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Title: London and its Environs Described, vol. 2 (of 6) - Containing an Account of whatever is most remarkable for - Grandeur, Elegance, Curiosity or Use
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "London and its Environs Described, vol. 2 (of 6) - Containing an Account of whatever is most remarkable for - Grandeur, Elegance, Curiosity or Use" ***

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                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                               DESCRIBED.

                                VOL. II.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                               DESCRIBED.


                               CONTAINING

An Account of whatever is most remarkable for GRANDEUR, ELEGANCE,
CURIOSITY or USE,


                     In the CITY and in the COUNTRY
                         Twenty Miles round it.

                           COMPREHENDING ALSO
        Whatever is most material in the History and Antiquities
                       of this great Metropolis.


Decorated and illustrated with a great Number of Views in Perspective,
engraved from original Drawings, taken on purpose for this Work.


                    Together with a PLAN of LONDON,
                A Map of the ENVIRONS, and several other
                              useful CUTS.


                                VOL. II.


                                LONDON:
              Printed for R. and J. DODSLEY in Pall Mall.

                               ----------

                               M DCC LXI.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                             DESCRIBED, &c.



                                 B R E


  BREAD street ward, so called from Bread street in Cheapside, which was
  formerly a bread market, is encompassed on the north and north west by
  Faringdon ward; on the west by Castle Baynard ward; on the south by
  Queenhithe ward; and on the east by Cordwainers ward.

  The principal streets in this ward are, Watling street, Bread street,
  Friday street, Distaff lane, Basing lane, with the east side of the
  Old Change, from the corner of St. Austin’s church to Old Fish street,
  and the north side of Old Fish street, and Trinity lane, with that
  part of the south side of Cheapside, between Friday street and Bow
  church.

  The most remarkable places are, the parish churches of Allhallows
  Bread street, and St. Mildred’s; with Cordwainers hall.

  This ward is governed by an Alderman, his Deputy, and twelve other
  Common Council men, thirteen wardmote inquest men, eight scavengers,
  sixteen constables, and a beadle. The jury returned by the inquest for
  the ward, are to serve in the several courts at Guildhall in the month
  of April.

BREAKNECK _alley_, in the Minories.║

BREAKNECK _court_, Blackhorse alley, Fleet street.║

BREECHES _yard_, Townsend lane.

BREEZE’S _hill_, Ratcliff highway.

BREME’S _buildings_, Chancery lane.†

BRENTFORD, a town in Middlesex, situated ten miles from London, received
  its name from a brook called Brent, which runs through the west part
  of the town, called Old Brentford, into the Thames. As it is a great
  thoroughfare to the west, it has a considerable trade, particularly in
  corn, both by land and the Thames. The church and market-house stand
  in that part of the town called New Brentford. It has also two charity
  schools; tho’ the church is only a chapel to Great Eling.

  That part of it called Old Brentford is situated upon a fine rising
  bank close to the Thames, and is naturally capable of being made as
  beautiful a spot as any thing of the kind. The opposite side of the
  river is Kew Green, which appears from hence to advantage.

BRENTWOOD, or BURNTWOOD, in Essex, is a pretty large town seventeen
  miles from London, and being a very great thoroughfare, is chiefly
  maintained by the multitude of carriers and passengers constantly
  passing through it to London, with provisions, manufactures, and
  droves of cattle; tho’ it is one of the four hamlets belonging to the
  parish of Southwold cum Brent.

BREWERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King Henry
  VI. in the year 1438, which were confirmed by Edward IV. in 1480, with
  the privilege of making by-laws. They are governed by a Master, three
  Wardens, and twenty-eight Assistants, with 108 Liverymen, who upon
  their admission pay each the sum of 6_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._

BREWER’S _alley_, Shoe lane.

BREWER’S _court_, 1. Basinghall street. 2. Bedfordbury. 3. Oxford
  street. 4. St. Thomas’s street.

BREWERS HALL, a handsome and commodious building, almost adjoining to
  Plaisterers Hall in Addle street. It has a genteel entrance into a
  large court, paved with free stone, and is supported by handsome
  pillars.

BREWER’S _green_, Tothill side.†

BREWER’S _key_, Thames street, the next key to Tower hill.†

BREWER’S _lane_, 1. Dowgate Hill. 2. Shadwell market. 3. Wapping.

BREWER’S _rents_, Whitechapel.

BREWER’S _street_, 1. Bow street, St. Giles’s. 2. Old Soho.

BREWER’S _yard_, 1. Barnaby street. 2. Cow Cross. 3. Giltspur street. 4.
  Holiwell lane. 5. By Hungerford market. 6. King street, Westminster.
  7. Saffron hill. 8. Shoe lane. 9. Windmill court, Pye corner.

BREWHOUSE _lane_, 1. Salisbury court, Fleet street. 2. Wapping.

BREWHOUSE _yard_, 1. Battle bridge. 2. Fox lane. 3. At the Hermitage. 4.
  Leather lane. 5. Saffron hill. 6. St. Catharine’s. 7. Turnmill street.
  8. Wapping. 9. Whitechapel. 10. White’s ground, Crucifix lane.

BRIANT _court_, Briant street.†

BRIANT _street_, Shoreditch.†

BRIANT’S _alley_, Shoreditch.†

BRICKBUILDINGS _court_, Snow hill.

BRICK _court_, 1. Brick lane, Old street. 2. College street,
  Westminster. 3. Middle Temple. 4. Sheer lane.

BRICKHILL _lane_, Thames street.

BRICK _lane_, 1. Old street. 2. Spitalfields. 3. Whitechapel: this was
  formerly a deep dirty road, frequented chiefly by carts fetching
  bricks that way into Whitechapel, from brick kilns in Spitalfields.

BRICK _street_, 1. Hyde Park road. 2. Tyburn lane.

BRICK _yard_, Brick lane, Spitalfields.

BRICKLAYERS _yard_, Millbank.

BRICKLAYERS _court_, Coleman street, Lothbury.

BRIDE’S _alley_. Fleet street, so called from St. Bride’s, or St.
  Bridget’s church.

BRIDE _court_, by St. Bride’s church, Fleet street.

BRIDE _lane_, 1. By St. Bride’s church, Fleet street. 2. Little Peter
  street.

_St._ BRIDE’S, or rather St. Bridget’s church, is obscurely situated
  behind the houses on the south side of Fleet street. It has been
  always dedicated to St. Bridget, but the curious are unable to
  discover who this saint was. The old church was destroyed by the fire
  of London, and the present edifice was erected within fourteen years
  after. This church, which is superior to most of our parish churches
  in delicacy and true beauty, is 111 feet long, 87 broad, and the
  steeple is 234 feet high. It has a plain and regular body, the
  openings all answering one another; the roof is raised on pillars, and
  the altar piece, like the outside of the church, is very magnificent.
  The circular pediment over the lower part, is supported by six
  Corinthian columns. The steeple is a spire of extremely delicate
  workmanship, raised upon a solid yet light tower, and the several
  stages by which the spire gradually decreases, are well designed, and
  executed with all the advantage of the orders.

  This church is a vicarage, the advowson of which is in the Dean and
  Chapter of Westminster. The living is worth about 240_l._ _per annum_.

  Among the several monumental inscriptions in this church, and the
  church yard, is the following:

               Whoe’er thou art that look’st upon
               And read’st what lies beneath this stone,
               What beauty, goodness, innocence,
               In a sad hour was snatch’d from hence;
               What reason canst thou have to prize
               The dearest object of thine eyes?
               Believe this marble, what thou valu’st most,
               And sett’st thy heart upon, is soonest lost.

BRIDEWELL, so called from its being near a spring called St. Bridget’s,
  or St. Bride’s well, situated on the west side of Fleet Ditch, near
  the Thames, was anciently a royal palace, where several of our Kings
  resided. And here Henry VIII. built a magnificent house for the
  reception of the Emperor Charles V. who before lodged at Black Friars.

  At length at the solicitation of Bishop Ridley, King Edward VI. gave
  the old palace of Bridewell to the city, for the lodging of poor
  wayfaring people, the correction of vagabonds, strumpets, and idle
  persons, and for finding them work; and as the city had appointed the
  Grey Friars, now called Christ’s Hospital, for the education of poor
  children; St. Bartholomew’s and also St. Thomas’s in Southwark for the
  maimed and diseased, his Majesty formed the Governors of these
  charitable foundations into a corporation; allowed them a proper
  authority for the exercise of their offices, and constituted himself
  the founder and patron. For this purpose he gave to the Lord Mayor,
  Commonalty and Citizens, and their successors for ever, several pieces
  of land to the yearly value of 450_l._ and at the same time
  suppressing the hospital of the Savoy, gave for the above charitable
  uses a great part of the revenue, together with the bedding and
  furniture.

  In the following reigns granaries and storehouses for coals were
  erected at the expence of the city within this hospital, and the poor
  were employed in grinding corn with hand-mills; which were greatly
  improved in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when a citizen invented a
  mill, by which two men might grind as much corn in a day as could be
  ground by ten men with the other mills, and being to be worked either
  by the hands or feet, if the poor were lame in the arms, they earned
  their living with their feet, and if they were lame in their legs,
  they earned their living with their arms.

  In the year 1666, this edifice was entirely consumed by fire, and
  likewise all the dwelling houses in the precinct of Bridewell, from
  whence had arisen two thirds of its revenue; the hospital however was
  rebuilt in 1668, in the manner in which it at present appears.

  It consists of two courts, in which the buildings are convenient, and
  not very irregular. The chapel has a square roof, and galleries on the
  north and west side, supported by columns of the Tuscan order, and the
  floor is paved with black and white marble. At the west end are places
  for the hospital boys, and others for the prisoners. The wainscoting
  and finishing are very neat. The altar piece is adorned with two
  pilasters, with their entablature and a circular pediment of the
  Corinthian order, between which the commandments are done in gold upon
  a black ground, and the Lord’s prayer and the creed wrote on a blue
  ground; these pieces are enriched with gilt cherubims, leaves and
  fruit, and placed in gilt frames. The court room is adorned with
  columns of the Composite order, a gallery, and the names of all the
  benefactors to the hospital wrote in gold. There is here a chair for
  the President, and convenient seats for the Governors.

  In this hospital are generally about a hundred youths, that are
  apprentices to glovers, flaxdressers, weavers, &c. who reside there.
  These youths are under particular regulations, and distinguish
  themselves at all dangerous fires, by the dexterity with which they
  work an excellent fire engine belonging to the hospital, and the
  expedition and regularity with which they supply it with water. They
  are cloathed in blue doublets and white hats; and having faithfully
  served their apprenticeship, are not only free of the city, but have
  10_l._ towards enabling them to carry on their respective trades.

  This hospital is likewise used as a house of correction for all
  strumpets, nightwalkers, pickpockets, vagrants, and incorrigible and
  disobedient servants, who are committed by the Lord Mayor, and
  Aldermen; as are also apprentices by the Chamberlain of the city, who
  are obliged to beat hemp, and if the nature of their offence requires
  it, to undergo the correction of whipping.

  All the affairs of this hospital are managed by the Governors, who are
  above three hundred, besides the Lord Mayor and court of Aldermen, all
  of whom are likewise Governors of Bethlem hospital; for these
  hospitals being one corporation, they have the same President,
  Governors, Clerk, Physician, Surgeon, and Apothecary. This hospital
  has however its own steward, a porter, a matron, and four beadles, the
  youngest of whom has the task of correcting the criminals.

  There are several other places also called by the name of Bridewell,
  as in Clerkenwell, St. Margaret’s hill, and Tothill fields; but as
  these are merely houses of correction, they do not deserve a
  particular description.

BRIDEWELL _alley_, by the side of Bridewell on St. Margaret’s hill.

BRIDEWELL _precinct_, Fleet ditch.

BRIDEWELL _rents_, Vine street.

BRIDEWELL _walk_, Clerkenwell.

BRIDGE. See BLACK FRIARS _Bridge_, LONDON _Bridge_, and WESTMINSTER
  _Bridge_.

BRIDGE HOUSE, several large buildings, erected as storehouses for
  timber, stone, or whatever is proper for building or repairing London
  bridge. It seems to have had its foundation with the bridge itself,
  and is situated on a considerable spot of ground on the south bank of
  the Thames, near St. Olave’s church. It had formerly several
  granaries, for the service of the city in a time of scarcity; and also
  ten ovens for baking bread, for the relief of the poor citizens: but
  these granaries are now applied to the use of the cornfactors, who
  here lay in considerable quantities of corn. The Bridge house is under
  the management of the Bridge-master, whose office is to look after the
  reparation of the bridge, and is allowed a considerable salary.

BRIDGE _street_, Westminster, so called from its situation with respect
  to Westminster bridge.

BRIDGE WARD _within_, is thus named from London bridge, and is bounded
  on the south by Southwark, and the river Thames; on the east, by
  Billingsgate ward; on the north, by Langborne ward; and on the west,
  by Candlewick and Dowgate wards. It begins at the south end of London
  bridge, from which it extends northward up Gracechurch street, to the
  corner of Lombard street, including all the bridge, the greatest part
  of the alleys and courts on the east side, and on the west, all the
  alleys, courts and lanes in Thames street, on both sides to New key,
  part of Michael’s lane, and part of Crooked lane. The principal
  streets are New Fish street and Gracechurch street; and the principal
  buildings, London bridge, the parish churches of St. Magnus, and St.
  Bennet’s Gracechurch street; Fishmongers hall, and the Monument.

  This ward is governed by an Alderman, and his Deputy, fourteen other
  Common Council men, sixteen wardmote inquest men, six scavengers,
  fifteen constables, and a beadle; and the jurymen returned by the
  wardmote inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month
  of July.

BRIDGE WARD _without_, contains the whole borough of Southwark,
  extending southward from the bridge to Newington; to the south west
  almost to Lambeth; and to the east to Rotherhith. The principal
  streets are, the Borough, Blackman street, Long lane, Kent street,
  Tooley street, St. Olave’s street, and Bermondsey street; and the most
  remarkable buildings are the parish churches of St. Olave, St. Mary
  Magdalen Bermondsey, St. Saviour, St. George, and St. Thomas; the
  prisons of the King’s bench, the Marshalsea, the New prison, and the
  Clink; St. Thomas’s hospital, Guy’s hospital and the Lock.

  This ward is only nominally governed by an Alderman and three
  Deputies, but has no Common Council men; it has, however, twenty
  wardmote inquest men, sixteen constables and a bailiff. _Stow’s
  Survey._

BRIDGE _yard_, Tooley street.

BRIDGE _yard passage_, Tooley street.

BRIDGE’S _rents_, in Fair street, Horselydown.†

BRIDGE’S _street_, Russel street, Covent Garden.†

BRIDGEMAN’S _yard_, Water lane, Black Friars.†

BRIDGEWATER _gardens_, Bridgewater square, a street so called from its
  being built on the spot where was the Earl of Bridgewater’s gardens.

BRIDGEWATER _passage_, Bridgewater square.

BRIDGEWATER _square_, Barbican, a small neat square, surrounded with
  plain, but not unhandsome houses. In the area is a grass plat
  encompassed with iron rails, within which the trees are set thick in
  the manner of a grove. This square, and several of the adjoining
  streets, were built on the ground where the Earl of Bridgewater had a
  large house and garden fronting Barbican.

BRIDGEWATER _street_, Bridgewater square.

BRIDLE _lane_, Brewer’s street.

BRIGG’S _alley_, Thrall street, Spitalfields.†

BRIGHAM’S _yard_, Chandois street.†

BRIMSTONE _court_, Rosemary lane.

BRIMSTONE _yard_, Rosemary lane.

BRISTOL _street_, Puddle dock.

BRITAIN _court_, Water lane, Fleet street.

BRITE’S _alley_, St. Swithin’s lane.†

BRITISH _court_, Tottenham Court road.

BRITISH MUSEUM. Sir Hans Sloane, Bart. (who died 11th Jan. 1753) may not
  improperly be accounted the founder of the British Museum: for its
  being established by Parliament was only in consequence of his leaving
  by will his noble collection of natural history, his large library,
  and his numerous curiosities, which cost him 50000_l._ to the use of
  the Public, on condition that the Parliament would pay 20000_l._ to
  his Executors. And indeed this disposition of Sir Hans was extremely
  well calculated to answer his generous design; for had he given the
  whole to the Public, without any payment at all, it could have been of
  little use, without the assistance of Parliament, to settle a fund for
  the support of officers, &c.

  Sir Hans appointed a number of Trustees, on whose application to
  Parliament an act was passed for the raising 300000_l._ by way of
  lottery; 200000_l._ thereof to be divided amongst the adventurers,
  20000_l._ to be paid to Sir Hans Sloane’s executors, 10000_l._ to
  purchase Lord Oxford’s manuscripts, 30000_l._ to be vested in the
  funds for supplying salaries for officers, and other necessary
  expences, and the residue for providing a general repository, &c. In
  this act it is also ordered, that Sir Hans Sloane’s collection, the
  Cottonian library, the Harleian manuscripts, and a collection of books
  given by the late Major Edwards, should be placed together in the
  general repository, which was to be called the British Museum:
  7000_l._ left by the said Major Edwards, after the decease of
  Elizabeth Mills, are also given to the British Museum, for the
  purchasing of manuscripts, books, medals, and other curiosities.

[Illustration:

  _Entrance of the British Museum, from Russel Street._
]

[Illustration:

  _S. Wale delin._ _Garden Front._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._
]

  It happened very fortunately soon after, whilst the Trustees were at a
  loss where to purchase or build a proper repository, an offer was made
  them of Montague House in Great Russel street, Bloomsbury, a large and
  magnificent building, finely ornamented with paintings, situated in
  the most convenient part of the whole town, and having an extensive
  garden of near eight acres. This they purchased for the sum of
  10000_l._ Repairs, alterations, book-cases, cabinets, and all other
  conveniences for placing the whole collection properly, and the making
  apartments for the officers, have cost 15000_l._ more. And every part
  is now so excellently contrived for holding this noble collection, and
  the disposition of it in the several rooms is so orderly and well
  designed, that the British Museum may justly be esteemed an honour and
  ornament to this nation. His Majesty, in consideration of its great
  usefulness, has also been graciously pleased to add thereto the royal
  libraries of books and manuscripts collected by the several Kings of
  England.

  The Sloanian collection consists of an amazing number of curiosities,
  among which are,

           The library, including books of             50000
             drawings, manuscripts and prints,
             amounting to about volumes

           Medals and coins ancient and modern         23000

           Cameo’s and intaglio’s, about                 700

           Seals                                         268

           Vessels, &c. of agate, jasper, &c.            542

           Antiquities                                  1125

           Precious stones, agates, jaspers, &c.        2256

           Metals, minerals, ores, &c.                  2725

           Crystals, spars, &c.                         1864

           Fossils, flints, stones                      1275

           Earths, sands, salts                         1035

           Bitumens, sulphurs, ambers, &c.               399

           Talcs, micæ, &c.                              388

           Corals, spunges, &c.                         1421

           Testacea, or shells, &c.                     5843

           Echini, echinitæ, &c.                         659

           Asteriæ, trochi, entrochi, &c.                241

           Crustaceæ, crabs, lobsters, &c.               363

           Stellæ marinæ, star fishes, &c.               173

           Fishes and their parts, &c.                  1555

           Birds and their parts, eggs and   nests      1172
             of different species

           Quadrupedes, &c.                             1886

           Vipers, serpents, &c.                         521

           Insects, &c.                                 5439

           Vegetables                                  12506

           Hortus siccus, or volumes of dried            334
             plants

           Humana, as calculi, anatomical                756
             preparations, &c.

           Miscellaneous things, natural                2098

           Mathematical instruments                       55


  A catalogue of all the above is written in 38 volumes in folio and 8
  in quarto.

  As this noble collection of curiosities, and these excellent libraries
  are now chiefly designed for the use of learned and studious men, both
  natives and foreigners, in their researches into the several parts of
  knowledge, the Trustees have thought fit to ordain the following
  statutes, with respect to the use of the Museum.

  I. That the Museum be kept open every day in the week except Saturday
  and Sunday in each week; and likewise except Christmas day and one
  week after; one week after Easter day and Whitsunday respectively,
  Good Friday, and all days which shall hereafter be appointed for
  Thanksgivings and Fasts by publick Authority.

  II. That at all other times the Museum be set open in the manner
  following: that is, from nine o’clock in the morning till three in the
  afternoon, from Monday to Friday, between the months of September and
  April inclusive; and also at the same hours on Tuesday, Wednesday, and
  Thursday, in May, June, July, and August; but on Monday and Friday,
  only from four o’clock to eight in the afternoon, during those four
  months.

  III. That such studious and curious persons, who are desirous to see
  the Museum, be admitted by printed tickets, to be delivered by the
  porter upon their application in writing; which writing shall contain
  their names, condition, and places of abode; as also the day and hour
  at which they desire to be admitted: and that the said names be
  inserted in the tickets, and, together with their respective
  additions, entered in a register to be kept by the porter. And the
  porter is to lay such register every night before the principal
  Librarian; or, in his absence, before the under Librarian, who shall
  officiate as Secretary for the time being; or, in his absence, before
  one of the under Librarians; to the end that the principal or under
  Librarian may be informed, whether the persons so applying be proper
  to be admitted according to the regulations made, or to be made, by
  the Trustees for that purpose. And if he shall judge them proper, he
  shall direct the porter to deliver tickets to them, according to their
  request, on their applying a second time for the said tickets.

  IV. That no more than ten tickets be delivered out for each hour of
  admittance, which tickets, when brought by the respective persons
  therein named, are to be shewn to the porter; who is thereupon to
  direct them to a proper room appointed for their reception, till their
  hour of seeing the Museum be come, at which time they are to deliver
  their tickets to the proper officer of the first department: and that
  five of the persons producing such tickets be attended by the under
  Librarian, and the other five by the assistant in each department.

  V. That the said number of tickets be delivered for the admission of
  company at the hours of nine, ten, eleven, and twelve respectively in
  the morning; and for the hours of four and five in the afternoon of
  those days in which the Museum is to be open at that time: and that if
  application be made for a greater number of tickets, the persons last
  applying be desired to name some other day and hour, which will be
  most convenient to them.

  VI. That if the number of persons producing tickets for any particular
  hour does not exceed five, they be desired to join in one company;
  which may be attended either by the under Librarian, or assistant, as
  shall be agreed on between them.

  VII. That if any persons having obtained tickets, be prevented from
  making use of them, they be desired to send them back to the porter in
  time; that other persons wanting to see the Museum may not be
  excluded.

  VIII. That the spectators may view the whole Museum in a regular
  order, they are first to be conducted through apartment of manuscripts
  and medals; then the department of natural and artificial productions;
  and afterwards the department of printed books, by the particular
  officers assigned to each department.

  IX. That one hour only be allowed to the several companies, for
  gratifying their curiosity in viewing each apartment, and that each
  company keep together in that room, in which the officer, who attends
  them, shall then be.

  X. That in passing through the rooms, if any of the inspectors desire
  to see any book, or other part of the collection, not herein after
  excepted, it be handed to them by the officer, who is to restore it to
  its place, before they leave the room; that no more than one such
  book, or other part of the collection, be delivered at a time; and
  that the officer be ready to give the company any information they
  shall desire, relating to that part of the collection under his care.

  XI. That upon the expiration of each hour, notice be given of it; at
  which time the several companies shall remove out of the apartment, in
  which they then are, to make room for fresh companies.

  XII. That if any of the persons who have tickets, come after the hour
  marked in the said tickets, but before the three hours allotted them
  are expired; they be permitted to join the company appointed for the
  same hour, in order to see the remaining part of the collection, if
  they desire it.

  XIII. That a catalogue of the respective printed books, manuscripts,
  and other parts of the collection, distinguished by numbers, be
  deposited in some one room of each department, to which the same shall
  respectively belong, as soon as the same can be prepared.

  XIV. That written numbers, answering to those in the catalogues, be
  affixed both to the books, and other parts of the collection, as far
  as can conveniently be done.

  XV. That the coins and medals, except such as the standing Committee
  shall order, from time to time, to be placed in glass cases, be not
  exposed to view, but by leave of the Trustees, in a general meeting;
  or the standing Committee; or of the principal Librarian: that they be
  shewn between the hours of one and three in the afternoon by one of
  the officers, who have the custody of them: that no more than two
  persons be admitted into the room to see them at the same time, unless
  by particular leave of the principal Librarian; who in such case is
  required to attend together with the said officer, the whole time: and
  that but one thing be taken or continue out of the cabinets and
  drawers at a time, which is to be done by the officer, who shall
  replace it, before any person present goes out of the room.

  XVI. That the Museum be constantly shut up at all other times, but
  those above mentioned.

  XVII. That if any persons are desirous of visiting the Museum more
  than once, they may apply for tickets in the manner above mentioned,
  at any other times, and as often as they please: provided that no one
  person has tickets at the same time for more days than one.

  XVIII. That no children be admitted into the Museum.

  XIX. That no officer or servant shall take any fee or reward of any
  person whatsoever, for his attendance in the discharge of his duty,
  except in the cases hereafter mentioned, under the penalty of
  immediate dismission.


_The manner of admitting persons who desire to make use of the Museum
  for study, or have occasion to consult it for information._

  I. That no one be admitted to such use of the Museum for study, but by
  leave of the Trustees, in a general meeting, or the standing
  Committee; which leave is not to be granted for a longer term than
  half a year, without a fresh application.

  II. That a book be kept in the reading room, under the custody of the
  officer of the said room; who is to enter therein the names of the
  several persons who have leave of admission, together with the
  respective dates of the orders of the Trustees for that purpose, and
  the duration of the same.

  III. That a particular room be allotted for the persons so admitted,
  in which they may sit, and read or write, without interruption, during
  the time the Museum is kept open: that a proper officer do constantly
  attend in the said room, so long as any such person or persons shall
  be there: and for the greater ease and convenience of the said
  persons, as well as security of the collection, it is expected, that
  notice be given in writing the day before, by each person, to the said
  officer, what book or manuscript he will be desirous of perusing the
  following day; which book or manuscript on such request, will be
  lodged in some convenient place in the said room, and will from thence
  be delivered to him by the officer of the said room: excepting however
  some books or manuscripts of great value, or very liable to be
  damaged, and on that account judged by the Trustees not fit to be
  removed out of the library to which they belong; without particular
  leave obtained, of the Trustees, in a general meeting, or a standing
  Committee, for that purpose; a catalogue whereof will be kept by the
  officer of the reading room.

  IV. That such persons be allowed to take one or more extracts from any
  printed book or manuscript; and that either of the officers of the
  department to which such printed book or manuscript belongs, be at
  liberty to do it for them, upon such terms, as shall be agreed on
  between them.

  V. That the transcriber do not lay the paper, on which he writes, upon
  any part of the book, or manuscript, he is using.

  VI. That no whole manuscript, nor the greater part of any, be
  transcribed, without leave from the Trustees, in a general meeting, or
  standing Committee.

  VII. That every person so intrusted with the use of any book, or
  manuscript, return the same to the officer attending, before he leaves
  the room.

  VIII. That if any person engaged in a work of learning, have occasion
  to make a drawing of any thing contained in the department of natural
  and artificial productions, or to examine it more carefully than can
  be done in the common way of viewing the Museum; he is to apply to the
  Trustees in a general meeting, or the standing Committee, for
  particular leave for that purpose: it not being thought proper, unless
  in particular cases, to have them removed from their places, and out
  of the sight of the officer who has the care of them.

  IX. That whensoever, and as often as any person shall have occasion to
  consult or inspect any book, charter, deed, or other manuscript for
  evidence or information, other than for studying, which is herein
  before provided for; he is to apply for leave so to do, to the
  Trustees in a general meeting, or the standing Committee. But if the
  case should require such dispatch as that time cannot be allowed for
  making such application, the person is to apply for such leave to the
  principal Librarian; or, in case of his death or absence, such of the
  under Librarians as shall officiate as Secretary for the time being:
  which leave the principal Librarian, or the under Librarian
  officiating as Secretary for the time being, as aforesaid, is hereby
  impowered to grant. Provided always, that no such person shall be
  permitted to consult or inspect any such book, charter, deed, or other
  manuscript, except in the presence of the principal Librarian, or of
  one the principal officers of that department to which such book,
  deed, charter, or other manuscript shall belong.

  X. That no part of the collection or collections belonging to this
  Museum, be at any time carried out of the general repository; except
  such books, charters, deeds, or other manuscripts as may be wanted to
  be made use of in evidence. And that when any such book, charter,
  deed, or other manuscript shall be wanted to be made use of in
  evidence, application shall be made in writing for that purpose, to
  the Trustees in a general meeting, or the standing Committee: and if
  the case should require such dispatch, as not to admit of an
  application to the Trustees in a general meeting, or the standing
  Committee, then to the principal Librarian; or in case of his death or
  absence, then to such of the under Librarians as shall officiate as
  Secretary for the time being: and thereupon by their or his direction,
  the same shall and may be carried out of the general repository, to be
  made use of as evidence as aforesaid, by the under Librarian or
  assistant of the department to which such book, charter, deed, or
  other manuscript shall belong. And in case the said under Librarian,
  or assistant of the said department be disabled, or cannot attend;
  then by such other of the under Librarians, or assistants, as shall be
  appointed by the Trustees, in a general meeting, or the standing
  Committee, or by the chief Librarian, or by such of the under
  Librarians as shall officiate as Secretary for the time being
  aforesaid. And the person who shall be appointed to carry out the
  same, shall attend the whole time, and bring it back with him again;
  for which extraordinary trouble and attendance it is expected that a
  proper satisfaction be made to him.

  Altho’ it may be presumed, that persons who shall be admitted to see
  the Museum, will in general conform themselves to the rules and orders
  above mentioned; yet as it may happen, that these rules may not always
  be duly observed: the Trustees think it necessary, for the safety and
  preservation of the Museum, and do hereby order, That in case any
  persons shall behave in any improper manner, and contrary to the said
  rules, and shall continue such misbehaviour after having been
  admonished by one of the officers; such persons shall be obliged
  forthwith to withdraw from the Museum; and their names shall be
  entered in a book to be kept by the porter: who is hereby ordered not
  to deliver tickets to them for their admission for the future; without
  a special direction from the Trustees in a general meeting.

  We shall now give a plan of the whole Museum, with the contents of
  each room, and the order in which they are shewn, &c.

  Having giving in at the porter’s lodge mark’d g in the plan No. 1.
  your name, addition, and place of abode, you have notice given what
  day and hour to attend, and a ticket given you. By shewing this you
  are admitted, and entering the hall (i) you ascend a magnificent
  stair-case, nobly painted by La Fosse. The subject of the ceiling,
  Phaeton requesting Apollo to permit him to drive his chariot for a
  day. On the inside walls a landskip, by Rousseau: this brings you into
  the vestibule(I No. 2) the ceiling represents the fall of Phaeton; in
  this is a mummy and some other antiquities. The saloon D is a most
  magnificent room, the ceiling and side walls painted by the
  abovementioned painter La Fosse, the landskips by Rousseau, and the
  flowers by the celebrated Baptist.

  You are then admitted into the room E, which contains the Cottonian
  and royal manuscripts, in about 750 volumes. F and G contain the
  Harleian manuscripts, in about 7620 volumes; and M the Harleian
  charters in number about 16000. O is the room of medals, which are
  upwards of 22000 in number. L has Sir Hans Sloane’s manuscripts, and K
  contains the antiquities.

  This brings you again into the vestibule, and passing thro’ the
  saloon, you enter the room C, which contains minerals and fossils, B
  shells, A vegetables and insects, H animals in spirits, and N
  artificial curiosities.

  You now descend the small stair-case adjoining, and passing thro’ the
  room (n), in which is the magnetic apparatus given by Dr. Knight, you
  come to the rooms (h a) which contain the royal libraries, collected
  by the Kings and Queens of England from Henry VII. to Charles II. Then
  you enter the rooms b c d e f and g, which contain the library of Sir
  Hans Sloane, consisting of not less than 40000 volumes. From hence you
  enter into (m), which is a withdrawing room for the Trustees, then
  into (l), which contains Major Edwards’s library, consisting of about
  3000 volumes, and lastly enter the room (k), that contains a part of
  the King’s library, which in the whole consists of about 12000
  volumes.

  The wings marked (o o) are the apartments of the officers, and (p p)
  is the colonade.

[Illustration:

  _No. 1._
  _First State Story._
]

[Illustration:

  _No. 2._
  _Second State Story._
  _R. Benning sculp._
]

BRITON’S _alley_, Freeman’s lane.†

BRITT’S _court_, Nightingale lane.†

BROAD ARROW _court_, Grub street, Cripplegate.*

BROAD BRIDGE, Shadwell.

BROAD BRIDGE _lane_, Upper Shadwell.

BROAD _court_, 1 Drury lane. 2 Duke’s Place. 3 Shoemaker row, Aldgate. 4
  Turnmill street.

BROAD PLACE, 1 Flower and Dean street, Spitalfields. 2 King’s street. 3
  Broad St. Giles’s.

BROAD SANCTUARY _row_, near the Abbey, Westminster: is thus called from
  its being formerly a sanctuary or place of refuge. It is now called by
  the vulgar the Century.

BROAD _Street_, 1. extends from Pig street to London wall, and was thus
  named from there being few streets within the walls of such a breadth
  before the fire of London. 2. Near Old Gravel lane. 3. Poland street.
  4. Ratcliff.

BROAD STREET _buildings_, a very handsome street regularly built,
  leading from Moorfields to Broad street.

BROAD STREET WARD, so called from Broad street lying in the center of
  it, is bounded on the north and east by Bishopsgate ward; on the west
  by Coleman street ward; and on the south by Cornhill ward. The
  principal streets in this ward are, Threadneedle street, Prince’s
  street almost as far as Catharine court, Lothbury from the church to
  Bartholomew lane, Throgmorton street, Broad street from St. Bennet
  Fink church to London wall, London wall street as far as a little to
  the eastward of Cross Keys court Augustine Friars, Winchester street,
  and Wormwood street as far as Helmet court. The most remarkable
  buildings are, the parish churches of St. Christopher’s, St.
  Bartholomew, St. Bennet’s Fink, St. Martin’s Outwich, St. Peter’s le
  Poor, and Allhallows in the Wall; Carpenters hall, Drapers hall,
  Merchant Taylors hall, and Pinners hall; the Bank of England, the
  South Sea House, and the Pay Office.

  This ward is under the government of an Alderman, his Deputy, and nine
  other Common Council men; thirteen wardmote inquest men, eight
  scavengers, ten constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the
  wardmote inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month
  of August.

BROAD _walk_, 1. In the Tower. 2. Bargehouse, Southwark.

BROAD _wall_, near the Upper Ground, Southwark.

BROAD _way_, 1. Bishopsgate street. 2. Black Friars. 3. Privy Garden. 4.
  Tothill street.

BROAD _yard_, 1. Coleman’s alley, Brown street. 2. Crow alley,
  Whitecross street, Cripplegate. 3. Dirty lane Blackman street. 4.
  Green Dragon alley, Wapping. 5. Holiwell court, Holiwell lane, 6.
  Islington. 7. Milk yard, Wapping. 8. St. John’s street. 9. Soper’s
  alley, Whitecross street. 10. Swan alley, Golden lane. 11. Upper
  Ground street.

BRODERERS, or EMBROIDERERS, a company incorporated by Queen Elizabeth,
  in the year 1591, by the title of _The Keepers or Wardens, and Company
  of the art and mystery of the Broderers of the city of London_. They
  are governed by two Keepers, or Wardens, and forty Assistants. The
  Livery consists of 115 members, whose fine upon admission is 5_l._
  They have a small convenient hall in Gutter lane.

BROKEN _cross_, Tothill street.

BROKEN _wharf_, Thames street.

BROCKLEY’S _rents_, Artillery row.†

BROMLEY, a town in Kent, situated on the river Ravensbourn nine miles
  from London, in the road to Tunbridge. Here is a palace of the Bishop
  of Rochester, to whom King Edgar gave the manor in the year 700; and
  here also is an hospital erected by Dr. Warner Bishop of that see, in
  the reign of King Charles II. for twenty poor Clergymen’s widows, with
  an allowance of 20_l._ a year, and 50_l._ a year to the Chaplain.

BROMLEY, a pleasant village near Bow, in Middlesex, where was formerly a
  monastery. The great house here was built by Sir John Jacob, Bart,
  Commissioner of the customs at the restoration, and afterwards became
  the seat of Sir William Benson, Sheriff of London in the reign of
  Queen Anne, the father to William Benson, Esq; Auditor of the Imprest,
  who some years ago sold it, with the manor and rectory, to Mr. Lloyd,
  a gentleman of Wales.

BROMLEY _street_, Holborn.†

BROOK _alley_, 1. Rotten row. 2. Noble street.

BROOK’S _court_, 1. Holborn. 2. Heneage lane. 3. In the Minories. 4.
  Thames street.†

BROOK’S _market_, by Brook street, Holborn: so denominated from the Lord
  Brook’s city mansion, at the north corner of the market.

BROOK’S _mews_, Brook street, near Bond street.†

BROOK’S _rents_, Fore street, Cripplegate.†

BROOK’S _street_, 1. Holborn.† 2. New Bond street.† 3. Ratcliff.†

BROOK’S _wharf_, near Queenhithe.†

BROOK’S WHARF _lane_, High Timber street, Broken wharf.†

BROOK’S _yard_, 1. Old Fish street hill.† 2. Fore street, Lambeth.†

BROOMSTICK _alley_, 1. Bunhill row. 2. Field lane. 3. Whitecross street,
  Cripplegate.

BROUGHTON’S _rents_, Harrow alley.†

BROWN BEAR _alley_, East Smithfield.

BROWNLOW _street_, Drury lane.†

BROWN’S alley, 1. Gravel street.† 2. King’s street.† 3. Norton Falgate.†

BROWN’S _buildings_, St. Mary Ax.†

BROWN’S _court_ 1. Angel alley, Houndsditch.† 2. Billiter lane.† 3.
  Brick lane, Spitalfields.† 4. Brown street.† 5. St. Catharine’s lane.†
  6. Crutched friars.† 7. Gracechurch street,† 8. Near Grosvenor
  square.† 9. Holiwell court, Shoreditch.† 10. Little Old Bailey.† 11.
  Long alley, Moorfields.† 12. Marlborough street.† 13. In the
  Minories.† 14. Rotherhith.† 15. Shoe lane.† 16. Shug lane, near
  Piccadilly.† 17. Thieving lane.†

BROWN’S _gardens_, Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

BROWN’S _lane_, Red Lion street, Spitalfields.†

BROWN’S _passage_, Green street.†

BROWN’S _rents_, 1. Brick lane, Spitalfields.† 2. St. Catharine’s lane.†

BROWN _street_, 1. New Bond street.† 2. Bunhill fields.†

BROWN’S _wharf_ 1. St. Catharine’s.† 2. White Friar’s Dock.†

BROWN’S _yard_, 1. in the Minories.† 2. Near Holiwell lane.† 3.
  Whitecross street.† 4. Woodroffe lane.

BROWNSON’S _court_, Ayliss street, Goodman’s fields.†

BROXBOURN, a small but pleasant village near Hoddesdon, in
  Hertfordshire, situated on a rising ground, with pleasant meadows down
  to the river Lee.

BROXBOURNBURY, the seat of the Lord Monson, situated by the above
  village of Broxbourn. The house is a large Gothic structure in the
  midst of the park, which has lately been planted and beautified, and
  at a small distance from the house are new offices, erected in a
  quadrangle, on the same plan with the royal Mews at Charing Cross.
  They are placed behind a large plantation of trees, so that they do
  not appear till you come near them, and yet are at a convenient
  distance from the principal edifice, which, it is said, his Lordship
  proposes to rebuild.

BRUNSWICK _court_, 1. Artillery row. 2. Queen square, Ormond street. 3.
  Crucifix lane.

BRUSH _alley_, 1. St. Catharine’s lane. 2. East Smithfield.

BRUSH _court_, East Smithfield.

BRUSH _yard_, Kent street.

BRUTTON _mews_, Brutton street.†

BRUTTON _street_, New Bond street.†

BUCKERIDGE _street_, Dyot street.†

BUCKINGHAM _court_, Charing Cross.

BUCKINGHAM HOUSE, is finely situated at the west end of the Park. In the
  front, which is towards the Mall and the grand canal, it has a court
  inclosed with iron rails. At the entrance of the edifice, which is
  built with brick and stone, is a very broad flight of steps, upon
  which are four tall Corinthian pilasters, that are fluted and reach to
  the top of the second story, and at each corner is a plain pilaster of
  the same order. Within this compass are two series of very large and
  lofty windows, over which is the entablature, and in the middle this
  inscription in large gold characters:


                         SIC SITI LÆTANTUR LARES.

_Thus situated may the houshold Gods rejoice._

  Over this is an Attic story with square windows and Tuscan pilasters,
  over which was an _Acroteria_ of figures representing Mercury,
  Secrecy, Equity, Liberty &c. but these figures were taken away soon
  after the death of the late Duke of Buckingham. On each side of the
  building are bending colonades with columns of the Ionic order,
  crowned with a balustrade and vases. These colonades join the offices
  at the extremity of the wings to the main building, and each of these
  offices is crowned with a turret, supporting a dome, from which rises
  a weathercock.

  Behind the house is a garden and terrace, from whence there is a fine
  prospect of the adjacent country, which gave occasion to the following
  inscription on that side of the house,


                               RUS IN URBE:

  Intimating that it has the advantage of both city and country; above
  which were figures representing the four Seasons.

  The hall is paved with marble and adorned with pilasters, and during
  the life of the late Duchess, with a great variety of good paintings,
  and on a pedestal at the foot of the grand stair-case there was a
  marble figure of Cain killing his brother Abel.

  To this account of Buckingham House we shall add the following letter,
  written by the Duke of Buckingham himself to the D—— of Sh——
  containing a farther description of it, &c.

      “You accuse me of singularity in resigning the Privy Seal with
      a good pension added to it, and yet afterwards staying in town
      at a season when every body else leaves it, which you say is
      despising at once both Court and Country. You desire me
      therefore to defend myself, if I can, by describing very
      particularly in what manner I spend so many hours, that appear
      long to you who know nothing of the matter, and yet, methinks,
      are but too short for me.

      “No part of this talk which you impose is uneasy; except the
      necessity of using the singular number so often. That one
      letter (I) is a most dangerous monosyllable, and gives an air
      of vanity to the modestest discourse whatsoever. But you will
      remember I write this only by way of apology; and that, under
      accusation, it is allowable to plead any thing for defence,
      though a little tending to our own commendation.

      “To begin then without more preamble: I rise, now in summer,
      about seven a clock, from a very large bedchamber (entirely
      quiet, high, and free from the early sun) to walk in the
      garden; or, if rainy, in a saloon filled with pictures, some
      good, but none disagreeable: there also, in a row above them,
      I have so many portraits of famous persons in several kinds,
      as are enough to excite ambition in any man less lazy, or less
      at ease, than myself.

      “Instead of a little closet (according to the unwholesome
      custom of most people) I chuse this spacious room for all my
      small affairs, reading books or writing letters; where I am
      never in the least tired, by the help of stretching my legs
      sometimes in so large a room, and of looking into the
      pleasantest park in the world just underneath it.

      “Visits, after a certain hour, are not to be avoided; some of
      which I own to be a little fatiguing (tho’ thanks to the
      town’s laziness, they come pretty late) if the garden was not
      so near, as to give a seasonable refreshment between those
      ceremonious interruptions. And I am more sorry than my
      coachman himself, if I am forced to go abroad any part of the
      morning. For though my garden is such, as by not pretending to
      rarities or curiosities, has nothing in it to inveagle ones
      thoughts; yet by the advantage of situation and prospect, it
      is able to suggest the noblest that can be; in presenting at
      once to view a vast town, a palace, and a magnificent
      cathedral. I confess the last, with all its splendor, has less
      share in exciting my devotion, than the most common shrub in
      my garden; for though I am apt to be sincerely devout in any
      sort of religious assemblies, from the very best (that of our
      own church) even to those of Jews, Turks, and Indians: yet the
      works of nature appear to me the better sort of sermons; and
      every flower contains in it the most edifying rhetorick, to
      fill us with admiration of its omnipotent Creator. After I
      have dined (either agreeably with friends, or at worst with
      better company than your country neighbours) I drive away to a
      place of air and exercise; which some constitutions are in
      absolute need of: agitation of the body and diversion of the
      mind, being a composition of health above all the skill of
      Hippocrates.

      “The small distance of this place from London, is just enough
      for recovering my weariness, and recruiting my spirits so as
      to make me better than before I set out, for either business
      or pleasure. At the mentioning the last of these, methinks I
      see you smile; but I confess myself so changed (which you
      maliciously, I know, will call decayed) as to my former
      enchanting delights, that the company I commonly find at home
      is agreeable enough to make me conclude the evening on a
      delightful terrace, or in a place free from late visits except
      of familiar acquaintance.

      “By this account you will see that most of my time is
      conjugally spent at home; and consequently you will blame my
      laziness more than ever, for not employing it in a way which
      your partiality is wont to think me capable of: therefore I am
      obliged to go on with this trifling description, as some
      excuse for my idleness. But how such a description itself is
      excusable, is what I should be very much in pain about, if I
      thought any body could see it besides yourself, who are too
      good a judge in all things to mistake a friend’s compliance in
      a private letter, for the least touch of vanity.

      “The avenues to this house are along St. James’s Park, through
      rows of goodly elms on one hand, and gay flourishing limes on
      the other; that for coaches, this for walking; with the Mall
      lying betwixt them. This reaches to my iron pallisade that
      encompasses a square court, which has in the midst a great
      basin with statues and water-works; and from its entrance
      rises all the way imperceptibly, till we mount to a terrace in
      the front of a large hall, paved with square white stones
      mixed with a dark-colour’d marble; the walls of it covered
      with a set of pictures done in the school of Raphael. Out of
      this on the right hand we go into a parlour thirty-three feet
      by thirty-nine, with a niche fifteen feet broad for a
      beausette, paved with white marble, and placed within an arch
      with pilasters of divers colours, the upper part of which as
      high as the ceiling is painted by Ricci.

      “From hence we pass through a suite of large rooms, into a
      bedchamber of thirty-four feet by twenty-seven; within it a
      large closet, that opens into a green-house. On the left hand
      of the hall are three stone arches supported by three
      Corinthian pillars, under one of which we go up eight and
      forty steps, ten feet broad, each step of one entire Portland
      stone. These stairs by the help of two resting places, are so
      very easy, there is no need of leaning on the iron baluster.
      The walls are painted with the story of Dido; whom though the
      poet was obliged to dispatch away mournfully in order to make
      room for Lavinia, the better natur’d painter has brought no
      farther than to that fatal cave, where the lovers appear just
      entering, and languishing with desire. The roof of this
      stair-case, which is fifty-five feet from the ground, is forty
      feet by thirty-six, filled with the figures of Gods and
      Goddesses. In the midst is Juno, condescending to bed
      assistance from Venus, to bring about a marriage which the
      Fates intended should be the ruin of her own darling queen and
      people. By which that sublime poet intimates, that we should
      never be over eager for any thing, either in our pursuits, or
      our prayers; lest what we endeavour or ask too violently for
      our interest, should be granted us by Providence only in order
      to our ruin.

