydettä=: =rakentaa=, =raketta=
for =rakennetta=: =kuumentaa=, =kuumetta= for =kuumennetta=.

XI. The conjugation of the reflexive verbs (as already mentioned) offers
a mass of forms unknown to literary Finnish, which sometimes also occur
in verbs which are not strictly reflexive.

The chief terminations found in these verbs are:—

_Indicative present._

    Sing. 1. =me= _or_ =ime=—=luome=, =kaivaime=.
          2. =tet=, =itet=, _or_ =te=—=pistätet=.
          3. =kse=, =ikse=, _or_ =ksen=—=astuikse=, =istuikse=,
             =astuiksen=, =katseleikse=.

_Imperfect._

    Sing. 1. =ime=—=annoime=, =siirrime=, =siirräime=.
          2. =ihet= _or_ =ihit=—=astelihet=, =suorihet=.
          3. =ihe= _or_ =iin=—=ajoihe=, =loihe=, =vetihe=, =pistihe=,
             =rikkoihe=, =heittiin=.

The termination =ime= is also found in the 1st pers. sing. of the
conditional and =ihe= in the 3rd sing. of the concessive and conditional.
The 2nd sing. of the Imper. often ends in =te= or =ite=—=veäite= (=vedä
itsesi=), =laskeite=, =paneite=. The inf. of such verbs generally ends
in =itä=; e.g. =vetäitä=. Rarely are found such forms as =kuolkosi=,
=kaotkosi= for =kuollos=, etc.

XII. The negative verb frequently follows instead of preceding the root
which it negatives; e.g. =oisi en paljo pitänyt, maha et lausua lapiksi=.

XIII. The style of the Kalevala is characterized by a general absence
of conjunctions and connecting particles, but on the other hand abounds
in syllables used merely to give emphasis or quite pleonastically. Such
are the suffixes =pa=, =pä=, =han=, =hän=, =kana=. The word =on= is used
in the same way; e.g. =juop’ on vanha Wäinämöinen.= =Tuop’ on Pohjolan
emäntä sanan virkkoi.= =Enpä anna tyttöäni.=

XIV. A number of other differences from the literary dialect occur, some
of which may be classified as follows:—

(1) Contracted essives, where the ordinary language prefers the full
form: =lasna= for =lapsena=; =nuorra= for =nuorena=; =suurra= for
=suurena=.

(2) In pronouns =ma=, =mä=, or =mie= for =minä=; =sa=, =sä=, =sie= for
=sinä=; =milma=, =silma= for =minua=, =sinua=; =miusta= for =minusta=;
=siulle= for =sinulle=, =ka= _or_ =ken= for =kuka=, =mi= for =mikä=.

(3) From the verb =olla= are found =oo= for =ole=; =oisi= for =olisi=;
=lie=, =liet= for =lienee=, =lienet=; =liekkö= for =lieneekö=.

(4) The imperf. ends in =ti= where in ordinary Finnish it is softened to
=si=: =kynti=, =löyti=, =kaati=, =pyyti= for =kynsi=, =löysi=, =kaasi=,
=pyysi=.

XV. The syntax of the Kalevala is marked by extreme simplicity in its
main features. This is natural in popular poetry, and, besides, the
system of versification (short lines of eight syllables generally
containing a complete sentence) and the tendency to parallelism and
repetition, were all unfavourable to the growth of long and involved
phrases. On the other hand, the sentences of the Kalevala are often
difficult to understand on account of their irregularity. Not only
are the boldest inversions and omissions permitted (e.g. =Emo tuosta
itkemähän= for =rupesi itkemähän=), but words are frequently strung
together in so loose a manner that, though the thought is plain, it is
almost impossible to analyse the sentence grammatically. For instance,
xl. 401, =Anna luoja, suo Jumala, Anna onni ollaksemme, Hyvin ain’
eleäksemme, kunnialla kuollaksemme=. This clearly means, _grant that
we may be prosperous, live well and die gloriously_, but it is almost
impossible to explain it grammatically. Such a tendency to be more
careful of the general sense than of the separate words and their correct
relation to one another, is very natural in a poem whose authors were
ignorant of grammar and had probably no written literature before them.
It is accompanied in the Kalevala by a habit of repeating the same idea
under numerous synonyms for the sake of emphasis and of creating new
words for the sake of parallelism or alliteration, which have sometimes
a meaning and bear testimony to the flexibility and fecundity of the
language, but sometimes are absolutely unmeaning. Thus in Kal. xi. 55 we
have =Enkä lähe Inkerelle, Penkerelle, pänkerelle=. Here =pänkerelle=
means nothing at all, but is simply a kind of repetition of =penkerelle=.
Similarly Kal. xlviii. 100, =Ihveniä, ahvenia, Tuimenia, taimenia=.
=Ihveniä= and =Tuimenia= are meaningless words.



SELECTIONS FROM FINNISH LITERATURE

N.B. When a _rule_ is cited by a number, this refers to the numbered
phonetic rules from page 6 to page 18.



PYHÄN JOHANNEKSEN EVANGELIUMI.


1. Alussa[1] oli[2] Sana[3] ja[4] se[5] Sana[3] oli[2] Jumalan[6]
tykönä[7] ja[4] Jumala[6] oli[2] se[5] Sana[3].

2. Tämä[8] oli[2] alussa[1] Jumalan[6] tykönä[7].

3. Kaikki[9] ovat[10] sen[11] kautta[12] tehdyt[13] ja[4] ilman[14]
sitä[15] ei[16] ole[16] mitään[17] tehty[16] joka[18] tehty[13] on[19].

4. Hänessä[20] oli[2] elämä[21] ja[4] elämä[21] oli[2] ihmisten[22]
valkeus[23].

5. Ja[4] se[5] valkeus[23] pimeydessä[24] paistaa[25] jota[26] ei[27]
pimeys[24] käsittänyt[27].

6. Yksi[28] mies[29] oli[30] lähetetty[30] Jumalalta[31] jonka[32]
nimi[33] oli[2] Johannes[34].

7. Se[35] tuli[36] siitä[37] valkeudesta[38] todistamaan[39] että[40]
kaikki[9] uskoisivat[41] hänen[42] kauttansa[43].

8. Ei[44] hän[45] ollut[44] se[5] valkeus[23] mutta[46] hän[45] oli[30]
lähetetty[30] valkeudesta[38] todistamaan[39].

9. Se[35] oli[2] totinen[47] valkeus[23] joka[18] valistaa[48] kaikki[9]
ihmiset[49] jotka[50] maailmaan[51] tulevat[52].

10. Se[35] oli[2] maailmassa[53] ja[4] maailma[54] on[19] hänen[42]
kauttansa[43] tehty[13] jä[4] ei[55] maailma[54] häntä[56] tuntenut[55].

11. Hän[45] tuli[36] omillensa[57] ja[4] ei[58] hänen[42] omansa[60]
häntä[56] ottaneet[58] vastaan[59].

12. Mutta[46] niille[61] jotka[50] hänen[42] ottivat[62] vastaan[59],
antoi[63] hän[45] voiman[64] Jumalan[6] lapsiksi[65] tulla[66] jotka[50]
uskovat[67] hänen[42] nimensä[68] päälle[69];

13. Jotka[50] ei[70] verestä[71] eikä[70] lihan[72] tahdosta[73] ei[70]
myös[74] miehen[75] tahdosta[73] mutta[46] Jumalalta[76] syntyneet[77]
ovat[77].

14. Ja[4] sana[3] tuli[78] lihaksi[79] ja[4] asui[80] meidän[81]
seassamme[82] (ja[4] me[83] näimme[84] hänen[42] kunniansa[85]
niinkuin[86] ainoan[87] Pojan[88] kunnian[89] Isästä[90]) täynnä[91]
armoa[92] ja[4] totuutta[93].


THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. JOHN, I. 1-14.

1. In-the-beginning was the-Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word
was God.

2. That was in-the-beginning with God.

3. All were made through Him, and without Him was not anything made which
was made.

4. In-Him was life, and the-life was the-light of-men.

5. And that light shineth in-the-darkness, which the-darkness
comprehended not.

6. A man was sent from-God whose name was John.

7. He came to-bear-witness of-that light, that all might-believe through
Him.

8. He was not that light, but He was sent to-bear-witness of-the-light.

9. That was the-true light which lighteth all men who come into-the-world.

10. He was in-the-world, and the-world was made by Him, and the-world
knew Him not.

11. He came to-His-own, and His own received Him not.

12. But to-them who received Him, He gave power to-become the-children
of-God, who believe on His name,

13. Who were not born of-blood, not of-the-will of-the-flesh, also not
of-the-will of-men, but of God.

14. And the-word became flesh, and dwelt in-our-midst (and we saw his
glory, as the-glory of-the-only Son of-the Father) full of-grace and
of-truth.

[Note 1: Inessive sing. of =alku=, formed with suffix =u= (p. 45); verb
=alkaa=, _to begin_; =alkussa= becomes =alussa= by rule 27.]

[Note 2: 3rd pers. sing. imperf. of =olla=, _to be_ (p. 72).]

[Note 3: Nom. sing. identical with stem; cf. verb =sanoa=, _to speak_.]

[Note 4: Conjunction borrowed from the Swedish, _and_.]

[Note 5: Nominative of demonstr. pron. (p. 59) used almost like article
(p. 166).]

[Note 6: =Jumala=, gen. =Jumalan=, _God_.]

[Note 7: Essive sing. of =tykö=; postposition governing =Jumalan= (p.
215).]

[Note 8: Nominative sing. of demonstr. pron. (p. 58).]

[Note 9: Nominative plur. without term. (pp. 61 and 170).]

[Note 10: 3rd pers. plur. pres. of =olla= (p. 72).]

[Note 11: Gen. sing. of demonstr. =se= (p. 59).]

[Note 12: =Kautta=, postposition governing gen. =sen= (p. 204).]

[Note 13: =tehty=, past part. pass. of root =teke= (rule 41); nominative
plur. =tehdyt= (rule 32). Here the participle is used in combination with
=ovat= to form perf. passive (p. 74).]

[Note 14: Preposition governing the partitive =sitä= (p. 203).]

[Note 15: Partitive sing. of demonstr. pron. =se=.]

[Note 16: =ei ole tehty=, negative perf. passive of root =teke= (p. 74).]

[Note 17: Partitive sing. of =mikä= with suffix =an= (pp. 61 and 219).
For explanation of use of partitive here _v._ p. 183.]

[Note 18: Nom. sing, of rel. pron.]

[Note 19: 3rd pers. sing. pres. of =olla=.]

[Note 20: Iness. sing. of personal pron. =hän=.]

[Note 21: Nom. sing. formed from root =elä= with suffix =mä= (p. 45).]

[Note 22: Gen. plur. of =ihminen= declined like =toinen= (p. 35).]

[Note 23: Stem =valkeute= (nominative =-us=, p. 36) formed by adding
affix =ute= to root =valke= (cf. =valkea=, _white_ or _fire_, and
=valjeta=).]

[Note 24: Stem =pimeyte=, nominative =pimeys=; substantive formed from
=pimeä=, _dark_, analogous to =valkeus=, but with soft termination;
=pimeydessä= is inessive sing.]

[Note 25: 3rd pers. sing. pres. of root =paista=.]

[Note 26: =Jota=, part. sing. of relative pron. object of negative verb
(p. 127).]

[Note 27: 3rd sing. negative imperf. (p. 70) of verbal root =käsitä=, _to
grasp_ or _understand_ (exact equivalent of comprehendere).]

[Note 28: =Yksi=, _one_, here used as the indefinite article, p. 51.]

[Note 29: Nominative sing. of stem =miehe=, _man_.]

[Note 30: Plupf. passive of =lähettää=, _to send_; pres. passive
=lähetetään=, past part. =-etty= (p. 67).]

[Note 31: Ablative sing. of =Jumala=, _God_.]

[Note 32: Genitive sing. of relative pron. =joka=.]

[Note 33: Nominative sing. of stem =nime=.]

[Note 34: Nominative sing. of stem =Johannekse= (p. 36).]

[Note 35: Dem. pron. used as pers. pron. (p. 166).]

[Note 36: 3rd sing. imperf. of root =tule=, p. 95.]

[Note 37: Elative sing. of pron. =se=.]

[Note 38: Elative sing. of nominative =valkeus=, for use of case, _v._ p.
144.]

[Note 39: Illative of 3rd infin. of verbal stem =todista=, 1st infin.
=todistaa=, for constr. _v._ p. 194.]

[Note 40: Particle used here with conditional, _v._ for constr. p. 179.]

[Note 41: 3rd pers. plur. conditional of =uskoa=, _to believe_.]

[Note 42: =hänen=, gen. sing. of 3rd pers. pron. depending upon]

[Note 43: the postposition =kautta= with the affix of the 3rd person.
Notice that throughout this extract (vv. 10, 12, 14) the genitive of the
pers. pron. is used as well as the suffix, _v._ p. 164.]

[Note 44: 3rd sing. impf. negative of =olla=.]

[Note 45: Nominative sing. 3rd pers. pron.]

[Note 46: conjunction _but_.]

[Note 47: Nom. sing. of stem =totise= (p. 35) formed with adjectival
ending =ise= from stem =tote=, nom. =tosi=.]

[Note 48: 3rd sing. pres. of root =valista= (1st inf. =-taa=), _to
light_.]

[Note 49: Acc. plur. of stem =ihmise=, nom. sing. =ihminen=, _man_.]

[Note 50: Nom. plur. of rel. pron. =joka=.]

[Note 51: =maailmaan=, illative sing. of =maailma=, _universe_ (=maa=,
=ilma=), denoting motion into after =tulevat=.]

[Note 52: 3rd plur. pres. of root =tule= (1st inf. =tulla=) _to come_ (p.
95).]

[Note 53: Inessive sing.]

[Note 54: Nom. sing.]

[Note 55: 3rd pers. sing. imperf. negative of =tuntea=.]

[Note 56: Partitive sing. of 3rd pers. pron. after negative verb (p.
127).]

[Note 57: Allative plur. of =oma=, _own_, with the suffix of the 3rd
pers. =om-i-lle-nsa=.]

[Note 58: Negative imperf. of =ottaa=, _to take_.]

[Note 59: Illative sing. of =vasta=, meaning literally, _what is
opposite_. The combination =ottaa vastaan=, is used to mean _receive_.]

[Note 60: Nom. plur. of =oma= with suff. of 3rd pers. pron. (p. 57). As
=omansa= is subject to the verb, the latter should strictly be =eivät
ottaneet=, but _v._ page 123.]

[Note 61: Allative plur. of demons. pron. =se=, nom. plur. =ne=.]

[Note 62: 3rd pers. plur. imperf. of =ottaa=, _to take_.]

[Note 63: 3rd pers. sing. imperf. of =antaa=, _to give_, pres. =annan=.
For difference of form in =otti=, =antoi= _v._ page 85.]

[Note 64: Acc. sing. of =voima=, _power_, formed with suffix =ma= from
root =voi= (1st inf. =voida=), _to be able_.]

[Note 65: Transl. plur. of =lapse=, _a child_, _v._ p. 158.]

