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Title: Pens and Types - or Hints and Helps for Those who Write, Print, Read, Teach, or Learn
Author: Drew, Benjamin
Language: English
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 PENS AND TYPES
 OR
 HINTS AND HELPS
 FOR
 THOSE WHO WRITE, PRINT, READ, TEACH,
 OR LEARN

 A NEW AND IMPROVED EDITION

 BY
 BENJAMIN DREW

 “A portion to Seven, and also to Eight”

 BOSTON 1889
 LEE AND SHEPARD PUBLISHERS
 10 MILK STREET NEXT “OLD SOUTH MEETING HOUSE”
 NEW YORK CHARLES T. DILLINGHAM
 718 AND 720 BROADWAY



 Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1889,
 BY BENJAMIN DREW,
 In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.


 C. J. PETERS & SON,
 TYPOGRAPHERS AND ELECTROTYPERS,
 145 HIGH STREET, BOSTON.



 To the Memory
 OF
 GEORGE WASHINGTON HOSMER, D.D.,
 MY EARLY FRIEND AND INSTRUCTOR,
 THIS VOLUME IS AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED
 BY
 THE AUTHOR.



PUBLISHERS’ ADVERTISEMENT.


Our first edition of “Pens and Types: or Hints and Helps for those who
Write, Print, or Read,” was especially prepared for the benefit of
persons connected with the press. It had, however, a wide circulation
among persons of all professions, and became a reference book in some
notable institutions of learning.

A distinguished lady teacher in a neighboring city writes us, “I found
the book [“Pens and Types”] of the greatest benefit, both in my work of
teaching, and in the writing I occasionally did for the press. It was
an invaluable aid to those who were trying to train the young in habits
of correctness and accuracy in the use of their mother tongue. Such a
work should never be out of print, and I am glad there is to be another
edition.” We might refer to many who have expressed similar opinions.

This second edition contains all that was valuable in the first,
besides several new chapters and additions, as set forth in the
author’s preface: and on account of its past reputation and the
merits of the added matter, we bespeak anew the favor of printers
and teachers,—of both which professions Mr. Drew may fairly be {p6}
considered a representative; and although he has, in his book, kept
his personality out of sight, even using the editorial “we,” his
fitness for a work of this kind will, we think, be made apparent by a
brief sketch of his career.

After a school life in which he paid much attention to Latin and Greek
classics, he learned the trade of printer. Soon after attaining his
majority, he was employed as teacher of a public school in his native
town, Plymouth, Mass., whence he was summoned to Boston, to take three
months’ charge of the Bowdoin School, during the illness and consequent
absence of Mr. James Robinson. Subsequently he became master in the
Otis School, which position he occupied during the whole period of its
continuance.

While residing in Boston, Mr. Drew was a correspondent of the “Post,”
under the signature of SHANDY; and he also contributed the articles
of DR. DIGG and ENSIGN STEBBINGS to Shillaber’s “Carpet Bag.” His
contributions were of a humorous character, and are well remembered by
many gray-bearded gentlemen of Boston and its environs. From this city,
Mr. Drew removed to Minnesota, where he was Principal of the Public
Schools of St. Paul.

After twenty years of teaching, Mr. Drew returned to the purlieus
of the printing-office, as proof-reader at the University Press,
Cambridge, and afterward with John Wilson & Son, and Alfred Mudge & Son.

Next he became proof-reader in the Government {p7} printing-office,
at Washington, where for more than nine years he remained, reading
press-proofs of the various Government publications, including many
volumes issued by the Smithsonian Institution, and giving valuable
assistance to the Civil Service Commissioners, in the technical
examination of proof-readers for the Government Departments. At the age
of seventy-six he retired from public employment, and prepared this
second edition for the press. May he live long, and enjoy the reward of
an industrious and useful life—and a huge remuneration from an enormous
sale of his Second Edition.

 THE PUBLISHERS.

{p9}



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.


As “man measures man the world over,” so it may be presumed that the
experience of a laborer in any one department of literature will,
in the general, tally with that of all others occupying a similar
position. This volume gives the results of a proof-reader’s experience,
and such suggestions derived therefrom as may, he hopes, be useful to
all who prepare reading-matter for the press, to all who assist in
printing and publishing it, and, finally, to the reading public.

But as a vein of imperfection runs through all human achievement;
and as the most carefully issued volume must contain errors,—so this
work, if critically examined, may perhaps be found to violate, in some
instances, its own rules; nay, the rules themselves may appear to be,
in some points, erroneous. Still, the inexperienced, we feel assured,
will find herein many things of immediate benefit; and those who need
no instruction may have their opinions and their wisdom re-enforced by
the examples used in illustration. So, believing that on the whole it
will {p10} be serviceable; that it contains “a portion” for “seven, and
also” for “eight,” we send this treatise to press. And if its perusal
shall incite some more competent person to produce a more valuable work
on the topics presented, we shall gladly withdraw, and leave him, so
far as we are concerned, the undisputed possession of the field.

{p11}



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.


The extensive circulation of the first edition of “Pens and Types,”
attested by the worn condition of the stereotype plates, induces the
author to present to his friends and the public a new and improved
edition, embodying the results of a wider experience.

The most important portions of the first edition have been retained.
The chapter on Orthography has been enlarged by the addition of ONE
_correct and authorized spelling_ of the many hundreds of doubtful
words—words to which writer and printer _can give but one form_, while
lexicographers give two or more. For offices which adopt Webster as
the standard, Webster’s first column has been closely followed; and
for those which follow Worcester’s style, a list is added, adhering
to Worcester’s first column. Some words of the lexicographers’ second
columns are also placed in the lists (e. g. _draught_ as well as
_draft_), giving to each word its proper and distinct significations.

Moreover we have in the same chapter placed a list of all the
words ending in _able_ and _ible_ which {p12} are to be found in
ordinary English dictionaries,—whether words in common use or rare or
obsolete,—a feature which compositors and many others will know how to
appreciate.

A chapter on the Right Use of Capitals, with rules and examples; and
another on Old Style and its ligatures, with fac-similes from ancient
specimens of typography, give additional value to this edition.

The index at the end of the volume will enable the reader to find at
once any particular rule or direction contained in the body of the work.

Although originally intended for authors and printers, this volume
will, we are confident, be in many respects a valuable reference-book
for teachers and pupils in the public schools, and in seminaries of
learning generally.

{p13}



CONTENTS.


 I. Writing for the Press • 15

 II. Proof-reading • 33

 III. Style • 59

 IV. General Remarks on Subject-matter of Foregoing
 Three Chapters • 66

 V. Punctuation • 71

 VI. Orthography • 125

 VII. Capitalization • 171

 VIII. Old Style • 195

 IX. Technical Terms used in this Work • 202

 X. Various Sizes of Letter • 205

 INDEX • 207



PENS AND TYPES.

CHAPTER I.

WRITING FOR THE PRESS.


In an action recently brought against the proprietors of Lloyd’s paper,
in London, for damages for not inserting a newspaper advertisement
correctly, the verdict was for the defendant, by reason of the
illegibility of the writing.

“The illegibility of the writing” is the cause of the larger portion of
what are conveniently termed “errors of the press.” One can scarcely
take up a periodical publication without finding, from editor or
correspondent, an apology for some error in a previous issue, couched
somewhat in this style: “The types made us say, in our last, something
about the ‘Dogs of the Seine’, we certainly wrote ‘Days of the
League.’” We have no doubt that, in a large majority of cases of this
sort, if the question between “the types” and “the pen” were left to a
jury, they would, as in the case of Lloyd’s paper, decide in favor of
the types.

By dint of hard study, by comparison of letters in {p16} various
words, and by the sense of the context, the compositor generally
goes through his task creditably, in spite of the “illegibility of
the writing.” But sometimes, in despair, he puts into type that word
which most nearly resembles an unreadable word in the manuscript,
making nonsense of the passage because he can make nothing else of
it. We remember a great many instances of this sort, in our own
experience as a proof-reader,—instances which, according to custom,
might be attributed to “the types,” but which were really due to the
writers’ carelessness alone. Thus, in a medical work, it was stated
that “This case had been greatly aggravated by the _ossification_
of warm poultices to the face”; the author having intended to write
“application.”

Ames’s “Typographical Antiquities” has been made to figure as
“Typographical Ambiguities,”—owing to chirographical ambiguity.

“The reports in the ‘Times’ and other journals, never give the name
of the Lord Chandler.” “Chancellor” was, of course, intended by the
writer, but this was an “error of the press.”

In an investigation touching the field of a compound microscope,
a witness was made to say, “It would vary with the power of the
_lye-juice_ employed.” The reporter meant to write “eye-piece,” but he
succeeded in writing what the compositor set up.

The title of a book,—“A Treatise on the Steam-engine; with
_Theological_ Investigations on the Motive Power of Heat.” The latter
clause might seem appropriate to “Fox’s Book of Martyrs”; but the
{p17} transcriber of the title imagined he had written “Theoretical.”

A toast,—“The President of the —— County Agricultural Society,—May he
enjoy a _grim_ old age”: the word was corrected to “green,” before the
whole edition of the paper was worked off.

We have seen an advertisement of “_Mattlebran’s_ Universal
Geography,”—no doubt a very entertaining work.

In a treatise on botany, we have been told, “we first find those
that form the bud, then the _calx_, the _corrola_, the stamina and
_pistol_.” The writer should have spelled correctly, and dotted his
_i’s_.

A catalogue of hardware to be sold by auction had an item, “3 bbls.
English pocket-knives.” This was set from “commercial” writing, in
which “bbls.,” or something like it, was used as a contraction for
“bladed.”

“Nature intended man for a social being. Alone and isolated, man would
become _impatient_ and _peevish_.” No doubt this is true, but “the
types” were to blame again,—the author fancied that he had written
“impotent, and perish.”

The constitution of a certain corporation appeared with the following
article in the proof-sheet: “The Directors shall have power to
purchase, build, equip or charter all such steamboats, propellers,
or other vessels, as the engineers of the Corporation shall in their
judgment require.” Why the Directors should be placed at the mercy of
the _engineers_ seemed unaccountable. But a critical examination of
the {p18} manuscript revealed that the “engineers” were “exigencies.”

A “Bill of exceptions, having been examined, and found _unfavorable_ to
the truth, is allowed.” The Justice who signed the above, understood
the word which we have italicized to be “conformable.”

“They could not admit those parts of the testimony until they had
examined the plaintiff in regard to the _poets_,”—“facts” should have
been written instead of “poets”; but the “pen” made an error which the
compositor did not feel at liberty to correct.

We have read in a newspaper a description of a battle-field:—“It was
fearful to see: the men fell in ranks, and marched in _pantaloons_ to
their final account.” This was explained by an erasure and a blot on
the word “platoons.”

It is very easy to say that errors of the kind we have recited, are
owing to the ignorance or carelessness of the printers; but, on the
other hand, when printed copy is reset, such errors almost never
occur,—and the absence of errors is in direct ratio to the legibility
of the copy.

Men who write much, generally imagine that they write well; but their
imagination is often a vain one. The writer of the worst manuscript
we recollect to have met with, expressed surprise when told that
printers and proof-readers could not read his writing, and remarked
that he had often been complimented on the plainness and neatness
of his chirography. His memory was, no doubt, excellent,—the {p19}
compliments must have been bestowed in his juvenile days, when he was
imitating engraved copies.

While one is imitating a copy, he may, indeed, write legibly, nay, even
elegantly; for he has nothing to attend to, save the formation of the
letters. But when one is writing a report or a sermon or a poem, his
mind is busy with something besides chirography.

The fact is, that men seldom succeed well in doing more than one thing
at a time. The itinerant musician who imitates the various instruments
of a full band, may be detected in an occasional discord. Paley remarks
that we cannot easily swallow while we gape; and, if any one will try
the experiment, he will presently be satisfied that in this statement,
at least, Paley was physiologically and philosophically correct.

Thus, in the haste of composition, ideas crowding upon us faster than
the pen can give them permanence, we can bestow little thought on mere
chirography, writing becomes mechanical, or even automatic; and we pay
scarcely more attention to the forms that follow the pen, than we do to
the contractions and dilatations of the vocal organs when engaged in
conversation with an entertaining friend.

Let school training and practice be the same, yet such are the
differences of physical conformation that handwritings are as various
as the individuals that produce them; running through all degrees of
the scale, from an elegance transcending the engraver’s skill, down to
misshapen difficulties and puzzling deformity. {p20}

But however widely our handwriting may vary from Wrifford, Spencer, or
Dunton, it is generally legible to ourselves, and soon becomes familiar
to our friends and acquaintances. Hence comes the danger that we
shall cease to bestow any care upon it when others than ourselves and
acquaintances are concerned, and hence it is, that, with scarcely any
consciousness of our shortcomings, we are liable to impose on an utter
stranger the task of deciphering a piece of manuscript in which not
only the letters have no proper characterization, but which is smutched
with erasures, deformed by interlineations, and obscured by frequent
and needless abbreviations.

The loss of time spent in endeavoring to read such a document,
is reckoned among the “small things” of which “the law takes no
cognizance”; were it otherwise, many of us who fancy that our
manuscript is above reproach, would be astonished at the number of
bills collectible outstanding against us.

The opinion of the “statists,” spoken of in Hamlet, that it is “a
baseness to write fair,” seems prevalent even in our day. Most men, on
leaving school, instead of endeavoring to improve their chirography,
allow it to deteriorate, and seem to take pride in its deteriority, and
many learned men write as if afraid that legibility would be considered
a proof of intellectual weakness.

In all other cases of encroaching on the time and patience of
another,—as, for instance, our failure to fulfill an appointment, or
calling at an unseasonable hour, or seeking advice in an affair wholly
our {p21} own,—we feel bound to make due apology, nay, sometimes even
acknowledge a sense of shame; but who ever felt regret on hearing that
he had put some one to the trouble of studying, and guessing at, a
puzzling intricacy of cramped writing; his victim being obliged to seek
aid from dictionaries, gazetteers, directories, and even experts? We
never heard of a man’s suffering compunction on this score.

We say this, referring to ordinary business transactions between man
and man, where bad writing, except in rare and extreme cases, does not
involve pecuniary loss. But when we are writing for the press, our duty
to write legibly becomes imperative; indeed, a failure in this respect
trenches so closely upon a violation of the eighth commandment, that it
can seldom happen but from a want of thought as to the relation between
those who write and those who print.

Compositors usually work by the piece, and are paid a fixed rate per
thousand ems. If a line of type be divided by vertical lines into
equal squares, these squares show the number of ems in the line.
Suppose there are twenty such squares; then fifty lines would contain
one thousand ems. To set, correct, and distribute six thousand ems,
is considered a fair day’s work. With plain, legible copy, this can
ordinarily be done; and, at the close of the week, the compositor
receives full wages; all parties are satisfied, and no one is entitled
to complain.

But if, at the end of the week, notwithstanding the closest
application, the compositor has averaged {p22} but four thousand ems
per day, whereby he receives but two-thirds of the sum he is capable of
earning under favorable conditions, who is morally responsible to him
for the lacking third? We need not go far to ascertain: a glance at his
“copy” answers the question. He has been laboring upon bad manuscript.
To show the difficulties which have been in his way, we will put a
supposititious case,—closely paralleled, however, in the experience of
almost every compositor who has worked in a book-office.

He has been setting up a sermon of the Rev. Mr. Z. The society of
the reverend gentleman were so well pleased with the discourse, that
they requested a copy for the press. Mr. Z. should, of course, have
copied the whole manuscript fairly; for, the haste of composition
being past, he could have re-written it carefully, paying especial
attention to chirography, spelling out his abbreviations, reducing
dislocations, bringing interlineations into line,—in short, he should
have done to the compositor what he would that the compositor should
do unto him. But, instead of this, what did you do, Mr. Z.? Pen in
hand, you re-read the sermon, making erasures, striking out some
words and interlining others. You crowded new sentences, of two or
three lines each, between lines already closely written; and you
interlined these interlineations. You then wrote sundry additions on
loose pieces of paper, denoting them as “A,” “B,” “C,” etc., and then
placed the same capitals in the body of the work, without sufficiently
explaining that new matter was to be inserted; {p23} neither did you
make it appear whether the addenda were to constitute new paragraphs.
And in this amorphous condition you allowed the sermon to go to the
printing-office. It has, too, passed through several hands. Some of the
pieces belonging to “A” have got into “B,” and some of the “B” have
straggled into “C,”—and the printers cannot say where they do belong.

One compositor finds in his “take”⁠[1] the abbreviation “Xn,” and,
after many inquiries, learns that _X_ is the Greek _Chi_, and so “Xn”
signifies “Christian.” Another hesitates at a phrase which, to his
eye, seems to read “a _parboiled_ skeptic”; but as modern methods
with heretics do not include heated applications, he asks those about
him what the word is; perhaps goes to the proof-reader with it,—such
things are done sometimes,—for the compositor expects ultimately to
conform to the proof-reader’s decision,—and thus he loses five or
ten minutes in learning that the word is _purblind_. Now, reverend
sir, the compositor’s time is his money, and if you rob him of his
time—the inference is obvious. Your better course, henceforth, will be
to copy your manuscript, or employ some one to copy it, in a careful,
painstaking manner, after all your emendations of the text have been
made.

  [1] For this and all other technical terms used in this work, see
  Chapter IX.

There is a proverb to the effect that lawyers are bad penmen, but
we think the proverb unjust. So far as our experience goes, the
handwriting of {p24} lawyers compares favorably with that of any other
class of persons, of whatever profession. It is certainly as legible
as the mercantile style; since the latter, although generally pretty
to look at, is often very difficult to read,—abounding in flourish
and ornament, which are too often but another name for obscurity.
Sometimes, too, one meets with clerkly invoices or catalogues,
containing remarkably fanciful capitals; we have seen good readers
scarcely able to decide whether a given initial were a W, an H, or
an N. We are pleased to learn, however, that one leading “Commercial
College” has introduced a marked improvement in this respect, and
now teaches its pupils a plain, legible hand, instead of a mass of
overloaded ornamentation made not so much to be read, as simply to be
admired.

But members of the bar, like most other persons, dislike the mechanical
labor of copying what they have once committed to paper. Their
arguments, and especially their briefs, are sometimes sent to the
printer in a confused, chaotic mass; in a shape, or, rather, with a
want of shape, which, if not resulting from inconsiderateness, would
be—we were on the point of saying—disgraceful. A manuscript of this
sort, covering but six or eight pages of letter-paper, sometimes
requires several hours’ labor in reading, correcting, and revising,
before a presentable proof can be obtained.

Legal documents are often interlarded with technical terms in law
Latin and old French. Of course such terms ought to be made as
plain as print. {p25} Usually the principal divisions of a brief are
indicated by large roman numerals in the middle of the line; the points
under these greater divisions, by roman numerals at the commencement
of paragraphs; smaller divisions, by arabic numerals; and if still
smaller divisions are required, these are denoted by letters in
parenthesis, as (a), (b), (c), etc. In the haste of writing, however,
it is sometimes found difficult, perhaps vexatious, to keep the run of
so nice distinctions, and arabic numerals are used throughout, while
no proper care is taken to distinguish the various divisions of the
subject-matter by varying indentions.⁠[2] The faults of the manuscript
reappear in the proof. This leads to much loss of time “at the stone”;
and as such work is frequently hurried during the sessions of the
courts, the delay is exceedingly vexatious to all parties concerned. If
one-eighth of the time now spent in correcting, overrunning the matter,
and revising, were bestowed upon perfecting the copy, there would
seldom be any delay in a well-appointed printing-office.

  [2] We do not mean “indentation” nor yet “inden’tion,” but
  “indention,” as written in the text. The word is in the mouth of
  every printer, proof-reader, author, and publisher: why should it not
  be inserted in the dictionaries?

When transcripts of records of court are to be printed, care should
be taken that only the very documents that are intended for the press
be sent to the printing-office. For want of proper attention in this
matter, it not unfrequently happens that certificates of notaries,
extraneous documents, and duplicates are put in type, to be presently
canceled. {p26}

We have said something above, touching mercantile handwriting. Constant
practice with the pen gives facility and boldness of execution,—and
where these are combined with good taste, chirography approaches the
dignity of a fine art, and produces beautiful effects, and is seen to
be near of kin to drawing and painting. In signatures, especially,
flourish and ornamentation have a double use; they please the eye, and
they baffle the forger. But when lines stand as near each other as in
ordinary ruling, the flourish in one line interferes with the letters
of the next; and the elegance of a well-cut capital will scarcely
excuse its obtrusiveness, when it obliterates its more obscure but
equally useful neighbors.

Further, business men, deeply impressed with the value of time, learn
to delight in abbreviations. Types have been cast to meet some of
these, as the “commercial _a_” [@] and the “per cent” [%]; but the
compositor is sometimes put to his trumps to cut, from German and job
letter, imitations of abbreviations which never ought to be sent to
a printing-office as copy. We are not astonished that a merchant of
Boston once received from a Prussian correspondent a request, that if
he, the Bostonian, were to write again, it might be either in German or
in good, plain English. We adopt the spirit of this advice; and would
say to the banker, the broker, the merchant, and to their respective
clerks, that when they write for the press, they should drop ornament,
drop pedantic abbreviations, drop German, and write in _plain_
English. {p27}

We do not know that there is anything specially characteristic in copy
furnished by the medical faculty, unless it be that their relations of
“cases,” both in medicine and surgery, abound, no doubt necessarily, in
“words of learned length”; which, being unfamiliar to the laity, should
be written with conscionable care; every letter performing its proper
function, and duly articulated to its neighbors. But the scientific
terms of their art, as written by most physicians, are, to the average
printer, as illegible as the Greek from which a portion of such terms
is derived. Recipes are seldom got typographically correct, until they
have passed through three or four revisions. Even apothecaries, it is
said, sometimes put up morphine instead of magnesia; in which case,
unless the revising is done in a hurry with the stomach-pump, a jury
may have something to say about the “illegibility of the writing.” When
troublesome consequences arise from misapprehension of a Latin word,
or of its meaning, we hear much said in favor of writing recipes in
English.

But, whatever may be said to the contrary, there are weighty, and, we
think, irrefutable arguments for continuing the use of Latin and Greek
terms in medical writings,—even in recipes. Since it should be so, and
certainly _is_ so, we insist here, as elsewhere, that all technical
terms, proper names, or any words on which the context can throw but
little, if any, light, should be written not with ordinary, but with
_cardinary_ care,—which new word we hazard, that our meaning may make
a deeper impression. {p28}

In passing, we may remark that the mode of indicating names of remedies
comes under the head of “Style” (see Chapter III.), and varies in
different offices. Names of medicines are often abbreviated, and set
in italics; and when a generic word is used, it should be capitalized;
as, “Dr. I. administered _Rhus tox_.” In homeopathic works, the number
expressing a dilution or trituration is placed in superiors at the
right; as, “Ordered _Cuprum metallicum_^{100}.”


A few suggestions to those who write any kind of copy for the press,
will close this part of our subject.

Write on only one side of the paper.

If you wish to make an addition to a page, do not write it on the back
of the sheet; cut the leaf, and paste the new matter in, just where
it belongs, being careful not to cover up so much as a single letter
in doing so: we have known lines to be omitted by the compositor, in
consequence of careless pasting. The leaf having thus been lengthened,
you may, for the sake of convenience, fold the lower edge forward upon
the writing. This minute direction may seem idle; but when a portion of
the leaf has been folded backward, out of sight, the folded part may
very likely escape notice, and, to insert it, many pages of matter may
afterward require to be overrun: we have known such cases.

Abbreviate those words only, which you wish the printer to abbreviate.

Never erase with a lead pencil; for an erasure with lead leaves it
questionable whether or not the marked {p29} word is to go in. Use
ink, drawing the pen horizontally through the words or lines to be
omitted; and be careful that the marking leave off on exactly the right
word. If you afterward regret the cancellation, you may write “stet”
in the margin, and place dots under the canceled words; but as “stet”
may not be noticed, in the presence of obvious erasures, the better way
will be to re-write the passage, and paste it in the place you wish it
to occupy.

Take time to write plainly and legibly. In writing for the press, the
old adage holds good,—“The more haste, the worse speed”; and for every
hour you save by writing hurriedly, you will be called upon to pay for
several hours’ labor in making corrections. Write joinhand: mistakes
often arise from a long word being broken up, as it were, into two or
three words.

I and J are often mistaken for each other. Either imitate the printed
letters, or uniformly carry the loop of the J below the line.

It is often impossible to distinguish Jan. from June, in manuscript,
unless the context furnishes a clew.

Whatever may be the divisions of your work (as books, chapters,
sections, cantos, and the like), let your entire manuscript be paged
in the order of the natural series of numbers from 1 upward. If you
commence each division with 1,—as is sometimes done,—and two or three
divisions are given out as “takes” to compositors, it is obvious that
portions of one division may exchange places with those of another;
and, further, if leaves happen to become transposed, they can readily
be restored to their right {p30} places if no duplicate numbers have
been used in indicating the pages.

Make sure that the books, chapters, etc., are numbered consecutively.
The best proof-reader must confess to some unguarded moments; and it
would be very awkward, after having had two hundred and forty chapters
stereotyped, to find that two chapter V.’s have been cast, that every
subsequent chapter is numbered one less than it should have been, and
that compositor and proof-reader have exactly followed copy.

Examine your manuscript carefully with reference to the points. Avoid
the dash when any other point will answer your purpose. A manuscript
that is over-punctuated occasions more perplexity than one that is
scarcely pointed at all.

Before sending it to press, get your manuscript into a shape you can
abide by. Alterations made on the proof-sheet must be paid for; and,
further, matter that has undergone alterations seldom makes a handsome
page: some lines will appear crowded, others too widely spaced.

In writing a footnote¹ let it immediately follow

¹ In many works the footnotes, by a slight change of arrangement,
might advantageously become a portion of the text.

the line of text which contains the asterisk, or other reference-mark;
just as you see in the above example, and do not write it at the
bottom of the manuscript page. The person who makes up the matter will
transfer such note to its proper place.

If you feel obliged to strike out a word from the {p31} proof, endeavor
to insert another, in the same sentence, and in the same line if
possible, to fill the space. So, if you insert a word or words, see
whether you can strike out, nearly at the same place, as much as you
insert.

When writing for the press, never use a lead pencil. Let your copy be
made with black ink on good white paper. We have been pained to see
the checkered pages of a report to an extensive religious association,
which report had been in the first place wholly written with a lead
pencil: then words canceled, words interlined, various changes
made,—and all these alterations done with pen and ink. Of course,
sleeve and hand rubbing over the plumbago gave the whole a dingy and
blurred appearance. The effect of the ink sprinkled among the faded
pencilings was so much like that of mending an old garment with new
cloth, that the manuscript had an unchristian, nay, even heathenish
aspect. However, from this copy the report was printed,—let us
charitably hope that it did much good in the world.

If proof-sheets present peculiarities of spelling and language, such
for instance as appear in ancient works, and which are affected or
indulged in by some moderns, every word whose correctness he doubts and
is unable to verify, should be referred by the proof-reader to author
or editor. The latter, familiar with the terms used, may consider
some queries frivolous or puerile; but an author should appreciate
conscientiousness in the reader, and be glad to have {p32} all doubts
settled before his work reaches the eyes of reviewers.

That Dr. Johnson was guilty of harshness toward a proof-reader is
not to be wondered at; but it is a matter of wonder that his conduct
appears to have been approved by other editors. In J. T. Buckingham’s
edition of Shakspeare (1814) is, at page 915, a remarkable note,
apologizing for a few “trifling errors,” and adopting as an excuse a
quotation from an advertisement “from the first edition of Reed, 1793”:

 He, whose business it is to offer this unusual apology, very well
 remembers to have been sitting with Dr. Johnson, when an agent from
 a neighboring press brought in a proof sheet of a republication,
 requesting to know whether a particular word in it was not corrupted.
 “So far from it, sir,” (replied the Doctor with some harshness,) “that
 the word you suspect, and would displace, is conspicuously beautiful
 where it stands, and is the only one that could do the duty expected
 from it by Mr. Pope.”

Dr. Johnson’s assumption that the agent _would displace_ the
word, seems to have been wholly gratuitous. The employees of the
neighboring press did precisely what they should have done,—what every
conscientious proof-reader often feels obliged to do. If suspected
words were passed without questioning, there would be many errors of
the press which would justify some show of “harshness” toward the
neglectful “agent.”

{p33}



CHAPTER II.

PROOF-READING.


So long as authors the most accomplished are liable to err, so long
as compositors the most careful make occasional mistakes, so long as
dictionaries authorize various spellings, just so long must there be
individuals trained and training to detect errors, to rectify mistakes,
and to decide upon and settle all points which lexicographers leave in
doubt. Such individuals are known as Proof-readers.

Movable types, after having been used in printing newspaper or book,
etc., are distributed to their several compartments (boxes) for future
use. In distributing, the compositor, holding several lines in his left
hand, takes from the top line, between the thumb and forefinger of his
right hand, as many words or letters as he can conveniently manipulate,
and moving his hand over the case drops each letter into its proper
box. Suppose, for instance, he takes up the word “feasible”; he carries
his hand to the “f” box, and drops off the first letter; of course he
knows, without looking at the word again, that he is next to drop off
the “e”—and so, very quickly, his hand glides from box to box, each
receiving its proper letter. This process is repeated until the {p34}
types which composed the form are all, apparently, returned to the
compartments whence they were taken.

Suppose, however, that when ready to distribute “feasible,” his
attention is drawn momentarily to a neighbor who desires his opinion
as to a blotted word in his take, and that, on returning to his work
of distributing, he imagines, or seems to remember, that the word in
hand is “fencible,”—the “a” goes into the “n” box, and the “s” finds
itself at “c.” By and by, in setting type from this same case, the
compositor picks up the letters for “emancipate.” If he happens to take
up the two _wrong_ letters consecutively from the _right_ boxes, his
proof-sheet—unless he reads and corrects the matter in his stick—will
present the word “ema_a_sipate”—which the proof-reader will mark, for
the compositor to correct.

Or it may happen in distributing, that the “f” and “e” cohere, and are
both dropped into the “f” box. If the compositor’s mind is not intent
on the matter in hand, the error may not be noticed at once; in which
case the “a” gets into the “e” box, and some or all the other letters
of the word go wrong. The error must be discovered when the last letter
is reached; but to search for each misplaced type until it is found,
would probably take more time than would be required to correct the
errors which must otherwise appear in the proof.

But it is not in distributing only, that blunders occur. There are
many other sources of error, and will be so long as present methods
continue in vogue. {p35} The only wonder is, that so few errors escape
detection before the printer’s work is handed over to the reading
public. We have by us an octavo Shakspeare, each page of type from
which it was printed, having contained, as can be demonstrated, over
six thousand pieces of metal, the misplacing of any one of which would
have caused a blunder.

But the detection and marking of wrong letters forms a comparatively
small part of a proof-reader’s duty. He must be able to tell at sight
whether a lead is too thick or too thin, and to discriminate between a
three-em space and a four-em space. Many other important matters fall
within his province,—and these we shall endeavor to point out before
closing the present chapter.

Other things being equal, printers make the best proof-readers. We have
known two or three remarkably skillful readers, whose work could not
be surpassed, who never imposed a form, nor set a line of type. These,
however, were rare exceptions.

A practical printer who never heard of the digamma, and who has
never read anything but newspapers, will generally make a better
proof-reader than an educated man who is not practically acquainted
with the typographic art; for the printer has, year in and year out,
had a daily drill which makes him skillful in orthography, and he has
been compelled to give close attention to the grammatical points.
Further, his dealing with individual types enables him to see, without
searching, errors which men far more learned than he, do not readily
{p36} perceive; and his pen pounces on a wrong letter as instinctively
and unerringly as the bird darts on its insect prey.

Sterne has uttered a sneer at the husk and shell of learning; but the
best bread is made from the whole meal, and includes the “shorts” and
the “middlings” as well as the fine flour. If every lawyer, physician,
and clergyman were to spend six months at the “case” before entering
upon his profession, he would find, even in that short term of labor, a
useful fitting and preparation for such literary tasks as may afterward
devolve upon him.

Nearly all manuscript copy is indebted to the compositor and
proof-reader for the proper punctuation; and many errors in spelling,
made by men who probably know better, but write hastily, are silently
corrected in the printing-office. Contradictions, errors of fact,
anachronisms, imperfect sentences, solecisms, barbarisms, are
modestly pointed out to the author by the proof-reader’s “quære,” or
by a carefully worded suggestion; and, most usually, the proof is
returned without comment,—and none is needed,—corrected according to
the proof-reader’s intimations. Dickens, and a few other writers of
eminence, have acknowledged their indebtedness in such cases; but we
know one proof-reader—whose experience embraces an infinite variety of
subjects from bill-heads to Bibles—who can remember but three cases in
which his assistance, whether valuable or otherwise, was alluded to in
a kindly manner. On the other hand, the correction in the proof is
sometimes {p37} accompanied by some testy remark: as, “Does this suit
you?” or, “Will it do _now_?” The proof-reader is, however, or should
be, perfectly callous to all captious criticisms and foolish comments;
he need care nothing for “harshness” or other nonsense, provided his
work is well and thoroughly done. Let no nervous or touchy man meddle
with proof-reading.

For the especial benefit of our non-professional readers, we will
here point out the usual routine in regard to proofs. The editor or
publisher of a book or periodical sends to the printer such portions of
reading-matter or manuscript as he can, from time to time, conveniently
supply. This copy is passed to a head-workman, who divides it into a
number of parts, called “takes,” each part being a suitable quantity
for a compositor to _take_ at one time; and the name of each compositor
is penciled at the top of his take. The type when set up is called
“matter.”

When there is enough matter to fill a “galley” (a metallic or wooden
casing about two feet in length), an impression, or “proof,” is taken
on a strip of paper wide enough to receive in the margin the correction
of such errors as may be found. This proof, with the corresponding
copy, is carried to the proof-reader’s desk for examination and
correction.

The reader will have at hand a copy of such directions as may have
been furnished by author, editor, or publisher, to which he appends,
from time to time, memoranda of all eccentricities of orthography and
capitalization,—in short, all peculiarities of style, as they arise.
This he consults frequently while {p38} reading the proof-sheet, and,
for obvious reasons, with especial attention after any unusual delay
in the progress of the work. Directions and notes as to captions,
sizes of type, form of tables, etc., are of utility, especially when
several readers are employed on the same publication; but directions
can scarcely be framed so as to ensure⁠[3] uniformity, except in
few particulars. We subjoin two or three samples of directions and
memoranda: our remarks in brackets.

  [3] _Vide_ page 170, on the orthography of this word.


MEMORANDA FOR PROOF-READERS.

 The form is regular octavo.

 Text is long primer, single leaded.

 Tables and lists, having rules and boxheads, nonpareil solid.

 Headings of tables and lists, brevier italic, lower case.

 There are no numbered chapters. The heading of each section, which
 takes the place of chapter heading, is pica light-face celtic caps,
 spaced.

 Geological ages and epochs are capitalized; for example, “Devonian,”
 “Trias,” “sub-Carboniferous” v. [page 176.]

 Quoted extracts in regular text type (long primer), between quotation
 marks.

 Capitalize “the West,” “the South,” etc., but not “western New York,”
 “central Pennsylvania,” etc.

 Do not use “&c.” for “etc.”

 “Prof.,” “Gen.,” etc., preceding initials or Christian name;
 “Professor,” “General,” etc., when last name alone is used; for
 example, “Prof. J. Smith,” “General Grant,” etc.

 Full point after roman numerals.

 “Saint Louis,” etc.; spell out “Saint.”

 Names of periodicals, in italics.

 Names of books, roman, in quotation marks.

 “Panther creek”; but “Panther Creek district.” That is, capitalize
 titles.

{p39}

The following sample relates to an octavo on Fishes:

 Make “cod fishery” two words.

 “Offshore,” “Inshore” [no hyphen].

 “Sheepshead” [name of fish. Webster inserts an apostrophe and a
 hyphen,—“Sheep’s-head”].

 “Herring fisheries” [no hyphen].

 “Herring-nets” [insert hyphen].

From a quarto on Fishes:

 “Cod-fisherman” [hyphen].

 “Cod fishery” [two words].

Engineer work:

 Make footnotes of the “Remarks” column.

 For “D. D.” in copy, spell “dry-dock.”

 Use figures in all cases, for weights, distances, etc.

The following was for a Digest—Decisions:

 Spell “travelling,” “employee,” and divide “ser-vice.” [“Travelling”
 and “ser-vice” are Worcester style. Webster divides “serv-ice.”—In
 regard to “employee,” neither Webster nor Worcester gives it place;
 but, instead, the French “employé.” Webster has this note following
 the French word: “The English form of this word, viz., _employee_,
 though perfectly conformable to analogy, and therefore perfectly
 legitimate, is not sanctioned by the usage of good writers.” Since
 Webster’s note was written, some good writers, as in the book of
 Decisions above mentioned, have used the English word, as many
 printing-office employees can testify,—and “_employé_” may as well be
 sent home, according to the immigration laws, as unable to sustain
 itself in this country.⁠[4]]

  [4] Since the above remark was written, we have found “employee”
  admitted as a correct English word, in Worcester’s “Supplement.”

Weather Reports:

 The “upper Missouri valley” [small _v_].

 The “Mississippi river” [small _r_].

{p40}

Geological Survey:

 The “Missouri Valley” [cap. _V_].

 The “Missouri River” [cap. _R_].

The proof-reader knows, that (as we have already remarked) every
printing-office has a style of its own; that, if left to itself, its
style would be practically uniform and always respectable,—and he soon
learns that some writers for the press have very firm opinions about
matters of little or no consequence, and are very tenacious, if not
pugnacious, in preferring _tweedledee_ to _tweedledum_; not because it
is written with more _e’s_, but because it is more correct—in their
opinion. However great may be a reader’s capacity for memorizing
trifling details, it is next to impossible to keep minute verbal
differences on different mental shelves. After the big book is bound,
one will be likely to find a mingling of styles; the big River of
one page becomes a little river on the next; “Pittsburg” here, reads
“Pittsburgh” there; and the dignified “National Park” of the first
chapter will dwindle to a mere “national park” in chapter the twelfth.

If not hurried by a press of work, as may sometimes be the case,
the reader will first glance at the proof as a whole. A variation
in the thickness of the leads, or a wrong indention, will, in this
_tout-ensemble_ survey, very quickly catch his eye. Then, still
supposing he has time, he will read the galley through silently,
correcting errors in spelling; marking turned or inverted letters;
improving the {p41} spacing, the punctuation; noting whether the heads
and subheads are in the required type; whether the capitalization is
uniform; whether—if the “slip” beneath his eye happen to be near the
end of a large volume—the word “ourang-outang” which he now meets
with, was not printed somewhere in the earlier part of the work as
“orang-outang,” or, in fact, whether, after some questioning, it
finally went to press as “orang-utan,”—which word he must now, to
preserve uniformity, hunt for and find among his old proofs, if,
peradventure, author or publisher, or other person, have not borrowed
them “for a few minutes,”—alas! never to be returned.

Having settled this, and all similar cases and other doubtful matters,
he hands the copy to an assistant, called a “copy-holder,” whose duty
it is to read the copy aloud, while he himself keeps his eye on the
print (but in newspaper offices, for the sake of greater celerity,
the proof-reader often reads aloud, while the copy-holder follows him
silently, intent on the copy: interrupting, however, whenever any
discrepancy is observed). If the reader desire the copy-holder to pause
while he makes a correction, he repeats the word where he wishes the
reading to stop; when ready to proceed he again pronounces the same
word, and the copy-holder reads on from that place.

The manner of marking, in the text, all errors noticed, is shown,
_infra_, in the “Specimen of First Proof.” The corrections to be made
are indicated, in the margin, by appropriate words or characters
from “Marks used in correcting Proofs”—also {p42} inserted below.
Writers for the press who themselves examine proof-sheets of their
works, should familiarize themselves with proof-reading technics. An
author who received for the first time some proof-sheets returned
them “clean”—apparently having detected no errors. He was afterward
disgusted on finding it necessary to print a leaf of “errata,” and
complained that his corrections had been entirely disregarded. On
re-examining the proofs he had returned, it was found that he _had_
corrected—with knife as well as pen. Where a comma was wanting, he had
used the pen, carefully and skillfully imitating the printed character;
and to convert semicolons into commas he had brought the knife into
play,—nicely scratching out the superfluous part of the point.

Sometimes a line, or it may be several lines, of type are by some
mishap out of perpendicular—slanting; so that only one side of each
letter-face shows a full impression on the proof. It is usual in
such case to draw several slanting marks across the faulty line or
lines, and make similar marks in the margin. It is quite common, also,
for readers to insert in the margin the words “off its feet,”—that
being the printing-office designation for sloping matter. One reader
abandoned writing these words, for two reasons: the first, that a
compositor, when correcting, inserted them in the text, making an
astonishing sentence; the second, that the marked passage,—a piece of
close, logical reasoning,—after being carefully scanned by the author,
was brought to the reader, with a very earnest request that he would
{p43} point out what justice there was in that bluff remark. It is
enough to draw what beginners in writing call “straight marks” across
the matter, and also in the margin. We append other—


MARKS USED IN CORRECTING PROOFS.

 [Symbol] Insert an em-quadrat.

 [Symbol] Dele, take out; expunge.

 [Symbol] Insert space.

 [Symbol] Less space.

 [Symbol] Close up entirely.