      “The bas reliefs and all the little squares above are all
      episodical paintings of the same story: and the largeness of
      the whole had admitted of a sure remedy against any decay of
      the colours from salt petre in the wall, by making another of
      oak laths four inches within it, and so primed over like a
      picture.

      “From a wide landing place on the stairs head, a great double
      door opens into an apartment of the same dimensions with that
      below, only three feet higher; notwithstanding which it would
      appear too low, if the higher saloon had not been divided from
      it. The first room of this floor has within it a closet of
      original pictures, which yet are not so entertaining as the
      delightful prospect from the windows. Out of the second room a
      pair of great doors give entrance into the saloon, which is
      thirty-five feet high, thirty-six broad, and forty-five long.
      In the midst of its roof a round picture of Gentileschi,
      eighteen feet in diameter, represents the Muses playing in
      concert to Apollo lying along on a cloud to hear them. The
      rest of the room is adorned with paintings relating to arts
      and sciences; and underneath divers original pictures hang all
      in good lights, by the help of an upper row of windows which
      drown the glaring.

      “Much of this seems appertaining to parade, and therefore I am
      glad to leave it to describe the rest, which is all for
      conveniency. As first, a covered passage from the kitchen
      without doors; and another down to the cellars and all the
      offices within. Near this, a large and lightsome back stairs
      leads up to such an entry above, as secures our private
      bedchambers both from noise and cold. Here we have necessary
      dressing rooms, servants rooms, and closets, from which are
      the pleasantest views of all the house, with a little door for
      communication betwixt this private apartment and the great
      one.

      “These stairs, and those of the same kind at the other end of
      the house, carry us up to the highest story, fitted for the
      women and children, with the floors so contrived as to prevent
      all noise over my wife’s head, during the mysteries of Lucina.

      “In mentioning the court at first, I forgot the two wings in
      it, built on stone arches which join the house by corridores
      supported by Ionic pillars. In one of these wings is a large
      kitchen thirty feet high, with an open cupulo on the top; near
      it a larder, brew-house, and laundry, with rooms over them for
      servants; the upper sort of servants are lodged in the other
      wing, which has also two wardrobes and a store-room for fruit.
      On the top of all a leaden cistern holding fifty tuns of
      water, driven up by an engine from the Thames, supplies all
      the water-works[1] in the courts and gardens, which lie quite
      round the house; through one of which a grass walk conducts to
      the stables, built round a court, with six coach houses and
      forty stalls. I will add but one thing before I carry you into
      the garden, and that is about walking too, but ’tis on the top
      of all the house; which being covered with smooth milled lead,
      and defended by a parapet of balusters from all apprehension
      as well as danger, entertains the eye with a far distant
      prospect of hills and dales, and a near one of parks and
      gardens. To these gardens we go down from the house by seven
      steps, into a gravel walk that reaches cross the garden, with
      a covered arbour at each end of it. Another of thirty feet
      broad leads from the front of the house, and lies between two
      groves of tall lime trees, planted in several equal ranks upon
      a carpet of grass: the outsides of these groves are bordered
      with tubs of bays and orange trees. At the end of this broad
      walk, you go up to a terrace four hundred paces long, with a
      large semicircle in the middle, from whence is beheld the
      Queen’s two parks, and a great part of Surry; then going down
      a few steps, you walk on the bank of a canal six hundred yards
      long, and seventeen broad, with two rows of limes on each side
      of it.

      “On one side of this terrace, a wall covered with roses and
      jessamines is made low, to admit the view of a meadow full of
      cattle just under it, (no disagreeable object in the midst of
      a great city) and at each end a descent into parterres, with
      fountains and water-works. From the biggest of these parterres
      we pass into a little square garden, that has a fountain in
      the middle, and two green-houses on the sides, with a
      convenient bathing apartment in one of them; and near another
      part of it lies a flower garden. Below all this a kitchen
      garden, full of the best sorts of fruits, has several walks in
      it fit for the coldest weather.

      “Thus I have done with a tedious description; only one thing I
      forgot, though of more satisfaction to me than all the rest,
      which I fancy you guess already; and ’tis a little closet of
      books at the end of that green-house which joins the best
      apartment, which besides their being so very near, are ranked
      in such a method, that by its mark a very Irish footman may
      fetch any book I want. Under the windows of this closet and
      green-house, is a little wilderness full of blackbirds and
      nightingales. The trees, tho’ planted by myself, require
      lopping already, to prevent their hindring the view of that
      fine canal in the Park.

      “After all this, to a friend I’ll expose my weakness, as an
      instance of the mind’s unquietness under the most pleasing
      enjoyments. I am oftener missing a pretty gallery in the old
      house I pulled down, than pleased with a saloon which I built
      in its stead, though a thousand times better after in all
      manner of respects.

      “And now (_pour fair bonne bouche_, with a grave reflection)
      it were well for us, if this incapacity of being entirely
      contented was as sure a proof of our being reserved for
      happiness in another world, as it is of our frailty and
      imperfection in this. I confess the divines tell us so, but
      tho’ I believe a future state more firmly than a great many of
      them appear to do, by their inordinate desires of the good
      things in this; yet I own my faith is founded, not on those
      fallacious arguments of preachers, but on that adorable
      conjunction of unbounded power and goodness, which certainly
      must some way recompense hereafter so many thousand of
      innocent wretches created to be so miserable here.”

Footnote 1:

    Considerable alterations have been made in the house since this
    letter was written. The water-works in particular no longer exist.

BUCKINGHAM _street_, a handsome street, and well inhabited, extends from
  the Strand to the river Thames, where for the convenience of taking
  water are built those fine stairs called York stairs. The street is
  thus called from John Villars Duke of Buckingham. See YORK BUILDINGS,
  and YORK STAIRS.

BUCKLE _street_, Red Lion street, Whitechapel.

BUCKLERSBURY, Cheapside. Mr. Maitland observes that it is more properly
  Bucklesbury, as it was originally so named, from a manor and tenements
  belonging to one Buckles, who dwelt and kept his courts there.

BUCKLER’S _rents_, Rotherhith wall.†

BUCKRIDGE _alley_, George street, Spitalfields.†

BUCKRIDGE _court_, Bembridge street.

BUCK’S HEAD _court_, Great Distaff lane.*

BUCK’S _rents_, Rosemary lane.†

BUDGE _row_, Watling street.

BUFFORD’S _buildings_, St. John street, Smithfield.†

BULL _alley_, 1. Back alley, in Three hammer alley, Tooley street.* 2.
  Brick lane, Old street.* 3. Broad street, London wall.* 4. Bull
  stairs, Upper Ground street, Southwark.* 5. Fore street, Lambeth.* 6.
  Kent street, Southwark.* 7. Nicholas lane, Lombard street.* 8.
  Turnmill street.* 9. Upper Ground, Southwark.* 10. Whitechapel.*

BULL _bridge_, 1. Horselydown. 2. Limehouse.

BULL _court_, 1. Bishopsgate street.* 2. Nightingale lane.* 3. Petticoat
  lane.* 4. Ragged row, Goswell street.*

BULL HEAD _alley_, Rag street, Hockley in the Hole.*

BULL HEAD _court_, 1. Broad street, London wall.* 2. Cow lane.* 3. Great
  Queen street, Drury lane.* 4. Jewin street, Aldersgate street.* 5.
  Laurence lane.* 6. Newgate street.* 7. Peter street, Cow Cross.* 8.
  Wood street, Cheapside.*

BULL HEAD _passage_, Gracechurch street.*

BULL HEAD _yard_, near Blackman street, Southwark.*

BULL INN _court_, in the Strand.*

BULL _lane_, Stepney.*

BULL AND MOUTH _street_, St. Martin’s le Grand.*

BULL _stairs_, Bull alley, Upper Ground street, Southwark.*

BULL STAKE _alley_, Whitechapel.*

BULL WHARF, near Brook’s wharf.*

BULL WHARF _lane_, Thames street.*

BULL _yard_, 1. Dunning’s alley, Bishopsgate street without.* 2. Goswell
  street.* 3. St. John’s street, near Clerkenwell.* 4. Kingsland road,
  Shoreditch.* 5. Old Horselydown.*

BULLEN’S _rents_, Shoe lane, Fleet street.†

BULLIFORD _court_, Fenchurch street.

BULLOCKS _court_, 1. Chequer alley, Old Bethlem. 2. Minories.

BULLOCK’S _yard_, 1. Shoreditch. 2. Nightingale lane.†

BULL’S _rents_, 1. Freeman’s lane.† 2. Lambeth marsh.†

BULSTRODE, the seat of the Duke of Portland, near Beaconsfield in
  Buckinghamshire. It is a large handsome house finely situated in a
  pleasant park, and you have a good view of it from the road to
  Beaconsfield, which goes close to the park gate.

BUNCH’S _alley_, Thrall street.

BUNHILL _court_, Bunhill fields.

BUNHILL FIELDS, formerly called Bonhill fields, was anciently a tract of
  ground of considerable extent, reaching from the north side of
  Chiswell street to Old street.

BUNHILL FIELDS _Burial ground_, a large piece of ground near Upper
  Moorfields. Maitland says it was formerly called Bonhill, or Goodhill.
  It was set apart, consecrated and walled at the expence of the city,
  in 1665, the dreadful year of pestilence, as a common cemetery for the
  interment of such corps as could not have room in their parochial
  burial grounds: but it not being used on this occasion, Mr. Tindal
  took a lease of it, and converted into a burial ground for the use of
  the dissenters. There are a great number of raised monuments with
  vaults underneath belonging to particular families, and a multitude of
  gravestones with inscriptions. The price of opening the ground, or of
  interment, is 15_s._

BUNHILL FIELDS _School_, was erected by the company of Haberdashers, in
  the year 1673, pursuant to the gift of Mr. Throgmorton, who endowed it
  with 80_l._ _per annum_, for the education of thirty poor boys of the
  parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate.

BUNHILL _row_, near Bunhill fields.

BURDEN’S _street_, David’s street.†

BURGE’S _court_, Wood street, Cheapside.†

BURIAL _yard_, Mill yard, Rosemary lane.

BURLEIGH _court_, Burleigh street.

[Illustration:

  _Burlington House._
  _S. Waledel._ _B. Green sculp._
]

BURLEIGH _street_, in the Strand, near the house which formerly belonged
  to the great Lord Treasurer Burleigh.

BURLINGTON _gardens_, a street by Bond street; took its name from its
  being built on the spot, which was formerly the Earl of Burlington’s
  garden.

BURLINGTON HOUSE, in Piccadilly. The front of this house, which is of
  stone, is remarkable for the beauty of the design and workmanship. The
  print representing the body of the house and a part of the wings, was
  all that could be taken into the visual angle. The circular colonade
  of the Doric order which joins the wings, is very noble and striking.
  The house is hardly grand enough for the colonade, and seems to want
  something in the center to make the entrance more conspicuous. The
  house is of an older date than the front, which was built by the late
  Earl of Burlington. The rooms within are in a fine taste, and the
  stair-case is painted by Seb. Ricci, with great spirit and freedom.

BURLINGTON _mews_, Great Swallow street.

BURLINGTON _street_, Great Swallow street.

_The Earl of_ BURLINGTON’S seat at Chiswick. See the article CHISWICK.

BURNTWOOD. See BRENTWOOD.

BURR _street_, Lower East Smithfield.

BURTON’S _rents_, Holiwell street.†

BURY _court_, St. Mary Ax.†

BURY _street_, 1. Duke’s place. 2. Piccadilly.

BUSH _alley_, St. Catharine’s lane.

BUSH _lane_, Canon street, Walbrook.

BUSHE’S _rents_, St. John’s court, Cow lane.†

BUSHELL _court_, Lothbury.

BUSHELL’S _rents_, Wapping.†

BUSHY, a small village near Watford in Hertfordshire, adjoining to which
  is a spacious common, called _Bushy Heath_, extending towards
  Stanmore, in the county of Middlesex. This heath rises to a
  considerable height, and from its top affords a most delightful
  prospect. On the one hand we have a view of St. Alban’s, and of all
  the space between, which appears like a garden: the inclosed corn
  fields seem like one grand parterre: the thick planted hedges resemble
  a wilderness or labyrinth: the villages interspersed thro’ the
  landscape, appear at a distance like a multitude of gentlemen’s seats.
  To the south east is seen Westminster Abbey, more to the south appears
  Hampton Court, and on the south west Windsor Castle, with the Thames
  winding between both, through the most beautiful parts of Middlesex
  and Surry, its banks adorned with towns, and a multitude of
  magnificent seats of the nobility.

BUTCHERHALL _lane_, Newgate street. Formerly a market being kept in
  Newgate street, the slaughter houses of the butchers were in this
  lane, when from the nastiness of the place it was called stinking
  lane: but the market being removed after the fire, and this lane
  rebuilt, here the company of butchers had their hall, whence it took
  its name.

BUTCHER _row_, 1. East Smithfield. 2. Ratcliff cross. 3. Without Temple
  Bar.

BUTCHERS, a fraternity that seems to have been very ancient, since they
  were fined by Henry II. in the year 1180, as an _adulterine_ guild,
  for being set up without the King’s licence; though they were not
  incorporated till the year 1605. This company consists of a Master,
  five Wardens, twenty-one Assistants, and two hundred and fourteen
  Liverymen, who pay a fine of 2_l._ each upon their admission into the
  livery. They have a neat and convenient hall in Pudding lane, in which
  are three handsome rooms neatly wainscoted and adorned with fretwork.

BUTCHER’S _alley_, 1. Cable street. 2. St. John street, West Smithfield.
  3. Windmill hill, Moorfields.

BUTCHERS ARMS _yard_, Goswell street.*

BUTCHER’S _close_, King street, Moorfields.

BUTCHER’S _dock_, Rotherhith wall†

BUTCHER’S _yard_, Brick lane.

BUTLER’S _alley_, 1. Grub street, Cripplegate.† 2. Windmill hill row.†

BUTLER’S _Almshouse_, in Little Chapel street, Westminster, was founded
  by Mr. Nicholas Butler, in the year 1675, who endowed it with 12_l._
  _per annum_. It consists of only two large rooms, for two poor men and
  their wives.

BUTLER’S _court_, Houndsditch.†

BUTLER’S _yard_, Monkwell street.†

BUTTERFLY _court_, Grub street, Cripplegate.*

BUTTERMILK _alley_, Phenix street, Spitalfields.

BUTT’S _street_, Lambeth.†

BUTTONMOULD _row_, Dean’s court, St. Martin’s le Grand.

BYAS _rents_, Crucifix lane.

BYFIELD’S _passage_, Petticoat lane.†

BYFIELD’S _rents_, Petticoat lane.†

BYFLEET, a village in Surry, situated on a branch of the river Mole,
  adorned with several gentlemen’s seats, and a fine park in its
  neighbourhood. At this place is a handsome house belonging to Lieut.
  Gen. Cornwall; and at a place at a small distance the Rev. Mr. Spence
  has made many neat and elegant improvements. The river Mole flows by
  the side of Byfleet park, and forming a great number of windings,
  renders its course near four miles within the compass of the
  inclosure.


[Illustration]



                                   C.


CABBAGE _alley_, 1. Barnaby street. 2. Long lane, Southwark.

CABBAGE _lane_, near King’s Arms stairs.

CABBAGE _yard_, Cork lane, Swan fields.

CABINET _court_, Duke street, Spitalfields.

CABLE _court_, Cable street.

CABLE _street_, Rag fair.

CADD’S _row_, Islington.†

CÆSAR’S HEAD _court_, Crutched Friars.*

CAGE _alley_, Cock hill, Ratcliff.

CAIN AND ABEL’S _alley_, 1. Angel alley, Houndsditch.* 2. Bishopsgate
  street without.*

CALENDER’S _court_, 1. Drury lane. 2. Long alley, Moorfields.

CAMBERWELL, a pleasant village in Surry, two miles from Southwark, in
  the road to Croydon.

CAMBERWELL _road_, Newington butts.

CAMBRAY _house_. See CANONBURY _House_.

CAMBRIDGE _heath_, in Middlesex near Hackney.

CAMBRIDGE _street_, Broad street, Poland street.

CAMDEN _court_, Clerkenwell.

CAMDEN _house_, in Middlesex, a little to the west of Kensington palace,
  was lately the seat and manor of the Earl of Warwick, but it now
  belongs to Henry Fox, Esq.

CAMEL _row_, Mile end.

CAMOMILE _court_, Camomile street.

CAMOMILE _street_, Bishopsgate street.

CAMPION _lane_, Allhallows, Thames street.†

CAMPION’S _alley_, Market street, Westminster.†

CAMP’S _Almshouse_, in Wormwood street, was founded by Mr. Laurence
  Camp, for the relief of six poor people of the parish of Allhallows
  London Wall, who had an allowance of 1_l._ 14_s._ 8_d._ a year.

CANARY _court_, Exeter court in the Strand.

CANDLEWICK _Ward_, took its name from a street called Candlewick, or
  Candlewright street, remarkable for wax and tallow chandlers, who were
  anciently called candlewrights, and is bounded on the south by Bridge
  and Dowgate wards; on the west by Dowgate and Wallbrook wards; on the
  north by Langborne ward; and on the east by Bridge ward. The principal
  streets in this ward are, Eastcheap, and a part of Canon street, and
  St. Martin’s lane. The most remarkable buildings are the parish
  churches of St. Clement’s Eastcheap, St. Mary Abchurch, and St.
  Michael’s Crooked lane.

  It is governed by an Alderman, his Deputy, and seven other Common
  Council men; twelve wardmote inquest men, six scavengers, eight
  constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest
  serve on juries in Guildhall in the month of December.

CANE’S _wharf_, Milford lane.†

CANON _alley_, St. Paul’s church yard.

CANON _row_, or Channel row, New Palace yard, Westminster; called Canon
  row from this row formerly consisting of the houses for the Canons of
  St. Stephen’s Westminster.

CANON _street_, 1. In the Mint. 2. Ratcliff Highway. 3. A considerable
  street extending from Budge row to Eastcheap.

CANONBURY, vulgarly called CAMBRAY _House_, formerly belonged to the
  Prior and Canons of St. Bartholomew in Smithfield. It is pleasantly
  situated on a beautiful eminence on the east side of Islington, and
  commands three delightful prospects to the east, north, and south.

CANONS _of St. Paul’s_. These Canons or Prebendaries, who are 30 in
  number, with the Bishop of London at their head, compose the Chapter,
  which has the management of the affairs of this cathedral; these
  canonries are in the collation of the Bishop, and are as follows. 1.
  _Bromesbury_, in the parish of Willesden, Middlesex. 2. _Brownswood_,
  in the same parish. 3. _Cadington Major_, in the manor of Astonbury,
  Bedfordshire. 4. _Cadington Minor_, in the parish of Cadington,
  Bedfordshire. 5. _Chamberlain’s-Wood_, in the parish of Willesden,
  Middlesex. 6. _Chiswick_, in the county of Middlesex. 7. _Consumpt.
  per Mare_, a prebend in the parish of Walton, or Waltome, on the coast
  of Essex, which being overflowed by the sea, before the conquest, the
  present name serves only to perpetuate the remembrance of that fatal
  catastrophe. 8. _Eald Street_, or _Old_ _Street_, in Shoreditch
  parish. 9. _Ealdland_, in the parish of Tillingham, Essex. 10.
  _Holiwell_, alias _Finsbury_, in the parishes of St. Giles
  Cripplegate, and Shoreditch. 11. _Harleston_, in the parish of
  Willesdon, Middlesex. 12. _Holborn_, in the suburbs of London. 13.
  _Hoxton_, in the parish of Shoreditch. 14. _Islington_, in the county
  of Middlesex. 15. _Kentish-town_, in the parish of St. Pancras. 16.
  _Mapelsbury_, in the parish of Willesdon. 17. _Mora_, in the parish of
  St. Giles Cripplegate. 18. _Neasdon_, in the parish of Willesdon. 19.
  _Oxgate_, in the same parish. 20. _St. Pancras_, in Middlesex. 21.
  _Portpool_, in the parish of St. Andrew Holborn. 22. _Reculvarland_,
  in the parish of Tillingham, Essex. 23. _Rougemere_, in the parish of
  Pancras. 24. _Sneating_, in the parish of Kirkeby, Essex. 25. _Stoke
  Newington_, Middlesex. 26. _Tottenhall_ or _Tottenham Court_, in the
  parish of St. Pancras. 27. _Twyford_, in the parish of Willesdon,
  Middlesex. 28. _Wenlakesbarn_, in the parish of St. Giles Cripplegate.
  29. _Wildland_, in the parish of Tillingham, Essex. 30. _Willesdon_,
  in the county of Middlesex. _Newc. Repert._

  The _petty Canons_ who are twelve in number, are chosen out of the
  ministers and officers belonging to the cathedral, and should be
  persons of unspotted characters, with harmonious voices, and skilled
  in vocal music. These were constituted a body politic and corporate by
  letters patent granted by King Richard II. in the year 1399, by the
  title of _The College of the twelve petty Canons of St. Paul’s_; and
  allowed a common seal, with one of their number for a Warden. _Newc.
  Repert._

CANTERBURY _court_, 1. Black Friars, 2. Phenix street.

CAR _court_, Rotten row, Old street.

CAR _yard_, 1. Moor lane. 2. Redcross street. 3. White’s yard, Rosemary
  lane.

CARD _court_, West Smithfield.

CARDINALS OF THE CHOIR, two officers chosen out of the petty Canons of
  St. Paul’s, by the Dean and Chapter. Their office is to superintend
  the behaviour and attendance of the several officers belonging to the
  choir; and to take minutes of the several crimes of which they are
  guilty when on duty, in order to their being corrected for them by the
  Dean and Chapter.

CARDINAL’S CAP _alley_, Bank side.*

CARDMAKERS, were incorporated by letters patent of Charles I. in the
  year 1629. This company is governed by a Matter, two Wardens, and
  eighteen Assistants, but they have neither livery nor hall.

CARY _lane_, Foster lane, Cheapside.†

CARY _street_, Lincoln’s Inn fields.†

CARLISLE _street_, Soho square.

CARMAN’S _yard_, Pepper alley.

CARMEN, were constituted a fellowship of this city, by an act of Common
  Council in the reign of Henry VIII. and incorporated by letters patent
  granted by James I. in 1606, with the fraternity of Fuellers, under
  the denomination of Woodmongers, with whom they continued till 1668,
  when the Woodmongers were convicted by parliament of many enormous
  frauds in the sale of coals, and other fuel, and being apprehensive of
  suffering the punishment due to their crimes, threw up their charter
  in order to avoid it, upon which the Carmen were again appointed a
  fellowship by an act of Common Council, under the title of _The free
  Carmen of the city of London_. They are governed by a Master, two
  Wardens, and forty-one Assistants, under the direction of the court of
  the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, but have neither livery nor hall.

CARNABY, or MARLBOROUGH _Market_, by Carnaby street, has Marlborough
  street on the north, and Broad street on the south west. This is
  lately become a very plentiful market for flesh and other provisions.

CARNABY _street_, 1. Silver street, Bloomsbury. 2. Silver street, Golden
  square.

CAROLINE _court_, Saffron hill.

CARON’S _Almshouse_, in Kingston road, Vauxhall, consists of seven rooms
  for as many poor women, and was founded by his excellency the Right
  Hon. Noel Baron of Caron, Ambassador from the States General in the
  year 1623. This almshouse he endowed with a handsome estate, out of
  which each of his almswomen receives 4_l._ a year.

CARPENTERS, a fraternity incorporated by Edward III. in the year 1344;
  with the power of making by-laws. This company is governed by a
  Master, three Wardens, and twenty Assistants, with a livery of 100
  members, who pay a fine of 8_l._ upon their admission.

  Their hall is situated on the south side of London Wall almost facing
  the east end of Bethlem hospital, in a court called Carpenters hall
  yard, to which there is an entrance through a large pair of gates. The
  building is composed of timber and plaister; and though very old, is
  not without its peculiar ornaments.

CARPENTERS _alley_, Wych street.

CARPENTERS _buildings_, London wall.

CARPENTERS _court_, 1. Aldermanbury. 2. Bett’s street, Ratcliff. 3.
  Charterhouse lane. 4. Long Acre.

CARPENTERS _street_, Mount row.†

CARPENTERS _yard_, 1. Beech lane. 2. Coleman street. 3. Near Blackman
  street. 4. Deadman’s place. 5. London wall. 6. Long lane, West
  Smithfield. 7. Peter street, Westminster. 8. Poor Jewry lane. 9.
  Skinner street. 10. Town Ditch, Little Britain. 11. Upper Ground
  street.

CARRIERS _street_, Buckeridge street.

CARSHALTON, a village in Surry, situated among innumerable springs,
  which all together form a river in the very street of the town, and
  joining other springs that flow from Croydon and Beddington, form one
  stream called the Wandell. Though this village is thus situated among
  springs, it is built upon firm chalk, and on one of the most beautiful
  spots on that side of London, on which account it has many fine houses
  belonging to the citizens of London, some of them built with such
  grandeur and expence, that they might be rather taken for the seats of
  the nobility, than the country houses of citizens and merchants. Mr.
  Scawen intended to build a magnificent house here in a fine park which
  is walled round, and vast quantities of stone and other materials were
  collected by him for this purpose; but the design was never carried
  into execution. Here also Dr. Ratcliff built a very fine house, which
  afterwards belonged to Sir John Fellows, who added gardens and curious
  water-works. It at length passed into the possession of the Lord
  Hardwick, who sold it to the late William Mitchell, Esq; and it is now
  in the possession of his family.

CARTERET _street_, Broad way, Westminster.

CART _yard_, 1. Rosemary lane. 2. Whitechapel.

CARTER’S _court_, 1. Lukener’s lane.† 2. Cursitors alley, Bristol
  street.†

CARTER’S _rents_. Brick lane, Spitalfields.†

CARTER’S _street_, Houndsditch.†

CARTHUSIAN _street_, Pickax street, Aldersgate street.

CARTWRIGHT _street_, Broad way, Westminster.† 2. Rosemary lane.†

[Illustration:

  CASHIOBURY.
]

CASHIOBURY, in Hertfordshire, situated sixteen miles north of London, is
  said to have been the seat of the Kings of Mercia, during the
  Heptarchy, till Offa gave it to the monastery of St. Alban’s. Henry
  VIII. however bestowed it on Richard Morison, Esq; from whom it passed
  to Arthur Lord Capel, Baron of Hadham, and from him came by
  inheritance to be the manor of the Earls of Essex, who have here a
  noble seat erected in the form of an H, with a large park adorned with
  fine woods and walks: the gardens were planted and laid out by Le
  Notre in the reign of King Charles II. The front and one side are of
  brick and modern, the other side is very old. The print shews it
  better than description.

[Illustration:

  _Moor Park._
]

CASH’S _alley_, near Shoreditch church.†

CASTLE _alley_, 1. Cornhill.* 2. Near Lambeth hill.* 3. Trig lane,
  Thames street.*

CASTLE BAYNARD _Ward_, was so called from an ancient castle near the
  Thames built by Baynard, a nobleman of great authority, who came from
  Normandy with William the Conqueror. It is bounded on the north and
  west by the ward of Faringdon within; on the east by Queenhithe and
  Bread street wards; and on the south by the river Thames.

  The principal streets in this ward are, the south end of Thames
  street, St. Peter’s hill, St. Bennet’s hill, Addle hill, Knight Rider
  street, Paul’s chain, Carter lane, and the east side of Creed lane,
  and Warwick lane. The remarkable buildings are, the churches of St.
  Bennet’s, Paul’s Wharf, St. Andrew Wardrobe, and St. Mary Magdalen,
  with the Heralds office.

  It is governed by an Alderman and his Deputy, nine other Common
  Council men; fourteen wardmote inquest men, seven scavengers, ten
  constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the inquest for this
  ward serve in the courts of Guildhall in the month of September.

CASTLE _court_, 1. Birchin lane.* 2. Budge row.* 3. Castle alley,
  Cornhill.* 4. Castle lane, in the Mint.* 5. Castle street, Long Acre.*
  6. College hill.* 7. Cornhill.* 8. Houndsditch.* 9. Laurence lane.*
  10. Lombard street. 11. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross. 12. In the
  Strand. 13. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

CASTLE INN _yard_, Aldersgate street.*

CASTLE _lane_, 1. Castle street, Long Acre.* 2. Castle street,
  Southwark.* 3. Petty France, Westminster (called also Cabbage lane).*
  4. Redcross street, Deadman’s place.* 5. St. James’s Westminster.* 6.
  Thames street.*

CASTLE _street_, 1. Air street, Piccadilly.* 2. Bloomsbury.* 3.
  Cavendish market.* 4. Near Long Acre.* 5. In the Park, Southwark.* 6.
  Near the Royal Mews. * 7. Saffron hill.* 8. Shoreditch field.* 9.
  Thames street.* 10. Near Wentworth street, Spitalfields.* 11. Bevis
  street.*

CASTLE STREET LIBRARY, was founded in the year 1685, by Thomas Tennison,
  D.D. Vicar of St. Martin’s in the fields, and afterwards Archbishop of
  Canterbury, for the use of his school, under which it is placed in a
  spacious room, and consists of about 4000 volumes.

  The librarian’s salary is 10_l._ _per annum_, and he has convenient
  lodgings contiguous to the library. _Maitland._

CASTLE STREET SCHOOL, was founded by Dr. Tennison, at the same time with
  the library. In 1697, that gentleman gave 1000_l._ towards a fund for
  the maintenance of his foundation, and some time after, by the consent
  of Dr. Patrick, Bishop of Ely, another sum of 500_l._ which had been
  left them jointly in trust, to dispose of in charitable uses, as they
  thought proper: which two sums, together with two leasehold messuages
  for the term of forty years, he vested in trustees, for the support of
  his school and library; out of the profits of which the librarian has
  the allowance mentioned above; the schoolmaster, besides a commodious
  dwelling house, has a salary of 30_l._ _per annum_; and the usher the
  same salary without any apartment; for which they teach thirty boys,
  the sons of the inhabitants of St. Martin’s in the fields. _Maitland._

CASTLE _yard_, 1. Castle alley, Cornhill.* 2. Chick lane.* 3. Dacre
  street.* 4. East street, Bloomsbury.* 5. Harrow corner, Deadman’s
  place.* 6. Hermitage bridge, Wapping.* 7. Holborn.* 8. Houndsditch.*
  9. Kingsland road, Shoreditch.* 10. Near the Broad way.* 11.
  Pennyfield street.* 12. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.* 13.
  Piccadilly. * 14. Saffron hill.*

CAT _alley_, Long lane, Smithfield.*

CAT’S HEAD _court_, Orchard street, Stable yard, Westminster.*

CAT’S _hole_, Tower ditch.

CAT’S _hole yard_, Tower ditch.

CATEATON _street_, King’s street, Cheapside.

CATHARINE _alley_, Bishopsgate street.

CATHARINE _court_, 1. Prince’s street, Threadneedle street. 2. Seething
  lane.

_St._ CATHARINE CREE _Church_, at the corner of Creechurch lane in
  Leadenhall street. The addition of the word _Cree_, arose from the
  English spelling of the word Christ as pronounced by the French; for
  this church being placed on the ground of a dissolved priory, which
  with its church was called our Saviour Christ’s church, tho’ it was
  dedicated to the virgin martyr St. Catharine, the original name of
  that priory became added to its denomination. The present edifice was
  erected in the year 1630, and is a very singular structure, built with
  stone, and of a mixed Gothic style. It has rounded battlements on the
  top, and a square tower that has the same kind of battlements: this
  tower is crowned with a square turret, over which is a dome, and from
  its summit rises the weather cock.

  This is a curacy, and the parishioners have the privilege of choosing
  their own minister, who must be licensed by the Bishop of London. The
  Curate receives 70_l._ a year, exclusive of other advantages.
  _Maitland._

_St._ CATHARINE COLEMAN, on the south side of Fenchurch street, is thus
  denominated from its been dedicated to the same saint as the two
  former churches, and the epithet of Coleman is added from there being
  formerly near it a large haw, yard, or garden, called Coleman-haw.

  The old church escaped the flames at the fire of London; but becoming
  very ruinous, was rebuilt by the parish in the year 1734. The body is
  lofty, and enlightened with two series of windows; and the steeple, a
  plain tower crowned with battlements.

  This church is a rectory, in the gift of the Bishop of London. The
  living is worth about 100_l._ _per annum_.

_St._ CATHARINE’S _Church_, on the east side of St. Catharine’s court,
  near the Tower, originally belonged to an hospital founded by Matilda,
  consort to King Stephen, and was farther endowed by Queen Eleanor, the
  relict of Henry III. Queen Eleanor consort to Edward I. and King Henry
  VI. who not only confirmed all the former grants, and added several
  additional ones, but gave an ample charter to this hospital. It was
  exempt from the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London, till its
  suppression by Henry VIII. soon after which King Edward VI. annexed it
  to the diocese of London. The church, which is a very antique
  building, is at present collegiate, and has a master and three
  brethren, who have 40_l._ each; three sisters who have 20_l._ and ten
  beadswomen who have 8_l._ _per annum_ each: but the other profits
  arising from their estates, being only known to the master and
  brethren, are divided amongst them. _Stow_, _Maitland_.

_St._ CATHARINE’S COURTS. To this precinct belong two courts; in one of
  which actions of debt for any sum are tried weekly on Thursdays: and
  in the other, which depends upon the civil law, are decided
  ecclesiastical matters.

_St._ CATHARINE’S _court_, 1. St. Catharine’s.☐ 2. Threadneedle street.

_St._ CATHARINE’S _lane_, East Smithfield.☐

_St._ CATHARINE’S _stairs_, St. Catharine’s.☐

_St._ CATHARINE’S _street_, St. Catharine’s.☐

CATHARINE _street_, in the Strand.

CATHARINE WHEEL _alley_, 1. Blackman street.* 2. Holiwell street.* 3.
  St. James’s street.* 4. Kent street.* 5. Petticoat lane.* 6. Snow
  hill.* 7. Whitechapel.*

CATHARINE WHEEL _court_, 1. Bridgewater gardens.* 2. Snow hill.* 3.
  Whitechapel.*

CATHARINE WHEEL _yard_, 1. Bishopsgate street.* 2. Blackman street.* 3.
  London wall.* 4. St. James’s street.* 5. West Smithfield.*

CATHARINE WHEEL AND GEORGE _yard_, Bishopsgate street.*

CATHARINE WHEEL _Inn yard_, St. Margaret’s hill.*

CATLIN’S _alley_, Shoreditch.†

CATSTICK _yard_, Gray’s Inn lane.

CAVENDISH _court_, Houndsditch.†

CAVENDISH _market_, Cavendish street.

CAVENDISH _square_, near Oxford street, has a spacious area which
  contains between two and three acres, with a large grass plat in the
  middle, surrounded with wooden rails, erected upon a brick wall; but
  both the rails and wall being much decayed, now make but an
  indifferent appearance. The square is, however, encompassed by noble
  buildings: the Lord Harcourt has a fine house on the east side; on the
  west is a noble edifice belonging to Mr. Lane, formerly the Lord
  Bingley’s; and in the center of the north side is a space left for a
  house intended to be erected by the late Duke of Chandos, the wings
  only being built; however, there is a handsome wall and gates before
  this space, which serve to preserve the uniformity of the square.
  Adjoining to this square, Lord Foley has just built a very grand
  house, with offices, and a court before it.

CAVENDISH _street_, Oxford street.

CAUSABOND’S _grounds_, Maiden lane.†

CECIL _court_, St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.†

CECIL _street_, in the Strand, so named from Cecil house, belonging to
  the great Lord Burleigh.

CECIL’S _dock_, Rotherhith wall.†

_Master of the_ CEREMONIES. See the article MASTER OF THE CEREMONIES.

CHAIN _alley_, near Crutched Friars.

CHAIN _court_, Ship yard, Temple Bar.

CHAIN _gate_, near St. Saviour’s church, Southwark.

_Lord_ CHAMBERLAIN, a great officer of the King’s houshold, who has the
  oversight of all the officers above stairs, except the precinct of the
  King’s bedchamber, which is under the government of the Groom of the
  stole. He has the oversight of the King’s Chaplains, notwithstanding
  his being a layman; also of the officers of the wardrobe, beds, tents,
  revels, music, comedians, hunting, and of all the physicians,
  apothecaries, surgeons, barbers, messengers, trumpets, drummers,
  tradesmen and artisans retained in his Majesty’s service. His salary
  is 100_l._ a year, and 1100_l._ a year board wages. His office is in
  Cleveland row.

CHAMBERLAIN _of London_, an officer of great trust, annually chosen on
  Midsummer day, tho’ he enjoys his place for life, if he is not found
  guilty of some great crime. He receives and pays all the city cash,
  and with him are deposited all public securities, for which he
  annually accounts to the proper auditors. As he is therefore entrusted
  with very considerable sums, he is obliged to give security for his
  fidelity, at his entrance into his office.

CHAMBERLAIN’S _Office_, is kept in Guildhall, in a room on the right
  hand side of the passage leading into the court of King’s bench, where
  this officer attends every morning, to decide the differences that
  arise between masters and apprentices, to enrol and turn over the
  latter, and to admit all who are duly qualified, to the freedom of the
  city; of whom there are annually admitted about fifteen hundred.

CHAMBER’S _street_, 1. Goodman’s Fields.† 2. Upper Shadwell.†

CHAMBER’S _wharf_, near the Bridge yard.†

CAMPION _lane_, Thames street.†

_Lord High_ CHANCELLOR, the supreme and sole judge in the court of
  Chancery, where he is to judge according to equity and conscience, and
  to moderate the exact rigour and letter of the common law, to which
  all other judges are strictly tied; but his decrees may be reversed by
  the house of Lords. This great officer, who is assisted by the masters
  in Chancery, takes precedency after the Archbishop of Canterbury, and
  next to the King, and Princes of the blood, is the highest person in
  the kingdom in civil affairs. The Lord High Chancellor is generally
  Keeper of the great seal, and is thence stiled Lord Keeper. See the
  article _Lord_ KEEPER.

CHANCELLOR _of the Exchequer_. See the article EXCHEQUER.

CHANCELLOR _of St. Paul’s_, an officer anciently called _Magister
  Scholarum_, from his having the literature of the city committed to
  his care, by which he was impowered to license all the schoolmasters
  in London, except those of St. Martin’s le Grand, and Mary le Bow; but
  at present he is only Secretary to the Chapter, and has the third
  stall on the north side of the choir.

_Court of_ CHANCERY. In the opinion of several learned men this court
  took its name from the cross bars of iron or wood, called by the
  Romans _cancelli_, with which it was formerly inclosed, to prevent the
  officers being incommoded by the crowding of the people. The Chancery
  consists of two courts, in one of which the Lord Chancellor proceeds
  according to the laws and statutes of the kingdom, and in the second,
  according to equity, judging rather by the spirit than the letter of
  the laws. In case of absence, his place upon the bench is supplied by
  the Master of the rolls, who also determines causes in the same
  equitable manner. See the article _Lord_ CHANCELLOR.

  It is the peculiar business of this court to rescue people out of the
  hands of their oppressors, and to afford relief in case of fraud,
  accidents, and breach of trust. Besides, out of this court are issued
  writs for parliaments, charters, patents for sheriffs, writs of
  _certiorari_ to remove records and false judgments in inferior courts,
  writs of _moderata misericordia_, when a person has been amerced too
  high, and for a reasonable part of goods for widows and orphans. Here
  also are sealed and enrolled, treaties with foreign Princes, letters
  patent, commissions of appeal, oyer and terminer, &c.

  The manner of proceeding here is much like that in the courts of the
  civil law; for the actions are by bill or plaint; the witnesses are
  privately examined; there is no jury, but all the sentences are given
  by the judge of the court. However as it proceeds not according to
  law, it is no court of record, and therefore binds only the person,
  his lands and goods.

  To this court belong twelve masters in chancery; an accountant
  general; six head clerks; sixty-two sworn clerks, who purchase their
  places, and twelve waiting clerks, whose places are given by the six
  clerks; two chief examiners, with their respective clerks; a chief and
  four inferior registers; the clerk of the crown; a prothonotary;
  clerks of the petty bag, subpæna, patent, affidavit, cursitors, and
  alienation office.

_Masters in_ CHANCERY, are the twelve assistants of the Chancellor or
  Lord Keeper, the first of whom is Master of the rolls, which is a
  place of great dignity, and is in the gift of the King. These
  gentlemen sit at Westminster hall, with the Lord Chancellor, three at
  a time while the term lasts, and two at a time when the Lord
  Chancellor sits to hear causes in his own house, and to them he often
  refers the farther hearing of causes; he also refers to them matters
  of account, and other things of small moment; but never the merits of
  the cause.

  The salary of the Masters in chancery is 100_l._ to each of them paid
  quarterly out of the Exchequer, besides robe money.

CHANCERY _lane_, Fleet street, so called from the court of Chancery
  there.

CHANDLER’S _alley_, Orchard street, Westminster.*

CHANDLER’S _rents_, Black Friars.†

CHANDLER’S _street_, Duke street.†

CHANDOS _street_, Bedford street, Covent Garden.†

CHANEL _row_, New Palace yard. See CANON ROW.

CHANGE, behind Exeter Change in the Strand.

CHANGE _court_, in the Strand.☐

CHANTER _of St. Paul’s_. See the article PRECENTOR.

CHAPEL ROYAL, a chapel in each of the King’s palaces, neatly ornamented
  on the inside. They are under the government of a Dean, who
  acknowledges no superior but his Majesty; for the Chapel Royal, or
  King’s Chapel, is not within the jurisdiction of any Bishop, but is a
  regal peculiar under the immediate government of the King. By the Dean
  are chosen the Sub-dean and all the other officers.

  These are the King’s Clerk of the closet, a Divine whose office is to
  attend at his Majesty’s right hand during divine service, to wait on
  his Majesty in his private oratory; and to resolve all his doubts
  relating to religious subjects.

  Forty-eight Chaplains in Ordinary, who are generally Doctors of
  Divinity distinguished for their learning and other accomplishments.
  Four of whom wait at court every month, to preach in the chapel on
  Sundays, and other Holidays before the King, and early in the morning
  on Sundays before the houshold; to read divine service to his Majesty
  every morning and evening during the rest of the week in his private
  oratory, and to say grace at the table in the absence of the Clerk of
  the closet.

  The other officers are, a Confessor of the King’s houshold, whose
  office is to read prayers every morning to the family, to visit the
  sick, to examine and prepare communicants; and to inform such as
  desire advice in any case of conscience or point of religion. Ten
  Priests in Ordinary, sixteen gentlemen of the Chapel Royal, who with
  the Priests perform in the chapel the office of divine service, in
  praying, singing, &c. a master of the singing boys, of whom there are
  ten for the service of the chapel; a composer, two organists, a
  lutenist, a violist, and other officers.

CHAPELS. Though there are 115 churches within this city, and the bills
  of mortality, and above 120 meeting houses of dissenters, yet the
  chapels of the established religion are very numerous, as will appear
  from the following list.

  1. Archbishop of Canterbury’s chapel, at Lambeth. 2. Ask’s almshouse
  chapel, at Hoxton. 3. Audley street chapel. 4. Bancroft’s almshouse
  chapel. 5. Banqueting house chapel, Whitehall. 6. Berwick street
  chapel, Old Soho. 7. Bridewell hospital chapel. 8. Charter house
  chapel. 9. College almshouse chapel, Deadman’s place. 10. Conduit
  street chapel. 11. Coopers almshouse chapel, Ratcliff. 12. Curzon
  street chapel. 13. Dacre’s chapel, Westminster. 14. Draper’s almshouse
  chapel, Blackman street. 15. also at Newington Butts. 16. Duke’s
  street chapel, Westminster. 17. Ely house chapel, Holborn hill. 18.
  Fishmongers almshouse chapel, Newington Butts. 19. Fleet Prison
  chapel. 20. Foundling hospital chapel. 21. Gray’s Inn chapel, Gray’s
  Inn. 22. Great Queen street chapel, Lincoln’s Inn fields. 23. Gresham
  College chapel, Bishopsgate street. 24. Grosvenor square chapel,
  Audley’s street. 25. Guildhall chapel. 26. Guy’s hospital chapel,
  Southwark. 27. Hill’s chapel, Rochester row, Westminster. 28.
  Jeffries’s hospital chapel, Kingsland road. 29. Kensington palace
  chapel. 30. King’s bench prison chapel, Southwark. 31. Kingsland
  hospital chapel, Kingsland. 32. King’s street chapel, Oxford street.
  33. Knight’s-bridge chapel, Knight’s-bridge. 34. Lamb’s chapel,
  Monkwell street. 35. Lincoln’s Inn chapel, Chancery lane. 36. Lock
  hospital chapel, Southwark. 37. Long Acre chapel, Long Acre. 38.
  London infirmary chapel, Whitechapel. 39. London workhouse chapel,
  Bishopsgate street. 40. Ludgate prison chapel. 41. Magdalen hospital
  chapel, Goodman’s fields. 42. May fair chapel, May fair. 43. Mercers
  chapel, Cheapside. 44. New Chapel, Westminster. 45. Newgate prison
  chapel. 46. New street chapel, St. Giles’s in the fields. 47. Owen’s
  almshouse chapel, Islington. 48. Oxendon chapel, near the Haymarket.
  49. Oxford chapel, Marybon fields. 50. Palmer’s hospital chapel,
  Westminster. 51. Petticoat lane chapel, Whitechapel. 52. Poultry
  Compter chapel. 53. Queen square chapel, Westminster. 54. Queen street
  chapel, Bloomsbury. 55. Ram’s chapel, Homerton, Hackney. 56. Rolls
  chapel, Chancery lane. 57. Russel court chapel, Drury lane. 58. St.
  James’s palace chapel. 59. St. John’s chapel, Clerkenwell. 60. St.
  John’s chapel, near Red Lion street. 61. St. Margaret’s chapel. Chapel
  street. 62. St. Martin’s almshouse chapel, Hog lane. 63. St. Thomas’s
  hospital chapel, Southwark. 64. Serjeants inn chapel, Chancery lane.
  65. Skinner’s almshouse chapel, Mile end. 66. Somerset house chapel.
  67. Spring garden chapel, Charing Cross. 68. Staple’s inn chapel,
  Holborn. 69. Trinity almshouse chapel, Mile end. 70. Vintners
  almshouse chapel, Mile end. 71. Whitechapel prison chapel. 72.
  Whitington’s college chapel, College hill. 73. Wheeler’s chapel,
  Spitalfields. 74. Wood street Compter chapel, Wood-street.