[Note 66: 1st inf. from root =tule=, _to come_, here used as auxiliary
meaning _to become_ or _enter on a state_, and taking the translative
case.]

[Note 67: 3rd pers. plur. pres. of =uskoa=, _to believe_.]

[Note 68: Genitive sing. of =nimi= (stem =nime=) with pronom. affix of
3rd pers.]

[Note 69: Allative sing. of =pää=, _a head_, governing the genitive
=nimensä=. The local cases of =pää= are used in a variety of metaphorical
expressions.]

[Note 70: =Eikä= is the negative verb with the adverbial suffix =kä=,
_and_; as in verse 11, the singular of the negative verb is used for the
plur.; =syntyneet= must be understood with the negative.]

[Note 71: Elative sing. of =veri= (stem =vere=), _blood_, for use _v._ p.
143.]

[Note 72: Genitive sing. of =liha=, _flesh_, depending on =tahdosta=.]

[Note 73: Elative sing. of =tahto=, _will_, used as a nominal and verbal
stem (=tahtoa=, _to wish_).]

[Note 74: Particle, _also_, connected with =myötä= and =myöten=.]

[Note 75: Genitive sing. of =mies= (stem =miehe=), _man_, depending on
=tahdosta=.]

[Note 76: Elative sing. of =Jumala=, _God_.]

[Note 77: 3rd pers. plur. of the perf. of =syntyä=, _to be born_,
composed of auxiliary and nom. plur. of partitive =syntynyt=, _v._ p. 73.]

[Note 78: For form _v._ No. 36. Here used as auxiliary _became_ and
followed by translative, _v._ Nos. 65 and 66 above.]

[Note 79: Translat. sing. of =liha=, _flesh_.]

[Note 80: 3rd pers. sing. imperf. of =asua=, _to dwell_.]

[Note 81: Genitive plur. of 1st pers. pron. depending on postposition
=seassamme=.]

[Note 82: Postposition in inessive following genitive and taking
possessive affix of 1st pers. plur., _v._ p. 214.]

[Note 83: Nom. plur. of 1st pers. pron.]

[Note 84: 1st pers. plur. imperf. of root =näke= (inf. =nähdä=, _v._ p.
108), =näke-i-mme= becomes =näimme= by rules 14 and 28.]

[Note 85: Acc. sing. of =kunnia=, _glory_, with the pron. affix of 3rd
pers.]

[Note 86: _So as_, compound adverb formed of =niin=, instr. plur. of =se=
and =kuin=, instr. plur. of root =ku= (nom. =kuka=).]

[Note 87: Genitive sing. of =ainoa=, _only_, agreeing with =Pojan=.]

[Note 88: Genitive sing. of =Poika=, _son_, for form _v._ rule 28.]

[Note 89: Accus. sing. of =kunnia=, _glory_, governing the genitive
=ainoan Pojan=.]

[Note 90: Elative sing. of =Isä=, _Father_. The elative is no doubt used
to prevent the confusion arising from too many genitives and accusatives
coming together.]

[Note 91: Essive sing. of stem =täyte=, in apposition to =sana= (_v._ p.
157. iii). Modern Finnish makes =täytenä=, but here the =e= is dropped
and =täytnä= becomes =täynnä=, cf. =ynnä= for =yhtenä= from =yksi=. In
nom. =täyte= forms =täysi= by rule 37.]

[Note 92: Part. sing, of stem =armo=, _grace_ or _mercy_; for use of
part. after =täynnä= _v._ p. 136.]

[Note 93: Part. sing. of stem =totuute= (p. 36), which rejects =e= before
=ta= of part.; for formation from root =tote=, _v._ p. 47. iii.]



KALEVALA, XXXVI. 319-346.


      Kullervo Kalervon poika
    Tempasi[1] terävän[2] miekan[3],                                   320
    Katselevi kääntelevi,
    Kyselevi tietelevi[4];
    Kysyi[5] mieltä[6] miekaltansa[3]
    Tokko[7] tuon[8] tekisi[9] mieli[6]
    Syöä[10] syyllistä[11] lihoa,[12]                                  325
    Viallista[13] verta[14] juoa[15].
    Miekka[3] mietti[16] miehen[17] mielen[6].
    Arvasi[18] uron[19] pakinan[20],
    Vastasi[21] sanalla[22] tuolla[8]:
    ‘Miks[23] en[24] söisi[24] mielelläni[25],                         330
    Söisi[24] syyllistä[11] lihoa[12],
    Viallista[13] verta[14] joisi[26]?
    Syön[10] lihoa[12] syyttömänki,[27]
    Juon[15] verta[14] viattomanki[28].’
    Kullervo Kalervon poika,                                           335
    Sinisukka[29] äijön[30] lapsi[31]
    Pään[32] on[33] peltohon[34] sysäsi[35],
    Perä[36] painoi[37] kankahasen[38],
    Kären[39] käänti[40] rintahansa[41],
    Itse[42] iskihe[43] kärelle[44],                                   340
    Siihen[45] surmansa[46] sukesi[47]
    Kuolemansa[48] kohtaeli[49].
      Se oli surma[45] nuoren[50] miehen[17],
    Kuolo[51] kullervo-urohon[52],
    Loppu[53] ainakin[54] urosta[55]                                   345
    Kuolema[56] kova-osaista[57].

[Kullervo, the hero of Kalevala xxxi-xxxvi, is represented as a child of
misfortune, who by no possible means could do good. After a series of
crimes and disasters, rivalling the history of Oedipus, he determines to
kill himself.]

      Kullervo the son of Kalervo
    Grasped the sharp sword,                                           320
    Looked (at it), turned (it),
    Asked, inquired:
    Asked of his sword its mind,
    If it were minded,
    To eat guilty flesh,                                               325
    To drink sinful blood.
    The sword understood the mind of the man,
    Followed the speech of the hero,
    Answered with this word:
      ‘Why should I not eat to my pleasure,                            330
    Eat guilty flesh,
    Drink sinful blood?
    I eat the flesh of the guiltless,
    I drink the blood of the sinless.’
    Kullervo the son of Kalervo,                                       335
    The old man’s child with blue stockings,
    Drove the hilt into the ground,
    Fixed the end in the plain,
    Turned the point to his breast
    Himself fell on the point.                                         340
    Thus he sought his fate,
    Met his death.
      This was the fate of the young man,
    The death of the hero Kullervo,
    The end of the hero,                                               345
    The death of the ill-fated one.

[Note 1: 3rd sing. imperf. of stem =tempata=, 1st inf. =temmata=,
conjugated like =lupata=, pp. 95 and 101.]

[Note 2: Acc. sing. of adj. =terävä=, _sharp_, formed from =terä=,
_edge_, with affix va.]

[Note 3: Acc. sing. of =miekka=, _sword_; =kk= becomes =k= in closed
syllable (rule 25); in l. 323, occurs the ablative sing. with affix of
3rd pers. pron.]

[Note 4: These four verbs are all formed with the affix =ele= (_v._ p.
111) from the simple forms =katsoa=, =kääntää=, =kysyä=, =tietää=. The
=vi= is the termination of the 3rd. pers. sing. pres. (p. 62).]

[Note 5: 3rd sing. imperf. of =kysyä=, followed by ablative, _to ask of_
(p. 154).]

[Note 6: Part. sing. of =miele=, nom. =mieli=, genitive =mielen=, etc.;
=e= lost before =tä= by rule 17.]

[Note 7: Particle, _whether_.]

[Note 8: Acc. of demonstr. pron. =tuo=.]

[Note 9: 3rd pers. sing. conditional of root =teke=, inf. =tehdä=, of
3rd conjugation. The phrase =mieli tekee= followed by an accusative
(here =tuon=) means _his mind drives him to_, or _he has a mind to_.
Cf. the first lines of the =Kalevala Mieleni minun tekevi ... lähteäni
laulamahan=, _my mind incites me to begin singing_.]

[Note 10: = =syödä= (p. 224) 1st inf. of root =syö= (pres indic. =syön=),
depending on phrase =mieli tekisi= (p. 188).]

[Note 11: Part. sing. (object of =syöä=) of =syyllinen=, _guilty_, formed
from =syy=, _cause_ or _guilt_, with affix =llise= (p. 47).]

[Note 12: = =lihaa= (p. 225), part. sing. of =liha=, _flesh_.]

[Note 13: Part. sing. of =viallinen=, formed from =vika=, _fault_, like
=syyllinen=, =k= lost by rule 28.]

[Note 14: Part. sing. of =vere= (nom. =veri=); cf. =mieltä= for form.]

[Note 15: = =juoda= (p. 224), 1st inf. of =juo=, pres. =juon=.]

[Note 16: 3rd sing. imperf. of =miettiä= (2nd conj.) _to think over_,
here meaning _understand_.]

[Note 17: Genitive sing. of stem =miehe= (nom. =mies=).]

[Note 18: 3rd sing. imperf. of =arvata=; pres. indic. =arvaan=, _to
think, understand_, conjugated like root =lupata=, p. 101.]

[Note 19: Genitive sing. of =uro=, _hero_, which is more usual in the
form =uros= (stem =uroho=, =uroo=).]

[Note 20: Accusative sing. (object of =arvasi=) of =pakina=, _speech_.]

[Note 21: =Vastasi=, 3rd sing. imperf. of =vastata=, conjugated like root
=lupata=.]

[Note 22: Adessive sing. of =sana=, _word_, used here in instrum.
signification (p. 152).]

[Note 23: Transl. sing. of =mikä=, used adverbially to mean _why_ (p.
159).]

[Note 24: Negative conditional of =syö=, composed of 1st pers. sing. of
neg. verb, and stem of conditional (p. 70). By rule 4 =syö + isi= becomes
=söisi=.]

[Note 25: Adessive sing. of =mieli= (_v._ No. 6) with affix of 1st pers.
sing. _with my mind_, i.e. _with pleasure_.]

[Note 26: =Juo + isi= becomes =joisi= (_v._ No. 15).]

[Note 27: =ki= is an adverbial affix (p. 118) meaning _even_; =syyttömän=
is the genitive sing. of =syytön=, _guiltless_ (stem =syyttömä=), a
caritive adjective formed from =syy=, with suffix =ttoma=, just as
=syyllinen= is formed with suffix =llise= (_v._ pp. 47 and 37).]

[Note 28: Genitive sing. of caritive adjective =viaton=, formed from
=vika=.]

[Note 29: _Blue-stockinged_, a compd. of =sini=, _blue_, and =sukka=,
_stocking_.]

[Note 30: Gen. sing. of =äijö= (= =äijä=), _an old man_.]

[Note 31: Nom. sing. of stem =lapse=, _child_.]

[Note 32: Accusative sing. of =pää=, _head_, here _the hilt of a sword_.]

[Note 33: Particle of emphasis frequently used in Kalevala, and not the
verb substantive.]

[Note 34: = =peltoon= (p. 225), illative sing. of =pelto=, _field_ or
_ground_.]

[Note 35: 3rd pers. sing. of =sysätä=, _to drive_, conj. like =luvata=.]

[Note 36: Accusative sing. of =perä=, _end_.]

[Note 37: 3rd pers. sing. impf. of =painaa=, _to force down_ or _into_.]

[Note 38: = =kankaasen= (p. 225), illative sing. of stem =kankaha=, nom.
=kangas= (p. 38 and rule 26), _a bare plain_.]

[Note 39: Accusative sing. of stem =kärke=, nom. =kärki=, here _the point
of the sword_.]

[Note 40: 3rd sing. impf. of =kääntää=, _to turn_, _v._ p. 16.]

[Note 41: = =rintaansa=, illative sing. of =rinta=, _breast_, with suffix
of 3rd pers. pron.]

[Note 42: Nominative sing. of pronoun.]

[Note 43: 3rd pers. sing. reflex. impf. of =iskeä=, _to strike_. For form
_v._ pp. 109 and 227.]

[Note 44: All. sing. of =kärki= (_v._ No. 38).]

[Note 45: Illative sing. of pron. =se=, but here the force of the
illative is lost; literally _to this_, _up till now_.]

[Note 46: Acc. sing. of =surma=, _fate_, with pron. aff. of 3rd pers.]

[Note 47: 3rd sing. imperf. of root =suketa=, 1st infin. =sueta=, _to
make_, or _prepare_, conjugated like =luvata=.]

[Note 48: Accusative sing. of =kuolema=, _death_ (pp. 45 and 190).]

[Note 49: 3rd sing. imperf. of =kohtaella=, _to meet_ (one’s fate); cf.
=kohtalo=, _fate_.]

[Note 50: Genitive sing. of =nuori= (stem =nuore=), _young_.]

[Note 51: Nominative sing. = =kuolema=, but formed with suffix =o= (p.
45).]

[Note 52: Compound of proper name =Kullervo= and =uros=, _hero_ (stem
=uroho=).]

[Note 53: Nominative sing. _end_, genitive =lopun=; cf. =loppua=, _to
end_, intrans., =lopettaa= trans.]

[Note 54: Adv. =aina=, _always_, with suffix =kin=. Lönnrot explains
this word as =åtminstone=, =visst=; it seems here almost pleonastic, and
cannot be rendered _for ever_.]

[Note 55: Partitive sing. of =uros= (stem =uroho=), _hero_, used here as
the genitive.]

[Note 56: Transcriber’s Note: note 56 was omitted.]

[Note 57: Partitive sing. of compound adj. formed from =kova= _hard_ and
=osainen= (stem =-se=) _fated_; adjective of =osa=, _share_.]



KALEVALA, XVI. 151 ff.


