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´╗┐Title: Life in Southern Prisons
 - From the Diary of Corporal Charles Smedley, of Company G, 90th Regiment Penn'a Volunteers, Commencing a Few Days Before the "Battle of the Wilderness", In Which He Was Taken Prisoner ... Also, a Short Description of the March to and Battle of Gettysburg, Together with a Biographical Sketch of the Author
Author: Smedley, Charles
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Life in Southern Prisons
 - From the Diary of Corporal Charles Smedley, of Company G, 90th Regiment Penn'a Volunteers, Commencing a Few Days Before the "Battle of the Wilderness", In Which He Was Taken Prisoner ... Also, a Short Description of the March to and Battle of Gettysburg, Together with a Biographical Sketch of the Author" ***

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|Transcriber's note:                              |
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|Obvious typographic errors have been corrected.  |
|                                                 |

[Illustration: Your Friend Chas. Smedley]












"If it is never to be my lot to return to you, remember me only as one
who went to do his duty."--C. SMEDLEY. _Letter to parents, dated 8th
mo. 14th, 1862._



April 7th, 1865. At a regular meeting of the FULTON AID
SOCIETY, "New Business" being in order, the following resolutions
were offered and unanimously adopted:

_Resolved_, That the "Fulton Aid Society" request of the friends of the
late CHARLES SMEDLEY, that a copy of his diary, kept while a
prisoner at Andersonville, Georgia, be furnished for the purpose of

_Resolved_, That a Committee consisting of four members of the
association be appointed to receive the manuscript, prepare it for
publication, and that it be authorized to have printed an edition of
four hundred copies for the use of the Society.

In conformity with the above resolutions, the following were appointed
the Committee:

CHAS. H. STUBBS, M. D., Chairman.


The following pages contain a plain, unvarnished statement of facts
that occurred under the notice of one who was so unfortunate as to be
taken prisoner by those who sought to destroy and dissever our glorious
country. As will be perceived, it is written with great care, hence its

It was thought best to print the author's diary, just as it was
received, without any amplification, save that absolutely necessary
for the press. To the reader we will say that Dr. Buckley was one of
our surgeons who fell into the hands of the Confederates. Corporal Wm.
Griffith, of Company G, 90th Regiment P. V., was taken prisoner along
with Charles Smedley. He is spoken of as "Griffith."

With these few explanations we offer this little book to our citizens,
feeling confident that it will be purchased and read by many of them.

In purchasing this work you contribute your mite towards alleviating
the condition of those whose sufferings are so well set forth in its




Charles Smedley, eldest son of Joel and Martha Smedley, was born in
Fulton Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, on the first day
of November, 1836. Until his nineteenth year he remained at home,
assisting his father in farming during the Summer seasons, and in the
Winter attending the public school of the district. Having mastered
the elementary branches usually taught in the district schools, and
desiring to acquire a knowledge of the higher scientific studies, he
entered as a student in the celebrated Friends' School at Westtown,
on the seventh of May, 1855. While at this institution, he pursued
the studies he had chosen with great diligence and success. By close
application he attained an honorable standing in his class; and his
strict deportment merited the high approbation of his preceptors and
the confidence of all his companions.

On the eleventh of April, 1856, after spending nearly a year
at Westtown, he returned home and again assisted his father in
superintending the mills and managing the farm. This engaged his
attention for the next two years.

In the Spring of 1858 he concluded to commence business for himself.
That of a merchant suggested itself; but feeling deficient in knowledge
necessary to success if he engaged in this business, he resolved to
prepare himself by taking a mercantile course. With this object in
view, on the fifth of May, 1858, he entered the Lancaster County Normal
School at Millersville. While at Millersville he became an active an
influential member of the Page Society--a noted literary association
connected with the Normal School.

Having remained one term at the Normal School, he returned to his
native place in the Fall, and on the thirteenth of October, 1858,
entered into an agreement with his father to take the grist and saw
mills "on the shares." He continued to have charge of the mills for
two year, and met with good success. During these two years he took an
active interest in every movement that would have a tendency to improve
the moral condition of society.

Believing strongly in the influence to be exerted by example, he
joined several associations, whose object was of a reformatory
character. Uniting himself with the Odd Fellows and Good Templars,
he took an active part in the business of both of these orders. In
these associations he was among the first to see that the rules were
implicitly obeyed and kept inviolate. On one occasion a fellow member
of the order of Odd Fellows was on trial for violating one of the sworn
conditions on which he entered the lodge, by persisting in getting
intoxicated whenever he felt disposed. The member who was most opposed
to continuing this habitual drunkard in the lodge was Charles Smedley.
In his little speech made in opposition, he boldly and fearlessly
asserted that it was immaterial what position the person on trial might
occupy--by his late actions the accused had unfitted himself to be
continued any longer in the association, and in his opinion should be

In the Order of Good Templars Chas. Smedley attained the highest
position in the Lodge of which he was a member. Through his influence
many other young men were induced to join and forever eschew that
accursed evil which has led to the ruin of many noble youths and caused
them to fill premature graves.

On the twenty-first of April, 1862, he gave up his interest in the
mills, having in contemplation a visit to some of the northern cities.
After traveling several weeks in central New York, and spending a
few days in the great Eastern Metropolis, young Smedley returned to
Pennsylvania on the twenty-first of May.

The great rebellion had now been in progress for a year. Throughout the
sections of country visited by him, the young men of the North were
rapidly volunteering for their country's defense. Thinking it was not
right for him to travel now and spend his time, he came home with the
determination of serving his country in her hour of peril.

Well knowing that the consent of his parents could not be obtained,
(they being members of the Society of Friends, one of the most
important tenets of which is "a testimony against war,") he bid them
adieu and started for Philadelphia, where, on the 29th of May, 1862, he
enlisted as a member of Company G, 90th Regiment Penna. Volunteers.

For some the life of a soldier has its attractions. The sound of
martial music, the gay uniform, the novelty of camp life, and the
desire for fame--all contribute to allure many into the military
service. None of these inducements had any weight with Charles Smedley.
No one had a greater hatred of war; but like many others, he felt
that this war was prosecuted on the part of the North for _National
existence_, and as such differed from wars of aggression. Hence he
thought it was _his duty_, as it was the duty of every man, to assist
in putting down the rebellion. Maintaining these views, and from
motives of the highest patriotism, Chas. Smedley joined the army "for
three years or the war."

In a letter written to the author of this sketch, soon after he
enlisted, dated "Front Royal, 6th mo. 16th, 1862," he says: "After
traveling through the different parts of the country and witnessing
the state of things caused by this rebellion, I, by degrees, made up
my mind that the larger the force that we could put in the field,
the sooner would this rebellion be crushed, and it was the duty of
every person, who could, to volunteer. Having no business to require
my attention, that I liked, and believing that if ever I lent my aid
in suppressing this rebellion, now was the time, hence my present

In a letter dated "6th mo. 19th, 1862," addressed to one of his
relatives, in answer to the question, "how he liked soldiering?" he
replied: "If I were at home, perhaps I would find more pleasure; but to
take everything into consideration, it is every man's duty to try and
put down this rebellion. I did not expect to like a soldier's life when
I left home, but can honestly say that I like it better than I expected

From a letter written to his parents, dated "7th mo. 4th, 1862," we
take the following beautiful and patriotic sentiments: "I am sorry to
hear that you cannot help being uneasy about me. This regiment, as yet,
has not been in any dangerous positions, and may not during the war.
As far as myself is concerned, I have no fears and feel it my duty to
go wherever the regiment is ordered. The question often comes into my
mind, "have I done right?" To this my conscience answers that I have,
and must continue to do my duty. The longer I remain the more firmly I
am impressed that I am doing nothing but my simple duty and all will
come out right in the end. And being thus impressed I move along with
a light heart and nothing to fear. To be frank, I put my trust in the
Almighty ruler above, and believe whatever _my fate shall be_, will be
in accordance with His will. I know that my course is very inconsistent
with our discipline,[1] but I believe that at present I owe a higher
duty to my country. I hope that it may be restored to us, more peaceful
and prosperous than ever; and if it is my fortune to get back safely
home, I can congratulate myself upon having done my duty."

From Philadelphia, after enlisting, Charles Smedley was sent to
Washington, and from thence to Front Royal, a small town west of the
Blue Ridge, where the 90th Regiment was then encamped. He joined
it just previous to the advance of our forces sent to intercept
"Stonewall" Jackson, in his progress down the Shenandoah Valley. He
continued with the regiment, and was with it up to the time of the
second battle of Bull Run. For more than a week previous to this
engagement, he had made application to be sent to the hospital, being
weak and exhausted from disease. On the morning of the battle,[2] he
declared he would not send in his application to be sent to the rear,
because the impression might exist that he was trying to evade his duty
in time of danger. By almost superhuman exertion he managed to go into
the fight, but in the retreat of our forces, becoming fatigued and
prostrated, he was compelled to remain in the rear, and the consequence
was he fell into the hands of the enemy.

In a few days he was paroled and forwarded to our lines, and then sent
by the Federal authorities to Annapolis, Maryland. He arrived home on
the 29th of October, 1862, and remained until the 18th of February,
1863, when he was regularly exchanged.

Joining the regiment a second time, he continued with it over thirteen
months. While in the service he participated in the battles of Cedar
Mountain, second Bull Run, Rappahannock Station, Chancellorsville,
Thoroughfare Gap, Gettysburg, and the Wilderness. In all these battles
young Smedley performed his duty nobly. In the first day's fight at
Gettysburg he narrowly escaped with his life--a ball grazing him on
the neck and another on the hip. In the second and third day's fights
the 90th Regiment was engaged on the memorable Cemetery ridge. After
the defeat of the rebel hordes on the heights of Gettysburg, our
army followed the remainder of the enemy's forces to the banks of the
Rapidan. While encamped on this stream, the subject of our sketch
received the sad news of affliction among "the loved ones at home." His
mother, brother and sister being dangerously ill--the two former dying
soon afterwards.

From a letter written to his sister on the reception of the sad
intelligence, we copy the following: "It is a great trial to me to have
to be separated from you when I think of the present state of things.
Perhaps all is for the best, and we should not complain. We are but
poor creatures and must submit to the Almighty Ruler who holds our fate
in the "hollow of his hand." In the language of the christian, "why
should we not put our trust in Him, and pray for Him to bring us out
of all our trials and afflictions?" Perhaps we have not been thankful
enough for all the blessings we enjoy. Give my love to all my old
friends. I often think of the many pleasant times we have had at home.
I hope I may again have the pleasure of meeting you all there, and not
say, as Byron, of home,

     'Fare thee well, and if forever,
     Still, forever fare thee well.'"

At the battle of the Wilderness, on the 5th of May, 1864, Charles
Smedley was captured a second time, and, as we are informed in his
diary, was taken by the Confederates to Gordonsville, thence to
Danville, from Danville to the prisoners' pen at Andersonville,
Georgia, and lastly to Florence, South Carolina. At Andersonville he
remained nearly four months in a stockade filled with thousands of
Northern patriots. Here he suffered untold hardships, being exposed
to the scorching rays of the sun, the cold atmosphere of the night,
and to frequent storms of rain. The premeditated, gradual starvation
process of his vile captors, together with the constant exposure to all
kinds of weather, did its work effectually. His health at last became
impaired and his physical constitution forever shattered. On the
thirteenth of September, along with many others, he reached the town of
Florence, where he was placed in another pen, in every respect similar
to the one he had left at Andersonville. Here his sufferings increased.
Being much reduced, and possessing hardly sufficient strength to assist
himself, he was at last admitted into what was termed a hospital.
In this hospital he lingered along for a few weeks, when his system
gradually succumbed from the effects of hunger and exposure.