 [Symbol] [Symbol] Dele some type, and insert a space in lieu of what is
     removed.

 [Symbol] [Symbol] Dele some type, and close up.

 [Symbol] Broken or battered type.

 [Symbol] Plane down a letter. Push down a space or quadrat.

 . . . . Placed under erased words, restores them.

 Stet. Written in the margin, restores a canceled word or passage,
 or such portions of erased text as have dots under them.

 ¶ Begin paragraph.

 [Symbol] or [Symbol] Remove to left.

 [Symbol] or [Symbol] Remove to right.

 [Symbol] Carry higher up on page.

 [Symbol] Carry down.

 [Symbol] Four lines subscript, denote italic capitals.

 [Symbol] Three lines subscript, denote capitals.

 [Symbol] Two lines subscript, denote small capitals.

 [Symbol] One line subscript, denotes italics.

 w. f. Wrong font.

 tr. Transpose.      [Symbol] Period.      [Symbol] Colon.

 [Symbol] Apostrophe.      =/ Hyphen.      -/ En-dash.      |—| Em-dash.

If there is an omission (an “out”) make a caret at the place of the
out, and if the out is short, write the omitted word or words in
margin; if long, write in margin “out—see copy,” and pin to the proof
the sheet of copy containing the omitted portion.

 l. c. Lower-case.      s. c. Small capitals.

 Qu or Qy or ? calls attention to some doubtful word
     or sentence.

 Several other marks are used, which need no explanation.

{p44}

In order to show our readers the practical application of the above
marks, we will suppose the following paragraph from Guizot to be put in
type abounding in errors, and will then exhibit the corrections as made
by the proof-reader:


SPECIMEN OF FIRST PROOF.

[Illustration]

The above is very bad, even for a first proof,—but we have seen worse,
and have, perhaps, ourself been responsible for some not much better.
While the copy-holder is reading aloud the copy from which {p45} the
above was set up, the reader is busy marking errors, and making such
characters in the margin as will inform the compositors what is to be
done to make their work correct. At the conclusion of the reading, the
proof will present an appearance somewhat like this corrected—

SPECIMEN OF FIRST PROOF.

[Illustration]

If the proof in hand be a reprint, and the new edition is to conform to
the old, the copy-holder, while reading, pronounces aloud the points,
capitals, etc., {p46} as they occur in the copy—saving labor and time
by using well-understood abbreviations. Take, for instance, the second
stanza of Tennyson’s “Voyage”:

    “Warm broke the breeze against the brow,
      Dry sang the tackle, sang the sail:
    The Lady’s-head upon the prow
      Caught the shrill salt, and sheer’d the gale.
    The broad seas swell’d to meet the keel,
      And swept behind: so quick the run,
    We felt the good ship shake and reel,
      We seem’d to sail into the Sun!”

This stanza the copy-holder reads thus:

    _Quote_ “Warm broke the breeze against the brow, (_com._)
      Dry sang the tackle, (_com._) sang the sail: (_colon._)
    The Lady’s-(_cap. pos. s_, _hyphen._)head upon the prow
      Caught the shrill salt, (_com._) and sheer’(_pos._)d the gale.
         (_full point._)
    The broad seas swell’(_pos._)d to meet the keel, (_com._)
      And swept behind: (_colon._) so quick the run, (_com._)
    We felt the good ship shake and reel, (_com._)
      We seem’(_pos._)d to sail into the Sun!” (_cap. exclam. close of
          quote._)

If the work extend beyond a single galley, the slips of proof are
marked in regular sequence, A, B, C, etc., or 1, 2, 3, etc. Each slip
is marked at top “First Proof”: the names of the compositors, which
have been inscribed on their “takes,” are duly transferred to the
printed proof, which, with the errors plainly noted thereon, is then
given for correction to the same persons who set up the matter. Their
duty having been attended to, a “second proof” is taken: {p47} this
the reader compares carefully with the first, to ascertain whether the
requisite changes of type have been properly made; whether “doublets”
have been taken out, and “outs” put in. If any mark has escaped the
notice of the compositors, it is transferred to the second proof.
Close attention should be given to this process of “revising”; it is
not enough to see that a wrong letter has been taken out, and a right
one put in; in the line where a change has been made, all the words
should be compared, and also the line above and the line below a
correction,—since in correcting an error among movable types, some of
the types may move when they ought not, and get misplaced.

As what escapes the notice of one observer may be perceived by another,
this second proof is again “read by copy” by another proof-reader and
assistant, and a second time corrected and revised. The “third proof”
is now sent to the author, editor, or publisher, with so much copy as
may cover it, the copy-holder being careful, however, to retain the
“mark-off”; _i. e._, the sheet on which is marked off the place where
the next “first proof” is to begin. But when the work is of such sort
as not to require extraordinary care, the second proof is sent out, a
single reading by copy being deemed sufficient. If the work is read
twice by copy, only one reader should attend to the punctuation.

If, now, the copy have been hastily or carelessly prepared, or if the
author have gained new light since he prepared it, the outside party
having charge {p48} of the work (whom, for convenience, we will
designate as the “author”) will return his proofs, full of erasures,
additions, alterations, interlineations, and transpositions. With these
the original compositors have no concern; the changes required are made
by “the office,” and the time is charged to the person who contracted
for the printing of the work.

A second, third, or even more consecutive revises of the same slip are
sometimes sent to the author, to the intent that he may see for himself
that his corrections have been duly made, and to allow him further
opportunity to introduce such alterations as to him may seem desirable.
Usually, however, the work, after the correction of the author’s first
proof, is made up into pages; and when there are enough of these for
a “signature” or form of octavo, duodecimo, or whatever the number of
pages on the sheet may be, the proof-reader revises these pages by the
author’s latest returned proof, cuts off the slip at the line where the
last page ends, and sends the folded leaves, labeled “Second,” “Third,”
or “Fourth” proof, as the case may be, together with the corresponding
slips of the next previous proof, to the author, as before. The portion
of slip proof remaining—termed the “make-up”—should be inscribed with
the proper page, and the letter or figure which is to be the signature
of the next sheet, and given, for his guidance, to the person who makes
up the work; to be returned again to the proof-reader, with the other
slip proofs of the next sheet of made-up pages, when that is ready for
revision. {p49}

The author may be desirous of seeing a fifth, sixth, or, as the
algebraists say, any number, _n_, of proofs. When he expresses himself
as satisfied with his share of the correcting, the last author’s
proof is corrected, a “revise” taken, and the proof-reader gives this
last revise a final reading for the press. As any errors which escape
detection now, will show themselves in the book, this last reading
should be careful, deliberate, and painstaking. See to it, my young
beginner, that the “signature” is the letter or number next in sequence
to that on your previous press-proof. See to it, that the first page
of the sheet in hand connects in reading with the last page of the
previous one, and that the figures denoting the page form the next
cardinal number to that which you last sent to press. Having done this,
examine the “folios” (the “pagination,” as some say) throughout; read
the running titles; if there be a new chapter commenced, look back in
your previous proofs to make sure that said new chapter is “XIX.,” and
not “XVIII.”; see that the head-lines of the chapter are of the right
size, and in the right font of type; for, if the “minion” case happened
to be covered up, the compositor may have forgotten himself, and set
them up in “brevier”; if there is rule-work, see that the rules come
together properly, and are right side up; if there is Federal money,
see that the “$” is put at the beginning of the number following a
rule,⁠[5] and of the number in the top line of every page; if points
are {p50} used as “leaders,” see that there are no commas or hyphens
among them. If the style require a comma before leaders, see that none
have been left out; if the style reject a comma, see that none have
been left in; in short, see to everything,—and then, on the corner of
the sheet, write the word “Press” as boldly as you can, but with the
moral certainty that some skulking blunder of author, compositor, or
corrector has eluded all your watchfulness.

  [5] In the Government Printing Office the style omits the “$” in this
  case,—the sign at top of table or page being considered sufficient.

The errors made by ourselves are those which occasion us the most pain.
Therefore be chary of changing anything in the author’s last proof.
If a sentence seem obscure, see whether the insertion of a comma will
make it clear. If you find “patonce,” do not change it to “potence,”
unless, from your knowledge of heraldry, you are aware of a good
reason for such an alteration. If you find _pro. ami_, look in the
dictionary before striking out the point after _pro._; peradventure
it is a contraction. If, finally, after puzzling over some intricate
sentence, you can make nothing of it, let it console you that the
following paragraph appears in Hävernick: “Accordingly it is only
from this passage that a conclusion can be drawn as to the historical
condition of the people, which is confirmed also by notices elsewhere”;
and let it content you to say, in the words of Colenso, “I am at a loss
to understand the meaning of the above paragraph.” So let the obscure
passage remain.

Still, however, should you find some gross error of dates, some obvious
solecism, or some wrong footing {p51} in a column of figures, and find
yourself unable to change the reading with absolute certainty of being
right, this proof, which you had hoped would be a final one, must be
returned to the author with the proper quære. When it comes back to
your sanctum, you may perhaps be pleased at finding on the margin a few
words complimentary of your carefulness; or perhaps a question couched
in this encomiastic style: “Why did not your stupid proof-reader find
this out before?”

Whether reading first or final proofs of Records of Court, you should
not change the spelling of words, nor supply omissions, nor strike
out a repeated word or words; for the printed record is assumed to
be an exact transcript of what is written, and there should be no
alterations,—neither uniformity nor correctness is to be sought at
the expense of departing from copy. Inserting the necessary points
where these have been neglected, is not considered a change of the
record,—as, for instance, an interrogation point after a direct
question to a witness; for, as “the punctuation is no part of the law,”
_a fortiori_ it is no part of the record. If the caption be “Deposition
of John Prat,” and the signature be “John Pratt,” and if in another
place you find the same individual designated as “John Pradt,” there
is no help for it. You have no authority to alter the record, and
must print it as it stands. So, too, in regard to dates. If you read
“1st Feb. 1889” on one page, “Feb. 1, 1889” on another, so let them
stand—the change of style is a trifle; and, if it be a fault, it is the
fault of the record, and not yours. {p52}

And here let us say a word about this matter of uniformity: very
important in some works, in others it is of no consequence whatever,
however much some readers may stickle for it. If, for example, a mass
of letters, from all parts of the country, recommending a patent
inkstand, or stating the prospects of the potato crop, are sent in to
be printed, the dates and addresses will vary in style, according to
the taste and knowledge of the several writers; and there is not the
slightest need of changing them to make them alike, as if all these
widely scattered writers had graduated from the same school. Let
such writings be printed as diversely as they come to hand. If one
writes _plough_, and another _plow_, what matters it, so far as your
proof-reading is concerned? If one writes “15th June,” and another
“June 15” or “June 15th,” so let it stand on the printed page. It
is idle to waste time in making things alike, that could not by any
possibility have been written alike. But you can make each letter
consistent with itself, which is all that uniformity requires. You need
not stretch one man out, and cut off the feet of another, to justify
all authors in your composing-stick. So much for exceptional cases.

As a general rule, study to preserve uniformity in every work. If “A.
M.” and “P. M.” are in capitals on one page, it will look very like
carelessness to have them appear “A.M.” and “P.M.” in small capitals,
on the next. With the exceptions above pointed out, your only safety
is to have but one style, and to adhere to it with the stiffness of a
martinet, {p53} in all contingencies, unless overruled by those who
have a right to dictate in the premises.


READING GREEK.

Greek words sometimes appear in copy, and are somewhat vexatious to
printers who never had the good fortune to study Greek at school—or
elsewhere. In a proof-sheet, we once met a word whose etymology was
given thus in the copy: “From Ἕλιος the sun, and φιλος a lover” (the
_epsilon_ was the author’s mistake). The compositor, not aware of a
Greek alphabet, set up the passage in those English letters which most
nearly resemble the Hellenic characters, and it appeared in this guise:
“From Ediog the sun, and pidog a lover.” We advise proof-readers,
and compositors and copy-holders as well, to acquire—if they do not
already possess—so much knowledge of Greek letters and characters
as will enable them to acquit themselves without discredit, though
“Ediog” and “pidog” condog (_v._ Wb.) to annoy them. A few hours’
attention to the alphabet and characters given below, and to the
annexed practical directions, will suffice to fix in the memory as much
knowledge of Greek as will serve for the mechanical following of the
copy,—mechanical following,—for, if you are setting up or reading a
reprint of the 450th page of Webster’s Dictionary, and meet with the
word ἐννενήκοντα you must put in the eleven letters as they stand: and
if copying Worcester’s 486th page, you find ἐννεήκοντα, put in {p54}
the ten letters. If you have any doubts, submit your query.

The Greek alphabet consists of twenty-four letters.

 Alpha        Α α                        a
 Beta         Β β                        b
 Gamma        Γ γ                        g
 Delta        Δ δ                        d
 Epsilon      Ε ε                        ĕ
 Zeta         Ζ ζ                        z
 Eta          Η η                        ē
 Theta        Θ ϑ θ                      th
 Iota         Ι ι                        i
 Kappa        Κ κ                        k
 Lambda       Λ λ                        l
 Mu           Μ μ                        m
 Nu           Ν ν                        n
 Xi           Ξ ξ                        x
 Omicron      Ο ο                        ŏ
 Pi           Π π                        p
 Rho          Ρ ϱ ρ                      r
 Sigma        Σ σ, final ς               s
 Tau          Τ τ                        t
 Upsilon      Υ υ                        u
 Phi          Φ φ                        ph
 Chi          Χ χ                        ch
 Psi          Ψ ψ                        ps
 Omega        Ω ω                        ō

In reading Greek, mention each letter by its English equivalent.


Ε is read, “cap. short e”; ε, “short e”; Η is read, “cap. long e”; η,
“long e.”

Ο is read, “cap. short o”; ο, “short o”; Ω is read, “cap. long o”; ω,
“long o.” {p55}

There are three accents,—the acute (΄), the grave (`), and the
circumflex (῀).

ύ is read, “acute u”; ὶ is read, “grave i”; ᾶ is read, “circumflex a.”


Over every vowel or diphthong beginning a word is placed one of two
characters, called breathings, which, for the purpose of reading, we
may designate as the smooth (᾿) and the rough (῾).

ἀ is read, “smooth a”; ἱ is read, “rough i.”


When two marks appear over a letter, both should be mentioned by the
copy-holder.

ὔ is read, “smooth, acute u”; ὅ is read, “rough, acute, short o”; ὃ,
“rough, grave, short o”; ὦ, “circumflex, smooth, long o.”


The compositor and proof-reader should be careful that accented letters
are used according to the copy, as in many cases the difference of
accentuation serves also to mark the difference of signification. Thus,
νέος signifies _new_; νεὸς, _a field_: ἴον, _a violet_; ἰὸν, _going_.

ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ, are diphthongs; their second vowel (ι), being silent, is
placed underneath, or subscribed. These should be read thus: ᾳ, “a,
subscript”; ῃ, “long e, subscript”; ῳ, “long o, subscript.”


In Greek, only four points or stops are used: the comma (,); the note
of interrogation (;); the colon, or point at top (·); and the full stop
(.). These should be mentioned as they occur. {p56}


EXAMPLE FOR READING.

EPIGRAM ON THEMISTOCLES.

 Αντὶ τάφου λιτοῖο θὲς Ἑλλάδα, θὲς δ’ ὲπι ταύταν
 Δούρατα, βαρβαρικᾶς σύμβολα ναυφθορίας,
 Καὶ τύμβῳ κρηπῖδα περίγραφε Περσικὸν Ἄρη
 Καὶ Ξέρξην· τούτοις θάπτε Θεμιστοκλέα.
 Στάλα δ’ ἁ Σαλαμὶς ἐπικείσεται, ἔργα λέγουσα
 Τἀμά· τί με σμὶκροῖς τὸν μέγαν ἐντίτθετε;

The method of reading will, we think, be sufficiently exemplified if
we give but one line. We select the third, which should be read by the
copy-holder, as follows:

Cap. K, a, grave i; t, acute u, m, b, long o subscript; k, r, long e,
p, circumflex i, d, a; p, short e, r, acute i, g, r, a, ph, short e;
cap. P, short e, r, s, i, k, grave short o, n; cap. smooth acute A, r,
long e.


Words from dead and foreign languages, introduced into English text,
are printed in italics, until, being frequently met, they cease to be
strangers; then printers and proof-readers anglicify them as much as
possible, by printing them in roman; but some of these retain certain
accents which indicate their alien origin. The Spanish _cañon_ is
completely anglicized into “canyon” (_o_ as in _no_); our miners write
“arrastra” in roman, although the term has not yet found its way into
our most popular dictionaries; our dreadful accident-makers have set
afloat so many “canards,” that that word has become better English than
French; “papier-mache” usually appears in roman without the accent on
the final _e_; _employé_ {p57} has become a good “employee” in our
workshops; and at an early day, every “protégé” and “protégée,” already
roman, will throw off the foreign accents, and remain none the less
acute “protegees”; “éclat,” “régime,” and “résumé” still cling to their
acute _e’s_. Many words and phrases are hesitating whether to remain
foreigners, or to become naturalized. They have “taken out their first
papers,” as it were, having at times appeared in English garb.

It would be vastly convenient for every compositor and proof-reader
(every author, of course, reads proof) to have at hand two lists
of such Latin and foreign words as most frequently occur in books,
magazines, and newspapers,—the one containing the words to be set up in
italics, the other, words to “go in roman,” as the phrase is. We append
two such lists, as samples rather than as fixities to be followed,
although they represent very nearly, if not exactly, the present status
of the class of words we are considering. The roman list is destined to
be continually lengthening, while the italic, save as it receives new
accretions from foreign sources, must be correspondingly diminishing.


WORDS TO GO IN ITALICS.

 _ante_
 _ad captandum_
 _ad libitum_
 _ad quod damnum_
 _aliunde_
 _alma mater_
 _amende honorable_
 _amicus curiæ_
 _artiste_
 _avant coureur_
 _beau monde_
 _coram non judice_
 _corpus delicti_
 _coup d’état_
 _coup de grâce_
 _coup de main_
 _de bonis non_
 _de facto_
 _de jure_
 _del credere_
 _de novo_
 _dilettante_
 _dilettanti_
 _dramatis personæ_ {p58}
 _duces tecum_
 _en route_
 _entrée_
 _et al._
 _ex officio_
 _ex parte_
 _ex post facto_
 _ex rel._
 _falsi crimen_
 _feme covert_
 _feme sole_
 _femme couverte_
 _femme sole_
 _fleur de lis_
 _functus officio_
 _garçon_
 _ignes fatui_
 _ignis fatuus_
 _in extenso_
 _infra_
 _in statu quo_
 _inter alia_
 _in toto_
 _in transitu_
 _juste milieu_
 _malum in se_
 _malum prohibitum_
 _matériel_
 _nem. con._
 _n’importe_
 _non constat_
 _non obstante_
 _nous verrons_
 _passim_
 _peculium_
 _personnel_
 _postea_
 _postliminium_
 _post mortem_
 _prima facie_
 _procès-verbal_
 _pro forma_
 _projet_
 _pro tempore_
 _rationale_
 _res adjudicata_
 _sans-culotte_
 _sine die_
 _soi disant_
 _sotto voce_
 _sub judice_
 _supra_
 _tabula rasa_
 _terra incognita_
 _tout ensemble_
 _ultima ratio_
 _ultima Thule_
 _vide_
 _vice versa_
 _viva voce_
 _vraisemblance_


WORDS TO GO IN ROMAN.

 addenda
 addendum
 ad interim
 ad valorem
 alias
 alibi
 alumnus
 alumnæ
 alumni
 animus
 assumpsit
 bagatelle
 belles-lettres
 bijou
 billet-doux
 bivouac
 bizarre
 bona fide
 canaille
 canard
 capias
 chargé d’ affaires
 coterie
 crevasse
 data
 datum
 débris
 dedimus
 détour
 devoir
 diluvion
 diluvium
 éclat
 emeute
 ennui
 entrepot
 exequatur
 exuviæ
 fasces
 faubourg
 feuilleton
 fiacre
 fieri facias
 habeas corpus
 hacienda
 hauteur
 in banc
 in situ
 literati
 literatim
 Magna Charta
 mandamus
 menu
 mittimus
 nisi prius
 nolle prosequi
 oyer and terminer
 papier-mache
 per capita
 per diem
 posse comitatus
 pro rata
 protégé
 quasi
 régime
 résumé
 rôle
 savant
 seriatim
 sobriquet
 status
 supersedeas
 via
 venire
 venire facias
 verbatim

{p59}



CHAPTER III.

STYLE.


Before beginning to read proof, a man usually prepares himself by
learning how to make the technical marks used in correcting; he then
reads a chapter on the use of capitals; takes up a grammar, and reviews
the rules of punctuation; and by reading, and conversing with readers,
gets such helps as give him a good degree of confidence. But at the
very threshold of his duties he is met by a little “dwarfish demon”
called “Style,” who addresses him somewhat after this fashion: “As
you see me now, so I have appeared ever since the first type was set
in this office. Everything here must be done as I say. You may mark
as you please, but don’t violate the commands of Style. I may seem
to disappear for a time, when there is a great rush of work, and you
may perhaps bring yourself to believe that Style is dead. But do not
deceive yourself,—Style never dies. When everything is going merrily,
and you are rejoicing at carrying out some pet plan of your own,
you will find me back again, tearing the forms to pieces, and again
asserting my irrevocable authority. Stick to my orders, and all will be
well. Don’t tell me of grammarians or lexicographers; say nothing of
better ways, or improvements or {p60} progress. I am Style, and my laws
are like those of the Medes and Persians.” And Style states his true
character.

Unfortunately for the proof-reader, Style seldom writes his laws; or,
if at any time written, their visible form presently perishes, and
they can only be got at, as one may learn the common law of England,
through past decisions. You, my young friend, may in vain consult
old proofs; works formerly read, at the desk you now occupy, by some
vanished predecessor. Your searching cannot help you much; for authors
being without the jurisdiction, are independent of the authority, of
Style,—they may allow him to dominate over their works, or they may
not. How, then, are you to distinguish, and select as models, those
which were read under the direct supervision of Style? In the course of
a few years you may come to know a portion of his laws; but the whole
code is past finding out.

To drop the personification, every office has a style—an arrangement
of details—peculiar to itself. In one, “Government” is spelled with a
capital; in a second, “government” is spelled with a lower-case “g”; in
this office, the four seasons are always “Spring, Summer, Autumn, and
Winter”; in that, they are “spring, summer,” etc., having capitals only
when personified: and so of a thousand other cases in capitalization.
In this office, before a quoted extract we put a colon and dash,
thus:—while, in the office across the way, the style is to put a
colon only: and, a little farther on, is an office which uses {p61}
only the dash—yet a fourth, round the corner, puts a comma and dash,
thus,—while a fifth undertakes to use all these and even additional
methods, as the period, the semicolon, and dash, selecting as the sense
or convenience or caprice may dictate.⁠[6] Here, the style requires
a comma before _and_, in “pounds, shillings, and pence”; there, the
style is “pounds, shillings and pence.” “Viz,” in Mr. A.’s office, is
considered a contraction, and is printed “viz.”—with the period; in Mr.
B.’s office, it is not a contraction, and the period is not used; in
Mr. C.’s office, “viz” is put entirely under the ban, and compositors
and proof-readers are directed to substitute for it the word “namely,”
in all cases. As regards orthography, two styles—the Worcester and
Webster—have, in almost all offices, alternate sway; and—which
complicates matters still more—everywhere there is an “office style.”
Each “rules a moment; chaos umpire sits,” etc.

  [6] For some varieties of style in introducing quotations, see
  “Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey. By Arthur Penrhyn
  Stanley, D.D. London: John Murray, 1868”; especially pp. 256, 257.

Suppose half-a-dozen works going through the press at the same time,
embracing three styles of orthography, and four or five styles in
capitalization; one style which requires turned commas at the beginning
only, of a quotation, and one which requires them at the beginning
of every line of an extract,—you see at once that a proof-reader, so
beset, must needs have his wits about him. For, notice, the first
“slip” which comes to hand is in the “Life of {p62} John Smith”; this
is in the Worcester style, and requires “traveller” and “jeweller” to
be spelled each with two _l’s_, and “impanelled” with two _l_’s. The
next galley-proof to be read is part of the “Life of James Smith”; this
is in the Webster style; and now the reader must change front, and
see to it that he spells “traveler” and “jeweler” with one _l_ each,
and “impaneled” with one _l_. Now as these works are in the same size
of type, and are very similar in appearance, it would not be strange
if now and then the styles were to “cross over”; but, observe, the
third slip, the “Life of William Smith,” is “office style,” requiring
“traveler” to be spelled with one _l_, and “jeweller” with two (very
absurd, but all styles have something absurd and arbitrary in them),
while “empanel” now repudiates an initial _i_. Further, the publishers
of the “Life of John” desire to have it in uniform style with their
“watch-pocket series,” in which names of ships were put between
quotation-marks; the author of the “Life of James” insists, that, in
his work, names of ships shall not be quoted, and shall be set in
roman; the “Life of William,” being in office style, requires names of
ships to be in italics.

Again, each of these works has, at the commencement of its several
chapters, a cast of initial letter differing from the style of the
other two,—the first a two-line plain letter, the second a black
letter, the third an open-face letter; and still further (there is no
“finally”), the “Life of John” has “backwards,” “forwards,” “towards,”
all with the final _s_; and the proof-reader has just received from the
outside reader {p63} of the “Life of James,” a sharp note, stating
that he has stricken the _s_ from “towards,” as many as ten times, and
coolly assuring the said proof-reader that there is no such word as
“towards” in the English language. Meanwhile, intermingled with the
above readings, are four Sunday-school books, A, B, C, and D. A and B
require the words “everything,” “anything,” and “cannot” to be divided
respectively into two words,—“every thing,” “any thing,” “can not”;
while C and D, with a general direction to follow Webster, want these
words printed in the usual manner,—closed up. A and C must have two
words of “’t is,” “it ’s,” “do n’t,” “could n’t,” “must n’t”; B and D
require the same, with the exception of “don’t,” which must be made one
word. A and D want an apostrophe in “won’t”; while B and C insist that
the change from “will not” is so great, that “wont” is virtually a new
word, wherefore they cannot conscientiously permit the apostrophe.

Among these literary foolishnesses and idle discriminations, are
inter-readings of pamphlets on the leather trade; the Swamptown
Directory, the copy being the pages of an old edition, pasted on
broadsides of paper, half the names stricken out, and new ones inserted
haphazard on the wide margin, their places in the text indicated
by lines crossing and recrossing each other, and occasionally lost
in a _plexus_ or ganglion; reports of the Panjandrum Grand Slump
Mining Company, the Glenmutchkin Railway Company, and the new and
improved Brown Paper {p64} Roofing Company; Proceedings of the
National Wool-Pulling Association, and of the Society for promoting
the Introduction of Water-Gas for Culinary and Illuminating Purposes;
likewise auction-bills, calendars, ball-cards, dunning-letters (some
of these to be returned through the post-office, the proof-reader’s
own feathers winging the shaft), glowing descriptions of Dyes,
Blackings, Polishes, and Varnishes; in short, proofs of the endless
variety of matters which constitute the daily pabulum of a book and job
office,—and, in all these, style has its requirements.

If all this be borne in mind, it will not seem surprising, especially
when we reflect that all individuals in their progress toward a perfect
civilization are not yet within sight of their goal,—it will not seem
surprising, if now and then an irate brother should rush into the
proof-reader’s presence, exclaiming, “What do you mean, sir? I thought
I knew something, but it appears I don’t! Here you have put ‘Hudson
street’ with a little _s_, and ‘Hudson River’ with a capital _R_:
what sort of work do you call that?” Should this occur, the schooled
reader has but to reply, “That, my dear sir, is the uniform style of
this office,—we _always_ ‘put things’ as you have stated,” and the
questioner is satisfied, and apologetically withdraws.

As no acknowledged literary Dictator has arisen since Johnson (if we
except Webster), and as we have no good grounds to expect one, let
us hope there may be a convention of the learned men of the United
States, with full powers to legislate upon, and {p65} finally settle,
all questions of syntax, orthography, punctuation, and style, and
authorized to punish literary dissenters, by banishment from the
Republic of Letters.

Were there a common and acknowledged authority to which printer,
publisher, proof-reader, and author could appeal, the eye, the pen,
and the press would be relieved of much useless labor, and the cost of
books would be correspondingly reduced. The Smithsonian Institution
would confer a lasting benefit on mankind by establishing a Board or
Bureau of scholars, which should publish a dictionary of all English
and Anglicized words, _without various spellings_, and also such other
words as might meet the want long felt, and which was expressed in
“The Spectator,” so long ago as Aug. 4, 1711,—where the author, having
spoken of certain perplexities which beset writers, adds: “[These] will
never be decided till we have something like an academy, that by the
best authorities and rules drawn from the analogy of languages, shall
settle all controversies between grammar and idiom.” When such works
from the Smithsonian Institution shall have appeared, and Congress
shall have adopted them as standards to which all Departmental work
shall conform, the diversities of spelling will disappear from the
publications of the Government. Those who would diffuse knowledge among
men should have sharp oversight of the vehicle in which knowledge is to
be conveyed,—to wit, LANGUAGE,—“the foundation for the whole faculty of
thinking.”

{p66}



CHAPTER IV.

GENERAL REMARKS: CONTAINING SOME ILLUSTRATIONS OF, AND ADDITIONS TO,
THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF THE FOREGOING THREE CHAPTERS.


If an author sends his manuscript to the printing-office without
any instructions or directions as to capitalization, punctuation,
etc., the printer will follow his own “office style,” and the work
will be, within certain limits, correctly done; that is, with as
near an approach to uniformity as it is possible for ordinary
fallible mortals to attain. But if the manuscript be accompanied with
numerous “Directions” to the printer, some of these will be forgotten
or overlooked, or become mixed in the minds of compositors and
proof-readers with some set of diametrically opposite “Directions,”—and
so the work will very likely abound in incongruities.

We have known two works to be in hand at the same time, one with
directions to “Capitalize freely,” the other, to “Use capitals
sparingly.” The “Directions” are sometimes quite minute, almost
microscopic; still, it is the duty of the proof-reader to follow them
into the very extremities of their littleness. One writer says, “Put
up ‘eastern,’ ‘western,’ etc., in such cases as this: ‘The purple finch
sometimes passes the cold season in Eastern {p67} Massachusetts, and
even in Northern New Hampshire’”; another directs, “Put compass-points
down, as ‘In northern Nevada.’” If the office style is “Hudson and
Connecticut Rivers,” a direction will be sent in thus: “In all my work,
print ‘Weber and Sevier rivers,’ ‘Phalan’s and Johanna lakes’—not
Lakes.” One author wants “VIII-inch gun and 64-pounder”; another looks
upon this as numerically and typographically erroneous, and insists
on an “8-inch gun and a LXIV-pounder”; still another prefers arabic
figures throughout, and prints an “8-inch gun and 64-pounder”; yet
another likes best the first of the above styles, but wishes a period
placed after the roman numerals, so it shall read, an “VIII.-inch gun”;
one more dislikes “double pointing,” and would retain the period, but
strike out the hyphen. “In my novel, spell ‘Marquise De Gabriac’ with a
big D, and ‘Madame de Sparre’ with a little ‘d.’”

With hundreds of Reports and reports from Institutions and
institutions, from Departments and departments, from Bureaus and
bureaus, trials at law, equity cases, interference cases, Revised
Statutes, and thousands of documents, all as anxious to attract the
public eye as ever Mr. Riddleberger was to catch the Speaker’s, and
rushing compositors and proof-readers and steam-presses with a dizzying
velocity which almost prohibits nicety of execution, it were far wiser
for authors and copyists to attend carefully to the legibility and
accuracy of their manuscripts, than to send to the printer blundering
haphazard pages, accompanied with directions running counter {p68} to
what the writers themselves have exhibited in their manuscripts.

We recollect that a printer once received a manuscript accompanied
with minute directions, extending even to syllabication. It was given
out to the compositors, and a rough manuscript it was; one found in
his take, “One Spanish Mc Krel” and “One caperamber,”—as he and the
others in his chapel read the words,—conundrums which after hard study
of characteristics and comparison of letters were, by an ingenious old
typographic Champollion, solved as “One Spanish mackerel” and “One
café-au-lait.”

If Gunther’s “Catalogue of Fishes, British Museum” is to be written,
it is proper to abbreviate it to “Gunther’s Cat. Fish., Brit. Mus.” An
author who undertook so to write it, jammed the Cat. close to the Fish,
and placed the first period above the line. He should not have been
surprised when he read in his proof-sheet, “Gunther’s Cat-Fish., Brit.
Mus.”,—which, although apparently according to copy, was not “according
to Gunther.”

The use of commas and other pause-marks is to bring out the sense,
and when capitals will subserve the same purpose it is well to use
them also,—whether one finds a printed Rule directing it or not. Thus
Stedman writes:

  “In his verse, Emerson’s spiritual philosophy and laws of conduct
 appear again, but transfigured. Always the idea of Soul, central and
 pervading, of which Nature’s forms are but the created symbols. As in
 his early discourse he recognized {p69} two entities, Nature and the
 Soul, so to the last he believed Art to be simply the union of Nature
 with man’s will—Thought symbolizing itself by Nature’s aid.”


Names of States and Territories, when following names of cities, towns,
and post-offices, are usually contracted; as:

 Savannah, Ga.; Brunswick, Me.; San Diego, Cal.; New Orleans, La.;
 Plymouth, Mass.

But in any other connection, names of States and Territories are
spelled in full; as:

 Mendocino County, California. We crossed Nevada Territory. We visited
 Luray Cave, Virginia.


In an office where the employees are accustomed to the above rules,
absolute uniformity would be attainable, if it were not for the
interference of specialists. If, from such office, a book is issued
in which you find “Richmond, Virginia,” and, farther on, “Richmond,
Va.,” you may be sure that a “direction” to “spell out, in all cases,
names of States and Territories” accompanied the manuscript; that one
reader, mindful, as it happened, of the important direction, spelled
“Virginia,” while another, from force of habit, followed the office
style, and made no change from the customary “Va.”; and you may further
conclude, that the author of the work, when examining the proof-sheets,
had himself become oblivious of the direction he had given.

We have known more than forty special directions {p70} to be sent to
a printing-office with the manuscript copy of one book. An author may
fancy that numerous minute rulings will ensure uniformity and beauty to
his book; but the chances of discrepancy and mistake are increased in
direct ratio to the number of such of his rulings as run counter to the
office style. His “more requires less,” but produces “more.”

{p71}



CHAPTER V.

PUNCTUATION.


Printers and proof-readers are to take for granted, that, in every
work which falls under their supervision, the proper agreement between
thought and expression has been effected by the author. He alone has
the right to change the words and their collocation; and, if fairly
punctuated, the manuscript should be closely followed, word for word,
and point for point.

Every person who writes for the press should punctuate his work
presentably; but—since the majority of writers are inattentive to
punctuation—custom and convenience, if not necessity, have thrown upon
the compositor and proof-reader the task of inserting in their proper
places the grammatical points, and such other points and marks as shall
assist a reader in obtaining a ready apprehension of the author’s
meaning. These are the period (.), the colon (:), the semicolon (;),
the comma (,), the note of interrogation (?), the note of exclamation
(!), the parenthesis ( ), and the dash (—).

Besides these principal characters, there are other marks and signs
used in writing and printing,—the hyphen (‐), the apostrophe (’), and
others; all which may be found in the concluding division of {p72}
this chapter, numbered VIII., and should be referred to as occasion
may require.

Books which treat of English grammar speak of four of the points
in common use—to wit, the period, the colon, the semicolon, and
the comma—as “grammatical” points; while the dash, the note of
interrogation, the note of exclamation, and the parenthesis are
classified as “rhetorical,”—being used to indicate various effects
produced in conversation by changes in the tone of the voice. But as
“English grammar is the art of speaking and writing [or printing] the
English language with propriety,” and as all points and marks in the
printer’s case are necessary to printing with propriety, it is not
essential in this work to make the distinctions alluded to above. Nor
shall we treat at length, if at all, of technical marks not in common
use; as, for instance, signs used in algebra and chemistry, and in
various arts and sciences. These can be referred to, should occasion
require, in handbooks, and in Webster’s Dictionary, pp. 1864–68, or in
Worcester’s, pp. 1773–75.

Our school-books used to tell us, that at the period we should stop
long enough to count four; at the colon, three; at the semicolon,
two; at the comma, one. But pauses vary in length, as readers and
speakers wish to affect or impress their hearers: hence reporters of
speeches and orations sometimes—finding ordinary points and marks
insufficient—insert, in brackets, some comment indicating that there
was a pause made which outreached the time {p73} allowed for an
ordinary period. We listened in April, 1861, to a speech by Wendell
Phillips, in which, at the close of one sentence, the orator paused
long enough to count ten or twelve; the reporters at that place
inserted in brackets the words “[An impressive pause].”⁠[7] To denote
by distinctive characters every possible length of pause would require
an infinitude of signs, types, and cases. We must therefore do the
best we can with the few points now in use, leaving much to the taste
of authors, printers, and readers. Still, the immense advantage
modern students have over those of ancient times is made obvious
by a comparison of antique and modern writings,—for punctuation is
comparatively a modern affair, whose origin and changes it will be both
useful and interesting to trace,—and in doing this, we shall endeavor
to avoid the charge of prolixity, by condensing into brief space
information gained from a variety of sources.

  [7] “There is only one thing those cannon shot in the harbor of
  Charleston settle,—that there never can be a compromise. . . . During
  these long and weary weeks we have waited to hear the Northern
  conscience assert its purpose. It comes at last. [An impressive
  pause.] Massachusetts blood has consecrated the pavements of
  Baltimore, and those stones are now too sacred to be trodden by
  slaves.”

The most ancient Greek manuscript known is among the papyri of the
Louvre. It is a work on astronomy, and is indorsed with deeds of 165
and 164 B.C. This has “a certain sort of separation of words.” In
a copy of Homer, written B.C., a wedge-shaped sign > is inserted
“between the beginnings of {p74} lines” to mark a new passage. But even
these marks were soon lost sight of; subsequent Greek and Latin writing
runs on continuously without distinction of words. In the fifth century
of our era, the fourth verse of the Second Epistle of John was thus
written:

 τεκνωνσουπεριπατουν
 τασεναληθειακαθωσεντο
 ληνελαβομεναποτουπρς (The πρς a contraction for πατρος.)

In Greek MSS. this method continued until the fourteenth century.

 HOWTHEANCIENTSREADTHEIRWORKSWRITTENIN
 THISMANNERITISNOTEASYTOCONCEIVE

St. Jerome (A.D. 324–420) wrote a Latin version of the Bible—“the
foundation of the Vulgate”—“per _cola_ et _commata_”; not with colons
and commas as we understand those words, but by a stichometric
arrangement,—dividing the text into short sentences or lines, according
to the sense, chiefly with a view to a better understanding of the
meaning, and a better delivery in public reading. It is not until the
latter part of the seventh century that there is some separation of
words in Latin MSS. In the later Latin (eighth century) the full point
in various positions was introduced,—being placed on a level with the
top, bottom, or middle of the letters,—as the students of “Andrews and
Stoddard” are well aware. In still later MSS. in small letter, the full
point on the line or high was first used; then the comma and {p75}
semicolon; and the inverted semicolon (؛), whose power was stronger
than the comma.

In early Irish and English MSS., separation of words is quite
consistently followed; and in these the common mark of punctuation was
the full point, while to denote the final stop or period one or two
points with a comma (..,) were used.

Contractions were much used in ancient MSS. to save time and labor.
Some of these were denoted by a semicolon ; as b; = bus; q; = que; vi;
= videlicet,—this character, in cursive writing, readily became a _z_,
whence we have our viz = videlicet.

The Roman numerals in ancient texts were placed between full points;
e.g., .CXL., to prevent confusion.

Punctuation remained very uncertain until the end of the fifteenth
century, when the Manutii, three generations of printers,—the
elder (1450–1515) the most learned, skillful, and energetic of the
three,—increased the number of points, and made rules for their
application; and these were so generally adopted, that Aldus Manutius
and his son and grandson may be considered inventors of the present
system of punctuation, notwithstanding it has been changed, and perhaps
improved upon, since their time,—notably in the use of the colon.
But scholars differ so widely in some respects as to the insertion
of commas, as well as other points, that not many rules are as yet
absolutely fixed.

Modern writers tell us that “points are used to mark the _sense_
rather than the _pauses_.” We would {p76} substitute “as well as”
for “rather.” In writing from dictation we place points where the
_dictator_ makes pauses; and in reading we make pauses where the writer
has put the points. For example, note the difference in sense and
pause, according as the comma is placed before or after “to the end,”
in the following sentence:

 I have advised the Attorney-General to read this letter to the end,
 that he may see precisely how this matter will affect public interest.

 I have advised the Attorney-General to read this letter, to the end
 that he may see precisely how this matter will affect public interest.

Murray’s large octavo English Grammar and countless common-school
grammars, from Murray’s time to the present day, contain rules for
aiding students and writers to decide where points, and what points,
should be placed. These are of great utility, and every young person
should familiarize himself with them as found, briefly stated, in books
now in use. It should be borne in mind, however, that a close and
slavish adherence to stated forms, without ascertaining their bearings
in individual cases, tends to becloud the judgment, and may cause
an author’s meaning to be obscured, or even concealed, rather than
elucidated.