      Läksi[1] Tuonelta[2] sanoja[3],
    Manalalta[4], mahtiloita[5];
    Astua taputtelevi[6],
    Kävi[7] viikon[8] vitsikkoa[9],
    Viikon[8] toisen[10] tuomikkoa[9],                                 155
    Kolmannen[11] katajikkoa[9],
    Jo[12] näkyi[13] Manalan[4] saari[14],
    Tuonen[2] kumpu[15] kuumottavi[16].
      Vaka[17] vanha[18] Väinämöinen
    Jo[12] huhuta[19] huikahutti[20]                                   160
    Tuossa Tuonelan[21] joessa[22],
    Manalan[4] alantehessa[23]:
    ‘Tuo[24] venettä[25] Tuonen[2] tytti[26],
    Lauttoa[27] Manalan[4] lapsi[28]
    Yli[29] salmen[30] saa’akseni[31],                                 165
    Joen[22] poikki[32] päästäkseni[33]!’
      Lyhykäinen[34] Tuonen[2] tytti[26],
    Matala[35] Manalan[4] neiti[36]
    Tuo oli peukkujen[37] pesiä[38],
    Räpähien[39] räimyttäjä[40]                                        170
    Tuonen[2] mustassa[41] joessa[22],
    Manalan[4] alusve’essä[42];
    Sanan[3] virkki[43], noin[44] nimesi[45],
    Itse lausui[46] ja pakisi[47]:
    ‘Vene[25] täältä[48] tuotanehe[49],                                175
    Kuni[50] syy[51] sanottanehe[52],
    Mi[53] sinun Manalle[2] saattoi[54]
    Ilman[55] tau’in[56] tappamatta[57],
    Ottamatta[58] oivan[59] surman[60],
    Muun[61] surman[60] musertamatta[62].’                             180
      Vaka[17] vanha[18] Väinämöinen
    Sanan[3] virkkoi[43] noin[44] nimesi[45]:
    ‘Tuoni[2] minun tänne[63] tuotti[64],
    Mana[2] mailtani[65] veteli[66].’
      Lyhykäinen Tuonen tytti,                              {_v._ 167, 168
    Matala Manalan neiti                                    {
    Tuonpa[67] hän sanoiksi[68] virkki[43]:
    ‘Jopa[12] keksin[69] kielastajan[70]!
    Kunp’[71] on[72] Tuoni[2] tänne[65] toisi[73],
    Mana mailta[65] siirteleisi[74],                                   190
    Tuoni toisi[73] tullessansa[75],
    Manalainen[76], matkassansa[77],
    Tuonen hattu[78] hartioilla[79],
    Manan kintahat[80] käessä[81];
    Sano[82] totta[83] Väinämöinen,                                    195
    Mi[52] sinun Manalle saattoi[54]?’
      Vaka[17] vanha[18] Väinämöinen
    Jo[12] tuossa[84] sanoiksi[68] virkki[43]:
    ‘Rauta[85] mun[86] Manalle[2] saattoi[54],
    Teräs[87] tempoi[88] Tuonelahan[21].’                              200
      Lyhykäinen Tuonen tytti,                         {
    Matala Manalan neiti                               {_v._ 167, 168, 173.
    Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi:                        {
    ‘Tuosta[89] tunnen[90] kielastajan[70]!
    Kun[71] rauta[85] Manalle[2] saisi[91],                            205
    Teräs[87] toisi[73] Tuonelahan[21],
    Verin[92] vaattehet[93] valuisi[94],
    Hurmehin[95] hurahteleisi[96];
    Sano totta Väinämöinen,                                       _v._ 195.
    Sano totta toinen[10] kerta[97]!’                                  210
      Vaka[17] vanha[18] Väinämöinen
    Itse virkki[43], noin[44] nimesi[45]:
    ‘Vesi[98] sai[91] minun Manalle[2],
    Aalto[99] toi[73] on[72] Tuonelahan[21].’
      Lyhykäinen Tuonen tytti,                           {
    Matala Manalan neiti                                 {v. 167, 168, 173.
    Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi:                          {
    ‘Ymmärrän[100] valehtelian[101]!
    Jos[102] vesi[92] Manalle[2] saisi[91],
    Aalto[99] toisi[73] Tuonelahan[21],                                220
    Vesin[102] vaattehet[93] valuisi[94],
    Helmasi[103] herahteleisi[104];
    Sano[82] tarkkoja[105] tosia[106],
    Mi[53] sinun Manalle[2] saattoi[54]?’
      Tuossa[84] vanha[17] Väinämöinen                                 235
    Vielä[107] kerran[108] kielastavi[109]:
    ‘Tuli[110] toi[73] mun[86] Tuonelahan[21],
    Valkea[111] Manalle[2] saattoi[54].’
      Lyhykäinen Tuonen tytti,                         {
    Matala Manalan neiti                               {_v._ 167, 168, 183.
    Hänpä tuon sanoiksi virkki:                        {
    ‘Arvoan[112] valehtelian[101]!
    Jos[102] tuli[110] Manalle[2] toisi[73],
    Valkeainen[113] Tuonelahan[21],
    Oisi[114] kutrit[115] kärventynnä[116],                            235
    Partaki[117] pahoin[118] palanut[119].’
      ‘Oi[120] sie[121] vanha[17] Väinämöinen,
    Jos[102] tahot[122] venettä[25] täältä[48],
    Sano[82] tarkkoja[105] tosia[106],
    Valehia[123] viimeisiä[124],                                       240
    Mitenkä[125] tulit[126] Manalle[2]
    Ilman tau’in tappamatta,                                 {
    Ottamatta oivan surman,                                  {_v._ 178-183.
    Muun surman murentamatta[127].’                          {
    Sanoi[82] vanha[18] Väinämöinen:                                   245
    ‘Jos[102] vähän[128] valehtelinki[129],
    Kerran[108] toisen[10] kielastelin[109],
    Toki[130] ma[131] sanon[82] toetki[132]:
    Tein[133] tieolla[134] venettä[25],
    Laain[135] purtta[136] laulamalla[137],                            210
    Lauloin[138] päivän[139], lauloin toisen[10],
    Niin[140] päivällä[139] kolmannella[141]
    Rikkoihe[142] reki[143] runoilta[144],
    Jalas[145] taittui[146] lausehilta[147];
    Läksin[1] Tuonelta[2] oroa[148],                                   255
    Manalalta[4] vääntiätä[149]
    Rekosen[150] rakentoani[151],
    Laulukorjan[152] laatiani[153];
    Tuopa[24] nyt[154] venoista[155] tänne[60],
    Laita[156] mulle[157] lauttoasi[27]                                260
    Yli salmen saa’akseni,                                  {_v._ 165, 166.
    Joen poikki päästäkseni!’                               {
    Kyllä[158] Tuonetar[159] toruvi[160],
    Manan[2] neiti[36] riitelevi[161]:
    ‘Oi [120] on[72] hullu[162] hulluuttasi[163],                      265
    Mies[164] on[72] mielesi[165] vähyyttä[166]!
    Tulet[126] syyttä[167] Tuonelahan[21],
    Tauitta[56] Manan[2] majoille[168];
    Parempi[169] sinun olisi[170]
    Palata[171] omille[172] maille[173];                               270
    Äijä[174] on tänne[63] tullehia[175],
    Ei paljo[176] palannehia[177].’
      Sanoi vanha Väinämöinen:
    ‘Akka[178] tieltä[179] kääntyköhön[180],
    Eip’ on[72] mies[164] pahempikana[181],                            275
    Uros[182] untelompikana[183];
    Tuo[24] venettä[25] Tuonen[2] tytti[26],
    Lauttoa[27] Manalan[2] lapsi[28]!’
      Vei[184] venehen[25] Tuonen[2] tytti[26],
    Sillä[184] vanhan[18] Väinämöisen                                  280
    Yli[23] salmen[30] saattelevi[185],
    Joen[82] poikki[32] päästelevi[185],
    Itse tuon[67] sanoiksi[68] virkki[43]:
    ‘Voi[180] sinua Väinämöinen,
    Läksit[162] surmatta[60] Manalle[2],                               285
    Kuolematta[186] Tuonelahan[21]!’
      Tuonetar[159] hyvä[187] emäntä[188],
    Manalatar vaimo[189] vanha[18]
    Toip’[73] on[72] tuopilla[189] olutta[190],
    Kantoi[191] kaksikorvaisella[192],                                 290
    Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki:                                    _v._ 283.
    ‘Juop’[193] on[72] vanha[18] Väinämöinen!’
      Vaka[17] vanha[18] Väinämöinen
    Katsoi[194] pitkin[195] tuoppiansa[189],
    Sammakot[196] kuti[197] sisällä[198],                              295
    Maot[199] laioilla[200] lateli[201];
    Siitä[185] tuon[67] sanoiksi[68] virkki[43]:
    ‘En mä[131] tänne[65] tullutkana[175]
    Juomahan[193] Manalan[4] maljat[202],
    Tuonen[2] tuopit[180] lakkimahan[203]!                             300
    Juopuvat[204] oluen[190] juojat[205],
    Kannun[206] appajat[207] katoovat[208].’
      Sanoi[182] Tuonelan[28] emäntä[188]:
    ‘Oi[120] on[72] vanha[18] Väinämöinen,
    Mitä[209] sie[121] tulit[126] Manalle,                             305
    Kuta[210] Tuonelan[21] tuville[211]
    Ennen[212] Tuonen[2] tahtomatta[213],
    Manan[2] mailta[214] kutsumatta[215]?’
      Sanoi[128] vanha[18] Väinämöinen:
    ‘Veistäessäni[216] venoista[155],                                  310
    Uutta[217] purtta[136] puuhatessa[218]
    Uuvuin[219] kolmea[220] sanoa[3]
    Peripäätä[221] päätellessä[222],
    Kokkoa[223] kohottaessa[224];
    Kun[50] en[225] noita[226] saanutkana[225],                        315
    Mailta[214] ilmoilta[227] tavannut[228],
    Piti[229] tulla[126] Tuonelahan[21],
    Lähteä[1] Manan[2] majoille[168]
    Saamahan[230] sanoja[3] noita[226],
    Ongelmoita[231] oppimahan[232].’                                   320
      Tuopa[67] Tuonelan[21] emäntä[188]
    Sanan[3] virkkoi[43], noin[44] nimesi[45]:
    ‘Ei[233] Tuoni[2] sanoja[3] anna[233],
    Mana mahtia[5] jakele[234],
    Etkä[235] täältä[48] pääsnekänä[235]                               325
    Sinä[236] ilmoisna[237] ikänä[238]
    Kotihisi[239] kulkemahan[240],
    Maillesi[241] matelemahan[242].’
      Uuvutti[243] unehen[244] miehen[164],
    Pani[245] maata[246] matkalaisen[247]                              330
    Tuonen[2] taljavuotehelle[248];
    Siinä mies[164] makaelevi[249],
    Uros[182] unta[250] ottelevi[251],
    Mies[164] makasi[246], vaate[93] valvoi[251a].
      Oli akka[178] Tuonelassa[21],                                    335
    Akka[178] vanha[18] käykkäleuka[251b],
    Rautarihman[251c] kehreäjä[251d],
    Vaskilankojen[251e] valaja[252],
    Kehräsi[251a] sataisen[253] nuotan[254],
    Tuhantisen[255] tuuritteli[256]                                    340
    Yönä[257] yhtena[258] kesäisnä[259],
    Yhellä[260] vesikivellä[261].
      Oli ukko[262] Tuonelassa[21],
    Se on ukko[262] kolmisormi[263],
    Rautaverkkojen[264] kutoja[265],                                   345
    Vaskinuotan[266] valmistaja[267],
    Se kutoi[268] sataisen[253] nuotan[254],
    Tuhantisen[255] tuikutteli[269]
    Samana[270] kesäisnä [259] yönä[257],
    Samalla[270] vesikivellä[261].                                     350
      Tuonen[2] poika[271] koukkusormi[272],
    Koukkusormi[272], rautanäppi[273],
    Se veti[274] sataisen[253] nuotan[254]
    Poikki[32] Tuonelan[21] joesta[275],
    Sekä[276] poikki[32], jotta[276] pitkin[190],                      355
    Jotta[276] vieläki[107] vitahan[277],
    Jott’[276] ei päästä[278] Väinämöisen,
    Selvitä[279] Uvantolaisen
    Sina[236] ilmoisna[237] ikänä [258],
    Kuuna[280] kullan[281] valkeana[282]                               360
    Tuolta[67] Tuonelan[21] koista[283],
    Manalan[4] ikimajoista[284].
      Vaka[17] vanha[18] Väinämöinen
    Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi:                                   _v._ 173.
    ‘Joko[12] lie[285] tuhoni[286] tullut[285],                        365
    Hätäpäivä[287] päälle[288] pääsnyt[235]
    Näillä Tuonelan[21] tuvilla[211],
    Manalan[4] majantehilla[289]?’
    Pian[290] muuksi[291] muuttelihe[292],
    Ruton[293] toiseksi[10] rupesi[294],                               370
    Meni[295] mustana[41] merehen[296],
    Sarvana[297] saraikkohon[298],
    Matoi[299] rautaisna[300] matona[197],
    Kulki[240] kyisnä[301] käärmehenä[302]
    Poikki[32] Tuonelan[21] joesta[275],                               375
    Läpi[303] Tuonen[2] verkkoloista[304].
      Tuonen[2] poika[271] koukkusormi[272],
    Koukkusormi[272], rautanäppi[273],
    Kävi[7] aamulla[305] varahin[306]
    Verkkojansa[304] katsomahan[193],                                  380
    Sa’an[307] saapi[308] taimenia[309],
    Tuhat[310] emon alvehia[311],
    Eip’[308] on[72] saanut[308] Väinämöistä[312],
    Ukkoa[262] Uvantolaista[312].

(Väimöinen journeys to the place of the dead to find his lost spells.)