During the night of the sixteenth of November, 1864, the spirit of
Charles Smedley left its mortal tenement for other realms. His body was
prepared for burial by a few of his fellow soldiers, and was interred
in the burying ground a short distance north-northwest of the stockade,
in Florence, South Carolina.

In the person of Charles Smedley there were nicely blended many of the
noblest traits of human character. As a religious and moral young man
he had few equals. From his early youth he had a strong aversion to
all those evil habits which have so often been the stepping stones to
vice in its most hideous forms. Profanity and the use of that filthy
narcotic weed, proved harmless as tempters to him. Still less powerful
was that subtle enemy of mankind, which "quickeneth and giveth color to
the cup, and stingeth like an adder."[3]

In all his transactions his rule was to do that only which his
conscience told him was right. His goodness of heart, his amiable
disposition, gained him many friends, and wherever known, whether at
home in his native township, or in the army of his country, none knew
him other than the noble young man and soldier.

To-day the remains of Charles Smedley, along with those of thousands of
other patriotic martyrs, lie in the trenches near Florence. No marble
pile or grass covered mound will, in all probability, ever mark his
last resting place, but his name will be ever cherished and held in
remembrance by his friends, as one who was willing to offer up his life
that his country might live.


[1] Reference is here made to the Friends' discipline--he being a
member by birthright.

[2] I think it was the 29th of August, 1862, the second battle of Bull
Run occurred, and he was made prisoner.

[3] In a letter to his father, dated 8th mo. 16th, 1863, written while
the army was at Rappahannock Station, we find the following extract:
"When I enlisted, I made a resolution that I, as long as I was in the
service, would neither use profane language, smoke or chew tobacco, or
drink intoxicating liquors. This resolution I have strictly adhered to,
and I believe I am a happier man for it."


_1st day, 5th mo. 1st, 1864._ Camp near Mitchell's Station, Va. Had
regimental inspection this morning at ten o'clock by Capt. W. Davis.
The parade was formed, then moved to the rear into columns, and as we
were critically inspected yesterday, we were dismissed. I was busy the
rest of the day helping Johnson to fix up the clothing books, and as
the pay rolls were not right, we had to go to work and make out three
more, leaving out ten deserters, which were taken up wrong on them at
first. J. C. Kimball wrote one while Johnson and I wrote the others.
Received my Baltimore American.

_2d day, 5th mo. 2d._ Done nothing of any account all day. Was nice

_3d day, 5th mo. 3d._ This was a nice warm day. Each company was out at
target practice one or two hours this afternoon. Each of us shot five
rounds. Some talk of us moving.

_4th day, 5th mo. 4th._ We were told at nine last evening to have
everything packed, as we would likely have to move. Drew six days'
rations of coffee, sugar and crackers and two days' rations of pork.
We were called up at twelve o'clock last night, packed up, and by
three o'clock were on the march. Marched towards Piney Mountain, where
we arrived about sunrise, and made a short halt. We were in the rear
of the first brigade. Marched past Stephensburg, thence crossed the
Rapidan at twelve o'clock on a pontoon bridge. There were two bridges
of canvas-covered boats at Germania ford. After stopping a short time,
took up the march and followed the plank road, and after going five
or eight miles, halted and bivouacked for the night on a high hill
near the right of the road. The day was very warm after the sun rose.
We were forced as fast as it was possible for us to go--stragglers
fell out by hundreds--no brigade or regiment seemed to be together
in the after part of the day. I had to fall out, and threw away my
mess kettle, some of my clothes, pork, and several other things, and
then could no more than keep up. Halted with the little part of the
regiment, took a good bath, and made supper of bread, pork and coffee.
We seemed to be in the rear and with the General's headquarters. Went
to bed on the ground about 8 P. M.

_5th day, 5th mo. 5th._ Five o'clock A. M. Slept well last night. Were
called up at three this morning, got our breakfasts and made ready to
move. Are now awaiting orders. The birds are playing around us and
the day promises to be a pleasant one. Seven A. M. Have moved out
and halted to the right of the road--are six miles from Mine Run and
fifteen from Fredericksburg. Gen'l Warren's headquarters are near us.
We appear to be pretty well in the rear. Col. ---- commands the first
brigade. Have not heard of any rebels yet in front. Gen'l Burnside
is said to be in the rear guarding fifteen hundred wagons. The sun
is coming out hot--the weather clear and sultry. Twelve M. Have been
laying down since six o'clock. The Sixth Corps has passed down the
plank road to take position on our left. Heard some heavy musketry
firing towards our left. It is said to be all cavalry fighting. From
what I know we are in the reserve. Gen'l Robinson's headquarters are
within a hundred yards of us. There is also a signal station near the
headquarters. This is near the Wilderness tavern. There is a house on
the hill near here where "Stonewall" Jackson was taken after he was
wounded at Chancellorsville. The sun is burning hot.

_6th day, 5th mo. 6th._ Nine o'clock A. M. At one o'clock yesterday
we advanced as a forward guard centre, we being the third regiment in
line from the position we occupied at 12 M. Kept on through woods for
a half mile, then the other regiment halted and deployed, and helped
us on the second line, with our right resting on the turnpike. The
front line was busily engaged as we advanced--the bullets flew thick
and fast around us, mostly high. About two o'clock we advanced the
second time, about two hundred yards, and lay down under a heavy fire
where we remained until six o'clock. All the time we lay under a fire
from the rebels, who were less than a quarter of a mile off. They had
a battery on the left of the pike which occasionally threw shells and
solid shot in good range over us, cutting off the limbs of the trees;
only a few were low enough to come near us. One solid shot lit in the
centre of our company, and plowed the ground up under Audenreid's feet,
bursting his canteen and throwing the dirt over the men around him,
without doing any more damage. At six o'clock P. M., an officer, I do
not know who, came up and gave us the order to "advance with the 39th
Massachusetts." After the order was repeated twice, we started, going
over dead and wounded who had been slaughtered by hundreds, and lay
thick on the ground we went over. The rebels did not fire a shot until
after we got out into the open plain, and then they opened with grape
and canister and volleys of musketry. After going to the bottom of the
hill and up halfway towards the enemy's battery, the Colonel gave the
order to "about face." I had stopped to cap my piece, and before I got
it done the regiment was going back on a double-quick. I followed in
the rear, and coming to a ditch, fell into it, and on looking up saw
our fellows going up the hill towards our line. The bullets flew so
thick that I thought it next thing to getting shot to get out of the
ditch, and after a few moments concluded I had better stay where I
was until after dark, and then get up the hill into our lines. I soon
noticed that the ditch was full of men. After hallooing to those above
and below me, I found that Griffith, Edwards and Fry of our company,
and one of company B's men were near us. We all thought we had better
stay where we were until after dark. I went to Edwards and there found
a man who told us to lay still and he would take us off after a while.
Edwards asked him who he was. He said he was a Confederate officer.
On looking up the ditch, which was deep above us, I saw some of the
enemy's sharp shooters and skirmishers, and it was plain to be seen
that we were in their power. The officer ordered us to disarm ourselves
and it would be all right. We were taken about half-past seven o'clock
into the Confederate lines, to the pike, then to the rear for about
half a mile and kept under guard. As we were going off I found Sergeant
M., of company --; picked him up and took him with us. He had been
knocked down but was not hurt. Sergeant Riley I also picked up. I told
him how we were situated. Griffith gave him a canteen of water, and
then we were ordered to come on. He was trying to play it, I thought. I
am certain half our regiment was lost. Griffith and I went to work and
made some coffee in a pot that I picked up in the morning. About nine
P. M., twelve of our company and some more of the 90th were brought in.
Everything, while I was awake, was quiet. Griffith and I made a bed
and slept together. I did not get to sleep until after twelve o'clock.
At day-break this morning I was awakened by artillery firing. I got
up and went to the creek, got a pot of water and made some coffee,
and then awakened Griffith and we took our breakfast. At six A. M.
we were ordered to fall in; we got our things, and were marched to
Robertson's Tavern, where we are at present. From seven to half-past
eight there was some very sharp musketry up the pike. The guards are
busy trading with the boys; there are about fifty of us here. Ten A. M.
All seems to be quiet in front. Night--Lay under guard all day; heard
no fighting of any account to-day. Things appear to be quiet in front.
The ambulances brought in a great many wounded men all day.

_7th day, 5th mo. 7th._ Were marched, some two hundred and seventy
of us, to Orange Court House, then put aboard the cars and taken to

_1st day, 5th mo. 8th._ Kept here all day. Where we were last night we
drew one day's rations of corn meal, beef and salt. I was commissary
for a squad of twenty-five men. Sent a letter home. The sun was burning

_2d day, 5th mo. 9th._ We were put into a house forty by fifty feet
square last night and came near smothering. We were taken out this
morning. Made mush for breakfast. Had to stay out in the sun all day.
Part of us were sent to Lynchburg yesterday--some more came last night.
Griffith and I laid down after supper to rest for the night. Drew one
ration of corn meal and herring--three of the latter to each man.

_3d day, 5th mo., 10th._ Soon after we got to bed last night we were
ordered to pack up. Left Gordonsville in a train of cars at eleven
o'clock at night, and after a hard night's travel got to this place
(Lynchburg) about ten this morning. Were put in a deep ravine with
a stream of water running through it. A heavy guard of citizens,
consisting of old men, "played out" soldiers, and boys were around us.
Two pieces of artillery are planted in range of us. I was with the
first one hundred of our squad that came in to-day. We were put in
charge of a Sergeant-Major, who drew rations for us. There was about
one thousand came here yesterday. I got seven "hard tack" and some
bacon for one day's rations. There are about 2500 of us here. To-day
was burning hot.

_4th day, 5th mo. 11th._ Had a good sleep last night. This was a very
warm day. There were seventy-five loaves of soft rye bread, half a peck
of rice, and a little salt issued to a squad to-day. There were one
thousand men sent away to-day.

_5th day, 5th mo. 12th._ It commenced to rain about nine o'clock last
night. Griffith and I had a rough night of it--had to sit up a good
part of the time, till the after-part of the night, when we laid down
under the woollen blanket. About daylight it commenced to rain rapidly.
The water ran on us and caused us to get up and sit with the gum
blanket over our shoulders. It rained pretty much all day; we had to
sit most of the time with the gum blanket over us. With hard work we
made some coffee for breakfast and some mush for supper. Carried some
flat stones to lay on to-night. Drew seventy-five loaves of bread for
the balance of yesterday's rations; also for to-day, six "hard tack,"
pork and rice, to a man, for two days' rations.

_6th day, 5th mo. 13th._ Had a rough night of it. Slept under our
woollen blankets until daylight. It rained a great deal all night--got
considerably wet. Showery all day. About ten o'clock A. M. we were
moved out of the ravine to the cars and got aboard at twelve, and were
off for Danville. We were stowed as closely as possible in burden cars.
Passed through Fairville before dark. There are rebel hospitals at this

_7th day, 5th mo. 14th._ Traveling all night and until ten o'clock this
forenoon, when we arrived at Danville. Here we were put into large
houses. The house I am in is one hundred by forty-seven feet, three
stories high. The two upper stories are only occupied by us, some five
hundred in number. Here we were divided into messes of twenty each, and
drawing two square inches of boiled bacon and a loaf of corn bread for
two men.

_1st day, 5th mo. 15th._ Had roll-call at nine A. M. and were counted.
Drew corn bread at ten o'clock and rice soup at four P. M., and soon
after boiled bacon. Got a pint of soup to a man. Can do nothing but lay
down, or walk, or stand, after going to wash. There are five hundred in
this building. We hear no news.

_2d day, 5th mo. 16th._ Spent the day as yesterday. Drew some of our
hard bread, Confederate bacon and rice soup. There was a fellow selling
toilet soap at the rate of one dollar and fifty cents Confederate
scrip, or two cakes for a one dollar greenback.