In books issued by different houses will be found great diversity in
the manner of pointing similar and even the same sentences; and some
part of what we have called “style” results from the effort of a {p77}
house to be consistent with itself, and to establish a uniformity
among its own issues.

The rules given in this chapter, and the observations accompanying
them, are mainly the results of our own training and experience as
compositor and proof-reader at different periods, covering in the
aggregate more than twenty years. To bring out by punctuation the
sense of difficult and involved sentences—which are of frequent
occurrence—requires close attention and careful study,—attention not
the less close, nor study the less careful, because prompted by the
necessity of immediate practical application.

As all rules suitable to guide human conduct lie folded up in the
golden rule, so all rules for pointing sentences are embraced in
this: Punctuate so as to bring out the author’s meaning. And by their
consonance with this great rule all special rules must be judged. Yet
in this, as in all other matters, men disagree in their judgments; and
we must be content in our diversities, until the academy desiderated by
the “Spectator” shall have become an actual institution, invested with
a _quasi_ grammatical infallibility.

For instance, as to placing a comma between a nominative phrase or
sentence and the predicate, the best authorities differ. Wilson’s rule
is,—

 “No point or pause-mark is admissible between the subject or
 nominative and the predicate, . . . .”

The “Practical Grammar,” by S. W. Clark, A.M., published by A. S.
Barnes & Co., New York, gives the following rule: {p78}

 “A phrase or sentence used as the subject of a verb, requires a comma
 between it and the verb.”

Of course the examples under the rule exhibit a corresponding
difference.

 “To be totally indifferent to praise or censure is a real defect in
 character.”—_Wilson._

 “To do good to others, constitutes an important object of
 existence.”—_Clark._

Ingersoll’s Grammar (Portland, 1828) and Kerl’s—which last is now
very extensively used—agree with Clark. Both have the same example as
Wilson, but pointed as follows:—

 “To be totally indifferent to praise or censure, is a real defect in
 character.”

Goold Brown (Grammar of Grammars) inserts the comma. Cobbett’s Grammar
omits it.

Take up the first dozen books that come to hand, and you will find
diversity of practice.

 “The influences which Atterbury had fostered long lingered in the
 precincts.”—_Stanley’s Westminster Abbey._

 “The distinction between transcendental and transcendent, is observed
 by our elder divines and philosophers.”—_Coleridge’s Biographia._

 “The interruption of friendly relations between England and Spain was
 the fault . . . of the Emperor.”—_Froude’s England._

The better method is to omit the comma, except in those cases where
its insertion would prevent ambiguity; as in the quotation above, from
Stanley, where there should have been a comma after “fostered”; {p79}
as it stands, the word “long” may qualify either the word before or
after it.

So, if you examine any number of volumes with reference to placing a
comma before _and_, _or_, or _nor_, when three or more words, in the
same category, are connected,—in some you will find “Faith, and hope,
and charity”; in others, “Faith and hope and charity.” We have just met
with the following lines in a well-known paper:

    “Round and round the atoms fly,
    Turf, and stone, and sea, and sky.”

Wilson’s example is (p. 38),—

    “Let us freely drink in the soul of love and beauty and
    wisdom from all nature and art and history.”

In view of these and similar differences of practice, and contradiction
of rules, one is tempted to say that it is of no moment whether the
commas are inserted or not. But, leaving “style” out of the question,
a proof-reader should endeavor to have a reason for every omission
he allows, and for every insertion he makes. We advise him, then, in
the first place to note which method seems required by the golden
rule of elucidating the meaning; then consider, further, if the
sentence already contains commas, whether inserting more would offend
the eye. Let him decide each case on its own merits; leaning, when
in doubt, in favor of such grammatical rule as he may have adopted.
But use judgment; for the most precise grammarians lay down pages of
exceptions; and Cobbett (Grammar, Letter XIV.) cannot be gainsaid when
{p80} he writes, “It is evident, that, in many cases, the use of the
comma must depend upon taste.”

When a phrase or clause, in its nature parenthetic, is quite closely
connected with the parts of the sentence in which it is placed, the
insertion of the comma before and after such phrase or clause “must
depend upon taste.” The former comma especially, may often be omitted
(see Obs. 10, under Rule 16, _post_). If the commas are inserted, we
have a specimen of what is called “close pointing”; if omitted, we have
“liberal pointing.”

Close pointing prevails in almost all publications except law-work,
and in all doubtful cases puts in the comma. Liberal pointing, on the
other hand, omits the points except when absolutely necessary to avoid
ambiguity.

A middle course, retaining the spirit rather than adhering to the
letter of the rules, will be found the safest. When, as will often
be the case, a passage occurs, the meaning of which varies with the
insertion or omission of a comma, while it would be grammatical either
way, the compositor should _follow the copy_; the proof-reader should
mark the passages with his quære; but if he first notices the fault
when reading the press-proof, he should suffer it to stand as the
author left it, letting all responsibility remain where it rightfully
belongs.

Abbreviated words, besides the period denoting their abbreviation,
require the same pointing as if they were spelled in full. Thus “Jno.
Smith, Esq., of Worcester; Abel Soane, M.D.; and James Doe, {p81}
LL.D.,—were appointed a comm. to take care of books, docs., etc.,
etc.,” has the same pointing as “John Smith, Esquire, of Worcester;
Abel Soane, Doctor of Medicine; and James Doe, Doctor of Laws,—were
appointed a committee to take care of books, documents, and so forth,
and so forth.” But in some classes of work, as Directories, Catalogues
of books, Genealogies, and where titles and abbreviations are of
frequent occurrence, double pointing may be partially avoided by
omitting the comma after a period which denotes an abbreviation.


Neatness requires the omission of the comma before leaders; thus,

 John Roe . . . . . . . . New Orleans.
 James Doe. . . . . . . . San Francisco.

is more pleasing to the eye than

 John Roe, . . . . . . . . New Orleans.
 James Doe,  . . . . . . . San Francisco.

Preambles to resolutions and laws are usually begun with “Whereas.”
After this word a comma is sometimes heedlessly inserted, although the
introductory word is not followed by a parenthetic clause. We append
the most improved forms for punctuating and capitalizing preambles,
resolves, and provisos:

 Whereas the present national interest in the matter of the American
 fisheries has, &c.—_Cong. Record, July, 11, 1888._

 Whereas, owing to the sudden demise of the secretary, no notice was
 given of the receipts of the plans, etc.:

 _Resolved_, That the whole matter be referred to a committee:
 _Provided_, [or _Provided however_,] That the whole expense shall not
 exceed, etc. {p82}

The semicolon should be placed before _as_, in an enumeration of
particulars following a general statement; thus:

 Many proper names admit of convenient contractions; as Jno., Wm.,
 Benj., Jas., Chas.

But when _as_ is not preceded by a general or formal statement, no
point is necessary unless _as_ is followed by a parenthetic clause; as:

 Such names as John, Benjamin, William, admit of convenient
 contractions.

 Some fishes, as, for instance, the cod, delight in cold baths, and are
 never found in water above 40° Fahr., unless in care of the cook.

But in liberal pointing, the commas before and after “for instance”
would be omitted.

In regard to the points or marks connected with “viz.,” “namely,”
and “to wit,” the punctuation varies according to the structure
of the sentences in which they occur; but this does not prevent a
publishing-house from having a style of its own. It is interesting to
note the varieties which different offices present. We annex a few
examples, which may be serviceable; to wit:

 “Sussex Co., Del., July 5, 1776. We are sorry to say, that it is
 our opinion that they (viz: the enemies of the war) are not better
 affected than they were before the troops came.”—_Am. Archives_, 5th
 series, Vol. 1, p. 10.

 I never depended on him for any men, or for any participation in the
 Georgia Campaign. Soon after, viz., May 8th, that department was
 transferred, etc.—_Memoirs Gen. Sherman._ {p83}

 There is one case in which it is never right to do this; viz., when
 the opposite party, etc.—_Cavendish’s style._

 The library is open every secular day throughout the year, except the
 legal holidays, viz.,—Washington’s Birthday, Fast Day, Decoration Day,
 Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas.—_Brookline,
 Mass., Pub. Lib. Report, 1887._

 Seven of the bishops lived to be over 80—viz. Llandaff 84, Winchester
 84, etc.—_Nineteenth Century, March, ’88._

 Woburn has a population of about 12,000, grouped at four principal
 centers: namely, Woburn Centre, about 8000, etc.—_Mass. Drainage Comm._

 The Dawes bill deals with two subjects only, namely, the ownership of
 land and citizenship.—_N. A. Review, March, ’88._

 This, then, is the upshot of the second part of the law, namely: (1)
 that all to whom land is patented become at once citizens of the
 United States; (2) that all, etc.—_ib._

 There are four seasons, namely: spring, summer, autumn, winter.

 Four administrative areas are thus created: two primary areas—namely,
 counties at large, and boroughs of 100,000 inhabitants and
 upwards.—_Nineteenth Century Maga._

 Annapolis, June 25, 1776. That four battalions be instantly raised
 . . . . each company to consist of ninety men, to wit: one captain,
 two lieutenants, etc.—_Am. Archives._

When _viz._ or _namely_ or _as follows_ ends a paragraph, the colon
is commonly inserted; but the dash or comma-dash or colon-dash may
sometimes be noticed,—it is a matter of office style. (See Punctuation,
Rule 8, _post_.)

But if, referring to a succeeding sentence or paragraph, the words “the
following” or “as follows” appear, the sentence in which they occur
should be closed with the colon or colon-dash, as in the following
examples: {p84}

 The description given of the English Nonconformists in many pages
 that stand for history, is as follows: That they started forth under
 a well-settled order of constitution and discipline of the Church of
 England, etc.—_Ellis’s Puritan Age._

 Mr. Faulkner, from the Committee on Pensions, to whom were referred
 the following bills, reported them severally without amendment, and
 submitted reports thereon:

 A bill (H. R. 10318) granting a pension to Mary C. Davis; and

 A bill (H. R. 8400) to place the name of John J. Mitchell on the
 pension-roll.—_Congressional Record, July 22, ’88._

The hyphen is used to connect the parts of a compound word; to show the
divisions of words into syllables; it is placed at the end of a line
when a word is not finished; and it is sometimes placed between vowels,
to show that they belong to different syllables (as “co-ordinate”). In
regard to its use in compound words great diversity exists; and the
proof-reader can have, as we believe, no fixed system which will apply
to all varieties of work. In specifications for bridges, buildings,
etc., the better way is to avoid compounding; for, in everything
of that kind, one will find so many “door-sills,” “newel-posts,”
“stair-balusters,” “pulley-stiles,” etc., that if he begin marking
in the hyphens he will scarcely make an end of it, and many hyphens
sadly deform a page: better put “door knobs,” “window frames,” “stair
nosings,” etc., omitting hyphens.

Here, too, the dictionaries can scarcely be said to assist, if they
do not even mislead. Worcester has “brickwork,” “brasswork,” without
hyphens; {p85} “wood-work,” “iron-work,” with them. “Greenhouse” is
closed up, while “school-house” is not; “wood-house” has a hyphen,
“almshouse” has none. (Wilson writes “schoolhouse.”) Webster has
“brick-work” with the hyphen, “woodwork” without it,—just reversing
Worcester. Again, Worcester writes, “humblebee” and “bumblebee”:
Webster, under B, has “bumble-bee, . . . . sometimes called
humble-bee”; and, under H, writes “humblebee, . . . . often called
bumblebee,” apparently forgetful of his previous hyphens.

To search for authority, then, in the matter of compounding words,
will avail next to nothing. In a volume containing “School Committees’
Reports,”—and certainly school committees ought to know many things,—we
find “blackboard” and “black-board”; and, on one page, “schoolbooks,”
“schoolkeeping,” “schoolmaster,” “school-houses,” “school-checks.”
“Semi-annual” is frequently printed with the hyphen, according to
Webster; but Worcester, omitting the hyphen, has “semiannual.”

Thus it appears, that, in regard to compounding (by which we mean
inserting the hyphen between the parts of a compound word), the
proof-reader is left to his own discretion, and can do very much as
he pleases. He should, however, adopt some method by which he can
approximate to uniformity in his own work; for as to agreeing with
anybody else, that is out of the question.

Perhaps as good a rule as can be laid down on this subject is to
close up the word when {p86} compounding changes the accentuation;
otherwise, insert the hyphen. Thus, “Quartermaster” has a different
accentuation from the two words “quarter master”; therefore make one
word of it, without the hyphen. “Head-assistant” is accented like
the two words “head assistant,”—therefore insert the hyphen. By this
rule “schoolhouse” and “blackboard” should be severally closed up;
“salt-mine” takes the hyphen,—“saltsea” (adjective) does not.

The word “tree,” with a prefix indicating the kind, should be
compounded; as “oak-tree,” “forest-tree,” “pine-tree,” etc. (Webster
has a hyphen in “whiffle-tree,” Worcester prints “whiffletree.”)

“Cast-iron” and “wrought-iron” are usually compounded, and should
always be so when used as adjectives; as “cast-iron pillars,”
“wrought-iron boilers.”

“Temple-street place” (or “Place,” according to style), “Suffolk-street
District,” “Pemberton-square School,” are quite correct; the hyphen is
too frequently omitted in such cases.

The words _ex officio_ do not require a hyphen, but some very reputable
offices insert it.

Hyphens are sometimes used to indicate grotesque pronunciation, as in
the following couplet from “Rejected Addresses”:

    “In borrowed luster seemed to sham
    The rose and red sweet Will-i-am.”

When two words connected by a conjunction are severally compound parts
of a following word, the hyphen is omitted; as: {p87}

    We use cast and wrought iron pillars.
    I have pruned my peach and apple trees.

Some authors follow the German style, inserting the hyphens; thus:

    We use cast- and wrought-iron pillars.
    I have pruned my peach- and apple-trees.

But this style is rare.

Precision requires that hyphens should be inserted in fractions
expressed in words; as “one-half,” “three-fifths,” etc.

 How many oranges are seven and three fourths oranges?

There being no hyphen in the above example, the “seven” and “three”
are in the same category as “peach” and “apple” in the last previous
example. The answer is ten-fourths, or 2⁠½.

If “seven” is meant to express a whole number, a hyphen should be
inserted after “three.”


A prolific source of trouble in correcting is wrong syllabication when
it is thought necessary to carry part of a word to the succeeding line.
Neither the English method of dividing on vowels, where this can be
conveniently done, nor the American method of dividing on syllables,
obtains exclusively in this country. Convenience, and the desire of
spacing in such a manner as to make the lines look well, frequently
determine the dividing letter; so that, in the same work, you may find
“pro-perty” and “prop-erty,” “trea-sure” and “treas-ure.” In a recent
English work, we note the following divisions: {p88} Pre-bendaries,
mea-sure, pre-decessors, supre-macy, the Re-formation, pro-perty,
theo-logy, bre-thren, pre-paration.

But the division on the syllable is the mode most generally practiced
in the United States, and we must, however reluctantly, adhere to it as
closely as possible, until a convention of publishers shall sanction
the adoption of the English usage. Our authorities close the first
syllable of “fa-ther” on the _a_, of “moth-er” on the _th_, so that,
practically, the latter word should not be divided at all; the English
printer, without hesitation, places the hyphen after the _a_ and the
_o_ respectively.

As to the word “discrepancy” there is a discrepancy. Webster accents
the second syllable, and divides “discrep-ancy”; while Worcester
accents the first syllable, and divides “discre-pancy.” In this,
printers and readers must be governed by the “style” of the work upon
which they are engaged.

One of the most frequently recurring errors noticed in reading first
proof is the placing of an _s_ at the end of a line when it should
have been carried over. Corres-pondence, des-cribe, des-cription,
Aus-tralian, are wrong, and are corrected daily; and their reappearance
proves that in this, as in weightier matters, “error is wrought by want
of thought.”

In newspapers, or any work which is to be read once and then cast
aside, the carrying over of an _ed_ or _ly_, or any other syllable of
two letters, may perhaps be tolerated; but in bookwork such a division
is inexcusable, except in side-notes, or when the {p89} measure is
very narrow. To avoid extremely wide or thin spacing, and to escape
the trouble and expense of overrunning pages already imposed, it must
be considered admissible, in certain cases, to carry over a consonant
preceding the final syllable _ed_; as, expec-ted, divi-ded. We state
this with some misgivings; but, as we have known it to be done by
excellent readers and skillful printers, even by John Wilson himself,
of blessed memory, we lay it down as allowable in extreme cases.
Theories are elastic,—are expansible and compressible; but types of
metal have set dimensions of extension, and, in some circumstances,
absolutely refuse to budge,—wherefore theories must gracefully yield,
and allow, it may be, a two-letter division even in wide measure. Types
are tyrannical, and will sometimes perpetrate solecisms under the plea
of necessity.

An author can sometimes much improve the appearance of a page, by
slight changes in the phraseology.

A good compositor studies to avoid divisions. Some printers, rather
than divide a word, will justify a line by separating the words with
two three-em spaces. But no arbitrary rule can be laid down in this
regard. A well-spaced page with several divided words looks much better
than a page unevenly spaced in which no divisions occur. The number of
hyphens occurring in succession at the end of the lines on any page,
should never exceed three.


In manuscript the dash occurs more frequently than any other mark of
punctuation, many writers {p90} using it as a substitute for every
other point. This habit very much retards the compositor in his task;
for, as we have already intimated, he feels obliged to study the sense
of his copy, and to waste his valuable time in considering how he shall
best supply those aids to meaning which the author has rejected, and
without which any work would be wholly unpresentable.

That the author of the paragraph quoted below pointed it with perfect
accuracy before sending it to press, does not admit of a doubt. For the
nonce, however, we will, with his leave, punctuate the passage in the
manner in which the compositor frequently finds passages pointed on his
“takes”; thus:

 “It has been said—and—no doubt—truthfully—that the smartest boys
 do not go to college. Yet—it is evident—to every one competent to
 judge—that the ablest men have been at college.”

With so many dashes before him, it would not be strange if the
compositor were to retain some of them; and the proof might, perhaps,
appear as follows:

 “It has been said—and no doubt truthfully—that the smartest boys do
 not go to college. Yet it is evident to every one competent to judge,
 that the ablest men have been at college.”

This is much improved; and, if we substitute commas for the dashes in
the first sentence, the punctuation may be considered unobjectionable.

Beginners at the “case” are often puzzled in regard to the insertion of
commas before the dashes which {p91} inclose a parenthetic clause. To
decide this point, it is enough to notice whether or not a comma would
be used, were the parenthetic clause omitted. This, we think, will be
readily understood by reference to the following examples:

 “It was necessary not only that Christianity should assume a standard
 absolutely perfect, but that it should apply a perfect law to those
 complex and infinitely diversified cases which arise when law is
 violated.”

Now, if a parenthetic clause is inserted before the word “but,” the
comma should be retained, and another placed at the end of the inserted
clause; thus:

 “It was necessary, not only that Christianity should assume a standard
 absolutely perfect,—which, however far from anything that man has ever
 done, would be comparatively easy,—but that it should apply a perfect
 law,” etc.

If there is no comma where the clause is to be inserted, dashes alone
should be used:

 “In the completed volume of the third report, the countries wherein
 education has received the most attention are treated of at length.”

If a parenthetic clause be inserted after “countries,”—where there is
no comma,—only dashes are required; thus:

 “In the completed volume of the third report, the countries—Prussia,
 for instance—wherein education has received the most attention are
 treated of at length.”

A thin space should be placed before, and also after, a dash.

If a parenthesis is inserted in a part of a sentence {p92} where no
point is required, no point should be placed before or after the marks
of parenthesis.

 “By living sparingly, and according to the dictates of reason, in less
 than a year I found myself (some persons, perhaps, will not believe
 it) entirely freed from all my complaints.”—_Cornaro._

As a general rule, if the parenthesis occur after a punctuated clause,
the point should be placed after the latter mark of parenthesis.

 “Popham’s monument, by the intercession of his wife’s friends (who had
 interest at Court), was left in St. John’s Chapel on condition either
 of erasing the inscription, or turning it inwards.”

 “Artist: Kneller (1723). Architects: Taylor (1788); Chambers (1796);
 Wyatt (1813).”

 “Antiquities of St. Peter’s, by J. Crull (usually signed J. C.).”

If a parenthesis which closes with a note of exclamation or
interrogation is inserted where a point occurs, that point should
precede the first mark of parenthesis.

 “Where foresight and good morals exist, (and do they not here?) the
 taxes do not stand in the way of an industrious man’s comforts.”

 “He directed the letter to Gnat Smith, (spelling Nat with a G!) and
 deposited it in a fire-alarm box.”

An exclamation point is often found preceding the first mark of
parenthesis.

 “Ay, here now! (exclaimed the Critic,) here come Coleridge’s
 metaphysics!”—_Biographia Literaria._

 “I am, sir, sensible”—“Hear! Hear!” (they cheer him.) {p93}

When a parenthesis occurs within a parenthesis, brackets should be
substituted for the first and last parenthetic marks.

 “As for the other party [I mean (do not misunderstand me) the original
 inventor], he was absent from the country, at that time.”

“Brackets are generally used . . . to inclose an explanation, note, or
observation, standing by itself.”—_Parker’s Aids._

A short comment inserted in a paragraph by a reviewer is placed in
brackets.

 “The sacks were badly eaten by rags [so in the affidavit], and the
 almonds had run out.”

In transcripts of trials at law, brackets are used to inclose
statements of things done in court, which things would not appear in a
report of the verbal proceedings alone; as,—

 “_Ans._ About a quarter past ten, he came into my shop, and picked out
 a cane. . . . .

 “_Gore._ Of what wood was it made?

 “_Ans._ It was a good piece of hickory—heavy for hickory. . . . .

 “[The stick was handed to the witness, who declared it to be the same
 he had sold Mr. Charles Austin.]

 “_Gore._ What sticks had he usually bought of you?”—_Trial of
 Selfridge._

Whether the words in brackets should also be in italics is a matter of
style. In the following passage from the same report, italics are used:
{p94}

 “_Gore._ [_Showing the fracture of the hat on the fore-part._] Is not
 that the fore-part of the hat, as this leather [_that on the hinder
 part_] marks the part of the hat that is worn behind?”

For inserting commas or other points after, before, or within brackets,
the same rules apply as in case of marks of parenthesis.


Whether when a noun singular terminates in _s_, its possessive case
requires an additional _s_ is yet an open question. We have no
hesitation in giving an affirmative answer, especially in the case of
proper names. If Mr. Adams were to manufacture ale, one might, perhaps,
from prohibitory considerations, advise him to advertise it as “Adams’
ale”; but should Mr. Adams have no fear of the law, he would avoid
all misunderstanding by calling it “Adams’s ale.” It may be objected
that the position of the apostrophe makes the matter sufficiently
clear without the additional _s_. Yes,—to the eye; but to the ear the
propriety of the additional _s_ becomes very apparent. “Jacob’s pillow”
and “Jacobs’s pillow” may be of very different materials. But, to avoid
too much sibilation, we read “for conscience’ sake,” “for goodness’
sake,” etc.


The apostrophe, with _s_ subjoined, is used to denote the plural of
letters and figures.

 “The discipline which is imposed by proving that some _x_’s are
 some _y_’s, and that other _x_’s are all _y_’s, will enable you to
 pulverize any hot-headed deacon who may hereafter attempt to prove
 that you had better be looking out for another pastorate.”—_Ad
 Clerum._

 “This 7 differs from the other 7’s.” {p95}

The apostrophe may be used in denoting the plural whenever its use will
assist in avoiding obscurity.

 “The children called loudly for their pa’s and ma’s.”

For convenient reference we append a series of rules and examples,
which, we think, will be found useful by teachers and scholars, and our
friends of the press.

{p96}



RULES OF PUNCTUATION.


I. PERIOD, OR FULL POINT.


1. The period is used at the end of every complete sentence which is
not interrogative or exclamatory.


2. Sentences interrogative and exclamatory in form, sometimes take the
period.

 Will you call at my office, say on Tuesday next, or whenever
 you happen to be in town, and much oblige—
 Yours truly,      JOHN SMITH.

 How much better it is, considering the saving of distance to
 the pupils, that two small schoolhouses should be built, rather
 than one large one.


3. The period is put after initials when used alone; also after
abbreviations.

 J. Q. Adams.      Supt. of R. R.      A. M.


4. Place a period before decimals, and between pounds and shillings.

 The French meter is 3.2808992 feet.
 £24. 6_s._ 8_d._      5.75 miles.


5. A period should always be put after roman numerals, except when used
in the paging of prefaces, etc.

 George III. came to the throne in 1760.

OBSERVATION 1. In many modern works the period is omitted; as,—

 William I made a mistake.

There being no comma after “William,” it is supposed to be obvious that
the mistake was made by William the First. The insertion or omission of
the period is becoming wholly a matter of printing-office style. {p97}


II. COLON.


6. A colon is put at the end of a clause complete in sense, when
something follows which tends to make the sense fuller or clearer.
(_See_ Rules 9 and 13.)

 There is yet another sphere for the electric motor to fill: that of
 street railway propulsion.—_N. A. Review; April, 1888._

 In free states no man should take up arms, but with a view to defend
 his country and its laws: he puts off the citizen when he enters
 the camp; but it is because he is a citizen, and would continue to
 be so, that he makes himself for a while a soldier.—_Blackstone’s
 Commentaries, Book I., Ch. 13._


7. The last of several clauses that introduce a concluding remark or
sentiment should be followed by a colon, if the preceding clauses have
been punctuated with semicolons.

 A pickpocket in every car; a cheat at every station; every third
 switch on the road misplaced; the danger of being hurled from the
 track, and then burned alive: these considerations prevent my
 traveling on the railroad of which you speak.

OBS. 2. In examples like the above, a very common and perhaps better
method is to put a comma and dash in place of the colon. The colon is
neater, but more old-fashioned. (See second example under Rule 10.)


8. The colon is commonly used whenever an example, a quotation, or a
speech is introduced.

 The Scriptures give us an amiable representation of the Deity in these
 words: “God is love.”

OBS. 3. Modern writers, instead of the colon, mostly use the semicolon,
dash, or period. Our first example, under Rule 9,—with a colon
substituted for the semicolon,—might with propriety have been placed
under Rule 6. We prefer the semicolon, however; {p98} and if the
word _for_ were inserted in the example mentioned, the colon would be
inadmissible:

 “Let there be no strife between theology and science; for there need
 be none.”

In reprinting old works, the colon should be carefully retained, as
essential to a clear understanding of them.

The colon is generally placed after _as follows_, _the following_,
_in these words_, _thus_, or any other word or phrase which formally
introduces something; and when the matter introduced forms a distinct
paragraph, the colon may or may not be followed by a dash, as the style
of the author or office may require.


III. SEMICOLON.


9. When two or more clauses of a sentence are not so closely connected
as to admit the use of a comma, a semicolon is used.

 Let there be no strife between theology and science; there need be
 none.

 Wisdom hath builded her house; she hath hewn out her seven pillars;
 she hath killed her beasts; she hath mingled her wine; she hath also
 furnished her table.


10. When a number of particulars depend on an introductory or a
final clause, such particulars may be separated from each other by a
semicolon.

 There are three difficulties in authorship: to write anything worth
 the publishing; to get honest men to publish it; and to get sensible
 men to read it.

 To present a general view of the whole Vedic literature; to define its
 extent; to divide it into well-distinguished classes of writings; to
 portray the circumstances of their origin, and the stage of cultural
 development which they represent; and to explain the method of their
 preservation and transmission to us,—were some of the objects which
 Müller had in view. {p99}


11. Loosely connected clauses of a sentence should be separated by
semicolons, if those clauses or any of them are subdivided by commas.

 As the rays of the sun, notwithstanding their velocity, injure not
 the eye by reason of their minuteness; so the attacks of envy,
 notwithstanding their number, ought not to wound our virtue by reason
 of their insignificance.

OBS. 4. In the first sentence of the following example, a comma between
the clauses is sufficient, because there are no points in the clauses;
but the second sentence may serve to illustrate Rules 11 and 12:

 As there are some faults that have been termed faults on the right
 side, so there are some errors that might be denominated errors on the
 safe side. Thus, we seldom regret having been too mild, too cautious,
 or too humble; but we often repent having been too violent, too
 precipitate, or too proud.


12. When two clauses not closely dependent on each other, are connected
by _but_, _for_, _and_, or some similar connective, they are separated
by a semicolon.

 I will not be revenged, and this I owe to my enemy; but I will
 remember, and this I owe to myself.

 A wise minister would rather preserve peace than gain a victory;
 because he knows that even the most successful war leaves nations
 generally more poor, always more profligate, than it found them.

 Ingratitude in a superior is very often nothing more than the refusal
 of some unreasonable request; and if the patron does too little, it is
 not unfrequently because the dependent expects too much.


13. Phrases are often set off by a semicolon, viz.:


_a._ Explanatory phrases.

 There remain to us moderns, only two roads to success; discovery and
 conquest.


_b._ Participial and adjective phrases. {p100}

 I have first considered whether it be worth while to say anything at
 all, before I have taken any trouble to say it well; knowing that
 words are but air, and that both are capable of much condensation.

 These roads are what all roads should be; suitable for light
 carriages, and for heavy-laden wagons.


_c._ Any phrase, especially if elliptical, or if divisible into smaller
portions by commas.

(OBS. 5. In speaking or in writing, we “almost always leave out some of
the words which are necessary to a full expression of our meaning. This
leaving out is called the ellipsis.”)

 John Milton; born Dec. 9, 1608; completed Paradise Lost, 1665; died
 Nov. 10, 1674.


IV. COMMA.


14. Repeated words or expressions; three or more serial terms; two
unconnected serial terms,—are separated from each other by the comma.


_a._ Repeated words or expressions.

 Shut, shut the door.

                 I, I, I, I itself, I,
 The inside and outside, the what and the why,
 The when and the where, and the low and the high,
                 All I, I, I, I itself, I.

 Give me back, give me back the wild freshness of morning.


_b._ Three or more serial terms.

 Shakspeare, Butler, and Bacon have rendered it extremely difficult for
 all who come after them to be sublime, witty, or profound.

 The firm of Smith, Longman, Jones, Llewellyn, & Co.

But some printers, while observing the above rule in general,
except the names of firms and railroad companies; which, in their
publications, appear as follows: {p101}

 The firm of Longman, Jones, Llewellyn & Co.

 The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fé R. R. Co.


_c._ Two unconnected serial terms.

 He had a keen, ready wit.

OBS. 6. The second example under _a_ (“The inside and outside, the what
and the why,”) furnishes an illustration of the mode of punctuating
terms joined in pairs.

OBS. 7. Style sometimes requires the omission of the comma before
_and_, _or_, _nor_, when one of these connectives precedes the last
term of a series: as “Shakspeare, Butler and Bacon have rendered it
extremely difficult for all who come after them to be sublime, witty
or profound.” But when the words are all in the same predicament,
the comma should be inserted; e. g.,—if you wish to state that three
certain persons are wise, you would point thus:

 “Thomas, Richard, and John are wise.”

But if Richard and John are the Solons, and you wish to inform Thomas
of that fact, you would point thus:

 “Thomas, Richard and John are wise.”

So, in the first example under _b_, if it is desired to qualify the
three adjectives by the phrase “in the highest degree,” the comma
after _witty_ must stand: “in the highest degree sublime, witty, or
profound.” But if that phrase is intended to apply to _sublime_ only,
the pointing should be thus: “in the highest degree sublime, witty or
profound.”


15. Phrases, clauses, and words, inverted, or otherwise not in their
natural position, generally require to be set off by a comma.

 Into this illustrious society, my friend was joyfully received.

 When we quarrel with ourselves, we are sure to be losers.

 To satisfy you on that point, I will make a short argument.

    He, like the world, his ready visits pays,
    Where fortune smiles.

 Roe, Richard.      Doe, John.

{p102}

OBS. 8. The exceptions to this rule are numerous. If the first and last
words of a passage are related (_for him_ the summer wind _murmured_);
if the inverted phrase be brief, and can be read in close connection
with what follows (_in youth_ we have little sympathy with the
misfortunes of age); or if the principal clause is itself inverted (In
the center of the common rises a noble monument),—the comma is usually
omitted.

OBS. 9. In long lists of proper names, as Directories, etc., it is
usual to omit the comma, although the names are transposed, and to
print thus:

 Smith James W.
 Thomson Theophilus.


16. When the principal sentence is broken to receive an incidental or
parenthetic expression, a comma is placed at the break, and another at
the end of the inserted clause.

 Rulers and magistrates should attempt to operate on the minds of their
 respective subjects, if possible, by reward rather than punishment.

 Some writers, in a vain attempt to be cutting and dry, give us only
 that which is cut and dried.

 It is known to every physician, that, whatever lazy people may say to
 the contrary, early rising tends to longevity.

    Go, then, where, wrapt in fear and gloom,
    Fond hearts and true are sighing.

OBS. 10. The former comma is frequently omitted. Especially is this
the case when the previous part of the sentence has required commas.
Liberal pointing would omit the comma after “where,” in the above
example. And in the following sentence, from General Marcy’s “Ramblings
in the West,” note the omission of the comma after “and,” and from the
parenthetic clause “it was believed”:

 This, with the destruction of our trains, consumed the greater part
 of our winter supplies, and as they could not be replenished from
 the Missouri River before the following June, General Johnston, the
 commander, determined to send a detachment directly over the mountains
 to New Mexico, from whence it was believed supplies could be obtained
 earlier than from farther east. {p103}

Notice, also, the omission of the comma after “and” and “but,” in the
following paragraphs:

 He left college; and forsaken by his friends, he took refuge with the
 parliament party.—_Marsh, Eccl. Hist._

 The written law is sufficient to decide this case; but inasmuch as the
 irregularity in question is a fertile source of disputes, the case has
 been deemed worthy of insertion.—_Cavendish._

(The most common parenthetic expressions are _at least_, _at most_,
_accordingly_, _as it were_, _beyond question_, _consequently_,
_doubtless_, _furthermore_, _generally speaking_, _in the mean time_,
_on the other hand_, etc.)


17. Words or phrases expressing contrast, or emphatically
distinguished, and terms having a common relation to some other term
that follows them, require the comma.


_a._ Contrast or notable difference.

 His style is correct, yet familiar.

 I asked for money, not advice.

 ’Twas fat, not fate, by which Napoleon fell.

 Although Prince Hohenlohe was far more specific in pointing out what
 ought to be avoided than in showing what ought to be done, yet there
 could be no mistaking the course which the government was intending to
 pursue.

 They are charitable, not to benefit the poor, but to court the rich.

OBS. 11. Two contrasted words having a common dependence, and connected
by _but_, _though_, _yet_, or _as well as_, should not be separated;
as, There are springs of clear but brackish water.


_b._ Terms having a common relation to a succeeding term.

 Ordered, That the Committee on Banking be, and they hereby are,
 instructed to report a bill. {p104}

 That officer was not in opposition to, but in close alliance with,
 thieves.

OBS. 12. Some proof-readers, however, omit the second comma, when but
a single word follows the latter proposition; as, “Many states were in
alliance _with_, and under the protection _of_ Rome.” The better method
is to insert the point. “[Bonner was] an accomplished Italian, and
probably also a Spanish, scholar.”—_Froude._


18. Correlative terms, or expressions having a reciprocal relation, are
separated by a comma.

 The farther we look back into those distant periods, all the objects
 seem to become more obscure.

 The more a man has, the more he wants.

 As he that knows how to put proper words in proper places evinces the
 truest knowledge of books, so he that knows how to put fit persons in
 fit stations evinces the truest knowledge of men.

 It is not so difficult a task to plant new truths, as to root out old
 errors.

 Where MacDonald sits, there is the head of the table.

 Cincinnatus and Washington were greater in their retirement, than
 Cæsar and Napoleon at the summit of their ambition; since it requires
 less magnanimity to win the conquest, than to refuse the spoil.

OBS. 13. Sometimes when _that_, and generally when _as_ or _than_, _so
that_ or _such that_ is used, the connection is too close to admit the
comma.

 Cromwell’s enemies say that he always fought with more sincerity than
 he prayed.

 Your house is larger than mine.

 Paper is not so good as gold.

 The old gentleman is so infirm that he can scarcely move.

 He told such a story that we were all deceived by it. {p105}


19. Words used in direct address, and independent and absolute words,
with what belongs to them, are separated from the rest of the sentence
by commas.

 _Q._ You say, Mr. Witness, that you were present?

 _A._ Yes, sir.

 Flow gently, sweet Afton, among thy green braes.

 My son, give me thy heart.

 At length, having fought the good fight, he left the world in peace.

 To confess the truth, I was in fault.

 Richard Roe, his father being dead, succeeded to the estate.

 Silence having been obtained, the speaker went on with his remarks.


20. The clauses of a compound sentence may be separated by a comma when
the connection is too close for the semicolon.

 The winds roared in the woods, and the torrents tumbled from the hills.

 Hasten to your homes, and there teach your children to detest the
 deeds of tyranny.

 It has, by some grammarians, been given as a rule, to use a comma to
 set off every part of a compound sentence, which part has in it a verb
 not in the infinitive mode.

OBS. 14. A dependent clause should be separated by a comma, unless
closely connected.

 It argues a defect of method, when an author is obliged to write notes
 upon his own works.

 Unless we hurry to the beach, the tide will overtake us.

 Whatever reception the present age may give this work, we rest
 satisfied with our endeavors to deserve a kind one.

 When the Tartars make a Lama, their first care is to place him in a
 dark corner of the temple.

OBS. 15. If a clause beginning with _as_, _because_, _if_, _wherever_,
_how_, _lest_, _than_, _that_, _when_, _where_, _whether_, _while_,
_why_, or any {p106} adverb of time, place, or manner, follows a
clause with which it is closely connected in sense, it is not set off
by a comma: “He went away when the boat left.” “We love him because he
first loved us.” “He will pay if he is able.” “Tell me whether you will
return.”

OBS. 16. An infinitive phrase closely connected with what it modifies,
should not be set off by a comma; as, “We use language to express our
thoughts.” “Nouns do not vary their endings to denote certain cases.”
But if the infinitive phrase is preceded by _in order_, or if it is
remote from what it modifies, it should be set off by a comma. “He
collected a great many young elms from various parts of England, to
adorn his grounds.” “If dissimulation is ever to be pardoned, it is
that which men have recourse to, in order to obtain situations which
will enlarge their sphere of general usefulness.”


21. A word or phrase used in apposition, to explicate or illustrate a
previous word or phrase, should be set off by commas; but if the words
in apposition constitute a single phrase or a proper name, they should
not be separated.


_a._ Comma required.

 Johnson, that mighty Caliban of literature, is held up to view in the
 pages of Boswell.

 The alligator, or cayman, is found in the Orinoco.

 Paul, the apostle of the Gentiles, was eminent for his zeal and
 knowledge.

If the position of the terms in apposition is reversed, commas are
required.

 The apostle of the Gentiles, Paul, was eminent for his zeal and
 knowledge.

 That old last century poet, Crowley, sings thus.


_b._ Comma not required.

 Johnson the lexicographer completed his dictionary in seven years.
 {p107}

 We the undersigned agree to pay the sums set against our names
 respectively.

 Jeremy the prophet commanded them that were carried away to take of
 the fire, as it hath been signified.

 I Paul have written it with mine own hand.

 The poet Chaucer lived in the reign of Richard II.

 Sir John Walpole understood two grand secrets of state: the power of
 principal, and the weakness of principle.


22. A simple sentence usually requires no point except the period at
the end of it.

 Count Bismarck has preserved a pleasant intimacy with his old
 preceptor.

OBS. 17. When the subject is a clause ending with a verb, or with a
noun that might be mistaken for the nominative, a comma should be
inserted before the predicate.

 That winter campaigns are undertaken, shows a desire to kill the
 Indians.

 Captain Smith’s obedience to orders, issued in his promotion.

 Every year that is added to the age of the world, serves to lengthen
 the thread of its history.

 He that gives a portion of his time and talent to the investigation of
 mathematical truth, will come to all other questions with a decided
 advantage over his opponents.

In the following sentence, a comma after “them” might not be improper
(for we once heard a reader place a pause after “attacked”),—but we
shall not attack one of General Sherman’s sentences, lest we “get the
worst of it.”

 During this campaign hundreds if not thousands of miles of similar
 intrenchments were built by both armies, and as a rule whichever party
 attacked one of them got the worst of it.—_Memoirs Gen. W. T. Sherman._

OBS. 18. Whether a comma should be inserted after the verb _to be_,
when that verb is followed by an infinitive clause which might by
transposition be made the nominative, is a question on which the best
authorities differ.

 _First Method._—The highest art of the mind of man is to possess
 itself with tranquillity in the hour of danger. {p108}

 _Second Method._—The highest art of the mind of man is, to possess
 itself with tranquillity in the hour of danger.

We are of opinion that usage is in favor of the omission of the comma,
as in the following examples:

 The proposed object of the Union Dictionary is to comprehend at once
 all that is truly useful in Johnson, Sheridan, and Walker.—_Thomas
 Browne._

 The grandest of all conditions is to be at once healthy and wise and
 good.—_D’Arcy Thompson._

OBS. 19. When the subject is an infinitive phrase, the better method is
not to separate it; as, “To be totally indifferent to praise or censure
is a real defect in character.” Still there is excellent authority
for inserting a comma, thus: “To be totally indifferent to praise or
censure, is a real defect in character.” In sentences of this kind we
advise the proof-reader to omit the comma unless the author is uniform
in the insertion of it.

