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Title: London and Its Environs Described, vol. 3 (of 6) - Containing an Account of whatever is most remarkable for - Grandeur, Elegance, Curiosity or Use
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "London and Its Environs Described, vol. 3 (of 6) - Containing an Account of whatever is most remarkable for - Grandeur, Elegance, Curiosity or Use" ***

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                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                               DESCRIBED.

                               VOL. III.



------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                               DESCRIBED.


                               CONTAINING

An Account of whatever is most remarkable for GRANDEUR, ELEGANCE,
CURIOSITY or USE,


                     In the CITY and in the COUNTRY
                         Twenty Miles round it.

                           COMPREHENDING ALSO
        Whatever is most material in the History and Antiquities
                       of this great Metropolis.


Decorated and illustrated with a great Number of Views in Perspective,
engraved from original Drawings, taken on purpose for this Work.


                    Together with a PLAN of LONDON,
                A Map of the ENVIRONS, and several other
                              useful CUTS.


                               VOL. III.


                                LONDON:
              Printed for R. and J. DODSLEY in Pall Mall.

                               ----------

                               M DCC LXI.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



                                 LONDON

                                AND ITS

                                ENVIRONS

                             DESCRIBED, &c.



                                  GAP


_St._ GABRIEL’S, a church which stood opposite to Cullum street, the
  middle of Fenchurch street, in Langbourn ward; but being destroyed by
  the fire of London and not rebuilt, the parish was annexed to the
  church of St. Margaret Pattens.

GAINSFORD _street_, Horselydown lane.†

GALLARD’S _Almshouse_, in Golden lane, was founded by Richard Gallard of
  Islington, Esq; for thirteen poor men and women, who were to receive
  only two pence a week each, and a load of charcoal yearly amongst them
  all. By this small allowance, it appears that this house must be of a
  very ancient foundation. _Maitland._

GAP _yard_, Stepney Causeway.

GARDENS _court_, 1. Baldwin’s gardens.☐ 2. St. Botolph Bishopsgate
  church yard.☐ 3. Clement’s Inn.☐ 4. Clifford’s Inn.☐ 5. Furnival’s
  Inn.☐ 6. Lincoln’s Inn.☐ 7. Middle Temple.☐ 8. Petticoat lane.☐ 9.
  Serjeants Inn.☐ 10. Sion College.☐ 11. Staple’s Inn.☐ 12. Star street,
  Wapping Wall.☐ 13. Thavie’s Inn.☐

GARDEN _row_, 1. Inner Temple.☐ 2. Lower street, Islington.☐ 3. Unicorn
  alley, Shoreditch.☐

GARDENERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King
  James I. in the year 1616. They are governed by a Master, two Wardens,
  and eighteen Assistants; but have neither hall nor livery.

GARDINER’S _court_, Gardiner’s lane, King street, Westminster.†

GARDINER’S _ground_, Collingwood street.

GARDINER’S _lane_, 1. High Timber street. 2. King street, Westminster.
  3. Maiden lane. 4. Neathouse lane. 5. Petty France, Westminster. 6.
  Willow street.

GARDINER’S _row_, Chelsea.

GARLAND _alley_, Bishopsgate street.

GARLAND _court_, 1. Ocean street, Stepney. 2. Trinity lane.

GARLIC _hill_, Thames street; so called from the garlick market formerly
  held thereabout. _Stow._

GARRAT _street_, Cock lane, Shoreditch.†

GARRET’S _Almshouse_, in Porter’s fields, and in the liberty of Norton
  Falgate, was founded in the year 1729, by Nicholas Garret, Esq;
  citizen and weaver, for the accommodation of six poor members of his
  company, each of whom has also an annual allowance of 8_l._, a
  chaldron of coals, and dozen and a half of candles. _Maitland._

GARRET’S _rents_, Coleman street.†

GARTER _court_, Barbican.*

GARTER _yard_, Ratcliff Highway.

GASSON, a village in the parish of Blechingley, in Surry, at the source
  of the river Medway.

GATEHOUSE, Tothill street, Westminster, is so called from two gates,
  erected there in the reign of Edward III. Here is a prison for debtors
  and criminals.

GATE _street_, Lincoln’s Inn fields.

GATTON, a very small borough in Surry, eighteen miles from London, under
  the side of a hill in the road to Ryegate. This is a very ancient
  town; and from the Roman coins and other antiquities found there, is
  supposed to have been well known to the Romans; but though it is a
  borough by prescription, and has sent members to parliament ever since
  the 29th of Henry VI. and though it was formerly a large and populous
  place, it now resembles a very mean village; it having only a small
  church, and neither a fair nor market. The members are returned by its
  constable, who is annually chosen at the Lord of the manor’s court.
  This parish is famous for a quarry of white stone, which, though very
  soft, will endure the fire admirably well; but neither the sun nor the
  air; on which account it is much used for glass houses, and by
  chemists and bakers.

GAUNT’S _key_. Thames street.†

GENEVA _row_, Tyburn road.†

GENTEE’S _passage_, Nibb’s Pound.†

GEORGE _alley_, 1. Aldgate street, within.* 2. Bishopsgate street.* 3.
  In the Borough.* 4. Coleman street.* 5. Field lane, at the bottom of
  Holborn hill.* 6. George street, York buildings.* 7. Holles street,
  Clare market.* 8. King Tudor’s street.* 9. Lombard street, Gracechurch
  street.* 10. Lower Shadwell. 11. St. Margaret’s hill.* 12. New George
  street, Spitalfields.* 13. Rotherhith.* 14. Saffron hill.* 15. Shoe
  lane, Fleet street.* 16. Stony street.* 17. In the Strand.* 18. Thames
  street.* 19. Turnmill street.* 20. York buildings.*

GEORGE AND VULTURE _alley_, Cornhill.*


[Illustration:

  _S. Wale delin._ _Elliot sculp._
  _Bloomsbury Church._
]


GEORGE _court_, 1. Bennet’s hill.* 2. Coleman street.* 3. East
  Smithfield.* 4. George street, Conduit street.* 5. George street in
  the Mint.* 6. Gravel lane.* 7. Hatton Wall.* 8. St. John’s lane.* 9.
  Little St. Thomas Apostles.* 10. Near Newington Turnpike.* 11.
  Prince’s street, Spitalfields.* 12. Seacole lane, Snow hill.*

GEORGE INN _yard_, in the Borough.*

GEORGE _lane_, St. Botolph lane.*

GEORGE’S _buildings_, 1. Catharine Wheel alley, Whitechapel.† 2. Near
  Rosemary lane.† 3. Jermain street.†

_St._ GEORGE’S _Bloomsbury_, is one of the fifty new churches appointed
  to be built by act of parliament within the bills of mortality. The
  name of St. George was given to it in honour of his present Majesty;
  and it received the additional epithet of Bloomsbury, from its
  situation, to distinguish it from others of the same name.

  The portico through which you enter the church stands on the south
  side, as is represented in the print. It is of the Corinthian order,
  and makes a very good figure in the street, but has no affinity to the
  church, which is very heavy, and would be better suited with a Tuscan
  portico. The tower and steeple at the west, is a very extraordinary
  structure. On the top standing on a round pedestal or altar, is a
  colossal statue of the late King, supported by a pyramid. At the
  corners near the base are alternately placed the lion and unicorn the
  British supporters, with festoons between: these animals being very
  large, are injudiciously placed over columns very small, which makes
  them appear monsters. The under part is heavy enough, but not
  connected with the church. The introduction of figures and other
  pieces of sculpture into steeples, which are so much the work of
  fancy, and where the artist is not so much confined as in the other
  parts of the building, if managed with taste and propriety might be
  made elegant ornaments, and would make a fine variety with the
  architectonic ones with which the city already abounds.

  This church was erected at the public expence, and consecrated in
  January 1731. A district for its parish was by authority of parliament
  taken out of that of St. Giles’s, and the sum of 3000_l._ was given
  towards the support of its Rector, to which being added 1250_l._ by
  the inhabitants of St. Giles’s parish, both sums were ordered to be
  laid out in the purchase of lands, tenements, &c. in fee simple, as a
  perpetual fund for the maintenance of the Rector and his successors;
  but the poor of this parish and that of St. Giles’s in the Fields, are
  to be maintained by the joint assessment of both parishes, in the same
  manner as before their being divided.

_St._ GEORGE’S _Botolph lane_, is like all the other churches of this
  name, dedicated to St. George of Cappadocia, the martyr and tutelar
  saint of the English nation, and is situated on the west side of
  Botolph lane, Thames street. The old church was destroyed by the fire
  of London in 1666, and the present edifice built in its stead. It is
  enlightened with a single series of tall windows, and the steeple
  consists of a plain tower ornamented with vases at the four corners.

  This is a rectory in the gift of the Crown; and to this parish that of
  St. Botolph’s Billingsgate is united by act of parliament.

_St._ GEORGE’S _fields_, a large space between Lambeth and Southwark,
  where have been found many Roman coins, chequered pavements, and
  bricks, it being the center of three Roman ways. Since the building of
  Westminster bridge, a new road has been made across these fields,
  which leading into the Borough forms a communication between the two
  bridges.

_St._ GEORGE’S _Hanover square_, is situated on the east side of George
  street, near the square, whence it had its additional epithet. This is
  one of the churches that were found necessary, upon the great increase
  of public buildings in this part of the town; for the church of St
  Martin’s in the Fields being at too great a distance from the new
  streets, and too small for the inhabitants, the Commissioners for the
  fifty new churches gave orders for erecting one in the skirts of the
  parish, on which this august pile arose, and was consecrated in 1724.

  This church, considering the extent of the parish, is too small. It
  has a plain body with an elegant portico: the columns, which are
  Corinthian, are of a large diameter, and the pediment has its
  acroteria, but without farther ornament. It has a tower, which, above
  the clock, is elegantly adorned at the corners with coupled Corinthian
  columns that are very lofty. These are crowned with their entablature,
  which at each corner supports two vases, and over these the tower
  still rises till it is terminated by a dome crowned with a turret
  which supports a ball, over which rises the weather-cock.

  This church is a rectory; the parish at first consisted of the two out
  wards of that of St. Martin’s in the Fields; but it has now four
  wards, named Conduit street, Grosvenor street, Dover street, and the
  out ward. The advowson is settled upon the Bishop of London and his
  successors. The profits arising to the Rector, are said to amount to
  about 600_l._ _per annum_. Lieutenant General Stewart gave the ground
  on which this church was erected, and some time after bequeathed to
  this parish the sum of 4000_l._ towards erecting and endowing a
  charity school in it.

_St._ GEORGE’S _Middlesex_, situated on the north side of Ratcliff
  Highway, is another of the churches occasioned by the increase of
  buildings in a part of the town opposite to the former. The
  Commissioners for erecting fifty new churches caused the foundation to
  be laid in the year 1715, and the structure was finished in 1729.

  This is a massy structure, erected in a very singular taste. The floor
  is raised a considerable height above the level of the ground; and to
  the principal door, which is in the west front of the tower, is an
  ascent by a double flight of steps, cut with a sweep, and defended by
  a low wall of the same form; but what is most singular in this
  structure, is, there are two turrets over the body of the church, and
  one on the tower, which last is in the manner of a fortification, with
  a staff on the top for an occasional flag. The author of _The Review
  of the Public Buildings_ calls this edifice a mere Gothic heap of
  stone, without form or order.

  The parish is taken out of that of Stepney; and by act of parliament
  the hamlet of Wapping Stepney is appropriated to that purpose, and in
  all respects rendered independent of Stepney parish. Towards the
  maintenance of the Rector and his successors, the parliament gave the
  sum of 3000_l._ to be laid out in the purchase of lands, tenements,
  &c. in fee simple; and as a farther provision, the churchwardens are
  annually to pay him the sum of 100_l._ to be raised by burial fees.
  The advowson of this rectory, like that of Stepney, is in the
  Principal and Scholars of King’s hall, and Brazen nose college,
  Oxford.

_St._ GEORGE’S _Queen square_, also arose from the increase of
  buildings. Several gentlemen at the extremity of the parish of St.
  Andrew’s Holborn, having proposed the erecting of a chapel for
  religious worship, Sir Streynsham Master, and fourteen of the other
  neighbouring gentlemen, were appointed trustees for the management of
  this affair. These gentlemen in the year 1705, agreed with Mr. Tooley
  to give him 3500_l._ for erecting a chapel and two houses, intending
  to reimburse themselves by the sale of pews; and this edifice being
  finished the next year, they settled annual stipends for the
  maintenance of a chaplain, an afternoon preacher who was also reader,
  and a clerk, giving to the first and second a salary of 100_l._ each,
  and to the last 50_l._ But the Commissioners for erecting fifty new
  churches resolving to make this one of them, purchased it, caused a
  certain district to be appointed for its parish, and had it
  consecrated in the year 1723, when it was dedicated to St. George in
  compliment to Sir Streynsham Master, who had been Governor of Fort St.
  George in the East Indies. _Maitland._

  This church is a plain common building void of all elegance; it is
  however convenient and well enlightened. The rectory, like that of St.
  Andrew’s, is in the Duke of Montague’s gift.

_St._ GEORGE’S _Southwark_, is situated at the south east corner of St.
  Margaret’s hill. There was a church in this place before the year
  1122, which in 1629, was repaired and beautified within. This edifice
  was preserved by its situation, from the dreadful conflagration in
  1666; but the decays of age rendered it necessary to take it down in
  1734, when the present church was begun, and finished in 1736.

  To this church there is an ascent by a flight of steps, defended by
  plain iron rails. The door case, which is Ionic, has a circular
  pediment, ornamented with the heads of Cherubims in clouds; and on
  each side of this pediment, which reaches to the height of the roof,
  the front is adorned with a ballustrade and vases. From this part the
  tower rises plain, strengthened with rustic quoins, as is the body of
  the building, and on the corners of the tower are again placed vases.
  From this part the diminution is too great; and from hence are raised
  a series of Ionic columns supporting the base of the spire, which has
  ribs on the angles, and openings in all the faces. The top is crowned
  with a ball from which rises the vane.

  This church is a rectory in the gift of the Crown; the profits of
  which to the Incumbent amount to about 220_l._ a year. _English
  Architect._ _Maitland._

_St._ GEORGE’S HOSPITAL, near Hyde Park Corner. This undertaking was set
  on foot soon after Michaelmas 1733, by some gentlemen who were before
  concerned in a charity of the like kind in the lower part of
  Westminster. This house they judged convenient for their purpose, on
  account of its air, situation, and nearness to town; they therefore
  procured a lease of it, and opened a subscription for carrying on the
  charity here, which increased so fast, that on the 19th of October
  they were formed into a regular society, and actually began to receive
  patients on the first of January following.

  Here are admitted the poor, sick, and lame, who are supplied with
  advice, medicine, diet, washing, lodging, and some of the miserable
  with cloaths also. The Physicians visit their patients on Mondays and
  Fridays, and on all intermediate days whenever occasion requires; but
  the Surgeon attends every day; and on every Friday morning there is a
  general consultation of all the Physicians and Surgeons. No security
  for the burial of the patients is required, nor any money, gift, or
  reward taken of them or their friends, on any account whatsoever.
  Those who die, if their friends are unable to bury them, are interred
  at the charge of the society. And the money collected in the poor box
  at the door, is kept as a separate fund for furnishing those with some
  little sum of money, whose distance from their habitations, or other
  particular necessities, require it.

  The apothecaries, who are Governors, are appointed to attend by
  rotation as visitors, to see that the apothecary of the house takes
  due care of the medicines and patients. Two visitors are chosen weekly
  out of the subscribers, to attend daily, and take care, by examining
  the provision and patients, that the orders of the society are
  punctually observed, that the patients are treated in every respect
  with order and tenderness, and to make a report in writing of their
  observations.

  Prayers are read daily to the patients; a sermon is preached every
  Sunday, the communion is administered every month, and the chaplain
  attends at other times to catechize and perform other religious
  offices, as often as their cases require; and when the patients are
  discharged, religious tracts are given to each of them, for their
  farther edification.

  A board of Governors meet every Wednesday morning, to do the current
  business of the hospital, to receive and examine the reports of the
  visitors, to discharge and admit patients, to receive the complaints
  and proposals of all persons, and to prepare such matters as are
  proper for the consideration of general boards. A general board of the
  Governors meet regularly five times a year.

  The Governors are in number upwards of three hundred. No person
  receiving salary, fee, or reward from the hospital, is capable of
  being a Governor; but every other gentleman subscribing 5_l._ a year,
  or upwards, or giving one benefaction of 50_l._ although he be not an
  annual subscriber, is thereupon put in nomination to be a Governor,
  and at the first general court, which is held one month afterwards, is
  accordingly ballotted for by the Governors. The subscriptions are
  received by the Treasurers, at the weekly board, held every Wednesday
  morning in the hospital.

  The other rules and regulations of this excellent hospital, are as
  follow:

  I. No person is to be admitted a patient, except in cases of
  accidents, without a note from a Governor or contributor, specifying
  the name and place of abode of such patient, and that he or she is a
  proper object of this charity.

  II. All recommendations are to be delivered every Wednesday morning,
  by nine of the clock.

  III. In case any out-patients neglect coming two weeks successively on
  the day and hour they are ordered to attend, such out-patients shall
  be discharged for irregularity, except they have had leave from their
  Physician.

  IV. No person discharged for irregularity is to be ever again admitted
  into the hospital, upon any recommendation whatsoever.

  V. No patient is to be suffered to go out of the hospital without
  leave in writing; and to avoid giving offence, no leave is to be given
  to any patient to go into St. James’s Park, or the Green Park, called
  Constitution hill, upon any pretence whatsoever.

  VI. No Governor, officer, or servant, must at any time presume, on
  pain of expulsion, to take of any tradesman, patient, or other person,
  any fee, reward, or gratification of any kind, directly, or
  indirectly, for any service done, or to be done, on account of this
  hospital.

  VII. No person subscribing less than two guineas a year, can recommend
  more than two in-patients in the year.

  VIII. When there is not room for all the patients recommended at one
  time to be received into the hospital, those are taken in whose
  admission the board are of opinion, will most effectually answer the
  end of the charity; and the rest, if proper objects, are admitted
  out-patients, till there is room for them in the hospital. Most
  consumptive and asthmatic cases are more capable of relief as
  out-patients, than as in-patients.

  By this noble foundation, there have been discharged from the
  hospital, since its first receiving of patients on the first of
  January 1733, to the 27th of December 1752, 60,188. Those in the house
  on the 27th of December 1752, amounted to 273. The out-patients in the
  books at the same time were 645, which in all made 61,106. _From the
  account published by the General Board._

  This hospital enjoys a fine situation, and has all the benefit of a
  clear and pure air: it has the advantage of being a very neat, though
  not an expensive building; and though it is extremely plain, it is not
  void of ornament. It has two small wings, and a large front, with only
  one door, which is in the middle, and to which there is an ascent by a
  few steps. On the top of this part of the building is a pediment
  raised above the rest of the edifice, and under this ornament is a
  stone with an inscription, expressing the noble use to which this
  structure is applied.

_St._ GEORGE’S _court_, Newington causeway.

GEORGE _stairs_, 1. Deptford.* 2. Shad Thames.*

GEORGE _street_, 1. Cambridge Heath.* 2. Foster lane, Cheapside.* 3.
  Hanover square. 4. Little Chapel street. 5. In the Mint.* 6. Near
  Tothill side. 7. Pall Mall. 8. Ratcliff highway. 9. Tyburn road. 10.
  White row, Spitalfields.* 11. Windsor street. 12. York buildings. See
  GREAT GEORGE _street_.

  Some of the new streets of this name, were thus denominated in honour
  of King George I. and II.

  A list of the pictures belonging to General Guise, at his house in
  George street, Hanover square.

                    On the left hand of the staircase.

A piece of architecture, rather large, adorned with many small figures
  very graceful. The architecture, by Viviani. The figures, in his best
  manner, by Sebastiano Ricci.

Two heads in one picture, a little smaller than life. They exhibit two
  caricaturas, by Spagnoletto.

A portrait of some Spanish nobleman, half length, after the life, nobly
  painted and well preserved, by Moriglio.

A head with part of the shoulders, and it seems to be the portrait of
  some great man. In his first manner, by Titiano.

A picture, with many figures two feet high, representing Solomon’s
  judgment. The invention, disposition, and colouring are equally
  wonderful, by Pasqualini Romano, disciple of Andrea Sacchi.

A representation of our Saviour on his doleful way to Calvary. The
  figures almost as big as the life, by Andrea Mantegna.

  _Mantegna was Correggio’s master, and this picture was in the
  collection of King Charles the First._

The rape of the Sabines. A picture of great merit both for invention and
  colouring, the author unknown.

A figure as big as the life, of particular beauty, exhibiting St. Jerome
  fervently praying, by Domenichino.

A head with part of the shoulders, as big as the life. It is the
  portrait, painted by himself, of Francesco Mola.

A small sketch representing a sacrifice, with the temple of Diana. The
  figures are many and wonderfully well disposed, by Pietro da Cortona.

      _It goes about in print._

A small sketch in light and shadow, with many figures representing a
  Saint, ready to suffer martyrdom, drawn with great liveliness and
  taste, by Ant. Vandyke.

A small octagonal picture on a black stone, representing our Saviour
  carried to the sepulchre, by Annibal Caracci.

A picture containing several figures about three feet high, exhibiting
  St. Laurence’s martyrdom, by Tintoretto.

A landscape with figures one foot high, representing the martyrdom of
  St. Peter Martir. The figures, by Agostino Caracci. The landscape, by
  Gobbo de Caracci.

A sketch representing a victorious Prince carried in triumph. The
  figures are many, a foot and a half high, and many of them
  allegorical, by Giordano d’Anversa.

A large piece of architecture with figures. In his first manner, by
  Nicol. Poussin.

A picture, containing some half lengths a little bigger than the life,
  exhibiting Faith that gives her sword to a General, by Pietro della
  Vecchia.

The portrait of a General, half length, a little bigger than the life.
  It is believ’d to be a copy from Titian, by Luca Giordano.

A figure very artfully foreshorten’d, representing our Saviour dead, as
  big as the life, by Lodovico Caracci.

A picture exhibiting a battle, full of figures about one foot high; and
  one of the noblest performances of Bourgognone.

Apollo and Marsyas. The figures about three feet high, by Sebastiano
  Ricci.

                   In the first and second rooms of the
                              ground floor.

A large picture containing some half lengths as big as the life, and
  representing the taking our Saviour in the garden, by Giacomo da
  Bassano.

A piece containing many half length figures as big as the life,
  representing the prodigal son received by his father. A famous
  performance of Guercino da Cento.

Sophonisba dying with grief in the arms of her damsel on receiving
  doleful news. The figures are half lengths as big as the life. A
  celebrated piece, by Domenichino.

Our Saviour known by the two disciples in the breaking of the bread. The
  figures bigger than the life, by Lodovico Caracci.

The flight into Egypt. The figures as big as the life. A noble work, by
  Guido Reni.

The heads of St. Andrew and St. Paul, bigger than the life. A valuable
  performance, by Andrea Sacchi.

St. Elizabeth with St. John when a babe, musing on a cross made of
  reeds. The figures smaller than the life. A renowned piece, by
  Leonardo da Vinci.

Judith holding Holofernes’s head. A half length, very beautiful, by
  Francesco Salviati.

Our Saviour’s nativity. The figures a little more than one foot high,
  finished with extreme diligence. A rare work, by Baldassare Peruzzi.

Our Lady contemplating her babe. The figures about two feet and a half,
  wonderfully well done after Correggio’s manner, by Francesco Mazzuoli,
  commonly called Parmigianino.

A half length, as big as the life, representing a naked woman, by
  Titiano.

    _It is thought that this is the portrait of the woman that was
      Titian’s model, when he drew the famous Venus now existing in the
      room called_ La Tribuna, _in the Medicean gallery at Florence_.

Our Saviour taken down from the cross. The figures a little more than
  one foot high, by Daniele da Volterra.

    _This appears to be the sketch from which Daniel made the large
      famous picture, that is now in one of the chapels of the church
      called_ La Trinità de Monit, _at Rome_.

An oval picture representing Medusa’s head, bigger than the life,
  painted with astonishing expression, by Rubens.

A holy family. The figures one foot high, compleatly finished, by Annib.
  Caracci.

Our Saviour crowned with thorns. The figures a foot and a half high. One
  of the best works in his first manner, by Correggio.

Our Lady with the two babes Jesus and John laying hold of a lamb, and
  two angels devoutly looking on them, by Fran. Mazzuoli, called
  Parmigianino.

  _It was formerly in Charles the First’s collection._

Socrates and Alcibiades. Half lengths of about a foot and a half, by
  Giorgione da Castelfranco, who was Titiano’s master.

A small picture representing our Lady’s assumption, and the apostles, by
  Francesco Naldini.

  _This was the sketch of a celebrated picture now in Florence._

Our Saviour’s circumcision. An original sketch, by Polidoro da
  Caravaggio.

A picture in light and shadow, representing Diana and her nymphs in the
  bath, changing Acteon into a stag. An original beautiful sketch. The
  figures one foot high, by Nicolo dell’ Abate.

A small sketch for a ceiling in light and shadow, by Correggio.

Our Saviour’s supper, a small and most beautiful performance, by
  Innocenzo da Imola.

  _Innocenzo was one of Raphael’s best disciples._

A Venetian history, by Paolo Veronese.

  _This is an original sketch of one of the large pictures painted by
    Paolo in the_ Sala del Consiglio, _at Venice_.

A boy’s head, as big as the life, by Annibal Caracci.

Diana’s head, as big as the life, by Camillo Procaccini.

St. Catharine, a foot and a half high. A celebrated and well preserved
  performance, by Benvenuto da Garofolo.

A landscape exhibiting the hunting of the hare, a beautiful work, by
  Gobbo de Caracci.

Adam and Eve driven out of paradise by the angel. The figures one foot
  high. A famous and well preserved work, by the Cavaliere Giuseppe d’
  Arpino.

The head of a woman smiling, smaller than the life, by Leonardo da
  Vinci.

A child’s head, smaller than the life, by Fra. Bartolomeo di San Marco.

The pale of an altar with figures bigger than the life, representing St.
  Lucy,

St. John the Evangelist, St. Humphrey, and St. Francis. A famous
  performance, by Correggio: except St. Humphrey’s figure, which having
  been left unfinish’d by Correggio, was afterwards finished by
  Spagnoletto.

The family of the Caracci’s, represented in a butcher’s shop, and those
  celebrated painters in butchers dresses. _Annibal_ is weighing some
  meat to a Swiss of the Cardinal of Bologna’s guard. _Agostino_ is
  shaking a nail and trying if it holds fast, that he may hang on it a
  leg of mutton which he holds in his left hand. The _Gobbo_ is lifting
  up half a calf to hang it on a beam, and _Lodovico_ stoops down
  killing a sheep. The mother of them is represented as a servant-maid
  that comes to buy some meat. The likenesses are traditionally said to
  be wonderful; and the whole of this no less odd than beautiful picture
  was the most celebrated performance of Annibal Caracci.

Three half figures as big as the life, representing three ladies
  diverting themselves with music, and a gentleman listening to them. In
  all probability they were portraits, by Titiano.

A sketch of one of the most capital pictures in Venice, and preserved
  there in a church. It represents our blessed Lady with St. Peter and
  St. Francis, and a Venetian General of the Capello’s family come back
  victorious from a battle against the Turks, who offers the standard
  and the trophies of his victory to the altar of our Lady. The whole
  Capello family is exhibited in this picture. A celebrated work, by
  Titiano.

A landscape with figures. It represents part of the country near
  Bologna, by Domenichino.

A woman representing Simplicity, with a dove in her hand. A half length
  as big as the life, by Francesco Furino.

The good Samaritan. The figures are two feet high. A valuable picture,
  by Sisto Badalocchi.

Our Lady with her babe, about two feet high, painted much after
  Correggio’s manner, by Sebastian Ricci.

The head of a youth, a little smaller than the life, by Raphael.

Two small pictures, exhibiting two different martyrdoms of two saints,
  by Giacomo del Po.

A small sketch, by Ciro Ferri, a disciple of Pietro da Cortona.

A picture exhibiting our Saviour’s nativity. The devotion and maternal
  affection of our blessed Lady looking on her babe, is prodigiously
  well expressed. St. Joseph stands admiring the compunction of two
  shepherds contrasted by another that takes care of the ass. Of two
  other shepherds, placed at some distance, one holds a light in his
  hand and shows the other the manger, expressing a pious wonder.
  Further off there is a most beautiful angel in the clouds proclaiming
  the birth of our Saviour to the other shepherds. No picture ever
  surpassed this most elaborate performance of Titiano.

  _It was one of King Charles the First’s collection; and there are two
    prints of it, an ancient one in wood, the other in copper-plate._

Another nativity, painted likewise with his usual delicacy and noble
  expression, by the same Titiano.

Our Lady with her babe in her arms, near as big as the life, standing on
  the clouds, supported and attended by cherubs and angels. Under it
  there is a sight of the town of Bologna, and adjacent villages, all
  painted in his best manner, by Annibal Caracci.

Susan tempted by the two old men, boldly and vigorously painted as big
  as the life, by Agostino Caracci.

The slaughter of the innocents, containing nineteen figures as big as
  the life. A master-piece both for composition and colouring, by
  Valerio Castelli.

Two children bigger than the life, representing holy Love the conqueror
  of profane Love; one of the best performances in his first manner, by
  Guido Reni.

A lively figure of an Italian buffoon, drinking merrily, an half figure,
  as big as the life, by Annibal Caracci.

The portrait of some Nobleman, a little more than a half length, by
  Francesco Torbido, commonly called, il Moro Veronese.

  _This painter was much admired by Titian himself._

A nativity of our Saviour. The figures about one foot high. The effect
  of the light that shines out of the babe, and irradiates the whole
  picture, is astonishing. This is a celebrated piece, by Cavalier
  Cavedone.

A head as big as the life, representing our Saviour, painted in a bold
  manner, by Agostino Caracci.

Apollo in the attitude of slaying Marsyas. The figures about two feet
  high, by Andrea Sacchi.

Two small pictures, the one representing a mountebank drawing a tooth to
  a clown, surrounded by many spectators; the other exhibiting many
  people playing at balls upon the ground. Tho’ both these pictures are
  copious in figures, yet there is none of them but has some posture or
  meaning most lively and naturally expressed, by Michelangelo delle
  Battaglie.

A small picture, containing our Lady and her babe, St. Joseph, and St.
  Catharine, half figures, finely painted, by Bartolomeo Schidone.

A small picture, representing an angel that contemplates with a most
  afflicted look one of the nails with which our Saviour was crucified,
  holding it up in his hand, by Correggio.

A most beautiful sketch, representing our Saviour laid in the sepulchre,
  with the Virgin who has swooned and is supported by the three Marys,
  by Giacomo da Bassano.

Four small pictures, containing some figures two feet high, most
  masterly painted, by Francesco Mazzuoli, called il Parmigianino.

A small picture with many figures, representing our Saviour shewn to the
  people by Pilate. A noble performance, by Federigo Barocci.

A small picture, representing our Saviour appearing to Mary Magdalen in
  the gardener’s form, by Raphael’s master Pietro Perugino.

The infant Jesus and St. John embracing. An excellent performance and
  well preserved, by Raphael. Three heads in water colours, bigger than
  the life, by Raphael.

A head of Joseph of Arimathea, as big as the life, by Federigo Barocci.

                Pictures in the rooms of the first floor.

A half length, a little smaller than the life, representing St.
  Catharine. A rare ancient picture, by Vettori Carpacio.

Our Lady with her babe and St. John. The proportion of the figures two
  feet high. An incomparable performance of Andrea del Sarto.

A small picture representing a father with his two children praying, by
  Giovanni Holbens.

A Nativity of our Saviour, containing eighteen figures two feet high.
  The posture of our Lady that offers her breast to her babe, and that
  of the babe itself, are most graceful; St. Joseph with them completes
  one of the best groups that the art of painting ever produced; and
  equally graceful is another group of three angels playing upon musical
  instruments. Two other angels descend from heaven in an attitude of
  adoration. Many more beautiful attitudes of devotion are those of the
  shepherds, that fill up the left side of this astonishing performance
  of the immortal Raphael.

  _There are two fine prints of this picture._

Our Lady with her babe, St. Catharine and St. Francis. The proportion of
  the figures two feet. An excellent and well preserved performance of
  Paolo Veronese.

The view of a noble temple, our Saviour coming out of it, meets with
  Magdalen, who is by him converted in the presence of some other women.
  An excellent and well preserved performance, done in his first manner,
  by Andrea del Sarto.

Two half lengths as big as the life of two women, one the mistress, the
  other her maid. The mistress was probably a portrait. She holds the
  looking glass with one hand, and with the other adjusts her head,
  listening to the maid that speaks to her. This is one of the best
  works of Domenichino.

Our Lady with her babe, the Magdalen, St. John, and St. Jerome. The
  figures are about three feet high, painted with the greatest
  gracefulness, by Francesco Mauzzoli, called il Parmigianino.

A Cupid drawn by two doves in a golden carr, and two other Cupids
  playing about him encircled by a flower garland. A picture extremely
  well preserved, as well as masterly done by Domenichino.

A copy of the famous nativity known under the name of _Correggio’s
  night_; the figures two feet high, by Carlo Cignani.

Diana in the bath converting Acteon into a stag, with her nymphs about
  her. An elegant composition nobly coloured, the figures a foot and a
  half, by Tintoretto.

The communion of the Apostles, the figures a little above two feet.
  There is a kindled lamp in this picture, which has a striking effect,
  and the whole is painted with great vigour, by Tintoretto.

St. John preaching in the desart, beautified with many well-disposed
  figures, by Gobbo de Caracci.

The fable of Erictonius delivered to the nymphs to be educated. Their
  fear and wonder in spying the boy’s serpentine feet, and their
  different attitudes, are most beautifully expressed. Each figure is
  about half the bigness of nature, and painted with great spirit, by
  Salvator Rosa.

A landscape, exhibiting Moses delivering from the snares of the
  shepherds, the daughters of Reuel the Priest of Midian, that came, to
  give drink to their cattle, by Domenichino.

Another small landscape, exhibiting some fishermen, and women washing
  linen, by the same Domenichino.

A youth little less than the life, that plays upon the guitar, with a
  boy behind that listens with pleasure to him. By the celebrated
  Spanish disciple of Titian, Fernandos.

A half length, representing our Lord tempted in the desart, by Titiano.

Two most beautiful Cherubs heads as big as the life, by Domenichino.

A St. John’s head with a lamb, as big as the life, in his best manner,
  by Guercino da Cento.

Marsyas and Apollo, with Mydas that sits as their judge. The figures
  about a foot high. A fine performance both for invention and
  colouring, by Andrea Schiavone.

A copy of the famous _Correggio’s Cupid_ as big as the life, by Annibal
  Caracci.

An Ecce Homo, as big as the life, painted with great force of expression
  by Lodovico Caracci.

Our Lord laid in the sepulchre, the figures a little more than a foot,
  another noble work of Lodovico Caracci.

St. Francis in a vision supported by Angels. The proportion of the
  figures about two feet high, admirably well painted, by Annibal
  Caracci.

A little landscape, adorned with some pretty little figures, and it
  looks as if painted after nature, by Gobbo de’ Caracci.

A Venus and Cupid as big as the life. An astonishing performance, by
  Titiano.

A copy of one of the celebrated pictures of Raphael in the Roman
  Vatican. This represents an achievement of the Emperor Constantine.
  This copy appears to be the work of some great painter of the
  Florentine school, being done in the most masterly manner.

                              Second floor.

A choir of Angels playing on several musical instruments, their
  proportion about a foot and a half. God the Father supported by three
  Cherubs, by Guido Reni.

_This is thought to be the original sketch of a picture done in fresco
  by Guido, in St. Gregory’s church at Rome._

The martyrdom of St. Erasmus, the figures about two feet high. This is
  the original sketch of the famous picture preserved in St. Peter’s at
  Rome, by Nicolo Poussin.

Two pictures adorned with many beautiful figures, whose proportion is
  about two feet. One represents the age of iron, the other the age of
  copper; and they are the original models of the two pictures in
  fresco, that are in the palace of Pitti at Florence, by Pietro da
  Cortona.

The original sketch of one of the ceilings painted in the Barberini’s
  palace at Rome, by Pietro da Cortona.

  _It represents many allegorical figures._

A half length portrait as big as nature. The figure has a letter in one
  hand, by Lodovico Caracci.

The portrait of Maria Robusti; a half length as big as nature, by Paris
  Bourdon.

The picture of a woman as big as life, half length, by Giorgione da
  Castelfranco.

A head with part of the shoulders, representing a Greek merchant, as big
  as the life, by Michael Angelo da Caravaggio.

Our Lady with her babe, and St. John; the figures near as big as the
  life. An excellent performance, by Titiano.

A half length with the hands, representing Diogenes the Cynic; masterly
  done by Spagnoletto.

A half length portrait of himself, by Tintoretto.

A portrait down to the knee, of the celebrated Naugerius, as big as the
  life, by Tintoretto.

The nativity of our Saviour, enriched with many beautiful figures about
  one foot high, by Francesco Zuccarelli.

A carton in water colours representing the holy family. The figures near
  as big as the life, by Andrea del Sarto.

An Emperor on horseback, the horse white, the proportion about two feet;
  a bold and noble work of Giulio Romano.

  _It was once in King Charles the First’s collection._

A finished sketch of King Charles the First’s white horse, its
  proportion about two feet, by Vandyke.

The slaughter of the Innocents, and Herod on a throne commanding it, by
  Bourgognone.

Ariadne abandoned by Theseus, a naked figure as big as the life, by
  Francesco Furino.

GEORGE _yard_, 1. Beer lane, Tower street.* 2. Bow lane.* 3. Bishopsgate
  street.* 4. Cable street.* 5. Dean street, Soho.* 6. Dorset garden,
  Fleet street.* 7. Duke street, Grosvenor square.* 8. Fore street,
  Lambeth.* 9. Golden lane.* 10. High Holborn.* 11. Hog lane, St.
  Giles’s pound.* 12. Islington.* 13. Kent street, Southwark.* 14.
  Little Britain.* 15. Little Tower hill.* 16. Gracechurch street,
  Lombard street.* 17. Long Acre.* 18. Old street.* 19. Plough yard,
  Broadway.* 20. Redcross street, Southwark.* 21. Saffron hill.* 22.
  Seacoal lane, Snow hill.* 23. Thames str.* 24. Tower hill.* 25.
  Turnmill street.* 26. Whitechapel.*

GEORGIA OFFICE, lately under the government of the Trustees for settling
  the colony of Georgia, is now united to the Office of Trade and
  Plantations, and kept in the Treasury.

GERRARD’S HALL, on the south side of Basing lane, a large and very old
  house built upon stone arches, supported by sixteen pillars, called
  Gerard’s Hall from a giant of that name, which it is ridiculously
  supposed lived there. In the high roofed hall stood for some time a
  large fir pole, which it is pretended Gerard the giant used to run
  with in the wars, and a ladder of the same length, said to be made in
  order to ascend to the top of the staff. Stow justly supposes that
  these circumstances are fabulous, and observes that John Gisors, Mayor
  of London, was the owner of this edifice in the year 1245, and that it
  was a long time possessed by others of the same name and family;
  whence he with great probability concludes, that Gisor’s Hall was by
  corruption called Gerard’s Hall. _Maitl._

GERMAN’S _yard_, Stepney rents, Shoreditch.

GERRARD’S _court_, Little Bell alley.†

GERRARD _street_, Prince’s street, Soho.†

GERRARD’S CROSS, a village in Buckinghamshire, situated about 28 miles
  from London, between Uxbridge and Beconsfield. Here is a charity
  school built and endowed by the late Duke of Portland, for 20 boys and
  15 girls, who are taught and cloathed, and two of the children put out
  apprentices every year. Near this place is also a fine seat of the
  Duke of Portland.

GIBRALTER, Shoreditch.

GIBSON’S _Almshouse_ and _School_, at Ratcliff, were founded by Nicholas
  Gibson, Esq; in the year 1537, for fourteen poor widows, seven of whom
  to be of Stepney parish, and the other seven of the Coopers company.
  The pensioners to have 1_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ a year each; the
  school-master a salary of 10_l._ and an usher 6_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._ a
  year. But the estate with which this foundation is endowed being
  vastly improved, the Coopers company, who are his trustees, have
  lately increased the pensions to 5_l._ and 30 bushels of coals _per
  annum_, with a bounty of 10_s._ to each at Christmas; and the
  schoolmaster’s salary is also advanced to 23_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ and the
  usher’s to 9_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._ _Maitland._

GIBSON’S _court_, 1. Marybon street.† 2. Narrow wall.†

GIDDY HALL, at the farther end of Rumford in Essex, a very fine mansion
  house erected by the late Sir John Eyles, Lord Mayor of London.

GILBERT’S _court_, Monkwell street.†

GILBERT’S _passage_, Clare market.†

GILBERT’S _street_, Bloomsbury.†

_St._ GILES’S _Cripplegate_, at the east end of Redcross street, without
  the walls of London, is so denominated from its dedication to St.
  Giles, a Grecian and citizen of Athens, in the year 700, and from the
  neighbouring gate. A church was built in this place in the year 1030,
  which was destroyed by the fire of London in the year 1545; but the
  edifice erected in its room escaping the dreadful conflagration in
  1666, is still standing, and is likely to continue so a long time.

  This Gothic structure is 114 feet in length, 63 in breadth, 32 in
  height, and the tower with its turret 122 feet high. This tower is not
  gross in proportion to its height; and the turret on the top is light
  and open.

  This church is a vicarage, the patronage of which is in the Dean and
  Chapter of St. Paul’s, and it is constituted a prebend of that
  cathedral by the name of Mora. The Vicar receives about 360_l._ a year
  by tithes.

  In this church are many tombs, and here lies the body of the
  incomparable John Milton, the author of _Paradise Lost_.

_St._ GILES’S _in the Fields_, on the south side of St. Giles’s street,
  is so named to distinguish it from St. Giles’s Cripplegate. The place
  in which it stands was formerly a village of the same name as the
  church, which was standing so early as the year 1222, tho’ it was not
  made parochial till 1547. The little edifice for divine worship being
  taken down in the year 1623, a church of brick was erected in its
  room; but the ground in its neighbourhood being gradually raised to
  the height of eight feet higher than the floor, it became very damp
  and unwholesome. Upon this the inhabitants, by consent of parliament,
  had it rebuilt, the sum of 8000_l._ being granted for that purpose.
  The present structure is built in a very substantial manner, as indeed
  all churches should for the sake of duration. The old fabric was taken
  down in 1730, and the new one erected in two years and a half.

  The church and steeple are built with Portland stone. The area of the
  church within the walls is sixty feet wide, and seventy-five feet in
  length, exclusive of the recess for the altar. The roof is supported
  with Ionic pillars of Portland stone, on stone piers, and is vaulted
  underneath. The outside of the church has a rustic basement, and the
  windows of the galleries have semicircular heads, over which is a
  modillion cornice. The steeple is 165 feet high, and consists of a
  rustic pedestal, supporting a Doric order of pilasters, and over the
  clock is an octangular tower with three quarter Ionic columns
  supporting a balustrade with vases, on which stands the spire, which
  is also octangular and belted.

  In 1758 the organ was repaired; and in 1759, two magnificent
  chandeliers were hung up, each containing thirty-six lights.

      “The new church of St. Giles’s, says the author of _The Review
      of the Public Buildings_, is one of the most simple and
      elegant of the modern structures: it is raised at a very
      little expence, has very few ornaments, and little beside the
      propriety of its parts, and the harmony of the whole, to
      excite attention, and challenge applause: yet still it
      pleases, and justly too; the east end is both plain and
      majestic, and there is nothing in the west to object to, but
      the smallness of the doors, and the poverty of appearance that
      must necessarily follow. The steeple is light, airy, and
      genteel, argues a good deal of genius in the architect, and
      looks very well both in comparison with the body of the
      church, and when ’tis considered as a building by itself, in a
      distant prospect. Yet after all I have confessed in favour of
      this edifice, I can’t help arraigning the superstition of
      situating churches due east and west; for in complaisance to
      this custom, the building before us has lost a great advantage
      it might have otherwise enjoyed; I mean, the making the east
      end the front, and placing it in such a manner as to have
      ended the vista of what is called Broad St. Giles’s; whereas
      now it is no where to be seen with ease to the eye, or so as
      justly to comprehend the symmetry and connection of the
      whole.”

  There is a marble monument on the outside of the north isle to the
  memory of Hugh Merchant, Gent. who died on the 17th of January, 1714,
  with this inscription:

                When, by inclemency of air,
                These golden letters disappear,
                And Time’s old cankered teeth have shown
                Their malice on this marble stone,
                Virtue and Art shall write his name
                In annals, and consign his fame
                To monuments more lasting far,
                Than marble stones, or golden letters are.

  The expence of erecting this church amounted to 10,026_l._ 15_s._
  9_d._ It is a rectory in the gift of the Crown.