_3d day, 5th mo. 17th._ Lay about all day. In the morning darned the
toe of one of my stockings and mended my pantaloons. Sent a letter
home to father. We are to be sent to Georgia to-morrow. Drew a day's
rations for to-day of corn bread, boiled bacon and black bean soup at
three o'clock. At six drew a ration of corn bread and boiled bacon for

_4th day, 5th mo. 14th._ Got up at daybreak, left the prison at six,
got on the cars at half-past eight and started at nine. At twelve came
as far as the railroad was finished, (the Danville and Greensboro'
road) then had to march six miles to where it commenced again, and then
lay for an hour for three trains to come. After they arrived it took
until long after dark to load them. I was among the last to get aboard.

_5th day, 5th mo. 19th._ Had a bad time of it last night--could not
sit or stand with comfort. The rain came through the car so bad that
I had to get out my "gum." We had only thirteen miles to go, and it
was near daylight before we got to Greensborough, which was about six
in the morning. Here we stopped about two hours, then went on, bound
for Charlotte, North Carolina, where we arrived at half-past six. The
train went very slow all night, but after we left Greensborough, very
fast. The country along the road was very, very poor. The only places
of much note were High Point Station, Thomasville and Lexington.
Greensborough is a manufacturing town, but like in all other towns and
villages, business was at a stand still. Thomasville was the prettiest
place. There is a seminary there. Some ladies came out to the train and
threw two ginger cakes at us, also some bouquets. Crossed the Yadkin
River. After we got to Charlotte, were taken off the cars and marched
to the railroad crossing. Drew rations of crackers and pork; I got six
crackers and a chunk of pork for two days. A thunder-gust came up which
continued until ten o'clock. Griffith and I made out to kindle a little
fire and make a pot of coffee. I was taken with a chill and fever of a
bilious nature--can eat no supper. By eleven o'clock it cleared up and
the moon shone out. Made our bed on the ground and were soon asleep.

_6th day, 5th mo. 20th._ Slept well last night, and got up at 6 o'clock
A. M.; felt very bad and very bilious; got some hot water to make
coffee, but could not find the coffee. The sun came out bright and hot
this morning. At twelve M. were put aboard the cars. The cars moved
past the town, backed, and moved forward and back, &c., until about six
o'clock, when we were backed to the southeast end of the town. Each
car load was taken off in separate squads of nineteen or twenty--drew
rations for one day, three hard tack and a chunk of pork. I was sick
all day with the chills and fever--no appetite; ate some _souse_, well
peppered, but had to force it down. The day was very hot.

_7th day, 5th mo. 21st._ Slept well last night on the ground. The
moon was full and the sky clear. We were ordered to pack up about six
o'clock, and get on the same cars we got off. Griffith and I were
so lucky as to get our old places in the stock cars; rode all day,
and arrived at Columbia, South Carolina at sunset. After stopping
there over an hour, we changed cars. We got larger cars but less of
them. They crowded seventy-five men inside and on top, which nearly
smothered us. The guard had orders not to let a man out, and to shoot
the first person that attempted it. Our car is a close burden car,
which was closed all around except one door. I was so lucky as to get
near the door and have plenty of fresh air. By doubling up, made out
to lie down, with my head next the door. This was a warm day, but we,
being in such a good car, rode comfortably. The country for two days'
journey was poorer than any yet passed. Did not see much of Columbia.
I felt very well all day; my disease is better. Took two doses of
"composition" in cold water.

_1st day, 5th mo. 22d._ I made out with difficulty to lay on my back
all night. The guard, "the first half," sat on my head, and then laid
down with his head on my breast for a pillow--could not sleep. My feet
and legs were doubled up, and I was laying on them part of the time,
while others piled theirs on top of mine. This morning got a good seat
by the door; rode there until we stopped at Augusta. Changed cars at
this place at 12 o'clock M. Did not pass any place of importance after
Charlotte. Stopped at dusk and had a loaf of bread and a chunk of pork
issued to us. I had been rather bad with the diarrhoea--was very
weak and dizzy, with no appetite; but after drawing rations, felt like
eating, and ate a bit of bread and pork; the bread is rye. When we
changed cars I got a seat in the middle of the door. My door was shut
at dark, so I had to set with my back against it.

_2d day, 5th mo. 23d._ Did not sleep much in the night, had to sit
all the time. There were sixty-five men inside the box and some on
top. At daylight the door was opened. I then rode with my legs out.
Get to Marion about the middle of the day. Three trains were made of
two, and we went at the rate of twenty-five miles an hour. Arrived
at Andersonville, Georgia, at five o'clock P. M., when we were taken
off the cars, counted off into squads with a sergeant, who took our
names on a piece of paper which a rebel officer gave him. Then we were
ordered into a large stockade and halted in the northeast corner of
it. There we had the ground for our quarters. We concluded that it was
hard to move about. Made our bed on the ground. Weather clear and hot.
Yesterday passed Wanesville. To-day passed Fort Valley after leaving

_3d day, 5th mo. 24th._ Slept very well on the ground last night; arose
at daylight, went to the run and took a good wash. Had roll-call and
were counted by a rebel sergeant, whose name is warmer. There were
ninety men in our mess. Drew rations at 5 o'clock P. M. Half a loaf
of corn bread and half a square inch of bacon to each man. The bacon
is excellent. There were three or four hundred more men put in here
to-day. The place was too much crowded before. They brought them in
on the main street and told them to go and find places wherever they
_could_. Griffith and I having but fifteen cents in money, and that
being mine, we are bad off. Bought two split pieces of pine, six feet
long and two and a half inches square, to put up a shelter. These I
purchased for my fifteen cents. These not being enough, I traded my
looking glass for two more. Put up my woollen blanket over our ridge
pole and now have a good place to stay in. This place contains about
fifteen or twenty acres of ground, enclosed with a stockade twenty feet
high, with a sentry stand every one hundred and fifty feet. There is a
stream of water running through it with a hill extending up from each
side of it. For thirty or more yards from the run the ground is swampy
and has a bad smell coming from it.

_4th day, 5th mo. 25th._ Spent this day about the same as yesterday,
laying in our tent, &c., &c. Drew the same kind of rations. More
prisoners were put in to-day.

_5th day, 5th mo. 26th._ This was a very hot day. There are men here
just like skeletons, they are so far gone with the chronic diarrhoea.
The boys caught some of the raiders and punished them by shaving their
heads. There are plenty of "sweat" boards in operation, and other kinds
of gaming. Drew a loaf of corn bread, two-thirds of a pint of mush,
and four square inches of bacon for two of us. The cornmeal is of
the _roughest_ description, not being _sifted_. Went to the run this
morning and washed a pair of drawers and a shirt, and then took a bath

_6th day, 5th mo. 27th._ Spent this day like yesterday, doing nothing.
Drew a loaf of corn bread, three bits of meat, and nearly a pint
of boiled rice. The pork to-day was all boiled jowls. The sun was
scorching hot. Sent a few lines home to father.

_7th day, 5th mo. 28th._ Was a very warm day. One hundred and eighty
more prisoners were put in here to-day from Sherman's army, making
in all sixteen thousand six hundred and fifty (16,650). There are
sixty-one detachments of two hundred and seventy each, not including
what came to-day. Drew the usual quantity of corn bread, bacon and mush
to a man.

_1st day, 5th mo. 29th._ Was extremely warm. Lay in the house[4] most
of the time. There were about fifteen hundred more men put in here
to-day. Did not draw rations until sundown, when we got pork and corn

_2d day, 5th mo. 30th._ This day is very oppressive. More prisoners
came in to-day.

_3d day, 5th mo. 31st._ Weather as hot as ever. Was at the stockade
where the rebels throw over their produce. Greenbacks are worth twice
as much as "scrip." Peas, beans, tobacco, onions, turnips, eggs, cakes,
groundnuts, &c., &c., are passed over in large quantities and sold at
enormous prices. My disease seems worse and I am getting weak.

_4th day, 6th mo. 1st._ Was cloudy until the middle of the day, then
had a heavy thunder-storm, and a little rain now and then until
evening. I lay in the house most of the day--was very weak. We made
some burnt corn bread crust coffee this morning. There were about
four hundred more prisoners put in here to-day; none of them from the
Potomac Army.

_5th day, 6th mo. 2d._ This was the same kind of a day as yesterday,
with more rain. Borrowed the "Banner of Light" from Dr. Buckley this

_6th day, 6th mo. 3d._ Was cloudy until towards sundown, when there
came up a heavy wind, followed by rain. The day was very warm. More
prisoners put in to-day, mostly sick and wounded, captured when we
were. The place is getting crowded full. Diarrhoea no better.

_7th day, 6th mo. 4th._ Had a good deal of rain. I lay in the house.
Two hundred more men came in to-day. There were a great many rumors
about us being paroled or exchanged on the sixth. We split up the last
of our wood with a musket screw-driver, and traded some corn bread for
another stick.

_1st day, 6th mo. 5th._ Had a great deal of rain. Drew one and a half
pints of corn meal and a half teaspoonful of salt instead of bread.

_2d day, 6th mo. 6th._ I am very weak. Same rations as yesterday.
Cloudy all day with some rain. Made souse of the last of our crackers.
More prisoners put in to-day--the place is over crowded.

_3d day, 6th mo. 7th._ Had considerable rain. Made a pot of mush which
we ate with our meat to-day. About five hundred more prisoners were put
in to-day.

_4th day, 6th mo. 8th._ Rain to-day, same as yesterday. A few more
prisoners put in here. I undertook to make a pot of mush this morning;
got it about done, when the jaw bone of a hog, which I had the pot
resting on, gave way, and upset the half of it. We made a small
breakfast on the remainder. This evening we mixed up some meal and
baked some cakes on my plate. Our wood is nearly out. We get corn meal
and pork, but are not allowed to go out for wood, and as yet have had
none sent to us. My complaint gets no worse, but still sticks to me.
Can get no news that can be relied upon.

_5th day, 6th mo. 9th._ Drew corn bread and had a heavy shower.

_6th day, 6th mo. 10th._ Was rather warm. Drew bread, meat and wood.
Made coffee for breakfast and supper. Commenced making a bone ring.

_7th day, 6th mo. 11th._ Was warm, with a thunder-gust in the evening.
We got to work and finished the bone ring.

_1st day, 6th mo. 12th._ Cloudy, rain in the afternoon. I am as unwell
as ever. Received corn bread and pork. There are many rumors of us
being paroled and sent to Savannah. The news is that the officers at
Macon are being sent away.

_2d day, 6th mo. 13th._ Was very damp and cold, with showers of rain;
last night it was also raining. Griffith got sick yesterday and was
very ill all last night and to-day. Had roll-call. All the sick and
wounded were taken out for medical treatment. All the rumors about
the parole proved untrue. Have suffered very much with the chronic
diarrhoea, which gets no better.

_3d day, 6th mo. 14th._ This was a cold, drizzly day.

_4th day, 6th mo. 15th._ Took down our blanket and had it for a cover.
It rained all night, and until towards the middle of the day, when it
became much warmer. There were over twelve hundred more prisoners put
in to-day from the Army of the Potomac. Sold a loaf of bread and meat
for twenty-five cents, and bought an onion and made some soup with it.
Had corn meal and pork for supper. Griffith is a little better. An old
shoemaker, who had taken the oath of allegiance to the Confederate
States, came in to-day to try to raise one thousand shoemakers, to go
out and do as he has, and work for the rebel government. Some of the
boys caught him, shaved his head and marched him around camp.

_5th day, 6th mo. 16th._ There is as much rain as usual. Am getting
along in the same old style. Sold a loaf of bread for fifteen cents and
bought an onion. Drew boiled rice and meat. The rice is so dirty and
gritty that it is not fit to eat. About one thousand more men were put
in to-day, mostly from the Army of the Potomac.