_French_ CHAPELS. 1. Black Eagle street chapel, Spitalfields. 2. Berwick
  street chapel, Old Soho. 3. Brown’s lane chapel, Spitalfields. 4.
  Castle street chapel Green street. 5. Crispin’s street chapel,
  Spitalfields. 6. Friery chapel, Pallmall. 7. Hog lane chapel, Soho. 8.
  Little Chapel street chapel, Old Soho. 9. Little Rider’s court chapel,
  Little Newport street. 10. Mary le Bon chapel, St. Mary le Bon. 11.
  Milk alley chapel, Wapping. 12. Orange street chapel, Hedge lane. 13.
  Petticoat lane chapel. 14. St. John’s street chapel, Swanfields,
  Shoreditch. 15. St. Martin’s lane chapel, Canon street. E. 16. Savoy
  chapel, in the Savoy. E. 17. Slaughter’s street chapel, Swanfields,
  Shoreditch. 18. Spring garden chapel, Charing Cross. 19. Threadneedle
  street chapel. E. 20. Three crown court chapel, Spitalfields. 21. West
  street chapel, Soho.

_German_, _Dutch_ and other CHAPELS. 1. Danish chapel, Well close
  square. 2. Dutch chapel, St. Augustine Friars. 3. and in the Savoy. 4.
  German chapel, in St. James’s Palace. E. 5. and in the Savoy. E. 6.
  German chapel, in Trinity lane. E. 7. Swedish chapel, Prince’s square,
  Ratcliff highway.

  The chapels of the French, Dutch, and Germans, might perhaps with
  greater propriety be placed among the meeting houses of the Protestant
  dissenters, except those mark’d with an E, which properly belong to
  those of the established religion; the Common Prayer being read in
  French or German, and worship performed nearly in the same manner as
  in the national church.

_Popish_ CHAPELS _of Foreign Ministers_. 1. French Ambassador’s in Greek
  street. 2. Imperial Ambassador’s, Hanover square. 3. Portuguese
  Ambassador’s, in Golden square. 4. Sardinian Ambassador’s, Lincoln’s
  Inn fields. 5. Venetian Ambassador’s, Suffolk street.

CHAPEL _alley_, 1. near Oxford street.☐ 2. Long Acre.☐

CHAPEL _court_, 1. Audley street.☐ 2. Gilbert street, Bloomsbury.☐ 3.
  Henrietta street, Cavendish square.☐ 4. Lincoln’s Inn.☐

CHAPEL _passage_, Gray’s Inn.☐

CHAPEL _street_, 1. Audley street.☐ 2. Broad Way, Westminster.☐ 3. Long
  Acre.☐ 4. Red Lion street, Holborn.☐ 5. Wardour street.☐

CHAPMAN’S _court_, George street, Tothill side.☐

CHAPMAN’S _rents_, Barnaby street.☐

CHAPMAN’S _yard_, Goodman’s fields.☐

CHAPTER HOUSE, on the north side of St. Paul’s church yard. This is a
  handsome building, belonging to St. Paul’s, in which the Convocation
  of the province of Canterbury sat to consult about ecclesiastical
  affairs, and to form canons for the government of the church: but tho’
  the upper and lower house are called by the King’s writ at every
  session of parliament, they are now constantly prorogued, and
  dismissed by his Majesty’s authority.

CHAPTER HOUSE _court_, St. Paul’s church yard.☐

CHARING CROSS, opposite the west end of the Strand, is so denominated
  from a village called Charing, in which Edward I. caused a magnificent
  cross to be erected in commemoration of his beloved Queen Eleanor,
  part of which continued till the civil wars in the reign of Charles I.
  when it was entirely destroyed by the populace, as a monument of
  popish superstition. _Stow._ However, after the restoration an
  equestrian statue of King Charles I. was erected on the spot where
  this cross stood, which is still, tho’ very improperly, called Charing
  Cross. This statue has the advantage of being well placed; the
  pedestal is finely elevated, and the horse full of fire and spirit;
  but the man is not perhaps equally well executed: so that upon the
  whole it can neither be generally condemned, nor universally
  admired.[2] Its situation is shewn in the view of Northumberland
  House.

Footnote 2:

    It is said that Oliver Cromwell after King Charles I. was beheaded,
    ordered this statue to be taken down and sold to a founder to melt,
    but that a royalist contrived to get it, and kept it concealed till
    the restoration, when it was again set up.

CHARING CROSS _court_, Charing Cross.

CHARING CROSS _yard_, Forest street, Lambeth.

CHARITABLE CORPORATION OFFICE, Spring Garden, Charing Cross. This
  Society was incorporated by Queen Anne in the year 1708, for the
  relief of the industrious poor, by assisting them with small sums,
  lent upon pledges at legal interest. For this purpose the corporation
  were impowered to raise a fund not less than 20, nor more than
  30,000_l._ but this sum being afterwards increased by additional
  grants to 600,000_l._ was, instead of being employed to the mutual
  advantage of the poor, and of the proprietors, villainously embezzled
  by the company’s cashier, warehouse keeper, and others, the two former
  of whom fled to France to shelter themselves from justice. Upon this
  the proprietors applied to parliament, and had a lottery granted for
  their relief; while those who had fled were invited to return and
  produce the books and effects of the corporation; and on their not
  complying were declared felons.

  This corporation were by their charter enjoined not to interfere with
  the Bank of England by discounting of bills; nor to trade in any other
  business but that of lending money upon pledges, which they were to
  advance upon legal interest, and a reasonable allowance for charges.
  Their affairs were under the direction of a committee of seven of the
  proprietors, three or more of whom constituted a court, impowered to
  make by-laws for the better government of the company, and to appoint
  their cashier, warehouse keepers, accomptant, clerks, &c.

  During the prosperity of this corporation they had two offices, one in
  Spring Garden, and the other on Laurence Poulteney’s hill; but their
  misfortunes occasioned that in the city to be laid aside.

CHARITY _alley_, near St. Thomas street Southwark.

CHARITY _court_, Aldersgate street.

CHARLES _court_, 1. Bartholomew close. 2. Near Hungerford market. 3. In
  the Strand.

CHARLES’S _rents_, St. George’s fields.

CHARLES’S _square_, a small neat square near Pitfield street, Hoxton: a
  grass plat in the area is surrounded with wooden rails, and a row of
  trees on each side, all cut in the manner of a cone, or sugar loaf.
  The houses, which take up only two sides and a part of a third, are
  handsome buildings; and the rest of the square is separated from the
  neighbouring gardens by rows of pales.

CHARLES _street_, 1. Black Friars. 2. Bridgewater gardens. 3. Covent
  garden. 4. St. James’s square. 5. Grosvenor square. 6. King’s street,
  Westminster. 7. Long Acre. 8. Old Gravel lane. 9. Oxford street. 10.
  Pitfield street, Hoxton. 11. Russel street, Covent garden. 12.
  Westminster.

CHARLTON, a pleasant well-built village in Kent, on the edge of
  Blackheath; famous for a very disorderly fair held in its
  neighbourhood, on St. Luke’s day, when the mob who wear horns on their
  heads, take all kinds of liberties, and the lewd and vulgar among the
  women give a loose to all manner of indecency. This is called Horn
  Fair, and there are sold at it, Rams horns, horn toys and wares of all
  sorts. Of this fair a vulgar tradition gives the following origin:
  King John having a palace at Eltham, in this neighbourhood, and being
  hunting near Charlton, then a mean hamlet, was separated from his
  attendants, when entering a cottage he admired the beauty of the
  mistress, whom he found alone, and debauched her; her husband,
  however, suddenly returning, caught them in the fact, and threatening
  to kill them both, the King was forced to discover himself, and to
  purchase his safety with gold, besides which he gave him all the land,
  from thence as far as the place now called Cuckold’s Point, and also
  bestowing on him the whole hamlet, established a fair, as a condition
  of his holding his new demesne, in which horns were both to be sold
  and worn. A sermon is preached on the fair day in the church, which is
  one of the handsomest in the county, and was repaired by Sir Edward
  Newton, Bart. to whom King James I. granted this manor. This gentleman
  built his house at the entrance of the village: it is a long Gothic
  structure, with four turrets on the top; it has a spacious court yard
  in the front, with two large Gothic piers to the gates, and on the
  outside of the wall is a long row of some of the oldest cypress trees
  in England. Behind the house are large gardens, and beyond these a
  small park which joins to Woolwich common. This house now belongs to
  the Earl of Egmont.

  On the edge of the hill, and at a small distance from the church, are
  two fine houses, one of which was in the possession of the late
  Governor Hunter, and the other was erected by the late Lord Romney.
  The gardens being on the side of the hill, slope down towards the
  river, and render the prospect very delightful in summer, from the
  extensive view they afford of the country, and of the great number of
  ships that are generally sailing by every tide: but being fully
  exposed to the north wind, the fruit trees are generally blighted; and
  in winter time the air is said to be made unwholesome by the water
  which frequently overflows the neighbouring plains.

CHARTERHOUSE. This edifice was originally a religious foundation. In the
  year 1349 a terrible pestilence swept off more than half the
  inhabitants of London; and the church yards being unable to contain
  the dead, Sir Walter Manny, Bart. a foreign gentleman, who had been
  honoured with the order of the Garter by King Edward III. for his
  bravery in the field, purchased for a burial ground a spot of thirteen
  acres, where the Charterhouse now stands, and 50,000 persons are said
  to have been buried there in the space of that year.

  The following year that public benefactor built a chapel upon the
  spot, according to the religion of those times, for prayers to be said
  for the souls of all who had been interred there, and afterwards
  founded a monastery of the Carthusians in the same place. This
  monastery, by the corruption of the word _Cartreux_, by which the
  French mean a Carthusian house, obtained the name of Charterhouse.

  This monastery being dissolved at the reformation, at length fell to
  the Earl of Suffolk, who disposed of it to Thomas Sutton, Esq; a
  citizen of London, for 13,000_l._ The latter then applied to King
  James I. for a patent for his intended charitable foundation, which
  was readily granted in the year 1611, and confirmed by parliament in
  1628. The expence of fitting up the house for the reception of his
  pensioners and scholars amounted to 7000_l._ which added to the
  purchase money, made 20,000_l._ But this was not all, he endowed his
  hospital and school with fifteen manors, and other lands, to the value
  of above 4490_l._ _per annum_. And the estate is at present improved
  to above 6000_l._ a year.

  In this house are maintained eighty pensioners, who, according to the
  institution are gentlemen, merchants, or soldiers, who are fallen into
  misfortunes. These are provided with handsome apartments, and all the
  necessaries of life, except cloaths, instead of which each of them is
  allowed a gown, and 7_l._ _per annum_.

  There are also forty-four boys supported in the house, where they have
  handsome lodgings, and are instructed in classical learning, &c.
  Besides these, there are twenty-nine students at the universities, who
  have each an allowance of 20_l._ _per annum_ for the term of eight
  years. Others who are judged more fit for trades, are put out
  apprentices, and the sum of 40_l._ is given with each of them. As a
  farther encouragement to the scholars brought up on this foundation,
  there are nine ecclesiastical preferments in the patronage of the
  Governors, who, according to the constitution of the hospital, are to
  confer them upon those who were educated there.

  The pensioners and youths are taken in at the recommendation of the
  Governors, who appoint in rotation. _Maitland._

  The buildings, which are extremely rude and irregular, have nothing
  but their convenience and situation to recommend them. The rooms are
  well disposed, and the square in the front is very neat, and kept in
  as good order as most in town. This square and the large gardens
  behind, give a free air, and at one and the same time contribute both
  to health and pleasure.

CHARTERHOUSE _lane_, Charterhouse square.☐

CHARTERHOUSE _square_, near West Smithfield.☐

CHARTERHOUSE _street_, Long lane, West Smithfield.☐

CHEAPSIDE, 1. From St. Paul’s church yard to the Poultry. It derives its
  name from there being a market there, or in the Saxon language a
  Cheap. In the year 1331, only the south side of this street Was built,
  and there being a great opening on the other side King Edward III.
  held jousts or tournaments there for three days together. _Maitland._
  It is a spacious street, adorned with lofty buildings, inhabited by
  goldsmiths, linendrapers, haberdashers, &c. extending from Paternoster
  row to the Poultry. 2. There is another street called Cheapside in the
  Mint, Southwark.

CHEAP WARD, is situated in the very center of the city; it being bounded
  on the north by Cripplegate ward, Bassishaw ward, and Coleman street
  ward; on the west by Queenhithe ward, and Cripplegate ward; on the
  south by Cordwainers ward; and on the east by Broad street ward, and
  Wallbrook ward: it takes its name from the Saxon word _Chepe_, a
  market, there being one kept in this division of the city. This market
  was from its situation known by the name of West Cheap, to distinguish
  it from the market, between Candlewick street, and Tower street,
  called East Cheap.

  The principal streets in this ward are, Bucklersbury, the north side
  of Pancras lane, part of Queen street, the Poultry, the south end of
  the Old Jewry, Ironmonger lane, King street, Laurence lane, the east
  end of Cheapside, as far as to the midway between the paved passage
  into Honey lane market and Milk street, and part of Cateaton street.

  The most remarkable buildings are, the parish churches of St. Mildred
  in the Poultry, and St. Mary’s Colechurch; Guildhall, Mercer’s hall,
  or Chapel, and Grocer’s hall, with the Poultry Compter.

  This ward has an Alderman, and his Deputy, eleven other Common Council
  men, twelve wardmote inquest men, nine scavengers, eleven constables,
  and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest, serve in
  the courts in Guildhall in the month of February.

CHELSEA, a very large and populous village, two miles from London,
  pleasantly situated on the banks of the Thames almost opposite to
  Battersea. Here is the physic garden belonging to the company of
  Apothecaries of London, a particular account of which the reader may
  find in the article relating to that company. Sir Robert Walpole, the
  late Earl of Orford, had here for some time a house adorned with a
  noble collection of pictures, which was afterwards removed to
  Houghton-hall in Norfolk, and is now thought the finest collection in
  England[3]. There are several other private buildings worthy of the
  observation of the curious. I. At this place is the house and fine
  gardens that belonged to the late Earl of Ranelagh. See RANELAGH
  GARDENS. Salter’s coffee house here is well known, being much
  frequented on account of the great number of natural curiosities to be
  seen there.

Footnote 3:

    See an account lately published, entitled ÆDES WALPOLIANÆ.

CHELSEA _Hospital_, a noble edifice erected for the invalids in the land
  servive. The original building on this spot was a college founded by
  Dr. Sutkliff, Dean of Exeter, in the reign of King James I. for the
  study of Polemic divinity, and was endowed in order to support a
  Provost and Fellows, for the instruction of youth in that branch of
  learning. The King, who laid the first stone, gave many of the
  materials, and promoted the work by a large sum of money, and the
  clergy were very liberal upon the same occasion; but the sum settled
  upon the foundation by Dr. Sutkliff being far unequal to the end
  proposed, the rest was left to private contributions; and these coming
  in slowly, the work was stopped before it was finished, and therefore
  soon fell to ruin. At length the ground on which the old college was
  erected, becoming escheated to the crown, Charles II. began to erect
  the present hospital, which was carried on by James II. and completed
  by William and Mary.

  The whole edifice, which was built by the great Sir Christopher Wren,
  consists of a vast range of buildings. The front toward the north
  opens into a piece of ground laid out in walks for the pensioners; and
  that facing the south, into a garden which extends to the Thames, and
  is kept in good order. This side affords not only a view of that fine
  river, but of the county of Surry beyond it. In the center of this
  edifice is a pediment supported by four columns, over which is a
  handsome turret, and through this part is an opening which leads
  through the building. On one side of this entrance is the chapel, the
  furniture and plate of which was given by K. James I. and on the other
  side is the hall, where all the pensioners dine in common, the
  officers by themselves. In this hall is the picture of King Charles
  II. on horseback, with several other pieces as big as the life,
  designed by Signior Vario, and finished by Mr. Cook. These were
  presented by the Earl of Ranelagh. The pavement of both the chapel and
  hall are black and white marble. The altar piece in the chapel is the
  resurrection, painted by Sebastian Ricci.

  The wings, which extend east and west, join the chapel and hall to the
  north, and are open towards the Thames, on the south; these are near
  360 feet in length, and about 80 in breadth, they are three stories
  high, and the rooms are so well disposed, and the air so happily
  thrown in by means of the open spaces, that nothing can be more
  pleasant. On the front of this square is a colonade extending along
  the side of the hall and chapel, over which upon the cornice is the
  following inscription in capitals.

    _In subsidium et levamen emeritorum senio, belloque fractorum,
      condidit_ CAROLUS II. _Auxit_ JACOBUS II. _Perfecere_ GULIELMUS
      _et_ MARIA, _REX ET REGINA_, MDCXC.

  And in the midst of the quadrangle is the statue of King Charles II.
  in the ancient Roman dress, somewhat bigger than the life, standing
  upon a marble pedestal. This was given by Mr. Tobias Rustat, and is
  said to have cost 500_l_.

[Illustration:

  _North Front of Chelsea Hospital._
]

[Illustration:

  _South Front of the Same._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._
]

  There are several other buildings adjoining, that form two other large
  squares, and consist of apartments for the officers and servants of
  the house; for old maimed officers of horse and foot, and the
  infirmary for the sick. None of these are shewn in the two views we
  have given, which only represent the two principal fronts of the
  hospital.

  An air of neatness and elegance is observable in all these buildings.
  They are composed of brick and stone, and which way soever they are
  viewed, there appears such a disposition of the parts as is best
  suited to the purposes of the charity, the reception of a great
  number, and the providing them with every thing that can contribute to
  the convenience and pleasure of the pensioners.

  Chelsea Hospital is more particularly remarkable for its great
  regularity and proper subordination of parts, which is very apparent
  in the north front. The middle is very principal, and the transition
  from thence to the extremities, is very easy and delightful.

  The expence of erecting these buildings is computed to amount to
  150,000_l._ and the extent of the ground is above forty acres.

  In the wings are sixteen wards, in which are accommodations for above
  400 men, and there are besides in the other buildings, a considerable
  number of apartments for officers and servants.

  These pensioners consist of superannuated veterans, who have been at
  least twenty years in the army; or those soldiers who are disabled in
  the service of the crown. They wear red coats lined with blue, and are
  provided with all other cloaths, diet, washing, and lodging. The
  Governor has 500_l._ a year; the Lieutenant Governor 250_l._ and the
  Major 150_l._ Thirty-six officers are allowed 6_d_. a day; thirty-four
  light horsemen, and thirty serjeants, have 2_s._ a week each;
  forty-eight corporals and drums have 10_d_. per week; and three
  hundred and thirty-six private men, are each allowed 8_d_. a week. As
  the house is called a garrison, all the members are obliged to do duty
  in their respective turns; and they have prayers twice a day in the
  chapel, performed by two chaplains, who have each a salary of 100_l._
  a year. The physician, secretary, comptroller, deputy treasurer,
  steward, and surgeon, have also each 100_l._ _per annum_, and many
  other officers have considerable salaries. As to the out-pensioners,
  who amount to between eight and nine thousand, they have each 7_l._
  12_s._ 6_d_. a year.

  These great expences are supported by a poundage deduced out of the
  pay of the army, with one day’s pay once a year from each officer and
  common soldier; and when there is any deficiency, it is supplied by a
  sum raised by parliament. This hospital is governed by the following
  commissioners; the President of the council, the first Commissioner of
  the treasury, the Principal Secretary of state, the Pay master general
  of the forces, the Secretary at war, the Comptrollers of the army, and
  by the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of the hospital.

CHELSEA _Water-works_, are under the management of a society
  incorporated by act of parliament in the year 1722, by the name of
  _The Governor and Company of the Chelsea Water-works_. They have a
  common seal, and power to purchase lands, &c. in mortmain to the value
  of 1000_l._ _per annum_, with a right to alienate and dispose of the
  same as they shall think proper. These works are divided into two
  thousand shares. The company’s affairs are managed by a Governor,
  Deputy Governor, and thirteen Directors.

CHELTON _court_, Bedfordbury.

CHENEY’S _alley_, Shoreditch.†

CHENEY’S _wharf_, Lower Shadwell.†

CHEQUER _alley_, 1. In the Borough.* 2. Great Old Bailey.* 3. Old
  Bethlem. 4. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

CHEQUER _court_, 1. Charing Cross.* 2. Catharine’s lane.* 3. Golden
  lane.*

CHEQUER _yard_, 1. St. Catharine’s lane.* 2. Dowgate hill.* 3. Golden
  lane. 4. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.* 5. Old street.* 6.
  Whitechapel.*

CHERRY GARDEN _lane_, Rotherhith.‡

CHERRY GARDEN _stairs_, Rotherhith.‡

CHERRY GARDEN _street_, Rotherhith Wall.‡

CHERRY TREE _alley_, 1. Bunhill row.‡ 2. Golden lane.‡ 3. Ship street.‡
  4. Whitecross street.‡

CHERRY TREE ALLEY _School_, was founded by Mr. William Worral in Cherry
  Tree alley, Golden lane, in the year 1689, and endowed by him with the
  annual revenue of 30_l._ for educating and cloathing forty boys, whose
  livery is an orange colour, in commemoration of the revolution by the
  Prince of Orange in 1688.

CHERRY TREE _corner_, Horseferry.

CHERRY TREE _court_, 1. Aldersgate street. 2. Gardiner’s lane. 3.
  Piccadilly. 4. Cherubin court, Angel alley. 5. White’s alley.

CHERTSEY, a town in Surry, nineteen miles from London, carries on a
  considerable trade in malt, which is sent in barges to London. Here
  was once an abbey, in which was deposited the corpse of Henry VI. who
  was stabbed in the Tower, but his body was afterwards removed by Henry
  VII. to Windsor. Out of the ruins of this abbey Sir Henry Carew,
  master of the buckhounds to King Charles II. built a very fine house.
  To this village Cowley, the Poet, retired after being weary of
  attending on the court, and there ended his days. Here is a bridge
  over the Thames to Shepperton, and a handsome free-school erected by
  Sir William Perkins, who had a seat here.

CHESHAM, a market town in Buckinghamshire, situated on the borders of
  Hertfordshire, twenty-nine miles from London. It had formerly a
  chantry, and has now a charity school.

CHESHIRE’S _rents_, 1. Fleet lane, by the Fleet market.† 2. Shipwright’s
  street, Rotherhith.†

CHESHUNT, with its park and wash, are situated about fifteen miles from
  London near the river Lea in Hertfordshire. Here was formerly a
  convent of nuns; and King Edward III. gave Cheshunt the privilege of a
  market, which has been long discontinued.

[Illustration:

  _L^{d.} Egremont’s_
]

[Illustration:

  _Chesterfield House._
  _S. Wale del._ _B. Green sculp._
]

CHESTERFIELD HOUSE, in May fair, a very elegant structure, built by the
  Nobleman from whom it derives its name. The stone colonades leading
  from the house to the wings on each side are very beautiful. The print
  exhibits the body of the house with part of the colonade, but the
  wings are hid by the intervening houses. This view was taken from the
  end next Hyde Park, of the street which is opposite the great gate
  which leads to the house.

CHESTER’S _key_, Thames street.†

CHESWICK. See CHISWICK.

CHEVER’S _court_, Limehouse.†

CHEYNEY, near Flounden in Buckinghamshire, formerly belonged to the
  Cheyneys, but has been the manor and seat of the Russels, now Dukes of
  Bedford, for about 200 years.

CHICHESTER _rents_, Chancery lane, from the Bishop of Chichester’s house
  near it. _Maitland._

CHICK _lane_, West Smithfield.

CHIDLEY’S _court_, Pall mall.†pm od CHIGWELL, a village in Essex,
  situated between Waltham Abbey and Rumford. The rectory and parish
  church are united to the prebend of St. Pancras in St. Paul’s
  cathedral. Here is a charity school; and at a small distance are two
  hamlets named Chigwell-Dews and Chigwell-Row.

CHIGWELL _hill_, Ratcliff highway.

CHIGWELL _street_, Ratcliff highway.

CHILE’S _court_, 1. Eagle court, Strand.† 2. In the Strand.†

CHIMNEY _alley_, Coleman street.

CHIMNEY-SWEEPERS _alley_, Barnaby street.

CHINGFORD, a village in Essex, near Woodford, and not far from Epping
  Forest, so agreeably situated for privacy and retirement, that the
  remotest distance from the metropolis can hardly exceed it. The
  church, which was erected in the reign of King Richard II. is a neat
  little building dedicated to St. Peter and Paul.

CHIPPING ONGAR, a town in Essex, twenty miles from London, was formerly
  the manor of Richard Lacy, who being Protector of England, while Henry
  II. was absent in Normandy, he built a church and a castle here with
  other fortifications, the remains of which are still to be seen.

CHISLEHURST, a town near Bromley, in Kent, where the family of the
  Walsinghams resided for several generations; and are interred in the
  church. Here Mr. Camden composed the principal part of his annals of
  Queen Elizabeth.

CHISWICK, in Middlesex, situated on the Thames on the south-west side of
  Hammersmith. Here are two manors, one belonging to the Prebendary of
  Cheswick in St. Paul’s cathedral, and the other call’d the Dean’s
  manor, from its belonging to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul’s. In
  this village there is a charity school, and it is adorned with several
  elegant seats, as the Earl of Shrewsbury’s, the Earl of Grantham’s now
  Col. Elliot’s, the late Lord Wilmington’s, &c. But the most remarkable
  of the kind is the late Earl of Burlington’s, which was a plain,
  commodious building, with good offices about it; but a part of the old
  edifice being some years ago destroyed by fire, his Lordship erected
  near it a beautiful villa, which, for elegance of taste, surpasses
  every thing of its kind in England. The court in the front, which is
  of a proportionable size with the building, is gravelled and
  constantly kept very neat. On each side are yew hedges in panels, with
  _Termini_ placed at a proper distance; and in the front of these
  hedges, are two rows of Cedars of Libanus, which, at a small distance
  have a fine effect, the dark shade of these solemn ever-greens
  affording a pleasing contrast to the whiteness of the elegant building
  that appears between them, the view of which from the road surprizes
  you in a most agreeable manner.

  The ascent to the house is by a noble flight of steps, on one side of
  which is the statue of Palladio, and on the other that of Inigo Jones.
  The portico is supported by six fine fluted columns of the Corinthian
  order, with a pediment very elegant, and the cornice, frize and
  architrave, as rich as possible. This magnificent front strikes all
  who behold it with an uncommon pleasure and surprize.

  The octagonal saloon finishing at top in a dome, through which it is
  enlightened, is also very elegant. The other rooms are extremely
  beautiful, and are finely furnished with pictures of the great
  masters; an account of which is here annexed. It were to be wished
  this house had been built to a larger scale, that the grandeur might
  have equalled the elegance.

  Though the other front towards the garden is plainer, yet it is in a
  very bold, noble and masterly stile, and has at the same time a
  pleasing simplicity, as hath also the side front towards the
  serpentine river, which is different from the two others. In making
  the drawing of this house, it was viewed by the angle, by which means
  the print here given of it, shews it more perfectly than if only the
  principal front had been given. The inside of this structure is
  finished with the utmost elegance; the ceilings are richly gilt and
  painted, and the rooms adorned with some of the best pictures in
  Europe. In the gardens, which are very beautiful, the vistos are
  terminated by a temple, obelisk, or some such ornament, which produce
  a most agreeable effect.

  The gardens are laid out in the finest taste: on descending from the
  back part of the house you enter a verdant lawn planted with clumps of
  ever-greens, between which are two rows of large stone vases. At the
  ends next the house are two wolves in stone, done by the celebrated
  Scheemaker, the statuary; at the farther end are two large lions, and
  the view is terminated by three fine antique statues, dug up in
  Adrian’s garden at Rome, with stone seats between them, and behind a
  close plantation of ever-greens.

  On turning to the house on the right hand, an open grove of forest
  trees affords a view of the orangery, which is seen as perfectly as if
  the trees were planted on the lawn; and when the orange trees are in
  flower, their fragrance is diffused over the whole lawn to the house.
  These are separated from the lawn by a fossee, to secure them from
  being injured by the persons admitted to walk in the garden.

  On leaving the house to the left, an easy slope covered with short
  grass leads down to the serpentine river, on the side whereof are
  clumps of ever-greens, with agreeable breaks, between which the water
  is seen; and at the farther end is an opening into an inclosure, where
  are a Roman temple, and an obelisk, with grass slopes, and in the
  middle a circular piece of water.

  From hence you are led to the wilderness, through which are three
  strait avenues terminated by three different edifices; and within the
  quarters are serpentine walks, through which you may ramble near a
  mile in the shade. On each side the serpentine river, are verdant
  walks, which accompany the river in all its turnings. On the right
  hand of this river is a building that is the exact model of the
  portico of the church of Covent garden, on the left is a wilderness
  laid out in regular walks, and in the middle is a Palladian wooden
  bridge over the river.

  With the earth dug from the bed of this river, his Lordship has raised
  a terrace, that affords a prospect of the adjacent country; which,
  when the tide is up, is greatly enlivened by the view of the boats and
  barges passing along the river Thames.

[Illustration:

  _Chiswick House._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sc. Oxon._
]

Pictures, &c. in the new house at Chiswick.


                             In the Portico.

  Augustus, a busto.


                                 Saloon.

  Lord Burlington and three of his sisters, Elizabeth, Juliana, and
    Jane, by Sir Godfrey Kneller.

  Rape of Proserpine, Sconians.

  Anne of Austria, Frederick Elde.

  Morocco Ambassador in the reign of Charles II. figure by Sir Godf.
    Kneller; the back ground and horse, by Wyke.

  King Charles, his Queen, and two children, Vandyke.

  Judgment of Paris, Cav. Daniele.

  Lewis XIII. Fred. Elde.

  Apollo and Daphne, Cav. Daniele.


                                  Bustos.

  Antinous. Lucius Antinous.

  A Bacchanalian.

  Socrates.

  Faustina.

  Britannicus.

  Plautilla.

  Antoninus.

  Apollo.

  Bust unknown.

  Domitian.

  Adrian.


                              Red Velvet Room.

  Madonna della Rosa, by Domenichino.

  Noah sacrificing, Carlo Maratti.

  Painting and designing, Guido Rheni.

  The holy family, Carlo Maratti.

  King Charles I. Cornelius Johnson.

  Pope Innocent IX. Diego Velasques.

  St. Gregorio, Cavidoni.

  Pope Clement IX. Carlo Maratti.

  The holy family, Giacinto Brandi.

  The holy family, Salviati.

  Duchess of Somerset, Vandyke.

  Bacchus and Ariadne, Sebastiano Ricci.

  A woman, school of Rubens.

  Three statues, chiaro oscuro, Nic. Poussin.

  A man, school of Rubens.

  Venus and Cupid, Seb. Ricci.

  St. John in the wilderness, Franc. Mola.

  A portrait, Langians.

  First Countess of Burlington, Vandyke.

  Cardinal Baronius, Frederico Barocci.

  A portrait, Rembrandt.

  Mr. Killegrew, Vandyke.

  First Earl of Burlington, Vandyke.

  Salmasis and Hermaphroditus, Francisco Albano.

  The holy family, Andrea del Sarto.

  Mary Queen of Scotland, Fred. Zucchero.

  The holy family, Pietro da Cortona.

  The procession of the Dogesse, Paolo Veronese.


                                  Bronzes.

A young Hercules.

  Three pictures of incense lamps, Benvenuto Celini.


                             Blue Velvet Room.

  A chymist’s shop, by David Teniers.

  A landscape and figures, Franc. Mola.

  A landscape and figures, Gaspar Poussin.

  A Magdalen’s head, Guido Rheni.

  A landscape with figures hawking, Wouwerman.

  A landscape and figures, Franc. Mola.

  A landscape and figures, Gasp. Poussin.

  A march, Bourgognone.

  The passage of the Red sea, ditto.

  The Jesuits church at Antwerp, Geringh.

  A landscape and figures, Bott.

  A landscape, Gaspar Poussin.

  A landscape, ditto.

  A landscape with horsemen, Vander Meulen.

  A landscape, Bott.

  Lord Sandwich in a round, Sir Pet. Lely.

  A woman frying fritters, Schalcken.

  The holy family, Carlo Maratti.

  A tent, Wouwerman.

  A landscape with fishermen, Phill. Laura.

  The flight into Egypt, Nicolo Poussin.

  A ferry boat and cattle, Berchem.

  A woman feeding children, Schalcken.

  The holy family, Andrea Sacchi.

  Ditto, Camillo Procacini.

  Inigo Jones in a round, Dobson.


                       Red closet next the blue room.

  Lot and his two daughters, Rottenhammer.

  A landscape and ruins, Viviano, the figures by Mich. Angelo.

  Jupiter and Io, Francesco Imperiali.

  Spanish lady, D. Velasques.

  Fishermen, Rubens.

  The Presentation, Giuseppe Chiari.

  A man hawking, Inigo Jones.

  A sea-port, Marco Ricci.

  A landscape, Velvet Brughel.

  A Flora, Francesco Albano.

  Temptation of St. Antonio, Annibale Carracci.

  A landscape, Patel.

  Lady Dorothy Boyle, Lady Burlington.

  A landscape, Velvet Brughel.

  The holy family, Sebastian Bourdon.

  The inside of a church, Perino del Vaga.

  A sea piece, Vandervelde.

  A landscape, Marco Ricci.

  Christ in the garden.

  The holy family, Schidoni.

  A crucifixion of a saint, Seb. Bourdon.

  A landscape, Rysdal.

  The holy family, Denis Calvert.

  The Samaritan woman, Paolo Veronese.

  A boy’s head, Holbein.

  Cleopatra, Leonardo da Vinci.

  A landscape, Swanevelt.

  The holy family, Passari.

  Earl of Essex.

  A portrait, Fran. Hals.

  Inside of a church, Vandyke.

  A landscape, Gaspar Poussin.

  A man and vases, Benedetto Castiglione.

  A landscape, Francisque Meli.


                             Green Velvet room.

  Mars and Venus, Albano.

  Acis and Galatea, Luca Giordano.

  Constantine’s arch, Gio. Paolo Panini.

  Romulus and Remus, Pietro da Cortona.

  A woman bathing, Rousseau.

  Mr. Rogers, Vandyke.

  Our Saviour in the garden, Guercino.

  A man half length with a dog, Dobson.

  Rembrant in his painting room, Gerrard Dow.

  Ruins, Viviano.

  A view of Florence, Gasparo degli Occhiale.

  Diana and Endymion, Sebastiano Ricci.

  Flowers by Baptiste the boy, Seb. Ricci.

  Ponte Rotto, Gasparo degli Occhiale.

  The holy family, Francesco Mola.

  A landscape, Mons. Verton.

  Buildings, Rousseau.

  A Magdalen, Carlo Maratti from Guido.

  A man half length, Rembrant.

  A Madona and St. Catharine, Pietro da Cortona.

  The Jews scourging our Saviour, Giacomo Bassano.

  Piazza del Popolo, Gasparo degli Occhiale.

  A landscape with fishermen, Salvator Rosa.

  Belisarius, Vandyke.

  Earl of Pembroke and his sister, Vandyke.


                                Bed chamber.

Earl of Cumberland in a round.

  Mr. Pope in a round, Kent.

  Lady Burlington in a round, Aikman.


                                  Gallery.

  Susanna and P. Veronese.

  * * * * Bassan.

  * * * * Ditto.

  Landscapes.

  Ditto.

  Ditto.

  Middle of the ceiling, Paolo Veronese.

  Two statues, Guelphi.

  Two ditto, Scheemaker.

  Two little heads, Guelphi.

  Two porphyry vases, from Rome.

  Closet within the bed chamber.

  Lord Clifford and his family, painted in 1444 by John Van Eyk, called
    John of Bruges.

  A woman in a hat, Blomaert.

  Lady Dorothy Boyle, in crayons, Lady Burlington.

  Henry IV. of France, Mosaick.

  A head, a sketch, Vandyke.

  Ditto, ditto.

  Flowers upon glass, Baptiste.

  A woman selling fish and herbs.

  Hagar and the angel.

  A boy’s head.

  A man’s head.

  A woman combing her head.

  A satyr whipping a woman.

  A head, Holbein.

  A Venus sleeping.

  Dutch figures.

  A man reading.

  The ascension, Albano.


                            The new dining room.

  Twelfth night, Jordans.

  The finding of Moses, Seb. Ricci.

  Jephtha, Seb. Ricci.

  Good Samaritan, Giacomo Bassan.

  A flower piece, Baptiste.

  Ditto, ditto.

  Ditto, ditto.

  A portrait, Rubens.

  Ditto, unknown.

  Buildings and cattle, Wenix.

  First Lady Halifax, Sir Peter Lely.

  The marriage of Cupid, &c. Andrea Schiavone.

  A landscape, Gio. Franceso Bolognese.

  Mars and Venus, Le Fevre.

  A landscape, Gio. Franceso Bolognese.

  A Madona, Parmegiano.

  Woman taken in adultery, Allesandro Veronese.

  Liberality and Modesty, Guido, after


  CHISWELL _street_, near the Artillery ground, Moorfields.†

  CHITTERLING _alley_, Beer lane, Tower street.

  CHIVER’S _court_, Nightingale lane, in Limehouse, Fore street.‡

  CHOIRISTER’S _rents_, near the Almonry.

  CHOLMONDELEY’S _Almshouse_, in Church entry, Black Friars, was founded
    by the Lady Cholmondeley for three poor women, each of whom receives
    2_s._ a week.

  CHRISTOPHER’S _alley_, 1. in the Borough. 2. Lombard street. 3. St.
    Martin’s le Grand. 4. Middle turning, Shadwell. 5. Upper Moorfields.

  _St._ CHRISTOPHER’S _alley_, St. Christopher’s court, Threadneedle
    street.☐

  _St._ CHRISTOPHER’S _Church_, by the Bank of England in Threadneedle
    street, is dedicated to a Jewish convert and martyr, named before
    his conversion Reprobus, but having, it is pretended, carried our
    Saviour over a river, was thence named Christopher. Mention is made
    of a church in this place so early as the year 1368. The present
    edifice suffered greatly by the fire of London; but not so much as
    to occasion its being rebuilt, and therefore being thoroughly
    repaired, it continues on the ancient foot. The body is well
    enlightened, and the tower is crowned with four handsome pinacles.
    It is a very plain edifice, and indeed had it been ever so well
    ornamented, it could not, in its present situation, have been seen
    to advantage.

    This church is a rectory, the patronage of which has been for above
    three hundred years in the Bishop of London. The Rector, besides
    other considerable advantages, receives 120_l._ a year in lieu of
    tithes.

  CHRISTOPHER’S _court_, 1. Cartwright street. 2. Rosemary lane.

  _St._ CHRISTOPHER’S _court_, Threadneedle street.

  CHRISTOPHER’S INN YARD, 1. Barnaby street. 2. St. Margaret’s hill.*

  CHRIST’S CHURCH, Church street, Spitalfields. The district in which
    this edifice stands was till lately considered as a hamlet in the
    parish of Stepney: but the kind reception given to the persecuted
    French protestants, greatly increased the number of the inhabitants
    of this spot, and these refugees bringing the silk manufacture along
    with them, soon brought affluence to the place, and with it a
    multitude of new inhabitants. Hence this was constituted a distinct
    parish from Stepney in the year 1728, and one of the fifty new
    churches was ordered to be built here. The foundation was laid in
    1723, and it was finished in four years.

    The body of this church is solid and well proportioned; it is
    ornamented with a Doric portico, to which there is a handsome ascent
    by a flight of steps; and upon these the Doric order arises
    supported on pedestals. The tower over these rises with arched
    windows and niches, and on its diminishing for the steeple, is
    supported by the heads of the under corners, which form a kind of
    buttresses: from this part rises the base of the spire, with an
    arcade; its corners are in the same manner supported with a kind of
    pyramidal buttresses ending in a point, and the spire is terminated
    by a vase and fane. This is the character given of this edifice in
    the _English Architect_: who asserts that solidity without weight is
    its character, and that though this structure is not without faults,
    yet it is worthy of great praise; it being singular, and built for
    ages. It has however been severely censured by the author of _The
    Critical Review of Buildings_, who says that it is one of the most
    absurd piles in Europe.

    This church is made a rectory, but is not to be held in commendam.
    For the maintenance of the Rector and his successors the Parliament
    granted the sum of 3000_l._ to be laid out in the purchase of lands
    and tenements in fee simple: besides which provision the
    Churchwardens are by that act appointed to pay him annually the sum
    of 125_l._ to be raised by burial fees. _Maitland._

  CHRIST’S CHURCH, in Bennet street, Southwark, is a regular and
    well-constructed building, erected with little expence, since the
    year 1737, when the foundation of the old church gave way. It
    consists of a plain body enlightened by two ranges of windows, and a
    square tower with a turret.

    This church is a rectory, the patronage is in the heirs and assigns
    of John Marshal of the Borough of Southwark, Gent. who caused the
    old church to be built, by leaving, in the year 1627, the sum of
    700_l._ for that purpose, with an estate of 60_l._ a year towards
    the maintenance of a Minister, and the inhabitants applying to
    parliament in 1670, it was made a distinct parish independent of
    that of St. Saviour’s.

  CHRIST’S CHURCH, behind the northern row of houses in Newgate street.
    This is a vicarage, or impropriation, and the right of advowson is
    in the Governors of St. Bartholomew’s hospital. The old spacious
    church being consumed by the fire of London, this edifice was
    erected in its room, and by an act of parliament constituted the
    place of public worship, both for this parish and that of St.
    Leonard’s Foster lane.

    This church is a plain edifice, neatly ornamented on the inside; it
    has a square tower of a considerable height, crowned with a light
    and handsome turret, which is so concealed by the houses, that it
    can scarce any where be seen to advantage. The Incumbent receives
    200_l._ per annum in lieu of tithes.

  CHRIST’S HOSPITAL, for the education and support of the fatherless
    children of freemen, is an establishment of considerable antiquity;
    for Henry VIII. in the last year of his reign gave the city both the
    priory of St. Bartholomew’s, and the convent of Gray Friars, which
    anciently belonged to that priory, for the relief of the poor. He
    also in the same year founded two churches out of these religious
    houses, the one to be called Christ Church, out of the Gray Friars,
    and the other Little St. Bartholomew’s, out of the hospital of that
    name. By the above grant the city was obliged to establish here a
    settled and regular provision for the poor, which was not done till
    some years after, when King Edward VI. being extremely moved at a
    sermon preached by Bishop Ridley, wherein that good Prelate
    expatiated on the obligations of the rich to assist the poor and
    miserable, his Majesty expressed his hearty desire to concur in
    promoting so laudable a work, and by the Bishop’s advice,
    immediately caused a letter to be wrote to the Lord Mayor, to obtain
    his assistance; and this letter his Majesty signed with his own
    hand, and sealed with his signet. The good Bishop, who, by the young
    King’s desire, stayed till the letter was finished, was the
    messenger dispatched on this important business. The chief
    Magistrate was pleased with the honour done the city, and after
    several consultations with the Aldermen and Common Council, several
    charitable plans were formed for the carrying on of this and other
    charities; and while the diseased were provided for at St. Thomas’s,
    and the idle at Bridewell, it was resolved that the young and
    helpless should be educated at Christ Church.

    This being reported to the King, his Majesty voluntarily
    incorporated the Governors of these houses by the title of _The
    Mayor, Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, Governors of
    the possessions, revenues and goods of the hospitals of Edward VI.,
    King of England_, &c. as his Majesty desired to be esteemed their
    chief founder and patron. To promote and continue this work, he
    granted the city certain lands that had been given to the house of
    the Savoy, founded by King Henry VII. for the lodging of pilgrims
    and strangers, but which was now only used by vagabonds and
    strumpets. These lands amount to the yearly value of 600_l._ He also
    commanded, that after reserving a sufficient quantity of the linen,
    which had been used in the times of popish superstition, to each
    church within the city and suburbs of London, the remaining
    superfluous great quantities should be delivered to the Governors of
    this hospital, for the use of the poor children under their care.
    And one of the last actions of that good Prince’s life, was signing
    a licence for this corporation to purchase lands in mortmain.

    In 1552 the house of the Gray Friars was prepared for the poor
    fatherless children, and the same year 340 were admitted. Soon
    after, several considerable private benefactions were left to this
    hospital, and at length Charles II. by a well judged liberality,
    founded and endowed a mathematical school for the instruction of
    forty boys in that study, in order to fit them for the sea, and for
    this purpose he ordered 1000_l._ a year to be paid out of the
    Exchequer for seven years. This institution is executed in a manner
    suitable to the intention of the founder. Every year ten of these
    boys are put out apprentices to masters of ships, and ten more are
    received in their room. The master is not only expected to be a good
    mathematician, but to understand the learned languages. Afterwards
    the Governors appointed forty other boys to be taught mathematics in
    the same manner. The other schools are a grammar school, a writing
    school, and a school for the girls who learn reading and needle
    work, and there have been lately added a master to teach the boys
    drawing, an art of the greatest use in many mechanical arts.

    This charity is so very extensive, that there are sometimes above a
    thousand children supported here at a time. The youngest, for whom
    there is not room in the house, and who are not of an age to
    understand the lessons taught there, are, at the expence of the
    charity, sent to Hertford and Ware, where there are schools erected
    and masters employed at handsome salaries for that purpose. As the
    eldest are put out apprentices, and these grow more fit for the
    place, they are brought in.

    The boys are cloathed in blue coats, with petticoats of the same
    colour, yellow stockings, and bonnets instead of hats. And on their
    being put out apprentice, they have 10_l._ given with each.

    The edifice is concealed by the contiguous houses, and cannot be
    seen entire. It is spacious, and though built in the old manner, is
    not ill contrived. The principal buildings form the four sides of a
    large area, which have porticoes continued round them. These have
    Gothic arches, and the walls are supported by abutments. The front
    of the building is, however, more modern than the rest, and has
    Doric pilasters supported on pedestals.

    Among the ancient buildings that still remain, is an old cloister,
    which was a part of the priory. This was repaired by the direction
    of Sir Christopher Wren, and serves both for a thoroughfare, and
    place of recreation for the boys, especially in rainy weather.

    The writing school is, however, a neat modern edifice, built with
    brick and stone in the year 1694, at the end of the great hall. It
    was founded by Sir John Moore, one of the Aldermen of the city, and
    President of the house, whom it is said to have cost 5000_l._ It
    contains long writing boards sufficient for 300 boys to sit and
    write upon, and at the upper end of the room is Sir John’s statue in
    white marble.