OBS. 20. Some grammarians set off by a comma the predicate, when it
refers to separated nominatives preceding it; as, “The benches, chairs,
and tables, were thrown down.” And, again, we find this example given:
“Veracity, justice, and charity, are essential virtues.” So, in the
ordinances of the City of Boston, “if any person or persons shall roast
any cocoa,” without having complied with certain conditions, “he, she,
or they, shall forfeit and pay for every such offense,” etc.,—a comma
appearing after _they_, although a conjunction precedes it. But the
weight of authority is against separating the last noun or pronoun
of such compound subject from the verb when the conjunction is used.
The last quotation, above given, should read, “he, she, or they shall
forfeit,” etc.


23. A comma should be placed before or after a word or phrase, to
associate it with the group to which it belongs, if, without the comma,
the sentence would be equivocal; and generally, a comma may be inserted
wherever its use will prevent ambiguity.

 This man, only cared to lay up money.

 This man only, cared to lay up money.

 Whoever lives opprobriously, must perish.

 The first maxim among philosophers is, that merit only, makes
 distinction. {p109}

 The delight which I found in reading Pliny, first inspired me with the
 idea of a work of this nature.—_Goldsmith._

 My communication was offered and refused.

 My communication was offered, and refused on account of its length.

OBS. 21. We recently met with this last sentence, pointed as follows:
“My communication was offered and refused, on account of its length”;
but it is not easy to see why the length of a communication should be
assigned as the reason for having offered it.

 “Every favor a man receives in some measure sinks him below his
 dignity.”—_Goldsmith._

OBS. 22. A comma should have been placed after _receives_.


24. No comma is put between two words or phrases in apposition,
following the verbs _think_, _name_, _make_, _consider_, and others of
a similar meaning.

 They made him their ruler.

 They called him captain.

 They saluted him king.

 I esteem you my friend.

 Believing him an honest man, we elected him treasurer.

 We constituted our Secretary a depositary of German books.

 I consider him a gentleman.

OBS. 23. Of the terms in apposition, one is the subject, and the other
the predicate, of _to be_, understood (“They made him _to be_ their
ruler”). The rule might, therefore, be worded thus: When, of two terms
in apposition, one is predicated of the other, no comma is required.


25. In a compound sentence, the comma is often inserted where a verb is
omitted.

 In literature, our taste will be discovered by that which we give; our
 judgment, by that which we withhold.

 Wit consists in finding out resemblances; judgment, in discerning
 differences. {p110}

 In the pursuit of intellectual pleasure lies every virtue; of sensual,
 every vice.

 Sheridan once observed of a certain speech, that all its facts were
 invention, and all its wit, memory.

OBS. 24. But sometimes the comma is not inserted: especially when the
style is lively; when the clauses have a common relation to something
that follows; or when they are connected by a conjunction.

 Could Johnson have had less prejudice, Addison more profundity, or
 Dryden more time, they would have been well qualified for the arduous
 office of a critic.

 The Germans do not appear so vivacious, nor the Turks so energetic, as
 to afford triumphant demonstrations in behalf of the sacred weed.

 The boat was tight, the day fine, the bait tempting, and the fishes
 hungry.


26. A short quotation, a remarkable expression, or a short observation
somewhat in manner of a quotation, is set off by the comma.

 Plutarch calls lying, the vice of slaves.

 It hurts a man’s pride to say, I do not know.

 Cicero observed to a degenerate patrician, “I am the first of my
 family, but you are the last of yours.”

 An upright minister asks, what recommends a man; a corrupt minister,
 who.

 There is an old poet who has said, “No deity is absent, if prudence is
 with thee.”

 They tell me here, that people frequent the theater to be instructed
 as well as amused.

 The old proverb, “Too much freedery breeds despise,” is now rendered,
 “Familiarity breeds contempt.”

OBS. 25. When the introductory clause is short, the comma may be
omitted; as “Charles Fox said that restorations are the most bloody of
all revolutions.”—“Madame de Staël admits that she discovered, as she
grew old, the men could not find out that wit in her at fifty, which
she possessed at twenty-five.” {p111}


27. Numbers are divided by the comma into periods of three figures each.

 The distance of the sun from the earth is usually stated at 95,000,000
 miles.

OBS. 26. In a number expressing the year of an era, the comma is not
used; as, July 4, 1876. In tabular work it is very neat and convenient
to omit the comma, as in the following example:

 The number of letters in 1600 lbs. of Pica is as follows:

 a      17000
 b       3200
 c       6000
 d       8800
 e      24000, etc.

OBS. 27. In some offices the style requires all numbers less than 1,000
to be expressed in words; 1,000 and upwards in figures. Some printers
insert the comma before hundreds, only when five figures or more occur.


28. Restrictive phrases or clauses are not set off by the comma.

 He reviewed such regiments _as were armed with Enfield rifles_.

 They flatter the vanities of those _with whom they have to do_.

 Attend to the remarks _which the preacher is about to make_.

 Bishop Watson most feelingly regrets the valuable time _he was obliged
 to squander away_.

 A false concord in words may be pardoned in him _who has produced a
 true concord_ between such momentous things _as the purest faith and
 the profoundest reason_.

 “He is known by his company” is a proverb _that does not invariably
 apply_.

 Cattle _which live in herds_, are subject to various diseases. {p112}

OBS. 28. Adjective elements which are simply descriptive, and not
restrictive, should be set off by commas; thus:

 Cattle, which live in herds, are subject to various diseases.

 The first verse of the fourteenth chapter of Job, in the King James
 Bible, reads:

 Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble.

 The Douay Bible reads:

 Man born of a woman, living for a short time, is filled with many
 miseries.

 The Protestant Episcopal Burial Service points correctly:

 Man, that is born of a woman, hath but a short time to live, and is
 full of misery.


V. THE NOTE OF INTERROGATION.


29. The note of Interrogation is placed at the end of a direct question.

 Can gold gain friendship?

 Is that the best answer you can give to the fourteenth
 cross-interrogatory?

 Is any among you afflicted?

    Oh, lives there, Heaven, beneath thy dread expanse,
    One hopeless, dark idolater of Chance?

OBS. 29. When several distinct questions occur in succession, the
practice of some writers is to separate them by commas or semicolons,
placing the question-mark at the close only; as:

 “Where was Lane then; what was his situation?”—_Trial of Selfridge._

 “Am I Dromio, am I your man, am I myself?”

This we regard as incorrect. Each several question should have the
interrogation point.

 _Dro. S._ Do you know me, sir? am I Dromio? am I your man? am I
 myself? {p113}

 _Rosalind._ What did he when thou saw’st him? What said he? How looked
 he? Wherein went he? What makes he here? Did he ask for me? Where
 remains he? How parted he with thee? and when shalt thou see him again?

OBS. 30. If several questions in one sentence are joined by
connectives, each question takes the note of interrogation. “Have I not
all their letters to meet me in arms by the ninth of the next month?
and are they not, some of them, set forward already?”

OBS. 31. When a sentence contains several interrogative clauses,
having a common relation to, or dependence on, one term, a single
interrogation point is sufficient.

        “Was I, _for this_, nigh wrecked upon the sea;
    And twice by awkward wind from England’s bank
    Drove back again unto my native clime?”

 “By sensational preaching do you mean an incoherent raving about
 things in general and nothing in particular; a perversion of every
 text; an insult of common sense; a recital of anecdotes which are
 untrue, and a use of illustrations which are unmeaning?”

 Who will count the value to a man to be raised one remove higher above
 the brute creation; to be able to look with the eye of intelligence,
 instead of vacant ignorance, upon the world in which he lives; to
 penetrate as far as mortals may into the mystery of his own existence,
 and to be made capable of enjoying the rational delights of that
 existence; to be protected by his knowledge from every species of
 quackery, fanaticism, and imposture; and to know how to estimate and
 use the gifts which a beneficent Creator has spread around him?—_Prof.
 L. Stevens, Girard Coll._

    “What can preserve _my life_, or what destroy?”

NOTE.—An assertion stating a question does not take the interrogation
point; as, “The question is, what lenses have the greatest magnifying
power.”


VI. THE NOTE OE EXCLAMATION.


30. The note of Exclamation is applied to expressions of sudden or
violent emotion; such as surprise, grief, joy, love, hatred, etc.

    O piteous spectacle! O noble Cæsar! O woful day!

 An old lady one day importuning Mahomet to know what {p114} she
 ought to do, in order to gain Paradise,—“My good lady,” answered the
 Prophet, “old women never get there.”—“What! never get to Paradise!”
 returned the matron in a fury. “Never!” says he, “for they grow young
 by the way!”

 Why was this heart of mine formed with so much sensibility! or why was
 not my fortune adapted to its impulse! Poor houseless creatures! The
 world will give you reproaches, but will not give you relief.

    Ah! well of old the Psalmist prayed
    “Thy hand, not man’s, on me be laid!”
    Earth frowns below, Heaven weeps above,
    And man is hate, but God is love!


31. The exclamation point is used in invocations.

    Father of all! in every age adored.

 Gentle spirit of sweetest humor who erst did sit upon the easy pen of
 my beloved Cervantes!

    Oh, my brothers! oh, my sisters!
      Would to God that ye were near!


32. Several exclamation points are sometimes used together, to express
ridicule, or to intensify surprise, etc.

 Malherbe observed, that a good poet was of no more service to the
 church or the state, than a good player at _ninepins_!!


VII. THE DASH.


33. The Dash is used where a sentence breaks off abruptly.

 _Charles._ You must invent some ingenious subterfuge—some—some kind of—

 _Project._ I understand; not a _suggestio falsi_, but a mild
 _suppressio veri_. {p115}

 _Charles._ Oh, is that what you call it? There is a shorter word—

 _Project._ There is; but it is not professional.

 I shall divide the subject into fifteen heads, and then I shall argue
 thus—but, not to give you and myself the spleen, be contented at
 present with an Indian tale.


34. The dash is used before and after a parenthetic clause, when not
closely enough connected to admit the comma.

 But it remains—and the thought is not without its comforting
 significance, however hardly it may bear on individual cases—that no
 bestowal of bounty, no cultivation of the amenities of life, . . . can
 wipe out the remembrance of even doubtful loyalty in the day of trial.

OBS. 32. If a parenthetic clause is inserted where a comma is required
in the principal sentence, a comma should be placed before each of the
dashes inclosing such clause. (_See_ last paragraph on p. 90).

 I should like to undertake the Stonyshire side of that estate,—it’s in
 a dismal condition,—and set improvements on foot.


35. Several clauses having a common dependence, are separated by a
comma and a dash from the clause on which they depend.

 To think that we have mastered the whole problem of existence; that
 we have discovered the secret of creation; that we have solved the
 problem of evil, and abolished mystery from nature and religion and
 life,—leads naturally to a precipitation of action, a summary dealing
 with evils, etc. (_See_ Example and Obs. under Rule 7.)


36. The dash is used with the comma, the semicolon, and the colon,
which it lengthens, or renders more emphatic. {p116}

 We read of “merry England”;—when England was not merry, things were
 not going well with it. We hear of “the glory of hospitality,”
 England’s pre-eminent boast,—by the rules of which all tables, from
 the table of the twenty-shilling freeholder to the table in the
 baron’s hall and abbey refectory, were open at the dinner-hour to all
 comers.—_Froude._

 _Matricaria_, _n._ A genus of plants, including the feverfew, or
 wild camomile;—so called from the supposed value of some species as
 remedies for certain disorders.—_Webster’s Dictionary._

 They did it without being at all influenced by the Anabaptists of
 the continent:—the examples of some of these had rather kept them
 together.—_D’Aubigne._


37. When words are too closely connected to admit a strictly
grammatical point, the dash is used to denote a pause.

                                My hopes and fears
    Start up alarmed, and o’er life’s narrow verge
    Look down—on what? A fathomless abyss.

    The king of France, with twice ten thousand men,
    Marched up the hill, and then—marched down again.


38. When a word or phrase is repeated emphatically, or _echoed_, it is
preceded by the dash.

 The immediate question is upon the rejection of the President’s
 message. It has been moved to reject it,—to reject it, not after it
 was considered, but before it was considered!

 The world continues to attach a peculiar significance to certain
 names,—a significance which at once recurs to one on hearing the
 isolated name unapplied to any individual.


39. An equivalent expression, or an idea repeated in different words,
is properly set off by the comma and dash. {p117}

 These are detached thoughts,—memoranda for future use.

 Wolsey’s return to power was discussed openly as a probability,—a
 result which Anne Boleyn never ceased to fear.

 There are three kinds of power,—wealth, strength, and talent.

 The value of our actions will be confirmed and established by those
 two sure and sateless destroyers of all other things,—Time and Death.

 The present time has one advantage over every other,—it is our own.

 Those who submit to encroachments to-day are only preparing for
 themselves greater evils for to-morrow,—humiliation or resistance.

OBS. 33. In a portion of the examples under this rule, the dash appears
to supply the place of _viz._, or _namely_.


40. A dash placed between two numbers indicates that the natural series
between those numbers is understood.

OBS. 34. If a writer refer to “pp. 90, 95,” he means those two pages
only; but if he cite “pp. 90–95,” the reference is to pages 90, 91, 92,
93, 94, and 95.—In dates of the same century, the figures denoting the
century are omitted in the second number: “He has the Farmer’s Almanac
for 1810–70,—sixty-one years.” (It will be observed, that, under this
rule, the short or _en_ dash is used.)

 The style of the Government Printing Office, Washington, requires an
 apostrophe to denote the elision of the centuries; as 1889–’90.


41. An Ellipsis of letters is denoted by a dash.

 Ex-President J—ns—n.
 King F—der—ck W——m.


42. When a sentence is abrupted (1) to form a heading, or (2) for
a signature, or (3) to admit a {p118} new paragraph, or for other
purposes, a dash is used at the break; as:

 From the preceding tables we are now able to formulate in concise
 language the—

 GRAND RESULT.

 1. The number of employees . . . is at least 1,250,000.—_Mass. Labor
 Report._

 It is useless for you to dissemble in the presence of—

 Yours, etc.      JOHN SMITH.

 The greatest cowards in our regiment were the greatest rascals in it.
 There was Sergeant Kumber and Ensign—

 We’ll talk of them, said my father, another time.—_Sterne._


VIII. VARIOUS MARKS USED IN WRITING AND PRINTING.

 The Hyphen is used to denote the division of a
 word into syllables; as, _in-ter-dict_: it is placed at the
 end of a line (usually at the close of a syllable),
 when a word is not finished: and it connects the
 parts of a compound word; as, “At Cambridge,
 Cecil was present at the terrible and _never-to-be-for-
 gotten_ battle between Cheke and Gardiner on the
 pronunciation of the Greek epsilon, which convulsed
 the academic world.” (_See_ p. 84, _et seq._)

The Apostrophe is used to abbreviate a word; as, _’tis_ for _it is_,
_tho’_ for _though_, _don’t_ for _do not_. It denotes the possessive
case; as, “John’s hat,” “three years’ service,” “one hour’s work,”
“two days’ notice,” “Smith & Co.’s shops,” “Brook’s book,” “Brooks’s
book.” It appears in names; as, O’Brien; M’[Mac]Mahon. {p119}

In French, no space is put after an apostrophe denoting elision; as,
“d’or”: in Italian, a space is inserted, as, “n’ arrivi.”

A turned comma sometimes denotes the _ac_ in _Mac_; as, _MʻDonough_.

Two commas (usually turned) are often used instead of _do._ (_ditto_).

 Carving knives
 Pocket    ʻʻ
 Case      ʻʻ

 Book of History.
  ,,  ,, Chemistry.
  ,,  ,, Algebra.

Quotation marks [“” or ‟”] are used to include a copied passage. If
the copied passage itself contains a quotation, the latter is denoted
by single marks [‘’ or ‛’]; as, “My father said in banter, ‘James, the
notes are not correct.’ The farmer dryly answered, ‘I dinna ken what
they may be _noo_; but they were a’ richt afore ye had your fingers in
amang ’em.’”

In some publications a little labor is saved by using single marks for
the principal quotations, and double if there happen to be inserted
ones; as in a recent novel by Mrs. Humphrey Ward:

 ‘To plunge into the Christian period without having first cleared the
 mind as to what is meant in history and literature by “the critical
 method” which in history may be defined,’ etc.

The same neat style is used in Max Müller’s Translation of Kant:

 What Kant felt in his heart of hearts we know from some remarks found
 after his death among his papers. ‘It is {p120} dishonorable,’ he
 writes, ‘to retract or deny one’s real convictions, but silence in
 a case like my own, is the duty of a subject; and though all we say
 must be true, it is not our duty to declare publicly all that is
 true.’—_Preface._

Brackets are used to inclose words omitted by a writer or copyist; as,
“Were you [on the] deck of the steamer at the [time] of the collision?”
(In the Holy Scriptures, supplied words are put in italics: “Because
_they sought it_ not by faith, but, as it were, by the works of the
law.”) Explanations inserted in text are usually inclosed in brackets;
as in the following instance, from “The Life of Dr. Goldsmith”: “You
see, my dear Dan, how long I have been talking about myself. [_Some
mention of private family affairs is here omitted._] My dear sir, these
things give me real uneasiness,” etc.

Marks of Parenthesis are used to inclose a sentence, or part of a
sentence, which is inserted in another sentence: “One Sunday morning,
when her daughter (afterwards Lady Elton) went into the kitchen, she
was surprised to find a new jack (recently ordered, and which was
constructed on the principle of going constantly without winding up)
wholly paralyzed and useless.”

The Index [☞] is used to draw attention to some particular passage.
Sometimes an Asterism [⁂] is used for the same purpose. Where there are
many footnotes on a page, the Index is a proper reference mark. {p121}

The Caret [‸] is used in writing, to denote the point where an
interlineation is to be inserted. It is sometimes used in printing
when the exact character of a manuscript is to be represented,—as in
“exhibits” in law work.

The Brace [Illustration: }] is used to connect a number of words with
one common term; and sometimes in poetry, to connect three lines which
rhyme together:

 Moore’s Works,
 Saurin’s Sermons, [Illustration: }] $1.75 each.
 Lewis’s Plays,

 Injustice, swift, erect, and unconfined,
 Sweeps the wide earth, and tramples o’er mankind,    [Illustration: }]
 While prayers, to heal her wrongs, move slow behind.

Marks of Ellipsis or Omission are the dash; as, “Col. Sm—h”: or
asterisks; as, “Col. Sm**h”: or, neatest of all, points; as, “Col.
Sm . . h.”

Leaders are dots which lead the eye from something on the left of the
page, to some connected matter on the right:

 Globe Insurance Co. . . . . . London, Eng.
 Mutual Life In. Co. . . . . . Hartford, Conn.

Accents are the Grave [`], the Acute [´], and the Circumflex [^]: è is
read by the copy-holder _grave e_; é, _acute e_; ê, _circumflex e_.

Marks of Quantity are the Long, as over _o_ in “shōw”; the Short, or
Breve, as over _o_ in “nŏt”; and the Diæresis, which denotes that the
latter of {p122} two vowels is not in the same syllable as the former;
as, “zoölogy,” “Antinoüs.”

The Cedilla is a curve line under the letter _c_, to denote that it
has the sound of _s_; as in “garçon,” “façade.” It appears in words
from the French language. Worcester uses it also to denote the soft
sounds of _g_, _s_, and _x_; as in “mişle,” “ex̧aģģerate.” Webster
uses it only to denote the soft sound of _c_, as in “min-çing-ly.” We
remark here, by the way, that in dividing such words as “bra-cing,”
“min-cing,” “convin-cing,” etc., the _c_ should be carried over,
thereby preserving its proper sound. For a similar reason divide
“enga-ging,” “ra-ging,” etc., on the _a_. Whether “ma-gis-trate” should
follow this rule is a matter of style. There are offices which so
divide it, while others divide on the _g_. We prefer to syllable the
word as we have written it,—on the _a_.

The Spanish ñ has the sound of _n_ in _onion_; as, “Señor,” “cañon.”

Umlaut (pron. ōōmlowt), as defined by Webster, is the change or
modification of a vowel sound, peculiar to the Germanic languages; as
in German, _Mann_, man, _Männer_ or _Maenner_, men. The name _Roelker_
may also be written _Rölker_.

¶ denotes the beginning of a paragraph, as may be noticed in the Sacred
Scriptures. In proof-reading and in manuscript, it is used to denote
where a paragraph or break should be made. {p123}

§ denotes a section; §§, sections; as, Gen. Stat., Chap. IX., § 19, and
Chap. X., §§ 20 and 21.

Reference to notes at the bottom of the page (commonly termed
footnotes) is usually made by the asterisk, *, the obelisk, or dagger,
†; the double obelisk, or double dagger, ‡; the section, §; the
parallels, ‖; the paragraph, ¶; and the index, ☞;—but a neater mode is
to use superiors; as, ^{1, 2, 3,} or ^{a, b, c,} commencing with ^{1}
or ^{a} on each page where notes occur.

In concluding our chapter on punctuation, we venture to say to our
friends at the case, that, in our opinion, no system of pointing can be
of uniform and universal application. Men differ as much in style of
writing as in personal appearance, and we might as well expect the same
robe to fit all forms, as that one set of rules shall nicely apply to
the endless diversities of diction.

Other things being equal however, he who has paid most attention to
rule will punctuate with the nearest approximation to correctness.
With a clear understanding of an author’s meaning, the compositor
seldom need go far astray; and if, having done his best, he finds any
passage hopelessly involved, or the meaning too subtile to be grasped,
he has one safe resource,—and that is, to FOLLOW THE COPY closely
and mechanically. Could he have for reference a few pages preceding
a doubtful passage, the whole matter might become perfectly clear;
but, as that is out of the question, those pages being scattered as
{p124} “takes” in other hands, let the compositor adopt the safe
course,—FOLLOW COPY,—resting assured that no person whose opinion he
need value, could possibly think of finding fault with him for leaving
responsibility where it properly belongs.

{p125}



CHAPTER VI.

ORTHOGRAPHY.


Webster defines Orthography as “the art of writing words with the
proper letters, according to common usage”; Worcester, as “the art or
the mode of spelling words.” They agree in this: that there are some
words—two or three thousand, perhaps—whose orthography common usage
has not settled. Prefixed to either Dictionary is a list showing in
double column the most prevalent methods of spelling words of doubtful
orthography; thus:

 Abettor       Abetter
 Escalade      Scalade
 Germane       Germain, German

The first column in the Webster List “presents the orthography
recognized in the body of [the] Dictionary as the preferable one, or
that in general use.” But “when in this list the word in the first
column is followed by _or_, as ‘Abatis, _or_ Abattis,’ it is implied
that the second form is nearly, often quite, in as good use as the
first.” When the word in the first column differs in meaning from that
in the second, the word in the first is followed by _and_, as ‘Lunet,
_and Lunette_,’ both words being in use, but applied to different
things. {p126}

The orthography in the first column of the Worcester List “is deemed
to be well authorized, and in most cases preferable; but with respect
to the authority of that in the right-hand column, there is a great
diversity. Both orthographies of some of the words are right, the
words being differently spelled when used in different senses”; as,
“Draught, _or_ Draft,” “Subtle, _or_ Subtile,” etc. Sometimes _and_
is used as the connective; as, “Canvas, _and_ Canvass.” But these
double arrangements are of almost no service to the proof-reader or
compositor,—for the interchangeable words cannot _both_ be inserted
in his work. If he could use the various spellings, it would save the
trouble of weighing authorities: we should then have such sentences as
these:

 The hostler _or_ ostler inveigled _or_ enveigled the horses into the
 stockade _or_ stoccade. Meanwhile the infantry landed at the jettee
 _or_ jetty _or_ jetta _or_ jutty, and at once constructed an abatis
 _or_ abattis _or_ abbatis, as it behooved _or_ behoved them.

Of these various correct spellings, _one_ must be selected to the
exclusion of the rest. But there being no common usage, no academy
to instruct, and the copy not being uniform, who or what is to guide
the printers and proof-readers in making the selection? “For the last
eighty years [or more], printers have exercised a general control over
English orthography,”—and we, to carry the general control a little
farther, propose to set forth for general use one list from Webster’s
first column, exhibiting only _one_ single correct spelling, to be used
where the Webster style prevails; and a similar list from Worcester’s
{p127} first column, to be used where the Worcester style has the
precedence. Would there were a _Smithsonian Bureau of the English
Language_, to render _two_ lists unnecessary; and to give _one_ style
to Government work,—a style which should have the approval of Congress,
and to which all printing done by or for the various Departments of the
United States Government should be conformed.

THE WEBSTER LIST.

 [From the column which, he says, “presents the orthography recognized
 in the body of this Dictionary (Wb. Unabridged) as the preferable
 one, or that in general use.” But since he places in his first column
 various spellings of the same words,—e. g. under _A_, _Ædile_; under
 _E_, _Edile_,—we have, in accordance with our plan, omitted that
 spelling which we have observed to be neglected by readers who profess
 to follow Webster. We have inserted in brackets some words from
 the second column which have a different signification from their
 congeners in the first; also in brackets, some words from the defining
 columns, and such remarks and explanations as may be of service to
 printers and others.]

 A.

 Abatis
 Abettor
   [One who abets another to commit a crime.]
 Abreuvoir
 Abridgment
 [Accessary
   As used in law.]
 Accessory
   [“In its other senses” (than in law); as, “the accessories of a
   picture.”]
 Account, -ant, etc.
 Accouter, etc.
 Acetimeter
 Ache
 Achieve
 Acknowledgment
 Addible
 Adipocere
 Admittable
 Adopter (_Chem._)
 Adulterer, -ess
 Adz
 Ægis
 Æolian
 Aghast
 Agriculturist
 Aid-de-camp
 Ajutage
 Alcaid
 Alchemy
 Alcoran
 Alkahest
 Allege
 Alleluia
   [If written _Halleluiah_ or _Hallelujah_, follow copy.]
 Alloy
 Alum
 Almanac
 Ambassador
 Ambergris
 Ambs-ace
 Amend, -ment
 Amice
 Ammoniuret
 Amortize, -ment
 Amphitheater
 Anapest
 Ancient, -ly
 Andiron
 Angiotomy
 Ankle
 Annotto
 Antechamber
 Anterior
 Anti-emetic
 Antihypnotic
 Apostasy
 Aposteme
   [If written _Imposthume_, follow copy.]
 Apothegm
 Appall
 Appallment
 [Appanage]
 Appareled, -ing
 Appraise, -ed, etc. {p128}
 Apprise (_to notify_)
 Apricot
 Arbitrament
 Arbor
 Archæology
 Ardor
 Argol
 Armor, -er, etc.
 Arquebuse
 Arrack
 Artisan
 Asafœtida
 Asbestus
 Ascendant
 Ascendency
 Askance
 Askant
 Assuage
 Atheneum
   [If written _Athenæum_, follow copy.]
 Aught
 Author, etc.
 Autocracy
 Autoptical
 Awkward
 Awm
 Ax
 Ay
   [Expressing assent.]
 Aye
   [An affirmative vote.]


 B.

 Backshish
 Bade (_v._)
 Baldric
 Balister
 Balk
 Baluster
 Bandana
 Bandoleer
 Banderole
 Banyan (_Bot._)
 Bans
   [Notice of proposed marriage.]
 Barbacan
 Barbecue
 Barberry
 Bark
 Barouche
 Barytone
 Basin
 Bass
 Bass-viol
 Bas-relief
 Bastinade
 Baton
 Bateau
 Battledoor
 Bauble
 Bazaar
 Befall
 Behavior
 Behoove
 Beldam
 Belligerent
 Benedict
 Benumb
 Bellfounder,
   [And similar compounds.]
 Bequeath
 Bergamot
 Berth (_Nav._)
 [Bestrown
   p. p. of Bestrew.]
 Betel
 Beveled, -ing
 Bevile (_Her._)
 Bezant
 Biasing, -ed, -es, etc.
 Bigoted
 Bilge
 Billiards
 Billingsgate
 Bin
 Binnacle
 Bister
 Blende (_Min._)
 Blessed (_a._)
 Blithesome, -ly, etc.
 Blomary
 Blouse
 Bodice
 Boil (_n._)
 Bombazet
 Bombazine
 Bonnyclabber
 Bourgeois
 Bourse
 Bouse
 Bousy
 Boweled, -ing, etc.
 Bowlder
 Bowsprit
 Brahmin
 Brake (_Railways_)
 Brazen
 Brazier
 Brier
 Brooch
 Bryony
 Buccaneer
 Buddhism
 Buffet
 Buhrstone
 Bun
 Buncombe
 Bur
   [If written _Burr_, follow copy.]
 Burden, -some
 Burin
 Burned (_imp._)
 Burganet
 But-end
 Butt
 Byzantine


 C.

 Caboose
 Cacique
 Caddice {p129}
 Cæsura
 Cag
   [If written _Keg_ follow copy.]
 Caique
 Caisson
 Calash
 Caldron
 Calendar
 Calends
 Caliber
 Calipash
 Calipee
 Calipers
 Caliph
 Calk
 Calligraphy
 Caloyer
 Caltrap
 Calyx
 Camlet
 Camomile
   [If written _Chamomile_, follow copy.]
 Camphene
 Camphor
 Candor
 Canceled, -ing, etc.
 Cannel-coal
 Cannoneer
 Canny
 Cañon (_Sp._)
 Canyon [_Eng._]
   [The Eng. form is the better if writing or printing English.
   _Cañon_ in an English book seems pedantic.]
 Cantaloup
 Cantalever
 Carbine
 Carbineer
 Carapace
 Carat
 Caravansary
 Carcass
   [In the King James Bible, spelled _carcase_.]
 Carnelian
 Caroled, -ing, etc.
 Cartography
 Cask (_a vessel_)
 Casque (_helmet_)
 Cassava
 Cassimere
   [If written _Kerseymere_, follow copy.]
 Caster
   [One who casts; a cruet; a furniture-wheel.]
 Castor
   [A genus of animals; a hat; a drug; a heavy cloth.]
 Catchup
 Catechise, -er
 Cauliflower
 Causeway
 Caviare
 Caviler, -ed, etc.
 Cayman
 Ceil -ing, -ed
 Center
 Centered
 Centimeter
 Centiped
 Ceroon
 Cess-pool
 Chalcedony
 Chameleon
 Chamois
 Champaign
   [Flat, open country.]
 Champagne (_wine_)
 Champerty
 Channeled, -ing, etc.
 Chant, -er, -ed, etc.
 Chap
   [Both Wb. and Wor. place _chăp_ in the first column, and _chop_
   in the second. This preference of _chăp_ to _chop_ harmonizes
   orthography and pronunciation in three instances: (1) when _chăp_
   is _v. t._, signifying “to cleave or open longitudinally, through
   the effect of heat, cold, dryness, etc.; as, ‘Heat _chăps_ the
   russet plain’”; (2) when _v. i._, as “The hands chăp”; (3) when
   _n._, as a cleft in the earth’s surface, or in the hands or feet.
   _Chăp_ (a youth) was never in doubt; while _chaps_ (the jaws)
   must continue to be pronounced with the _a_ as in _what_.]
 Chase
 Check (_n._)
 Checker, -ed, etc.
 Chemist
 Chemistry
 Cherif
 Chestnut
 Chevron
 Chilioliter
 Chiliometer
 Chine
 Chintz
 Chiseled, -ing
 Chock-full
 Choir
 Chorister
 Choke
 Choose
 Chore
 Cigar
 Cimeter
 Cipher
 Clamor, -ous, etc.
 Clangor
 Clarionet
 Clew
 Clinch
 Clinique
 Clinometer
 Cloak
 Clodpoll {p130}
 Clothe, -ed, etc.
 Clough
 Clyster
 Cockswain
 Cœliac
 Cognizor, -zee
 Coif
 Coiffure
 Colander
 Comb
   [Unwatered part of valley, etc.]
 Comfrey
 Complete
 Complexion
 [Comptroller, -ship
   There is an officer of the U. S. Government whose official title is
   “Comptroller of the Currency.” The word appears in Wb. 2d column.]
 Confectionery
 Connection
 Contemporary
 Contra-dance
 Controller, -ship
 Control
 Cony
 Cooly
 Coomb (4 _bushels_)
 Copaiva
 Copier
 Copse
 Coquette (_n._)
 Coranach
 Corbel
 Cosy
 Cot (_a hut_)
 Cot (_a bed_)
 Cotillon
 Councilor
   [A member of a council.]
 Counselor
   [One who gives counsel.]
 Count
 Courtesan
 Courtesy (_Law_)
 Cozen, -age
 Craunch
 Cray-fish
 Creak (_v._)
 Creosote
 Critique
 Crosslet
 Cruet
 Croup
   [Behind the saddle.]
 Crupper
 Cruse (_bottle_)
 Cucurbit
 Cudgeled, -er, -ing
 Cue
   [Twist of back hair.]
 Cuerpo
 Cuneiform
 Curb (_of a well_)
 Cursed (_imperf._)
 Curtal-ax
 Cutlass
 Cyclopedia
 Cymar
 Cyst
 Czar, -ina


 D.

 Dactyl
 Damasken
 Damson
 Dandruff
 Danegelt
 Debarkation
 Debonair, -ly, -ness
 Decrepit
 Defense, -less, etc.
 Deflection
 Deflour
 Delf
 Delphin
 Deltoid
 Demeanor
 Demesne (_Law_)
 Dentiroster
 Dependent
 Dependence
 Deposit
 Desert (_n._)
 Deshabille
 Dessert
 Detecter
 Detortion
 Deuce
 Develop, -ment
 Dexterous
   [But if written _Dextrous_ follow copy, to avoid subsequent change.]
 Diæresis
 Diarrhea
 Diarrhetic
 Dike
 Diocese
 Disheveled, -ing, etc.
 Disk
 Dispatch, -ed, -ing
 Disseize, -in, -or
 Distention
 Distill
 Distrainor
 Diversely
 Divest, -ed, etc.
   [But in _Law_, _Devest_ is commonly used; in law work, follow
   copy.]
 Docket
 Doctress
 Dolor, -ous
 Domicile
 Doomsday-book
 Dory
 Dormer-window
 Dote
 Dotage
 Doubloon
 Dowry
 Downfall {p131}
 Dram
   [A weight; a minute quantity; a potation.]
 [Drachm
   This word is in second column, connected to _Dram_ by _and_. Its
   meaning seems to be properly limited, however, to an ancient Greek
   coin, and a Greek weight (Drachma).]
 Draff
 Draft
   [1. The act of drawing or pulling as by beasts of burden.
   2. Drawing of men for a military corps.
   3. An order for payment of money; a bill of exchange.
   4. An allowance in weighing.
   5. A drawing of lines for a plan; a figure described on paper;
   delineation; sketch; plan delineated; an outline to be filled in or
   completed for composition. In any other sense than these five, use
   the original spelling, _Draught_.]
 [Draught
   (See _supra_.)]
 Dragoman
 Dribblet
 Drier
 Driveler, -ing, etc.
 Drought
 Dryly
 Duchy
 Duchess
 Dueler, -ing, -ist
 Dullness
 Dungeon
 Dunghill
 Duress
 Dye, etc. (_color_)


 E.

 Eavesdropper
 Eccentric, -al, etc.
 Economy
 Ecstasy
 Ecstatic
 Ecumenic, -al
 Edematous
 Edile, -ship
 Eloign, -ment
 Emarginate
 Embalm, -ed, etc.
 Embalmer, -ment
 Embank, -ed, etc.
 Embargo
 Embark, -ed, etc.
 Embarkation
 Embassy
 Embassage
 Embed, -ded, etc.
 Embezzle
 Emblaze
 Emblazon, -ed, etc.
 Embody, -ied, etc.
 Embolden, -ed, etc.
 Emborder, etc.
 Embosom
   [If written _Imbosom_, follow copy.]
 Emboss, -ed, etc.
 Embowel, -ed, -ing
 Emboweler, -ment
 Embower, -ed, etc.
 Embrace, -ed, etc.
 Embracer, -ment
 Embrasure
 Embrocation
 Embroil, -ed, etc.
 Emerods
   [The Biblical spelling; in ordinary work, _Hemorrhoids_.]
 Emir
 Empale, -ed, etc.
 Emperor
 Empoison
 Empower, -ed, etc.
 Emprise
 Empurple
 Emu
 Enameled, -ing, etc.
 Enamor, -ed, -ing
 Encage, -ed, etc.
 Encamp, -ed, etc.
 Enchant
 Enchiseled, -ing
 Encloister
 Encounter, etc.
 Encroach, etc.
 Encumber, -ed, etc.
 Encyclopedia
 Endear
 Endeavor, -ed, etc.
 Endow, etc.
 Endue
 Endure, -ance
 Enforce, -ed, etc.
 Engage, -ed, etc.
 Engender
 Engorge, -ed, etc.
 Engross
 Enhance
 Enigma
 Enjoin, etc.
 Enkindle, -ed, etc.
 Enlarge, etc.
 Enlist
 Enroll
 Enrollment
 Enshrine
 Enshroud
 Ensphere
 Enstamp
 Entail (_Arch._)
 Entangle, etc.
 Enterprise
 Enthrone, -ed, etc.
 Entire, -ly, etc.
 Entitle, -ed, etc.
 Entrance, -ed, etc.
 Entrap, -ped, etc.
 Entreat, -ed, etc. {p132}
 Entreaty
 Entresol
 Entwine, -ed, etc.
 Envelop (_v._)
 Envelope (_n._)
 Envelopment
 Envenom
 Eolipile
 Epaulet
 Epauleted, -ing
 Equaled, -ing
 Equiangular
 Equivoque
 Era
 Error, etc.
 Escalade
 Escapement
 Escarp (_Fort._)
   [But if written _Scarp_, follow copy.]
 Eschalot
 Escheat
 Escritoire
 Escutcheon
 Estafet
 Esthetics
 Estoppel
 Estrich
 Etiology
 Étui
   [A French word, anglicized as _Etwee_; follow copy.]
 Exactor
 Expense
 Exsiccate, -ed, -ing, etc.
 Exsiccation
 Exsuccous
 Exudation
 Exude, etc.
 Eyrie


 F.

 Fæces
 Fagot, -ed, -ing
 Fairy
 Fakir
 Falchion
 Falcon, -er, -ry
 Fantasy
 Fantastic
 Farthingale
 Fattener
 Favor, -er, -ed, etc.
 Fecal
 Fecula
 Feldspar
 Felly
 Feoffor
 Fervor
 Fetal
 Feticide
 Fetor
 Fetus
 Feud, -al, -atory
 Feudalize, -ism
 Fie
 Filbert
 Filibuster
 Filigree
 Fillibeg
   [But if written _Filibeg_ or _Phillibeg_, follow copy.]
 Finery (_a forge_)
 Firman
 Fishgig
 Fives [_Veterinary_]
 Flageolet
 Flavor, -ed, etc.
 Flier
 Floatage (_Law_)
 Flotsam
 Flour (_of grain_)
 Flower-de-luce
   [If French is wanted,—_Fleur-de-lis_.]
 Fluke (_Naut._)
 Fluke (_Zoöl._)
 Fogy
 Font (_Typog._)
 Forbade
 Foray
 Fosse
 Foundery
   [Very few writers so spell: if written _Foundry_, follow copy.]
 Franc (_coin_)
 Frantic
 Frenzy
 Frieze (_Arch._)
 Frouzy
 Frumenty
 Frustum
 Fueled, -ing
 Fulfill, -ment
 Fullness
 Further
 [Farther
   When space or time is indicated.]
 Furtherance
 Furthermore
 Furthest
 [Farthest
   When space or time is indicated.]
 Fuse (_n._)
   [In U. S. Govt. work _Fuze_ is the common usage, to distinguish it
   from the verb to _Fuse_. Follow copy.]
 Fusil (_gun_)
 Fusileer


 G.

 Gabardine
 Galiot
 Garish
 Gallias
   [So spelled in the first column; but in the defining columns of the
   Dictionary, the _s_ is doubled. Follow copy.]
 Gamboled, -ing
 Gamut {p133}
 Gang (_Min._)
   [If written _Gangue_, follow copy.]
 Gantlet
   [A military punishment.]
 Gasteropod
 Gargoyle (_Arch._)
 Gauge
 Gault
 Gauntlet
   [A large glove of mail.]
 Gayety
 Gayly
 Gazelle
 Genet
 Gerfalcon
 Germane
 Germ
 Ghibelline
 Gibe
 Gimbals
 Gimlet
 Girasole
 Girt (_v._)
 [Girth (_n._)]
 Glair
 Glamour
 Glave
 Gloze
 Gnarled
 Gore
 Good-by
 Good-humor
 Gormand
 Governor
 Graft, -ed
 Grandam
 Granddaughter
 Granite
 Graveled, -ing
   [The _l_ in graveling should not be doubled.]
 Gray, -ish, etc.
 Grenade
 Grenadier
 Greyhound
 Grewsome
 Griffin
 Grisly
   [If written _Grizzly_, follow copy.]
 Groats
 Grogram
 Grommet
 Grotesque, -ly
 Groundsel
 Groveler, -ing
 Group (_v._)
 Guaranty
   [If written _Guarantee_, follow copy.]
 Guelder-rose
 Guelf
   [If written _Guelph_, follow copy.]
 Guerrilla
 Guilder (_coin_)
 Guillotine
 Gulf
 Gunwale
 Gurnard
 Gypsy
 Gyrfalcon
 Gyves


 H.