_6th day, 6th mo. 17th._ Rained all day--lay in the house most of the
time. I made some thick corn meal soup for supper. One thousand more
prisoners put in to-day.

_7th day, 6th mo. 18th._ It rained all night and was showery most of
the day. My disease is some better--am very weak and losing flesh.
The number of petty hucksters seems to increase in the main street.
Cucumbers are from 37 to 50 cents; onions from 25 cents to $1.00;
turnips from 12 to 20 cents; rutabagas, same price as turnips; squashes
25 to 50 cents; peanuts from 20 to 25 cents per half pint; beans 20 to
50 cents per half pint; flour at the rate of $1 per pound; four ginger
cakes 75 cents to $1; rice 30 to 40 cents per pint; salt 75 cents per
quart; soda 25 cents per spoonful; rations of meal for 20 and 25 cents;
molasses, of the poorest quality, for $2.75 per quart; tobacco, 50
cents for a small plug. These are offered for sale on the main street
at the above prices. A good many have got to making corn beer, at 10 to
25 cents per drink of half a pint. There are rumors that General Winder
is here, and that three detachments and all the sick are to be sent
away to-morrow.

_1st day, 6th mo. 19th._ Was up early this morning and went to the
spring and got some good water, and washed myself. Took a walk up and
down the street,[5] and then lay down and took a good sleep. It was
cloudy most of the time. The sun came out hot occasionally. Had a heavy
shower in the evening. Five hundred more men were put in the stockade
to-day. Three men were shot and wounded by one of the guards. A man was
on the _dead line_; the guard shot at this one, and missing him, shot
the others.

_2d day, 6th mo. 20th._ Had the usual quantity of rain; was up early
and got some spring water.

_3d day, 6th mo. 21st._ Was very warm and cloudy. I made some coffee
and fried some meat on my plate for breakfast--had some gravy also. We
did not eat more than half the extra bread we drew last night, and had
half a loaf left, which I traded for some wood. A few more prisoners
were put in to-day. The place is so crowded that it is impossible to
travel without difficulty.

_4th day, 6th mo. 22d._ Was rather cloudy and warm. Drew mush and meat;
the mush, like it always has been, was only half cooked; we did not get
it until dark, and then went to work and baked it on my plate. To-day
one hundred men had to fill up a tunnel which they had dug. It was
eight to fifteen feet deep and commenced twenty yards inside, and run
more than the same distance on the outside, and was ready for them to
go out. Some of the crowd had informed on them.

_5th day, 6th mo. 23d._ Flying clouds and very hot. There seems to be
a good breeze going, but it cannot get to us here. Over seven hundred
more prisoners were crowded in to-day. Drew corn bread and bacon, and
would have drawn fresh beef, but some objected to it on account of not
having wood.

_6th day, 6th mo. 24th._ The weather was similar to yesterday, only
hotter. Done nothing of any account.

_7th day, 6th mo. 25th._ Very warm. Drew mush and meat at dark and
fried the mush into cakes.

_1st day, 6th mo. 26th._ The weather like yesterday. Drew the same kind
of rations, and fried the mush, because it is never more than half done.

_2d day, 6th mo. 27th._ The weather seems to be getting warmer. My
diarrhoea gets no better--am so weak that I can hardly walk about.
There has been enough prisoners put in the last few days to make nearly
twenty-five thousand. (25,000).

_3d day, 6th mo. 28th._ Had a fine shower this afternoon and night. I
am very low and weak with the diarrhoea.

_4th day, 6th mo. 29th._ Was very warm, had a thunder storm in the
evening. Am weaker than ever and can hardly get along. Did not get any
rations, because some of the men took the "raiders"[6] in hand, and
after knocking down, and I guess killed some, arrested sixty and gave
them over to the old captain. It is said he shot one. Last night they
killed a man, and an Indian killed one of them. I took two bacon rinds,
and after roasting them by the fire, ate them.

_5th day, 6th mo. 29th._ Was very warm; lay in the tent most of the
time; so weak with the chronic diarrhoea that it was as much as I
could do to take care of myself.

_6th day, 17th mo. 1st._ Was as hot as ever. I suffered as much as
yesterday; am weaker, and still very ill; my head is so dizzy; could
hardly walk. The new stockade was opened this forenoon, and all above
the forty-ninth detachment were moved in and crowded as close together
as we were before. All of us could not put up our shelters in the place
allotted to us. Griffith and I made our bed in the street, which is
only six feet wide. The new place is on good high ground with plenty of
wood. The rumor is that we are to draw raw rations; drew fresh beef and
corn meal, of which I ate heartily.

_7th day, 7th mo. 2d._ There was a good breeze all day. After I got up,
went to the creek and took a wash, got a canteen and coffee pot full of
water, and then a little wood. Made the same kind of breakfast as we
did supper last night. About eight o'clock moved down with Clark and
Strong, and then crowded nearer the old stockade and towards the lower
end of the detachment, and put up our blanket at the end of Strong's
tent. All the wood is gathered up by the men, which leaves us with
scarcely any. There have been prisoners put in here from all parts this
week. Twenty-five thousand is a low estimate. I feel stouter to-day
than I have for two weeks; my complaint hardly troubles me. Drew salt
for yesterday and meal, beef and salt for to-day. The rumor now is
that we will be paroled or exchanged soon, to commence on the seventh,
&c., &c. Captain Moore, of the 72d Ohio, was in here to-day and gave
this piece of news to us. He has been a prisoner at Macon, was lately
exchanged, and came here to see some of the boys of his regiment.

_1st day, 7th mo. 3d._ Griffith and I went to the creek to wash this
morning at five o'clock. The creek was dirty and full of black mud, so
much so that I would not go in. I took the coffee pot and washed out of
it. Got some water and prepared breakfast of beef soup, thickened with
corn meal. Had roll-call this forenoon, the first time for three weeks;
it was difficult to get the men together, and was eleven o'clock before
they got through. Drew no rations to-day, why I know not.

_2d day, 7th mo. 4th._ Was very hot until three o'clock P. M., when
we had a heavy thunder storm. Our house let the rain in almost like a
riddle. The numbers of the detachments were changed to-day; all that
were not full were filled up to two hundred and seventy; our detachment
is now number thirty-two, and my mess is the second mess. We got no
rations until this evening, when we received meal, boiled and raw beef,
and pork. Bread and salt were issued; we got raw beef and miserable
bread, with a pinch of salt. We made a pot of mush for our breakfast,
coffee and stewed meat for supper; we eat only twice a day. My disease
has left me and I am stouter. Was down to the creek this morning at
four o'clock and took a good wash.

_3d day, 7th mo. 5th._ To-day was very hot, with a good breeze and
flying clouds. Got up this morning at four o'clock, and went to the run
and washed my grey shirt and a pair of drawers, without soap. We made
a pot of soup with corn meal dumplings. Had roll-call at ten o'clock.
Drew meal, fresh beef and a pinch of salt. Made flap-jacks for supper,
and fried some of our beef on my plate. Traded some corn meal for a
piece of pork to grease the plate with.

_4th day, 7th mo. 6th._ Hot as ever. Over two hundred more men put in
to-day. According to rumor, to-morrow is the day to commence paroling.
A new rumor says seven thousand are to be taken out to-morrow. Got
breakfast of soup off our beef, with corn meal dumplings, and supper of
flap-jacks and fried pork. Drew mush, bacon and salt. _I am very well

_5th day, 7th mo. 7th._ Spent the day as yesterday. No signs of
paroling. Very hot to-day. Fred. Smith, who was taken prisoner at Mine
Run, came to see me to-day. Drew rotten bacon, corn meal and salt.

_6th day, 7th mo. 8th._ The heat in the afternoon was almost scorching.
I borrowed a book of Hatfield, which I read half through. This is the
first reading I have done since we have been here. There were one
hundred more men put in to-day, all of whom were captured at the James
and Morris Island.

_7th day, 7th mo. 9th._ This day was hotter than any day we have had.
At four o'clock P. M. had a heavy thunder-shower which lasted until
sunset. Spent the day in reading, sleeping, and walking about camp. Two
hundred and fifty more prisoners put in to-day. They were mostly from
the Potomac Army.

_1st day, 7th mo. 10th._ Drew rations as usual, consisting of meal,
pork and salt. Cooked flapjacks and made gravy for supper. Our wood
is almost out and I know not where the rest will come from; there
is plenty in the place, but it is claimed by others. There were six
hundred more prisoners put in to-day from Grant's army.

_2d day, 7th mo. 11th._ Hot, with a little shower in the afternoon.
Drew meal, salt and bacon. I had a hard time cooking cakes for
breakfast and mush for supper; the wood and roots were too wet. Six of
the "raiders" were hung, inside the stockade, by our own men, at five
o'clock this evening. The rope of Moseby broke when the drop fell, and
let him to the ground; they made him mount the scaffold and try it the
second time. One broke loose before he mounted the scaffold and ran
through the crowd, but was arrested. I was down helping to draw rations
and saw the execution. A large number of prisoners put in to-day.

_3d day, 7th mo. 12th._ Was busy most of the day getting wood out of
the run, but could not get much. We are out of wood. I made a small
furnace to put my plate on. Was running about a good deal--am as well
as I could wish to be. There were two hundred more men put in to-day.
I was determined to get an axe to cut some wood, but did not quite get
it. I got on the right side of a rebel sergeant, who is a mason, but
he could do no more than ask for me of the one who had charge of the
shovels and axes.

_4th day, 7th mo. 13th._ Very warm. Could get no axe to-day, but got
the promise of one in the morning. Our furnace works first rate. We
gathered some roots out of the run, and both of us went down to-night
and worked and fished for roots until after ten o'clock. Have got the
floor of our tent raised so that the water will not flood us.

_5th day, 7th mo. 14th._ Very hot day. I was up early this morning and
down at the run and spring. Got a pot of mush made before roll-call.
Got the axe for an hour; we cut enough good pitch pine off a large
stump to last us nearly three weeks. Could do little else but lay in
the tent after cutting the wood, I was so tired. The diarrhoea shows
signs of coming on me again. General Winder had the three sergeants
of each detachment taken out, and he told them that he knew of an
organized gang of six thousand who were going to get out, &c., and that
the men must not get in crowds within one hundred yards of the gate, or
he would fire on them with shot and shell; that they had tried to get
us exchanged, but could not, and were compelled to keep us; and that
they had plenty to keep us with. I noticed plenty of good-looking pies
in market for one dollar and fifty cents, watermelons for two and three
dollars, and apples for twenty-five and thirty-five cents each.

_6th day, 7th mo. 15th._ Suffered very much with the diarrhoea, which
has come back on me as bad as ever.

_7th day, 7th mo. 16th._ The weather continues to grow hotter. I am
some better to-day; made gruel by soaking corn meal and boiling the
water of it. Yesterday drew a ration of wood which was only half enough
to cook a meal.

_1st day, 7th mo. 17th._ The hottest day we have had. I lay in the
tent, very weak from the diarrhoea, which is getting better. Made some
corn meal gruel for my breakfast. Drew meat, salt and molasses, six
spoonsful of the latter as a ration. Had flapjacks for supper.

_2d day, 7th mo. 18th._ Cloudy and cool all day, with rain in the
afternoon. The diarrhoea has left me, but I am very weak yet. Had a pot
of mush for breakfast. Drew nothing but corn meal to-day; they issued
bacon to some of the detachments, but it did not get to us. Some of the
men are trying to get up a petition to be sent to the United States,
asking its influence towards getting us released.