GILHAM’S _court_, Rotherhith Wall.†

GILHAM’S _rents_, the Folly, Dock head.†

GILTSPUR _street_, without Newgate.*

GINGERBREAD _alley_, 1. Holiwell lane. 2. Old Change, Cheapside.

GINGERBREAD _court_, 1. Lamb alley, Bishopsgate street. 2. Old Change.

GIRDLERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Henry VI.
  in the year 1449, and confirmed by Queen Elizabeth in 1568, when the
  Pinners and Wiredrawers were incorporated with them.

  This fraternity consists of a Master, three Wardens, twenty-four
  Assistants, and seventy-seven Liverymen, who upon their admission pay
  a fine of 10_l._ They have a convenient hall in Basinghall street.

GLASSENBURY _court_, Rose street, Covent Garden.

GLASSHOUSE _alley_, White Friars.☐

GLASSHOUSE _fields_, Cock hill, Ratcliff.☐

GLASSHOUSE _hill_, Well street.☐

GLASSHOUSE LIBERTY, a part of the parish of St. Botolph Aldersgate
  street, situated in Goswell and Pickax streets, thus named from a
  glasshouse which anciently stood there. There was formerly but one
  government in the parish; but the poor of this liberty increasing
  considerably, the city liberty ungenerously separated from them, and
  obliged those in this district to maintain their own poor.

GLASSHOUSE _street_, Swallow street.☐

GLASSHOUSE _yard_, 1. Black Friars.† 2. Goodman’s fields.☐ 3. Old Barge
  stairs.☐ 4. Old Bethlem.☐ 5. Pickax street.☐ 6. Red Maid lane.☐ 7.
  Upper Ground.☐ 8. Well street.☐ 9. White Friars.☐ 10. White’s yard.☐
  11. Willow street.☐

GLASS SELLERS, a company that were incorporated with the Looking-glass
  makers by letters patent granted by King Charles II. in the year 1664,
  by the title of _The Master, Wardens, Assistants and Commonalty of
  Glass sellers of the city of London_.

  This fraternity is governed by a Master, two Wardens, twenty-four
  Assistants, and forty-four Liverymen, who on their admission pay a
  fine of 5_l._ But they have no hall. _Maitland._

GLASS _yard_, Cut-throat lane.

GLAZIERS, a company incorporated with that of the glass painters, by a
  charter granted by Charles I. in the year 1637.

  They consist of a Master, two Wardens, twenty-one Assistants, and
  ninety-one Liverymen, whose fine is 3_l._ Their hall being consumed in
  the fire of London, has never yet been rebuilt. _Maitland._

GLAZIER’S _rents_, Fore street, Limehouse.

GLEAN _alley_, Tooley street.

GLOBE _alley_, 1. Deadman’s Place.* 2. Fish street hill.* 3. Narrow
  street, Limehouse.* 4. Quaker street.* 5. In the Strand.* 6. Wapping.*

GLOBE _court_, 1. Seven Stars alley.* 2. Sheer lane.* 3. Shoe lane.*

GLOBE _island_, Rotherhith.

GLOBE _lane_, Mile-end road.*

GLOBE _stairs_, Rotherhith.*

GLOBE _stairs alley_, 1. Jamaica street.* 2. Rotherhith.*

GLOBE _yard_, 1. New Fish street hill.* 2. Old Bethlem.* 3. Schoolhouse
  lane, Ratcliff.* 4. Wapping.*

GLOUCESTER _court_, 1. Beer lane. 2. Black Friars. 3. St. James’s
  street. 4. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.

GLOUCESTER _street_, 1. Liquorpond street. 2. Queen’s square,
  Bloomsbury.

GLOVERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King
  Charles I. in the year 1638.

  This company is governed by a Master, four Wardens, thirty Assistants,
  and a livery of 130 members, who upon their admission pay a fine of
  5_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._ They have a hall in Beech lane.

GLOVERS _court_, Beech lane.☐

GLOVERS _yard_, Beech lane.☐

GOAT _alley_, 1. St. Catharine’s lane.* 2. Ludgate hill.* 3. Upper
  Ground, Southwark.* 4. Whitecross str. Cripplegate.*

GOAT INN _yard_, St. Margaret’s hill.*

GOAT’S HEAD _alley_, Skinners street.*

GOAT _stairs_, Bank side.*

GOAT _yard_, 1. Free school street, Horselydown.* 2. In the Maze, Tooley
  street.* 3. Whitecross street, by Old street.*

GOAT _yard passage_, Horselydown.*

GOATHAM _alley_, Shoreditch.‖

GOBB’S _alley_, Grey Eagle street.†

GOBIONS. See GUBBINS.

GODDARD’S _rents_, 1. Holiwell street.† 2. Wheeler street.†

GODLIMAN’S _street_, 1. Little Carter lane.† St. Paul’s Chain.†

GODFREY’S _court_, Milk street, Cheapside.†

GODWEL _stairs_, near Limehouse.†

GOLD AND SILVER WIREDRAWERS, a company incorporated by letters patent
  granted by K. James I. in the year 1623.

  This fraternity is governed by a Master, two Wardens, and eighteen
  Assistants, but has neither livery nor hall.

GOLDBY’S _rents_, Golden lane.†

GOLDEN ANCHOR _alley_, Old street.*

GOLDEN BALL _court_, Great Wild street.*

GOLDEN CROSS _court_, Cateaton street.*

GOLDEN FLEECE _yard_, Tothill street.*

GOLDEN KEY _court_, 1. Basinghall Postern.* 2. Fore street.*

GOLDEN _lane_, Barbican.

GOLDEN LEG _court_, Cheapside.*

GOLDEN LION _alley_, Long ditch, Westminster.*

GOLDEN LION _court_, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. By St. George’s church,
  Southwark.*

GOLDEN _square_, near Great Windmill street, a very neat but small
  square, containing about two acres. A large space on the inside
  adorned with grass plats and gravel walks, was till lately surrounded
  with wooden rails; but these have been removed, and handsome iron ones
  placed in their room.

GOLD’S _hill_, Dean street.

GOLDSMITHS, one of the twelve principal companies, is of great
  antiquity; for in the reign of Henry II. in the year 1180, it was
  among other guilds, fined for being adulterine, that is, setting up
  without the King’s special licence. But at length, in 1327, Edward
  III. in consideration of the sum of ten marks, incorporated this
  company by letters patent, and granted the Goldsmiths the privilege of
  purchasing an estate of 20_l._ _per annum_ in mortmain, for the
  support of their valetudinary members, which in the year 1394, was
  confirmed by Richard II. for the sum of twenty marks. These grants
  were afterwards confirmed by Edward IV. in the year 1462, who also
  constituted this society a body politic and corporate, to have
  perpetual succession, and a common seal. They had now likewise the
  privilege of inspecting, trying, and regulating all gold and silver
  wares, not only in this city, but in all other parts of the kingdom;
  with the power of punishing all offenders concerned in working
  adulterated gold and silver, and the power of making by-laws for their
  better government.

  This fraternity is governed by a Prime, three other Wardens, and
  ninety-eight Assistants; with a livery of 198 members, who upon their
  admission pay a fine of 20_l._

GOLDSMITHS HALL, a spacious building in Foster lane, Cheapside, was
  originally built by Drew Barentin, about the year 1407, but was
  destroyed by the fire in 1666, and the present edifice arose in its
  place. It is an irregular structure built with brick, and the corners
  wrought in rustic of stone. The door is large, arched, and decorated
  with Doric columns, which support a pediment of the arched kind, but
  open for a shield, in which are the arms of the company. The hall room
  is spacious, and both that and the other rooms well enlightened.

  In this hall are, among others, the pictures of Sir Martin Bowers, and
  Sir Hugh Middleton, both of this company, and great benefactors to it.
  They both enjoyed the office of Lord Mayor of London. The latter is
  worthy of immortal honour, for bringing the New River water to the
  city: out of the rents of which he gave 30_l._ a year to this company,
  which is now worth near the annual revenue of 300_l._ They have also a
  very great estate, and apply above 1000_l._ a year to charitable uses.

  By an act passed in the 12th year of the reign of his present Majesty
  George II. it is ordered that no goldsmith, silversmith, or other
  person dealing in gold or silver wares, shall make any gold vessel,
  plate, or manufacture, of less fineness than 22 carats of fine gold in
  every pound troy weight; nor any of silver, of less fineness than 11
  ounces, two pennyweights, of fine silver in every pound troy. And that
  no goldsmith, silversmith, or other dealer in gold or silver wares,
  shall sell, exchange, or expose to sale, any gold or silver plate, or
  export the same, without its being marked with the first letters of
  the christian and surname of the maker, and, if in London, with the
  marks of the Goldsmiths company, namely, the leopard’s head, the lion
  passant, and a distinct variable mark, denoting the year in which such
  plate was made; or with the mark of the worker, and the marks
  appointed to be used by the assayers of York, Exeter, Bristol,
  Chester, Norwich, or Newcastle upon Tyne; on the penalty of forfeiting
  10_l._ for every omission. The forging of the company’s marks, exposes
  the maker to the penalty of 100_l._ or two years imprisonment.
  However, such pieces of gold or silver, as are either too small or too
  thin to receive the marks, and do not weigh ten pennyweights of gold
  or silver each, are not to be stamped. The price of assaying is fixed
  by the Wardens of the company.

GOLDSMITH’S _alley_, 1. Jewin street.† 2. Lukener’s lane, Drury lane.†

GOLDSMITH’S _court_, 1. Goldsmith’s alley, Jewin street.† 2. New
  street.†

GOLDSMITH’S _rents_, East Smithfield.†

GOLDSMITH’S _street_, 1. Crucifix lane, Barnaby street, Southwark.† 2.
  Wood street, Cheapside.

GOLD’S _square_, Golston street, Whitechapel.† See GOULD’S _square_.

GOLD _street_, 1. Near New Gravel lane. 2. Wood street, Cheapside.

GOLSTON’S _court_, Drury lane.†

GONSON’S _rents_, Bluegate fields, Upper Shadwell.†

GOODCHILD’S _alley_, Market street, Westminster.

GOODMAN’S _fields_, a considerable piece of ground lying behind the
  houses on the south side of Whitechapel, the east side of the
  Minories, and the north side of Rosemary lane. Mr. Stow observes, that
  in his time, this was a large field and farm kept by one Goodman,
  whose son afterwards let it out, and lived like a gentleman upon the
  rent it produced: and it still retains the same name, though it has
  now no appearance of a field. It principally consists of four handsome
  streets, inhabited by merchants, and other persons in affluent
  circumstances: these streets are on the four sides, and in the center
  is a tenter ground, which being surrounded by the houses, is excluded
  from public view. About fifteen years ago there was a very neat but
  small play house in one of these streets, and in this theatre Mr.
  Garrick first distinguished himself as an actor.

GOODMAN’S _wharf_, St. Catharine’s.†

GOODMAN’S _yard_, In the Minories, leading into Goodman’s fields.†

GOOD’S _rents_, In the Minories.†

GOODWIN’S _court_, 1. Oxford street.† 2. St. Martin’s lane, Chancery
  lane.† 3. Noble street.†

GOODYEAR’S _rents_, Wapping.†

GOOSE _alley_, 1. Bow Church yard, Cheapside.* 2. Fleet Ditch.*

GOOSETREE’S _yard_, Peter street, Westminster.†

GORHAMBURY, a little to the west of St. Alban’s, was formerly the
  paternal estate of the great Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, and Viscount
  of St. Alban’s, and is now the seat of the Lord Viscount Grimston.

GOSLING’S _rents_, Swordbearer’s alley, Chiswell street.†

GOSSIPS _rents_, Tooley street.‖

GOSSIPS _row_, Glean alley, Tooley street.‖

GOSWELL _street_, extends in a line from the corner of Barbican, where
  Aldersgate street ends, to Mount Mill.

GOUGH’S _square_, near Fleet street; a very small oblong square, with a
  row on each side of handsome buildings.†

GOUGH’S _yard_, Back street, Lambeth.†

GOULD’S _court_, Woodrofe lane.†

GOULD’S _square_, Woodrofe lane.†

GOULSTON’S _square_, Whitechapel.†

GRACECHURCH _street_, Cornhill, was originally called Grass church
  street, from a grass or herb market, near Allhallows Lombard street,
  which from that market was called Grass church. _Stow._

GRACE _court_, Fenchurch street.

GRACE’S _alley_, Well street, Wellclose square.

GRAFTON _buildings_, Long lane.

GRAFTON _street_, Soho.

GRAHAM’S _Almshouse_, in Hog lane, Soho, was founded in the year 1686,
  by Mrs. Graham, for four decayed Clergymen’s widows, their maiden
  daughters, or other gentlewomen, each of whom has a handsome
  apartment, and 10_l._ _per annum_; and for fuel and a servant to
  attend them all, the additional sum of 10_l._ a year.

GRANGE, Near the King’s road.

GRANGE _court_, Carey street, Lincoln’s Inn fields.

GRANGE _lane_, Bermondsey.

GRANGE _road_, Bermondsey.

GRANGE _street_, Chapel street, in Red Lion street, Holborn.

GRANGE _walk_, King John’s court, Bermondsey.

GRANGE _yard_, Bermondsey fields.

GRANGER’S _rents_, Near Barbican.†

GRAPE _street_, By Little Moorfields.

GRASSCHURCH _street_, Cornhill; now generally called and spelt
  Gracechurch street.

GRASSHOPPER _alley_, 1. Fore street.* 2. Whitecross street.*

GRASSHOPPER _court_, Charterhouse street.*

GRAVEL _court_, Old Gravel lane.*

GRAVEL _lane_, 1. Near the Falcon stairs. 2. Houndsditch.

GRAVEL _street_, Brook street, Holborn.

GRAVEL _walk_, 1. Blue Anchor alley. 2. Collingwood street.

GRAVE’S _dock_, Fore street, Limehouse.†

GRAVE’S _wharf_, near Fishmongers hall, Thames street.†

GRAVESEND, a town in Kent, twenty-two miles from London, situated on the
  Thames, opposite to Tilbury Fort, about six miles east from Dartford,
  and about the same distance from Rochester. In the reign of Richard
  II. the French and Spaniards sailed up the Thames to this town, and
  having plundered and burnt it, carried away most of the inhabitants.
  To enable the town to recover this loss, the Abbot of St. Mary le
  Grace on Tower hill, to whom King Richard II. had granted a manor
  belonging to Gravesend, obtained that the inhabitants of Gravesend and
  Milton should have the sole privilege of carrying passengers by water
  from hence to London, at 2_d._ a head, or 4_s._ the whole fare; but
  the fare is now raised to 9_d._ a head in the tilt boat, and 1_s._ in
  the wherry. The former must not take in above forty passengers, and
  the latter no more than ten. The Watermens company are by act of
  parliament obliged to provide officers at Billingsgate and at
  Gravesend, who at every time of high water by night and day, are at
  their respective places to ring publicly a bell set up for that
  purpose, for fifteen minutes, to give notice to the tilt boats and
  wherries to put off; and coaches ply at Gravesend at the landing of
  people from London to carry them to Rochester. King Henry VIII. raised
  a platform here and at Milton, and these towns were incorporated by
  Queen Elizabeth, by the name of the Portreve (which has been changed
  to that of Mayor) the jurats and inhabitants of Gravesend and Milton.
  The whole town being burnt down in 1727 the parliament in the year
  1731 granted 5000_l._ for rebuilding its church. Here is a very
  handsome charitable foundation, Mr. Henry Pinnock having in 1624,
  given twenty-one dwelling houses and a house for a master weaver to
  employ the poor: and a good estate is also settled for the repairs.

  Within a few years past, great improvements have been made in the
  lands near this town, by turning them into kitchen gardens, with the
  produce of which Gravesend not only supplies the neighbouring places
  for several miles round, but also sends great quantities to the London
  markets, particularly of asparagus, that of Gravesend being preferred
  to that of Battersea. As all outward bound ships are obliged to anchor
  in this road till they have been visited by the custom house officers,
  and as they generally stay here to take in provisions, the town is
  full of seamen, and in a constant hurry.

GRAY FRIARS. See GREY FRIARS.

GRAY’S _court_, Duke street, Piccadilly.†


[Illustration:

  _Gray’s Inn._
  _S. Wale delin. B. Green sculp._
]


GRAY’S INN, on the north side of Holborn, near the Bars, is so called
  from its being formerly the residence of the ancient and noble family
  of Gray of Wilton, who in the reign of Edward III. demised it to
  several students of the law. It is one of the four Inns of Court, and
  is inhabited by Barristers and Students of the law, and also by such
  gentlemen of independent fortune, as chuse this place, for the sake of
  an agreeable retirement, or the pleasure of the walks.

  The members of the house are to be in commons a fortnight every term,
  for which they pay 16_s._

  The officers and servants belonging to the Inn, are, a Treasurer, a
  Steward, a chief and three under butlers, an upper and under cook, a
  pannier man, a gardener, the steward, the chief butler’s men, and two
  porters.

  This Inn has its chief entrance out of Holborn through a large gate,
  though it is seated far backwards, and though with its gardens it
  takes up almost all the west side of Gray’s Inn lane. It consists of
  several well-built courts, particularly Holborn court, Coney court,
  and another at the entrance into the garden. The hall where the
  gentlemen of the society dine and sup is large and commodious; but the
  chapel is too small; it is a Gothic structure, and has marks of much
  greater antiquity than any other part of the building.

  The chief ornament belonging to this Inn, is its spacious garden, the
  benefit of which is enjoyed by the public, every body decently dressed
  being allowed the recreation of walking in it every day. This garden
  consists of gravel walks, between vistas of very lofty trees, of grass
  plats, agreeable slopes, and a long terras with a portico at each end;
  this terras is ascended by a handsome flight of steps. Till lately
  there was a summer-house erected by the great Sir Francis Bacon, upon
  a small mount: it was open on all sides, and the roof supported by
  slender pillars. A few years ago the uninterrupted prospect of the
  neighbouring fields, as far as the hills of Highgate and Hampstead,
  was obstructed by a handsome row of houses on the north; since which
  the above summer-house has been levelled, and many of the trees cut
  down to lay the garden more open. The part represented in the print is
  the lower side of Coney court, containing the chapel, hall, &c. and is
  the principal square of this Inn (which is a very considerable one)
  belonging to the gentlemen of the long robe.

GRAY’S INN _lane_, Holborn Bars.

GRAY’S INN LIBRARY, which is kept in Coney court, Gray’s Inn, consists
  of a considerable number of books in several languages, and on
  different branches of learning; but more particularly on law, for the
  use of the gentlemen of the Inn.

GRAY’S INN _passage_, 1. Field court, Gray’s Inn. 2. Red Lion street,
  Holborn.

GRAYS THURROCK, a town in Essex, nineteen miles from London, so called
  from its ancient Lords the Grays of Codnor. It has a very good market
  for corn and cattle.

GREAT ALMONRY, Tothill street, Westminster. See ALMONRY.

GREAT ARTHUR _street_, Goswell street.†

GREAT ASHENTREE _court_, White Friars.‡

GREAT BACON _yard_, Goswell street.

GREAT BEAR _key_, Thames street. See BEAR KEY.

GREAT BLACK HORSE _court_, Aldersgate street.*

GREAT CARTER _lane_, St. Paul’s church yard.†

GREAT CHAPEL _street_, Oxford street.

GREAT COCK _alley_, 1. Fore street, Cripplegate.* 2. Redcross street.*

GREAT COW _alley_, Whitecross street, Old street.*

GREAT DEAN’S _yard_, Westminster.

GREAT DICE _key_, Thames street.

GREAT DISTAFF _lane_, Old Change.*

GREAT EARL _street_, Seven Dials.†

GREAT EASTCHEAP, Canon street, Fish street hill. See EASTCHEAP.

GREAT ELBOW _lane_, College hill.

GREAT FRIARS GATE, Fleet street: so called from its leading into White
  Friars.

GREAT GARDEN, St. Catharine’s lane.

GREAT GEORGE _street_, 1. A fine new built street, that extends from the
  end of Bridge street into St. James’s Park. The great uniformity
  observed in the buildings, their grandeur, and the length and
  straightness of this street, form a noble vista, terminated at the end
  next the park by very handsome iron gates supported on stone piers,
  and by the tall trees of the park, which at a distance resemble a
  thick grove. 2. A very noble street which extends from Hanover square
  into Conduit street; this is also broad and well paved, and has
  several very fine houses built and inhabited by noblemen and people of
  the first rank. See HANOVER SQUARE.

  The other streets of this name, are, 3. By Great New George street,
  Spitalfields: and 4. by King street, Westminster. These streets were
  thus named in honour of his present Majesty and his royal father.

GREAT HART _street_, James’s street, Long Acre.

GREAT HERMITAGE _street_, in the Hermitage.

GREAT JERMAIN _street_, Near Piccadilly.†

GREAT KIRBY _street_, Hatton Garden.†

GREAT KNIGHTRIDER’S _street_, by Addle hill.

GREAT LAMB _alley_, Blackman street.

GREAT MADDOX _street_, Hanover square.

GREAT MARLBOROUGH _street_, Poland street.

GREAT MONTAGUE _court_, Little Britain.

GREAT MONTAGUE _street_, near Brick lane, Spitalfields.

GREAT MOOR _yard_, St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.

GREAT NEW _street_, Fetter lane.

GREAT NEWPORT _street_, near Long Acre.

GREAT NOTTINGHAM _street_, Plumtree street.

GREAT OLD BAILEY, Ludgate hill.

GREAT ORMOND _street_, Red Lion street, Holborn.

GREAT ORMOND _yard_, Ormond street.

GREAT PEARL _street_, Grey Eagle street, Spitalfields.

GREAT PETER _street_, by Great Poulteney street.

GREAT POULTENEY _street_, near Brewer’s street, Soho.

GREAT QUEEN _street_, 1. Lincoln’s Inn fields. 2. Westminster.

GREAT RIDER _street_, St. James’s street.

GREAT RUSSEL _street_, 1. Bloomsbury, from the Duke of Bedford’s house
  near it. 2. Covent garden, from its being built upon the same Duke’s
  estate.

GREAT ST. ANDREW’S _street_, Seven Dials.

GREAT ST. ANN’S _lane_, by Orchard street, Westminster.

GREAT ST. HELEN’S _court_, Bishopsgate street within. See _St._ HELEN’S.

GREAT ST. THOMAS APOSTLE’S _lane_, by Queen street, Cheapside. See _St._
  THOMAS APOSTLES.

GREAT STONE _stairs_, Ratcliff.

GREAT SUFFOLK _street_, Cockspur street.

GREAT SWALLOW _street_, Piccadilly.

GREAT SWORDBEARERS _alley_, Chiswell street.

GREAT TOWER _hill_, by Great Tower street.

GREAT TOWER _street_, the broad part on the east end.

GREAT TRINITY _lane_, Bow lane.

GREAT TURNSTILE, Holborn.

GREAT TURNSTILE _alley_, High Holborn.

GREAT WARDOUR _street_, Oxford street.

GREAT WARNER _street_, Cold Bath street.

GREAT WHITE LION _street_, Seven Dials.

GREAT WILD _street_, Great Queen street, Lincoln’s Inn fields.

GREAT WINCHESTER _street_, Broad street, London Wall.

GREAT WINDMILL _street_, Piccadilly.

GREAT _yard_, Parish street, Horselydown.

GREAT YORK _street_, Cock lane, Shoreditch.

GREAVE’S _court_, George yard, Whitechapel.†

GREEN _alley_, 1. Broad Sanctuary. 2. Coleman street, Wapping. 3. St.
  Saviour’s Dock. 4. Tooley street.

GREEN ARBOUR _court_, 1. French alley. 2. Lambeth hill, Thames street.
  3. Little Moorfields. 4. Little Old Bailey.

GREEN BANK, 1. Horselydown. 2. Coleman street, Wapping. 3. St. Olave
  street. 4. Wapping.

_Board of_ GREEN CLOTH, a court of justice continually sitting in the
  King’s house. This court is under the Lord Steward of the King’s
  houshold, and is composed of the Treasurer of the houshold, the
  Comptroller, Cofferer, Master of the houshold, two clerks of the Green
  Cloth, and two clerks comptrollers; and receives its name from a green
  cloth spread over the table, at which they sit.

  In the absence of the Lord Steward, the Treasurer of the King’s house,
  in conjunction with the Comptroller, and other officers of the board,
  together with the Steward of the Marshalsea, have power to determine
  treasons, felonies and other crimes committed within the verge. By the
  direction and allowance of this board, the Cofferer pays the wages of
  the King’s servants above and below stairs, and the bills for
  provisions. Also before this board the Averner to the Master of the
  horse lays the accompts of the stables for horse meat, livery wages,
  and board wages, in order to be passed and allowed. See the article
  LORD STEWARD OF THE KING’S HOUSHOLD.

GREEN COAT HOSPITAL, Tothill fields. Several of the inhabitants of
  Westminster having resolved to settle an hospital like that of Christ
  Church in the city of London, where poor orphans might not only be
  furnished with all the necessaries of life, but instructed in manual
  arts, in the year 1633 obtained a charter from King Charles I. by
  which they were constituted a body politic and corporate, by the
  appellation of _The Governors of the hospital of St. Margaret’s
  Westminster, of the foundation of King Charles_; to consist of twenty
  Governors, inhabitants of Westminster, with the right of purchasing
  lands, tenements, &c. in mortmain, to the value of 500_l._ _per
  annum_. But the civil war soon after breaking out, in a manner quashed
  this noble design. However, by the charitable benefactions of King
  Charles II. and others, the estate amounts to above 300_l._ a year,
  and there are at present twenty boys maintained upon this foundation.
  _Maitland._

GREEN _court_, 1. Green Bank, Wapping. 2. Knaves Acre. 3. Little
  Minories. 4. Marshal street, Shoreditch.

[Illustration:

  _M^r. Spencer’s._
  _S. Wale del._ _B. Green sculp._
]

GREEN DRAGON _alley_, 1. Narrow street, Limehouse.* 2. Surry street, in
  the Strand.* 3. By Wapping Wall.*

GREEN DRAGON _court_, 1. Broadway, Westminster.* 2. Cow lane.* 3. Foul
  lane.* 4. New Crane, Wapping.* 5. Old Change.*

GREEN DRAGON _yard_, 1. Long lane, West Smithfield.* 2. Whitechapel.*

GREEN ELM _court_, in the Savoy.

GREENFORD, in the vale, a village two miles south of Harrow on the Hill.

GREENHILL’S _rents_, Smithfield bars.†

GREENLAND _stairs_. Deptford.

GREEN _lane_, 1. Lambeth. 2. Tottenham Court fields.

GREEN LETTICE _court_, Fore street, Cripplegate.*

GREEN LETTICE _lane_, Canon street.*

GREEN _market_, Leadenhall street.

GREEN _Park_, between St. James’s Park and Hyde Park. This Park adds
  greatly to the pleasantness of the houses which are situated so as to
  overlook it, among which the most conspicuous by far is that lately
  built by Mr. Spencer. Altogether it appears very noble, but
  considering it as a front, we are disappointed in not seeing any
  entrance, which surely should have been made conspicuous. The pediment
  being extended over so many columns is too large and heavy, and the
  bow window has no relation at all to the building, and offends every
  eye; but the figures and vases on the top have indeed a fine effect.
  The irregularity of the other side or principal front (which is in St.
  James’s Place) is excusable, as the adjoining houses can’t yet be
  purchased, but the flatness of it, having no columns or great
  projections, will always make it subordinate to the side that fronts
  the Park, which is that we have given a view of in the print.

GREEN’S _court_, Lothbury.†

GREEN’S _rents_, Bride lane, Fleet street.†

GREEN SCHOOL _court_, London Wall.

GREEN _street_, 1. Near Grosvenor square. 2. Leicester fields. 3.
  Theobald’s row.

GREEN _walk_, 1. Broad Wall. 2. Gravel lane.

GREENWICH, a very pleasant town in Kent, situated six miles from London,
  has been the birth place of several of our Monarchs, particularly
  Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth: and here King Edward VI. died. Their
  palace was first erected by Humphry Duke of Gloucester, who named it
  Placentia. This palace was enlarged by Henry VII. and completed by
  Henry VIII. but being afterwards suffered to run to ruin, was pulled
  down by King Charles II. who began another, a most magnificent
  edifice, and lived to see the first wing finished. See GREENWICH
  HOSPITAL.

  King Charles II. also enlarged the park, walled it round, planted it,
  and caused a royal observatory to be erected on the top of the steep
  of the hill. This edifice his Majesty erected for the use of the
  celebrated Mr. Flamstead, and it still retains the name of that great
  astronomer: his Majesty likewise furnished it with mathematical
  instruments for astronomical observations, and a deep dry well for
  observing the stars in the day time.

  That which is properly the palace here, is an edifice of no great
  extent, and it is now converted into apartments for the Governor of
  the Royal Hospital, and the Ranger of the park. This park is well
  stocked with deer, and affords a noble and delightful view of the fine
  hospital, the river Thames, and the city of London.

  Greenwich is said to contain 1350 houses. Its parish church, which has
  been lately rebuilt by the Commissioners for erecting the fifty new
  churches, is a very handsome structure, dedicated to St. Alphage,
  Archbishop of Canterbury, who is said to have been slain by the Danes
  in the year 1012, on the spot where the church now stands. There is a
  college at the end of the town, fronting the Thames, for the
  maintenance of 20 decayed old housekeepers, twelve out of Greenwich,
  and eight who are to be alternately chosen from Snottisham and
  Castle-Rising in Norfolk. This is called the Duke of Norfolk’s
  College, though it was founded and endowed, in 1613, by Henry Earl of
  Northampton, the Duke of Norfolk’s brother, and by him committed to
  the care of the Mercers company. To this college belongs a chapel, in
  which the Earl’s body is laid, which, as well as his monument, was
  removed hither a few years ago, from the chapel of Dover Castle. The
  pensioners, besides meat, drink, and lodging, are allowed 1_s._ 6_d._
  a week, with a gown every year, linen once in two years, and hats once
  in four years.

  In the year 1560 Mr. Lambard, author of the Perambulation of Kent,
  also built and founded an hospital called Queen Elizabeth’s College,
  said to be the first erected by an English protestant. There are
  likewise two charity schools in this parish, one founded by Sir
  William Boreman, Knt. for twenty boys, who are cloathed, boarded, and
  taught; they wear green coats and caps: and the other by Mr. John
  Roan, who left his estate for teaching also twenty boys reading,
  writing, and arithmetic, and allowing 2_l._ _per annum_ for each boy’s
  cloaths. These wear grey coats.

  The river Thames is here very broad, and the channel deep; and at some
  very high tides the water is salt, though it is usually sweet and
  fresh.


[Illustration:

  _S. Wale del._ _B. Green sculp._
  _Greenwich Hospital._
]


GREENWICH HOSPITAL, stands on the spot, where stood the palace of
  several of our Kings. The first wing of this noble and superb edifice,
  erected by K. Charles II. was designed to be applied to the same use.
  Indeed from the magnificence of the structure, it can scarcely be
  taken for any thing less than the palace of a great monarch. However
  King William III. being very desirous of promoting the trade,
  navigation, and naval strength of this kingdom, by inviting great
  numbers of his subjects to betake themselves to the sea, gave this
  noble palace, and several other edifices, with a considerable spot of
  ground, for the use of those English seamen and their children, who by
  age, wounds, or other accidents, should be disabled from farther
  service at sea, and for the widows and children of such as were slain
  in fighting at sea, against the enemies of their country. King William
  also by his letters patent, in 1694, appointed commissioners for the
  better carrying on his pious intentions, and therein desired the
  assistance of his good subjects, as the necessity of his affairs did
  not permit him to advance so considerable a sum towards this work, as
  he desired. In conformity to this request, many benefactions were made
  both in that and the succeeding reigns, to this noble charity, which,
  according to the tables hung up at the entrance of the hall, amount to
  58,209_l._ and afterwards the estate of the Earl of Derwentwater, who
  bore a principal part in the rebellion in 1715, amounting to 6000_l._
  _per annum_, was given by parliament to this hospital. The first range
  had cost King Charles II. 36,000_l._ and another was ordered to be
  built on the same model: this has been completed with equal
  magnificence, and the whole structure entirely finished.

  The front to the Thames consists of these two ranges of stone
  buildings, with the Governor’s house at the back part in the center,
  behind which the park, well planted with trees, rises with a noble
  ascent. These buildings, between which is a large area, perfectly
  correspond with each other, and each range is terminated by a very
  noble dome.

  In each front to the Thames, two ranges of coupled Corinthian columns
  finely wrought, support their pediments, and the same order is
  continued in pilasters along the building. The projection of the
  entablatures gives an agreeable diversity of light and shade. In the
  center of each part, between these ranges of Corinthian columns, is
  the door, which is of the Doric order, and adorned above with a tablet
  and pediment. Within the height of these lofty columns are two series
  of windows, enlightening two floors. The undermost, which are the
  smallest, have rustic cases crowned with pediments; while the upper
  series, which are larger, and more lofty, are adorned with the orders,
  and with upright pointed pediments. Over these is an Attic story; the
  entablature of the Corinthian columns and pilasters supports a regular
  Attic course: the pilasters of this order rising over every column,
  and pilaster of the Corinthian below, between which the windows are
  regularly disposed, and the top is crowned with a handsome balustrade.

  The buildings, which are continued from these, and face the area,
  correspond with them, though in a finer, and more elegant manner. In
  the center of both is a range of columns supporting a pediment, and at
  each corner a range of Corinthian pilasters. The front is rusticated,
  and there are two series of windows. The domes at the end, which are
  120 feet high, are supported on coupled columns, as are the porticos
  below; and under one of these is the chapel, which is adorned on the
  inside with the greatest elegance and beauty.

  On the sides of the gate which opens to these buildings from the park,
  are placed a large celestial and terrestrial globe, in which the stars
  are gilt; and in the center of the area, is fixed on a pedestal, a
  statue of his Majesty King George II.

  The hall of this hospital is finely painted by Sir James Thornhill,
  particularly the ceiling and upper end; on the latter are represented
  in an alcove, the late Princess Sophia, King George I. King George II.
  Queen Caroline, the Queen Dowager of Prussia, Frederic Prince of
  Wales, the Duke of Cumberland, and the five Princesses, the daughters
  of his present Majesty. On the ceiling over the alcove are her late
  Majesty Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark: and on the ceiling of
  the hall are King William and Queen Mary, with several fine
  emblematical figures. All strangers who see this hall pay two pence
  each, and this income is applied to the support of the mathematical
  school, for the sons of sailors.

  For the better support of this hospital every seaman in the royal navy
  and in the service of the merchants pays 6_d._ a month. This is
  stopped out of the pay of all sailors, and delivered in at the Six
  penny Receiver’s office on Tower hill. And therefore a seaman who can
  produce an authentic certificate of his being disabled, and rendered
  unfit for the sea service, by defending any ship belonging to his
  Majesty’s British subjects, or in taking any ship from the enemy, may
  be admitted into this hospital, and receive the same benefit from it,
  as if he had been in his Majesty’s immediate service.

  There are at present near 2000 old or disabled seamen, and an hundred
  boys, the sons of seamen, instructed in navigation, and bred up for
  the service of the royal navy: but there are no out-pensioners, as at
  Chelsea. Each of the mariners has a weekly allowance of seven loaves,
  weighing sixteen ounces each; three pounds of beef; two of mutton; a
  pint of pease; a pound and a quarter of cheese; two ounces of butter;
  fourteen quarts of beer, and 1_s._ a week tobacco money: the tobacco
  money of the boatswains is 2_s._ 6_d._ a week each; that of their
  mates 1_s._ 6_d._ and that of the other officers in proportion to
  their rank. Besides which, each common pensioner receives once in two
  years, a suit of blue cloaths, a hat, three pair of stockings, two
  pair of shoes, five neck cloths, three shirts, and two night caps.

  This hospital has about 100 Governors, composed of the nobility, great
  officers of state, and persons in high posts under the King. The
  principal officers of the house, with their annual salaries, are:


                   The Governor                 £1000

                   Lieutenant Governor            300

                   Treasurer                      200

                   Three Captains, each           200

                   Six Lieutenants, each          100

                   Two Chaplains, each            100

                   A Physician and Surgeon,       200
                     each

                   A Clerk of the cheque          100

                   Auditor                        100


GREENWICH _alley_, Brickhill lane.

GREENWICH _street_, Dowgate wharf.

GREENWOOD’S _court_, Nightingale lane.†

GREEN _yard_, 1. Basinghall Postern. 2. East Smithfield. 3. Fore street,
  Cripplegate. 4. Goswell street. 5. Green Bank, Wapping. 6.
  Horselydown. 7. Milk yard, New Gravel lane. 8. Pepper alley. 9. Tooley
  street. 10. Upper Ground street. 11. White’s yard, Rosemary lane.

GREGORY’S _court_, High Holborn.

_St._ GREGORY’S, so called from its being dedicated to Pope Gregory the
  Great, who sent Austin the Monk to convert the English, stood at the
  south west corner of St. Paul’s cathedral; but being burnt by the fire
  of London in 1666, and not rebuilt, the parish was by act of
  parliament annexed to the church of St. Mary Magdalen in Old Fish
  street.

GREG’S _court_, Goodman’s yard.†

GRENADIER’S _mews_, Portland street.†

GRESHAM’S _Almshouse_ in Broad street, on the west side of Gresham
  College, was founded by Sir Thomas Gresham in the year 1575, for eight
  poor men; the trust of which he committed to the Lord Mayor and
  Commonalty of London, who annually pay these Almsmen 6_l._ 13_s._
  4_d._ each, and a gown every other year.


[Illustration:

  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Taylor sc._
  _Gresham College._
]


GRESHAM COLLEGE, situated within the walls between Bishopsgate street
  and Broad street, and was formerly the dwelling of the founder Sir
  Thomas Gresham, Knt. a merchant of London, and one of the company of
  Mercers, who after he had built the Royal Exchange, bequeathed half
  the revenue thereof to the Mayor and Commonalty of London, and their
  successors, and the other moiety to the company of Mercers, in trust
  that the Mayor and Commonalty should find in all times to come four
  able persons to read in his dwelling house in Bishopsgate street,
  lectures on divinity, astronomy, geometry, and Music, and allow each
  of them besides handsome lodgings in that house, the sum of 50_l._ a
  year: and that the company of Mercers should find three other able men
  to read lectures in the civil law, rhetoric, and physic, pay them the
  same salary, and allow them the same accommodations. These salaries
  and other bequests of Sir Thomas Gresham, amounting in the whole to
  603_l._ are payable out of the rents of the Royal Exchange, and there
  is a grand committee for the management of the affairs of this college
  and the Exchange, which consists of four Aldermen, whereof the Lord
  Mayor is always one; twelve of the company of Mercers, and eight of
  the Common Council, for the city. These lectures were first read in
  Trinity term, 1597, and with some interruptions have been continued to
  the present time.

  The order of reading every term time is, Monday, divinity; Tuesday,
  civil law; Wednesday, astronomy; Thursday, geometry; Friday, rhetoric;
  Saturday, anatomy in the morning, and music in the afternoon. _Stow_,
  _last edit._ But since the institution of the Royal Society, these
  lectures are in a manner deserted, the professors having seldom above
  three or four auditors, and those of the most ordinary people. The
  print represents the inside of the quadrangle in its present state.

GRESHAM COLLEGE _court_, Bishopsgate street.†

GREVIL _street_, Leather lane.†

GREY-COAT HOSPITAL, Tothill fields, Westminster. In the year 1698 this
  charity school was erected in St. Margaret’s parish, for the education
  of poor children, and named _The Grey-coat School_, from the colour of
  the children’s cloaths; but the trustees being at length greatly
  encouraged by charitable contributions, in the year 1701, not only
  increased the number of children, but supplied them with all the
  necessaries of life, in a large and commodious building near Tothill
  fields: and for the encouragement of so laudable an undertaking Queen
  Anne, in 1706, by her letters patent, constituted the trustees of this
  school a body politic and corporate, by the name of _The Governors of
  the Grey-coat hospital in Tothill fields, of the royal foundation of
  Queen Anne_, with the power of purchasing lands, tenements, &c. in
  mortmain, to the yearly amount of 2000_l._ These children, besides
  being taught the usual learning, are employed in spinning, knitting,
  sewing, &c. to inure them early to industry; and having attained the
  necessary qualifications at school, they are put out apprentices.

  This hospital, in the year 1727, was in so flourishing a condition
  that it contained eighty boys, and fifty girls, in which year the
  charge of all its disbursements amounted to 1457_l._ 7_s._ 6_d._ At
  Michaelmas 1739, a mathematical school was erected, and a proper
  master employed to instruct the boys in the art of navigation, to fit
  them for the service of their country, several of whom since the
  erection of this school have been put apprentice to captains in the
  King’s service.

  The expence of each child is about 8_l._ a year, besides the salaries
  of the masters and mistresses, the wages of servants, and other
  charges attending the hospital.

GREY EAGLE _street_, Brick lane, Spitalfields.*

GREY FRIARS, a court in Newgate street, near the gate, adjoining on one
  side to Christ’s hospital. Here, in the reign of King Henry III. was
  erected a convent of Franciscans or Grey Friars, and some time after a
  spacious church, which was not compleatly finished till the year 1380,
  tho’ it was consecrated in 1325. This church, which was 300 feet in
  length, eighty-nine in breadth, and sixty-four feet two inches in
  height from the ground to the roof, was built at different times, at
  the expence of different persons, and among its benefactors were
  several Queens of England. In the year 1429, Richard Whittington here
  founded a library, 129 feet in length and thirty-one in breadth, which
  was finished the following year, and within three years after
  furnished with books. However, at the general suppression of
  monasteries, the friery, with all the edifices belonging to it, was
  surrendered to Henry VIII. and the ornaments and utensils taken away,
  and applied to the King’s use: after which the church was shut up for
  some time, and used as a storehouse for goods taken as prizes from the
  French; but in January 1546, this church, with the friery, library,
  chapter house, cloisters and gardens, were given by King Henry to the
  Mayor and Commonalty of London, with the hospital of St. Bartholomew
  in West Smithfield, the parishes of St. Nicholas and St. Ewin, and so
  much of St. Sepulchre’s parish as is within Newgate, to be made one
  parish belonging to the church in the Grey Friars, which was from
  thenceforward to be called Christ Church. In short, in the year 1552,
  the house of the Grey Friars began to be repaired for the reception of
  poor fatherless children, and in November following near four hundred
  were taken in. _Stow._ See CHRIST’S HOSPITAL.

GREYHOUND _alley_, 1. St. Mary Ax.* 2. Newgate street.*

GREYHOUND _court_, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. St. Catharine’s lane.* 3.
  Chick lane.* 4. Lamb street.* 5. Milford lane.* 6. Moor’s street,
  Soho.*

GREYHOUND _Inn yard_, St. Margaret’s hill.*

GREYHOUND _lane_, Three Colts street.*

GREYHOUND _street_, Whitechapel.*

GREYHOUND _yard_, 1. Portpool lane.* 2. Upper Ground street.*

GREY PEA _alley_, Red Maid lane.

GREY’S _yard_, Duke street, Piccadilly.†

GRIDIRON _alley_, Whitechapel.*

GRIDIRON _court_, High Holborn.*

GRIFFIN _alley_, Blackman street.*

GRIFFIN _street_, Shadwell Dock.*

GRIFFIN _yard_, Long lane, West Smithfield.*

GRIFFIS’S _rents_, Barnaby street.†

GRIGG’S _court_, Goodman’s yard.†

GRIPEY _alley_, Artichoke lane.

GROCERS, the second of the twelve principal companies, was anciently
  denominated Pepperers; but having changed their name to that of
  Grocers, were under that denomination incorporated by letters patent
  granted by King Edward III. in the year 1345, which were confirmed by
  Henry VI. in 1429. These grants were afterwards confirmed by a new
  charter of Charles I. in the year 1640, with an additional power of
  searching and inspecting the goods and weights of all Grocers within
  the city and suburbs of London, and three miles round. They had
  anciently the management of the King’s beam in this city, with the
  right of appointing a master-weigher, and four porters to attend it.

  This corporation consists of a Prime and three other Wardens,
  fifty-two Assistants, and one hundred and twenty-seven Liverymen,
  whose fine upon admission is 20_l._ They have a great estate, out of
  which they annually pay to the poor about 700_l._ _Maitland._

GROCERS _alley_, 1. In the Poultry.☐ 2. Shoreditch.

GROCERS HALL, on the north side of the Poultry, and at the farther end
  of Grocers alley, is situated on a spot of ground purchased by the
  Grocers company in the year 1411, of Robert Lord Fitzwalter, for three
  hundred and twenty marks. The building is well designed for the
  purpose of a common hall; and is not only a stately edifice, but is so
  capacious, that for many years it served for the uses of the Bank of
  England, which was kept in this hall, till the edifice in
  Thread-needle street was erected for that purpose. The ancient stone
  and brick building at the north west corner of the garden, inhabited
  by the beadle of the company, is probably part of the ancient city
  mansion of the noble family of Fitzwalter, and consequently the oldest
  building within the city walls. _Maitland._

GROCERS HALL _yard_, Grocers alley.

GROCERS _rents_, East Smithfield.