      He set out to fetch words from Tuoni
    (Words of) power from Manala;
    Going he stepped firmly,
    Went a week through forests of young trees,
    A second week through bird cherries,                               155
    A third week through junipers:
    Already appeared the island of Manala,
    The hill of Tuoni loomed.
      The prudent old Wäinämöinen
    Now shouting cried loudly                                          160
    In the river of Tuoni
    In the lowland of Manala.
    ‘Bring a boat, daughter of Tuoni,
    A ship, child of Manala,
    For my going over this creek,                                      165
    For my crossing over the river.’
      The dwarfish daughter of Tuoni,
    The stunted maiden of Manala,
    She was washing dirty linen,
    Beating clothes,                                                   170
    In the black river of Tuoni,
    In the marsh-water[19] of Manala;
    Spoke a word, thus uttered,
    Herself talked and conversed:
    ‘The boat will be brought                                          175
    When the reason shall be told,
    What brought thee to Mana,
    Without slaying by disease
    Without taking by a natural death
    Without breaking by another death.’                                180
      The prudent old Wäinämöinen,
    Spoke a word, thus uttered:
    ‘Tuoni brought me hither,
    Mana brought me from my lands.’
      The dwarfish daughter of death,                                  185
    The stunted maiden of Manala
    Spoke this in words:
    ‘Now I recognize the liar.
    Had Tuoni brought (thee) hither,
    Mana removed from the earth,                                       190
    Tuoni would have brought (thee) in his coming,
    Manalainen in his journeying,
    The hat of death on (thy) head (lit. necks),
    The gloves of death on (thy) hand[20];
    Speak the truth, Wäinämöinen:                                      195
    What brought thee to Manala?’
      The prudent old Wäinämöinen
    Hereupon spoke in words:
    ‘Iron brought me to Mana,
    Steel sped me to Tuonela.’                                         200
      The dwarfish daughter of Tuoni,
    The stunted child of Manala,
    Spoke a word, thus uttered:
    ‘From this I know the liar!
    If iron had sent (thee) to Mana                                    205
    Steel brought (thee) to Tuonela:
    (Thy) clothes would drip with blood,
    Would trickle with gore.
    Speak the truth, Wäinämöinen,
    Speak the truth a second time.’                                    210
      The prudent old Wäinämöinen
    Himself spoke, thus uttered:
    ‘Water sent me to Mana,
    The wave brought (me) to Tuonela.’
      The dwarfish daughter of Tuoni                                   215
    The stunted maiden of Manala,
    Framed a word, thus uttered:
    ‘I detect the liar.
    If water had sent (thee) to Mana,
    The wave brought (thee) to Tuonela,                                220
    (Thy) clothes would drip with water
    Thy bosom would flow.
    Speak the exact truth:
    What brought thee to Mana?’
      Hereupon the old Wäinämöinen                                     225
    Lied again a time.
    ‘Fire brought me to Tuonela,
    Flame sent me to Mana.’
      The dwarfish daughter of Tuoni,
    The stunted maiden of Manala,                                      230
    She spoke this in words.
    ‘I detect the liar.
    If fire had brought thee to Mana,
    Flame to Tuonela,
    (Thy) ringlets would be singed,                                    235
    And (thy) beard be badly burnt.
      O thou old Wäinämöinen,
    If thou desirest the boat from here,
    Speak the exact truth,
    Last lies,                                                         240
    Why thou hast come to Mana,
    Without slaying by disease,
    Without taking by natural death,
    Without destroying by another death.’
      Said the old Wäinämöinen:                                        245
    ‘If I lied a little,
    Told an untruth a second time,
    Yet (now) I speak the truth:
    I was making a boat with skill,
    Constructing a ship with singing:                                  250
    I sang a day, I sang a second,
    Now on the third day
    The sledge broke from my verses,
    The foot-piece broke from my speech.
    I set forth to obtain an auger from Tuoni,                         255
    A gimlet from Manala,
    For my building the sledge,
    For my arranging the basket-sledge of song[21].
    So bring the boat here,
    Prepare for me thy ship,                                           260
    For my going over this creek,
    For my crossing over the river.’
      Greatly Tuonetar was wroth
    The maiden of Mana was angry:
    ‘Alas, fool, for thy folly,                                        265
    Man, for the smallness of thy sense.
    Thou comest without a cause to Tuonela,
    Without sickness to the dwellings of Mana:
    Better were it for thee
    To return to thy own lands.                                        270
    Many are they who come hither,
    Not many they who return.’
      Said the old Wäinämöinen—
    ‘Let an old woman turn from the path,
    Not even a worse man,                                              275
    Not a duller hero.
    Bring the boat, daughter of Tuoni,
    The ship, child of Manala.’
      The daughter of Tuoni brought the boat,
    With it the old Wäinämöinen                                        280
    Across the creek she carried.
    Conveyed over the river.
    Herself she spoke this in words.
    ‘Woe to thee, Wäinämöinen,
    Thou hast come without death to Mana,                              285
    Without dying to Tuonela.’
      Tuonetar, the good hostess,
    Manalatar the old woman[22]
    Brought beer in a cup,
    Bore (it) in a two-handled vessel.                                 290
    Herself framed this in words:
    ‘Drink old Wäinämöinen.’
      Prudent old Wäinämöinen
    Looked up and down over his cup.
    Frogs were wriggling in the inside,                                295
    Worms crawled at the edges.
    Then he framed this in words:
    ‘I came not here at all
    To drink the pots of Manala,
    To empty the cups of Tuoni.                                        300
    The drinkers of beer get drunk,
    The drainers of the cup fall.’
      The hostess of Tuonela said:
    ‘O old Wäinämöinen,
    Why hast thou come to Mana,                                        305
    To the dwellings of Tuonela
    Before the bidding of Tuoni,
    The calling of Mana from the earth?’
    Old Wäinämöinen said:
    ‘In my hewing a boat,                                              310
    In fashioning a new ship,
    I lost three words,
    In finishing the end-piece,
    In building up a structure of wood.
    Since I have not found them,                                       315
    Or met in the wide world,
    It was necessary to come to Tuonela,
    To set out for the habitations of Mana,
    In order to find those words,
    To learn dark sayings.’                                            320
      The hostess of Tuoni,
    Spoke a word, thus uttered:
    ‘Tuoni does not give words,
    (Nor) Mana distribute (words of) power,
    And thou wilt not get free from here                               325
    In all this life
    To go to thy home,
    To return to thy land.’
    She made the man sink into slumber,
    Laid the traveller to sleep,                                       330
    On to the skin rugs of Tuoni.
    Then the man slept,
    The hero took slumber,
    The man slept, the clothes watched.
      There was a hag in Tuonela,                                      335
    An old hag with a sharp chin,
    A spinner of iron threads,
    A caster of brass threads.
    She spun a hundred fold net,
    Wrought one of a thousand fold                                     340
    In one summer night
    On one water-stone.
      There was an old man in Tuonela.
    He is an old man with three fingers,
    A weaver of iron nets,                                             345
    A preparer of brass nets.
    He wove a hundred-fold net,
    Forged one of a thousand-fold
    In the same summer night
    On the same water stone.                                           350
      Tuoni’s son with crooked fingers,
    With crooked fingers, with iron nails,
    He spread the hundred fold net
    Across the river of Tuoni,
    Both across and along,                                             355
    And also slantwise,
    That it might not let pass Wäinämöinen
    (Or) free Uvantolainen,
    In all this life,
    While the golden moon shines,                                      360
    From there, from the homes of Tuoni,
    From the eternal dwellings of Mana.
      Prudent old Wäinämöinen
    Spoke a word, thus uttered:
    ‘Can my doom have already come,                                    365
    The day of misfortune have lighted on my head,
    In these dwellings of Tuonela,
    In the abodes of Manala.’
    Suddenly he changed himself to another shape,
    Swiftly he became other,                                           370
    Went black into the water,
    As an otter into the reedy place,
    Crept like an iron worm,
    Moved like a viper snake
    Across the river of Tuonela,                                       375
    Through the nets of Tuoni.
      Tuoni’s son with crooked fingers,
    With crooked fingers and iron nails,
    Went in the morning early.
    To look at his nets,                                               380
    Catches a hundred small fish
    A thousand fry,
    Did not catch Wäinämöinen
    The old Uvantolainen.



KALEVALA XL. 113 ff.

[While Väinämöinen, Lemminkäinen, and Ilmarinen are sailing to Pohjola,
the ship goes aground. Väinämöinen asks Lemminkäinen to find out what is
the matter.]


      Se on[72] lieto[313] Lemminkäinen[314]
    Pyörähtihe[315] katsomahan[193],
    Katsovi[193] venosen[155] alle[316],                               115
    Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi:                              _v._ xvi. 182.
    ‘Ei ole veno[155] kivellä[261],
    Ei kivellä, ei haolla[317],
    Vene[25] on hauin[318] hartioilla[70],
    Ve’en[98] koiran[319] konkkaluilla[320].’                          120
      Vaka vanha Väinämöinen                                {_v._ xvi. 151,
    Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi:                             {182.
    ‘Jotaki[321] joessa[22] onpi[322],
    Hakojaki[323], haukiaki[318];
    Kun[50] lie[285] hauin[318] hartioilla[79],                        125
    Ve’en koiran konkkaluilla,                                 _v._ l. 120.
    Veä[324] miekalla[325] vetehen[98],
    Katkaise[326] kala[327] kaheksi[328]!’
      Se on lieto Lemminkäinen,                                _v._ l. 113.
    Poika[271] veitikka[329] verevä[330]                               130
    Miekan[325] vyöltänsä[331] vetävi[324],
    Luunpurian[332] puoleltansa[333];
    Veti[324] miekalla[325] meryttä[334],
    Alta[335] laian[198] laskettavi[336],
    Itse vierähti[337] vetehen[98],                                    135
    Kourin[338] aaltohon[99] kohahti[339].
      Siitä[340] seppo[341] Ilmarinen[342]
    Tarttui[343] tukkahan[344] urosta[345],
    Nostalti[346] merestä[295] miehen[164],
    Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki:                               _v._ xvi. 283.
    ‘Kaikki[347] on mieheksi[164] kyhätty[348],
    Pantu[245] parran[117] kantajaksi[191],
    Lisäksi[349] satalu’ulle[350],
    Tuhannelle[351] täytteheksi[352].’
      Miekan vyöltänsä vetävi,                               _v._ line 131.
    Tupestansa[353] tuiman[354] rauan[85],
    Jolla[355] kalhaisi[356] kaloa[327],
    Alta[335] laian[198] läimähytti[357];
    Miekka[325] murskaksi[358] mureni[359],
    Eipä hauki[318] tiennytkänä[360].                                  150
      Vaka vanha Väinämöinen                                {_v._ xvi. 197,
    Tuossa tuon sanoiksi virkki:                            { 198.
    ‘Ei ole teissä[361] puolta[362] miestä[164],
    Ei urosta[182] kolmannesta[363];
    Kun[50] konsa[364] tulevi[120] tarve[365],                         155
    Miehen[164] mieltä[165] vaaitahan[366],
    Silloin[367] mieli[165] melkeässä[368],
    Kaikki[347] toimi[369] toisialla[370].’
      Itse miekkansa[325] veälti[371],
    Tempasi terävän rauan,                                 _v._ xxxvi. 326.
    Työnti[372] miekkansa[325] merehen[295],
    Alle[316] laian[198] langetteli[373]
    Kalahauin[374] hartioihin[79],
    Ve’en koiran konkkaluihin.                               _v._ line 120.
      Miekka[325] luottihe[375] lujahan[376],                          165
    Kitasihin[377] kiinnittihe[378];
    Siitä[340] vanha Väinämöinen
    Nostalti[346] kaloa[327] tuota[67],
    Veti[324] haukia[318] ve’estä[98]:
    Hauki[31] katkesi[379] kaheksi[328],                               170
    Pursto[380] pohjahan[381] putosi[382],
    Pää[288] kavahti[383] karpahasen[384].
      Jo[12] otti[385] venonen[155] juosta[386],
    Pääsi[235] pursi[136] puutoksesta[387];
    Vaka vanha Väinämöinen                                             175
    Luotti[388] purren[136] luotoselle[389],
    Ravahutti[390] rantasehen[391],
    Katselevi, kääntelevi                                  _v._ xxxvi. 321.
    Tuota[67] hauin[318] pääpaloa[392],
    Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki:                               _v._ xvi. 283.
    ‘Ken[393] on vanhin[18] sulholoista[394],
    Sepä hauki halkomahan[395],
    Kala[327] viploin[396] viiltämähän[397],
    Pää[298] paloiksi[322] pahkomahan[398]!’
      Miehet[164] purresta[136] puhuvat[399],                          185
    Vaimot[189] lausui[46] laitasilta[400]:
    ‘Saajanpa[401] käet[81] sulimmat[402],
    Sormet[263] pyytäjän[403] pyhimmät[404].’
      Vaka vanha Väinämöinen
    Veti[324] veitsen[405] huotrastansa[406],                          190
    Kyleltänsä[407] kylmän[408] rauan[85],
    Jolla[355] hauin[318] halkaisevi[409],
    Pahkovi[410] kalan[327] paloiksi[392],
    Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki:                               _v._ xvi. 283.
    ‘Ken[393] on nuorin[411] neitosista[412],                          195
    Sepä hauki keittämähän
    Murkinaisiksi[414] muruiksi[415],
    Kalaisiksi[416] lounahiksi[417]!’
      Kävi[7] neiet[38] keittämähän[413],
    Kävi[7] kilvan[418] kymmenenki[419];                               200
    Siitä[340] hauki[318] keitetähän[420],
    Murkinoiahan[421] muruina[422],
    Jäipä[423] luita[424] luotoselle[389],
    Kalanluita[424] kalliolle[425].
      Vaka vanha Väinämöinen                                           205
    Noita[226] tuossa[84] katselevi,
    Katselevi, kääntelevi,                                 _v._ xxxvi. 321.
    Sanan virkkoi, noin nimesi:                              _v._ xvi. 182.
    ‘Mikä tuostaki[426] tulisi[126],
    Noista[427] hauin[218] hampahista[428],                            210
    Leveästä[429] leukaluusta[430],
    Jos[102] oisi[114] sepon[341] pajassa[431],
    Luona[432] taitavan[433] takojan[434],
    Miehen,[164] mahtavan[435] käsissä[81]?’
      Sanoi[128] seppo[134] Ilmarinen:                                 215
    ‘Ei tule[126] tyhjästä[436] mitänä[437],
    Kalan[327] ruotasta[438] kalua[439],
    Ei seponkana[341] pajassa,
    Luona taitavan takojan,                            _v._ lines 213, 214.
    Miehen mahtavan käsissä.’
      Vaka vanha Väinämöinen
    Itse tuon sanoiksi virkki:                               _v._ xvi. 283.
    ‘Näistäpä[130] toki tulisi[126]
    Kalanluinen[424] kanteloinen[440],
    Kun[50] oisi[114] osoajata[441],                                   225
    Soiton[442] luisen[424] laatiata[443].’
      Kun[50] ei toista[10] tullutkana[175],
    Ei ollut osoajata[441],
    Soiton luisen laatiata,                                  _v._ line 226.
    Vaka vanha Väinämöinen                                             230
    Itse loihe[444] laatiaksi[443],
    Tekiäksi[445] teentelihe[446];
    Laati[153] soiton[442] hauinluisen[424],
    Suoritti[447] ilon[448] ikuisen[449].
      Kust’[450] on koppa[451] kanteletta[452]?                        235
    Hauin[318] suuren[453] leukaluusta[430];
    Kust’[450] on naulat[454] kanteletta[452]?
    Ne on hauin[318] hampahista[428];
    Kusta[450] kielet[454] kanteletta[452]?
    Hivuksista[455] Hiien[456] ruunan[457].                            240
      Jo oli soitto[442] suorittuna[458],
    Valmihina[459] kanteloinen[440],
    Soitto[442] suuri[453] hauinluinen[421],
    Kantelo[440] kalaneväinen[460].


THE INVENTION OF THE HARP.