_3d day, 7th mo. 19th._ Cloudy and pleasant; last night was very cold.
Am getting over the diarrhoea again. Drew yesterday's pork at nine this
forenoon; then got a breakfast of flapjacks, fried pork and gravy.
There was a meeting held to-day in reference to the petition to our
Government for our release. The committee appointed at yesterday's
meeting reported. General Winder gives his hearty co-operation to
the movement, and suggests that six instead of three be sent to our
Government with these petitions, which the meeting took steps to
appoint. Last evening I got a pint of beans for five postage stamps,
and this morning got a _dagger_ for five more.

_4th day, 7th mo. 20th._ Was up soon after four this morning. Cooked G.
Hatfield a pot of gruel before roll-call; got our own breakfast after
roll-call. Washed a pair of drawers and stockings this morning. The
rebels threw up some earthworks as if they expected to be attacked.
They appear to be getting reinforcements here. The rumor is that the
railroad between here and Macon is cut, and that they are expecting a
raid by our cavalry, and that Atlanta is ours.

_5th day, 7th mo. 21st._ Got breakfast after roll-call--had "corn
dodgers" and gravy. Drew meal and molasses; got wood for three days.
Traded a ration of pork for twenty-five cents worth of wood, and traded
a ration of pork for tobacco for Griffith. The rebels seem to be busy
fortifying outside. They put a few prisoners in every day.

_6th day, 7th mo. 22d._ Very cloudy and hot. Lay in the house most all
the time. Have contracted a cold. More prisoners put in to-day. The
rebels are still busy at their earthworks. They find out a tunnel every
day and fill it up. Drew meat, salt and meal.

_7th day, 7th mo. 23d._ I caught a bad cold last night, and suffered
considerably all day from it. To-day the weather was rather cold.

_1st day, 7th mo. 24th._ Last night was the coldest we have had for
some time. My attack of bronchitis has extended far into the chest, and
is going to bring on that terrible "army scourge" again. The day was
very warm with a good breeze. Drew fresh beef and rice only.

_2d day, 7th mo. 25th._ Suffered last night very much with the cold.
This night was the coldest yet. The diarrhoea has returned and is very
bad. The day was warm with a good breeze. Drew rice, raw bacon and no
salt. I sold a ration of pork and bought two spoonsful of salt.

_3d day, 7th mo. 26th._ Was a pleasant day. Made corn meal gruel for
breakfast and supper. Borrowed Clark's infantry tactics and read and
slept all day. Drew meal, salt and bacon.

_4th day, 7th mo. 27th._ Was rather pleasant all day. Spent the day as
yesterday and drew the same kind of rations. There are a great many
rumors about our going to be paroled about the fifth or sixth of next
month. There were over two hundred prisoners, mostly one hundred days'
men, from the Shenandoah valley, put in to-day.

_5th day, 7th mo. 28th._ To-day is pretty warm. Eat nothing but gruel
and boiled rice. About two hundred prisoners put in to-day from
Sherman's army. Just as they were ready to enter, the rebels fired a
shot across the camp.

_6th day, 7th mo. 29th._ To-day some of the detachments drew molasses;
I traded a ration of pork for molasses for supper. Had gruel for
breakfast, and boiled rice with the molasses for supper. To-day was
warm, with a heavy shower in the evening.

_7th day, 7th mo. 30th._ Was warm. I sold two rations of my meat for
twenty-five cents worth of soap, and after roll-call, washed my red
shirt. Sold a piece of meat, which Griffith and I had a dispute about,
for five cents, and got him a chunk of tobacco.

_1st day, 7th mo. 31st._ Eat my breakfast and lay in the tent most all
day. Am very weak from the diarrhoea which I cannot get rid of. J.
Matthews is a prisoner here and has come to see me.

_2d day, 8th mo. 1st._ Lay in the tent most of the time. Took a pill
which "Gad" got for me to-night; he got one opium and two other pills.

_3d day, 8th mo. 2d._ Took the rest of my medicine to-day, and
think I am better. They commenced taking the sick out and away this
morning--suppose they have gone to Macon. During fifteen minutes this
evening, we had the heaviest shower I ever saw; Griffith was at the
spring and got caught in it. Have been drawing rice, salt and bacon
this week.

_4th day, 8th mo. 3d._ They have been busy taking the sick away. Drew
meal instead of rice to-day. Borrowed Roberts' Bible and read some.
Took an opium pill last night which made me sleep until roll-call this

_5th day, 8th mo. 4th._ Was in the shade under the tent most of the
day reading the Bible and getting to sleep. Helped to wash Dr. Buckley
this evening; he has been very sick all day. Drew pork and rice. Had no
roll-call for the first time since we have been in the new stockade.
Some sick were sent out to-day--rumor says they are being sent into our
lines. To-day was a warm one.

_6th day, 8th mo. 5th._ Spent most of the time in the house. Dr.
Buckley is some better; we were going to carry him out. The sick of
the first eleven detachments were taken out this afternoon. Drew fresh
beef, salt and rice. The diarrhoea has left me again; am pretty stout.
Ate only rice soup. Occupied in reading the Bible to-day.

_7th day, 8th mo. 6th._ Was very hot; lay in the house, slept and read.
Drew fresh beef, salt and a pint of meal.

_1st day, 8th mo. 7th._ Lay in the tent most of the day, slept and
read. Dr. Buckley still keeps poorly.

_2d day, 8th mo. 8th._ Had a heavy shower this afternoon. Spent the
day as I do most of them. Read almost through Deuteronomy to-day.
Dr. Buckley is no better, but gets worse. Have been drawing fresh
beef, meal and salt. We make soup. Reports are favorable to our being
paroled, but as yet we know nothing certain about it. The Quartermaster
came in yesterday, and told it around among us, that a parole or
exchange was to take place soon, and they were going to commence in a
few days.

_3d day, 8th mo. 9th._ Was cloudy until about four o'clock this
afternoon, when there came up one of the heaviest showers of rain we
have had since we came here; it flooded the run and washed some of the
stockade above and below, and moved it in several places. They fired
off two guns as a signal and out came a large guard. Drew no rations
to-day for our detachment; they ceased to issue after getting up to
the twentieth. Tried to sell my red shirt, but could not get more
than half I asked for it, so I kept it. They have got the frame of a
large barracks, large enough for a detachment, at the upper end of the

_4th day, 8th mo. 10th._ Rather warm. From 9 A. M. to 3 P. M. had a
very hard rain, which did not stop until midnight. We got wet, the tent
leaking very badly. Did not draw rations until this morning, when we
got beans and half a ration of bread. This evening drew half a ration
of bread, salt, and a _very small_ ration of beef. Had beef and bean
soup for supper; nothing to eat before of any account. I was detailed
to draw rations. I carried up a hind quarter of beef. Went and gave Dr.
Buckley a sponge bath and washed his shirt in the run.

_5th day, 8th mo. 11th._ George Hatfield died last night or early
this morning. Dr. Buckley is getting better. The "Rebs" have got the
stockade almost repaired; they are busy putting up a stockade outside
of ours. They have some of our boys putting up barracks near our
detachment. Had a heavy rain this afternoon. Did not get our rations
until very late; got fresh beef and half a ration of bread, but no salt.

_6th day, 8th mo. 12th._ Spent the day reading the Bible and sleeping;
it was warm and pleasant. Gave Buckley a sponge bath this afternoon; he
is improving rapidly. Have had roll-call the last two mornings. Drew
a little meal, a ration of beans, a small ration of beef and a half
ration of salt. They are cutting down the rations. The committee of six
which were to go into our lines with the petition, went last First day.

_7th day, 8th mo. 13th._ Was cloudy most of the time and pleasant.
After roll-call, got five others to help to carry Dr. Buckley to the
gate to sick call. The person that Gad sent to attend to his man, ran
off, and we did not get him out. Dr. Buckley fainted twice in our
hands; carried him part of the way, and helped him the rest. I washed
him this evening--he is better. I am busy reading the Bible. There are
many rumors about the parole commencing on the 15th. Drew a ration
of beans and half a ration of bread and fresh beef. We ate only two
pots of bean soup. Sold a ration of beef for ten cents and bought two
spoonsful of salt.

_1st day, 8th mo. 14th._ Was a very hot day. Buckley was much worse
during the day, but seemed to get better in the evening. I wrote a note
to Dr. White, on the outside, asking relief for Buckley, and took it
to the Doctor outside, at Doctor's call. Some one told me to put it in
the letter box, which I did, after consulting two Masons I had found;
one belongs to Ohio and the other is a sergeant in the ninety-eighth
detachment. I washed Buckley this evening. Drew beans, half a ration
of beef and bread, with a little salt. Ate bean soup for breakfast and
rice soup for supper. Have the diarrhoea.

_2d day, 8th mo. 15th._ Spent the day as we did yesterday.

_3d day, 8th mo. 16th._ Was very warm, like yesterday. No signs of a
parole yet--rumors are all false about it. Have given Buckley a washing
every day; he seems to grow better.

_4th day, 8th mo. 17th._ The weather has been extremely warm. Have been
drawing half a ration of bread, fresh beef, salt and beans. I have quit
eating beans.

_5th day, 8th mo. 18th._ Was out and got prescribed for. After
roll-call got six pills; am very weak; am busy reading the Bible.
Still give the Doctor a washing every day; he continues to improve.

_6th day, 8th mo. 19th._ Suffered very much with the diarrhoea. Am
getting weaker. Went to the Doctor's and got my medicine continued. Did
not get any medicine to-day. Sold my ration of bread and Griffith's
for twenty cents, and two and a half rations and one of my own for
twenty-five cents, which made me twenty cents in cash. Had a heavy rain
this evening.

_7th day, 8th mo. 20th._ Was very warm, with a heavy rain in the
evening. Was so weak that I only got out of the tent four times.
Buckley was worse. I was not able to bathe him to-day.

_1st day, 8th mo. 21st._ Was in the tent most of the day. Went to the
run in the evening and took a bath; gave Dr. Buckley a washing. Had
some rain. The Doctor gave me his photograph.

_2d day, 5th mo. 22d._ Very warm. Diarrhoea no better--am very
weak--lay in the tent most of the day. Buckley is worse, and has a
prospect of getting out to the hospital, through the influence of his
friend Rickers.

_3d day, 8th mo. 23d._ Drew rice, molasses and a little pork yesterday,
and an old ration of beef, beans and bread, with a little salt to-day.
Carried Buckley out of the gate at seven o'clock this morning; got him
out among the first, but could not get him in the hospital on account
of too many being admitted yesterday.

_4th day, 8th mo. 24th._ About as hot as ever. Went to the Doctor's
call and saw Rickers, but there was no chance for Buckley, except by
his own surgeon. Have got no medicine for three days. Drew fresh beef,
a mouthful of bacon, corn meal, beans and salt. Ate two rations of
beans to-day, which is going to make me worse. Some of the commissioned
officers, who have been passing off for privates, were taken out
to-day, it is said, to be exchanged. Rumors are favorable to a speedy

_5th day, 8th mo. 25th._ Did not go to the Doctor's to-day. Diarrhoea
something better. Lay in the house most of the day. Bathed Buckley, who
is still very low. Drew one-half ration of bread, salt pork, boiled
beef and rice; they are going to give us cooked rations now, and some
other detachments raw ones.

_6th day, 8th mo. 26th._ Very warm. Changed our sergeant of mess by
putting out Warner and electing George Suson. Went out to the Doctor's
and got prescriptions for Buckley, who has the scurvy. My complaint is
almost well. The cooked rations agree with me very well. Drew one-half
ration of bread and salt, about a pint of boiled beans, and a ration of
molasses. Took a walk over to see Mathews this evening.

_7th day, 8th mo. 27th._ Was out to the Doctor's call for Buckley.
Spent the day in the old way. Drew some extra molasses this forenoon,
and boiled rice, beef, pork and salt for our rations this evening.
There was only a mouthful of bacon and the rice only half cooked.