    The inner distribution of the rooms and wards is very good. There is
    a spacious hall built at the expence of Sir John Fenwick after the
    fire of London, in which the boys dine and sup. At the upper end of
    this room is a large picture representing King James II. sitting
    with his Nobles, the Governors, &c. with the half figures of King
    Edward VI. and Charles II. hanging as pictures in the same piece.
    There is also a piece representing the mathematical school done by
    Vario, and reckoned worth 1000_l._ At the other end is a large piece
    representing King Edward VI. delivering the charter to the Lord
    Mayor, who kneels, with the Aldermen behind him; the young King is
    accompanied by Bishop Ridley and several others, who stand about
    him. Here also is a fine piece of the pool of Bethesda, which is
    very large, and painted in a masterly stile by Mr. Hogarth. In this
    hall there is likewise a good organ, which plays on Sundays, when
    the boys sing psalms and anthems.

    A great room where the Governors meet, is also adorned with the
    pictures of the royal founder, and of all the chief benefactors.

[Illustration:

  _Christ’s-Church Hospital._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Taylor sc._
]

    There are eight wards for the children’s beds; that of the girls is
    separated from the rest; and there is also a ward for the sick. Each
    of the masters have 100_l._ a year, and the grammar master an
    additional salary of 20_l._ for catechising the boys, and his usher
    has 50_l._ a year; in short, 12 or 1300_l._ a year is expended in
    salaries to the officers, clerks, and servants; and the sum expended
    for the support of the hospital, amounts to between 11 and
    12,000_l._ a year. To defray this expence, the hospital has a great
    annual revenue in houses and lands; the benefit of licensing and
    looking after the 420 carts allowed in the city, each of which pays
    a certain sum for sealing. The hospital has likewise a duty of about
    three farthings upon every piece of cloth brought to Blackwell hall,
    where clerks are kept to receive it. The Governors, amount to about
    three hundred, and these chuse their officers and servants, both men
    and women, and also the President and Treasurer.

    The building of this hospital is partly Gothic and partly modern,
    being built at various times, and has very little regularity. That
    part represented in the print belongs to the mathematical school,
    and is in Gray Friars. The niche contains a statue of Charles II. in
    the royal robes, which, considering the difficulty the statuary had
    to encounter, is a very good one. At a distance is the steeple and
    part of the front of the church, which was rebuilt, after being
    burnt down by the fire of London, by Sir Christopher Wren.

  CHURCHES. These are very numerous; and the reader may see an account
    of each under the names of the patrons to whom they are dedicated,
    as _St._ ALBAN’S, ALLHALLOWS, _St._ ALPHAGE, _St._ ANDREW’S, &c.

  CHURCH _alley_, 1. Basinghall street.☐ 2. Black Friars.☐ 3. Denmark
    street, St. Giles’s.☐ 4. Giltspur street.☐ 5. Harp alley, Shoe
    lane.☐ 6. St. Mary hill.☐ 7. New Rents, Compter street.☐ 8. Noble
    street, Foster lane.☐ 9. Old Jewry.☐ 10. Puddle dock hill.☐ 11. In
    the Strand.☐ 12. Thames street.☐ 13. Tooley street.☐ 14. Wapping.☐
    15. Watling street.☐ 16. Whitechapel.☐

  CHURCH _court_, 1. Church passage, Piccadilly.☐ 2. Clement’s lane,
    Canon street.☐ 3. Duke’s place.☐ 4. Little Chapel street.☐ 5. St.
    Margaret’s church yard.☐ 6. In the Strand.☐ 7. Church Entry, Austin
    Friars.☐ 8. Black Friars.☐

  CHURCH _hill_, Black Friars.☐

  CHURCH _lane_, 1. Dyot street.☐ 2. Elephant lane, Rotherhith.☐ 3.
    Houndsditch.☐ 4. Islington.☐ 5. Ropewalk, Limehouse.☐ 6. St. Mary
    Overies.☐ 7. Newington Butts.☐ 8. In the Strand.☐ 9. Near Three
    Cranes lane, Thames street.☐ 10. Whitechapel.☐ 11. White street,
    Southwark.☐ 12. Wood street, Cheapside.☐

  CHURCH _passage_, 1. Cloth Fair.☐ 2. Dorset street.☐ 3. Piccadilly.☐

  CHURCH _row_, near Aldgate.☐

  CHURCH _stairs_, Rotherhith.☐

  CHURCH _street_, 1. Bernbridge street.☐ 2. Coverlead fields.☐ 3. St.
    Giles’s street.☐ 4. Hackney.☐ 5. Hoxton.☐ 6. Lambeth.☐ 7. Long
    Acre.☐ 8. Millbank.☐ 9. Prescot street.☐ 10. Rotherhith.☐ 11.
    Sclater street.☐ 12. Shoreditch fields.☐ 13. Soho.☐ 14.
    Spitalfields.☐ 15. Stepney Causeway.☐ 16. Swan fields.☐

  CHURCH YARD _alley_, 1. Cartwright street.☐ 2. Chick lane.☐ 3. Fetter
    lane.☐ 4. Harp alley.☐ 5. Hole stairs.☐ 6. Rosemary lane.☐ 7.
    Rotherhith wall.☐ 8. Shoe lane.☐ 9. Thames street.☐ 10. St. Thomas’s
    street, Southwark.☐ 11. Tooley street.☐

  CHURCH YARD _court_, 1. Botolph lane.☐ 2. Inner Temple.☐

  CHURCH YARD _lane_, St. Thomas’s street, Southwark.☐

  CHYMISTERS _alley_, Bedfordbury.

  CINNAMON _alley_, Turnmill street.

  CINNAMON _street_, 1. Near Old Gravel lane. 2. Near Wapping dock.

  CISE _yard_, Whitechapel.

  CIVET CAT _alley_, Bunhill row.*

  CLANDON. There are two towns of this name, in Surry, lying near each
    other, and distinguished by their situation with respect to each
    other. West Clandon is twenty-six miles from London, and is the
    manor of the Lord Onslow, whose title is Lord of Onslow and Clandon,
    and whose seat is near the church. It is a noble edifice, erected
    after an Italian model. The gardens are beautiful, and laid out in
    the modern taste. It has plenty of good water, and commands a
    delightful and extensive prospect as far as Windsor. The house is
    seen from the road up a grand avenue, and appears to be, what it
    really is, one of the finest seats in that part of the kingdom.

    East Clandon lies about two miles to the east of the last mentioned
    village, and was anciently the estate of Gerard Lord Aungier, of the
    kingdom of Ireland, who had a house and park here. In the
    neighbourhood of East Clandon is the seat of Admiral Boscawen.

  CLAPHAM, a village three miles from London, in the road to Richmond.

  CLAPTON, a village adjoining to Hackney.

  _Abbey of St._ CLARE. See MINORIES.

  CLARE _court_, Drury lane.†

  CLARE _market_, Lincoln’s Inn fields, has a considerable trade for
    flesh, greens, &c.

  CLARE _street_, Clare market.†

  CLARE’S _yard_, Barnaby street.†

[Illustration:

  _Claremont._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sculp._
]

  CLAREMONT, is the seat of his Grace the Duke of Newcastle at Esher.
    The house was designed and built by the late Sir John Vanbrugh, in a
    whimsical style of architecture, which is better shewn in the print
    than described. It was afterwards purchased of Sir John by his
    Grace, who has been at great expence in improving the place. The
    structure, though singular, does not appear to be irregular. It is
    built of brick with a good deal of variety in it, and of
    considerable extent, but not much elevated. The Duke has since built
    a grand room for the reception of company when numerous, which makes
    the ends of the house not appear similar. The house has a lawn in
    the front shaded on each side with trees, and the ground behind it
    rising gradually shews the trees there also, so that the house
    appears to be embowered by them except just in the front; and the
    white summer house with four little pinacles, one at each corner,
    built on the mount which gives name to the place, when viewed from
    before the front of the house, rises up finely from behind the
    trees, and all together forms a very pleasing appearance. The park
    in which it is situated is distinguished by its noble woods, lawns,
    walks, mounts, prospects, &c. The summer house call’d the Belvedere,
    at about a mile distance from the house, on that side of the park
    next Esher, affords a very beautiful and extensive view of the
    country quite round; yet that from the summer house at Esher place,
    which is just by, is perhaps no way inferior to it.

  CLARGES _street_, Hyde Park road. Thus named from Sir Thomas Clarges.

  CLARKE’S _alley_, 1. Bishopsgate street.† 2. Vine street, Hatton
    wall.† 3. Whitechapel.†

  CLARKE’S _orchard_, Rotherhith wall.†

  CLARKE’S _rents_, 1. Grub street. 2. St. Catharine’s lane.†

  CLARKE’S _yard_, 1. Cock alley, London wall.† 2. Upper ground.†

  CLAYTON’S _rents_, King street.†

  CLEAVELAND _court_, Cleaveland row, St. James’s street; formerly a
    large house called Berkshire house; which being purchased by the
    Duchess of Cleaveland, took her name; on the same ground are now
    built several handsome houses.

  CLEAVELAND _row_, St. James’s.

  CLEAVELAND _street_, by St. James’s palace.

  CLEAVELAND _yard_, near St. James’s square.

  _St._ CLEMENT’S _Church_ in the Strand, also called _St._ CLEMENT
    DANES, is supposed to be dedicated to Pope Clement I. who suffered
    martyrdom in the reign of Trajan, and obtained the name of _Danes_
    from its being dedicated to their use. A church has been situated in
    the same place at least ever since the year 700; but the present
    edifice began to be erected in 1680, and was compleated in two
    years, but the steeple was not added till several years after.

    The body of the church, which is of stone, has two series of
    windows, the lower plain and the upper well ornamented, and the
    termination is by an attic, whose pilasters are crowned with vases.
    On the south side it is entered by a portico to which there is an
    ascent of a few steps, this portico is covered with a dome supported
    by Ionic columns. Opposite to this there is another, and on each
    side the base of the steeple in the west front is a small square
    tower with its dome. The steeple is carried to a great height in
    several stages: where it begins to diminish the Ionic order takes
    place, and upon its entablature supports vases. The next stage is
    Corinthian, and above that stands the Composite supporting a dome
    which is crowned with a smaller one, from whence rises the ball and
    its fane.

    The author of the _New Critical Review of the publick Buildings_
    justly censures the situation of this church in the midst of the
    street, and their having “in compliance with the superstitious
    custom of placing it in a due east and west situation, crowded the
    backside of the church into the face of the people, though they had
    room enough to build it otherwise, and prevent so capital a
    nuisance.” This church is a rectory, in the patronage of the Earl of
    Exeter.

  _St._ CLEMENT’S _Eastcheap_, on the east side of St. Clement’s lane,
    Lombard street. The old church was destroyed by the dreadful
    conflagration in 1666, and upon its ruin the present edifice arose.
    It is a very plain neat structure, with a tower crowned only by a
    battlement.

    This church is a rectory, with the parish of St. Mary Ongars added
    to it; the advowson is in the Bishop of London. The Rector receives
    140_l._ _per annum_ in lieu of tithes. _Newc. Repert. Eccles._

  _St._ CLEMENT’S _Church yard_, in the Strand.

  CLEMENT’S _court_, Milk street.

  CLEMENT’S, or _St._ CLEMENT’S INN, on the north side of Wych street,
    is thus called from its being near St. Clement’s church. It is one
    of the inns of chancery, and has three courts one within another,
    which consists of old buildings, except a row in the garden, which
    is well built.

  CLEMENT’S INN _court_, Clement’s Inn.

  CLEMENT’S _lane_, 1. Clare market.☐ 2. Clement’s Inn.☐

  _St._ CLEMENT’S _lane_, Lombard street.

  _St._ CLEMENT’S WELL, a celebrated fountain, which was many years ago
    one of the three principal springs at which the city youths, on
    festival days, used to entertain themselves with a variety of
    diversions. But it is now covered up, and a pump placed over it, at
    the east side of St. Clements Inn, and lower end of St. Clement’s
    lane. _Maitland._

  CLERGYMEN’S _Widows_, and _Children_. See an account of the
    corporation formed for their relief under the article CORPORATION.

  CLERK _of the Essoins_, _Juries_, _King’s Silver_, _Supersedeas_,
    _&c._ See an account of their several employments and offices, under
    the articles ESSOINS, JURIES, KING’S SILVER, &c.

  CLERKS. The Parish Clerks were incorporated by Henry III. in the year
    1233, by the name of _The fraternity of St. Nicholas_, by which they
    were known till they were incorporated by charter in 1611. By a
    decree of the court of Star chamber, they obtained the privilege of
    keeping a printing press in their hall, for printing the bill of
    mortality, they being strictly enjoined by their charter to make a
    report of all the christenings and burials in their respective
    parishes by six o’clock, on Thursday in the afternoon; but this is
    by a by-law changed to two o’clock on the same day, that the King
    and the Lord Mayor may have the account the day before its
    publication. This list is however extremely defective; for as there
    are above an hundred meeting houses in the bills of mortality, the
    members of which never have their children christened in the parish
    churches, though the far greater number of their dead are interred
    in the parochial burying grounds, the burials in these lists are
    made greatly to exceed the christenings; and hence very grave
    remarks have been made on the unhealthfulness of the city, and the
    vices of its inhabitants.

    This company consists of a Master, two Wardens, seventeen
    Assistants, and the whole body of parish clerks within the bills of
    mortality; who have a commodious hall in Wood street.

  CLERKS, or CLERKEN WELL, a spring at the lower end of Clerkenwell
    green, in Rag street, opposite Mutton lane, was so called from the
    parish clerks of the city annually meeting there to exhibit dramatic
    representations of certain parts of scripture; for which they were
    so famous, that not only the Lord Mayor and citizens, but even the
    nobility were their spectators. From this well a neighbouring priory
    with the church and parish were denominated Clerkenwell. _Maitland._

  CLERKENWELL _Church_. See St. JAMES’S Clerkenwell.

  CLERKENWELL _close_, a street on the north side of Clerkenwell green.

  CLERKENWELL _green_, on the south side of St. James’s church,
    Clerkenwell.

  CLERKENWELL _Priory of Nuns_, was founded by Jordan Briset, a wealthy
    Baron, about the year 1100, in a field adjoining to Clerks, or
    Clerken Well, and dedicated to the honour of God, and the assumption
    of the blessed Virgin. This priory continued till it was suppressed
    by Henry VIII. in the year 1539, when its revenues were found to
    amount to 262_l._ 19_s._ _per annum_. On the north east side of St.
    James’s church, which anciently belonged to this priory, is still to
    be seen the ambulatory, or south side row of this priory, consisting
    of six arches; and tho’ the eastern part of the cloister be
    destroyed, yet the nuns hall, which was situated at the north end,
    is still remaining, tho’ at present it is converted into a work
    shop, and the garden on the east side was formerly the cemetery
    belonging to the nunnery. _Maitland._

  CLIFFORD’S INN, one of the Inns of Chancery, is situated behind St.
    Dunstan’s church in Fleet street, and is much improved by new
    buildings. It has three courts, and a garden adorned with rows of
    lime trees set round the grass plats, and with gravel walks, which
    are kept in good order. This Inn took its name from its being
    anciently the house of the Lord Clifford.

  CLIFFORD’S INN _lane_, Fleet street.☐

  CLIFFORD’S _street_, New Bond street.†

  CLINCARD’S _alley_, Westminster market.

  CLINK LIBERTY COURT, a court of record kept on the Bank side in
    Southwark by the Bishop of Winchester’s steward, before whom are
    tried pleas of debt, damage and trespass, for any sum. Here also is
    a court leet in which things peculiar to that court are managed.
    _Maitland._

  CLINK _prison_, in Clink street, belongs to the liberty of the Bishop
    of Winchester, called the Clink liberty, but is little used. It is a
    very dismal hole, where debtors are sometimes confined.

  CLINK _street_, begins at Deadman’s place, and extends to St. Mary
    Overy’s dock.

  CLINK _yard_, Clink street.

  CLOAK _lane_, Dowgate hill.

  CLOAK AND WHEATSHEAF _alley_, Houndsditch.*

  CLOAK AND WHEATSHEAF _court_, Houndsditch.*

  CLOCKMAKERS. Charles I. incorporated this company by letters patent in
    the year 1632. They have a Master, three Wardens, and twenty-eight
    Assistants; but neither livery nor hall.

  CLOISTERS, 1. In the Middle Temple. 2. St. Bartholomew’s hospital.

  CLOISTER _court_, 1. Inner Temple.☐ 2. Black Friars.☐

  CLOISTERS _court_, Glasshouse yard, Water lane, near White Friars.☐

  CLOTH FAIR, Smithfield. King Henry II. granting to the priory of St.
    Bartholomew, the privilege of a fair to be kept annually at
    Bartholomew tide, the clothiers of England and the London drapers
    repaired thither, and had their booths and stalls within the church
    yard of that priory; this place being built into a narrow street,
    still retains the name of Cloth Fair; and in conformity to its name
    several eminent woollen drapers still live there.

  CLOTH _yard_, Dunning’s alley.

  CLOTHWORKERS, one of the twelve principal companies, was incorporated
    by letters patent granted by King Edward IV. in the year 1482, by
    the name of _The fraternity of the Assumption of the blessed Virgin
    Mary, of the Sheermen of London_: but being reincorporated by Queen
    Elizabeth, she changed their first appellation, to that of _The
    Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of freemen of the art and mystery of
    Clothworkers of the city of London_; which title was confirmed by
    Charles I.

    This company is governed by a Master, four Wardens, and thirty-two
    Assistants, with a livery of 154 members, each of whom, upon his
    admission, pays a fine of 20_l._ They have a very large estate, out
    of which they annually pay to the poor about 1400_l._

  CLOTHWORKERS HALL is situated near the north east end of Mincing lane,
    and is a brick building with fluted columns of brick crowned with
    Corinthian capitals of stone. The hall is a lofty room wainscoted up
    to the ceiling, which is adorned with fretwork. The screen at the
    south end is of oak, and ornamented with four pilasters that have
    their entablature and compass pediment of the Corinthian order. At
    the west end are the figures of King James and King Charles I. in
    their robes, carved as big as the life, and on the windows are
    painted the King’s arms, those of the city, the clothworkers
    company, and several others, belonging to the masters of that
    fraternity.

  CLUB _row_, Cock lane, Shoreditch.

  CLUN’S _yard_, Grub street.†

  COACH AND HORSES _yard_, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Coleman street.* 3.
    Fann’s alley.* 4. Oxford street.* 5. St. John’s street.* 6. Wood
    street, Cheapside.*

  COACHMAKERS. This company was incorporated by letters patent of
    Charles II. in the year 1677, by the title of _The Master, Wardens,
    Assistants, and Commonalty of the company of Coach and
    Coach-harness-makers of London_. It is governed by a Master, three
    Wardens, twenty-three Assistants, and one hundred and four
    Liverymen, each of whom upon their admission pay a fine of 10_l._
    They have a spacious hall in Noble street.

  COACHES. See HACKNEY COACHES.

  COAL _alley_, Whitechapel.

  COAL _Exchange_, Billingsgate.

  COAL HARBOUR, Thames street. See the article COLD HARBOUR.

  COAL _stairs_, Lower Shadwell.

  COAL _wharf_, near the Strand.

  COAL _yard_, 1. Goswell street. 2. High Holborn. 3. Willow street,
    Bank side.

  COALMAN’S _alley_, Puddle dock.†

  COALMETERS, fifteen officers in the port of London, to whom belong the
    care and inspection of the just measure and weight of coals; each of
    whom is allowed four deputies or under-meters, who must be approved
    by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, as upon them the care of weighing
    and measuring coals principally depends; their business being to
    attend each ship, in order to observe the due weight and
    admeasurement, to top the vats, and to return an account of the
    coals measured to the coal office, by which return or certificate of
    the under-meters, the duties on coals are collected. For this
    trouble they receive the fee of a penny _per_ chaldron for all coals
    measured, and two pence _per_ ton for all coals weighed: and both
    the principal and under-meters take an oath at their admission into
    their office, to give just measure to rich and poor without
    partiality or favour; to buy no coals except for their own use, nor
    ever to sell coals while in that office, or to take any more for
    their trouble than was anciently allowed.

  COALMETERS _Office_, in Church alley, St. Dunstan’s hill. In this
    office, which belongs to the fifteen upper coalmeters, is entered
    all the ships that arrive in the port of London with coals, and the
    quantity measured or weighed; in order to ascertain the duties to be
    paid, as well as to prevent impositions and frauds with respect to
    the subject.

    Mr. Maitland gives the following septenary account, from the Custom
    House entry book, of the coals imported into the port of London.

         ┌───────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┬────────┐
         │Years. │ 1726.  │ 1727.  │ 1728.  │ 1729.  │        │
         │Chald. │479,336 │417,974 │536,019 │497,167 │        │
         ├───────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┼────────┤
         │Years. │ 1730.  │ 1731.  │ 1732.  │ Total. │ Medium │
         │Chald. │460,615 │478,411 │453,503 │3,323,025│474,717 │
         └───────┴────────┴────────┴────────┴─────────┴────────

    But as both London and Westminster have been prodigiously increased
    since the last of these years, by a vast number of entire streets
    being built, we may conclude that this account falls extremely short
    of the quantity now annually imported into the same port.

  COAT’S _farm_, Coat’s lane.†

  COAT’S _lane_, Bethnal green.†

  COBB’S _court_, Black Friars.†

  COBB’S _yard_, 1. Blackman’s street.† 2. Petticoat lane.†

  COBHAM, a town in Surry, situated on the river Mole, six miles from
    Epsom, in the road from London to Guilford.

    Near Cobham are several fine seats, particularly one belonging to
    the Lord Ligonier, and another, the seat of Mr. Bridges, which is
    built in a very singular taste, tho’ very plain on the outside,
    somewhat after the manner of an Italian villa. The principal rooms
    are richly ornamented; the ceilings are gilt; and the offices below
    are not only convenient, but contrived with great judgment, so as to
    answer the purposes for which they were designed. As the house is
    situated on an eminence, it commands the prospect of the adjacent
    fields, which are kept in great order. The river Mole passes along
    by the side of the gardens, and being made here four or five times,
    broader than it was naturally, it has a happy effect, especially as
    the banks are disposed into a slope, with a broad grass walk,
    planted on each side with sweet shrubs. At one end of this walk is a
    very elegant room, which is a delightful retreat in hot weather, it
    being shaded with large elms on the south side, and having the water
    on the north and east sides, is extremely cool and pleasant. The
    house is situated about half a mile from the public road to
    Portsmouth, and is so much hid by the trees near it, as not to be
    seen till you rise on the heath beyond Cobham, where you have a fine
    view of it in several parts of the road between that town and
    Ripley.

  COCK _alley_, 1. Deadman’s place.* 2. East Smithfield.* 3. Fleet
    lane.* 4. Green bank, Tooley street.* 5. Holiwell street,
    Shoreditch.* 6. Ludgate street.* 7. Montague close.* 8. Moorgate.*
    9. Near Pepper alley, Southwark.* 10. Norton Falgate.* 11. Portpool
    lane.* 12. Shoreditch.* 13. Turnmill street.* 14. Wapping.* 15.
    Whitechapel.* 16. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

  COCK ALLEY _stairs_, near Pepper alley stairs, Southwark.*

  COCK _court_, 1. Angel alley, Houndsditch.* 2. Black Boy alley, Chick
    lane.* 3. Grub street, near Moorfields.* 4. Ludgate hill.* 5. St.
    Martin’s le Grand.* 6. New street, Broad street.* 7. Philip lane,
    London Wall.* 8. Poor Jewry lane.* 9. Snow hill.*

  COCK AND BOTTLE _court_, near Nightingale lane.*

  COCK AND HOOP _court_, Addle hill.*

  COCK AND MAGPYE _court_, Hog lane, Norton Falgate.*

  COCK AND WHEATSHEAF _court_, Houndsditch.*

  COCK _hill_, 1. Anchor street. 2. Ratcliff.

  COCK _lane_, 1. By Cock hill. 2. Near Falcon lane.* 3. Snow hill.* 4.
    Swan fields, Shoreditch.*

  COCK _yard_, 1. Bennet street, Westminster.* 2. East Smithfield.* 3.
    Falconer’s alley, Cow Cross.* 4. In the Haymarket.* 5. Jacob’s
    street.* 6. Parish street.* 7. Thacket’s court, Bishopsgate street.*
    8. Tothill street.*

  COCK AND HEART _yard_, in the Borough.*

  COCK AND HOOP _yard_, 1. In the Borough.* 2. Castle street, Long
    Acre.* 3. Houndsditch.*

  COCKET _alley_, Fore street, Lambeth.

  _The_ COCKPIT, opposite to the Privy Garden, is esteemed a part of the
    ancient palace of Whitehall, and retains its ancient name, though
    converted to very different uses from that of a Cockpit. This
    edifice, which is built with stone, is very old, and on the outside
    next the street has nothing to recommend it; but within it has
    several noble rooms and apartments, as the council chamber, &c.

  COCKPIT _alley_, 1. Drury lane. 2. Gravel lane.

  COCKPIT _buildings_, Upper Chelsea road.

  COCKPIT _court_, 1. Dean street, Soho. 2. Gravel lane. 3. Jewin
    street. 4. King’s Way, near Bedford row. 5. Poppin’s alley, Shoe
    lane.

  COCKPIT _street_, Whitehall.☐

  COCKPIT _yard_, James street.☐

  COCK’S HEAD _court_, Golden lane.*

  COCK’S _rents_, St Catharine’s.†

  COCKSPUR _street_, Pall Mall.

  CODLIN _yard_, Virginia street.‡

  CODPIECE _court_, petty France, Westminster.║

  CODPIECE _row_, Cold Bath fields.║

  COFFEE HOUSE _alley_, Thames street.☐

  COFFEE HOUSE _court_, Moorfields.☐

  COFFIN _alley_, Cow Cross.*

  COFFIN _court_, St. Dunstan’s hill.*

  COGDELL _court_, near Pultney street.†

  COGGAN’S _rents_, Bett’s street.†

  COLCHESTER _street_, 1. Red Lion street, Whitechapel. 2. Woodroffe
    lane.

  COLD BATH _fields_, Hockley in the hole, took their name from the cold
    bath near them. See COLD BATH _square_.

  COLD BATH _row_, Cold Bath street.☐

  COLD BATH _street_, Cold Bath fields.☐

  COLD BATH _square_, Cold Bath fields. On the north side of this small
    square, is pleasantly situated fronting the fields, the house in
    which is the cold bath. This is a handsome though old building, and
    is surrounded by a small, but neat garden, inclosed by a wall.

  COLD HARBOUR, Thames street. It took its name from a magnificent
    building called _Cold Herbergh_, that is, _Cold Inn_, probably so
    denominated from its vicinity to the river. This building, which
    extended into the place now called Cold Harbour lane, was given by
    King Henry IV. to his son the Prince of Wales. _Rymer’s Fœdera._

  COLD HARBOUR _lane_, Thames street. This lane, and the stairs, are now
    generally called, and even spelt Coal Harbour.

  COLD HARBOUR _row_, Hackney road.

  COLD HARBOUR _stairs_, Thames street.

  COLEBROOK, or COLNBROOK, a town in Buckinghamshire, situated 18 miles
    from London, on four channels of the river Coln, over each of which
    it has a bridge. One part of the town is in Middlesex, and the other
    in Buckinghamshire. Here is a charity school, and an ancient chapel,
    said to have been founded by Edward III. The principal support of
    the place are the inns, on account of its being in the Bath road.

  COLEMAN _alley_, 1. Brown street.† 2. Bunhill row.†

  COLEMAN’S _court_, Castle lane.†

  COLEMAN _street_, 1. Farthing fields.† 2. Lothbury.† 3. New Gravel
    lane.†

  COLEMAN STREET _Ward_, is bounded on the north by Cripplegate ward,
    upper Moorfields, and Bishopsgate ward; on the east by Bishopsgate
    ward, Broad street ward, and Cheap ward; on the south by Cheap ward;
    and on the west by Basinghall street ward. It extends from east to
    west, from the grate by Lothbury church, to the south side of
    Ironmonger lane; but no farther than the south-west corner of
    Basinghall street on the north side; and, in the other direction, it
    extends south from Moorgate to the garden belonging to Grocers hall
    in the Poultry.

    The principal streets in this ward are, Coleman street, the north
    part of the Old Jewry; Lothbury, from Coleman street to St.
    Margaret’s church, on the north side, and on the south, to about
    twenty-seven feet beyond Prince’s street; the north side of Cateaton
    street, from Basinghall street to Coleman street, and the south side
    from Ironmonger lane. The most remarkable buildings are, the parish
    churches of St. Stephen Coleman street, St. Margaret’s Lothbury, and
    St. Olave’s Jewry; Founders hall, the Armourers and Brasiers hall,
    and the Excise office.

    This ward is governed by an Alderman and his Deputy, six Common
    Council men, thirteen wardmote inquest men, four scavengers, four
    constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote
    inquest serve in the several courts in Guildhall in the month of
    August.

  COLEMAN’S _yard_, 1. Barnaby street.† 2. Whitecross street,
    Cripplegate.†

  COLE’S _alley_, Whitechapel.†

  COLE’S _rents_, Moorfields.†

  COLE _yard_, between Holborn and Drury lane.

  COLLEGE _court_, 1. Cow Cross. 2. Dean’s yard, Westminster. 3.
    Nightingale lane. 4. Stable yard. 5. Warwick lane.☐

  COLLEGE _hill_, Thames street.

  COLLEGE _of Heralds_. See HERALDS _Office_.

  COLLEGE _of Physicians_. See PHYSICIANS.

  COLLEGE _street_, 1. Dirty lane, Westminster. 2. Narrow Wall, Lambeth.

  COLLEGE _yard_, 1. Compter lane. 2. Deadman’s place. 3. Near the
    Hermitage.

  COLLIER’S _court_, Hart street, Cripplegate.†

  COLLIER’S _rents_, White street.†

  COLLINGBURN’S _rents_, Dick’s shore, Limehouse.†

  COLLINGWOOD _street_, Maze Pond, near Snow fields, Southwark.†

  COLLIN’S _court_, 1. Bloomsbury market.† 2. Brick street.† 3. Farmer’s
    street.†

  COLLIN’S _rents_, 1. High Holborn.† 2. Upper Shadwell.† 3. White
    street.†

  COLNBROOK. See COLEBROOK.

  COLNEY, a village in Hertfordshire, three miles from St. Alban’s in
    the road to London, is called London Colney, to distinguish it from
    Colney street, which lies a little to the west, and Colney green.
    These villages receive their names from the river Coln, near which
    they are situated.

  COLOUR _yard_, Worcester street.

  COLSON’S _court_, Drury lane.†

  COMB NEVIL, in Surry, is situated in the parish of Kingston upon
    Thames, and was formerly the seat of the Earl of Warwick, called the
    setter up and puller down of Kings; but was lately in the possession
    of William Harvey, Esq; It is situated in the midst of a park; and
    near the house are certain springs whose water is conveyed in leaden
    pipes for three miles, under the road and lands, and across the
    bottom of the Thames to Hampton Court.

  CUMBER’S _court_, Blackman street.†

  COMBMAKERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by
    Charles I. in the year 1636. They consist of a Master, two Wardens,
    and thirteen Assistants; but have neither hall nor livery.

  COMES’S _court_, Noble street, Foster lane.†

  COMMISTRY’S _alley_, Cock hill, Ratcliff cross.

  COMMON COUNCIL. These are the representatives of the commons, and
    compose one of the parts of the city legislature, which nearly
    resembles that of the kingdom; for as the latter consists of the
    King, Lords, and Commons, so this is composed of the Lord Mayor, the
    Aldermen and Common Council; the principal difference is, that the
    three estates of the kingdom enjoy separately the right of a
    negative, while in the city this right is confined to the Aldermen
    and Common Council.

    Before the year 1347, there were only two Common Council men
    returned for each ward, which being thought inefficient to represent
    the numerous body of the commons, it was at that time agreed, that
    each of the city wards should chuse a number of Common Council men
    according to its dimensions; but none to exceed twelve, nor any to
    have less than six; which has been since increased to the present
    number.

    The city is now divided into twenty-five wards, and they into 236
    precincts, each of which lends a representative, who is elected in
    the same manner as an Alderman; with this only difference, that as
    the Lord Mayor presides in the wardmote, and is judge of the poll at
    the election of an Alderman, the case is the same with the respect
    to the Aldermen in their several wards, at the choice of Common
    Council men. _Maitland._

  _The Court of_ COMMON COUNCIL, consists of the Lord Mayor, Aldermen,
    and representatives of the several wards, who assemble in Guildhall,
    as often as the Lord Mayor, by his summons, thinks proper to convene
    them, in order to make by-laws for the government of the city. They
    annually select six Aldermen and twelve Commoners for letting the
    city lands, and this committee generally meet at Guildhall on
    Wednesdays. They also appoint another committee of four Aldermen and
    eight Commoners for transacting the affairs belonging to Gresham
    College, who generally meet at Mercers hall, according to the
    appointment of the Lord Mayor, who is always one of the number.
    Besides the appointing of these, and several other committees, they
    by virtue of a royal grant, annually chuse a Governor, Deputy, and
    Assistants, for the management of the city lands in Ireland. They
    have likewise a right to dispose of the offices of town clerk,
    common serjeant, judges of the Sheriffs court, common crier,
    coroner, bailiff of the borough of Southwark, and city garbler.
    _Maitland’s Survey._

  COMMON _Clerk_. See TOWN CLERK.

  COMMON CRIER, an office of the city, who with the serjeant at arms, is
    to summon all executors and administrators of freemen to appear, and
    bring inventories of their personal estates, within two months after
    their decease. He is also obliged to attend the Lord Mayor on
    particular days, and to be present at the courts held weekly by his
    Lordship and the Aldermen. He is by his place an Esquire.

  COMMON HUNT, the chief huntsman of the city, whose principal business
    is to take care of the city hounds, and to attend the Lord Mayor and
    citizens in hunting whenever desired. This officer has a house
    allowed him in Finsbury Fields, where the hounds are kept, and for
    their support he has a considerable annual allowance, besides his
    perquisites. He is also to attend the Lord Mayor on set days, and is
    by his place an Esquire.

  COMMON _lane_, in Thames street.

  _Court of_ COMMON PLEAS. This is one of the four great courts of the
    kingdom, and is so called because in that court are debated the
    usual or common pleas between subject and subject, and all civil
    causes whatsoever. It was anciently ambulatory, and followed the
    King wheresoever he went; but at the confirmation of _Magna Charta_,
    by King John, in 1215, it was fixed at Westminster, where it still
    continues.

    Soon after the fixing of this court at Westminster, such a multitude
    of causes were brought before it, that the King for the greater
    dispatch of business, found it necessary instead of three, to
    constitute six Judges, whom he appointed to sit in two places: but
    at present the number being only four, they sit together in
    Westminster hall to hear and decide causes; but no Counsellor can
    plead before them under the degree of a Serjeant.

    The chief Judge in this court is the Lord Chief Justice of the
    Common Pleas, who has a salary of 2500_l._ _per annum_. with his
    robes and two tons of wine; the other, who are called the three
    puisne Judges of this court, and also four Serjeants, are each
    allowed fees, reward and robes, the puisne Judges having 2000_l._
    _per annum_ each.

    The other officers of this court are, the Custos Brevium; three
    Prothonotaries and their Secondaries; several clerks, who have their
    several counties allotted them, and are to engross the fines levied
    on lands in their respective divisions; the Chirographer; the
    Register of the fines, and a Clerk of the proclamations. The
    Prothonotaries and Chirographer sit in the court covered with black
    round caps, which was the fashion before the invention of hats and
    wigs. These are all sworn and have their offices for life. See
    Custos BREVIUM, PROTHONOTARY, &c.

[Illustration:

  _Entrance to the House of Lord’s with the Office of Ordnance._

  _S. Wale del._
]

[Illustration:

  _House of Commons._
  _C. Grignion sculp._
]

    In this court there are three officers unsworn, viz. a clerk of the
    treasury, a clerk of the enrollments of fines and recoveries, and a
    clerk of the outlawries: there are besides a clerk of the King’s
    silver; a clerk of the warrants; a clerk of the juries; a clerk of
    the essoins; a clerk of the supersedeas; filazers for the several
    counties of England; an exigenter; four criers and a porter.

  COMMON SERJEANT, an officer of the city, who is obliged to attend the
    Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen on court days, and to be in council
    with them on all occasions, both within and without the precincts or
    liberties of the city; and formerly he was to take care of the
    estates of the city orphans.

  _House of_ COMMONS, also called _St. Stephen’s Chapel_, joins to the
    south east angle of Westminster hall. The print represents a view as
    seen from the Cotton Garden. King Stephen first founded a chapel
    here, and dedicated it to St. Stephen the Protomartyr: but Edward
    III. rebuilding it in the year 1347, in a very magnificent manner,
    converted it into a collegiate church, the revenues of which at its
    suppression amounted to 1085_l._ 10_s._ and 5_d_. _per annum_: but
    being surrendered to Edward VI. it was appropriated for the
    reception of the representatives of the Commons of England, who have
    ever since continued to meet there every sessions of parliament,
    except when summoned by the King’s writs to Oxford, and it is now
    generally called the House of Commons.

    It is at present a spacious room wainscotted up to the ceiling,
    accommodated with galleries, supported by slender iron pillars
    adorned with Corinthian capitals and sconces, from the middle of the
    ceiling hangs a handsome branch or lustre. At the upper end, the
    Speaker is placed upon a raised seat, ornamented behind with
    Corinthian columns, and the King’s arms carved and placed on a
    pediment; before him is a table, at which the Clerk and his
    Assistant sit near him on each hand, just below the chair; and on
    each side, as well below as in the galleries, the members are placed
    promiscuously. The Speaker and clerks always wear gowns in the
    house, as the professors of the law do in term time; but no other of
    the members wear robes, except the four representatives for the city
    of London, who, the first day of every new parliament, are dressed
    in scarlet gowns, and sit all together on the right hand of the
    chair, next to the Speaker.

    The time of sitting is upon any day in the morning, except on
    Sundays, or some other high festivals or fast days, upon which it is
    not usual to assemble, unless upon the most urgent occasions: but
    tho’ the Speaker always adjourns the house to nine o’clock of the
    morning of the day when they agree to meet again, the house seldom
    meets till twelve.

    This house has an equal share with the Lords in making laws, and
    none can be made without the consent of the Commons, who are the
    guardians of the liberties of the people; and as they are the grand
    inquest of the nation, they have a power to impeach the greatest
    Lords in the kingdom, both spiritual and temporal.

    On the day prefixed by the King in the writ of summons, his Majesty
    goes in person to the house of Lords, where being seated with the
    crown on his head, and cloathed in his royal robes, he sends for the
    Commons by the Gentleman Usher of the black rod, who coming to the
    bar of the house, bows, and advancing a few steps, repeats this mark
    of respect a second and a third time, saying, “Gentlemen of the
    house of Commons, the King commands this honourable house to attend
    him immediately in the house of Peers;” and then retiring backwards,
    bowing, withdraws: the Commons then immediately attend his Majesty
    in the house of Lords, where the Lord Chancellor or Keeper commands
    them in the King’s name to chuse a Speaker, upon which they return
    to their own house. One of the members then standing up in his
    place, and making a short introductory speech, moves that such
    member as he then names, may take the chair, and his motion being
    seconded by some other member, if no contest happens, they lead the
    person mentioned from his seat to the bar of the house, from whence
    they conduct him bowing thrice, up the chair; where being placed, he
    stands up, and returns thanks to the house for the honour done him,
    and modestly acknowledging his inability to discharge so great a
    trust, desires they would make choice of a more *able person, which
    being disapproved, he submits to their pleasure; and after receiving
    the directions of the house, on the usual requests to be made on his
    appearing before his Majesty, adjourns to the day appointed for that
    purpose.

    But before the Commons can enter upon any business, or even the
    choice of a Speaker, all the members enter the court of wards,
    where they take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, with those
    appointed by the act of the 1st of William and Mary, in the
    presence of an officer appointed by his Majesty, who is usually
    the Lord Steward of the houshold; and after they have chosen the
    Speaker, they take the same oaths again in the house, at the
    table, and subscribe their opinions against the doctrines of
    transubstantiation, the invocation and adoration of Saints, and
    the sacrifice of the mass; and before they can give any vote in
    the house, except for the choice of a Speaker, they are obliged
    also to abjure the Pretender.

    Upon the day appointed, the Usher of the black rod is again sent for
    the Commons, when he alters his stile, and addresses himself to the
    Speaker. The members, obeying this summons, return to the house of
    Lords, and present their Speaker to the King, who is again seated on
    the throne, and having obtained his approbation, the Speaker
    desires, that the Commons, during their sitting, “may have free
    access to his Majesty, freedom of speech in their own house, and
    freedom from arrests.” After which the King makes his speech to both
    houses, the whole house of Commons being supposed to be at the bar
    of the house of Lords.

    After the Speaker and members have taken the oaths, the standing
    orders of the house are read, and grand committees appointed to sit
    on usual days: which being done, the house generally begins with
    reading some bill left unfinished the sessions before. Any member of
    parliament is at liberty to move for a bill to be brought in; which
    being agreed to by the house, the person who made the motion, with
    some of those who seconded it, are ordered to prepare, and bring it
    in. When the bill is ready, some of the members who were ordered to
    prepare it, read the order at the side bar of the house, desiring
    leave to bring the bill to the table; which upon the question being
    agreed to, it has a first reading by the clerk at the table; and
    then the Speaker taking the bill in his hand, reads the abbreviate
    or abstract of it: which one, after the debate upon the bill, if any
    happens, he puts the question, Whether it shall have a second
    reading; and sometimes upon a motion being made appoints a day for
    it.

    When the bill has been read a second time, the question is put,
    Whether it shall be committed, which is either to a committee of the
    whole house, if the bill be of importance; or to a private
    committee, any member at pleasure naming the persons to be of that
    committee; and their names being read by the clerk at the table,
    they are ordered to meet in the Speaker’s chamber, and report their
    opinion to the house. Accordingly meeting there, they chuse their
    Chairman, and either adjourn to some other time, or proceed upon the
    bill, which in this last case, the Chairman orders a clerk who
    attends them to read, then taking the bill himself, and reading it
    paragraph by paragraph, he puts every clause to the question, fills
    up the blanks, and makes amendments according to the opinion of the
    majority of the committee, of whom there must be eight of the
    persons named, to proceed regularly, though five may adjourn.

    When the committee have gone through the whole bill, the Chairman by
    their desire makes his report at the side bar of the house, reading
    all the alterations made by the committee, and how any of these
    amendments have altered the scope of the bill, the clerk having
    before written down in what page and line of the bill those
    amendments are to be found; and if the committee have thought fit to
    add any clauses, they are marked alphabetically, read by the
    Chairman, and delivered to the clerk, who reads all the amendments
    and clauses. The Speaker then puts the question, Whether they shall
    be read a second time, and if this be agreed to, he then reads them
    himself, and particularly as many of them as the house agrees to.
    After which the question is put, Whether the bill so amended shall
    be engrossed, that is, written fair on parchment; and read the third
    time some other day. It being at length read the third time, the
    Speaker holds the bill in his hand, and puts the question, Whether
    the bill shall pass, and if the major part be for it, the clerk
    writes on the bill _Soit baillé aux Seigneurs_, i. e. Be it
    delivered to the Lords.

    When an engrossed bill is read, and any clauses referred to be added
    to it, they must be on parchment engrossed like the bill, which are
    then called _riders_; and if agreed to, they are added to the bill.

    Petitions are offered like bills at the bar of the house, and
    brought up and delivered at the table, by the member who presents
    them.

    When a member speaks to a bill, he stands up uncovered, and
    addresses himself only to the Speaker; but if he be answered by
    another, he is not allowed to reply the same day, unless personally
    reflected on: for nobody is to speak to a bill above once in a day,
    unless the whole house be turned into a committee, and then every
    number may reply as often as the Chairman thinks proper. But if a
    bill be rejected, it cannot be any more proposed, during the same
    sessions.

    Messengers from the Lords, and all persons appearing at the bar of
    the house, are introduced by the serjeant attending the house, with
    the mace upon his shoulder.

    While the Speaker is in the chair, the mace lies upon the table,
    except when sent upon any extraordinary occasion into Westminster
    hall and the court of requests, to summon the members to attend. But
    when the members resolve themselves into a committee of the whole
    house, the mace is laid under the table, and the Chairman to that
    committee takes the chair where the clerk of the house usually sits.

    Forty members are necessary to make a house, and eight a committee.
    But the Speaker is not allowed to vote, except the house be equally
    divided: nor is he to persuade or dissuade in passing a bill; but
    only to make a short and plain narrative.

    The members of the house of Commons vote by yeas and noes; but if it
    appear doubtful which is the greater number, the house divides. If
    the question relates to any thing already in the house, the noes go
    out; but if it be to bring any thing in, as a bill, petition, &c.
    the ayes go out: where the house divides, the Speaker appoints four
    tellers, two of each opinion, who after they have told those within,
    place themselves in the passage between the bar and the door, and
    tell the others who went out; which done, the two tellers who have
    the majority take the right hand, and placing themselves within the
    bar, all four advance bowing three times; and being come up to the
    table deliver the number, saying, the ayes who went out, are so
    many; the noes who staid, so many; or the contrary: which is
    repeated by the Speaker, who declares the majority.

    In a committee of the whole house, they divide by changing sides,
    the ayes taking the right hand of the chair, and the noes the left;
    and then there are only two tellers.

    If when a bill is passed in one house, and sent to the other, they
    demur upon it; a conference is then demanded in the Painted Chamber,
    where certain members deputed from each house meet, and debate the
    affair, while the Lords sit covered at a table, and the Commons
    stand without their hats. If they disagree, the affair is dropped;
    but if they come to an agreement, it is at length brought, with all
    the other bills that have passed both houses, to receive the royal
    assent, in the house, where the King being seated in the chair of
    state, the Clerk of the crown reads the title of each bill; and as
    he reads, the Clerk of the Parliament, according to the instructions
    he hath received from his Majesty, pronounces the royal assent; if
    it be a public bill by saying, _Le Roy le veut_, _i. e._ The King
    will have it so; or if a private bill, _Soit fait comme il est
    désiré_; _i. e._ Be it done as is desired. But if his Majesty does
    not approve the bill, the answer is, _Le Roy s’avisera_: that is,
    The King will consider of it.

    Money bills always begin in the house of Commons; because the
    greatest part of the supplies are raised by the people, and for this
    reason the Commons will not allow the Lords to alter them; and on
    the presenting these bills to his Majesty, the answer is, _Le Roy
    remercie ses loyaux sujets, accepte leur benevolence, & aussi le
    veut_: that is, The King thanks his loyal subjects, accepts of their
    benevolence, and therefore grants his consent.