      The gay Lemminkäinen
    Turned himself to see,
    Looked under the boat,                                             115
    Spoke a word, thus spoke:
    ‘The boat is not on a stone,
    Not on a stone, not on timber,
    The boat is on the neck of a pike,
    On the hip bones of a water dog.’                                  120
      The prudent old Väinämöinen,
    Spoke a word, thus said:
    ‘There are all sorts of things in a river,
    Timber, pikes:
    If it be on the neck of a pike,                                    125
    On the hips of a water-dog,
    Smite with the sword into the water,
    Cut the fish in two.’
      The gay Lemminkäinen,
    The bright lively youth,                                           130
    Draws the sword from his girdle,
    The bone biter from his side;
    Struck the sea with the sword,
    Stirs under the side (of the ship).
    Himself rolled into the water,                                     135
    Fell splash into the billow hands foremost.
      Then the smith Ilmarinen,
    Clung on to the hair of the hero,
    Raised the man from the sea.
    Himself spoke this in words:                                       140
    ‘Every-one is formed to be a man,
    Made to be a bearer of a beard,
    To be a supplement to the number of a hundred,
    To complete a thousand[23].’
      He draws the sword from his girdle,                              145
    The cruel iron from his sheath,
    With which he smote the fish,
    Struck below the side (of the ship).
    The sword broke into pieces,
    The pike did not even perceive.                                    150
      Prudent old Väinämöinen
    On this spoke this in words:
    ‘There is not in you half a man,
    Not the third part of a hero,
    When need comes,                                                   155
    The mind of a man is wanted,
    Then (your) mind fails,
    All (your) sense is away.’
      He himself drew his sword,
    Seized the sharp iron                                              160
    Struck his sword into the sea,
    Smote below the side (of the ship)
    On-to the neck of the pike fish,
    On to the hip bones of the water dog.
      The sword was driven home into the firm (flesh),                 165
    Fixed in the gills;
    Then old Väinämöinen
    Brought up that fish,
    Drew the pike from the water;
    The pike fell in two;                                              170
    The tail dropped to the bottom of the sea,
    The head rolled into the boat.
      Now the boat began to run,
    The vessel got free from the impediment.
    Prudent old Väinämöinen                                            175
    Brought the vessel near to shore,
    Drove her on to the strand,
    Looked at and turned
    That head-piece of the pike.
    Himself spoke this in words:                                       180
    ‘Who is the oldest of the youths,
    (Let him come) to cut up the pike,
    Divide the fish into pieces,
    Split the head into bits.’
      The men speak from the ship,                                     185
    The women cry from the shore:
    ‘The hands of the catcher are the purest,
    The fingers of the seeker are the holiest.’
      The prudent old Väinämöinen
    Drew a knife from his sheath,                                      190
    The cold iron from his side,
    With which he cuts up the pike,
    Splits the fish into pieces.
    Himself spoke this in words:—
    ‘Who is the youngest of the women,                                 195
    (Let her come) to cook the pike,
    Into morsels for dinner,
    Into a fish midday meal.’
      The women went to cook,
    Ten went in rivalry;                                               200
    Then the pike is cooked,
    Pieces for dinner;
    The bones remained on the shore,
    The fish bones on the edge of the sea.
      The prudent old Väinämöinen                                      205
    Looked at them there,
    Looked, turned,
    Spoke a word, thus uttered:
    ‘What might come from this,
    From these teeth of the pike,                                      210
    From the broad jaw bone,
    If it were in the smithy of a smith,
    With a clever forger,
    In the hands of a cunning man?’
      Said the smith Ilmarinen:—                                       215
    ‘There comes not anything from nothingness,
    No instrument from the mouth of a fish,
    Not even in the smithy of a smith,
    With a clever forger,
    In the hands of a cunning man.’                                    220
      Prudent old Väinämöinen
    Himself spoke this in words:
    ‘Yet from these might come
    A fish-bone harp,
    Were there but an artist,                                          225
    A maker of bone playing-instruments.’
      When there came no other,
    (When there) was not any artist,
    (No) maker of bone playing-instruments,
    Prudent old Väinämöinen                                            230
    Himself became a maker,
    Appeared as a fabricator:
    Made an instrument of pike-bone,
    Made ready an eternal joy.
      Of what is the body of the harp?                                 235
    Of the jaw-bone of the great pike.
    Of what are the pegs of the harp?
    They are the teeth of the pike.
    Of what are the strings of the harp?
    Of the hairs of the courser of Hiisi.                              240
      Now the instrument was prepared,
    The harp made ready,
    A great instrument of pike-bone,
    A harp of fish-fins.

[Note 1: 3rd sing. imperf. of =lähteä= (rule 40); =lähti= is also found.
The lit. meaning of this word is _to set out_, but it is used sometimes
with an object to mean _to go after_, _to fetch_.]

[Note 2: Ablative sing. of =tuoni=, _death_. =Mana= is a synonym.]

[Note 3: Part. plur. of =sana=, _word_ (rule 7), obj. of =läksi=.]

[Note 4: Ablative sing. of =Manala=, _abode of death_ (_v._ p. 47 for the
suffix).]

[Note 5: Part. plur. of =mahti=, _power_, obj. of =läksi=; for suffix
=loi=, _v._ p. 225.]

[Note 6: For constr. _v._ p. 188; =astua=, 1st infin., _to step_;
=taputtelevi=, 3rd pers. sing. pres. (p. 228) of =taputella=, _to tread
heavily or firmly_.]

[Note 7: 3rd sing. imperf. of =käydä= (rule 5, p. 9), _to go_ or
_traverse_.]

[Note 8: Accusative sing. of =wiikko=, _week_, denoting duration (_v._ p.
137).]

[Note 9: These three words are formed with the suffix =kko= (p. 47) from
the words =witsa=, _small tree_ or _shoot_; =tuomi=, _bird-cherry_,
Swedish =hägg=; and =kataja=, _juniper_.]

[Note 10: Accusative sing. of =toinen= (p. 35).]

[Note 11: Accusative sing. of =kolmas= (p. 35).]

[Note 12: Adv. _now_ or _already_.]

[Note 13: 3rd. sing. imperf. of =näkyä=, neut. form of =nähdä=, _to see_
(p. 109).]

[Note 14: Nominative sing. of stem =saari=, _an island_.]

[Note 15: Nominative sing. _a hill_.]

[Note 16: 3rd sing. pres. of =kuumottaa=, _to loom_ or _be seen
indistinctly_.]

[Note 17: This is a constant epithet of =Wäinämöinen=, meaning literally
_firm_, and then used to denote a kind of steady prudence, which is
a natural characteristic of the Finns, and (like Scotch canniness)
untranslatable, though more frivolous nations might render it by stolid.]

[Note 18: Adj. _old_, also a constant epithet.]

[Note 19: 1st infin.; for constr. _v._ p. 188.]

[Note 20: 3rd sing. imperf. of =huikahuttaa=. Like the last word this is
onomatopœic.]

[Note 21: Genitive sing. of =Tuonela=, _place of Tuoni_ (_v._ p. 47).]

[Note 22: Inessive sing. of =joki=, _a river_ (rule 28).]

[Note 23: Inessive sing. of =alanne=, _lowland_ or _depth_ (stem
=alantehe=).]

[Note 24: 2nd sing. imper. of =tuoda= (p. 80).]

[Note 25: Part. sing. of =vene=, _a boat_; stem =venehe= (cf. =terve=, p.
39), obj. of =tuo=.]

[Note 26: = =tyttö=, diminutive, nom. sing.]

[Note 27: = =lauttaa= (p. 225), part. sing. of =lautta=, _ship_.]

[Note 28: Nominative sing. of stem =lapsi=, _child_.]

[Note 29: Preposition with gen. (_v._ p. 217) _across_.]

[Note 30: Genitive sing. of =salmi=, _creek_, depending on =yli= (p.
217).]

[Note 31: = =saadakseni=, longer form of 1st infin. of root =saa= (here
used intransitively) with suffix of 1st pers. pron. For constr. _v._ p.
185.]

[Note 32: Postposition (p. 204) governing the genitive =joen=.]

[Note 33: Longer form of =päästä= (root =pääse=) with suffix of 1st pers.]

[Note 34: Nominative sing. dimin. adj. from =lyhyt= (p. 48).]

[Note 35: Nominative sing. _low_, _dwarfish_.]

[Note 36: Nominative sing. _a maiden_.]

[Note 37: Genitive plur. of =poukku=, _dirty linen_.]

[Note 38: = =pesijä=, _washer_, _v._ p. 196.]

[Note 39: Genitive plur. of =räväs= (stem =räpähä=), _rag_.]

[Note 40: Nominative sing. _a beater_; cf. =räimätä=, _to beat_.]

[Note 41: Inessive sing. of =musta=, _black_.]

[Note 42: Inessive sing. of compound noun =alusvesi= (p. 34).]

[Note 43: 3rd sing. imperf. (the form varies between =virkki= and
=virkkoi=) from =virkkaa=, _to speak_.]

[Note 44: Instr. plur. of =tuo=, _thus_.]

[Note 45: 3rd sing. imperf. of =nimetä=, literally _to name_.]

[Note 46: 3rd sing. imperf. of =lausua=, _to call_.]

[Note 47: 3rd sing. imperf. of =pakista=, _to talk_ or _speak_.]

[Note 48: Adv. _thence_; abl. of =tämä=, _this_; =täällä=, =täältä= are
written with two =ä=’s when used adverbially.]

[Note 49: = =tuotaneen=, concessive passive of =tuoda=, _to bear_. The
final =n= of the passive is omitted. For constr. _v._ pp. 177 and 182.]

[Note 50: = =kun=, _when_.]

[Note 51: Nominative sing. _a cause_.]

[Note 52: Conditional passive of =sanoa=, _to speak_ (= =sanottaneen=).]

[Note 53: = =mikä=.]

[Note 54: 3rd sing. imperf. of =saattaa=, causative form of =saada= (p.
110), _to cause to come_ or _bring_; for form _v._ rule 7.]

[Note 55: Prep. with the abessive (p. 203): used also as adverb.
Apparently genitive of =ilma=, _air_, but connection of meaning is
obscure.]

[Note 56: = =taudin=, gen. sing. of =tauti=, _disease_, constr. with
=tappamatta= (p. 184).]

[Note 57: Abessive of the 3rd infin. of =tappaa=, _to kill_ (p. 193).]

[Note 58: Abessive of 3rd infin. of =ottaa=, _to take_.]

[Note 59: Genitive sing. of =oiva=, _right_ or _proper_.]

[Note 60: Genitive sing. of =surma=, _fate_; _a right fate_ is a natural
death. For constr. _v._ p. 184.]

[Note 61: Genitive sing. of =muu=, _other_; _another fate_ means one
other than a natural death.]

[Note 62: Abessive of 3rd infin. of =musertaa=, _to break_.]

[Note 63: Adv. _hither_, _v._ p. 24.]

[Note 64: 3rd sing. imperf. from =tuottaa=, causal of =tuoda=, _to bear_.]

[Note 65: Ablative plur. of =maa=, _land_, with affix of 1st person.]

[Note 66: 3rd sing. imperf. from =vedellä=, formed from =vetää=, _to
carry_.]

[Note 67: Accusative sing. of pron. =tuo=, with adverbial suffix =pa=.]

[Note 68: Transl. plur. of =sana= after =virkki=, _spoke this into words_
(p. 158).]

[Note 69: 1st sing. pres. of =keksiä=, _to find_ or _detect_.]

[Note 70: Accusative sing. of =kielastaja= (from =kieli=, _tongue_). One
who is ready with his tongue, hence _a liar_. The Finns are a silent
race.]

[Note 71: =kun=, _if_, with adv. suffix =pa=.]

[Note 72: =On=, a particle of emphasis, not the verb substantive.]

[Note 73: 3rd sing. conditional of =tuoda=, _to bring_.]

[Note 74: 3rd sing. conditional of =siirtellä=, deriv. verb from
=siirtää=.]

[Note 75: Inessive of 2nd infin. of =tulla=, _to come_, with pron. affix
of 3rd person.]

[Note 76: Adjectival form from =Manala= (_v._ p. 46).]

[Note 77: Inessive of =matka=, _a journey_.]

[Note 78: Nominative sing. _a hat_. For the constr. of nominative
absolute _v._ p. 134.]

[Note 79: Adessive plur. of =hartia=, _neck_ or _shoulders_.]

[Note 80: Nominative plur. of =kinnas=, _a glove_, stem =kintaha= (p.
38).]

[Note 81: = =kädessä=, inessive of =käsi=, _a hand_ (stem =käte=), for
use _v._ p. 141.]

[Note 82: 2nd sing. imper. of =sanoa=, _to speak_.]

[Note 83: Part. sing. of =tosi=, _truth_ (stem =tote=, _v._ p. 34).]

[Note 84: Inessive of =tuo=, _there_ or _thereupon_.]

[Note 85: Nominative sing. (gen. =raudan=, =rauan=), _iron_.]

[Note 86: = =minun=, _me_.]

[Note 87: Nominative sing. of stem =teräkse=, _steel_.]

[Note 88: 3rd sing. imperf. of =tempoa=, cf. =temmata=.]

[Note 89: Elative sing. of =tuo=, _from this_.]

[Note 90: 1st sing. pres. of =tuntea=.]

[Note 91: 3rd sing. conditional of =saada=, meaning here _to convey_ (cf.
reflex. =saapua=). N.B. Pres. cond. used here with past signif.]

[Note 92: Instr. plur. of =veri= (stem =vere=), blood.]

[Note 93: Nominative plur. of =vaate= (stem =vaattehe=), _garment_.]

[Note 94: 3rd pers. sing. cond. (though with plur. subject) of =valua=,
_to drip_.]

[Note 95: Instr. plur. of =hurme=, _gore_ (stem =hurmehe=).]

[Note 96: 3rd sing. (for plural) cond. of =hurahdella=.]

[Note 97: Nom. sing. (gen. =kerran=) _time_; for use of nom. _v._ p. 137.
In l. 224 the accusative is used in same constr.]

[Note 98: Nominative sing. of stem =vete=, p. 34.]

[Note 99: Nominative sing. (gen. =aallon=), _billow_.]

[Note 100: 1st pers. sing. pres. of =ymmärtää=, p. 93.]

[Note 101: Accusative sing. of =valehtelia= (or =valhetelija=), _a liar_,
_v._ No. 129.]

[Note 102: Conj. _if_.]

[Note 103: Nominative sing. with affix of 2nd person.]

[Note 104: 3rd pers. sing. (for plur.) of =herahdella=, identical with
=hurahdella= above.]

[Note 105: Part. plur. of =tarkka=, _exact_.]

[Note 106: Part. plur. of stem =tote= (nom. =tosia=), _truth_.]

[Note 107: Adv. _once more_.]

[Note 108: Accusative sing. of =kerta=, cf. No. 97.]

[Note 109: 3rd sing. pres. of =kielestaa=, _v._ No. 70.]

[Note 110: Nominative sing. of =tule=, _fire_.]

[Note 111: Nominative sing.; has two meanings, (1) _white_ or _bright_,
(2) _flame_; so here.]

[Note 112: = =arvaan=, 1st sing. pres. of =arvata=, _to think_ or
_perceive_, conjugated like =luvata=.]

[Note 113: Adj. from =valkea= (p. 47), _the flaming one_, i.e. _fire_.]

[Note 114: = =olisi=, here used for =olisivat=.]

[Note 115: Nominative plur. of =kutri=, _a lock_.]

[Note 116: = =kärventyneenä=, essive sing. of past part, act of
=kärventyä=, neuter form of =kärventää=, _to burn_.]

[Note 117: Nominative =parta=, _beard_ (gen. =parran=), with adverbial
affix =ki=.]

[Note 118: Instrum. plur. of =paha=, _bad_, used adverbially (p. 161).]

[Note 119: Nominative sing. past part. act. of palaa, _to burn_
(intrans.).]

[Note 120: An interjection.]

[Note 121: = =sinä=.]

[Note 122: = =tahdot=, 2nd pers. sing. pres. of =tahtoa=, _to wish_.]

[Note 123: Part. plur. of =walhe=, _a lie_ (the cases and derivatives of
this word are written either =walhe= or =waleh=).]

[Note 124: Part. plur. of =viimeinen= (stem =sen=), _last_, often
employed in indeclinable form =viime=.]

[Note 125: Adv. fr. pron. stem =mi=.]

[Note 126: 2nd sing. imperf. of =tulla=, _to come_.]

[Note 127: Abessive of 3rd infin. of =murentaa=, _to crush_ or _break_.]

[Note 128: Instr. of =vähä=, _little_, used adverbially.]

[Note 129: 1st sing. imperf. of =valehdella=, with suffix =ki=.]

[Note 130: Adv. _yet_.]

[Note 131: = =minä=.]

[Note 132: = =todet=, accusative plur. of stem =tote=, nominative =tosi=,
_truth_.]

[Note 133: 1st sing. imperf. of =tehdä=, stem =teke=.]