_1st day, 8th mo. 28th._ Was extremely warm. Spent the day as usual.

_2d day, 8th mo. 29th._ Was not well the fore-part of the day and did
not get out to the Doctor's. Repeated the vote again for Suson, which
elected him, as before. Put Warner in for sergeant of detachment, in
place of the sergeant-major, who went out on parole to take charge of
ration wagons.

_3d day, 8th mo. 30th._ No Doctor's call. Buckley was worse; I bathed
him and washed a shirt for him.

_4th day, 8th mo. 31st._ Washed my drawers this forenoon, and lay about
most of the day afterwards. Drew bread, boiled beans, beef, salt and a
bit of bacon. Traded my beef for a ration of beans; ate my beans and
pork for supper; traded Griffith's bread for tobacco. Was a warm day.

_5th day, 9th mo. 1st._ Was out to the Doctor's call--no medicine--no
prescription. Lay in the house most of the day reading the Bible--have
got through Jeremiah. The news in the Macon papers is favorable to a
speedy exchange. Buckley gets no better. Traded half my bread and beef
for beans; ate nothing but a ration and a half of beans for breakfast.
Drew the same kind of rations except beans--rice only partly cooked.
Last night was so cold that I could not sleep.

_6th day, 9th mo. 2d._ Lay in the house--slept and read most all day.
Drew the same rations as yesterday--got a piece of pork as large as my
fist for a mess of thirty.

_7th day, 9th mo. 3d._ Was cloudy and pleasant to-day. I am rather bad
yet. No news about the exchange to be relied on. Griffith has a lame
back; complains of the rheumatism.

_1st day, 9th mo. 4th._ I am very ill indeed; lay quiet all day.

_2d day, 9th mo. 5th._ Seemed to be the warmest day; suffered terribly
from the heat; lay in the tent most all day; am very weak. Drew bread,
pork, a large ration of molasses, and boiled rice.

_3d day, 9th mo. 6th._ My disease is better. Lay in the tent most all
day. Eighteen detachments were ordered to be ready to leave at any
moment--commencing at the first, going up to the eighteenth.

_4th day, 9th mo. 7th._ Lay in the tent most of the day and am better.
They commenced at the first detachment at seven o'clock this morning
and by night got as many as six, and gave orders up as high as eighteen
to be ready to leave at a short notice. They ordered at first eighteen
detachments to be ready, but could not find transportation for all
to-day. They say they are ordered to Charleston to be exchanged.

_5th day, 9th mo. 8th._ Lay in the house most of the day. Helped Dr.
Buckley all I could. Drew beans, boiled beef, salt and corn meal. They
send off prisoners as fast as they can get transportation; have not
got more than twenty detachments away yet; they took some of the higher
detachments after getting up to the eighteenth--seventy-six to eighty.
Mathews got off.

_6th day, 9th mo. 9th._ Was extremely warm to-day. Helped to carry
Buckley up to the barracks; was busy waiting on him until near noon; he
is very ill; at noon he was admitted to the hospital; I went outside
the gate with him; the rebel sergeant would not allow me to stay out
with him. The barracks were vacated and filled up with the sick of the
detachments which have left. The Drs. commenced and admitted large
numbers into the hospital. I have the diarrhoea very bad. About two
thousand more were taken away; they ship them off as fast as they can.

_7th day, 9th mo. 10th._ Had a severe spell of chills and fever last
night; being so bad the day before, was the cause of it; drank plenty
of water, which soon stopped the chills, and threw me into a fever.
Was so weak to-day, could hardly go about. About the same number as
yesterday were sent off; they mostly started in the night. Drew bread,
boiled rice, molasses and salt.

_1st day, 9th mo. 11th._ This was a very warm day. There was not so
many got away except this morning. About all the old prisoners are
gone. Yesterday evening, all from 19 to 23 were ordered to be ready.
About three, o'clock this afternoon, all from 23 to 33 were ordered to
be ready. No sooner was the order given than the "boys" packed up and
moved off to the gate. Each detachment took up its position, ready to
go. Here we lay, anxiously waiting for the cars to come, which were
expected at five o'clock, but they did not come. We lay down on the
ground. Drew boiled rice this forenoon. After getting to the gate, got
boiled beef. I am some better, but so weak and thin, I can just get
along. Griffith has such a lame back, he cannot get along much better
than I.

_2d day, 9th mo. 12th._ We lay ready to go until almost five o'clock.
Drew rice, molasses, and bread, for two days rations. I am very weak,
hardly able to walk. At five the trains began to come in; we moved out
and got in the cars; sixty to a car. About six o'clock they gave us two
days rations of corn bread and pork; started about dusk and arrived at
Macon about the middle of the night.

_3d day, 9th mo. 13th._ Lay in the cars until daylight; then started
and got to Augusta by evening; stopped there about two hours, then
changed cars and started again about dusk.

_4th day, 9th mo. 14th._ Kept on all night, going on the Columbia road,
and came to a junction which went to Charleston; and, at noon, came to
another junction, one leading towards Wilmington, which we took, after
changing cars, and started about five o'clock, and continued going on
pretty steady all night.

_5th day, 9th mo. 15th._ Arrived at a village called Florence, South
Carolina, and encamped here. Arrived here about two o'clock last night;
lay in the cars until eleven o'clock to-day, then were moved out about
a mile from the place. Clark, Joice, Griffith, and I, put up a snug
tent of two blankets. The day, and, in fact, the weather, has been very
warm since we started; we are almost worn out.

_6th day, 9th mo. 16th._ Slept very cold last night; have the diarrhoea
very bad, and am so weak that I can hardly go about; did not get any
rations until twelve o'clock at night, and then only a pint of meal and
a little piece of pork. The rebel Captain called the roll this evening.
The camp is divided into messes of one hundred, and detachments of
three thousands. I am in mess sixth of our detachment.

_7th day, 9th mo. 17th._ Was a very warm day; I got no better; am so
weak, can hardly help myself. Last night was so cold I could not sleep
until we took down the blankets and put them over us. Drew a pint of
rice for two days' rations.

_1st day, 9th mo. 18th._ Drew a pint of beans, pork and salt. Had roll
call; all that were sick and not able to go, were excused; and, after
roll call, were ordered to the hospital. I was put on the sick list.
About noon we were taken outside of the camp for the purpose of drawing
better rations. In the evening drew a good ration of sweet potatoes, a
leaf of cabbage, a little beef and salt. I have Griffith's overcoat,
which is the only shelter I have. Close, Roberts, Clark and I are

_2d day, 9th mo. 19th._ Lay under our tree, and sit by the fire all
night; it was very cool. Drew same rations as yesterday, excepting the
cabbage; got a square inch of pumpkin. About noon got orders to move to
the opposite side of the camp, when the most able men, the nurses, and
those who wished, were sent back to camp; the rest put in detachments
of one hundred. I am in the seventh detachment; are in the woods, with
water handy.

_3d day, 9th mo. 20th._ Had a cool night of it last night; lay in the
woods until five o'clock; then were taken up to the shedding, in the
field. Clark and I went back to the woods to sleep. It was cloudy all
night, and in the evening rained. Drew same rations as yesterday.

_4th day, 9th mo. 21st._ Lay under our tree all night and were up at
daylight; had a cold night of it. The nurses put up some boughs over
poles for us, but they made poor shelter, excepting from the sun. We
were worse off here excepting the rations. Drew a sweet potato, five
spoonfuls of flour, the same of rice, and half a tablespoonful of salt.
My diarrhoea is almost checked, but my strength is poor yet.

_5th day, 9th mo. 22d._ It rained last night, but I lay in my overcoat
and kept dry. Drew the same rations of flour as yesterday, two
spoonsful of corn meal, rice, salt and a mouthful of bacon. Make gruel
and rice soup mostly for Close and I. Am decidedly better to-day. Had a
good deal of rain this evening.

_6th day, 9th mo. 23d._ Was cloudy all day; rained in the fore-part
of the night; made out to sleep a little. Got some dead pine leaves
and spread on the ground for my bed. My overcoat kept me from getting
"wringing wet." Got everything dry to day, and went to the creek and
took a bath. All who were able were sent to the creek to bathe, and
before they got back the doctor sent three hundred and fifty of them
back to camp. I cannot gain strength. Drew hominy, rice, flour and a
pinch of salt.

_7th day, 9th mo. 24th._ Lay about all day and cooked. Had a heavy rain
in the evening. Drew corn meal, rice, fresh beef, and a pinch of salt.
My old complaint is back on me as bad as ever.

_1st day, 9th mo. 25th._ Was a clear, warm and windy day. My diarrhoea
gets no better. Drew fresh beef, a good ration, and salt only. Made
soup of rice. I cook for Close. All who could walk were sent back to
camp; I was left out, being able to walk only a little. Clark was sent
in. Had a cool night.

_2d day, 9th mo. 26th._ Last night was very cold--cold enough for
frost. To-day was fine and clear, but rather cool. Am very weak and
prostrated. There are some rumors of an exchange going on.

_3d day, 9th mo. 21th._ Was warm; last night was cold. All excepting
the worst cases were sent to camp. I got some medicine this evening--a
pill of camphor and opium; some with dysentery got oleum ricini and
spirits of turpentine. The scurvy cases, a decoction of Sumac berries,
which was pleasant to drink. Some kind citizens sent some boiled sweet
potatoes, ham, cabbage and bread for the worst cases. The steward, who
seems to notice me considerably, gave Close and I some of all the above
named articles, so we wanted no supper. Drew corn meal, fresh beef and
salt. I cooked beans until eleven o'clock at night for our breakfast.
Am no better, but have a good appetite.

_4th day, 9th mo. 28th._ Was very warm all day; spent the day as
yesterday. Drew meal, beans and salt.

_5th day, 9th mo. 29th._ Was a warm night; I slept well. My complaint
is no better; am very weak. Drew meal, rice, salt, molasses, and some
sweet potatoes; the molasses is of the worst sorghum. They give us
medicine once per day.

_6th day, 9th mo. 30th._ Spent the day laying in my shed. My disease is
on the mend. Got to the creek and took a bath this forenoon. Drew fresh
beef, rice, meal and salt. Got medicine to-day. The men die pretty fast.

_7th day, 10th mo. 1st._ Lay quiet as possible. Drew one-half of a
large hard tack, eight spoonsful of molasses, and salt.

_1st day, 10th mo. 2d._ Was busy pottering around all day. Drew one
half of hard tack, eight spoonsful of molasses, salt, corn meal and
flour. The men are dying off very fast all around me. Griffith was put
in the third Ward. Got my cap and gum blanket.

_2d day, 10th mo. 3d._ Spent the day as yesterday. Had some rain in the
evening. Drew fresh beef, beans, flour and salt. My health is better.

_3d day, 10th mo. 4th._ Lay quiet; my complaint is some better. Drew
molasses, rice, flour and salt--a good ration.

_4th day, 10th mo. 5th._ Lay quiet. Took a dose of olium vicini last
night. Did not eat much to-day; am getting stouter. Drew meal, beans
and salt. Was a warm and pleasant day. Edward Roberts died in the
afternoon. I went down to see how he was, and found him only breathing.

_5th day, 10th mo. 6th._ Am getting better; walked around a good deal
to-day. Sold my knife for six dollars in Confederate money; also, five
pearl buttons for fifty cents. Partly cooked some beans after ten
o'clock this evening. Had a heavy rain.

_6th day, 10th mo. 7th._ Am better to-day than I have been for some
time. Bought seven sweet potatoes for fifty cents and ate the half
of them. Drew fifteen small crackers, sent to us by the Sanitary
Commission, and some flour and salt. Wrote a letter for Close to his
father; he has given up all hopes of recovery.