GROOM PORTER, an officer of the King’s palace under the Lord
  Chamberlain. It is his duty to see that his Majesty’s lodgings are
  furnished with tables, chairs, stools and firing; to provide cards,
  dice, &c. _Chamberlain’s Present State._

GROOM OF THE STOLE, the first Lord of the Bedchamber, who is groom of
  the long robe or vestment worn by the King on solemn occasions, and
  called the stole. It is his office to present or put on his Majesty’s
  shirt every morning, and to order the things of the bedchamber. His
  salary is 2000_l._ a year.

GROSVENOR’S _gate_, Grosvenor street.†

GROSVENOR’S _mews_, a street of stables near Grosvenor square.†

GROSVENOR’S _passage_, Grosvenor street.†

GROSVENOR _square_, is bounded on the north by Oxford road; on the east
  by Hanover buildings; on the south by Mayfair; and on the west by Hyde
  Park, It is however entirely surrounded with buildings, which are very
  magnificent, though the fronts are far from being uniform, some of
  them being entirely of stone, others of brick and stone, and others of
  rubbed brick, with only their quoins, facios, windows and door cases
  of stone. Some of them are adorned with stone columns of the several
  orders, while others have only plain fronts. Indeed here is the
  greatest variety of fine buildings that are any where to be met with
  in so small a compass, and they are so far uniform, as to be all
  sashed and to be pretty near of an equal height. The area of this
  square contains about five acres, and in the middle is a large garden
  surrounded with palisado pales placed upon a circular dwarf wall. This
  garden is laid out into walks, and adorned with an equestrian statue
  of King George I. gilt, which stands upon a pedestal in the center.

  This square and the adjacent places are thus named from Sir Thomas
  Grosvenor.

GROSVENOR _street_, 1. Horse ferry, Westminster.† 2. New Bond street.†

A list of Pictures that are at present hung up in the two first floors
  of the house of Paul Methuen, Esq; in Grosvenor street.

  N. B. In this list, after the description of the pictures, the names
  of those by whom they are thought to be painted are added, for the
  information of such as may be great admirers of the art of painting,
  and lovers of pictures, and yet may not have knowledge or experience
  enough in that art to distinguish the several hands by which they are
  done.

  But as it is very possible, and even probable, that the owner of them
  may, for want of sufficient skill, have been mistaken in the naming of
  the authors of some of them; tho’ at the same time he begs it may be
  believed, that he has done nothing of that kind, without such reasons
  for it, as appeared very good to him; nor has been guided in it by
  partiality to the pictures, or any other consideration, but regard to
  truth, which he always thought should take place of every thing: so
  those who are better judges, are at liberty to name the pictures as
  they please, and restore them to the authors to which they may think
  they really belong.

                           On the FIRST FLOOR.
                       In the hall and stair case.
                            Over the chimney.

A naked boy blowing bubbles and treading on a death’s head, representing
  Vanity, by Elizabetha Sirani.

                          Near the street door.

A large picture of dogs and foxes, by Peter Sneyders.

             Over the door that goes into the first parlour.

A man’s head, by Giuseppe de Ribera, commonly call’d Il Spagnoletto.

                          On the landing place.

A large picture of David and Abigail, by Sir Peter Paul Rubens.

                              Over the door.

The adventure of Don Quixote and the barber, by a Spanish painter.

                  Fronting the landing place at the top.

The portrait of the Duchess of Mantua, grand daughter to the Emperor
  Charles the Fifth, with her son in her lap, who was the last Duke of
  Mantua, with some allegorical figures, armour, &c. by Giovanni
  Benedetto Castiglione.

                                Under it.

A landscape, and a musical conversation, painted by Sir Peter Lely;
  being the portraits of himself and his whole family, drawn by the
  life.

                          Fronting the windows.

The judgment of Paris, by Gerard Lairest.

                                Under it.

The judgment of Midas, by the same hand.

                         Over the looking glass.

A young lad blowing bubbles, said to be painted by Hannibal Caracci.

                          In the first parlour.
                            Over the chimney.

A Dutch kermis or country fair, painted by Old Pieter Bruegel.

                       On each side of the chimney.

Next the window, the portrait of a Turk, by Rembrandt van Rijn.

David with the head of Goliath and his sling, by Leonello Spada.

                           Between the windows.

A man’s head, said to be that of Massaniello the fisherman who caused
  the great revolution of Naples, by Salvator Rosa.

The portrait of Francisco de Taxis, the first inventor of the posts in
  Europe, for which reason the direction of them has always remained in
  one of his family in all the dominions that belongs to the house of
  Austria, by a hand not certainly known.

                     Over the doors out of the hall,

The folly of spending our lives in the pursuit of love, wine, music and
  play, an emblematical picture, by Johannes Schorel.

The Virgin, our Saviour, St. Mary Magdalen, St. Peter, St. John the
  Baptist, and St. Jerome; by Jacobo Palma, senior, commonly called Old
  Palma.

                          Over the marble table.

The birth of our Saviour, and the adoration of the shepherds, by Giac.
  Bassan.

                         Under it, in the middle.

St. John the Baptist asleep in the desert, by Andrea del Sarto.

                           On both sides of it.

Two small sea pieces, a port in the Mediterranean, and a fight with the
  Turks, by William Vanderveld, junior.

                        Under them, in the middle.

An emblematical picture, representing a guardian angel pointing out the
  way to heaven to a soul, under the figure of a young girl, by Carlino
  Dolce.

                           On both sides of it.

Two very highly finished landscapes on copper, by Salvator Rosa.

                          Between the two doors.

The portrait of the Duke of Richmond and Lenox, of the Stuart family, at
  whole length, with a dog, by Sir Anthony Vandyck.

                    Over the door to the back parlour.

Vulcan at his forge, with the Cyclops, by Jacob Jordaans of Antwerp.

                        Over against the windows.
                              In the middle.

The head of our Saviour crown’d with thorns, by Ludovico Caracci.

                          On both sides of that.

Two fruit pieces, by Michael Angelo Pase, called Michael Angelo del
  Campidoglio.

                        Under them, in the middle.

A Bacchanal in two colours, by Rubens.

                           On both sides of it.

A landscape with a robbery, and a battle, both painted by Giacomo
  Cortese, commonly called Il Bourgognone.

                        Under them, in the middle.

A pretty large landscape and figures of Dutch boors, by Adrian Van
  Ostade.

                           On both sides of it.

A stag hunting, and another of hern hawking, by Philip Woverman.

                               Under them.

Two conversations of boors within doors, by Adrian Van Ostade.

                          In the second parlour.
                            Over the chimney.

Lot and his two daughters, with the city of Sodom on fire, by Lorenzo
  Lotti, a great imitator of Giorgione and Titian.

                          Over the closet doors.
                             Next the window.

The great amphitheatre at Rome, and other buildings, by Viviano
  Cadahorra.

A sea port with buildings and ruins, by Salviouch, and the figures by
  John Miele.

                   Over the door to the first parlour.

Omphale the mistress of Hercules, with the lion’s skin and his club by
  her, by Augustin Caracci.

                        Over the two other doors.

Two battles in the stile of Bourgognone, but the hands not certainly
  known.

                           In the passage room.
                             Over the doors.

A philosopher with a book in his hand, by Pier Francesco Mola.

Mary Magdalen, by Giacinto Brandi.

Our Saviour meditating on the sins of the world, by Giovanni Antonio
  Regillio, a competitor of Titian’s, and commonly called Il Pordenone.

                            In the great room.
                    Over the door at which you go in.

The portrait of a young man on wood, by Andrea del Sarto.

                    Between that door and the window.

The head of St. James the apostle.

The head of St. John the evangelist.

                   N. B. These two last pictures are by
                   a hand that is not certainly known.

                               Under them.

A Bacchanal painted on copper, by Cornelius Polembergh.

                      Between the door and the wall.
                              In the middle.

A pretty large picture of our Saviour and the Samaritan woman, by
  Giovanni Francesco Barbiori da Cento, commonly called Il Guercino.

                      On the side towards the door.

The Virgin and Child, by Il Cavalier Giovanni Lanfranchio.

                      On the side towards the wall.

Venus dressing, and Cupid holding her looking-glass, by Paolo Veronese.

                        Under them, in the middle.

The Virgin and Child, by Raphael de Urbino.

                      On the side towards the door.

The Virgin and Child in the clouds, and several angels, by Bartolomeo
  Murillo.

                      On the side towards the wall.

The Virgin and our Saviour, by Carlo Cignani.

                            Next to the door.

The annunciation of the Virgin Mary, by Paolo Veronese.

                            Next to the wall.

The birth of our Saviour, &c. by Jacapo Robusti, commonly called
  Tintoretto.

                            Over the chimney.

Tobit and the angel, by Michael Angelo Amerighi, commonly called Michael
  Angelo Caravaggio.

                    Between the wall and the chimney.
                              In the middle.

The portrait of a man, by Antonio Allegri, commonly called Il Correggio.

                            Towards the wall.

The head of some Spanish general, by Giovanni Giachinette, commonly
  called Il Bourgognone delle Teste.

                           Towards the chimney.

The portrait of the famous Hernando Cortes, conqueror of Mexico, by
  Titiano Vecelli, called Il Titiano.

                               Under them.

A large battle in an oval, painted by Luca Jordano.

                  Between the chimney and farthest wall.
                              In the middle.

St. Sebastian, by Guido Reni.

                            Next the chimney.

The portrait of Sir Anthony Vandyck, painted by himself.

                            Next to the wall.

The portrait of a young girl, with a little dog asleep in her hands, by
  Rembrandt van Rijn.

                               Under them.

A large oval battle, painted by Luca Jordano.

                          Over the closet door.

The portrait of a man with a book in his hand, said to be the famous
  satirist Berni, by Giorgio Barbarelli, called Il Giorgione.

                      Between the door and the wall.

A she saint, with angels, by Pietro Berettini, called Pietro Cortona.

                         Under it, in the middle.

A small battle, by Bourgognone.

                           On both sides of it.

Two small pictures, done from the gallery of Archduke Leopold, the one
  from Paris Bourdon, and the other from young Palma, by David Teniers.

                     Between the door and the window.

A large picture, representing our Saviour at the Pharisee’s house, and
  Mary Magdalen anointing his feet, with the portrait of the person for
  whom it was painted, as a servant waiting at table, by Carlo Dolce.

  N.B. This picture is out of the stile of Carlo Dolce’s paintings, who
    never before attempted so great a subject and composition; and was
    done by him, after the drawing of Ludovico Cigoli.

                         Under it, in the middle.

The portraits of three of Henry the Seventh’s children, viz. Prince
  Arthur, Henry the VIII. and Princess Mary, who was afterwards Queen of
  France, and Duchess of Brandon, by a hand not certainly known.

                           On both sides of it.

Two pieces of the history of Judith, the one where she is presented to
  Holofernes, and the other where she is entertained by him at a feast,
  by Paolo Veronese.

                           On the SECOND FLOOR.
                           In the dining room.
                     Over the door as you go into it.

A fortune teller, with several figures consulting him, by Giorgio
  Barbarelli, called Il Giorgione.

                              Over the door.

The history of Tancred and Erminia, out of Tasso, by Pietro Berettini,
  called Pietro de Cortona.

                            Between the doors.

A large picture, representing the baptism of our Saviour by St. John in
  the river Jordan, with angels, by Guido Reni.

                    Between the wall and middle door.

A Bacchanal, with Silenus and satyrs, by Jacob Jordaans of Antwerp.

                                Under it.

A large landscape, by Claude Gille, commonly called Claude de Lorraine.

                     Between that door and the wall.

The Virgin and our Saviour, St. John the Baptist and his lamb, St.
  Peter, and the three cardinal virtues, Faith, Charity, and Hope, by
  Titiano Vecelli, called Il Titiano.

  N.B. This is an emblematical picture, by which the painter meant to
    represent the several virtues that are necessary to form the
    character of a good Christian.

                         Under it, in the middle.

The holy family, by Paolo Veronese; the saint which is represented in
  armour, being the portrait of Paolo himself.

                            Next to the door.

A landscape and naked figures, by Cornelius Polembergh.

                            Next to the wall.

The flight into Egypt, by Filippo Lauri.

                      Between the wall and chimney.

Scipio and the fair captive at Carthagena, by Pietro de Cortona.

                               Under that.

A battle, by Giacomo Cortese, called Il Bourgognone.

                   Between the chimney and the window.

The dead body of our Saviour, with the Virgin Mary, and St. John, by
  Hannibal Caracci.

                                Under it.

A landscape, representing a temple of Bacchus, and the sun setting, by
  Claude Gille, commonly called Claude de Lorraine.

                              Dressing room.
                            Over the chimney.

The ordination of St. Dennis, patron of France, by Eustache le Sueur.

                   Between the chimney and the window.

Women at work by candle light, by Giacomo Bassan.

                         Under it, in the middle.

The annunciation of the blessed Virgin, with God the Father, and several
  angels in the clouds, by Francesco Albani.

N.B. This picture belonged to Pope Innocent X. as may be seen by his
  arms on the back side of it; and the frame, which is of silver, was
  made by the famous statuary Alessandro Algardi.

                               Under that.

St. Augustine in an ecstasy, contemplating the mystery of the holy
  Trinity, and the incarnation of our Saviour; a very high finished
  sketch by Vandyck, of the finest picture he ever painted, which is in
  the church of St. Augustine at Antwerp.

                        On both sides, at the top.

A man and a woman smoaking, and a man and woman drinking, by David
  Teniers.

                        Underneath, on each side.
                             Next the window.

Cephalus and Procris, by Adam Elsheimer.

                           Next to the chimney.

The will of Eudadimus the Corinthian, a sketch, by Nicholas Poussin.

                    Between the chimney and the wall.

The flight into Egypt, by Il Cavalier Giovanni Lanfrancho.

                         Under it, in the middle.

The portrait of Antonio Caracci, son of Augustino, by Annibal Caracci.

                               Under that.

A garland of flowers, painted on looking glass, by Old Baptiste.

                          On both sides at top.
                            Next the chimney.

A satyr squeezing grapes, with a tyger and leopard, by Rubens.

                              Next the wall.

Cupid shaving his bow, and two other little Cupids, by Parmegiano.

                               Under them.

Dutch boors in a fury against the Spaniards, by Pieter Bruegel, and a
  barber surgeon’s shop, with a cat and monkies, by David Teniers.

                        Over against the windows.
                              In the middle.

St. Francis Xavier dying in an island on the coast of China, by Carlo
  Maratti.

                           On both sides of it.

Two sea pieces, by William Vanderveld, jun.

                        Under them, in the middle.

The Virgin and Child, St. Joseph, St. Anne, and St. Catherine, by John
  Abeyk, commonly called John of Bruges.

                           On both sides of it.

Four pieces of the history of Judith and Holofernes, by Paolo Veronese.

                        Under them, in the middle.

The martyrdom of the Innocents on copper, by Alessandro Turchi.

                           On both sides of it.

A small battle piece, by Bourgognone.

A march of soldiers, by the same.

                    Over the door to the dining room.

The portrait of Cosmus the 3_d._ Duke of Florence, when a child, by
  Giustus Subtermans.

                        Over the two other doors.

Our Saviour breaking the bread, and blessing the cup, and St. Bruno
  founder of the order of Carthusians, both of them by Carlo Dolce.

                          Between the two doors.

The marriage of Jacob, by Ciro Ferri.

                                Under it.

The Virgin and our Saviour in the clouds, and the several saints,
  patrons of the city of Bologna, by Guido Reni.

                               Under that.

The nativity of our Saviour, by young Palma.

                        Over against the chimney.

A large landscape, with the baptism of Queen Candace’s eunuch by St.
  Philip, by John Both.

                         Under it, in the middle.

The inside of a church, by Henry Stenwix, and the figures by Velvet
  Brughell.

                         Under each corner of it.

Two little round pictures, one of them being the head of Mary Magdalen,
  and the other that of our Saviour crown’d with thorns; both of them by
  Francesco Albani.

                               Under them.

The shipwreck of St. Paul on the island of Malta, by Adam Elsheimer.

                           On each side of it.

Two small landscapes on copper, by John Brughell, commonly call’d the
  Velvet Brughell.

                          On both sides of them.

The martyrdom of St. Laurence, by Titiano Vecelli, commonly called Il
  Titiano; and St. Sebastian, and other saints, by Filippo Lauri.

                     Between the door and the window.

The education of Bacchus, by Simon Vouet.

                                Under it.

The Virgin and our Saviour, and several saints, by Ludovico Caracci.

                               Under that.

The judgment of Paris, by Giovanni Rottenhammer, the landscape by Paul
  Brill.

                   Between the windows over the glass.

A portrait of a Dominican friar, by Giovanni Lanfrancho.

                   In the passage room, over the doors.

The portrait of Don Antonio de Leyva, General to Charles the Fifth, who
  took Francis the First prisoner at the battle of Pavia. By Il Dosso di
  Ferrara.

The portrait of Charles Lewis, the eldest Prince Palatine, by Vandyke.

The portrait of the Lady Anne Carre, Countess of Bedford, by the same.

                            Over the chimney.

Our Saviour carried before Pontius Pilate, in water colours, by Lucas of
  Leyden.

                    In the bedchamber, over the door.

The portrait of a man in a ruff, by Rubens.

                            Over the chimney.

A large picture of a curtain, carpet, fruit, &c. by the Maltese, and
  Mich. Angelo del Campidoglio.

                              In the closet.
                            Over the chimney.

A copy of Raphael’s picture of the Madonna della Seggiola in the palace
  of Pitti, at Florence.

                                Under it.

A small flower piece on copper, by Velvet Brughell.

                       Over the little closet door.

The portrait of Sir Paul Methuen when a boy.

                      Over the door next the window.

The picture of a woman, &c. by Albert Durer.

                        Over the bedchamber door.

A man’s head, by Tintoretto, said to be that of the famous Andrea
  Vesalio.

GROVE _street_, Hackney.

GRUB _street_, 1. Fore street, Cripplegate. 2. Market street,
  Westminster.

GRUB’S _rents_, Whitechapel.†

GUBBINS, or GOBIONS, near North Mims in Hertfordshire, had its name from
  its ancient Lord Sir Richard Gobion. In the reign of Henry VII. it
  belonged to the family of the Mores, when it was called More Hall; but
  on the attainder of the great Sir Thomas More, Lord High Chancellor of
  England, it was forfeited to the Crown, and settled on the Princess,
  afterwards Queen Elizabeth, who held it till her death. It afterwards
  came into the possession of several families, and was at length
  purchased by the late Sir Jeremy Sambroke. The manor house and gardens
  are very beautiful.


[Illustration:

  _Guild Hall._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sc. Oxon._
]


GUILDHALL, at the north end of King street, Cheapside, is the hall for
  holding the courts, and transacting the business of the city. The old
  hall in Aldermanbury being fallen to decay, the present structure was
  begun in the year 1411, upon a larger and more noble plan, and ten
  years were employed in compleating it. The executors of the famous
  Richard Whittington, long celebrated in song, gave a Purbeck pavement
  to the hall, and glazed some of the windows, on every one of which
  Whittington’s arms are placed; others of the Aldermen glazed different
  windows, and had also their arms painted on the glass.

  The hall being however much damaged by the fire of London in 1666, was
  repaired and beautified two years after, at the expence of 2500_l._ in
  so effectual a manner, that it has stood till this time.

  The entrance has a stately Gothic frontispiece, with the King’s arms
  under a cornice, pediment and vase; under which are niches; and in the
  middle of the front are the following words done in gold:

  _Reparata & ornate Thoma Rawlinson, Milit. Majore, An. Dom._ MDCCVI.

                                 That is,

  Repaired and adorned in the year 1706, during the Mayoralty of Thomas
  Rawlinson.

  Over the gate is a balcony, above which are placed in niches on each
  side, the figures of Moses and Aaron; and in niches on each side of
  the gate below, the four cardinal virtues; also under the balcony are
  depicted the arms of twenty-four companies.

  On entering this Gothic arch, you come into the hall, which is one
  hundred and fifty-three feet long, forty-eight feet broad, and
  fifty-five feet high. The roof is flat, and divided into panels; the
  walls on the north and south sides are adorned with four Gothic
  demi-pillars, painted white with blue veins, and gilt capitals, upon
  which are the royal arms, and those of Edward the Confessor.

  Nearly fronting the gate, are nine or ten steps, leading to the Lord
  Mayor’s court, over which is a balcony supported at each end by four
  iron pillars in the form of palm trees; by these is a small enclosure
  on each side on the top of the steps, used on some occasions as
  offices for clerks to write in, each being just sufficient to hold one
  person. Under these are two prisons called Little Ease, from the
  lowness of the ceiling, by which prisoners were obliged to sit on the
  floor; these prisons are intended for city apprentices, who upon
  complaint and a strict examination into the offence, were sometimes
  committed thither by the Chamberlain, whose office is at the right
  hand at the head of the steps. In the front of this balcony is a
  clock, on the frame of which is carved the four cardinal virtues, with
  the figure of Time, on the top, and a cock on each side of him. But
  the most extraordinary figures are yet behind; these are two monstrous
  giants which stand on the outside of the balcony close to the wall,
  one on each side: they have black and bushy beards; one holds an
  halbert, and the other a ball set round with spikes, hanging by a
  chain to a long staff. These absurd ornaments, which Mr. Strype
  supposes were designed to represent an ancient Briton and a Saxon, are
  painted, as if to give them the greater appearance of life, and render
  them more formidable to children.

  Round the hall are hung up, the standards and colours taken from the
  French, at the battle of Ramilies. At the east end are the King’s arms
  between the pictures of his present Majesty King George II. and Queen
  Caroline; close by the first is Queen Anne, and by the last his late
  Majesty King George I. and at the same end of the hall, but on the
  north and south sides, are the pictures of King William III. and Queen
  Mary fronting each other. The hall is likewise adorned with the
  portraits of eighteen Judges, put up by the city as a testimony of
  public gratitude for their signal services, in determining the
  differences which arose between landlords and tenants, without the
  expence of law suits, on rebuilding the city after the fire. These
  Judges are all painted at full length in their scarlet gowns; and in
  the Lord Mayor’s court there are the portraits of five other Judges
  painted in the same manner.

  On the east end of the hall is held the court of Hustings weekly, and
  occasionally that of the Exchequer; and before the Hustings is held
  the court of Conscience. At the west end is held alternately the
  Sheriff’s court for the Poultry and Wood street counters. Opposite to
  the Chamberlain’s office, already mentioned, as situated up the steps
  underneath the giants, is the office of Auditors of the city accounts,
  within which is the Lord Mayor’s court office, where the Lord Chief
  Justice occasionally sits in trials by _nisi prius_. On the west side
  of the Mayor’s court office is the court of Orphans, where the Lord
  Chief Justice of the Common Pleas occasionally sits. Adjoining to this
  court on the north, is the old council chamber, now used by the
  Commissioners of bankrupts. Contiguous to it is the new council
  chamber. Beneath the Mayor’s court is the Town Clerk’s office, where
  are deposited the city archives. To the east and north are the
  residences of the Chamberlain and Town Clerk; near which are two rooms
  wherein the business of bankrupts are dispatched. Contiguous to the
  north west is the kitchen; in the porch is the Comptroller’s office,
  and over it the Irish chamber. Over the piazzas on the west, are the
  common Serjeant’s, Remembrancer’s, and city Solicitor’s offices. See
  an account of each of these courts under the articles, _Court of_
  COMMON COUNCIL. _Lord_ MAYOR’S _Court_. _Court of_ HUSTINGS, &c.

  Guildhall is at the end of a tolerable vista, which shews the building
  to some advantage, though the Gothic front has nothing very
  extraordinary in it. The hall within is a fine one, but the entrance
  would have been better at the lower end than in the middle, for by
  this means all the beauty of the perspective is lost. The ascent of
  steps across the hall not being opposite the gate, as it ought to have
  been, is another material defect. A noble front in the situation of
  Guildhall, would have had an advantage hardly to be met with
  elsewhere, and give an architect a fine opportunity of displaying his
  genius. But the present front is full of little parts which have no
  effect at a distance.

GUILDHALL _alley_, Basinghall street, leading to Guildhall.

GUILDHALL CHAPEL, situated between Blackwell hall, and Guildhall, was
  founded in the year 1299, dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen and All
  Saints, and called London College. A chantry was founded in this
  chapel for four chaplains, and lands and tenements left for their
  support. It was rebuilt in the reign of Henry VI. and received new
  endowments: but at the suppression of religious houses it reverted to
  the Crown, and was bought of King Edward VI. with other lands and
  tenements, for the sum of 456_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._ and the city holds it
  in soccage of the manor of Greenwich. It was defaced, but not burnt
  down by the fire of London in 1666, and has been since repaired.

  This edifice is perfectly in the Gothic taste. In several niches are
  set the figures in stone of King Edward VI. of Queen Elizabeth, with a
  phœnix under her; and of King Charles I. treading on a globe. The
  windows are extremely large, and on the inside the walls are hung with
  tapestry. Over the Aldermen’s seats there is a wainscot covering, and
  a particular seat for the Lord Mayor, adorned with cartouches. There
  is a gallery at the west end, a handsome wainscot pulpit and desk, and
  a neat altar piece inclosed with rails and banisters.

  On the south side of this chapel was formerly a library belonging to
  Guildhall and the College. But it is said that in the reign of King
  Edward VI. Edward Duke of Somerset, then Lord Protector, sent for the
  books with a promise of returning them shortly; upon which three
  carriages were loaded with them; but they being never returned, the
  room has been long made a storehouse for cloths.

GUILDHALL _yard_, 1. King street, Cheapside.☐ 2. King street,
  Westminster.

GUILFORD, or GUILDFORD, a considerable borough in Surry, situated on the
  river Wey, thirty miles from London, and governed by a Mayor,
  Recorder, and Aldermen. Here the assizes are sometimes held, and
  always elections for members of parliament, the town itself returning
  two. Not far from the town are the ruinous wails of an old castle,
  this having been in the Saxon times a royal villa, where many of our
  Kings long after kept their festivals. Here were formerly two or three
  convents, one of which was not long ago the seat of Daniel Coswall,
  Esq; and had a delightful park adjoining to it. There were also three
  churches in the town; but one of them fell down in the year 1740. Here
  is a charity school founded by King Edward VI. and an almshouse
  founded by George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, who endowed it with
  lands worth 300_l._ a year, 100_l._ of which he ordered to be employed
  in setting the poor at work, and the other 200_l._ he allotted for the
  maintenance of a master, twelve brethren, and eight sisters, who are
  to have 2_s._ 6_d._ a week: the Archbishop’s birth day is annually
  commemorated in it; and the Archbishop of Canterbury is its visitor.
  There are here likewise two charity schools for thirty boys, and
  twenty girls; and a fine circular course for horse races, which begin
  when the Newmarket races are ended. Guilford had formerly a
  considerable manufacture of cloth, of which there are still some
  remains. The great road from Chichester and Portsmouth lies through
  the town, which has been always famous for good inns, the cleanest of
  linen, and other excellent accommodations; and as the river Wey is
  made navigable to this town, a great quantity of timber is carried
  down it to London, not only from this neighbourhood, but from the
  Sussex and Hampshire woods, above thirty miles off, from whence it is
  brought to Guilford in the summer by land carriage.

  The road from hence to Farnham is very remarkable, for it runs along
  the ridge of a high chalky hill, no wider than the road itself, and
  the declivity begins on either hand, at the edge that bounds the
  highway, and is very steep and high. From this hill is a surprizing
  prospect; to the north and north west over Bagshot Heath; to the south
  east into Sussex, almost to the South Downs; and to the west it is so
  unbounded that the view is only terminated by the horizon. On this
  hill, which is called St. Catharine’s, stands the gallows in such a
  position, that the town’s people of Guilford may, from the High
  street, sit at their shop doors and see the criminals executed.

GUILLAM’S _wharf_, St. Catharine’s.†

GULLYHOLE _alley_, Wheeler street.

GULSTON’S _square_, Gulston’s street.†

GULSTON’S _street_, Whitechapel.†

GUM _alley_, Barnaby street.

GUMMERY’S _alley_, Dorset street.†

GUN _alley_, 1. Barnaby street.* 2. Little Moorfields.* 3. St. John’s
  street, West Smithfield.* 4. Wapping.* 5. Well street.*

GUN _dock_, Wapping.

GUN-HOUSE _stairs_, near Vauxhall.

GUN _lane_, Three Colts street.*

GUNPOWDER _alley_, 1. Poor Jury lane. 2. Shoe lane.

[Illustration:

  _Gunnersbury._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sculp._
]

GUNNERSBURY HOUSE, near Ealing, a noble and elegant structure, built by
  Inigo Jones, or, as some say, by Mr. Web, who was son-in-law to Inigo
  Jones. Indeed the architecture shews that if the plan was not drawn by
  that celebrated architect himself, it was designed by some of his
  scholars, for the building has that majestic boldness and simplicity
  which grace all the works of that excellent artist. It is situated on
  a rising ground; the approach to it from the garden is remarkably
  fine. The loggia has a beautiful appearance at a distance, and
  commands a fine prospect of the county of Surry, the river of Thames,
  and of all the meadows on its banks for some miles, and in clear
  weather of even the city of London.

  The apartments are extremely convenient and well contrived. The hall,
  which is large and spacious, is on each side supported by rows of
  columns, and from thence you ascend by a noble flight of stairs to a
  saloon, which is a double cube of twenty-five feet high, and most
  elegantly furnished. This fine room has an entrance into the portico
  on the back front, which is supported by columns, and from the finest
  of the prospect over the Thames, is a delightful place to sit in,
  during the afternoon in the summer season; for it being contrived to
  face the south east, the sun never shines on it after two o’clock; but
  extending its beams over the country, enlivens the beautiful landscape
  that lies before this part of the edifice. On entering the garden from
  the house, you ascend a noble terrace, which affords a delightful view
  of the neighbouring country; and from this terrace, which extends the
  whole breadth of the garden, you descend by a beautiful flight of
  steps, with a grand balustrade on each side. But the gardens are laid
  out too plain, having the walls in view on every side. This was the
  house of the late Henry Furnesse, Esq; who had a fine collection of
  pictures in it.

GUNSMITHS, a company incorporated by letters patent, granted by King
  Charles I. in the year 1638. This fraternity consists of a Master, two
  Wardens, and eighteen Assistants; but has neither livery nor hall.
  _Maitland._

GUN _street_, Artillery lane, Spitalfields.*

GUN _wharf_, 1. Near Battle bridge.* 2. Wapping Dock.*

GUN _yard_, 1. Bishopsgate street without.* 2. Houndsditch.* 3. Maiden
  lane, Southwark.* 4. Pepper alley.* 5. Petticoat lane.* 6. Rosemary
  lane.* 7. Sugar Loaf alley, Moor lane.* 8. Tower ditch.*

GUTTER _lane_, Cheapside, originally called Guthurn lane, from Guthurn,
  the owner thereof. _Maitland._

GUTTIGE’S _rents_, Whitechapel.†

GUY OF WARWICK’S _court_, 1. Duke street.* 2. Upper Ground.*

GUY’S _court_, Playhouse passage, Drury lane.†

[Illustration:

  _Guy’s Hospital._
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sc. Oxon._
]

GUY’S HOSPITAL, in Southwark, for the cure of sick and lame persons, was
  founded by Mr. Thomas Guy, a citizen and bookseller of London, who
  from a small beginning amassed an immense fortune, by his industry and
  frugality; and more particularly by purchasing seamen’s tickets in the
  reign of Queen Anne; and by his success in buying and selling South
  Sea stock in the year 1720. He was never married, and had no near
  relations; and therefore towards the close of his life, considering
  how he should dispose of his wealth, after many ruminations, resolved
  to be the founder of the most extensive charity ever established by
  one man. He was seventy-six years of age when he took this resolution,
  and having no time to lose, immediately took of the President and
  Governors of St. Thomas’s hospital in Southwark, a lease of a piece of
  ground opposite to that hospital, for the term of nine hundred and
  ninety-nine years, for a ground rent of 30_l._ a year; and as this was
  covered with small houses that were old and ill tenanted, he
  immediately gave the inhabitants notice of his intention, and when
  they had removed their effects, pulled down the buildings in the year
  1721, and proceeding with all the expedition of a youth of fortune
  erecting a house for his own residence; he caused the foundation of
  the intended hospital to be laid the following spring, and this vast
  fabric was roofed before the death of the founder, which happened on
  the 27th of December 1724.

  The only motive that induced Mr. Guy to erect this hospital in so low
  and close a situation, was his design of putting it under the
  management and direction of the Governors of that of St. Thomas. But
  by the advice of his friends he altered his resolution; it was then
  however too late to think of chusing another situation, for the
  building was raised to the second story, but he rendered the place as
  agreeable as possible by its elevation above the neighbouring streets.

  The expence of erecting and furnishing this hospital amounted to the
  sum of 18,793_l._ 16_s._ great part of which he expended in his life
  time; and the sum he left to endow it, amounted to 219,499_l._ both
  together amounting to 238,292_l._ 16_s._ a much larger sum than was
  ever before left in this kingdom by one single person to charitable
  uses.

  The edifice is situated at a small distance from the foot of London
  bridge, and consists of two quadrangles, besides what the print
  exhibits, which is intended when the old buildings are removed to be
  made regular. At your approach, which is a very narrow street, you
  first see the side of the square, which is very elegant, and a noble
  iron gate, with very handsome piers, but are much disappointed when
  you come nearer, to find the most contemptible front you can imagine.
  The whole side could not be represented in the print, as there was not
  distance in the street to bring it into the visual angle. The iron
  gates open into a square, in the middle of which is a brazen statue of
  the founder, by Mr. Scheemakers, dress’d in his livery gown, very well
  executed.

  In the front of the pedestal is this inscription:

  THOMAS GUY SOLE FOUNDER OF THIS HOSPITAL IN HIS LIFE TIME. A.D.
  MDCCXXI.

  On the west side of the pedestal is represented in basso relievo, the
  parable of the good Samaritan; on the south side is Mr. Guy’s arms;
  and on that side of the pedestal facing the east, is our Saviour
  healing the impotent man.

  The superstructure of this hospital has three floors besides the
  garrets, and the same construction runs through the whole building,
  which is so extensive as to contain twelve wards, in which are four
  hundred and thirty-five beds; and in short the whole has a plainness
  that becomes the nature of the institution, and at the same time a
  regularity that does some honour to the builder, the whole being
  disposed for the mutual accommodation of the sick, and of those who
  attend them.

  Soon after Mr. Guy’s decease, his executors, pursuant to his last
  will, applied to parliament to get themselves, and fifty-one other
  gentlemen nominated by the founder, to be incorporated Governors of
  the intended hospital; upon which all these gentlemen were constituted
  a body politic and corporate, by the name of the President and
  Governors of this hospital: they were to have perpetual succession and
  a common seal, with the power of possessing the real and personal
  estates of the late Thomas Guy, Esq; for the purposes of the will, and
  to purchase in perpetuity, or for any term of years, any other estate
  whatsoever, not exceeding 12,000_l._ a year.

  This corporation was no sooner established by parliament, than the
  President and Governors set heartily about the work, by finishing and
  furnishing the hospital, chusing their officers and servants, and
  taking in patients, whose number at first amounted to 402. For the
  more effectual preventing inferior servants preying upon poor
  patients, or their friends, they resolved to give them handsome
  salaries, and the following were appointed and are still given.


              The Treasurer                       00  0  0

              His Clerk                           40  0  0

              Steward                             80  0  0

              Chaplain                            80  0  0

              Two Physicians, 40_l._ each         80  0  0

              Apothecary                          80  0  0

              Apothecary’s two servants           78  0  0

              Surgeryman                          30  0  0

              Butler, with his horse              67  2  8

              Cook and her servant                32  0  0

              Porter                              35  0  0

              Beadle                              30  0  0

              Matron                              50  0  0

              Eleven sisters, 25_l._ each           275  0
                                                         0

              Eight nurses, 16_l._ each             128  0
                                                         0

              Twelve watch-women, 10_l._ 8_s._      124 16
              each                                       0

              One brother belonging to the        35  0  0
              lunatics

              One sister belonging to the         25  0  0
              lunatics

              ────────────────────────────────────────────
                                       Sum total,  1349 18
                                                         8


  These officers and servants are chosen by the sixty Governors, who
  have carried on this noble charity in such a manner as to restore ease
  and health to many thousands of their fellow subjects.

  Besides which the out-patients who receive medicines gratis,
  frequently amount to about 1600 in a year.

  Before we conclude this article, it may be proper to mention some
  other particulars relating to Mr. Guy, in order to do justice to the
  character of that great benefactor to the public, by which the reader
  will see the little foundation there is for the general opinion of his
  being remarkable for nothing more than his parsimony and avarice. He
  was a patron of liberty and of the rights of his fellow subjects,
  which, to his great honour, he strenuously asserted in several
  parliaments, whereof he was a member for the borough of Tamworth in
  Staffordshire, the place of his birth. To this town he was a general
  benefactor; and early in his life he not only contributed towards the
  relief of private families in distress, but erected an almshouse, with
  a library, in that borough, for the reception of fourteen poor men and
  women, to whom he allowed a certain pension during his life, and at
  his death he bequeathed the annual sum of 125_l._ towards their future
  support, and for putting out children apprentices, &c.

  In the year 1701 Mr. Guy built and furnished at his own expence, three
  wards on the north side of the outer court of St. Thomas’s hospital,
  and gave to those wards 100_l._ a year, for eleven years immediately
  preceding the foundation of his hospital. Some time before his death,
  he removed the frontispiece of St. Thomas’s hospital, which stood over
  the gateway in the Borough, and erected it in the place where it now
  stands, fronting the street: he also enlarged the gateway; rebuilt the
  two large houses on its sides, and erected the fine iron gate between
  them, all at the expence of 3000_l._ To many of his relations he gave
  while living, a settled allowance of 10 or 20_l._ a year; and to
  others money to advance them in the world. At his death, he left to
  his poor aged relations the sum of 870_l._ a year during their life;
  and among his younger relations, who were very numerous, and his
  executors, he left the sum of 75,589_l._ He left the Governors of
  Christ’s hospital a perpetual annuity of 400_l._ for taking in four
  children annually, at the nomination of the Governors; and bequeathed
  1000_l._ for discharging poor prisoners within the city of London, and
  the counties of Middlesex and Surry, who could be released for the sum
  of 5_l._ by which sum, and the good management of his executors, there
  were above 600 poor persons set at liberty, from the several prisons
  within the bills of mortality. _Maitland._

GUY’S _yard_. Vinegar yard, Drury lane.†


[Illustration]



                                   H.


HABERDASHER _square_, Grub street, Fore street.

HABERDASHERS, one of the twelve principal companies, was indifferently
  called Hurrers and Milliners; the latter from the merchandize in which
  they chiefly dealt, which came from the city of Milan in Italy: but
  they were incorporated by letters patent granted by King Henry VI. in
  the year 1407, by the style of _The_ _fraternity of St. Catharine the
  Virgin, of the Haberdashers of the city of London_. But at present
  they are denominated _The Master and four Wardens of the fraternity of
  the art or mystery of Haberdashers_.

  This company is governed by a Master, four Wardens, and ninety-three
  Assistants, with a livery of 342 members, who upon their admission pay
  a fine of 5_l._ _Maitland._

HABERDASHERS _Almshouse_ at Hoxton. See ASKE’S _Almshouse_.

HABERDASHERS HALL, situated on the north side of Maiden lane, is a good
  brick building, and the room called the hall is very neat and lofty.
  It is paved with marble and Purbeck stone, wainscoted about twelve
  feet high; and the screen at the west end, where are two arched
  apertures, is adorned with pilasters of the Corinthian order.

HACKET _court_, Coleman street.†

HACKNEY, a village in Middlesex, on the north east side of London, is a
  very large and populous village, inhabited by such numbers of
  merchants and wealthy persons, that it is said there are near an
  hundred gentlemen’s coaches kept. The parish has several hamlets
  belonging to it, among which are Clapton on the north, Dorleston and
  Shacklewell on the west, and Hummerton, which leads to Hackney Marsh,
  on the east. In this village are two meeting houses, viz. a new
  Presbyterian meeting near the church, and an Independent meeting in
  Mare street: besides a Presbyterian meeting house at Clapton, There
  are also here six boarding schools, a free school, a charity school,
  and several almshouses.

  Hackney church was a distinct rectory and vicarage in the year 1292,
  and dedicated to St. Augustine; but the Knights Templars having
  obtained a mill and other possessions in the parish, they were, upon
  the suppression of their order, granted to the Knights Templars of St.
  John of Jerusalem, from whom the church is supposed to have received
  the present appellation of St. John: however, it was not presented to
  by that name till after the year 1660. It is in the gift of Mr. Tyson,
  Lord of the manor, but in ecclesiastical affairs is subject to the
  Bishop of London. _Maitland._

  At the bottom of Hackney Marsh there have been discovered within these
  few years, the remains of a great stone causeway, which by the Roman
  coins found there, appears to have been one of the famous highways
  made by the Romans. _English Gazetteer._

HACKNEY COACHES. The village of Hackney being anciently celebrated for
  the numerous seats of the nobility and gentry it contained, this
  occasioned a great resort thither of persons of all ranks from the
  city of London, whereby so great a number of horses were daily hired
  in the city on that account, that at length all horses to be lett
  received the common appellation of Hackney horses; which denomination
  has since been communicated to public coaches and chairs.

  ’Tis observable that so lately as the year 1625, there were not above
  twenty hackney coaches in the city of London and the adjacent parts;
  and that these did not ply in the streets as at present; but those who
  had occasion for them sent for them from the stables where they stood:
  but in 1635, the number of these coaches being greatly increased, they
  plied in the streets, which being then much narrower in many parts of
  London than at present, the common passages were obstructed and
  rendered dangerous; and it was alledged, that by this great increase,
  the price of hay and other provender was much enhanced. Upon this a
  proclamation was published by his Majesty King Charles I. on the 19th
  of January, strictly commanding, that after the 24th of June
  following, no hackney coach should be used within the city and suburbs
  of London, except for carrying of people to and from their habitations
  in the country: and that no person whatsoever should be allowed to
  keep a coach in this city, except such persons as were capable of
  keeping four able horses fit for his Majesty’s service, which were at
  all times to be ready when called for, under a severe penalty. However
  in 1654, Cromwell published an ordinance, by which he ordered that the
  hackney coaches, which he limited to two hundred, should be under the
  care and government of the court of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen. And
  in 1662 it was enabled by parliament, that all the hackney coaches,
  which then amounted to four hundred, should annually pay the sum of
  5_l._ each towards the charge of paving and cleaning the streets of
  London and Westminster. Since which time the number of hackney coaches
  has been augmented to eight hundred, and both they and the hackney,
  chairs put under the government of the Hackney coach office.
  _Maitland._

HACKNEY COACH _Office_, in Surry street in the Strand, was erected
  according to an act of parliament passed in the year 1696, for
  licensing hackney coaches and chairs, and to put them under the
  government of five Commissioners, who have a salary of 150_l._ a year
  each. The number of coaches is limited to eight hundred; out of which
  two hundred are to ply every Sunday in their turn, on the forfeiture
  of 5_l._ for every coachman who plies out of his turn.

  For the better government of these coaches and chairs, and preventing
  the drivers and owners imposing on those who employ them, each coach
  has its respective number on a tin plate fixed on each side. The price
  of each licence is 50_l._ no person is allowed to have more than two
  licences, and every proprietor pays 5_s._ a week by monthly payments,
  to the receiver of the office. A hackney coachman plying without a
  licence, using another’s figure, or defacing his own, forfeits 5_l._
  And no horse, mare, or gelding, under fourteen hands high, is to be
  used in drawing hackney coaches.

  If any coachman abuses a passenger; exacts more for his fare than he
  ought to receive; or refuses to go at the following rates, whether by
  day or night, foul or fair weather; upon complaint belong made to the
  Commissioners, and the number of the coach delivered in, such coachman
  will be summoned to appear, and fined for each offence twenty or forty
  shillings, according to the nature of his crime.

                        Rates of Hackney Coachmen.

  For a day of twelve hours, 10_s._
  For one hour, 1_s._ 6_d._
  For every hour after the first, 1_s._
  For any distance nor exceeding a mile and a half, 1_s._
  For any distance not exceeding two miles, 1_s._ 6_d._

  For the better ascertaining the fares between the most remarkable
    places of this city and suburbs, the Commissioners of the Hackney
    Coach office have caused the distance between the following parts to
    be measured, and the several rates fixed accordingly.

Rates for Hackney Coaches, one shilling.

  From any of the Inns to Court to any part of St. James’s or
    Westminster, except beyond Tothill street.

  From any of the Inns of Court, or thereabouts, to the Royal Exchange.

  From Westminster Hall to Marlborough street, Albemarle street, Bolton
    street, Bloomsbury square, Soho square, or Little Queen street,
    Holborn.

  From St. James’s gate to Queen Anne’s square, Westminster; or the
    nearest corner of Red Lion square.

  From Golden square to Red Lion square.

  From the Haymarket play house to Red Lion square, Queen’s square
    Westminster, Thavies Inn, or Bloomsbury square.