 Hackle
 Hagbut
 Haggard
 Haggess
 Ha-ha
 Haik
 Hake
 Halberd
 Halibut
 Hallelujah
   [But if written _Alleluia_, or _Halleluiah_, follow copy, to avoid
   “correcting.”]
 Halloo
 Halidom
 Halyard
 Handicraft
 Handiwork
 Handsome
 Handsel
 Handseled
 Harbor, -ed, etc.
 Harebell
 Harebrained
 Harem
 Haricot
 Harrier
 Harry
 Haslet
 Hasheesh
 Hatti-sherif
 Haulm
 Haul
 Haunch
 Hautboy
 Hawser
 Headache
 Hearse
 Hectoliter
 Hectometer
 Hegira
 Height, -en, etc.
 Heinous, -ly, -ness
 Hematite
 Hematology
 Hemistich
 Hemorrhoids
 Heretoch
 Hermit, -age
 Herpetology
 Hexahedron
 Hibernate
 Hiccough
 Hinderance
   [If written _Hindrance_, follow copy. _See_ remark under _Foundery_,
   _in loco_.]
 Hindoo, -ism
 Hip (_Pom._)
 Hipped-roof {p134}
 Hippogriff
 Hippocras
 Ho
 Hoarhound
 Hockey
 Hodge-podge
 Hoiden, -ish
 Holiday
   [If written _Holyday_, follow copy.]
 Hollo
 Holster
 Hominy
 Homeopathy
 Homonym
 Honeyed
 Honor, -ed, etc.
 Hoop (_v._)
 Hoopoe
 Hornblende
 Horror
 Hostelry
 Hostler
 Hough
 Housewife
 Howdah
 Howlet
 Hummock
 Humor
 Hurra
 Hydrangea
 Hypæthral
 Hyperstene
 Hypotenuse
 Hyssop


 I.

 Icicle
 Illness
 Imbibe
 Imbitter
 Imbrue
 Imbue, -ed, -ing
 Immarginate
 Impanel, -ed, -ing
   [Wb. has also _Empaneled_, _-ing_, etc., in his first column under
   _E_. One way is enough; but to avoid changes in author’s proof,
   compositor had better follow copy.]
 Imparlance
 Impassion
 Impeach
 Imperiled
 Implead
 Imposthume
   [See _Aposteme_.]
 Impoverish
 Imprint
 Incase
 Inclasp
 Inclose, -ure, etc.
 Increase
 Incrust
 Incumbrance
   [But Wb. prefers _Encumber_ for the verb.]
 Indefeasible
 Indelible
 Indict (_Law_)
 Indictment
 Indite, -er
 Indocile
 Indoctrinate
 Indorse, -ed, -ing
 Indorser, -ment
 Induce, -ment
 Inferior
 Inferable
 Inflection
 Infold
 Infoliate
 Ingraft, -er, -ment
 Ingrain
 Ingulf
 Inkle
 Innuendo
 Inquire, -er, -y, etc.
 Inscribe
 Inscroll
 Insnare
 Install
 Installment
 Instate
 Instill
 Instructor
 Insure, -ed, -ing
 Insurer, -ance
 Intenable
 Intercessor
 Interior
 Inthrall
 Intrench
 Intrust
 Inure
 Inurement
 Inveigle
 Inventor
 Inwheel
 Inwrap
 Inwreathe
 Isocheimal
 Ixolite


 J.

 Jacobin
 Jaconet
 Jail, -er, etc.
 Jalap
 Jam (_Min._)
 Janizary
 Jasmine
 Jaunt, -y, -ily
 Jean
 Jenneting
 Jeremiad
 Jetsam
 Jetty
 Jeweled
 Jewelry
 Jointress
 Jonquil
 Jostle
 Jowl {p135}
 Judgment
 Jupon
 Just
   [A mock encounter on horseback.]


 K.

 Kaffer
 Kale
 Kayle
 Keelhaul
 Keelson
 Keg
 Kenneled, -ing
 Khan
 Kiln (_n._)
 Kilogram
 Kiloliter
 Kilometer
 Knob
 Koran
 Kyanite


 L.

 Labeled, -ing
 Labor, -ed, -ing, etc.
 Lachrymal
 Lac (_coin_)
 Lackey
 Lacquer (_n._)
 Lacquer, -ed, -ing
 Lagoon
 Lambdoidal
 Landau
 Landscape
 Lantern
 Lanyard
 Lapsided
 Larum
 Launch
 Leaven
 Lecher, -y, -ous
 Lecturn
 Ledgement
   [_Sic_; the retention of _e_ after _g_ seems somewhat remarkable.]
 Ledger
 Leger-line
 Leggin
 Lemming
 Lettuce
 Leveled, -ing, -er
 Libeled, -ing, etc.
 License
 Lickerish
 Licorice
 Lief
 Lilac
 Linguiform
 Linnæan
 Linseed
 Linstock
 Liter
 Lithontriptic
 Llama (_Zoöl._)
 Loadstar, -stone
 Loath (_a._)
 Lode (_Min._)
 Lodgment
 Logogriph
 Longiroster
 Louver
 Lower
 Luff
 Lunet
   [A little moon, or satellite. Obsolete.]
 Lunette
   [A detached bastion, etc.]
 Lunge
 Lustring
 Lye


 M.

 Macaw
 Maccaboy
 Maggoty
 Maim
   [Mayhem, _Law_.]
 Mal (_prefix_)
   [Here, in Wb., first column, appears “Mall,” followed by “_or_ Maul”;
   but, since _Maul_ also appears in first column, both as noun and
   verb, we omit _Mall_, as not preferable to _Maul_.]
 Malkin
 Mamaluke
 Mamma
 Mandatary (_n._)
 Manikin
 Maneuver
 Mantel (_Arch._)
 Mantel-piece
 Marc (_coin_)
 Magaron
 Marquee
 Marque (_letter of_)
 Marquess
   [Till of late, _marquis_ was the usual spelling, but it is now to
   a great extent superseded by _marquess_, except in the foreign
   title.—_Smart._]
 Marshal
 Marshaled, -ing
 Martin (_Ornith._)
 Martinet (_Naut._)
 Martingale
 Marveled, -ing, etc.
 Mark
 Maslin
 Mastic
 Matrice
   [If written _Matrix_, follow copy.]
 Mattress
 Mauger
 Maul (_n._ and _v._)
 Mayhem (_Law_)
 Meager, -ly, etc.
 Merchandise {p136}
 Meter
 Mileage
 Milleped
 Milligram
 Milliliter
 Millimeter
 Milrea
 Misbehavior
 Miscall
 Misdemeanor
 Misspell
 Misspend
 Misspent
 Misstate
 Mistletoe
 Miter, -ed
 Mizzen
 Mizzle
 Moccasin
 Mode (_Gram._)
 Mocha-stone
 Modeled, -ing
 Modillion
 Mohammedan
 Mohawk
 Molasses
 Mold
 Molt
 Moneyed
 Mongrel
 Moresque
 Morris
 Mortgageor (_Law_)
 Mortgager
 Mosque
 Mosquito
 Mullein
 Multiped
 Mummery
 Murder, etc.
 Murky
 Murrhine
 Muscadel
 Muscle (_a shell fish_)
   [If written _Mussel_, follow copy.]
 Musket
 Mustache


 N.

 Nankeen
 Narwal
 Naught
 Negotiate, -or, etc.
 Neighbor, -ing, etc.
 Net (_a._)
 Neb (_Orn._)
 Niter
 Nobless
   [If written _Noblesse_, follow copy.]
 Nomads
 Nombles
 Nonesuch
 Novitiate
 Nylghau


 O.

 Oaf
 Ocher
 Octahedron
 Octostyle
 Odalisque
 Odor
 Offense
 Olio
 Omber
 Omer
 Oolong
 Opaque
 Opobalsam
 Orach
 Orang-outang
 Orchestra
 Oriel
 Oriflamb
 Orison
 Osier
 Osprey
 Otolite
 Ottar (_of roses_)
 Outrageous
 Oxide
 Oyes


 P.

 Packet
 Painim
 Palanquin
 Palestra
 Palet
 Palmiped
 Panada
 Pander
 Pandore
 Pandour
 Panel (_Law_)
 Paneled, -ing
 Pantograph
 Papoose
 Paralyze
 Parceled, -ing
 Parcenary
 Parlor
 Parol (_a._)
 Parquet
 Parsnip
 Parrakeet
 Partible
 Partisan
 Pasha
 Pashalic
 Pask
 Patrol (_n._)
 Paver
 Pawl
 [Peaked
   We insert this word as of the first column, because _Picked_ (in Wb.
   first col.) has definitions not applicable to _Peaked_.]
 Pean
 Peart {p137}
 Pedicel
 Peddler
 Pedobaptist
 Pemmican
 Penciled, -ing
 Pennant
 Pentahedral
 Peony
 Periled, -ing
 Peroxide
 Persimmon
 Persistence
 Pewit (_Orn._)
 Phantasm
 Phantom
 Phenomenon
 Phenix
 Phial
   [But if written _Vial_, follow copy.]
 Philter, -ed
 Phthisic
 Piaster
 Picked
 Picket
 Pie
 Piebald
 Piepoudre
 Pimento
 Pimpernel
 Pinchers
 Pistoled, -ing
 Placard
 Plaice (_Ichth._)
 Plain
   [Plane, in some senses.]
 Plane-sailing
 Plaster
 Plait (_v._)
 Plat (_n._)
 Plethron
 Pliers
 Plow
 Plumber
 Plumiped
 Pluviometer
 Point-device
 Poise
 Polacca
 Pole-ax
 Poltroon
 Polyhedron, -drous
 Polyglot (_n._)
 Polyp
 Pommel
 Pommeled, -ing
 Ponton
 Pony
 Poniard
 Porgy (_Ichth._)
 Porpoise
 Portray
 Porteress
 Possessor
 Postilion
 Potato
 Potsherd
 Powter (_Orn._)
 Pozzolana
 Practice (_v._)
 Præmunire
 Prænomen
 Predial
 Premise
 Pretense
 Pretermit
 Pretor
 Profane
 Protector
 Programme
 Protoxide
 Prunella
 Pumpkin
 Puppet
 Purblind
 Purr
 Purslane
 Putrefy
 Pygmy
 Pyx


 Q.

 Quadroon
 Quarantine
 Quarrel (_an arrow_)
 Quarreled, -ing
 Quartet
 Quaterfoil
 Quay, -age
 Questor
 Quinsy
 Quintain
 Quintet
 Quoin


 R.

 Rabbet (_Carp._)
 Rabbi
 Raccoon
 Raddock (_Orn._)
 Ramadan
 Rancor, -ous, -ly
 Ransom
 Rare (_adj._)
 Rarefy
 Raspberry
 Rattan
 Raveled, -ing
 Raven (_plunder_)
 Raze, -ed, -ing
 Rasure
 Real (_coin_)
 Rearward
 Recall
 Recompense
 Reconnoiter
 Redoubt
 Referable
 Reflection
 Reglet
 Reindeer
 Re-enforce
 Re-install, -ment
 Relic
 Remiped {p138}
 Renard
 Rencounter
 Rennet
 Replier
 Reposit
 Resin
 Rosin
   [The resin left, after distilling off the volatile oils from the
   different species of turpentine.]
 Resistance, etc.
 Restive, -ly, -ness
 Retch (_to vomit_)
 Reveled, -ing, -er
 Reverie
 Ribbon
 Reversible
 Rigor, -ous, etc.
 Risk
 Rivaled, -ing
 Riveted, -ing
 Roc (_Orn._)
 Rodomontade
 Rondeau
 Ronyon
 Roquelaure
 Rotunda
 Route
 Ruble (_coin_)
 Ruche
 Rummage
 Rumor, etc.
 Rye


 S.

 Sabian
 Saber, -ed, etc.
 Sackbut
 Sainfoin
 Salam
 Salep
 Salic
 Saltpeter
 Samester
 Sandaled
 Sandarac
 Sandever
 Sanskrit
 Sapajo
 Sapodilla
 Sarcenet
 Sat
 Satchel
 Satinet
 Sauer-kraut
 Savanna
 Savior
 [Saviour
   We insert this as of first column, it being in universal use when
   referring to Christ.]
 Savor
 Scallop, -ed, -ing
 Scath
 Scepter, -ed
 Scherif
   [Preferring this form to _Cherif_, we insert it here. Both spellings
   appear in Wb. first column.]
 Schist
 Schorl
 Sciagraphy
 Scion
 Scirrhosity
 Scirrhus
 Scissors
 Sconce
 Scot-free
 Scow
 Scrawny
 Scythe
 Seamstress
 Sear
 Secretaryship
 Sedlitz
 Seethe
 Seignior
 Seigniorage, -ory.
 Seine
 Seizin
 Seleniuret
 Sellender
 Selvage
 Sentinel
 Sentry
 Sepawn
 Sepulcher
 Sequin
 Sergeant
 Set (_n._)
 Sevennight
 Shad
 Shah
 Shawm
 Shampoo
 Shard
 Sheathe (_v._)
 Sheik
 Sherbet
 Sherry
 Shill-I-shall-I
   [But if written _Shilly-shally_, follow copy.]
 Shore (_n._)
 Shorl
 Shoveled, -er, -ing
 Show
 Shrillness
 Shriveled, -ing
 Shuttlecock
 Shyly, -ness
 Sibyl
 Sidewise
 Silicious
 Sillabub
 Simoom
 Siphon
 Siren
 Sirloin
 Sirup
 Sizar
 Skein
 Skeptic
 Skillful, -ly, -ness
 Skill-less
 Skull (_cranium_) {p139}
 Slabber
 Sleight
 Slyly, -ness
 Smallness
 Smolder
 Smooth (_v._ and _a._)
 Snapped (_imp._)
 Sniveler, -ing
 Socage
 Socle
 Solan-goose (_n._)
 Solder, etc.
 Soliped
 Solvable
 Somber
 Somersault
 Sonneteer
 Soothe (_v._)
 [Sorel]
 Sorrel
 Souchong
 Spa
 Spelt (_n._)
 Specter
 Spew
 Spinach
 Spinel
 Spiritous
   [_Spirituous_ is the more common form. Follow copy.]
 Spite
 Splendor
 Sponge
 Sprite
 Spirt
 Spunk
 Staddle
 Stanch
 Stationery (_n._)
 Steadfast
 Steelyard
 Stillness
 Stockade
 Story (_a floor_)
 Strait (_n._)
 Strengthener
 Strew
 Strop (_n._)
 Stupefy
 Sty
 Style
 Styptic
 Subpœna
 Subtile (_thin_)
 Subtle (_artful_)
 Successor
 Succor
 Suite
 Suitor
 Sulphureted
 Sumac
 Superior
 Suretyship
 Surname
 Surprise, etc.
 Survivor, -ship
 Swainmote
 Swale (_v._)
 Swap
 Swart (_adj._)
 Swathe (_bandage_)
 Swiple
 Swob, -ber, etc.
   [But if written _Swab_, _Swabber_, etc., follow copy.]
 Swollen
 Syenite
 Symploce
 Synonym
 Syphilis


 T.

 Tabard
 Tabbinet
 Tabor, etc.
 Taffeta
   [If written _Taffety_, follow copy.]
 Taffrail
 Tailage
 Talc
 Tallness
 Tambour
 Tambourine
 Tarantula
 Tarpaulin
 Tasseled, -ing
 Tasses
 Taut (_Nav._)
 Tawny
 Tease
 Teasel
 Teetotal
 Tenable
 Tenor
 Tenuirosters
 Terror
 Tetrahedron
 Tetrastich
 Theater
 Thole
 Thorp
 Thralldom
 Thrash
 Threshold
 Throe (_n._)
 Ticking (_n._)
 Tidbit
 Tie (_n._ and _v._)
 Tier
 Tierce
 Tiger
 Tincal
 Tithe
 Toll (_v. t._)
 Tollbooth
 Ton (_the weight_)
 [Tun (_the cask_)]
 Tonnage
 Tormentor
 Tourmaline
 Toweling
 Trammeled, -ing
 Tranquilize
 Transferable
 Transference {p140}
 Transship, -ment
 Trapan (_a snare_)
 Traveler, -ed, -ing
 Traverse
 Travesty
 Treadle
 Trebuchet
 Treenail
 Trestle
 Trigger
 Trevet
 Tricolor
 Trihedral
 Trod
 Trousers
 Troweled
 Truckle-bed
 Tryst
 Tumbrel
 Tumor
 Tunneled, -ing
 Turquois
 Turnip
 Turnsole
 Tutenag
 Tweedle
 Twibil
 Tymbal
 Tyro


 U.

 Umber
 Unbiased
 Unboweled
   [And others of the same class.]
 Unroll
 Until


 V.

 Vaivode
   [If written _Waiwode_ or _Wayvode_, follow copy.]
 Valise
 Valor, -ous, -ously
 Vantbrace
 Vapor
 Vat
 Veil
 Vedette
 Vender
   [But _Vendor_, as correlative of _Vendee_.]
 Venomous
 Veranda
 Verderer
 Verdigris
 Vermin
 Verst
 Vertebra
 Vervain
 Vicious, -ly, -ness
 Victualed, -er, -ing
 Vigor, -ous, etc.
 Villain
   [But in feudal law, often spelled _Villein_, follow copy.]
 Villainy, -ous
 Vise
 Visitor
 Visor
 Vitiate
 Vizier
 Volcano


 W.

 Wadsett
 Wagon
 Waive
 Wale (_n._)
 Walrus
 Warranter
   [In law, _Warrantor_.]
 Warrior
 Warwhoop
 Waucht
 Waul (_as a cat_)
 Wear (_v. Naut._)
 Wear (_n._)
 Weasand
 Welsh
 Whang
 Whelk (_n._)
 Whippletree
 Whippoorwill
 Whisky
 Whoop
 Whooping-cough
   [If written _Hooping-cough_, be careful to follow copy. We have known
   some trouble to be caused by a change of the initial in alphabetical
   tabular work from hospitals, ships, etc.]
 Whortleberry
 Widgeon
 Willful, -ly, -ness
 Windlass
 Wintery
   [If written _Wintry_, follow copy.]
 Wiry
 Witch-elm
 Witch-hazel
 Withe
 Wivern
 Wizard
 Wizen
 Woe
 Woful
 Wondrous
 Woodbine
 Woolen, -ette.
 Worshiper, -ed, etc.
 Wrack (_to rack_)
 Wye
   [If written Y, follow copy.]


 Y.

 Yataghan
 Yaup
 Yawl (_n._)
 Yelk
 Yttria, -um


 Z.

 Zaffer
 Zinc
 Zinciferous
 Zonnar
 Zymometer

{p141}


THE WORCESTER LIST.

 [The following vocabulary exhibits the orthography apparently deemed
 preferable by Worcester. It will, we believe, be found very convenient
 in offices where the Worcester style is in favor,—as the preceding
 list will prove to be where the Webster style is in vogue. Any remarks
 which we have inserted, and a few additional words, are in brackets.]

 A.

 Aam
 Abatis
 Abbey
 Abetter
   [In a good sense; nearly or quite obsolete.]
 Abettor
   [_Law._ One who abets an unlawful act.]
 Abnormal
 Abreuvoir
 Abridgment
 Accessary
   [When used in _Law_.]
 Accessory (_Art._)
 Accountant
 Acetimeter
 Ache
 Achieve
 Acknowledgment
 Acronycal
 Addible
 Adipocere
 Adjudgment
 Admittible
 Adopter
   [One who adopts, or assumes as one’s own.]
 [Adapter
   Tube used in Chemistry.]
 Adscititious
 Adulteress
 Advertise
 Advoutry
 Advowee
 Advowson
 Adze
 Æolic
 Affector
 Affeer
 Affiliate
 Affiliation
 Afraid
 Aghast
 Agriculturist
 Aide-de-camp
 Aisle (_church_)
 Ajutage
 Alchemical
 Alchemist
 Alchemy
 Alcoran
 Alexipharmic
 Alkahest
 Alkali
 Allege
 Allocution
 Alloy
 Almacantar
 Almanac
 Almonry
 Alnager
 Alum
 Amassment
 Ambassador
 Ambergris
 Ambs-ace
 Amercement
 Amiability
 Amice
 Amortise
 Anademe
 Ananas
 Anapest
 Anapestic
 Anbury
 Ancestral
 Ancient
 Ancientry
 Andiron
 Anemone
 Angiography
 Angiology
 Angiotomy
 Ankle
 Annotto
 Antechamber
 Antelope
 Antiemetic
 Apanage
 Apostasy
 Aposteme
   [If written _Imposthume_, follow copy.]
 Apothegm
 Appall
 Appalment
 Appraise
 Appraisement
 Appraiser
 Apprise
 Appurtenance
 Apricot
 Arbitrament
 Archæological
 Archæology
 Archduchess
 Archil
 Argol
 Arquebuse
 Arrack
 Artisan
 Arvel {p142}
 Asbestos
 Ascendency
 Ascendent
 Askance
 Askant
 Askew
 Assafœtida
 Assize
 Assizer
 Assuage
 Athenæum
 Auger
 [Augur
   A soothsayer.]
 Aught
 Autocracy
 Avoirdupois
 Awkward
 Awn
 Axe


 B.

 Baccalaureate
 Bachelor
 Bade, _from_ bid
 Balance
 Baldrick
 Balk
 Ballister
 Baluster
 Bandanna
 Bandoleer
 Bandore
 Bandrol
 Banian
 Banns
 Barbacan
 Barbecue
 Barberry
 Bark
 Barouche
 Baryta
 Barytone
 Basin
 Bass (_Mus._)
 Bass-viol
 Bastinado
 Bateau
 Battledoor
 Bawble
 Bazaar
 Beadle
 Beaver
 Befall
 Behoove
 Bellflower
 Belligerent
 Bellman
 Bellmetal
 Bellwether
 Benumb
 Bequeath
 Bergamot
 Bergander
 Berth (_in ship_)
 Bestrew
 [Bestrewn
   p. p. of Bestrew.]
 Betel
 Bevel
 Bezant
 Biassed
 Biestings
 Bigoted
 Bilge
 Billiards
 Billingsgate
 Binnacle
 Bistre
 Bivouac
 Bizantine
 Blanch
 Blende (_Min._)
 Blithely
 Blitheness
 Blithesome
 Blomary
 Blouse
 Bodice
 Boil (_a tumor_)
 Bolt
 Bombard
 Bombast
 Bombazette
 Bombazine
 Borage
 Bourgeois
 Bourn
 Bourse
 Bouse
 Bousy
 Bowlder
 Bowsprit
 Brakeman
 Bramin
 Brawl
 Brazen
 Brazier
 Brazil
 Brier
 Brokerage
 Bronze
 Brooch
 Brunette
 Bryony
 Buccaneer
 Buffalo
 Buhrstone
 Bulimy
 Bumblebee
 Bunn
 Bunyon
 Burden
 Burdensome
 Burganet
 Burin
 Burlesque
 Burr
 Buzz
 By (_n._)


 C.

 Cabob
 Cacique
 Cæsura
 Calcareous
 Caldron {p143}
 Calendar
 Calends
 Caliber (_Gun_)
 [Calibre
   Generally so spelled when used in a figurative sense; as “a mind
   of inferior calibre”; and in this sense retains the French pron.
   Ka·le·bur.]
 Calipers
 Caliph
 Calk
 Calligraphy
 Calotte
 Caloyer
 Caltrop
 Calyx
 Cameo
 Camlet
 Camomile
   [If written _Chamomile_, follow copy.]
 Camphor
 Cannel (_-coal_)
 Cannoneer
 Canoe
 Cantilever
 Canvas
 [Canvass]
 Capriole
 Car
 Carabine
 Carabineer
 Carat
 Caravansary
 Caravel
 Caraway
 [Carcase
   Scripture.]
 Carcass
 Carle
 Carnelian
 Carolytic
 Cartel
 Cartridge
 Cassada
 Cassimere
   [If spelled _Kerseymere_, follow copy.]
 Cassowary
 [Cast]
 Caste, _class_
 Castellan
 Caster
   [One who casts; a cruet; a furniture-wheel.]
 [Castor
   A genus of animals; a hat; a drug.]
 Castlery
 Castrel
 Catchpoll
 Catchup
 Catechise
 Catherine
 Cauliflower
 Causeway
 Cavazion (_Arch._)
 Caviare
 Caw
 Cayman
 Cedilla
 Ceiling
 Celt
 Celtic
 Centiped
 Cess
 Chalcedony
 Chaldron
 Chalice
 Chameleon
 Chamois
 Champaign
   [Flat, open country,—Deut. 11 : 30.]
 [Champagne, _wine_]
 Champerty
 Chant
 Chap
   [See remark on this word, in Wb. List, _ante_.]
 Chaps
 Char
   [A small job.
   So spelled in England, and in Departments at Washington, where
   “charwomen” are employed. But—
 Chore
   Is the common orthography in the United States,—and if so written,
   follow copy.]
 Chase
 Chastely
 Chasteness
 Check
 Checker
 Cheer
 Chemical
 Chemist
 Chemistry
 Chestnut
 Chiliahedron
 Chillness
 Chimb
 Chintz
 Chloride
 Choir
 Choke
 Choose
 Chorister
 Chyle
 Chylifactive
 Cider
 Cigar
 Cimeter
 Cipher
 Clam (_v._)
 Clarinet
 Cleat
 Clew
 Clinch
 Cloak
 Clodpoll
 Cloff
 Clothe
 Clothes {p144}
 Cluck
 Clyster
 Cobbler
 Cocoa
 Coddle
 Cœliac
 Coif
 Coiffure
 Coke
 Colander
 Colic
 College
 Colliery
 Colter
 Comfrey
 Commandery
 Commissariat
 Compatible
 Complete
 Concordat
 Confectionery
 Confidant (_n._)
 Congealable
 Connection
 Connective
 Consecrator
 Contemporary
 Contra-dance
 Contributory
 Control
 Controllable
 Controller
 [Comptroller
   2d column. _See_ Wb. list.]
 Conversable
 Cony
 Cony-burrow
 Coomb (4 _bushels_)
 Copier
 Coping
 Copse
 Coquette (_n._)
 Coranach
 Corbel
 Cordovan
 Corpse
 Correlative
 Cosey
 Cot
 Cotillon
 Counsellor
   [One who gives advice.]
 [Councillor
   A member of a council.]
 Courant
 Courtesan
 Courtesy
 [Curtesy (_Law_)]
 Covin
 Covinous
 Cozen
 Cozenage
 Craunch
 Crawfish
 Creak (_v._)
 Crier
 Croslet
 Crowd
 Crowfoot
 Cruet
 Crumb
 Crusade
 Cruse (_cruet_)
 Crystal
 Cucurbit
 Cue
 Cuerpo
 Cuish
 Cuneiform
 Cupel
 Curb
 Curb-stone
 Curtain
 Cutlass
 Cyclopædia
 Cyst
 Cysted
 Czar


 D.

 Dactyl
 Daily
 Daisied
 Damaskeen (_v._)
 Damson
 Dandruff
 Danegelt
 Daub
 Dawdle
 Dearn
 Debarkation
 Debonair
 Decoy
 Decrepit
 Defence
 Defier
 Deflection
 Deflour
 Delft
 Delphine
 Deltoid
 Demesne
 Demarcation
 Democrat
 Denizen
 Dependant (_n._)
 Dependence
 Dependent (_a._)
 Deposit
 Desert (_n._)
 Desolater
 Despatch
   [_Dispatch_ also appears in Wor. 1st column. Follow copy.]
 Dessert (_n._)
 Detecter
 Detorsion
 Detractor
 Develop
 Development
 Devest
 Dexterous
   [If written _Dextrous_ follow copy.]
 Diadron {p145}
 Diæresis
 Diarrhœa
 Dike
 Dime
 Diocese
 Disburden
 Discount
 Disfranchise
 Disfranchisement
 Dishabille
 Disinthrall
 Disk
 Disseize
 Disseizin
 Disseizor
 Dissolvable
 Distention
 Distil
 Distrainor
 Diversely
 Divest
 Docket
 Doctress
 Dodecahedron
 Doggerel
 Domicile
 Doomsday-book
 Dory
 Dote
 Doubloon
 Dowry
 Downfall
 Drachm
   [Properly limited to the Greek coin or weight.]
 Dram
   [A denomination in apothecaries’ and avoirdupois weight; a small
   quantity; a potation.]
 Dragoman
 Draught
   [This, the original and proper orthography, should be retained in all
   senses other than the five mentioned under _Draft_.]
 Draft
   [1. Act of drawing or pulling.
   2. A body of men drawn for or from a military organization.
   3. An order by which one person draws on another for money; also the
      money so drawn.
   4. An allowance in weighing.
   5. The drawing of lines for a plan; the plan so drawn.]
 Dreadnaught
 Driblet
 Drier
 Drought
 Dryly
 Dryness
 Duchess
 Duchy
 Dulness
 Dungeon
 Dunghill
 Duress
 Dye (_color_)
 Dyeing (_coloring_)


 E.

 Eavesdropper
 Eccentric
 Echelon
 Economics
 Ecstasy
 Ecstatic
 Ecumenical
 Edile
 Eke
 Embalm
 Embank
 Embankment
 Embargo
 Embark
 Embarkation
 Embase
 Embassy
 Embed
 Embedded
 Embezzle
 Embezzlement
 Emblazon
 Embody
 Embolden
 Emborder
 Embosk
 Embosom
 Emboss
 Embowel
 Embower
 Embrasure
 Empale
 Empanel
   [This orthography is recommended. (Wb. has _Empaneled_ in first
   column.) There are so many _correct_ ways of spelling this word, that
   a man who would get it wrong should be very ingenious.]
 Empoison
 Empower
 Empress
 Encage
 Encenia
 Enchant
 Enchase
 Encircle
 Encroach
 Encumber
 Encumbrance
 Encyclopædia
 Endamage
 Endear
 Endow
 Endue
 Enfeeble
 Enfeoff
 Enfranchise
 Engender
 Engorge {p146}
 Enhance
 Enigma
 Enjoin
 Enlard
 Enlarge
 Enlighten
 Enlist
 Enlumine
 Enroll
 Enrolment
 Enshrine
 Entail
 Entangle
 Enterprise
 Enthrone
 Enthymeme
 Entice
 Entire
 Entirety
 Entitle
 Entomb
 Entrance (_v._)
 Entrap
 Entreat
 Envelop (_v._)
 Envelopment
 Eolipile
 Epaulet
 Epigraph
 Equerry
 Equiangular
 Equivoke
 Era
 Eremite
 Escalade
 Eschalot
 Escritoire
 Escutcheon
 Estafette
 [Esthetic]
 Esthetics
 Estoppel
 Etiology
 Exactor
 Expense
 Exsanguious
 Exsect
 Exsiccate
 Exsiccation
 Exsiccative
 Exsuccous
 Extrinsical
 Exudation
 Exude
 Eyry


 F.

 Fæces
 Fagot
 Fairy
 Fakir
 Falchion
 Falcon
 Fantasy
 Farther
 Farthest
   [Present tendency is, to employ _farther_ and _farthest_ in
   indicating space or time; in other senses, _further_ and _furthest_.]
 Farthingale
 Fattener
 Fearnaught
 Fecal
 Felly
 Felon
 Felspar
 Ferrule
 [Ferule
   This word is in second column; but as its signification is wholly
   distinct from _ferrule_, it should have place here.]
 Feud
 Feudal
 Feudality
 Feudatory
 Feuillemorte
 Fie
 Filanders
 Filbert
 Filigrane
 Filigree
 Fillibeg
 Filly
 Finery (_a forge_)
 Firman
 Fizgig
 Flageolet
 Fleam
 Flier
 Flotage
 Flotsam
 Flour (_meal_)
 Fleur-de-lis
 Flugelman
 Fluke
 Fluoride
 Fœtus
 Forestall
 Foretell
 Forray
 Forte (_strong side_)
 Fosse
 Foundery
   [But if written _Foundry_, follow copy.]
 Franc (_coin_)
 Frenetic
 Frenzy
 Frieze
 Frigate
 Frit
 Frizzle
 Frowzy
 Frumentaceous
 Frumenty
 Frustum
 Fuel
 Fulfil
 Fulfilment
 Fulness
 Furlough
 Further
 Furthest
   [See _Farthest_.] {p147}
 Fusee
 Fusileer
 Fuze (_n._)


 G.

 Gabardine
 Galiot
 Gallipot
 Galoche
 Gamut
 Gangue (_in ore_)
 Gantlet
   [A military punishment.]
 Garish
 Garreteer
 Gauge
 Gauger
 Gault
 Gauntlet (_glove_)
 Gayety
 Gayly
 Gazelle
 Gear
 Gelatine
 Genet
 Gerfalcon
 Germ
 Ghastly
 Ghibelline
 Ghyll (_ravine_)
 Gibberish
 Gibe
 Giglot
 Gimlet
 Gimmal
 Girasole
 Girth
 Glair
 Glave
 Glazier
 Glede
 Gloar
 Gloze
 Glue
 Gluey
 Gnarled
 Gneiss
 Good-by
 Gore
 Gourmand
 Gormandize
 Governante
 Graft
 Grandam
 Granddaughter
 Granite
 Grasshopper
 Gray
 Greeze (_a step_)
 Grenade
 Grenadier
 Greyhound
 Griffin
 Grizzled
 Grocer
 Grogram
 Grotesque
 Groundsill
 Group
 Guarantee
 Guild
 Guilder (_coin_)
 Guillotine
 Gulf
 Gunwale
 Gurnet
 Gypsy
 Gyre
 Gyve


 H.

 Haggard
 Haggess
 Ha-ha
 Hake
 Halberd
 Hale (_healthy_)
 Halibut
 Halyards
 Halloo
 Hame
 Handicraftsman
 Handiwork
 Hards
 Harebell
 Harebrained
 Harem
 Harrier
 Harslet
 Hatchel
 Haul (_to drag_)
 Haum
 Haunch
 Haust (_cough_)
 Hautboy
 Havoc
 Hawser
 Hazel
 Headache
 Hearse
 Heartache
 Height
 Heighten
 Heinous
 Hemistich
 Hemorrhoids
 Heptamerede
 Herpetology
 Hexahedron
 Hibernate
 Hibernation
 Hiccough
 Hinderance
   [If written _Hindrance_, follow copy. In one of the largest
   printing-offices in the world, an effort was made a few years since
   to get the _e_ into Dext_e_rous, Found_e_ry, and Hind_e_rance (style
   of _Wb._ and _Wor._); but so much trouble ensued,—presumably from
   outside orthographers,—that compositors and proof-readers were
   erelong instructed to leave the _e_ out. Follow copy.] {p148}
 Hip (_v_).
 Hip (_n_).
 Hippocras
 Hodge-podge
 Hoiden
 Holiday
 Holster
 Hominy
 Homonyme
 Hone
 Honeyed
 Hoot
 Horde
 Horehound
 Hornblende
 Hostler
 Household
 Housewife
 Howlet
 Hub
 Hurrah
 Hydrangea
 Hypothenuse


 I.

 Icicle
 Illness
 Imbitter
 Imbound
 Imbox
 Imbrue
 Impair
 Imparlance
 Impassion
 Implead
 Imposthume
   [“This seems . . . to have been written erroneously for
   _aposteme_.”—_Johnson._ Follow copy, whether spelled _aposteme_,
   _apostume_, _impostem_, _imposthume_, or _impostume_,—any other
   orthography might possibly be incorrect.]
 Impoverish
 Incase
 Inclasp
 Incloister
 Inclose
 Inclosure
 Incondensable
 Increase
 Incrust
 Indefeasible
 Indelible
 Indict
 Indictment
 Indite
 Inditer
 Indocile
 Indorsable
 Indorse
 Indorsement
 Indorser
 Inferrible
 Inflection
 Infold
 Infoliate
 Ingraft
 Ingraftment
 Ingrain
 Ingulf
 Innuendo
 Inquire
 Inquirer
 Inquiry
 Insnare
 Install
 Instalment
 Instil
 Instructor
 Insurance
 Insure
 Insurer
 Intenable
 Interlace
 Interplead
 Interpleader
 Inthrall
 Intrinsical
 Intrust
 Intwine
 Inure
 Inurement
 Invalid (_n._)
 Inveigle
 Inventor
 Inwheel
 Inwrap
 Inwreathe
 Isle


 J.

 Jackal
 Jacobin
 Jag
 Jagghery
 Jail
 Jailer
 Jalap
 Jamb (_n._)
 Janizary
 Janty
 Jasmine
 Jaunt
 Jelly
 Jenneting
 Jetty
 Jewellery
   [Thus in 1st column, as “the more regularly formed word”; but
   _jewelry_ is the more common. Follow copy.]
 Jiffy
 Jingle
 Jointress
 Jole
   [If written _jowl_, follow copy.]
 Jonquille
 Judgment
 Julep
 Junket
 Just (_n._)
 Justle
   [If written _jostle_, compositor and proof-reader had better follow
   copy, to save the trouble and expense of _correcting_.] {p149}


 K.

 Kale
 Kamsin
 Kayle
 Keelhaul
 Keelson
 Keg
 Khan
 Knapsack
 Knell


 L.

 Lackey
 Lacquer
 Lair
 Lambdoidal
 Lance
 Landscape
 Landsman
 Lantern
 Lanyard
 Launch
 Laundress
 Laureate
 Lavender
 Lea (_a plain_)
 Leach
 Leaven
 Ledger
 Lettuce
 License
 Lickerish
 Licorice
 Lief
 Lilac
 Lily
 Linguiform
 Liniment
   [An embrocation.]
 [Linament
   (Lint, etc.)]
 Lintstock
 Litharge
 Llama (_animal_)
 Loadstar
 Loadstone
 Loath (_a._)
 Loathe (_v._)
 Lode (_a vein_)
 Lodgement
 Lower
 Luff
 Luke
 Lustring
 Lye (_from ashes_)


 M.

 Maggoty
 Maim
 [Mayhem (_Law_)]
 Maize
 Maleadministration
 Malecontent
 Malefeasance
 Malepractice
 Maltreat
 Malkin
 Mall
 Malanders
 Mameluke
 Mandarin
 Mandatary
 Mandrel
 Manifestable
 Manikin
 Manœuvre
 Mantle
 Mark
 Marque (_license_)
 Marquee
 Marquis
 Marshal
 Marten
 Martingale
 Mask
 Maslin
 Mastic
 Matins
 Mattress
 Meagre
 Mediæval
 Meliorate
   [If written _ameliorate_, follow copy.]
 Menagerie
 Merchandise
 Mere (_a pool_)
 Metre
 Mew
 Mewl
 Mileage
 Milleped
 Millrea
 Miscall
 Misspell
 Misspend
 Misy (_Min._)
 Mistletoe
 Mitre
 Mizzen
 Moccason
 Mocha-stone
 Modillion
 Molasses
 Moneyed
 Mongrel
 Monodrame
 Mood
 Moresque
 Morion
 Mortgageor
 Mosque
 Mosquito
 Mould
 Moult
 Mulch
 Mullin
 Multiped
 Mummery
 Murder
 Murderous
 Murky
 Murrhine
 Muscle
   [Animal tissue.] {p150}
 [Mussel
   (A shell-fish.)]
 Musket
 Mustache
 Myth


 N.

 Nankeen
 Naught
 Negotiate
 Net (_a._, _clear_)
 Nib
 Nobless
 Nombles
 Novitiate
 Nozle
 Nuisance


 O.

 Oblique
 Octahedron
 Offence
 Offuscate
 Olio
 Omer
 Opaque
 Orach
 Orison
 Osier
 Osmazome
 Osprey
 Ottar
   [If written _Attar_, follow copy.]
 Outrageous
 Oxidate
 Oxidation
 Oxide
 Oxidize
 Oyes


 P.

 Pacha
 Packet
 Painim
 Palanquin
 Palette
 Palmiped
 Pandore
 Panel
 Pansy
 Pantagraph
 Pappoose
 Parallelopiped
 Paralyze
 Parcenary
 Parol (_a._)
 Paroquet
 Parral
 Parsnip
 Partisan
 Patin
 Patrol
 Paver
 Pawl
 Pedler
 Pedlery
 Peep
 Penance
 Penniless
 Pentahedral
 Pentahedron
 Pentile
 Peony
 Perch
 Persimmon
 Persistence
 Pewit
 Phantasm
 Phantom
 Phenomenon
 Phial
   [If written _Vial_, follow copy.]
 Philter
 Phlegm
 Phœnix
 Phthisic
 [Piked
   Ending in a point.]
 Picked
   [Spruce; smartly or foppishly dressed.]
 Picket
 [Piquet
   A game at cards.]
 Picturesque
 Pie
 Piebald
 Pimento
 Pincers
 Placard
 Plain
   [A level, open field.]
 [Plane
   So written in science and the arts.]
 Plane-sailing
 Plaster
 Plat
 Plethora
 Pleurisy
 Pliers
 Plough
 Ploughman
 Ploughshare
 Plumber
 Plumiped
 Pluviameter
 Poise
 Poltroon
 Polyanthus
 Polyhedral
 Polyhedron
 Pomade
 Pommel
 Pontoon
 Pony
 Porpoise
 Portray
 Portress
 Postilion
 Potato
 Pottage
 Practise (_v._) {p151}
 Præmunire
 Premise
 Pretence
 Preterite
 Pretor
 Prison-base
 Probate
 Profane
 Protector
 Prothonotaryship
 Prunello
 Pumpkin
 [Puisne (_Law_)
   Thus written as a technical word.]
 Puny
 Pupillary
 Purblind
 Purlin
 Purr
 Purslain
 Pursy
 Putrefy
 Pygmean
 Pygmy
 Pyx


 Q.