_7th day, 10th mo. 8th._ Was clear and cold all day. Drew fifteen small
crackers, a small spoonful of beef tea, some condensed milk and coffee.
Two rations made only a pint of coffee; I gave all to Close--he seemed
to relish them. Shirts and drawers were issued to those who needed
them; they were sent by the Sanitary Commission. I feel better and
stouter to-day, and made out to draw three buckets of water and carry
it. Sold a knife for Close for one dollar, and bought one dollar's
worth of sweet potatoes.

_1st day, 10th mo. 9th._ Was very cool all day. Drew the usual rations.
The men are dying off very fast.

_2d day, 10th mo. 10th._ Last night it was so cold that it was as much
as I could do to keep from freezing. It was clear and cool all day.
Drew thin half-blankets for those who had none, also socks, hats and
drawers, from the Sanitary Commission.

_3d day, 10th mo. 11th._ Spent the day, which was very cool, as
yesterday. Drew same kind of rations.

_4th day, 10th mo. 12th._ Was warm to-day. Have been troubled with
a sore mouth, arising from a bad cold. Medicine does no good. Drew
medicine, got drowsy and went to bed.

_5th day, 10th mo. 13th._ Have had a worse attack of that "terrible
scourge" to-day than I have had for a long time. Took medicine to no

_6th day, 10th mo. 14th._ I am no better; worse if anything. Drew
"Sanitary stuff" for the worst cases, and fresh beef, flour and corn

_7th day, 10th mo. 15th._ Was a fine day; lay quiet most of the time.
Sanitary stuff for Close, and the worst cases, were issued. Drew some
crackers with a ration. Put Close's and mine in soup. My complaint
seems to be better.

_1st day, 10th mo. 16th._ A pleasant day. Close about the same. Drank
concentrated coffee and sconce. I feel better, but cannot get my
disease checked. Took three cathartic pills this evening. Drew no

_2d day, 10th mo. 17th._ Was the same kind of day to me as others.
Close was worse all day; the ward-master got him an egg, some beef tea
and coffee, which he ate and yet seemed hungry. We think he cannot live
over night.

_3d day, 10th mo. 18th._ Covered Close up with all the blankets, and
got permission to sleep by the nurse's fire. The night was cool. Close
kept sinking until four o'clock this morning, when he died. It looks
like rain again this morning. Burns, one of the nurses, and I, put up
a tent of my gum blanket and one of the new blankets. I am not much

_4th day, 10th mo. 19th._ Warm and pleasant; was busy most of the time,
but did not do much. The Sanitary Commission has been sending clothing
here, but it is rather light stuff, such as red pants, gray drawers,
and red and gray shirts.

_5th day, 10th mo. 20th._ Lay as quiet as possible all day. Am better.

_6th day, 10th mo. 21st._ Lay as quiet as possible all day. The nights
are very cool.

_7th day, 10th mo. 22d._ Last night was very cool, but I got a good
night's rest. To-day was blustery and cold, but clear. At ten o'clock
the hospital was moved inside of the stockade, and to the northwest
corner of it. All who were able to walk were sent ahead, and after
getting in were taken across the creek and put in charge of a corporal.
I took a walk around and bought two Confederate dollars worth of sweet
potatoes for my dinner; traded all my beans for salt; then took a walk
to the hospital grounds, and found our steward and nurses, who told me
to bring my things. Burns and I put up a tent as before and prepared
for a cold night; ate a little boiled rice. The steward gave me four
spoonsful of canned tomatoes and a biscuit for my supper.

_1st day, 10th mo. 23d._ Was cool; lay about, and kept warm in the sun
and tent.

_2d day, 10th mo. 24th._ Lay in the tent most of the time. A Mason,
ward-master, came to see me. A rebel Lieutenant was looking around for
us. The backs of my hands are so badly chapped I can hardly do any

       *       *       *       *       *

It appears that from inability or some other cause, Charles Smedley was
unable to give us any further account of his trials and sufferings; and
that the 24th of the 10th month, 1864, was the last day he was able to
write. I have deemed it appropriate to add the following account of
his last days, (obtained from Richard Dobbins, who was the steward or
ward-master, referred to by Charles, and who attended him until near
his last moments,) as a finale to his own history, as given in his


       *       *       *       *       *

Having had some acquaintance with Charles Smedley--the writer of the
foregoing diary--for some time previous to his decease, at the request
of his father, I shall endeavor to give some account, from memory,
of the last days of his existence; also, a brief account of my own
experience while in the hands of the rebels, as their prisoner.

My name is Richard Dobbins, a native of western Missouri. I belonged
to Company H, 18th Regiment Iowa Volunteers--was taken prisoner at
the battle of Missionary Ridge, Nov. 25th, 1863--was sent to the
Libby prison, in Richmond, Va., where I remained a short time--Then
I was sent to Belle Island, where I suffered very much from cold and
starvation. I often thought of death, which stared me in the face
daily; though I was not worse off than the majority of the other
prisoners. I remained there until the 16th of March, 1864, when I was
sent with others to Andersonville, in Georgia, where I suffered very
much; not so much from starvation as on the island, but from the rain
and cold; also from smoke, from the burning of pine wood. We were of
course thinly clad, some destitute of blankets, some of shoes, some
of pants, while others had scarcely any clothes on them. The majority
of us had been searched and robbed of all our good clothing, money,
watches, boots, &c. It seemed as though we could expect nothing but
death to relieve us from our sufferings. Over twelve thousand of the
prisoners died at Andersonville.

On the 8th of September, I, with others, was sent from there, and in
due time arrived at Savannah. From thence we were moved to Charleston,
South Carolina, where the rebels made a kind of military display of us,
by marching us through the city, and putting us in the prison, near the
officers who were under the fire of our own guns.

We remained there only one day and night, and then were marched to the
rear of the city on the race-course track, where we staid but a short
time; then I was sent to Florence, South Carolina. Shortly after I
arrived there, I was taken out on "parole of honor," and sent to the
Federal hospital by the rebel surgeons, as master of one of the wards

It was there I became acquainted with Corporal Charles Smedley, of
Company G, Ninetieth Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers, (although I had
frequently seen him at sick call, while at Andersonville, but did not
make his acquaintance,) who was a patient in my ward.

A little incident occurred there that manifested his kind and generous
disposition, which attracted my attention, and caused me to feel a deep
interest in his welfare. I had prepared some food for him, the best
I could get, and took it to him. He immediately gave it all to David
Close, (who was a fellow prisoner with him, and very sick,) saying,
"you need it worse than I."

When he first came to the hospital, he complained of chronic
diarrhoea and dysentery. After a few days the dysentery left him,
though he was very weak. He kindly waited on David Close, and seemed
willing to do all he could for him, as he considered Close worse than
himself. I think he hurt himself by over exertion. He waited on Close
all he could, until he died, which appears to have occurred on the
morning of the 18th of October.

A few days after the death of David Close, the hospital was moved
inside of the stockade, to the North-west corner. Charles, with others,
walked in. In the evening Charles came over to the hospital. We told
him he had better get his things, and come back to the hospital and
stay, which he did. Shortly after he came, his hands became very sore,
apparently from a dropsical affection, and were bandaged up.

His walk, from the hospital to the inside of the stockade, appeared to
have been too much for his strength. From that day he became worse,
though he was able to walk about, almost every day, until the day
before he died.

He gave me his watch some time before, saying, "he might drop off any
time," and requested me, if it should so happen, to take it home to
his father, and tell him all, which I promised him I would do, if it
was possible. He seemed cheerful, and manifested no fears of death.
In fact, he always appeared cheerful and in good spirits, and seemed
confident that he would get home again. He certainly had a very hard
and trying time while in prison, but was seldom heard to complain or
find fault. _He was a good soldier and a true patriot._

He died on the night of the 16th of November, 1864. He was washed,
shaved, and clean clothes put on him, but no coffin was provided for
him. His body was wrapped in a sheet and buried in the burial ground,
a short distance north of north-west of the stockade. The number of
his grave was probably recorded at the rebel headquarters, as is their
custom, but I do not know the number. I tried to get the number, but
could not, for reasons best known to the rebel officers.

After his death I secured his Bible, diary, a small book in which he
kept the photographs of his family, and a few little tools, with which
he used to while away the time in making bone rings, &c.; all of which,
with the watch, according to my promise, I have succeeded in delivering
to his father.

I was paroled on the 29th of November, 1864, and sent from Florence,
South Carolina, to Savannah, Georgia, where I was put on shipboard, and
brought, with many others, to Annapolis, Maryland, where I arrived on
the morning of the 5th of December, and immediately informed Charles
Smedley's father of his sad fate.

Co. H, 17th Regiment Iowa Volunteers


[4] His little tent as described under date of "3d day, 5th mo. 24th."

[5] The term street must be applied to the road in the centre of the
stockade. It cannot possibly be a street in the town.

[6] By the term "raiders," the writer designates a set of thieves and
cut-throats among the prisoners, who made a practice of robbing newly
arrived Union soldiers.



On the march into Maryland, _5th day, 6th mo. 25th, 1863_, were called
in from picket about nine o'clock; went to the old camp, and joined,
or followed the division, which has been on the march for some time.
Should have remained on picket, as the column passed the right of the
picket line. Followed the road to Edward's Ferry, where we crossed on
one of the pontoons; went on, and passed through Poolsville, and then
on to Barnesville, where we encamped in a clump of thick, low pines,
on the north side of the town; had a difficult time getting into the
woods. It had been raining all day, and still continued; Jos. and I put
up Clay's tent, and took Chaplin in with us; we were almost "wringing
wet" from perspiration and rain. Had a hard march, and were almost worn

_6th day, 6th mo. 26th._ Were called up at daylight by the Adjutant,
but did not get out until all the other regiments were off. We got
ready, and were off by five o'clock, and went on as fast as possible,
but did not catch up to the brigade until we had gone several miles.
All of our things were wet, which made our load heavy to carry. We
crossed the Monocacy river, went through Adamstown, and came to
Jeffersonville, where we took up our camp for the night. I gave out
about the middle of the day, and fell down; got a pass from the
Captain, signed by the Doctor, as I could not keep up, and took my
time; got to within a mile of Jeffersonville by the time the division
halted. Made some coffee, and went to a cherry tree and got some
cherries, which was the most I had to eat to-day. We put up our tent,
and went to a stack of straw and got an armful for our bed; took the
sergeant in with us. It rained some all night; our clothes were very
wet--could almost wring them.

_7th day, 6th mo. 27th._ The bugle sounded about four o'clock, we got
up about five, and were packed up by eight. Went to a house near by to
get water and wash; then went to a cherry tree and got some cherries.
Made some tea for breakfast. By half past eight were in line, and
started. Went through the town, and followed the road leading towards
Middletown. We made an easy march of it, a distance of eight miles. The
roads were hard, which made the marching good. We got to Middletown by
one o'clock, passed on through towards the mountains, and encamped.
We appear to be in a valley. All of the First and Twelfth Corps are
encamped around here. The country we have passed through the last two
days is of the best farming land.

_1st day, 6th mo. 28th._ Last night we got one day's rations of sugar,
coffee, crackers, beef and pork. The Adjutant said we would be likely
to move at three o'clock this morning. Had inspection of arms and
accoutrements about twelve; at one I was out on guard; about two the
bugle sounded to pack up, and at three the Corps was off. The guards
acted as rear guards. Took the Frederick City pike, and got within a
mile of the city by night, when the Corps encamped. The rear guard had
to go on guard on arriving.