  From Guildhall to Red Lion square.

  From the upper end of Fetter lane, Holborn, to Aldgate.

  From the Royal Exchange to Hoxton square.

  From Newgate to the middle of Greek street near Soho square.

  From the Bridge foot, Southwark, to Sir William Walworth’s Head at
    Walworth.

  From Gray’s Inn gate to Sadler’s Wells near Islington.

  From Covent garden to Clerkenwell church.

  From Temple Bar to Billingsgate.

  From Aldgate to Shadwell church.

Rates for Hackney Coaches, eighteen pence.

  From Drury lane play house to Queen square, Westminster.

  From Westminster Hall to St. Paul’s.

  From Westminster Hall to Queen square, Red Lion fields.

  From St. James’s gate to Hatton garden.

  From the New Exchange in the Strand to the Royal Exchange.

  From the Haymarket play house to Hatton garden.

  From Red Lion square to Westminster hall.

  From any of the Inns of Court to the Tower, Aldgate, Bishopsgate
    street, or thereabouts.

  From St. James’s to Marybone church.

  From the Royal Exchange to Bloomsbury square.

  From the Royal Exchange to the watch house at Mile-end.

  From the outside of Aldgate to Stepney church.

  From Bedford street, Covent garden, to Coleman street.

  From Bread street to Hoxton square.

  From the middle of Broad street to Hart street, Bloomsbury.

  From St. Martin’s lane in the Strand to Gold street, by Wood street.

  From the middle of Gracechurch street to Somerset house.

  From Guildhall to Brownlow street, Drury lane.

  From the Royal Exchange to Newington church, Surry.

  From Covent garden to the Royal Exchange.

  From Stocks market to Charing Cross.

  From Aldgate to Ratcliff Cross.

HACKNEY CHAIRMEN, are subject to the same regulations as the Hackney
  Coachmen; and if they behave ill, any person may have them fined or
  punished by producing the number of the chair, and making complaint at
  the Hackney Coach office in Surry street. The only difference between
  them and the Hackney Coachmen is, that they are obliged to go the same
  distance for eighteen pence, which the coachmen perform for a
  shilling; they are to take no more than one shilling for any distance
  not exceeding a mile; and no more than eighteen pence for any distance
  not exceeding a mile and a half.

Rates for Hackney Chairmen, one shilling.

  From Westminster to Covent garden, or Exeter Exchange.

  From St. James’s gate through the Park to Westminster Hall.

  From the Haymarket play house to the entrance of Lincoln’s Inn fields.

  From the Haymarket play house to Bolton street.

  From St. James’s gate to Somerset house.

  From Somerset house to the upper end of Hatton garden.

  From the Haymarket play house to Soho square.

  From the nearest corner of Golden square to Drury lane play house.

Rates for Hackney Chairmen, eighteen pence.

  From Westminster Hall to Marlborough street, Soho square, Bolton
    street, or Temple Bar.

  From St. James’s gate to Queen Anne’s square, Westminster.

  From Golden square to Red Lion square.

  From Red Lion square to the Haymarket play house.

  From Queen’s square to the Haymarket play house.

  From the Haymarket play house to Bloomsbury square.

  From the Haymarket play house to Gray’s Inn.

HACKNEY _road_, near Shoreditch.☐

HAGLE’S _court_, Silver street, Tooley street.†

HAINS’S _court_; Swallow street.†

HAIRBRAIN’D _court_, 1. Blue Anchor yard, Rosemary lane.‖ 2. Scotland
  yard.‖

HALBOURN _yard_, Mews, Duke street, Piccadilly.†

HALFMOON _alley_, 1. Bishopsgate street without.* 2. By the Halfmoon
  tavern, Cheapside.* 3. Green Bank, Wapping.* 4. Grub street, Fore
  street.* 5. Jewin street, Aldersgate street.* 6. Little Bartholomew
  close, leading to the Halfmoon tavern. 7. Little Moorfields.* 8.
  Saltpetre Bank.* 9. Seven Stars alley, Golden lane.* 10. Whitechapel.*
  11. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

HALFMOON _court_, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Bow lane.* 3. Hermitage,
  Wapping.* 4. Long alley, Moorfields.* 5. Ludgate hill.* 6. Portpool
  lane.* 7. Saltpetre Bank.* 8. Wiltshire lane.* 9. East Smithfield.*

HALFMOON AND SEVEN STARS _court_, Old street.*

HALFMOON _passage_, Foster lane, Cheapside.*

HALFMOON _street_, 1. Hyde Park road.* 2. In the Strand.* 3. West
  street, Soho.*

HALF NICOL _street_, New Turnmill street, Shoreditch fields.

HALF-PAVED _court_, Dorset street, Fleet str.

HALFPENNY _alley_. 1. Jacob street. 2. Sharp’s alley, Cow Cross. 3.
  Halfway house lane, Stepney fields.

HALLAM _street_, Gray’s Inn lane. †

HALL’S _court_, 1. Compton street.† 2. Deadman’s place.†

HALL’S _rents_, Helmet court, St. Catharine’s.†

HALL’S _stairs_, Narrow street, Ratcliff.†

HALLMOTE, a court so denominated from the place in which it is kept,
  belongs to the several companies of citizens, by whom it is
  occasionally held in their respective halls, wherein the affairs of
  each of the companies are respectively transacted.

HALSEY’S _court_, Blackman street.†

HALSTED, a village in Essex, between Cray and Sevenoak, near which is
  the seat of the Duke of Richmond, called Halsted Place.

HAM (EAST) a village in Essex, south east of Plaistow, and six miles
  from London.

HAM (WEST) a village in Essex, between Stratford and Little Ilford.

HAMBURGH MERCHANTS, a company incorporated by Edward I. in the year
  1269, by the name of _Merchant Adventurers_. This being the first
  company of merchants incorporated in this kingdom, they soon obtained
  ample privileges of John Duke of Brabant, for establishing a factory
  at Antwerp.

  As these merchants proved of great advantage to the nation, their
  privileges were confirmed and enlarged by several succeeding Princes,
  particularly by Queen Elizabeth, who impowered the members of this
  company to extend their commerce to all parts of Germany. This was no
  sooner known, than very great privileges were offered them by the
  merchants of Hamburgh, as an encouragement to settle in their city,
  which being accepted, the factory repaired thither, where they still
  continue, and are at present known by the appellation of the _Hamburgh
  Company_, the ancient name being now never used but in deeds, and
  other writings.

  This society, since the diminishing of their privileges, and laying
  open their trade in the reign of King William III. is greatly reduced.
  _Strype’s edit. of Stow._


[Illustration:

  _Cascade at Ham Farm._
  _S. Wale delin._ _F. Vivares sculp._
]


HAM FARM, is the seat of the Earl of Portmore at Weybridge in Surry. It
  is situated between the Earl of Lincoln’s and the late Mr.
  Southcote’s. The house is a large handsome structure built regularly
  of brick, with a fine lawn before the garden front. The grounds about
  it consist of about 500 acres, 130 of which are laid out for pleasure,
  besides a paddock of about 60 acres. Here is a fine command of water,
  there being two navigable rivers, the Thames, which comes with a fine
  bending course by the side of the terrace, and the Wye, which runs
  direct]y through the grounds, and joins the Thames at the terrace.
  There is a swing bridge over the Wye, which may be turned aside at
  pleasure to let boats and other vessels pass. The Wye is navigable up
  to Guildford and other places. What is called the Virginia Water, runs
  from Windsor great park, and flows through Mr. Southcote’s grounds
  hither. The terrace next the Thames is beautiful; and though it lies
  upon a flat, there are some good views from it, and from other parts
  of the gardens. This place was first beautified by the Countess of
  Dorchester, in the reign of James II.

HAM HOUSE. See PETERSHAM.

HAMILTON _street_, Hyde Park road.†

HAMILTON’S _yard_, Upper Shadwell.†

HAMMER AND CROWN _court_, Broad street, Ratcliff.*

HAMMER _court_, In the Minories.*

HAMMERSMITH, a village in Middlesex, four miles west from London. There
  are a number of pretty seats about it, especially towards the Thames,
  among which the most remarkable is Mr. Doddington’s. It has a church,
  a Presbyterian meeting house, two charity schools, a work house, and a
  kind of nunnery.

HAMMOND’S _Almshouse_, in Almshouse yard, Snow hill, consists of six
  neat rooms, and was founded by Edmund Hammond, Esq; in the year 1651,
  for as many poor batchelors or widowers, with an allowance 10_l._ a
  year each: but the estate appropriated for its support being reduced
  by the fire of London, the Haberdashers company, to which the care of
  this charitable foundation was intrusted, at present only pay the
  pensioners the annual sum of 7_l._ 10_s._ each.

HAMMOND’S _court_, Haymarket.†

HAMMOND’S _key_, Thames street.†

HAMMOND’S _lane_, Thames street.†

HAMPSHIRE _court_, Whitechapel.

HAMPSHIRE HOG _yard_, Broad St. Giles’s.*

HAMPSHIRE _yard_, Whitechapel.

HAMPSTEAD, a pleasant village in Middlesex, situated near the top of a
  hill about four miles on the north west side of London. On the summit
  of this hill is a heath, which is adorned with many gentlemen’s
  houses, and extends about a mile every way, affording a most extensive
  and delightful prospect over the city as far as Shooter’s Hill, and
  into the counties all around it. This village used to be formerly
  resorted to for its mineral waters; and there is here a fine assembly
  room for dancing. Its old ruinous church, which was a chapel belonging
  to the Lord of the manor, has been lately pulled down, and a new one
  is just erected in its room. There is besides a handsome chapel near
  the wells, built by the contribution of the inhabitants, who are
  chiefly citizens and merchants of London; and also a meeting house.

HAMPSTEAD WATER OFFICE, in Denmark street, St. Giles’s. To this office
  belong two main pipes of a seven inch bore, which bring water from the
  ponds at Highgate and Hampstead to supply that neighbourhood.

HAMPSTEAD _yard_, Gray’s Inn lane.

HAM’S _corner_, Old street.†

HAM’S _rents_, Ratcliff highway.†

HAM’S _yard_, 1. Brook street.† 2. Great Windmill street.†


[Illustration:

  _Hampton Court from the Garden._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc Oxon._
]


HAMPTON COURT, is delightfully situated on the north bank of the river
  Thames, about two miles from Kingston, and at a small distance from a
  village called Hampton. This palace was magnificently built with brick
  by Cardinal Wolsey, who here set up two hundred and eighty silk beds
  for strangers only, and richly stored it with gold and silver plate;
  but it raised so much envy against him, that to screen himself from
  its effects, he gave it to King Henry VIII. who, in return, suffered
  him to live in his palace of Richmond. King Henry greatly enlarged it,
  and it had then five spacious courts adorned with buildings, which in
  that age were so greatly admired by all foreigners as well as the
  natives, that the learned Grotius says of this place:

           Si quis opes nescit (sed quis tamen ille?) Britannus,
             Hampton Curia, tuos consultat ille Lares;
           Contulerit toto cum sparsa palatia mundo,
             Dicet, Ibi Reges, hic habitare Deos.

                                 That is,

  _If e’er a Briton what is wealth don’t know; let him repair to Hampton
    Court, and then view all the palaces of the earth, when he will say,
    Those are the residence of Kings, but this of the Gods._

  In order to give a more perfect idea of this grandeur, we shall give a
  description of the ornaments of this palace, as they appeared in the
  reign of Queen Elizabeth, from an author who describes what he himself
  saw.

      “The chief area, says he, is paved with square stone; in its
      center is a fountain that throws up water, covered with a gilt
      crown, on the top of which is a statue of Justice, supported
      by columns of black and white marble. The chapel of this
      palace is most splendid, in which the Queen’s closet is quite
      transparent, having its windows of crystal. We were led into
      two chambers called the presence, or chambers of audience,
      which shone with tapestry of gold and silver, and silk of
      different colours: under the canopy of state are these words
      embroidered in pearl, VIVAT HENRICUS OCTAVUS. Here is besides
      a small chapel richly hung with tapestry, where the Queen
      performs her devotions. In her bedchamber the bed was covered
      with very costly coverlids of silk. At no great distance from
      this room we were shewn a bed, the teaster of which was worked
      by Anne Boleyn, and presented by her to her husband Henry
      VIII. All the other rooms being very numerous, are adorned
      with tapestry of gold, silver, and velvet, in some of which
      were woven history pieces, in others Turkish and American
      dresses, all extremely natural.

      “In the hall are these curiosities: a very clear looking
      glass, ornamented with columns and little images of alabaster;
      a portrait of Edward VI. brother to Queen Elizabeth; the true
      portrait of Lucretia; a picture of the battle of Pavia; the
      history of Christ’s passion, carved in mother of pearl; the
      portrait of Mary Queen of Scots; the picture of Ferdinand
      Prince of Spain, and of Philip his son; that of Henry VIII.
      under which was placed the Bible curiously written upon
      parchment; an artificial sphere; several musical instruments:
      in the tapestry are represented negroes riding upon elephants;
      the bed in which Edward VI. is said to have been born, and
      where his mother Jane Seymour died in childbed. In one chamber
      were several excessively rich tapestries, which are hung up
      when the Queen gives audience to foreign ambassadors; there
      were numbers of cushions ornamented with gold and silver; many
      counterpanes and coverlids of beds lined with ermine. In
      short, all the walls of the palace shine with gold and silver.
      Here is besides a certain cabinet called Paradise, where
      besides that every thing glitters so with silver, gold, and
      jewels, as to dazzle one’s eyes, there is a musical instrument
      made all of glass, except the strings. Afterwards we were led
      into the gardens, which are most pleasant.”

      _Hentzner’s Journey into England._

  This palace, which was afterwards the prison of King Charles I. is,
  with the parks, encompassed in a semicircle by the Thames. King
  William and Queen Mary were so greatly pleased with its situation,
  which rendered it capable of great improvements, and of being made one
  of the noblest palaces in Europe, that while the former was causing
  the old apartments to be pulled down, and rebuilt in the more
  beautiful manner in which they now appear, her Majesty impatient to
  enjoy so agreeable a retreat, fixed upon a building near the river,
  called the Water Gallery, and suiting it to her convenience, adorned
  it with the utmost elegance, though its situation would not allow it
  to stand after the principal building was completed.

  Since the pulling down of the Water Gallery, which stood before the
  fine stone front that faces the river, the ground to the south west
  received considerable improvements. This spot is laid out in small
  inclosures, surrounded with tall hedges, in order to break the
  violence of the winds, and render them proper for the reception of
  such exotic plants as were moved thither in summer out of the
  conservatories. Here are two basons constantly supplied with water,
  for the support of these plants in dry weather; and as these are
  situated near the great apartments, most of the plants may be viewed
  from the window.

  At a small distance to the west, stood a large hot house, for
  preserving such tender exotic plants as require a greater share of
  warmth than is generally felt in this climate. Of this part of
  gardening Queen Mary was so fond, that she allowed a handsome salary
  to Dr. Plukenet, a very learned botanist, for overlooking and
  registering the curious collection of plants she caused to be brought
  into the garden; but since her Majesty’s death they have been much
  neglected, and very few of the most curious plants are now to be found
  there.

  The park and gardens, with the ground on which the palace now stands,
  are about three miles in circumference. On a pediment at the front of
  the palace on this side, is a bas-relief of the triumphs of Hercules
  over Envy; and facing it a large oval bason, answering to the form of
  this part of the garden, which is a large oval divided into gravel
  walks and parterres, laid out in an elegant manner, by those two
  eminent gardeners, London and Wise.

  At the entrance of the grand walk, are two large marble vases, of
  exquisite workmanship, one said to be performed by Mr. Cibber, the
  father of the poet laureat, and the other by a foreigner; these pieces
  are reported to be done as a trial of skill; but it is difficult to
  determine which is the finest performance. They are beautifully
  adorned with bas-relief; that on the right hand, representing the
  triumphs of Bacchus, and the other on the left, Amphitrite and the
  Nereides. At the bottom of this walk, facing a large canal which runs
  into the park, are two other large vases, the bas-relief on one
  representing the judgment of Paris; and that of the other, Meleager
  hunting the wild boar.

  In four of the parterres are four fine brass statues. The first is a
  gladiator, which formerly stood in the parade of St. James’s Park, at
  the foot of the canal, and was removed thither in the reign of Queen
  Anne. The original was performed by Agasias Desitheus of Ephesus, and
  is in the Borghesian palace at Rome. The second is a young Apollo; the
  third a Diana; and the fourth, Saturn going to devour one of his
  children: all after fine originals.

  On the south side of the palace is the privy garden, which was sunk
  ten feet, to open a view from the apartments to the river Thames; in
  this garden is a fine fountain, and two grand terrace walks.

  On the north side of the palace is a tennis court; and beyond that a
  gate which leads into the wilderness: farther on is the great gate of
  the gardens, on the sides of which are large stone piers, with the
  lion and unicorn couchant, in stone.

  We shall now, leaving the gardens, take a view of the palace, and
  several apartments, with their noble furniture and fine paintings,
  performed by the most eminent masters.

  To begin with the first entrance into the palace, at the gates of
  which are four large brick piers, adorned with the lion and unicorn,
  each of them holding a shield, whereon are the arms of Great Britain,
  with several trophies of war well carved on stone.

  Passing through a long court yard, on each side of which are stabling
  for the officers of his Majesty’s houshold, we come next to the first
  portal, which is strongly built of brick, and decorated by Wolfey with
  the heads of four of the Cæsars, Trajan and Adrian on one side, and on
  the other Tiberius and Vitellius.

  Thro’ this portal we pass into a large quadrangle, remarkable for
  nothing extraordinary, but its spaciousness and uniformity. This leads
  to a second quadrangle, where over the portal is a beautiful
  astronomical clock, made by the celebrated Tompion, on which are
  curiously represented the twelve signs of the zodiac, with the rising
  and setting of the sun, the various phases of the moon, and other
  ornaments, and indications of time.

  On the left hand of this quadrangle is the great old hall, in which,
  by her late Majesty’s command, was erected a theatre, wherein it was
  intended that two plays should have been acted every week, during the
  time of the court’s continuance there; but Mr. Colley Cibber observes,
  that only seven plays were performed in it, by the players from Drury
  lane, the summer when it was raised, and one afterwards for the
  entertainment of the Duke of Lorrain, afterwards Emperor of Germany.
  In the front is a portal of brick decorated with four Cæsars heads
  without names.

  On the opposite side of this quadrangle is a stone colonade of
  fourteen columns, and two pilasters of the Ionic order, with an
  entablature and balustrade at the top, adorned in the middle with two
  large vases.

  This leads to the great stair case, adorned with iron balusters
  curiously wrought and gilt, the whole erected on porphyry. From the
  ceiling hangs by a strong brass chain gilt, a large glass lanthorn
  which holds sixteen candles, and has an imperial crown at the top.
  This staircase, with the ceiling, were painted by Signor Verrio, an
  Italian, by order of King William III.

  At the top, on the left side, are Apollo and the nine Muses, at whose
  feet sits the God Pan with his unequal reeds, and a little below them
  the Goddess Ceres, holding in one hand a wheat sheaf, and with the
  other pointing to loaves of bread; at her feet is Flora, surrounded by
  her attendants, and holding in her right hand a chaplet of flowers;
  near her are the two river Gods Thame and Isis with their urns; and a
  large table in the middle, upon which is a quantity of rich plate,
  decorated with flowers.

  On the ceiling are Jupiter and Juno, with Ganymede riding on Jupiter’s
  eagle, and offering the cup. Juno’s peacock is in the front: one of
  the Parcæ, with her scissors in her hand, seems to wait for Jove’s
  orders to cut the thread of life. These figures are covered with a
  fine canopy surrounded with the signs of the zodiac, and by several
  zephyrs, with flowers in their hands; and on one side of them is Fame
  with her two trumpets.

  Beneath is a beautiful figure of Venus riding on a swan, Mars
  addressing himself to her as a lover, and Cupid riding on another
  swan.

  On the right hand are Pluto and Proserpine, Cœlus and Terra, Cybele
  crowned with a tower, and others. Neptune and Amphitrite are in the
  front, and two attendants are serving them with nectar and fruit.
  Bacchus is leaning on a rich ewer, and, being accompanied by his
  attendants, places his left hand on the head of Silenus, who sits on
  an ass that is fallen down, he seeming to catch at a table, to which
  Diana above is pointing. The table is supported by eagles; on one side
  of it sits Romulus, the founder of Rome, with a wolf; and on the other
  side of it is Hercules leaning on his club. Peace in her right hand
  holds a laurel, and in her left a palm over the head of Æneas, who
  seems inviting the twelve Cæsars, among whom is Spurina the
  soothsayer, to a celestial banquet. Over their heads hovers the genius
  of Rome with a flaming sword, the emblem of destruction, and a bridle,
  the emblem of government, both in her right hand.

  The next is the Emperor Julian writing at a table, while Mercury
  dictates to him.

  Over the door at the head of the stairs is a funeral pile, done in
  stone colour; and under the above paintings are thirty-six panels,
  representing trophies of war, and other decorations in the same
  colour.

  From the stair case we pass into the guard chamber, which is very
  large and spacious, it being upwards of sixty feet long, and forty
  feet wide. This room contains arms for 5000 men, curiously placed in
  various forms. There are here pilasters of pikes and bayonet on each
  side sixteen panels that go round the room; with variety of other
  ornaments, as muskets in chequer work, stars made of bayonets, swords,
  &c.

  The next is the King’s first presence chamber, which is hung with rich
  old tapestry. The ceiling is vaulted, and from the center hangs a fine
  lustre of nineteen branches. Fronting the door are the canopy and
  chair of state, which, as well as the stools, are of crimson damask;
  on the back part of the canopy are the King’s arms, and round the
  vallance, a crown and cypher embroidered in gold.

  On the left hand of the entrance, behind the door is a fine picture
  about eighteen feet by fifteen, by Sir Godfrey Kneller. King William
  III. is in armour on a stately grey horse, trampling on trophies of
  war, by which lies a flaming torch. At the top in the clouds Mercury
  and Peace support his helmet, decorated with laurel, and a Cupid holds
  a scroll. On the bottom part of the picture appear Neptune and his
  attendants by the side of a rock, welcoming the hero on shore; and at
  a distance is seen a fleet of ships, their sails swelled with the east
  wind. In the front ground Plenty with her cornucopia offers him an
  olive branch, and Flora presents flowers.

  Over the chimney is a whole length of the Marquis of Hamilton, Lord
  Steward of the houshold to King Charles I. by Van Somer; and over the
  doors are two pieces of architecture, finely executed by Rosso.

  The next room, which is called the second presence chamber, is
  spacious, and has a vaulted ceiling, from the centre of which hangs a
  gilt chandelier of twelve branches. The tapestry is ancient but very
  rich, the lights being all gold, and the shadows silk; the subjects
  are, Hercules and the Hydra, and Midas with his ass’s ears. The chair
  of state and stools are of crimson damask fringed with the same
  colour. Over the chimney is a whole length of Christiern IV. King of
  Denmark, by Van Somer. This picture, as most of the large ones are, is
  decorated round the frame on the outside with festoons of fruit and
  flowers, finely carved in high-relief. Over the three doors are pieces
  of ruins and landscapes, by Rosso. In this room are also two fine
  marble tables, with two pier glasses, and two pair of gilt stands.

  The fourth room is very lofty; in the middle hangs a beautiful chased
  silver chandelier of sixteen branches. Here is a fine canopy of state,
  with the window curtains, chair and stools, of rich crimson damask
  laced and fringed with gold. The tapestry, which represents part of
  the story of Abraham, is fine; over the chimney is a whole length
  picture of Elizabeth Queen of Bohemia, the daughter of King James I.
  and over each of the two doors is a Madona, by Domenico Fetti.

  In the fifth room is also a chair of state, and stools; the window
  curtains are tissue with a silver ground; there are silver sconces
  fastened to the tapestry, which is richly woven with gold, but is very
  ancient; the subject is Abraham sending his servants to get a wife for
  Isaac. Over the chimney piece is an admirable whole length picture of
  King Charles I. by Van Dyck; and over the doors are two capital
  pictures, the first is David with Goliath’s head, by Fetti; the other
  the holy family, by Correggio.

  In the King’s state bed chamber is a crimson velvet bed, laced with
  gold, having plumes of white feathers on the top. This room, which is
  very spacious, is hung round with tapestry representing the history of
  Joshua, about which are eight silver sconces chased with the Judgment
  of Solomon. The ceiling, which was painted by Verrio, represents
  Endymion lying with his head in the lap of Morpheus, and Diana
  admiring him as he sleeps. On another part of the ceiling is a fine
  figure of Somnus, or Sleep, with his attendants, and in the border are
  four landscapes, and four boys with baskets of flowers intermixed with
  poppies. Over the doors are two flower pieces, finely painted by
  Baptist; and over the chimney is a whole length of the Dutchess of
  York, by Van Somer.

  In the King’s private bed chamber, the bed is of crimson damask, and
  the room hung with fine tapestry, the subject of which is Solbay
  fight.

  The King’s dressing room, which is about twelve feet long, and six
  feet wide, has the ceiling painted by Verrio. Mars is sleeping in
  Venus’s lap, while several Cupids steal away his armour, sword and
  spear, and others are binding his legs and arms with fetters of roses.
  The borders are decorated with jessamin, orange trees in pots, and
  several sorts of birds. Over the doors are fine flower pieces, by
  Baptist. The room is hung with straw-coloured India damask, and the
  chair, stools and screen, are covered with the same.

  The King’s writing closet is of a triangular form, and has two
  windows. The hangings and stools are of a pea-green India damask. A
  glass is here so placed, as to shew all the rooms on that side of the
  building in one view. Over each door is a flower piece by Baptist, and
  over the chimney a fine picture of a great variety of birds, by
  Bougdane. There is here a fine collection of china.

  Queen Mary’s closet is hung with needle work, said to be wrought with
  her own hand; there are also an easy chair, four others, and a screen,
  all said to be the work of that excellent Queen. The work is extremely
  neat; the figures are well shadowed, perhaps equal to the best
  tapestry, and shew great judgment in drawing. Over the chimney piece
  is an old painting, said to be Raphael’s, representing Jupiter’s
  throne, by which is the thunder, and his eagle in the clouds.

  The Queen’s gallery, which is about seventy feet long, and twenty-five
  feet wide, is hung with seven beautiful pieces of tapestry,
  representing the history of Alexander the Great, and done after the
  famous paintings of Le Brun; they are however not placed according to
  chronology, for some of the last actions of Alexander’s life are
  placed before those which preceded them. Under that part of the
  tapestry which represents the story of Alexander and Diogenes, and
  which is placed over the chimney piece, is a very neat bust of a Venus
  in alabaster standing upon an oval looking-glass, under which are two
  doves billing in basso relievo. Among the other furniture in this
  gallery, are two very fine tables of Egyptian marble.

  The ceiling of the Queen’s state bed chamber is finely painted by Sir
  J. Thorn-hill, who has represented Aurora rising out of the ocean in
  her golden chariot, drawn by four white horses. The bed is of crimson
  damask; and besides other furniture, the room is adorned with a glass
  lustre with silver sockets. Over a large marble chimney piece is a
  whole length of King James I. by Van Somer. At his right hand, over
  one of the doors, is Queen Anne his consort; on his left, their
  daughter the Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen of Bohemia; both by
  Van Somer. Over the other door is a beautiful whole length of Henry
  Prince of Wales, their eldest son, by Van Dyck. In the cornice are
  four other portraits, one on each side, viz. his late Majesty K.
  George I. his present Majesty King George II. the late Queen Caroline,
  and the late Prince of Wales.

  The Queen’s drawing room has the ceiling painted by Signor Verrio; in
  the middle of which is the late Queen Anne, under the character of
  Justice, holding the scales in one hand, and the sword in the other:
  she is dressed in a purple robe lined with ermine; and Neptune and
  Britannia are holding a crown over her head. The room is hung with
  green damask, upon which are placed nine pictures, three on each side
  of the room, and three at the end. These were formerly all in one
  piece of a great length, as may be very plainly seen from some of the
  figures being cut asunder, and placed in different pieces. The whole
  is the triumph of Julius Cæsar, and was a long procession of soldiers,
  priests, officers of state, &c. at the end of which that Emperor
  appears in his triumphal chariot, with Victory holding a laurel crown
  over his head. It is painted in water colours upon canvas, by Andrea
  Mantegna.

  The Queen’s state audience room is hung with rich tapestry,
  representing the children of Israel carrying the twelve stones to the
  river Jordan, as mentioned in Joshua iv. Here is a fine canopy of
  state, and five pictures at full length, the Duke, Dutchess, and
  Marchioness of Brunswick their daughter; the Dutchess of Lenox, and
  Margaret Queen of Scots, all by Holbein.

  The Prince of Wales’s presence chamber is hung with tapestry wrought
  with the story of Tobit and Tobias. Here is a canopy of state of green
  damask: over one of the doors is Guzman, and over another Gundamor,
  two Spanish ambassadors: over the third is Madam Chatillon, the French
  Admiral’s lady; and over the chimney, Lewis XIII. of France, with a
  walking stick in his hand, and a dog by his side, all by Holbein.

  The Prince of Wales’s drawing room is hung with tapestry, representing
  Elymas the sorcerer struck with blindness; this is taken from one of
  the cartons. Over the chimney piece is the Duke of Wirtemburg: over
  one of the doors is a whole length of the wife of Philip II. King of
  Spain; and over the other, a whole length of Count Mansfield, General
  of the Spaniards in the Low Countries, all by Holbein.

  The Prince of Wales’s bed chamber has a bed of green damask, and four
  pictures also done by Holbein, viz. over the chimney piece is a whole
  length of the Duke of Lunenbourg, great grandfather to his present
  Majesty; over one of the doors Philip II. King of Spain; over another,
  the consort of Christiern IV. King of Denmark; and over the third, a
  whole length of the Prince of Parma, Governor of the Netherlands.

  In the private dining room are four pictures of the defeat of the
  Spanish Armada, by Vande Velde; and over the chimney a very fine one,
  by Van Dyck, of the Lord Effingham Howard, Lord High Admiral of
  England.

  In the Admiral’s gallery are the pictures of the following celebrated
  Admirals, Sir George Rooke, Sir Cloudsley Shovel, Sir John Leake, the
  Lord Torrington, Admiral Churchill, Sir Stafford Fairborne, Sir John
  Jennings, Sir Thomas Hopson, Admiral Beaumont, Sir Thomas Dilks,
  Admiral Bembo, Admiral Whetstone, Admiral Wishart, Admiral Graydon,
  Admiral Munden; all painted by Dahl, and Sir Godfrey Kneller.

  In the room of Beauties, nine ladies are placed in the following
  order: the Lady Peterborough, the Lady Ranelagh, the Lady Middleton,
  Miss Pitt, the Duchess of St. Alban’s, Lady Essex, Lady Dorset, Queen
  Mary, and the Duchess of Grafton. Q. Mary was painted by Wissing, and
  all the rest by Sir Godfrey Kneller.

  In the Carton gallery are the celebrated cartons of Raphael Urbino, so
  called from their being painted on paper. These are seven pieces of
  sacred history, taken from the New Testament, and were at first
  designed only as patterns for tapestry. For these admirable pieces
  Lewis XIV. is said to have offered 100,000 louis d’ors.

  These pictures, which may be properly termed coloured drawings on
  paper, as big as the life, are painted with great delicacy and beauty
  in water colours. The first is the miraculous draught of fishes, in
  which Christ appears in the boat with an air of divine gentleness. A
  very ingenious modern author, whose words we shall chiefly follow in
  the description of these admirable pieces, observes, that the exotic
  birds, the magnificent large fowl placed on the shore in the fore
  ground, have a sea wildness in them; and, as their food was fish,
  contribute to express the business in hand, which is fishing; and
  being thus placed on the shore, prevents the heaviness which that part
  would otherwise have had, by breaking the parallel lines that would
  have been made by the boat, and the base of the picture.

  However in this carton Raphael has made a boat too little to hold the
  figures he has placed in it; but had he made it large enough for those
  figures, the picture would have been all boat; and to have made his
  figures small enough for a vessel of that size, would have rendered
  them unsuitable to the rest of the set, and less considerable: there
  would have been too much boat, and too little figure.

  The second, which is the delivery of the keys, has received some
  injury, and is not now what Raphael made it. As this is the appearance
  of our Saviour after the resurrection, present authority, late
  suffering, humility and majesty, despotic command, and divine love,
  are at once visible in his celestial aspect. He is wrapt only in one
  large piece of white drapery, his left arm and breast are bare, and
  part of his legs naked, which was undoubtedly done to denote his
  appearing in his resurrection body, and not as before his crucifixion,
  when this dress would have been altogether improper. The figures of
  the eleven apostles all express the same passion of admiration, but
  discover it differently according to their characters. Peter receives
  his master’s orders on his knees, with an admiration mixed with a more
  particular attention; the words used on that occasion are expressed by
  our Saviour’s pointing to a flock of sheep, and St. Peter’s having
  just received two keys. The two next express a more open ecstasy,
  though still constrained by their awe of the divine presence. The
  beloved disciple has in his countenance wonder drowned in love; and
  the last personage, whose back is towards the presence, one would
  fancy to be St. Thomas, whose perplexed concern could not be better
  drawn, than by this acknowledgment of the difficulty to describe it.
  The apostle who stands in profile immediately behind St. John, has a
  yellow garment with red sleeves, which connects the figure with St.
  Peter and St. John, whose draperies are of the same species of
  colours; next is a loose changeable drapery, then another different
  yellow with shadows bearing on the purple, all which produce wonderful
  harmony.

  The third is the miracle of healing the cripple at the Beautiful Gate
  of the temple. All the figures are admirably performed; the boys are
  done with great judgment, and by being naked make a fine contrast. The
  figures are placed at one end near the corner, which varies the side
  of the picture, and gives an opportunity to enlarge the building with
  a fine portico, the like of which you must imagine must be on the
  other side of the main structure, all which together make a noble
  piece of architecture.

  The fourth is the history of the death of Ananias. Here is the
  greatest dignity in the apostles; they are however only a subordinate
  group, because the principal action relates to the criminal; thither
  the eye is directed by almost all the figures in the picture; what a
  horror and reverence is visible in the whole assembly on this
  mercenary man’s falling down dead!

  The fifth is Elymas the sorcerer struck with blindness. His whole body
  from head to foot expresses his being blind. How admirably are terror
  and astonishment expressed in the people present? and how variously
  according to their several characters? the Proconsul has these
  sentiments but as a Roman and a gentleman, the rest in several degrees
  and manners. The same sentiments appear in Ananias’s death, together
  with those of joy and triumph, which naturally arise in good minds
  upon the fight of the divine justice and the victory of truth.

  What grace and majesty is seen in the great apostle of the gentiles,
  in all his actions, preaching, rending his garments, denouncing
  vengeance on the sorcerer! The Proconsul Sergius Paulus has a
  greatness and grace superior to his character; and equal to what one
  can suppose in Cæsar, Augustus, or Trajan.

  The sixth is the sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas by the people of
  Lycaonia. The occasion of this is finely told; the man healed of his
  lameness, to express his sense of the divine power which appeared in
  these apostles, and to shew it to be him, not only a crutch is under
  his feet on the ground, but an old man takes up the lappet of his
  garment, and looks upon the limb he remembers to have been crippled,
  expressing great devotion and amazement; which are sentiments seen in
  the other, with a mixture of joy.

  The group of the ox and popa are taken from a bass relievo in the
  Villa de Medici.

  The seventh is St. Paul preaching to the Athenians. The divine orator
  is the chief figure; but with what wonderful art are almost all the
  different tempers of mankind represented in that elegant audience! one
  is eminently distinguished as a believer, holding out his hands in
  rapture, and has the second place in the picture; another is wrapped
  up in deep suspense; another saying there is some reason in what he
  says; another angry and malicious at his destroying some favourite
  opinion; others attentive and reasoning on the matter within
  themselves, or with one another; while the generality attend, and wait
  for the opinion of those who are leading characters in the assembly.
  Some are placed before the apostle, some behind, not only as caring
  less for the preacher or the doctrine, but to raise the apostolic
  character, which would lose something of its dignity, if his maligners
  were supposed to be able to look him in the face.

  This picture is conducted with the greatest judgment. The attitude of
  St. Paul is as fine as possible, pointing out his hands to the statue
  of Mercury, alluding to their idolatry; for the men of Lystra would
  call him by that name, and worship him as a God presiding over
  eloquence. Thus the picture shews the subject of his preaching. The
  little drapery thrown over the apostle’s shoulder, and hanging down to
  his waist, poises the figure, which otherwise would seem ready to
  tumble forwards. The drapery is red and green, the back ground is
  expressive of the superstition St. Paul was preaching against, as
  above-mentioned. No historian, orator or poet, can possibly give so
  great an idea of the eloquent and zealous apostle as this figure does:
  for there we see a person, whose face and action no words can
  sufficiently describe; but which assure us as much as those can, that
  that divine man must speak with good sense and to the purpose.

  There were in all twelve of these pieces, two of which are in the
  possession of the French King: the King of Sardinia has two of the
  others, and one belonged to a gentleman in England, who pledged it for
  a sum of money: but when the person who had taken this valuable
  deposit found it was to be redeemed, being very unwilling to part with
  it, he greatly damaged the drawing; for which the gentleman brought
  his action, and it was tried in Westminster hall, where the picture
  was produced. The subject was Herod’s cruelty, and indeed, the cruel
  malice of the person sued, seemed to flow from a principle perhaps
  equally diabolical and inexcusable.

  Over the chimney piece in this gallery is a fine bas-relief in white
  marble of Venus drawn in her chariot, and attended by several Cupids.

  We come next to the Queen’s staircase, where the ceiling is painted by
  Vick. Here is King Charles II. and Catharine his Queen, with the Duke
  of Buckingham representing Science in the habit of Mercury, while Envy
  is struck down by naked boys. There are also other ornaments done by
  Mr. Kent.

  From the Queen’s stair case, we descend into a new quadrangle, in the
  middle of which is a round bason, and four large lamps on pedestals of
  iron work; and on the right hand over the windows, are the twelve
  labours of Hercules done in fresco.

  We shall conclude our account with observing, that the whole palace
  consists of three quadrangles. The first and second are Gothic, but in
  the latter is a most beautiful colonade of the Ionic order, the
  columns in couplets, built by Sir Christopher Wren. Through this, as
  was before observed, you pass into the third court or quadrangle, in
  which are the royal apartments, which are magnificently built of brick
  and stone by King William III. The print shews two sides of these new
  buildings. The gardens are not in the present natural stile, but in
  that which prevailed some years ago, when mathematical figures were
  preferred to natural forms.

HANAPER _Office_, an office in Chancery under the direction of the
  Master of the Hanaper, his deputy, the clerk, sometimes called the
  Warden of the Hanaper, and the six clerks in Chancery for the time
  being, who are comptrollers of the Hanaper. The clerk of the Hanaper
  receives all money due for charters, patents, commissions, and writs;
  attends the Lord Keeper daily in term time, and at all times of
  sealing, with leather bags, in which are put all sealed charters,
  patents, and the like; and delivered to the comptroller of the
  Hanaper. Mr. Chamberlain supposes, that instead of leather bags the
  clerk of the Hanaper formerly carried a hamper, and that from thence
  he was called the clerk of the Hamper or Hanaper.

HAND _alley_, 1. High Holborn.* 2. Long alley, Moorfields.* 3. Norfolk
  street.* 4. Petticoat lane and Bishopsgate street.* 5. Snow hill.* 6.
  Wormwood street.*

HAND AND CROWN _alley_, Cow Cross.*

HAND AND PEN _alley_, Tower hill.*

HAND _court_, 1. Petticoat lane.* 2. Philip lane, London Wall.* 3. Near
  the Steel yard, Thames street.*

HAND AND CROWN _court_, 1. Chiswell street.* 2. Gravel lane.* 3. Orchard
  street.*

HAND AND HOLYBUSH _court_, St. Clement’s.*

HAND AND PEN _court_, 1. Barbican.* 2. Great Tower hill.* 3. Leadenhall
  street.*

HANDCOCK’S _yard_, Brown’s lane, Spitalfields.*

HAND IN HAND _alley_, St. Olave’s street.*

HAND IN HAND FIRE OFFICE, in Angel court, Snow hill, opposite St.
  Sepulchre’s church, for insuring only houses, was erected in the year
  1696, by about one hundred persons, who entering into a mutual
  agreement to insure each other from losses by having their houses
  consumed by fire, formed a deed of settlement for that purpose, which
  was inrolled in Chancery on the 24th of January 1698, and this deed
  being signed by every person desirous of becoming a member, he or she
  is by this means admitted into the joint copartnership, and becomes an
  equal sharer in the profit and loss, in proportion to his or her
  respective insurance.

  The conditions of insurance are, two shillings _per cent._ premium,
  and ten shillings _per cent._ deposit on brick houses, and double
  those sums on timber houses in the cities of London and Westminster,
  and within five computed miles from the same, to be paid on insuring
  for a term not exceeding seven years.

  Houses in the country, beyond five, and so far as twenty computed
  miles from the said cities are to pay an additional premium of one
  shilling _per cent._ on brick, and double on timber; and beyond twenty
  so far as thirty computed miles from the said cities, being the limits
  of insurance by this office, an additional premium of two shillings
  _per cent._ on brick, and double on timber, the deposit being the same
  in all places. Houses with party-walls of brick or stone are to be
  accounted brick, and those which have not such party-walls to be
  accounted timber houses. Thatched are not to be insured.

  Any number of contiguous houses, not exceeding the value of three
  hundred pounds, may be insured in one policy.

  No more than two thousand pounds can be insured on one house in a
  policy: but halls, hospitals, and other large buildings, divided by
  brick or stone partitions, may each be insured in several policies.

  At the expiration of policies, or whatever time the property in their
  houses ceases, all persons may on application to the office, receive
  the deposit, together with the dividends of profit made every year
  from the premium and interest of money, after the charges of the
  office are paid, deducting their proportion of contributions towards
  losses, during the time they have been insured.

  Hence it plainly appears, that the whole money paid on insuring, both
  premium and deposit, is in effect only deposited, to make good losses
  by fire and the charges of the office; it being all returned, except
  what is applied to those purposes.

  Contributions are laid when fires happen, and dividends made every
  year by the Directors, which are registered in tables hung up in the
  office, to be perused by the members.

  All the members or persons insured, have the liberty of examining all
  the books and papers of the office, at seasonable hours, gratis.

  No person insured is obliged to pay above ten shillings _per cent._
  Contribution for brick, and double for timber houses, more than the
  money first deposited. This being now upwards of 80,000_l._ valuing
  the public securities at _Par_, must all be exhausted by losses
  happening almost together, before any call can be made from the
  members.

  The affairs of the office are managed by twenty-four Directors,
  without any salary or reward, who are chosen by balloting for three
  years, from amongst, and by the persons insured, in the way of an
  annual rotation, eight new ones every year, on the three days
  immediately preceding the general meeting in November. They meet at
  the office in Angel court on Snow hill, to transact business, every
  Tuesday at three in the afternoon.

  Every house before it can be insured, must be surveyed by a person
  employed by the office, and in case of a loss or damage, is to be put
  into the condition it was in before the fire, allowing not more than
  three shillings a yard for painting, nor above thirty pounds for any
  chimney piece; or else the whole sum insured is to be paid to the
  sufferer without any deduction.

  Nothing is more evident than that the profits of insurance, which in
  the offices insuring for gain are divided on their capital stock, are
  here, together with the salaries of the Directors, applied to the
  benefit of the insured. The consequence of which is, that this office
  having paid above two hundred and fifty thousand pounds for losses;
  the charge to the injured from its beginning in the year 1696, has
  been at a medium under nine-pence a year for one hundred pounds
  insured on brick houses.

  The surveyors are to survey houses with all convenient expedition
  after directions are left, without any fee or reward.

  The clerks give constant attendance at the office, from eight in the
  morning to six in the evening. _The proposals delivered by the Office,
  October 10, 1758._

  This company keep in their service thirty firemen, who are annually
  clothed, and have each a badge, on which are two hands joined and a
  crown over them.

HAND IN HAND _yard_, Old Horselydown lane.*

HAND _yard_, Thames street.*

HANGING LION _yard_, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.*

HANGING SWORD _alley_, 1. Quaker street.* 2. Water lane, Fleet street.*

HANGING SWORD _court_, Water lane, Fleet street.*

HANGMAN’S _acre_, King David’s fort, near Bluegate fields.

HANGMAN’S GAINS, St. Catherines. Mr. Strype observes, that the towns of
  Calais, Hammes, and Guisnes, being lost in the reign of Queen Mary,
  many of the inhabitants fled to England, and wanting habitations, a
  part of St. Catharine’s where this lane is now built, was allowed
  them, which from the countries whence they came was called Hammes and
  Guisnes, which at length by a vulgar corruption was changed to
  Hangman’s gains.

HANGMAN’S GAINS _alley_, St. Catharine’s.

HANNOWAY _street_, Tottenham Court road.†

HANOVER _court_, 1. Grub street. 2. Houndsditch. 3. In the Minories.