 Quarantine
 Quartet
 Quatercousin
 Quay (_a mole_)
 Quinsy
 Quintain
 Quintal
 Quitter
 Quoit


 R.

 Raccoon
 Raillery
 Ransom
 Rarefy
 Raspberry
 Ratafia
 Rattan
 Raven (_prey_)
 Raze
 Razure
 Real (_coin_)
 Rear
 Rearmouse
 Rearward
 Recall
 Recognizable
 Recognizance
 Recognize
 Recognizee
 Recognizor
 Recompense
 Reconnoitre
 Redoubt
 Redoubtable
 Reenforcement
 Referable
 Reflection
 Reflective
 Reglet
 Reindeer
 Reinstall
 Relic
 Renard
   [If written _Reynard_, follow copy.]
 Rennet
 Replier
 Reposit
 Resin
   [This is the scientific term for the “inspissated exudations
   of certain families of plants.”]
 Rosin
   [The name of the commonest resin in use, “when employed in
   a solid state for ordinary purposes.”]
 Resistance
 Respite
 Restiff
   [If written _restive_, follow copy.]
 Restiffness
   [If written _restiveness_, follow copy.]
 Retch (_to vomit_)
 Reverie
   [If written _revery_, follow copy.]
 Reversible
 Rhomb
 [Rhumb (_Nav._)]
 Ribbon
 Rider
 Rinse
 Risk
 Riveted
 Robbin
 [Robin (_Orn._)]
 Rodomontade
 Roquelaure
 Route (_course_)
 Rummage
 Runnet
 Rye


 S.

 Sabianism
 Sag
 Saic
 Sainfoin
 Salic
 Saltcellar
 Sandarach
 Sandiver
 Sanitary
 Sarcenet
 Sat
 Satchel
 Satinet
 Savin
 Saviour
   [When the Redeemer is meant, the _u_ should be retained. Worcester’s
   note under this word says that _error_, _favor_, and _honor_ are
   derived directly from {p152} the Latin, whereas there is no
   classical Latin word corresponding to the Greek _saviour_ = σωτήρ.]
 [Savior
   This orthography is proper when a sacred meaning is not attached to
   the word.]
 Scallop
 Scath
 Scenery
 Sceptic
 Sceptical
 Scepticism
 Schist
 Schistose
 Scholium
 Schorl
 Sciagraphy
 Sciomachy
 Scion
 Scirrhosity
 Scirrhous [_a._]
 Scirrhus [_n._]
 Scissors
 Sconce
 Scotfree
 Scow
 Screen
 Scrofula
 Scythe
 Seamstress
 Sear
 Searce
 Secretaryship
 Seethe
 Seignior
 Seine (_a net_)
 Seizin
 Sellenders
 Selvage
 Sentinel
 Sentry
 Sequin
 Sergeant
 Sergeantry
 Sesspool
   [If written _cesspool_, follow copy.]
 Sevennight
 Shad
 Shard
 Shark (_v._)
   [But _shirk_ is more common, follow copy.]
 Shawm
 Sheathe (_v._)
 Sheer (_pure_)
 Sheik
 Shemitic
 Sherbet
 Sherry
 Shorling
 Show
 Showbread
 Shrillness
 Shroud
 Shuttlecock
 Shyly
 Shyness
 Sienite
 Silicious
 Sill
 Sillabub
 Simar
 Siphon
 Siren
 Sirloin
 Sirocco
 Sirup
 Sit (_to incubate_)
 Site
 Sizar
 Size (_glue_)
 Skate
 Skein
 Skilful
 Skulk
 Skull
 Slabber
 Slake (_to quench_)
 Sleight (_n._)
 Sley (_a reed_)
 Sluice
 Slyly
 Slyness
 Smallness
 Smirk
 Smooth (_v._)
 Soap
 Socage
 Socle
 Solan
 Solder
 Soldier
 Soliped
 Solitaire
 Solvable
 Somerset
 Sonneteer
 Soothe (_v._)
 Sorrel
 Souse
 Spa
 Spicknel
 Spinach
 Spinel
 Splice
 Sponge
 Spongy
 Spright
 Sprightful
 Spunk
 Spurt
 Stable
 Staddle
 Stanch
 Stationery (_n._)
 Steadfast
 Steelyard
 Sterile
 Stillness
 Stockade
 Strait (_n._)
 Strap
 Strengthener
 Strew
 Stupefy {p153}
 Sty
 Style
 Subtile (_thin_)
 Subtle (_sly_)
 Subtract
 Subtraction
 Suit
 Suitor
 Sulky (_n._)
 Sulphuretted
 Sumach
 Suretyship
 Surname
 Surprise
 Surreptitious
 Survivor
 Survivorship
 Swale
 Sward
 Swath (_n._)
 Sweepstakes
 Swipple
 Swop
   [If written _swap_, follow copy.]
 Sycamore
 Sylvan
 Synonyme
 Syphilis
 Systematize


 T.

 Tabard
 Taffety
 Taffrail
 Taillage
 Talc (_a stone_)
 Tallness
 Talmud
 Tambour
 Tambourine
 Tarpauling
 Tartan
 Tassel
 Tawny
 Tease
 Teazle
 Tenable
 Terrier
 Tether
 Tetrastich
 Theodolite
 Thraldom
 Thrash
 Threshold
 Throe (_a pang_)
 Thyine (_wood_)
 Thyme
 Ticking
 Tidbit
 Tie
 Tier (_a row_)
 Tierce
 Tiger
 Tincal
 Tint
 Tiny
 Tippler
 Tithe
 Toilet
 Toll (_to allure_)
 Tollbooth
 Ton
 [Tun
   (_Tun_ is the usual orthography when a large cask or wine measure
   [252 gallons] is meant; _Ton_ when a weight of 20 cwt., the space in
   a ship, or a measure of timber is meant.—_Brande._)]
 Tonnage
 Tormentor
 Touchy
 Tourmaline
 Trance
 Tranquillity
 Tranquillize
 Transferable
 Transferrence
 Treadle
 Treenail
 Trellis
 Trentals
 Trestle
 Trevet
 Trousers
 Truckle-bed
 Tumbrel
 Turkey
 Turkois
 Turnip
 Turnsole
 Tutenag
 Tweedle
 Twibil
 Tymbal
 Tyro


 U.

 Umbles
 Unbias
 Unbiassed
 Unbigoted
 Unroll
 Until


 V.

 Vaivode
 Vales (_money_)
 Valise
 Vantbrace
 Vat (_a vessel_)
 Vaudevil
 Vavasor
 Veil (_cover_)
 Vender
 [Vendor (_Law_)]
 Veneer
 Venomous
 Verdigris
 Vermilion
 Vermin
 Verst
 Vertebre
   [If written _Vertebra_, follow copy.] {p154}
 Vervain
 Vice (_a screw_)
 Vicious
 Villain
 Villanous
 Villany
 Visitatorial
 Visitor
 Visor
 Vitiate
 Vizier
 Volcano


 W.

 Wagon
 Waif
 Waive (_to defer_)
 Wale
 Walrus
 Warranter
 [Warrantor (_Law_)]
 War-whoop
 Waul
 Wear (_v._)
 Wear (_n._)
 Weasand
 Welsh
 Whang
 Whelk
 Whippletree
 Whippoorwill
 Whiskey
 Whitleather
 Whoop
 Whooping-cough
 Widgeon
 Wilful
 Windlass
 Wintry
 Wiry
 Witch-elm
 With (_n._)
 Withal
 Wizard
 Woe
 Woful
 Wondrous
 Woodbine
 Woodchuck
 Woollen
 Wreathe (_v._)
 Wreck
 Wriggle


 Y.

 Yawl
 Yearn
 Yeast
 Yelk
 Yerk
 Yew


 Z.

 Zaffre
 Zinc
 Zymology

There is a large class of words ending either in _able_ or _ible_,
amounting to more than sixteen hundred. For these we know of no
general rule which can be given, that would readily indicate the
proper termination. In practice, writers and printers, with rare
exceptions, are obliged at times to depend on something besides memory
to secure correctness; and if the dictionary is not at hand, the wrong
termination may—as in fact it often does—get into print. So excellent
a work as “The American First Class Book” prints an extract from
Webster’s Plymouth oration thus:

 If any practices exist, contrary to the principles of justice and
 humanity, within the reach of our laws or our influence, we are
 inexcus_i_ble if we do not exert ourselves to restrain and abolish
 them. {p155}

And in a periodical which is sent broadcast over the United States,
occurs the following paragraph (April 24, 1888), copied from a report
made by Henry Clay in 1838:

 That authors and inventors have, according to the practice among
 civilized nations, a property in the respective productions of their
 genius is incontest_i_ble, etc.

We append below, for convenient reference, a catalogue of the words
referred to, including (1) those in present use; (2) those that are
rare; and (3) the obsolete. The latter often occur in reprints, and
are sometimes resuscitated or galvanized for a present purpose,—as,
for instance, in a recent popular novel, of wide circulation, there
occurs three or more times, the word “ineluctable,” denoted by Webster
as obsolete. We may have omitted some words that should have been
inserted, but believe we have accomplished our object within very
negligible limits of error.

A word in parenthesis indicates a various mode of spelling the word
immediately preceding.


WORDS ENDING IN _ABLE_.

 Abatable
 Abdicable
 Abolishable
 Abominable
 Abrogable
 Absolvable
 Absorbable
 Abusable
 Accentuable
 Acceptable
 Acclimatable
 Accomplishable
 Accordable
 Accostable
 Accountable
 Accusable
 Achievable
 Acidifiable
 Acquirable
 Actable
 Actionable
 Adaptable
 Addable
 (Addible)
 Adjustable
 Administrable
 Admirable
 Admittable
 (Admittible)
 Adoptable
 Adorable
 Advantageable
 Advisable
 Affable
 Affilliable
 Affirmable
 Aggrandizable
 Agitable
 Agreeable
 Alienable
 Alkalifiable
 Allegeable
 Allowable
 Alterable
 Amassable {p156}
 Ameliorable
 Amenable
 Amendable
 Amiable
 Amicable
 Amusable
 Analyzable
 Anchorable
 Annihilable
 Answerable
 Appealable
 Appeasable
 Appliable
 Applicable
 Appointable
 Appreciable
 Approachable
 Appropriable
 Approvable
 Arable
 Arbitrable
 Arguable
 Argumentable
 Ascertainable
 Ascribable
 Aspectable
 Assailable
 Assaultable
 Assessable
 Assignable
 Assimilable
 Associable
 Atonable
 Attachable
 Attackable
 Attainable
 Attemptable
 Attractable
 Attributable
 Augmentable
 Authorizable
 Available
 Avoidable
 Avouchable
 Avowable
 Bailable
 Bankable
 Batable
 Bearable
 Beggable
 Believable
 Bendable
 Bequeathable
 Bewailable
 Blamable
 Boardable
 Boatable
 Bounceable
 Breakable
 Breathable
 Calcinable
 Calculable
 Capable
 Carriable
 Causable
 Censurable
 Challengeable
 Changeable
 Chargeable
 Charitable
 Chastisable
 Cheatable
 Circulable
 Circumnavigable
 Circumscribable
 Citable
 Civilizable
 Claimable
 Classifiable
 Cleansable
 Cleavable
 Clergyable
 Climbable
 Coagulable
 Cogitable
 Cognizable
 Collatable
 Colorable
 Combatable
 Comfortable
 Commandable
 Commeasurable
 Commemorable
 Commendable
 Commensurable
 Commonable
 Communicable
 Commutable
 Companionable
 Comparable
 Compassable
 Compellable
 Compliable
 Comportable
 Compoundable
 Computable
 Concealable
 Conceivable
 Concordable
 Condemnable
 Condensable
 Conferrable
 Confinable
 Confirmable
 Confiscable
 Conformable
 Confusable
 Confutable
 Congeable
 Congealable
 Conjecturable
 Conquerable
 Conscionable
 Conservable
 Considerable
 Consolable
 Constrainable
 Consumable
 Containable
 Contaminable
 Conterminable
 Contestable
 Continuable
 Contradictable
 Contributable
 Contrivable
 Controllable
 Conversable {p157}
 Conveyable
 Countable
 Countermandable
 Covetable
 Creatable
 Creditable
 Criticisable
 Crummable
 Crystallizable
 Culpable
 Cultivable
 Cultivatable
 Culturable
 Curable
 Customable
 Damageable
 Debatable
 Deceivable
 Decidable
 Decipherable
 Declarable
 Declinable
 Decomposable
 Decompoundable
 Decreeable
 Definable
 Deflagrable
 Delectable
 Deliverable
 Deludable
 Demandable
 Demisable
 Demonstrable
 Deniable
 Denominable
 Denotable
 Deplorable
 Deposable
 Deprecable
 Deprivable
 Derivable
 Describable
 Designable
 Desirable
 Despicable
 Detectable
 Determinable
 Detestable
 Devisable
 Diggable
 Dilatable
 Diminishable
 Disagreeable
 Disallowable
 Disciplinable
 Discommendable
 Disconformable
 Discountable
 Discourageable
 Discoverable
 Discreditable
 Disenable
 Dishonorable
 Disintegrable
 Dispensable
 Displaceable
 Disposable
 Disproportionable
 Disprovable
 Dispunishable
 Disputable
 Disreputable
 Disserviceable
 Dissociable
 Dissolvable
 Distillable
 Distinguishable
 Distrainable
 Distributable
 Diversifiable
 Dividable
 Divorceable
 (Divorcible)
 Doubtable
 Dowable
 Drainable
 Dramatizable
 Drawable
 Drinkable
 Dupable
 Durable
 Dutiable
 Eatable
 Effable
 Effaceable
 Electrifiable
 Electrolyzable
 Emendable
 Employable
 Endable
 Endurable
 Enforceable
 (Enforcible)
 Englishable
 Enjoyable
 Enticeable
 Enunciable
 Enviable
 Equable
 Equitable
 Eradicable
 Erasable
 Erectable
 Escapable
 Escheatable
 Estimable
 Evaporable
 Examinable
 Exceptionable
 Exchangeable
 Excisable
 Excitable
 Excommunicable
 Exculpable
 Excusable
 Execrable
 Exemplifiable
 Exercisable
 (Exercisible)
 Exhalable
 Exorable
 Expectable
 Expellable
 Expiable
 Expirable
 Explainable
 Explicable
 Exportable {p158}
 Extinguishable
 Extirpable
 Extractable
 (Extractible)
 Extricable
 Exuviable
 Falsifiable
 Farmable
 Fashionable
 Fathomable
 Favorable
 Fellable
 Fermentable
 Figurable
 Finable
 Fixable
 Fordable
 Foreknowable
 Forfeitable
 Forgivable
 Formidable
 Fortifiable
 Framable
 Friable
 Fundable
 Furbishable
 Gainable
 Gaugeable
 Gelable
 Generable
 Generalizable
 Governable
 Grantable
 Graspable
 Guardable
 Guerdonable
 Guessable
 Guidable
 Habitable
 Hammerable
 Handleable
 Hatable
 Hazardable
 Healable
 Heriotable
 Heritable
 Homageable
 Honorable
 Hospitable
 Husbandable
 Hybridizable
 Identifiable
 Illapsable
 Illaudable
 Illimitable
 Illuminable
 Illustrable
 Imaginable
 Imitable
 Immalleable
 Immeasurable
 Immedicable
 Immemorable
 Immensurable
 Immersable
 (Immersible)
 Immitigable
 Immovable
 Immutable
 Impalpable
 Impassable
 Impassionable
 Impeachable
 Impeccable
 Impenetrable
 Imperforable
 Imperishable
 Impermeable
 Imperturbable
 Imperviable
 Implacable
 Impliable
 Imponderable
 Importable
 Imposable
 Impracticable
 Impregnable
 Impressionable
 Impreventable
 Improbable
 Improvable
 Impugnable
 Imputable
 Inaffable
 Inalienable
 Inamovable
 Inappealable
 Inapplicable
 Inappreciable
 Inapproachable
 Inarable
 Incalculable
 Incapable
 Incensurable
 Incinerable
 Inclinable
 Incoagulable
 Incogitable
 Incognizable
 Incommensurable
 Incommunicable
 Incommutable
 Incomparable
 Incompensable
 Incompliable
 Incomputable
 Inconcealable
 Inconceivable
 Incondensable
 Incongealable
 Inconsiderable
 Inconsolable
 Inconsumable
 Incontestable
 Incontrollable
 Increasable
 Incrystallizable
 Inculpable
 Incurable
 Indecimable
 Indecipherable
 Indeclinable
 Indecomposable
 Indefatigable
 Indefinable
 Indelectable
 Indemonstrable
 Indeprecable {p159}
 Indeprivable
 Indescribable
 Indesirable
 Indeterminable
 Indictable
 Indiminishable
 Indisciplinable
 Indiscoverable
 Indispensable
 Indisputable
 Indissolvable
 Indistinguishable
 Indomitable
 Indorsable
 Indubitable
 Ineffable
 Ineffaceable
 Inequitable
 Ineradicable
 Inestimable
 Inevitable
 Inexcitable
 Inexcusable
 Inexecutable
 Inexorable
 Inexpiable
 Inexplicable
 Inexplorable
 Inexpugnable
 Inexsuperable
 Inexterminable
 Inextinguishable
 Inextirpable
 Inextricable
 Inferable
 (Inferrible)
 Inflammable
 Inflatable
 Ingelable
 Ingenerable
 Inhabitable
 Inheritable
 Inhospitable
 Inimaginable
 Inimitable
 Inirritable
 Innavigable
 Innumerable
 Inobservable
 Inoculable
 Inoxidizable
 Inquirable
 Insanable
 Insatiable
 Insaturable
 Inscribable
 Inscrutable
 Insecable
 Inseparable
 Inseverable
 Insolvable
 Inspirable
 Instable
 Insufferable
 Insultable
 Insuperable
 Insupportable
 Insupposable
 Insurable
 Insurmountable
 Intastable
 Intenable
 Interchangeable
 Intercommunicable
 Interminable
 Interpolable
 Interpretable
 Intestable
 Intolerable
 Intractable
 Intransmutable
 Invaluable
 Invariable
 Investigable
 Inviolable
 Invitrifiable
 Invulnerable
 Irrebuttable
 Irreclaimable
 Irrecognizable
 Irreconcilable
 Irrecordable
 Irrecoverable
 Irrecusable
 Irredeemable
 Irrefragable
 Irrefutable
 Irrejectable
 Irrelievable
 Irremeable
 Irremediable
 Irremovable
 Irremunerable
 Irreparable
 Irrepealable
 Irrepleviable
 Irreplevisable
 Irrepresentable
 Irreproachable
 Irreprovable
 Irresolvable
 Irrespirable
 Irresuscitable
 Irretraceable
 Irretrievable
 Irreturnable
 Irrevealable
 Irrevocable
 Irrevokable
 Irritable
 Isolable
 Issuable
 Judicable
 Justiciable
 Justifiable
 Knittable
 Knowable
 Lacerable
 Lamentable
 Laminable
 Lapsable
 Laudable
 Laughable
 Learnable
 Leasable
 Lendable
 Leviable
 Levigable {p160}
 Liable
 Licensable
 Liftable
 Likable
 Limitable
 Liquable
 Liquefiable
 Litigable
 Loanable
 Lodgeable
 Losable
 Lovable
 Magnifiable
 Mailable
 Mainpernable
 Maintainable
 Malleable
 Manageable
 Manifestable
 (Manifestible)
 Marketable
 Marriageable
 Masticable
 Measurable
 Medicable
 Memorable
 Mendable
 Mensurable
 Mentionable
 Merchantable
 Miserable
 Misinterpretable
 Mistakable
 Mitigable
 Mixable
 Modifiable
 Moldable
 Mollifiable
 Mootable
 Mountable
 Movable
 Multipliable
 Multiplicable
 Mutable
 Namable
 Navigable
 Negotiable
 Nonexcommunicable
 Notable
 Noticeable
 Nourishable
 Numerable
 Objectionable
 Obligable
 Observable
 Obtainable
 Offerable
 Opposable
 Ordainable
 Orderable
 Organizable
 Originable
 Overcapable
 Oxidable
 Oxidizable
 Oxygenizable
 Palatable
 Palpable
 Pardonable
 Partable
 (Partible)
 Passable
 Pasturable
 Patentable
 Pawnable
 Payable
 Peaceable
 Peccable
 Penetrable
 Perceivable
 Perdurable
 Performable
 Perishable
 Permeable
 Permutable
 Perpetuable
 Personable
 Perspirable
 Persuadable
 Picturable
 Pierceable
 Pitiable
 Placable
 Plantable
 Pleadable
 Pleasurable
 Pliable
 Plowable
 Poisonable
 Polarizable
 Polishable
 Polysyllable
 Ponderable
 Portable
 Potable
 Powerable
 Practicable
 Precipitable
 Predeterminable
 Predicable
 Preferable
 Preparable
 Presentable
 Preservable
 Prestable
 Presumable
 Preventable
 Probable
 Procurable
 Profitable
 Prognosticable
 Prolongable
 Pronounceable
 Propagable
 Proportionable
 Proratable
 Prosecutable
 Protrudable
 Provable
 Provokable
 Publishable
 Pulverable
 Pulverizable
 Punishable
 Purchasable
 Pursuable
 Quadrable
 Qualifiable {p161}
 Quenchable
 Questionable
 Quotable
 Raisable
 Ratable
 (Rateable)
 Reachable
 Readable
 Realizable
 Reasonable
 Rebukable
 Recallable
 Receivable
 Reclaimable
 Recognizable
 Recommendable
 Reconcilable
 Recoverable
 Rectifiable
 Redeemable
 Redemandable
 Redoubtable
 Reexaminable
 Referable
 (Referrible)
 Refusable
 Refutable
 Regrettable
 Reissuable
 Rejectable
 Relaxable
 Releasable
 Reliable
 Relievable
 Relishable
 Remarkable
 Remediable
 Removable
 Remunerable
 Renderable
 Renewable
 Rentable
 Reobtainable
 Repairable
 Reparable
 Repayable
 Repealable
 Repleviable
 Representable
 Reproachable
 Reprovable
 Repudiable
 Reputable
 Rescindable
 Rescuable
 Resolvable
 Respectable
 Respirable
 Restorable
 Restrainable
 Resumable
 Resuscitable
 Retainable
 Retractable
 (Retractible)
 Retrievable
 Returnable
 Revealable
 Revengeable
 Reviewable
 Revivable
 Revocable
 Rewardable
 Rollable
 Ruinable
 Rulable
 Sailable
 Salable
 Salifiable
 Salvable
 Sanable
 Saponifiable
 Satisfiable
 Saturable
 Savable
 Scalable
 Searchable
 Seasonable
 Securable
 Seizable
 Separable
 Sequestrable
 Servable
 Serviceable
 Shapable
 Shiftable
 Sizable
 Sociable
 Solvable
 Sortable
 Soundable
 Spoilable
 Squeezable
 Statable
 Statutable
 Suable
 Subconformable
 Sublimable
 Subscribable
 Succorable
 Sufferable
 Suitable
 Superserviceable
 Supportable
 Supposable
 Surmountable
 Surpassable
 Sustainable
 Tamable
 Tannable
 Tastable
 Taxable
 Teachable
 Tellable
 Temperable
 Temptable
 Tenable
 Tenantable
 Terminable
 Testable
 Tillable
 Tithable
 Tolerable
 Tollable
 Torturable
 Touchable
 Traceable
 Tractable {p162}
 Trainable
 Transferable
 (Transferrible)
 Transformable
 Translatable
 Transmeatable
 Transmutable
 Transpirable
 Transportable
 Transposable
 Traversable
 Treasonable
 Treatable
 Triable
 Triturable
 Tunable
 Ulcerable
 Unacceptable
 Unaccountable
 Unadvisable
 Unagreeable
 Unaidable
 Unamiable
 Unanswerable
 Unappealable
 Unapproachable
 Unaskable
 Unavoidable
 Uncharitable
 Uncleanable
 Uncomeatable
 Uncomfortable
 Uncommunicable
 Unconformable
 Unconscionable
 Uncontrollable
 Uncustomable
 Undauntable
 Undeniable
 Undivinable
 Unexceptionable
 Unextinguishable
 Unfashionable
 Unfathomable
 Unfavorable
 Unforgetable
 Ungovernable
 Unimpeachable
 Unitable
 Unknowable
 Unmalleable
 Unmerchantable
 Unmeritable
 Unmistakable
 Unpassable
 Unpeaceable
 Unpeerable
 Unprofitable
 Unquestionable
 Unreasonable
 Unreconcilable
 Unreliable
 Unrebukable
 Unreckonable
 Unreprovable
 Unsalable
 Unsearchable
 Unseasonable
 Unsociable
 Unspeakable
 Unstable
 Unsuitable
 Unutterable
 Unwarrantable
 Unwedgeable
 Usable
 Utterable
 Valuable
 Vanquishable
 Vaporable
 Vaporizable
 Variable
 Veerable
 Vegetable
 Venerable
 Verifiable
 Veritable
 Viable
 Vindicable
 Violable
 Visitable
 Vitrifiable
 Voidable
 Volatilizable
 Voyageable
 Vulnerable
 Warrantable
 Washable
 Wearable
 Weighable
 Weldable
 Wieldable
 Workable


WORDS ENDING IN “ABLE”; RARE.

 Accomptable (_or obs._)
 Accommodable
 Accustomable
 Baptizable
 Burnable
 Borable
 Carriageable
 Catchable
 Commiserable
 Complainable
 Defendable
 Despisable
 Destroyable
 Discontinuable
 Dissipable
 Donable
 Dubitable
 Educable
 Effluviable
 Emulable
 Entreatable
 Equiparable
 Errable
 Esteemable {p163}
 Executable
 Expugnable
 Frustrable
 Gatherable
 Gettable
 Hereditable
 Illaqueable
 Imageable
 Impalatable
 Imperceivable
 Impersuadable
 Incicurable
 Inequable
 Innominable
 Manducable
 Marriable
 Matchable
 Medicinable
 Meltable
 Mockable
 Pacificable
 Pregnable
 Quittable
 Razorable
 Recuperable
 Refragable
 Regardable
 Regulable
 Rememberable
 Replantable
 Replevisable
 Repugnable
 Scrutable
 Smokable
 Speakable
 Strangleable
 Subduable
 Superable
 Suspectable
 Tractable
 Thinkable
 Transpassable
 Unalienable
 Unculpable
 Understandable
 Unforeseeable
 Unhabitable
 Unlimitable
 Unmakable
 Unmeasurable
 Unmovable
 Unscrutable
 Untractable
 Unvoyageable
 Walkable
 Weariable
 Wishable
 Worshipable
 Woundable
 Yieldable


WORDS ENDING IN “ABLE”; OBSOLETE.

 Abhominable
 Acetable
 Accompanable
 Accomptable (_or rare_.)
 Acquaintable
 Animable
 Aptable
 Battable
 Behoovable
 Bowable
 Chanceable
 Colliquable
 Circumstantiable
 Combinable
 Companable
 Companiable
 Compassionable
 Compensable
 Conciliable
 Consortable
 Conspectable
 Conusable
 Convenable
 Counselable
 Covenable
 Creable
 Defatigable
 Delightable
 Dependable
 Depredable
 Destinable
 Devitable
 Disable
 Disadvantageable
 Discomfortable
 Discordable
 Discriminable
 Disfavorable
 Dispraisable
 Disprofitable
 Doctrinable
 Domable
 Dreadable
 Earable
 Effrayable
 Endamageable
 Eterminable
 Exceedable
 Excoriable
 Excreable
 Excruciable
 Exoptable
 Exuperable
 Fatigable
 Fittable
 Flammable
 Foilable
 Frequentable
 Grievable
 Guildable
 Gustable
 Illacerable
 Illeviable
 Immatchable
 Immixable
 Impacable
 Impardonable
 Imperscrutable
 Impetrable {p164}
 Impierceable
 Improfitable
 Improportionable
 Inaidable
 Inalterable
 Inamiable
 Incessable
 Incharitable
 Incomformable
 Inconscionable
 Incremable
 Individable
 Indomable
 Indomptable
 Ineluctable
 Inenarrable
 Inerrable
 Inexhalable
 Inexplainable
 Inexuperable
 Infashionable
 Infatigable
 Informidable
 Ingustable
 Injudicable
 Inopinable
 Insociable
 Insuitable
 Intricable
 Inutterable
 Irrecuperable
 Irreputable
 Iterable
 Jaculable
 Justiceable
 Lachrymable
 Leisurable
 Makable
 Maniable
 Markable
 Mercable
 Merciable
 Meritable
 Mingleable
 Mirable
 Miscarriageable
 Moderable
 Modificable
 Moltable
 Narrable
 Oathable
 Objectable
 Occasionable
 Operable
 Opinable
 Optable
 Ordinable
 Overturnable
 Painable
 Parable
 Parallelable
 Perceable
 Perflable
 Perspicable
 Postable
 Praisable
 Replevisable
 Resemblable
 Rowable
 Sacrificable
 Screable
 Scribable
 Semblable
 Spirable
 Strainable
 Suspicable
 Trafficable
 Transmeable
 Troublable
 Unappliable
 Unapplicable
 Uncapable
 Unconceivable
 Uncontestable
 Uncounselable
 Uncovenable
 Uncreditable
 Uncurable
 Undefatigable
 Undepartable
 Undertakable
 Undestroyable
 Undeterminable
 Undisputable
 Undoubtable
 Undubitable
 Undwellable
 Unequalable
 Unevitable
 Unexcusable
 Unextricable
 Unfailable
 Unframable
 Unhospitable
 Unimitable
 Unmasterable
 Unnumerable
 Unpenetrable
 Unperishable
 Unplacable
 Unpracticable
 Unprizable
 Unquarrelable
 Unremovable
 Unreproachable
 Unreputable
 Unsatiable
 Unseparable
 Unshakable
 Unsightable
 Unsucceedable
 Unsufferable
 Unsupportable
 Unswayable
 Untellable
 Untriumphable
 Untrowable
 Unvaluable
 Unvariable
 Unvulnerable
 Vailable
 Vengeable
 Veniable
 Versable
 Vituperable
 Volitable
 Wainable
 Warhable

{p165}


WORDS ENDING IN _IBLE_.

 Abhorrible
 Accendible
 Accessible
 Addible
 (Addable)
 Adducible
 Admissible
 Adustible
 Apprehensible
 Ascendible
 Audible
 Bipartible
 Circumscriptible
 Classible
 Coctible
 Coercible
 Cognoscible
 Cohesible
 Collectible
 Combustible
 Compactible
 Compatible
 Comprehensible
 Compressible
 Concrescible
 Conducible
 Conductible
 Confluxible
 Contemptible
 Contractible
 Controvertible
 Conversible
 Convertible
 Convincible
 Correctible
 Corrigible
 Corrodible
 Corrosible
 Corruptible
 Credible
 Decoctible
 Deducible
 Deductible
 Defeasible
 Defectible
 Defensible
 Descendible
 Destructible
 Diffusible
 Digestible
 Discernible
 Dissectible
 Distensible
 Distractible
 Divertible
 Divestible
 Divisible
 Divorcible
 (Divorceable)
 Docible
 Edible
 Educible
 Effectible
 Effervescible
 Eligible
 Eludible
 Enforcible
 (Enforceable)
 Evincible
 Exercisible
 (Exercisable)
 Exhaustible
 Expansible
 Expressible
 Extendible
 Extensible
 Extractible
 (Extractable)
 Fallible
 Feasible
 Fencible
 Fermentescible
 Flexible
 Fluxible
 Forcible
 Frangible
 Fungible
 Fusible
 Gullible
 Horrible
 Ignitible
 Illegible
 Immersible
 (Immersable)
 Immiscible
 Impartible
 Impassible
 Impedible
 Imperceptible
 Impersuasible
 Implausible
 Impossible
 Imprescriptible
 Impressible
 Imputrescible
 Inaccessible
 Inadmissible
 Inapprehensible
 Inaudible
 Incircumscriptible
 Incoercible
 Incombustible
 Incommiscible
 Incompatible
 Incomprehensible
 Incompressible
 Inconcussible
 Incontrovertible
 Inconvertible
 Inconvincible
 Incorrigible
 Incorrodible
 Incorruptible
 Incredible
 Indefeasible
 Indefectible
 Indefensible
 Indelible
 Indeprehensible {p166}
 Indestructible
 Indigestible
 Indiscernible
 Indiscerptible
 Indivisible
 Indocible
 Inducible
 Ineffervescible
 Ineligible
 Ineludible
 Inevasible
 Inexhaustible
 Inexpansible
 Inexpressible
 Infallible
 Infeasible
 Inferrible
 (Inferable)
 Inflexible
 Infrangible
 Infusible
 Inscriptible
 Insensible
 Instructible
 Insuppressible
 Insusceptible
 Intactible
 Intangible
 Intelligible
 Interconvertible
 Intervisible
 Invendible
 Inventible
 Invertible
 Invincible
 Invisible
 Irascible
 Irreducible
 Irrefrangible
 Irremissible
 Irreprehensible
 Irrepressible
 Irresistible
 Irresponsible
 Irreversible
 Legible
 Manifestible
 (Manifestable)
 Marcescible
 Miscible
 Negligible
 Nexible
 Omissible
 Ostensible
 Partible
 (Partable)
 Passible
 Perceptible
 Perfectible
 Permiscible
 Permissible
 Persuasible
 Pervertible
 Plausible
 Possible
 Prehensible
 Prescriptible
 Producible
 Productible
 Putrescible
 Quadrible
 Receptible
 Redemptible
 Redressible
 Reducible
 Re-eligible
 Referrible
 (Referable)
 Reflectible
 Reflexible
 Refrangible
 Remissible
 Renascible
 Rend-ible (from _rend_)
 Ren-dible (from _render_)
 Reprehensible
 Resistible
 Responsible
 Retractible
 (Retractable)
 Reversible
 Revertible
 Risible
 Seducible
 Sensible
 Sponsible
 Subdivisible
 Subvertible
 Supersensible
 Suppressible
 Susceptible
 Suspensible
 Tangible
 Terrible
 Transferrible
 (Tranferable)
 Transfusible
 Transmissible
 Transmittible
 Tripartible
 Vendible
 Vincible
 Visible
 Vitrescible


WORDS ENDING IN “IBLE”; RARE.

 Affectible
 Cessible
 Committible
 Compossible
 Convictible
 Cullible
 Discerpible
 Discerptible
 Evadible
 Evasible
 Exigible
 Impatible {p167}
 Impermissible
 Incognoscible
 Infractible
 Insubmergible
 Suasible
 Tensible
 Traducible
 Transvertible
 Unadmissible
 Unadmittible
 Unexhaustible
 Unexpressible
 Unflexible
 Unfusible
 Unrepressible
 Unresponsible


WORDS ENDING IN “IBLE”; OBSOLETE.

 Agible
 Appetible
 Alible
 Comestible
 Comminuible
 Competible
 Comptible
 Conceptible
 Conclusible
 Congestible
 Deceptible
 Decerptible
 Depectible
 Depertible
 Deprehensible
 Erigible
 Exemptible
 Expetible
 Fensible
 Fulcible
 Ignoscible
 Immarcescible
 Imperdible
 Impertransible
 Inamissible
 Incompossible
 Inconceptible
 Inconsumptible
 Indefeisible
 Indicible
 Indiscerpible
 Indistinctible
 Inextinguible
 Intransgressible
 Inquisible
 Intenible
 Irremittible
 Miscible
 Obedible
 Odible
 Offensible
 Patible
 Regible
 Sejungible
 Sepelible
 Suadible
 Suasible
 Subjicible
 Unaccessible
 Uncorrigible
 Uncorruptible
 Uncredible
 Undefeasible
 Uneligible
 Unfallible
 Unfrangible
 Unpossible
 Unresistible
 Unsensible
 Untangible
 Unvisible


NOUNS ENDING IN _O_.

Errors sometimes occur in forming the plural of nouns in _o_. We
frequently see _frescoes_, _mottos_,—both wrong. The general rule is,
If the final _o_ has a vowel before it, form the plural by adding _s_:
as “cameo, cameos”; if a consonant precede the final _o_, add _es_; as
“archipelago, archipelagoes.” Such exceptions to the general rule as
are most frequently met with, and a few that are rare, we here subjoin:
{p168}

 Albino      Albinos
 Armadillo   Armadillos
 Busto       Bustos
 Canto       Cantos
 Catso       Catsos
 Cento       Centos
 Dido        Didos
 Domino      Dominos
 Duo         Duos
 Duodecimo   Duodecimos
 Embryo      Embryos
 Exaltado    Exaltados
 Folio       Folios
 Fresco      Frescos
 Gaucho      Gauchos
 Grotto      Grottos
 Halo        Halos
 Inamorato   Inamoratos
 Internuncio Internuncios
 Junto       Juntos
 Lasso       Lassos
 Limbo       Limbos
 Memento     Mementos
 Merino      Merinos
 Mestizo     Mestizos
 Nuncio      Nuncios
 Octavo      Octavos
 Octodecimo  Octodecimos
 Piano       Pianos
 Portico     Porticoes, _Wb._ or Porticos, _Wor._
 Portfolio   Portfolios
 Proviso     Provisos
 Punctilio   Punctilios
 Quarto      Quartos
 Rotundo     Rotundos
 Salvo       Salvos
 Sextodecimo Sextodecimos
 Sirocco     Siroccos
 Solo        Solos
 Trio        Trios
 Two         Twos
 Tyro        Tyros
 Virtuoso    Virtuosos
 Zero        Zeros

But “albugo” has _pl._ “albugines”; and to “imago” we should probably
have to write _pl._ “imagines.” There are many nouns ending in _o_, for
whose plurals we have not found any authority beyond the general rule.
With the exceptions given above, the rule may be safely followed. The
plural of “portico” is a matter of style: and there is some authority
for “quartoes.”


WORDS ENDING IN _ISE_.

Words ending with the sound of _ize_ are variously spelled _ise_ or
_ize_. Of this class the correct spelling of the following words is
_ise_; nearly if not quite all others take _ize_. {p169}

 Advertise
 Advise
 Affranchise
 Apprise
 Catechise
 Chastise
 Circumcise
 Comprise
 Compromise
 Criticise
 Demise
 Despise
 Devise
 Disfranchise
 Disguise
 Divertise
 Emprise
 Enfranchise
 Enterprise
 Exercise
 Exorcise
 Franchise
 Merchandise
 Misprise
 Premise
 Reprise
 Revise
 Supervise
 Surmise
 Surprise


_EI_ AND _IE_.

Many persons find it difficult or impossible to recollect the relative
position of _e_ and _i_, in such words as _receive_, _believe_, etc. If
they will bear in mind the following rule, it may save them the trouble
of referring to a dictionary for this point.

When the derivative noun ends in _tion_, the verb is spelled with _ei_:
thus,—

 Conception      Conceive
 Deception       Deceive
 Reception       Receive

But when the noun does not end in _tion_, the verb is spelled with
_ie_: as,—

 Belief      Believe


WORDS ENDING IN “CION.”

Disregarding the dissyllable _scion_, we think there are but three
words in use having this termination, viz.: Coercion, Ostracion,
Suspicion. Two obsolete words are Internecion and Pernicion. {p170}


ENSURE, INSURE, ETC.

The language has been sometimes enriched by retaining the several
forms of a “doubtful” word, as in the case of _draft_ and _draught_,
each form having limitations of meaning peculiar to itself. _Ensure_
and _Insure_ we propose to consider distinct words rather than various
spellings of the same words. So, also, of _Enure_ and _Inure_.

 Ensure.
   [To make sure, certain, or safe; “How to ensure peace for any term of
   years.” To _insure_ is to contract, for a consideration, to secure
   against loss; as to insure houses, ships, lives.]

 Insure.
   [To underwrite; “to covenant, for a consideration, to indemnify for
   loss of anything specified”; as, to insure houses against fire, etc.]

 Enure.
   [“To serve to the use or benefit of”; as, a gift of land enures to
   the benefit of the grantee.

   “The argument was made [a century ago] as now, that its [a protective
   policy’s] benefits _enured_ to particular classes or sections.”—_B.
   Harrison’s Inaugural Address._]

 Inure
   [To accustom; as, a man inures his body to heat and cold; a soldier
   to blood inured.]

{p171}



CHAPTER VII.

CAPITALIZATION.


To persons who have paid no special, technical attention to the
subject, capitalization appears a very simple matter. The rules are
few and easily understood; but as to the “application of them” there
is some perplexity and much diversity among authors, printers, and
proof-readers. Practically, the main difficulty seems to arise from the
want of a plain line of demarkation between common nouns and proper
nouns! Some write and print “Pacific Ocean” as the proper name of a
certain collection of water; others, “Pacific ocean,”—ocean being a
common noun. We may, perhaps, recur to this abstruse matter farther on;
but at present we will lay down such rules as we have used in our own
labors, and which we deem to be correct. It will be very convenient
for us, and therefore we hope excusable, to adopt two phrases from the
expressive terminology of the printing-office, where some words are
said to be “put up,” and others to be “put down”; e. g.:

    “When Music, heavenly maid, was young.”

Here “Music” is said to be “put up,” because it begins with a capital
“M,” and “maid” is “put down,” because it begins with a small “m.”
{p172}

    “Abelard taught Eloisa music.”