[Note 134: = =tiedolla=, adessive sing. of =tieto=, _knowledge_, used
instrumentally, _v._ p. 152.]

[Note 135: = =laadin=, 1st pers. imperf. of =laatia=, _to fashion_.]

[Note 136: Part. sing. of =pursi= (stem =purte=), _ship_; part. is used
because action was not completed, _v._ p. 127.]

[Note 137: Adessive of 3rd infin. of =laulaa=, _to sing_ (p. 193).]

[Note 138: 1st sing. imperf. of same verb (p. 85).]

[Note 139: Accusative sing. of =päivä=, _day_ (p. 137).]

[Note 140: Instr. plur. of =se=, used adverbially.]

[Note 141: Adessive sing. of =kolmas= (p. 35); the essive would be more
usual as a definite date is mentioned (p. 150).]

[Note 142: 3rd sing. imperf. of =rikkoa=, _to break_ (_v._ p. 227).]

[Note 143: Nominative sing. _sledge_ (p. 33).]

[Note 144: Ablative plur. of =runo=, _verse_ (p. 154).]

[Note 145: Nominative sing. of stem =jalakse= (fr. =jala=, _foot_), _the
foot_ or _end of a sledge_.]

[Note 146: 3rd sing. imperf. from =taittua=, _to bend_, reflex. form of
=taittaa= (p. 109).]

[Note 147: Ablative plur. of =lause= (stem =lausehe=).]

[Note 148: = =oraa=, part. sing, of =ora=, _a gimlet_.]

[Note 149: Part. sing. of =vääntiä=, _an auger_.]

[Note 150: Accusative sing. of =rekonen=, dim. fr. =reke=, _a sledge_.]

[Note 151: = =rakentaa= (p. 93) 1st infin. with affix of 1st person (p.
187).]

[Note 152: Accusative sing. compound word formed from =laulu=, _song_,
and =korja=, _a basket sledge_ (Swedish =korgsläde=).]

[Note 153: _v._ No. 135, 1st infin. with suffix of 1st person.]

[Note 154: Adv. _now_.]

[Note 155: Part. sing. of =venoinen=, _dim._ of =vene=, _boat_.]

[Note 156: 2nd sing. imperf. of =laittaa=, _to make ready_.]

[Note 157: = =minulle=.]

[Note 158: =kyllä=, adv. _much_; originally a subst. meaning _plenty_.]

[Note 159: Nominative sing. of =tuonettare=, from stem =tuone=, with
affix =ttare= (p. 46).]

[Note 160: 3rd sing. pres. of =torua=, _to chide_.]

[Note 161: 3rd sing. pres. of =riidella= (stem =riitele=), _to quarrel_
or _be angry_.]

[Note 162: Nominative sing., _a fool_.]

[Note 163: Part. sing, with affix of 2nd pers. of stem =hulluute=,
_folly_, derived from =hullu= (p. 47); for use of part, after =oi=,
_v._ p. 136.]

[Note 164: Nominative sing. of stem =miehe=.]

[Note 165: Gen. sing. of =mieli=, with affix of 2nd pers. sing.]

[Note 166: Part. sing. of stem =vähyyte= (after =oi=), formed like
=hulluus=, above, from =vähä=, _little_.]

[Note 167: Abessive sing. of =syy=, _cause_; =tauitta= (from =tauti=) is
same case.]

[Note 168: Allative sing. (after =tulet=) from =maja=, _a habitation_.]

[Note 169: Nominative of stem =parempa=, comp. of =hyvä=, _good_.]

[Note 170: For constr. _v._ p. 138.]

[Note 171: 1st infin. and root _to return_, conjugated like =luvata=.]

[Note 172: Adessive plur. of =oma=, _own_.]

[Note 173: Adessive plur. of =maa=, _land_.]

[Note 174: Adv. and adj. _much_.]

[Note 175: Part. plur. of stem =tullehe= (nominative sing. =tullut=, p.
40), 2nd part. act. of =tulla=, _to come_.]

[Note 176: Adv. _much_.]

[Note 177: _v._ 175; this is corresponding form from =palata=, _to
return_.]

[Note 178: Nominative sing., _an old woman_.]

[Note 179: Ablative sing. =tie=, _a way_.]

[Note 180: = =kääntyköön=, 3rd sing. opt. of =kääntyä=, reflex. form of
=kääntää=, _to turn_.]

[Note 181: Nominative of compar. of =paha=, _bad_ (p. 42), with adv.
affix =kana=. N.B. As =ei= is indic. and not imper. the line must mean
‘the meanest man _will_ not.’]

[Note 182: Nominative sing. stem =uroho= (p. 38).]

[Note 183: Nominative of compar. of =untelo=, _sleepy_ or _dull_, from
=untua=, _to be sleepy_.]

[Note 184: 3rd sing. imperf. of =viedä= (rule 4).]

[Note 185: =saatella=, =päästellä= are derivative forms from =saada=,
=päästä= (p. 111).]

[Note 186: Abessive of 3rd infin. of =kuolla=, _to die_.]

[Note 187: Nominative sing. _good_.]

[Note 188: Nominative sing. (gen. =emännän=), _mistress_ or _hostess_.]

[Note 189: Adessive sing. of =tuoppi=. The inessive would seem more
natural.]

[Note 190: Part. sing. of =olut=, _beer_, stem =olue=; cf. =kevät=, p.
39; for part. _v._ p. 135.]

[Note 191: 3rd sing. of =kantaa=, _to bear_.]

[Note 192: Adessive sing. of =kaksikorvainen=, formed of =kaksi=, _two_;
=korva=, _ear_, with adj. ending =inen=, _two-eared_ or _two-handled_.]

[Note 193: 2nd sing. imperf. of =juoda=, _to drink_.]

[Note 194: 3rd sing. imperf. of =katsoa=, _to look_.]

[Note 195: Prep. governing partitive =tuoppiansa= (p. 204).]

[Note 196: Nominative plur. of =sammakko=, _frog_.]

[Note 197: 3rd sing. (for plural) imperf. of =kutea=.]

[Note 198: Adessive sing. of =sisä=, _interior_ (cf. p. 214).]

[Note 199: = =madot=, nominative plur. of =mato=, _worm_.]

[Note 200: = =laidoilla=, adessive plur. of =laita=, _side_.]

[Note 201: = =mateli= (which perhaps should be read), imperf. of
=madella= (sing. for plur.), _to creep_ (connected =mato=).]

[Note 202: Accusative plur. of =malja=, _a cup_.]

[Note 203: Illative of 3rd infin. of =lakkia=. For the construction of
this and of =juomahan=, _v._ p. 192.]

[Note 204: 3rd pers. plur. pres. of =juopua= (p. 111).]

[Note 205: Nominative plur. of =juoja= (p. 45).]

[Note 206: Genitive sing. of =kannu=, _a cup_, or _can_.]

[Note 207: Nominative plur. of =appaja=, formed from =appaa=, _to eat_ or
_drink greedily_.]

[Note 208: 3rd plur. pres. of stem =katota=, 1st infin. =kadota=,
conjugated like =koota= (p. 104).]

[Note 209: Part. of =mitä=, used adverbially, _why_.]

[Note 210: Part. of =kuka=, here used like =mikä=.]

[Note 211: Allative plur. (after =tulit=) of =tupa=, _house_.]

[Note 212: Adv. _before_.]

[Note 213: Abessive of 3rd infin. of =tahtoa=, _to wish_. There is here
a confusion of two ideas, _without the will of Tuoni_ and _before the
bidding of Tuoni_.]

[Note 214: Ablative plur. of =maa=, _land_.]

[Note 215: Abessive of 3rd infin. of =kutsua=, _to call_.]

[Note 216: Inessive of 2nd infin. of =veistää=, _to cut_, from =veitsi=,
_a knife_, _v._ p. 189.]

[Note 217: Part. sing. of =uusi= (stem =uute=), _new_; part. because
action was not complete.]

[Note 218: Inessive of 2nd infin. of =puuhata=, like =luvata=.]

[Note 219: 1st pers. sing. of =uupua=, _to fall asleep_, _to lose_; cf.
No. 243.]

[Note 220: Part. of =kolme=, _three_, followed by part. sing. of =sana=
(p. 172).]

[Note 221: = =peräpää=, lit. _end-head_, i.e. _extreme part_.]

[Note 222: Inessive of 2nd infin. of =päätellä=, derived from =päättää=,
_to finish_.]

[Note 223: = =kokkaa=, part. sing. of =kokka=, _prow_.]

[Note 224: Inessive of 2nd infin. of =kohottaa=, transitive form of
kohota, _to swell_ or _rise_.]

[Note 225: 1st sing. imperf. neg. of =saada=, with adv. affix =kana=.]

[Note 226: Part. plur. of =tuo= used after negative.]

[Note 227: Ablative plur. of =ilma=, _air_. =maailma= (_earth_, _air_)
means _universe_, and the present expression, in which the two elements
are declined, has much the same force.]

[Note 228: Nominative sing. 2nd part. active of =tavata= (root =tapata=),
conjugated like =luvata=; =en= must be understood with this participle.]

[Note 229: 3rd sing. imperf. of =pitää= (here impersonal, _oportere_).]

[Note 230: Illative of 3rd infin. of =saada=. N.B. This infin. does not
depend on =piti=, but denotes the purpose of the action; _v._ p. 192.]

[Note 231: Part. plur. of =ongelmo= (derived from =onki=), _a crooked
saying_, _a riddle_.]

[Note 232: Illative of 3rd infin. of =oppia=, _to learn_.]

[Note 233: 3rd. sing. pres. neg. of =antaa=, _to give_ (p. 69).]

[Note 234: Negative form (understand =ei=) of =jaella=, derived from
=jakaa=, _to divide_ or _distribute_.]

[Note 235: 2nd pers. sing. concessive negative of =päästä= (like
=nousta=).]

[Note 236: Essive of =se=.]

[Note 237: Essive sing. of =ilmoinen=, derived from =ilma= (_the open
space_ or _air_) and apparently meaning _long_.]

[Note 238: Essive of =ikä=, _life_. For temporal meaning of essive, _v._
p. 157. The whole expression apparently means _in this long life_, i.e.
_as long as you live_.]

[Note 239: Illative plur. of =koti=, _home_, with affix of 2nd pers.
pron.]

[Note 240: Illative of 3rd infin. of =kulkea=, _to go_.]

[Note 241: Allative plur. of =maa=, _land_, with affix of 2nd pers.]

[Note 242: Illative of 3rd infin. of =madella=.]

[Note 243: 3rd sing. imperf. of =uuvuttaa=, _to tire_ or _throw to
sleep_.]

[Note 244: = =uneen=, illative sing. of =uni=, _sleep_; the illative is
used on account of the idea of change of state in =uuvutti=.]

[Note 245: 3rd sing. imp. of =panna= (like =tulla=), _to put_.]

[Note 246: 1st infin. of root =makata= (like =lupata=), _to sleep_. The
expression =panna maata= is generally used in an intransitive sense, _to
go to bed_.]

[Note 247: Acc. sing. of =matkalainen=, _a traveller_, deriv. from
=matka=, _journey_.]

[Note 248: Allative sing. (on account of motion in lying down _unto_) of
compound noun composed of =talja= and =vuode=, both meaning _skin_, or
_fur_.]

[Note 249: 3rd sing. pres. of =makaella=, derivative verb from =maata=.]

[Note 250: Part. sing. of =uni=.]

[Note 251: Derivative verb from =ottaa=, _to take_.]

[Note 251a: 3rd sing. imperf. of =valvoa=, _to watch_. The expression is
a proverb, and means _he slept with one eye open_.]

[Note 251b: Nominative sing. of compound adj. formed of =käykkä=,
_prominent_, and =leuka=, _chin_.]

[Note 251c: Genitive sing. of compound substantive formed of =rauta=,
_iron_, and =rihma=, _thread_.]

[Note 251d: Noun of agency formed with affix =ja= from =kehrätä=, _to
spin_.]

[Note 251e: Genitive plur. of =vaskilanka=, compound of =vaski=, _brass_,
and =lanka=, _twine_.]

[Note 252: Noun of agency from =valaa=, _to pour_ or _make by casting_.]

[Note 253: Accusative sing. of =satainen=, _hundred-fold_, here meaning
_complicated_ or _large_.]

[Note 254: Accusative sing. of =nuotta=, _a large net_.]

[Note 255: Accusative sing. of =tuhantinen=; _v._ =satainen=, _above_.]

[Note 256: 3rd sing. imperf. of =tuuritella=, _to knit_ (from
=tuurittaa=).]

[Note 257: Essive sing. of =yö=, _night_ (p. 157).]

[Note 258: Essive sing. of =yksi=.]

[Note 259: Essive sing. of =kesäinen=, adj. from =kesä=, _summer_;
=kesäisenä=, contracted to =kesäisnä=.]

[Note 260: = =yhdellä= (p. 51).]

[Note 261: Adessive sing. of compound subst. formed of =vesi=, _water_,
and =kivi=, _stone_.]

[Note 262: Nominative sing. _an old man_.]

[Note 263: Nominative sing. compound of =kolme=, _three_ (N.B. in
compounds the =e= becomes =i=), and =sormi=, _a finger_.]

[Note 264: Genitive plur. of =rautaverkko=, compound of =rauta=, _iron_,
and =verkko=, _a net_.]

[Note 265: Noun of agency from =kutoa=, _to weave_.]

[Note 266: Genitive sing. of =vaskinuotta=; _v._ Nos. 251 and 254.]

[Note 267: Noun of agency from =valmistaa=, _to make ready_.]

[Note 268: 3rd sing. imperf. of =kutoa=.]

[Note 269: 3rd sing. imperf. of =tuikutella=.]

[Note 270: Essive of =sama=, _the same_.]

[Note 271: Nominative sing. (gen. =pojan=), _a boy_.]

[Note 272: Compound adj. =koukku=, _a hook_, =sormi=, _a finger_.]

[Note 273: Compound adj. =rauta=, _iron_, =näppi=, _finger tip_.]

[Note 274: 3rd sing. imperf. of =vetää=, _to draw_ or _spread_.]

[Note 275: Elative sing. of =joki=, _river_; =alatse=, =läpi=, =poikki=,
=yli=, sometimes take the elative instead of partitive in the Kalevala.]

[Note 276: =sekä ... jotta= = _both ... and_, but the third =jotta=
introduces a final sentence with the verb in the indicative, not in the
subjunctive, as is more usual.]

[Note 277: Illative sing. of =vita=, _crosswise_.]

[Note 278: Negative pres. of =päästää=, _to let go_.]

[Note 279: Negative pres. of =selvittää=, _to liberate_ (from =selvä=,
_free_ or _clear_).]

[Note 280: Essive of =kuu=, _moon_.]

[Note 281: Genitive sing. of =kulta=, _gold_.]

[Note 282: Essive of =walkea=, _bright_. The meaning of these three words
is clearly _as long as the moon shines_, but their exact relation to
each other is a little obscure. =Kullan= is apparently an attributive
genitive belonging to =kuun=, and the essive is to be taken in a
temporal sense. Literally, _in the moon of gold shining_. Cf. XLIX. 116.
=Päivä-kullan paistamahan.=]

[Note 283: Elative plur. of =koti=, _home_.]