HANOVER _square_, so called in compliment to the present royal family,
  has Oxford road on the north; Swallow street in the east; Conduit
  street on the south; and New Bond street on the west. The area of the
  square contains about two acres of ground, in the middle of which is a
  garden inclosed with rails; the houses are new built in the modern
  taste; they make a grand appearance, and are inhabited by noblemen and
  gentlemen of distinguished rank.

  The author of the Review of the public buildings remarks, that the
  upper end of Great George street towards Hanover square is laid out so
  considerably wider than at the other end, that it quite reverses the
  perspective, and shews the end of the vista broader than the
  beginning; which was calculated to give a noble view of this square
  from its entrance, and a better prospect down the street from the
  other side, and both way the effects answer the intention. He adds,
  that the view down George street, from the upper side of the square,
  is one of the most entertaining in this whole city: the sides of the
  square, the area in the middle, the breaks of building that form the
  entrance of the vista, the vista itself, but above all, the beautiful
  projection of the portico of St. George’s church, are all
  circumstances that unite in beauty, and render the scene perfect.

HANOVER _street_, 1. Hanover square. 2. Long Acre. 3. Rotherhith Wall.

HANOVER _stairs_, Hanover street, Rotherhith.

HANOVER _yard_, St. Giles’s.

HANSON’S _alley_, St. Giles’s Broad street.†

HARCOURT’S _buildings_, Inner Temple.†

HARDING’S _alley_, Petty France, Westminster.†

HARE _alley_, Shoreditch.*

HARE _court_, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Hare street, Spitalfields.* 3.
  Inner Temple.* 4. Little Knightrider’s street.* 5. Petticoat lane.* 6.
  Upper Ground.*

HARE COURT _buildings_, Inner Temple.*

HAREFIELD, a village in Middlesex, near the river Coln, between
  Rickmansworth and Uxbridge, about twenty miles from London. _Harefield
  Place_ is the seat of Sir Roger Newdigate, Bart. Here also George
  Cooke, Esq; the present member for the county of Middlesex, has a
  handsome seat and park.

HARE _marsh_, Hare street.*

HARE _street_, Brick lane, Spitalfields.*

HARE _yard_, Hoxton.*

HARLEY _street_, as does most of the other streets near it, took its
  name from the late Earl of Oxford, the ground landlord, who left it to
  his lady. This is a noble new street, extending northward from
  Cavendish square where Sir Richard Littleton’s house is at the corner.

HARP _alley_, 1. Grub street.* 2. Little Knightrider’s street.* 3.
  Saffron hill.* 4. Shoe lane.*

HARP _court_, Little Knightrider’s street.*

HARP _lane_, Tower street.*

HARP _yard_, Black horse yard, Fleet street.*

HARPER’S _alley_, Fore street, Lambeth.†

HARPER’S _walk_, Fore street, Lambeth.†

HARRIE’S _gun wharf_, Millbank.†

HARRISON’S _court_, Brook street.†

HARRIS’S _court_, Ratcliff Highway.†

HARRIS’S _rents_, Rosemary lane.†

HARROLD’S _court_, Coal yard.†

HARROW _alley_, 1. St. Catharine’s.* 2. Holborn.* 3. Mint street.* 4.
  Old Gravel lane.* 5. Old street.* 6. Petticoat lane.* 7. Whitechapel.*

HARROW _corner_, 1. Bennet’s hill.* 2. Deadman’s place.* 3. Fleet lane.*
  4. Long lane.*

HARROW _dunghil_, Mint street.*

HARROW _dunghil yard_, Old Horselydown.*

HARROW _yard_, Ropemakers fields.*

HARROW ON THE HILL, is situated in Middlesex, fifteen miles N. W. from
  London, on the highest hill in the county, on the summit of which
  stands the church, which has a very high spire. This parish is famous
  for a free school founded by Mr. John Lyons in the reign of Queen
  Elizabeth; and every 4th of August a select number of the scholars,
  dressed in the habit of archers, come with their bows, and shoot at a
  mark for a silver arrow.

HARTFORD, or HERTFORD, the county town of Hartfordshire, is situated on
  the river Lea, twenty-three miles from London, and is a place of great
  antiquity. It is said to have been of some note even in the time of
  the ancient Britons; here the Saxon Kings frequently kept their
  courts, and here King Alfred built a castle, by which he destroyed the
  Danish vessels that passed from the Thames up the river Lea. The town
  had its first charter granted by Queen Mary, by which it was made a
  corporation, and King James I. granted it a new one. The town is
  pleasantly situated in a dry and healthful vale, and built in the form
  of a Y with a castle in the middle of the two horns. It is governed by
  a High Steward, who is generally a nobleman, and by a Mayor, nine
  Aldermen, a Recorder, a Town Clerk, a Chamberlain, ten capital
  Burgesses, with sixteen Assistants, and two serjeants at mace. Here
  were five churches, which are reduced to two. In that of St. Andrew’s
  there is not only a seat for the Mayor and Aldermen, but another for
  the Governors of Christ Church hospital in London, and a gallery, in
  which 200 of the children of that hospital may be accommodated; for
  the Governors have erected an handsome house in the town for such
  children, as either wanted health, or are too young for that hospital.
  Here is also a handsome free school, and three charity schools; but
  tho’ the splendor of the town is much diminished, since the north road
  from London was turned through Ware, yet the county jail is still kept
  here, and the jail delivery in the castle. This town has the honour of
  giving the title of Earl to the Duke of Somerset, and of sending two
  members to parliament. The chief commodities of its market are wool,
  wheat, and malt, and it is said to send 5000 quarters of malt weekly
  to London by the river Lea.

  Near this town is a seat of the late Governor Harrison, pleasantly
  situated on a hill that commands a fine prospect of the country all
  around; and its neighbourhood is a seat of the Clarks, which also
  enjoys a delightful situation.

HARTINGFORDBURY, a village a little to the west of Hartford, near which
  the Earl Cowper has a handsome seat, built by his father, the Lord
  Chancellor of that name.

HART _alley_, Grub street, Fore street.*

HART _court_, Little Knightrider’s street.*

HART ROW _street_, without Newgate.*

HART _street_, 1. Bloomsbury. 2. By Bow street, Covent Garden. 3.
  Cripplegate. 4. Duke street. 5. Mark lane, Fenchurch street.

HARTSHORN _court_, 1. Golden lane. 2. Moor lane.

HARTSHORN _lane_, in the Strand, lately by Northumberland house, leading
  down from the Strand to the water side; but it is now demolished, and
  a handsome street building in its room, which, it is said, will be
  called Northumberland street, from the present Earl of Northumberland
  to whom it belongs.

HARVEY’S _court_, in the Strand.†

HARWAR’S _Almshouse_, in Kingsland road, was founded by Mr. Samuel
  Harwar, citizen and draper, in the year 1713, for twelve single men
  and women, six of whom are to be put in by the company of Drapers, and
  the other six by the parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch: each of whom
  is allowed six shillings a month, and eighteen bushels of coals a
  year.

HARWOOD’S _court_, 1. Wellclose square. 2. Well street.

HARWOOD’S _yard_, Holiwell street.*

HASS _park_, Wheeler street.

HASTEWOOD’S _court_, Blue Anchor alley.†

HASTING’S _court_, 1. Ratcliff Highway.† 2. Upper Shadwell.†

HAT AND MITRE _court_, St. John’s street.*

HATBANDMAKERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King
  Charles I. in the year 1638. They have a Master, two Wardens, and
  twelve Assistants; but have neither livery nor hall.

  This fraternity during the wear of rich hatbands, was in a flourishing
  condition; but this part of dress having been many years out of
  fashion, the trade of making hatbands is almost dwindled to nothing,
  so that there are at present but two or three of the company who are
  really hatbandmakers. _Maitland._

HATCHET _alley_, 1. Church lane, Whitechapel. 2. East Smithfield. 3.
  Little Britain. 4. Little Tower hill.

HATE _street_, Greek street, Soho.

HATFIELD, a town in Hertfordshire, twenty miles from London, was called
  Bishops-Hatfield, from its belonging to the Bishops of Ely. Here
  Theodore Archbishop of Canterbury held a synod, against the Eutychean
  opinions; and here was once a royal palace, from whence both Edward
  VI. and Queen Elizabeth were conducted to the throne. The rectory,
  which is in the Earl of Salisbury’s gift, is computed at 800_l._ a
  year.

  The Earl of Salisbury has here a noble seat built by the great Lord
  Burleigh, called Hatfield House. The park and gardens, in which is a
  vineyard, is watered by the river Lea.

HATFIELD _street_, Goswell street.

HATTON _court_, 1. Saffron hill. 2. Thread-needle street.

HATTON _garden_, Holborn, a broad straight and long street, in which the
  houses are pretty lofty; but tho’ they are plain and unadorned on the
  outside, yet there being something like regularity in the buildings,
  they appear to great advantage; and the street affording a fine vista,
  may justly be reckoned among the handsomest within the liberties of
  the city. Mr. Strype observes, that here was anciently situated the
  mansion house of the Bishop of Ely; adjoining to it was an orchard and
  pasture of about forty acres inclosed with a wall, which falling to
  the Crown at the death of Bishop Cox, she granted it to the Lord
  Chancellor Hatton, and his heirs for ever. Upon which the house was
  pulled down, and Hatton Garden, and several other streets erected on
  this estate. _Strype’s Stow._

HATTON _wall_, at the end of Hatton garden; probably so called from its
  being at the extremity of the wall of the garden in which the street
  called Hatton Garden was built. See the preceding article.

HATTON _yard_, Hatton Wall.†

HAVILAND’S _rents_, St. Catharine’s.†

HAUNCH OF VENSION _yard_, Brook street.*

HAWKERS AND PEDLERS _Office_, for granting licences to the hawkers and
  pedlers, is kept in Holborn court, Grays Inn. These belong to this
  office three commissioners, a comptroller, a cashier, nine riding
  surveyors, and a supernumerary riding surveyor, each of whom has a
  salary of 100_l._ a year. There are besides a few other officers with
  smaller salaries.

HAWS’S _Almshouse_, in Bow lane, Poplar, was founded in the year 1686,
  for six poor women, who besides a room have thirty shillings a year
  each.

HAY _court_, near Newport market.

HAY _hill_, Dover street.

HAYMARKET, Pall Mall, a pretty long and spacious street, in which there
  is the opera house on one side, and a small theatre on the other. It
  received its name from there being a market here for hay and straw,
  every Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday.

HAZELWOOD _court_, Bunhill row.*

HEATHCOCK _court_, in the Strand.*

HEATH’S _Almshouse_, in Almshouse row,* in the Lower street, Islington,
  was founded by John Heath, Esq; in the year 1648, for the reception of
  ten decayed members of the clothworkers company, who annually receive
  from their corporation, who are trustees for this foundation, the sum
  6_l._ each. _Maitland._

HEATH’S _rents_, Church lane, Rag Fair.†

HEDDON’S _court_, Swallow street.†

HEDDON’S _street_, Swallow street.†

HEDGE _alley_, Barnaby street.

HEDGE _lane_, Charing Cross, so called from its being formerly inclosed
  all along between two hedges. _Maitland._

HEDGERS _court_, St. Thomas’s, Southwark.

HEDLEY, a village in Surry, three miles from Epsom.

_St._ HELEN’S _Church_, situated in a spacious court, on the east side
  of Bishopsgate street, called Little St. Helen’s, is thus denominated
  from its dedication to St. Helena, the mother of Constantine the
  Great. This church escaped the flames in 1666, and is no ill monument
  of the taste of the time in which it was erected. It is a Gothic
  structure of the lighter kind; and consists of a plain body, with
  large windows not too much encumbered with ornaments. It has a tower
  wrought with rustic at the corners, and crowned with a turret and dome
  in which is a bell.

  In this church was formerly a figure of the Trinity, and a high altar
  of St. Helena, to which much devotion was paid. The church is now a
  vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul’s.

  In the north isle is the following inscription, on a large handsome
  piece of black marble, under which are placed the remains of the wife,
  son, and daughter of Mr. Thomas Payne, bookseller.

                   Silent grave, to thee I trust
                   These precious piles of lovely dust;
                   Keep them safely, sacred tomb,
                   Till a father asks for room.

_Priory of St._ HELEN’S, was a convent of Black Nuns, founded in the
  reign of Henry III. by the above church; but was surrendered to the
  Crown in the thirteenth year of the reign of Henry VIII. The nuns
  hall, and other houses belonging to the priory, have been since
  purchased by the leathersellers company, and is their common hall.

HELMET _alley_, Fore street, Cripplegate.*

HELMET _court_, 1. Butcher Row, Temple Bar.* 2. Near Catharine street,
  in the Strand.* 3. Fore street, Cripplegate.* 4. London Wall.* 5. In
  the Minories.* 6. Thames street.* 7. Wormwood street.*

HELMET _row_, Old street.*

HEMLOCK _court_, Carey street, Lincoln’s Inn fields.

HEMMING’S _row_, St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.†

HEMP _yard_, 1. Creechurch lane. 2. Petticoat lane. 3. Seething lane.

HEMPSTED, or HEMEL-HEMPSTED, a town in Hertfordshire, situated about
  eight miles to the west of St. Alban’s, is esteemed one of the
  greatest markets for wheat in this county, if not in England: it is
  kept on Thursday, and 20,0001. a week is often returned in it for meal
  only. Eleven mills stand within four miles of the place, which bring a
  great trade to it; but by this means the road is so continually torn,
  that it is one of the worst turnpike ways round London.

HEN _court_, Golden lane.*

HEN AND CHICKENS _court_, Fleet street.*

HENNAGE _lane_, Duke’s Place.

HENRIETTA _street_, 1. Cavendish square. 2. Covent Garden.

HENRY _street_, Old street.

HEPPER’S _wharf_, near Puddle dock, Thames street.†

HEPWORTH’S _alley_, Dancing Bridge.†

HERALDS _Office_, or the _College of Arms_, is situated upon St.
  Bennet’s hill, near Doctors Commons, at the south west end of St.
  Paul’s cathedral. This office was destroyed by the dreadful
  conflagration in 1666, and rebuilt about three years after. It is a
  square, inclosed by regular brick buildings, which are extremely neat
  without expensive decorations. The floors are raised above the level
  of the ground, and there is an ascent to them by flights of plain
  steps. The principal front is in the lower story ornamented with
  rustic, upon which are placed four Ionic pilasters, that support an
  angular pediment. The sides which are conformable to this have arched
  pediments, that are also supported by Ionic pilasters. On the inside
  is a large room for keeping the court of honour; a library; with
  houses and apartments for the King’s Heralds and Pursuivants.

  This corporation consists of thirteen members, viz. three Kings at
  arms, six Heralds at arms, and four Pursuivants at arms; who are
  nominated by the Earl Marshal of England, as ministers subordinate to
  him in the execution of their offices, and hold their places by
  patent, during their good behaviour. They are all the King’s servants
  in ordinary, and therefore in the vacancy of the office of Earl
  Marshal, have been sworn into their offices by the Lord Chamberlain.
  Their meetings are termed chapters, which they hold the first Thursday
  in every month, or oftener, if necessary, wherein all matters are
  determined by a majority of voices of the Kings and Heralds, each King
  having two voices.

  The Kings are Garter, Clarenceux and Norroy. Garter was instituted by
  King Henry V. in the year 1417, for the service of the most noble
  order of the Garter: and for the dignity of that order, he was made
  Sovereign, within the office of arms, over all the other officers
  subject to the crown of England, by the name of _Garter King of Arms
  of England_. By the constitution of his office he must be a native of
  England, and a gentleman bearing arms. To him belongs the correction
  of arms, and all ensigns of arms usurped or borne unjustly; and the
  power of granting arms to deserving persons, and supporters to the
  nobility and Knights of the Bath. It is likewise his office to go next
  before the sword in solemn processions, none interposing, except the
  Marshal; to administer the oath to all the officers of arms; to have a
  habit like the register of the order; with Baron’s service in the
  court, and lodgings in Windsor Castle; he bears his white rod with a
  banner of the ensigns of the order thereon before the Sovereign; when
  any Lord enters the parliament chamber, it is his post to assign him
  his place, according to his dignity and degree; to carry the ensigns
  of the order to foreign Princes, and to do, or procure to be done,
  what the Sovereign shall enjoin relating to the order; for the
  execution of which he has a salary of 100_l._ a year payable at the
  Exchequer, and 100_l._ more out of the revenue of the order; besides
  his fees.

  The others are called Provincial Kings, and their provinces together,
  comprise the whole kingdom of England; that of Clarenceux
  comprehending all to the south of the river Trent; and that of Norroy,
  all to the north of that river: but tho’ these provincials have
  existed time immemorial, they were not constituted to these offices by
  the titles of Clarenceux and Norroy before Edward III.

  Clarenceux is thus named from the Duke of Clarence, the third son of
  King Edward III. It is his duty, according to his commission, to visit
  his province, to survey the arms of all persons, &c. and to register
  their descents, marriages, &c. to marshal the funerals of all persons
  in his province not under the direction of Garter; and in his province
  to grant arms, with the consent of the Earl Marshal. Before the
  institution of Garter he was the principal officer of arms, and in the
  vacancy of Garter he executes his office. Besides his fees, he has a
  salary from the Exchequer of 40_l._ a year.

  The duty and office of Norroy, or North Roy, that is North King, is
  the same on the north of the Trent, as that of Clarenceux on the
  south.

  The Kings of arms were formerly erected by the Sovereign with great
  solemnity, upon some high festival; but since the ceremonies used at
  the creation of Peers have been laid aside, the Kings of arms have
  been created by the Earl Marshal, by virtue of the Sovereign’s
  warrant: upon this occasion he takes his oath; wine is poured upon his
  head out of a gilt cup, with a cover; his title is pronounced; and he
  invested with a tabart of the royal arms, richly embroidered upon
  velvet; a collar of SS. with two portcullises of silver gilt; a gold
  chain, with a badge of his office, and the Earl Marshal places on his
  head the crown of a King of arms, which formerly resembled a ducal
  coronet; but since the restoration it has been adorned with leaves
  resembling those of the oak, and circumscribed, according to ancient
  custom, with the words, MISERERE MEI DEUS SECUNDUM MAGNAM
  MISERICORDIAM TUAM. Garter has also a mantle of crimson sattin, as an
  officer of the order; with a white rod or scepter with the Sovereign’s
  arms on the top, which he bears in the presence of the Sovereign; and
  he is sworn in a chapter of the Garter, the Sovereign investing him
  with the ensigns of his office.

  The Kings of arms are distinguished from each other by their
  respective badges, which they may wear at all times, either in a gold
  chain or a ribbon, Garter’s being blue and the Provincials purple.

  The six Heralds are Windsor, Chester, Lancaster, York, Richmond, and
  Somerset, who take place according to seniority in office. They are
  created with the same ceremonies as the Kings, taking the oath of an
  Herald, and are inverted with a tabart of the royal arms, embroidered
  upon sattin, not so rich as the Kings, but better than the
  Pursuivants, and a silver collar of SS. They are Esquires by creation,
  and have a salary of 26_l._ 13_s._ 4_d._ _per annum_, and fees
  according to their degree.

  The Kings and Heralds are sworn upon a sword as well as the book, to
  shew that they are military, as well as civil officers.

  The four Pursuivants, who are, Rougecroix, Bluemantle, Rougedragon,
  and Portcullis, are also created by the Earl Marshal, when they take
  their oath of a Pursuivant, and are invested with a tabart of the
  royal arms upon damask. They have a salary of 20_l._ a year, with fees
  according to their degree. It is the duty of the Heralds and
  Pursuivants, to attend in the public office, one of each class
  together, by a monthly rotation.

  Besides these particular duties of the several classes, it is the
  general duty both of the Kings, Heralds, and Pursuivants, to attend
  his Majesty at the house of Peers, and, upon certain high festivals,
  to the chapel royal; to make proclamations; to marshal the proceedings
  at all public processions; to attend the installation of the Knights
  of the Garter, &c.

  All these officers have apartments in the college, annexed to their
  respective offices. They have likewise a public hall, in which is a
  court for the Earl Marshal, where courts of chivalry are occasionally
  held, and the officers of arms attend in their tabarts, his Lordship
  being present. Their public library contains a large and valuable
  collection of original records of the pedigrees and arms of families,
  funeral certificates of the nobility and gentry, public ceremonials,
  and other branches of heraldry and antiquities; and there have been
  few works published, relating to the history and antiquities of this
  kingdom, in which the authors have not received some assistance from
  this library, where attendance is daily given by two officers for the
  public emolument. _Instructions communicated by Stephen Martin Leake,
  Esq; Garter King of Arms, to Mr. Maitland._

HERBERT’S _grounds_, Bandyleg Walk.†

HERBERT’S _passage_, Beaufort Buildings.†

HERCULES PILLARS _alley_, Fleet street.*

HERCULES _yard_, Turnmill street.*

HERMITAGE _bridge_, Hermitage dock.

HERMITAGE _court_, Red Maid lane, near the Hermitage.

HERMITAGE, Dock side. There were formerly several hermitages on the
  ground on which London now stands.

HERMITAGE _stairs_, Wapping.

HERMITAGE _street_, Wapping.

HERMITAGE _yard_, Parish street.

HERON’S _yard_, Marsham street.†

HERTFORD’S _court_, Fenchurch street.†

HESTON, a village in Middlesex, to the north west of Hounslow.

HEWET’S _court_, in the Strand.†

HEWEY _court_, near Halfmoon street, in the Strand.†

HEYDON _court_, Heydon square.†

HEYDON _passage_, Heydon square.†

HEYDON _square_, on the east side of the Minories.†

HEYDON _yard_, Heydon square.†

HICKMAN’S _court_, Mill street.†

HICK’S _court_, Shoreditch.†

HICKS’S HALL, in St. John’s street, facing West Smithfield, is the
  county hall in which the justices of Middlesex hold their sessions.
  This is a very plain brick edifice with a portico at the entrance. It
  was built by Sir Baptist Hicks, Viscount Campden, who was for some
  time a mercer in Cheapside, and died in 1629, and from him it received
  its name. _Stow._

HICKS’S _yard_, Angel alley, Little Moorfields.†

HIDE PARK, is in a very fine situation to the west of the new buildings
  of London, from which it extends to Kensington; it being encompassed
  by a wall, and well stocked with deer. There is a place in it called
  the _Ring_, which used formerly to be frequented by people of fashion
  in their coaches. Mr. Misson, who published an account of his travels
  over England, speaking of this _Ring_, which was then in vogue, says,
  “The coaches drive round and round, and when they have turned for some
  time round one way, they face about and turn t’other: so rolls the
  world.” Here is a bason of water, formed to supply the above-mentioned
  new buildings, and a fine serpentine river. There are several good
  prospects from it. A magazine for gunpowder has been lately built in
  this Park near the Ring.

HIDE PARK _corner_, Piccadilly, by the corner of Hide Park.

HIDE PARK _street_, Hide Park.

HIDE _street_, Bloomsbury.

HIDE’S _court_, 1. King street, Golden square.† 2. Noble street.† 3.
  Hide’s rents, Chick lane.†

HIGH HOLBORN, that part of Holborn beyond the bars, and out of the
  liberties of the city.

HIGH HOLBORN LIBERTY, which consists of that part without the bars, is
  one of the two liberties in the county of Middlesex and hundred of
  Osulston, belonging to the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn; though by
  its separate government, (exclusive of that of the church) it acts in
  all respects as if independent. _Maitland._

HIGH _street_, 1. Aldgate. 2. Coverlead’s fields. 3. St. Giles’s.

HIGH TIMBER _street_, Broken Wharf.

HIGHGATE, a large and populous village in Middlesex, a little above four
  miles north of London, is so called from its high situation on the top
  of a hill, and a gate erected there above 400 years ago, to receive
  toll for the Bishop of London; upon an old miry road from Grays Inn
  lane to Barnet, being turned through that Bishop’s park. The church,
  which is a very old edifice, is a chapel of ease to Pancras and
  Hornsey; and where it stands was formerly an hermitage; near which the
  Lord Chief Baron Cholmondeley built and endowed a free school in 1562,
  which was enlarged in the year 1570, by Edwin Sandys, Bishop of
  London, and a chapel added to it. There are also here several
  dissenting meeting houses. On the side next London, the fineness of
  the prospect over the city, as far as Shooter’s hill, and below
  Greenwich, has occasioned several handsome edifices to be built;
  particularly a very fine house erected by the late Sir William
  Ashurst. It is remarkable that most of the public houses in Highgate
  have a large pair of horns placed over the sign; and that when any of
  the country people stop for refreshment, a pair of large horns fixed
  to the end of a staff, is brought to them, and they are earnestly
  pressed to be sworn. If they consent, a kind of burlesque oath is
  administered; that they will never eat brown bread when they can get
  white; never kiss the maid when they can kiss the mistress; and
  abundance of other things of the same kind, which they repeat after
  the person who brings the horns, with one hand fixed upon them. This
  ridiculous ceremony is altered according to the sex of the person who
  is sworn; who is allowed to add to each article, except I like the
  other better; the whole being over, he or she must kiss the horns, and
  pay a shilling for the oath, to be spent among the company, to which
  he or she belongs.

HIGHGATE _road_, Tottenham court.

HILLIARD’S _court_, Old Gravel lane.†

HILLINGTON, or HILLINGDON, the name of two villages in Middlesex,
  situated near each other, at a small distance from Uxbridge, and
  distinguished by the epithets Great and Little. The church of Great
  Hillington is a vicarage, to which the town of Uxbridge is a hamlet,
  and here Meinhardt, late Duke of Schomberg had a seat; and Mr.
  Chetwynd has one at Little Hillington.

HILL’S _Almshouse_, in Rochester row, Tothill fields, was erected in the
  year 1708, pursuant to the will of Emery Hill, Esq; for the use of six
  poor men and their wives, and six poor widows. The former are allowed
  7_l._ 4_s._ and a chaldron of coals every year; and the latter 5_l._
  and a chaldron of coals _per annum_, and a gown every other year.

  The same gentleman erected an almshouse in Petty France, Westminster,
  in the year 1677, for the reception of three men and their wives; but
  left it to be endowed out of the surplusage of the above almshouse;
  however it does not appear that there ever was any surplus.
  _Maitland._

HILL’S _rents_, Helmet court, Butcher Row, near Temple Bar.†

HILL’S _wharf_, Wapping Wall.†

HILL’S _yard_, Shoreditch.

HIND _court_, 1. Coleman street, Lothbury. 2. Drury lane. 3. Fleet
  street.

HIND’S _alley_, Maiden lane.†

HIND’S _rents_, Maze Pond street.†

HINTON’S _Almshouse_, in Plough alley, Barbican, was erected in the year
  1732,pursuant to the will of Alice Hinton, of Hackney, widow, who
  bequeathed the sum of 2000_l._ for erecting and endowing an almshouse
  for twelve poor widows of the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate; but
  the building was only erected for six, occasioned, it is said, by the
  loss of effects at sea, and 700_l._ by African stock. Each widow has,
  however, two neat rooms, and the house is endowed with 22_l._ _per
  annum_, arising from ground rent. _Maitland._

HITCHCOCK’S _yard_, Newington Causeway.†

HOAR’S _yard_, Bishopsgate street.†

HOBBIN’S _court_, Long lane, Southwark.†

HOBB’S _rents_, Marigold street.†

HOCKENHUIL’S _court_, Black Eagle street, Spitalfields.†

HOCKLEY _in the Hole_, near Clerkenwell.

HODDESDON, a hamlet situated on the river Lea, in the parish of Amswell
  and Brocksbourn in Hertfordshire, nineteen miles from London. Queen
  Elizabeth granted a grammar school to be kept here, and an almshouse
  was founded in the reign of King Henry VI. by Richard Rich, Sheriff of
  London. It is a great thoroughfare on the north road, and has a market
  on Thursday, and fair eleven days after St. Peter’s.

HODGE’S _rents_, Nightingale lane.†

HOG _alley_, East Smithfield.*

HOG ISLAND, Liquorpond street.

HOG _land_, 1. St. Giles’s Pound.* 2. Norton Falgate.*

HOG _yard_, 1. East Smithfield.* 2. Flemish church yard.* 3. Kent
  street.* 4. Liquorpond street. 5. Tothill street.* 6. White’s yard,
  Rosemary lane.*

HOLAND’S _court_, Back alley, Wapping.†

HOLAND’S LEGURE, near Green walk.†

HOLAND’S LEGURE _walk_, Green walk.†

HOLAND _street_, 1. Black Friars. 2. Great Wardour street.

HOLBORN, extends from the bottom of Snow hill to Broad St. Giles’s. This
  street was anciently a village called Oldborne, built on the bank of a
  brook or borne called Olborne, or Holbourn, that sprung up near Middle
  row, and flowed down the hill in a clear current, till it fell into
  the river of Wells at Holborn bridge. Along this rivulet the village
  gradually extended itself west ward, and communicated its name to this
  long and spacious street, afterwards built upon the same spot. This
  brook now runs the same course along the common sewer. Holborn was
  first paved from the bridge to the bars in the year 1535.

HOLBORN _bars_, near the end of Gray’s Inn lane, where the liberties of
  the city end on that side.

HOLBORN _bridge_, a bridge erected over Fleet ditch, at the bottom of
  Holborn hill, where the river of Wells, also called Turnmill brook,
  fell into it.

HOLBORN _court_, the first court in Gray’s Inn, on passing through the
  gate out of Holborn.

HOLBORN _hill_, the descent at the east end of Holborn.

HOLBORN _row_, Lincoln’s Inn fields.

HOLDEN, or _Nonsuch court_, Gracechurch street.†

HOLDING _street_, Rotherhith.

HOLE IN THE WALL, Little Russel street.*

HOLE IN THE WALL _yard_, Goddard’s rents.*

HOLFORD _alley_, Drury lane.†

HOLFORD _court_, Fenchurch street.†

HOLFORD’S _walk_, Fore street, Lambeth.†

HOLIDAY’S _court_, 1. Blue Anchor alley.† 2. Narrow Wall.†

HOLIDAY’S _yard_, Creed lane.†

HOLIWELL, a fine spring, now choaked up with soil and a hill of rubbish
  called Holiwell Mount, near Shoreditch. This spring, in the times of
  popery, was famed for its miraculous virtues, and thence obtained the
  name of _Holy_.

  A little to the south of this well, but within its precinct, stood an
  ancient priory of Benedictine nuns, which after many repairs, was
  rebuilt by Sir Thomas Lovel, Knight of the Garter, in the reigns of
  Henry VII. and VIII. who also gave to this priory a considerable
  benefaction in land, and was here buried in a chapel which he himself
  had erected. In commemoration of this benefactor, the following lines
  were curiously painted in most of the glass windows:

                    _All the nunnes in Holiwell,
                    Pray for the soul of Thomas Lovel._

  This priory, at the general suppression of monasteries, was
  surrendered to Henry VIII. in the year 1539, and its ruins are still
  to be seen in St. John’s court in Holiwell lane: the populace unjustly
  consider these as the remains of St. John’s palace, tho’ it does not
  appear that ever any royal mansion was in this neighbourhood.

HOLIWELL _court_, 1. Holiwell lane, Shoreditch. 2. St. Catharine’s.

HOLIWELL _lane_, 1. Shoreditch. 2. St. Catharine’s, Tower hill.

HOLIWELL _mount_, Holiwell lane, Shoreditch.

HOLIWELL _row_, Horseshoe alley, Shoreditch.

HOLIWELL _street_, 1. Shoreditch. 2. In the Strand; so called from its
  neighbourhood to St. Clement’s well.

HOLLAND HOUSE, a little beyond Kensington, is a fine old large Gothic
  structure built of brick, very pleasantly situated on a rising ground,
  and is at present the seat of the right Hon. Henry Fox. The celebrated
  Mr. Addison, who married the Countess of Warwick, lived in this house.

HOLLES’S _Almshouse_, in Great St. Helen’s, near Bishopsgate street, was
  founded by the Lady Holles, relict of Sir William Holles, Lord Mayor
  of London, in the year 1539, for six poor men or women, and endowed
  with 10_l._ a year, out of which each person was to receive 7_d._ a
  week, and the surplus to be laid out in coals for their use.

  As an addition to this foundation, Alice Smith of London, widow,
  devised lands to the value of 15_l._ a year; which, with the above
  mentioned, being greatly increased in their revenues, the company of
  Skinners, who are the trustees, have rebuilt the house in a handsome
  manner, and augmented the pensions of the poor. _Maitland._

HOLLIS _street_, 1. Clare market.† 2. Oxford street.†

_The_ HOLLOW, near Brick lane.

HOLLOWAY _court_, Nevil’s court, Rosemary lane.

HOLLYBUSH _court_, St. Clement’s, Temple Bar.*

HOLMAN’S _alley_, Bunhill row.†

HOLYWELL. See HOLIWELL.

HOMERTON, a hamlet belonging to Hackney.

HONESTY’S _square_, Chick lane.

HONESTY’S _yard_, St. James’s court, Chick lane.

HONEY _court yard_, Ailesbury street.

HONEY _lane_, Cheapside.

HONEY _lane market_, behind the north side of Cheapside, facing Bow
  church. After the fire of London, Honey lane, and other buildings,
  were converted into this market, among which was the parish church of
  Allhallows Honey lane. It is the smallest market in the city, being
  but 193 feet in length from east to west, and 97 from north to south.
  In the middle is a market house, which stands on pillars, has rooms
  over it, and is crowned with a bell tower. In this market there are
  135 standing stalls for butchers covered over, and also several stalls
  for fruiterers; the passages into it are inhabited by fishmongers,
  poulterers, &c. It is famous for the goodness of the provisions sold
  there, with which it is well supplied on Mondays, Wednesdays, Fridays,
  and Saturdays.

HONEYSUCKLE _court_, Grub street, Fore street.*

HOOKER’S _court_, St. Nicholas lane.*

HOOKE’S HOLE _yard_, Upper Ground street.*

HOOP _alley_, 1. Old street.* 2. Portpool lane.*

HOOP _yard_, 1. Little Swan alley.* 2. New Fish street hill.* 3. In the
  Strand.*

HOOPER’S _square_, Goodman’s fields.†

HOOPER’S _yard_, 1. Brick lane, Spitalfields.† 2. Tooley street.†

HOP _garden_, St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.

HOPKIN’S _rents_, Crown alley, Tooley street.†

HOPKIN’S _row_, near Petty France, Westminster.†

HOPKIN’S _street_, Broad street, Poland street.†

HOPTON’S _Almshouse_, in the parish of Christ Church, Surry, was founded
  by Charles Hopton, Esq; for twenty-six poor men, who have been
  housekeepers and come to decay, each of whom has an upper and lower
  room, with 10_l._ a year paid monthly, and a chaldron of coals. The
  building is handsome, neat, and spacious. The founder died in the year
  1730, and the poor men were first admitted two years after by the
  minister and two churchwardens of that parish, and ten other
  gentlemen, who are trustees for the management of this charity.

HOPTON _street_, Berwick street.†

HORN _alley_, 1. Aldersgate street.* 2. Liquorpond street.* 3. Tower
  street, Tower hill.*

HORN _court_, 1. Basing lane.* 2. Beer lane, Tower street, near Tower
  hill.* 3. Peter street, Westminster.*

HORN TAVERN _court_, St. Margaret’s lane.*

HORN _yard_, Goodman’s fields.*

HORNCHURCH, a town near Rumford in Essex, was formerly called Horn
  Monastery from a large pair of leaden horns; which, according to
  tradition, were placed there by a certain King, who disliking its
  former name Hore Church, so called from its being built by a whore, in
  order to attone for her sins, altered its name by setting up the
  horns.

HORNERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King
  Charles I. in the year 1638. They are governed by a Master, two
  Wardens, and nine Assistants; but have neither livery nor hall.

  In the reign of Henry IV. this company was greatly reduced, by the
  almost general exportation of horns; when applying to parliament in
  the year 1465, it was enacted, that from thenceforward no other horns
  should be exported, but such as were refused by the horners of this
  city and kingdom, on the penalty of forfeiture: and for the more
  effectual execution of this law, the Wardens of the company of Horners
  of this city were impowered to search for all such goods and
  merchandize, both wrought and unwrought, not only within this city and
  20 miles round, but in the fairs of Sturbridge and Ely, and all such
  goods as were found bad and unmarketable were to be forfeited.
  _Maitland._

HORNSEY, a village in Middlesex, five miles from London. About a mile
  nearer this, is a coppice of young trees, called _Hornsey Wood_, at
  the entrance of which is a genteel public house, to which great
  numbers of persons resort from the city. This house being situated on
  the top of a hill, affords a delightful prospect of the neighbouring
  country.

HORNS _yard_, 1. Cloth fair, East Smithfield.* 2. Kent street.* 3. Peter
  street, Westster. 4. Stony street.* 5. Whitechapel.*

_Master of the_ HORSE. See the article MASTER OF THE HORSE.

HORSE AND GROOM _yard_, Wood street, Westminster.*

HORSE AND TRUMPET _yard_, Poor Jewry lane, Aldgate.

HORSE GUARDS, a noble modern edifice opposite to the Banquetting-house,
  Whitehall. It consists of a center and two wings, and has an air of
  solidity perfectly agreeable to the nature of the building. It
  receives its name from the horse guards, who while the King is at St.
  James’s are here on duty, two at a time being constantly mounted and
  completely armed, under two handsome slope porches detached from the
  building, and erected to shelter them from the weather. This structure
  is equally calculated for the use of the foot as well as the horse on
  duty.

  In the center of this edifice is an arched passage into St. James’s
  Park, and the building over this has a pediment, in which are the
  King’s arms in bass relief. But this arch, as it is the passage of his
  Majesty to and from the house of Peers, should have been more lofty
  and noble. At each extreme of this center is a pavilion. But the
  cupola, which is not seen in the view represented in the plate of the
  Treasury, has but little to recommend it. The middle face of the
  cupola presents a dial; and the aperture in the lower part of this,
  and on the several stages of the other, are well calculated to break
  the plainness, without weakening the building, either in reality or
  appearance. The wings are plainer than the center. They each consist
  of a fore front, projecting a little, with ornamented windows in the
  principal story, and a plain one in the sides. Each has its pediment,
  with a circular window in the center: and the whole has a proper air
  of strength and plainness.

HORSE _walk_, Windmill hill, Moorfields.

HORSE AND CART _yard_, St. John’s street.

HORSEFERRY _bank_, Millbank, Westminster.

HORSEFERRY _lane_, Fore street, Lambeth.

HORSEFERRY _road_, Tothill fields.

HORSELYDOWN, Tooley street. All the tract called Horselydown, including
  the streets, square and lane of the same name, was originally a
  grazing ground, whence it was denominated _Horse Down_, which by
  corruption was changed to _Horselydown_. _Stow, last edit._

HORSELYDOWN _fair street_, near Free school street.

HORSELYDOWN _Old lane_, Horselydown.

HORSELYDOWN _square_, Shad Thames.

HORSELYDOWN _stairs_, Horselydown.

HORSELYDOWN _street_, St. Olave’s, Southwark.

HORSEMONGER _lane_, near Blackman street.

HORSESHOE _alley_, 1. Anchor street.* 2. Bank side, Southwark.* 3.
  Bunhill row.* 4. Fashion street.* 5. Golden lane.* 6. Maiden lane.* 7.
  Moorfields.* 8. Petticoat lane. 9. Petty France. 10. Thread-needle
  street.* 11. Whitechapel.*

HORSESHOE ALLEY _stairs_, Bank side.*

HORSESHOE _court_, 1. Bridge yard, Tooley street.* 2. Clement’s lane,
  near Temple Bar.* 3. Cock lane, West Smithfield.* 4. Fashion street.*
  5. Giltspur street, without Newgate.* 6. Old street.* 7. Peter street,
  Hicks’s hall.* 8. Seething lane.*

HORSESHOE _passage_, Blowbladder street.*

HORSESHOE _yard_, 1. Brook street.* 2. Old Gravel lane.*

HOSIER _lane_, West Smithfield; so called from its being formerly
  inhabited by the hosiers. _Stow._

HOSKIN’S _court_, Hartshorn lane, in the Strand.†

HOSPITAL _passage_, leading from Christ’s hospital into Butcherhall
  lane.*

HOSPITAL _walk_, Hoxton.

HOUGHTON _street_, Clare market.†

HOTWATER _alley_, Paris Garden lane.

HOVEL, Hog lane, Norton Falgate.

HOUNDSDITCH, extends from Bishopsgate street without to Aldgate street
  within, and runs along the outside of the city wall. Here was formerly
  the city moat, which obtained the name of Houndsditch, from the number
  of dead dogs flung into it; and this ditch being filled up, the street
  built upon it obtained the same name. _Maitland._

HOUNSLOW, a village 12 miles north of London, on the edge of the heath
  of the same name, which is equally famous for horse-races and
  robberies. There are here a chapel and a charity school. The village
  belongs to two parishes, the north side of the street to Hefton, and
  the south to Isleworth. In this place was formerly a convent of
  mendicant friars, who by their institution were to beg alms for the
  ransom of captives taken by the infidels. On its dissolution by King
  Henry VIII. that Prince gave it to the Lord Windsor, and it was
  afterwards purchased by Mr. Auditor Roan.

HOUSEWIFE _alley_, Old Bethlem.

_Master of the_ HOUSHOLD. See the article MASTER OF THE HOUSHOLD.

HOWARD _street_, Norfolk street. Lord Arundel’s house stood there, and
  from thence both Arundel and Norfolk street had their names.

HOWARD’S _alley_, 1. Angel alley.† 2. Back street, Lambeth.† 3.
  Clerkenwell close.†

HOWARD’S CAUSEWAY _alley_, Narrow Wall.†

HOWFORD’S _court_, 1. Fenchurch street.† St. Nicholas lane, Lombard
  street.†

HOXTON, near Shoreditch. This was for many ages a village, and in the
  Conqueror’s Survey is named _Hocheston_: but by the increase of
  buildings it has been for some time past joined to this metropolis.

HOXTON _market_, Hoxton.

HOXTON _road_, Hoxton.

HOXTON _square_, Hoxton.

HOYLE’S _court_, Noble street, Foster lane.†

HUBBART’S _rents_, Houndsditch.†

HUBBART’S _yard_, Brown’s lane.†

HUCKER’S _court_, St. Nicholas lane.†

HUDSON’S BAY _Company_. Though the extensive countries to which this
  Company trade, were discovered by Sir Sebastian Cabot, in the year
  1497, yet this commerce does not seem to have been fully settled till
  after the year 1670, at which time King Charles II. by his letters
  patent incorporated the adventurers by the title of _The Governor and
  Company of the Adventurers of England trading into Hudson’s Bay_, and
  granted them and their successors for ever, all the streights, bays,
  seas, rivers, lakes, creeks, islands, shores, lands, territories and
  places whatsoever, within Hudson’s Streights and Hudson’s Bay.

  This Company carry on a considerable trade to the above places by a
  joint stock, and have settled several small factories, to which the
  natives repair with their rich furs, skins, and other commodities of
  the country, which they exchange for those of England.

  This corporation is under the direction of a Governor, Deputy
  Governor, and seven Assistants, who have a hall which stands backward
  in the south side of Fenchurch street. This is a very fine brick
  building, adorned with pilasters, architraves, &c. _Maitland._

HUDSON’S _court_, 1. Tower hill.† 2. Vine street, Little Chandos
  street.†

HUET’S _court_, in the Strand.†

HUET’S _rents_, Grub street, Fore street.†

HUGGEN _alley_, 1. Wood street, Cheapside. 2. Huggen lane.

HUGGEN _lane_, Thames street.

HUGH’S _court_, Water lane, Black Friars.†

HULBERT’S _Almshouse_, a very handsome building contiguous to St.
  Peter’s hospital at Newington Butts. See FISHMONGERS _Almshouse_.

HUMFREY’S _alley_, Shoreditch.†

HUNGERFORD _market_, near the west end of the Strand, and at a small
  distance from the Thames. In this place was anciently a large house,
  with a garden, the seat of Sir Edward Hungerford, which he converted
  into buildings. There is here a good market house, and over it a
  French church: but the market house turns to little account,
  notwithstanding its convenient situation for the gardeners to land
  their greens, &c. at the stairs.

HUNGERFORD _stairs_, Hungerford market.†

HUNGERFORD STAIRS _passage_, Hungerford market.†

HUNGERFORD _street_, in the Strand, leading to the market.†

_Common_ HUNT. See COMMON.

HUNT’S _court_, 1. Castle street, Leicester fields.† 2. Hunt’s street.†
  3. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.†

HUNT’S _rents_, Goswell street.†

HUNT’S _street_, Spicer’s street.†

HUNT’S _wharf_, near Thames street.†

HURST’S _gardens_, St. George’s fields.†

HUSBAND’S _street_, 1. Near Berwick street.† 2. By Knave’s acre.†

HUSSEY’S _alley_. Wood street.†

HUTCHINSON’S _wharf_, Milford lane.†

HYDON _square_, near the east end of the Minories.†

HYDON _square court_, Hydon square.†

HYDON _yard_, leading from the Minories to Hydon square.†


[Illustration]



                                  I J.