    A bill for a general pardon has but one reading in each house;
    because they must take it as the King will please to give it: and
    when this bill is passed, the answer is, _Les Prélats, Seigneurs, &
    Communes, en ce parlement assemblez, au nom du tous vos autre
    sujets, remercient_ _très humblement vôtre Majesté, & prient Dieu
    vous donner en santé, bonne vie & longue_: that is, The Bishops,
    Lords, and Commons in this Parliament assembled, in the name of all
    your other subjects, most humbly thank your Majesty, and beseech God
    to grant you a long and healthful life.

    The King, without his personal presence, may, by a commission
    granted to some of his Nobles, give his royal assent to any bill
    that requires haste.

    When his Majesty prorogues or dissolves the Parliament, he generally
    comes in person, and being seated with the crown on his head, sends
    the Black Rod for all the house of Commons to come to the bar of the
    house of Lords; and then the speech being read by the Lord
    Chancellor, he, by the King’s special command, pronounces the
    Parliament prorogued or dissolved.

    The Parliament was formerly dissolved at the death of the King; but
    to prevent tumults and confusion, it is now expressly provided by a
    solemn act, That a Parliament sitting, or in being at the King’s
    demise, shall continue; and if not sitting shall meet expressly, for
    keeping the peace of the realm, and preserving the succession. See
    _House of_ LORDS.

  COMPASS _alley_, Spitalfields market.*

  COMPTER _alley_, near Compter court.

  COMPTER _court_, near Tooley street.

  COMPTER _lane_, St. Margaret’s hill.

  COMPTERS, two prisons, for the confinement of all who are arrested
    within the city and liberties; one in the Poultry, belonging to one
    of the Sheriffs of London, and another in Wood street, Cheapside,
    which belongs to the other Sheriff. Both these prisons are of the
    same nature, and have the like officers, each being a place of
    security both for debtors and criminals.

    Under the Sheriffs there are the following officers in each Compter,
    who give security to the Sheriff, for the faithful discharge of
    their respective trusts.

    I. The principal officer, next to the Sheriff, is the Secondary, who
    returns writs, marks warrants, and impannels juries for the courts
    both above and below, and also for the sessions.

    II. The Clerk of the Papers: whose office is to impannel juries, for
    the Sheriffs court; and who enters upon judgment, and makes out all
    processes for the Sheriffs court.

    III. Four Clerks Sitters, who enter actions, take bail, receive
    verdicts after trial, &c.

    IV. Sixteen Serjeants at mace, each of whom has his yeoman, or
    follower. Their office is to arrest persons for debt, to execute all
    processes, to serve writs, executions upon actions, and summonses
    from above, as well as from the courts below. Each of these
    serjeants give 400_l._ security to the Sheriff, for the due
    execution of his office. Four of these serjeants, and as many yeomen
    out of each Compter, wait upon their respective Sheriffs daily; and
    during the time of sessions, double the number. At which time in the
    morning they bring the prisoners down from Newgate to the sessions
    house; put them in the dock; and after waiting all day, return the
    prisoners back to the jail at night: they also attend at the
    execution of prisoners. Upon their days of waiting, they always wear
    blue cloth gowns, which are given them annually by the Sheriffs.

    To each Compter also belong a Master keeper, two turnkeys, and other
    servants.

    The prisoners in the common side, in both Compters, receive daily
    relief from the Sheriffs table, of all the broken meat and bread;
    and there are also several benefactions made by charitable persons,
    settled upon the Compters for their relief. _Maitland._

  COMPTING HOUSE _court_, Christ’s hospital.

  COMPTON _street_, 1. St. John’s street, near Clerkenwell.† 2. Soho.†

  CONDUIT _alley_, Quakers street.

  CONDUIT _close_, Phenix street.

  CONDUIT _court_, Long Acre.

  CONDUIT _street_, 1. New Bond street, runs from New Bond street
    eastward to Swallow street. 2. Red Lion street, Holborn.

  CONNOWAY’S _court_, Nightingale lane, in Limehouse.†

  _Court of_ CONSCIENCE, also called the _Court of Requests_, was first
    instituted in the reign of Henry VIII. by an act of Common Council,
    for the recovery of small debts, under the value of 40_s._ and has
    since been confirmed by several acts of parliament. It is of great
    use to such poor debtors as are not able to pay their debts
    immediately; and also of great benefit to such poor persons as have
    small debts owing to them, and are unable to enter into a more
    expensive suit. The Lord Mayor and court of Aldermen appoint monthly
    such Aldermen and Commoners to sit as Commissioners in this court as
    they think fit, and these, or any three of them, compose a court,
    kept in Guildhall every Wednesday and Saturday, from eleven till two
    o’clock, to hear and determine such causes as are brought before
    them. They have the power of administering an oath to the creditor,
    of examining witnesses, and of making such orders between the
    plaintiff and defendant, the creditor and debtor, as they think most
    agreeable to equity and conscience; and if the debtor be unable to
    pay the whole sum at once, they appoint it to be paid monthly in
    such proportions as they judge to be in his power; but if he
    neglects paying monthly into court the small sums appointed, he may
    be served with an execution, and carried to prison; or if the person
    cannot be found, his goods may be seized.

    A cause may be brought and determined in this court for the value of
    10_d_. viz. 6_d_. for the plaint and summons, and 4_d_. for the
    order; but if the defendant does not appear the second court day
    after the summons, an attachment may be awarded against him.

    If any citizen shall be arrested for a debt under 40_s._ this court
    will grant a summons for the plaintiff in the action; and if he does
    not appear on the first court day after the summons is left at his
    house, the court will grant an attachment against him, force him to
    take his debt, and pay the defendant his costs; and if any attorney
    in London shall presume to proceed in any such suit, after notice to
    the contrary, or shall refuse to obey the order of this court, upon
    complaint thereof to the court of Aldermen, they will suspend such
    person from his practice.

    The fees taken by the clerks of the court of conscience at Guildhall
    are as follow: For every plaint 2_d_. For every appearance 2_d_. For
    every order 4_d_. For every remittance to the common law 4_d_. For
    every precept or warrant to commit to prison 6_d_. For every search
    2_d_. For every satisfaction acknowledged on an order 6_d_. For
    warning any person within the liberties 6_d_. For serving any
    precept or warrant 6_d_.

    Besides the court of conscience held at Guildhall for the city,
    there is one in Bedford court, near Covent garden; another in
    Fulwood’s rents, High Holborn; another in St. Margaret’s hill,
    Southwark; and another in Whitechapel.

  _Court of_ CONSERVACY; a court held eight times in the year before the
    Lord Mayor, at such places and times as his Lordship shall think
    proper to appoint, within the counties of Middlesex, Essex, Kent and
    Surry, in which several counties he has the power of summoning
    juries, who, for the better preservation of the fishery of the
    Thames, and the regulation of the fishermen, are upon oath to make
    inquisition of all offences committed in and upon that river from
    Staines bridge in the west, to Yenfleet in the east, and to present
    all who are found guilty of a breach of certain articles, relating
    to unlawful methods of fishing, and the destruction of the young
    fry. See WATER BAILIFF.

  CONSTABLE’S _alley_, Hoxton.†

  CONEY _court_, Gray’s Inn.

  COOKS, a company incorporated by Edward IV. in the year 1480, by which
    patent every member of the company is to be presented to the Lord
    Mayor, before he is admitted into the freedom. They have two
    Masters, two Wardens, twenty-five Assistants, and seventy-eight
    Liverymen, who upon their admission pay each a fine of 10_l._ They
    have an old convenient hall in Aldersgate street.

  COOK’S _alley_, Bedfordbury.†

  COOK’S _court_, 1. Camomile street.† 2. Searle’s street.†

  COOPERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Henry
    VII. in the year 1501; and in the succeeding reign impowered to
    search and gauge all beer, ale, and soap vessels within the city of
    London, and two miles round its suburbs, for which they were allowed
    a farthing for each cask. They are governed by a Master, three
    Wardens, and twenty Assistants, and have a livery of 244 of their
    members, whose fine of admission is 15_l._ Their hall is in
    Basinghall street. _Maitland._

  COOPER’S _alley_, 1. Wapping dock.† 2. Whitechapel. 3. Whitecross
    street, Cripplegate.†

  COOPER’S _court_, 1. East Smithfield.† 2. Portpool lane.†

  COOPER’S _rents_, East Smithfield.†

  COOPER’S _square_, Goodman’s fields.

  COOPER’S _yard_, 1. Lower Shadwell.† 2. Green Bank.† 3. Wapping.† 4.
    Petticoat lane.†

  _English_ COPPER OFFICE, in Bush lane, Canon street, belongs to a
    company incorporated by letters patent of the third of William and
    Mary in 1691, by the name of _The Governor and Company of Copper
    Miners in England_; which was confirmed by Queen Anne in the year
    1710; and by subsequent grants their power of working of mines was
    extended to all parts of Ireland and New England.

    This corporation consists of a Governor, Deputy Governor, and
    eighteen Assistants. _Maitland._

  COPPICE _row_, or CODPIECE _row_, Petty France, Westminster.

  COPT HALL, the seat of John Conyers, Esq; is situated in Essex,
    between Epping and the forest, and being built on an eminence above
    Waltham Abbey, is seen at a great distance.

  COPTHALL _court_, a very handsome well-built court in Throgmorton
    street.

  COPTICK’S _court_, Poppin’s alley, Fleet street.†

  CORAL _court_, Near Southampton street, in the Strand.

  CORBET’S _court_, 1. Brown’s lane, Spitalfields.† 2. Gracechurch
    street.†

  CORBET’S _yard_, Back street, Lambeth.†

  CORDWAINERS, or SHOEMAKERS. This company was incorporated by letters
    patent granted by King Henry IV. in the year 1410, by the name of
    _Cordwainers and Coblers_, the latter of which names was then far
    from being a despicable term, as it signified not only a shoemaker,
    but a dealer in shoes; and it does not appear that the word
    shoemaker was then in use.

    Mr. Stow observes, that King Richard II. marrying the daughter of
    Wenceslaus King of Bohemia, the English by her example wore long
    peaked shoes tied to their knees with silk laces, or silver chains
    gilt. This preposterous fashion occasioned the passing of an act of
    parliament, in the reign of Edward IV. in which it was enacted, that
    no cordwainer or cobler within the city of London, or three miles of
    it, should make any shoes, galoshes or huseans, that is, boots or
    buskins, with any pyke or poleyn, exceeding the length of two
    inches, to be adjudged by the Wardens or Governors of the same
    mystery in London: nor should they presume to sell, or put upon the
    legs or feet of any person, any shoes, boots or buskins on Sundays,
    or on the feasts of the nativity and ascension of our Lord, or on
    _Corpus Christi_ day, on the penalty of paying twenty shillings for
    each offence.

    By a late charter, this company is stiled, _The Master, Wardens and
    Commonalty of the mystery of Cordwainers of the city of London_.
    They are governed by a Master, four Wardens, and sixteen Assistants,
    and have 180 liverymen, whose fine on admission is 10_l._

  CORDWAINERS _Hall_, is situated on the north side of Great Distaff
    lane, and is a handsome brick building. The large hall is adorned
    with the pictures of King William, and Queen Mary his consort.

  CORDWAINERS _court_, Great Distaff lane.☐

  CORDWAINERS STREET WARD, took its name from the employment of its
    principal inhabitants, who were cordwainers, or shoemakers,
    curriers, and other workers in leather. It is bounded on the north
    by Cheap ward; on the west by Bread street ward; on the south by
    Vintry ward, and on the east by Wallbrook ward.

    The principal streets and lanes in this ward are, Bow lane, Queen
    street, Budge row, Little St. Thomas Apostle’s, Pancrass lane, with
    a small part of Watling street and Basing lane; and the most
    remarkable buildings are the parish churches of St. Antholin, St.
    Mary Aldermary, and St. Mary le Bow.

    This ward has an Alderman, and nine Common Council men, fourteen
    wardmote inquest men, eight scavengers, eight constables, and a
    beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest for this ward,
    serve in the courts in Guildhall in the month of December.
    _Maitland._

  CORK _alley_, Turnmill street.

  CORK _street_, Burlington Gardens.

  CORKCUTTERS _alley_, Long ditch.

  CORNER _court_, Spitalfields market.

  CORN EXCHANGE, a very handsome building on the east side of Mark lane.
    Next the street is an ascent of three steps to a range of eight
    lofty Doric columns, those at the corners being coupled; between
    them are iron rails, and three iron gates. These columns, with two
    others on the inside, support a plain building two stories high,
    which contains two coffee houses, to which there are ascents by a
    flight of handsome stone steps on each hand underneath the edifice.
    On entering the iron gates you pass by these steps into a small
    square paved all over with broad stones; this is surrounded by a
    colonade, composed of six columns on each side, and four at the
    ends, reckoning the corners twice. Above the entablature is a
    handsome balustrade surrounding the whole square, with an elegant
    vase placed over each column. The space around within the colonade
    is very broad, with sash windows on the top, to give the greater
    light to the cornfactors who sit round the court below. Each has a
    kind of desk before him, on which are several handfuls of corn, and
    from these small samples, are every market day sold many thousand
    quarters.

  CORNHILL, extends from the end of Bishopsgate street to the Mansion
    house.

  CORNHILL WARD, is so called from the principal street in it, which was
    named Cornhill from the corn market anciently kept there. This ward
    is bounded on the north by Broad street ward; on the east by
    Bishopsgate ward; on the south by Langborne ward; and on the west by
    Cheap ward.

    This ward contains only one principal street, which is Cornhill. Its
    most remarkable buildings are, the Royal Exchange, and the parish
    churches of St. Michael, and St. Peter.

    It is governed by an Alderman and six Common Council men, including
    the Deputy; to which are added, sixteen wardmote inquest men, four
    scavengers, four constables, and a beadle. The jury returned by the
    wardmote inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the
    month of January. _Maitland._

  CORONER, an officer of great antiquity, who is to enquire into the
    causes of all sudden deaths, where there is the least suspicion of
    murder, and for that purpose he impannels a jury, to whom he gives a
    charge, and takes evidence upon oath. The Lord Mayor for the time
    being is coroner of the city; but he appoints a deputy for the
    discharge of that office. The coroner’s jury have a right to examine
    the body of the deceased, and to call in the assistance of
    physicians or surgeons. They are to try the supposed murderer; and
    if they acquit him of all guilt, and concern in the death of the
    deceased, he is set at liberty; but if they find him guilty, their
    sentence is not final; the supposed murderer being sent to prison to
    take his trial at the Old Bailey. The coroner is likewise to enquire
    into the escape of a murderer, and also concerning found treasure,
    deodands, and wrecks at sea.

    There are several other coroners, who hold courts out of the
    liberties of the city, as for Westminster, the Tower Hamlets, &c.

  CORONER’S _court_, Cross lane.

  CORPORATION _lane_, Bridewell walk, Clerkenwell.

  CORTEN’S _yard_, New North street.†

  CORTES’S _gardens_, Shoreditch.†

  COTE’S _yard_, Skinner street, Bishopsgate street without.†

  COTTERELL’S _Almshouse_, situated in Chapel yard, Hog lane, Soho, was
    endowed by Sir Charles Cotterell, with a perpetual annuity of 20_l._
    a year, towards the support of eight poor women.

  COTTON LIBRARY, consisting of a curious collection of valuable
    manuscripts, relating to the antiquities of Great Britain and
    Ireland, &c. was collected by that excellent antiquary Sir Robert
    Cotton, who left it to his son Sir Thomas, and after his decease to
    Sir John Cotton, his grandson, who giving it to the public, an act
    of parliament was passed in the year 1701, for securing it, for the
    benefit of the public. Pursuant to which the library, together with
    the coins, medals and other rarities, were, upon the death of Sir
    John Cotton, vested in trustees, who appointed a librarian, well
    read in antiquities; but on the 23d of October 1731, this valuable
    collection suffered greatly by fire; by which ninety nine volumes
    were destroyed, and an hundred and eleven much damaged.

    Before this misfortune, the Cotton library consisted of 958 volumes
    of original charters, grants, instruments, registers of monasteries,
    remains of Saxon laws; the letters of Sovereign Princes,
    transactions between this and other kingdoms and states, the book of
    Genesis, said to have been written by Origen, in the second century,
    and to be the most ancient Greek copy extant; and the curious
    Alexandrean manuscript of the Old and New Testament, in Greek
    capitals, said to have been written in the third century.

    For the care of this library, seven trustees were appointed, viz.
    the Lord Chancellor, or Keeper, the Speaker of the house of Commons,
    and the Lord Chief Justice of the court of King’s Bench, for the
    time being; with four others, nominated by the heir male of the
    Cotton family. The books were deposited in the Old Dormitory at
    Westminster, but agreeably to a late act of parliament they are now
    placed with Sir Hans Sloane’s Museum in Montague House, Bloomsbury.
    See the article BRITISH MUSEUM.

  COTTON’S _Wharf_, Bridge yard passage, Southwark.†

  COVELY’S _alley_, Grey Eagle street, Spitalfields.†

  COVENT GARDEN, received its name from its being formerly a garden
    belonging to the Abbot and Monks of the convent of Westminster,
    whence it was called Convent Garden, of which the present name is a
    corruption. At the dissolution of religious houses it fell to the
    Crown, and was given first to Edward Duke of Somerset; but soon
    after, upon his attainder, it reverted again to the Crown, and
    Edward VI. granted it in 1552 to John Earl of Bedford, together with
    a field, named the Seven Acres, which being now built into a street,
    is from its length called Long Acre.

    Covent Garden would have been without dispute one of the finest
    squares in Europe, had it been finished on the plan designed for it,
    by that excellent architect Inigo Jones. The piazza is grand and
    noble; besides the convenience of walking dry under it in wet
    weather, the superstructure it supports is light and elegant. In the
    middle is a handsome column supporting four sun dials, and on the
    west side of the square, is the church, erected by Inigo Jones, and
    esteemed by the best judges one of the most simple, and at the same
    time most perfect pieces of architecture, that the art of man can
    produce. But the market before it diminishes the beauty of the
    square.

  COVENT GARDEN _Church_, was erected in the year 1640, as a chapel of
    ease to St. Martin’s in the Fields, at the expence of Francis Earl
    of Bedford, for the convenience of his tenants, who were then vastly
    increased.

    This church is remarkable for its majestic simplicity, and the gates
    on each side are suitable to the structure and very elegant. This
    church never fails to attract the eye of the most incurious, and, as
    we observed before, if Inigo Jones’s original design had been
    compleated, it would have had a most noble effect.

[Illustration:

  _Covent Garden._
]

    In 1645, the precinct of Covent Garden was separated from St.
    Martin’s, and constituted an independent parish, which was confirmed
    after the restoration in 1660, by the appellation of St. Paul’s
    Covent Garden, when the patronage was vested in the Earl of Bedford:
    and as it escaped the fire in 1666, which did not reach so far, it
    remains as it came from the hands of the great architect.

    In the front is a plain, but noble portico of the Tuscan order,
    executed in the most masterly manner; the columns are massy, and the
    intercolumniation large, which has an air of noble simplicity, that
    if compared with the most ornamented Gothic structures, shews the
    superiority of the Roman architecture in its plainest form, over the
    finest barbarism. The building, tho’ as plain as possible, is
    happily proportioned; the walls are of brick covered with plaister,
    and the corners of stone; the roof is flat, and though of great
    extent, is supported by the walls alone, without columns. The
    pavement is stone; the windows are of the Tuscan form like the
    portico, and the altar piece is adorned with eight fluted columns of
    the Corinthian order, painted in imitation of porphyry. But this by
    some is thought a defect, the lightness of the altar piece in their
    opinion giving the church an air of heaviness.

  COVENT GARDEN _Market_, Covent Garden.

  COVENTRY _court_, Coventry street.

  COVENTRY _street_, Hay Market.

  COVERLEAD _fields_ Spitalfields.

  COULSDON, a village in Surry, near Croydon, which anciently belonged
    to the abbey of Chertsey.

  COUNCIL _Office_, in the Cock-pit. See the article PRIVY COUNCIL.

  COUNSELLORS _alley_, Great Pearl street.

  COUNTER _alley_, 1. Grocer’s alley, in the Poultry.☐ 2. Southwark.

  COUNTER _lane_, St. Margaret’s hill.

  COUNTINGHOUSE _yard_, Christ’s hospital.

  COURTS. See the several courts held in London under their respective
    names; those of the government, under the articles ADMIRALTY,
    ARCHES, CHANCERY, COMMON PLEAS, DELEGATES, _Dutchy of_ LANCASTER,
    KING’S BENCH, &c. and those of the corporation under the articles
    CHAMBERLAIN, COMMON COUNCIL, CONSCIENCE, CONSERVACY, CORONER,
    ESCHEATOR, HUSTINGS, &c.

  COURT _street_, Whitechapel.

  COUZEN’S _lane_, Thames street.†

  COUZEN’S _rents_, Rosemary lane.†

  COUZEN’S _yard_, Blue Anchor alley, Rosemary lane.†

  COW _alley_, Freeschool street.*

  COW _court_, 1. Jamaica street.* 2. Old street.* 3. Rotherhith wall.

  COW _cross_, near West Smithfield.*

  COW _lane_, 1. Cow yard, Artichoke lane.* 2. Liquorpond street,
    Leather lane.* 3. New Gravel lane.* 4. Snow hill.* 5. Trinity
    street, Rotherhith.*

  COWDEN’S _rents_, Little Trinity lane.†

  COWLEY _street_, by Wood street, Westminster.†

  COWLEY’S _rents_, Long alley, Moorfields.†

  COWLING _street_, behind the Abbey, Westminster.†

  COWPER’S _bridge_, Old Horselydown.†

  COWPER’S _court_, 1. East Smithfield.† 2. Portpool lane.†

  COWPER’S _rents_, East Smithfield.†

  COWPER’S _square_, Goodman’s fields.†

  COX’S _alley_, Leather lane, Holborn.†

  COX _hole_, Spring street.†

  COX’S _court_. 1. Aldersgate street.† 2. Kent street.† 3. Shore
    ditch.†

  COX’S _entry_, Leather lane.†

  COX’S _garden_, Wapping Wall.†

  COX’S _key_, near Thames street.†

  COX’S _key entry_, Thames street.†

  COX’S _rents_, 1. St. Catharine’s.† Crow alley, Whitecross street.†

  COX’S _square_, Spitalfields.†

  COX’S _wharf_, Tooley street.†

  COX’S _yard_, Pennington street.†

  COXAN _court_, Dorset street, Shoreditch.†

  CRAB _court_, 1. New Gravel lane. 2. Ratcliff Highway. 3. Woolpack
    alley, Houndsditch.

  CRABTREE _lane_, Castle street. ‡

  CRABTREE _orchard_, Clare market.

  CRACKBRAIN _court_, Rosemary lane.║

  CRADLE _alley_, 1. Cow Cross.* 2. Cut-throat lane, Shadwell.* 3. Drury
    lane.* 4. Golden lane.* 5. Gray’s Inn lane.*

  CRADLE _court_, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Cow Cross.* 3. Fenchurch
    street.* 4. Fore street, Moorgate.* 5. Golden lane.* 6. St Mary Ax.*
    7. Redcross street, Cripplegate.*

  CRAIG’S _court_. Charing Cross.†

  CRANBURN LODGE, a fine house in Berkshire in the middle of Windsor
    Forest. It was built by the late Earl of Ranelagh; and is now in
    possession of his granddaughter the Countess of Coventry. As it is
    seated on a hill, it commands a most delightful prospect.

  CRANE _alley_, 1. Chancery lane.* 2. Old Change, Cheapside.*

  CRANEBOURN _alley_, Little Newport street, Leicester fields.†

  CRANEBOURN _passage_, Cranebourn alley.†

  CRANE _court_, 1. Aldersgate street. 2. Fleet street. 3. Lambeth hill.
    4. Old Change.

  CRANFORD, a village on the north west side of Hounslow. It has a
    charity school, and a bridge over the river Crane; and here the Earl
    of Berkley has a seat.

  CRAVEN _buildings_, Drury lane, from the house of the noble family of
    Craven at the end of Drury lane.

  CRAVEN _court_, Craven street.†

  CRAVEN _mews_, Drury lane.† See MEWS.

  CRAVEN _street_, in the Strand.†

  CRAVEN _wood yard_, May-pole alley, Wych street.

  CRAVEN _yard_, Drury lane.†

  CRAWFORD’S _court_, Rosemary lane.†

  CRAY. There are several villages of this name in Kent, situated on the
    small river Cray, from which they take their names. This stream
    rises a little to the south west of St. Mary Cray, runs by that
    town, and passing by Paul’s Cray, Foot’s Cray, and North Cray, runs
    into the Darent, near its conflux with the Thames at Dartford creek,
    opposite to Purfleet. The principal of these places is St. Mary
    Cray, about which are many woods of birch, from which the
    broom-makers in Kent street, Southwark, are supplied.

  CRAYFORD, a town near Dartford in Kent, is 14 miles from London, and
    obtained its name from its having anciently a ford over the river
    Cray, or Crouch, a little above its influx into the Thames. In the
    adjacent heath and fields are several caves, supposed to have been
    formed by the Saxons as places of security and shelter for their
    wives, children, and effects, during their wars with the Britons.

  CREECHURCH _court_, Creechurch lane.☐ See ST. CATHARINE _Creechurch_.

  CREECHURCH _lane_, Leadenhall street.☐

  CREED _lane_, Ludgate street. See PATERNOSTER ROW.

  CRIPPLEGATE, so named from some cripples who anciently begged there,
    appears to have been one of the original gates of the city, and is
    situated 1032 feet to the west of Moorgate. It has been many times
    rebuilt, but the present structure, which was repaired in 1663,
    seems to have stood between two and three hundred years. It is a
    very plain solid edifice, void of all ornament. It has only one
    postern, and has more the appearance of a fortification than any of
    the others.

  CRIPPLEGATE WARD, is very large, and consists of two parts, one lying
    within Cripplegate and London Wall, and the other reaching to the
    extent of the city liberties. The whole ward extends from Cheapside
    on the south, to beyond Bridgewater square in the north; and from
    Jewin street in the west, to Back street, Moorfields, in the east;
    it being bounded on the north by the parish of St. Luke, without the
    freedom; on the west by Aldersgate ward; on the south by Cheap ward;
    and on the east, by little Moorfields, part of Coleman street ward,
    Bassishaw ward, and Cheap ward.

    The principal streets, &c. within the walls are, Milk street,
    Aldermanbury, Love lane, Wood street, Silver street, Addle street,
    and a very small part of Cheapside, containing 170 feet eastward
    from Wood street. The chief places without the walls are, Fore
    street, Moor lane, Whitecross street to beyond Beech lane, Redcross
    street, Beech lane, part of Barbican, and all Bridgewater square.

    The principal buildings in this ward are the parish churches of St.
    Giles Cripplegate, St. Alphage, St. Alban’s Wood street, St.
    Michael’s Woodstreet, and St. Mary Aldermanbury; Lamb’s chapel, Sion
    college, Dr. Williams’s Library; and the halls of the Haberdashers,
    Waxchandlers, Plaisterers, Brewers, Curriers, Bowyers, and Loriners
    companies.

    This ward is governed by an Alderman, and within the gate are eight
    Common Council men, fifteen wardmote inquest men, twelve scavengers,
    nine constables, and a beadle. Without the gate there are four
    Common Council, seventeen wardmote inquest men, four scavengers, two
    constables, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote
    inquest serve in the several courts in Guildhall in the month of
    March.

  CRISPIN’S _alley_, Holiwell street.*

  CRISPIN _street_, Smock alley, Spitalfields.*

  CROFT’S _yard_, East Smithfield.†

  CROOKED BILLET _court_, Long alley, Moorfields.*

  CROOKED BILLET _wharf_, Millbank.*

  CROOKED _lane_, 1. Mint street. 2. New Fish street.

  CROPP’S _alley_, Back street, Lambeth.†

  CROPP’S _yard_, Back lane, Lambeth.†

  CROSBY’S _court_, Charterhouse street.†

  CROSBY’S _square_, Bishopsgate street. Here was anciently a very large
    house, built by Sir John Crosby, grocer and woolman, called _Crosby
    Place_.

  CROSBY SQUARE _passage_, St. Mary Ax.☐ Crosby street, 1. Free School
    street. 2. St. Mary Ax.

  CROSS _alley_, 1. George alley, Shoe lane. 2. Marigold street. 3. One
    Gun alley, Wapping. 4. Upper Well alley, Wapping.§

  CROSS _court_, 1. Beaufort Buildings in the Strand, 2. Carnaby street.
    3. London Wall. 4. Russel street.

  CROSS _lane_, 1. Bush lane. 2. Cartwright street. 3. St. Dunstan’s
    hill. 4. Hartshorn lane in the Strand, 5. Long Acre. 6. Love lane,
    Little Eastcheap, 7. Marigold street. 8. St. Mary hill. 9. Parker’s
    lane, Drury lane. 10. Shad Thames.

  CROSS _row_, Islington.

  CROSS _street_, 1. Carnaby street. 2. Essex street in the Strand. 3.
    Hatton Garden, 4. Islington. 5. King’s street, Oxford street. 6.
    Lukener’s lane. 7. Rotherhith.

  CROSS DAGGERS _court_, Grub street, near Moorfields.*

  CROSSED GUNS _court_, Rosemary lane.*

  CROSS HARPER’S _court_, Whitecross street.

  CROSS KEYS _alley_, 1. Barnaby street.*. 2. Blackman street.* 3.
    Norton Falgate.* 4. Without Temple Bar.* 5. Watling street.* 6.
    Whitechapel.* 7. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

  CROSS KEYS _court_, 1. Chick lane.* 2. Grape street.* 3. Little
    Britain.* 4. London Wall.* 5. Queen street, Cheapside.* 6. Watling
    street.* 7. Whitechapel.* 8. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

  CROSS KEYS _yard_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

  CROSS KEYS _Inn yard_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

  CROSS SHOVEL _alley_, Blackman street.*

  CROW _alley_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

  CROWD _alley_, Salisbury court, Fleet street.

  CROWDER’S _rents_, Narrow street, Ratcliff.†

  CROWDER’S WELL, a spring of clear water admired for its medicinal
    virtues. It is on the back of the church yard of St. Giles’s
    Cripplegate.

  CROWDER’S WELL _alley_, Jewin street.☐

  CROWFOOT’S _court_, Rosemary lane.

  CROWN _alley_, 1. Back side.* 2. Broad St. Giles’s.* 3. Dorset street,
    Fleet street.* 4. King Tudor street.* 5. In the Minories.* 6.
    Petticoat lane.* 7. Tooley street.* 8. Upper Moorfields.* 9.
    Whitecross street, Old street.* 10. White street, Horselydown.* 11.
    White’s yard.*

  CROWN _court_, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Angel hill.* 3. Bank side.*
    4. Back lane.* 5. Broad street, Moorfields. 6. Butcherhall lane.* 7.
    Butcher row, Temple Bar.* 8. St. Catharine’s lane.* 9. Chancery
    lane.* 10. Cheapside.* 11. Chick lane.* 12. Church lane, Rag Fair.*
    14. Cock lane, Shoreditch.* 15. Cow lane, West Smithfield.* 16.
    Crown alley. 17. Dancing Bridge lane.* 18. Dean’s street, Soho.* 19.
    Dorset Gardens.* 20. Duke street, Westminster.* 21. Dunning’s alley,
    Bishopsgate street.* 22. East Smithfield.* 23. Fleet street.* 24.
    French alley.* 25. Gerrard street.* 26. St. Giles’s Broadway.* 27.
    Golden lane.* 28. Gracechurch street.* 29. Grub street.* 30.
    Horselydown.* 31. King John’s court.* 32. King street, St. James’s.*
    33. King’s street, Tooley street.* 34. Knaves Acre.* 35. Little
    Moorfields.* 36. Little Pearl street.* 37. Little Russel street,
    Drury lane.* 38. Long Acre.* 39. Long Walk, Christ’s Hospital.* 40.
    Narrow Wall, Deadman’s place. 41. Newgate street.* 42. New Gravel
    lane.* 43. Newington Butts.* 44. Old Change.* 45. Petticoat lane.*
    46. Pickleherring street.* 47. Portpool lane.* 48. Princess street,
    Soho.* 49. Quaker street.* 50. Rosemary lane.* 51. Seething lane.*
    52. Sherwood street.* 53. Ship street.* 54. Sun Tavern fields.* 55.
    Thieving lane. 56. Threadneedle street.* 57. Tower ditch.* 58.
    Trinity lane.* 59. Turnagain lane.* 60. Warwick lane, Newgate
    street.* 61. White’s alley.* 62. Whitecross street.* 63. White
    Friars, Fleet street.* 64. Worcester street.*

  CROWN AND CUSHION _court_, West Smithfield.*

  CROWN AND SCEPTRE _court_, St. James’s street, Pall Mall.*

  CROWN AND SHEERS _court_, Rosemary lane.*

  CROWN _Office_, in Bell yard, Chancery lane. This is an office of
    great importance, under the Clerk of the crown, who is either by
    himself, or his deputy, continually to attend the Lord Chancellor,
    or Lord Keeper, for special matters of state; he has therefore a
    place appointed for him in the house of Lords. He makes all writs
    for the election of members of parliament, upon a warrant directed
    to him on the death or removal of any member; and also commissions
    of oyer and terminer, jail delivery, commissions of peace, and many
    other commissions for distributing justice to the King’s subjects.
    This office is sometimes executed by a deputy. _Chamb. Pres. State._

  CROWN OFFICE _row_, Inner Temple.

  CROWN _street_. 1. Hoxton.* 2. Wapping.*

  CROWN _yard_, 1. Bishopsgate street without.* 2. Nightingale lane.*

  CROYDON, a large and populous town in Surry, situated on the edge of
    Bansted Downs, ten miles and a half from London. ’Tis said there was
    once a royal palace in this place, which was given with the manor to
    the Archbishops of Canterbury, who converted it into a palace for
    themselves; but it is now much decayed. Archbishop Whitgift founded
    an hospital here, which he endowed with farms for the support of a
    warden, and twenty-eight men and women, decayed house-keepers of
    Croydon and Lambeth, with a school for ten boys, and as many girls,
    with 20_l._ a year and a house for the master, who must be a
    clergyman. The church, which is esteemed the finest and largest in
    the county, has several stately monuments, particularly one for
    Archbishop Grindall, another for Archbishop Sheldon, and another for
    Mr. Francis Tyrrel, a grocer in London, who generously gave 200_l._
    to build the market house. Here is a great corn market on Saturdays,
    chiefly for oats and oatmeal for the service of London; and the
    adjacent hills being well covered with wood, great quantities of
    charcoal are made and sent to this city.

  CRUCIFIX _lane_, Barnaby street.

  CRUTCHED FRIARS. This street took its name from a monastery of the
    Holy Cross at the south east corner of Hart street, near Tower hill.
    This monastery was founded about the year 1298, and continued till
    the suppression of the other religious houses. In the reign of Henry
    VIII. a Prior of this house being found in bed with a whore in the
    day time, by the Visitors appointed by the Lord Cromwell, he
    distributed thirty pounds among them, and promised them as much
    more; an account of which being sent by the Visitors to Cromwell,
    these scandalous crimes hastened the dissolution of monasteries. The
    ruins of this religious house are not now to be seen, and nothing of
    it remains but the name, which is given to the street, that is more
    commonly called Crutched Friars, than Hart street. In the place
    where the monastery stood, is now erected the Navy office, and many
    other handsome buildings.

  CUCKOLD’S _court_, Thames street.║

  CUCKOLD’S _point_, Rotherhith Wall.║

  CUCKOLD’S POINT _stairs_, Rotherhith.║

  CUCUMBER _alley_, 1. Queen street, Seven Dials. 2. Ship yard, Temple
    Bar.

  CULLUM _street_, Fenchurch street; it takes its name from Sir Thomas
    Cullum, Knt. who built it. _Maitland._

  CULVER _court_, Fenchurch street.

  CUMBERLAND _court_, Bartholomew close.†

  CUMBER’S _court_, Blackman street.†

  CUMBER’S _paved court_, Blackman street.†

  CUPER’S _bridge_, Narrow Wall, Lambeth.†

  CUPER’S _bridge stairs_, Cuper’s bridge.†

  CUPER’S GARDENS, near the south bank of the Thames, opposite to
    Somerset house, and in the parish of Lambeth, was for several years
    a place of public entertainment: the gardens were illuminated, and
    the company entertained by a band of music, and fire works; but
    this, with other places of the same kind, has been lately
    discontinued by an act that has reduced the number of these seats of
    luxury and dissipation. Here are several statues, &c. the remains of
    Greek and Roman antiquities, that have been much disfigured by time
    and bad usage, supposed to be part of the famous collection of the
    Earl of Arundel, but being broken and defaced, were not thought good
    enough to be presented to the university of Oxford, and put among
    the _Marmoria Arundeliana_; they were therefore removed hither, when
    Arundel house on the other side of the Thames was turned into a
    street.

  CUPID’S _alley_, Golden lane.

  CUPID’S _street_, Coverley’s fields.

  CURE’S _Almshouse_, in College yard, Deadman’s Place, Southwark, was
    founded by Thomas Cure, Esq; in the year 1584, for the reception of
    sixteen poor men and women, with an allowance of twenty pence a week
    each; and by the additional benefactions of his son and Mrs.
    Appleby, each of them receives an additional allowance of 16_s._ a
    year.

  CURLL’S _court_, In the Strand.†

  CURRIERS, a company of considerable antiquity, since, according to Mr.
    Stow, they founded a religious fraternity in the convent of White
    Friars, Fleet street, so early as in the year 1367; they were
    however not incorporated by letters patent till the year 1605. This
    company consists of a Master, two Wardens, twelve Assistants, and
    103 Liverymen, whose fine is 9_l._ 13_s._ 4_d_. They have a pretty
    handsome hall near Cripplegate.

  CURRIERS _alley_, 1. Bristol street, 2. Shoe lane.

  CURRIERS ARMS _Inn yard_, Fann’s alley.*

  CURRIERS _court_, London Wall.

  CURSITORS _Office_, in Chancery lane, where is made out original
    writs. The Clerks, who are twenty-four in number, were anciently
    called _Clerici Brevium de Cursu_, and each hath certain counties
    and cities allotted them, for which they make out such original
    writs as are required; they are a distinct corporation, and each of
    them executes his respective duty by himself or his deputy. This
    office was erected by Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper, in the reign
    of Queen Elizabeth, and the father of the celebrated Sir Francis
    Bacon.

  CURSITORS _alley_, Chancery lane.☐

  CURSITORS _street_, Chancery lane.☐

  CURTAIN _row_, Hog lane, Norton Falgate.

  CURZON _street_, MayFair, a long street, with some grand houses on the
    south side, and on the north side is the house of the Lord Fane.

  CUSHION _court_, 1. Little Broad street. 2. Pig street.

  _The_ CUSTOM HOUSE, a commodious building, erected for the receipt of
    his Majesty’s customs on goods imported and exported. It is situated
    near the east end of Thames street, and its front opens to the
    wharfs and rivers. In ancient times the business of the Custom House
    was transacted in a more irregular manner at Billingsgate: but in
    the reign of Queen Elizabeth a building was erected here for this
    purpose; for in the year 1559, an act being passed that goods should
    be no where landed, but in such places as were appointed by the
    Commissioners of the revenue, this was the spot fixed upon for the
    entries in the port of London, and here a Custom House was ordered
    to be erected; it was however destroyed by fire with the rest of the
    city in 1666, and was rebuilt with additions two years after by King
    Charles II. in a much more magnificent and commodious manner, at the
    expence of 10,000_l._ but that being also destroyed in the same
    manner in 1718, the present structure was erected in its place.

[Illustration:

  _Custom House._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sc. Oxon._
]

    This edifice is built with brick and stone, and is calculated to
    stand for ages. It has underneath and on each side, large warehouses
    for the reception of goods on the public account, and that side of
    the Thames for a great extent is filled with wharfs, keys, and
    cranes for landing them. The Custom House is 189 feet in length: the
    center is twenty-seven feet deep, and the wings considerably more.
    The center stands back from the river; the wings approach much
    nearer to it, and the building is judiciously and handsomely
    decorated with the orders of architecture: under the wings is a
    colonade of the Tuscan order, and the upper story is ornamented with
    Ionic columns and pediments. It consists of two floors, in the
    uppermost of which is a magnificent room fifteen feet high, that
    runs almost the whole length of the building: this is called the
    Long Room, and here sit the Commissioners of the customs, with their
    officers and clerks. The inner part is well disposed, and
    sufficiently enlightened; and the entrances are so well contrived,
    as to answer all the purposes of convenience.

    Though we cannot call this a very beautiful building, yet from its
    great utility, and the conspicuous place in which it stands, we
    thought a representation of it by a print could not be omitted.

    It is observable that in the year 1590, the customs and subsidies in
    the port of London inwards, were let to farm to Mr. Thomas Smith,
    for 20,000_l._ _per annum_, when it was discovered that they
    amounted annually to 30309_l._ so that Queen Elizabeth lost every
    year 10,309_l._ but by the vast increase of commerce since that
    time, they at present bring in above an hundred times as much, the
    customs now annually amounting to above two millions, and yet this
    immense business is transacted with as much order and regularity, as
    the common affairs of a merchant’s counting house.

    The government of the Custom House is under the care of nine
    Commissioners, who are entrusted with the whole management of all
    his Majesty’s customs in all the ports of England, the petty farms
    excepted, and also the oversight of all the officers belonging to
    them. Each of these Commissioners has a salary of 1000_l._ a year,
    and both they, and several of the principal officers under them,
    hold their places by patent from the King. The other officers are
    appointed by warrant from the Lords of the Treasury.

  CUSTOM HOUSE _court_, Beer lane.☐

  CUSTOM HOUSE _key_, Thames street.☐

  CUSTOM HOUSE _stairs_, Thames street.☐

  CUSTOS BREVIUM, the first clerk of the court of Common Pleas, whose
    office is to receive and keep all writs returnable in that court,
    and to receive of the Prothonotaries all records of _nisi prius_
    called _posteas_. He holds his place by patent from the King, and
    has the gift of the second Prothonotary’s place, and of the Clerk of
    the juries. This office is in Brick court, near the Middle Temple.
    See COMMON PLEAS.

  CUTLERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King
    Henry V. in the year 1417, and afterwards united to the haft and
    sheath makers. This fraternity is governed by a Master, two Wardens,
    and twenty-one Assistants, with a livery of 110 members, who upon
    their admission pay a fine of 10_l._ They have a neat and convenient
    hall in Cloak lane, Dowgate hill.

  CUTLERS _street_, Houndsditch.

  CUTTERS _rents_, Gravel lane.

  CUT-THROAT _lane_, 1. Cock hill, Ratcliff. 2. Upper Shadwell.

  CUTTING _alley_, New North street.



                                   D.


  DACRE’S _street_, New Tothill street.

  DAGENHAM, a village in Essex, nine miles from London. About forty
    years ago, the Thames near this place bursting its banks, laid near
    5000 acres of land under water; but after this inundation had
    continued near ten years, it was stopped by Captain Perry, who had
    been employed several years by the Czar of Muscovy, in his works at
    Veronitza on the river Don.

  DAGGER _alley_, 1. St. Peter’s hill.* 2. Peter street, Cow Cross.* 3.
    Quaker street, Spitalfields.*

  DAGGER _court_, 1. Quaker street.* 2. Moorfields.*

  DANCING _bridge_, 1. Pickleherring stairs.║ 2. Potters fields, Tooley
    street.║

  DANCING BRIDGE _stairs_, Pickleherring street.║

  DANVERS _yard_, Seething lane.†

  DARBY _court_, 1. Canon row.† 2. Channel row, Westminster.† 3.
    Piccadilly.†

  DARK _entry_, 1. Great St. Anne’s lane. 2. Shoemaker row, Aldgate.

  DARKHOUSE _lane_, Thames street.

  DARKING, a town in Surry, situated on a branch of the Mole, a little
    before it runs under ground. This town, which is very ancient, is 24
    miles from London. It was destroyed by the Danes, but was rebuilt
    either by Canute or the Normans; and the great Roman causeway called
    Stony Street passes through the church yard. This place is famous
    for its meal trade, and its market for poultry, particularly for the
    largest geese and the fattest capons, which are brought hither from
    Horsham in Sussex; and the whole business of the people for many
    miles, consists in breeding and fattening them. Its market is on
    Thursdays, and its fair on Holy Thursday is the greatest in England
    for lambs. It is remarkable, that according to a custom of the
    manor, the youngest son or youngest brother of a customary tenant,
    is heir of the customary estate of the tenant dying intestate. Near
    the town is a heath, called the Cottman Dean, (i. e. the heath of
    poor cottages) on which stands their almshouse; and that heath, in
    the opinion of some learned physicians, has the best air in England.

    Near this town stands Mr. Howard’s house and gardens called Deepden,
    situated in a small valley on every side surrounded with hills. The
    level ground about the house was laid out into pleasant walks and
    gardens, planted with a great variety of exotic trees and plants,
    and the hills planted with trees, except on the south aspect, which
    was covered with vines. But both the gardens and vineyard, though
    the latter has produced good wine, have been neglected, and many of
    the exotic trees have been destroyed. On the top of the hill, above
    the vineyard, is a summer house, from which, in a clear day, the sea
    may be discerned over the south downs.

  DARTFORD, a town in Kent, sixteen miles from London, is more properly
    called _Darentford_, from its being situated on the river Darent,
    which runs through it, and at a small distance falls into the
    Thames. The town has a harbour for barges, and is finely watered by
    two or three good springs. King Edward III. had a general tournament
    performed here by his nobles, and also here founded a convent, whose
    abbess and nuns were, for the most part, of the noblest families in
    the kingdom; and this convent King Henry VIII. turned into a palace.
    Henry VI. founded an almshouse here in honour of the Trinity, to
    which the church is dedicated, for five poor decrepid men, to be
    governed by the Vicar and Wardens, who were constituted a body
    corporate, with a common seal, and a power to assign lands and rents
    to the hospital, to the value of 20_l._ _per annum_. On this river
    the first paper mill in England was erected by Sir John Spilman, who
    obtained a patent and 200_l._ a year from King Charles I. to enable
    him to carry on that manufacture: and on this river was also the
    first mill for slitting iron bars for making wire. The town is full
    of inns and other public houses, on account of its being a great
    thoroughfare to Canterbury and Dover. The market, which is on
    Saturdays, is chiefly for corn, and the town has the honour of
    giving the title of Viscount to the Earl of Jersey.

  DARTMOUTH _street_, Tothill street.

  DART’S _alley_, Whitechapel.†

  DART’S _rents_, Long alley, Moorfields.†

  DASHWOOD’S _wharf_, at the Old Swan, Thames street.†

  DATCHET, a pleasant village in Buckinghamshire, situated near Windsor,
    is noted for its horse races, and has a bridge over the Thames built
    in the reign of Queen Anne. At a small distance is Ditton Park.