[Note 284: Elative plur. of =ikimaja=, compound of =iki=, _always_, and
=maja=, _dwelling_.]

[Note 285: Compound concessive of =tulla=; =lie= = =lienee=. For use of
the concessive in questions, _v._ p. 177.]

[Note 286: Nominative sing. with affix of 1st person.]

[Note 287: Compound of =hätä=, _straits_ or _danger_, and =päivä=, _day_.]

[Note 288: Allative sing. of =pää=, _head_.]

[Note 289: Adessive plur. of =majanne= (stem =-tehe=) formed from =maja=
(p. 47), _a poor dwelling_.]

[Note 290: Genitive of =pika=, _swiftness_, used adverbially.]

[Note 291: Translative sing. of =muu=, _other_; for use of the case here
and in =toiseksi= after verbs denoting change (_v._ p. 158).]

[Note 292: 3rd pers. sing, imperf. (_v._ p. 109) of =muutella=, derived
from =muuttaa=, _to make other_ (=muu=), or _change_.]

[Note 293: Genitive of =rutto=, _rapid_, used adverbially.]

[Note 294: 3rd sing. imperf. of =ruveta=, _to begin_ or _become_.]

[Note 295: 3rd sing. imperf. of =mennä=, _to go_.]

[Note 296: Illative of =meri=, _sea_.]

[Note 297: Essive of =sarva= (or =saarva=), _an otter_. For the case of
this and =mustana=, etc., _v._ p. 157.]

[Note 298: Illative sing. of =saraikko=, formed from =sara=, _sedge_; cf.
No. 9.]

[Note 299: 3rd sing. imperf. of =matoa=, _to creep_.]

[Note 300: Essive sing. of =rautainen=, _iron_.]

[Note 301: Essive of =kyinen= (stem =se=) adj. from =kyy=, _a viper_.]

[Note 302: Essive of =käärme= (stem =käärmehe=), _a serpent_.]

[Note 303: Preposition with elat. _v._ No. 280.]

[Note 304: Part. plur. of =verkko=, _net_; cf. No. 5.]

[Note 305: Adessive of =aamu=, _morning_ (p. 150).]

[Note 306: = =varhain=, adv. _early_.]

[Note 307: = =sadan=, accusative of =sata=, _hundred_.]

[Note 308: 3rd sing. pres. of =saa=.]

[Note 309: Part. plur. of =taimen= (stem =taimene=), _a kind of fish_
(_salmo fario_ or _trutta_, Lönnrot).]

[Note 310: a thousand, p. 52.]

[Note 311: =Emon= is gen. of =emo= (= =emä=), _mother_; =alvehia=, part.
plur. of =alve= (stem =alpehe=, _a young fish_). The phrase seems to mean
_fry that follow their mother_.]

[Note 312: Part. cases of =Väinämöinen= and =Uvantolainen=, after
negative verb.]

[Note 313: Nominative sing. adj. originally _muddy_; thence _soft_ or
_light_; explained as meaning here =kevytmielinen=, _light-minded_.]

[Note 314: Also called =Ahti= and =Kaukomieli=. The most fascinating and
adventurous of the heroes of the Kalevala, but sadly deficient in moral
sense. He was much attached to female society, which led to his being
killed, apparently very thoroughly, in book xiv., but in xv. his mother
resuscitates him; he did not, however, learn wisdom. Books xxvi. and
xxvii. recount his struggle with the people of Pohjola, with whom he was
on bad terms owing to his not being invited to the marriage of Ilmarinen,
and in xxix. he had to fly to Saari, whence however he was expelled
(owing to his light conduct with a thousand brides and a hundred widows),
and has further adventures in xxx. In the rest of the Kalevala he plays
rather a secondary part.]

[Note 315: 3rd pers. sing. imperf. (p. 227) from =pyörähtää=, _to turn_
(=pyörä=, _wheel_ or _circle_).]

[Note 316: Postposition governing =venosen=; the allative is used because
motion is implied.]

[Note 317: Adessive sing. of =hako=, _timber floating in water_.]

[Note 318: Genitive sing. of =hauki=, _pike_.]

[Note 319: Genitive sing. of =koira=, _dog_.]

[Note 320: Adessive plur. of =konkka-luu=, compound noun.]

[Note 321: Part. plur. of =joki=, _various_.]

[Note 322: = =on=.]

[Note 323: Part. plur. of =hako=, _v._ 317.]

[Note 324: = =vedä=, 2nd pers. sing. imperat. of =vetää=, _to draw_.]

[Note 325: Adessive (p. 152) sing. of =miekka=, _sword_.]

[Note 326: 2nd sing. imperf. of =katkaista=, _to break_ or _sever_, stem
=katkaise=.]

[Note 327: Nominative sing. _a fish_, direct object of =katkaise= (p.
128).]

[Note 328: = =kahdeksi=, trans. of =kaksi=, _two_ (for case, _v._ p.
158).]

[Note 329: Nominative sing. adj. _merry_.]

[Note 330: Adj. formed from stem =vere=, _blood_, with suffix =va= (p.
48), _vigorous_ or _youthful_.]

[Note 331: Ablative sing. of =vyö=, _a girdle_, with affix of 3rd pers.]

[Note 332: Acc. sing. of compound subst. with first member (=luu=,
_bone_) in gen. and second noun of agency, formed from =purra=, _to
bite_.]

[Note 333: Ablative sing. of =puoli=, _side_, with affix of 3rd pers.]

[Note 334: Part. sing. of =meryt= (stem =merye=), dimin. of =meri=,
_sea_.]

[Note 335: Preposition governing =laian=, though generally a
postposition.]

[Note 336: 3rd sing. pres. of =laskettaa= (trans. form of =laskea=), _to
smite_.]

[Note 337: 3rd sing. imperf. of =vierähtää=, deriv. verb (p. 112) from
=vierrä=, _to roll down_.]

[Note 338: Instr. plur. of =koura=, _palm of the hand_.]

[Note 339: 3rd pers. imperf. of =kohahtaa=, onomatopoeic verb
representing noise of bubbling water.]

[Note 340: Elative sing. of =se=, used adverbially, _then_.]

[Note 341: =seppo= or =seppä=, nominative sing. _a smith_.]

[Note 342: The magic smith of Kalevala and forger of the Sampo; after
many trials he married the maiden of Pohja (xix.), and the marriage is
described in xx-xxv., but in xxxiii. she is killed. Ilmarinen then forged
himself a wife of gold and silver (xxxvii.), who did not prove entirely
satisfactory in all respects.]

[Note 343: 3rd sing. imperf. of =tarttua=, _to stick_ or _cling to_.]

[Note 344: Illative sing. of =tukka=, _hair_.]

[Note 345: Part. sing. of =uros=, used as genitive. This use (which is
hardly found in prose) is chiefly used of things which form part of
something else.]

[Note 346: 3rd sing. of =nostaltaa=, deriv. verb from =nostaa=, _to
raise_.]

[Note 347: Nominative sing. _all_ (p. 170).]

[Note 348: 2nd part. passive of =kyhätä=, _to form_; this word and
=pantu= are followed by translatives to indicate the end for which a
thing is made (p. 159).]

[Note 349: Trans. sing. of =lisä=, _an addition_.]

[Note 350: Allative sing. of =sataluku=, _hundred number_ (=luvulle= is
now the usual orthography, p. 14).]

[Note 351: Allative sing. of =tuhat= (stem =tuhante=), _a thousand_.]

[Note 352: Trans. sing. of =täyte= (stem =täyttehe=), _a complement_ or
_supplement_ (=täysi=, _full_).]

[Note 353: Elative sing. of =tuppi=, _sheath_, with affix of 3rd person.]

[Note 354: Accusative sing. of =tuima=, _fierce_.]

[Note 355: Adessive (p. 152) of =joka=, here used in sense _and with it_.]

[Note 356: = =kolhaisti= or =kolkkaisti=, 3rd sing. imperf. of
=kalhaista=, _to strike_ or _split_.]

[Note 357: 3rd sing. imperf. of =läimähyttää= (deriv. of =läimätä=), _to
smite_.]

[Note 358: Trans. sing. of =murska=, _a fragment_ (p. 158). N.B. The word
is not in the plural and is almost adverbial, _piecemeal_.]

[Note 359: 3rd sing. imperf. of =mureta=, _to break_ (stem =murene=, p.
94 F and 107).]

[Note 360: = =tietänyt= (p. 226, ix), 2nd part. act. of =tietää=, _to
perceive_ or _know_, with adv. affix =kana=.]

[Note 361: _v._ p. 141, vii.]

[Note 362: Part. sing. of =puoli=, _half_ (p. 34); for use of part. _v._
p. 122.]

[Note 363: Part. sing. of =kolmannes= (stem =-ekse=), _a third part_.]

[Note 364: Adv. _when_, used with =kun= to mean _as soon as_.]

[Note 365: Nominative sing. (stem =tarpehe=), _need_.]

[Note 366: = =vaaditaan=, passive of =vaatia=, _to demand_.]

[Note 367: Adv. _then_.]

[Note 368: Inessive sing. of =melkeä=, _moderate_ (? Russian =мелкій=);
for use of inessive _v._ p. 140, iii. The expression seems ironical, _is
in a very moderate state_.]

[Note 369: Nominative sing. _business_, _duty_, _capacity_; cf. for use
here =ei ole hänellä tointa=.]

[Note 370: Adessive of =toisia=, _another place_; cf. =muualla=, and our
expression _to be all abroad_.]

[Note 371: 3rd sing. imperf. of =vedältää=, deriv. verb from =vetää=.]

[Note 372: 3rd sing. imperf. of =työntää=, _to thrust_ or _smite_.]

[Note 373: 3rd sing. imperf. of =langetella=, deriv. verb from
=langettaa=, which is the causative form of =langeta=, _to fall_.]

[Note 374: Compound of =kala=, _fish_, and =hauki=, _pike_. The usual
form would be =haukikala= (cf. =valaskala=, _a whale_).]

[Note 375: 3rd sing. imperf. reflexive (p. 227) of =luottaa=, _to send
through_ or _drive_, a factitive form from =luoda=, one of whose meanings
is _to cast_ (_v._ No. 496).]

[Note 376: Illative sing. of =luja=, _firm_.]

[Note 377: Illative plur. of =kitanen= (stem =-se=, diminutive of
=kita=), _the gills of a fish_.]

[Note 378: 3rd sing. imperf. reflex. of =kiinnittää=, _to fix_, derived
from =kiinni=.]

[Note 379: 3rd sing. imperf. of =katketa=, _to break_ or _fall asunder_;
cf. 326.]

[Note 380: = =pyrstö=, nominative sing. _a tail_.]

[Note 381: Illative sing. of =pohja=, _bottom_ or _shore_.]

[Note 382: 3rd sing. imperf. of =pudota= (like =luvata=), _to fall_.]

[Note 383: 3rd sing. imperf. of =kavahtaa=, _to leap forth_ or _fall_.]

[Note 384: Illative sing. of =karvas= (cf. =oas=, p. 40), _a small boat_.]

[Note 385: 3rd sing. imperf. of =ottaa=, here used intransitively, _to
start_ or _begin_.]

[Note 386: 1st sing. of stem =juokse= (cf. =syökse=, p. 107), _to run_ or
_speed_.]

[Note 387: Elative sing. of =puutos=, _a hindrance_ (=puuttaa=, _to hold_
or _fasten_).]

[Note 388: 3rd sing. imperf. act. of =luottaa=, _v._ 375.]

[Note 389: Allative sing. of =luotonen=, dimin. of =luoto=, _island_ or
_shore_.]

[Note 390: 3rd sing. imperf. of =ravahuttaa=, fact. form of =ravahtaa=,
which is itself a deriv. of =ravata=, _to move quickly_; cf. =ravakka=,
_quick_.]

[Note 391: Illative sing. of =rantanen=, dimin. of =ranta=, _shore_.]

[Note 392: Part. sing. (p. 127) of =pääpala=, compound of =pää=, _head_,
and =pala=, _a piece_.]

[Note 393: Int. pron. (p. 60).]

[Note 394: Elative plur. of =sulho=, _a young man_; for use of case, _v._
p. 143, viii.]

[Note 395: Illative of 3rd infin. of =halkoa= (=halki=), _to cleave_. The
verb on which the infinitive depends is omitted, but some such words as
‘let him come’ must be understood.]

[Note 396: Instr. plur. of =vipla= (or =viipale=), _a strip_. For the
nom. =hauki=, _v._ p. 128, iii (2).]

[Note 397: Illative of 3rd infin. of =viiltää= (fact. of =viillä=), _to
split open_.]

[Note 398: Illative 3rd infin. of =pahkoa=, _to cleave_.]

[Note 399: 3rd plur. pres. of =puhua=, _to speak_ (original meaning _to
blow_).]

[Note 400: Ablative plur. of =laitanen= (stem =-se=), dimin. of =laita=,
_shore_.]

[Note 401: Genitive of =saaja=, noun of agency, from =saada=, _to take_
(p. 45).]

[Note 402: Nominative plur. of =sulin=, superlative of =sula=, _flowing_,
_active_, or _dexterous_.]

[Note 403: Genitive sing. of =pyytäjä= from =pyytää=, _to catch_; cf. No.
401.]

[Note 404: Nominative plur. of =pyhin=, superl. of =pyhä=, _holy_.]

[Note 405: Accusative sing. of =veitsi=, _knife_.]

[Note 406: Elative sing. of =huotra=, _a sheath_, with affix of 3rd
person.]

[Note 407: Ablative sing. of =kylki=, _side_, with affix of 3rd person.]

[Note 408: Accusative sing. of =kylmä=, _cold_.]

[Note 409: 3rd sing. pres. of =halkaista= (=halki=), _to split_.]

[Note 410: 3rd sing. pres. of No. 398.]

[Note 411: Nominative sing. superl. of =nuori=, _young_.]

[Note 412: Elative plur. of =neitonen= (stem =-se=), dimin. of =neito=,
_woman_.]

[Note 413: Illative of 3rd infin. of =keittää=, _to cook_; _v._ No. 395.]

[Note 414: Trans. plur. (p. 158) of =murkinainen=, adj. of =murkina=,
_the midday meal_.]

[Note 415: Trans. plur. of =muru=, _fragment_.]

[Note 416: Trans. plur. of =kalainen=, adj. formed from =kala=, _fish_.]

[Note 417: Trans. plur. of =lounas=, _midday meal_.]

[Note 418: Instr. sing. of =kilpa=, _strife_ or _rivalry_.]

[Note 419: =kymmen=, _ten_, with affix =ki=.]

[Note 420: Pres. passive of =keittää=.]

[Note 421: = =murkinoidaan=, pres. passive of =murkinoita= from
=murkina=, _breakfast_.]

[Note 422: Essive plur. from =muru=, _a bit_.]

[Note 423: 3rd sing. imperf. of =jäädä=, _to remain_, with affix =pä=,
followed by allative (p. 156).]

[Note 424: Part. plur. of =luu=, _bone_.]

[Note 425: Allative of =kallio=, _rock_.]