JACK ADAMS’S _alley_, Saffron hill.

JACK _alley_, Bow lane.

JACKANAPES _row_, Cheapside.

JACKSON’S _alley_, Bow street, Covent garden.†

JACKSON’S _Almshouse_, in College yard, Deadman’s Place, Southwark, was
  founded in the year 1685, by Mr. Henry Jackson, for two poor women,
  who have each an allowance of 1_s._ 8_d._ per week.

JACKSON’S _court_, 1. Black Friars.† 2. Gravel lane.† 3. White street.†

JACKSON’S _yard_, Gravel lane.†

JACK STRAW’S CASTLE _yard_, Saltpetre Bank.

JACOB’S _alley_, 1. Barnaby street.† 2. Goswell street.† 3. Turnmill
  street.†

JACOB’S _court_, 1. Cow Cross.† 2. Peter street, Turnmill street.†

JACOB’S _street_, Mill street, Rotherhith.†

JACOB’S WELL _alley_, 1. Nightingale lane.* 2. Thames street.*

JACOB’S WELL _yard_, Nightingale lane.*

JAMAICA _street_, Rotherhith.

_St._ JAMES’S _Clerkenwell_, situated on the north side of Clerkenwell
  Green, is a part of the church of the ancient priory; and is thus
  denominated from its dedication to St. James the Minor, Bishop of
  Jerusalem. This priory was founded so early as the year 1100, and the
  church belonging to it not only served the nuns but the neighbouring
  inhabitants. The priory was dissolved by King Henry VIII. in the year
  1539, and the church was immediately made parochial. See CLERKENWELL.

  The steeple of this edifice being greatly decayed by age, a part of it
  fell down in the year 1623, upon which the parish contracted with a
  person to rebuild it; but the builder being desirous of getting as
  much as possible by the job, raised the new work upon the old
  foundation, and carried it on with the utmost expedition; but before
  it was entirely finished, it fell down, and destroyed part of the
  church, which were both soon after rebuilt, as they are at present.

  This church is a very heavy structure, partly Gothic, which was the
  original form, and partly Tuscan. The body, though it has not the
  least appearance of elegance, is well enlightened, and the steeple
  consists of a low heavy tower crowned with a turret.

  The church is a curacy in the gift of the parishioners.

_St._ JAMES’S _Duke’s Place_, near Aldgate, is a very old church, it
  having escaped the great conflagration in 1666, that was destructive,
  to so many others, and still remains in its original form. The body is
  well enlightened, and the tower, which is composed of four stages, is
  terminated by a very singular kind of turret in the form of a canopy.

  This church is a curacy, the patronage of which being in the Lord
  Mayor and Commonalty of London, the parish claims a right of exemption
  from the Bishop of London’s jurisdiction, in matters ecclesiastical.
  The Incumbent receives about 60_l._ a year by tithes, and 13_l._ a
  year from the Chamber of London. _Maitland._

_St._ JAMES’S _Garlickhith_, is situated at the east end of Garlic Hill,
  and is thus denominated from its dedication to St. James one of the
  apostles, and its vicinity to a garlic market anciently held in this
  neighbourhood. This church being destroyed by the fire of London, the
  foundation of the present edifice was laid in the year 1676, and the
  church was finished in 1682. _Stow._

  This church, which, as well as both the former, is built of stone, is
  well enlightened, and is seventy-five feet in length, and forty-five
  in breadth; the roof is forty feet high, and the steeple ninety-eight
  feet. The tower is divided into three stages; in the lowest is a very
  elegant door, with coupled columns of the Corinthian order: in the
  second stage is a pretty large window, and over it the form of a
  circular one not opened: over this, in the third story, is another
  window larger than any of the former, and the cornice above this
  supports a range of open work in the place of battlements, or a
  balustrade. From hence rises the turret, which is composed of four
  stages, and decorated with columns, scrolls, and other ornaments. The
  parts are all regular, and even elegant, but the whole is too massy.
  _English Architecture._

  This church is a rectory, the patronage of which is in the Bishop of
  London. The Rector receives 100_l._ _per annum_, in lieu of tithes.

_St._ JAMES’S _Westminster_, by St. James’s square, is one of the
  churches that owes its rise to the increase of buildings and
  inhabitants; for the church of St. Martin’s in the Fields being too
  small for the inhabitants, and too remote from those in this quarter,
  the Earl of St. Alban’s, with other persons of distinction in that
  neighbourhood, erected this edifice at the expence of about 7000_l._
  It was built in the reign of King Charles II. and tho’ a large fabric,
  was considered as a chapel of ease to St. Martin’s; but being
  consecrated in 1684, it was dedicated to St. James, in compliment to
  the name of the Duke of York, and the next year, when that Prince had
  ascended the throne, the district for which it was built, was by act
  of parliament separated from St. Martin’s, and made a distinct parish.

  The walls are brick, supported by rustic quoins of stone; and the
  windows, which are large, are also cased with stone. The tower at the
  east end, rises regularly from the ground to a considerable height,
  and is crowned with a neat, well constructed spire.

  This church is a rectory, in the patronage of the Bishop of London.
  _Maitland._ _Stow._ _English Architecture._

JAMES _court_, 1. Berry street, Piccadilly. 2. James street,
  Featherstone street. 3. James street, Theobald’s row.

_St._ JAMES’S _Market_, by Market street, is a place of considerable
  extent, with a commodious market house in the middle, filled with
  butchers shops, &c. The stalls in the market place are for country
  butchers, higlers, &c.

[Illustration:

  _S^t. James’s Palace, view’d from Pall Mall._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._
]


[Illustration:

  _The Same from the Park._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Green sc. Oxon._
]


  _St._ JAMES’S _Palace_. On the place where this edifice stands, was
  once an hospital dedicated to St. James, originally founded by the
  citizens of London for only fourteen maids afflicted with the leprosy,
  who were to live a chaste and devout life; but afterwards new
  donations increased the extent of the charity, and eight brethren were
  added, to minister divine service. This hospital, which is mentioned
  in a manuscript of the Cotton library, so early as in the year 1100,
  was at length suppressed by King Henry VIII. who allowed the sisters
  pensions during the term of their lives, and taking down the edifice
  built a palace in its room, which retained the name of the hospital,
  and is still standing. In this edifice our Kings have resided ever
  since Whitehall was consumed by fire in 1697, and his Majesty usually
  resides here during the winter season: but though it is pleasantly
  situated on the north side of the Park, and has very convenient, and
  not inelegant apartments, it is an irregular brick building, without
  having one single beauty on the outside to recommend it, and is at
  once the contempt of foreign nations, and the disgrace of our own. In
  the front next St. James’s street, there appears little more than an
  old gatehouse; and on passing through the gate we enter a little
  square court, with a piazza on the west side of it leading to the
  grand stair case; the buildings are low, plain, and mean; and there
  are two other courts beyond, which have not much of the air of a
  palace. The windows however look into a pleasant garden, and command a
  view of St. James’s Park, which seem to be the only advantage this
  edifice enjoys, above many others devoted to charity. This palace
  claims a print, as it is the dwelling of a British Monarch, having
  otherwise not the least beauty to recommend it. The print shews both
  sides of it.

  In other kingdoms the attention of foreigners is first struck with the
  magnificent residence of the Sovereign, on which all the decorations
  of architecture are lavished without the least regard to expence. The
  outside is grand and noble; and the galleries and apartments are
  adorned with all the boasted pieces of art, the finest efforts of
  genius, and the most rare and precious productions of nature: for the
  magnificence of the palace is intended to give an idea of the power
  and riches of the kingdom: but if the power, wealth and strength of
  the King of England should be judged from this palace, how great would
  be the mistake! We are however in no want of a design for an edifice
  suitable to the dignity of the British Crown; the celebrated Inigo
  Jones drew a draught of such a structure; but the ideas of that
  architect were greater than the spirit of the public, and the expence
  of building it has hitherto prevented its being begun: but as a taste
  for elegance in building gains ground, and new schemes are continually
  laid for building magnificent bridges, streets and squares, it is to
  be hoped that the erecting of so necessary a structure will not be
  much longer neglected: especially if it be considered, that however
  great the expence may be, it will cost the nation nothing, for on
  these occasions, what is given by the people is paid to the people.

_St._ JAMES’S PARK, was in the reign of Henry VIII. a wild wet field;
  but that Prince, on his building St. James’s palace, inclosed it, laid
  it out in walks, and collecting the waters together, gave to the new
  inclosed ground, and new raised building, the name of St. James. It
  was afterwards much enlarged and improved by King Charles II. who
  added to it several fields, planted it with rows of lime trees, laid
  out the Mall, which is a vista half a mile in length, and formed the
  canal, which is an hundred feet broad, and two thousand eight hundred
  feet long, with a decoy, and other ponds for water fowl. Succeeding
  Kings allowed the people the privilege of walking in it, and King
  William III. in 1699 granted the neighbouring inhabitants a passage
  into it out of Spring Garden.

  It is certain that the Park enjoys a fine situation, and is laid out
  with a very agreeable air of negligence. It affords many pleasant
  walks, diversified by new scenes, varied by different rural prospects,
  and the view of distant structures on the west side.

_St._ JAMES’S _Place_, St. James’s street.

JAMES’S _rents_, Hermitage dock.†

JAMES’S _rope-walk_, 1. Red Maid lane.† 2. North of Bedford row.

_St._ JAMES’S _square_, is very large and beautiful; the area on the
  inside is encompassed with iron rails which form an octagon, and in
  the center is a fine circular bason of water. On the north side of the
  square is St. James’s church, in a very fine situation with respect to
  the prospect, and had it been an elegant structure, would have had a
  very noble effect. An ingenious author observes, that though this
  square appears extremely grand, yet this grandeur does not arise from
  the magnificence of the houses; but only from their regularity, the
  neatness of the pavement, and the beauty of the bason in the middle:
  and that if the houses were built more in taste, and the four sides
  exactly correspondent to each other, the effect would be much more
  surprising, and the pleasure arising from it more just.

_St._ JAMES’S _street_, Pall Mall.

JAMES _street_, 1. Brook’s street, New Bond street.† 2. Bunhill fields.†
  3. Covent garden.† 4. Golden square.† 5. Hare street.† 6. Hay market.†
  7. Hoxton.† 8. Long Acre.† 9, Near Theobald’s row.† 10. Petty France,
  Westminster.†

JANE _alley_, Blackman street.

JANE SHORE’S _alley_, Shoreditch. See SHOREDITCH.

JANE SHORE’S _yard_, Shoreditch.

JASPER _street_, Aldermanbury.†

IDLESTRY, a village in Hertfordshire, situated on the very edge of
  Middlesex, near Brockley hill, by Stanmore, which affords a delightful
  prospect across Middlesex over the Thames into Surry.

IDOL or IDLE _lane_, Tower street.

JEFFERIES’S _Almshouse_, a large and handsome building, situated in
  Kingsland road. It consists of a spacious front, with two wings, and a
  chapel in the center, which has a plain frontispiece, and is crowned
  with a well-proportioned turret. It was erected in the year 1713, by
  the Ironmongers company, pursuant to the will of Mr. Robert Jefferies,
  some time Lord Mayor of this city, for the reception of as many of his
  relations as should apply for this charity; and in case there were
  none of these, for fifty-six poor members of the company, who, besides
  a convenient room and part of a cellar, have each 6_l._ a year and a
  gown. _Maitland._

JEFFREY’S _buildings_, Westminster.†

JEFFREY’S _square_, St. Mary Ax.†

JENKIN’S _buildings_, Carey street.†

JENKIN’S _court_, Ropemakers fields.†

JERICHO _yard_, Jerusalem alley.

JERMAIN _court_, Jermain street.†

JERMAIN _street_, Near Piccadilly. This street and court were thus named
  from the Lord Jermine, nephew to the Earl of St. Alban’s.

JERUSALEM _alley_, Gracechurch street.

JERUSALEM _court_, 1. St. John’s street, West Smithfield. See _St._
  JOHN’S SQUARE. 2. Shad Thames, Horselydown.

JERUSALEM _passage_, Ailesbury street, St. John’s street.

JERUSALEM _row_, Church street, Hackney.

JESUITS _ground_, Savoy.

JEWEL OFFICE, in the Tower, a dark strong stone room, about twenty yards
  to the eastward of the grand storehouse or new armoury, in which the
  Crown jewels are deposited. It is not certain whether they were always
  kept here, though they have been deposited in the Tower from very
  ancient times, and we have sufficient proof of their being in that
  fortress so early as the reign of King Henry III.

  The jewels at this time shewn to all who chuse to give a shilling for
  seeing them, or eighteen pence for a company, are:

  I. The imperial crown, with which it is pretended that all the Kings
  of England have been crowned since Edward the Confessor, in 1042. It
  is of gold, enriched with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, saphires and
  pearls: the cap within is of purple velvet, lined with white taffety,
  turned up with three rows of ermine. They are however mistaken in
  shewing this as the ancient imperial diadem of St. Edward; for that,
  with the other most ancient regalia of this kingdom, was kept in the
  arched room in the cloisters in Westminster Abbey, till the grand
  rebellion; when in 1642, Harry Martin, by order of the parliament,
  broke open the iron chest in which it was secured, took it thence, and
  sold it, together with the robes, sword, and scepter of St. Edward.
  However after the restoration, King Charles II. had one made in
  imitation of it, which is that now shewn.

  II. The golden orb or globe put into the King’s right hand before he
  is crowned; and borne in his left with the scepter in his right, upon
  his return into Westminster Hall, after he is crowned. It is about six
  inches in diameter, edged with pearl, and enriched with precious
  stones. On the top is an amethyst, of a violet colour, near an inch
  and a half in height, set with a rich cross of gold, adorned with
  diamonds, pearls, and precious stones. The whole height of the ball
  and cup is eleven inches.

  III. The golden scepter, with its cross set upon a large amethyst of
  great value, garnished round with table diamonds. The handle of the
  scepter is plain; but the pummel is set round with rubies, emeralds,
  and small diamonds. The top rises into a _fleur de lis_ of six leaves,
  all enriched with precious stones, from whence issues a mound or ball
  made of the amethyst already mentioned. The cross is quite covered
  with precious stones.

  IV. The scepter with the dove, the emblem of peace, perched on the top
  of a small Jerusalem cross, finely ornamented with table diamonds and
  jewels of great value. This emblem was first used by Edward the
  Confessor, as appears by his seal; but the ancient scepter and dove
  was sold with the rest of the regalia, and this now in the Tower was
  made after the restoration.

  V. St. Edward’s staff, four feet seven inches and a half in length,
  and three inches three quarters in circumference, all of beaten gold,
  which is carried before the King at his coronation.

  VI. The rich crown of state worn by his Majesty in parliament; in
  which is a large emerald seven inches round; a pearl esteemed the
  finest in the world, and a ruby of inestimable value.

  VII. The crown belonging to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales.

  These two last crowns, when his Majesty goes in state to the
  parliament house, are carried by the keeper of the Jewel Office,
  attended by the warders, privately in a hackney coach to Whitehall,
  where they are delivered to the officers appointed to receive them,
  who with some yeomen of the guard carry them to the robing rooms
  adjoining to the house of Lords, where his Majesty and the Prince of
  Wales put on their robes. The King wears this crown on his head while
  he sits upon the throne; but that of the Prince of Wales is placed
  before him, to shew that he is not yet come to it. As soon as the King
  is disrobed, the two crowns are carried back to the Tower by the
  persons who brought them from thence, and again locked up in the jewel
  office.

  VIII. The late Queen Mary’s crown, globe and scepter, with the diadem
  she wore at her coronation with her consort King William III.

  IX. An ivory scepter with a dove on the top, made for the late King
  James the second’s Queen, whose garniture is gold, and the dove on the
  top gold, enamelled with white.

  X. The _curtana_, or sword of mercy, which has a blade thirty two
  inches long, and near two broad, is without a point, and is borne
  naked before the King at his coronation, between the two swords of
  justice, spiritual and temporal.

  XI. The golden spurs, and the armillas, which are bracelets for the
  wrists. These, tho’ very antique, are worn at the coronation.

  XII. The _ampulla_ or eagle of gold, finely engraved, which holds the
  holy oil the Kings and Queens of England are anointed with; and the
  golden spoon that the Bishop pours the oil into. These are two pieces
  of great antiquity. The golden eagle, including the pedestal, is about
  nine inches high, and the wings expand about seven inches. The whole
  weighs about ten ounces. The head of the eagle screws off about the
  middle of the neck, which is made hollow, for holding the holy oil;
  and when the King is anointed by the Bishop, the oil is poured into
  the spoon out of the bird’s bill.

  The following legend is told of this eagle. Thomas Becket being in
  disgrace at Sens in France, the holy Virgin appeared to him, and gave
  him a stone vessel of oil inclosed in a golden eagle, and bid him give
  it to William a monk, to carry to Pictavia, and there hide it under a
  great stone, in St. Gregory’s church, where it should be found for the
  use of pious and prosperous Kings: accordingly Henry III. when Duke of
  Lancaster, received it from a holy man in France; and Richard II.
  finding it among other jewels, endeavoured to be anointed with it; but
  was supplanted by Archibald Arundel, who afterwards anointed Henry IV.
  Such is the fabulous history of the _ampulla_.

  XIII. A rich salt-seller of state, in form like the square white
  tower, and so exquisitely wrought that the workmanship of modern times
  is in no degree equal to it. It is of gold, and used only on the
  King’s table at the coronation.

  XIV. A noble silver font, double gilt, and elegantly wrought, in which
  the royal family are christened.

  XV. A large silver fountain, presented to King Charles II. by the town
  of Plymouth, very curiously wrought; but much inferior in beauty to
  the above.

  Besides these, which are commonly shewn, there are in the jewel office
  all the crown jewels worn by the Prince and Princesses at coronations,
  and a vast variety of curious old plate.

  This office is governed by a Master, who has 450_l._ a year patent
  fees; two yeomen, who have 106_l._ 15_s._ _per annum_ each; a groom,
  who has 105_l._ 8_s._ 4_d._ a year, and a clerk.

JEWIN _street_, Aldersgate street.†

JEWS HARP _court_, Angel alley, Bishopsgate street.*

JEWS _row_, Chelsea.

JEYE’S _yard_, Three Colts street, Limehouse.†

INDEPENDENTS, a set of dissenters from the church of England, received
  their name from each congregation being entirely independent with
  respect to church government. They are Calvinists, and like the
  Baptists receive the sacrament in the afternoon; none are admitted to
  communion till after having given in a paper containing an account of
  their conversion, religious experiences, &c. Their places of worship
  within the bills of mortality, are, 1. Berry street, St. Mary Ax. 2.
  Boar’s Head yard, Petticoat lane. 3. Brick Hill lane, Thames street.
  4. Broad street, near Old Gravel lane. 5. Coachmakers hall, Noble
  street. _Antinomian._ 6. Collier’s rents, White street. 7. Court yard,
  Barnaby street, Southwark. 8. Crispin street, Spitalfields. 9.
  Deadman’s Place, Southwark. 10. Hare court, Aldersgate street. 11.
  Jewin street, Aldersgate street. 12. Lower street, Islington, two
  meeting houses. 13. Mare street, Hackney. 14. New Broad street,
  Moorfields. 15. New court, Carey street. 16. Old Artillery Ground,
  Spitalfields. 17. Orchard, Wapping. 18. Paved alley, Lime street. 19.
  Pavement row, Moorfields. 20. Pinner’s hall, Broad street, in the
  morning, the only Independent congregation that is not Calvinist. 21.
  Queen street, Ratcliff. 22. Queen street, Rotherhith. 23. Redcross
  street, Barbican. 24. Ropemakers alley, Little Moorfields. 25. St.
  Michael’s lane, Canon street. 26. St. Saviour’s Dockhead, Southwark.
  27. Staining lane, Maiden lane. 28. Stepney fields. 29. Turner’s hall,
  Philpot lane. 30. White Horn yard, Duke’s Place. 31. Zoar street,
  Southwark.

INGATSTONE or ENGERSTONE, a town in Essex, twenty-three miles from
  London, from which it is a great thoroughfare to Harwich, has many
  good inns, and a considerable market on Wednesdays, for live cattle
  brought from Suffolk.

  Here is the seat of the ancient family of the Petres; to whose
  ancestor Sir William, this manor was granted by Henry VIII. at the
  dissolution of Barking Abbey, to which it till then belonged. That
  gentleman founded eight fellowships at Oxford, called the Petrean
  fellowships, and erected and endowed an almshouse here for twenty poor
  people. He lies interred under a stately monument in the church, as do
  several others of that family.

INGRAM’S _court_, an open well-built place in Fenchurch street, thus
  named from Sir Thomas Ingram, who built this small square on the
  ground where his own house before stood.

INNER SCOTLAND _yard_, Whitehall.

INNER TEMPLE. See the article TEMPLE.

INNER TEMPLE _lane_, Fleet street.

INNHOLDERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Henry
  VIII. in the year 1515. They are governed by a Master, three Wardens,
  and twenty Assistants, and have a livery of an hundred and thirty-nine
  members, whose fine upon admission is 10_l._

  They have a handsome and convenient hall in Elbow lane.

INNS OF CHANCERY. The colleges of the professors and students of the
  municipal and common law, are stiled Inns, an old English word,
  formerly used for the houses of noblemen, bishops, and persons of
  distinguished rank, and the eight Inns of chancery were probably thus
  denominated from there dwelling in them such clerks, as chiefly
  studied the forming of writs, which regularly belonged to the
  cursitors, who are officers in chancery. These are Lincoln’s Inn, New
  Inn, Clement’s Inn, Clifford’s Inn, Staple’s Inn, Lion’s Inn,
  Furnival’s Inn, and Barnard’s Inn. These were formerly considered as
  preparatory colleges for younger students, many of whom were entered
  here, before they were admitted into the Inns of court; but now they
  are for the most part taken up by attorneys, sollicitors and clerks,
  who have separate chambers, and their diet at a very easy rate in an
  hall together, where they are obliged to appear in grave long robes,
  and black round knit caps. See the articles CLEMENT’S INN, CLIFFORD’S
  INN, LINCOLN’S INN, LION’S INN, &c.

INNS OF COURT, were so named, either from the students, who live in
  them, serving the courts of judicature; or, according to Fortescue,
  from these colleges anciently receiving none but the sons of noblemen,
  and gentlemen of high rank.

  The Inns of court, are only four, viz. the two Temples, Lincoln’s Inn,
  and Gray’s Inn. See the articles TEMPLE, LINCOLN’S INN, and GRAY’S
  INN.

  Though these societies are no corporation, and have no judicial power
  over their members, they have certain orders among themselves, which
  have by consent the force of laws: for small offences, they are only
  excommoned, or not allowed to eat at the common table with the rest;
  and for greater offences they lose their chambers, and are expelled
  the college, after which they are not to be received by any of the
  other three Inns of court.

  As these societies are not incorporated, they have no lands or
  revenues, nor any thing for defraying the charges of the house but
  what is paid at admittance, and other dues for their chambers. The
  whole company of gentlemen may be divided into four parts, benchers,
  utter-barristers, inner-barristers and students.

  The benchers are the seniors, who have the government of the whole
  house, and out of these are annually chosen a treasurer, who receives,
  disburses and accounts for all the money belonging to the house. See
  SERJEANTS INN.

  There are at present no mootings, or readings in any of the courts of
  Chancery. _Chamberlain’s Present State._

  It ought not to be omitted, that gentlemen may take chambers in the
  Inns of Court or Chancery, without laying themselves under an
  obligation to study the law.

  A description of the structures and gardens belonging to these Inns we
  have given under their respective heads: but it may not be improper
  here to add, that strangers are apt to be disgusted at the nastiness
  of the walls, and the dirt and filth observable on all the stairs and
  public passages leading to the Inns of Court and Chancery: where every
  thing seems neglected, and generally out of repair: but on stepping
  into the chambers, one is surprised to see so remarkable a contrast;
  to observe the utmost neatness reign there, and the most handsome and
  commodious rooms, furnished and adorned with great elegance.

  Dr. Blackstone in his discourse on the study of the law, gives us the
  following curious account of the changes and revolutions in this
  study, and of the origin of the several _Inns of Court and Chancery_.

  That ancient collection of unwritten maxims and customs, says he,
  which is called the common law, however compounded or from whatever
  fountains derived, had subsisted immemorially in this kingdom: and,
  though somewhat altered and impaired by the violence of the times, had
  in a great measure weathered the rude shock of the Norman conquest.
  This had endeared it to the people in general, as well because its
  decisions were universally known, as because it was found to be
  excellently adapted to the genius of the English nation. In the
  knowledge of this law consisted great part of the learning of those
  dark ages; it was then taught, says Mr. Selden, in the monasteries, in
  the universities, and in the families of the principal nobility. The
  clergy in particular, as they then engrossed almost every other branch
  of learning, so (like their predecessors the British Druids) they were
  peculiarly remarkable for their proficiency in the study of the law.

      ‘But the common law being not committed to writing, but only
      handed down by tradition, use, and experience, was not so
      heartily relished by the foreign clergy who came over hither
      in shoals during the reign of the Conqueror and his two sons,
      and were utter strangers to our constitution as well as our
      language. And an accident, which soon after happened, had
      nearly completed its ruin.’

  A copy of Justinian’s Pandects, being newly discovered at Amalfi,
  about A.D. 1130, soon brought the civil law into vogue all over the
  rest of Europe. It became in a particular manner the favourite of the
  Popish clergy; and Theobald, a Norman Abbot, being elected to the see
  of Canterbury, A.D. 1138, and extremely addicted to this new study,
  brought over with him in his retinue many learned proficients therein;
  and among the rest Roger surnamed Vacarius, whom he placed in the
  university of Oxford to teach it. The monkish clergy (devoted to the
  will of a foreign Primate) received it with eagerness and zeal; but
  the laity, who were more interested to preserve the old constitution,
  and had already severely felt the effect of many Norman innovations,
  continued wedded to the use of the common law.

  The clergy, finding it impossible to root out the municipal law,
  withdrew by degrees from the temporal courts; and in 1217, they passed
  a canon in a national synod, forbidding all ecclesiastics to appear as
  advocates _in foro sæculari_[1]; nor did they long continue to act as
  judges there, not caring to take the oath of office which was then
  found necessary to be administered, that they should in all things
  determine according to the law and custom of this realm; though they
  still kept possession of the high office of Chancellor, an office then
  of little juridical power; and afterwards as its business increased by
  degrees, they modelled the process of the court at their own
  discretion.

Footnote 1:

    Sir H. Spelman conjectures (Glossar 335.) that coifs were introduced
    to hide the tonsure of such renegade clerks, as were still tempted
    to remain in the secular courts in the quality of advocates or
    judges, notwithstanding their prohibition by canon.

  But wherever they retired, and wherever their authority extended, they
  carried with them the same zeal to introduce the rules of the civil,
  in exclusion of the municipal law. This appears in a particular manner
  from the spiritual courts of all denominations, from the Chancellor’s
  courts in both our universities, and from the high court of Chancery;
  in all of which the proceedings are to this day in a course much
  conformed to the civil law. And if it be considered, that our
  universities began about that period to receive their present form of
  scholastic discipline; that they were then, and continued to be till
  the time of the reformation, entirely under the influence of the
  Popish clergy; this will lead us to perceive the reason, why the study
  of the Roman laws was in those days of bigotry[2] pursued with such
  alacrity in these seats of learning.

  Since the reformation, the principal reason that has hindered the
  introduction of this branch of learning, is, that the study of the
  common law, being banished from hence in the times of Popery, has
  fallen into a quite different channel, and has hitherto been wholly
  cultivated in another place.

  As the common law was no longer taught, as formerly, in any part of
  the kingdom, it perhaps would have been gradually lost and over-run by
  the civil, had it not been for the peculiar incident which happened at
  a very critical time, of fixing the court of Common Pleas, the grand
  tribunal for disputes of property, to be held in one certain spot;
  that the seat of ordinary justice might be permanent and notorious to
  all the nation. Formerly that, in conjunction with all the other
  superior courts, was held before the King’s justiciary of England, in
  the _aula regis_, or such of his palaces wherein his royal person
  resided, and removed with his houshold from one end of the kingdom to
  the other. This was found to occasion great inconvenience to the
  suitors; to remedy which it was made an article of the great charter
  of liberties, both that of King John and King Henry the Third, that,
  “Common Pleas should no longer follow the King’s court, but be held in
  some certain place:” in consequence of which they have ever since been
  held (a few necessary removals in times of the plague excepted) in the
  palace of Westminster only. This brought together the professors of
  the municipal law, who before were dispersed about the kingdom, and
  formed them into an aggregate body; whereby a society was established
  of persons, who (as Spelman observes) addicted themselves wholly to
  the study of the laws of the land.

Footnote 2:

    There cannot be a stronger instance of the absurd and superstitious
    veneration that was paid to these laws, than that the most learned
    writers of the times thought they could not form a perfect
    character, even of the blessed Virgin, without making her a Civilian
    and a Canonist. Which Albertus Magnus, the renowned Dominican Doctor
    of the thirteenth century, thus proves in his _Summa de laudibus
    Christiferæ Virginis (divinum magis quam humanum opus) qu. 23. §.
    5_. “_Item quod jura civilia, & leges, & decreta scivit in summo,
    probatur hoc modo: sapientia advocati manifestatur in tribus; unum,
    quod obtineat omnia contra judicem justum & sapientem; secundo, quod
    contra adversarium astutum & sagacem; tertio, quod in causa
    desperata: sed beatissima Virgo, contra judicem sapientissimum,
    Dominum; contra adversarium callidissimum, dyabolum; in causa nostra
    desperata; sententiam optatam obtinuit._“

  They naturally fell into a kind of collegiate order; and, being
  excluded from Oxford and Cambridge, established a new university of
  their own, by purchasing certain houses (now called the Inns of Court
  and Chancery) between the city of Westminster, the place of holding
  the King’s courts, and the city of London; for advantage of ready
  access to the one, and plenty of provisions in the other.

  In this juridical university (for such it is insisted to have been by
  Fortescue and Sir Edward Coke) there are two sorts of collegiate
  houses; one called Inns of Chancery, in which the younger students of
  the law used to be placed, “learning and studying, says Fortescue, the
  originals, and as it were, the elements of the law; who, profiting
  therein, as they grow to ripeness so are they admitted into the
  greater Inns of the same study, called the Inns of Court.” And in
  these Inns of both kinds, he goes on to tell us, the knights and
  barons, with other grandees and noblemen of the realm, did use to
  place their children, though they did not desire to have them
  thoroughly learned in the law, or to get their living by its practice;
  and that in his time there were about two thousand students at these
  several Inns, all of whom he informs us were _filii nobilium_, or
  gentlemen born.

  But in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Edward Coke does not reckon
  above a thousand students, and the number at present is very
  considerably less: ‘Which seems principally owing to these reasons;
  first, because the Inns of Chancery being now almost totally filled by
  the inferior branch of the profession, they are neither commodious nor
  proper for the resort of gentlemen of any rank or figure; so that
  there are now very rarely any young students entered at the Inns of
  Chancery: secondly, because in the Inns of Court all sorts of regimen
  and academical superintendance, either with regard to morals or
  studies, are found impracticable, and therefore entirely neglected:
  lastly, because persons of birth and fortune, after having finished
  their usual courses at the universities, have seldom leisure or
  resolution sufficient to enter upon a new scheme of study at a new
  place of instruction. Wherefore few gentlemen now resort to the Inns
  of Court, but such for whom the knowledge of practice is absolutely
  necessary: such, I mean, as are intended for the profession.’

INOCULATION HOSPITAL for the smallpox, in the Lower street, Islington,
  beyond the church; in an old building situated backwards, out of the
  view of the street. This hospital is under the direction of the
  Small-pox hospital, in Cold Bath fields. See the article SMALL-POX
  HOSPITAL.

_Clerk of the_ INROLLMENTS OF FINES AND RECOVERIES, an officer under the
  three puisne judges of the court of Common Pleas. The inrollments here
  filed are by statute valid in law, and are of great use in preventing
  law-suits. This office is kept in the Inner Temple.

JOAN HARDING’S, near Oakey street, Thames street.

JOCKEY FIELD _row_, Near Gray’s Inn.

JOHN DEVER’S _yard_, Seething lane.†

JOHN’S _alley_, Budge row.

_St._ JOHN’S _alley_, St. Martin’s le Grand.

_St._ JOHN _the Baptist_, a church which stood on the west side of
  Dowgate; but being destroyed by the fire of London in 1666, and not
  since rebuilt, the parish is annexed to the church of St. Antholin.

_St._ JOHN _the Evangelist_, a church that was seated in Watling street,
  at the north east corner of Friday street; but being consumed by the
  fire of London, and not rebuilt, the parish is united to that of
  Allhallows Bread street.

_St._ JOHN _the Evangelist_, Southwark, like several other churches in
  the suburbs, owed its rise to the great increase of buildings and
  inhabitants, and is one of the fifty new churches ordered to be built
  by act of parliament. It was finished in 1732, and the district of
  Horselydown, being separated from St. Olave’s, was by act of
  parliament constituted its parish. The sum of 3500_l._ was also
  granted by parliament to be laid out in lands, tenements, &c. in fee
  simple, and as a farther provision, the church wardens are to pay him
  the additional sum of 60_l._ to be raised by fees arising from
  burials. _Maitland._

  The body of this church is enlightened by two ranges of windows, with
  a Venetian in the center; the tower which rises square has a
  balustrade on the top, and from thence rises the spire, which is very
  properly diminished and well wrought; but the architect having
  absurdly resolved to give it some resemblance to a column, has not
  only fluted it; but placed on the top an Ionic capital, which last
  gives the whole edifice an aukward whimsical appearance.

  This church, which is situated near the lower end of Fair street, is
  in the gift of the Crown, as well as that of St. Olave’s, from whence
  this parish was taken. _Stow._

_St._ JOHN’S _Wapping_, situated on the north side of the street near
  the Thames, was built in the year 1617, when the increase of houses in
  the parish of St. Mary Whitechapel, rendered such an edifice
  necessary. It was dedicated to St. John the Baptist, and as there were
  other churches under the patronage of the same saint, it was
  distinguished, from its situation, by the name of Wapping. Originally
  it was no more than a chapel of ease to St. Mary’s parish; but in
  1694, the hamlet of Wapping was constituted a distinct parish; the
  inhabitants were impowered to purchase 30_l._ _per annum_ in mortmain,
  and as a farther provision for the Rector, he was allowed to receive
  all ecclesiastical dues, except tithes, instead of which the Rector
  has 130_l._ a year raised upon the inhabitants by an equal pound rate.
  _Maitland._

  This church, which was built at the expence of 1600_l._ is a very mean
  building, it consisting of a plain body, a tower which scarcely
  deserves the name, and a spire that might be taken for a lengthened
  chimney. _English Architecture._

  The advowson of this church is in the principal and scholars of King’s
  hall and Brazen Nose college, Oxford.

_St._ JOHN’S _Westminster_. The parish of St. Margaret’s Westminster
  being greatly increased in the number of houses and inhabitants, it
  was judged necessary to erect one of the fifty new churches within it;
  this church being finished, was dedicated to St. John the Evangelist;
  a parish was taken out of St. Margaret’s, and the parliament granted
  the sum of 2500_l._ to be laid out in the purchase of lands,
  tenements, &c. for the maintenance of the Rector: but besides the
  profits arising from this purchase, it was also enacted that as a
  farther provision for the Rector, the sum of 125_l._ should be
  annually raised by an equal pound rate upon the inhabitants.
  _Maitland._

  This church was finished in the year 1728. The chief aim of the
  architect was to give an uncommon, yet elegant outline, and to shew
  the orders in their greatest dignity and perfection; and indeed the
  outline is so variously broken, that there results a diversity of
  light and shadow, which is very uncommon, and very elegant. The
  principal objections against the structure are, that it is so much
  decorated that it appears encumbered with ornament; and that the
  compass being too small for the design, it appears too heavy. In the
  front is an elegant portico supported by Doric columns, which order is
  continued in pilasters round the building. Above the portico are two
  towers crowned with well-proportioned turrets, and adorned with
  columns of the Corinthian order, which are supported on pedestals, and
  stand free, with corresponding columns behind. _English Architect._

  The advowson of this church is in the Dean and Chapter of Westminster:
  and to prevent this rectory being held in commendam, all licences and
  dispensations for holding it are by act of parliament declared null
  and void.

_St._ JOHN ZACHARY’S, a church that was situated at the north west
  corner of Maiden lane, Wood street; but being destroyed by the fire of
  London in 1666, and not rebuilt, the parish is annexed to that of St.
  Anne’s Aldersgate. _Maitland._

JOHN’S _court_, 1. Cable street. 2. Cats hole, Tower ditch. 3. East
  Smithfield. 4. Hannoway street. 5. John’s street. 6. Nightingale lane.

_St._ JOHN’S _court_, 1. Addle hill. 2. Cow lane. 3. Great Hart street.
  4. Little Hart street, by Covent garden. 5. St. John’s square. 6.
  Somerset street, Whitechapel. 7. Stepney.

_St._ JOHN’S _gate_, St. John’s lane; the south gate of the hospital of
  St. John of Jerusalem.

JOHN’S _hill_, Ratcliff highway.

_St._ JOHN’S _lane_, vulgarly called St. Joans’s lane, from Hicks’s hall
  to St. John’s gate.

_St._ JOHN’S _passage_, St. John’s street, West Smithfield.

_St._ JOHN’S _square_, Clerkenwell. Where the present square is situated
  anciently stood the house of St. John of Jerusalem, founded by Jordan
  Briset, who for that purpose purchased of the nuns of Clerkenwell ten
  acres of land, for which he gave twenty acres in his lordship of
  Willinghale in Kent, and erected that hospital on this spot about the
  year 1110: but the church belonging to it was not dedicated to St.
  John the Baptist till 1185. By the profuse liberality of bigots and
  enthusiasts, these Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem soon
  attained to that degree of riches and honour, that they not only built
  a magnificent structure in this spot, that became the chief seat in
  England of those of their order, but their Prior was esteemed the
  first Baron in the kingdom, and in state and grandeur vied with the
  King. The populace however had an extreme antipathy to these imperious
  Knights; and in 1381, the rebels under Jack Straw and Wat Tyler
  consumed this stately edifice by fire. However it was rebuilt in a
  still more magnificent manner, and thus continued till the year 1541,
  when it was suppressed by Henry VIII.

  This spacious and stately edifice was soon after converted into a
  repository for martial stores, and of the royal hunting equipage; and
  to this use it was applied till the year 1550; when Edward Seymour
  Duke of Somerset, and protector of the kingdom, caused the church,
  with its lofty and beautiful steeple, to be demolished, and the stones
  employed in building his magnificent palace of Somerset House in the
  Strand. _Camden’s Britannia._

  This square, which is an oblong, chiefly consists of two rows of good
  houses, at the east end of which is a chapel of ease to the
  neighbouring church of St. James Clerkenwell. It is entered by two
  gates, which bear evident marks of great antiquity; the largest and
  most remarkable of which is that to the south, called St. John’s Gate.

_St._ JOHN’S _street_, 1. Brick lane, Spitalfields. 2. Long ditch. 3.
  West Smithfield, near St. John’s square.

JOHN’S _street_, 1. David’s street. 2. Gainsford street. 3. Golden
  square. 4. By Mount street, Westminster. 5. Ratcliff highway. 6.
  Windmill street.

JOHNSON’S _court_, 1. Charing Cross.† 2. Fleet street.†

JOHNSON’S _street_, Old Gravel lane.†

JOHNSON’S _yard_, Three needle alley, Moorfields.

JOINERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by Queen
  Elizabeth in the year 1565. They are governed by a Master, two
  Wardens, and twenty-four Assistants, with a livery of 323 members, who
  upon their admission pay a fine of 8_l._

  They have a convenient hall in Friars lane, Thames street, remarkable
  for a curious screen finely carved at the entrance into it. The great
  parlour is wainscotted with cedar. _Maitland._

JOINERS _court_, 1. Houndsditch. 2. Jacob street, Mill street.

JOINERS HALL _alley_, Thames street.

JOINERS _street_, Tooley street.

JOLLY _court_, Durham yard, in the Strand.†

JONES’ _court_, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.†

JONES’ _yard_, 1. Stony lane, Petticoat lane. 2. Little Swan alley.

INIGO JONES, the celebrated architect, several of whose best designs are
  described in different parts of this work, has therefore a just claim
  to our regard in this place. And we are obliged to the ingenious
  authors of the _Biographia Britannica_ for the following particulars
  relating to his life and works in general. He was born about the year
  1572, in the neighbourhood of St. Paul’s in London, of which city his
  father, Mr. Ignatius Jones, was a citizen and clothworker. Nothing
  certain being delivered concerning his education, some very different
  conjectures have been advanced upon that subject, some having
  suggested that his education was liberal, and others that he was bound
  apprentice to a joiner, of which latter opinion was Sir Christopher
  Wren. But in whatever way he was bred, his natural inclination leading
  him to the study of the arts of drawing and designing, he
  distinguished himself early by the extraordinary progress he made in
  those polite and useful arts, and was particularly taken notice of for
  his skill in the practice of landscape painting. These admirable
  talents introduced him to the knowledge of William Earl of Pembroke,
  who was a great patron of all liberal sciences. His Lordship admiring
  Mr. Jones’s genius, took him into his patronage, and sent him abroad
  with a handsome allowance, in order to perfect himself, by viewing and
  studying the works of the best masters ancient and modern, in Italy
  and the politer parts of Europe. Thus supported, he spent many years
  in compleating his education; to which end, chusing the city of Venice
  for the chief place of his residence, he suffered nothing of real
  value or merit any where to escape his industry; and the improvements
  he made thereby gave such an eclat to his reputation all over Europe,
  that Christian IV. King of Denmark sent for him thence, and appointed
  him his Architect-general. He had enjoyed this post some years, when
  that Prince, whose sister Anne had married King James I. made a visit
  to England in 1606. Mr. Jones took this opportunity of returning home;
  and expressing a desire to continue in his native country, the Queen
  appointed him her architect; and being not long after taken in the
  same character into the service of Prince Henry, he discharged his
  trust with so much fidelity, that the King gave him the reversion of
  the place of Surveyor-general of his works. After the death of Prince
  Henry in 1612, our architect made a second tour to Italy, and
  continued some years there, improving himself still further in his
  favourite art, till the Surveyor’s place fell to him. He then returned
  to England to enrich his country with the fruits of his studies. Soon
  after his arrival, the office of works being found several thousand
  pounds in debt, he voluntarily gave up his own dues, and prevailed
  with the Comptroller and Paymaster to do the like, whereby the whole
  arrears were absolutely cleared. In 1620, by the King’s command, he
  took an accurate survey of the surprizing group of stones upon
  Salisbury-Plain, commonly called Stone-henge, and drew up an account
  with his opinion of that famous monument of antiquity, which he
  presented to his royal master, and it was printed. In this account,
  after much reasoning and a long series of authorities, he concludes at
  last that this ancient and stupendous pile must have been originally a
  Roman temple, inscribed to _Cœlus_ the senior of the heathen gods, and
  built after the Tuscan order, and that it was erected when the Romans
  flourished here in peace and prosperity in Britain, and probably
  betwixt the time of Agricola’s government and the reign of Constantine
  the Great, about 1650 years ago.

  On the 16th of November the same year, Mr. Jones was appointed, among
  others, a Commissioner for repairing the cathedral of St. Paul’s in
  London. Upon the demise of King James, he was continued in his posts
  by King Charles I. whose consort also entertained him in the like
  station. And he soon after formed that most stately and elegant
  pavilion, the Banquetting-house at Whitehall, which was at first
  designed for the reception of foreign Ambassadors. The ceiling was
  painted some years after with the Felicities of King James’s reign, by
  Sir Peter Paul Rubens, and prints from these by Simon Gribelin were
  published in 1724. The late Lord Burlington about the year 1740
  published _a north west view of the palace designed for Whitehall, by
  Inigo Jones_, which is what is called a bird’s eye prospect, or as it
  is seen by a bird in flying over it, by which artifice all the parts
  are brought distinctly into view; and in this view the pavilion or
  banquetting-house appears in its proper place as part of that palace.
  Several other designs of Mr. Jones’s were executed in this reign, such
  as Surgeon’s hall, the Queen’s chapel at St. James’s palace, and her
  Majesty’s new building fronting the gardens at Somerset House in the
  Strand; the church and piazza of Covent Garden; the first of which is
  universally allowed to be a master-piece of the Tuscan order, the
  portico at the west end, majestic in its plainness, and the roof so
  happily contrived, by extending itself beyond the wall, as both to
  cast a shade, which adds to the solemnity of the sacred edifice, and
  at the same time serves to strengthen the wall, by resting thereon its
  center of gravity. In the last performance he had in view the piazza
  of Leghorn, but has vastly surpassed the original in the beauty and
  largeness of his pillars. Our architect also laid out the ground plot
  of Lincoln’s Inn fields, and designed the Duke of Ancaster’s house,
  which stands on the west side of that noble square, and which is no
  inconsiderable instance of the _softness_ and _sweetness_ of his
  touches. The royal chapel at Denmark House, the King’s house at
  Newmarket, and the Queen’s buildings at Greenwich, were also of his
  design. But it does not come within our plan to describe the number or
  form a judgment upon the excellence of all his buildings, though views
  and descriptions of the principal of them we have given, which may be
  seen under their several names, to which we refer.