Here “Abelard,” “Eloisa” are “put up,” and “music” is “put down.”

This premised, understood, and forgiven, we are ready for the—


RULES FOR THE RIGHT USE OF CAPITALS.


Rule 1. The initial letter of every sentence should be a capital.

 Yours received. Glad to hear from you. Will answer next week.

Capitals, Y, G, W, as per Rule 1.

 And Cain said unto the Lord, My punishment is greater than I can
 bear.—_Genesis 4 : 13._

Capitals, A and M; for here are two sentences, although one is included
in the other.

 Cain said that his punishment was greater than he could bear.

Capital C, by Rule 1; but the included words of Cain being brought in
obliquely, no capital is required.

 Cicero said, “There is no moment without some duty”; and who doubts
 the wisdom of Cicero?

C and T are put up, by Rule 1.

 On the first day of January, Artemus Ward made this remark: Now is a
 good time to _resoloot_.

O and N are put up, by Rule 1.

 Few truisms are truer than this paradox of Aristotle,—To mankind in
 general, the parts are greater than the whole.

F and T are put up, by Rule 1.

It has been said, that the included sentence should not be capitalized
unless immediately preceded by a colon: but the {p173} above examples
show, that a sentence _directly introduced_ must be capitalized,
whatever point precedes it,—comma, comma-dash, colon, or any other
pause-mark.

 He asked why he was arrested, and we replied that he was arrested on
 suspicion.

Initial capital H, by Rule 1.

 He asked, “Why am I arrested?” and we replied, “On suspicion.”

Here are three initial capitals, and properly; for the reply, fully
expressed, would be, “You are arrested on suspicion.”

So, also, captions, head-lines, side-heads, etc., being imperfect
sentences, fall under Rule 1. The same is true of particulars depending
from a general heading; as—

 Property destroyed by the late fire:
       Seventy reams elephant paper;
       Tables, chairs, desks;
       Old-fashioned hall-clock;
       Johnson’s Dictionary, 1st ed.

We have remarked above, on the passage from Genesis, that a sentence
introduced obliquely requires no capital. In the following example,
_whether Sparta should be inclosed with walls_ is an indirect question,
and is not capitalized; while the answer, being direct, takes a capital.

 To the question whether Sparta should be inclosed with walls, Lycurgus
 made this answer: “That city is well fortified which has a wall of men
 instead of brick.”

Kerl’s rule (Grammar, p. 41) is “Within a sentence, the first word of
any important beginning may commence with a capital letter.” This rule
is probably as precise as can be framed to meet his first example,
“_Resolved_, That our Senators be requested, etc.” His second example,
“One truth is clear: Whatever is, is right,” falls within his rule,
and our Rule 1. (_See_ page 81, for capitalizing, etc., preambles,
resolutions, provisos, etc.) {p174}

When a sentence is introduced obliquely, a capital is not required,
even if the passage introduced have quotation marks, and make perfect
sense without the introductory prefix, as in the following example:

 It is remarked by Parton, that “a man who retains to the age of
 seventy-nine the vigor of manhood and the liveliness of a boy, cannot,
 at any period of his life, have egregiously violated the laws of his
 being.”


2. The first letter in every line of poetry should be a capital.

    When on the larboard quarter they descry
    A liquid column towering shoot on high,
    The guns were primed; the vessel northward veers,
    Till her black battery on the column bears.

    _Falconer’s Shipwreck._

    Thereat the champions both stood still a space,
      To weeten what that dreadful clamor meant:
    Lo! where they spied with speedy whirling pace
      One in a charet of strange furniment,
      Towards them driving like a storm outsent.
    The charet deckèd was in wondrous wise
      With gold and many a gorgeous ornament,
    After the Persian monarch’s antique guise,
    Such as the maker’s self could best by art devise.

    _Spenser’s Faerie Queene._

But in reprinting ancient hymns, etc., follow the ancient style,—as in
the following from the Bible printed in London by Robert Barker, in
1615:

    Here is the Spring where waters flow,
      to quench our heat of sinne:
    Here is the Tree where trueth doth grow,
      to leade our liues therein:
    This is the Iudge that stints the strife
      when mens deuices faile:
    Here is the Bread that feeds the life
      that death can not assaile.

{p175}


3. Principal words in the titles of books, of important documents,
of proclamations, of edicts, of conventions, and words of especial
distinction in monographs, should be put up.

 Who is the author of “The Mill on the Floss”?

 The English barons obtained _Magna Charta_, or the Great Charter, from
 King John, A.D. 1215.

 When the Edict of Nantes was revoked by Louis XIV., above 50,000
 Huguenots fled from France.

 The father of Watts the hymnist, suffered much after the withdrawal of
 the Declaration of Indulgence.

 Every State having chess clubs in its cities should organize a State
 Chess Association, and these associations should send delegates to the
 Annual Convention of the National Association.—_Phil. Ledger._

The President of the United States, the Sovereign of England, and the
Governors of the several States of our Union, issue proclamations.
Despots issue edicts,—sometimes called by the more general name of
“decrees,” as in Ezra 6 : 1, 3. From Esther 1 : 19–22 we learn that a
“royal commandment” was sent into all the king’s provinces, “that
every man should bear rule in his own house.” If any of our readers
have occasion to put in type, or read the proof of, the title of an
edict or decree, they will, of course, make it agree with the rule. Of
proclamations we have several every year. Frequently all the letters
of the titles are capitals; otherwise, the capitals appear as in the
following example:

 BY HIS EXCELLENCY, B. A.,

 _Governor of the State_ [or _Commonwealth_] of ——.

 A PROCLAMATION for a Day of Public Humiliation, Fasting, and Prayer.

In a monograph of a geological survey the following paragraph appears:

 The dark laminated clays of the Cretaceous passing up into the Upper
 Cretaceous are well shown . . . . passing up {p176} into brown
 sandstones of the Coal group. There is great uniformity in the Upper
 Cretaceous and Tertiary series.—

 _Hayden, Survey Montana._

Webster says, that the Carboniferous age “embraces three periods, the
Subcarboniferous, the Carboniferous, and the Permian,” but the Fifth
Ann. Rep. U. S. Geol. Survey, doubtless for some good reason, changes
the style to the sub-Carboniferous (_v._ remark under Rule 8, on
“transatlantic,” etc.).

The main subject under discussion being Woman Suffrage, those words
were properly capitalized in the following paragraph:

 It is conceded . . . that the avowal even, of faith in the principle
 of Woman Suffrage, would handicap the party most seriously.

In accordance with Rule 3 was this direction touching a Report on
Education:

Spell “report” with capital R, when it refers to this Report; l. c.
[lower-case] in other cases.

Presidential, imperial, kingly, ducal, etc., titles are put down
when used generally, but are put up when applied to persons. In the
following example “_an_ emperor” is down, while “_the_ Emperor” is put
up.

 The events which now took place in the interior of Germany were such
 as usually happened when either the throne was without an emperor,
 or the Emperor without a sense of his imperial dignity.—_Schiller’s
 Thirty Years’ War._

 Beginning with President Washington and including President Harrison,
 the United States has had twenty-three presidents.


4. Names and appellations of the Supreme Being should be capitalized.

We forbear inserting a list of the sacred names, too often written and
uttered “in vain.” The reader is probably {p177} familiar with them
from listening to Sabbath services, and reading religious books with
which, we hope, his library abounds.

The word “providence” should be put down or up, according to its
meaning, as may be seen in the two following sentences:

 But behold now another providence of God; a ship came into the harbor.
 . . . This ship had store of English beads and some knives.—_New
 England’s Memorial._

    The world was all before them, where to choose
    Their place of rest, and Providence their guide.—_Milton._

Nouns ordinarily common become proper when written as names of the
Supreme Being.

 I hope my merciful Judge will bear in mind my heavy punishment on
 earth.—_Pickwick Papers_, ch. 44.

 Emerson refers “all productions at last to an aboriginal
 Power.”—_Century Maga._

 Plato said, that in all nations certain minds dwell on the
 “fundamental Unity,” and “lose all being in one Being.”—_Ib._

In the above examples, the effect of capitals in conveying the idea of
personality is strikingly illustrated.

Pronouns referring to the Deity are not usually put up,—excepting the
personals “He,” “Him.”

 O thou, whose justice reigns on high.—_Watts._

 O thou, Most High—_Ps. 56 : 2._

 Father of all mercies, we, thine unworthy servants, do give thee most
 humble and hearty thanks for all thy goodness.—_Common Prayer._

_Thou_, _whose_, _thine_, _thy_, properly lower-case.

Usage is ununiform as to capitalizing the pronoun of the third person,
when referring to the Deity; some using the capital in all three cases
(He, His, Him), while others capitalize the nominative and objective,
and put “his” down; and still others put all the cases down.

 God does love us. As any loving father or mother, He wants
 us to want His society, and to love to be with and talk with
 Him.—_Congregationalist._

Small letter in the possessive, capital in the objective: {p178}

 All the works of God . . . declare the glory of his perfections.
 . . . But how gross are the conceptions generally entertained of the
 character of Him “in whom we live and move!”

 _Dick. Improv’t Soc._ § VI.

All the cases down:

 . . . They can know but little . . . of that happiness which God has
 prepared for them that love him; but . . . this suffices them, that
 they shall see him as he is, etc. . . . the expectation founded upon
 his own gracious promise, etc.—_Rev. John Newton’s Sermon on the
 “happy recovery” of King George (modern reprint)._

But, whatever the style of the office, there is one category in which
the personal pronoun must be capitalized: it is when no antecedent is
expressed. Such cases are not of infrequent occurrence. If one were to
write—

 In all her troubles this good lady never failed to express her
 confidence in the care of him in whom she had put her trust—

the meaning would be doubtful; “him” might refer to some humane
relative, or to the superintendent of the almshouse. But if the
sentence were written—

 . . . this good lady never failed to express her confidence in the
 care of Him in whom, etc.—

the meaning—that the Deity is intended—becomes clear.

Adjuncts qualifying names applied to Deity usually require no capitals:

 For when we consider ourselves as the creatures of God . . . what can
 induce us to love, fear, and trust Him, as our God, our Father, and
 all-sufficient Friend and Helper.—

 _Mason’s Self-Knowledge._

Here “all-sufficient” is properly put down; as are also “great” and
“common” in the following paragraph:

 Not only honor and justice, and what I owe to man is my interest; but
 gratitude also, acquiescence, resignation, adoration, and all I owe to
 this great polity, and its great Governor our common Parent.—_Harris._
 {p179}

But many cases occur where the adjective is properly put up; especially
if the adjective itself denotes sacredness, as the following examples
show:

 Klopstock . . . suffers himself to forget that the [French] revolution
 itself is a process of the Divine Providence.—

 _Coleridge Biog. Lit._

 Among the greater number of pagan nations, the most absurd
 and grovelling notions are entertained respecting the Supreme
 Intelligence, and the nature of that worship which his perfections
 demand.—_Dick._

 We are apt to entertain narrow conceptions of the Divine
 Nature.—_Addison._

The words “Christian” and “Christianity” the best usage puts up; nor
does there seem to be any good reason why “christianize” should not
also be capitalized.

There are instances where the word “divine,” though referring to sacred
personages, should not be put up; as—

 If Christ did not hold this key, how is He divine?—

 _Congregationalist._

The words “godly,” “godfather,” “godmother” are put down: Webster has
“godspeed,” and says it is “written also as two separate words, as in
2 John 10.” Worcester does not admit the phrase as one word in his
defining columns, but prints it as two, under the word “God”; quoting
the same text as Webster. The Congressional Record, 50th Congress,
uses capital and hyphen, thus: “God-speed”; and this form is adopted
by Abbot Bassett, the talented editor of the L. A. W. Bulletin, in his
Farewell to former Chief Consul Hayes:

    Take now the hand we so often have shaken,
      Speak from our feelings so hard to subdue,
    Send him in joyfulness out from our circle,
      Give him a hearty God-speed and adieu.

Still Webster’s style of one word, lower-case, is, we think,
preferable, and most used.

The word “gospel” when used generally,—in the sense of good
tidings,—should be down; as “Woe is me, if I {p180} preach not the
gospel.” But when used as part of a title to a specific book, it goes
up; as “The Gospel according to St. Matthew”; “The Apocryphal Gospel of
St. Thomas”; “The Gospel of St. Luke.”


5. Names of ancient Greek and Roman divinities, and of all pagan and
heathen gods, should be put up.

When the word “god” or “goddess” is applied to a paganic divinity,
it is put down. This remark and our Rule 5 are both exemplified in
Darwin’s lines,—

    First two dread snakes, at Juno’s vengeful nod,
    Climbed round the cradle of the sleeping god.

    _Botanic Garden._

So, also, 1 Kings 11 : 33:

 Worshipped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, Chemosh the god of
 the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the children of Ammon.

The names applied to evil spirits should be put up:

 And Satan came also among them.—_Job_ 1 : 6.

 Then Apollyon said unto Christian, “Here will I spill thy
 soul.”—_Bunyan._

 During a violent thunderstorm, the converted Chinese steward
 disappeared. The captain found him below, making prostrations before
 a gilded image. “How is this?” demanded the astonished captain; “I
 thought you were a Christian.” The Chinaman replied, “Your God velly
 well, fine weather; stolm like this, want Joss.”

In the above example, the objects of Christian and pagan worship are
properly capitalized.

From the foregoing remarks, etc., especially under Rule 4, it will be
perceived that capitalization is, in the department of theology as in
all others, mostly regulated by office style. But in forming a style,
the above rules and examples may be found serviceable.


6. The pronoun I, and the interjection O, should always be put up.
{p181}

 I scarcely knew how long I had sat there when I became aware of a
 recognition.

 Praise the Lord, O my soul.—_Ps._ cxlvi.

But in Latin the “O” is frequently put down.

 Huc ades, ô formosa puer.—_Virgil._

    Adestes o Maria, o Angele, o Patroni castitatis meæ.—

    _Libellus Precum, Georgiopoli, D.C._


7. Some words which are put down when spelled in full, are put up when
contracted.

 The Dr. called upon me. Need I say, I regretted the happiness of
 seeing the doctor?

 “Patent-office, number 16” may be written, “Patent-office, No. 16.”

 The honorable the Secretary of the Navy.

 The Hon. the Secretary of the Navy.

But certain suffixes, whether spelled in full or contracted, are put up
or down, or in small caps, capitalized, according to the style of the
words to which they are suffixed; as, for instance, the words “junior”
and “esquire,” which are put one degree less in dignity than the words
to which they are attached; as:

 John Smith, jr., esq., [or “junior, esquire.”]

The person’s name being lower-case capitalized, “jr.” and “esq.” are
put down.

 JOHN DOE, Jr. Esq., [or “Junior, Esquire.”]

The names being small caps, capitalized, the “jr.” and “esq.” are put
up.

 RICHARD ROE, JR. ESQ., [or “JUNIOR, ESQUIRE.”]

The names being in capitals, the suffixes are capitals and small
capitals.

But “D.D.” “LL.D.” “M.D.” etc., are put in large or small capitals
according to office style, or a style adapted for the work in which
they appear: as— {p182}

 John Doe, LL.D.; RICHARD ROE, PH.D.; J. SMITH, M.D.; ABEL MONEY, F.R.S.

Words connected with a number of designation are often put up,—and this
is the better way. So, though the words “Bay,” “Dock,” etc., in the
following examples may properly be put down if the office style require
it, yet the unfettered compositor and reader will prefer to put up
those, and all words similarly placed; as:

 The planks of Bay No. 6 on Chelsea Bridge have been replaced by
 ordinary boards purchased at Dock No. 8.

 We arrived at Station 16, and proceeded thence through Lock 12 to Dam
 No. 8.


8. Names of persons, of things personified, of nations, countries,
cities, towns, streets, ships, etc., should be put up.

 Capt. Samuel Jones sailed in ship Minerva, from Sandy Hook to Tanjong
 Bolus, the most southerly point of the continent of Asia.

 A charming and _spirituelle_ Frenchwoman said of Julius Mohl, that
 Nature, in forming his character, had skimmed the cream of the three
 nationalities to which he belonged by birth, by adoption, and by
 marriage; making him “deep as a German, _spirituel_ as a Frenchman,
 and loyal as an Englishman.”—_Atlantic Monthly._

 Charles, Susan, William, Henrietta Matilda, Benjamin Harrison Smith,
 come in, this minute!

Under this rule proper adjectives may also be classed; as:

 The French and American Claims Commission.

 He is familiar with the German, French, Russian, Bengalee, Chinese,
 and Grebo languages.

 Is the Monroe doctrine heartily concurred in by European nations?

Names of political parties should be put up.

 Democrat, Democratic, Democracy, Republican, Republicanism,
 Woman-Suffragists, Women’s Rights party, Locofocos, Whigs, Tories,
 Free-Soilers, Liberals, Independents, etc. {p183}

But when any of these words are used in a general sense, they should be
put down; as:

 Whatever requires to be done by slow and cautious degrees does not
 accord with the spirit of democracy.—_De Staël._

 The tendency of some European nations is toward republicanism.

The words “state” and “territory” applied to political divisions of the
United States should be put up; as:

 The State of North Dakota. The Territory of Utah.

 This State gave a Republican majority.

Some nouns and adjectives originally proper have, by usage, the common
form; as:

 We sell silver, china, and iron wares.

 There is great demand for india-rubber goods.

 His pets are guinea-pigs and guinea-hens.

 That maltese cat follows her everywhere.

 He wears russia-leather boots, morocco gaiters, and a fez cap when
 dancing the german.

 The burglars secured six german silver spoons.

Numbers are denoted by roman capitals or arabic figures.

There are some words yet on debatable ground. It is safe to write
“plaster of Paris” or “plaster of paris.” The latter form is well
enough for so common an article, and should be preferred by compositors.

Some words which are put up when alone, are put down when they coalesce
with a preposition; as:

 I crossed the Atlantic to view transatlantic countries.

 The transpacific people are apt merchants.

But some write “inter-State,” “cis-Platine,” “trans-Atlantic,”
“cis-Padane,” “cis-Alpine,” etc. We know of no good authority for such
work. It has no countenance from our lexicographers: and the hyphen and
capital in the middle of the words are needless deformities.


NOTE. The “etc.” in Rule 7 is like one spoken of by Coke (an “etc.”
of Littleton, I am told), “full of {p184} excellent meaning.”
Descending from the name of a continent to the designations “beat,”
“precinct,” “alley”; or ascending from “wharf,” “alley” to the name
of a continent, through lessening or increasing subdivisions, the
line must be drawn _somewhere_ between what is to be put up and what
is to be put down. Just where the line is drawn between capital and
lower-case initials, between the aristocrats of the page and _hoi
polloi_, is of very little consequence; but as uniformity in a work is
desirable while proof-readers are liable to differ, it is as important
to have an umpire in a proof-room as it is on a base-ball ground. And
as capitalization is wholly arbitrary, the essential qualities of an
umpire are, that he shall have a good memory, so as not to overset
to-day the decisions of yesterday, and a strong will of his own, which
shall not allow any obstinate reader to step across the important
imaginary line which separates the _ups_ from the _downs_,—the
majuscules from the minuscules.

If a printing-office requires the services of but one reader, he, happy
man, can suit himself, even though reasonably sure that he will suit
nobody else—so various and set are the opinions of men on matters of
trifling moment. If, however, two readers are employed, and on the same
work, the one with the best judgment should be allowed to decide all
doubtful points; but in this case, as in matrimonial life, the question
as to which has the best judgment, is usually decided, if not by the
strongest will, by the will of the party most reckless of consequences.
But in proof-reading, any point in dispute is usually so trifling, that
the readers can call in the office-boy, technically called printer’s
—— but we were once youngest apprentice ourself, and choose to forget
the word,—and let him settle it; whereas, in matrimonial life it is a
different Agency with a similar name who is generally called in, and
“by decision more embroils the fray.” {p185}

To show the absurdity of supposing that good readers will not differ in
the use of capitals, we once wrote a paragraph, and gave an exact copy
to each of two skilled proof-readers, desiring them to capitalize it as
they thought it should be capitalized if about to go to press. We will
here give the paragraph as we wrote it—without regard to rules—and then
exhibit their corrections, etc., in parallel columns:

 Mr. Quilp lives on a wharf which is connected by an alley with a city
 reservation in beat 17, precinct 8, ward 14. Said reservation is
 called poplar square; an avenue, known as chestnut avenue, connects
 that square with Washington street; and Washington street is a
 thoroughfare connecting the Snowhill division of Junction city with
 the city of Boomerang, the capital of the state of Cherokee—a state
 just admitted to the union, and to all the privileges of this happy
 nation, the United States of America,—the foremost republic of the
 western hemisphere.

That the differences and agreements in capitalizing may be readily
observed, the two returned copies, as left by their respective readers,
are printed below, side by side.

            READER A.                             READER B.

 Mr. Quilp lives on a wharf           │ Mr. Quilp lives on a wharf
 which is connected by an alley       │ which is connected by an alley
 with a city reservation in beat      │ with a city reservation in Beat
 17, precinct 8, ward 14. Said        │ 17, Precinct 8, Ward 14. Said
 reservation is called Poplar square; │ reservation is called Poplar Square;
 an avenue, known as Chestnut avenue, │ an avenue, known as Chestnut avenue,
 connects that square with Washington │ connects that square with Washington
 street; and Washington street is a   │ street; and Washington street is a
 thoroughfare connecting Snowhill     │ thoroughfare connecting Snowhill
 division of Junction City with the   │ division of Junction City with the
 city of Boomerang, the capital of    │ city of Boomerang, the capital of
 the State of Cherokee—a State just   │ the State of Cherokee—a State just
 admitted to the Union, and to all    │ admitted to the Union, and to all
 the privileges of this happy nation, │ the privileges of this happy nation,
 the United States of America—the     │ the United States of America—the
 foremost republic of the western     │ foremost republic of the Western
 hemisphere.                          │ Hemisphere.

{p186}

One of these styles may be just as good as the other (see chapter on
“Style”); but whichever were selected, should be strictly adhered to,
through the whole book or work to which it was deemed applicable. Had
the above paragraph been given to still a third reader, very likely
he would have capitalized “Division,” as being of more consequence
than a beat or a ward; another would have deemed “Precinct” worthy of
being put up, while “beat” would have been placed in the small-letter
obscurity of “wharf” and “alley.” Another would say that localities
designated by a number should always be put up; as “Beat 6,” “Station
A” (See closing remark and examples, under Rule 7). The words “street”
and “avenue” are left down by both the above readers. The _Atlantic
Monthly_ puts those words up,—“The junction of Beacon Street and
Brookline Avenue”; the _Century_ magazine has “Canal street, its former
upper boundary”; _Harper’s Maga._ speaks of “the old house in St. Louis
Street in which,” etc. Each office makes its own style.

The word “city” in “Junction City” is put up,—the _two_ words forming
the city’s name. Whether to print “New York City” or “New York city”
is a moot point,—at present a matter of style. Some insist that as
_ocean_, _sea_, _city_, _street_, etc., are common nouns, they so
remain when connected with a proper adjective, and should be put
down,—and from this starting-point they have endeavored to frame a
general, and at the same time practical, rule for capitalizing common
nouns, which, when described by proper adjectives, form parts of
individual names. But, judging from our experience in proof-reading,
the endeavor has thus far been unsuccessful. The adjective, the {p187}
distinguishing word, always begins with a capital; as in “Bristol
county,” “Atlantic ocean.” The rule then, formulated, amounts to
this: “Put the distinguishing word up, and the class name down.”
But usage will not allow this; we must not write “Long island,”
“James smith,”—wherefore the rule has this qualification: “If the
distinguishing word alone _does not clearly designate the object_,
both words must be put up.” This qualification virtually annuls the
rule,—for different minds have different opinions as to whether the
object is, or is not, “clearly designated.” Reader A writes “Poplar
square,” while Reader B writes “Poplar Square.” Under the rule and
qualification, mentioned above, we have set before us, as correct
examples, “Hudson river, Red River”; as if the significance of such
prefixes as “red, swift, narrow, deep,” could not be determined by
the insertion or omission of the article _a_, of which we shall speak
farther on,—but must be made by capitalizing “river.” But admitting
that the capitalizing of “River” more clearly designates the object, we
doubt whether any printer or reader would wittingly pass one “river”
down, and another “River” up, in the same work; and the average writer
and reader for the press can hardly be supposed to take much time to
study whether a given river or city or square is just within or outside
of the limit of “clear designation.” Among the proof-readers of a
certain large work on geography, which seems to have been carefully
read, there must have been some difference of opinion on this point;
for it speaks of “the bay of Biscay” and “the Gulf of Mexico”; and
the “Atlantic ocean” of Vol. 1, becomes the “Atlantic Ocean” of Vol.
2. And such discrepancies must appear in every work which is printed
under {p188} the rule “Put the object down and the distinguishing
word up—_with exceptions_,” unless the exceptions are mentioned
individually, seriatim, and a list of the same given to all employees
who are expected to set type and read proof under such rule.

The objection to putting the class name down, is not so much that the
distinguishing word alone ever fails to “clearly designate the object,”
as that usage in many instances, and a sense of personal dignity in
others, prevent all family and many other class names from sinking into
lower-case. It were—there being no usage in its favor—a shame to print
“Andrew Jackson” with a little “j,” although the distinguishing word
“Andrew” would clearly designate the individual intended. “We sailed
past Long island” could not possibly be mistaken for “We sailed past
a long island.” In conversation the mere omission of the article _a_
would clearly indicate that we had a particular island in view, and
what island it was, even if we were not to inform an interlocutor,
that, were we to print our remark we should capitalize the “L,” and
very possibly the “I.”

“We sailed on _a_ red river,”—it may have been the Raritan, or any
other river running among iron ore; or it may have been any one of
the twelve streams of the United States which bear each the name
“Red river”; the article _a_, as Murray observes, “determines the
object spoken of to be one single thing of a kind, leaving it still
uncertain which.” “It is,” says Murray further, “an excellence of the
English language,” that, “by means of its two articles it does _most
precisely determine the extent of signification of common names_.” By
the omission of the article _a_, then, a particular river is “most
precisely determined,”—and, in print, {p189} capitalizing the “R” of
the adjective makes assurance doubly sure. But since long-established
usage determines that “Long Island,” “Harper’s Ferry,” “Lake Ontario,”
“George Washington,” etc., shall have both words put up, uniformity can
be secured only by extending that mode of capitalization to all words
in the same category—unless, as we have intimated, each exception be
mentioned individually, so that every printer may “clearly designate”
(so to speak) what is expected of him.


9. A word usually put down may be put up, or _vice versa_, by reason of
propinquity to some other word which is in the opposite category as to
capitalization.

We are not aware that this rule, or an equivalent to it, has been
formulated until now, but we have known changes in capitalizing to be
made in compliance with the principle of the rule.

A printed report (Reform School) reads:

 The visitors were cordially received and welcomed by the
 Superintendent and matron of the Board of Trustees.

The style required that, usually, “Superintendent” should be up, and
“Matron” down, as printed above. But when the words are so near each
other, the small _m_ looks—without regard to the maxim, _Place aux
dames_—as if the lady were subjected to an intentional slight. We think
it had been better thus:

 The visitors were cordially . . . welcomed by the Superintendent and
 the Matron of the Board of Trustees.

By the way, this insertion of _the_ before “Matron” shows that the
Matron was not also the Superintendent—thus illustrating Murray’s
remark on the “two articles,” mentioned near the close of the note
under Rule 8, _ante_. {p190}

This clause also occurs:

 Friends of the school residing in the city and District.

Here “city” is put down, as if of less consequence than the outlying
parts of the “District” [of Columbia].

That is correct, according to usual office style; but had “city” been
put up, or “district” down, it would have been more pleasing to the
eye, and would not, probably, have wrought any mischief. In the use
of capitals, rules should be, and in fact are, very bendable. When we
write “the _member_ of Congress,” member is down, though we capitalize
“the Delegate from the Territory of Blank.” But when “Member and
Delegate” occur in the same sentence, both words are put up, agreeably
to Rule 9.

It is a good rule adopted in some printing-offices, that where the same
appellation is given to several persons or public bodies, only the
highest in rank shall be honored with capitals.

For instance, in speaking of the highest tribunal in the land, put up
“the Supreme Court”; but if a State court is spoken of put the initials
down, thus,—“the supreme court of Minnesota,” as in the following
paragraph:

 This view of the law was sustained by the supreme court of Louisiana,
 and, upon writ of error, by the Supreme Court of the United States
 (Day _vs._ Micou, 18 Wall., 156).

So, also, “the Chief Justice of the United States Supreme
Court”—capitals; “the chief justice of the supreme court of
Maryland”—lower-case; the highest “Commissioner” in any Governmental
Department, up; a road commissioner, down. A steady adherence to
this rule might aid students and others to discriminate between the
“Governor” of a State and the “governor” of a family; and if a decision
is rendered by “the full bench of the Supreme Court,” one would know
that no appeal could be had,—while if a decision is made by “the
supreme court,” it might, perhaps, be carried up on appeal.

But this distinction can never be fully carried out. We have known
it to be set aside by the following direction {p191} marking out a
“special style” for a volume of “Decisions”: “Capitalize Supreme Court,
Court of Claims, Circuit Court, District Court, and Supreme Court of
Tennessee.” Besides, Great Men are inimical to small letters. The
President of a Village Lyceum insists on being put up as high as the
President of the United States,—in fact, the said _p_resident may feel
that he is “a bi_g_er man” than the _P_resident.

And if, on the other hand, as some proof-readers have contended,
capitalization should be employed to distinguish, in print, our
Government from every foreign Government, the effect would be almost
too ridiculous to state; as:

 The Chief Executive of the United States had an interview with the
 chief executive of Mexico. The President said to the president,
 “How do you do?”—and the president replied, “I am better than ever
 I was before, for I see the President of the Great Colossus of the
 North.”—“And I,” rejoined the President, “am delighted with the
 honor of conversing with the great colossus of the south.” Here
 the president bowed to the President, and the President shook the
 president’s hand. The One then took his Oysters on the Half-Shell, and
 the other his oysters on the half-shell.

The style was once verging toward something very ridiculous, and might
have proceeded to the above extreme had not a distinguished Secretary
of State, several years ago, made some well-timed suggestions.

If the office style require “board,” “bureau,” etc., referring to a
corporation, or collection of individuals, to be put down, cases like
the following should form exceptions:

 The festive board was graced by the festive board of directors of the
 Rochester saw-mills.

It should be printed “Board of Directors.”

 A new bureau has been forwarded to the new bureau of musical notation.

Put up “Bureau of Musical Notation.”

Thus, by a judicious selection and arrangement of capital and
lower-case letters, Boards and Bureaus of gentlemen may {p192} be
readily differentiated from mere furniture, mahogany or black-walnut
boards and bureaus.

The principle of a change of style by reason of juxtaposition, is
recognized in the following direction for printing an important work
on the fisheries: “Put quantities, measurements, distances, and sums
of money in figures; numbers of men and vessels spelled, _except where
large numbers occur together_.”


RECAPITULATION.

In the preceding part of this chapter we felt it necessary to give many
examples, and enter upon some discussion of styles. To save time and
trouble in turning many leaves to find some particular rule, we give
below, all the rules in compact form, with but brief, if any, examples
in illustration.

RULE I. The initial letter of every sentence should be a capital.

 This rule has been long established. It scarcely requires an example.

RULE II. The first letter in every line of poetry should be a capital.

    What though my wingèd hours of bliss have been
    Like angel-visits, few and far between.—_Campbell._

RULE III. Principal words in the titles of books, of important
documents, of proclamations, of edicts, of conventions, and words of
especial distinction in monographs, should be put up.

 There is in the library a book entitled, “An Interesting Narrative
 of the Travels of James Bruce, Esq., into Abyssinia, to Discover the
 Source of the Nile.” {p193}

RULE IV. Names and appellations of the Supreme Being should be
capitalized.

RULE V. Names of ancient Greek and Roman divinities, and of all pagan
and heathen gods, should be put up.

 Æsculapius restored many to life, of which Pluto complained
 to Jupiter, who struck Æsculapius with thunder, but Apollo,
 angry at the death of his son, killed the Cyclops who made the
 thunderbolts.—_Lempriere._

RULE VI. The pronoun I, and the interjection O, should always be put up.

 Here am I; send me, O king!

RULE VII. Some words which are put down when spelled in full, are put
up when contracted.

 The honorable the Secretary of the Treasury.

 The Hon. the Secretary of the Treasury.

RULE VIII. Names of persons, of things personified, of nations,
countries, cities, towns, streets, ships, etc., should be put up.

    And well may Doubt, the mother of Dismay,
    Pause at her martyr’s tomb.—_Campbell._

RULE IX. A word usually put down may be put up, or _vice versa_, by
reason of propinquity to some other word which is in the opposite
category as to capitalization.

 The Secretary of War complimented the Secretary of the Typographical
 Union, upon his skill with the shooting-stick.

 Shall the Choctaw Nation or this Nation adjust the northern boundary?
 {p194}

Before leaving the subject of capitalization, we must observe that
there is diversity among authors and printers in regard to the use
of capitals when two or more questions occur in succession. The rule
generally given is, “Capitalize each question”: but the exceptions are
so numerous, depending on some common relation to a term expressed or
understood (_see_ Obs. 30 and 31, Rule 29, Chap. V., _ante_), that we
forbear indorsing the rule to which we have above referred. Indeed, it
often happens that questions occurring singly are so connected with
what goes before, that they do not require to be capitalized. Each case
must be settled by the judgment of editor or author,—there is no common
standard of reference, as can easily be shown by comparing different
editions of the same work. In Buckingham’s Shakspeare, printed in
Boston, we read in As you Like It, Act 5, Sc. 2:

 _Orl._ Is’t possible that on so little acquaintance you should like
 her? . . . And will you persever, etc.,

the last question having a capital _A_; but in the London edition of
French & Co., we have—

 _Orl._ Is’t possible that on so little acquaintance you should like
 her? . . . and will you persever, etc.,

in which the last of the several questions has a lower-case _a_. Every
editor endeavors to capitalize correctly—by suiting himself.

{p195}



CHAPTER VIII.

OLD STYLE.


Fonts of movable Types, from their firſt Introduction into England
until late in the eighteenth Century, contained—owing principally to
the long “ſ” (= s) then in Uſe—far more Ligatures than the Fonts of
the preſent Day. Johnſon’s Dictionary furniſhes a Liſt which we here
inſert, with their more modern Equivalents:

 ct = ct; ſ = s; ſb = sb; ſh = sh; ſi = si; ſk = sk; ſſ = ss; ſt = st;
 ſſi = ssi; ſſl = ssl: and in italic, _ct_ = _ct_; _ſ_ = _s_; _ſb_
 = _sb_; _ſh_ = _sh_; _ſk_ = _sk_; _ſſ_ = _ss_; _ſt_ = _st_; _ſſi_
 = _ssi_; _ſſl_ = _ssl_.

It was our good Fortune, at a very early Period of Life, to attend a
dame School, where a Book, printed in Glaſgow, in the Year 1756, was
put into our Hands. This Book contained the Weſtminſter Larger and
Shorter Catechiſms, and a Directory of Public Worſhip,—the Intention
perhaps being to teach us good Engliſh and ſound “Kirk” Doctrines at
the ſame Time. Fortunately or otherwiſe, the Doctrines were above our
Comprehenſion _at that Time_; but the long _ſ_’s and the Ligatures
{p196} became Part of our Eye-Vernacular (if we may be pardoned for
ſuch an Expreſſion), at which we rejoice. We hope that the Young who
have not had the Advantages of antique Catechiſms will peruſe the Old
Style Pages of this Chapter until they become ſo familiar with ancient
and nearly forgotten Letters as to be able to enjoy the many good
Things to be found in old-time Books, whether printed in Glaſgow or
elſewhere.

To Printers who have “ſerved their Time” in the Book-offices of the
Eaſt or the early ſettled Cities of the South and Weſt, a Chapter like
this may ſeem wholly ſuperfluous. But in a Country like ours, where new
Towns and Cities are daily ſpringing into Exiſtence, daily Newſpapers
ſpringing up with them, it often happens that Boys and young Men who
have had but ſcanty Schooling are taken as Apprentices to learn the Art
of Arts. Many of theſe become rapid and correct Compoſitors, and in
Proceſs of Time drift to Cities where are Printing-offices with more
Varieties of Type than the new Comers have been accuſtomed to,—among
the reſt, Old Style, both in its ancient and modernized Forms; and it
is, in good Part, for the Benefit of theſe that we devote a few Pages
to Old Style.

In purſuing our Subject we ſhall paſs by {p197} Caxton, who, as
Everybody knows, introduced movable Types into England in the
ſeventh Year of the fourth Edward, make but brief Mention of Caſlon
(1692–1766), who about the Year 1720, made Matrices and call genuine
and beautiful old-ſtyle Type,—and come directly to the Fact that, in
1843, an Engliſh Printer deſired to reprint in Old Style a Book of
the Time of Charles II. The old Matrices of Caſlon were found (_v._
Brit. Encyc.), and from them a Font was caſt, which, with improved
Preſſes, etc., gave a better Impreſſion than had been obtained in
Caſlon’s Time. Since then (1843), the Demand for Old Style has ſteadily
increaſed, both in England and America, and our Founders have produced
a modernized Old Style; in which, however, it is thought by many that
Legibility has been ſacrificed to Beauty and general Effect. Our
Purpoſe here is to treat of the earlier Style, which ſtill reaches
Printing-offices occaſionally as Copy, and in which Programmes for “Old
Folks’ Concerts,” and alſo ſome Pamphlets, are printed even in theſe
Days.

In Old Style, _s final_ is a ſhort _s_; in all other Parts of a Word,
even if it is the laſt Letter of a Syllable of a Word divided at the
End of a Line, the long, kerned “ſ” is uſed. To prevent breaking the
Kern the long “ſ” was caſt in the ſame {p198} Matrix with ſuch Letters
as it would otherwiſe interfere with,—the two, or in Caſe of double
_ſ_ the three, Letters forming one Type; juſt as “f” is now ligated to
other Letters, as fi, ffl, etc.

And here, while ſpeaking of Ligatures, we would fain digreſs a
Moment,—even at the Expenſe of lengthening our old-ſtyle Chapter,—to
remark that there are ſome interfering Combinations for which Ligatures
have not been caſt. We have ſeen Book-catalogues in which the Word
“_Illuſtrated_” frequently occurred, having the Kerns of the italic
_I_ and its Neighbor _l_, one or both, broken off. The ſame happens
when the Word “Illinois” is ſet in italic, unleſs the Compoſitor inſert
a thin Space to keep the Letters from encroaching on each other’s
Territory. The ſame Method muſt be obſerved when the Combination of
_f_ with _b_, _h_, or _k_, is met with; as in Hofburg, Hofhoof, and
Hoffkirchen; otherwiſe one or more Letters will preſent a mutilated
Appearance on the Proof-ſheet.

An italic ſhort _s_ ligated with _t_, formerly in Uſe, does not ſeem
to have remained long in the Printer’s Caſe; but—perhaps from the
Beauty of its Curves—the “ct,” both in roman and italic, retains its
Popularity, and is found in Fonts of modernized Old Style which have
rejected the long _ſ_ and its Ligatures. Indeed, we have what are
{p199} called “ct Books,” in which the deſignating Term is uſed as
though it were as needful as “fi,” and the other Combinations of the
kerned Letter _f_.

We conclude this Portion of our Work by preſenting ſome Fac-ſimiles of
Old Style, produced by Photogravure. The firſt is Part of a Page from
“Annals of King George,” printed in London, in 1717.

The next is a Fac-ſimile of four roman and three italic Lines from T.
B. Reed’s “Hiſtory of Printing.” Theſe ſeven Lines were printed from
Type caſt in the Matrices made by the elder Caſlon, in 1720. They ſhow
an immenſe Improvement when compared with the Page of the “Annals”
executed but three Years before.

The third Sample is from Fry & Steele’s “Specimens of Printing Type,”
dated 1794; while the fourth, from the Foundry of Caſlon the younger,
dated 1796, having dropped the long “ſ” and its Ligatures, informs us
of the Period when the Old was giving Place to the New. {p200}

[Illustration: The above is a fac-simile from the second volume of
Annals of George I.; London, 1717.]

{p201}

[Illustration: Facsimile of four roman and three italic lines from T.
B. Reed’s “History of Printing”, printed in type cast in the matrices
made by the elder Caslon in 1720.]

[Illustration: Facsimile of ten lines from Fry & Steele’s “Specimens of
Printing Type”, dated 1794.]

[Illustration: Facsimile of ten lines from the Foundry of Caslon the
younger, dated 1796.]

{p202}



CHAPTER IX.

TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN THIS WORK.


CASE. A frame divided into boxes, or compartments, for holding types.
The upper case contains capitals; the lower case, small letters.

CHAPEL. An association of workmen in a printing-office.

CHASE. An iron frame in which the pages of matter are locked up.

DOUBLET. A portion of a take repeated by the compositor. For instance:
“It is of no use to lament our misfortunes, of no benefit to grieve
over past mistakes.” Suppose the compositor to have set up as far
as the second “no” inclusive,—he then glances at his copy for the
following words, but his eye catches the _first_ “no,” and he resets
what is already in his stick. Of course the proof will read thus:
“It is of no use to lament our misfortunes, of no use to lament our
misfortunes, of no benefit to grieve over,” etc.