  DAVID AND HARP _alley_, Whitechapel.*

  DAVID AND HARP _court_, Grub street.*

  DAVID _street_, Grosvenor square.

  DAVIS _yard_, Coventry street.†

  DAVIS’S _rents_, Kent street, Southwark.†

  DAWSON’S _alley_, St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.†

  DAWSON’S _rents_, Old Gravel lane.†

  DAY’S _court_, 1. Gutter lane.† 2. Old Change, Cheapside.†

  DEACON’S _court_, Quakers street, Spitalfields.†

  DEADMAN’S _place_, near Dirty lane, Southwark.

  DEAL _street_, Coverley’s fields.

  DEAN AND FLOWN _street_, Fashion street.

  DEAN’S _court_, 1. Bedfordbury.† 2. Dean street, Fetter lane.† 3. Dean
    street, Red Lion square, Holborn.† 4. Dean street, Soho.† 5. Great
    Carter lane. 6. Little Old Bailey. 7. St. Martin’s le Grand.† 8. New
    Round court in the Strand.† 9. St. Paul’s Church yard, where the
    house belonging to the Dean of St. Paul’s stands.

  DEAN’S _passage_, Huggen lane, Thames street.

  DEAN _street_, 1. A very neat street in Fetter lane, Fleet street.† 2.
    High Holborn.† 3. Little Cock hill, Shadwell.† 4. Soho.† 5. Tyburn
    lane.† 6. Westminster.

  DEAN’S _yard_, 1. Shoreditch.† 2. Near Tothill street.†

  DEARING’S _rents_, Liquorpond street.†

  DEFOE’S _court_, New Bond street.†

  DEFORD’S _court_, Broad street, Marshall street.†

  DELAHAY’S _street_, by Duke’s street, Westminster.†

  _Court of_ DELEGATES. This is the highest court for civil affairs
    belonging to the church, to which appeals are carried from the
    spiritual courts; for upon the abolishing of the papal power within
    this kingdom by Henry VIII. in the year 1534, it was enacted by
    parliament, that no appeals should from thenceforward be made to
    Rome; but in default of justice in any of the spiritual courts, the
    party aggrieved might appeal to the King in his court of Chancery;
    upon which a commission under the great seal should be directed to
    such persons as his Majesty should think fit to nominate. These
    Commissioners to whom the King thus delegates his power, generally
    consist of Noblemen, Bishops, and Judges, both of the common and
    civil law; and as this court is not fixed, but occasional, these
    Commissioners, or Delegates, are varied at the pleasure of the Lord
    Chancellor, who appoints them. No appeals lie from this court; but
    upon good reasons assigned, the Lord Chancellor may grant a
    commission of review.

  DENHAM’S _yard_, Drury lane.†

  DENMAN’S _court_, East Smithfield.†

  DENMARK _court_, in the Strand.

  DENMARK _street_, 1. Ratcliff Highway. 2. St. Giles’s.

  DENNIS _passage_, James’s street.†

  DENTRY’S _yard_, Wall street, Spitalfields.†

  DENT’S _alley_, Red Cross alley, St. Margaret’s hill.†

  DEPTFORD, anciently called West Greenwich, is said to have received
    its present name from its having a deep ford over the little river
    Ravensbourn, near its influx into the Thames, where it has now a
    bridge. It is a large and populous town in Kent, four miles and a
    half from London, and is divided into Upper and Lower Deptford,
    which contain together two churches, several meeting houses, and
    about 1900 houses. It is most remarkable for its noble dock, where
    the royal navy was formerly built and repaired, till it was found
    more convenient to build the larger ships at Woolwich, and other
    places, where there is a greater depth of water: but notwithstanding
    this, the yard is enlarged to more than double its former
    dimensions, and a vast number of hands are constantly employed. It
    has a wet dock of two acres for ships, and another of an acre and a
    half, with vast quantities of timber and other stores, and extensive
    buildings, as storehouses, and offices, for the use of the place,
    besides dwelling houses for those officers who are obliged to live
    upon the spot, in order to superintend the works. Here the royal
    yachts are generally kept, and near the dock is the seat of Sir John
    Evelyn, called Say’s Court, where Peter the Great, Czar of Muscovy,
    resided for some time, and in this yard completed his knowledge and
    skill in the practical part of naval architecture.

    In this town are two hospitals, one of which was incorporated by
    King Henry VIII. in the form of a college, for the use of the
    seamen, and is commonly called _Trinity House_ of Deptford Strond;
    this contains twenty-one houses, and is situated near the church.
    The other called _Trinity Hospital_, has thirty-eight houses
    fronting the street. This is a very handsome edifice, and has large
    gardens well kept belonging to it. Though this last is the finest
    structure, yet the other has the preference, on account of its
    antiquity; and as the Brethren of the Trinity hold their corporation
    by that house, they are obliged at certain times to meet there for
    business. Both these houses are for decayed pilots or masters of
    ships, or their widows, the men being allowed 20_s._ and the women
    16_s._ a month. For a particular account of the corporation called
    the Brothers of the Trinity, see the article TRINITY HOUSE.

  DEPTFORD _court_, Rotherhith.

  DEPUTY _court_, Aldersgate street.

  DERBY _street_, 1. Aldersgate street, 2. Rosemary lane.

  DEVEREUX _court_, 1. Basinghall street. 2. Without Temple Bar, near
    the place where the Lord Essex’s mansion house formerly stood.

  DEVIL TAVERN _yard_, Charing Cross.*

  DEVONSHIRE _court_, Pickax street; or rather Long lane, West
    Smithfield.

[Illustration:

  _Devonshire House._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sculp._
]

  DEVONSHIRE HOUSE, in Piccadilly, is the residence of his Grace the
    Duke of Devonshire when in London. The house is built principally of
    brick, and though plain is very elegant and well proportioned, and
    the rooms of state are very rich and magnificent. The offices on
    each side are properly subordinate to the house, so as to make a
    consistent whole. The collection of pictures, with which this house
    is adorned, is surpassed by very few either at home or abroad; of
    which the following is an exact list.


                       In the great Withdrawing Room.

  Moses and the burning bush, Jac. Bassan. Landscape, Claude Lorrain.

  An historical subject, Paul Veronese.

  Moses in the bullrushes, Van Dyck.

  Wise men offering, P. Veronese.

  Archbishop of Spoletto, Tintoret.

  Cleopatra, Luca Giordano.

  Family Piece, Dobson.

  Arthur Goodwin, Van Dyck.

  A Lady, its companion, ditto.

  Diana and Acteon, figures C. Marat,

  Landscape G. Poussin.

  Joseph and his mistress, Carlo Cignani.

  Solomon and the Q. of Sheba, Le Sueur.

  Landscape, St. John in the wilderness, Titian.

  Sine Baccho & Cerere friget Venus, Albano.

  Two Portraits, Lord Falkland and Col. Cavendish, Van Dyck.

  A drunken conversation, M. Angelo Caravaggio.

  Susannah and the Elders, Annib. Carrache.

  Jacob’s ladder, Salvator Rosa.

  A holy family, Titian.


                        In the second Drawing Room.

  A holy family with boys, N. Poussin.

  Christ and the woman of Samaria, F. Mola.

  An old man in a Turkish dress, Rembrant.

  A ruin, N. Poussin.

  An emblematic picture, Andrea Sacchi.

  Venus and Cupid, L. Giordano.

  A portrait, Tintoret.

  Portrait of an Abbess, over the door, Van Dyck.

  Angel and Tobit, C. Marat.

  Holy family, A. del Sarto.

  Death of St. Peter, over the chimney, Donato Creti.

  A piece of ruins, Viviano.

  A portrait, Titian.

  Two round landscapes, G. Poussin.

  A woman and child, portraits, Van Dyck.

  Head of a Saint, L. Giordano.

  Adam and Eve, Domenichino.

  A woman Saint taken up to heaven, Lanfranc.

  Two circular landscapes, G. Poussin.

  Andromeda, Guido.

  Head of a Saint, M. Angelo Caravaggio.

  Et in Arcadio Ego, N. Poussin.


                       In the third Withdrawing Room.

  A beggar boy with a bird’s nest, Amoroso.

  Two portraits, one of Titian, the other Carlo Cignani by himself.

  Sampson and Dalilah, Tintoret.

  Two landscapes, F. Mola.

  A holy family, C. Marat.

  A landscape, G. Poussin.

  A perspective view, Viviano.

  A holy family, Guercino.

  Whole length of Philip of Spain, Titian.

  Whole length, Tintoret.

  Holy family, over the chimney, Rubens.

  Two battle pieces, Bourgognone.

  Virgin and child, Cantarini.

  Jacob wrestling with the Angel, S. Rosa.

  David and Goliath, its companion, ditto.

  Landscape, P. da Cortona.

  Moses rescues the Priest of Midian’s daughters from the fury of the
    shepherds, Ciro Ferri.

  An assumption, L. Giordano.

  A girl feeding chickens, Amoroso.

  St. Jerome, Domenichino.

  A sleeping boy, C. Marat.


                              In the Library.

  Several portraits, and two historical pictures,

  Mars and Venus, and Venus and Cupid, both by Vanloo.


                        In the Little Dressing Room.

  The transfiguration, over the chimney, Camillo Procacini.

  Landscape, Horizonti.

  Holy family, Baroche.

  History from a romance, Romanelli.

  Jupiter and Juno, A. Carrache.

  Temptation of St. Anthony, a landscape, Teniers.

  Cincinnatus, P. da Cortona.

  Landscape, Teniers.

  St. Veronica, Romanelli.

  Angel and Child, S. Rosa.

  St. Jerome, Titian.

  Crucifix, A. Carrache.

  Landscape, Jean Francesco.

  Holy family.

  Lot entertaining the angels, Schiavone.

  Charity, C. Cignani.

  Christ bearing his cross, Domenichino.

  Duke of Braganza, L. da Vinci.

  Magdalen, Corregio.

  Alexander and Campaspe, Solimini.

  Apelles and the Grecian virgins, ditto.

  Cupid and Psyche, Alessandro Veronese.

  Cephalus and Procris, Poussin.

  Peter denying Christ, Caravaggio.

  Women sewing, ditto.

  Ditto making lace, ditto.

  Landscape, Domenichino.

  Adoration, Ditto.

  Old woman’s head, Guido.

  Woman of Samaria, M. Ang. Buonarotti.

  Landscape, Paul Brill, figures Elsheimer.

  Marriage of a virgin, Albert Durer.

  Mars and Venus, Tintoret.

  Two heads.

  Isaac blessing Jacob.

  Rebecca.

  St. Joseph.

  Mignard, Carlo Marat.

  Holy family, Nic. Berettoni.

  Two landscapes, Bourgognone.

  Two ditto, Brughel.

  Water-fall.

  Flight into Egypt, Polenburgh.

  Holy family, Albano.

  Death of Dido, Paris Bourdon.

  Pantheon.

  Pope and Cardinals, John Van Eyck.

  Landscape.

  Plague at Athens, Bourdon.

  Holy family, Parmegiano.

  Ruins, Both.

  Portrait of a sculptor, Sir Peter Lely.

  Madona, Titian.

  Portrait, A. Carrache.

  Ditto, Fra. Hals.

  Jupiter and Europa, Sir Peter Lely.

  Saint and Angel, Ph. Laura.

  Woman and Child, C. Cignani.

  Holy family, C. Marat.

  Soldier, woman and child, S. Rosa.

  Murder of the innocents, Rottenhammer.

  Two people counting money, Teniers.

  Head, Raphael.

  Ditto, Holbein.

  Madona, Schidoni.

  Holy family.

  St. Jerome, Phil. Laura.


                         In the Great Dining Room.

The royal yacht, over the door, Vandevelde.

  Sophonisba, L. Giordano.

  Trophy with the head of Lewis XIV.

  Fruit piece, M. Angelo.

  Country wake, Bamboccio.

  Piece of still life.

  Fruit piece with a carpet, Maltese.

  Duke of Albemarle, Sir Peter Lely.

  Fruit piece, M. Angelo.

  Ship piece, Bourgognone.

  Landscape, ditto.

  Battle of Lewis XIV., Vandermeulen.

  A chapel.

  Susanna and the elders, Guercino.

  Landscape, Tillemans.

  A perspective view.

  In the Hall several portraits of Vandyke, Sir Peter Lely, Sir Godfrey
    Kneller, &c.


                            In a Dressing Room.

  Several portraits, among which are historical and other subjects, viz.

  An historical subject, P. da Cortona.

  Achilles and the Centaur, S. Rosa.

  A battle piece, M. Angelo Battaglio.

  Death of St. Peter, Guido.


           In the Lower Room among many others are the following.

  Consecration of Thomas a Becket, J. Van Eyck.[4]

  Pope with his Cardinals in procession.

  The presentation of Christ in the Temple, Hans Holbein.

  Two pictures, Watteau.

  Roman amphitheatre.

  A conversation, candlelight.

  Shoeing a horse, Wouwerman.

  Landscape, Rowland Savory.

  The beasts going into the ark. Jacopo Bassano.

  Chymist’s laboratory, Teniers.

  View of Newmarket, Tillemans.

  Boar hunting, M. de Vos.

  Two small pictures, Teniers.

  Landscape, Domenichino.

  Apollo and Marsyas, Titian.

  Apollo and Midas, ditto.

  Landscape, Bergham.

  A conversation, candlelight, Bamboccio.

Footnote 4:

    This picture is supposed to have formerly belonged to the Arundel
      collection, and from thence came to Henry Duke of Norfolk, from
      whose steward Mr. Fox, it was bought by Mr. Sykes, who afterwards
      sold it to the Duke of Devonshire, 1722.

      The tradition concerning it was, that King Henry V. received it as
      a present, about a year before his death, from the famous John
      Duke of Bedford then Regent of England, and afterwards Regent of
      France in the reign of Henry VI. The Duke of Bedford bespoke it of
      John Van Eyck the painter, who invented the art of painting in
      oil. Thomas a Becket, whose consecration this painting is supposed
      to represent, was the favourite saint of King Henry V.

      The length of this picture is forty-five inches, its breadth
      twenty-nine, and the height of the principal figure twenty-one and
      a half.

  DEVONSHIRE _square_, Bishopsgate street. Here was formerly a very
    large and fine house, built by Jasper Fisher, one of the six clerks
    in Chancery, which on account of his being a man of no great birth
    or fortune, and much involved in debt, was called in derision,
    Fisher’s Folly; this house afterwards belonged to the Earl of
    Oxford, and lastly to the Earl of Devonshire, whose name is still
    preserved in the street and square built upon its ruins. _Maitland._

    This is a neat but small square, surrounded with good houses, with
    rows of trees before them; and adorned in the middle with the statue
    of Mercury gilt, placed on a pedestal, which is ornamented on each
    of the four sides with figures in bas relief. This square is
    inhabited by wealthy merchants.

  DEVONSHIRE _street_, 1. Leading from Bishopsgate street to Devonshire
    square. 2. Queen square, Great Ormond street.

  DIAMOND _court_, 1. Pearl street. Tite’s alley.

  DICE KEY _lane_, Billingsgate, Thames street.

  DICE KEY _passage_, Thames street.

  DICK’S _court_, Crown alley, Upper Moorfields.

  DICK’S SHORE, Fore street, Limehouse.

  DICK’S SHORE _alley_, by Dick’s shore.

  DICK’S SIDE _alley_, Hermitage.

  DICKENSON’S _court_, Quakers street, Spitalfields.†

  DICKENSON’S _alley_, Long lane.†

  DIGBY’S _rents_, In the Minories.†

  DIGG’S _rents_, Blue Anchor alley.†

  DIMMOCK’S _yard_, Stoney street.†

  _St._ DIONIS _Backchurch_, situated near the south west corner of Lime
    street, owes its name to St. Dionis, Dennis, or Dionysius, an
    Athenian _Areopagite_, or Judge, who being converted on St. Paul’s
    preaching at Athens, became the first Bishop of that city, and at
    length Patron of France. This is the celebrated Saint, who,
    according to the absurd and ridiculous fables of the Papists,
    carried his head two miles after it was cut off. The epithet of
    Backchurch, was given to this edifice from its situation behind a
    row of houses, to distinguish it from St. Gabriel’s church, which
    stood in the middle of Fenchurch street. The old church was
    destroyed by the great fire in 1666, and the present edifice, which
    is built with stone, was erected in its room.

    This parish is a rectory, and one of the peculiars belonging to the
    Archbishop of Canterbury. The rector receives 120_l._ a year in lieu
    of tithes.

  DIPPING _alley_, Fair street, Horselydown.

  DIRTY _alley_, 1. Fashion street.║ 2. Ratcliff highway.║

  DIRTY _hill_, near Gray’s Inn lane.║

  DIRTY _lane_, 1. Blackman street.║ 2. Brewer’s street.║ 3. High
    Holborn.║ 4. Hoxton.║ 5. Long Acre.║ 6. In the Mint, Southwark.║ 7.
    Old Place yard.║ 8. Shoreditch.║ 9. Stony lane.║ 10. In the Strand.║

  _Court of_ DISPENSATIONS. See _Court of_ FACULTIES _and_
    DISPENSATIONS.

  DISTAFF _lane_, Old Change.

  DISTILLERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by
    Charles I. in the year 1638. This corporation is governed by a
    Master, three Wardens, nineteen Assistants, and 122 Liverymen, each
    of whom pay on their admission a fine of 13_l._ 6_s._ 8_d_.

  DISTILLERS _yard_, 1. Great Tower hill. 2. Shoreditch.

  DITCH _alley_, Green alley, Tooley street.☐

  DITCH _side_, 1. Collingwood street.☐ 2. Cuckolds Point.☐

  DITCH _side row_, Holiwell lane, Shoreditch.

  DITTON PARK, is in the parish of Datchet, in Berks. The house, which
    is an ancient and venerable mansion, was built by Sir Ralph Winwood,
    Secretary of State to King James I. and afterwards came into the
    noble family of Montague; but on the demise of the late Duke, the
    house and manor of Datchet came to the present Earl of Cardigan. The
    former is built in the manner of a castle, surrounded by a large
    moat, in the middle of a pleasant park well planted with timber. The
    apartments are large and beautifully painted, and in the picture
    gallery is a good collection of paintings, many of them by the
    greatest masters.

  DIZZLE’S _court_, Beech lane.†

  DOBBIN’S _rents_, Whitechapel.†

  DOBBS’S _court_, Swithin’s alley, Cornhill.†

  DOBEY’S _court_, Monkwell street.†

  DOCK HEAD, St. Saviour’s Dock.

  DOCK HEAD _row_, St. Saviour’s Dock.

  DOCK SIDE, Hermitage Dock.

  DOCTOR FRIER’S _alley_, Little Britain.†

  DOCTORS COMMONS, a college for the study and practice of the civil
    law, where courts are kept for the trial of civil and ecclesiastical
    causes under the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Bishop of London;
    as in the court of Arches, and the Prerogative court. There are also
    offices in which wills are deposited and searched, and a court of
    faculties and dispensations. Causes are likewise tried here by the
    court of Admiralty, and by that of Delegates. The epithet of
    _Commons_ is given to this place, from the Civilians commoning
    together as in other colleges.

    This edifice is situated in Great Knight Rider street, near the
    College of Arms, on the south side of St. Paul’s Cathedral. The old
    building which stood in this place was purchased for the residence
    of the Civilians and Canonists, by Henry Harvey, Doctor of the civil
    and canon law, and Dean of the Arches; but this edifice being
    destroyed by the general devastation in 1666, they removed to Exeter
    House in the Strand, where the Civilians had their chambers and
    offices; and the courts were kept in the hall; but some years after
    the Commons being rebuilt in a far more convenient and sumptuous
    manner than before, the Civilians returned thither.

    The causes of which the civil and ecclesiastical law do, or may take
    cognizance, are blasphemy, apostasy from Christianity, heresy,
    ordinations, institutions of clerks to benefices, celebration of
    divine service, matrimony, divorces, bastardy, tithes, oblations,
    obventions, mortuaries, dilapidations, reparation of churches,
    probate of wills, administrations, simony, incest, fornication,
    adultery, solicitation of chastity, pensions, procurations,
    commutation of penance, right of pews, and others of the like kind.

    The practisers in these courts, are of two sorts, Advocates and
    Proctors. The _Advocates_ are such as have taken the degree of
    Doctor of the civil law, and are retained as counsellors or
    pleaders. These must first upon their petition to the Archbishop,
    obtain his _fiat_; and then they are admitted by the Judge to
    practise. The manner of their admission is solemn. Two senior
    Advocates in their scarlet robes, with the mace carried before them,
    conduct the Doctor up the court with three reverences, and present
    him with a short Latin speech, together with the Archbishop’s
    rescript; and then having taken the oaths, the Judge admits him, and
    assigns him a place or seat in the court, which he is always to keep
    when he pleads. Both the Judge and Advocates, if of Oxford, wear in
    court scarlet robes, and hoods lined with taffata; but if of
    Cambridge, white minever, and round black velvet caps.

    The _Proctors_, or _Procurators_, exhibit their proxies for their
    clients; and make themselves parties for them, and draw and give
    pleas, or libels and allegations, in their behalf; produce
    witnesses, prepare causes for sentence, and attend the Advocates
    with the proceedings. These are also admitted by the Archbishop’s
    _fiat_, and introduced by two senior Proctors. They wear black robes
    and hoods lined with fur.

    The terms for the pleading and ending of causes in the civil courts,
    are but little different from the term times of the common law. The
    order as to the time of the sitting of the several courts, is as
    follows. The court of Arches having the pre-eminence, sits first in
    the morning. The court of Admiralty sits in the afternoon on the
    same day; and the Prerogative court also sits in the afternoon. See
    ARCHES, PREROGATIVE _court_, &c.

  DOCTORS COMMONS LIBRARY. This is a spacious room, containing a great
    number of books of all sorts, more particularly on civil law and
    history. It was greatly increased by the addition of the whole
    library of Sir John Gibson, Judge of the Prerogative Office, given
    by James Gibson, Esq; one of his descendants; and it must be
    continually improving, as every Bishop, at his consecration, gives
    at least 20_l._ and some 50, towards purchasing books for it.
    _Maitland._

  DODDINGTON _street_, Leather lane, Holborn.†

  DODD’S _alley_, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.†

  DODD’S _yard_, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.†

  DODWELL’S _rents_, Barnaby street, Southwark.†

  DOG _alley_, 1. Bowling alley, Westminster.* 2. Fore street, Lambeth.*

  DOG AND BEAR _alley_, 1. Fore street, Lambeth.* 2. Horselydown.* 3.
    Tooley street.*

  DOG AND BEAR _yard_, 1. In the Borough.* 2. Crucifix lane.*

  DOG AND DUCK _alley_, New Bond street.*

  DOG AND DUCK _stairs_, near Deptford.*

  DOG AND PORRIDGE _yard_, Old street.*

  DOGHOUSE _bar_, Windmill hill, Old street, so called from its being
    near the Doghouse, where the city hounds are kept.

  DOGHOUSE _street_, Old street.

  DOG _lane_, Five Feet lane, Barnaby street.*

  DOG _row_, Mile end.*

  DOG _Tavern yard_, Thames street.

  DOG _yard_, 1. College street, Westminster.* 2. Castle street, Long
    lane.* 3. Bear Inn yard, St. Margaret’s hill.*

  DOG’S HEAD AND POTTAGE POT _alley_, Old street.*

  DOG’S HEAD AND POTTAGE POT _court_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

  DOGWELL _court_, Lombard street; White Friars.†

  DOLBIN’S _court_, 1. Black Eagle street.† 2. Monkwell street.†

  DOLBY’S _court_, Peter’s lane.†

  DOLEMAN’S _yard_, Holiwell street.†

  DOLITTLE’S _alley_, Little Carter lane.†

  DOLITTLE’S _rents_, Fashion street, Spitalfields.†

  DOLLISHIRE _court_, Cable street.†

  DOLPHIN _alley_, 1. Blackman street.* 2. St. Catharine’s court, St.
    Catharine’s.* 3. Cock lane, Snow hill.* 4. Gun street,
    Spitalfields.* 5. Long alley, Moorfields.* 6. Wapping.*

  DOLPHIN _court_, 1. Gun street, Spitalfields.* 2. St. Catharine’s
    lane.* 3. High Holborn.* 4. Little Distaff lane.* 5. Ludgate hill.*
    6. Lombard street, Spitalfields.* 7. Noble street, Foster lane.* 8.
    Tower street, Tower hill.*

  DOLPHIN _yard_, 1. Blackman street.* 2. Butcher row, Ratcliff Cross.*
    3. Dean street.* 4. Wapping.* 5. West Smithfield.*

  DOLPHIN AND THREE COLTS _yard_, Crutched Friars.*

  DOLPHIN _Inn yard_, Bishopsgate street.*

  DONNE’S _alley_, Noble street, Foster lane.†

  DONNET’S _court_, Maddox street.*

  DORLSTON, a small but pleasant village near Hackney, to which parish
    it belongs.

  DORMER’S _hill_, by Stratton’s Grounds.†

  DORRINGTON _street_, Cold Bath fields.†

  DORSET _court_, 1. Canon row. 2. Dorset Gardens. 3. Gunpowder alley.

  DORSET _gardens_, Salisbury court, so called from this place being
    formerly the gardens belonging to the Earl of Dorset’s house.

  DORSET _stairs_, Dorset street.☐

  DORSET _street_, 1. Near Crispin street, Spitalfields. 2. Fleet
    street, from the Earl of Dorset’s house, which formerly stood in
    Salisbury court. See SALISBURY _court_. 3. Red Lion street.

  DOUBLE HAND _court_, by Campion lane, Thames street.*

  DOUBLE HOOD _court_, Campion lane.

  DOVE _court_, 1. Addle hill, Great Carter lane.* 2. Gutter lane,
    Cheapside.* 3. Labour in vain hill, Thames street.* 4. Leather
    lane.* 5. Old Fish street.* 6. Old Jewry. 7. St. Swithin’s lane.* 8.
    Turnmill street.* 9. White Friars.*

  DOVER _court_, Dover street.

  DOVER _street_, Piccadilly.

  DOWGATE, according to Stow, was originally called _Downgate_, and was
    only a principal key for ships and vessels, to load and land goods
    and provisions: while Mr. Maitland contends for its being originally
    the south gate of this city, where was anciently the _trajectus_, or
    ferry of Watling street, one of the four great Roman military ways,
    and that it was by the Britons, under the Roman government, called
    Dourgate, that is Watergate.

  DOWGATE _hill_, Thames street.

  DOWGATE _stairs_, Couzen’s lane, Thames street.

  DOWGATE WARD, is bounded on the north by Walbrook ward; on the west,
    by Vintry ward; on the south, by the Thames; and on the east, by
    Candlewick and Bridge wards: extending from St. Martin’s lane in the
    east, to Cloak lane in the west, and from thence both east and west
    to the Thames, in almost a strait line.

    In this ward is the parish church of Allhallows the Great; and also
    Plumbers hall, Watermens hall, Joiners hall, Innholders hall,
    Skinners hall, and Tallow Chandlers hall; Merchant Taylor’s school,
    and the Steel Yard.

    It has an Alderman, his Deputy, and seven other Common Council men,
    fourteen wardmote inquest men, five scavengers, eight constables and
    a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve in the
    several courts of Guildhall in the month of October. _Maitland._

  DOWGATE _wharf_, Thames street.

  DOWNING _street_, King’s street, Westminster.†

  DOWN’S _street_, Hyde Park road.†

  DOWSE _key_, near Dice Key, Billingsgate.

  DRAKE _street_, Red Lion square.†

  DRAPERS, one of the twelve principal companies, was incorporated by
    letters patent granted by Henry VI. in the year 1439, by the title
    of _The Master, Wardens, Brethren and Sisters of the guild or
    fraternity of the blessed Mary the Virgin, of the mystery of Drapers
    of the city of London_.

    This company is governed by a Master, four Wardens, and thirty
    Assistants, with a livery of 140 persons, who upon their admission
    pay a fine of 25_l._ They apply to charitable uses about 4000_l._ a
    year.

  DRAPER’S _alley_, Woodroffe street, Tower hill.

  DRAPER’S _court_, Prince’s street, Lothbury.†

  DRAPERS HALL, situated on the south side of Throgmorton street, is
    built upon the ruins of a noble palace erected on that spot, in the
    reign of King Henry VIII. by Thomas Lord Cromwell, Earl of Essex,
    which upon his attainder and execution for high treason devolving to
    the Crown, was purchased by the Company of Drapers, for the use to
    which it is now applied: but was burnt in the fire of London in
    1666, and has been since rebuilt in a very handsome manner.

    This is a spacious and noble edifice, which composes the four sides
    of a quadrangle, each of which is elevated on columns and adorned
    with arches, forming a piazza round a square court, and between each
    arch is a shield, mantling, and other fretwork. The room called the
    hall is adorned with a stately screen, and fine wainscot; the
    pictures of King William III. King George I. King George II. at full
    length; and an ancient picture, a three quarter length of Henry
    Fitz-Alwine, a draper, and the first Lord Mayor of London.

    There are also several other large rooms wainscoted with oak; as the
    court room, at the end of which hangs a valuable picture of Mary
    Queen of Scots at full length, with King James her infant son in her
    hand. This leads into a long gallery, at the south end of which is a
    door into the apartments for the clerk and offices: at the north end
    a folding sash door opens into a grand square room called the Ladies
    chamber, where the company have been used at certain seasons to
    entertain their wives and friends with a ball. In the center of this
    room hangs a large and beautiful cut chandelier, which was a present
    from the late Sir Joseph Eyles, when he served the office of
    Sheriff: and over the chimney piece is a fine picture of Sir Robert
    Clayton, Lord Mayor of London. Out of the west side of this room is
    a passage that leads to a place called the Record room; the door to
    which is of iron; it is strongly built over the passage that leads
    into the garden, and covered with a cistern that contains such a
    body of water as may at any time be sufficient to defend this
    apartment from fire that might spread from the adjacent buildings.

  DRAPERS GARDENS, are pleasant and commodious, though not very large.
    They are situated behind the hall, and being nearly square, have on
    each side rows of lime trees which form very agreeable walks. The
    middle part, which is enclosed by iron rails, has several grass
    plats bordered with beds of flowers, and in the center is a statue
    of Flora. In this part there are also several mulberry trees. These
    gardens are open every day in the week except Sundays, for all
    persons decently dressed.

  DRAYTON, a village in Middlesex, situated on the river Coln, about
    eighteen miles west from London.

  DREW’S _alley_, Cow Cross, West Smithfield.†

  DREW’S _court_, Peter street, Westminster.†

  DREW’S _rents_. Upper Ground.†

  DRIFTWAY, Near Bethnal green.

  DRIVER’S _yard_, Old street.

  DRUM _alley_, 1. Drury lane.* 2. High Holborn.*

  DRUM _yard_, Whitechapel.*

  DRURY _lane_, between the Strand and St. Giles’s Broad street. Drury,
    was the old word for modesty; but this lane received its name from
    the house of the noble family of Drewry being anciently situated at
    the lower end of Drury lane, and the upper end of Wych street.
    _Vocab. to Chaucer, Maitland’s Survey._

  DRURY’S _rents_, Hermitage.†

  DRYING _Grounds_, New Bond street.

  DUAL’S _alley_, High Holborn.†

  DUCK _lane_, 1. Peter street, Westminster. 2. West Smithfield.

  DUCK’S _court_, Cursitor street.†

  DUCKING POND _alley_, Whitechapel common.

  DUCKING POND _lane_, 1. Mile end, New town.

  DUCKING POND _row_, Whitechapel common.

  DUDLEY’S _court_, Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

  DUET’S _wharf_, Lemon street, Southwark.†

  DUFFER’S _court_, Little Broad street.†

  DUFFIN’S _alley_, King’s street, Westminster.†

  DUKE’S _alley_, 1. Castle yard, Holborn. 2. Kingsland road.

  DUKE’S _court_, 1. Bow street, or Drury lane. 2. Crown alley, Upper
    Moorfields. 3. Kingsland road. 4. Little Almonry. 5. St. Martin’s
    lane, Charing Cross. 6. Narrow street, Limehouse.

  DUKE’S _Place_, near Aldgate, so called from the Duke of Norfolk
    having formerly a seat there. _Maitland._

  DUKE’S PLACE _court_, Duke’s place.

  DUKE SHORE, Limehouse.

  DUKE SHORE _alley_, Duke shore.

  DUKE SHORE _stairs_, Limehouse.

  DUKE _street_, 1. Brook’s street, New Bond street. 2. Gravel lane,
    Southwark. 3. Great Germain street. 4. Great Russel street,
    Bloomsbury. 5. Grosvenor square. 6. Lincoln’s Inn fields. 7. Mint
    street. 8. Piccadilly. 9. Spitalfields. 10. Tyburn road. 11. By
    Charles street, near King’s street, Westminster. 12. York buildings.
    See YORK BUILDINGS.

  DUKE OF NORFOLK’S _yard_, St. Alban’s street.

  DULWICH, a very pleasant village in Surry, five miles from London,
    where there is a spring of the same medicinal waters as those of
    Sydenham wells, with which the master of the Green Man, a house of
    good entertainment, serves this city, and in particular St.
    Bartholomew’s Hospital. The fine walk opposite to this house,
    through the woods, affords from its top a very noble prospect; but
    this is much exceeded by that from a hill behind the house, where
    from under a tree distinguished by the name of _The Oak of Honour_,
    you have a view as in a fine piece of painting, of the houses as
    well as churches, and other public edifices, from Putney down to
    Chelsea, with all the adjacent villages, together with Westminster,
    London, Deptford, and Greenwich, and over the great metropolis, as
    far as Highgate, and Hamstead. But Dulwich is most famous for its
    college.

  DULWICH COLLEGE, was founded and endowed in 1619, by Mr. William
    Alleyn, who named it, _The college of God’s gift_. This gentleman
    being a comedian and principal actor in many of Shakespear’s plays;
    once personating the devil, was said to be so terrified at the
    opinion of his seeing a real devil upon the stage, that he from that
    moment quitted the theatre, devoted the remainder of his life to
    religious exercises, and founded this college for a Master and
    Warden, who were always to be of the name of Alleyn, or Allen; with
    four Fellows, three of whom were to be divines, and the fourth an
    organist; and for six poor men, as many poor women, and twelve poor
    boys, to be educated in the college by one of the fellows as
    schoolmaster, and by another as usher. In his original endowments,
    he excluded all future benefactions to it, and constituted for
    visitors, the churchwardens of St. Botolph’s Bishopsgate, St.
    Giles’s Cripplegate, and St. Saviour’s Southwark; who, upon
    occasion, were to appeal to the Archbishop of Canterbury, before
    whom all the members were to be sworn at their admission. To this
    college belongs a chapel, in which the founder himself, who was
    several years Master, lies buried. The Master of this college is
    Lord of the manor, for a considerable extent of ground, and enjoys
    all the luxurious affluence and ease of the Prior of a monastery.
    Both he and the Warden, must be unmarried, and are for ever debarred
    the privilege of entering that state, on pain of being excluded the
    college; but as the Warden always succeeds upon the death of the
    Master, great interest is constantly made, by the unmarried men of
    the name of Allen, to obtain the post of Warden.

    The original edifice is in the old taste; but part of it has been
    lately pulled down and rebuilt with greater elegance, out of what
    has been saved from the produce of the estate. The Master’s rooms
    are richly adorned with very noble old furniture, which he is
    obliged to purchase on his entering into that station; and for his
    use there is a library, to which every Master generally adds a
    number of books. The college is also accommodated with a very
    pleasant garden, adorned with walks, and a great profusion of fruit
    trees and flowers.

  DUMB _alley_, High Holborn.║

  DUN COW _court_, Little Cock lane.

  DUN HORSE _yard_, 1. Coleman street.* 2. St. Margaret’s hill.*

  DUNG _wharf_, 1. Millbank. 2. Wapping Wall.

  DUNGHILL _lane_, High Timber street.║

  DUNGHILL _mews_, near Hedge lane.║

  DUNKIRK _court_, Cock lane, Shoreditch.

  DUNNING’S _alley_, Bishopsgate street without.†

  DUN’S _Almshouse_, was erected by Cornelius Van Dun, a Fleming, in the
    reign of Queen Elizabeth, with twenty rooms for so many poor widows;
    but it not being endowed, is inhabited by the parish pensioners of
    St. Margaret’s Westminster.

[Illustration:

  _St. Dunstan in the East._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Fougeron sculp._
]

  _St._ DUNSTAN’S _in the East_, a church situated on the west side of
    St. Dunstan’s hill, Thames street, is dedicated to St. Dunstan
    Archbishop of Canterbury, an implacable enemy and cruel persecutor
    of the secular clergy, in favour of the regulars; and the additional
    epithet _the East_, is given it, to distinguish it from St.
    Dunstan’s in Fleet street. This church was repaired at a great
    expence in 1633, and in 1666 suffered greatly by the fire of London;
    but not being totally destroyed, the church was thoroughly repaired
    in eighteen months; but the steeple was delayed ten years longer.
    The style of the building is the modern Gothic. It is 87 feet in
    length, 63 in breadth, and the roof is 33 feet high; it is well
    enlightened, and agreeably disposed within. The steeple is 125 feet
    high, and is well constructed in the Gothic manner: the tower is
    light, supported by outworks at the angles; it is divided into three
    stages, and terminated at the corners by four handsome pinacles, in
    the midst of which rises the spire, not from a solid base, but on
    the narrow crowns of four Gothic arches, a base so seemingly
    insecure, that it fills the mind with apprehensions of its falling
    with the first tempest, and yet is perhaps able to stand for ages.
    This tower, which is extremely light and elegant, was built by Sir
    Christopher Wren. The placing the spire on the top of four arches,
    as the print shews, is esteemed a bold attempt in architecture, and
    is one proof, among many, of the great geometrical skill of the
    architect.

    This church is a rectory, and one of the thirteen peculiars in this
    city belonging to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. The Rector
    receives 200_l._ a year in lieu of tithes.

  _St._ DUNSTAN’S _in the West_, on the north side of the west end of
    Fleet street, is dedicated to the same Saint as the former, from
    which it is distinguished by the epithet _the West_. It appears to
    have been built four or five hundred years, since there are accounts
    of funerals and donations to it from the year 1421, with earlier
    anecdotes of little consequence; and it is easy to see that it has
    been repaired and altered at different periods, till the original
    style, whatever it was, is lost. It narrowly escaped the fire in
    1666, the flames stopping within three houses of it. This edifice,
    in a very disagreeable manner, stands out into the street, and as it
    has been observed, is but an incumbrance to the way, and without
    having any thing but deformity itself, spoils the beauty of the
    whole street, and hides the prospect of Temple Bar, which would
    terminate the view very advantageously, and be seen almost as far
    again as it is at present. The church consists of a large body, and
    a small tower, every way unproportioned. The shops, which are in a
    kind of sheds below it, make, as it were, a part of the building.
    The clock projects to the south near the west end, and for the
    amusement of the gaping vulgar, two human figures are placed in a
    kind of Ionic loggia, and by means of clock work, strike two bells
    hung over them, and declare the hour and quarters. _English
    Architecture._

    This church was originally a rectory in the patronage of the convent
    of Westminster; though it afterwards became a vicarage, and being
    granted by King Edward VI. to the Lord Dudley, has ever since
    continued in lay hands. The Vicar receives 240_l._ a year in lieu of
    tithes. _Maitland._

  _St._ DUNSTAN’S _Stepney_. See STEPNEY.

  DUNSTAN’S _court_, 1. Fleet street.☐ 2. Little Old Bailey.

  DUSTAN’S _square_, Whitechapel.

  DUNSTER’S _court_, Mincing lane.†

  DURHAM _court_, Trinity lane.

  DURHAM _yard_, 1. Chick lane. 2. In the Strand; from Durham House,
    built by Dr. Beck Bishop of Durham. _Camden’s Britannia._

  DURHAMS, in Middlesex, two miles north of Barnet, a seat which the
    Earl of Albemarle bought of Sir John Austin, and has since greatly
    beautified, by laying most of the neighbouring fields belonging to
    it into a park, and by turning and repairing the roads. The house is
    situated on an eminence that rises in a small valley, surrounded
    with pretty high hills at a little distance, so that in the summer
    months it affords an agreeable retreat; but the soil around it being
    a stiff clay, the rain which falls in winter is detained on its
    surface, and renders the situation very moist and cold.

  DUTCH _Almshouse_, in White’s alley, Moorfields, was erected by Samuel
    Shepherd, Esq; an eminent Dutch merchant, for twenty-eight poor
    ancient women of his nation, each of whom has an allowance of 3_s._
    a week, and 12_s._ to buy a gown every other year. _Maitland._

  DUTCH _Almshouse_, in Moorfields. About the year 1704, the Dutch
    congregation in Austin Friars purchased a piece of ground in Middle
    Moorfields, and erected upon it a handsome almshouse, containing
    twenty-six rooms for maintaining their poor, whether men or women,
    besides a room where the Elders and Deacons meet weekly to pay the
    pensions of those in the house, and to transact other business
    relating to the poor. The pensions are either more or less,
    according as their necessities may require; and the rooms are not so
    appropriated to the Dutch nation, but that any English woman, the
    widow of a Dutchman who had been a member of that church, is capable
    of being admitted; and it often happens, that there are more English
    than Dutch supported here.

  DUTCH FURLONG _row_, Clerkenwell.

  DUTCHY _lane_, in the Strand.

  DUTCHY OF LANCASTER _court_. See LANCASTER.

  DUXFORD _lane_, Thames street.

  DYERS, anciently one of the twelve principal companies, was
    incorporated by letters patent granted by Edward IV. in the year
    1742, when this society among other privileges, obtained that of
    keeping swans upon the river Thames.

    This corporation consists of two Wardens, thirty Assistants, and 147
    Liverymen, who upon their admission, pay a fine of 15_l._

    Their hall, which was formerly situated near Old Swan lane, Thames
    street, being destroyed by the dreadful conflagration in 1666, and a
    number of warehouses erected in its place, the company have
    converted one of their houses in Little Elbow lane, Dowgate hill,
    into a hall to transact their affairs in. _Maitland._

  DYERS _alley_, Brick lane, Spitalfields.

  DYERS _Almshouse_, in Dyer’s buildings, Holborn, was erected by the
    Dyers company, and contains eight rooms for so many poor women, who
    are only allowed two pence per week, an evident proof of the
    antiquity of the foundation.

    The Dyers have another almshouse in St. John’s street, near
    Spitalfields, erected by the master Dyers for the benefit of six
    poor widows, each of whom is allowed 1_l._ 10_s._ a year.

  DYER’S _buildings_, Holborn.

  DYER’S _court_, 1. Aldermanbury. 2. Holborn hill. 3. Noble street,
    Foster lane.

  DYER’S _Court rents_, Dowgate hill.

  DYER’S _yard_, 1. Church lane, Whitechapel. 2. Old Bethlem. 3.
    Whitechapel.

  DYOT _street_, St. Giles’s Broad street.


[Illustration]



                                   E


  EAGLE AND CHILD _alley_, Shoe lane.*

  EAGLE AND CHILD _yard_, Broad street, St. Giles’s.*

  EAGLE _court_, 1. In the Strand.* 2. St. John’s street, West
    Smithfield.*

  EAGLE _street_, 1. Piccadilly.* 2. Plumtree street.* 3. Red Lion
    street, Holborn.

  EARL’S _court_, 1. Drury lane. 2. Great Earl’s street. 3. Little
    Newport street.

  EARL’S _passage_, Earl street.

  EARL _street_, Seven Dials.

  EAST _court_, Spitalfields market.§

  EAST HARDING _street_, New street, Shoe lane.§

  EAST INDIA COMPANY, was first incorporated by a charter granted by
    Queen Elizabeth in 1601, when the first subscription for carrying on
    this trade amounted to 739,782_l._ 10_s._ and a year or two after by
    an additional subscription of 834,826_l._ the stock was raised to
    1,574,608_l._ 10_s._ and with this capital they established a
    commerce by the Red sea to Arabia, and to Persia, India, China, and
    several of the East India islands. But about the beginning of the
    protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, it being imagined that the laying
    open the trade to the East Indies would be of advantage to the whole
    nation, that commerce was made general, and thus continued till the
    year 1657, when it being found that the separate trade was of
    disadvantage to the undertakers, they were for the good of the whole
    united to the company by the legislature. _Stow’s Survey, last
    edit._

    However in the year 1698, a new East India company was established,
    by virtue of which the old company was to be dissolved after the
    expiration of a certain term allowed them for the disposing of their
    effects. This new company immediately advanced two millions sterling
    to the government, at eight _per cent._ However, by the kind offices
    of friends, the two companies were united in the year 1702, when a
    new charter was granted them under the title of _The united Company
    of Merchants trading to the East Indies_, and the old company had
    their share of the two millions. In the 6th of Queen Anne, the
    united company lent the government 1,200,000_l._ which made their
    whole loan to amount to 3,200,000_l._ the interest of part of which
    was a few years ago reduced to 3_l._ 10_s._ _per cent._ and part to
    3_l._ _per cent._ the first of these is now called the 3 1-half _per
    cent._ annuities, and the last the 3 _per cent._ annuities.

    As to India stock, it is the trading stock of the company, and the
    proprietors, instead of receiving regular annuities for money at
    interest, have dividends of the profits arising from the company’s
    trade, which being more valuable, these shares generally sell much
    above the original value. _Pocket Library._

    The transfer days of India stock, are now Tuesday, Thursday, and
    Saturday; and of India annuities on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday,
    except on Holidays, which are the same as at the Bank. See BANK _of
    England_.

    The hour of payment of dividends is from nine o’clock to eleven, and
    from twelve o’clock to three; and the hour of transfer from twelve
    to one.

    As to the management of this company, 500_l._ in the company’s stock
    gives the owner a vote in the general courts, and 2000_l._ qualifies
    a person to be chosen a Director. The Directors are twenty-four in
    number, including the Chairman and Deputy Chairman, who may be
    reelected four years successively. The Chairman has a salary of
    200_l._ a year, and each of the Directors 150_l._ A court of the
    Directors is held at least once a week, at the East India House; but
    they are commonly held oftener, they being summoned as occasions
    require.

    Out of the body of Directors are chosen several committees, who have
    the peculiar inspection of separate branches of the company’s
    business; as the committee of buying, committee of correspondence,
    committee of accounts, committee of the treasury, a house committee,
    a warehouse committee, a committee of shipping, a committee to
    prevent the growth of private trade, and a committee of law suits.

    The East India company export bullion to a very great value, with
    woollen cloth, lead, and some other English commodities; and import
    China ware, tea, cabinets, raw and wrought silks, calicoes, chints,
    pepper, &c. but all the wrought silks, and calicoes, are to be
    exported again.

    All the goods imported by the company are to be sold openly by inch
    of candle, on pain of forfeiting one half to the King, and the other
    to the prosecutor.

    East India stock is esteemed in law, personal estate, and the shares
    exempt from taxes.