  In 1633 Mr. Jones began the reparation of St. Paul’s cathedral, the
  first stone was laid by Dr. Laud then Bishop of London, and the fourth
  by Mr. Jones; and, in carrying them on, he added a magnificent portico
  at the west end, which excited the envy of all Christendom on his
  country, for a piece of architecture not to be parallelled in modern
  times. While he was raising these noble monuments of his extraordinary
  genius as an architect, he employed his leisure hours in designing
  decorations for dramatic entertainments; and there appeared a fine
  intermixture of fancy and judgment in his pompous machinery of masques
  and interludes, which were the vogue in his time. Several of these
  representations are still extant in the works of Chapman, D’Avenant,
  Daniel, and particularly Ben Johnson. The subject was chosen by the
  Poet, and the speeches and songs were also of his composing; but the
  invention of the scenes, ornaments, and dresses of the figures, were
  the contrivance of Mr. Jones. By these means he acquired a handsome
  fortune. But his loyalty, the effect both of his integrity and
  gratitude, exposed him to considerable losses; and he bore a part in
  the ruins of his royal master. Upon the opening of the Long Parliament
  in November 1640, he was called before the house of Lords, upon a
  complaint of the parishioners of St. Gregory’s in London against him,
  for damages done to that church; and afterwards, during the
  usurpation, he was constrained to pay 400_l._ by way of composition
  for his estate, as a malignant. After the death of King Charles I. he
  was continued in his post by King Charles II. But grief, in one of his
  years, for the fatal calamity of the former, prevented him from doing
  the latter any actual service, by cutting him off many years before
  the restoration. He died most probably about Midsummer 1652, and was
  interred June 26, in the chancel of St. Benet’s church, near St.
  Paul’s Wharf, London, where there was a monument erected to his memory
  upon the north wall, at some distance from his grave; but it suffered
  greatly in the fire of London, Sept. 1666. His age was about
  seventy-nine years. Mr. Jones left several manuscripts, which have
  been published since his death. With respect to his character, we are
  told by Mr. Webb, that his abilities in all human sciences surpassed
  most of his age. However that be, ’tis certain he was perfectly well
  skilled in the mathematics, and had some insight into the two learned
  languages, Greek and Latin, especially the latter, and he had a taste
  for poetry. However, these accomplishments were no more than the
  decorations and counterpart of his proper character, which was,
  indeed, that of an architect, the most eminent in his time.
  Accordingly he was then, and is still, generally stiled the _British
  Vitruvius_; and it is observable that the art of design, little known
  in England before, was brought into use and esteem by him, under the
  patronage of King Charles I. and Thomas Earl of Arundel. In short, Mr.
  Jones was generally learned, eminent for architecture, a great
  geometrician, and, in designing with his pen (as Sir Anthony Vandyke
  used to say) not to be equalled by whatever great master in his time,
  for the _boldness_, _softness_, _sweetness_, and _sureness_ of his
  touches.

IRELAND _yard_, Black Friars.

IRISH _court_, Whitechapel.

IRISH SOCIETY, meeting in the Irish chamber in Guildhall. In order to
  convey a clear idea of this society, it is necessary to trace it from
  its origin. It must therefore be observed, that in the reign of Queen
  Elizabeth, the province of Ulster, in the north of Ireland, had been
  greatly depopulated by the suppression of several insurrections in
  that part of the kingdom; and in particular, the city of Derry and
  town of Colerain were quite ruined.

  To prevent such insurrections for the future, it was thought proper to
  repeople that part of the country with protestant families; and soon
  after the accession of King James I. to the throne of England, that
  Prince, considering this as an affair worthy of his attention,
  signified his pleasure to some of the Aldermen and Commoners, by means
  of several of his Privy Council, upon which a court of Common Council
  was called, and a deputation sent over to view the place of the
  intended plantation. These deputies being returned, it was agreed in
  December 1609, that 15,000_l._ should be expended on the plantation,
  and 5000_l._ in the purchase of private interests.

  Soon after articles of agreement were entered into between the Lords
  of the Privy Council, and a committee chosen by the Lord Mayor and
  Commonalty of the city, and it was agreed for the better managing of
  the plantation, there should be a company constituted in London, to
  consist of a Governor, Deputy Governor, and twenty-four Assistants, to
  direct what ought to be done on the part of the city, relating to the
  plantation; and in pursuance of this agreement, the King, by his
  letters patent, changed the name of Derry to that of Londonderry, and
  incorporated the committee nominated by the city, by the name of _The
  society of the Governor and Assistants in London of the new plantation
  in Ulster within the realm of Ireland_, directing that it should
  consist of a Governor, Deputy Governor, and twenty-four Assistants;
  whereof the Governor and five of the Assistants were to be Aldermen,
  the Recorder for the time being to be an Assistant, and the Deputy
  Governor, with the rest of the Assistants, to be Commoners. By this
  charter, the King also granted to the society and their successors,
  the city, fort and town of Londonderry, the whole island of Derry, and
  all the castles, towns, villages and lands in the county of
  Londonderry, particularly mentioned in the charter.

  The society now immediately set about rebuilding Londonderry and
  Colerain, and improving and planting the other parts of the county.
  And, in order to reimburse the twelve principal companies, and other
  inferior companies that had contributed to the expence of the
  plantation, the society divided the whole county of Londonderry into
  thirteen parts; the first consisting of the city of Londonderry and
  town of Colerain, with some of the adjoining lands, and the fisheries,
  was retained by the society in their own possession, to defray the
  charge of the general work of the plantation, and the surplus was from
  time to time divided among the twelve companies by the society.

  The rest of the county being divided into twelve parts, as equal in
  value as possible, the twelve companies drew lots for them, and each
  company had the part which fell to its share. The society then erected
  each lot into a manor, and obtained a charter of the Crown to convey
  to each of the companies the lands fallen to it, to hold the same in
  perpetuity.

  King Charles I. however ordered his Attorney General to prosecute the
  society in the Star-chamber, under the pretence that the charter had
  been surreptitiously obtained; upon which it was cancelled by a decree
  of that court, and the lands seized into the King’s hands: but the
  society were reinstated in their possessions by Oliver Cromwell, who
  granted the city a new charter; and Charles II. incorporated the
  society anew, and the companies have enjoyed their possessions ever
  since.

  The Governor and Deputy Governor of the society are by this, as well
  as the former charters, chosen annually. Twelve of the Assistants go
  off every year, and twelve new members are chosen in their stead by
  the Common Council, out of each of the twelve principal companies of
  the city; who by the appointment of the Governor or Deputy Governor
  meet as often as required in the Irish chamber at Guildhall, where
  nine of them, the Governor or Deputy Governor being one, make a court.

  They have a Secretary and a messenger of their own appointment to
  attend them. They have also a Treasurer, who is chosen annually, and
  gives security to account with the society for what money he receives.
  All by-laws made by the corporation of Londonderry must be confirmed
  by the society, before they can be of force. The society has the right
  of presentation to the churches of Londonderry and Colerain: they
  likewise appoint a general agent in Ireland to correspond with them,
  and transact their affairs in that kingdom; and also a receiver to
  receive their rents. _Maitland._ In short, the citizens of London have
  the privilege of being free of the city of Londonderry.

IRON GATE, Tower wharf.

IRON GATE _stairs_, Iron Gate, Tower wharf.

IRONMONGER _lane_, Cheapside; so called from its being once chiefly
  inhabited by those of that trade. _Stow._

IRONMONGER _row_, Old street; so called from the school belonging to
  that company.

IRONMONGER ROW SCHOOL, was founded in the year 1727, by Mr. John Fuller,
  for the education of twenty boys and upwards, for the support of which
  he bequeathed the sum of 1600_l._ to be laid out in a purchase.
  _Maitland._

IRONMONGERS, one of the twelve principal companies, was incorporated by
  letters patent granted by King Edward IV. in the year 1464. This
  corporation is governed by a Master, two Wardens, and the whole
  livery, which consists of eighty-four, who are assistants, and whose
  fine upon admission is 15_l._

  This company has a very great estate, out of which is annually paid,
  according to the direction of the several donors, about 1800_l._
  Besides these charities, Mr. Thomas Betton, a Turkey merchant, left
  this company, in trust, in the year 1724, about 26,000_l._ one moiety
  of the profits thereof to be perpetually employed in the redemption of
  British captives from Moorish slavery; and the other half to be
  equally distributed between the poor of the company, and the several
  charity schools within the bills of mortality. _Maitland._

IRONMONGERS _Almshouse_, in Kingsland road. See JEFFERIES’S _Almshouse_.

IRONMONGERS HALL, a very noble modern building in Fenchurch street. This
  edifice is entirely fronted with stone, and was erected in the year
  1748. The whole lower story is wrought in rustic; the center part of
  the building projects a little, and in this are a large arched
  entrance, and two windows, with two others on each side. Over this
  rustic story rises the superstructure, which has a light rustic at the
  corners, to keep up a correspondence with the rest of the building;
  the part which projects is here ornamented with four Ionic pilasters
  coupled, but with a large inter-columniation. In the middle is a very
  noble Venetian window, and over it, a circular one. In each space
  between the pilasters, is a smaller window, with an angular pediment;
  and over these are also circular ones; but the side parts have arched
  windows with square ones over them. The central part is crowned with a
  pediment supported by these pilasters, and in its plain is the arms of
  the company with handsome decorations in relievo. The rest of the
  building is terminated by a balustrade crowned with vases.

ISAAC’S _rents_, Shoe lane.

ISLAND HEAD _lane_, Wapping.

ISLE OF DOGS, a part of Poplar marsh. When our Sovereigns had a palace
  at Greenwich, they used it as a hunting seat, and it is said, kept the
  kennels for their hounds in this marsh, which lies on the other side
  of the river; these hounds frequently making a great noise, the seamen
  and others called the place the Isle of Dogs, though it is so far from
  being an island, that it can scarcely be called a peninsula. _Stow._

ISLEWORTH or THISTLEWORTH, a village in Middlesex, pleasantly situated
  on the Thames opposite to Richmond. Here are two charity schools, and
  in its neighbourhood are the seats of several persons of distinction.

ISLINGTON, a large village in Middlesex, on the north side of London, to
  which it is almost contiguous. It appears to have been built by the
  Saxons, and in the time of William the Conqueror was called Isendon or
  Isledon. By the south west side of this village, is a fine reservoir
  called New River Head, which consists of a large bason, into which the
  New River discharges itself; part of the water is from thence conveyed
  by pipes to London, while another part is thrown by an engine through
  other pipes up hill to a reservoir, which lies much higher, in order
  to supply the highest parts of London.

  The church is one of the prebends of St. Paul’s; the old Gothic
  structure lately taken down was erected in the year 1503, and stood
  till 1751, when it being in a ruinous condition, the inhabitants
  applied to parliament for leave to rebuild it, and soon after erected
  the present structure, which is a very substantial brick edifice,
  though it does not want an air of lightness. The body is well
  enlightened, and the angles strengthened and decorated with a plain
  rustic. The floor is raised considerably above the level of the church
  yard, and the door in the front is adorned with a portico, which
  consists of a dome supported by four Doric columns; but both the door
  and the portico appear too small for the rest of the building. The
  steeple consists of a tower, which rises square to a considerable
  height, terminated by a cornice supporting four vases, at the corners.
  Upon this part is placed an octangular balustrade, from within which
  rises the base of the dome in the same form, supporting Corinthian
  columns with their shafts wrought with rustic. Upon these rests the
  dome, and from its crown rises the spire, which is terminated by a
  ball and its fane. Though the body of the church is very large, the
  roof is supported without pillars, and the inside is extremely
  commodious, and adorned with an elegant plainness.

  This parish is very extensive, and includes Upper and Lower Holloway,
  three sides of Newington Green, and part of Kingsland. There are in
  Islington two Independent meeting houses, and a charity school founded
  in the year 1613, by Dame Alice Owen, for educating thirty children:
  this foundation, together with that of a row of almshouses, are under
  the care of the Brewers company. There is here also a spring of
  chalybeat water in a very pleasant garden, which for some years was
  honoured by the constant attendance of the late Princess Amelia and
  many persons of quality, who drank the waters: to this place, which is
  called New Tunbridge Wells, many people resort, particularly during
  the summer, the price of drinking the waters being 3_d._ for each
  person. Near this place is a house of entertainment called Sadler’s
  Wells, where during the summer season people are amused with balance
  masters, walking on the wire, rope dancing, tumbling, and pantomime
  entertainments.

ISLINGTON _road_, 1. Goswell street. 2. St. John’s street, West
  Smithfield.

JULIAN _court_, Angel alley.

_Clerk of the_ JURIES OFFICE, in Hind court, Fleet street. The Clerk of
  the juries is an officer of the court of Common Pleas, who makes out
  writs called _Habeas Corpora_, and _Distringas Juratorum_, for
  appearance of the jury, either in that court, or at the assizes in the
  country. This office is executed by a deputy. _Chamb. Pres. State._

JUSTICE HALL, on the north east side of the Old Bailey, stands backwards
  in a yard to which there is an entrance through a gateway. Had the
  building therefore been a fine one, it could not have been viewed to
  advantage; but it is a plain brick edifice, that has nothing to
  recommend it. A flight of plain steps lead up into the court room,
  which has a gallery at each end for the accommodation of spectators.
  The prisoners are brought to this court from Newgate, by a passage
  backwards which leads to that prison, and there are two places where
  they are kept till called to their trials, the one for the men and the
  other for the women. There are also rooms for the grand and petty jury
  and other accommodations.

  An author, whose opinion we have given on other subjects, condemns
  this, and all the other courts of justice in England, as wanting that
  grandeur and augustness which might strike offenders and mankind in
  general with an awe for the place; and he recommends the form of a
  theatre as most proper, the stage for the bench, the pit for the
  council, prisoners, &c. and the circle round for the spectators.
  Whether this writer’s idea of the form of a court of judicature is
  just and well founded, we shall not determine.

  It seems however to be wished, that these public edifices had more of
  the appearance of grandeur and magnificence, especially in the
  metropolis of the kingdom.

  This court is held eight times a year by the King’s commission of oyer
  and terminer, for the tryal of criminals for crimes committed within
  the city of London and county of Middlesex. The Judges are, the Lord
  Mayor, the Aldermen past the chair, and the Recorder, who, on all such
  occasions, are attended by both the Sheriffs, and by one or more of
  the national Judges. The offences in the city are tried by a jury of
  citizens, and those committed in the county by one formed of the
  housekeepers in the county. The crimes tried in this court are high
  and petty treason, murder, felony, forgery, petty larceny, burglary,
  cheating, libelling, the using of false weights and measures, &c. the
  penalties incurred by which are the loss of life, corporal punishment,
  transportation, amerciaments, &c. _Stow_, _Maitland_.

IVY _Bridge_, In the Strand.

IVY BRIDGE _lane_, In the Strand.

IVY BRIDGE _stairs_, Near the Strand.

IVY _lane_, runs from Pater Noster Row into Newgate street. This lane
  took its name from the Ivy which grew on the walls of the prebends
  houses, formerly situated here. _Stow._

IVY _street_, Dyot street, St. Giles’s.


[Illustration]



                                   K.


_St._ KATHARINE’S. See St. CATHARINE’S.

KEAT _street_, Dean and Flown street, Spitalfields.†

KEBB’S _yard_, In the Minories.†

KEMP’S _court_, Berwick street.†

KEMPTON _court_, Vine street.†

KENNINGTON, a village near Lambeth, in Surry, and one of the eight
  precincts of that parish. It has the honour of giving the title of
  Earl to the Duke of Cumberland.

KENNINGTON COMMON, a small spot of ground, on the side of the road to
  Camberwell, and about a mile and a half from London. Upon this spot is
  the gallows for the county of Surry.

KENNINGTON _lane_, Newington Butts.

[Illustration:

  _Kensington Palace_
  _S. Wale delin._ _B. Green sculp._
]

KENSINGTON, a large and populous village in Middlesex, about two miles
  from Hyde Park Corner, part of which, from the palace gate to the
  Bell, is in the parish of St. Margaret’s, Westminster. The palace,
  which was the seat of the Lord Chancellor Finch, afterwards Earl of
  Nottingham, was purchased by King William, who greatly improved it,
  and caused a royal road to be made to it, through St. James’s and Hyde
  Parks, with lamp posts erected at equal distances on each side. Queen
  Mary enlarged the gardens; her sister Queen Anne improved what Mary
  had begun, and was so pleased with the place, that she frequently
  supped during the summer in the Green house, which is a very beautiful
  one: but her late excellent Majesty Queen Caroline completed the
  design, by extending the gardens from the great road in Kennington to
  Acton; by bringing what is called the Serpentine river into them, and
  by taking in some aires out of Hyde Park, on which she caused a mount
  to be raised, with a chair upon it, that could be easily turned round,
  so as to afford shelter from the wind. This mount is surrounded with a
  grove of ever-greens, and commands a fine view over the gardens to the
  south and west. In short these gardens, which are three miles and a
  half in compass, are kept in great order, and in summer-time, when the
  court is not there, are resorted to by great numbers of people. The
  palace indeed has none of that grandeur, which ought to appear in the
  residence of a British Monarch; its nearness to the town makes it very
  convenient, but it is very irregular in point of architecture. However
  the royal apartments are grand, and some of the pictures are good.

  On passing the base court, you enter through a large portico into a
  stone gallery, that leads to the great stair case, which is a very
  fine one, and consists of several flights of black marble steps,
  adorned with iron balusters finely wrought. The painting here affords
  the view of several balconies with groups of figures representing
  yeomen of the guard, and spectators, among whom are drawn Mr. Ulrick,
  commonly called the young Turk, in the Polonese dress in which he
  waited on his late Majesty King George I. Peter, the wild youth, &c.
  The stair case is richly decorated and painted by Mr. Kent.

  The first room is hung with very fine tapestry, representing the
  goddess Diana, hunting and killing the wild boar. Over the chimney is
  a picture in a grand taste, representing one of the Graces in the
  character of Painting, receiving instructions from Cupid. This piece
  is said to be done by Guido Reni. In one corner of the room is a
  marble statue of Venus, with an apple in her hand; and in another is
  the statue of Bacchus, whose head is finely executed; but the body,
  which is inferior to it, seems to be done by another hand.

  The second room has its ceiling painted with Minerva, surrounded by
  the arts and sciences, by Mr. Kent. Over the chimney is a very fine
  piece representing Cupid admiring Psyche, while she is asleep, by
  Vandyck. On each side of the room are hung several pictures, as King
  Henry VIII. and the Comptroller of his houshold, by Holbein: a three
  quarter picture of King Charles I. and another of his Queen, by
  Vandyck: the Duke and Duchess of York, by Sir Peter Lely: as also King
  William and Queen Mary, when Prince and Princess of Orange, over the
  doors, by the same hand.

  The third room, which was the late Queen’s apartment, is adorned with
  very beautiful tapestry, representing a Dutch winter piece, and the
  various diversions peculiar to the natives of Holland, done by Mr.
  Vanderbank. Over the chimney is an admirable picture of King Charles
  II. King James II. and their sister the Princess of Orange, when
  children, by Vandyck.

  In the fourth room is the picture of a battle or skirmish between the
  Germans and Italians, by Holbein. Another of Danae descending in a
  shower of gold, and another of the widow Eliot finely executed by our
  countryman Riley.

  In the fifth room is a picture of the crucifixion, and another of our
  Saviour laid on the cross, both by Titian: of our Saviour calling St.
  Matthew from the receipt of customs, by Annibal Caracci; and of his
  healing the sick in the temple, by Verrio: a picture of Henry IV. of
  France, by Titian: two heads of Queen Mary I. and Queen Elizabeth,
  when children, by Holbein: the late Queen Anne, when an infant, by Sir
  Peter Lely: and several heads by Raphael.

  In the sixth room, or rather gallery, are the pictures of King Henry
  VIII. and Queen Katharine of Arragon, both by Holbein: King Philip of
  Spain, and Queen Mary, by the same hand: King James I. by Vandyck:
  King Charles II. the face by Sir Peter Lely: Queen Elizabeth in a
  Chinese dress, drawn when she was a prisoner at Woodstock: King James
  II. when Duke of York, and another of his Queen, both by Sir Peter
  Lely: King William and Queen Mary in their coronation robes, by Sir
  Godfrey Kneller. Sir Godfrey was knighted on his painting these
  pictures; King William being doubtless pleased with so fine a picture
  of his Queen. The next is Queen Anne, after Sir Godfrey Kneller; and a
  picture of Queen Caroline, which is but poorly executed. In this room
  is a curious amber cabinet, in a glass case; and at the upper end a
  beautiful orrery, likewise in a glass case.

  The seventh, which is called the Cupola room, has a star in the
  center, and the ceiling all around is adorned with paintings in
  mosaic: round the room are placed at proper distances, eight bustos of
  ancient poets, and six statues of the heathen gods and goddesses at
  full length, gilt. Over the chimney piece is a curious bas-relief in
  marble, representing a Roman marriage, with a busto of Cleopatra, by
  Mr. Rysbrack.

  In the King’s great drawing room, over the chimney, is a very fine
  picture of St. Francis adoring the infant Jesus, held in the lap of
  the Virgin Mary, Joseph attending, the whole performed by Sir Peter
  Paul Rubens. In this room are also the holy family, finely painted by
  Paul Veronese: three priests, by Tintoret: a noble picture of St.
  Agnes over one of the doors, by Domenichino: St. John Baptist’s head,
  Mary Magdalen, and a naked Venus, all by Titian: a Venus in a supine
  posture, stealing an arrow out of Cupid’s quiver, with beautiful
  ornaments in the high gusto of the Greek antique, representing Love
  and the Drama, by Jacobo da Puntormo; upon the original out-lines of
  the great Michelangelo Buonarroti: a picture of Villars, Duke of
  Buckingham, and his younger brother, when boys, one of the capital
  pieces of Vandyck: two large pictures by Guido Reni, one of Venus
  dressing by the Graces; the other of Andromeda chained to a rock: our
  Saviour in the manger by Bassan; and a picture of part of the holy
  family, by Palma the elder.

  The ceiling of this room, in which there is such a mixture of sacred
  and prophane pieces, is painted with the story of Jupiter and Semele.

  In the state chamber, the bed is of crimson damask; and over the
  chimney is a picture of our Saviour and St. John Baptist, by Raphael.

  In the state dressing room the hangings are all of needle work; a
  present from the Queen of Prussia. Here is a picture of Edward VI. by
  Holbein; of a young nobleman of Venice, by Tintoret; another young
  nobleman of the same place, by Tintoret; and Titian’s lady, painted by
  himself.

  The Painted gallery is adorned with many admirable pieces. At one end
  is King Charles I. on a white horse, with the Duke d’Espernon holding
  his helmet; the King is an august and noble figure, with some
  dejection in his countenance; the triumphal arch, curtain, and other
  parts of the back ground, are finely executed, and so kept, that the
  King is the principal figure that strikes the eye; at a little
  distance it has more of the life than a picture, and one is almost
  ready to get out of the horse’s way, and bow to the King.

  Fronting this picture, at the other end of the gallery, is the same
  King, with his Queen, and two children, King Charles II. when a child,
  and King James II. an infant in the Queen’s lap. The King’s paternal
  tenderness is finely expressed, his son standing at his knee: the
  Queen’s countenance is expressive of an affectionate obedience to his
  Majesty, and a fond care of her child, which she seems to desire the
  King to look on. The infant is exquisitely performed; the vacancy of
  thought in the face, and the inactivity of the hands, are equal to
  life itself at that age. These two admirable pieces were done by
  Vandyck.

  One of the next capital pictures in this gallery is Esther fainting
  before King Ahasuerus, painted by Tintoret. All the figures are finely
  drawn and richly dressed in the Venetian manner; for the Venetian
  school painted all their historical figures in their own habits,
  thinking them more noble and picturesque than any other.

  The next piece is the nine muses in concert, finely drawn by the same
  master.

  Midas preferring Pan to Apollo, is a fine piece, by Andrea Schiavone;
  but it is a good deal hurt by time; the figures however are well drawn
  and coloured; and the affectation of judgment in Midas is finely
  expressed.

  The shepherds offering gifts to Christ, St. John in prison, the story
  of the woman of Samaria, and John Baptist’s head, are fine pieces, by
  Old Palma.

  Noah’s flood, by Bassan, is a masterly performance.

  Over the chimney is a Madona, by Raphael, which, though a small piece,
  gives a very high idea of that great master’s abilities. There is also
  in this gallery a Madona by Vandyck, which is exquisitely performed.

  The other pictures here are, the birth of Jupiter, a fine piece, by
  Giulio Romano; a Cupid whetting his arrow, by Annibal Caracci; and a
  Venus and Cupid, by Titian.

KENT _road_, At the upper end of Kent street.

KENT _street_, extends from the end of Long lane, near St. George’s
  church, Southwark, to Kent road. It is observable that the principal
  business of this street is making of birch brooms, in which the
  masters are such great dealers, that in some of their yards several
  stacks of brooms may be seen of a considerable extent, and rising as
  high as the most lofty houses.

KENT’S _yard_, Angel alley.†

KETTLEBY’S _rents_, at Kennington.†

KETTLE _yard_, Redcross street.

KEW, a town in Surry, situated on the Thames, opposite to Old Brentford.
  Here is a chapel of ease, erected at the expence of several of the
  nobility and gentry in the neighbourhood, on a piece of ground that
  was given for that purpose by the late Queen Anne. Here the late Mr.
  Molineux, Secretary to his present Majesty when Prince of Wales, had a
  very fine seat on the Green, the gardens of which are said to produce
  the best fruit in England. This house belonged to the late Prince of
  Wales. Her late Majesty Queen Caroline here purchased Lady Eyre’s
  seat, for the Duke of Cumberland, and Sir Thomas Abney’s for the
  Princesses Amelia and Caroline.

  In the sessions of parliament in 1758, an act passed for building a
  bridge cross the Thames opposite to Kew Green; and this act is now
  executed, and a bridge is built of eleven arches. The two piers and
  their dependent arches on each side next the shore are built of brick
  and stone, the intermediate arches, which are seven in number, are
  entirely wood. The center arch is fifty feet wide, and the road over
  the bridge is thirty feet wide.

KEY _court_, 1. Little St. Thomas Apostles.* 2. St. John street, West
  Smithfield.*

KIDDER’S _yard_, Petty France, Westminster.†

KIDNEY _stairs_, Narrow street.

KIFFORD’S _Almshouse_, at Tothill side, Westminster, was founded by Mrs.
  Judith Kifford, in the year 1705, for two decayed gentlewomen, each of
  whom has one room, and 5_l._ _per annum_.

KILBORN, a village in Middlesex, in the road from London to Edgworth,
  and in the parish of Hampstead.

KILHAM’S _wharf_, Millbank.†

KILL _court_, St. John’s street.

KILLIGREW _court_, Scotland yard.†

KING AND QUEEN _stairs_, Rotherhith.*

KING DAVID’S _court_, Whitechapel.*

KING DAVID’S FORT, Near Bluegate fields.*

KING DAVID’S FORT _lane_, King David’s lane.*

KING DAVID’S _lane_, Upper Shadwell.*

KING EDWARD’S _row_, Coverley’s fields.*

KING EDWARD’S _stairs_, Wapping.*

KING EDWARD’S _street_, 1. Tudor street.* 2. Wapping.*

KING HENRY’S _yard_, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.*

KING JAMES’S _stairs_, Wapping wall.*

KING JOHN’S _court_, 1. Barnaby street.* 2. Holiwell lane.* 3. Limehouse
  Corner. 4. Mile-end Green.* 5. Stepney Green.*

KING JOHN’S _court passage_, Barnaby street.*

KING TUDOR’S _street_, Bridewell, Fleet street.

KING’S ARMS _court_, 1. Bankside.* 2. Basinghall street.* 3. King John’s
  court, Holiwell street.* 4. Ludgate hill.*

KING’S ARMS _stairs_, College street.*

KING’S ARMS _walk_, Narrow walk.*

KING’S ARMS _yard_, 1. Chick lane.* 2. Coleman street.* 3. Fore street.*
  4. Lothbury.* 5. St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.* 6. Marybon
  street.* 7. Shoreditch.* 8. Whitechapel.* 9. Whitecross street,
  Cripplegate.*

KING’S ARMS _inn yard_, Holborn Bridge.*

KING’S BENCH, the highest Court of Common Law in England, is so called,
  because the King sometimes sat there in person on an high bench, and
  the Judges, to whom the judicature belongs in his absence, on a low
  bench at his feet: or because this Court determines pleas between the
  Crown and the subject of treasons, felonies, and other pleas, which
  properly belong to the King: and also in whatsoever relates to the
  loss of life or member of any subject, in which the King is concerned,
  as he is a sufferer by the loss of the life or limbs of his subjects.
  Here likewise are tried breaches of peace, oppression, and
  misgovernment; and this Court corrects the errors of all the Judges
  and Justices of England, in their judgments and proceedings, not only
  in pleas of the Crown, but in all pleas, real, personal, and mix’d;
  except only pleas in the Exchequer. This Court is general, and extends
  to all England; and where-ever it is held the law supposes the
  Sovereign to be there in person. In this Court there commonly sit four
  Judges, the first of which is stiled the Lord Chief Justice of the
  King’s Bench; and sometimes the Lord Chief Justice of England; whose
  salary is 4000_l._ a year, and the puisne Judges 1500_l._ a year each.
  _Chamberlain’s Present State._

  The Court of King’s Bench in Westminster Hall, is in the south east
  corner.

KING’S BENCH _alley_, 1. Dorset street, Spitalfields. 2. St. Margaret’s
  Hill.

KING’S BENCH OFFICE, In the Inner Temple, at the lower end of King’s
  Bench walk, next the Thames. Here the records of that Court are kept
  to secure them from fire.

KING’S BENCH PRISON, In St. George’s fields, is a place of confinement
  for debtors; and for those sentenced by the Court of King’s Bench to
  suffer imprisonment, for libels and other misdemeanors; but those who
  can purchase the liberties have the benefit of walking through a part
  of the Borough, and in St. George’s fields.

  This prison is situated in a fine air; but all prospect of the fields,
  even from the uppermost windows, is excluded by the height of the
  walls with which it is surrounded. It has a neat chapel for the
  performance of divine worship, and only one bed in each room; but
  these rooms are extremely small; they are all exactly alike, and none
  above nine feet in length.

KING’S BENCH _walk_, Inner Temple, from the King’s Bench office kept
  there.

KING’S COLLEGE _lane_, Bristol street.

KING’S _court_, 1. Milk street, Cheapside. 2. Nightingale lane, East
  Smithfield.

KING’S GATE _street_, High Holborn.

KING’S HEAD _alley_, 1. Broad street, Ratcliff.* 2. Dorset street,
  Spitalfields.* 3. In the Maze. 4. Whitechapel.*

KING’S HEAD _court_, 1. Barnaby street.* 2. Beech lane.* 3. In the
  Borough.* 4. St. Clement’s.* 5. Cock lane, Shoreditch.* 6. Crispin
  street.* 7. Drury lane.* 8. Fetter lane.* 9. Golden lane.* 10. Goswell
  street.* 11. Gutter lane.* 12. Hand alley.* 13. Holborn.* 14. Huggen
  lane, Thames street.* 15. King street, Cheapside.* 16. Little Carter
  lane.* 17. St. Martin’s le Grand. 18. New Fish street.* 19. New Gravel
  lane.* 20. Old Gravel lane.* 21. Petticoat lane, Whitechapel.* 22.
  Plumtree street.* 23. Pudding lane, Thames street.* 24. Shoe lane,
  Fleet street.* 25. Shoreditch.* 26. Southampton buildings.* 27.
  Stanhope street.* 28. In the Strand.* 29. Tenter Ground.* 30. Vine
  street.* 31. Whitecross street, Cripplegate.* 32. Wood street,
  Cheapside.*

KING’S HEAD _yard_, 1. Fore street, Lambeth.* 2. High Holborn.* 3.
  Holiwell street.* 4. King street, New Gravel lane.* 5. Leather lane,
  Holborn.* 6. Moorfields.* 7. Shoreditch.* 8. Tooley street.* 9.
  Wiltshire lane.*

KING’S LIBRARY, was founded by Henry Prince of Wales, the eldest son of
  King James I. The printed books in this Library amount to about 10,200
  and the manuscripts to about 1800. They were kept in Cotton house,
  till that was burnt by the fire in 1731; they however suffered but
  little by that fire, and were removed with the Cotton library to the
  Old Dormitory at Westminster; since which both these libraries have
  been placed with Sir Hans Sloane’s Museum in Montagu house. See the
  articles COTTON LIBRARY, and BRITISH MUSEUM.

_Clerk of the_ KING’S SILVER, an officer of the Court of Common Pleas,
  to whom every fine or final agreement upon the sale of land is
  brought, after it has been with the _Custos Brevium_, who makes an
  entry of what money is to be paid for the King’s use. This office,
  which is executed by a deputy, is kept in the Inner Temple.
  _Chamberlain’s Present State._

KING’S LANGLEY, near Abbots Langley in Hertfordshire, received its name
  from a royal palace built here by King Henry III. the ruins of which
  are still to be seen. King Richard II. with his Queen, and many of the
  nobility kept a Christmas here, and in its monastery he was buried,
  though afterwards removed to Westminster by King Henry V. Here was
  also born and buried, Edmund of Langley, Duke of York, the son of
  Edward III. and many others of that family.

KING’S _rents_, 1. Shad Thames.* 2. Whitecross street.*

KING’S OLD and NEW ROADS to Kensington, Hyde Park.

KING’S _road_, 1. Barnaby street. 2. Gray’s Inn lane.

KING’S _row_, Shad Thames.†

KING’S _square_. See SOHO _square_.

KING’S SQUARE _court_, Dean street, Soho.

KING’S _stairs_, Rotherhith.†

KING _street_. Many of these streets first received their present name,
  after the restoration, in honour of King Charles II. or of monarchy in
  general. 1. Bartholomew hospital. 2. Brick lane, Spitalfields. 3.
  Opposite to Queen street, and leading from Cheapside to Guildhall; so
  called by the act of parliament, by which it was first ordered to be
  built after the fire of London. 4. Covent Garden. 5. Duke’s Place. 6.
  Foul lane, in the Borough. 7. Golden Square. 8. Near Grosvenor square.
  9. High Holborn. 10. Hoxton square. 11. St. James’s square. 12. Little
  Tower hill. 13. Lowman’s street. 14. In the Mint. 15. Near Monmouth
  street. 16. New Gravel lane. 17. Old Greek street, Soho. 18. Old
  street square. 19. Oxford street. 20. Piccadilly. 21. Prince’s square.
  22. Prince’s street, Soho. 23. Ratcliff Highway. 24. Rosemary lane.
  25. Rotherhith wall. 26. Tooley street. 27. Upper Moorfields. 28.
  Westminster. 29. Wood’s Close, Compton street.

KING’S _street passage_, Little Tower hill.

KING’S _way_, Gray’s Inn lane.

KING’S WEIGH HOUSE. See WEIGH HOUSE.

KING’S _yard_, 1. Barnaby street. 2. Leather lane, Holborn. 3.
  Whitecross street, Cripplegate.

KINGSBURY, at the west end of St. Alban’s in Hertfordshire, is thus
  named from the Saxon Kings frequently keeping their court there, till
  it was purchased by the monks of the neighbouring abbey.

KINGSLAND, a hamlet of the parish of Islington, lying between Hoxton and
  Clapton. Here was anciently an hospital for lepers, which is now
  appropriated to the cure of the venereal disease, and is an appendage
  to St. Bartholomew’s and St. Thomas’s hospitals. The edifice is a
  plain modern brick building, without ornamental decorations; it is
  large and proper for the use to which it is applied, and on the end of
  it is a dial, which has the following suitable motto, POST VOLUPTATEM
  MISERICORDIA; that is, _After pleasure comes pain_. This structure
  joins a little old chapel; but it is wisely contrived that the
  patients, who are obliged to attend divine service, can neither see
  nor be seen by the rest of the audience.

  This hospital is called _The Lock_.

KINGSTON UPON THAMES, a Town in Surry, received its name from its having
  been the residence of several of our Saxon Kings, some of whom were
  crowned on a stage in the market place. It is a populous and
  well-built place, and in the reigns of Edward the Second and Third
  sent members to parliament. Here is a spacious church with eight
  bells, in which are the pictures of the Saxon Kings who were crowned
  here, and also that of King John, who gave the inhabitants of this
  town their first charter. Here is also a wooden bridge of twenty
  arches over the Thames; a free school erected and endowed by Queen
  Elizabeth; an almshouse built in 1670 by Aldermen Clive, for six men,
  and as many women, and endowed with land to the value of 80_l._ a
  year; and a charity school for thirty boys, who are all cloathed. The
  summer assizes for this county are generally held here, and there is a
  gallery on the top of a hill that overlooks the town. A house called
  Hircomb’s Place, in this town, was the seat of the famous Earl of
  Warwick, stiled The setter up and puller down of Kings. Besides the
  above bridge, there is another of brick over a stream, that flows from
  a spring which rises four miles above the town, and within the
  distance of a bow shot from its source, forms a brook that drives two
  mills. Here is a good market for corn, and the town carries on a
  considerable trade.

KINHAVEY’S _court_, St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.†

KINNERSLEY’S _yard_, Ratcliff highway.†

KIRBY’S _court_, 1. Foul lane, in the Borough.† 2. Chick lane, West
  Smithfield.†

KIRBY’S _wharf_, Lower Shadwell.†

KIRBY’S _yard_, Curtain row, Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

KIRK’S _yard_, East Smithfield.†

KITTER’S _yard_, White Hart lane.†

KNAVE OF CLUBS _yard_, Old street.*

KNAVES _Acre_, Wardour street.‖

KNIGHTSBRIDGE, the first village from London in the great western road,
  is situated in the parishes of St. George’s Hanover square, and St.
  Margaret’s Westminster, but has a chapel independent of those
  parishes. Near the entrance of this village in the way from London, is
  the infirmary for the sick and wounded called St. George’s hospital.
  See _St._ GEORGE’S HOSPITAL.

KNIGHT’S _court_, 1. Back side St. Clement’s.† 2. Green walk.†

KNITNEEDLE _street_, Bloomsbury.

KNOCKFERGUS, Near Rosemary lane.

KNOLLEY’S _yard_, Hog lane.†

KNOWLES’S _court_, Little Carter lane.†

KNOWL HOUSE, near Sevenoak in Kent, is the seat of the Duke of Dorset.
  It is situated in the middle of a park, and is a handsome large stone
  fabric. There are some excellent pictures in the apartments.

KORBY’S _yard_, Hand alley, Petticoat lane.†

KREETCH’S _wharf_, Millbank.†


[Illustration]



                                   L.


LABOUR-IN-VAIN _alley_, St. Margaret’s hill.*

LABOUR-IN-VAIN _court_, Old Fish street hill.*

LABOUR-IN-VAIN _hill_, Thames street.*

LABOUR-IN-VAIN _street_, Lower Shadwell.*

LABOUR-IN-VAIN _yard_, Thames street.*

LAD _court_, Moses alley, Willow street.

LAD _lane_, Wood street, Cheapside.

LADDLE _court_, Cut Throat lane, Upper Shadwell.

LAD’S _court_, Gardiner’s lane.†

LADY _alley_, 1. Great St. Anne’s lane. 2. King street, Westminster.

LADY ALLEY _Almshouse_, in King street, Westminster, consists of four
  rooms for as many poor women, and is said to have been founded by a
  King or Queen of England, with an allowance out of the Exchequer of
  1_l._ 6_s._ 8_d._ a year each. _Maitland._

LAMB _alley_, 1. Bishopsgate street without.* 2. Blackman street, by St.
  George’s church, Southwark.* 3. Goodman’s fields. 4. Monkwell street.†
  5. In the Old Change.* 6. Saffron hill.* 7. Sherbourn lane, Lombard
  street.* 8. Whitechapel.* 9. St. Giles’s Broadway.†

LAMB _court_, 1. Abchurch lane. 2. Clerkenwell. 3. Lamb alley,
  Southwark.

LAMB’S _buildings_, Inner Temple.†

LAMB’S CHAPEL, situated in a court to which it gives its name, at the
  north west corner of London wall, was founded in the reign of Edward
  I. and dedicated to St. James, when it was distinguished from other
  places of religious worship of the same name by the denomination of
  _St. James’s Chapel_, or _Hermitage on the wall_; from its being
  erected on or near the city wall in Monkwell street. At the
  dissolution of religious houses, King Henry VIII. granted this chapel
  to William Lamb, a rich clothworker, who bequeathed it, with other
  appurtenances, to the company of which he was a member, and from him
  it received its present name.

  In this chapel the clothworkers company have four sermons preached to
  them upon four principal festivals in the year, viz. upon the feast of
  the annunciation of the blessed Virgin, March 25; on the feast of St.
  John Baptist, June 24; on the feast of St. Michael the Archangel,
  Sept. 29; and on that of St. Thomas the Apostle, Dec. 21; upon which
  days the Master, Wardens, and Livery of the company, in conformity to
  the above Mr. Lamb’s will, go in their gowns to the chapel and hear a
  sermon; after which they relieve twelve poor men and as many women, by
  giving one shilling to each; and every Michaelmas they give to each a
  frize gown, a lockram shift, and a good pair of winter shoes.

LAMB’S CHAPEL _court_, Monkwell street.

LAMB’S CONDUIT, was according to Stow formed by the above-mentioned Mr.
  William Lamb, who having drawn together several springs of water to
  one head, at a place which is now the end of Red Lion street, in
  Holborn, erected a conduit there, and conveyed part of the water
  through leaden pipes the space of two thousand yards to Snow hill,
  where having rebuilt a ruinous conduit, which had been long disused,
  he laid the water into it. The whole expense of this work, which was
  finished March 26, 1577, amounted to 1500_l._ These conduits were
  built with stone, with a lamb on the top: the former of these little
  edifices gave its name to the adjacent fields, on which the Foundling
  hospital is built; but obstructing the view of that truly noble
  structure, it was taken down some years ago, and the water being
  conveyed to the side of the street, a descent is made to the spring
  head by a flight of stone steps. That on Snow hill has also been taken
  down, and a pump adorned with lamps placed in its room; the advantage
  the city receives from the New River water, rendering these
  structures, which were formerly of great advantage, entirely useless.

LAMB’S CONDUIT _Mews_, Millman street, Holborn.

LAMB’S CONDUIT _passage_, Red Lion street.†

LAMB’S _court_, Red Lion court.†

LAMB _street_, 1. Crispin street, Spitalfields.† 2. Turnmill street.†

LAMB’S _yard_, 1. Bishopsgate without.† 2. Nightingale lane, East
  Smithfield.

LAMBERT _hill_, generally called Lambeth hill, Thames street; was so
  called from Lambert the owner thereof. _Maitland._

LAMBERT _street_, Goodman’s fields.†

LAMBERT’S _rents_, Petticoat lane.†

[Illustration:

  _Lambeth Palace._
  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Fougeron sculp._
]

LAMBETH, a village in Surry, situated on the Thames, between Southwark
  and Battersea, and near the south end of London bridge; is
  particularly famous for its containing, for several ages, the palace
  of the Archbishop of Canterbury. This structure was originally formed
  by Baldwin, Archbishop of that see, in the year 1188; who first
  intended to have raised a superb structure at Hackington, near this
  place; but the Monks, with whom he was at variance, obtained the
  Pope’s mandate against it; when, taking down what he had erected, he
  removed the bell of the materials to Lambeth, with which he built the
  palace, a college and church, having before purchased the ground of
  the Bishop and Convent of Rochester, by a fair exchange.

  In the year 1250, Boniface, Archbishop of Canterbury, having, by his
  arrogance, rendered himself hateful to the citizens of London,
  retired, for the security of his person, to this palace; and finding
  it in a ruinous condition, within the space of three years rebuilt the
  whole north side, the archi-episcopal apartments, the library and
  cloisters, the guard-chamber, the chapel, and Lollards tower.

  From that time this palace became the residence of the greatest
  persons of the church, and was soon enlarged by many additional
  buildings: Cardinal Pool built the gate, which, for that time, is a
  noble structure. The Lollards tower, which is thus named from a room
  in it prepared for the imprisonment of the followers of Wickliff, the
  first British reformer, who were called Lollards, was finished by
  Chichely, and remains a lasting memorial of his cruelty, and
  antichristian spirit. It is a small room, twelve feet broad and nine
  long, planked with elm, and there still remain eight rings and
  staples, to which Christians were chained, for presuming to differ in
  opinion from that prelate. The spacious hall was erected by Juxton,
  and the brick edifice between the gate and this hall was begun by
  Archbishop Sancroft, and finished by the immortal Tillotson.