_2d day, 6th mo. 29th._ The bugles began to sound the reveille about
three o'clock. The third relief went oh at four, when the bugle sounded
"pack up;" by five the Corps was off. The sergeant of the third relief
took charge of us, and we staid behind to get breakfast. I took three
hard-tacks and a piece of pork and ate them on post for my breakfast.
Our camp is in a meadow, with a fine run of water in it. We passed
over a very mountainous country yesterday, but very beautiful. The
marching was easy, on good pike; weather cloudy and misty. We soon
started, in charge of the sergeant, who had a few lines from the
officer of the day. When we came to the pike, we joined the middle of
the First Division, which was in the rear. After going one-fourth of
a mile, the road branched off, one leading towards Frederick City and
the other to Pennsylvania. We followed on, and caught up to the Second
Brigade by noon. Passed the Second and Fifth Maryland Battalions. Had
very muddy roads, the mist turning into rain at times. Followed a pike
leading towards Hagerstown; passed through as far as Cotocton Furnace,
halted half an hour, after going three or four miles past the furnace,
and ate our little dinner. After the half-hour was up the column
started. I joined the regiment, and kept with it past Mechanicstown,
when the roads were so muddy and wet I could no more than keep up. We
followed the pike, passing through Emmettsburg, amid the waving of
flags and handkerchiefs by the ladies. After going one-half a mile past
the town, we encamped in a field.

_3d day, 6th mo. 30th._ Slept pretty well--it rained some in the night.
Got up at five o'clock, and started at eight; went back through the
town, then across the Pennsylvania line, and halted and encamped. We
met the Eleventh Corps coming through Emmettsburg, going the road we
came. Just before we started, an old gentleman and lady came into camp,
bringing bread, butter, biscuits and doughnuts, and gave them to us,
saying, "poor fellows, we'll give you all we have, if you will drive
the rebels off, and hope you'll not get killed." As soon as we crossed
the line, we gave nine cheers. After stopping, we were told to put up
our tents. My feet are very sore and blistered.

_4th day, 7th mo. 1st._ Sergeant and I slept together, the other mate
was on guard. Got up at five. Had fresh beef for breakfast. The bugle
sounded "pack up," and about seven o'clock we started on the road
towards Gettysburg; at nine were within three miles of Gettysburg;
halted to rest; heard something like cannonading ahead. About the
middle of the day got to Gettysburg, and halted. There was pretty
sharp fighting to the left and ahead of us. We have halted in a piece
of woods; can see the firing plainly, and may soon be in it. After
stopping for half an hour, we advanced by the left of the town, and
halted a few minutes, then went on and formed in line of battle. I
threw away everything but a few envelopes and paper, which I put in
my note book. We first threw out skirmishers, and after manoeuvering
around for some time, got into the thickest of the fight. I could not
get my musket to work right, but fired something like twenty rounds.
After near an hour's hard fighting, we were compelled to fall back;
and, after manoeuvering, our brigade went up to the top of a hill
and supported a battery, which did good service. After near an hour,
were compelled to fall back to the town. The rebels had flanked us.
We lost a great many, the most when we fell back the first time. A
bullet grazed the right side of my neck, and another my right hip. We
retreated through the town in great confusion, and all the time the
rebels were shelling it, and some shooting from the houses. We got
into some kind of order after getting out of the town, and by sundown,
what was left of us, are in line of battle. Sent out skirmishers. When
we were first under fire, a piece of shell struck the ground between
Captain and I, throwing the sand in our faces. The whole number of
killed and wounded of the Ninetieth Regiment is near fifty--of our
company four or five wounded.

_5th day, 7th mo. 2d._ Slept last night behind the stacks, on two
rails, under my gum blanket. All was quiet. Captain gave me five
crackers and some coffee for my breakfast. There is some firing out
among the pickets, and skirmishing going on all the time. Several
other Corps came up yesterday and last night; we are stronger now. The
Eleventh, Twelfth and Third Corps are here, that I know of, besides
our own. Ours and the Eleventh appear to be the only forces engaged.
At twelve o'clock all was quiet. All the forenoon there was firing
among the skirmishers, and some artillery firing, and a great deal of
manoeuvering in the different parts of the army. Large numbers of the
enemy came over and gave themselves up, and we took some prisoners. The
great mistake yesterday was in not having reinforcements near at hand.
To-day we are very strong, but as yet nothing has been done. General
Reynolds was killed yesterday. About three o'clock the cannonading
opened on the left, and then all along the line. In less than an hour
the musketry opened on the left, and kept up a continued fire until
dark. We (the First Corps) were supporting batteries, in the centre,
for the first hour or so; then we were taken more to the right, where
most of the Corps seemed to be; here we were for more than an hour; we
lay close to the ground to get out of the way of shells. About seven
o'clock we were taken to near the extreme left, formed in line and
advanced some distance, then halted and sent out skirmishers, (twenty
from our Regiment.) By this time, except the artillery, all was quiet,
but occasional firing among the skirmishers. While laying here, I went
back with canteens to get water, and when I returned, found the Brigade
moving towards the right. We held our ground all day, and on the left,
where the fight was the hottest, we drove the enemy, taking a large
number of prisoners. Large numbers of dead and wounded lay all over
the field. One of our skirmishers came to a man with both legs shot
off, who gave him his watch, and offered him five dollars to shoot him.
Our Captain came across the rebel General Barksdale, who was mortally
wounded. We were put into different positions during the night, and at
last halted along a road running towards the south end of the town,
behind a stone fence.

_6th day, 7th mo. 3d._ The battle opened with the skirmishers on the
left and cannonading all along our lines, at daylight. The batteries
behind us shot over our heads. The musketry was sharp on the right.
We were first taken from the position we occupied last night to the
rear of the battery near the Cemetery, where we remained for half an
hour; then were moved to the right a little more, where we lay behind
the batteries until near eleven o'clock. The firing was very hot
on all sides--sharp musketry on the right. About eleven the rebels
concentrated their fire on the centre, when we formed in line, and
under a heavy fire of shot and shell, moved to the right, or north of
the Cemetery, and lay in front of the battery. Here the fire was very
hot, the rebels having batteries playing on us from all sides; many
of our men were struck by the shells; we lay flat and escaped many
bullets, &c., from the skirmishers and sharpshooters. The sun came out
very warm and many of our men were sun-struck. We lay here some three
hours. The First Division of the Eleventh Corps was in front, all along
the road. About three o'clock we had to get up, under the heaviest
fire I ever saw, and form in line of battle behind some batteries in
the Cemetery. Just as we started, Colonel Coulter, of the Eleventh
Corps, who had command of the First Brigade, was struck in the arm by
a sharpshooter; Colonel Lyle took his place, and Major Sellers took
command of the Ninetieth Regiment. We were taken towards the left of
the centre and put in the front line of battle. Here General Hayes rode
along the lines with a rebel battle flag. We advanced to within one
hundred yards of the road, and formed in line, and sent out a large
force of skirmishers. As we lay here, we had the fire of the rebel
sharpshooters and skirmishers in our front, and a large Whitworth gun,
which the rebels had planted on our flank, over two miles off, which
was constantly letting the missiles fly directly over or near us. Four
fell near the right of our line, but did no damage. We put up a few
rails and lay as low as possible. About seven o'clock in the evening,
all of the Ninetieth who were not skirmishing, had to support a company
of sharpshooters; I was among them; we went to the road and lay behind
the bank until dark, and then came in, carrying Miller with us in a
blanket to the hospital; then went back to the line, and made a strong
barricade of rails and stones, three feet high, where we lay all night.
All have run out of rations. This has been a warm day all around. We
still hold the field. General Longstreet was wounded and is in our
hands. Just as we came here, there had been a charge made in front of
us, which drove the rebels. Large numbers came into our lines, holding
up their hands, hats, and white rags.

_7th day, 7th mo. 4th._ Six o'clock A. M. Still hold our position. All
is quiet except the skirmishing. Had rations of pork, crackers, sugar
and coffee. Night. We lay in the position we took up last. This morning
we made a barricade strong enough to turn bullets. This evening some
of us were put on detail for burying the dead, but when we got out to
where we were ordered, found that we were not wanted. We took a look
at the large numbers of wounded prisoners in the barns and the field,
southeast of the Cemetery, which was covered with everything almost
belonging to a soldier. Most of the dead have been buried. All day
there were details sent out to gather up muskets, cartridge boxes, &c.
There was no fighting, except amongst the skirmishers and pickets, all
day, but we did not know how soon we might be called on. I tried to get
liberty to go and look for Wheaton, who was wounded, but could not. The
news is this evening that the rebels have left. We had a very heavy
rain this afternoon. Got rations of pork, crackers, coffee and sugar,
for four days, this evening.

_1st day, 7th mo. 5th._ Had a hard night last night; made a bed on
three rails, with gum blanket for cover; it rained very hard all
night. Soon after we got to bed, orders came for every man to have
his accoutrements on, and gun by his side. About three o'clock there
was a general alarm along our lines; we were up and in our places in
a moment, but after waiting half an hour, when all was quiet, General
Baxter said we might go to bed again. The alarm was false. I tried
again to get liberty to look for Wheaton, but could not. We were sent
out to gather up the dead and wounded rebels who lay in front of us.
They could not be got off any earlier on account of the sharpshooters.
We went out this morning to look at the field where we had not been
before; it was a horrible sight, the ground being literally strewed
with dead and a few wounded. The dead were so putrified that it would
be difficult for a friend to recognize one. The mail came in this
morning; received letters and sent some home. About nine o'clock we
were taken out to relieve the Sixth Corps, which had been stationed
to the left one-fourth of a mile, behind some rifle-pits. We remained
until sundown, when we were moved farther to the front, and encamped
for the night. This afternoon I went up to see some who were in Company
B, Ninety-ninth Regiment, which was encamped farther up towards the
left. Saw a citizen from Lancaster. There are a great many citizens on
the field. This has been a cloudy, dull, damp day.

_2d day, 7th mo. 6th._ Moved from near the left of the battle-field
this morning, and encamped within a mile of Emmettsburg; was put on
guard. This has been a damp day, and the ground is very muddy.

_3d day, 7th mo. 7th._ We were called up early this morning, and
started on the Frederick City pike; went through Emmettsburg. Instead
of going to Frederick City, took a cut across the mountains, and got
within six miles of Middletown, and encamped in the mountains near
Belmont. This was one of the hardest marches we have had yet; distance,
twenty-two miles. The mountains were so steep and the roads so muddy.

_4th day, 7th mo. 8th._ Were called up at four o'clock, ordered to pack
up, and get in line immediately, which we did, and were on the road. We
took the direct road to, and went through Middletown, and encamped half
a mile north of the town. We were almost worn out by the time we got to
camp. It rains most of the time, making the roads muddy and traveling
difficult. At two o'clock we had orders to move, and by half-past two
were off. Took the Hagerstown pike and followed it partly over the
mountain; then turned to the left, and up a high mountain, and formed
in line of battle along the road at sundown. After getting supper we
built breastworks until dark. Part of the Eleventh Corps is here with
us. Met large numbers of cavalry. Most of the army is here. The rebels
are not far off.

_5th day, 7th mo. 9th._ Were up at daylight and got our breakfast; then
all hands went to work and put up our breastworks near three feet high.
By six heard something like skirmishing in front of us, and a band
playing. By seven o'clock we were under arms. Yesterday afternoon we
heard some cannonading, which, we were told, was our cavalry and the
rebel cavalry, with some artillery. We have a strong stone wall before
us. We lay all day behind our works. All the rest of the army, or
nearly so, has gone by; we, the First Corps, are in the rear and will
not go until morning.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Life in Southern Prisons
 - From the Diary of Corporal Charles Smedley, of Company G, 90th Regiment Penn'a Volunteers, Commencing a Few Days Before the "Battle of the Wilderness", In Which He Was Taken Prisoner ... Also, a Short Description of the March to and Battle of Gettysburg, Together with a Biographical Sketch of the Author" ***

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