[Illustration:

  _East India House._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sculp._
]

  EAST INDIA HOUSE, on the south side of Leadenhall street, and a little
    to the west of Lime street. This edifice was built on the place
    where anciently stood the city house of the Lord Craven, and his
    ancestors. The present structure was erected by the company in the
    year 1726. It is a plain Doric on a rustic basement, and has not
    much to be found fault with or commended. It might have been justly
    considered as a very fine edifice, had it been the house of a single
    Director; but it is not at all equal to the grandeur of this
    company, and the great figure they make in the trading world; nor
    bears any proportion to the idea we conceive of this body, when we
    consider, that the Directors who meet here, appoint or remove
    Governors who are their servants, and yet have all the dignity and
    state of Kings, some of whom seldom stir abroad without their guards
    and a numerous retinue, or eat, but upon gilt plate, or the finest
    China.

    The house, however, though too small in front, extends far
    backwards, and is very spacious, having large rooms for the use of
    the Directors, and offices for the clerks. It has a spacious hall
    and court yard for the reception of those who have business, and who
    attend on the company on court days, which are every Wednesday.
    There also belongs to it a garden, with warehouses in the back part
    toward Lime street, to which there is a back gate for the entrance
    of carts to bring in goods. These warehouses were rebuilt in a very
    handsome manner in the year 1725, and are now greatly enlarged. The
    company have likewise warehouses in Seething lane, the Steel yard,
    and at the Royal Exchange, particularly under the last they have
    spacious cellars entirely for pepper. _Stow_, _Maitland_, &c.

  EASTLAND COMPANY. These merchants were first incorporated by a charter
    granted them by Queen Elizabeth in the year 1579, and their factory
    being first settled at Elbing in Prussia, they obtained the name of
    the merchants of Elbing. By their charter they were impowered to
    trade to Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Prussia, and all the other
    parts of the Baltic, exclusive of the city of Narva, which had been
    previously granted to the Russia company; but the smallness of the
    river Elbing rendering it very incommodious for navigation, the
    factory removed, and settled at Dantzick, Koningsberg, Riga, and
    other cities of the Baltic.

    This company was confirmed by a charter granted by King Charles II.
    but by a late act of parliament any persons are allowed to trade to
    Norway and Sweden, though not of this company: and the Eastland
    commerce in general is in a manner laid open.

    Our commodities exported to these countries, are woollen cloths,
    serges, kersies, Norwich stuffs, perpetuanoes, cottons, stockings,
    hats, tin, pewter, lead, &c. and in return they import to England
    timber, deals, masts, oars, clap boards, balks, bomspars, cantspars,
    pipe-staves, flax, pitch, tar, tallow, pot-ashes, wheat, rye, rich
    furrs, bees wax, and several other commodities. This trade is
    however generally allowed to be of great disadvantage to England, as
    the balance against us annually amounts to several hundred thousand
    pounds: which is the more extraordinary, as all these articles might
    be had from our own American plantations.

    For the management of the affairs of this company, they have a
    Governor, Deputy Governor, and court of Assistants, consisting of
    twenty-four of the members, annually chosen on the first Wednesday
    after Michaelmas day, and they have their meetings monthly; or as
    occasion requires, at Founders Hall in Lothbury. _Stow’s Survey._

  EAST _lane_, Rotherhith Wall.§

  EAST _lane stairs_, Rotherhith.§

  EAST _rents_, Barnaby street, Southwark.§

  EAST SHENE, a village about a mile and a half in the coach road from
    Richmond, where the Lord Viscount Palmerston, a descendant of Sir
    William Temple, has a fine seat and gardens. These gardens were laid
    out and finished by the great genius of Sir William, and were his
    principal delight at the close of his life.

  EAST SMITHFIELD, a small square near Little Tower Hill, surrounded
    with but indifferent buildings.

  EAST SMITHFIELD COURTS. In this liberty two courts are held, viz. a
    court leet and court baron; in the first officers are chosen, and
    nuisances presented; and in the second pleas are held to the amount
    of forty shillings.

  EAST SMITHFIELD _double passage_, Tower hill.

  EAST SMITHFIELD _School_, was founded in the year 1673, by Sir Samuel
    Sterling, Knight and Alderman of this city, who endowed it with
    certain lands and tenements in East Smithfield, of the yearly value
    of 20_l._ for educating sixteen poor boys of the parish of St.
    Botolph Aldgate, viz. eight in the city liberty, and eight in that
    of East Smithfield.

  EAST _street_, 1. Red Lion street, Holborn. 2. Spitalfields market.

  EBBGATE _lane_, Thames street.†

  ECCLE’S _yard_, In the Minories.†

  EDEN _court_, New street, Shoe lane.

  EDGEWARE, a town twelve miles from London, in the road to St. Alban’s,
    Watford, and Harrow on the Hill, is situated on the very edge of the
    county of Middlesex. The old Roman way called Watling Street passes
    by here from London.

    The late Duke of Chandos built near this town one of the most noble
    seats in England, which he adorned and furnished at such vast
    expence, that it had scarce its equal in the kingdom. The great
    saloon or hall was painted by Paolucci, and the plaistering and
    gilding of the house was done by the famous Italian Pergotti. The
    columns supporting the building were all of marble: the grand
    stair-case was extremely fine; the steps were marble, and every step
    was one whole piece twenty-two feet in length.

    The avenue was spacious and majestic, and as it afforded the view of
    two fronts, joined as it were in one, the distance not permitting
    you to see the angle that was in the center, so you were agreeably
    deceived into the opinion, that the front of the house was twice as
    large as it really was. And yet on approaching nearer, you were
    again surprized, by perceiving a winding passage opening, as it
    were, a new front to the eye of near an hundred and twenty feet
    wide, which you imagined not to have seen before.

    The gardens were well designed, and the canals large and noble. The
    chapel was a singularity both in its building and the beauty of the
    workmanship, and the late Duke maintained there at one time a full
    choir, and had divine worship performed with the best music, after
    the manner of the chapel royal. But all this grandeur was soon at an
    end. The furniture and curiosities were brought to public auction;
    and this superb edifice quite demolished. _Tour through Great
    Britain._

    The land whereon this structure was erected was lately purchased by
    Mr. Hallet, an eminent cabinet-maker, who acquired a large fortune
    in that business, and he has built an elegant small house upon the
    ruins of the Duke of Chandos’s large and magnificent seat.

  EDLIN’S _gate_, Tooley’s street.

  EDMONTON, a village in Middlesex, in the road to Ware, seven miles and
    a half from London.

  EDMUND’S _court_, Prince’s street, Soho.

  _St._ EDMUND THE KING, a church situated on the north side of Lombard
    street, in Langborne ward, and thus denominated from its dedication
    to St. Edmund King of the East Angles, who was barbarously murdered
    by the Pagan Danes in the year 870, for his steadfast adherence to
    the Christian religion. The name Grasschurch was once added to this;
    but it is now disused: this last name took its rise from an herb
    market near the church.

    The first sacred edifice in this place, and of this name, was built
    under the Saxon heptarchy: but the last old church was destroyed in
    the fire of 1666, and the present structure was finished in 1690.
    The length of this structure from north to south is 69 feet, and the
    breadth from east to west 39. The altar is placed at the north end.
    It has a square tower, upon which a short spire rises, with its base
    fixed on a broad lanthorn.

    This church is a rectory in the patronage of the Archbishop of
    Canterbury; but in ecclesiastical affairs it is subject to the
    Archdeacon of London; and the parish of St. Nicholas Acons being
    united to it, the profits of the Rector are almost doubled; he
    receives in lieu of tithes 180_l._ a year.

  EDWARDS’S _Almshouse_, in the parish of Christ Church, Surry, was
    built and endowed by the trustees of Mr. Edward Edwards, a citizen
    and mason of London, for such poor persons of that parish as receive
    no alms from that or any other parish. Each person has one room, an
    allowance of 40_s._ a year; and once in two years a purple gown of
    twenty shillings value.

  EDWARD’S _court_, 1. Oxendon street.† 2. Panton street.†

  EDWARD’S _rents_, Islington.†

  EDWARD’S _street_, 1. Berwick street.† 2. Hare street, Spitalfields.†

  EDWARD’S _wharf_, Durham yard in the Strand.†

  EEL’S _yard_, in the Minories.†

  EGGLIN’S _gateway_, Tooley street.†

  EGHAM, a town in Surry, situated on the bank of the Thames almost
    opposite to Stanes, and three miles on this side of Windsor. It has
    several good inns, a noble charity school, and an almshouse built
    and endowed by Baron Denham, Surveyor of the works to King Charles
    II. for five poor old women, each of whom have an orchard. The
    parsonage house was formerly the seat of Sir John Denham, who
    rebuilt it. This Sir John was the father of the poet of that name,
    who took great delight in this place.

  ELBOW _lane_, 1. Dowgate hill; this lane running west, and suddenly
    turning short into Thames street, was from this bending called Elbow
    lane. 2. New Gravel lane. For _Great_ and _Little_ ELBOW _lane_, see
    GREAT and LITTLE.

  ELDER _lane_, Upper Millbank.‡

  ELDER _street_, White Lion street, Norton Falgate.‡

  ELEPHANT _court_, Whitechapel.*

  ELEPHANT _lane_, Rotherhith wall.*

  ELEPHANT _stairs_, Rotherhith.*

  ELING, GREAT and LITTLE, are situated in Middlesex, between Brentford
    and the Oxford road. Great Eling lies to the east of the other, and
    has a work house and a charity school, with a pretty church that has
    eight musical bells, and is the mother church of that of Old
    Brentford.

  ELIZABETH _court_, Whitecross street.

  ELLIOT’S _court_, Little Old Bailey.†

  ELLIOT’S _rents_, Stepney Causeway.†

  ELLMAN _street_, Long Acre.†

  ELM _court_, 1. Elm street.‡ 2. Middle Temple.‡

  ELM _row_, Sun Tavern fields.‡

  ELM _street_, Gray’s Inn lane.‡

  ELSTREE, a village in Hertfordshire, situated on an eminence, within a
    mile of Stanmore, and in the road from Watford to High Barnet. It is
    also called Eaglestree, Illstree, and Idlestree.

  ELTHAM, a town in Kent, seven miles from London in the road to
    Maidstone. Here a palace was built by Anthony Beck, Bishop of
    Durham, who bestowed it upon Queen Eleanor, the wife of Edward I.
    King Edward II. constantly resided in this place, and his son being
    born here, was on that account called John of Eltham. The palace
    here was afterwards much enlarged by the succeeding Kings, who when
    the court was kept at Greenwich often retired hither; and here were
    made the statutes of Eltham by which the King’s house is still
    governed. There are however no traces of the palace left. The town
    has the honour of giving the title of Earl to the Prince of Wales;
    and there are here the houses of several rich citizens, and two
    charity schools.

  ELY _court_, Holborn; so called from the Bishop of Ely’s house, which
    is not far from it.

  ELY HOUSE, the city mansion of the Bishop of Ely, was formerly called
    Ely’s Inn. It is situated in Holborn, and stands on a large piece of
    ground. Before it is a spacious court, and behind it a garden of
    considerable extent; but it is so ill kept that it scarcely deserves
    the name. The buildings are very old; and consist of a large hall,
    several spacious rooms, and a good chapel.

  EMANUEL _Hospital_, at Tothill side in Westminster, was founded by the
    Lady Dacres, in the year 1601, for twenty old bachelors and maids,
    sixteen of whom to be of St. Margaret’s parish Westminster, two of
    Hayes, and two of Chelsea parishes; each of whom have an allowance
    of 10_l._ _per annum_, with the liberty of bringing up a poor child.
    According to certain constitutions formed by the foundress’s
    executors, no person of ill fame, or that cannot say the creed and
    ten commandments in English; or are under fifty years of age; or
    have not lived three years in the said parishes, are to be admitted
    upon this foundation.

    The city of London is intrusted with the management of this charity,
    and is to receive annually 200_l._ for its support, out of an estate
    in Yorkshire, till the expiration of a lease of 199 years, when the
    produce of the whole manor, which is said to amount to above 600_l._
    _per annum_, is to be appropriated to the augmentation of this
    foundation.

    Some time ago the Court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen caused to be
    erected at the upper end of this hospital, a handsome school house
    and dormitory, for the reception of twenty poor boys and girls, who
    were first admitted in the year 1735. They are supplied with the
    necessaries of life; the boys are taught reading, writing, and
    accounts; and the girls reading, writing, and plain work.

  EMBROIDERERS, incorporated by the name of Broderers. See an account of
    this company under the article BRODERERS.

  EMM’S _yard_, Broad street, Ratcliff.†

  EMPEROR’S HEAD _lane_, Thames street.*

  ENFIELD, a town in Middlesex near eleven miles from London. Almost in
    the center of Enfield Chace, are the ruins of an old house, said to
    have belonged to the Earls of Essex. Here is a fine lodge for the
    ranger, and the skirts of the chace abound with handsome country
    houses belonging to the citizens of London. When King James I.
    resided at Theobalds, this chace was well stocked with deer, and all
    sorts of game; but in the civil wars it was stripped both of the
    game and timber, and even let out in farms: however, after the
    restoration it was again laid open, woods were planted, and the
    whole chace afresh stocked with deer.

  ENGINE _street_, Hyde Park road.

  ENGLEFIELD GREEN, a village in Berkshire, in the parish of Egham,
    where are several pleasant seats.

  EPPING, a town in Essex, seventeen miles from London. The markets,
    which are on Thursday for cattle, and on Friday for provisions, are
    kept in Epping street, a hamlet about a mile and a half from the
    church. There are several fine seats in Epping Forest, which is a
    royal chace, and extends from the town almost to London.

  EPSOM, a well-built and handsome town in Surry, sixteen miles from
    London, abounds with very genteel houses, which are principally the
    retreats of the merchants and citizens of London, and is a
    delightful place open to Bansted Downs. Its mineral waters, which
    issue from a rising ground nearer Ashted than Epsom, were discovered
    in 1618, and soon became extremely famous; but though they are not
    impaired in virtue, they are far from being in the same repute as
    formerly; however, the salt made of them is valued all over Europe.
    The hall, galleries, and other public apartments, are now run to
    decay, and there remains only one house on the spot, which is
    inhabited by a countryman and his wife, who carry the waters in
    bottles to the adjacent places. Horse races are annually held on the
    neighbouring downs. The town extends about a mile and a half in a
    semicircle from the church to Lord Guilford’s fine seat at Durdans;
    and, as Mr. Whatley observes, there are here so many fields,
    meadows, orchards and gardens, that a stranger would be at a loss to
    know whether this was a town in a wood, or a wood in a town. There
    are many fine seats in this neighbourhood, besides Durdans, already
    mentioned, as Lord Baltimore’s, the Lady Fielding’s, Earl of
    Berkshire’s, &c.

  ERITH, a village in Kent, situated on the banks of the Thames below
    Woolwich, and about fourteen miles from London. For Mr. Gideon’s
    house here, see BELVEDERE.

[Illustration:

  _Esher Place._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sc. Oxon._
]

  ESHER, a village in Surry, situated near Walton upon Thames and
    Hampton Court, of which last it affords a fine prospect, as well as
    of the other parts of Middlesex.

  ESHER PLACE, was the seat of the late Henry Pelham, Esq; The house is
    a Gothic structure built of a brownish red brick, with stone facings
    to the doors, windows, &c. It stands upon almost the lowest ground
    belonging to it, and has the river Mole gliding close by it and
    through the grounds. This house was originally one of those built by
    Cardinal Wolsey; but the late Mr. Pelham rebuilt the whole, except
    the two towers in the body of the house, which are the same that
    belonged to the old building, and the whole is rebuilt in the same
    style of architecture it was before, which uniformity is certainly
    better than an unnatural mixture of Gothic and modern too often
    practised. There is a fine summer house built upon a hill on the
    left hand as you enter, which commands the view of the house, park,
    and country round on both sides the Thames for many miles. The park
    or ground in which the house is situated appears quite plain and
    unadorned; yet perhaps not a little art has been used to give it
    this natural and simple appearance, which is certainly very
    pleasing. But in one part of it there is a pretty wilderness laid
    out in walks, and planted with a variety of ever-green trees and
    plants, with a grotto in it, and seats in different places. The wood
    in the park is well disposed, and consists of fine oak, elm, and
    other trees, and the whole country round appears finely shaded with
    wood.

    The grand floor of the house is elegantly finished, and consists of
    six rooms. The great parlour is carved and gilt in a taste suitable
    to the style of the house, with curious marble chimney pieces and
    slab. In this room are the portraits of Mr. Pelham, Sir Robert
    Walpole, afterwards Earl of Orford, Lord Townshend, Duke of Rutland,
    the late Duke of Devonshire, and the late Duke of Grafton; a picture
    of Lady Catharine Pelham and her son is over the chimney. In the
    drawing room over the chimney there is a picture of King Charles II.
    when only eleven years old, by Vandyke. The library is curiously
    finished, and there is a good collection of books in it. Some say it
    was at this house Cardinal Wolsey was first seized by order of Henry
    VIII. on his refusing to annul his marriage with Queen Catharine,
    that he might marry Ann Boleyn, and which refusal brought on his
    fall.

  ESSEX _court_, 1. Middle Temple. 2. Whitechapel. 3. White Friars.

  ESSEX _stairs_, Essex street, in the Strand.☐

  ESSEX _street_, 1. In Ratcliff Highway. 2. In the Strand; so called
    from the Lord Essex’s house formerly there. 3. White Friars.

  _Clerk of the_ ESSOINS, or excuses for lawful cause of absence; an
    officer belonging to the court of Common Pleas, whose office is in
    Searle street, Lincoln’s Inn.

  _St._ ETHELBURGA’S Church, on the east side of Bishopsgate street, is
    so denominated from the first Christian Princess in Britain, the
    daughter of Ethelbert King of Kent. It escaped the fire in 1666. The
    body is irregular and in the Gothic style, with very large windows;
    and the steeple is a tall spire supported on a square tower.

    This church is a rectory, the advowson of which was in the Prioress
    and Nuns of St. Helen’s in Bishopsgate street, till the suppression
    of their convent in 1536, when falling to the Crown, it was
    afterwards granted to the Bishop of London, who has ever since
    collated and inducted to it. The Rector receives about 60_l._ a year
    in lieu of tithes.

[Illustration:

  _Eton College._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._
]

  ETON COLLEGE, justly celebrated for the many learned men it has
    produced, is situated in Buckinghamshire on the banks of the Thames
    opposite to Windsor, and was founded by Henry VI. for the support of
    a Provost and seven Fellows, one of whom is Vice-Provost, and for
    the education of seventy King’s scholars, as those are called, who
    are on the foundation. These when properly qualified, are elected,
    on the first Tuesday in August, to King’s College, Cambridge, but
    they are not removed, till there are vacancies in the college, and
    then they are called according to seniority; and after they have
    been three years at Cambridge, they claim a fellowship. Besides
    those on the foundation, there are seldom less than three hundred
    scholars, at this time there are many more, who board at the masters
    houses, or within the bounds of the college. The school is divided
    into upper and lower, and each of these into three classes. To each
    school there is a master and four assistants or ushers. The revenue
    of the college is about 5000_l._ a year. Here is a noble library
    enriched by a fine collection of books left by Dr. Waddington,
    Bishop of Chester, valued at 2000_l._ and Lord Chief Justice Reeves
    presented to this library the collection left him by Richard Topham,
    Esq; keeper of the records in the Tower. In the great court is a
    fine statue of the founder, erected at the expence of the late
    Provost Dr. Godolphin, Dean of St. Paul’s. The chapel is in a good
    style of Gothic architecture. The schools and other parts, which are
    in the other style of building, are equally well, and seem like the
    design of Inigo Jones.

  EVANGELISTS _court_, Stonecutters alley, Black Friars.

  EVAN’S _court_, Basinghall street.†

  EVAN’S _rents_, Grub street.†

  EVAN’S _row_, Old Bond street.†

  EVANS _yard_, Church street, Rotherhith.†

  EVENY FARM, in Middlesex, is situated between the streams of the Coln,
    on the north side of Stanes, and belongs to the Dean and Chapter of
    Westminster.

  EUNUCH _court_, Near Goodman’s yard.‡

  EWEL, a town near Epsom in Surry, fourteen miles from London. Here a
    plentiful spring breaks out in several different spots, and becomes
    the head of a fine stream as clear as crystal, that runs over Epsom
    meadows, and falls into the Thames at Kingston.

  _St._ EWEN, or OWEN, a parish church which anciently stood near the
    north east corner of Warwick lane in Newgate street, the remains of
    which are still to be seen in the cellars of Mr. Hinton, a
    bookseller, and the next house to the west. This was one of the
    churches given by Henry VIII. towards the erecting of Christ Church.

  EWER’S _street_, Gravel lane.†

  EXCHANGE. See ROYAL EXCHANGE, OLD CHANGE, and EXETER EXCHANGE.

  EXCHANGE, or CHANGE _alley_, 1. Cornhill; so called from its being
    situated opposite to the Royal Exchange. 2. In the Mint.

  EXCHANGE _court_, 1. In the Strand.☐ 2. By Exeter Exchange.☐

  EXCHEQUER, one of the four great courts of the kingdom, is held in a
    room contiguous to the north west corner of Westminster hall, and is
    so named from a chequered cloth, which anciently covered the table
    where the Judges, or chief officers sat. This court was first
    erected by William the Conqueror, for the trial of all causes
    relating to the revenues of the crown; and in the same court there
    are now also tried matters of equity between subject and subject.

    The Judges of this court are, the Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer,
    and three other Judges called Barons of the Exchequer; who are all
    created by letters patent to hold their offices _quamdiu se bene
    gesserint_. There is also the Cursitor Baron of the Exchequer, who
    administers the oath to the Sheriffs, Under-Sheriffs, bailiffs,
    searchers, surveyors, &c. of the Custom house; but is no Judge. When
    at any time the Barons are of different opinions concerning the
    decision of any cause, they call to their assistance the Chancellor
    of the Exchequer, who decides in favour of one of the parties by his
    casting vote. _Dugdale’s Orig. Jurid._

    Long after the conquest there sat in the Exchequer both spiritual
    and temporal Barons, whence in later times those who sat there, tho’
    they were not Peers, were stiled Barons.

  EXCHEQUER, or _the Office of the receipt of his Majesty’s_ EXCHEQUER,
    a plain old building formed of wood and plaister, at the south end
    of New Palace yard, where the King’s revenue is received and
    disbursed. This important office is under the direction of the
    Chancellor of the Exchequer, who has the custody of the Exchequer
    seal; he has also the comptrollment of the rolls of the Lords of the
    Treasury, and sits in the court above the Barons of the Exchequer.
    He has the gift of the office of Comptroller of the Pipe, and of
    that of Clerk of the Nihils.

    The Auditor of the receipts of the Exchequer, is another great
    officer. He files the bills of the Tellers, and draws all orders to
    be signed by the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, for issuing
    forth all money, in virtue of privy seals, which are recorded by the
    Clerk of the Pells, and entered and lodged in the Auditor’s office.
    He also, by warrant from the Lords of the Treasury, makes debentures
    to the several persons who have fees, annuities or pensions, by
    letters patent from the King, out of the Exchequer, and directs them
    for payment to the Tellers. He daily receives the state of each
    Teller’s account, and weekly certifies the whole to the Lords
    Commissioners, who immediately present the estimate, or balance to
    the King. He makes half yearly, at Michaelmas and Lady-day, a book
    called _A Declaration_, containing a methodical abstract of all the
    accounts and payments made the preceding half year, and delivers one
    of them to the Lords of the Treasury, and another to the Chancellor
    of the Exchequer; and by him are kept the registers appointed for
    paying all persons in course, upon several branches of the King’s
    revenue. For the discharge of these offices, he has a chief clerk, a
    clerk of the debentures, a clerk of the registers and issues, a
    clerk of the cash book, and a clerk for making out Exchequer bills;
    and in the offices for annuities under the Auditor are two chief
    clerks, and nine clerks under them.

    The other great officers are the four Tellers of the Exchequer, each
    of whom has his deputy, his first clerk, and four other clerks.
    Their office is to receive all moneys due to the King, and thereupon
    to throw down a bill through a pipe into the tally court, where it
    is received by the Auditor’s clerk, who there attends to write the
    words of the bill upon a tally, and then delivers the same to be
    entered by the Clerk of the Pells, or his under clerk, who attends
    to enter it in his book; then the tally is cloven by the two Deputy
    Chamberlains, and while the senior deputy reads one part, the junior
    examines the other part with the two clerks.

    Another great officer is the Clerk of the Pells, who enters the
    Tellers bills on a parchment skin, in latin _Pellis_, and likewise
    all receipts and payment for the King; this officer is in the nature
    of a comptroller; he has a deputy, a clerk for the _introitus_, and
    another for the _exitus_. There are also a clerk of the
    declarations, and a clerk of the patents. In this office there are
    likewise three vouchers of the Tellers.

  _Tally Court in the_ EXCHEQUER. In order to give a more perfect idea
    of this office, it will be proper to say something of the nature of
    tallies. The word tally is derived from the French word _tailler_,
    to cut, a tally being a piece of wood wrote upon on both sides,
    containing an acquittance for money received, which being cloven
    asunder by the Deputy Chamberlains, one part, called the stock, is
    delivered to the person who pays or lends any money to the
    government; and the other part, called the counter-stock or
    counter-foil, remains in the office, to be kept till called for, and
    joined with the stock. This method of striking tallies is very
    ancient, and has been found by long experience to be the best way of
    preventing frauds that ever was invented; for it is morrally
    impossible so to counterfeit a tally, but upon rejoining it with the
    counter-foil, the intended fraud will be obvious to every eye,
    either in the notches or the cleaving, in the length or in the
    breadth, in the natural growth, or in the shape of the counter-foil.

    To the tally court belong the two Chamberlains of the Exchequer, in
    whose custody are many ancient records, leagues, and treaties with
    foreign princes, the standards of money, weights, and measures,
    those ancient books called the Black Book of the Exchequer, and
    Doomsday Book, which last contains an account of all the cities,
    towns, villages and families in the reign of William the Conqueror.
    This book is kept under three locks and keys, and cannot be examined
    for less than 6_s._ 8_d_. and for every line transcribed is paid
    4_d_.

    Under these officers are four Deputy Chamberlains, in whose office
    are preserved all the counter-foils of the above tallies, so exactly
    ranked by months or years, that they may be easily found out, in
    order to be joined with their respective tallies, which being done
    and proved true, they deliver it attested for a lawful tally to the
    Clerk of the Pipe, to be allowed in the great roll.

    The other officers of this court, are the Usher of the Exchequer,
    his deputy and clerk; three Paymasters of Exchequer bills, their
    deputy, and a Comptroller of Exchequer bills; a tally writer for the
    Auditor, who has two assistant clerks, and a tally cutter.
    _Chamberlain’s Present State._

    There are several other offices belonging to the Exchequer, as the
    pipe office in Gray’s Inn; Foreign Apposer’s office, and King’s
    Remembrancer’s office, in the Temple; Clerk of the pleas office, in
    Lincoln’s Inn, &c. See the articles PIPE OFFICE, FOREIGN APPOSER’S
    OFFICE, &c. See also the article TREASURER.

  EXECUTION _dock_, Wapping; thus named from its being the place where
    pirates and others who have committed capital crimes at sea, are
    executed on a gallows which leans over the water.

  EXCISE OFFICE, in the Old Jewry, is a large brick building near the
    paved court on the south side of the church, formerly the dwelling
    house of Sir John Frederick. This office was, till lately, managed
    by seven Commissioners; but the many new excisable commodities
    brought under their care, have occasioned their number to be
    increased to nine. These receive the produce of the excise of beer,
    ale, and other liquors, of coffee, tea, and chocolate, of malt,
    hops, soap, starch, candles, paper, calicoes, gold and silver wire,
    vellum, parchment, hides and skins, collected all over England, and
    pay it into the Exchequer. They have each a salary of 1000_l._ a
    year, and are obliged by oath to take no fee or reward, but from the
    King only.

    Before the Commissioners of Excise are tried all frauds committed in
    the several branches of the revenue under their direction; and if
    any person thinks himself injured by their sentence, he may appeal
    to the Commissioners of Appeal for a rehearing.

    At the desire of the Commissioners of this office, a very laudable
    practice is lately set on foot, for the support of the valetudenary
    and aged clerks and officers belonging to the same; for which
    purpose the several clerks and officers contribute 3_d._ per pound
    out of their respective salaries, which is said to amount to about
    3000_l._ _per annum_. _Chamberlain’s Present State._ _Maitland’s
    Survey._

  EXETER ’CHANGE, an edifice in the Strand, erected for the sake of
    trade, consisting of a long room with a row of shops on each side,
    and a large room above, now used for auctions. This edifice received
    its name from the mansion of the Earls of Exeter, which stood near
    it. _Maitland._

  EXETER ’CHANGE _court_, Exeter street.

  EXETER _street_, Catharine street, so called from its being situated
    near Exeter ’Change.



                                   F.


  _Court of_ FACULTIES _and_ DISPENSATIONS, in Doctors Commons, under
    the Archbishop of Canterbury. When the papal power was abolished in
    England by King Henry VIII. this court was established by act of
    parliament, that the Archbishop in the Pope’s stead, might grant
    dispensations and indulgences for eating flesh upon prohibited days;
    for marrying without banns or on holydays; for a son to succeed his
    father in his benefice; for a plurality of livings, non-residence,
    and other cases of the like nature. To this court belongs an officer
    called _Magister ad Facultates_, and a register.

  FAGER’S _alley_, Turnmill street†

  FAIR _street_, Horselydown.

  _St._ FAITH’S, a parish church once under the east end or choir of St.
    Paul’s cathedral. It owes its name to its being dedicated to St.
    Faith, or _Sancta Fides_, a French virgin of the city of Agen, in
    the province of Aquitain, who is said to have suffered martyrdom in
    the reign of the Emperor Dioclesian, for refusing to sacrifice to
    idols. No records however remain of the antiquity of this church, in
    which several persons of note were formerly interred, nor is it
    known at what time divine service was performed in it, other than by
    chauntry priests for the souls of their departed benefactors. This
    church however having suffered with St. Paul’s cathedral, it was
    thought proper entirely to demolish it, and to unite the parish to
    that of St. Austin’s.

  FALCON _alley_, 1. Barnaby street.* 2. King street, Westminster.* 3.
    Redcross street.*

  FALCON _court_, 1. In the Borough.* 2. Fleet street.* 3. Lothbury.* 4.
    Near Rag street, Clerkenwell.* 5. Shoe lane.* 6. Shoemaker row,
    Aldgate.*

  FALCON _Inn yard_, St. Margaret’s hill.*

  FALCON _lane_, 1. Falcon stairs.* 2. Maiden lane, Southwark.*

  FALCON _row_, 1. Codpiece row.* 2. Fleet street.* 3. Long lane,
    Southwark.* 4. Lothbury.* 5. St. Margaret’s hill.* 6. Shoe lane.* 7.
    White street.*

  FALCON _stairs_, Gravel lane.*

  FALCON _yard_, 1. Kent street.* 2. Shoemaker row, Aldgate.* 3. Tooley
    street.*

  FALCONBRIDGE _court_, Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

  FALCONER’S _alley_, 1. Cow Cross, West Smithfield.† 2. Cross street,
    by Lukener’s lane.† 3. Turnmill street.†

  FAN _court_, St. Michael’s lane.

  FANMAKERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Queen
    Anne, in the year 1709. This fraternity is governed by a Master, two
    Wardens, and twenty Assistants; but they have neither hall nor
    livery. _Maitland._

  FANN’S _alley_, 1. Goswell street.† 2. Webb’s square.†

  FARINGDON WARD _Within_, received its name from William Farendon and
    Nicolas his son, who had the government of all this ward for the
    space of eighty-two years; and it received the addition of _within_,
    on account of this part of Faringdon ward lying within the walls. It
    is bounded on the north by Aldersgate ward, Cripplegate ward, and
    the liberty of St. Martin’s le Grand; on the west by Faringdon
    without, on the south by Castle Baynard ward, and the river Thames;
    and on the east by Castle Baynard ward, and Cheap ward.

    The principal streets and lanes in this ward are, Newgate street,
    the west side of Warwick lane, Ave Mary lane, Paternoster row, Ivy
    lane, St. Paul’s church yard, Ludgate street, and Black Friars.

    The most remarkable buildings are, St. Paul’s cathedral, St. Vedast
    in Foster lane, Christ Church in Newgate street, St. Martin’s
    Ludgate, and St. Matthew’s Friday street; the college of Physicians,
    Stationers hall, Apothecaries hall, Sadlers hall, Embroiderers hall,
    and Scots hall; St. Paul’s school, Christ Church hospital, and
    Ludgate.

    This ward is governed by an Alderman, his Deputy, twelve Common
    Council men, eighteen wardmote inquest men, eighteen scavengers,
    seventeen constables and a beadle; and the jury returned by the
    inquest for this ward serve in the courts of Guildhall in the month
    of September.

  FARINGDON WARD _Without_, is the farthest ward to the west of the
    city, and is bounded on the north by the Charterhouse, the parish of
    St. James Clerkenwell, and part of St. Andrew’s parish without the
    freedom; on the west, by High Holborn and St. Clement’s parish in
    the Strand; on the south, by the Thames; and on the east, by the
    ward of Faringdon within, the precinct of St. Bartholomew near
    Smithfield, and the ward of Aldersgate.

    The principal places in this ward are, Smithfield, Cloth Fair,
    Bartholomew Close, Snow hill, and all Holborn up to the Bars, Hatton
    Garden, Leather lane, and Brook street; the Old Bailey, Ludgate
    hill, Fleet ditch and market, Shoe lane, Fetter lane, Fleet street,
    White Friars, and Salisbury court.

    The most remarkable buildings are, the Temple, Serjeants Inn,
    Clifford’s, Barnard’s and Thavie’s Inns, Temple Bar, Bridewell
    hospital, St. Bartholomew’s hospital, Fleet prison, Surgeon’s hall;
    and the parish churches of St. Bartholomew the Great, St.
    Bartholomew the Less, St. Sepulchre’s, St. Andrew’s Holborn, St.
    Dunstan’s in the west, and St. Bride’s.

    This ward being so very extensive is parted into three divisions,
    and is governed by an Alderman, and three Deputies, sixteen Common
    Council men, forty-four inquest men, fifteen scavengers, and fifteen
    constables. The jury returned by the inquest in this ward serve in
    the several courts of Guildhall in the month of June.

  FARMER’S _alley_, 1. Gardiner’s lane.† 2. Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

  FARMER’S _court_, Ivy street.†

  FARMER’S _street_, Shadwell.†

  FARR’S _alley_, St. Giles’s.†

  FARR’S _rents_, Rotherhith wall.†

  FARR’S _yard_, Whitecross street.†

  FARRANT’S _yard_, Rotherhith wall.†

  FARRIERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King
    Charles II. in the year 1673, and governed by a Master, three
    Wardens, twenty-four Assistants, and seventy-six Liverymen, each of
    whom, upon their admission, pay a fine of 5_l._ but they have no
    hall. _Maitland._

  FARRIER’S _yard_, 1. In the Minories. 2. Stoney lane.

  FARTHING _alley_, 1. East Smithfield. 2. Jacob street, Rotherhith. 3.
    In the Maze.

  FARTHING _fields_, 1. New Gravel lane.║ 2. Old Gravel lane.║

  FARTHING _street_, Phenix street, Spitalfields.║

  FASHION _street_, Artillery lane, Spitalfields.

  FAUSTIN’S _court_, Bowl alley, St. Giles’s.† 2. Vinegar lane, Drury
    lane.†

  FEATHERS _alley_, 1. Bedfordbury.* 2. Holborn.* 3. Long Acre.* 4. St.
    Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.* 5. In the Strand.*

  FEATHERS _court_, 1. Bury court, Piccadilly.* 2. Drury lane.* 3. Fox
    court, Gray’s Inn lane.* 4. High Holborn.* 5. Milk street,
    Cheapside.*

  FEATHERSTONE’S _buildings_, High Holborn.†

  FEATHERSTONE’S _court_, Featherstone street.†

  FEATHERSTONE _street_, Bunhill row.†

  FELL _court_, Fell street.†

  FELL _street_, Little Wood street.†

  FELL’S _Almshouse_, at Blackwall, was erected by Capt. Fell for the
    accommodation of four poor families, but without any allowance for
    their support.

  FELLOWSHIP _Porters_. See PORTERS.

  FELTMAKERS. The Felt hat-makers being anciently a branch of the
    company of Haberdashers of hats, they applied in the year 1576 for
    an exclusive charter; but being opposed by the Haberdashers, their
    endeavours proved abortive; but at last all disputes being adjusted,
    they were separately incorporated by letters patent granted by King
    James I. in the year 1604. They are governed by a Master, four
    Wardens, and twenty-five Assistants, with a livery of sixty members,
    who at their admission pay a fine of 5_l._ each, but they have no
    hall. _Maitland._

  FEN _court_, 1. Fenchurch street. 2. St Michael’s lane.†

  FENCHURCH _buildings_, Fenchurch street.

  FENCHURCH _street_, Gracechurch street. It took its name from the
    Lang-bourn, a rivulet or bourn, that arose near the place which is
    now Magpye alley, and spreading near the spring head, rendered the
    contiguous street so moorish or fenny, especially about the church,
    which stood in the broad way between Mincing lane and Rood lane,
    that it from thence obtained the name of Fenchurch street.
    _Maitland._

  FENWICK’S _court_, High Holborn.

  FETCHAM, a village near Leatherhead, where is the seat of Thomas
    Revel, Esq; on which no cost has been spared to render a most
    beautiful situation by nature, more delightful by art.

  FETTER _lane_, Fleet street, in old writings called Feuter lane; it
    was then what Drury lane is now.

  FETTER LANE _court_, Bernard’s Inn.

  FIELD _court_, Gray’s Inn.

  FIELD _lane_, Holborn hill.

  FIGTREE _court_, 1. Barbican.‡ 2. Inner Temple.‡

  FIGTREE _yard_, Maudlin’s rents.‡

  FINCH _lane_, Cornhill.†

  FINCHLEY, a village in Middlesex between Hendon and Coneyhatch, is
    seven miles north of London.

  FINSBURY, Moorfields, formerly called Fensbury, from a neighbouring
    fen or moor. _Maitland._

  FINSBURY COURTS, in this place the steward of the manor holds a court
    leet and court baron, in which are transacted the business peculiar
    to each court.

  FINSBURY _yard_, Chiswell street.

  FIRE OFFICE. See the particular names by which they are distinguished,
    as HAND IN HAND, SUN FIRE OFFICE, UNION, &c.

  FIREBALL _alley_, Houndsditch.

  FIREBALL _court_, 1. Houndsditch. 2. First Postern, London Wall.

  FIRST FRUITS OFFICE, in the Middle Temple, is under the Remembrancer
    of the first fruits, under whom is a Deputy and senior clerk, a
    Receiver, and a Deputy Receiver of the first fruits; a Receiver of
    the tenths, and his clerk, and a Comptroller of the first fruits and
    tenths.

  FISH MARKET _court_, Bloomsbury.

  FISH STREET _hill_, Gracechurch street.

  FISH _yard_, 1. St. Margaret’s lane. 2. Pudding lane.

  FISHERMEN, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King
    James II. in the year 1687, by the name of _The_ _free Fishermen of
    London_; but it does not appear that they have either livery or
    arms: They have however a hall in Thames street.

  FISHER’S _alley_, 1. Hide street, Bloomsbury.† 2. Rosemary lane.† 3.
    Water lane, Fleet street.†

  FISHER’S _Almshouse_, in the Dog row, near Mile end, was erected by
    Capt. Fisher, in the year 1711, for the widows of six masters of
    ships, for whose support he settled upon it an estate of 40_l._ a
    year; and committed the trust of it to the fraternity of the Trinity
    House.

    To this edifice are since added two additional rooms, the ground for
    which was purchased by Sir Charles Wager, and these rooms built by
    Sir William Ogborne in the year 1728. The two widows who live in
    these, have each an allowance of 16_s._ a month, and 20_s._ _per
    annum_ for coals.

  FISHER’S _court_, Eagle street, Holborn.†

  FISHER’S _rents_, Broad street, Old Gravel lane.†

  FISHER’S _street_, Red Lion square.†

  FISHMONGERS. These as well as the other persons concerned in
    furnishing the city with provisions, were anciently under the
    immediate direction of the court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen, and
    these magistrates had this power confirmed by an act of parliament
    in the seventh of Richard II. in the year 1384. At that time the
    dealers in fish consisted of two communities, viz. the salt-fish,
    and stock-fishmongers, though they were not incorporated till
    afterwards, the former in 1433, and the latter in 1509. But this
    division proving prejudicial to the profession in general, they
    united, and were incorporated by letters patent, granted by Henry
    VIII. in the year 1536.

    This is one of the twelve principal companies, and is governed by a
    Prime and five other Wardens, twenty-eight Assistants, and 140
    Liverymen, who upon their admission pay a fine of 13_l._ 6_s._ 8_d_.
    This corporation pays to charitable uses about 800_l._ _per annum_.

  FISHMONGERS HALL, situated in Thames street, a little above the
    Bridge, and has a view of the river. The entrance from Thames street
    is by a handsome passage which leads into a large square court,
    paved with flat stones, and encompassed by the great hall, the court
    room for the Assistants, and other grand apartments, with galleries;
    these are of an handsome construction, and are supported by Ionic
    columns, with an arcade. The front next the Thames has been lately
    repaired and ornamented at a very great expence. The ascent to the
    first apartments is by a double flight of steps from the wharf; the
    door is adorned with Ionic columns, and these support an open
    pediment, in which is a shield with the arms of the company; the
    windows are ornamented with stone cases, and the quoins of the
    building are wrought with a handsome rustic, and in the whole of
    this front there is a great deal of solid beauty.

  FISHMONGERS _alley_, 1. St. Margaret’s hill. 2. Fenchurch street.

  FISHMONGERS _Almshouses_, handsome buildings at Newington Butts,
    founded and erected at different times. The most ancient is St.
    Peter’s hospital, a Gothic structure, built with brick and stone,
    with a brick wall before it, within which are two rows of tall
    trees, and behind the buildings a garden.

    The entrance is by a pair of iron gates opening to the center of the
    building, which is lofty but very irregular. On the inside are two
    courts behind each other, in which is a hall with painted windows
    and a chapel. Inscriptions on the sides of these courts shew that
    they were built at different times.

    To the south of this hospital is another founded by Mr. James
    Hulbert, a liveryman of the Fishmonger’s company, in the year 1719,
    whose statue is erected upon a pedestal; and in the wall which
    extends before both, are iron rails, to afford a view of this
    statue, the more modern hospital, erected by that gentleman, and the
    pleasant walks before it.

    The Fishmongers company erected St. Peter’s hospital by virtue of
    letters patent granted by King James I. in the year 1618, for the
    reception of several of their poor members who had pensions
    bequeathed them by the wills of several members of the company:
    thirteen of whom were beadsmen and women of the company’s great
    benefactor Sir Thomas Knesworth, who in 1513 left them 8_d_. _per_
    week each. Sir Thomas Hunt also in 1615 left 20_l._ 10_s._ _per
    annum_ towards the support of six ancient poor men and women.
    Richard Edmunds in 1620 bequeathed an annual sum of 6_l._ towards
    the maintenance of two poor persons; which number of twenty-one
    pensioners, with one added by the company, were put into this
    hospital; and soon after Sir John Leman, Sir John Gayer, Mr. Harper,
    Arthur Mouse and Mrs. Anne Bromsgrove, by their respective wills
    demised several sums to the amount of 28_l._ _per annum_.

    Each of the twenty-two almspeople have two rooms, and an allowance
    of 3_s._ per week, 15_s._ at Christmas, a chaldron of coals and a
    gown yearly. And one of the pensioners, who reads prayers twice a
    day in the chapel has an additional allowance of 2_l._ _per annum_.

    The more modern structure was, as we have already said, founded by
    Mr. James Hulbert, citizen and fishmonger, for the accommodation of
    twenty poor men and women; who besides two neat rooms to live in,
    have each an allowance of 3_s._ a week, one chaldron of coals, a
    gown every year, and 10_s._ at Christmas.

  FITCHE’S _court_, Noble street, Foster lane.†

  FITZER’S _wharf_, Shadwell.†

  FIVE BELL _alley_, Little Moorfields.*

  FIVE BELL _court_, Leadenhall street.*

  FIVE FEET _lane_, 1. Barnaby street. 2. Broad street. 3. Thames
    street; so called because the west end was but five feet broad.
    _Stow._

  FIVE FIELDS, Chelsea.

  FIVE FIELDS _row_, Chelsea.

  FIVE FOOT _alley_, 1. Old Gravel lane. 2. Petty France, Westminster.

  FIVE FOOT _court_, Old Fish street hill.

  FIVE INKHORN _alley_, Whitechapel.*

  FIVE INKHORN _court_, 1. Petticoat lane.* 2. Whitechapel.*

  FIVE PIPE _alley_, Pickleherring street.*

  FLAMPTON _court_, Fore street.†

  FLEECE _court_, Rose and Crown court, Moorfields.*

  FLEECE _yard_, 1. Cornhill.* 2. Tothill street.*

  FLEET BRIDGE, at the end of Fleet Ditch next the market. Since the
    filling up of Fleet Ditch, this can scarcely be termed a bridge; but
    as one of the walls of the bridge is still left, for the security of
    passengers, by preventing their falling into the ditch on that side,
    it still retains its ancient name.

  FLEET DITCH, a part of the town ditch by which Turnmill brook, and the
    little river Fleet, fell into the Thames. In this ditch flood gates
    were erected in the year 1606; and after the fire of London, it was
    by order of the Mayor and court of Aldermen, cleansed, enlarged, and
    made navigable, for barges to come up by the benefit of the tides,
    as far as Holborn Bridge, where Turnmill brook fell into this
    channel. The sides were built of stone and brick, with warehouses on
    each side, which ran under the street, and were designed to be used
    for laying in of coals, and other commodities. It had five feet
    water at the lowest tide at Holborn Bridge: the wharfs on each side
    of the channel were thirty-five feet broad; and were rendered secure
    from danger in the night by rails of oak being placed along the
    sides of the ditch. Over this canal were four bridges of Portland
    stone, viz. at Bridewell, Fleet street, Fleet lane, and Holborn. The
    whole expence of sinking, clearing, wharfing, planking and piling,
    with that of paving, posting and railing, amounted in the whole to
    27,777_l._ besides what was paid to the several proprietors, whose
    grounds were taken for the enlargement of the wharfs and keys, on
    either side of the channel. _Camden._ _Stow._

    In digging this canal between Fleet prison and Holborn Bridge,
    several Roman utensils were discovered at the depth of fifteen feet;
    and, a little deeper, a great quantity of Roman coins in silver,
    copper, brass, and all other metals except gold. Those of silver
    were ring-money of several sizes, the largest about the bigness of a
    crown, but gradually decreasing; the smallest were about the size of
    a silver two-pence, each having a snip in the edge: and at Holborn
    Bridge were dug up two brazen Lares, or Houshold gods, about four
    inches in length, which were almost incrusted with a petrific
    matter: one of these was Bacchus, and the other Ceres: but the coins
    lying at the bottom of the current, their lustre was in a great
    measure preserved by the water incessantly washing off the corroding
    salt.