  From the present structure being thus erected at different periods, it
  is not at all surprizing that it has but little appearance of
  uniformity; but the edifice, tho’ old, is in most parts strong; the
  corners are faced with rustic, and the top surrounded with
  battlements; but the principal apartments are well proportioned, and
  well enlightened: the Gothic work about it is irregularly disposed,
  and it is in itself irregular. Some of the inner rooms are too close
  and confined; but there are many others open and pleasant in
  themselves, with the advantage of being convenient, and of affording
  very agreeable prospects. For as this palace is situated on the bank
  of the Thames, it affords a fine view up and down the river, and, from
  the higher apartments, a prospect of the country each way.

  The palace, with the rows of trees before it, and the church of
  Lambeth adjoining, when viewed from the Thames, make a very pretty
  picturesque appearance, and this is the view which is here given.

  In this palace is a very fine library, founded in the year 1610, by
  Archbishop Sancroft, who left by will all his books, for the use of
  his successors in the archi-episcopal see of Canterbury. This library
  has been greatly increased by the benefactions of the Archbishops
  Abbot, Sheldon, and Tennyson, and consists of 617 volumes in
  manuscript, and above 14,500 printed books.

  The church, which stands by the palace, is a very antique structure,
  dedicated to St. Mary. It has a square tower, and both that and the
  body of the church are crowned with battlements. In this parish are
  eight precincts, denominated the Archbishop’s, the Prince’s, Vauxhall,
  Kennington, the Marsh, the Wall, Stockwell, and the Dean’s precinct.
  It is remarkable, that at Lambeth Wall is a spot of ground, containing
  an acre and nineteen poles, named Pedlar’s acre, which has belonged to
  the parish from time immemorial, and is said to have been given by a
  pedlar, upon condition that his picture, with that of his dog, be
  perpetually preserved in painted glass in one of the windows of the
  church; which the parishioners carefully performed in the south east
  window of the middle isle. _Maitland._

LAMBETH BUTTS, Lambeth.

LAMBETH MARSH, between Lambeth and Spring Gardens.

LAMBETH _road_, Newington Butts.

LAMBETH _School_, was founded by Richard Laurence, citizen and merchant
  of London, in the year 1661, for educating twenty poor children of the
  Marsh and Wall liberties of this parish, for which purpose he endowed
  it with 35_l._ _per annum_.

LAMBETH _stairs_, Lambeth.

LANCASTER _college_, in the parish of St. Gregory near St. Paul’s, was a
  hall founded by King Henry IV. and the executors of John of Gaunt,
  Duke of Lancaster; containing lodgings and a common hall for charity
  priests to officiate in a chapel, on the north side of the choir of
  St. Paul’s cathedral; but it was suppressed, and granted to one Mr.
  William Gunter, in the second year of Edward VI. _Maitland._

_Duchy of_ LANCASTER COURT, held at Gray’s Inn. This court owes its
  origin to King Henry IV. after his having deposed Richard II. when,
  possessing the duchy of Lancaster in right of his mother, he imagined
  his claim to it better than that to the throne, and therefore
  separated it from the Crown, and erected this court for its use. Here
  all matters of law and equity, belonging to the duchy or county
  palatine of Lancaster, are tried and determined by the Chancellor, who
  is the chief judge, and is assisted by his attorney general, and other
  officers. _Maitland._

_Duchy of_ LANCASTER LIBERTY, begins on the outside of Temple Bar, and
  extending along the south side of the Strand to the east side of Cecil
  street, reaches down it to the Thames, and thence to Essex Buildings,
  taking in all the houses to Temple Bar. On the north side it extends
  from Temple Bar to where the Maypole stood, and extending down
  Holiwell street, commonly called the back of St. Clement’s, passes by
  Butcher row, taking in all that range of buildings. Beyond the place
  of the Maypole, this liberty begins again by the Fountain tavern in
  Catharine street, and reaches from thence into the Strand, as far as
  Exeter exchange; then turning up Burleigh street, it runs up within
  four houses of the corner of Essex street, and, crossing it, proceeds
  into Catharine street, by the Fountain tavern. _Stow, last edit._

LANCASTER _court_, 1. New Bond street. 2. In the Strand.

LANCASTER _yard_, Holiwell street.

LAND OF PROMISE _lane_, Hoxton.

LANDRESS _alley_, Five feet lane.

LANE’S _alley_, St. Giles’s Broadway.†

LANE’S _court_, Cold Bath square, by Cold Bath fields.†

LANGBOURN RIVULET, a brook which formerly took its rise in or near the
  east end of Fenchurch street, and ran with a swift current due west,
  to Sherbourn lane, at the west end of St. Mary Woolnoth; then dividing
  its stream into several rills, ran directly south, and was lost in the
  Wall Brook, on Dowgate hill. _Maitland._

LANGBOURN WARD, took its name from the Langbourn, or rivulet
  above-mentioned. It is bounded on the north by Aldgate and Lime street
  wards; on the west, by Wallbrook ward; on the south, by Candlewick,
  Bridge, Billingsgate, and Tower street wards; and on the east, by
  Aldgate ward. Its principal streets are great part of Fenchurch
  street, and Lombard street, Exchange alley, Birchinlane, &c.

  The most remarkable buildings are, the churches of St. Mary Woolnoth,
  St. Edmund the King, Allhallows Lombard street, and St. Dionis
  Backchurch; the General Post office, Pewterers hall, and the hall
  belonging to the Hudson’s Bay company.

  This ward is governed by an Alderman, his Deputy, ten Common Council
  men, seventeen wardmote inquest men, nine scavengers, fifteen
  constables, and a beadle; and the jurors returned by the wardmote
  inquest serve in the several courts of Guildhall in the month of
  November.

LANGDON’S _rents_, Bett’s street.

LANGLEY PARK, near Langley Green, in Buckinghamshire, belongs to the
  Duke of Marlborough. The late Duke began to build a new house of stone
  in this park, but one of the wings is yet wanting to compleat the
  design, which is more remarkable for its elegance than grandeur.

LANGLEY _street_, 1. Long Acre.† 2. Whitecross street.†

LANG’S _court_, St. Martin’s lane.†

LASSINGBY’S _court_, Conduit court, Long Acre.†

LAST _alley_, 1. Cow Cross, West Smithfield.* 2. Whitechapel.*

LAST AND BALL _court_, London Wall.*

LATIMERS, a hamlet with a chapel of ease to Chesham in Bucks, received
  its name from its ancient Lords. In this hamlet lived Sir Edwyn Sands,
  whose daughter having four sons and nine daughters by her husband Sir
  Thomas Temple, ancestor of the present Earl Temple, lived to see 700
  descended from her, and died in 1656. The Lord James Cavendish has
  here a seat.

LAVENDER _street_, near Cuckold’s Point.

LAUGHTON’S _rents_, Cinnamon street.†

_St._ LAWRENCE _Jewry_, on the north side of Cateaton street, in Cheap
  ward, is thus denominated from its being dedicated to St. Lawrence, a
  native of Huesca in the kingdom of Arragon in Spain, who, after having
  suffered the most dreadful torments under the Emperor Valerian, was
  cruelly broiled alive upon a gridiron, with a slow fire, till he died:
  and it received the additional epithet of Jewry, from its situation
  among the Jews, who formerly resided in the streets near that church;
  to distinguish it from St. Lawrence Poultney, now demolished.
  _Maitland._

  This church being burnt, with many others, in the dreadful fire of
  London in 1666, was rebuilt at the parish expence, with a very
  considerable benefaction by Sir John Langham.

  It is eighty-one feet long, sixty-eight broad, forty feet high to the
  roof, and the steeple 130 feet high. The body is enlightened by two
  series of windows, the lower ones large and uniform, and the upper
  small. At the east end is a pediment with niches supported by
  Corinthian columns. The tower, which is lofty, is terminated by a
  balustrade with plain pinnacles, and within this balustrade rises a
  kind of lanthorn, which supports the base of the spire.

  This church is a vicarage in the gift of the Master and Scholars of
  Baliol college in Oxford, and the profits of the Incumbent are much
  augmented by the parish of St. Mary Magdalen Milk street being annexed
  to it: he receives 120_l._ a year from the parish, and 20_l._ from
  Baliol college.

LAWRENCE _lane_, 1. From Cheapside to Cateaton street, near the above
  church. 2. High street, St. Giles’s. 3. New street Lambeth.

_St._ LAWRENCE _Poultney_, on the west side of St. Lawrence Poultney’s
  lane, was so denominated from the above saint, and Mr. John Poultney,
  who founded a college there; but the church being consumed in the
  general conflagration in 1666, and not rebuilt, the parish was united
  to that of St. Mary Abchurch.

LAWRENCE POULTNEY _hill_, Canon street.†

LAWRENCE POULTNEY _lane_, Canon street.†

LEAD OFFICE, in Ingram’s court, Fenchurch street. This office belongs to
  a company incorporated by letters patent granted by King William and
  Queen Mary in the year 1692, under the title of _The Governor and
  Company for melting down lead with pit and sea coal_. By this patent
  they are empowered to raise a joint stock for the effectual carrying
  on the business of smelting, or drawing lead from the ore with sea
  coal instead of wood.

  This corporation is under the direction of a Governor, Deputy
  Governor, and twelve Assistants. _Maitland._

LEADENHALL, a very large building of great antiquity in Leadenhall
  street, with flat battlements leaded at the top, and a spacious square
  in the middle. In this edifice are the warehouse for the selling of
  leather, the Colchester baize hall, the meal warehouse, and the wool
  hall.

LEADENHALL MARKET, the largest market in the city of London, and perhaps
  in Europe, consists of five considerable squares, or courts, the first
  of which opens by a large Gothic gate into Leadenhall street. This
  court, which is surrounded by the buildings called Leadenhall, is
  surrounded with sheds for butchers, tanners, &c. As there is but
  little meat sold here except beef, this is called the Beef market.
  This square is on Tuesday a market for leather; on Thursdays the
  waggons from Colchester, and other parts, come with baize, &c. and the
  felmongers with wool; on Fridays it is a market for raw hides, and on
  Saturdays for beef.

  Behind this market are two others separated by a range of buildings of
  a considerable length, with shops and rooms on each side. In both
  these are principally sold small meat, as mutton, veal, lamb, and
  pork, and some of the shops sell beef. In the easternmost of these
  markets is a market house supported on pillars, with vaults
  underneath, and rooms above, with a clock and a bell tower, and
  underneath are sold various sorts of provision. Beyond these is a very
  spacious market for fowl. There is another called the Herb-market,
  which has an entrance into Leadenhall street, but this does not
  succeed. The passages into the above markets from Lime street and
  Gracechurch street, are filled with the dealers in provisions of
  various kinds.

LEADENHALL _street_ extends from the end of Cornhill, at the corner of
  Gracechurch street, to Aldgate street within.

LEATHER _lane_, Holborn.

LEATHERDRESSERS _yard_, Paul’s Alley.

LEATHERHEAD, or LETHERHEAD, a small town in Surry, situated about four
  miles to the S. W. of Epsom. It had formerly a market, which has been
  discontinued above an hundred years. Here is a bridge over the river
  Mole, which having sunk into the earth near Mickleham, at the foot of
  Boxhill, rises again near this town, and runs through Cobham, to the
  Thames at Moulsey. ’Tis pleasantly situated on a rising bank by the
  side of the river, and in as good a situation for riding or hunting as
  most within twenty miles of London, it having a fine, open, dry,
  champaign country almost all round it.

LEATHERSELLERS, a company incorporated by letters patent granted by
  Henry VI. in the Year 1442. They are governed by a Prime, and three
  Wardens, with twenty-six Assistants, and an hundred and fifty-six
  liverymen, who at their admission pay a fine of 20_l._ each.

  By a grant of Henry VII. the Wardens of this corporation, or their
  deputies, were impowered to have the inspection of sheeps, lambs, and
  calves leather throughout the kingdom, in order the more effectually
  to prevent frauds in those commodities.

LEATHERSELLERS _hall_ in Little St. Helen’s, was part of the convent of
  nuns dedicated to St. Helen, and considering the antiquity of its
  building, has some of the best joiners and plaisterers work in the
  kingdom. The entrance into the common hall is up a handsome flight of
  stone steps from the court yard. The screen is magnificently adorned
  with six columns of the Ionic order, enrichments, &c. and the ceiling
  enriched with fretwork.

_Boyle’s_ LECTURE. See the article BOYLE’S LECTURE.

LEE’S _Almshouse_, upon the Narrow Wall, Lambeth, was erected by Gerard
  Van Lee; and Valentine Van Lee, who was probably his son, gave the
  eight poor inhabitants of this house, the sum of 5_l._ _per annum_,
  for the term of five hundred Years. _Maitland._

LEE’S _court_, 1. St. Catharine’s lane.† 2. Hockley in the Hole.†

LEE’S _street_, Red Lion square, Holborn.†

LEG _alley_, 1. Barnaby street.* 2. Long Acre.* 3. Shoreditch.* 4.
  Tooley street.*

LEG _court_, Peter street, Westminster.*

_St._ LEGER’S _wharf_, Tooley street.†

LEGGET’S _walk_, Upper Ground.†

LEICESTER _fields_, a very handsome square, the inner part of which is
  enclosed with iron rails, and adorned with grass plats and gravel
  walks, in the center of which is an equestrian statue of his present
  majesty gilt. The buildings with which this square is surrounded, are
  very good, especially the north side, where is Leicester house, once
  the seat of the Earl of Leicester, and now inhabited by her Royal
  Highness the Princess Dowager of Wales. This is a large brick
  building, neat and commodious, though not magnificent. It has a
  spacious court before, and a fine garden behind it; there is here a
  good collection of pictures; and from this house the square is
  denominated. Next to this edifice is the house of Sir George Savile,
  Bart. in which his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales resides at
  present.

LEICESTER _street_, 1. By Leicester fields.☐ 2. Liquorpond street. 3.
  Warwick street, Haymarket.

LEIGH’S _court_, St. Catharine’s lane.†

LEITH HILL, near Boxhill in Surry, admired for affording one of the
  noblest prospects in all Europe, of which Mr. Dennis gives a lively
  description in his Letters familiar, moral and critical; we shall
  therefore transcribe his words. “In a late journey,” says he, “which I
  took into the Wild of Sussex, I passed over an hill which shewed me a
  more transporting sight than ever the country had shewn me before,
  either in England or Italy. The prospects which in Italy pleased me
  most, were that of the Valdarno from the Apennines; that of Rome, and
  the Mediterranean from the mountains of Viterbo; of Rome at forty, and
  the Mediterranean at fifty miles distance from it; and that of the
  Campagne of Rome from Tivoli and Frescati; from which two places you
  see every foot of that famous Campagne, even from the bottom of Tivoli
  and Frescati to the very foot of the mountain of Viterbo, without any
  thing to intercept your sight. But from an hill which I passed in my
  late journey into Sussex, I had a prospect more extensive than any of
  these, and which surpassed them at once in rural charms, in pomp, and
  in magnificence. The hill which I speak of, is called Leith Hill, and
  is about five miles southward from Darking, about six from Box Hill,
  and near twelve from Epsom. It juts itself out about two miles beyond
  that range of hills which terminate the north downs to the south. When
  I saw from one of these hills, at about two miles distance that side
  of Leith Hill which faces the northern downs, it appeared the
  beautifullest prospect I had ever seen: but after we had conquered the
  hill itself, I saw a sight that would transport a stoic; a sight that
  looked like enchantment and vision. Beneath us lay open to our view
  all the wilds of Surry and Sussex, and a great part of that of Kent,
  admirably diversified in every part of them with woods, and fields of
  corn and pastures, every where adorned with stately rows of trees.

  “This beautiful vale is about thirty miles in breadth, and about sixty
  in length, and is terminated to the south by the majestic range of the
  southern hills, and the sea: and it is no easy matter to decide,
  whether these hills, which appear at thirty, forty, fifty miles
  distance, with their tops in the sky, seem more aweful and venerable,
  or the delicious vale between you and them more inviting. About noon,
  in a serene day, you may at thirty miles distance, see the very water
  of the sea through a chasm of the mountains. And that which above all
  makes it a noble and a wonderful prospect, is, that at the same time
  that, at thirty miles distance, you behold the very water of the sea;
  at the same time that you behold to the south, the most delicious
  rural prospect in the world; at that very time, by a little turn of
  your head towards the north, you look full over Box Hill, and see the
  country beyond it, between that and London; and, over the very
  stomacher of it, see St. Paul’s at twenty-five miles distance, and
  London beneath it, and Highgate and Hampstead beyond it.”

LEMON _street_, 1. Goodman’s fields.† 2. Lowman’s Pond row, Southwark.†

LEMONTREE _yard_, Bedfordsbury.*

_St._ LEONARD’S _Eastcheap_, was dedicated to Leonard, a French saint,
  and mighty miracle-monger, and stood on the east side of Fish street
  hill, near Little Eastcheap; but being destroyed by the fire of London
  in 1666, and not rebuilt, the parish is annexed to that of St.
  Bennet’s Gracechurch street. _Maitland._

_St._ LEONARD’S _Foster lane_, was dedicated to the above-mentioned
  saint, and stood on the west side of Foster lane, Cheapside; but
  suffering in the fatal catastrophe of 1666, and not being rebuilt, the
  parish is annexed to that of Christ’s Church.

_St._ LEONARD’S _Shoreditch_. There was a church in this place dedicated
  to the same saint in very early times, and there are records of a
  dispute concerning itz in the reign of Henry II. The last structure,
  which was a very mean heavy pile, stood till the year 1735, when the
  inhabitants having the year before applied to parliament, it was
  pulled down, and the present light and elegant edifice was soon after
  erected in its room. _Strype’s edit. of Stow._

  To this church there is an ascent by a double flight of plain steps,
  which lead to a portico of the angular kind supported by four Doric
  columns, and bearing an angular pediment. The body of the edifice is
  plain, but well enlightened, and the steeple light, elegant and lofty.
  The tower at a proper height has a series of Ionic columns, and on
  their entablature are scrolls which support as many Corinthian columns
  placed on pedestals, and supporting a dome, from whose crown rises a
  series of columns of the Composite order, on whose entablature rests
  the spire standing upon four balls, which give it an additional air of
  lightness; and on the top, as usual, is a ball and fane.

  This church is both a rectory and a vicarage; but the distinct rights
  of the Rector and Vicar are said to be not thoroughly ascertained;
  however the profits of the vicarage amount to about 350_l._ a year.

LEOPARD _alley_, Saffron hill.*

LEOPARD’S _court_, Baldwin’s Gardens.

LESTER’S _yard_, Bluegate fields.†

LEVERIDGE’S _yard_, Nightingale lane.†

LEWISHAM, a town in Kent, situated on the river Ravensburn, between
  Blackheath and Surry. Here are two free schools, of which the
  Leathersellers company in London are Governors.

LEWIS’S _yard_, 1. Greenbank, Wapping.† 2. Saffron hill.†

LEYDON _street_, Shadwell market.†

LIDIER’S _court_, Saltpetre bank.†

LIFEGUARD _yard_, Oxford street.

LILLEY’S _alley_, Saffron hill.†

LILLIPOT _lane_, Noble street, Foster lane.†

LIMEHOUSE, was anciently a village above two miles distant from the city
  of London, though it is now joined by a continued chain of buildings:
  its original name was Limehurst, which has been corrupted to
  Limehouse, This, according to Mr. Stow, is a Saxon word signifying a
  grove of lime trees, and it was given to this village, on account of
  the number of those trees anciently in that neighbourhood.

LIMEHOUSE _bridge_, Limehouse.

LIMEHOUSE _causeway_, Limehouse.

LIMEHOUSE _corner_, Limehouse.

LIMEHOUSE _dock_, Narrow street, Limehouse.

LIMEHOUSE _Fore street_, at the end of Ratcliff Narrow street.

LIMEHOUSE HOLE, Limehouse.

LIMEHOUSE HOLE _stairs_, Limehouse.

LIMEHOUSE HOLE _street_, Limehouse.

LIMEHOUSE _road_, White Horse street.

LIMEKILN _dock_, Limehouse.

LIMEKILN _hill_, Limehouse.

LIMEKILN _yard_, Limehouse.

LIME _street_, extends from Leadenhall street into Fenchurch street, and
  is thus called from its being anciently a place where lime was either
  made or sold. _Maitland._

LIME STREET _square_, Lime street.

LIME STREET WARD, is very small, and is bounded on the north and east by
  Aldgate ward; on the south by Langbourn ward; and on the west, by
  Bishopsgate ward. It is observable that there is no church, nor whole
  street in this ward, though it runs through several parishes. Its
  principal buildings are the East India House, and Leadenhall.

  To this ward belong an Alderman and four Common Council men, including
  the Deputy, four constables, two scavengers, sixteen wardmote inquest
  men, and a beadle. The jurymen returned by the wardmote inquest serve
  as jurors in the several courts in Guildhall, in the month of
  November.

LIME TREE _court_, Narrow wall, Southwark.‡

LIMPSFIELD, a village near Croydon in Surry, in the Kent road.

LINCOLN’S INN, one of the four Inns of Court, is situated on the west
  side of Chancery lane, where formerly stood the houses of the Bishop
  of Chichester and of the Black Friars, the latter erected about the
  year 1222, and the former about 1226; but both of them coming to Henry
  Lacey, Earl of Lincoln, he built in their room a stately mansion for
  his city residence. It however afterwards reverted to the bishopric of
  Chichester, and was demised by Robert Sherbourn, Bishop of that see,
  to Mr. William Syliard, a student there, for a term of years; after
  the expiration of which Dr. Richard Sampson, his successor, in the
  year 1536 passed the inheritance thereof to the said Syliard and
  Eustace his brother; and the latter, in 1579, in consideration of the
  sum of 500_l._ conveyed the house and gardens in fee to Richard
  Kingsmill and the rest of the benchers.

  The charge of admission into this house, including fees, amount to
  5_l._ and every student, after studying there seven years, is admitted
  to the bar. The members are obliged to be a fortnight in commons every
  term, on the penalty of paying 18_s._ in case of absence. _Stow._
  _Maitland._

  Lincoln’s Inn principally consists of three rows of good buildings,
  all taken up by gentlemen of the society. These form three sides of
  the square, and here the buildings are all new and uniform, the north
  side lying open to the gardens, which are greatly improved with gravel
  walks, grass plats, rows of trees, and a very long terrace walk, which
  affords a fine prospect of Lincoln’s Inn Fields. In the middle of the
  square is a neat fluted Corinthian column in a small bason surrounded
  with iron bars. This column supports a handsome sun dial, which has
  four sides, and on the corners of the pedestal are four naked boys
  spouting water out of Tritons’ shells. This is one of the neatest
  squares in town, and tho’ it is imperfect on one side, that very
  defect produces a beauty by giving a prospect of the gardens, which
  are only separated from it by iron rails, and fill the space to
  abundantly more advantage. No area is kept in better order for
  cleanliness and beauty by day, or illuminations and decorum by night.
  The fountain in the middle is a pretty decoration. The print
  represents as much of the square as could be taken in the visual angle
  at one view, with the fountain in the middle, as it appears coming
  into it from Portugal row. This is one of the most considerable Inns
  of Court possessed by the gentlemen of the law. Here is a good hall
  and chapel of Gothic architecture. The latter was built by Inigo
  Jones, who notwithstanding his skill and reputation in architecture,
  could not persuade them to have it in any other stile.

  The above gardens, which are extremely pleasant and commodious, are,
  like those of Gray’s Inn, laid open for public use; the greatest part
  of the west side of the square is taken up with the offices belonging
  to the stamp duty. See STAMP OFFICE.

  A little behind the north east side of the square is the above chapel,
  which was built about the year 1622 or 1623, on pillars, with an
  ambulatory or walk underneath, paved with broad stones. This walk,
  particularly when illuminated by the lamps, inspires the mind with a
  kind of melancholy pleasure, that may be better felt than described.
  The outside of the chapel is a good piece of Gothic architecture, and
  the windows are painted with the figures at full length of the
  principal personages mentioned in the sacred Scriptures. On the twelve
  windows on the north side, are Abraham, Moses, Eli, David, and the
  prophets Daniel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Amos, and Zachariah, with
  John the Baptist, and St. Paul, and on the south side are the rest of
  the Apostles. Under these figures are the arms of a great number of
  the gentlemen belonging to this society. The colours in these
  paintings being extremely bright and beautiful, it is not at all
  surprizing that these pictures on glass should be much admired, though
  the designs are in reality but poor, and there is little expression in
  the faces.

  In the old buildings fronting the garden beyond the square, is the
  library, which consists of a good collection of books in several
  languages and faculties.


[Illustration:

  _S. Wale delin._ _J. Fougeron sculp._
  _Lincoln’s Inn._
]


LINCOLN’S INN FIELDS, is universally allowed to be the largest, and one
  of the most beautiful squares in London, if not in Europe. It is
  encompassed on three sides by houses, and on the east by the wall of
  the terrace of Lincoln’s Inn garden. The north side is called Newman’s
  row, the west side Arch row, the south side Portugal row, and the east
  side Lincoln’s Inn wall. This square was originally laid out by the
  masterly hand of Inigo Jones, and it is said that the sides of it are
  the exact measure of the great Pyramid of Egypt. It was intended to
  have been built all in the same stile; but there were not a sufficient
  number of people of taste, to accomplish so great a work. The house
  which was late the Duke of Ancaster’s, is built on this model; but
  elevated and improved so as to make it more suitable to the quality of
  the owner. It has that simple grandeur which characterises all the
  designs of the celebrated Inigo Jones. The print here given of it may
  serve to convey some idea not only of this particular house, but of
  the noble appearance which the whole square would have made had it
  been all built after this fine design.

  Some of the houses however in this square are grand and noble, but
  they are far from having that beauty which arises from uniformity. The
  square is now adorned with a fine bason in the middle, well supplied
  with water; and with grass plats and gravel walks, encompassed with an
  iron pallisade fixed upon a stone plinth, at a proper distance from
  the buildings.

LINCOLN’S INN _gate_, on the south side of Lincoln’s Inn square.

LINCOLN’S INN _passage_, on the west side of Lincoln’s Inn square.

LINTON’S _court_, Near New Gravel lane.†

LINTON’S _lane_, Newington Butts.†

LINTON’S _yard_, Milk yard, Shadwell.†

LION AND LAMB _alley_, Golden lane.*

LION’S _court_, Lutener’s Lane.†

LION’S INN, anciently a common Inn, with the sign of the Lion, is one of
  the Inns in Chancery, and is situated between Holiwell street and Wych
  street. It is a member of the Inner Temple, and is governed by a
  Treasurer and twelve Ancients, who with the other members are to be
  three weeks in commons in Michaelmas term, and a fortnight in each of
  the rest. _Chamberlain’s Present State._ _Maitland._

LION’S INN _court_, Lion’s Inn.*

LION’S _key_, Thames street.†

LION’S _street_, Bloomsbury.†

LION’S _yard_, Whitecross street.†

LIQUORPOND _street_, Leather lane.

LISLE _street_, Prince’s street, Soho.†

LISSHAM _Green_, a pleasant village near Paddington.

LITCHFIELD _street_, Soho.

LITTLE ALMONRY, by the Great Almonry, Westminster; so named from the
  alms given there. See the next article.

LITTLE ALMONRY _Almshouse_, situated in the Little Almonry, was founded
  by Henry VII. for the accommodation of twelve poor watermen and their
  wives, who annually receive of the Dean and Chapter of Westminster
  7_l._ 2_s._ 4_d._ each couple, with a purple gown every other year;
  and for the burial of a Duke, Marquis, or their Ladies in the Abbey,
  1_l._ 6_s._ 6_d._ and for that of an Earl, Baron, or their Ladies,
  10_s._ 6_d._

LITTLE _St._ ANDREW’S _street_, Seven Dials.

LITTLE _St._ ANN’S _lane_, 1. Old Pye street. 2. Peter street,
  Westminster.

LITTLE ARGYLE _street_, Argyle street, Great Marlborough street.†

LITTLE ARTHUR _street_, Great Arthur street, Goswell street.†

LITTLE ASHENTREE _court_, Water lane.‡

LITTLE AYLIFF _street_, Goodman’s Fields.†

LITTLE BACON _street_, Brick lane.†

LITTLE BAILEY _street_, Little Tower hill.†

LITTLE BANDYLEG _walk_, Queen street.

LITTLE BARTHOLOMEW CLOSE, Little Britain.

LITTLE BEAR _key_, Thames street. See BEAR _key_.

LITTLE BELL _alley_, 1. Coleman street.* 2. Grub street.*

LITTLE BENNET’S _court_, Marygold court.†

LITTLE BLACK HORSE _court_, Aldersgate street.

LITTLE BOOTH _street_, Coverley’s fields.

LITTLE BOSS _alley_, Thames street.

LITTLE BRICK _lane_, Nicol’s street.

LITTLE BRIDGES _street_, Bridges street.†

LITTLE BRITAIN, extends from Aldersgate street to Duck lane. This was
  anciently called Britain street, from the Duke of Britany’s palace
  situated in it near St. Botolph’s church.

LITTLE BROAD _street_, Broad street, London wall.

LITTLE BROOK’S _street_, Grosvenor square.†

LITTLE BUSH _lane_, Thames street.

LITTLE BUR _street_, Nightingale lane, East Smithfield.†

LITTLE CABLE _street_, 1. Cable street, Rag Fair.† 2. Wellclose square.†

LITTLE CARTER _lane_, Old Change.†

LITTLE CASTLE _street_, Winsley street.*

LITTLE CATHARINE _street_, In the Strand.

LITTLE CHANDOS _street_, St. Martin’s lane.

LITTLE CHAPEL _street_, 1. Great Wardour street. 2. By New Chapel
  street, Westminster.

LITTLE CHEAPSIDE, Three Cranes, Thames street.

LITTLE CHEAPSIDE _yard_, Three Crane alley.

LITTLE COCK _alley_, 1. Redcross street, Cripplegate.* 2. Whitecross
  street, Cripplegate.*

LITTLE COCK _hill_, Ratcliff.†

LITTLE _court_, 1. Duke’s Place, by Aldgate. 2. St. Mary Overies church
  yard.

LITTLE CROW _alley_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.*

LITTLE CROWDER’S WELL _alley_, Jewin street.

LITTLE CROWN _alley_, Long Alley, Moorfields.*

LITTLE DEAN’S _court_, St. Martin’s le Grand.

LITTLE DEAN’S _yard_, Dean’s Yard, Westminster.

LITTLE DICE _key_, Thames street.

LITTLE DISTAFF _lane_, Old Change.

LITTLE DRURY _lane_, in the Strand.

LITTLE DUKE’S PLACE, or _court_, Leadenhall street.

LITTLE DUNNING’S _alley_, near Bishopsgate street.†

LITTLE EARL _street_, Seven Dials.†

LITTLE EASTCHEAP, Gracechurch street.

LITTLE ELBOW _lane_, 1. In Great Elbow lane, Thames street. 2. Ratcliff.

LITTLE ESSEX _street_, Essex street, in the Strand.

LITTLE FLOWER DE LUCE _court_, Cowcross.*

LITTLE FRIARS _gate_, Fleet street, leading to White Friars.

LITTLE FRIDAY _street_, Friday street, Cheapside.

LITTLE GEORGE _street_, 1. Great George street, Conduit street. 2. Great
  George street, Spitalfields.

LITTLE GLOUCESTER _court_, Chequer alley, Whitecross street.

LITTLE GLOUCESTER _street_, Whitecross street, Cripplegate.

LITTLE GRAY’S INN _lane_, Gray’s Inn lane, Holborn.

LITTLE GREENWICH, Aldersgate street.

LITTLE GREENWICH _alley_, Aldersgate street.

LITTLE GROSVENOR _street_, Grosvenor square.

LITTLE GUN _alley_, Orchard, Wapping.*

LITTLE HART _street_, near Covent Garden.

LITTLE _St._ HELEN’S, Bishopsgate street. See _St._ HELEN’S.

LITTLE _St._ HELEN’S _Almshouse_, was erected by the Leathersellers
  company, pursuant to the will of John Hasilwood, of Waltham, Esq; in
  the year 1544, for the reception of four men and three women, who were
  allowed by the founder only 8_d._ per week each; but by other
  benefactions, and the bounty of the company, they now receive 2_s._
  weekly, and six bushels of coals at Christmas. _Maitland._

LITTLE _St._ HELEN’S _court_, Bishopsgate street within.

LITTLE HERMITAGE _street_, Wapping.

LITTLE HOLLIS’S _street_, Hanover square.†

LITTLE HOWARD’S _yard_, Angel alley.†

LITTLE JERMAIN _street_, St. James’s street.

LITTLE JOHN’S _street_, Davis’s street.

LITTLE ISLAND, New Gravel lane.

LITTLE IVY _lane_, Ivy lane.‡

LITTLE KING’S HEAD _court_, near Shoe lane, Fleet street.

LITTLE KING’S _street_, St. James’s street.

LITTLE KIRBY _street_, Hatton garden.†

LITTLE KNIGHTRIDER _street_, Great Knightrider street, by Addle hill.

LITTLE LAMB _alley_, Blackman street.*

LITTLE LAST _alley_, East Smithfield.*

LITTLE LOMBARD _street_, Lombard street, by the Mansion house.

LITTLE LOVE _lane_, Wood street, Cheapside.

LITTLE MADDOX _street_, New Bond street.

LITTLE MARLBOROUGH _street_, Carnaby street.

LITTLE MARSH _yard_, near Wapping.

LITTLE _St._ MARTIN’S _lane_, Charing Cross.

LITTLE MATCH _walk_, Upper Shadwell.

LITTLE MAYPOLE _alley_, St. Margaret’s hill.

LITTLE MAZEPOND _street_, in the Maze.

LITTLE MINORIES, that part of the Minories which is railed in, and is
  out of the city liberties. See the article MINORIES.

LITTLE MINORIES _court_, Little Minories.

LITTLE MITCHELL’S _street_, Old street.†

LITTLE MONTAGUE _court_, Little Britain.

LITTLE MONTAGUE _street_, 1. Crispin street, Spitalfields. 2. Pelham
  street.

LITTLE MOORFIELDS, Fore street, Moorgate.

LITTLE MOOR _yard_, St. Martin’s lane, Charing Cross.†

LITTLE MOUSE _alley_, East Smithfield.

LITTLE NEW _court_, Lamb alley.

LITTLE NEWPORT _street_, Great Newport lane.

LITTLE NEW _street_, New street, Shoe lane.

LITTLE NEW STREET _hill_, near Shoe lane.

LITTLE NIGHTINGALE _lane_, Burr street.

LITTLE NORTHUMBERLAND _alley_, Crutched Friars.

LITTLE NOTTINGHAM _street_, Dyot street.

LITTLE OLD BAILEY, Great Old Bailey.

LITTLE ORMOND _street_, 1. Southampton row. 2. Red Lion street, Holborn.

LITTLE ORMOND _yard_, Ormond street.

LITTLE PEARL _street_, Lamb street, Spitalfields.*

LITTLE PETER _street_, 1. Little Windmill street. 2. Tufton street.

LITTLE PORTLAND _street_, Portland street.

LITTLE PRESCOT _street_, Goodman’s fields.†

LITTLE PRINCE’S _street_, 1. Near High Holborn. 2. Old Soho.

LITTLE QUEEN _street_, 1. Dean street, Soho. 2. High Holborn. 3. King
  street, Rotherhith. 4. Queen street, Wapping. 5. Westminster.

LITTLE RIDER’S _court_, Little Newport street.†

LITTLE RIDER _street_, St. James’s street.†

LITTLE ROPE _walk_, Goswell street.

LITTLE RUSSEL _street_, 1. Bloomsbury. 2. Drury lane.

LITTLE RUTLAND _court_, Addle hill.

LITTLE SANCTUARY, King street, Westminster.

LITTLE SCOTLAND _yard_, Whitehall.

LITTLE SHEER _lane_, Sheer lane, Temple bar.

LITTLE SMITH _street_, Smith street, Marsham street.†

LITTLE SPRING _street_, Spring street, Shadwell.

LITTLE STAR _alley_, Mark lane.*

LITTLE STONE _stairs_, Ratcliff.

LITTLE SUFFOLK _street_, Haymarket.

LITTLE SWALLOW _street_, Swallow street.

LITTLE SWAN _alley_, 1. Coleman street.* 2. Goswell street.* 3. Mount
  Mill.* 4. St. John’s street, West Smithfield.* 5. Three colts yard,
  London Wall.*

LITTLE SWORDBEARERS _alley_, Chiswell street.

LITTLE _St._ THOMAS APOSTLE’S _lane_, Queen street, Cheapside.

LITTLE THOMPSON’S _rents_, Half Moon alley, Coleman street.†

LITTLE THREE TUN _alley_, Near Whitechapel.*

LITTLE TOWER HILL, At the bottom of the Minories.

LITTLE TOWER _street_, At the west end of Tower street.

LITTLE TRINITY _lane_, In Trinity lane, Bow lane.

LITTLE TURNSTILE _alley_, High Holborn.

LITTLE TWYFORD’S _alley_, St. Ermin’s hill.†

LITTLE VINE _street_, Vine street.*

LITTLE WARDOUR _street_, Tweed street.

LITTLE WARNER _street_, Cold Bath fields.†

LITTLE WARWICK _street_, Cockspur street.

LITTLE WHITE BEAR _court_, Black Friars.*

LITTLE WHITE LION _street_, Seven Dials.*

LITTLE WILD _street_, Great Wild street.†

LITTLE WINCHESTER _street_, London Wall.

LITTLE WINDMILL _street_, Near Cambridge street.

LITTLE WOOD _street_, Cripplegate.

LITTLE YORK _street_, Cock lane, Shoreditch.

LITTLETON _street_, Golden lane.†

LITTON _street_, Golden lane.†

LLOYD’S _court_, 1. Denmark street, Soho.† 2. Hog lane, St. Giles’s.†

LLOYD’S _street_, Prince’s street, Soho.†

LLOYD’S _yard_, Skinner’s street.†

LOCK HOSPITAL, near Hyde Park Corner, for the cure of the venereal
  disease. This charitable foundation was established, and is still
  supported by the voluntary contributions of gentlemen, who have had
  the humanity to consider, that pain and misery, however produced,
  entitle frail mortals to relief from their fellow creatures. They
  therefore, in imitation of the munificence of the Almighty, who causes
  his sun to shine on the evil and the good, afford relief equally to
  the innocent and the guilty.

  Patients were first received into this hospital on the 31st of January
  1747, since which time to the 10th of March 1752, there were
  discharged from it 1432; besides those who received benefit from it,
  by being out-patients; and the in-patients cured from the 10th of
  March 1752, to the 10th of March 1753, amounted to 308; besides
  twenty-one cured as out-patients. In that year four died, and at that
  last period, there were forty patients in the house, and five
  out-patients.

  Among the above unhappy objects were several married women, children
  and infants, many of whom were admitted by the weekly committee, even
  without any other recommendation than their distress, they being
  almost naked, pennyless and starving. The virtuous, the humane reader
  will be astonished at reading, that at the end of the above period,
  among the other miserable objects who found relief, were upwards of
  sixty children from two to ten or twelve years old, who became
  infected from ways little suspected by the generality of mankind; from
  the absurd opinion, imbibed by the lower class, both males and
  females, that by communicating this loathsome disease to one that is
  sound, they will get rid of it themselves; and from this principle,
  which is contradicted by daily experience, the most horrid acts of
  barbarity have been frequently committed on poor little infants; and
  thus these vile wretches have entailed the most dreadful disease on
  these innocent infants, without affording the least relief to
  themselves. This the Governors have thought their duty to publish, in
  order, as much as possible, to root out from among mankind an opinion
  at once so base, so false, and productive of such cruelty.

  From the above account of the happy success of this charity, its great
  usefulness must appear extremely obvious to every humane well disposed
  person: and many such may be induced to contribute to it, when they
  are informed that any sum not less than a guinea a year, will be
  acceptable.

  Every gentleman subscribing 5_l._ a year, or upwards, is a Governor of
  this hospital; and whoever gives a benefaction of 50_l._ at one time,
  is a Governor for life: but no Governor above two years in arrear, can
  have any power or privilege as a Governor, till he has paid his
  arrears.

  A committee of at least five of the Governors meet every Saturday
  morning at ten o’clock, to admit and discharge patients, adjust the
  weekly accounts, receive the reports of the visitors, and examine the
  affairs of the house.

  Two of the contributors are appointed weekly by the committee to
  examine every day into the behaviour of the patients and nurses, and
  make their report, as it shall appear to them, at the next weekly
  board.

  The orders of the house are:

  I. That no patient is to be admitted but who brings a recommendation
  in writing, signed by a Governor, or one of the weekly committee.

  II. That all recommendations for the admission of patients are
  received every Saturday morning till eleven o’clock.

  III. Every patient is obliged to submit to the rules and orders of the
  house, or be discharged for irregularity.

  IV. No person discharged for irregularity, can ever be received into
  the house again, on any recommendation whatsoever.

  V. That no Governor have more than one patient in the house at a time;
  and that a preference be always given to those who subscribe the
  largest sums, so far as the case of the patient will admit.

  VI. That no nurse, or any other person belonging to this hospital, do
  presume to take any reward whatsoever from any patient, either at
  their admission, continuance in the house, or discharge out of it, on
  pain of being immediately expelled, by order of the next weekly board.

  VII. That no security at the admission of any patient be required for
  his burial; but when any patient dies in the hospital, he or she shall
  be buried at the expence of the society, unless it be otherwise
  desired by the friends of the deceased.

  The contributors are desired to send their subscriptions to the
  Treasurer at the weekly board, held every Saturday morning in the
  hospital; and in order to supply the current expence of the charity,
  the subscribers are requested to pay their annual subscriptions in
  advance.

  There is a poor’s box in the public hall, for the reception of small
  sums, or from such as are not willing to have their names inserted in
  the list of subscribers.

LOCK HOSPITAL, at the south east corner of Kent street, in Southwark,
  was anciently a house for the reception and cure of lepers: but at
  present it belongs to St. Bartholomew’s hospital in this city, and
  with the Lock at Kingsland, is appropriated to the cure of venereal
  patients.

  It is a small neat edifice, and has been lately rebuilt. It has a row
  of trees before, and a garden behind, with a wall next the street. At
  the south end is the chapel, built about an hundred and twenty years
  ago.

LOCK HOSPITAL, at Kingsland. See KINGSLAND.

LOCKWOOD’S _yard_, Saffron hill.†

LODISE’S _alley_, Saltpetre Bank.†

LODISE’S _court_, Saltpetre Bank.†

LOGSDOWN _yard_, Middle row, Holborn.

LOLLARDS TOWER, the southernmost of two stone towers which stood at the
  west of St. Paul’s cathedral before the fire of London; which being
  used as the Bishop of London’s prison for such as were found guilty of
  the supposed crime of maintaining opinions contrary to the faith of
  the church of Rome, and many of the followers of Wickliff, who were
  called Lollards, being here imprisoned, it obtained the name of the
  Lollards Tower. Among these persecuted people were Mr. Richard Hunne,
  a citizen of London, a person well beloved, and of a fair character,
  who in the year 1515 was imprisoned here, under the pretence of having
  Wickliff’s bible; tho’ the occasion of his ruin was a dispute he had
  with a clerk about a mortuary, which was made the cause of the whole
  clergy. This man however submitted to the Bishop’s correction, upon
  which he ought to have been enjoined penance and set at liberty; but
  he was found hanging in his chamber, with his neck broken; and the
  Bishop’s sumner owned that he, with Dr. Horsey the Bishop’s
  chancellor, and the bell-ringer, had committed the murder. Upon this
  the coroner’s inquest proceeded to trial; but the Bishop began a new
  process against the dead body for heresy, and his persecutors not
  satisfied with having him murdered, caused the corpse to be burnt in
  Smithfield. _Maitland._

LOLLARDS TOWER, at Lambeth. See LAMBETH.

LOMBARD _court_, 1. Seven Dials. 2. West street, Soho.

LOMBARD _street_, 1. On the back of Cornhill, extends from the mansion
  house of the Lord Mayor, to Gracechurch street. Lombard street was
  anciently, as well as at present, inhabited by bankers, the first of
  whom were Italians chiefly from Lombardy, whence the word Lombards
  became anciently applied to all bankers, and this street retained the
  name of Lombards or Bankers street. _Stow._ 2. In Coverley’s fields.
  3. In White Friars. 4. In the Mint, Southwark.


                      _The End of the_ THIRD VOLUME.


------------------------------------------------------------------------



  ● Transcriber’s Notes:
     ○ Some of the illustrations have been moved to be closer to their
       descriptions.
     ○ The decorative line that separates chapters was missing from
       chapter “L”. Perhaps because it is the only chapter, after the
       first, that begins at the top of a page. The decorative line from
       an earlier chapter was used.
     ○ There is no section for streets and buildings beginning with the
       letter “I”. They are mixed in with the “J”s.
     ○ Missing or obscured punctuation was silently corrected.
     ○ Typographical errors were silently corrected.
     ○ Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation were made consistent only
       when a predominant form was found in this book.
     ○ The use of a carat (^) before one or more letters shows they were
       intended to be superscripts, as in S^t Bartholomew or L^{d.}
       Egemont.
     ○ Text that was in italics is enclosed by underscores (_italics_).





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