FORM. The pages of matter inclosed in the chase.

GALLEY. A frame which receives the contents of the composing-stick.
When the stick is full, it is emptied upon a galley.

IMPOSE. To lay the made-up pages of matter on the stone, and fit on the
chase in order to carry the form to press.

INDENTION. The blank space at the beginning of a common paragraph, or
of a line of poetry, etc. When the first line is not indented, while
the following lines of the paragraph have a blank space before them,
the paragraph is said to be set with a “hanging indention.”

                 _Specimen of Hanging Indention._

 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives, in
     General Court assembled, and by the authority of the same.

{p203}

JUSTIFY. To insert spaces between the words of a line of type, so that
the line shall exactly fit the width of the stick.

_To_ LOCK UP A FORM is to drive quoins (wedges) in such a manner as to
hold the type firmly in the chase.

_To_ MAKE UP is to adjust the matter in pages of equal length, as
nearly as may be, for imposition.

MATTER. Types set up, so as to form a word or words. When it is to be
distributed (put back into the cases), it is known as “dead” matter. If
not yet printed, or if destined for further use, it is called “live”
matter.

OUT. A portion of a take, accidentally omitted by a compositor. An
“out” is generally referable, as in the case of the “doublet,” to the
recurrence of some word, or sequence of letters. For instance: a take
had in it, “He injured his foot, by wearing a tight boot.” The proof
had, only, “He injured his foot.” The compositor had the whole sentence
in his mind; and having set the final letters “oot,” referred these to
the last word, “boot,” and thought he had set the whole sentence.

QUÆRE, or QUERY, variously abbreviated, as _Qu._ _Qy._ or _Qr._, and
sometimes represented by an interrogation point, is written in the
margin of the proof-sheet, to draw the author’s attention to some
passage about which the proof-reader is in doubt.

REVISE. The second proof is a revise of the first, the third is a
revise of the second, etc. _To_ REVISE is to compare the second, or
any subsequent proof, with a preceding one, to see whether the proper
corrections have been made.

SHOOTING-STICK. A wedge-shaped piece of wood for tightening and
loosening the quoins that wedge up the pages in a chase.

SIGNATURE. A letter or figure at the bottom of the first page of every
sheet. It denotes the proper order of the sheets in binding.

SPACE. If a line of type be divided by vertical planes into exact
squares, each of these squares occupies the space of an _em_, or
_em-quadrat_. Ems are used to indent common paragraphs, and to separate
sentences in the same paragraph. {p204} The next thinner space is
the _en_, or _en-quadrat_, which is one-half of the em. The next
is one-third of the em, and is called the _three-em space_; next,
one-fourth of the em is the _four-em space_; then, one-fifth of the em
is the _five-em space_. Thinner than any of these is the _hair-space_.
The three-em space is generally used in composition; the other sizes
are needed in justifying.

STICK (COMPOSING-STICK). A frame of iron or steel, in which the
compositor sets up the type. By means of a movable slide, it can be
adjusted to the required length of line.

STONE. A table of marble, or other stone, on which forms are imposed,
and on which they are placed for correction.

TAKE. That portion of copy which the compositor takes to put in type
(or “set up”) at one time.

{p205}



CHAPTER X.


VARIOUS SIZES OF ROMAN LETTER—MODERN.

[Illustration: Examples of Diamond through Great Primer sizes of type.]


VARIOUS SIZES OF ROMAN LETTER—OLD STYLE.

[Illustration: Examples of Nonpareil through Great Primer sizes of
type.]

{p207}



INDEX.


 Abbreviated words, how punctuated, 80.

 Abbreviations, Catalogue of fishes, 68.

 Abbreviations, mischievous, 26.

 Abbreviations of States, Territories, Post-offices, 69.

 “able,” words ending in, 155–164.

 Accents, 121.

 Acute accent, 121.

 Adams’ _or_ Adams’s, 94.

 Advertisement, Publishers’, 5–7.

 Aldus Manutius, 75.

 Alterations on Proof-sheet, 30.

 Ancient and modern methods of punctuation compared, 73–75.

 Apostrophe, 118–119.

 Attention to revising, 47.

 Authors’ proofs, 47–49.

 Authors should punctuate their MS., 71.


 Brace, The, 121.

 Brackets, 93, 94, 120.

 Briefs, Lawyers’, 24, 25.

 Bureau or Academy yet wanted to settle all difficulties in syntax
 orthography, punctuation, etc., 65.

 Bureau, Smithsonian, of the English Language, desiderated, 65, 127.


 Canceled words, how restored, 29.

 Capitalization, 171–194.

 Capitals and points, when to be mentioned by copy-holders, 45, 46, 55,
 56.

 Capitals, Rules for use of, very flexible, 190.

 Captions, size of type, form of tables, etc., Directions for,
 furnished compositors and proof-readers, 37, 38.

 Caret, The, 121.

 Cedilla, The, 122.

 Chirography, Mercantile, 24, 26.

 Circumflex accent, 121.

 Close attention to revising, 47.

 Close pointing, 80.

 Colon, 97, 98.

 Comma between subject and predicate, 77–79.

 Comma, rules for use of, 100–112.

 Comma, use of, depending on taste in many cases, 80.

 Compositors and proof-readers punctuate, 36.

 Compositors and proof-readers should punctuate, if author neglects, 71.

 Compositors’ names on proofs, 46.

 Copy for printers, black ink on white paper, 31.

 Copy-holders’ duty, 41.

 Copy to be followed closely in doubtful cases, 123.

 Correcting proof-sheets, Marks used in, 43, 45.

 Correctly spelled list of doubtful words, Webster style, 127–140.

 Correctly spelled list of doubtful words, Worcester style, 141–154.

 Court, Records of, 51.

 Court, Transcripts of Records of, with extraneous documents, 25.


 Dash, the, 89–91.

 Dash, the, Rules for use of, 114–118.

 Dash, used too freely by writers for the press, 90.

 D.D., LL.D., M.D., 181, 182.

 Difficulty of drawing line between words “up” and words “down,”
 183–189.

 “Directions” for style of any work, frequently consulted, 37.

 “Directions,” Samples of, 38–40.

 Discussion of various modes of spelling same word, 126.

 Distributing type, 33; results of error in, 34.

 Diversities of grammar and idiom—of orthography, etc., Smithsonian
 Institution might settle all controversies by Bureau of Language,
 whose rulings should be adopted in Governmental publications, 65.

 Division of words on vowels or syllables, 87, 88.

 Division of words—to be avoided or not, 89.

 Doubtful orthography; double column lists in dictionaries, 125, 126.

 Doubtful words, query to author or editor, 31.

 Dr. Johnson and proof-reader, 32.

 Duty of copy-holder, 41.


 Eccentricities of orthography, punctuation, capitalization, etc.,
 recorded for reference by proof-reader, while a work is in progress,
 37.

 _ei_ and _ie_, Rule for, 169.

 Ellipsis, or Omission, Marks of, 121.

 Employé or Employee, 39.

 English Grammar defined, 72.

 _Ensure_ and _Insure_ differentiated, 170.

 _Enure_ and _Inure_ differentiated, 170.

 Erasures, to be made with ink, 29.

 Errors from mistakes in distributing, 34.

 Errors in MS. copy, corrected, or pointed out, in printing-office, 36.

 Errors,—marked in text, and correction denoted on margin, of
 proof-sheets, 41–45.

 Errors, rare, from printed copy, 18.

 Errors unavoidable, while present methods continue, 34.

 Esq., Jr., rules for, 181.

 Exclamation, note of, rules for use of, 113, 114.


 Fac-similes of Old Style, 200, 201.

 Faults of manuscript reappear in proof-sheets, 25.

 First letter in line of poetry, 174.

 First proof, specimen of, 44.

 Footnotes in manuscript, 30.

 Footnotes, references to, 123.

 Foreign words italic, 57, 58.

 Foreign words roman, 58.

 Full point, or period, 96.


 General remarks on incongruities of style, 66–70.

 Gods, pagan, capitalized, 180.

 Golden rule of punctuation, 77.

 Grammatical points, 72.

 Grave accent, 121.

 Greek alphabet, 54.


 Handwriting of Clergymen, 22, 23.

 Handwriting of lawyers, 23–25.

 Handwriting of mercantile and business men, 24, 26.

 Handwriting of physicians, 27.

 Heathen deities, names of, to be capitalized, 180.

 Hyphen, 118.

 Hyphens in _one-half_, _two-thirds_, etc., 87.

 Hyphens in succession at end of lines, not to exceed three, 89.

 Hyphens, use of, 84–89.


 I and J, 29.

 I and O, to be capitals, 180, 181.

 “ible,” words ending in, 165–167.

 Illegibility of the writing, no damages, on account of the, 15.

 Importance of _a_ and _the_, 188.

 Initial letters put up, 172–174.

 Ink, black, on white paper, for press, 31.

 _Insure_ and _Ensure_ differentiated, 170.

 Interrogation, note of, rules for use of, 112, 113.

 _Inure_ and _Enure_ differentiated, 170.

 “ise,” words ending in, 168, 169.


 Junior, Esquire, rules for, 181.

 Juxtaposition influences use of capitals, 189.


 Language—“The Foundation for the Whole Faculty of Thinking”—should
 have the sharp oversight of those who would “diffuse knowledge among
 men,” 65.

 Last reading for press; careful, deliberate, etc., 49–51.

 Lawyers’ briefs, 24.

 Leaders, 121.

 Lead pencils, avoid, when writing for press, 31.

 Lead pencils, no erasure with, 28.

 Length of pause at the various points, 72, 73.

 Liberal pointing, 80.

 Ligated letters, Old Style, 195.

 Lines above and below a correction, to be compared when revising, 47.

 LL.D., D.D., M.D., 181, 182.


 Manuscript, faults of, reappear in proof-sheets, 25.

 Manuscript for the press,—black ink on white paper, 31.

 Manutii, The, 75; Manutius, Aldus, 75.

 “Mark-off,” 47.

 Marks of Ellipsis, or Omission, 121.

 Marks of Parenthesis, 120.

 Marks of Quotation, 119, 120.

 Marks used in correcting proof-sheets, 43, 45.

 Matter “off its feet,” 42.

 Meaning of “Put up” and “Put down,” 171, 172.

 M.D., LL.D., D.D., 181, 182.

 Mercantile chirography, 24, 26.

 Method of reading points, capitals, etc., 46.

 Mingling of styles, 40.


 Namely, viz., to wit, how punctuated, 82.

 Names of compositors on proofs, 46.

 Names of countries, states, ships, towns, streets, political parties,
 etc., capitalized, 182.

 Note of exclamation, rules for use of, 113, 114.

 Note of interrogation, rules for use of, 112, 113.

 Note on the “etc.,” in Rule 7, on use of capitals, 183–189.

 Note-references, 123.

 Notes as to captions, size of type, form of tables, etc., to be
 furnished employees, 38.

 Nouns ending in _o_, plurals of, 167, 168.


 O and I, capitals, 181.

 O, nouns ending in, 167, 168.

 “Off its feet,” 42.

 Old Style, 195–201.

 Omission, or Ellipsis, Marks of, 121.

 One correct spelling, according to Webster, of variously spelled
 words, 127–140.

 One correct spelling, according to Worcester, of variously spelled
 words, 141–154.

 One style for Governmental publications desiderated, 127.

 Orthography, 125–170.

 Orthography, definitions of, 125.

 Orthography; the Webster list of doubtful words (1500+), in the _one_
 preferred manner of spelling, 127–140.

 Orthography; the Worcester list of doubtful words (1500+), in the
 _one_ preferred manner of spelling, 141–154.

 Over-punctuated manuscript, 30.


 Pagination of MS., 29.

 Paragraph mark (¶), 122.

 Parenthesis, 92–94.

 Parenthesis, marks of, 120.

 Pauses and sense both indicated by punctuation, 75, 76.

 Period, or full point, 96.

 Personified things capitalized, 182.

 Physicians’ chirography, 27.

 Plurals, when denoted by apostrophe and _s_, 94, 95.

 Pointing—close, liberal, 80.

 Points, capitals, etc., method of reading by copy-holder, 46.

 Points mark _sense_ as well as _pauses_, 75, 76.

 Possessive case of nouns singular ending in _s_, 94.

 Preambles, resolves, and provisos, how punctuated, 81.

 Preferred spelling, Webster’s, of 1500+ words of various orthography,
 127–140.

 Preferred spelling, Worcester’s, of 1500+ words of various
 orthography, 141–154.

 Principal words capitalized, 175, 176.

 Printers, usually best proof-readers, 35.

 Professional men “at the case,” 36.

 Proof-reader and Dr. Johnson, 32.

 Proof-readers and compositors punctuate, 36.

 Proof-reader, to query doubtful words, etc., 31.

 Proof-reading, 33–58.

 Proof-sheets, marks used in correcting, 43, 45.

 Proof-sheets, numbered in regular sequence, 46.

 Proof-sheets of Records of Court, 51.

 Proof-sheets, second reading and revising of, 47.

 Proofs, routine in regard to, 37.

 Proper nouns, having common form, put down, 183.

 Propinquity a reason for putting up or putting down, 189–192.

 Provisos, preambles, and resolutions, how punctuated, 81.

 Punctuation, 71–124; a modern art, 73.

 Punctuation, ancient and modern methods of, 73–75.

 Punctuation by compositor and proof-reader, 36.

 Punctuation, by one reader only, 47.

 Punctuation of _viz._, _namely_, _to wit_, 82.

 Punctuation, rules of, not fixed, 75.

 Punctuation, uniformity of, not attainable, 123.

 “Put down” and “Put up,” meaning of, 171, 172.


 Quantity, marks of, 121, 122.

 Quotation marks, 119, 120.


 Reading final proof before printing, 49–51.

 Reading Greek, 53–56.

 Reading points and capitals, 46.

 Recapitulation of rules for right use of capitals, 192–194.

 Recipes—Greek and Latin, 27, 28.

 Records of Court, no alterations in, allowable, except clerical errors
 in punctuation, 51.

 Records of Court, transcripts of, with extraneous documents, 25.

 Records of Court, uniform style in, not to be sought at expense of
 departing from copy, 51.

 Reference marks to footnotes and sidenotes, 123.

 Resolutions, preambles, and provisos, how punctuated, 81.

 Restoring canceled words, 29.

 Revising, 47.

 Revising, in, great care required, 47.

 Rhetorical points, 72.

 Rules of punctuation, 96–118.

 Rules of punctuation not fixed, 75.

 Rules for capitalization very bendable, 190.


 Samples or directions and notes to printers, 38–40.

 Second proof, 46.

 Second reading of proof by copy, 47.

 Second, third, etc., revision of proof-sheets, 48.

 Section mark (§), 123.

 Semicolon, 98–100.

 Semicolon before _as_, when particulars follow a general statement, 82.

 Sense and pauses, both indicated by points, 75, 76.

 Sentences difficult and involved, compositor and proof-reader to
 follow copy carefully, 123, 124.

 Separation of words in manuscripts, 74.

 Size of type; captions; form of tables, etc., directions for, to be
 supplied, 38.

 Slips of proof, numbered in sequence, 46.

 Space before and after dash, 91.

 Spanish ñ, 122.

 Specimen of first proof, 44.

 “Spectator” of 1711 wished for an Academy to settle differences
 between grammar and idiom, 65.

 Spelling, errors in, silently corrected, 36.

 “Stet,” 29.

 Style, 59–65.

 Style of the office, 40.

 Style of writing in the fifth century, 74.

 Style, peculiarities of, to be noted by proof-reader, for reference,
 37.

 Styles, mingling of, 40.

 Styles; Worcester, Webster, and Office, 61.

 Subject and predicate, no comma between, except to prevent ambiguity,
 77–79.

 Suggestions to writers for press, 28.

 Supreme Being, names, etc., of, capitalized, 176–180.

 Syllabication, 87–89.


 Tables, form of; size of type; style of captions, etc., sometimes
 furnished to compositors and proof-readers, 38.

 Technical terms used in this book, 202–204.

 _Tout-ensemble_ survey of a proof-sheet, 40.

 To wit, namely, viz., ending paragraph, how punctuated, 82.

 Two “Chapter V.’s,” 30.

 Type, how distributed, 34.


 Umlaut, 122.

 Uniformity—very important in some works, of no consequence in others,
 52.

 Use of comma, in many cases, depends upon taste, 80.


 Varieties of style, 61–63.

 Various marks used in writing and printing, 118.

 Various sizes of type—modern, 205.

 Various sizes of type—old style, 205.

 Viz., namely, to wit; ending paragraph, how punctuated, 83.

 Viz., namely, to wit; how punctuated, 82.


 Webster’s preferred columns of words of doubtful orthography, 127–140.

 Worcester’s preferred columns of words of doubtful orthography,
 141–154.

 Words connected with a No. of designation, 182.

 Words doubtful, query, 31.

 Words ending in _able_, 155–164; in _ible_, 165–167.

 Words ending in _ise_, 168, 169.

 Words from dead and foreign languages, 56–58.

 Words ending in _cion_, 169.

 Words l. c. when spelled in full, u. c. when contracted, 181.

 Words, not English, to be printed in italics, 57, 58.

 Words, not English, to be printed in roman, 58.

 Write _plain_ English, 26.

 Writers for press should understand technics of proof-reading, 42.

 Writing, bad, robs compositors, 21–23.

 Writing becomes automatic, 19.

 Writing for the press, 15–32.

 Writing legibly, imperative, 21.

 Writing, illegibility of the, protects printers in suits for damages,
 15.

{p215}



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ADVANCED ELOCUTIONARY BOOKS


ADVANCED READINGS AND RECITATIONS By AUSTIN B. FLETCHER A.M. LL.B.
late professor of oratory Brown University and Boston University
School of Law This book has been already adopted in a large number of
universities, colleges, post-graduate schools of law and theology,
seminaries, etc. $1.50

“Professor Fletcher’s noteworthy compilation has been made with rare
rhetorical judgment, and evinces a sympathy for the best forms of
literature, adapted to attract readers and speakers, and mould their
literary taste.”—Professor J. W. CHURCHILL, _Andover Theological
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THE BOOK OF ELOQUENCE A collection of extracts in prose and verse from
the most famous orators and poets By CHARLES DUDLEY WARNER $1.50

“What can be said that is more eloquent praise than that Charles Dudley
Warner has carefully selected three hundred and sixty-four specimens
of the choicest things from the world’s literature? If there is any
subject untouched, we fail to discover it. It is a compendium of the
world’s eloquence. It is useless to tell who is in here, for everybody
is; and it is clear that Mr. Warner has made his extracts with great
care. It has the most eloquence ever packed into twice as many pages.”


VOCAL AND ACTION LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND EXPRESSION New edition By E. N.
KIRBY instructor in elocution in Harvard University $1.25

“This is a treatise, at once scientific and practical, on the theory
and art of elocution. It treats of the structure of the vocal organs,
of vocal culture and expression, of action-language, gesticulation,
the use of the body and hands in oratory, etc. There is also a
well-arranged collection of extracts for elocution. The work is
well adapted for use as a text-book on elocution, and for study by
professional students.”—_Indianapolis Journal._


FIVE-MINUTE READINGS Selected and adapted by WALTER K. FOBES 50 cents


FIVE-MINUTE DECLAMATIONS Selected and adapted by WALTER K. FOBES
teacher of elocution and public reader 50 cents


FIVE-MINUTE RECITATIONS By WALTER K. FOBES 50 cents

Pupils in public schools, on declamation days, are limited to five
minutes each for the delivery of “pieces.” There is a great complaint
of the scarcity of material for such a purpose, while the injudicious
pruning of eloquent extracts has often marred the desired effects. To
obviate these difficulties new “Five-Minute” books have been prepared
by a competent teacher.

“We have never before seen packed in so small a compass so much
that may be considered really representative of the higher class of
oratory.”—_Boston Transcript._


ELOCUTION SIMPLIFIED With an appendix on Lisping, Stammering and other
Impediments of Speech By WALTER K. FOBES graduate of the “Boston School
of Oratory” Cloth 50 cents. Paper 30 cents

“The whole art of elocution is succinctly set forth in this small
volume, which might be judiciously included among the text-books of
schools.”—_New Orleans Picayune._


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LEE AND SHEPARD’S POPULAR HANDBOOKS

Price, each, in cloth, 50 cents, except when other price is given.


FORGOTTEN MEANINGS; or an Hour with a Dictionary. By ALFRED WAITES,
author of Historical Student’s Manual.


HANDBOOK OF ELOCUTION SIMPLIFIED. By WALTER K. FOBES, with an
Introduction by GEORGE M. BAKER.


HANDBOOK OF ENGLISH SYNONYMS. With an Appendix, showing the Correct Use
of Prepositions; also a Collection of Foreign Phrases. By LOOMIS J.
CAMPBELL.


HANDBOOK OF CONVERSATION. Its Faults and its Graces. Compiled by ANDREW
P. PEABODY, D.D., LL.D. Comprising: (1) Dr. PEABODY’S Address; (2) Mr.
TRENCH’S Lecture; (3) Mr. PARRY GWYNNE’S “A Word to the Wise; or, Hints
on the Current Improprieties of Expression in Reading and Writing;” (4)
Mistakes and Improprieties of Speaking and Writing Corrected.


HANDBOOK OF PUNCTUATION and other Typographical Matters. For the Use
of Printers, Authors, Teachers, and Scholars. By MARSHALL T. BIGELOW,
Corrector at the University Press, Cambridge, Mass.


HANDBOOK OF BLUNDERS. Designed to prevent 1,000 common blunders in
writing and speaking. By HARLAN H. BALLARD, A.M., Principal of Lenox
Academy, Lenox, Mass.


BROKEN ENGLISH. A Frenchman’s Struggle in the English Language.
Instructive as a handbook of French conversation. By Professor E. C.
DUBOIS.


BEGINNINGS WITH THE MICROSCOPE. A working handbook containing simple
instructions in the art and method of using the microscope, and
preparing articles for examination. By WALTER P. MANTON.


FIELD BOTANY. A Handbook for the Collector. Containing instructions for
gathering and preserving Plants, and the formation of an Herbarium.
Also complete instructions in Leaf Photography, Plant Printing, and the
Skeletonizing of Leaves. By WALTER P. MANTON.


TAXIDERMY WITHOUT A TEACHER. Comprising a complete manual of
instructions for Preparing and Preserving Birds, Animals, and Fishes,
with a chapter on Hunting and Hygiene; together with instructions
for Preserving Eggs, and Making Skeletons, and a number of valuable
recipes. By WALTER P. MANTON.


INSECTS. How to Catch and how to Prepare them for the Cabinet. A Manual
of Instruction for the Field-Naturalist. By W. P. MANTON.


WHAT IS TO BE DONE? A Handbook for the Nursery, with Useful Hints for
Children and Adults. By ROBERT B. DIXON, M.D.


WHIRLWINDS, CYCLONES, AND TORNADOES. By WILLIAM MORRIS DAVIS,
Instructor in Harvard College. Illustrated.


MISTAKES IN WRITING ENGLISH, AND HOW TO AVOID THEM. For the use of all
who Teach, Write, or Speak the language. By MARSHALL T. BIGELOW.


WARRINGTON’S MANUAL. A Manual for the Information of Officers and
Members of Legislatures, Conventions, Societies, etc., in the practical
governing and membership of all such bodies, according to the
Parliamentary Law and Practice in the United States. By W. S. ROBINSON
(_Warrington_).


PRACTICAL BOAT-SAILING. By DOUGLAS FRAZAR. Classic size, $1.00. With
numerous diagrams and illustrations.


HANDBOOK OF WOOD ENGRAVING. With practical instructions in the art, for
persons wishing to learn without an instructor. By WILLIAM A. EMERSON.
Illustrated. Price $1.00.


FIVE-MINUTE RECITATIONS. Selected and arranged by WALTER K. FOBES.


FIVE-MINUTE DECLAMATIONS. Selected and arranged by WALTER K. FOBES.


FIVE-MINUTE READINGS FOR YOUNG LADIES. Selected and adapted by WALTER
K. FOBES.


EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. A Treatise for Parents and Educators. By LOUISE
PARSONS HOPKINS, Supervisor in Boston Public Schools.


THE NATION IN A NUTSHELL. A Rapid Outline of American History. By
GEORGE MAKEPEACE TOWLE.


ENGLISH SYNONYMES DISCRIMINATED. By RICHARD WHATELY, D.D., Archbishop
of Dublin. A new edition.


HINTS ON WRITING AND SPEECH-MAKING. By THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON.


ARITHMETIC FOR YOUNG CHILDREN. Being a series of Exercises exemplifying
the manner in which Arithmetic should be taught to young children. By
HORACE GRANT. American Edition. Edited by WILLARD SMALL.


BRIDGE DISASTERS IN AMERICA. The Cause and the Remedy. By Prof. GEORGE
L. VOSE.


A FEW THOUGHTS FOR A YOUNG MAN. By HORACE MANN. A new Edition.


HANDBOOK OF DEBATE. The Character of Julius Cæsar. Adapted from J.
SHERIDAN KNOWLES. Arranged for Practice in Speaking, for Debating
Clubs, and Classes in Public and Private Schools.


EXERCISES FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE SENSES. For Young Children. By
HORACE GRANT, author of “Arithmetic for Young Children.” Edited by
WILLARD SMALL.


HINTS ON LANGUAGE in connection with Sight-Reading and Writing
in Primary and Intermediate Schools. By S. ARTHUR BENT, A.M.,
Superintendent of Public Schools, Clinton, Mass.


THE HUNTER’S HANDBOOK. Containing lists of provisions and camp
paraphernalia, and hints on the fire, cooking utensils, etc.; with
approved receipts for camp-cookery. By “AN OLD HUNTER.”


UNIVERSAL PHONOGRAPHY; or, Shorthand by the “Allen Method.” A
self-instructor. By G. G. ALLEN.


HINTS AND HELPS for those who Write, Print, or Read. By B. DREW,
proof-reader.


PRONOUNCING HANDBOOK of Three Thousand Words often Mispronounced. By R.
SOULE and L. J. CAMPBELL.


SHORT STUDIES OF AMERICAN AUTHORS. By THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON.


THE STARS AND THE EARTH; or, Thoughts upon Space, Time, and Eternity.
With an introduction by THOMAS HILL, D.D., LL.D.


HANDBOOK OF THE EARTH. Natural Methods in Geography. By LOUISA PARSONS
HOPKINS, teacher of Normal Methods in the Swain Free School, New
Bedford.


NATURAL-HISTORY PLAYS. Dialogues and Recitations for School
Exhibitions. By LOUISA P. HOPKINS.


THE TELEPHONE. An account of the phenomena of Electricity, Magnetism,
and Sound, with directions for making a speaking-telephone. By
Professor A. E. DOLBEAR.


LESSONS ON MANNERS. By EDITH E. WIGGIN.


WATER ANALYSIS. A Handbook for Water-Drinkers. By G. L. AUSTIN, M.D.


HANDBOOK OF LIGHT GYMNASTICS. By LUCY B. HUNT, instructor in gymnastics
at Smith (female) College, Northampton, Mass.


THE PARLOR GARDENER. A Treatise on the House-Culture of Ornamental
Plants. By CORNELIA J. RANDOLPH. With illustrations.


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BRIGHT AND BREEZY BOOKS OF TRAVEL, BY SIX BRIGHT WOMEN


A WINTER IN CENTRAL AMERICA AND MEXICO

By HELEN J. SANBORN. Cloth, $1.50.

“A bright, attractive narrative by a wide-awake Boston girl.”


A SUMMER IN THE AZORES, WITH A GLIMPSE OF MADEIRA

By Miss C. ALICE BAKER. Little Classic style. Cloth, gilt edges, $1.25.

“Miss Baker gives us a breezy, entertaining description of these
picturesque islands. She is an observing traveller, and makes a graphic
picture of the quaint people and customs.”—_Chicago Advance._


LIFE AT PUGET SOUND

With sketches of travel in Washington Territory, British Columbia,
Oregon, and California. By CAROLINE C. LEIGHTON. 16mo, cloth, $1.50.

“Your chapters on Puget Sound have charmed me. Full of life, deeply
interesting, and with just that class of facts, and suggestions of
truth, that cannot fail to help the Indian and the Chinese.”—WENDELL
PHILLIPS.


EUROPEAN BREEZES

By MARGERY DEANE. Cloth, gilt top, $1.50. Being chapters of travel
through Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Switzerland, covering places
not usually visited by Americans in making “the Grand Tour of the
Continent,” by the accomplished writer of “Newport Breezes.”

“A very bright, fresh and amusing account, which tells us about a host
of things we never heard of before, and is worth two ordinary books of
European travel.”—_Woman’s Journal._


BEATEN PATHS; OR, A WOMAN’S VACATION IN EUROPE

By ELLA W. THOMPSON. 16mo, cloth, $1.50.

A lively and chatty book of travel, with pen-pictures humorous and
graphic, that are decidedly out of the “beaten paths” of description.


AN AMERICAN GIRL ABROAD

By Miss ADELINE TRAFTON, author of “His Inheritance,” “Katherine
Earle,” etc. 16mo. Illustrated. $1.50.

“A sparkling account of a European trip by a wide-awake, intelligent,
and irrepressible American girl. Pictured with a freshness and vivacity
that is delightful.”—_Utica Observer._


_CURTIS GUILD’S TRAVELS_


BRITONS AND MUSCOVITES; OR, TRAITS OF TWO EMPIRES

Cloth, $2.00.


OVER THE OCEAN; OR, SIGHTS AND SCENES IN FOREIGN LANDS

By CURTIS GUILD, editor of “The Boston Commercial Bulletin” Crown 8vo.
Cloth, $2.50.

“The utmost that any European tourist can hope to do is to tell the old
story in a somewhat fresh way, and Mr. Guild has succeeded in every
part of his book in doing this.”—_Philadelphia Bulletin._


ABROAD AGAIN; OR, FRESH FORAYS IN FOREIGN FIELDS

Uniform with “Over the Ocean.” By the same author. Crown 8vo. Cloth,
$2.50.

“He has given us a life-picture. Europe is done in a style that must
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as an interesting companion.”—_Halifax Citizen._


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NARRATIVES OF NOTED TRAVELLERS


GERMANY SEEN WITHOUT SPECTACLES; or, Random Sketches of Various
Subjects, Penned from Different Standpoints in the Empire

By HENRY RUGGLES, late United States Consul at the Island of Malta, and
at Barcelona, Spain. $1.50.

“Mr. Ruggles writes briskly: he chats and gossips, slashing right
and left with stout American prejudices, and has made withal a most
entertaining book.”—_New-York Tribune._


TRAVELS AND OBSERVATIONS IN THE ORIENT, with a Hasty Flight in the
Countries of Europe

By WALTER HARRIMAN (ex-Governor of New Hampshire). $1.50.

“The author, in his graphic description of these sacred localities,
refers with great aptness to scenes and personages which history has
made famous. It is a chatty narrative of travel.”—_Concord Monitor._


FORE AND AFT

A Story of Actual Sea-Life. By ROBERT B. DIXON, M.D. $1.25.

Travels in Mexico, with vivid descriptions of manners and customs, form
a large part of this striking narrative of a fourteen-months’ voyage.


VOYAGE OF THE PAPER CANOE

A Geographical Journey of Twenty-five Hundred Miles from Quebec to the
Gulf of Mexico. By NATHANIEL H. BISHOP. With numerous illustrations and
maps specially prepared for this work. Crown 8vo. $1.50.

“Mr. Bishop did a very bold thing, and has described it with a happy
mixture of spirit, keen observation, and _bonhomie_.”—_London Graphic._


FOUR MONTHS IN A SNEAK-BOX

A Boat Voyage of Twenty-six Hundred Miles down the Ohio and Mississippi
Rivers, and along the Gulf of Mexico. By _Nathaniel H. Bishop_. With
numerous maps and illustrations. $1.50.

“His glowing pen-pictures of ‘shanty-boat’ life on the great rivers
are true to life. His descriptions of persons and places are
graphic.”—_Zion’s Herald._


A THOUSAND MILES’ WALK ACROSS SOUTH AMERICA, Over the Pampas and the
Andes

By NATHANIEL H. BISHOP. Crown 8vo. New edition. Illustrated. $1.50.

“Mr. Bishop made this journey when a boy of sixteen, has never
forgotten it, and tells it in such a way that the reader will always
remember it, and wish there had been more.”


CAMPS IN THE CARIBBEES

Being the Adventures of a Naturalist Bird-hunting in the West-India
Islands. By FRED A. OBER. New edition. With maps and illustrations.
$1.50.

“During two years he visited mountains, forests, and people, that few,
if any, tourists had ever reached before. He carried his camera with
him, and photographed from nature the scenes by which the book is
illustrated.”—_Louisville Courier-Journal._


ENGLAND FROM A BACK WINDOW; With Views of Scotland and Ireland

By J. M. BAILEY, the “‘Danbury News’ Man.” 12mo. $1.00.

“The peculiar humor of this writer is well known. The British Isles
have never before been looked at in just the same way,—at least, not
by any one who has notified us of the fact. Mr. Bailey’s travels
possess, accordingly, a value of their own for the reader, no matter
how many previous records of journeys in the mother country he may have
read.”—_Rochester Express._


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EVERY-DAY BUSINESS, PRACTICAL NOTES ON ITS DETAILS

_Arranged for Young People by M. S. EMERY_

Price, cloth, 50 cents

An accurate knowledge of how to attend to the every-day affairs of a
business life is, indeed, a most valuable possession. The requirements
of modern business life are manifold and exacting, demanding technical
information, and, besides, quite a degree of what may justly be
termed “cultivation.” This valuable and indispensable book covers
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a text-book for schools, and for ready reference for young people
and those who need such instruction as it contains. It treats in
an attractive and clear manner subjects which bear on every-day
callings, like “Letter-writing,” by which so large a percentage of
business is conducted; “Bills, Receipts, and Accounts;” “Post-Office
Business,” with instructions regarding late advantages and scope of
accommodation; “Telegrams,” “Express Business,” “United States Money,”
“Savings Banks,” “National Banks,” “Bank Checks,” “Notes and Drafts,”
“Mortgages,” “Investment and Speculation,” “Taxes,” “Fire Insurance,”
and “Life Insurance.” These are topics conveying a general idea of
the worth of the book—topics about which business men must know, and
covering that which they who would be business men must learn. Keeping
relatively abreast of modern methods, the educators of our day see the
necessity of imparting _business knowledge_, as well as that which is
purely scientific, historical, or literary in its nature; hence, the
adaptability of “Every-Day Business” to the necessities of American
schools and our progressive ways of life.


AN HOUR WITH DELSARTE

A STUDY OF EXPRESSION, by Anna Morgan, of the Chicago Conservatory.
Illustrated by Rosa Mueller Sprague and Marian Reynolds, with full-page
figure illustrations, 4to, cloth, $2.00.

“This beautiful quarto volume presents the ideas of Delsarte in words
which all may understand. It is explicit and comprehensible. No one
can read this book or study its twenty-two graceful and graphic
illustrations without perceiving the possibility of adding strength
and expression to gestures and movements, as well as simplicity and
ease. Mr. Turveydrop went through life with universal approval, simply
by his admirable ‘deportment.’ Every young person may profitably take
a hint from his success, and this book will be found invaluable as an
instructor.”—_Woman’s Journal_, Boston.

“‘Flexibility and grace’ are the watchwords of this great teacher,
and it must be conceded that the charming young ladies who serve as
models throughout the book have their share of these two desiderata
of expression; this book gives an altogether charming insight into
Delsarte’s system, and no young lady who desires to acquire ease of
manner and grace of carriage could do better than to read it carefully.
The style is quite in keeping with the subject, light, graceful, and
entertaining.”—_American Stationer._


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TOOLS FOR THE TEACHER’S WORKSHOP

METHODS AND AIDS IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY

By CHARLES F. KING A.M. Head-master of the Dearborn School Boston Price
$1.60 net

“This is a work independent of any geography, and may be used by
teachers equally well with any of the authorized text-books. The
numerous illustrations in this volume are of a practical nature, being
generally diagrams, charts, and simple devices, such as a teacher may
easily draw upon a blackboard to illustrate the teaching of geography,
and the book will be received as an excellent addition to the aids
which modern instructors desire in their work.”


EXCELLENT QUOTATIONS for Home and School

For the Use of Teachers and Pupils By JULIA P. HOITT Deputy
Superintendent of Public Instruction State of California Cloth 75 cents
net

“Contains choice excerpts from the productions of eminent authors, at
home and abroad, in prose and poetry. Poetry of the highest order,
eloquent biographical eulogies, patriotic selections, recitations for
young pupils, and several pages of proverbs, give this book a secure
place in the home and school.”


CHIPS FROM A TEACHER’S WORKSHOP

By L. R. KLEMM Ph.D. late Superintendent of Public Schools Hamilton
Ohio Cloth $1.20 net

“This work is among the first we have ever seen that puts the young
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teaches principles, but the principles are always presented concretely
in a form to be understood. This is really the teacher’s _vade mecum_.
If it could be put into the hands of every instructor in our public
schools, it would work a revolution in our methods of education and in
the results achieved.”—_School Journal._

Dr. Klemm has now in preparation, nearly ready for publication, his
second volume, entitled “Chips from Educational Workshops in Europe.”


FIRST STEPS WITH AMERICAN AND BRITISH AUTHORS

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“Our Bodies and How we Live” “How to Keep Well” “Child’s Book of
Health” Cloth 75 cents net

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philosophical. In a general way, the plan is to study the text of a few
representative authors, and not merely to read about many authors. It
is to study what great authors have written, and not what some one has
written about them. Every thing is made subordinate to this great aim.
In the first few chapters, the method of studying a given subject is
fully explained and illustrated.”—_True Education._


METHODS IN ZOOLOGY TEACHING FOR BEGINNERS

For Teachers in Common Schools By WALTER P. MANTON M.D. author of
“Field Botany” “Insects” “Beginnings with the Microscope” “Taxidermy”
Cloth 50 cents

Dr. Manton has been very successful in his practical helps in various
branches of study, and this manual will prove welcome to all interested
in this subject. The book is clearly and concisely written, and the
directions are plain and to the point, the different instruments and
tools necessary being fully illustrated and explained.


HOW SHALL MY CHILD BE TAUGHT?

Practical Pedagogy or the Science of Teaching Illustrated By LOUISA
PARSONS HOPKINS Supervisor in Boston Public Schools Cloth $1.20 net

“The Boston Herald” says: “Mrs. Louisa Parsons Hopkins has made a
careful study of the science of teaching, and her book will be of the
greatest service to those who are engaged in the tasks of primary
teaching. She is less didactic than experimental in her methods; but
the points which she makes are those that lead to success, because they
have been proved in the schoolroom, and have the authority of the great
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TRANSCRIBER’S NOTE

Original spelling and grammar have been generally retained, with some
exceptions noted below. Original printed page numbers are shown like
this: {p52}. Original small caps are now uppercase. Italics look
_like this_. Footnotes have been relabeled 1–7, and moved from within
paragraphs to nearby locations between paragraphs. I produced the cover
image and hereby assign it to the public domain. Original page images
are available from archive.org—search for “penstypes00drew”.

The turned comma in ‹MʻDonough› on page 119 is a glyph (Unicode
character [‹ʻ› U+02BB; modifier let­ter turned comma]) that is not
well supported in current browsers. It is retained in the simple text
edition, but an image is substituted in the html, epub, and mobi
editions. On page 122, the _x_ with combining cedilla has been rendered
as an image in all but the text edition. Other Unicode characters
rendered as images include: Arabic semicolon, double high-reversed-9
quotation mark, single high-reversed-9 quotation mark, asterism, double
vertical line, and white right pointing index. Many glyphs that are not
included in the Unicode system are represented as ‹[Symbol]› in the
text edition, and as images in the other editions.


Page 68. The phrase ‹“Gunther’s Cat-Fish., Brit. Mus.,—which,› was
changed to ‹“Gunther’s Cat-Fish., Brit. Mus.”,—which,›.

Page 91. The text posits as a rule, ‹A thin space should be placed
before, and also after, a dash.› Unfortunately, the Doctrine Publishing Corporation
“House Style” has overruled Benjamin Drew’s rule in these ebook
editions.

Pages 127–154. In the Orthography lists, Webster and Worcester, a few
words appear to be out of order, but have been retained as originally
printed. For example, there is the sequence [Reposit, Resin, Rosin,
Resistance] on page 151.

Page 145. The word ‹Enclyclopædia› was changed to ‹Encyclopædia›.

Page 155. The word ‹Affiiliable› was changed to ‹Affilliable›.

Page 168. The enlarged left curly bracket was eliminated from the entry
‹Portico›.

Page 191. The phrase ‹a bi_g_er man› is retained.

Page 195–199. Chapter VIII was printed in an Old Style which included
the long “ſ” and many obsolete ligatures such as “ct”. Sadly, only the
_ſ_ can be represented in this ebook. For the html, epub, and mobi
editions, an image of the ct ligature has been provided. But to see all
the ligatures as originally printed, you must seek out the original
page scans.

Page 201. Captions were constructed for the three illustrations on this
page, based on the text of page 199.

Page 215. A new heading ‹ADVERTISEMENTS› was inserted for this section.
Text styling in this section has been considerably simplified.

Page 207. The page reference for topic ‹Advertisement› was changed to
5–7.

Page 224. The word ‹thoroughout› was changed to ‹throughout›.





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