    Probably the great quantity of coin found in this ditch, was thrown
    in by the Roman inhabitants of this city, for its preservation, at
    the approach of Boadicea, at the head of her army; but all the Roman
    citizens, without distinction of age or sex, being barbarously
    massacred by the justly enraged Britons, it was not discovered till
    this time. Besides the above mentioned antiquities, several things
    of a more modern date were discovered, as arrow heads, scales,
    seals, with the proprietors names upon them in Saxon characters;
    spur-rowels of an hand’s breadth, keys and daggers coated over with
    a livid petrific rust; together with a considerable number of
    medals, with crosses, crucifixes, and Ave Maries engraven thereupon.
    _Conyer’s MSS. in Sir Hans Sloane’s library in the Museum._

    Fleet Ditch now extends no higher than Fleet Bridge, all above being
    arched, covered over, and converted into a market; and the building
    the fine bridge at Black Friars, will soon occasion all that is left
    of this ditch to be filled up.

  FLEET _lane_, Old Bailey, extends to Fleet market.

  FLEET MARKET, situated upon the canal called Fleet Ditch, was opened
    on the 30th of September 1737. Instead of stalls there are two rows
    of shops of a great length from north to south, with a handsome walk
    between, into which light is thrown by windows placed along the top;
    and in the center is a neat lanthorn with a clock; the whole of this
    part is paved with rag stones. On the south end, the fruiterers
    stands are made in the form of piazzas erected on each side, and
    these have proper conveniences to deposit their remaining stock.

  FLEET PRISON, is situated on the east side of Fleet market, and a
    little to the south of Fleet lane, and was originally so called from
    the river Fleet running by it. It is very large, and reckoned the
    best prison in the city for good rooms, and other conveniences. It
    has the benefit of an open yard, which is enclosed with a very high
    wall.

    The keeper is called the Warden of the Fleet; and besides his fees
    from the prisoners for turning the key, for chamber rent, &c. which
    amount to a considerable sum, he has the rents of the shops in
    Westminster Hall.

    This prison belongs to the court of Common Pleas, and hither persons
    are committed for contempt of orders, &c. in the high court of
    Chancery; or upon debt, when by a writ of Habeas Corpus they remove
    themselves thither from any other prison.

    The _rules_ or _liberties_ of the _Fleet_, are all the north side of
    Ludgate hill, and the Old Bailey up to Fleet lane; down that lane
    into the market, and then turning the corner on the left, all the
    east side along by the Fleet prison to the bottom of Ludgate hill.

  FLEET _street_, 1. From Fleet ditch to Temple Bar.☐ 2. Little George
    street, Spitalfields.

  FLEET STREET _court_, 1. Fleet street.☐ 2. Little George street,
    Spitalfields.

  FLEMISH _court yard_, Tower ditch.

  FLEMISH _grounds_, Tooley street.

  FLEMISH _hop gardens_, Bedfordbury.

  FLETCHERS, or Arrowmakers, from the French word _flèche_, an arrow;
    though arrows have been near three centuries out of use in England,
    and though this is a company only by prescription and not by
    charter, they have nevertheless obtained a coat of arms and a
    livery; are become the thirty-ninth company in the city, and seem in
    all respects as firmly established, as those incorporated by letters
    patent.

    This fraternity, which entirely consists of people of other trades,
    consists of two Wardens, ten Assistants, and twenty-five Liverymen,
    who, upon their admission, pay a fine of 10_l._ each. They have a
    small but convenient hall in St. Mary Ax.

  FLETCHER’S _court_, Bembridge street.†

  FLOWER AND DEAN _street_, Spitalfields.††

  FLOWER DE LUCE _alley_, 1. Black Friars.* 2. Wheeler street.*

  FLOWER DE LUCE _court_, 1. Black Friars.* 2. Cow Cross.* 3. Fleet
    street.* 4. Gray’s Inn lane.* 5. Grub street.* 6. Houndsditch.* 7.
    Ludgate hill.* 8. St. Michael’s lane.* 9. Parish Garden lane.* 10.
    Tooley street.* 11. Turnmill street.*

  FLOWER DE LUCE _street_, 1. Elder street.* 2. Wheeler street.*

  FLOWER DE LUCE _yard_, 1. Gray’s Inn lane.* 2. Parish Garden lane.* 3.
    Tooley street.* 4. Turnmill street.*

  FLYING HORSE _court_, 1. Fleet street.* 2. Grub street.* 3. Long
    alley.* 4. Maiden lane, Wood street.*

  FLYING HORSE _yard_, 1. Bartholomew Close.* 2. Bishopsgate street. 3.
    Blackman street.* 4. Broad street.* 5. Dolphin alley.* 6. Fleet
    street.* 7. Half-moon alley, Moorfields.* 8. Houndsditch.* 9. Mare
    street, Hackney.

  FOGWELL _court_, Charterhouse lane.†

  FOLE _alley_, Swan alley, East Smithfield.*

  FOLLY, near St. Saviour’s Dock.║

  FOLLY _lane_, Neckinger lane, Rotherhith.║

  FOOT _alley_, King street, Spitalfields.║

[Illustration:

  _Foots Cray Place._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sc. Oxon._
]

  FOOTS CRAY PLACE, in Kent, about twelve miles from London, is the seat
    of Bouchier Cleeve, Esq; and was built by himself, after a design of
    Palladio, of the Ionic order, and is very elegant. The original
    design had four porticoes, three of which are filled up to get more
    room. The hall is octagonal, and has a gallery round which conveys
    you to the bed chambers. It is enlightened from the top, and is very
    beautiful. The edifice is built of stone, but the offices, which are
    on each side at some distance, are brick. The house stands on a
    rising ground, with a gradual descent from it till you come to the
    water, which from the house appears to be a small river gliding
    along through the whole length of the ground: and in that part of
    the water which is opposite to the house, there is a fine cascade
    constantly flowing out of it. But this water which appears to be
    such a pretty natural stream, is in reality artificial, and is
    brought from the river Cray which runs just by. When the canal or
    cut which is made through the ground to receive the water from the
    river is full, it forms the cascade before the house, by flowing
    over in that place, and the surplus water being instantly buried in
    the ground, is again conveyed away under this cut or canal to the
    main stream. The chief beauty of the ground about the house consists
    in its simplicity, it being entirely without ornament, and the whole
    of it a kind of lawn, having little besides the plain turf. The
    situation is pleasant, and the prospect from the house very good.
    The disposition of the rooms within the house appear to be very
    convenient, and the several apartments are elegantly finished and
    suitably furnished. The Chinese bed and other furniture of this kind
    in the principal bed chamber, is perfectly beautiful. The gallery,
    which extends the whole length of the north front of the house, is a
    very grand room, and is filled with pictures by the most eminent
    masters; and there are several other good pieces of this kind in the
    dining room and parlour, of all which the following is an exact
    list.


                       Pictures at Foots Cray Place.
                              Common Parlour.

  Seven sea pieces, Vandeveldt.

  A small Dutch kitchen, Calf.

  Landscape, Wynantz.

  Mocking Christ, Bassano.

  View of the Rialto, Marieschi.

  View of St. Mark’s place and Bull feast at Venice, Canaletti and
    Chimeroli.

  Moon light, Vandeneer.

  Emblematical picture, Gulio Carpioni.

  Landscape under it, by Glauber; figures by Laress.

  Doge’s palace, Carlovarin.

  A sea port and market in Holland, Wenix.

  Landscape by Glauber; figures by Laress. A smith’s shop, Old Wyke.

  Oval landscape, Lambert.


                             Gallery West End.

  Landscape morning, Claude Lorrain.

  Ditto evening, ditto.

  Venus and Cupid, Vandyke.

  Landscape, Both.


                                North Front.

  Adoration of the shepherds, Old Coloni.

  Temple of the Muses, Romanelli.

  Susanna and the Elders, Guercino.

  Wolf and dogs, by Snyders; the landscape by Rubens.

  Flower piece, Van Hysum.

  Landscape, Wynantz.

  Ditto, Swanevelt.

  Flower piece, Van Hysum.

  Abraham and Hagar, Rembrant.

  Landscape, Paul Potter.

  Jacob with his flocks, Rosa Tivoli.

  Landscape, Gaspar Pousin.

  Fruit piece, De Heem.

  French King on horseback, by Vandermeulen.

  Three horses mounted, Van Dyke.


                                 East End.

  Judgment of Paris, Giuseppe Chiari.

  Landscape, Hobima.

  Paradise, Tempesta.

  Landscape, by Paul Brill; figures Annibale Carracci.


                                South Side.

  Lapithæ and Centaurs, L. Giordano.

  Landscape, Wouwerman.

  Country wake, Teniers.

  Landscape, Wouwerman.

  View of Venice, Canaletti.

  Holy family, Rubens.

  Madona, Carlo Dolci.

  Christ blessing St. Francis, Annibale Carracci.

  Dead Christ, ditto.

  Smith’s forge, Brouwer.

  Cat and boys, Old Meris.

  Dead game and figures, Snyders and Rubens.

  Heraclitus and Democritus, Rembrant.

  Sea piece, Vandeveldt.

  Boy and goat, Vanderborch.

  A view of the Rhone, Teniers.

  Cattle, Adrian Vandeveldt.

  Circumcision, Paul Veronese.

  View in Venice, Canaletti.

  Venus and Adonis, Rubens.

  A Dutch lover, Jan Stein.

  A view near Harlem, Ruysdale.

  Presentation of Christ, Rembrant.

  Miraculous draught of fishes, Teniers.

  John Steen playing on a violin, himself.

  Head, Hans Holbein.

  Toilette, Metzu.


                               Drawing Room.

  Temple of Delphos, Pietro de Cortona.

  A retreat, Bourgognone.

  Woman taken in adultery, Pordenoni.

  Dead game, Fyt.

  Field of battle, Bourgognone.

  Diogenes, Salvator Rosa.

  Landscape, Gaspar Pousin.

  Dutchmen, Le Duck.

  Boors drinking, Ostade.

  Landscape, Gaspar Pousin.

  Boys at cards, Morellio.

  Faith, Hope, and Charity, by Lorhetto di Verona.

  Inside of a church at Antwerp, by Denies; figures Old Franks.

  Portrait, Rembrant.

  Magdalen, Francisco Mola.

  Democritus in the posture Hipocritus found him in near Abdera, by
    Salvator Rosa.

    Admittance to see the house is by tickets from Mr. Cleeve, and the
    days are every Thursday during the summer season.


  FORE CLOYSTER _yard_, Westminster Abbey.

  FORE _court_, 1. Bridewell, Fleet ditch.§ 2. Clement’s Inn.§ 3.
    Doctors Commons.§

  FORE _street_, 1. Lambeth. 2. Limehouse. 3. Moorgate.

  FOREIGN APPOSER’S _Office_, in the Inner Temple, an office belonging
    to the Exchequer, where the Foreign Apposer apposes all Sheriffs,
    upon the schedules of the green wax. _Chamberlain’s Present State._

  FORISTER’S _buildings_, Golden lane.†

  FORMAN’S _alley_, Old street.†

  FORSAN’S _rents_, 1. Marigold lane.† 2. Vinegar yard, Drury lane.†

  FORT _street_, by Gun street, Spitalfields.

  FORTUNE _court_, Duke’s place.

  FOSTER’S _lane_, Cheapside; so called from St. Vedast’s or St.
    Foster’s church there. _Maitland._

  FOSTER’S _buildings_, 1. Whitechapel.† 2. Whitecross street,
    Cripplegate.†

  FOSTER’S _rents_, 1. King John’s court.† 2. Liquorpond street.†

  FOUBERT’S _passage_, Great Swallow street.†

  FOUL _lane_, in the Borough.║

  FOUNDERS, a company incorporated by letters patent of King James I. in
    the year 1614. They consist of a Master, two Wardens, 24 Assistants,
    and 132 Liverymen, who upon their admission pay a fine of 8_l._
    7_s._ 6_d_. They have a convenient hall at the upper end of Founders
    court in Lothbury.

    ’Tis worthy of notice, that all makers of brass weights, within the
    city of London, and three miles round, are obliged to have their
    several weights sized by the company’s standard, and marked with
    their common mark; such of these as are Avoirdupois weights, are to
    be sealed at Guildhall, and those of Troy at Goldsmiths hall. The
    Founders company are also impowered by their charter to search for,
    and view all brass weights within the above district.

  FOUNDERS _court_, 1. Fore street. 2. Lothbury; so called from having
    Founders hall in it.

  FOUNDLING _Hospital_, or more properly _The Hospital for exposed and
    deserted Children_, in Lamb’s Conduit fields. This is one of the
    most useful among the numerous charities that are an honour to this
    age and nation. In the reign of her late majesty Queen Anne, several
    eminent merchants, filled with compassion for the many innocent
    children who were daily exposed to misery and destruction, proposed
    to erect an hospital for the reception of such infants, as either
    the misfortunes or inhumanity of their parents should leave
    destitute of other support; and to employ them in such a manner as
    to render them fit for the most laborious offices, and the lowest
    stations. With these laudable views they proposed a subscription,
    and sollicited a charter; but they sollicited in vain, from the
    ill-grounded prejudices of weak people, who conceived the opinion
    that such an undertaking would encourage persons in vice, by making
    too easy a provision for their illegitimate children.

    However, though this suspended, it did not totally defeat this
    laudable design; some of these worthy persons left large
    benefactions for the use of such an hospital as soon as it should be
    erected; which coming to the ears of the humane and generous Mr.
    Thomas Coram, a commander of a ship in the merchants service, he
    left the sea to sollicit a charter for the establishment of this
    charity, and with unwearied assiduity spent all the remainder of his
    life in promoting this great design; from no other motive than his
    zeal for the public, and his compassion for the helpless innocents
    who were frequently dropped in the streets, or murdered to conceal
    the shame of their parents.

    Before he presented any petition to his Majesty, he was advised to
    procure a recommendation of his design from some persons of quality
    and distinction. This he sollicited with unwearied diligence, by
    which means he procured the following memorial to be signed by the
    Ladies whose names are under-written.

        “Whereas among the many excellent designs and institutions
        of charity which this nation, and especially the city of
        London, has hitherto encouraged and established, no
        expedient has yet been found out for preventing the frequent
        murders of poor miserable infants at their birth; or for
        suppressing the inhuman custom of exposing new-born infants
        to perish in the streets; or the putting out such unhappy
        foundlings to wicked and barbarous nurses, who, undertaking
        to bring them up for a small and trifling sum of money, do
        often suffer them to starve for want of due sustenance or
        care; or, if permitted to live, either turn them into the
        streets to beg or steal, or hire them out to loose persons
        by whom they are trained up in that infamous way of living,
        and sometimes are blinded, or maimed and distorted in their
        limbs, in order to move pity and compassion, and thereby
        become fitter instruments of gain to those vile merciless
        wretches.

        “For a beginning to redress so deplorable a grievance, and
        to prevent as well the effusion of so much innocent blood,
        as the fatal consequences of that idleness, beggary, or
        stealing, in which such poor foundlings are generally bred
        up; and to enable them, by an early and effectual care of
        their education, to become useful members of the
        commonwealth: We, whose names are underwritten, being deeply
        touched with compassion for the sufferings and lamentable
        condition of such poor abandoned helpless infants, as well
        as the enormous abuses and mischiefs to which they are
        exposed; and in order to supply the government plentifully
        with useful hands on many occasions; and for the better
        producing good and faithful servants from amongst the poor
        and miserable cast-off children, or foundlings, now a pest
        to the public, and a chargeable nuisance within the bills of
        mortality; and for settling a yearly income for their
        maintenance and proper education, till they come to a fit
        age for service; are desirous to encourage, and willing to
        contribute towards erecting an hospital for infants whom
        their parents are not able to maintain, and have no right to
        any parish; which we conceive will not only prevent many
        horrid murders, cruelties, and other mischiefs, and be
        greatly beneficial to the public; but will also be
        acceptable to God Almighty, as being the only remedy of such
        great evils, which have been so long neglected, though
        always complained of; provided due and proper care be taken
        for setting on foot so necessary an establishment, and a
        royal charter be granted by the King to such persons as his
        Majesty shall approve of, who shall be willing to become
        benefactors for the erecting and endowing such an hospital;
        and for the receiving the voluntary contributions of
        charitable and well-disposed persons; and for directing and
        managing the affairs thereof _gratis_, to the best
        advantage, under such regulations as his Majesty, in his
        great wisdom, shall judge most proper for attaining the
        desired effect of our good intentions.”

      Charlotte Somerset.
      S. Richmond.
      H. Bolton.
      Anne Bolton.
      I. Leeds.
      A. Bedford.
      M. Cavendish Portland.
      J. Manchester.
      F. Hartford.
      M. Harold.
      S. Huntington.
      F. Wa. & Nottingham.
      E. Cardigan.
      Dorothy Burlington.
      F. Litchfield.
      A. Albemarle.
      F. Biron.
      A. Trevor.
      A. Torrington.
      E. Onslow.
      A. King.

    Mr. Coram having, to the everlasting honour of the above Ladies,
    obtained so many names to this recommendation, procured another to
    the same purpose, signed by a great number of noblemen and
    gentlemen, and annexed both these to his petition to the King. Upon
    this his Majesty was graciously pleased to grant his royal charter
    for establishing this hospital, which was dated the 17th of October,
    1739.

    In pursuance of this patent, the Duke of Bedford, who was appointed
    the first President, summoned the several members of the society to
    meet him at Somerset House on the 20th of Nov. when most of the
    noblemen and gentlemen mentioned in the charter being assembled,
    Thomas Coram, Esq; thanked his Grace, and the rest of the noblemen
    and gentlemen, for their protection and assistance in promoting the
    patent. A committee of fifteen noblemen and gentlemen were chosen to
    manage the estate and effects of the hospital; and it was ordered,
    that accounts of several hospitals of this nature in other countries
    should be obtained as soon as possible; for which purpose
    application was made to his Majesty’s Ambassadors and Ministers
    abroad, and the Governors soon after received authentic accounts of
    the institutions and regulations of the hospitals of Amsterdam,
    Paris, and Lisbon, for the reception of infants; and have since also
    been favoured with that of Venice; and, tho’ these institutions were
    all accommodated to the laws and governments of their respective
    countries, and were therefore unfit or impracticable to be wholly
    executed in this kingdom, yet they afforded useful instructions
    towards forming a plan for the government of this hospital. Books
    were now opened, and the Governors obtained large subscriptions; the
    work went on with great spirit; an act of parliament was obtained to
    confirm and enlarge the powers granted by his Majesty to the
    Governors and Guardians of the hospital. A piece of ground was
    purchased in Lamb’s Conduit fields, of the Earl of Salisbury, which
    his Lordship not only sold at a very reasonable price, but promoted
    the charity by a noble benefaction.

    As the building an hospital would necessarily take up much time, and
    the Governors were extremely desirous of beginning to take in
    children, they hired a large house in Hatton Garden, nurses were
    provided, and it was resolved that sixty children should be
    admitted. As the funds increased, more and more were received; and
    it was soon thought impracticable to provide a sufficient number of
    healthy wet nurses, therefore the children were intrusted to the
    care of dry nurses: but the ill consequences of this regulation soon
    appeared; much fewer dying in proportion to their number, among
    those that sucked, than among those that were weaned; and it was
    also found by experience, that of the young children sent into the
    country, fewer dyed in proportion to their numbers, than those who
    remained in the hospital. These observations determined the
    committee to come to a resolution to send all the children that
    should be taken in, as soon as possible into the country, and to
    allow them to remain there till three years old; and that all such
    as would suck, should have wet nurses only. Some time after the
    children were ordered to be inoculated, which was attended with
    great success.

    In 1745, one wing of the hospital being finished, the committee
    ordered the children to be removed thither, and quitted the house in
    Hatton Garden. A chapel being now much wanted, and several Ladies of
    quality being desirous of contributing to it, a subscription was
    opened for that purpose, the first stone was laid on the first of
    May 1747, and a neat and elegant edifice was soon erected.

[Illustration:

  _South East View of the Foundling Hospital._
]

[Illustration:

  _Front of the Same._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._
]

    On the 29th of March 1749, the Governors at a general court being
    informed of the increase of benefactions to this charity, of the
    number of the children, and the expediency of keeping the boys
    separate from the girls, gave directions for building the other wing
    of the hospital, and the whole design has been since compleated.
    These wings are directly opposite to each other, and are built in a
    plain but regular, substantial, and convenient manner, of brick,
    with handsome piazzas. It is well suited to the purpose, and as fine
    as hospitals should be. On the farthest end is placed the chapel,
    which is joined to the wings by an arch on each side, and is very
    elegant within. Before the hospital is a large piece of ground, on
    each side whereof is a colonade of great length, which also extends
    towards the gates, that are double, with a massy pier between, so
    that coaches may pass and repass at the same time; and on each side
    is a door to admit those on foot. The large area between this outer
    gate and the hospital is adorned with grass plats, gravel walks, and
    lamps erected upon handsome posts: besides which there are two
    handsome gardens. The print shews the hospital in two different
    views.

    In erecting these buildings particular care was taken to render them
    neat and substantial, without any costly decorations; but the first
    wing of the hospital was scarcely inhabited, when several eminent
    masters in painting, carving, and other of the polite arts, were
    pleased to contribute many elegant ornaments, which are placed in
    the hospital as monuments of the charity and abilities of these
    great masters.

    In the court room are placed four capital pictures, taken from
    sacred history, the subjects of which are suitable to the place for
    which they were designed.

    The first, which is painted by Mr. Hayman, is taken from Exodus ii.
    8, 9. “The maid went and called the child’s mother, and Pharaoh’s
    daughter said unto her, Take this child away and nurse it for me,
    and I will give you wages.”

    The following verse is the subject of the next picture, done by Mr.
    Hogarth, viz. “And the child grew up, and she brought him to
    Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son, and she called his name
    Moses.”

    The third picture is the history of Ishmael, painted by Mr.
    Highmore, the subject of which is taken from Gen. xxi. 17. “And the
    angel of the Lord called to Hagar out of heaven, and said to her,
    What aileth thee, Hagar? Fear not, for God hath heard the voice of
    the lad where he is.”

    The fourth picture is painted by Mr. Wills, and is taken from Luke
    xviii. 16. “Jesus said, Suffer little children to come unto me, and
    forbid them not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven.”

    On each side of these pictures are placed small drawings in circular
    frames of the most considerable hospitals in and about London, done
    by Mr. Haytley, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Whale, and Mr. Gainsborough.

    Over the chimney is placed a very curious bas relief, done by Mr.
    Rysbrack, and presented by him, representing children employed in
    husbandry and navigation; to which employments those in the hospital
    are destined.

    The other ornaments of the room were given by several ingenious
    workmen, who had been employed in building the hospital, and were
    willing to contribute to adorn it. The stucco work was given by Mr.
    William Wilton; the marble chimney piece, by Mr. Deval; the table
    with its frame curiously carved, by Mr. John Saunderson; and the
    glass by Mr. Hallet.

    In the other rooms of the hospital are the pictures of several of
    the governors and benefactors, viz. Mr. Thomas Coram, by Mr.
    Hogarth; Mr. Milner and Mr. Jacobson, by Mr. Hudson; Dr. Mead, by
    Mr. Ramsey; and Mr. Emerson, by Mr. Highmore. In the dining room is
    a large and beautiful sea piece of the English fleet in the Downs by
    Mr. Monamy; and over the chimney in another room is Mr. Hogarth’s
    original painting of the march to Finchley.

    In the chapel the altar piece is finely painted by a fine Italian
    painter, representing the wisemen making their offerings to the
    infant Jesus, who is held in his mother’s arms. And here we ought
    not to forget the fine organ presented by Mr. Handel, who has even
    made this of great benefit to the hospital, and from the most
    benevolent views, has enriched the foundation by a new revenue
    raised from the powers of harmony, and has had a sacred oratorio
    performed several times in the year, to crowded audiences, in which
    he himself played upon the organ gratis.

    Several very handsome shields done in lead, were given by Mr. Ives,
    and placed over the charity boxes, with proper inscriptions; and
    other artists have contributed their labours to the ornamenting of
    the hospital and chapel; for which they received the thanks of the
    corporation: and an inscription is put up, to inform the public,
    that these ornaments were the benefactions of the several artists
    whose names are wrote thereon; it being a fixed resolution of the
    Governors, that no part of the money given to this hospital be
    expended in any thing that is not proper to answer the good
    intentions of the benefactors.

    After mentioning the above benefactions, it ought not to be omitted,
    that the Earl Marshal of England has been pleased to honour the
    corporation with the grant of a coat of arms; the kings at arms, and
    officers of the Heralds office, being so charitable as to remit all
    the fees due to them on that occasion: and that Dr. Cadogan, a
    Physician of Bristol, has been at the pains of writing an excellent
    pamphlet for the use of the hospital, containing instructions for
    the nursing and management of children from their birth to three
    years of age, which is published for the benefit of the hospital.

    In the infancy of this hospital, those children not exceeding two
    months old, who were brought first were received, till the number
    the Governors had agreed to admit was completed; but this only
    continued for a short time, the number that came for admittance
    occasioned great disturbance among the persons who brought them,
    every one striving to deliver her child first, for fear of being
    excluded by delivering it too late. This necessarily occasioned a
    new regulation.

    The persons who brought children, were conduced into a large room;
    and those who brought boys were seated on benches at one end, and
    those who brought girls, at the other. When the hour of admittance
    was expired, a bell was rung and the doors shut. Two of the
    Governors then counted how many had boys, and how many girls; after
    which they put into one bag as many white balls as there were boys,
    and into another bag as many white balls as there were girls to be
    admitted; and to every twenty white balls they added four red ones,
    and so in proportion for any greater or lesser number; after which
    they added so many black balls, as together with the white and red
    ones made the number of the balls in each bag equal to the number of
    persons who brought boys or girls.

    The balls being mixed together, one of the Governors held the bag,
    and calling the persons one by one from their seats, each held up
    her hand open in view of the Governors, and then putting it into the
    bag drew out a ball; and if it was a black one, she was immediately
    led with her child out of the hospital; while the persons who drew
    white and red balls, were ordered into separate rooms to prevent
    their changing them.

    When all the balls were drawn, and the persons who had drawn black
    balls were discharged, those who had drawn white ones were brought
    in again, and seated as before. Then one who had a white ball was
    taken into a room, and left alone, while her child was undressed and
    examined in the presence of the matron, and if the Physician,
    Surgeon, or Apothecary attending, had any reason to believe that it
    had any infectious disease, or if it appeared to be above the age of
    two months, it was dressed again in its own cloaths, returned to the
    person who brought it, and taken immediately out of the hospital;
    but if there were no such objections, it was received, and the
    person who brought it dismissed.

    Every child thus received, had a different letter of the alphabet
    tied to its wrist; and both the clerk and steward marked a billet
    with the letter fixed to the wrist of the child, and in this paper
    wrote its sex and supposed age; the day and year when inspected; the
    marks, if any, on its body; the particulars of its dress; and if any
    writing or remarkable thing was brought with it, it was mentioned in
    the billet, and then sealed up, marked with the letter of the child
    on the outside. A female servant then took the child, with the
    cloathing of the hospital, into the ward appointed for the taking in
    of children, and there delivered it to the country nurse, who had
    the same letter of the alphabet with that of the child.

    In this manner they proceeded with respect to all who had drawn
    white balls, and then if any had been rejected, they took as many
    white balls as there were children so dismissed, put them into a
    bag, and added as many black balls to them, as together with the
    white, made up the number of persons who had drawn red balls. These
    were drawn in the same manner as the first; but the persons who now
    drew the black, might, if they desired it, stay in the house till
    they saw whether all the children of those who in the second drawing
    had got white balls, were received or rejected, till the whole
    number of the children appointed to be taken in were received.

    This method of drawing balls, was doubtless as unexceptionable as
    any other that could possibly have been invented, since it left not
    the least room for partiality in the choice: yet all who wished well
    to this excellent charity, could not avoid being concerned for those
    who were disappointed in the hopes of gaining admission for a child,
    whom they had perhaps brought many miles out of the country for that
    purpose, and at an expence, which they were perhaps but little able
    to support. This is, however, now remedied, and the parliament has
    granted very considerable sums, on condition of all the children
    being taken in that are brought of the proper age, and free from
    infectious diseases.

    The children who are sent into the country, are under the inspection
    of some person of character in the neighbourhood, and are cloathed
    and fed according to the directions given in Dr. Cadogan’s _Essay
    upon nursing_, during the three years they remain there.

    Such children as have not had the small pox, are inoculated at three
    years of age, in a proper place out of the hospital.

    From three years old to six, they are taught to read, and to learn
    the catechism; and at proper intervals employed in such a manner as
    may contribute to their health, and induce a habit of activity,
    hardiness and labour; and from that time, their work is to be such
    bodily labour as is most suitable to their age and strength, and is
    most likely to fit them for agriculture, or the sea service; such as
    digging, hoeing, ploughing, hedging, cleaving wood, and carrying
    burdens; many of them are employed in the gardens belonging to the
    hospital, where by their labour they supply the house with
    vegetables, and being instructed in gardening, are kept in readiness
    for such persons as may be inclined to take them into their service.

    From six years of age, the girls are employed in common needle-work,
    knitting and spinning, and in the kitchen, laundry, and household
    work, in order to make them useful servants for such proper persons
    as may apply for them, except so many as may be necessary to be
    employed in the hospital; it being intended to have no other female
    servants in the house, but persons brought up in it when they are of
    proper age.

    The diet of the children is plain and good of the sort; their
    ordinary drink is water; tea, coffee, tobacco, butter, and strong
    drink, are never permitted to be used by any children in the
    hospital. Their diversions are ordered to be such as are innocent,
    and require activity; and all games of chance, swearing, indecent
    language or behaviour, are strictly prohibited. They are constantly
    to attend divine service in the chapel on Sundays; and the officers
    of the hospital are often to remind them of the lowness of their
    condition, that they may early imbibe the principles of humility and
    gratitude to their benefactors; and learn contentedly to undergo the
    most servile and laborious offices; for it is considered, that
    notwithstanding the innocence of the children, yet, as they are
    exposed and abandoned by their parents, they ought to submit to the
    lowest stations, and should not be educated in such a manner, as to
    put them upon a level with the children of parents who have the
    humanity and virtue to preserve, and the industry to support them.

    When any person shall claim a child, they are to leave a petition
    with the Secretary, directed to the Governors: this, the Secretary
    is to deliver to the general committee, who are to transmit it to
    the house committee, and to give orders, that the person petitioning
    attend them at a day appointed; when the house committee shall
    enquire, what right they have to the child; what are their
    circumstances; whether they are able and willing to provide for the
    child; what security they can give for that purpose, and what
    satisfaction they can make to the hospital for the expence to which
    it has been put, by the maintenance of the child; which committee
    shall report the same to the next general committee, with their
    opinion thereupon. If the proposal made by the parent, and the
    report, is satisfactory to the general committee, they are then, and
    not before, to order the billets to be opened, and the register
    searched; and if they find the child is living, may make an order to
    deliver such child to its parent or relation, which order is not to
    be delivered till they have complied with the terms required by the
    committee. Every person to whom a child is so delivered, is to
    provide cloathing for that child, in which it is to be dressed, and
    the cloathing of the hospital to be left with the steward.

    When any are discharged on having attained the age appointed for
    that purpose, by act of parliament, that is, twenty-four for the
    males, or twenty-one for the females; or when any of the girls shall
    be married, with the consent of the committee; the general committee
    may, at their discretion, give them cloaths, money, or necessaries,
    not exceeding the value of 10_l._ but as it is hoped, that the males
    and females will be able at those years to get an honest livelihood
    by their industry, this charity is to be cautiously and seldom
    practised, except on the marriage of the girls.

  FOUNTAIN _alley_, 1. Maiden lane, Southwark.* 2. Silver street,
    Bloomsbury market.*

  FOUNTAIN _court_, 1. Aldermanbury.* 2. Bread street, Cheapside.* 3.
    Chandos street.* 4. Cheapside. 5. Lothbury.* 6. St. Martin’s lane,
    Charing Cross.* 7. Middle Temple.* 8. In the Minories.* 9. Shoe
    lane.* 10. In the Strand.*

  FOUNTAIN _stairs_, Rotherhith.*

  FOUR CROWN _court_, Rosemary lane.*

  FOUR DOVE _court_, 1. St. Martin’s le Grand.* 2. Noble street, Foster
    lane.*

  FOUR SWAN _yard_, Mile end green.*

  FOX _court_, 1. Fox lane, Wapping.* 2. Gray’s Inn lane.* 3. St.
    James’s street.* 4. Newgate street.* 5. Queen square.* 6. Snow
    hill.*

  FOX AND CROWN _court_, Barbican.*

  FOX AND GOOSE _alley_, Peter’s lane.*

  FOX AND GOOSE _yard_, London wall.*

  FOX AND HOUNDS _yard_, Bishopsgate street.*

  FOX AND KNOT _court_, Cow lane, West Smithfield.*

  FOX _lane_, Upper Shadwell.*

  FOX ORDINARY _court_, a handsome well-built court in St. Nicholas
    lane, Lombard street; so called from a public eating house formerly
    there. _Stow._

  FOX _yard_, Duke street, Great Russel street.*

  FOGWELL _court_, Charterhouse lane.†

  FRAMEWORK-KNITTERS, or STOCKING-WEAVERS, are a society incorporated by
    letters patent granted by Charles II. in the year 1663, by the
    extraordinary title of _The Master, Wardens, Assistants and Society
    of the art and mystery of Framework-knitters in the cities of London
    and Westminster, the kingdom of England and dominion of Wales_.

    This company consists of a Master, two Wardens, eighteen Assistants,
    and fifty-eight Liverymen, whose fine for the livery is 10_l._ They
    have a small hall in Redcross street.

  FRANCIS’S _court_, Bartlet’s street.†

  FRANCIS _street_, Golden square.†

  FRANCIS _yard_, Brook street.†

  FRANKLIN’S _row_, Chelsea.†

  FRANSHAW’S _court_, Leadenhall street.†

  FREEDOM OF THE CITY OF LONDON, a space of ground without the gates,
    and within the liberty of the city, bounded by an irregular line,
    which separates the freedom from the county of Middlesex. This line
    begins at Temple Bar, which is the only gate fixed at the extremity
    of the city liberties, and extending by many turnings and windings,
    through part of Shear lane, Bell yard, Chancery lane, by the Rolls
    liberty, &c. extends into Holborn, almost opposite to Gray’s Inn,
    where there are bars to shew its utmost limits on that side.

    From Holborn Bars it passes with many turnings, by Brook street,
    Furnival’s Inn, Leather lane, Hatton Garden, Ely House, Field lane
    and Chick lane, to the common sewer, where it returns westward to
    Cow Cross, and so to Smithfield Bars.

    From Smithfield Bars it runs with several windings between Long lane
    and Charter house lane to Goswell street, and up that street
    northward to the bars.

    From Goswell street Bars, where the manor of Finsbury begins, it
    winds across Golden lane at the posts and chain set up there, to the
    posts and chain in Whitecross street, and from thence to the posts
    and chain in Grub street; and then thro’ Ropemakers alley to the
    posts and chain in the highway from Moorgate; and from thence by the
    north side of the four quarters of Moorfields, all abutting upon
    Finsbury manor, where it returns northward up to the bars in
    Bishopsgate street; and from thence eastward into Spitalfields,
    abutting upon Norton Falgate.

    From Norton Falgate it returns southward by Spitalfields, and then
    southeast by Wentworth street to Whitechapel Bars.

    From Whitechapel Bars it winds more southerly, leaving out the
    Little Minories and Goodman’s fields, from which it returns westward
    to the posts and chain in the Minories, and thence more westerly
    till it comes to London Wall, where it abuts upon the Tower liberty,
    and there ends.

    Though this line in its several turnings is of great length, yet the
    ground between it and the wall is but narrow, so that the extent in
    acres is not answerable to its circumambulation. It is in length
    21,370 feet, which is about four miles, and yet the ground
    comprehended between the line of the city wall, and this line of
    separation, is but 300 acres. _Stow._

  FREEMAN’S _court_, Cornhill.†

  FREEMAN’S _lane_, Horselydown.†

  FREEMAN’S _yard_, Cornhill.†

  FREE SCHOOL-HOUSE _street_, Horselydown.☐

  FREESTONE _alley_, Eagle court, St. John’s lane.

  FREESTONE _court_, Artillery lane.

  FRENCH _alley_, 1. Goswell street. 2. Quaker street, Spitalfields.

  FRENCH _Almshouse_, in Black Eagle street, Spitalfields, contains
    convenient apartments for forty-five poor men and women, who are
    every week allowed 2_s._ 3_d_. a bushel of coals each, and apparel
    every other year.

    This house belongs to the French church in Threadneedle street, near
    the Royal Exchange, and to that in Black Eagle street. The society
    by which it is supported, Mr. _Maitland_ observes, appears to be the
    most charitable and generous, from an inscription round a large
    pewter dish in the possession of Mr. Henry Guinand, an eminent
    French merchant in Little St. Helen’s, (when deacon of the church)
    who collected the under-mentioned sum in gold, bank notes, &c. The
    inscription is as follows: _La collecte qui s’est faite a l’eglise
    Françoise de Londres, & à celle de l’hopital dans Black Eagle
    street, pour les pouvre de la dite eglise, le 10 Mars, 1727–28. a
    produit £1248 7 6._ That is: The collection made in the French
    church of London, and that of the hospital in Black Eagle street,
    for the poor of the said churches, amounted to 1248_l._ 7_s._ 6_d_.

  FRENCH HOSPITAL, contiguous to the Pesthouse on the south side of St.
    Luke’s parish, was erected in the year 1717, and the Governors by
    letters patent of the 4th of King George I. in 1718, were
    constituted a body politic and corporate, by the name of _The
    Governor and Directors of the hospital for the poor French
    Protestants, and their defendants, residing in Great Britain_.

    This hospital at present contains 220 poor helpless men and women,
    146 of whom are upon the foundation, and are plentifully supplied
    with all the necessaries of life, at the expence of the hospital;
    but the other seventy-four are paid for by their friends, at the
    rate of 9_l._ a year each. This charity also extends to lunatics,
    for whose accommodation a large infirmary is provided.

    To this foundation belong a Chaplain, Physician, Surgeon, and other
    proper officers, who carefully attend the pensioners, and administer
    to their several necessities. _Stow, last edit._

  FRENCH HOUSE OF CHARITY, in Spitalfields, commonly called the _Soup_,
    was erected about sixty years ago, for the relief of necessitous
    families, whose number in the year 1733 amounted to two hundred and
    ninety-six. This house, which is supported by the charitable
    benefactions and contributions of well-disposed persons, is under
    the direction of a certain number of Governors and Governesses, who
    at first supplied the poor under their care with money; but many of
    them, without the least regard to their distressed families,
    wickedly disposing of the money in spirituous liquors, tobacco, &c.
    the managers agreed for the future to allow these poor families
    provisions instead of money, according to their several necessities;
    some therefore are allowed two portions a week, others three or
    four, and the most necessitous, six: each portion consisting of a
    pan of good soup, mixed with six ounces of bread, half a pound of
    meat, and the same weight of dry bread. The expence of this charity
    amounts to 500_l._ _per annum_. _Maitland._

  FRENCH EPISCOPAL CHURCH, in Threadneedle street, near the Royal
    Exchange. In this place was formerly a synagogue built by the Jews
    about the year 1231, but in the reign of King Henry III. the
    Christians obtained it of that Prince, who granted it to the
    brotherhood of St. Anthony of Vienna, and it was dedicated to the
    Blessed Virgin. Afterwards an hospital was added, called St.
    Anthony’s of London, with a large free-school; and this hospital
    which was allowed by Edward IV. to have priests, clerks, scholars,
    poor men and brethren, with choristers, proctors, messengers,
    servitors, &c. like the convent of St. Anthony of Vienna, was about
    the year 1485, appropriated to the collegiate church of St. George
    at Windsor. This school in the reign of Henry VI. was one of the
    most celebrated in England, and the scholars used at a certain time
    in the year to go in procession; particularly on the 15th of
    September 1562, there set out from Mile end two hundred children of
    St. Anthony’s school, who marched through Aldgate down Cornhill, to
    the Augustine Friars, with flags and streamers flying, and drums
    beating. But at length Johnson, one of the schoolmasters, becoming a
    Prebendary of Windsor, ruined the hospital; spoilt the choir of the
    church; conveyed away the plate and ornaments; then the bells; and
    lastly turned the almsmen out of their houses, allowing only 12_d_.
    a week to each. These houses were afterwards let out for the sake of
    the rent, and the church at length became a place of worship for the
    use of the French, who hold it of the church of Windsor.

    This church being destroyed by the fire of London, was rebuilt, and
    is still possessed by the French and Walloons, who here perform
    divine service, after the manner of the church of England, in the
    French tongue; but though it is a pretty large and commodious
    edifice, it is not sufficient to accommodate all the communicants;
    they therefore make an exchange with the Dutch church in Austin
    Friars every first Sunday in the month, where the Lord’s supper is
    constantly administered in French, the Dutch preaching on that day
    in the French church in Threadneedle street.

  FRENCH EPISCOPAL CHURCH, on the east side of St. Martin’s lane. Here
    originally stood the parish church of St. Martin’s Ongar; that
    edifice was almost destroyed by the fire of London, but part of the
    steeple of the old church remains; this has a dial which hangs over
    into the street, and the parish is united to St. Clement’s East
    Cheap. However, as part of the tower and nave remained, and was
    found capable of repairs, after the above dreadful conflagration, a
    body of the French protestants of the church of England, obtained a
    lease of them of the Minister and Churchwardens, which was confirmed
    by an act of parliament; and a church was erected for their use, in
    which divine service is still performed after the manner of the
    church of England. _Maitland._

  FRENCH _court_, 1. Artillery lane, Spitalfields. 2. Cock lane. 3.
    Harrow alley. 4. Little Broad street. 5. Pig street. 6. Wentworth
    street.

  FRENCH ORDINARY _court_, Crutched Friars.

  FRENCH _yard_, 1. Artichoke lane. 2. Spital square.

  FRENCH _wharf_, Millbank.†

  FRESH _wharf_, Thames street.

  FRIDAY _street_, Cheapside.

  FRIER’S _alley_, Wood street, Cheapside.†

  FRIER’S _court_, 1. Old street.† 2. Red Mead lane, near the
    Hermitage.†

  FRIER’S _lane_, Thames street.†

  FRIER’S _rents_, 1. Blackman’s street.† 2. Fishmongers alley.†

  FRIER’S _street_, Black Friars.†

  FRIERY, in Pall Mall.

  FRITH _street_, by Soho.

  FROGGET’S _court_, Thieving lane.†

  FROG _island_, Nightingale lane, Limehouse.

  FROG _lane_, Islington.*

  FROGMORE, near Windsor, the seat of the late Duchess Dowager of
    Northumberland, lately purchased by the Hon. Edward Walpole, Esq.

  FRUITERERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King
    James I. in the year 1605. They are governed by a Master, two
    Wardens, and thirty Assistants, and have a livery of sixty-three
    members, whose fine on their admission is 5_l._ They have no hall,
    and therefore usually meet in that of the parish clerks.

  FRYING PAN _alley_, 1. Berwick street.* 2. In the Borough.* 3. Brown’s
    gardens.* 4. Deadman’s Place.* 5, Fore street, Lambeth.* 6. Golden
    lane.* 7. Great Swan alley.* 8. St. John street, West Smithfield.*
    9. Kent street, Southwark. 10. Maze, Southwark.* 11. Oxford street.*
    12. Petticoat lane.* 13. Redcross street, Cripplegate.* 14. Tothill
    street.* 15. Turnmill street.* 16. Wheeler street.* 17. Wood street,
    Cheapside.*

  FRYING PAN _stairs_, Wapping Dock.*

  FRYING PAN _yard_, Back street, Lambeth.*

  FRY’S _alley_, Spring street.†

  FRY’S _court_, Tower hill.†

  FULHAM, a village four miles from London, on the side of the Thames,
    over which it has a wooden bridge to Putney; for the passing of it
    not only horses, coaches, and all other carriages, but also foot
    passengers pay toll.

  FULLER’S _Almshouse_, at Mile end, was founded in the year 1592,
    pursuant to the will of Judge Fuller, for twelve ancient poor men of
    Stepney parish, for whose relief he endowed it with lands in
    Lincolnshire to the value of 50_l._ _per annum_.

    In the same year was also founded, in conformity to the will of the
    same judge, an almshouse in Old street, Hoxton, for twelve poor
    women, each of whom has an allowance of 4_l._ a year, and three
    bushels of coals. _Maitland._

  FULLER’S _court_, East Smithfield.†

  FULLER’S _rents_, near Golden lane, High Holborn.†

  FULLER’S _street_, Hare street, Shoreditch.

  FULLER’S _school_. See IRONMONGER ROW _School_.

  FUMBLER’S _yard_, Priests alley, Tower street.║

  FULWOOD’S _rents_, High Holborn.

  FURNIVAL’S _Inn_, on the north side of Holborn, almost opposite
    Staples Inn, is one the Inns of Chancery. It took its name,
    according to Mr. Stow, from its formerly belonging to Sir William
    Furnival, Knt. It is a handsome old building of great extent. The
    entrance is in the middle by a large gate, which leads into a
    spacious court, behind which is a pleasant garden.

  FURNIVAL’S INN _court_, Holborn.☐

  FURRIERS _alley_, Shoe lane.


                        _End of the_ SECOND VOLUME.


[Illustration]


------------------------------------------------------------------------



    ● Transcriber’s Notes:
       ○ Pound, shilling and pence abbreviations (_l. s. d._) were
         regularized to be italic.
       ○ On page 232, the name of the painter of “The beasts going into
         the ark” is mostly obscured, but the painter Jacopo Bassano did
         paint “The Animals Entering Noah’s Ark”. Other works by him are
         also in this collection.
       ○ Missing or obscured punctuation was silently corrected.
       ○ Typographical errors were silently corrected.
       ○ Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation were made consistent only
         when a predominant form was found in this book.
       ○ The use of a carat (^) before one or more letters shows they
         were intended to be superscripts, as in S^t Bartholomew or
         L^{d.} Egemont.
       ○ Text that was in italics is enclosed by underscores
         (_italics_).





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