[Note 426: Elat. sing. of pron. =tuo=, with suffix =ki=.]

[Note 427: Elat. plur. of same.]

[Note 428: Elative plur. (p. 143, ix) of =hammas= (stem =hampaha=),
_tooth_.]

[Note 429: Elative of =leveä=, _broad_.]

[Note 430: Elative of =leuka-luu=, _jaw-bone_.]

[Note 431: Inessive of =paja=, _a smithy_.]

[Note 432: Essive of =luo= (p. 210), here prepos. with genitive.]

[Note 433: Genitive of 1st part. act. of =taitaa=, _to be able_ or
_skilful_.]

[Note 434: Genitive of =takoja=, _forger_, from =takoa=, _to forge_.]

[Note 435: Genitive of =mahtava=, _powerful_.]

[Note 436: Elative of =tyhjä=, _void_ or _emptiness_.]

[Note 437: = =mitään=, _v._ p. 219 and 122.]

[Note 438: Elative sing. of =ruotta=, _mouth_ (_of a fish_); =ruota= or
=ruoto= is the usual form.]

[Note 439: Part. sing. of =kalu=, _an instrument_ (p. 122).]

[Note 440: Dimin. of =kantelo= = =kantele=, _a kind of harp with five
strings_.]

[Note 441: = =osaajaa=, part. of =osaaja=, noun of agency, from =osata=,
_to know_ or _be skilful_.]

[Note 442: Genitive sing. of =soitto=, _a musical instrument_.]

[Note 443: Part. of =laatija=, noun of agency from =laatia=, _to make_.
The part. is used because the sentence is practically negative.]

[Note 444: 3rd sing. imperf. reflex. of =luoda=, _to create_ or _make_.]

[Note 445: Translative (p. 158, iii) of =tekijä=, noun of agency, from
=tehdä=, _to make_.]

[Note 446: 3rd sing. imperf. reflex. of =teennellä=, deriv. of =tehdä=
(stem =teke=), _to make_.]

[Note 447: 3rd sing. imperf. of =suorittaa= (from =suora=), _to prepare_.]

[Note 448: Accusative sing. of =ilo=, _joy_.]

[Note 449: Accusative sing. of =ikuinen=, from =ikä=, _life_.]

[Note 450: Elative sing. of =kuka=, meaning here _from what_ (p. 144,
ix).]

[Note 451: Nominative sing., _the body_ or _frame_ (_of the harp_).]

[Note 452: Part. sing. of =kantele= (stem =-lehe=), _harp_; for use of
part. _v._ No. 345.]

[Note 453: Genitive sing. of =suuri=, _great_.]

[Note 454: Nominatives plur. of =kieli=, _tongue_ or _string_, and
=naula=, _a nail_.]

[Note 455: Elative plur. of =hivus= = =hius= (stem =hiukse=), _hair_.]

[Note 456: = =Hiiden=, genitive sing. of =Hiisi=, _the genius of evil_.]

[Note 457: Genitive sing. of =ruuna=, poetical word for _a horse_.]

[Note 458: Essive sing. of 2nd part. passive (= =suoritettuna=) of
=suorittaa=.]

[Note 459: Essive sing. of =valmis=, _ready_ (stem =valmihi=).]

[Note 460: Compound word; first member in genitive, second adj. formed
from =evä=, _a fin_.]



FINNISH POPULAR SONG.


    Hyvästi[461] kultaseni[462], hyvästi kultani,
    Mun[86] lähteä[1] nyt[463] täytyy[464] pois[465] kotimaaltan[466].
    Mun[86] täytyvi[464] nyt[463] mennä[294] merille[295]
      kulkemaan[240]!
    Ja sinua en tieä[466a] jos[102] näen[466b] millonkaan[467].
    Lahella[468] laiva[469] pieni[470] minua outtelee[471];              5
    Se mulla[472] kotimaani[466] ja tuttavani[473] lie[285].
    Se kotimaani[466] mulla[472] ja tuuli[474] kultani[462],
    Ja aalto[99] armnhani[475] tahikka[476] surmani[60].
    Jo[12] ennen[477] monta[478] miestä[164] se meri[295] petteli[479],
    Ja monen[478] kullan[462] silmät[480] vesille[481] jätteli[482].    10
    Vaan[483] ellös[484] mua[472] surko[484], jos[102] ehkä[485]
      kuolisin[486];
    Sä[487] suotta[488] kaottaisit[489] ikäsi[490] kaunihin[491].
    Kun[50] kuulet[492] kuolleheksi[493], tee[494] risti[495]
      rantahan[391],
    Ja aallon[99] luomat[496] luuni[497] ne peitä[498] santahan[499].
    Ja ota[385] pieni[470] ruusu[500] ja laita[156] kasvamaan[501],     15
    Käy[7] sitte[502] kesäilloin[503] välistä[504] katsomaan[193].
    Kun[71] ruusu[500] kaunihisti[491] kesällä[503] kukostaa[505],
    Se rakkauteni[506] kuvan[507] eteesi[508] muovostaa[509].
    Hyvästi[461] vielä[107] kerta[108], hyvästi ystävä[510]!
    Ei[512] suremaan[511] nyt[463] auta[512], vaan[483] täytyy[404]
      lähteä.                                                           20

    Farewell, dear love, farewell, my love,
    Now must I set forth from home.
    Now I must go to wander on the seas
    And know not if I shall ever see thee.
    A little ship awaits me in the bay:                                  5
    It will be my home and friend.
    It will be my home and the wind my love,
    And the wave my darling or my death.
    That sea has lured many men ere now,
    And filled many a lover’s eyes with tears.                          10
    But grieve not for me, if perchance I die:
    Thou wouldst waste thy fair life in vain.
    If thou hearest I am dead, place a cross on the shore,
    And my bones cast up by the wave, hide them in the sand.
    And take a little rose and set it to grow,                          15
    Then go sometimes on summer evenings to look at it.
    When the rose flowers gaily in the summer
    It will form a picture of my love for thee.
    Farewell once more, farewell, friend,
    It is no good grieving: I must start.                               20

[Note 461: Adv. of =hyvä=, _good_ (p. 117), used to mean _good-bye_.]

[Note 462: Dimin. of =kulta=, _gold_ or _darling_, with affix of 1st
person.]

[Note 463: Adv. _now_.]

[Note 464: Impers. verb _it is necessary_, followed by 1st infin. (p.
187); =täytyy= and =täytyvi= are identical (p. 226, viii).]

[Note 465: Adv. _away_, also used in inessive =poissa=.]

[Note 466: Compound of =koti=, _home_, and =maa=, _land_; _v._ No. 65.]

[Note 466a: = =tiedä=, negative form of =tietää=, _to know_.]

[Note 466b: 1st pers. sing. of =nähdä= (p. 108).]

[Note 467: = =milloinkaan= (_v._ pp. 117, 169).]

[Note 468: = =lahdella=, adessive sing. of =lahti=, _bay_.]

[Note 469: Nominative sing. a _ship_.]

[Note 470: Nominative sing. _little_.]

[Note 471: = =odottelee=, 3rd sing. pres. of =odotella=, deriv. from
=odottaa=, _to wait_.]

[Note 472: = =minulla=; cf. =mua= = =minua=.]

[Note 473: 1st part. passive for =tunnettava=, from =tuntea=, _to know_.
Here used as substantive with affix of 1st pers., _friend_.]

[Note 474: Nominative sing. _wind_.]

[Note 475: Nominative with suffix of 1st pers. from stem =armaha= (nom.
=armas=), _dear_.]

[Note 476: = =taikka=, _or_.]

[Note 477: Adv. (gen. of =ensi=), _before_.]

[Note 478: Part. sing. of =moni=, _many_, taking a partitive after it (p.
171, iv.).]

[Note 479: 3rd sing. imperf. of =petellä=, deriv. verb from =pettää=, _to
deceive_.]

[Note 480: Accusative plur. of =silmä=, _eye_.]

[Note 481: Allative plur. of =vesi=, _water_.]

[Note 482: 3rd sing. imperf. of =jätellä=, derived from =jättää=. For the
use of this verb with the illative or allative, _v._ p. 156. The sentence
means literally _has abandoned the eyes of many a lover to waters_; i.e.
has filled with tears.]

[Note 483: Conj. _but_.]

[Note 484: 2nd sing. negative opt. of =surra= (like =tulla=).]

[Note 485: Adv. _perhaps_.]

[Note 486: 1st sing. conditional of =kuolla=, _to die_ (like =tulla=).]

[Note 487: = =sinä=.]

[Note 488: Part. sing. of =suosi=, _pleasure_ (not used); used
adverbially to mean _for mere pleasure_, _without serious cause_; hence
_in vain_, _uselessly_.]

[Note 489: 2nd sing. conditional of =kadottaa=, _to loose_, trans. form
of =kadota=, _to fall_.]

[Note 490: Accusative sing. of =ikä=, _life_, with suffix of 2nd pers.
N.B. =k= is not weakened.]

[Note 491: Accusative sing. of =kaunis=, _beautiful_, stem =kaunihi=; the
adv. is used in l. 17.]

[Note 492: 2nd sing. pres. of =kuulla= (like =tulla=), _to hear_.]

[Note 493: Translative sing. of 2nd part. act. of =kuolla= (_v._ 486).
For use _v._ p. 201.]

[Note 494: 2nd sing. imperf. of =tehdä=, followed by illative; _v._ p.
156 ad. in.]

[Note 495: Nominative sing. _cross_, obj. of =tee= (p. 128, iii).]

[Note 496: Accusative plur. of 3rd infin. of =luoda=, used as a past
part. (p. 191). For =luoda=, meaning _to cast_, _v._ No. 375.]

[Note 497: Accusative plur. of =luu=, _bone_, with affix of 1st pers.
sing.]

[Note 498: 2nd sing. imperf. of =peittää=, _to hide_.]

[Note 499: Illative sing. (p. 156) of =santa=, _sand_.]

[Note 500: Nom. sing. _rose_, object of =ota= (p. 128).]

[Note 501: Illative of 3rd infin. of =kasvaa=, _to grow_ (p. 192).]

[Note 502: Adv. _then_ (p. 117).]

[Note 503: Compound of =kesä=, _summer_, and =ilta=, _evening_, instr.
plur. (p. 161, iii).]

[Note 504: Elative sing. of =väli=, _interval_; here adverbial, _now and
then_.]

[Note 505: 3rd sing. pres. of =kukostaa=, _to flower_, from =kukka=, _a
flower_ (p. 114).]

[Note 506: Genitive sing. with affix of 1st pers.; from =rakkaus= (stem
=rakkaute=), _love_.]

[Note 507: Accusative sing. of =kuva=, _picture_.]

[Note 508: Illative sing. of =esi=, with affix of 2nd pers. (p. 146).]

[Note 509: = =muodostaa=, =v= being a dialectical variant for =d=; 3rd
sing. pres. (with future signif.) of =muodostaa=, deriv. verb from
=muoto=, _form_.]

[Note 510: Nominative sing. (p. 134, v), _friend_; Lönnrot suggests it is
for =ysättävä=, derived from =yskä=, _bosom_.]

[Note 511: Illative of 3rd infin.; cf. No. 484.]

[Note 512: Negative pres. of =auttaa=, _to help_ or _avail_.]



FOOTNOTES

[1] This applies not only to case or personal suffixes, but to any
formative element.

[2] Kalevala. 3 painos. 1887. Johdanto. p. XV.

[3] The following sketch of Esthonian is taken mainly from Wiedemann’s
‘Grammatik der Estnischen Sprache.’ Petersburg, 1875.

[4] Donner’s ‘Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Finnish-Ugrischen Sprachen’
also contains many comparisons with Samoyede.

[5] But =suola=, _salt_, and =puola=, _bilberry_, change the final =a=
into =o= to distinguish them from =suoli=, _an intestine_, and =puoli=,
_half_.

[6] It is noticeable that this rule does not apply in the rare case of a
monosyllabic root ending in a short open vowel becoming closed. =Ku=, the
root of the pronoun =kuka=, forms =kun= not =gun=.

[7] In the Kalevala dialect =t= always disappears instead of becoming
=d=, and some traces of this remain in ordinary Finnish, (_a_) In the
declensions of such roots as =lyhyte=, short: gen. =lyhyen=, and in some
contracted substantives. (_b_) In the loss of =t= in the syllable =ta=
used to form infinitives and partitives.

[8] In the Bible and old Finnish are found such forms as
=kaksitoistakymmentä=.

[9] This suffix frequently loses its vowel and becomes simple s.

[10] The closing of the root and omission or weakening of =t= in the
first and second forms of the infinitive is no doubt due to the extremely
frequent use of the forms with suffixes. Thus =saadakseni= from =saata=
is grammatically correct, as is also =lukeakseni= from =luketa=,
according to the euphonic rules of the Kalevala or Old Karelian dialect.
Such forms as =saada= are probably not nominatives, but shortened
translatives.

[11] The first infinitive is occasionally found in the Bible, e.g. Psalm
xliv. 12 =Sinä annat meitä syötää niinkuin lampaita=.

[12] The participle is =nousnut= _or_ =noussut=.

[13] These forms are ably discussed by Mr. Setälä, in vol. II of the
Journal de la Société Finne-Ugrienne, p. 29 ff. He endeavours to prove
[and it seems to me with success] that =k= is a suffix of the present
tense, and =se= a pronominal affix.

[14] Cf. =kaikkialla=, =toisialla=, =kuusialla=. Some consider these
forms as compounds of the pronominal stem with the word =ala=, so that
=muualla= stands for =muu + ala + lla=.

[15] It is noticeable that peasants frequently use the passive with
the pronoun of the first person plural, as if it were a personal form.
=Jokohan mekin tuo lehmä myötäisiin?= _Shall we not sell this cow too?_

[16] Analogy has no doubt played a great part in the development of
these constructions, but they clearly have their origin in the use of
the participle as a substantive, just like the infinitive. Compare =Minä
toivon saada rahoja= with =Minä luulen saavani rahoja= and =Miehet
nayttävät tulevan= with =Miehet taitavat tulla=. Compare such Turkish
constructions as ‎‏كلديكمى بلدكز‏‎ geldiyimi bildiniz, _you knew I had
come_.

[17] =Vasiten= or =vaseten= occurs in dialects.

[18] I should say that in this account I am deeply indebted to the
Finnish introduction to the edition of the Kalevala, published in 1887 at
Helsingfors.

[19] The word seems to imply low-lying marshy places.

[20] This is apparently a reference to some kind of costume in which a
corpse was dressed.

[21] This passage seems a little confused. Wäinämöinen was building a
boat by means of magic spells, of whose efficacy so much is said in the
Kalevala. During this process he lost (apparently forgot) three words
which were necessary. The language in 350 ff. is metaphorical: the sledge
of his song was broken, i.e. the spells did not run smoothly.

[22] It would seem that this is not the same personage as the ‘dwarfish
daughter of Tuoni’ (also called Tuonetar in 263). But who this new
character is, is not explained.

[23] This rather obscure remark appears to be a taunt. ‘Every body is a
man, in the sense of adding to the male population. But one wants a good
deal more to really deserve the name.’





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